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DECEMBER 1958 • VOL. 7 ~ NO. 12 1958 PICTORIAL REPORT ON THE COMPUTER FIELD NOWI General Electric Offers a Full Line of ... Alumalytic* Capacitors For Greater Computer Reliability THE LONG SERVICE LIFE AND TOP PERFORMANCE provided FILL-IN AND MAIL THE ATTACHED COUPON NOW for a by General Electric's computer-grade Alumalytic capacitors add up to greater over-all reliability for your computers. This greater reliability is designed and built into every G-E Alumalytic capacitor. Only the highest quality materials, such as 99.99% pure aluminum foil are used, and this high quality is maintained in the finished capacitor by exacting in-process and quality control checks throughout the manufacturing process. quotation or more information about G-E Alumalytic capacitors for your computers. Or, contact your nearest General Electric Apparatus Sales Office. 449-7 *Trade-mark of General Electric Co. 'Progress Is Our Mos! Imporlt1nf Prot/uel GENERAL. ELECTRIC Pick Your G-E Alumalytic Capacitors from This Wide Range of Ratings Fill-In and Mail Coupon Today for a Quotation or More Information Rated Volts Surge Volts NOMINAL CAPACITANCE IN MICROFARADS Case Size Case Size Case Size 2" x 4Va" 2V2" x 4 Va" 3" x 4Va" r------------------------------· Computer Capacitor Sales Section B449-7 General Electric Company Schenectady 5, N. Y. 5 7 20,000 30,000 40,000 10 15 15 20 15,000 12,509 22,000 19,500 35,000 31,000 25 35 40 45 7,000 5,000 12,000 8,000 18,000 12,000 50 75 75 100 3,600 2,750 6,800 5,000 8,500 7,000 100 150 135 185 1,900 1,250 3,500 2,400 4,500 3,250 200 250 250 300 900 700 1,450 1,250 2,250 2,000 300 350 350 400 575 475 1,050 850 1,600 1,300 COMPANY ________________________________________________ TITLE _________________________ _ 400 450 475 525 350 300 625 550 1,000 850 ADDRESS ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ .NOTE: Operating temperatures -20 C to +65 C. For 85 C applications, another range of units is available with the same physical styles. CITY ___________________________________________________________ STATE _____________________ _ o Please o send me your quotation for the G-E computergrade Alumalytic capacitors I have specified below. Please send me more detailed information about General Electric Alumalytic capacitors. Total' Quantity Rated Volts Capacitance in uf Case Size Operating Temperature NAME _______________________________________________________________________________________ _ For Alnico Magnets-Stock or Special cp~;gwO/l)" best bet when looking for Y a source of Alnico magnets and OUR Cast Alnico Magnets are most commonly made in Alnico V and VI. Sintered Alnico Magnets usually are made in Alnico II, V or VI. Special permanent magnet materials include VicaIloy, Cunife, and Arnox. Write for your copy of Bulletin GCl06C, a general catalog of all Arnold products. It contains useful data on the physical and magnetic properties of Alnico Magnets. Lists stock items and standard tolerances for cast and sintered magnets-also stock sizes and pertinent data on tape cores, powder cores, C & E cut cores, etc. assemblies is Arnold-producer of the most complete line of magnetic materials in the industry. Arnold can supply your need for any size or shape of Alnico magnet. Weights range from less than a gram to 75 pounds or more. Die-cast or sand-cast aluminum jackets, Celastic covers, etc., can be supplied as required. Complete assemblies are available with Permendur, steel or ADDRESS DEPT. CA-812 :COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 aluminum bases, inserts and keepers as specified-magnetized and stabilized according to the requirements of the application. A wide range of the more popular shapes and sizes of cast and sintered magnets are carried in stock at Arnold. Unsurpassed plant facilities make possible quick delivery of all special orders. • Let us hantlle your permanent magnet requirements, or any other magnetic material specification you may have. WSW 6875 D COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION DATA PROCESSING Volume 7 Number 12 • CYBERNETICS • ROBOTS Established September 1951 DECEMBER, 1958 EDM UNO C. BERKELEY H. JEFFERSON MILLS, JR. NEIL D. MACDONALD Editor Assistant Editor Assistant Editor 1958 PICTORIAL REPORT ON THE COMPUTER FIELD 6 FRONT COVER SERVICE AND SALES DIRECTOR MILTON L. KAYE 535 Fifth Ave. MUrray Hill 2-4194 New York 17, N.Y. ARTICLES Editorial Policy of 50 Technical Magazines on Publishing Discussion and Argument on the Social Responsi21 bility of Scientists and Engineers Obsolete - at Age 29 · 26 CONTRIBUTING EDITORS ANDREW D. BOOTH NED CHAPIN JOHN W. CARR, III ALSTON S. HOUSEHOLDER M. D. WITTY Symbolic Logic and Automatic Computers (Part 2) ADVISORY COMMITTEE MORTON M. ASTRAHAN HOWARD T. ENGSTROM GEORGE E. FORSYTHE RICHARD W. HAMMING ALSTON S. HOUSEHOLDER HERBERT F. MITCHELL, JR. SAMUEL B. WILLIAMS ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES 1, 6 1,000 Characters Per Second READERS' AND EDITOR'S FORUM Annual Index in January. Greetings to Computers Applications of Computers to a Teacher's Paper Work REFERENCE INFORMATION Computing Services Survey · 30 NEIL MACDONALD New Patents . · 31 A. S. BABCOCK YUkon 2-3954 Los Angeles 5 439 S. Western Ave. 6 6 6 L. WAYNE JOHNSON Middle Atlantic States MILTON L. KAYE 535 Fifth Ave. New York 17, N.Y. MUrray Hill 2-4194 San FI'ancisco 5 605 Market St. • 28 E. C. BERKELEY INDEX OF NOTICES W. F. GREEN DUnkirk 7-8135 THE PUBLISHER Elsewhere Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. DEcatur 2-5453 or 2-3928 Advertising Index Back Copies Bulk Subscriptions Manuscri pts Who's Who Entry Form see see see see Nov. issue, Oct. issue, Oct. 'issue, Nov. issue, · p. p. p. p. 34 13 26 26 28 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION is published monthly at 160 Warren St., Roxbury 19, Mass., by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. Printed in U.S.A. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: (United States) $5.50 for 1 year, $10.50 for 2 years; (Canada) $6.00 for 1 year, $11.50 for 2 years; (Foreign) $6.50 for 1 year, $12.50 for 2 years. Address all Editorial and Subscription Mail to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER at the Post Office at Boston 19, Mass. POSTMASTER: . Please send all Forms 3579 to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 160 Warren St., Roxbury 19, Mass . .Copyright, 1958, by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. CHANGE OF ADDRESS: If your address changes, please send us both your new address and your old address (as it appears on the magazine address imprint), and allow three weeks for the change to be made. 4 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 ELECTRODYNAMIC ORBITS By the application of properly chosen alternating and static electric fields, electrically charged particles can be maintained in dynamic equilibrium in a vacuum against interparticle and gravitational forces. This is illustrated in the above photograph of the orbit of a charged dust particle. During the time of exposure the particle traversed the closed orbit several times, yet it retraced its complicated path so accurately that its various passages can barely be distinguished. The range of particles of different charge-to-mass ratios which can be contained in this manner is determined by the gradients of the static and alternating electric field intensities and by the frequencies of the latter. In the absence of static fields and for a given electric field strength, the minimum frequency required for stable containment of the particles is proportional to the square root of their charge-to-mass ratios. Thus, charged colloidal particles require the use of audio frequencies, atomic ions need HF frequencies, while electrons require the use of VHF and higher frequencies. Under the confining influence of the external fields, the particles are forced to vibrate with a lower frequency of motion which is determined by the external field intensities, space charge, and the driving frequencies. If the initial thermal energy is removed, a number of particles may be suspended in space in the form of a crystalline array which reflects the symmetry properties of the external electrodes. These "space crystals" can be repeatedly "melted" and re-formed by increasing and decreasing the effective electrical binding force. These techniques offer a new approach in the study of plasma problems and mass spectroscopy in what may be properly termed "Electrohydrodynamics:' At The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, work is in progress in this and other new and interesting fields. Scientists and engineers are invited to explore current openings in Electronic Reconnaissance and Countermeasures,' Microwave Techniques; Infrared; Analog and Digital Computers,' Air Navigation and Traffic Control; Antisubmarine Warfare,' Electronic Language Translation,' Radio and Wireline Communication, and Basic Electronic Research. The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation LOS ANGEL.ES 45. CAL.IFORNIA COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December. 1958 Readers' and Editor's Forum FRONT COVER: 1000 CHARACTERS PER SECOND HOW CAN YOU read perforated paper tape at the cate of 1000 characters a second? The front cover shows the inside of a Burroughs 220 Tape Photo reader, which does this. The lamp is the source of light; below it is a light chopper disc; still further below is the paper tape; and below that are the photodiode reading heads. This photoreader may be used with any computer or control system, but is a part of the Burroughs 220, made by Burroughs Electrodata Div., Pasadena, Calif. ANNUAL INDEX IN JANUARY As a result of a useful suggestion from a librarian, we shall no longer publish the annual index to Computers and Automation in the December issue, covering the twelve preceding months December to November. Instead, we shall publish the index in the January issue, ·covering the twelve preceding months January to .De·cember. To provide for the changeover, the index published in January 1958 will cover the issues of 13 months December 1957 to December 1958. ·GREETINGS TO COMPUTERS FOR CHRISTMAS, WE wish our subscribers, our readers, and all computer people: MER R Y X MAS - WDWRWD AND =WD A D E D + + + + + - A SAN E NEW YEA R WWXXY 25092 71636 61959 23256 87628. (Solve for the digits; each letter stands for just one digit 0 to 9, although one digit may be represented by more than one letter.) This is a Numble, a number puzzle for nimble minds. For hints for solution if needed, write us. The solution will appear in January. We repeat our annual challenge to automatic computers - to solve this kind of problem by an automatic program. The challenge, offered now for the fifth Decel?ber, remains unanswered so far as we know. APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS TO A TEACHER'S PAPER WORK L. Wayne Johnson 95 South Cedar St. Battle Creek, Mich. For several years now there have been many reports of applications of data processing equipment or computer mechanisms in fields of science, industry, business, and the military. It seems to me there is another important area in our society where scientific advances do not reflect themselves as rapidly as they do in the just mentioned fields - and this is schools. School systems are more and more adopting modern business practices in the administration of their finances and personnel relationships among staff people, and some of the business applications of computing machinery are readily transferable to a school system's accounting and inventory uses. This is very creditable; but it seems to me a much larger area of application, and one more to the advantage of our educational system, would be down at the lower roots where students are first influenced: in the classrooms of the public elementary and high schools. If there were means' by which the paper work of the teacher could be lessened, more time could be applied to performing the much more important psychological work of a teacher. Now to get to the point of this letter. Have you any information, research, or references which explain applications of computing machinery towards (1) school report card systems, (2) analysis of grouping of students based on varied test results, (3) teaching aids or tools of instruction, (4) accumulative student school records, and any other specific or general classroom uses? I would appreciate knowing of school systems which are presently employing or investigating the uses of computers on this type of data. I also am interested in exploring the relative costs of general purpose computers on a rental basis to be employed in the above uses. I shall appreciate any information your readers may be able to send me. 1958 Pictorial Report on the Computer Field This is a pictorial report for 1958 on the computer field, including computers, data processors, components, etc. To put together this report, we sent out a letter to many organizations in the computer field, asking for: interesting, striking, and dramatic pictures related to the computer field in 1958 - pictures that answer questions: 6 What does a . . . . . look like? What goes into a . . . . . ? How is a . . . . . made? How does a . . . . . operate? and similar questions. We said we wanted to avoid pictures that showed only "smooth and featureless outside coverings." COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 ELECTRONIC ASSOCIATES LONG BRANCH. 9~ SUSTAINING EAI 's NEW JERSEY CAPITOL 9-1100 LEADERSHIP IN THE FIELD OF ANALOG COMPUTING EAI's new series Application Bulletins and Simulation Bulletins provide dramatic evidence of the growing success of PACE Analog Computing equipment in solving design engineering problems. Most general purpose Analog Computers in use today bear EAl's PACE emblem. For 231R Analog Computer Bulletin No. AC-802 or for literature describing successful applications in your industry, write Dept. CA-12 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 7 IA large number of good pictures have been sent to us, and we are very grateful for them . A number of them have been printed as a part of this report, which includes the front cover also; but there is not room for all of them to be published in this issue, and so we shall plan to publish more of them in later issues. The present report is a continuation of our report a year ago " A Pictorial Manual on Computers. " This was first printed in two parts, one in December 1957, the other in January 1958, and these issues were promptly exhausted ; the two parts were then combined and reprinted as a special issue of "Computers and Automation," vol. 6, no. 12B, which is still in print. Governor Geo rge M. Leader of Pennsylvania and M. N. Rand, executive vice president of Remington Rand Division of Sperry Rand Corp., talking toge :her at a ceremony in Harrisburg on October 9, which opened the new data process· ing center of the State of Pennsylvania. This center is the first to be used by a State of the U.S. for all its departments. In the background is the large scale Univac electronic computer. (Figure 1) 8 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958 How do you get input as a byproduct of the operation of 'it production machine?-As each production operation is performed, an electrical impulse is transmitted to this device, made by Fischer and Porter Co., Hatboro, Pa. The device then counts the pulses, and at the end of each 5 minutes (or other set time) , records the total in punched holes in paper tape. Also, a cumulative total of production operations is reported visually. The punched paper tape then becomes input to an automatic computer (Figure 4 ) How does a pressure transducer work? - Here is the internal mechanism of a device which senses pressure changes in the range from 0 pounds up to 350 pounds per square inch, and translates the pressure into an electric output using a poteritiometer. The movement of the capsule-like diaphragm is converted into the motion of a potentiometer wiper arm. This is a TP-lOO made by Fairchild Controls Corp., Components Div. , Hicksville, N.Y. (Figure 5) 10 COMPUTERS and AU:rOMATION for D ecember, 1958 so WID E R A 'N G E • • • I N - SO SMALL IN SIZE ESC WIDE BAND VIDEO TRANSFORMERS have been engineered and developed to offer .. . submin iature un its of unusually wide bandwidth 00 CPS to 8.0 MC). They are used to replace bulkier and more costly components, thereby creating greater economy, and increasing equipment efficiency. There are 14 catalog units available from stock, cased or uncased. ESC ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS DIVISION specializes in the design and development of Wide Band Video Transformers to meet your particular applications. Each transformer prototype is accompanied by a comprehensive laboratory report, which includes submitted electrical requirements, photo-oscillograms (which indicate input and output pulse shape and output rise·time), the test equipment used, and evaluation of the electrical characteristics of the prototype. Transformers Are Supplied With Solder Terminals Meet All Applicable Mil-Spe cs Complete catalog data on request ~ .----------------------------, ! I Sl I electronic components division : L----------------nr 0==""= · ." "~'N ="m""D . ",U",D'''""". N•• ,...~ exceptional employment opportunities f or engi'neers ex perienced 'l:n pulse techniques Pulse transformers· Medium and low· power transformers· Filters of all types. Pulse·forming networks. Shift registers. Miniature plug-in encapsulated circuit assemblies • Distributed constant delay lines • lumped - constant delay lines • Variable delay networks • Continuously variable delay lines • Pushbutton decade delay lines Here is a magnetic core quick-access memory used in a Burroughs 220 computer. In front is the first plane of 1000 tiny doughnut shaped cores. Behind it are 43 more just I ike it. The memory is entered in parallel by impulsing the same core position in each one of the 44 planes; access time is 10 microseconds. The memory is made by the ElectroData Division of Burroughs Corp. , Pasadena, Calif. (Figure 6) Below is a miniature tape recorder able to store 3 million pieces of scientific information; it is built with sufficient ruggedness to withstand 50 times the force of gravity. It was developed at Lockheed Missile Systems Division, Palo Alto, Calif. It can record and store data, and then on receiving a command signal, transmit it six times as fast. It weighs only 8 pounds; occupies 200 cubic inches; and . requires only 10 watts of power for the entire electronic system. (Figure 7) 12 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958 How do you get twice as much access to a magnetic disk memory? - Here is the disk memory unit of an IBM 305 RAMAC random access magnetic memory, built with two access arms instead of one. This makes it possible for one access unit to be in position for reading or writing while the other arm is moving to the next record; and both arms may be in motion simultaneously. Made by International Business Machines Corp. , White Plains, N.Y., the vertical stack of 50 spinning magnetic disks is able to store 5 million characters of information, recorded on both sides of the disks. (Figure 8) COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958 Above is a printed circuit board wired with transistors. It is a plug-in module contammg six flip-flop stages. It used in computers and data processors made by Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Orange, N.J. (Figure 9) 1<; Below is a wire harness being put together for use in an electronic business machine. The place is the National Cash Register Company plant in Dayton, Ohio. (Figure 10) 14 COMPUTERS tmd AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958 available now from Philco! World's fastest data processing system . . . all-transistorized , with up to 5 times the capacity ... more for your computation dollar PHILCO ~* 8-2000 No other data processing system on the market can match the revolutionary Philco Transac S-2000 Computer for speed, capacity and reliability. Before you select your large scale data processing system ... compare Transac for performance- here is capacity to solve the most complex problems many t imes faster than conventional vacuum tube systems; compare Transac for reliability and multi-million hour transistor dependabilitY-AVAILABLE NOW. *" TRANSAC"-TRAOE MAR K O F R ATION F OR TRANSISTOR P HI LCO CORPO· AUTO M ATIC COMPUTER, Transac also conserves valuable floor space, requires little site preparation and no costly air conditioning-giving you t he most economical large scale installation possible. See Transac . . . First From Philco . .. now available on sale or rental plans. I nvesl.igate the excellent anti unusual opportunities at Phi/co for co?nputer engi neers. PHI1CQ GOVERNMENT & INDUSTRIAL DIVISION 4700 Wissahickon Avenue Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania L. . _._. . . ~.,,__. .~__. .__. ,. CO.MPUTERS fwd AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958 15 The operator is sewing fine strands of insulated copper wire through tiny magnetic cores, in order to make computer memory planes, at RCA's plant, Needham Heights, Ma:s. (Figure 11) How does an operator assemble mag netic heads? - Here is a production worker assembling read/ write magnetic heads, using low loss ferrite core heads, which are completely shielded in a metal case of aluminum and MU metal. These heads permit high density recordings and precise timing of information, in the commercial computers made by Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Orange, N.J. (Figure 12) 16 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 ., I ., • • •.. ., .," Here are some of the new 50 mil (1/ 20 of an inch) ferrite memory cores that are presently being used in transistorized coincident current computer memories. According to General Ceramics, Keasbey, N.]., demand for this core has skyrocketed, and it appears that these cores will quickly replace the 80 mil cores that have previously been standard for the computer industry. In the last few months, the memory plane stringing department has increased from 10 girls to 74 girls, and there has been a proportional increase in technicians. (Figure 13) .. ~ t \ ..... " .. , ., " ..... • -4 ~ ... .. .'"' " • .., • This press squeezes out tiny rings of ferrite powder, which after heating and testing will become ferrite cores for computer memory frames. The place is the RCA plant, Needham Heights, Mass. (Figure 14) This testing machine automatically tests computer memory planes made of strung ferrite cores, in use at General Ceramics, Keasbey, N.]. (Figure 15) COMPUTERS (/lid AUTOMATION for December, 1958 17 How do you wind a wire coil around a miniature toroid core, filling up the hole with hairthin insulated wire? - At left (Figure 16) is a new kind of coil-winding machine that does this ; it was conceived and developed by M. J. Matovich, Computer Development Group, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. By an ingenious arrangement, the wire forming the coil "pulls itself" through the hole or holes in the core as many times as the number of required turns. Above (Figure 17) is an example of the work of the machine; the wound toroid is as small as Franklin D. Roosevelt's eye on the U.S. dime. (Figures 16 and 17) 18 COMPUTERS C/nd AUTOMATION for December, 1958 A m pex D igita l Ta pe H a nd le rs Compatible and a speed for each application In back is the much talked of Ampex FR-300. -Its 30,000- to 90,000-charac~er-per-second transfer rates set a lively pace for the fastest digital computers. But thes~ speeds must be brought back to earth for slower peripheral equipment. The Ampex FR-400 on the left is exactly the machine for this job. Tapes are transferable between the two (and also meet widely accepted industry standards). The FR-400s can be likened to the entry and exit roads feeding traffic to a super-speed freeway. To put data into computer format, it serves in such conversions as analog-to-digital, punched-tape-to-magnetictape, and cards-to-tape. On the other end, the FR-400 feeds printers that get the answers back in writing. The FR-400 is also used for input/output for slower computers, but that's another story. 1 AMpIEX C O RPO RATION WORKHORSE Q U A LI F IC ATI O N S Carrying the freeway analogy a step further, imagine the traffic snarls that occur when exits are blocked. The Ampex FR-400 has a similar responsibility in the digital-data flow. It has been designed with tremendous stamina. It stays on the job. For example, the FR-400's pinch-roller assembly passed a 15,000 ,000-cycle start-stop endurance test in our laboratory. Its design is the same as on the higher-speed FR-300. Also, the FR-400's torque motors are like those on the faster FR-300. And the heads are typical Ampex quality, made to take thousands of hours of wear without serious change. A heavy-duty machine needn't demand heavy-duty people. The FR-400 has quick, easy in-line tape threading. Local controls are an available option, very convenient for tape change and equipment checkout. Then remote controls can take over - even from a source wired in from 1000 'miles away. COMPATI B ILI T Y OF SPEEDS In the matter of speeds, the FR-400 is like a powerline transform er that steps voltages down to the required levels of electrical equipment. Typical tapes made off computer by Ampex FR-300s involve transfer rate of 30,000 bits per second. Tape speed is 150 in/sec. Suppose a particular printer operates at 6000 characters per second. An FR-400 with 30 in/sec tape speed cuts transfer rate to 1/s th making the tape compatible with the printer's speed. This can be carried still further - for example, to 5 in/ sec tape speed and a 1000 character-per-second transfer. For still slower devices like paper-tape punches or card punches, a storage buffer is used. The magnetic-tape handler operates on a start-stop basis. A ShOlt burp fills the buffer. The card or papertape punch trails along after. The FR-400 is available in a wide range of basic speed pairs. But Ampex also provides for sharing ·of tape handlers among conversion and readout devices of widely differing transfer rates. For this the FR-400 is available in 4-speed multirange versions, haVing two independent capstan motors. Thus the pairs of speeds may be very widely separated. 75, 37\12 , 10 and 5 inches per second is a typical example. May w e send specifications and d escriptio11s on Ampex's vat'ious digital tape handlers or assist 'i11 some specific application? Write Department Z -21 AM~EX INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION • SeQ Ph o ne your Amp e x data spec ial is t for pe rsona l att e n tio n to yo ur reco rd ing ·Of~e ds . Offic.<:s $~rv~ U.S. A. anlf Canada. Here are MAD's, or Multi - Aperture Devices, made of ferrite in various forms, and able to perform AND, OR, NOT functions, and other logical functions in computers. They require only single-turn wire for interconnection, are highly reliable, and function over wide temperature ranges. They are still in the experimental stage, being studied at Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (Figure 18) These synthetic crystals are the basic material for an experimental logical device for an electronic business machine. They were crystallized in the research lab· oratories of the National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio. (Figure 19) 20 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 1 ---- - -- -- At left is a magnetic shift register, one bit per core, information rate 5000 kilocycle, size 2/ 10 of a cubic inch, made by ESC Corp., Palisades Park, N .J. (Figure 20) Below is a lumped constant delay line, p otted in transparent plastic with a glass-like finish, constructed for a computer application requiring extremely high reliability, by ESC Corp., Palisades Park, N .J. (Figure 21) ...__.- ---_. _ Editorial Policy of SO Technical Magazines on Publishing Discussion and Argument on the Social Responsibility of Scientists and Engineers Edmund C. Berkeley OR some time we have wondered what is the policy of technical and trade magazines in rega rd to the publication of di scussion and argument on the social respo nsibility of scientists. So in September we decided to. inquire. We se lected 92 technical and trade magazin es and sent each of them the following lette r: "To the Editor: "Computers and A utomation is making a survey of editori al policy of technical or trade magazines in regard to the publication of articles, letters, discussion, argument, etc., on the social responsibility of scientists in rega rd to the scientific developm ents which they prod uce. Enclosed is a reprint fr om our Januar y issue e n the subj ect. [This rep rint was the editorial " Curse or Blessing ?", from page 9 of the January 1958 issue.] "Would yo u be so kind as to g ive us information about your editorial policy? Enclosed is a reply form and a busi ness rep ly envelope for your convenience. F COMP UTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecembe r, l <)SH " We should much app reciate knowing what is your editoria l policy now (in September 1958), a view of the extrao rdinary influence on hum an affai rs of current sc ientific developments , such as the Sputniks, the Nautilus voyage under the polar ice cap, the H ydroge n Bomb, etc. Yours sincerely, Edmund C. Berkeley Editor Computers and Automation " P.S. Th e resu lts of th e survey will also be reported to a co mmittee of the Association for Computing Machin ery which was appointed in June to co nsi der 'th e social responsibilities of co mputer scientists to advance socially desirable applications of computers and to help prevent socially undesirable applications.' So your rep ly wi ll be doubly useful. " Th e reply form enclosed was the following: ( ) Our editorial policy is that our magazine should from tim e to time present discussion 21 ( ( and argument about the social implications of the work of the scientists and engineers in our field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of space, wording, balance, etc. ) Our editorial policy is that our magazine should stick to the discussion of technical subjects, and not discuss or argue in any way the social implications of the work of scientists or engineers in our field, or their social responsibilities. ) Other views? (please explain) ................................ . Filled in by ............................................................ Title ....................... . Magazine ........................................................................................................ . Address .......................................................................................................... . When you have filled in this form to the extent you conveniently can, please send it to E. C. Berkeley, Editor, Computers and Automation, 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. A reply envelope is enclosed for your convenience. After a followup, we had by the middle of November received 50 replies. One of these, being simply a printed announcement of policy regarding free advertising, did not answer our question, and so could hardly be, tallied. The replies can be classified as follows: 1. YES, our magazine should from time to time present discussion ........................................................................... 20 II. OTHER VIEWS, but essentially yes ________________ 10 III. OTHER VIEWS, but essentially no ........................ 6 IV. NO, our magazine should stick to the discussion of technical subjects ........................................................................ 13 Total, 49 Needless to say, we were surprised that approximately 60 percent of the magazines replying said that they would on at least some occasions present discussion and argument on the social responsibility of scientists. This unexpected state of affairs seems to be the result of the undeniable fact that science nowadays is penetrating further and further; and so more and more attention must certainly be given to the influence of science in human society. Following is the detailed report of the 49 replies, either verbatim or slightly edited. The "Yes" indicates a check mark in the box next to the statement of the first policy. ~'No" indicates a check mark in the box next to the statement of the second policy. I. YES 1. "Yes - No one can ignore the social implications of technological progress. If the social sciences don't catch up pretty soon, there won't be anybody left to worry about the physical sciences." - Ceramic Industry; K. A. Brent, Managing Editor 2. "Yes-We from time to time report on the expressions of attitudes toward science and scientists, and engineering and engineers, expressed by political leaders and others who command widespread attention before the public. We are concerned about apathy and misinformation." - Chemical Engineering Progress; J. B. M., Editor 3. "Yes - We do believe we should publish material showing social implications of work done by engineers. This does not mean, however, that our articles have a political bias. We are not Democrat or Republican, Conservative or Liberal. But we are conscious of the social responsibility of our engineer readers." - Consulting Engineer; Hunter Hughes, Editor 4. "Yes (see my October editorial) - I believe that our publication has the responsibility to stimulate engineers and scientists to form a stronger and more defined view on the subject. I will therefore publish such material as . may lead to success of this objective, and more responsibility." -ISA Journal; Charles W. Carey, Editor 5. "Yes - To supplement the above check mark, I should like to add that we carry both editorials and lead articles on controversial issues. The Saturday Review, for example, bases much of its material about science and the social implications of science on articles that originally appeared in Science." -Science; Graham DuShane, Editor 6. "Yes - Although it may seem to be separate from the area outlined in the policy we have indicated is ours, the "social responsibilities" of the industry we serve, of industrial management - these are of prime concern to us - and expressions about them are always considered appropriate material for publication in our magazine." -Electric Light and Power; N. H. Jacobson, Exec. Bus. Editor 7 . "Yes - Such discussion most often is published in our weekly Chemical and Engineering Newsletter rather than in the scientific and technical monthlies." - ACS Applied Publications, Walter J. Murphy, Editorial Director 8. "Yes - Our magazine is sufficiently broad in its scope to include such discussion as you suggest. As to specific instances, we would have to reserve judgment until we have had an opportunity to review the discussion." - Gas Age; William J. Nickel, Editor 9. "Yes- While primarily a technical publication, our editorial policy does not exclude mention of the social impacts of scientific and engineering achievements in the marine field. For example, it would be silly to report on a notable safety advancement in cargo handling without noting its effect on the longshoreman, who works in the country's most hazardous industry." -Marine Ellgineering; Robert Ware, Assoc. Editor 1O. "Yes, but our editorial policy is that our magazine might from time to time present discussion and argument about the social implications of the work of the scientists and engineers in our field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of space, wording, balance, etc. But we prefer to stick to the discussion of technical subjects." - Tooling and Production; E. Willard Pennington, Editor 11. "Yes - Our editorial policy is that our magazine should but very rarely present discussion and argument about the social implications of the work of scientists and engineers in our field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of space, wording, balance, etc." -Physics Today; Regula Davis, Asst. Editor 12. "We assume that the reader of the American Engineer . . . is intensely interested in his profession. He is COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 IF YOU CAN CHECK ANY ONE OF THESE BOXES BUSINESS EXECUTIVE with managerial responsibility in ... Operation analysis and design for maximum efficiency. Synthesizing information from sales, procurement, and manufacturing components. Record-keeping reduction and administration of quality-control programs. Generalizing data from hundreds of sources as an aid to· executive decisions. D D D D ------.--.-~------~- SUPERVISOR of a project with repetitive aspects such as ... Payroll, calculating and printing large numbers of checks. Updating complex personnel cards. Recording vacation allowances, tax credits, and other personnel items. Assimilating data from many sources such as orders, procurement, shop work, inventory planning, and stores. D D D D SCIENTIST OR ENGINEER in a project that needs ... Faster, more accurate results from reiterated calc'ulations. Simulation and evaluation of theoretical operations without costly, time consuming pilot plant runs. Fast, accurate evaluation of raw data. D D D Lynn Computations can help you slash your man-hour requirements for repetitive computations FREE CONSULTING SERVICE . Competent staff members will discuss specific problems or supply general information. PROGRAMMING . . . Fees apply only when the Computations staff assumes full responsibility for the project. COST . . . Based upon actual machine running time only. FACILITIES . .. High-speed IBM 704 digital computer, magnetic tapes and drum, and full range of auxiliary equipment. 181-1 General Electric Company Flight Propulsion Laboratory Department Lynn Computations Operation 950 Western Ave., Lynn, Mass. D Please send me descriptive brochure o! data processing services. Attached is a description of my requirements. I am interested in a proposal. . D Please have one of your consultants contact me. o Name _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Company _______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ _ ~ Title ______________________________________________________ --________________________________________ Street _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ City_____________________________________________________ Zone______ State: ______________________ _ ,------------------------------~ GENERAL. ELECTRIC COMPUTERS mzd AUTOMATION for December, 1958 23 proud of his profession and wants it to gain in prestige and take leadership in other than technical fields by assuming social responsibility for the things it creates. He expects to find in our pages professional articles, features, and news that treat non-technical engineering topics in the fields of industry, legislation, government, social transition, economics, and public relations. . . . Every month a legislative analyst reviews happenings on Capitol Hill that affect the private and business life of the engineer....." - American Engineer; Kenneth E. Trombley, Editor 13. "Yes - We should and do discuss such subjects as required to correct misapprehensions and misunderstandings but these must be mostly admonishments since our readers know the facts. The real job is needed in consumer publications and newspapers where fact and fiction have become indistinguishable." - Atltomation; R. W. Bolz, Editor i4. "Yes" - The Petroleum Engineer; J. E. Kastrop, Editorial Director 15. "Yes" -Electronic Industries; Bernard F. Osbahr, Editor 16. "Yes" - Missiles & Rockets Magazine; D. W., News Editor 17. "Yes" -Industrial Gas; Harold W. Springborn, Editorial Dir. 18. "Yes" -Design News; J. P. Dubois, Managing Editor 19. "Yes" -Electrical World; D. T. Braymer, Asst.-to-the-Editor 20. "Yes" - Astronautics; Irwin Hersey, Editor II. ESSENTIALLY YES 21. "We have written an occasional editorial on the sub- ject of an engineer's social responsibilities. We would consider running a scholarly article on this theme - and rebuttals if the viewpoint was controversial. We couldn't give the same space to the subject as the Saturday Review does, for example. We have not solicited such articles. Will be interested in your survey results. Maybe we can write another editorial when the results are in. At the moment I feel engineers shirk social responsibility." -Electronic Design; James A. Lippke, Managing Editor 22. "The first statement above would express our policy if the word "should" in the statement were changed to "may." ,Our mission is purely technical, but we are willing to consider "social" material. In practice, "social" material appears only very infrequently in Proceedings of the IRE." - Proceedings of the IRE; E. K. Gannett, Managing Editor 23. "Since Radio & TV News is a technical publication, our prime interest is in the presentation of technical facts. We do not overlook the social responsibilities; and if at any time there is something important along these lines, we would cover it in our monthly editorial." -Radio & TV News; W. A. Stocklin, Editor 24 24. "We lean toward the first hypothesis. At the same time, we do believe that any scientific development can be used in a good or bad manner; and it follows from this that the scientists' responsibility in evaluating this is not much greater than the average citizen. Such questions are philosophical and should be aired by philosophers but finally determined by the citizenry. Thus, we view the scientist as an expert witness and a citizen, and not an evangelist, or arbiter." - Petroleum Refiner; George B. Gibbs, Editor 25. "In general, the second viewpoint stated above fits our editorial policy more closely, except that we will not arbitrarily exclude from any consideration the discussion of social implications. We just don't plan to start crusading on the subject. While we are primarily a technical journal, we are also a professional journal, and we do quite actively get into the professional aspects of the engineers' life and work, which sometimes involves relations with the public." - Machine Design; Colin Carmichael, Editor 26. "This is purely a technical journal. The only exception to this can be on the editorial page, where attention has occasionally been called to the social responsibility of scientists." ~ Journal of the Electrochemical Society; Cecil V. King, Editor 27. "As a business publication, the Oil and Gas Journal has kept its readers well abreast of the technical and economic aspects of computer and automation applications. The impact of these new techniques on petroleum is still so new that we see no serious social problems to date. Wherever computers and instrument controls have been applied, they have for the most part improved productivity and their benefits have accrued to both management and labor. If we should determine, however, that unemploym~nt threatened from these new uses, we would feel called upon to discuss them editorially." - The Oil and Gas Journal; George H. Weber, Editor 28. "Your letter and questionnaire of Sept. 18 are not easy t0' answer - they're like trying to decide the morality of war! Speaking for Metlfax, we have no formalized editorial policy regarding, as you put it, the social responsibility of scientists. We're a monthly directed to manufacturing people. We publish brief articles about weapons, but we do it by mentioning first and foremost the processes involved in manufacturing the product, not. the weapons themselves. Indirectly, we imply that such manufacturing techniques are feasible for consumer . products as well as fierce weapon systems. None of us can forget weapons completely, however. It's only right that we be prepared to defend our people if the need arises. Of course, we cannot be certain either, 'that all the test firings, etc., are defensive or offensive. We're faced with a dilemma, and 1'm afraid few editors - or few scientists, or few statesmen - have sufficient reasonable facts to decide the case for once and for all. On the other hand, if we preach too much about the evils of weapons, we may end up with an overflow of good scientists and engineers who've become scrupulous regarding such things, and who are no good to themselves or our country. Another dilemma. I doubt that these ramblings will add percentage points to either the pro or the con side of your survey findings; in my own mind I cannot see how anyone can settle the question COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 statistically. I'll be anxious to see a complete report of your findings." - Metlfax Magazine; Carol E. Reuss (Miss), Editor 29. "We have little occasion to deal with this topic, since we are primarily a business management magazine concerned with specific trends and problems of industry. We do not, however, have any editorial taboos in this area. Would not deliberately avoid discussion and argument where pertinent to our interests:" - Dun's Review & Modern Industry; Roland Mann, Assoc. Editor 30. "No paper has been submitted to the Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery so far on the social aspects of computers, and no definite policy is in existence. Were such a paper submitted, it would, I believe, be judged on its merits, and if outstanding in many aspects it would be accepted. It is fair to say, however, that probably a lot higher standards would be applied to it than to the usual technical paper. I am also inclined to believe it would be sent to Communications rather than the JACM, as being more appropriate there." - Journal of Association for Computing Machinery; R. W. Hamming, Editor III. ESSENTIALLY NO 31. "Since the bulk of our editorial matter is the publication of technical talks given before the chapters of the A.S.M., we cover social responsibilities only in-so-far as they might be brought out in such talks." - Metals Review; Betty A. Bryan, Editor 32. "The American Chemist Society has another magazine, Chemical and Engineering News, which is the one which can discuss the soCial implications of science." - Analytical Chemistry; Robert G. Gibbs, Managing Editor 33. "Our magazine deals strictly with product news. Thus, we do not 'take a stand' one way or the other on this question." - Electrical Equipment; E. C. Mead, Editor 34. "Ours is more a product information news service than it is a standard trade publication. There isn't much we can say to your questionnaire. Perhaps the best way to answer it is to send you a copy of the paper which you will find enclosed." -Industrial Equipment News; J. W. Moss, Mng. Editor 35. "Our editorial material is devoted almost exclusively to mass production metalworking. We deal but little with pure research-rather with how products are produced and the plants that produce them. The subjects above are normally outside the scope of our editorial material." - Production; Albert J. Taylor, Exec. Editor 36. "No - This magazine is the official publication of the Society for ....., a non-profit engineering society, controlled by lethargic lizards in a sinecure, men afraid of contre versy - whether social, ethical, or moral (this of course is my personal view). GOOD LUCK!" - name omitted for obvious reasons IV. NO 37. "No-While our publication realizes that there are social implications of the work that scientists and engineers in our field do, we feel that a technical magaCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 zine such as ours should stick strictly to the technical aspects of the job, in our case the design engineering of all types of electrically operated and electronic machines, equipment and appliances. We leave to the general magazines and those dealing with philosophy and religion man's responsibility as a social being." - Electrical Manufacturing; Frank J. Oliver, Editor 38. "No - Wire and Wire Products is only interested in publishing news items and articles that bear directly upon the interests of those wire mill personnel concerned with management and production problems. Computers and automation are having the attention of the industry and great strides have been made in the development of production controls and automated processes. General information, not applied to the production of wire and wire products, is of no practical value to our readers." - Wire and Wire Products; Edmund D. Sickels, Editor 39. "No - Our readers are on the executive level and are interested primarily in the significant facts and data on new developments in the industrial fields of our editorial coverage. Given the facts, they are capable of forming their own opinions." - Automotive Industries; James R. Custer, Editor 40. "No - Such discussion should properly be left to journals of opinion - Harper's, Atlantic, Commonweal, Saturday Review, etc. Of course the responsibility of scientists is equal to - but no greater than - that of other intelligent citizens such as doctors, APPUED MATHEMATICAL/NUMERICAL ANALYST Our rapidly expanding research program has a challenging position open for an experienced and well-qualified individual to work in the field of Applied Mathematics and in the development and application of digital computer techniques to such problems. Active programs include special problems relating to missiles, submarines, propulsion, solid and fluid mechanics, a wide variety of industrial activities, etc., and are carried out in our Departments of Engineering Mechanics, Physics, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, and Fuels and Lubricants. If you are experienced in Applied 11athematics and numerical analysis/digital computer work, and seek the opportunity of working on a diversity of industrial and military problems in both fundamental and applied fields, write to: MR. R. C. MAYS, PERSONNEL DIREctOR SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 8500 Culebra Road San Antonio 6, Texas 25 lawyers, or businessmen. I deplore atteIIlpLs to maKe them seem wiser." - Chemical Week; Howard W. Johnson, Editor-inChief 41. "No - It is the AlEE's policy to stay away from all such controversial forums and all commercialism." - Electrical Engineering; G. C. B. Rowe, Assoc. Editor 42. "No - This policy is established by the Publisher, not the Editor, of the publication." - Instruments & Automation; M. Aronson, Editor 43. "No - We are purely an industrial magazine, serving the practica~ plant needs of production and maintenance engineers. We cover only plant problems relating to their daily work." - Mill & Factory; Carl C. Harrington, Editor 44. "No - This Journal is devoted exclusively to technical descriptions of scientific instruments and the theory underlying their design. We do not publish so-called 'News' items so that articles on social implications of science would be quite out of place." - The Review of Scientific Instruments; J. B. H. Kuper, Editor 45. "No" - Foundry; Frank G. Steinebach, Editor 46. "No" - Products Finishing; Ezra A. Blount, Editor 47. "No" - Metalworking; H. S. Wharen, Mng. Ed. 48. "No" - Iron & Steel Engineer; T. J. Ess, Editor 49. "No -Automatic Machining magazine, serving the automated metalworking field, has for the past 20 years been dedicated to expounding and promoting every phase of automation as it applies to the plants we reach. As to the impact of Sputnik, and similar innovations, we have no direct coverage for such matters, and hence little editorial interest. Automation began with the wheel, and has advanced steadily ever since. It is here to stay, and a discussion of whether it is good or bad sociologically would be purely academic. Our aim is to keep our readers informed of new developments which can help them make more parts in less time, with less effort, and more profit. We are more concerned with what we consider to be a major shift in consumer buying preference. If our findings are correct, the American public is rapidly revising its thinking as to what should be the mostwanted prestige item. The automobile, for instance, may be losing ground to a desire for home improvements, recreational facilities, and security savings. To this end we advise our readers to keep their production facilities flexible, and to remain ready to shift quickly into other production items as the buyer changes his mind. The engineer, in our book, is a devoted man whose sole aim is to help his plant produce more, and thus enrich the standard of living for mankind." - Automatic Machining; Donald E. Wood, Technical Editor V. THE POLICY OF COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION The policy of Computers and Automation is to present articles, papers, discussion, and argument in regard to the social responsibilities of computer scientists and engineers, in an appropriate way, and as an integral and important part of our coverage of our field: "computers and data processors, and their applications and implications including automation." During the discussion printed in our pages from time to time over the past year, we have become convinced that the "ivory-towerness" of "science for science' sake" or "technology for technology'S sake" must inevitably give way to the goals "science for humanity'S sake" and "technology in the service of human beings." Accordingly, the responsibility of scientists is not only to do good work in the near-at-hand field of their employer's and profession's interests but also in the broader field of the interests of their country and the whole world. This is the same kind of responsibility that all human beings have - but a scientist or engineer has special knowledge and perhaps special wisdom, and so has a special opportunity to be a help or a hindrance in the social applications of his science, and a special duty to be informed and to spread information. The information area is particularly where a magazine can be of assistance. We should be very glad to hear from other technical and trade magazines what their editorial policy is in this area. Obsolete-At Age 29 M. D. Witty Witty-Polon Management Consultants New York, N. Y. Since the Korean war the United States has been fighting a "cold war" that has made demands upon industry in the United States for advanced development in military electronics that ordinarily, within normal times, would have taken twenty years to achieve. Daily, today's machines are making yesterday's machines obsolete. Today's components are advances on yesterday'S. As electronic equipment comes off the production line, new advances are simultaneously on the drawing board, 26 making present equipment obsolete. Every important company today has an advanced theory department tucked away in special laboratories with engineers and scientists who are the dreamers of tomorrow. We recently made a survey of the computer industry which shows that, among 78 companies competing in the manufacture of computers and computer systems, the race is on. The price: the best brains in the country assigned to component areas. The objectives: simplifiCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 cation of systems and components, increased memory storage, faster data processing, greater reliability, greater adaptability for special purposes, smaller machines through miniaturization. In order to achieve these purposes the most brilliant young engineers in the country are selected, many at the graduate school level, trained broadly for a year or two and then assigned to development work in highly specialized component and systems areas. It appears to us that there are at present approximately 46,000 engineers in the computer industry and in electronics related to it. The greatest number of these men are electronic engineers. We estimate that last year approximately 6% of these engineers became obsolete! These young men, ranging in age between 29 and 34, with Master's and Doctorate degrees in electronics, had been selected because of their superior abilities, to work in highly specialized computer areas. During a recent search for engineering specialists in the $300,000,000 computer field we found the following case histories: One brilliant young engineer, 29 years old, with a Master's degree from MIT in electronics, working for a leading computer manufacturer for five years, currently earning ~ salary of $10,000, is faced with the problem of obsolescence within his present company. The first year he was assigned to general computer circuits areas. The second year he was assigned to a specific project, a large computer. During this year he showed great interest and ability in a specialized component area, and so, at the beginning of his third year he was assigned to this area where he showed such great promise. During the following two years he became expert in the knowledge and application of this component. He was so proficient that he became leader of the group. Recently, he was called into a staff meeting where he was introduced, for the first time, to a new component developed by a small electronics component company. This new component will replace the whole sphere of work in which he has spent three years in development. In essence, the need for his special skills has disappeared. The problem now was what to do with this brilliant young man at the $10,000 a year level. From the company's point of view, he is too expensive to retrain and too young for management. During an interview with another young computer engineer, a problem of even greater scope came to light. He told us of his anxiety over the future in relation to his current position, the area in which he has spent four and one-half years of concentrated work in specific circuit design. Three desks away from this young man is an engineer working on automatic implementation of computer logic. Implementation is the process of fitting specific circuits to computer logic. The young engineer who was interviewed stated that he was presently working on tedious and lengthy hand calculations of logic relating to transistor circuits. His associate engineer, three desks away, is working on methods that will make a computer perform the calculations he is currently doing. He realized that the work it takes him a month to perform will, in a short time, be reduced to a single day's work using machine programming. Now, he too fears becoming obsolete - at 31! And he is only one of a group of 22 men working on the same project. PROGRAMMERS AND ANALYSTS DEPARTMENT M~NAGER PROGRAMMING COMPUTERS FOR PROCESS CONTROL The Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Products Company is forming a group which will be responsible for preparing programs for RW -300 Digital Control Computers employed in the real-time control of industrial processes, especially in the petroleum and chemical industries. The preparation of such programs raises a number of challenging problems, and requires that the persons involved become familiar with this new and rapidly expanding application of digital computers. This group will be responsible not only for setting up process control problems but also for building a library of subroutines and for organizing calculations involved in the design of computer process control systems. Openings exist at all levels, including the group manager, who should have a degree in mathematics and several years' experience in digital computer programming. Those interested are invited to write: Director of Engineering THE THOMPSON -RAMO-WOOLDRIDGE PRODUCTS COMPANY P.o. BOX 90067 AIRPORT STATION • 1..05 ANGE1..ES 45. CAL.I FORNIA COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 27 The computer industry is growing rapidly month by month. The need for special purpose computers increases daily, not only in the commercial field but in the rapidl} expanding area of military electronics where time and reliability are very important. Mammoth amounts of calculations are necessary to find workable electronic circuits, chemical formulas for fuels, solutions to problems of the resistance of metals to heat, etc. We estimate that in 1954 there were approximately 50 companies who could have used a computer; but today there are over 1700 computers in commercial and military use, and well over 3,000 computers on order. There is currently a critical need for engineers and scientists in the computer industry primarily for military applications. Thousands of engineers and scientists could be converted successfully into the computer industry, but these men have heard many stories of other young men who are obsolete and are becoming obsolete at 29. They are most reluctant, though interested in changing positions, to enter the computer field. We predict that the next year will prove to be a peculiarly difficult time to recruit both college graduates and convertible engineers and scientists into the computer industry, unless the industry sets up a program to prevent obsolescence of critically needed engineers and scientists. Symbolic Logic and Automatic Computers (Part 2) Edmund C. Berkeley (Based on two chapters in a forthcoming book "Symbolic Logic and Intelligent Machines," to be published in 1959 by Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York) (Continued from the November issue, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 20) A third branch of symbolic logic is called the algebra of relations. This deals with such concepts as symmetric relations, transitive relations, connected relations, series, etc. Still another branch of symbolic logic deals with what are called decisi01~ problems, that is, finding effective computational procedures for deciding the truth or falsity of whole classes of statements. Symbolic logicians have investigated the problem of proving statements in any mathematical system. These studies have produced some remarkable results. For example, it can be shown that there are classes of statements in arithmetic, and in other mathematical \systems, that can never be decided as true or false, in this sense: it can be shown that there exists no effective computational procedure for deciding them. (See "Computability and Unsolvability" by Martin Davis, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1958.) 7. An Illustrative Context To make clear the specific ideas of symbolic logic (in an area wider and deeper than Boolean algebra), and show how they apply and how powerful they are, we shall choose an illustrative context, which is not mathematical, and which in fact belongs in the common everyday experience of all people: the context of family relationships. Within this context we can show how these relationships can be described using two kinds of words: words which belong specifically to the field of family relationships (we can call them brick" words); and words which are completely general and belong in symbolic logic (we can call them cementJ) words). Problem 1: Define "father" in terms of "parent" and "male," and separate between the brick words and the cement words, Soltttion: Definition: A person is the father of another person if and only if he is male and is the parent of that other person. Separating the two kinds of words, we have: (a) Words which belong in the field of family relaI' II 28 tionships (brick words): person, father, male, parent; (b ) Words which belong in the field of symbolic logic (cement words): A . . .. is the . . . . of another . . . . if and only if it (we replace "he" by "it" to avoid the idea of animateness) is .... and is the .... of that other ..... Problem 2: Express "uncle" in terms of "parent" and "male." Solution: First, we shall define "brother." Definition: A person is a brother of another person if and only if he is male and there is somebody who is a parent of both of them. Brick words (words which belong to family relationships): person, brother, male, body, parent. Cement words (words which belong to symbolic logic) : A . . . . is a . . . . of another . . . . if and only if it is . . . . and there is some . . . . which is a . . . . of both of them. (We must change "who" to "which" so as not to imply animateness.) Second, having defined "brother," let us define "uncle." Definition: A person is an uncle of another person if and only if he is a brother of a parent of that other person. Brick words: person, uncle, male, brother, parent. Cement words: A.... is a . . . . of another . . . . if and only if it is a . . . . of a . . . . of that other ..... 8. Things, or Elements Now, we need to get rid of some of the shapelessness of these patterns of logical words, because of their blanks. We need to take out the blanks and put in the most general ideas that are implied by the blanks. To help us in this process, and enable us to imagine the ideas a little better, let us use "thing" instead of "person." (Actually "entity" or "element" or "individual" would be a better word, in the sense of being more correct technically, because we intend to designate nonphysical things also; but "thing" is a comfortable everyday kind of word, and is not an un'reasonable choice.) Also, let us use capital letters F, M, P, B, U to take the place of words "father, male, parent, brother, uncle," while COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 we try to imagine the kinds of still more general ideas that are needed in place of these letters. With these changes, our three statements become: Statement 1: A thing is the F of another thing if and only if it (the first-mentioned thing) is M, and is a P of that other thing (the second-mentioned thing). Statement 2: A thing is a B of another thing if and only if it is M and there exists something which is a P of both of them. Statement 3: A thing is a U of another thing if and only if it is a B of a P of that other thing. We can now begin to see some of the basic ideas of symbolic logic emerging. What these are we shall now try to explain. 9. A. . . . , Another . . . . , Still Another . . . . In order to talk about the things in some class or collection, we often use some scheme for identifying them one after another, naming them off, and referring to them briefly. This is a process or scheme which belongs to the field of symbolic logic. The need for brief reference to previously mentioned things is recognized in the grammar of natural language, where the pronottns "he, she, it, they" (or similar words in other languages than English), are used to refer to previously mentioned things. But in English, the grammar of natural language mixes up thoroughly the logical need for clear designation of previously mentioned things with an unrelated need to specify sex (masculine, feminine, common, or neutcr) and number (singular, plural). In the context of symbolic logic, we are not concerned with sex, grammatical or otherwise. Also, in the context of symbolic log~c, we are ordinarily only slightly interested in the difference between singular and plural, although every now and then we find it necessary or desirable in symbolic logic to distinguish between one and more than one. The translation of "a . . . . , another . . . . , still another . . . ." into symbolic logic can be done in several ways. One way, which is ordinarily not useful in symbolic logic, is to use different letters: as in: "a thing x, another thing y, still another thing z." ( We shall not use italic type, so as to make typewriter type acceptable.) A second way is to use subscripts as in: "a thing Xl, another thing X2, still another thing X3, X4, X5, . . • •" A third way is to use no mark for the first-mentioned thing, a prime (') for the second-mentioned thing, a second mark (") for the third-mentioned thing: as in, x, x' (read "x prime"), x" (read "x second"). If in a discussion, we do not talk of more than three things in a class, this method is rather convenient. Note that in all these cases these symbols may include the case where another thing x' turns out to be the same as a first thing x; for instance, there will be some occasions where a rule becomes much more general because this case x = x' is not prohibited by the scheme of designating. 10. Properties, Characteristics, Kinds, Sorts In regard to anything that we talk about, we often make statements telling what properties it has, what characteristics it has, what kind of a thing it is, what sort of a thing it is. For example, "it is male," "it is a father," "it is an uncle," "it is savage," "it is a savage." Note how a proper!"f may be grammatically a noun or an adjective. For designating a property or a class, we shall in general use the capital letter K (the first letter of "kind" and of the German word "Klasse" for class). x K stands for "x has the property K." COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 xfK stands for "x is in the class K," "x is a member of K." Some of the time we think of the property K "being male, having maleness, being a male, being a father, being in fatherhood." At other times we think of the class K "males," "fathers," the group or collection or set of all thing;) which have a stated property. Although the two ideas of property or class are often basically the same, x K and x f K are two different but largely interchangeable ways used in symbolic logic for expressing this same basic idea. 11. Relations Also, in regard to anything that we talk about, we often make statements telling what relations it has to other things, what connections or associations it has with other things. For example: x is an F of x', x if a P of x', x is a brother of x', x has the same father as x'. Any statement which mentions two things and asserts some kind of association or connection between them is a statement expressing a relation. For designating a relation, we shall in general use the capital letter R (the first letter of the word "relation"). x R x' means "x has the relation R to x'." \Y/ e can think of x,x' (read "x comma x prime") as constituting an ordered pair, or an ordered cottple, or dyad, and then say, if we wish, x,x' f R. This means "the ordered pair x,x' is a member of R." On such occasions we think of the relation R as a class of ordered pairs of elements. For example, suppose we think of the relation "opposite to" and the four points of the compass "north (N), east (E), south (S), west (W)." The class of N, E, S, W, standing for the four points or the compass contains four elements. From these we can make 16 ordered pairs: N,N E,N S,N W,N N, E E, E S, E W, E N, S E, S S,S W,S N, W E, W S, W W,W Of these 16 only four are in the relation "opposite to," namely: N, S S, N E, W W, E The other 12 ordered pairs are in the relation "not opposite to." For a relation to be completely stated, more than two terms may have to be mentioned. For example, betweenness is a relation with three terms: for example, "New Haven is between Boston and New York." Betweenness is a class of ordered triples, a triadic relation. For another example, exchange is a relation of four terms: "exchange by somebody of something with somebody else for something else." Exchange is therefore essentially a class at ordered quadruples, ordered sets of four elements, a tetradic relation. 12. Statements, Sentences, Assertions, Propositions One of the most basic ideas of symbolic logic is the idea of a statement (sentence, assertion, proposition). In general a statement is an expression which can be true or false. For example: "Jack has had measles," "x is male," "the connection between point A and B is broken." For designating a statement we shall in general use the letter S. A statement has a truth value, which is "true" or "ves" or checkmark (v) or T or 1 if it is true, and "false;' or "no" or cross (x) or F or 0 if it is false. We write: T ( S ) = the truth value of the statement S, which is T if S is true, F if S is false. [To be continued] 29 Computing Services Survey (Supplement) Neil Macdonald Assistant Editor Computers a~d Automation MASTERMIND THE COMPUTER MARKET WITH BURROUGHS! The most stimulating marketing challenge of tomorrow ..• with outstanding financial rewards and personal satisfactions today! This is the fascinating field of electronic data processing systems, where dynamic advances are being made by the ElectroData Division of Burroughs Corporation. Here in a Southern California setting, as well as in other areas of the country, our creative staff deals with the marketing challenge of today's EDP systems and gives direction to the electronic equipment of the future. Sense the challenge? It can be yours. We have openings of major responsibility for people who have grown with the data processing field - who thoroughly understand computers and their application to scientific and business problems: Mathematicians, Applied -Scientists, Product Planning and Applications Analysts, Applied Programmers, and others who are specialists in this growing field. For complete details, contact your local ElectroData district or regional office-or write to Professional Personnel Director in Pasadena, address below. Burroughs Corpora.tlon ELECTRODATA DIVISION PAS A DEN A, CAL I FOR N I A 'WE" DIMENSIONS/in electronics and data pr~ JYSkIIII" '30 This supplement provides some more entries to be added to the 40 entries published in the July and September issues. The editors will be glad to receive additional entries so that the "Computing Services Survey" may be made still more complete and brought up to date in future issues of Computers and Automation.. The reply form (which may be copied on any piece of paper) follows: 1. Brief description of the quantity and types of computing machines and equipment which you have - ... 2. Brief description of the types of computing problems which you specialize in ................................................................... .. 3. Number of employees......................... .. 4. Year established ....................... . 5. Any remarks? (attach paper if needed) ................................................... General Electric Co., Electric Utility Engrg Section, Schenectady, N.Y. / EQPM: Digital; IBM 704, IBM 650. Analog: AC Network Analyzer, DC Network Analyzer, Transient Network Analyzer, electronic differential analyzer / PROB: electric power system planning and operating, electric utility problems, industrial engineering problems; programming services / ?s ?e / not restricted as to users General Electric Co., Flight Propulsion Laboratory, (a) 950 Western Ave., Lynn, Mass. and also (b) Evendale Plant, Cincinnati 15, Ohio / EQPM: IBM 704 with 32,768 words of core storage, cathode ray display, ten on-line tapes, etc., and full complement of peripheral equipment. Also conventional punch card supporting equipment. 704 program for simulation of IBM. 650 available / PROB: aerodynamics, thermodynamics, engine performance, mechanical design and analysis, diffusion, heat transfer, business systems, automatic processing of test data, mechanical systems, engineering systems, special problems on h .................. . Filled in by........................... Title ...................... .. Organization ....................................................... .. Address ...................................................................... .. When this is completed, please send it with your literature to Computers and Automation 815 Washington Street Newtonville 60, Mass. Each entry is in the form : Name and address of organization/EQPM: Brief description of quantity and types of computing machines and equipment which organization has / PROB: Types of computing problems which the organization specializes in / Number of employees, Year established. Abbreviations: s -size in number of employees, e - year established, S - small or short time ago, M - medium, L -large or long time ago. General Electric Co., Computer Department, Phoenix, Ariz. / EQPM: IBM 704 / PROB: all types / Ms(150) Se(1957) / not restricted as to users OVER $16,000.00 SAVING ON PURCHASE OF E-102 ELECTRONIC COMPUTER WITH ATTACHED EQUIPMENT Used 14 months by Sun Oil Com· pany, this equipment is offered for sale at $30,000. Contact Computer Sales Department, 6000 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth 16, Texas. Or call TA 4·5854 • Dallas PE 8·6505 • Ft. Worth THIS OFFER SUBJECT TO PRIOR SALE THE Computing - Consulting - Data Processing Data Reduction - Research & Development COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 computer techniques and development, traj ectory analysis, missile analysis, information retrieval, production scheduling, general mathematical applications. Programming services available / Ms (86) Se(1951) / not restricted as to users University of Kentucky, Computing Center, Lexington, Ky. / EQPM: IBM 650 and peripheral equipment / PROB: research, educational / ?s Se(1958) NEW PATENTS 60 employees RAYMOND R. SKOLNICK Reg. Patent Agent Ford Inst. Co., Div. of Sperry Rand Corp. Long Island City 1, New York HE fol1owin~ i~ a compilation of patents pertalrung to computers and associated equipment from the "Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office," dates of issue as indicated. Each entry consists of: patent number / inventor(s) / assignee / invention. Printed copies of patents may be obtained from the U.S. Commissioner of Patents, Washington 25, D.C., at a cost of 25 cents each. T March 11, 1958 (cont'd): 2,826,359 I William J. Deerhake, Dumont, Charles R. Borders, Alpine, and Byron L. Havens, Closter, N.]. I International Business Machines Corp., New York, N.Y. I A checking circuit for use in conjunction with a storage device having stored therein a plurality of binary bits of information. 2,826,366 I Natale Capeliaro, Ivrea, Italy lIng. C Olivetti & C, S. p.A., Ivrea, Italy I A transfer mechanism for computing machines. 2,826,715 I Frederic C Williams, Timperley, Tom Kilburn, Danghulme, Manchester, and Hubert J. Crawley, London, Eng. I National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. I A method of electronic storage of numerical information. March 18, 1958: 2,827,233 I Walter C Johnson, Summit, and John G. Rtyon, Chatham, N.J. I Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. I A digital to analog converter. 2,827,602 I Robert B. Horsfall, Jr., and Henry R. Brown, Jr., Whittier, Calif., and George K. Turner, Huntsville, Ala. I North American Aviation, Inc. I An electro - mechanical shaft positioning mechanism. 2,827,626 I Frank E. De Motte, New Vernon, N.J. I Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. I An electromagnetic device for converting binary electrical signals into decimal signals. l learned to use the -/5 j computer The California Department of Water Resources is preparing aggressively to meet the future demands of a rapidly expanding population. For example, digital electronic computers are speeding solution to complex water conservation problems. The general purpose Bendix G-15 proved so easy to use that 60 employees have been taught to solve a wide range of problems on it. Although most of these people had no prior computer experience, they were writing programs after just four hours of training. G-lS ADVANTAGES Memory and speed of computers costing four times as much • Typewriter input-output, paper tape output and 250 char/sec paper tape input at no added cost· 1,200,000 words of magnetic tape memory available' Punch card input-output available • Extensive library of programs furnished' Strong users' sharing organization' Proven reliability· Nationwide sales and service' Lease or purchase DIVISION OF BENDIX AVIATION CORPORATION Built and backed by Bendix. the G-15 is serving scores of progressive businesses. large and small. throughout the world. For the details, write to Bendix Computer, Department D-3a Los Angeles 45. California. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 31 now. • • from 100% tested memory cores for transistorized memory circuits THE NEW M3 LOW-DRIVE MEMORY CORE by FXC, made of Ferroxcube 681 material, is designed for transistorized memory circuits and has unusually low driving current requirements. Its switching time is 2 microseconds with a current of 450 rna. at 40°C. It can be furnished in complete arrays, such as the 1 0 by 1 0 memory array illustrated above, and it is delivered 100% tested to guaranteed specifications. Requests for complete data on test conditions and guaranteed properties should be addressed to: FERROXCUBE CORPORATION OF AMERICA 62A East Bridge Street, Saugerties, New York ~anufacturers of ferrite cores for recording heads, magnetic memories, TV flyback transformers, pulse transformers, filters, inductors, high frequency shields and power transformers. 32 March 25, 1958: 2,828,070 / David M. Boyd, Jr., Clarendon Hills, Ill. / Universal Oil Products Co., Des Plaines, Ill. / An electric computer. 2,828,071 / Everett T. Burton, Milburn, N.J. / Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. / A selectable base counter. 2,828,418 / Lorin Knight and Alec Trussell, Letchworth, Eng. / British Tabulating Machine Co., Lim., London, Eng. / A data storage device. 2,828,456 / Lawrence J. Kamm, Forest Hills, N.Y. / Sperry Products, Inc., Danbury, Conn. / A servomechanism having a final output and a data input having a coarse part and a fine part. April 1, 1958: 2,828,910 / Jacques Fagot, Paris, Fr. / Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie Sans Fil, Paris, Fr. / An electronic pulse-counting system adapted to indicate a plurality of digits each capable of assuming n different numerical values. 2,829,323 / Floyd G. Steele, La Jolla, Calif. / Digital Control Systems, Inc., La Jolla, Calif. / A rate digital control system. April 8, 1958: 2,829,822 / Eugene E. Reynolds, Richmond, Calif. / Marchant Calculators, Inc., Calif. / A binary value calculator for the selective performance of division or multiplication in the binary system. 2,829,824 / Nick A. Schuster, Houston, Texas / Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., Houston, Texas / An automatic computing apparatus. 2,829,825 / Henri-Georges Doll, Ridgefield, Conn. / Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., Houston, Texas / An automatic computing apparatus. 2,829,827 / Carl A. Bergfors, San Jose, Calif. / International Business Machine Corp., New York, N.Y. / An electronic multiplying machine. 2,829,828 / Frank J. Hollenbach, Hollis, N.Y. / Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp., New York, N.Y. / A computing apparatus for determining the square root of the sum of the squares of a plurality of quantities. 2,830,242 / Horace E. Darling, North Attleboro, Mass. / The Foxboro Company, Foxboro, Mass. / A servo system measuring apparatus. April 15, 1958: 2,830,758 / Paul F. M. Gloess, Paris, Fr. / Societe d'Electronique et d' Automatisme, Courbevoie, Seine, Fr. / A binary to decimal conversion system. 2,830,759 / Ellis Hudes, and Waldemar Saeger, Gloucester, N.J. / Radio Corp. of America, Del. / A data handling system. 2,831,150 / Esmond P. G. Wright, Joseph Rice, and Ray C. Orford, London, Eng. / International Standard Electric Corp., New York, N.Y. / An electrical information storage circuit. April 22, 1958 to June 17, 1958 (portion) : published in the November, 1958, issue, pp. 28-30 June 17, 1958 (cont'd.): 2,839,705 / Gerald R. Paul, Webster, N.Y. / General Dynamics Corp., Rochester, N.Y. / A binary pulse counting chain. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 2,839,727 / John C. Lozier, Short Hills, N.J. / Bell Telephone Lab. Inc., New York, N.Y. / An encoder for pulse code modulation. 2,839,728 / Donald L. Jacoby, Elberon, Bernard J. Keigher, Shrewsbury, and Alfred Mack, Little Silver, N.J. / U.S.A. as represented by the Seetetary of the Army / A pulse code modulation system. 2,839,740 / John W. Haanstra, San Jose, Calif. / International Business Machines Corp., New York, N.Y. / An analog-to-digi tal converter. 2,839,744 / George M. Slocomb, Altadena, Calif. / Consolidate'd Electrodynamics Corp., Pasadena, Calif. / A non-linear analog-to-digital converter. June 24, 1958: 2,840,304 / Frederic C. \Villiams, Timpedey, Tom Kilburn, Manchester, Geoffrey C. Tootill, Swindon, and Brian W. Pollard, Hollinwood. Eng., and Gordon E. Thomas, Port Talbot, and David B. Edwards, Pontypridd, Wales / National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. / Data storage arrangements for electronic digital computing machines. 2,840,305 / Frederic C. Williams, Timperley, Tom Kilburn, Manchester, Geoffrey C. Toothill, Swindon, and Brian W. Pollard, Hollinwood, Eng. / National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. / Rhythm Control means for electronic digital computing machines. 2,840,306 / Floyd G. Steele, La Jolla, Calif. / Digital Control Systems, Inc., a Corp. of Calif. / Di-function multiplexers and multipliers. 2,840,307 / Willis S. Campbell, Gaithersburg, Md. / - / A dynamic multip lier circuit. 2,840,308 / Thomas B. Van Horne, Culver City, Calif. / Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. / An electronic. correlator. 2,840.309 / John M. Hunt, Binghamton, N.Y. / Link Aviation Inc., Binghamton, N.Y. / A computer function generation. 2,840.709 / lohn V. Blankenbaker, Inglewood, Calif. / Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. / A frequency to digital conversion. 2,840.798 / Frank Cooper and Harry Malbon. Hollinwood, En~. / National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. / A magnetic stora~e system. Julv 1. 1958: 2.841.328 / Floyd G. Steele, Manhattan Beach, and Richard E. Sprague and Bernard T. Wilson, Los Angeles, Calif. / Northrup Aircraft Inc., Hawthorne, Calif. / A digital differential analyzer. 2,841,332 / Sidney Lees, Newton, Mass. / - / A torsional fourier transformer. 2,841,649 / Jacques M. Boisvieux, Gennevilliers, Fr. / Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, Paris, Fr. / A pulse code modulation system. 2,841,707 / James M. McCulley, Barrington, N.J. / R.C.A., a Corp. of Delaware / An information handling system. 2,841,708 / Leonard R. Harper, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. / I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y. / An electronic logical circuit. 2,841,719 / Arthur J. Radcliffe, Jr., La with a standard multiple purpose off-the-shelf drum The 512-A Bryant general purpose magnetic storage drum meets the exacting requirements of a production component, yet has the versatility necessary for laboratory work. This standard 5" dia. x 12" long drum is stocked for immediate shipment, complete with stand· ard components such as general storage brackets, recirculating register brackets and magnetic read/record heads. Its low price reflects the benefits of Bryant's 25 years' experience in the efficient design and production of high speed precision spindles. Features: • • • • • • • Guaranteed accuracy of drum run-out, .00010" T.1. R. or less Integral drive- Bryant precision motor (1200 to 12,000 R. P. M.) Capacities to 625,000 bits Accommodates up to 240 magnetic read/record heads High density ground magnetic oxide coating Super- precision ball bearing suspension Vertical mounting for trouble free operation Special Models: If your storage requirements cannot be handled by standard units, Bryant will assist you in the design and manufacture of custom - made drums. Speeds from 60 to 120,000 R. P. M. can be attained, with frequencies from 20 C. P. S. to 5 M. C. Sizes can range from 2" to 20" diameter, with storage up to 6,000,000 bits. Units include Bryant- built integral motors with ball or air bearings. Write for Model 512-A booklet, or for special information. Remember ... you can't beat a Bryant drum' BRYANT COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 BRYANT CHUCKING GRINDER CO. P. O. Box 620-'K, Springfield, Vermont, U.S.A. 33 Grange, Ill. '; International .Telephone & Telegraph Corp., New York, N.Y. / A diode gate and its control circuit. 2,841,720 / Jacob Tellerman, Brooklyn, N.Y. I American Bosch Arma Corp., Brooklyn, N.Y. I A function shaping network. July 8, 1958: 2,842,312 I Donald L. Weeks, Dayton, Ohio / The National Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio / A card reading apparatus. 2,842,662 I Robert J. Williams, Berwyn, Pa. I Burroughs Corp., Detroit, Mich. I A flip-flop circuit. 2,842,663 I John Presper Eckert, Jr., Gladwyne, and Adelbert W. Reickord, Drexel Hill, Pa. I Sperry Rand Corp., New York, N. Y. I A comparator. 2,842,754 I Hans P. Luhn, Armonk, N.Y. I I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y. I A magnetic storage device. 2,842,755 I Richard C. Lamy, Hyde Park, N.Y. I I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y. I A ternary magnetic storage device. 2,842,757 I James Evans, Flushing, N.Y. I Teleregister Corp., Stamford, Conn. / A system for data storage indexing. July 15, 1958: 2,843,317 I William F. Steagall, Merchantville, N.J. I Sperry Rand Corp., New York, N.Y. I A parallel adder for binary numbers. 2,843,318 I John W. Gray, Pleasantville, N.Y. I General Precision Lab., Inc., a Corp. of New York I An earth ellipticity corrector for dead reckoning computers. 2,843,320 I Hamilton C. Chisholm, Richmond, Calif. / Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif. / A transistorized indicating decade counter. 2,843,761 I Arthur W. Carlson, Arlington, Mass. I U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of the Air Force / A high speed transistor flip-flop. 2,843,837 I Samuel Thaler, Rome, N.Y., and Ernie R. Ruterman, Douglas, Ariz. I U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of the Air Force I A digital comparison gate. 2,843,841 I Gilbert W. King, Pacific Palisades,- Edwin L. Hughes, Los Angeles, George W. Brown, Pacific Palisades, and Louis N. Ridenour, Los Angeles, Calif. I International Telemeter Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. I An information storage system. COMPUTER ENGINEERS Positions are open for computer engineers capable of making significant contributions to advanced computer technology. These positions are in our new Research Center at Newport Beach, California, overlooking the harbor and the Pacific Ocean-an ideal place to live. These are career opportunities for qualified engineers in an intellect~al environment as stimulating as ·the physical surroundings are ideal. Qualified applicants are invited to send resumes, or inquiries, to Mr. L. T. Williams. Positions Open: Systems Engineers Logical Designers Programmers Circui t Engineers Mechanical Engineers Applications Specialists Sales Engineers Areas of Interest: Computers & Data Processors Input/Output Equipment Storage Units Display Devices Computer Components Solid State Devices Electromechanical Equipment AERONUTRONIC SYSTEMS, INC. a subsidiary 0/ Ford Motor Company 1234 Air Way • Bldg. 27, Glendale, Calif. • CHapman 5-6651 ADVERTISING INDEX Following is the index of advertisements. Each item contains: Name and address of the advertiser I page number where the advertisement appears I name of agency if any. Aeronutronic Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Co., 1234 Air Way, Glendale, Calif. / Page 34 / Honig, Cooper & Miner Ampex Corp., 934 Charter St., Redwood City, Calif. / Page 19 / Boland Associates Arnold Engineering Co., Marengo, Ill. / Page 3 / W. S. Walker Advertising, Inc. Bendix Aviation Corp., Computer Div., 5630 Arbor Vitae St., Los Angeles, Calif. / Page 31 / The Shaw Co. Bryant Chucking Grinder Co., Springfield, Vt. / Page 33 / Henry A. Loudon Advertising, Inc. Datics Corp., 6000 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth 7, Tex. / Page 30 / ElectroData, Div. of Burroughs Corp., 460 N. Sierra Madre Villa, Pasadena, Calif. / Page 30 / Carson, Roberts, Inc. . Electronic Associates, Int., Long Branch, N.J. / Page 7 / Halsted & Van Vechten, Inc. 34 ESC Corp., 534 Bergen Blvd., Palisades Park, N.J. / Page II/Keyes, Martin & Co. Ferroxcube Corp. of America, E. Bridge St., Saugerties, N.Y. / Page 32 / Sam Groden, Inc. General Electric Co., Computer Capacitor Sales, Schenectady, N.Y. / Page 2 / G. M. Basford Co. General Electric Co., Flight Propulsion Laboratory Dept., 950 Western Ave., Lynn, Mass. / Page 23 /' G. M. Basford Co. Philco Corp., Government & Industrial Div., 4700 Wissahickon Ave., Philadelphia 44, Pa. / Page 15 / Maxwell Associates, Inc. Radio Corp. of America, Semiconductor and Materials Div., Somerville, N.J. / Page 36 / Al Paul Lefton Co. The Ramo-Wooldridge Corp., Los Angeles 45, Calif. / Page 5 / The McCarty Co. Southwest Research Institute, 8500 Culebra Rd., San Antonio 6, Tex. / Page 25 / Sylvania Electric Products Inc., 189 B St., Needham 94, Mass. / Page 35 Deutsch & Shea, Inc. Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Products Co., P.O. Box 45067, Airport Station, Los Angeles, Calif. / Page 27 / The McCarty Co. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 ENGINEERS Why are so many Comp'uter Engineers moving to Boston? Because - the top facilities, professional know-how and breakthrough achievements of Boston's industrial & institutional scientific laboratories are a continual attraction to creative men from all over the country. Because -Boston's universities provide faculty and resources of unequalled calibre to men seeking professional growth and advancement. Because -Boston offers a wealth of entertainment and enjoyment to engineers and their families ... symphonies, theatres, symposia, restaurants, fashionable shops that add richness to the full life. Because - Boston and its gracious suburbs border on ski trails, sea coast, lakes, hills and forests that mean fun to the lovers of outdoor recreation. invites you to inquire about the unusual ground-floor opportunities now available in this modern installation in suburban Boston, where some of the nation's most sophisticated electronic equipment is now being developed. §y-Ivanla's NEW Data Processing Laboratory DEVELOPMENT ENGINEERS Circuit development and high speed transistorized computers and peripheral equipment. MECHANICAL ENGINEERS JUNIOR Cabinet and plug-in package deSign, van installations, environmental testing of these completely new computers. & SENIOR-LEVEL OPENINGS NOW AVAILABLE (Previous digital data processing experience is important for most assignments .J LOGICAL DESIGNERS $, " [ Logical design of data processing systems with emphasis on transistorized circuits and switching circuits. Send your resume to Mr. Bruce Stryker DATA PROCESSING LABORATORY SYLVANIA ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS A Division 0/ :tr SYLVANIA:tr SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS INC. 189 B Street - Needham 94, Massachusetts COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958 35 These 3 New RCA Low-Cost Comnuter Transistors Can Open New Markets For You! RCA now makes available low-cost high-quality transistors fo r reliable performance in electronic computer applications ! • Can low-priced, highly-reliable computer transistors help you expand into new markets? • Can they enable you to profitably engage in the design of compact mass-produced computers? • Are you looking for ways to revise your current designs to save costs? If the highly desirable combination of reliable performance and low cost have been difficult for you to find, investigate these three new RCA units: RCA-2N581 , RCA2N583, and RCA-2N585. They are specifically designed, produced and controlled for computer applications; life-tested for dependable service; electrically uniform ; available in commercial quantities; and are unusually low in price. In addition to these three new types, RCA offers a comprehensive line of transistors for your most critical computer designs. For additional information on RCA Transistors, contact your local authorized RCA D istributor or your RCA Field Representative at the office nearest you. For technical data on R CA -Transistors, write RCA C ommerci<,ll Engineering, Section L - 90 - NN, Somerville, New Jersey. MEDIUM-CURRENT SWITC HING SERVICE IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Ty p ical Frequen cy Me Typic al DC· Current Tra nsfer Ratio Va lue at Co lle ctor Ma . 2N581' (p· n·p) 8 30 at - 20 - 100 2N583" (p·n·p) 8 30 at - 20 -100 2N585' (n·p·n) 5 40 at + 20 + 200 RCA Ty pe Alpha. Cutoff Ma ximum Co llector Mo . *Jetec TO · 9 Outline (formerl y referred to as Jet ec Size -Group 30 Cas e) . .. Jetec TO·l Out line EAST: MIDWEST: 744 Broad Street Newark, N. J . HUmboldt 5-3900 Suite 1154 Merchandise Mart Plaza Chicago, III. WHitehall 4-2900 6355 E. Washington Blvd. Los Angeles, Calif. RAymond 3-8361 GOV 'T : 224 N. Wilkinson Street Dayton, Ohio BAldwin 6-2366 1625 "K " Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. DIstrict 7-1260 WEST: RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA Semiconductor and Materials Division Somer ville, New Jersey
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