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VOL. 7


NO. 12


NOWI General Electric Offers a Full Line of ...

Alumalytic* Capacitors For
Greater Computer Reliability


by General Electric's computer-grade Alumalytic capacitors
add up to greater over-all reliability for your computers.
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such as 99.99% pure aluminum foil are used, and this
high quality is maintained in the finished capacitor by
exacting in-process and quality control checks throughout
the manufacturing process.

quotation or more information about G-E Alumalytic
capacitors for your computers. Or, contact your nearest
General Electric Apparatus Sales Office.
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COMPANY ________________________________________________ TITLE _________________________ _






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.NOTE: Operating temperatures -20 C to +65 C. For 85 C applications,
another range of units is available with the same physical styles.

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o Please

send me your quotation for the G-E computergrade Alumalytic capacitors I have specified below.
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in uf



NAME _______________________________________________________________________________________ _

For Alnico Magnets-Stock or Special
best bet when looking for
Y a source
of Alnico magnets and

Cast Alnico Magnets are most commonly made in Alnico V and VI.
Sintered Alnico Magnets usually are
made in Alnico II, V or VI. Special
permanent magnet materials include
VicaIloy, Cunife, and Arnox.

Write for your copy of Bulletin GCl06C, a general catalog of all Arnold
products. It contains useful data on
the physical and magnetic properties
of Alnico Magnets. Lists stock items
and standard tolerances for cast and
sintered magnets-also stock sizes
and pertinent data on tape cores,
powder cores, C & E cut cores, etc.

assemblies is Arnold-producer of
the most complete line of magnetic
materials in the industry.
Arnold can supply your need for
any size or shape of Alnico magnet.
Weights range from less than a gram
to 75 pounds or more. Die-cast or
sand-cast aluminum jackets, Celastic covers, etc., can be supplied as
required. Complete assemblies are
available with Permendur, steel or

:COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

aluminum bases, inserts and keepers
as specified-magnetized and stabilized according to the requirements
of the application.
A wide range of the more popular
shapes and sizes of cast and sintered
magnets are carried in stock at
Arnold. Unsurpassed plant facilities
make possible quick delivery of all
special orders.
• Let us hantlle your permanent magnet requirements, or any other magnetic
material specification you may have.
WSW 6875 D

Volume 7
Number 12




September 1951



Assistant Editor
Assistant Editor



535 Fifth Ave.

MUrray Hill 2-4194
New York 17, N.Y.

Editorial Policy of 50 Technical Magazines on Publishing Discussion and Argument on the Social Responsi21
bility of Scientists and Engineers
Obsolete - at Age 29
· 26



Symbolic Logic and Automatic Computers (Part 2)


1, 6

1,000 Characters Per Second

Annual Index in January.
Greetings to Computers
Applications of Computers to a Teacher's Paper Work
Computing Services Survey

· 30


New Patents .

· 31

YUkon 2-3954

Los Angeles 5
439 S. Western Ave.



Middle Atlantic States
535 Fifth Ave.
New York 17, N.Y.
MUrray Hill 2-4194
San FI'ancisco 5
605 Market St.

• 28



DUnkirk 7-8135

Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass.
DEcatur 2-5453 or 2-3928

Advertising Index
Back Copies
Bulk Subscriptions
Manuscri pts
Who's Who Entry Form


Nov. issue,
Oct. issue,
Oct. 'issue,
Nov. issue,



COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION is published monthly at 160 Warren St., Roxbury 19, Mass.,
by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES: (United States) $5.50 for 1 year, $10.50 for 2 years; (Canada) $6.00
for 1 year, $11.50 for 2 years; (Foreign) $6.50 for 1 year, $12.50 for 2 years.
Address all Editorial and Subscription Mail to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 815 Washington St.,
Newtonville 60, Mass.
ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER at the Post Office at Boston 19, Mass.
POSTMASTER: . Please send all Forms 3579 to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 160 Warren St.,
Roxbury 19, Mass .
.Copyright, 1958, by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
CHANGE OF ADDRESS: If your address changes, please send us both your new address and
your old address (as it appears on the magazine address imprint), and allow three weeks for the
change to be made.


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

By the application of properly chosen alternating and
static electric fields, electrically charged particles can
be maintained in dynamic equilibrium in a vacuum
against interparticle and gravitational forces. This is
illustrated in the above photograph of the orbit of a
charged dust particle. During the time of exposure the
particle traversed the closed orbit several times, yet it
retraced its complicated path so accurately that its
various passages can barely be distinguished.
The range of particles of different charge-to-mass
ratios which can be contained in this manner is determined by the gradients of the static and alternating
electric field intensities and by the frequencies of the
latter. In the absence of static fields and for a given
electric field strength, the minimum frequency required
for stable containment of the particles is proportional
to the square root of their charge-to-mass ratios. Thus,
charged colloidal particles require the use of audio frequencies, atomic ions need HF frequencies, while electrons require the use of VHF and higher frequencies.
Under the confining influence of the external fields,

the particles are forced to vibrate with a lower frequency of motion which is determined by the external
field intensities, space charge, and the driving frequencies. If the initial thermal energy is removed, a
number of particles may be suspended in space in the
form of a crystalline array which reflects the symmetry
properties of the external electrodes. These "space
crystals" can be repeatedly "melted" and re-formed by
increasing and decreasing the effective electrical binding force. These techniques offer a new approach in
the study of plasma problems and mass spectroscopy in
what may be properly termed "Electrohydrodynamics:'
At The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, work is in
progress in this and other new and interesting fields.
Scientists and engineers are invited to explore current
openings in Electronic Reconnaissance and Countermeasures,' Microwave Techniques; Infrared; Analog
and Digital Computers,' Air Navigation and Traffic
Control; Antisubmarine Warfare,' Electronic Language
Translation,' Radio and Wireline Communication, and
Basic Electronic Research.

The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December. 1958

Readers' and Editor's Forum
HOW CAN YOU read perforated paper tape at the
cate of 1000 characters a second?
The front cover shows the inside of a Burroughs 220
Tape Photo reader, which does this. The lamp is the
source of light; below it is a light chopper disc; still
further below is the paper tape; and below that are the
photodiode reading heads. This photoreader may be
used with any computer or control system, but is a part
of the Burroughs 220, made by Burroughs Electrodata
Div., Pasadena, Calif.
As a result of a useful suggestion from a librarian,
we shall no longer publish the annual index to Computers and Automation in the December issue, covering
the twelve preceding months December to November.
Instead, we shall publish the index in the January issue,
·covering the twelve preceding months January to .De·cember. To provide for the changeover, the index
published in January 1958 will cover the issues of 13
months December 1957 to December 1958.
FOR CHRISTMAS, WE wish our subscribers, our
readers, and all computer people:




25092 71636 61959 23256 87628. (Solve for the
digits; each letter stands for just one digit 0 to 9,
although one digit may be represented by more than
one letter.)
This is a Numble, a number puzzle for nimble minds.
For hints for solution if needed, write us. The solution
will appear in January.
We repeat our annual challenge to automatic computers - to solve this kind of problem by an automatic
program. The challenge, offered now for the fifth
Decel?ber, remains unanswered so far as we know.

L. Wayne Johnson
95 South Cedar St.
Battle Creek, Mich.
For several years now there have been many reports
of applications of data processing equipment or computer mechanisms in fields of science, industry, business,
and the military.
It seems to me there is another important area in our
society where scientific advances do not reflect themselves as rapidly as they do in the just mentioned fields
- and this is schools. School systems are more and
more adopting modern business practices in the administration of their finances and personnel relationships
among staff people, and some of the business applications of computing machinery are readily transferable
to a school system's accounting and inventory uses.
This is very creditable; but it seems to me a much
larger area of application, and one more to the advantage of our educational system, would be down at the
lower roots where students are first influenced: in the
classrooms of the public elementary and high schools.
If there were means' by which the paper work of the
teacher could be lessened, more time could be applied to
performing the much more important psychological
work of a teacher.
Now to get to the point of this letter. Have you any
information, research, or references which explain applications of computing machinery towards (1) school
report card systems, (2) analysis of grouping of students based on varied test results, (3) teaching aids or
tools of instruction, (4) accumulative student school
records, and any other specific or general classroom
I would appreciate knowing of school systems which
are presently employing or investigating the uses of
computers on this type of data.
I also am interested in exploring the relative costs of
general purpose computers on a rental basis to be employed in the above uses.
I shall appreciate any information your readers may be
able to send me.

1958 Pictorial Report on the

Computer Field
This is a pictorial report for 1958 on the computer
field, including computers, data processors, components,
etc. To put together this report, we sent out a letter
to many organizations in the computer field, asking for:
interesting, striking, and dramatic pictures related to
the computer field in 1958 - pictures that answer

What does a . . . . . look like?
What goes into a . . . . . ?
How is a . . . . . made?
How does a . . . . . operate?
and similar questions.
We said we wanted to avoid pictures that showed only
"smooth and featureless outside coverings."
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958






EAI 's






EAI's new series Application Bulletins and
Simulation Bulletins provide dramatic evidence
of the growing success of PACE Analog
Computing equipment in solving design engineering problems. Most general purpose
Analog Computers in use today bear EAl's
PACE emblem. For 231R Analog Computer
Bulletin No. AC-802 or for literature describing
successful applications in your industry,
write Dept. CA-12

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


IA large number of good pictures have been sent to
us, and we are very grateful for them . A number of
them have been printed as a part of this report, which
includes the front cover also; but there is not room for
all of them to be published in this issue, and so we shall
plan to publish more of them in later issues.

The present report is a continuation of our report a
year ago " A Pictorial Manual on Computers. " This was
first printed in two parts, one in December 1957, the
other in January 1958, and these issues were promptly
exhausted ; the two parts were then combined and reprinted as a special issue of "Computers and Automation," vol. 6, no. 12B, which is still in print.

Governor Geo rge M. Leader of Pennsylvania and M. N. Rand, executive vice president of Remington Rand Division
of Sperry Rand Corp., talking toge :her at a ceremony in Harrisburg on October 9, which opened the new data process·
ing center of the State of Pennsylvania. This center is the first to be used by a State of the U.S. for all its departments. In the background is the large scale Univac electronic computer. (Figure 1)


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958

How do you get input as a byproduct of the operation of 'it
production machine?-As each
production operation is performed, an electrical impulse
is transmitted to this device,
made by Fischer and Porter Co.,
Hatboro, Pa. The device then
counts the pulses, and at the
end of each 5 minutes (or
other set time) , records the
total in punched holes in paper
tape. Also, a cumulative total
of production operations is reported visually. The punched
paper tape then becomes input
to an automatic computer
(Figure 4 )

How does a pressure transducer work? - Here is the internal mechanism of a device which senses pressure
changes in the range from 0 pounds up to 350 pounds per
square inch, and translates the pressure into an electric
output using a poteritiometer. The movement of the
capsule-like diaphragm is converted into the motion of a
potentiometer wiper arm. This is a TP-lOO made by Fairchild Controls Corp., Components Div. , Hicksville, N.Y.
(Figure 5)


COMPUTERS and AU:rOMATION for D ecember, 1958



R A 'N G E • • •





engineered and developed to offer .. . submin iature un its
of unusually wide bandwidth 00 CPS to 8.0 MC). They
are used to replace bulkier and more costly components,
thereby creating greater economy, and increasing equipment efficiency. There are 14 catalog units available from
stock, cased or uncased.

the design and development of Wide Band Video
Transformers to meet your particular applications. Each
transformer prototype is accompanied by a comprehensive
laboratory report, which includes submitted electrical requirements, photo-oscillograms (which indicate input and
output pulse shape and output rise·time), the test equipment used, and evaluation of the electrical characteristics
of the prototype.

Transformers Are Supplied With Solder Terminals
Meet All Applicable Mil-Spe cs
Complete catalog data on request

~ .----------------------------,




electronic components division :


0==""= · ."

"~'N ="m""D . ",U",D'''""". N•• ,...~

exceptional employment opportunities f or engi'neers ex perienced 'l:n pulse techniques

Pulse transformers· Medium and low· power transformers· Filters of all types. Pulse·forming networks. Shift registers. Miniature plug-in encapsulated circuit assemblies
• Distributed constant delay lines • lumped - constant delay lines • Variable delay networks • Continuously variable delay lines • Pushbutton decade delay lines

Here is a magnetic core quick-access memory used in a Burroughs 220 computer. In front is the first plane of 1000
tiny doughnut shaped cores. Behind it are 43 more just I ike it. The memory is entered in parallel by impulsing the
same core position in each one of the 44 planes; access time is 10 microseconds. The memory is made by the ElectroData Division of Burroughs Corp. , Pasadena, Calif. (Figure 6)

Below is a miniature tape recorder able to store 3 million pieces of scientific information; it is built with sufficient
ruggedness to withstand 50 times the force of gravity. It was developed at Lockheed Missile Systems Division, Palo
Alto, Calif. It can record and store data, and then on receiving a command signal, transmit it six times as fast. It
weighs only 8 pounds; occupies 200 cubic inches; and . requires only 10 watts of power for the entire electronic
system. (Figure 7)


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958

How do you get twice as much access to a magnetic disk memory? - Here is the disk memory unit of an IBM
305 RAMAC random access magnetic memory, built with two access arms instead of one. This makes it possible
for one access unit to be in position for reading or writing while the other arm is moving to the next record; and
both arms may be in motion simultaneously. Made by International Business Machines Corp. , White Plains, N.Y.,
the vertical stack of 50 spinning magnetic disks is able to store 5 million characters of information, recorded on
both sides of the disks. (Figure 8)

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958

Above is a printed circuit board wired with transistors. It is a plug-in module contammg six flip-flop stages. It
used in computers and data processors made by Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Orange, N.J. (Figure 9)


Below is a wire harness being put together for use in an electronic business machine. The place is the National Cash
Register Company plant in Dayton, Ohio. (Figure 10)


COMPUTERS tmd AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958

now from


World's fastest data processing system . . .
all-transistorized , with up to 5 times the
capacity ... more for your computation dollar

PHILCO ~* 8-2000
No other data processing system on the
market can match the revolutionary
Philco Transac S-2000 Computer for
speed, capacity and reliability.
Before you select your large scale data
processing system ... compare Transac
for performance- here is capacity to
solve the most complex problems many
t imes faster than conventional vacuum
tube systems; compare Transac for reliability and multi-million hour transistor
dependabilitY-AVAILABLE NOW.



Transac also conserves valuable floor
space, requires little site preparation and
no costly air conditioning-giving you t he
most economical large scale installation possible.
See Transac . . . First From Philco . ..
now available on sale or rental plans.
I nvesl.igate the excellent anti unusual opportunities at Phi/co for co?nputer engi neers.

4700 Wissahickon Avenue
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania

L. . _._. . . ~.,,__. .~__. .__. ,.
CO.MPUTERS fwd AUTOMATION for D ecember, 1958


The operator is sewing
fine strands of insulated copper wire
through tiny magnetic
cores, in order to make
computer memory
planes, at RCA's plant,
Needham Heights,
Ma:s. (Figure 11)

How does an operator assemble mag
netic heads? - Here is a production
worker assembling read/ write magnetic
heads, using low loss ferrite core
heads, which are completely shielded in
a metal case of aluminum and MU
metal. These heads permit high density recordings and precise timing of
information, in the commercial computers made by Monroe Calculating
Machine Co., Orange, N.J. (Figure 12)


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958







Here are some of the new 50
mil (1/ 20 of an inch) ferrite
memory cores that are presently
being used in transistorized coincident current computer
memories. According to General Ceramics, Keasbey, N.].,
demand for this core has skyrocketed, and it appears that
these cores will quickly replace
the 80 mil cores that have previously been standard for the
computer industry. In the last
few months, the memory plane
stringing department has increased from 10 girls to 74
girls, and there has been a proportional increase in technicians. (Figure 13)






.. ,

., " .....



.. .'"'

" •
.., •

This press squeezes out tiny rings of ferrite powder, which after
heating and testing will become ferrite cores for computer
memory frames. The place is the RCA plant, Needham Heights,
Mass. (Figure 14)
This testing machine automatically tests computer memory
planes made of strung ferrite cores, in use at General Ceramics,
Keasbey, N.]. (Figure 15)



AUTOMATION for December, 1958


How do you wind a wire coil
around a miniature toroid core,
filling up the hole with hairthin insulated wire? - At left
(Figure 16) is a new kind of
coil-winding machine that does
this ; it was conceived and developed by M. J. Matovich,
Computer Development Group,
Stanford Research Institute,
Menlo Park, Calif. By an ingenious arrangement, the wire
forming the coil "pulls itself"
through the hole or holes in the
core as many times as the number of required turns. Above
(Figure 17) is an example of
the work of the machine; the
wound toroid is as small as
Franklin D. Roosevelt's eye on
the U.S. dime. (Figures 16 and


COMPUTERS C/nd AUTOMATION for December, 1958

A m pex D igita l Ta pe H a nd le rs

Compatible and a speed for each application
In back is the much talked of Ampex FR-300.
-Its 30,000- to 90,000-charac~er-per-second transfer
rates set a lively pace for the fastest digital computers. But thes~ speeds must be brought back to earth
for slower peripheral equipment. The Ampex FR-400
on the left is exactly the machine for this job. Tapes
are transferable between the two (and also meet
widely accepted industry standards).
The FR-400s can be likened to the entry and exit
roads feeding traffic to a super-speed freeway. To put
data into computer format, it serves in such conversions as analog-to-digital, punched-tape-to-magnetictape, and cards-to-tape. On the other end, the FR-400
feeds printers that get the answers back in writing.
The FR-400 is also used for input/output for slower
computers, but that's another story.




Carrying the freeway analogy a step further,
imagine the traffic snarls that occur when exits are
blocked. The Ampex FR-400 has a similar responsibility in the digital-data flow. It has been designed
with tremendous stamina. It stays on the job.
For example, the FR-400's pinch-roller assembly
passed a 15,000 ,000-cycle start-stop endurance test
in our laboratory. Its design is the same as on the
higher-speed FR-300. Also, the FR-400's torque
motors are like those on the faster FR-300. And the
heads are typical Ampex quality, made to take thousands of hours of wear without serious change.
A heavy-duty machine needn't demand heavy-duty
people. The FR-400 has quick, easy in-line tape
threading. Local controls are an available option,
very convenient for tape change and equipment
checkout. Then remote controls can take over - even
from a source wired in from 1000 'miles away.

In the matter of speeds, the FR-400 is like a powerline transform er that steps voltages down to the required levels of electrical equipment. Typical tapes
made off computer by Ampex FR-300s involve transfer rate of 30,000 bits per second. Tape speed is 150
in/sec. Suppose a particular printer operates at 6000
characters per second. An FR-400 with 30 in/sec
tape speed cuts transfer rate to 1/s th making the tape
compatible with the printer's speed.
This can be carried still further - for example, to
5 in/ sec tape speed and a 1000 character-per-second
transfer. For still slower devices like paper-tape
punches or card punches, a storage buffer is used.
The magnetic-tape handler operates on a start-stop
basis. A ShOlt burp fills the buffer. The card or papertape punch trails along after.
The FR-400 is available in a wide range of basic
speed pairs. But Ampex also provides for sharing ·of
tape handlers among conversion and readout devices
of widely differing transfer rates. For this the FR-400
is available in 4-speed multirange versions, haVing
two independent capstan motors. Thus the pairs of
speeds may be very widely separated. 75, 37\12 , 10
and 5 inches per second is a typical example.
May w e send specifications and d escriptio11s on
Ampex's vat'ious digital tape handlers or assist 'i11
some specific application? Write Department Z -21





Ph o ne your Amp e x data spec ial is t for pe rsona l att e n tio n to yo ur reco rd ing ·Of~e ds .

Offic.<:s $~rv~ U.S. A. anlf Canada.

Here are MAD's, or
Multi - Aperture Devices, made of ferrite
in various forms, and
able to perform AND,
OR, NOT functions,
and other logical functions in computers.
They require only single-turn wire for interconnection, are highly
reliable, and function
over wide temperature
ranges. They are still
in the experimental
stage, being studied at
Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park,
Calif. (Figure 18)

These synthetic crystals are
the basic material for an
experimental logical device
for an electronic business
machine. They were crystallized in the research lab·
oratories of the National
Cash Register Company,
Dayton, Ohio. (Figure 19)


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

1 ---- - -- --

At left is a magnetic shift register, one bit per core, information rate 5000 kilocycle, size 2/ 10 of a cubic inch,
made by ESC Corp., Palisades Park, N .J. (Figure 20)

Below is a lumped constant delay line, p otted in transparent plastic with a glass-like finish, constructed for a
computer application requiring extremely high reliability, by ESC Corp., Palisades Park, N .J. (Figure 21)
...__.- ---_.


Editorial Policy of SO Technical
Magazines on Publishing Discussion and
Argument on the Social Responsibility
of Scientists and Engineers
Edmund C. Berkeley
OR some time we have wondered what is the policy
of technical and trade magazines in rega rd to the
publication of di scussion and argument on the social
respo nsibility of scientists. So in September we decided
to. inquire. We se lected 92 technical and trade magazin es and sent each of them the following lette r:
"To the Editor:
"Computers and A utomation is making a survey of
editori al policy of technical or trade magazines in
regard to the publication of articles, letters, discussion, argument, etc., on the social responsibility
of scientists in rega rd to the scientific developm ents
which they prod uce. Enclosed is a reprint fr om
our Januar y issue e n the subj ect. [This rep rint
was the editorial " Curse or Blessing ?", from page
9 of the January 1958 issue.]
"Would yo u be so kind as to g ive us information
about your editorial policy? Enclosed is a reply
form and a busi ness rep ly envelope for your convenience.


COMP UTERS and AUTOMATION for D ecembe r, l <)SH

" We should much app reciate knowing what is your
editoria l policy now (in September 1958), a view
of the extrao rdinary influence on hum an affai rs of
current sc ientific developments , such as the Sputniks, the Nautilus voyage under the polar ice cap,
the H ydroge n Bomb, etc.
Yours sincerely,
Edmund C. Berkeley
Computers and Automation
" P.S. Th e resu lts of th e survey will also be reported
to a co mmittee of the Association for Computing
Machin ery which was appointed in June to co nsi der 'th e social responsibilities of co mputer scientists to advance socially desirable applications of
computers and to help prevent socially undesirable
applications.' So your rep ly wi ll be doubly useful. "
Th e reply form enclosed was the following:
( ) Our editorial policy is that our magazine
should from tim e to time present discussion



and argument about the social implications of
the work of the scientists and engineers in our
field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of
space, wording, balance, etc.
) Our editorial policy is that our magazine
should stick to the discussion of technical subjects, and not discuss or argue in any way the
social implications of the work of scientists or
engineers in our field, or their social responsibilities.
) Other views? (please explain) ................................ .

Filled in by ............................................................ Title ....................... .
Magazine ........................................................................................................ .
Address .......................................................................................................... .
When you have filled in this form to the extent you
conveniently can, please send it to E. C. Berkeley,
Editor, Computers and Automation, 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. A reply envelope is
enclosed for your convenience.
After a followup, we had by the middle of November
received 50 replies. One of these, being simply a printed
announcement of policy regarding free advertising, did
not answer our question, and so could hardly be, tallied.
The replies can be classified as follows:
1. YES, our magazine should from time to time present discussion ........................................................................... 20
II. OTHER VIEWS, but essentially yes ________________ 10
III. OTHER VIEWS, but essentially no ........................
IV. NO, our magazine should stick to the discussion of
technical subjects ........................................................................ 13
Needless to say, we were surprised that approximately
60 percent of the magazines replying said that they would
on at least some occasions present discussion and argument on the social responsibility of scientists. This unexpected state of affairs seems to be the result of the undeniable fact that science nowadays is penetrating further
and further; and so more and more attention must certainly be given to the influence of science in human society.
Following is the detailed report of the 49 replies, either
verbatim or slightly edited. The "Yes" indicates a check
mark in the box next to the statement of the first policy.
~'No" indicates a check mark in the box next to the statement of the second policy.
1. "Yes - No one can ignore the social implications of
technological progress. If the social sciences don't catch
up pretty soon, there won't be anybody left to worry
about the physical sciences."
- Ceramic Industry; K. A. Brent, Managing Editor
2. "Yes-We from time to time report on the expressions of attitudes toward science and scientists, and engineering and engineers, expressed by political leaders
and others who command widespread attention before
the public. We are concerned about apathy and misinformation."
- Chemical Engineering Progress; J. B. M., Editor
3. "Yes - We do believe we should publish material
showing social implications of work done by engineers.

This does not mean, however, that our articles have a
political bias. We are not Democrat or Republican, Conservative or Liberal. But we are conscious of the social
responsibility of our engineer readers."
- Consulting Engineer; Hunter Hughes, Editor
4. "Yes (see my October editorial) - I believe that our
publication has the responsibility to stimulate engineers
and scientists to form a stronger and more defined view
on the subject. I will therefore publish such material as .
may lead to success of this objective, and more responsibility."
-ISA Journal; Charles W. Carey, Editor
5. "Yes - To supplement the above check mark, I should
like to add that we carry both editorials and lead articles on controversial issues. The Saturday Review, for
example, bases much of its material about science and
the social implications of science on articles that originally appeared in Science."
-Science; Graham DuShane, Editor
6. "Yes - Although it may seem to be separate from the
area outlined in the policy we have indicated is ours,
the "social responsibilities" of the industry we serve,
of industrial management - these are of prime concern
to us - and expressions about them are always considered appropriate material for publication in our
-Electric Light and Power; N. H. Jacobson, Exec.
Bus. Editor
7 . "Yes - Such discussion most often is published in our
weekly Chemical and Engineering Newsletter rather
than in the scientific and technical monthlies."
- ACS Applied Publications, Walter J. Murphy,
Editorial Director
8. "Yes - Our magazine is sufficiently broad in its scope
to include such discussion as you suggest. As to specific
instances, we would have to reserve judgment until we
have had an opportunity to review the discussion."
- Gas Age; William J. Nickel, Editor
9. "Yes- While primarily a technical publication, our
editorial policy does not exclude mention of the social
impacts of scientific and engineering achievements in
the marine field. For example, it would be silly to report on a notable safety advancement in cargo handling
without noting its effect on the longshoreman, who
works in the country's most hazardous industry."
-Marine Ellgineering; Robert Ware, Assoc. Editor
1O. "Yes, but our editorial policy is that our magazine
might from time to time present discussion and argument about the social implications of the work of the
scientists and engineers in our field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of space, wording, balance, etc. But we prefer to
stick to the discussion of technical subjects."
- Tooling and Production; E. Willard Pennington,
11. "Yes - Our editorial policy is that our magazine
should but very rarely present discussion and argument
about the social implications of the work of scientists
and engineers in our field, and their social responsibilities - subject to the usual editorial considerations of
space, wording, balance, etc."
-Physics Today; Regula Davis, Asst. Editor
12. "We assume that the reader of the American Engineer . . . is intensely interested in his profession. He is
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

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COMPUTERS mzd AUTOMATION for December, 1958


proud of his profession and wants it to gain in prestige
and take leadership in other than technical fields by assuming social responsibility for the things it creates. He
expects to find in our pages professional articles, features, and news that treat non-technical engineering
topics in the fields of industry, legislation, government,
social transition, economics, and public relations. . . .
Every month a legislative analyst reviews happenings on
Capitol Hill that affect the private and business life of
the engineer....."
- American Engineer; Kenneth E. Trombley, Editor
13. "Yes - We should and do discuss such subjects as required to correct misapprehensions and misunderstandings but these must be mostly admonishments since our
readers know the facts. The real job is needed in consumer publications and newspapers where fact and fiction have become indistinguishable."
- Atltomation; R. W. Bolz, Editor
i4. "Yes"
- The Petroleum Engineer; J. E. Kastrop, Editorial
15. "Yes"
-Electronic Industries; Bernard F. Osbahr, Editor
16. "Yes"
- Missiles & Rockets Magazine; D. W., News Editor
17. "Yes"
-Industrial Gas; Harold W. Springborn, Editorial
18. "Yes"
-Design News; J. P. Dubois, Managing Editor
19. "Yes"
-Electrical World; D. T. Braymer, Asst.-to-the-Editor
20. "Yes"
- Astronautics; Irwin Hersey, Editor

21. "We have written an occasional editorial on the sub-

ject of an engineer's social responsibilities. We would
consider running a scholarly article on this theme - and
rebuttals if the viewpoint was controversial. We couldn't
give the same space to the subject as the Saturday Review does, for example. We have not solicited such articles. Will be interested in your survey results. Maybe
we can write another editorial when the results are in.
At the moment I feel engineers shirk social responsibility."
-Electronic Design; James A. Lippke, Managing
22. "The first statement above would express our policy
if the word "should" in the statement were changed to
"may." ,Our mission is purely technical, but we are
willing to consider "social" material. In practice, "social"
material appears only very infrequently in Proceedings
of the IRE."
- Proceedings of the IRE; E. K. Gannett, Managing
23. "Since Radio & TV News is a technical publication,
our prime interest is in the presentation of technical
facts. We do not overlook the social responsibilities;
and if at any time there is something important along
these lines, we would cover it in our monthly editorial."
-Radio & TV News; W. A. Stocklin, Editor

24. "We lean toward the first hypothesis. At the same
time, we do believe that any scientific development can
be used in a good or bad manner; and it follows from
this that the scientists' responsibility in evaluating this
is not much greater than the average citizen. Such questions are philosophical and should be aired by philosophers but finally determined by the citizenry. Thus, we
view the scientist as an expert witness and a citizen, and
not an evangelist, or arbiter."
- Petroleum Refiner; George B. Gibbs, Editor
25. "In general, the second viewpoint stated above fits our
editorial policy more closely, except that we will not
arbitrarily exclude from any consideration the discussion of social implications. We just don't plan to start
crusading on the subject. While we are primarily a
technical journal, we are also a professional journal,
and we do quite actively get into the professional aspects of the engineers' life and work, which sometimes involves relations with the public."
- Machine Design; Colin Carmichael, Editor
26. "This is purely a technical journal. The only exception to this can be on the editorial page, where attention has occasionally been called to the social responsibility of scientists."
~ Journal of the Electrochemical Society; Cecil V.
King, Editor
27. "As a business publication, the Oil and Gas Journal has
kept its readers well abreast of the technical and economic aspects of computer and automation applications.
The impact of these new techniques on petroleum is
still so new that we see no serious social problems to
date. Wherever computers and instrument controls have
been applied, they have for the most part improved productivity and their benefits have accrued to both management and labor. If we should determine, however,
that unemploym~nt threatened from these new uses, we
would feel called upon to discuss them editorially."
- The Oil and Gas Journal; George H. Weber, Editor
28. "Your letter and questionnaire of Sept. 18 are not easy
t0' answer - they're like trying to decide the morality
of war! Speaking for Metlfax, we have no formalized
editorial policy regarding, as you put it, the social responsibility of scientists. We're a monthly directed to
manufacturing people. We publish brief articles about
weapons, but we do it by mentioning first and foremost
the processes involved in manufacturing the product,
not. the weapons themselves. Indirectly, we imply that
such manufacturing techniques are feasible for consumer
. products as well as fierce weapon systems. None of us
can forget weapons completely, however. It's only
right that we be prepared to defend our people if the
need arises. Of course, we cannot be certain either, 'that
all the test firings, etc., are defensive or offensive. We're
faced with a dilemma, and 1'm afraid few editors - or
few scientists, or few statesmen - have sufficient reasonable facts to decide the case for once and for all. On
the other hand, if we preach too much about the evils
of weapons, we may end up with an overflow of good
scientists and engineers who've become scrupulous regarding such things, and who are no good to themselves or our country. Another dilemma. I doubt that
these ramblings will add percentage points to either the
pro or the con side of your survey findings; in my own
mind I cannot see how anyone can settle the question
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

statistically. I'll be anxious to see a complete report of
your findings."
- Metlfax Magazine; Carol E. Reuss (Miss), Editor
29. "We have little occasion to deal with this topic, since
we are primarily a business management magazine concerned with specific trends and problems of industry.
We do not, however, have any editorial taboos in this
area. Would not deliberately avoid discussion and argument where pertinent to our interests:"
- Dun's Review & Modern Industry; Roland Mann,
Assoc. Editor
30. "No paper has been submitted to the Journal of the
Association for Computing Machinery so far on the social aspects of computers, and no definite policy is in
existence. Were such a paper submitted, it would, I
believe, be judged on its merits, and if outstanding in
many aspects it would be accepted. It is fair to say,
however, that probably a lot higher standards would be
applied to it than to the usual technical paper. I am
also inclined to believe it would be sent to Communications rather than the JACM, as being more appropriate
- Journal of Association for Computing Machinery;
R. W. Hamming, Editor


31. "Since the bulk of our editorial matter is the publication of technical talks given before the chapters of the
A.S.M., we cover social responsibilities only in-so-far as
they might be brought out in such talks."
- Metals Review; Betty A. Bryan, Editor
32. "The American Chemist Society has another magazine, Chemical and Engineering News, which is the one
which can discuss the soCial implications of science."
- Analytical Chemistry; Robert G. Gibbs, Managing
33. "Our magazine deals strictly with product news. Thus,
we do not 'take a stand' one way or the other on this
- Electrical Equipment; E. C. Mead, Editor
34. "Ours is more a product information news service
than it is a standard trade publication. There isn't much
we can say to your questionnaire. Perhaps the best way
to answer it is to send you a copy of the paper which
you will find enclosed."
-Industrial Equipment News; J. W. Moss, Mng.
35. "Our editorial material is devoted almost exclusively to
mass production metalworking. We deal but little with
pure research-rather with how products are produced
and the plants that produce them. The subjects above
are normally outside the scope of our editorial material."
- Production; Albert J. Taylor, Exec. Editor
36. "No - This magazine is the official publication of the
Society for ....., a non-profit engineering society, controlled by lethargic lizards in a sinecure, men afraid of
contre versy - whether social, ethical, or moral (this of
course is my personal view). GOOD LUCK!"
- name omitted for obvious reasons

37. "No-While our publication realizes that there are
social implications of the work that scientists and engineers in our field do, we feel that a technical magaCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

zine such as ours should stick strictly to the technical aspects of the job, in our case the design engineering of
all types of electrically operated and electronic machines,
equipment and appliances. We leave to the general
magazines and those dealing with philosophy and religion man's responsibility as a social being."
- Electrical Manufacturing; Frank J. Oliver, Editor
38. "No - Wire and Wire Products is only interested
in publishing news items and articles that bear directly
upon the interests of those wire mill personnel concerned with management and production problems.
Computers and automation are having the attention of
the industry and great strides have been made in the
development of production controls and automated
processes. General information, not applied to the
production of wire and wire products, is of no practical value to our readers."
- Wire and Wire Products; Edmund D. Sickels,
39. "No - Our readers are on the executive level and
are interested primarily in the significant facts and
data on new developments in the industrial fields of
our editorial coverage. Given the facts, they are capable of forming their own opinions."
- Automotive Industries; James R. Custer, Editor
40. "No - Such discussion should properly be left to
journals of opinion - Harper's, Atlantic, Commonweal, Saturday Review, etc. Of course the responsibility of scientists is equal to - but no greater than
- that of other intelligent citizens such as doctors,

Our rapidly expanding research program has a
challenging position open for an experienced and
well-qualified individual to work in the field of Applied Mathematics and in the development and application of digital computer techniques to such
problems. Active programs include special problems
relating to missiles, submarines, propulsion, solid and
fluid mechanics, a wide variety of industrial activities,
etc., and are carried out in our Departments of Engineering Mechanics, Physics, Chemistry, Electrical
Engineering, and Fuels and Lubricants.

If you are experienced in Applied 11athematics and
numerical analysis/digital computer work, and seek
the opportunity of working on a diversity of industrial and military problems in both fundamental
and applied fields, write to:

8500 Culebra Road
San Antonio 6, Texas


lawyers, or businessmen. I deplore atteIIlpLs to maKe
them seem wiser."
- Chemical Week; Howard W. Johnson, Editor-inChief
41. "No - It is the AlEE's policy to stay away from all
such controversial forums and all commercialism."
- Electrical Engineering; G. C. B. Rowe, Assoc. Editor
42. "No - This policy is established by the Publisher,
not the Editor, of the publication."
- Instruments & Automation; M. Aronson, Editor
43. "No - We are purely an industrial magazine, serving the practica~ plant needs of production and maintenance engineers. We cover only plant problems relating to their daily work."
- Mill & Factory; Carl C. Harrington, Editor
44. "No - This Journal is devoted exclusively to technical descriptions of scientific instruments and the
theory underlying their design. We do not publish
so-called 'News' items so that articles on social implications of science would be quite out of place."
- The Review of Scientific Instruments; J. B. H.
Kuper, Editor
45. "No"
- Foundry; Frank G. Steinebach, Editor
46. "No"
- Products Finishing; Ezra A. Blount, Editor
47. "No"
- Metalworking; H. S. Wharen, Mng. Ed.
48. "No"
- Iron & Steel Engineer; T. J. Ess, Editor
49. "No -Automatic Machining magazine, serving the
automated metalworking field, has for the past 20 years
been dedicated to expounding and promoting every
phase of automation as it applies to the plants we
As to the impact of Sputnik, and similar innovations, we have no direct coverage for such matters,
and hence little editorial interest.
Automation began with the wheel, and has advanced steadily ever since. It is here to stay, and a
discussion of whether it is good or bad sociologically would be purely academic. Our aim is to keep
our readers informed of new developments which
can help them make more parts in less time, with less
effort, and more profit.

We are more concerned with what we consider to
be a major shift in consumer buying preference. If
our findings are correct, the American public is rapidly revising its thinking as to what should be the mostwanted prestige item. The automobile, for instance,
may be losing ground to a desire for home improvements, recreational facilities, and security savings. To
this end we advise our readers to keep their production facilities flexible, and to remain ready to shift
quickly into other production items as the buyer
changes his mind.
The engineer, in our book, is a devoted man whose
sole aim is to help his plant produce more, and thus
enrich the standard of living for mankind."
- Automatic Machining; Donald E. Wood, Technical Editor

The policy of Computers and Automation is to present
articles, papers, discussion, and argument in regard to
the social responsibilities of computer scientists and engineers, in an appropriate way, and as an integral and
important part of our coverage of our field: "computers
and data processors, and their applications and implications including automation."
During the discussion printed in our pages from time
to time over the past year, we have become convinced
that the "ivory-towerness" of "science for science' sake"
or "technology for technology'S sake" must inevitably
give way to the goals "science for humanity'S sake" and
"technology in the service of human beings." Accordingly, the responsibility of scientists is not only to do good
work in the near-at-hand field of their employer's and
profession's interests but also in the broader field of the
interests of their country and the whole world. This is
the same kind of responsibility that all human beings
have - but a scientist or engineer has special knowledge
and perhaps special wisdom, and so has a special opportunity to be a help or a hindrance in the social applications of his science, and a special duty to be informed
and to spread information. The information area is particularly where a magazine can be of assistance.
We should be very glad to hear from other technical
and trade magazines what their editorial policy is in this

Obsolete-At Age 29
M. D. Witty
Witty-Polon Management Consultants
New York, N. Y.
Since the Korean war the United States has been
fighting a "cold war" that has made demands upon industry in the United States for advanced development
in military electronics that ordinarily, within normal
times, would have taken twenty years to achieve. Daily,
today's machines are making yesterday's machines obsolete. Today's components are advances on yesterday'S.
As electronic equipment comes off the production line,
new advances are simultaneously on the drawing board,

making present equipment obsolete. Every important
company today has an advanced theory department
tucked away in special laboratories with engineers and
scientists who are the dreamers of tomorrow.
We recently made a survey of the computer industry
which shows that, among 78 companies competing in
the manufacture of computers and computer systems,
the race is on. The price: the best brains in the country
assigned to component areas. The objectives: simplifiCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

cation of systems and components, increased memory
storage, faster data processing, greater reliability, greater adaptability for special purposes, smaller machines
through miniaturization.
In order to achieve these purposes the most brilliant
young engineers in the country are selected, many at
the graduate school level, trained broadly for a year or
two and then assigned to development work in highly
specialized component and systems areas. It appears to
us that there are at present approximately 46,000 engineers in the computer industry and in electronics related to it. The greatest number of these men are electronic engineers. We estimate that last year approximately 6% of these engineers became obsolete! These young
men, ranging in age between 29 and 34, with Master's
and Doctorate degrees in electronics, had been selected
because of their superior abilities, to work in highly
specialized computer areas.
During a recent search for engineering specialists in
the $300,000,000 computer field we found the following case histories:
One brilliant young engineer, 29 years old, with a
Master's degree from MIT in electronics, working for a
leading computer manufacturer for five years, currently
earning ~ salary of $10,000, is faced with the problem of
obsolescence within his present company. The first year
he was assigned to general computer circuits areas. The
second year he was assigned to a specific project, a large
computer. During this year he showed great interest
and ability in a specialized component area, and so, at
the beginning of his third year he was assigned to this
area where he showed such great promise. During the

following two years he became expert in the knowledge
and application of this component. He was so proficient
that he became leader of the group.
Recently, he was called into a staff meeting where he
was introduced, for the first time, to a new component
developed by a small electronics component company.
This new component will replace the whole sphere of
work in which he has spent three years in development.
In essence, the need for his special skills has disappeared.
The problem now was what to do with this brilliant
young man at the $10,000 a year level. From the company's point of view, he is too expensive to retrain and
too young for management.
During an interview with another young computer
engineer, a problem of even greater scope came to light.
He told us of his anxiety over the future in relation to
his current position, the area in which he has spent four
and one-half years of concentrated work in specific circuit design.
Three desks away from this young man is an engineer working on automatic implementation of computer
logic. Implementation is the process of fitting specific
circuits to computer logic. The young engineer who was
interviewed stated that he was presently working on
tedious and lengthy hand calculations of logic relating
to transistor circuits. His associate engineer, three desks
away, is working on methods that will make a computer
perform the calculations he is currently doing. He realized that the work it takes him a month to perform will,
in a short time, be reduced to a single day's work using
machine programming. Now, he too fears becoming
obsolete - at 31! And he is only one of a group of 22
men working on the same project.




The Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Products Company is forming a group which
will be responsible for preparing programs for RW -300 Digital Control Computers employed in the real-time control of industrial processes, especially in
the petroleum and chemical industries. The preparation of such programs
raises a number of challenging problems, and requires that the persons
involved become familiar with this new and rapidly expanding application of
digital computers. This group will be responsible not only for setting up
process control problems but also for building a library of subroutines and
for organizing calculations involved in the design of computer process control systems.
Openings exist at all levels, including the group manager, who should have a
degree in mathematics and several years' experience in digital computer
Those interested are invited to write: Director of Engineering


COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


The computer industry is growing rapidly month by
month. The need for special purpose computers increases
daily, not only in the commercial field but in the rapidl}
expanding area of military electronics where time and
reliability are very important. Mammoth amounts of
calculations are necessary to find workable electronic
circuits, chemical formulas for fuels, solutions to problems of the resistance of metals to heat, etc.
We estimate that in 1954 there were approximately
50 companies who could have used a computer; but today there are over 1700 computers in commercial and
military use, and well over 3,000 computers on order.
There is currently a critical need for engineers and

scientists in the computer industry primarily for military applications. Thousands of engineers and scientists
could be converted successfully into the computer industry, but these men have heard many stories of other
young men who are obsolete and are becoming obsolete
at 29. They are most reluctant, though interested in
changing positions, to enter the computer field. We
predict that the next year will prove to be a peculiarly
difficult time to recruit both college graduates and convertible engineers and scientists into the computer industry, unless the industry sets up a program to prevent obsolescence of critically needed engineers and

Symbolic Logic

Automatic Computers


Edmund C. Berkeley
(Based on two chapters in a forthcoming book "Symbolic Logic and Intelligent
Machines," to be published in 1959 by Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York)
(Continued from the November issue, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 20)

A third branch of symbolic logic is called the algebra
of relations. This deals with such concepts as symmetric
relations, transitive relations, connected relations, series, etc.
Still another branch of symbolic logic deals with what
are called decisi01~ problems, that is, finding effective computational procedures for deciding the truth or falsity of
whole classes of statements. Symbolic logicians have investigated the problem of proving statements in any mathematical system. These studies have produced some remarkable results. For example, it can be shown that there
are classes of statements in arithmetic, and in other mathematical \systems, that can never be decided as true or false,
in this sense: it can be shown that there exists no effective
computational procedure for deciding them. (See "Computability and Unsolvability" by Martin Davis, McGraw
Hill Book Co., New York, 1958.)
7. An Illustrative Context
To make clear the specific ideas of symbolic logic (in
an area wider and deeper than Boolean algebra), and show
how they apply and how powerful they are, we shall
choose an illustrative context, which is not mathematical,
and which in fact belongs in the common everyday experience of all people: the context of family relationships.
Within this context we can show how these relationships
can be described using two kinds of words: words which
belong specifically to the field of family relationships (we
can call them brick" words); and words which are completely general and belong in symbolic logic (we can call
them cementJ) words).
Problem 1: Define "father" in terms of "parent" and
"male," and separate between the brick words and the
cement words,
Soltttion: Definition: A person is the father of another
person if and only if he is male and is the parent of that
other person.
Separating the two kinds of words, we have:
(a) Words which belong in the field of family relaI'



tionships (brick words): person, father, male, parent;
(b ) Words which belong in the field of symbolic logic
(cement words): A . . .. is the . . . . of another . . . . if
and only if it (we replace "he" by "it" to avoid the idea
of animateness) is .... and is the .... of that other .....
Problem 2: Express "uncle" in terms of "parent" and
Solution: First, we shall define "brother."
Definition: A person is a brother of another person if
and only if he is male and there is somebody who is a
parent of both of them.
Brick words (words which belong to family relationships): person, brother, male, body, parent.
Cement words (words which belong to symbolic logic) :
A . . . . is a . . . . of another . . . . if and only if it is
. . . . and there is some . . . . which is a . . . . of both
of them. (We must change "who" to "which" so as not
to imply animateness.)
Second, having defined "brother," let us define "uncle."
Definition: A person is an uncle of another person if
and only if he is a brother of a parent of that other person.
Brick words: person, uncle, male, brother, parent.
Cement words: A.... is a . . . . of another . . . .
if and only if it is a . . . . of a . . . . of that other .....
8. Things, or Elements
Now, we need to get rid of some of the shapelessness
of these patterns of logical words, because of their blanks.
We need to take out the blanks and put in the most general ideas that are implied by the blanks.
To help us in this process, and enable us to imagine the
ideas a little better, let us use "thing" instead of "person."
(Actually "entity" or "element" or "individual" would be
a better word, in the sense of being more correct technically, because we intend to designate nonphysical things
also; but "thing" is a comfortable everyday kind of word,
and is not an un'reasonable choice.)
Also, let us use capital letters F, M, P, B, U to take the
place of words "father, male, parent, brother, uncle," while
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

we try to imagine the kinds of still more general ideas that
are needed in place of these letters.
With these changes, our three statements become:
Statement 1: A thing is the F of another thing if and
only if it (the first-mentioned thing) is M, and is a P of
that other thing (the second-mentioned thing).
Statement 2: A thing is a B of another thing if and only
if it is M and there exists something which is a P of both
of them.
Statement 3: A thing is a U of another thing if and
only if it is a B of a P of that other thing.
We can now begin to see some of the basic ideas of symbolic logic emerging. What these are we shall now try to
9. A. . . . , Another . . . . , Still Another . . . .
In order to talk about the things in some class or collection, we often use some scheme for identifying them one
after another, naming them off, and referring to them
briefly. This is a process or scheme which belongs to the
field of symbolic logic. The need for brief reference to previously mentioned things is recognized in the grammar
of natural language, where the pronottns "he, she, it, they"
(or similar words in other languages than English), are
used to refer to previously mentioned things. But in English, the grammar of natural language mixes up thoroughly
the logical need for clear designation of previously mentioned things with an unrelated need to specify sex (masculine, feminine, common, or neutcr) and number (singular, plural).
In the context of symbolic logic, we are not concerned
with sex, grammatical or otherwise. Also, in the context of
symbolic log~c, we are ordinarily only slightly interested in
the difference between singular and plural, although every
now and then we find it necessary or desirable in symbolic
logic to distinguish between one and more than one.
The translation of "a . . . . , another . . . . , still another . . . ." into symbolic logic can be done in several
ways. One way, which is ordinarily not useful in symbolic
logic, is to use different letters: as in: "a thing x, another
thing y, still another thing z." ( We shall not use italic type,
so as to make typewriter type acceptable.) A second way
is to use subscripts as in: "a thing Xl, another thing X2,
still another thing X3, X4, X5, . . • •" A third way is to use
no mark for the first-mentioned thing, a prime (') for
the second-mentioned thing, a second mark (") for the
third-mentioned thing: as in, x, x' (read "x prime"), x"
(read "x second"). If in a discussion, we do not talk of
more than three things in a class, this method is rather
Note that in all these cases these symbols may include
the case where another thing x' turns out to be the same
as a first thing x; for instance, there will be some occasions
where a rule becomes much more general because this case
x = x' is not prohibited by the scheme of designating.
10. Properties, Characteristics, Kinds, Sorts
In regard to anything that we talk about, we often make
statements telling what properties it has, what characteristics it has, what kind of a thing it is, what sort of a thing
it is. For example, "it is male," "it is a father," "it is an
uncle," "it is savage," "it is a savage." Note how a proper!"f
may be grammatically a noun or an adjective.
For designating a property or a class, we shall in general
use the capital letter K (the first letter of "kind" and of
the German word "Klasse" for class).
x K stands for "x has the property K."
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

xfK stands for "x is in the class K," "x is a member of K."
Some of the time we think of the property K "being male,
having maleness, being a male, being a father, being in
fatherhood." At other times we think of the class K
"males," "fathers," the group or collection or set of all thing;)
which have a stated property. Although the two ideas of
property or class are often basically the same, x K and
x f K are two different but largely interchangeable ways
used in symbolic logic for expressing this same basic idea.
11. Relations
Also, in regard to anything that we talk about, we often
make statements telling what relations it has to other
things, what connections or associations it has with other
things. For example: x is an F of x', x if a P of x', x is
a brother of x', x has the same father as x'. Any statement
which mentions two things and asserts some kind of association or connection between them is a statement expressing a relation.
For designating a relation, we shall in general use the
capital letter R (the first letter of the word "relation").
x R x' means "x has the relation R to x'."
\Y/ e can think of x,x' (read "x comma x prime") as constituting an ordered pair, or an ordered cottple, or dyad,
and then say, if we wish, x,x' f R. This means "the ordered
pair x,x' is a member of R." On such occasions we think
of the relation R as a class of ordered pairs of elements.
For example, suppose we think of the relation "opposite
to" and the four points of the compass "north (N), east
(E), south (S), west (W)."
The class of N, E, S, W, standing for the four points or
the compass contains four elements. From these we can
make 16 ordered pairs:
N, E
E, E
S, E
W, E
N, S
E, S
N, W
E, W
S, W
Of these 16 only four are in the relation "opposite to,"
N, S
S, N
E, W
W, E
The other 12 ordered pairs are in the relation "not opposite to."
For a relation to be completely stated, more than two
terms may have to be mentioned. For example, betweenness is a relation with three terms: for example, "New
Haven is between Boston and New York." Betweenness is
a class of ordered triples, a triadic relation. For another
example, exchange is a relation of four terms: "exchange
by somebody of something with somebody else for something else." Exchange is therefore essentially a class at
ordered quadruples, ordered sets of four elements, a tetradic
12. Statements, Sentences, Assertions, Propositions
One of the most basic ideas of symbolic logic is the idea
of a statement (sentence, assertion, proposition). In general a statement is an expression which can be true or false.
For example: "Jack has had measles," "x is male," "the
connection between point A and B is broken."
For designating a statement we shall in general use the
letter S.
A statement has a truth value, which is "true" or "ves"
or checkmark (v) or T or 1 if it is true, and "false;' or
"no" or cross (x) or F or 0 if it is false. We write:
T ( S ) = the truth value of the statement S, which is
T if S is true, F if S is false.
[To be continued]


Computing Services
Neil Macdonald
Assistant Editor
Computers a~d Automation

The most stimulating marketing
challenge of tomorrow ..• with
outstanding financial rewards and
personal satisfactions today! This is
the fascinating field of electronic data
processing systems, where dynamic
advances are being made by the
ElectroData Division of Burroughs
Corporation. Here in a Southern
California setting, as well as in other
areas of the country, our creative
staff deals with the marketing
challenge of today's EDP systems and
gives direction to the electronic
equipment of the future. Sense the
challenge? It can be yours. We have
openings of major responsibility
for people who have grown with the
data processing field - who thoroughly
understand computers and their
application to scientific and
business problems:
Mathematicians, Applied -Scientists,
Product Planning and Applications
Analysts, Applied Programmers,
and others who are specialists in this
growing field. For complete details,
contact your local ElectroData district
or regional office-or write to
Professional Personnel Director in
Pasadena, address below.

Burroughs Corpora.tlon

'WE" DIMENSIONS/in electronics and data pr~ JYSkIIII"


This supplement provides some
more entries to be added to the 40
entries published in the July and
September issues.
The editors will be glad to receive
additional entries so that the "Computing Services Survey" may be made
still more complete and brought up
to date in future issues of Computers
and Automation.. The reply form
(which may be copied on any piece
of paper) follows:
1. Brief description of the quantity
and types of computing machines
and equipment which you have - ...

2. Brief description of the types of
computing problems which you specialize in ................................................................... ..

3. Number of employees......................... ..
4. Year established ....................... .
5. Any remarks? (attach paper if
needed) ...................................................

General Electric Co., Electric Utility
Engrg Section, Schenectady, N.Y. /
EQPM: Digital; IBM 704, IBM
650. Analog: AC Network Analyzer, DC Network Analyzer,
Transient Network Analyzer, electronic differential analyzer /
PROB: electric power system planning and operating, electric utility problems, industrial engineering problems; programming services / ?s ?e / not restricted as to
General Electric Co., Flight Propulsion Laboratory, (a) 950 Western
Ave., Lynn, Mass. and also (b)
Evendale Plant, Cincinnati 15,
Ohio / EQPM: IBM 704 with
32,768 words of core storage, cathode ray display, ten on-line tapes,
etc., and full complement of peripheral equipment. Also conventional punch card supporting
equipment. 704 program for simulation of IBM. 650 available /
PROB: aerodynamics, thermodynamics, engine performance, mechanical design and analysis, diffusion, heat transfer, business systems, automatic processing of test
data, mechanical systems, engineering systems, special problems on

h .................. .

Filled in by........................... Title ...................... ..
Organization ....................................................... ..
Address ...................................................................... ..
When this is completed, please send
it with your literature to
Computers and Automation
815 Washington Street
Newtonville 60, Mass.
Each entry is in the form : Name
and address of organization/EQPM:
Brief description of quantity and
types of computing machines and
equipment which organization has
/ PROB: Types of computing problems which the organization specializes in / Number of employees, Year
established. Abbreviations: s -size
in number of employees, e - year
established, S - small or short time
ago, M - medium, L -large or
long time ago.
General Electric Co., Computer Department, Phoenix, Ariz. / EQPM:
IBM 704 / PROB: all types /
Ms(150) Se(1957) / not restricted
as to users






Used 14 months by Sun Oil Com·
pany, this equipment is offered for
sale at $30,000. Contact Computer
Sales Department, 6000 Camp
Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth 16, Texas.
Or call
TA 4·5854 • Dallas
PE 8·6505 • Ft. Worth

Computing - Consulting - Data Processing
Data Reduction - Research & Development

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

computer techniques and development, traj ectory analysis, missile
analysis, information retrieval,
production scheduling, general
mathematical applications. Programming services available / Ms
(86) Se(1951) / not restricted as
to users
University of Kentucky, Computing
Center, Lexington, Ky. / EQPM:
IBM 650 and peripheral equipment / PROB: research, educational / ?s Se(1958)


60 employees

Reg. Patent Agent
Ford Inst. Co., Div. of Sperry Rand Corp.
Long Island City 1, New York

HE fol1owin~ i~ a compilation of
patents pertalrung to computers
and associated equipment from the
"Official Gazette of the United
States Patent Office," dates of issue
as indicated. Each entry consists of:
patent number / inventor(s) / assignee / invention. Printed copies
of patents may be obtained from the
U.S. Commissioner of Patents, Washington 25, D.C., at a cost of 25
cents each.


March 11, 1958 (cont'd):
2,826,359 I William J. Deerhake, Dumont, Charles R. Borders, Alpine, and
Byron L. Havens, Closter, N.]. I International Business Machines Corp.,
New York, N.Y. I A checking circuit
for use in conjunction with a storage
device having stored therein a plurality
of binary bits of information.
2,826,366 I Natale Capeliaro, Ivrea,
Italy lIng. C Olivetti & C, S. p.A.,
Ivrea, Italy I A transfer mechanism
for computing machines.
2,826,715 I Frederic C Williams, Timperley, Tom Kilburn, Danghulme,
Manchester, and Hubert J. Crawley,
London, Eng. I National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. I A
method of electronic storage of numerical information.
March 18, 1958: 2,827,233 I Walter C
Johnson, Summit, and John G. Rtyon,
Chatham, N.J. I Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. I A
digital to analog converter.
2,827,602 I Robert B. Horsfall, Jr., and
Henry R. Brown, Jr., Whittier, Calif.,
and George K. Turner, Huntsville, Ala.
I North American Aviation, Inc. I An
electro - mechanical shaft positioning
2,827,626 I Frank E. De Motte, New
Vernon, N.J. I Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. I An
electromagnetic device for converting
binary electrical signals into decimal


learned to use the


The California Department of Water Resources is
preparing aggressively to meet the future demands of a
rapidly expanding population. For example, digital electronic
computers are speeding solution to complex water
conservation problems. The general purpose Bendix G-15
proved so easy to use that 60 employees have been
taught to solve a wide range of problems on it. Although
most of these people had no prior computer experience, they
were writing programs after just four hours of training.
G-lS ADVANTAGES Memory and speed of computers
costing four times as much • Typewriter input-output,
paper tape output and 250 char/sec paper tape input at no
added cost· 1,200,000 words of magnetic tape memory
available' Punch card input-output available • Extensive
library of programs furnished' Strong users' sharing
organization' Proven reliability· Nationwide sales and
service' Lease or purchase



Built and backed by Bendix. the G-15 is serving
scores of progressive businesses. large and
small. throughout the world. For the details,
write to Bendix Computer, Department D-3a
Los Angeles 45. California.

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


now. • •


tested memory cores
for transistorized memory circuits
made of Ferroxcube 681 material, is designed for
transistorized memory circuits and has unusually low
driving current requirements. Its switching time is 2
microseconds with a current of 450 rna. at 40°C. It
can be furnished in complete arrays, such as the
1 0 by 1 0 memory array illustrated above, and it is
delivered 100% tested to guaranteed specifications.
Requests for complete data on test conditions and
guaranteed properties should be addressed to:

62A East Bridge Street, Saugerties, New York


of ferrite cores for recording heads, magnetic memories, TV flyback transformers,
pulse transformers, filters, inductors, high frequency shields and power transformers.


March 25, 1958: 2,828,070 / David M.
Boyd, Jr., Clarendon Hills, Ill. / Universal Oil Products Co., Des Plaines,
Ill. / An electric computer.
2,828,071 / Everett T. Burton, Milburn,
N.J. / Bell Telephone Laboratories,
Inc., New York, N.Y. / A selectable
base counter.
2,828,418 / Lorin Knight and Alec Trussell, Letchworth, Eng. / British Tabulating Machine Co., Lim., London,
Eng. / A data storage device.
2,828,456 / Lawrence J. Kamm, Forest
Hills, N.Y. / Sperry Products, Inc.,
Danbury, Conn. / A servomechanism
having a final output and a data input
having a coarse part and a fine part.
April 1, 1958: 2,828,910 / Jacques Fagot,
Paris, Fr. / Compagnie Generale de
Telegraphie Sans Fil, Paris, Fr. /
An electronic pulse-counting system
adapted to indicate a plurality of digits
each capable of assuming n different
numerical values.
2,829,323 / Floyd G. Steele, La Jolla,
Calif. / Digital Control Systems, Inc.,
La Jolla, Calif. / A rate digital control
April 8, 1958: 2,829,822 / Eugene E.
Reynolds, Richmond, Calif. / Marchant Calculators, Inc., Calif. / A binary
value calculator for the selective performance of division or multiplication
in the binary system.
2,829,824 / Nick A. Schuster, Houston,
Texas / Schlumberger Well Surveying
Corp., Houston, Texas / An automatic
computing apparatus.
2,829,825 / Henri-Georges Doll, Ridgefield, Conn. / Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., Houston, Texas / An
automatic computing apparatus.
2,829,827 / Carl A. Bergfors, San Jose,
Calif. / International Business Machine Corp., New York, N.Y. / An
electronic multiplying machine.
2,829,828 / Frank J. Hollenbach, Hollis,
N.Y. / Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp., New York, N.Y. / A
computing apparatus for determining
the square root of the sum of the
squares of a plurality of quantities.
2,830,242 / Horace E. Darling, North
Attleboro, Mass. / The Foxboro Company, Foxboro, Mass. / A servo system
measuring apparatus.
April 15, 1958: 2,830,758 / Paul F. M.
Gloess, Paris, Fr. / Societe d'Electronique et d' Automatisme, Courbevoie,
Seine, Fr. / A binary to decimal conversion system.
2,830,759 / Ellis Hudes, and Waldemar
Saeger, Gloucester, N.J. / Radio Corp.
of America, Del. / A data handling
2,831,150 / Esmond P. G. Wright, Joseph
Rice, and Ray C. Orford, London,
Eng. / International Standard Electric
Corp., New York, N.Y. / An electrical information storage circuit.
April 22, 1958 to June 17, 1958 (portion) : published in the November,
1958, issue, pp. 28-30
June 17, 1958 (cont'd.):
2,839,705 / Gerald R. Paul, Webster,
N.Y. / General Dynamics Corp., Rochester, N.Y. / A binary pulse counting

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958

2,839,727 / John C. Lozier, Short Hills,
N.J. / Bell Telephone Lab. Inc., New
York, N.Y. / An encoder for pulse
code modulation.
2,839,728 / Donald L. Jacoby, Elberon,
Bernard J. Keigher, Shrewsbury, and
Alfred Mack, Little Silver, N.J. /
U.S.A. as represented by the Seetetary
of the Army / A pulse code modulation system.
2,839,740 / John W. Haanstra, San Jose,
Calif. / International Business Machines Corp., New York, N.Y. / An
analog-to-digi tal converter.
2,839,744 / George M. Slocomb, Altadena, Calif. / Consolidate'd Electrodynamics Corp., Pasadena, Calif. / A
non-linear analog-to-digital converter.
June 24, 1958: 2,840,304 / Frederic C.
\Villiams, Timpedey, Tom Kilburn,
Manchester, Geoffrey C. Tootill, Swindon, and Brian W. Pollard, Hollinwood. Eng., and Gordon E. Thomas,
Port Talbot, and David B. Edwards,
Pontypridd, Wales / National Research Development Corp., London,
Eng. / Data storage arrangements for
electronic digital computing machines.
2,840,305 / Frederic C. Williams, Timperley, Tom Kilburn, Manchester,
Geoffrey C. Toothill, Swindon, and
Brian W. Pollard, Hollinwood, Eng.
National Research Development
Corp., London, Eng. / Rhythm Control
means for electronic digital computing
2,840,306 / Floyd G. Steele, La Jolla,
Calif. / Digital Control Systems, Inc.,
a Corp. of Calif. / Di-function multiplexers and multipliers.
2,840,307 / Willis S. Campbell, Gaithersburg, Md. / - / A dynamic multip lier circuit.
2,840,308 / Thomas B. Van Horne, Culver City, Calif. / Hughes Aircraft Co.,
Culver City, Calif. / An electronic.
2,840.309 / John M. Hunt, Binghamton,
N.Y. / Link Aviation Inc., Binghamton, N.Y. / A computer function generation.
2,840.709 / lohn V. Blankenbaker, Inglewood, Calif. / Hughes Aircraft Co.,
Culver City, Calif. / A frequency to
digital conversion.
2,840.798 / Frank Cooper and Harry
Malbon. Hollinwood, En~. / National
Research Development Corp., London,
Eng. / A magnetic stora~e system.
Julv 1. 1958: 2.841.328 / Floyd G. Steele,
Manhattan Beach, and Richard E.
Sprague and Bernard T. Wilson, Los
Angeles, Calif. / Northrup Aircraft
Inc., Hawthorne, Calif. / A digital differential analyzer.
2,841,332 / Sidney Lees, Newton, Mass. /
- / A torsional fourier transformer.
2,841,649 / Jacques M. Boisvieux, Gennevilliers, Fr. / Compagnie Francaise
Thomson-Houston, Paris, Fr. / A pulse
code modulation system.
2,841,707 / James M. McCulley, Barrington, N.J. / R.C.A., a Corp. of Delaware / An information handling system.
2,841,708 / Leonard R. Harper, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. / I.B.M. Corp., New
York, N.Y. / An electronic logical circuit.
2,841,719 / Arthur J. Radcliffe, Jr., La

with a standard multiple
purpose off-the-shelf drum
The 512-A Bryant general purpose magnetic storage drum meets
the exacting requirements of a production component, yet has the
versatility necessary for laboratory work. This standard 5" dia. x 12"
long drum is stocked for immediate shipment, complete with stand·
ard components such as general storage brackets, recirculating
register brackets and magnetic read/record heads. Its low price
reflects the benefits of Bryant's 25 years' experience in the efficient
design and production of high speed precision spindles.


Guaranteed accuracy of drum run-out, .00010" T.1. R. or less
Integral drive- Bryant precision motor (1200 to 12,000 R. P. M.)
Capacities to 625,000 bits
Accommodates up to 240 magnetic read/record heads
High density ground magnetic oxide coating
Super- precision ball bearing suspension
Vertical mounting for trouble free operation

Special Models: If your storage requirements cannot be
handled by standard units, Bryant will assist you in the
design and manufacture of custom - made drums. Speeds
from 60 to 120,000 R. P. M. can be attained, with frequencies
from 20 C. P. S. to 5 M. C. Sizes can range from 2" to 20"
diameter, with storage up to 6,000,000 bits. Units include
Bryant- built integral motors with ball or air bearings.
Write for Model 512-A booklet, or for special information.

Remember ... you can't beat a Bryant drum'

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


P. O. Box 620-'K, Springfield, Vermont, U.S.A.


Grange, Ill. '; International .Telephone
& Telegraph Corp., New York, N.Y. /

A diode gate and its control circuit.
2,841,720 / Jacob Tellerman, Brooklyn,
N.Y. I American Bosch Arma Corp.,
Brooklyn, N.Y. I A function shaping
July 8, 1958: 2,842,312 I Donald L.
Weeks, Dayton, Ohio / The National
Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio / A
card reading apparatus.
2,842,662 I Robert J. Williams, Berwyn,
Pa. I Burroughs Corp., Detroit, Mich.
I A flip-flop circuit.
2,842,663 I John Presper Eckert, Jr.,
Gladwyne, and Adelbert W. Reickord,
Drexel Hill, Pa. I Sperry Rand Corp.,
New York, N. Y. I A comparator.
2,842,754 I Hans P. Luhn, Armonk, N.Y.
I I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y. I A
magnetic storage device.
2,842,755 I Richard C. Lamy, Hyde Park,
N.Y. I I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y.
I A ternary magnetic storage device.
2,842,757 I James Evans, Flushing, N.Y.
I Teleregister Corp., Stamford, Conn. /
A system for data storage indexing.
July 15, 1958: 2,843,317 I William F.
Steagall, Merchantville, N.J. I Sperry
Rand Corp., New York, N.Y. I A
parallel adder for binary numbers.
2,843,318 I John W. Gray, Pleasantville,
N.Y. I General Precision Lab., Inc., a
Corp. of New York I An earth ellipticity corrector for dead reckoning
2,843,320 I Hamilton C. Chisholm, Richmond, Calif. / Beckman Instruments,
Inc., Fullerton, Calif. / A transistorized indicating decade counter.
2,843,761 I Arthur W. Carlson, Arlington, Mass. I U.S.A. as represented by
the Sec. of the Air Force / A high
speed transistor flip-flop.

2,843,837 I Samuel Thaler, Rome, N.Y.,
and Ernie R. Ruterman, Douglas, Ariz.
I U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of
the Air Force I A digital comparison
2,843,841 I Gilbert W. King, Pacific

Palisades,- Edwin L. Hughes, Los Angeles, George W. Brown, Pacific Palisades, and Louis N. Ridenour, Los
Angeles, Calif. I International Telemeter Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. I An
information storage system.

Positions are open for computer engineers capable of making significant contributions to
advanced computer technology. These positions
are in our new Research Center at Newport
Beach, California, overlooking the harbor and
the Pacific Ocean-an ideal place to live. These
are career opportunities for qualified engineers
in an intellect~al environment as stimulating as
·the physical surroundings are ideal. Qualified
applicants are invited to send resumes, or
inquiries, to Mr. L. T. Williams.
Positions Open:
Systems Engineers
Logical Designers
Circui t Engineers
Sales Engineers

Areas of Interest:
Computers &
Data Processors
Input/Output Equipment
Storage Units
Display Devices
Computer Components
Solid State Devices

a subsidiary 0/ Ford Motor Company
1234 Air Way • Bldg. 27, Glendale, Calif. • CHapman 5-6651

Following is the index of advertisements. Each item contains:
Name and address of the advertiser I page number where the
advertisement appears I name of agency if any.

Aeronutronic Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Ford Motor
Co., 1234 Air Way, Glendale, Calif. / Page 34 /
Honig, Cooper & Miner
Ampex Corp., 934 Charter St., Redwood City, Calif. /
Page 19 / Boland Associates
Arnold Engineering Co., Marengo, Ill. / Page 3 / W.
S. Walker Advertising, Inc.
Bendix Aviation Corp., Computer Div., 5630 Arbor
Vitae St., Los Angeles, Calif. / Page 31 / The
Shaw Co.
Bryant Chucking Grinder Co., Springfield, Vt. / Page
33 / Henry A. Loudon Advertising, Inc.
Datics Corp., 6000 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth 7,
Tex. / Page 30 / ElectroData, Div. of Burroughs Corp., 460 N. Sierra
Madre Villa, Pasadena, Calif. / Page 30 / Carson,
Roberts, Inc.
Electronic Associates, Int., Long Branch, N.J. / Page 7
/ Halsted & Van Vechten, Inc.


ESC Corp., 534 Bergen Blvd., Palisades Park, N.J. /
Page II/Keyes, Martin & Co.
Ferroxcube Corp. of America, E. Bridge St., Saugerties,
N.Y. / Page 32 / Sam Groden, Inc.
General Electric Co., Computer Capacitor Sales, Schenectady, N.Y. / Page 2 / G. M. Basford Co.
General Electric Co., Flight Propulsion Laboratory
Dept., 950 Western Ave., Lynn, Mass. / Page 23 /'
G. M. Basford Co.
Philco Corp., Government & Industrial Div., 4700 Wissahickon Ave., Philadelphia 44, Pa. / Page 15 / Maxwell Associates, Inc.
Radio Corp. of America, Semiconductor and Materials
Div., Somerville, N.J. / Page 36 / Al Paul Lefton Co.
The Ramo-Wooldridge Corp., Los Angeles 45, Calif. /
Page 5 / The McCarty Co.
Southwest Research Institute, 8500 Culebra Rd., San
Antonio 6, Tex. / Page 25 / Sylvania Electric Products Inc., 189 B St., Needham 94,
Mass. / Page 35 Deutsch & Shea, Inc.
Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Products Co., P.O. Box
45067, Airport Station, Los Angeles, Calif. / Page 27
/ The McCarty Co.
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


Why are so many
Comp'uter Engineers
moving to Boston?
Because - the top facilities, professional know-how and breakthrough achievements of Boston's industrial & institutional scientific laboratories are a continual attraction
to creative men from all over the country.


-Boston's universities provide faculty and resources
of unequalled calibre to men seeking professional
growth and advancement.


-Boston offers a wealth of entertainment and enjoyment to engineers and their families ... symphonies,
theatres, symposia, restaurants, fashionable shops that
add richness to the full life.

Because - Boston and its gracious suburbs border on ski trails,
sea coast, lakes, hills and forests that mean fun to the
lovers of outdoor recreation.

invites you to inquire about the unusual ground-floor opportunities now available in
this modern installation in suburban Boston, where some of the nation's
most sophisticated electronic equipment is now being developed.

§y-Ivanla's NEW Data Processing Laboratory


Circuit development and high
speed transistorized computers
and peripheral equipment.


Cabinet and plug-in package
deSign, van installations,
environmental testing of these
completely new computers.


(Previous digital data
processing experience
is important for most
assignments .J





Logical design of data
processing systems with
emphasis on transistorized
circuits and switching circuits.

Send your resume to Mr. Bruce Stryker

A Division 0/


189 B Street - Needham 94, Massachusetts

COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for December, 1958


These 3 New RCA
Low-Cost Comnuter Transistors
Can Open New Markets For You!
RCA now makes available low-cost high-quality transistors
fo r reliable performance in electronic computer applications !
• Can low-priced, highly-reliable
computer transistors help you expand into new markets?
• Can they enable you to profitably engage in the design of compact mass-produced computers?
• Are you looking for ways to revise your current designs to save

If the highly desirable combination
of reliable performance and low
cost have been difficult for you to
find, investigate these three new
RCA units: RCA-2N581 , RCA2N583, and RCA-2N585. They are
specifically designed, produced
and controlled for computer applications; life-tested for dependable
service; electrically uniform ;
available in commercial quantities; and are unusually low in price.
In addition to these three new
types, RCA offers a comprehensive
line of transistors for your most
critical computer designs. For additional information on RCA
Transistors, contact your local
authorized RCA D istributor or
your RCA Field Representative at
the office nearest you.
For technical data on R CA -Transistors, write RCA C ommerci<,ll
Engineering, Section L - 90 - NN,
Somerville, New Jersey.

Ty p ical
Frequen cy Me

Typic al
DC· Current Tra nsfer Ratio
Va lue at Co lle ctor Ma .

2N581' (p· n·p)


30 at - 20

- 100

2N583" (p·n·p)


30 at - 20


2N585' (n·p·n)


40 at + 20

+ 200

RCA Ty pe

Alpha. Cutoff

Ma ximum

Co llector Mo .

*Jetec TO · 9 Outline (formerl y referred to as Jet ec Size -Group 30 Cas e)
. .. Jetec TO·l Out line



744 Broad Street
Newark, N. J .
HUmboldt 5-3900
Suite 1154
Merchandise Mart Plaza
Chicago, III.
WHitehall 4-2900

6355 E. Washington Blvd.
Los Angeles, Calif.
RAymond 3-8361
GOV 'T : 224 N. Wilkinson Street
Dayton, Ohio
BAldwin 6-2366
1625 "K " Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.
DIstrict 7-1260

Semiconductor and Materials Division
Somer ville, New Jersey


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Page Mode                       : UseNone
Page Count                      : 36
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