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MARCH 1959 • VOL.8 - NO.3 Producing Magnetic Memory Cores Make Your Tabulating Department a Service Department A Survey of British Digital Computers The most serious of facts • "Power when wielded by abnormal energy is the most serious of facts," wrote Henry Adams in The Dynamo and the Virgin. One serious fact is the birth of the handful of power above: the early form of a transistor regulated power supply, developed by tech/ops, now in production, in sophisticated forms by tech/ops' subsidiary, Power Sources, Incorporated. Best suited for arduous requirements in applications demand.ing reliability under extreme operating conditions which force rejection of conventional power supply circuItry (such as guided missiles and other military space needs), this handful of power is also presently being used in television stations, as in a host of other applications. And it is another typical example of tech/ops' product capability and broad scientific research and development for business, industry, and government. personnel requirements at Fort Monroe, Virginia, or Burling ton, Massachusetts: Operations Analysts experienced in industrial or military operations research., systems analySiS. weapons systems evaluation, computer techniques, or related fields; training should be In mathematiCs or physical sciences, preferably on graduate level. at Washington, D. C.: Programmers With substantial experience In the de· velopment of large digital computer programs; background should include experience With design and application of assembly programs, compilers, and advanced programming concepts. at Monterey, Califomia: Communica· tions engineer or phYSicist thoroughly familiar with the principles of radio transmiSSion and communications net· work analYSIS. address: Robert L. Koller Technical Operations, Incorporated Central Research Laborataries / Burlington, Massachusetts • WASHINGTON, D.C •• MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA. FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 19~9 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION DATA PROCESSING Volume 8 Number 3 • CYBERNETICS • ROBOTS Established September 1951 MARCH, 1959 EDM UND C. BERKELEY H. JEFFERSON MILLs, JR. NEIL D. MACDONALD Editor Assistant Editor Assistant Editor SERVICE AND SALES DIRECTOR MILTON L. KAYE 535 Fifth Ave. MUrray Hill 2-4194 New York 17, N.Y. NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS 12 Computer Aids Research for Better Beef . c. J. BROWN 12 12 Crew less Vehicles Simulation of Consumers' Decisions C. JOSEPH CLAWSON 12 Automated Capitalism EDWARD G. BRENDER CONTRIBUTING EDITORS NEVA SABBAGH NED CHAPIN JOHN W. CARR, III ALSTON S. HOUSEHOLDER ADVISORY COMMITTEE MORTON M. ASTRAHAN HOWARD T. ENGSTROM GEORGE E. FORSYTHE RICHARD W. HAMMING ALSTON S. HOUSEHOLDER HERBERT F. MITCHELL, JR. SAMUEL B. WILLIAMS ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES Middle Atlantic States MILTON L. KAYE 535 Fifth Ave. New -Xork 17, N.Y. MUrray Hill 2-4194 San Francisco 5 A. S. BABCOCK 605 Market St. YUkon 2-3954 Los Angeles 5 439 S. Western Ave. W. F. GREEN DUnkirk 7-8135 Elsewhere THE PUBLISHER Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. DEcatur 2-5453 or 2-3928 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION is publisned monthly at 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass., by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. Printed in U.S.A. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: (United States) $5.50 for 1 year, $10.50 for 2 years; (Canada) $6.00 for 1 year, $11.50 for 2 years; (Foreign) $6.50 for 1 year, $12.50 for 2 years. Address all Editorial and Subscription Mail to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATIER at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. POSTMASTER: Please send all Forms 3579 to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., 815 Washingtor: St., Newtonville 60, Mass. Copyright, 1959, by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. CHANGE OF ADDRESS: If your address changes, please send us both your new address and your old address (as it appears on the magazine address imprint), and allow three weeks for the change to be made. 4 13 University Student Scheduling by Datatron ANDREW D. BOOTH FRONT COVER An In-Circuit Transistor Tester . .1, 6 ARTICLES Producing High-Performance Low-Cost Magnetic Memory Cores for an Expanding Digital Computer Mukct c. 9 L. SNYDER Make Your Tabulating Department a Service Department 16 EDMOND W. McNAMARA READERS' AND EDITOR'S FORUM Reaching Out By Scientists Into Other Fields . 6 CARMON C. BASORE Association for C'omputing Machinery Meeting, Sept. 1 to 3, 1959 - Call for Contributed Papers The Art of Getting Published JORDAN and VAN DEUS EN Correction Intensive Summer Courses Calendar of Coming Events REFERENCE INFORMATION Computer Talks: 1959 Western Joint Computer Conference Computer Talks: 1959 Electronic Components Conference Survey of Recent Articles . A Survey of British Digital Computers (Part 1) JOSEPH L. F. DE KERF New Patents . Who's Who in the Computer Field (Supplement) . INDEX OF NOTICES Advertising Index Back Copies . Bulk Subscriptions Computer Directory Manuscripts . Who's Who Entry Form. 6 11 15 . 31 31 14 15 20 25 32 31 38 33 33 37 37 36 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 In~ide ESC: Ntj,mber T".re~ \, .,.- '-" The men who represent ESC in the field are all top-flight technical people in their own right. Each is thoroughly conversant with the very latest developments in the fast-moving delay line field and each stands ready to apply the combined knowledge of the entire ESC organization to your particular problems. Whether you want advice on a standard delay line application, COMPONENTS SALES CORPORATION 218 East Hartsdale Avenue Hartsdale, New York SCarsdale 5-1050 New York State, New Jersey except Camden and Moorestown, Westchester County KAY SALES COMPANY 2600 Grand Avenue Kansas City 8, Missouri BAltimore 1-3800 44 Brattle Street Cambridge 38, Massachusetts UNiversity 4-1727 New England 7603 Forsyth, SUite 206 Clayton 5, MISSOUri PArkvlew 7-3414 Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Albuquerque, N. M. and the following counties In illinoIs: Monroe, Calhoun, Jersey, Madison and St. Clair ELECTRODESIGN 736 Notre Dame Street West Montreal, Canada UNiversity 6-7367 Canada A. L. LlVERA AND ASSOC., INC. 144-15 Hillside Avenue Jamaica 35, New York OLympia 8-1828 New York City, Long Island -f@7f~~Lt. ~ e or something special from ESC's modern research laboratory, you can be sure of receiving top engineering talent, prompt delivery, and expert, local service. There's an ESC engineer-rep very close to you, wherever you are. Why not discuss your current delay Iin"e problem with him now. MAGNUSON ASSOCIATES 3347 West Irving Park Road Chicago 18, Illinois KEystone 9-7555 Teletype CG 913 illinOIS (except Monroe, Calhoun, Jersey, Madison and St. Clair counties), Indiana, Iowa and S. Wisconsin 1359 West Maynard Drive St. Paul 16, Minnesota Minnesota and N. Wisconsin WEIGHTMAN AND ASSOCIATES 4029 Burbank Boulevard Burbank, California Victoria 9-2435 1436 EI Camino Real, Suite ~5 Menlo Park, California DAvenport 6-3797 Arizona, California, Nevada and WRITE TODAY FOR COUPLETE T::::I::: HARRY J. WHITE COMPANY 121 Covered Bridge Road Haddonfield, New Jersey HAzel 8·2304 Camden and Moorestown, New Jersey; Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware Mr. Richard Trainor 115 Greenbrier Road Towson 4, Maryland VAlley 3-6184 Maryland, Virginia as far south as Alexandria, and Washington, D.C. TEX-O-KOMA SALES COMPANY 235 S. E. 14th Street Grand Prairie, Texas Dallas: ANdrew 2-0866 Ft. Worth: CRestview 4-4530 Texas '::;:~Ib"q""q", exceptional employment opportunities for engineers experienced in computer components . .. excellent profit-shar~nf! plan. 0 R P 0 RAT ION 534 Bergen Boulevard, Palisades Park, New Jersey Distributed constant delay lines - Lumped-constant delay lines • Variable delay networks • Continuously variable delay lines • PushbuHon decade delay lines • Shift registers. Pulse transformers. Medium and low-power transformers • Filters of all types. Pulse-forming networks. Miniature plug-in encapsulated circuit assemblies See you at the I.R.E. Show, Booth #2409 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 ~ '~R e a d e r s' and Editor's Forum FRONT COVER: AN IN-CIRCUIT TRANSISTOR TESTER The front cover shows a testing apparatus which is able to test transistors mounted and connected in their circuits. This is believed to be the first transistor tester able to check the performance of transistors while they are connected in their circuits and without turning power on in the equipment. The tester is now being produced by Philco Corp., Philadelphia; a contract to build more than 900 of these transistor testers has been awarded to Philco by the u.S. Navy Bureau of Ships. This tester is able to distinguish between normal input and output signals generated by the transistor being checked, and spurious input and output signals arising from "sneak" paths provided by the circuits surrounding the transistor being checked. To nullify the effects of the external circuits, low impedance methods are used in the tester. ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY MEETING, SEPT. 1 TO 3, 1959CALL FOR CONTRIBUTED PAPERS The next Annual Meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery will be held at Mass. lnst. of· Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Tuesday September 1 to Thursday September 3, 1959. Contributed papers concerned with all phases of analog and digital computers and computation are invited. Each person wishing to have a paper considered for the contributed program is requested to submit to the Program Committee by May 4, 1959, four copies of a 100 word abstract, and 'four copies of a summary of the paper. The amount of time which can be allotted to each contributed paper is limited to 15 minutes, followed by 5 minutes for discussion. The abstract should be suitable for inclusion in the printed program of the meeting. The summary should be of sufficient length to permit evaluation of the paper by the Program Committee but less than four typewritten pages is suggested. One copy of the summary should b~ typed in black ink on white paper to permit photographic reproduction for inclusion in the Preprints. Preprints will be distributed to all registrants, and offered for sale by the Association for three months after the meeting. Authors who do not wish their summaries to appear in the Preprints should say so. Abstracts and summaries should be sent to: J. H. Wegstein, Chairman ACM Program Committee National Bureau of Standards Washington 25, D.C. Papers for the program will be selected by the Program Committee after May 4, 1959. It will not be possible to consider those papers whose summaries are not in quadruplicate, nor those papers which arrive after the deadline. 6 REACHING OUT BY SCIENTISTS INTO OTHER FIELDS I. From Carmon C. Basore Cabazon, Calif. To the Editor: Your magazine has raised the question of the social and moral responsibilities of scientists in regard to the effect of their inventions upon society, whether the effect be good or bad. To me, this is a timely question. Perhaps your editors are among the first to realize its increasing importance, for I believe that the first rate scientists of this country are already assuming social responsibility in regard to those effects of their work that extend into international affairs. I cl~im that, in the scientific world we now live in, the implements of war that have been developed are capable of destroying the whole of mankind - and that any scientist, view:ing his own work, cannot escape some responsibility, in his own mind, to see that this does not happen. I cannot accept such a point of view as that expressed by one editor, in your poll of technical magazines, who states: "We do believe that any scientific development can be used in a good or bad manner; and it follows from this that the scientist's responsibility in evaluating this is not so much greater than the average citizen's. Such questions are philosophical and should be aired by philosophers, but finally determined by the ci tizenry." For me this view means that all we scientists can do is duck our heads and take what comes, and nothing can be done about it. But of cOt:lrse this is not true. The leading scientists of our country, whose study of science has greatly broadened their minds, have mastered their own field of endeavor and are then able to look about them, understand other fields, and relate their work with other aspects of society. The capacity of an able scientist to relate his work to other fields has been illustrated in the recent past, as with the quantum theory, when the theoretical developments of science have led into philosophical concepts that traditional philosophy was unable to cope with. To meet this situation the scientist had to take over the job of philosopher and had to provide a philosophic interpretation that would allow him to proceed. This caused strong objections from some professional philosophers who felt that the scientist was incapable of entering another field of knowledge with any success. Of course the real obstacle probably was the fact that philosophers were not able to keep abreast of the advances of science and were not able to develop the [Please turn to page 30} COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 To Senior Computer Programmers interested In Research and Development on advanced Programming Techniques Those interested in performing research and development on advanced programming techniques will find full scope for their ability at System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, California. SDC's projects are concerned primarily with developing large·scale, computer-centered systems in a number of fields. The application of advanced digital computer techniques is particularly important in these systems. As these systems are computer-based, programming is an essential function at SDC. Programming is Tlot a service activity at SDC. A few positions are open for senior Computer Programmers. The positions call for strong experience and ability in programming and keen interest in: MechaTlical and programmed techniques 0/ retrieval-Logical design 0/ computers from a Programmer's point of viewPattern recognition and machine learning-Language translation (both natural and computer-oriented languages). Those who desire additicmal information are invited to contact William Keefer at System Development Corporation, 2406 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, California. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Santa Monica, California 11·90 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 7 Speed routine calculations-increase creative time with this powerful electronic computer ROYAL PRECISION LGP-30 Large capacity ... easily programmed and operated ... mobile ... low in cost Compact, simple to use, Royal Precision LGP-30 will today bring high-speed computation right to your desk ... thus relieve you of the tedium of standard hand calculations ... increase available time for truly creative work ... help you simulate optimum designs in a matter of minutes. And at the lowest cost ever for a complete computer system! Unusual capacity. Operating from a standard wall outlet, performing an almost unlimited range of calculations, LGP-30 gives you the flexibility of stored-program operation combined with speed, memory (4096 words) and capacity equal to computers many times its size and cost. Completely mobile, LGP-30 is easily wheeled from room to room, building to building. Simple to operate and program. LGP-30 controls have been so thoroughly simplified that it may be operated with only minimum computer experience. Direct print-out of answers - no deciphering required. Programming is easily learned-even by non-technical personnel. Library 8 of sub-routines, plus programs for a wide variety of applications, is available. Wide range of applications. In addition to general design and system optimization, LGP-30 is currently being used for the refinement of estimates; computation of design parameters; specification of new product properties and capabilities; calculation of such data as reactance, load saturation curves, time constants, harmonics, torque-speed and vee curves. Exceptional value; complete service. Smallest initial investment ever for a complete computer system is combined with low operating and maintenance costs. Service facilities coast-to-coast. For further information and specifications, write Royal McBee Corporation, Data Processing Division, Port Chester, N. Y. ROYAL MCBEE WORLD'S AND LARGEST MAKERS OF MANUFACTURER DATA OF PROCESSING TYPEWRITERS EOUIPMENT COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March. 1959 Producing High-Performance low-Cost Magnetic Memory Cores For An Expanding Digital Computer Market C. L. Snyder Vice President, General Ceramics Corp. Keasbey, N.J. E LECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTERS were first reduced to practice in the middle 1940s. Since that time, as their speed and reliability have increased, these computers are being more and more widely used to solve industrial, and military engineering problems, handle production controls, and speed and simplify office procedures. One of the most important components in the computer system is the memory, since nearly every operation of the computer requires access to it. Heart of the internal memory in most large modern computers is the ferrite magnetic memory core. This is the most reliable means yet developed of providing high speed random access memories, which permit information to be obtained in any sequence desired. When these tiny magnetic cores first became available in small volume, their cost, although competitive with that of other available systems, was high - nearly SOc apiece. This presented what seemed to be a problem to the growth of the computer industry but within the past five years General Ceramics, through plant investment and research, has reduced the cost to about 3c each, improved the yield of quality cores from 30% to 98 %, and increased the production from 1,000 to 250,000 daily. History The first practical memory device for electronic digital computers was the mercury delay line, and some early digital computers were built using this storage method. In a few years these delay lines were replaced by cathode ray electrostatic storage tubes which operated more rapidly and permitted an increase in the size of the memory. But storage tubes are expensive to install and maintain and the memory was a volatile one and subject to errors every few hours. It soon was recognized that it was possible using magnetic devices to construct a memory storage system that would make no errors, be permanent in character, have a large capacity for memory bits in a relatively small space, and be much less expensive. A few memories were made using metallic tape-wound cores which demonstrated all these advantages with the exception of low cost. In Fhe meantime experiments were being conducted using ferrites as memory devices. These are magnetic ceramic materials which have many of the characteristics of metallic magnetic materials, but have an internal resistance which is enormously greater; ferrites reduce eddy currents to a negligible factor, and thus have their ability to hand!e higher frequencies. This in turn made them operable on far smaller electrical impulses. Experiments further showed that ferrites could be made which have a response time two to four times faster than the best of metallic tapes in coincident current circuits. COMPUTERS aJJd AUTOMATION for Marc!1, 1959 In the late 1940's Dr. Ernst Albers-SchJenberg, General Ceramics' Director of Research, and pioneer in the development of ferrite materials, developed a unique ferrite material which exhibited a rectangular hysteresis loop pattern. This material provided a practical solution to the memory storage problem. Essentially the same materials are being used in cores today. The rectangular hysteresis loop ferrite core is magnetized by a small amount of driving energy which exceeds a certain threshold value, the core remaining magnetized when the energy is turned off. When an equal amount of reverse energy is applied, however, the magnetic polarity is reversed. The core remains in either of two states of stable magnetization unaffected by time or external influence other than the specifically applied driving force. Each core stores a single bit of information which can be correlated with the numbers 1 or 0, which are the basis of the binary system of numbers used in digital computers. Through a system of circuits this information is broken down into arithmetic operations of addition and subtraction to provide the solution of the problem being solved. In December, 1949, Dr. Albers-Schoenberg published his findings. They came to the attention of William Papian of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratories who was actively involved in the development of a reliable large high-speed memory system. As a result, a joint development program evolved, in which General Ceramics and Lincoln Laboratories cooperated closely. Within a year ferrite cores were commercially available for use in random access memory devices. The first of these cores were used to replace the electrostatic storage tube memory in the MIT Whirlwind Digital Computer. The new memory equipped with the ferrite cores, while of the same size as the earlier system, had a speed three times as fast, occupied only one quarter the space and reduced the air conditioning load by four tons. A further result was reduction of memory errors from two to three each twentyfour hours to only one in the first six months of use. Production Ferrite cores, the latest of which have a response time of one microsecond, are produced in the shape of rings so that all of the flux generated by the driving circuit can be coupled to th~. 'largest possible area of magnetic material. The rings' are, extremely small. Of the two sizes now availal:?le; ,one has an outside diameter of .080" and an inside:di'aiietei 'of .050" while the other has an k~"'~"'d"'r' "r,-\' ·>'t " O. D . 0 f .059fi~J;l"~~i:<~~~:~'o~~",0~0'., CommertJ.aI~ma:biifadure_ starts with, pure red iron , ,oxide, 95 cL,~ than 0.5 microns, to which are added IV fi;t'ler <.:, < oxides, hydroxides~or carbonates of other bivalent metals to provide the desired magnetic properties. Binders and lubricants also are added to assist in subsequent forming operations. Protracted wet ball-milling yields a mixture that is very fine and homogeneous. The ferrite material is dried, and from the product the cores are pressed and fired. Since firing is one of the major factors affecting performance, an entirely new kiln technology, based on exact control of temperatures, rates of heating and cooling, and special atmospheres, during heating up, soaking and cooling, has been developed for ferrite manufacture. General Ceramics produces a broad line of' .ferrite products other than the rectangular hysteresis loop mat~ rials, 'and this broad development and manufacturing effort has led to materials and production control and economies that have been very advantageous in the production of t~e memory cores. These other ferrites have different chemical compositions, are subjected to different physical and thermal treatments and have magnetic properties which are different from those of the memory cores. They are designed to perform specific magnetic functions, many of which were formerly unattainable either in kind or degree. For example, one small ferrite antenna rod gathers feeble radio signals so effectively that it has rendered portable wire-wound antennae obsolete, while at the same time making possible miniature portable radios. Other types of ferrites have important applications: magnetic cores for recording heads, saturable reactors, deflection yokes, permeability tuners, permanent~magnets, and special trans1formers. Some are magnetic niaterials specifically designed to yield high efficiencies within different frequency bands. Two unusual qualities may be noted. The first is that these magnets are electrical semi-conductors, with the result that eddy current losses can be reduced to very low levels. The second is that by altering the composition, a wide range of magnetic permeability and coercive force can be designed into the magnets. For example, a very high coercive force, which is a measure of the resistance to demagnetization, has been developed in certain barium ferrites, with the result that permanent magnets resist demagnetization to a greater degree than any other magnetic material. Testing and Handling No equipment existed to test finished memory cores when production began five years ago. The evolution of test equipment has run parallel to the development of the cores themselves. Some testers are now commercially available, but the design, development and modification of testing equipment by General Ceramics has become an integral part of the manufacturing operation. This equipment includes devices for measurement of permeability and coercive force, current calibrators, voltage calibrators, low level sense amplifiers, current sources, and high speed core handlers. The two primary areas of consideration in the design of this equipment are ,current sources and core handling. The current source testing equipment simulates the smallest possible electrical information pulse while in- ,Figure' 1 - 'An automatic core handler ,to COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION f9f March, 1959 Figure 2 - An automatic core tester troducing a high degree of disturbing outside influence into the wire system; this determines the core's stability level. But this has never presented a major problem. Most of the difficulty in making test equipment has centered around handling the very small cores, which are about the size of a pin-head. Originally the operation was entirely manual, and a wire to contain the test current was placed through each core by hand. Only 1000-1500 cores could be tested daily by this method. An automatic core handler then was developed which handled 6000-8000 cores daily but still required the operator to determine the rejects. The next step was the development of a fully automatic tester to eliminate human decision. The first of these handled one core per second or 25,000 per eight hour day. Fully automatic handling and test equipment has since been upgraded twice. In the first of these improvements, core handling speed was increased to 4 per second and the equipment now in use handles 10 per second or 250,000 cores per eight hour day, as well as measuring additional parameters of the core. As core testing and handling speed have increased, production improvements have kept pace and the core reject rate has dropped sharply. Core Performance: Present and Future Present day cores are used in large high-speed digital computers and such other equipment as buffer memories, digital voltmeters, industrial programmers, redundancy devices, even jukeboxes. They are uniform in quality and performance, are stable indefinitely, economical to use, inexpensive to measure and calibrate, and fast in response time. Development work, however, is being actively pursued and higher performance standards are continually being attained. COMPUTERS alld AUTOMATION for March, 1959 Production has begun on cores of .050 inches of outside diameter in contrast to the .080 inches of the earlier cores; this change permits many more bits of information to be stored per cubic foot. The smaller cores also allow the use of transistor drives with greater reliability and simpler circuitry. Presently available materials with switching times of about 1 microsecond soon will be complemented by new materials having twice the switching speed. Thus, the struggle continues to improve and make perfect. THE ART OF GETTING PUBLISHED I. From Jordan and Van Deusen Laguna Beach, Calif. We are often asked if we guarantee the publication of technical articles that we may be commissioned to write. Our answer: There is no inside track to getting an article published in the trade press. If the article is well written, informative, and newsworthy, it will be printed. If it does not meet this test, all the personal contacts (and advertising schedules) in the world will not make up for the lack. Editors are constantly looking for good technical articles . . . . Editors judge an article by just one measure: its value to the reader. The reader must get something out of the article or it will not be printed. The more technical the subject, the more difficult and important this becomes. Engineers cannot be convinced by unsupported claims or adjectives. They want to be educated but with facts. They can tell, like the editor, when a "technical" discussion is only an advertisement in editorial dress .... II. From the Editor: Hear! Hear! If NOVEL APPLICA TIONS OF COMPUTERS COMPUTER AIDS RESEARCH FOR BETTER BEEF C. J. Brown University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Ark. DEVELOPMENT OF MUCH more productive and economical types of beef cattle is being aimed for by use of an electronic computer, installed at the Department of Animal Industry and Veterinary Science at the University of Arkansas. The computer is a G-15 general purpose digital computer produced by the Computer Division of Bendix Aviation Corporation. The computer will be programmed to determine and interpret trends and correlations in the qualities of beef cattle and allied livestock. Statistics concerning breeding, efficiency of production, mothering ability of cows, weight of animals, body measurements, and various feeding and digestive factors in different breeding groups, etc., will be processed. Statistical data projected over generations of cattle eventually should take the guesswork out of breeding. SIMULATION OF CONSUMERS' DECISIONS C. Joseph Clawson Facts Consolidated Chicago, 111. (Based on a talk before the American Marketing Association, Chicago, Ill., December 30, 1958) Computers are used in the simulation of the probable flight of an intercontinental ballistic missile or a space rocket: in the same way, it may soon be possible to give trial flights to promotional programs on electronic computers. They may make it possible to forecast with greater accuracy the behavior of consumers in response to marketing programs which are under consideration. I believe there are many indications that the decisionand-action process of consumers will soon be simulated, or at least reduced to a systematic set of mathematical functions which can be programmed onto an electronic computer. In this way, we will be thinking about a representative sample of consumers in a way similar to the way they think for themselves. CREWLESS VEHICLES Charles 1. Patterson, Chairman of the Transit Authority of the City of New York, which operates the city subway trains, has reported on a year-long study of crewless trains. Engineers of the authority and four electronics companies have explored the feasibility of running subway trains by remote control. The shuttle subway trains between Times Square and Grand Central (about three blocks) would be a logical first test. If the 12 system were successful, it could mean the transfer to other work of 90 percent of the 3100 motormen and 775 percent of the 3500 conductors now employed by the New York City Transit Authority. Michael J. Quill, international president of the Transport Workers Union, and Matthew Guinan, president of the New York local, have protested the dangers of "tampering with the safety of millions of passengers daily." But they apparently did not discuss the point whether passengers might not be safer with guidance systems, that make fewer mistakes than human beings. The Soviet Union has reported a recent test run of an automated train between Kuntsevo, near Moscow, and Usovo, a distance of about 300 miles. In this test, an automatic control system replaced the train engineer, made computations solving problems in connection with the train's movemerits, and interpreted coded information on the grade of the tracks, the distances between stations, and other such data. The elevators in a number of N ew York's new office buildings with 20 to 30 floors have no human attendants. The automatic elevators appear to operate more safely and efficiently than those having human operators. There are no signs in those buildings however saying how the displaced elevator men are now earning their living. AUTOMATED CAPITALISM Edward G. Brender Brender and Brender Wayne, Mich. Some time ago, a number of small groups of people got together to study the stock market. Needing education in the way that investments in the stocks may be wisely made and to learn how the stock market operates, the groups joined together in a cooperative effort, and established a National Association of Investment Clubs. These clubs are composed of 10 to 15 people, who need guidance in their education, and learn by actually investing in stock of their choice. But what stock should they buy? The NArC published a four page "NArC Stock Selection Guide," which formulates the principles and policies of the investments of the clubs. These principles require plotting sales and earnings records for 10 years past, and their projections for 5 years in the future. The price-earnings ratio, the dividend pay-out, and the return on invested capital are also averaged for 5 to 10 years. The current investment yield is also computed. A prediction is made by a formula for the possible high and low prices five years from now. From this information, zones for buying, holding, and selling, are established, and compared with the market price. Doing this analysis for a stock manually required 1 Y2 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 to 2 hours of work, and some pulling of teeth and tearing of hair. But one of our staff members who was in our club programmed this process for our Royal McBee LGP-30 computer. Zoom - 10 minutes analysis time! So we now enjoy 6 to 8 analyses per month to look at and consider each month. The computer program also permits speedy up-dating of the reports of the stocks that we have in our portfolio, as well as 40 other stocks that we have examined but not purchased. Through cooperation, at least seven other clubs from Poughkeepsie to Phoenix are also using this investment analysis computer program. The printed-out report is a delight to behold, with its alphanumeric, precise tabulation and color shifts. Viva La Capitalism, and Computers! UNIVERSITY STUDENT SCHEDULING BY DATATRON Neva Sabbagh Purdue Univ. Lafayette, Ind. Purdue University students of the past and even up to a few years ago remember the seemingly endless hours of waiting in line to be registered, first at the Registrar's Office, then at the Armory, and later in Quonset Huts. What a bother, they grumbled, to have to walk into registration headquarters, wait in line while the guy in front argued with the registration official, and then when your turn finally came, you found out that the class you had to be in - it was your last semester and it was a required course - was closed. This meant starting all over - again consulting with your advisor, again trekking to registration headquarters, again . . . But that's all over now. At least the long lines are getting to be a thing of the past. Through the efforts of Mr. James F. Blakesley, Administrative Coordinator of Schedules and Space, and other staff members devoted to helping Purdue operate efficiently, Purdue's digital computer, the Datatron, has been adapted to the scheduling process. Purdue is the first university, so far as we know, to use this practical- and satisfactory - way to schedule students electronically. Although the machine was bought from ElectroData Division of Burroughs Corp. for research in the Statistical Laboratory, it was found to be of great use in student registration . and scheduling. The Datatron electronic digital computer "memorizes" in about five minutes the 1400 courses and 4000 divisions that may be selected by students. The machine also "knows" the course identification, the maximum size of each class, and the meeting time of each class. As students are scheduled and divisions of courses become filled, a method is available for opening additional divisions. Here's how a student is scheduled electronically: He goes to his counselor and together they list the courses he is to take in the next semester. This information is translated into Datatron language through pre-punched cards and fed into the machine. In processing the schedule, the computer schedules first those courses with only one division (because this division has no alternate time schedule), and then continues to schedule courses by a pre-determined priority. The machine keeps track of available spaces and equalizes the number of students COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 assigned to particular sections of a course by attempting to schedule the section with the most remaining spaces first. If a student plans to work, he signs up with his advisor for a period of "free time." If no conflict develops, this free time will be scheduled along with the other courses by the Datatron. In a matter of seconds (in many cases 35 or 40), out of the computer comes the student's sc~edule of classes punched on cards. Tabulating equipment is used to produce the student's schedule in readable form. Advantages of the Datatron are numerous. First, there is the speed of selecting sections of courses to meet the students' requests (free from conflicting hours). Second, course section enrollments are equalized. Third, the last student through the computer has nearly the same opportunity to be enrolled in the courses of his choice as the first student. Fourth, the instructors have classes of a more uniform size. An additional benefit of equalized enrollments is found in more effective use of instructional rooms; that is, fewer rooms are needed since the classes are spread among many rooms at various times instead of using a large number of rooms at a peak hour. Finally, the staff members previously busy with registration details are freed for counselling and instruction. The machine is no more infallible of course than the information put into it by human beings. But, once it begins its electronic scheduling, it does a job no human being can possibly do in five seconds or perh.aps 20 minutes. It is a certainty that no human can make such an even distribution of classes as the Datatron does in the same time limit. Work on the idea of electronically scheduling students began in 1955. After much probing and testing, the first group of students was registered December 11, 1957. In order to sample a diversified group of students, agriculture and engineering students were chosen. Two hundred and nine freshman ags were registered successfully by the Datatron. The next day nearly 1600 freshman engineers were scheduled by the same procedure. A maximum time of 2 minutes and a minimum of five seconds was used in scheduling each student. This made an average of between 35-45 seconds for almost 1800 students. Since that time more than 20,000 registrations have been processed, with a similar average time for scheduling on the computer. Enrollment is promising to double at Purdue U niversity in the next few years and threatening to triple by 1970, but the Datatron still promises quicker and more practical individual scheduling of students. It will also give them the advantage of better clas'room atmosphere, free from over-crowded conditions. The student is not turned into a mere number by the Datatron; he receives his own schedule tailored to his individual needs. The University benefits in utilizing its staff to nearmaximum efficiency in doing the job it was expected to do, and the number of rooms that are needed for instructional purposes are reduced to a minimum. If any reader of this brief report is interested in this application and has access to a high speed computer, he is invited to contact Mr. James F. Blakesley, President's Office - Schedules and Space, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind., for more information and details of the programming technique. 13 COMPUTER TALKS 1959 Western Joint Computer Conference, Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, March 3 to 5, 1959 New Components and Circuits / c. L. Wanlass, Aeronutronic Systems, Inc. A Multiload Transfluxor Memory / D. G. Hammel, W. L. Morgan and R. D. Sidnam, RCA Design and Analysis of MAD Transfer Circuitry / D. R. Bennion and H. D. Crane, Stanford Research Institute A Magnetic Matrix Memory for Semi-Permanent Information / D. H. Looney, Bell Telephone Laboratories Card Changeable Nondestructive Readout Twistor Store / J. Janik, Jr., J. J. DeBuske and B. H. Simons, Bell Telephone Lab. Square Loop Magnetic Logic Circuits / E. P. Stabler, General Electric Information Retrieval and Machine Translation / c. Bourne, Stanford Research Institute Relative Merits of General Purpose and Special Purpose Computers as Used for Information Retrieval/A. Opler and N. Baird, Computer Usage Co., Inc. A Special Library Index Search Computer / B. Kessel, Computer Control Co., Inc., and A. DeLucia, Rome Air Development Center Programmed Interpretation of Text as a Basis for Information Retrieval Systems / L. Doyle, System Development Corp. A Theory of Information Retrieval / c. Walker, Hughes Aircraft Company The Role of USAF Research and E)evelopment in Information Retrieval and Machine Translation / R. Samson, Rome Air Development Center Industry's Role in Supporting High School Science Problems / Dr. Paul Hurd, Associate Professor of Education, Stanford University Information Retrieval and Machine Translation / c. :2ourne, Stanford Research Institute Computing Educated Guesses / E. S. Spiegelthal, General Electric Company A Memory or 314 Million Bits Capacity With Fast and Direct Access - Its Systems and Economic Considerations / N. Bishop, Time, Inc., and A. Dumey, Consu4tant Information Retrieval on a High Speed Computer / A. Barton, V. Schatz and L. Caplan, General Electric Company The Next 20 Years in Information Retrieval: Some Goa:ls and Preaictions / c. N. Mooers, Zator Company Computer Communication / H. C. Martel, California Institute of Technology Simulation of an Information Channel on the IBM 704 Computer / E. G. Newman and L. O. Nippe, IBM 14 A Compiler with An Analog-O~iented Input Language / Marvin L. Stein, Univ. of Minnesota, and Jack Rose and Donn B. Parker, Convair-Astronautics Automatic Design of Logical Networks / T. C. Bartee, Mass. Inst. of Technology The Role of Digital Computers in the Dynamic Optimization of Chemical Reactions / R. E. Kalman and R. W. Koepcke, Research Inst. for Advanced Study, Baltimore Simulation of Human Problem Solving / W. G. Bouricius, IBM Education and Methodology for Use of Computers / G. W. Brown, Univ. of Calif. at Los Angeles The Role of the University in Computers, Data-Processing, and Related Fields / L. Fein, Consultant, Palo Alto, Calif. The RCA 501 Assembly System / H. Bromberg, T. M. Hurewitz, and K. Kozarsky, RCA A Program to Draw Multilevel Flow Charts / L. M. Haibt, IBM A Compiler Capable of Learning / R. Arnold, Michigan State Univ. Achieving Reliability in Operation Control / L. Fein, Cotlsuitant, Palo Alto, Calif. Special Purpose Electronic Data Systems / M. V. Crowley, RCA The Residue Number System / H. L. Garner, Univ. of Michigan System Evaluation and Instrumentation for Military Special Purpose Digital Computer Systems / A. J. Strassman and L. H. Kurkjian, Hughes Aircraft Co. Automatic Failure Recovery in a Digital Data Processing System / R. H. Doyle, R. A. Meyer and R. P. Pedowitz, IBM Learning Concepts and Pattern Analysis / P. Suppes, Stanford Univ. A High-Speed Data Translator for Computer Simulation of Speech and Television Devices / E. E. David, M. V. Matllews, and H. S. McDonald, Bell Telephone Lab. Some Experiments in Machine Learning / H. Campaigne, American Univ., Washington, D.C. Some Communication Aspects of Character Sen-sing Systems / c. C. Heasley, Jr., Intelligent Machines Research Corp. An Approach to Computers That Perceive, Learn, a-nd Reason / P. H. Greene, Univ. of Chicago Military Applications / H. Silverstein, Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 Drafting Digital Computers Into Tactical Combat / Capt. A. B. Crawford, Jr., Fort Huachuca, Arizona Data Transmission Equipment Concepts for Fieldata / Capt. W. F. Luebbert, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey A High-Accuracy Real-Time Digital Computer / W. J. Milan-Kamski, EPSCO The Man-Computer Team in Space Ecology I. J. McLeod, Convair, and J. Stroud, Naval Electronics Laboratory New Machines and Systems / M. Montalbano, Kaiser Steel Corp. The RCA 501 High Speed Printers - The Story of a Product Development -; C. Eckel and D. Flechtner, RCA A Digital Computer for Industrial Process Analysis and Control/E. L. Braun, Genesys Corp. The Burroughs 220 High Speed Printer System / F. Bauer, Electro-Data Corp. The ACRE Computer - A Digital Computer for a Missile Checkout System / R. I. Tanaka, Lockheed Aircraft Corp. The IBM 7070 Data Processing System / J. Svigals, IBM Computer Applications in Business Environments / R. R. Crane, Touche, Niven, Bailey & Smart, Detroit An Organizational Approach to Electronic Data Processing / G. Fleming, Boeing Airplane Co. Developing a Long-Range Plan for Corporate Methods and the Dependence on Electronic Data Processing / N. J. Ream, Lockheed Aircraft Corp. A Long-Range Electronic Data Processing Plan for a National Multi-Plant Manufacturing Company / G. Redmond, Chrysler Corp. Dynamic Production Scheduling of the Job Shop Operation / ;r.. N. Caplan and V. L. Schatz, General Electric Co. Numerical Analysis / R. D. Levee, Univ. of Calif., Lawrence Radiation Lab. Survey of Numerical Analysis / G. E. Forsythe, Stanford University More Accurate Linear Least Squares / R. Von Holdt, Univ. of Calif. Lawrence Radiation Lab. The Cordic Computer: (1) The Cordic Transcendental Computing Technique / J. E. VoIder, Convair; (2) Implementation of Coordinate Rotation and ether Trigonometric Function Algorithms by Cordic / D. R. Clutterham, Convair; (3) Decimal-Binary Conversions in Cordic / D. H. Daggett, Convair Monte Carlo Techniques Applied to Statistical Mechanics / W. W. Wood, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Real-Time Digital Analysis and Error Compensating Techniques / W. Ito, Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Automatic Digital Matric Structural Analysis / B. Klein and M. M. Chirico, Convair Problems of the Future / S. Ulam, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. "Blue Sky" Session / L. N. Ridenour, Lockheed Aircraft Corp. A New Approach to High-Speed Logic / W. D. Rowe, Westinghouse Electric Corp. Experiments in Information Retrieval / R. Cochran, General Electric Co. Communication Across Language Barriers I. W. F. Whitmore, Dept. of the Navy, Washington, D.C. Program Design To Achieve Maximum Machine Uti liz aCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 tion in a Real Time Computing System / A. F. Rosene~ Sylvania Pattern and Character Recognition Systems - Picture Processing by a Net of Neuron-Like Elements / L. A. Kamentsky, Bell Telephone Lab. Philosophy and Responsibility of Computers in Society / R. W. Tyler, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University Social Responsibility of Engineers / F. Wood, IBM Emergency Simulation of the President of the United States / L. Sutro, Datamatic Can Computers Help Solve Society's Problems / J. Rothstein, Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. Measurement of Social Change / R. L. Meier, Univ. of Michigan Analog Simulation / J. E. Sherman, Lockheed Aircraft Corl!'. Simulation of Sampled Data Systems Using Analog-toDigital Converters / M. S. Shumate, Space Technology Lab. Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. A Transistorized Analog Memory for Functions of Two Variables / P. C. Sherertz, and L. E. Steffen, Convair A Time-Sharing Analog Computer / J. V. Reihing, Jr.~ Westinghouse Electric Corporation Computers - The Answer to Real-Time Flight Analysis / G. Hintze, Chief, Flight Simulation Lab., White Sands Missile Range Symbolic Language Translation / E. C. Gluesing, Remington Rand New Horizons In Computer Technology / H. Aiken~ Harvard Univ. New Applications of Computer Technology / H. D. Huskey, Univ. of Calif. A Generalized Scanner for Pattern and Character Rec;ognition Studies / W. H. Highleyman and L. A. Kamentsky, Bell Telephone Lab. File Searching Using Variable Length Keys / R. De La Briandais, U.S. Naval Ordnance Lab. 1959 Electronic Components Conference, Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa., May 6, 7, 8, 1959 Session on High Speed Data Processing (May 6, morning): Functional Components / R. J. Cypser, IBM Corporation Electronic Components for Future Computers / N. M. Abov-Taleb, IBM Corporation Magnetic Domain Switching in Evaporated Magnetic Films / David W. Moore, Servo-mechanisms, Inc. The Fabrication and Properties of Memory Elements Using Electrodeposited Thin Magnetic Films of 82-18 Nickel Iron / I. W. Wolf, H. W. Katz, General 'Electric Electronics Laboratory, and A. E. Brain, Stanford Research Institute CORRECTION In the January, 1959, issue of Computers and Automation, in the article "Symbolic Logic and Automatic Computers, Part 3," on page 19, on the last line, a tilde (--') should be inserted before the expression "xM". On page 20, left column, line 6, the same insertion should ~e made before the same expression, and again on line 12. Our thanks to William F. Culliton of Niagara Falls, N.Y., for catching these three errors. 15 Make Your Tabulating Department a Service Department Edmond W. McNamara Ed McNamara Associates Bridgeport, Conn. S TUDENTS ANALYZE THE evolution of electronic data processing into certain stages of development. One of the early stages pictures the giants of industry, the large insutance and utility companies, and the government pioneering in the use of electronics against a backdrop studded with many pronounced question marks. While off to the side, the smaller, more conservative, more timid managements wait for the first full audit of results bef9re they take any active step to become involved with the spectacular and expensive new tools of data processing. Some of these managers await the returns with eager anticipation. They seek justification for going out on thin ice in hopes of finding solutions to their clerical problems. Others are far less eager. In fact, some of them hope that the new equipment and methods will prove to be failures so that they can justify a continuation of their old ways and not muddy the water of their existing systems - at least not until their own personal retirement from work has excused them from the responsibility for action. Reports on Computer Applications Meanwhile the reports roll in. In some ways they are encouraging. Yet in many respects there is an emphasis on the negative, and an air of caution. For example, there is the recently published "Computer Use Report," by the Systems and Procedures Association's Empire State Chapter's Research Committee. This was published by the Systems and Procedures Association, l>enobscot Bldg., Detroit, Mich., in 1958, 12 pages long. It ~s a "statistical information release," covering 281 replies to a questionnaire. 82 organizations reported applications in service. The total number of computers involved in the study is 203, about 15 % of the total medium and large scale computers in use as determined by a recent census. Table 1 analyzes about 270 applications accepted for electronic computer operation (82 companies reporting). Table 2 covers about 160 applications rejected (63 companies reporting, 23 of which have applications in service). Five more tables analyze occurrence of applications by size of firm, industry, etc. This report, however, has the following introduction: Information on the success or lack of success of the use of electronic data processing equipment has, up to this point, been somewhat vague. To the best of our knowledge, no specific figures have been released from any source that can be used to determine with any accuracy the acceptance or rejection of such equip16 ment. We believe that this report contributes to help fill this void in the field of electronic data processing. In the section devoted to applications rejected, the rejections are analyzed as to when they were rejected, such as: during the study, after study, in the programming stage, and so on. And then the reasons for rejection are listed as follows: Too costly Volume of data too large Volume of data too small Routine has too many exceptions Programming too difficult Lack of reference to account history Inadequate input-output equipment Inadequate input-data sources Fear of equipment obsolescence Lack of continued top management: support Lack of employee cooperation Memory capacity too small Access time too high Excessive down time Underlying Reasons for Rejection or Failure Psychologists tell us that there are two reasons for everything, the obvious and the underlying. Perhaps this explains why two of the major reasons for -rejection and ultimate failure are not even mentioned. Nor is their omission a reflection on those who compiled the report. The twO major reasons I refer to are: 1. Failure to do sound systems analysis before forging ahead into electronic mechanization. 2. Failure to establish proper operating policy as to organizational location and role of the data processing function. On this point, we might consider a few significant excerpts from another recent publication, "The Ram Myth," Apr. 1958 issue of EDP Analyzer, by Canning, Sisson, and Associates. "With all the excitement about large volume random access memories for EDP systems, we think the time has come to add a few words of caution about them ... "To state it bluntly, we think that RAM memories are heavily booby-trapped for the unwary . ~ . ". . . we feel that only a few of the many orders on the books for RAM systems are really valid applications . . . "The answer to the proper use of RAMs is, of course, hig~ quality systems plans. Equipment always is a poor substitute for thinking. . . ." COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING 0-/5 Digital Computer POGO is a new programming system that combines the use of simple, easy to learn commands with all of the G-1S's machine language power and speed. A fixed point compiler, POGO recodes a simple statement of a problem in machine language with all commands stored in optimum memory positions. Thus, a programmer with very little training can write high speed production programs. For the first time in a low-price computer, a set of fully self-contained automatic programming systems is available . . . POGO, with its ability to convert simple commands into fast and powerful machine language programs ... and the already famous INTERCOM 1000 interpretive system, with its extreme programming simplicity and speed of preparation. * Program POGO commands are very similar to those used for INTERCOM 1000. The principal difference between the two systems is that POGO, unlike INTERCOM 1000, compiles an optimum machine language program and reproduces it for repeated use. Computing speed is also increased, since no interpretation is required during computation. While floating point INTERCOM 1000 is ideal for open shop problems, POGO may be preferred for production problems that must be solved repeatedly at high speed. In POGO, data is handled in decimal form. Seventeen accumulator registers are available, as well as twelve index registers, which can be used to modify the effective address of any command. Additional data on the G-15, POGO, and INTERCOM 1000 will be sent on request. Optimizer for 6-15 Operations NEW PROGRAM STORED ON PUNCHED PAPER OR MAGNETIC TAPE FOR REPEATED USE DIVISION OF BENDIX AVIATION CORPORATION, Dept. D-IO LOS .ANGELES 45, CALIF. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959' 17 Getting back to the two major reasons cited above for rejection and failure, my experience tells me that these are perhaps the two most serious reasons. Yet they are the ones least discussed or admitted by official spokesmen of co'mpanies engaged in electronic data processing programs. You get much of your information "off the record." Much of it must be deduced. Here is a case in point. Inadequate Systems Work A large, national organization solicited help in June of 1958. They wanted to hire a systems man. The essence of my questions and their answers follows: Q. What is this man to do? What will be the scope of his job? A. He will have to hire and train assistants in programming and be ready for the installation of a medium scale computer. Q. To whom will this man report? A. We're not sure yet. Q. When is the computer scheduled for delivery? A. Next December. Q. Nineteen fifty-nine? A. No, No! This year, fifty-eight. Q. Is this a basic computer, or . . . A. It is the basic unit first and tape units will be delivered in 1959. Q. Do you have anybody working on systems now? A. No. Q. Who has done the systems analysis? A. Nobody; that is why we want to hire a systems man. Q. Who chose the computer? A. An executive [whose knowledge and background in the field was slightly above zero]. Q. Who advised this executive? A. The equipment salesman. Q. Who determined the feasibility? A. The equipment salesman. What would you consider are the chances of success in this installation? If it fails, what do you think will be recited as the reason for failure? Lack of employee -cooperation? . . . , memory capacity too small? Six months later I revisited the company whose computer was due in December 1958. I found the computer installed in a room far removed from the tabulating department (the floor there wouldn't hold the weight of the computer). The computer had been in for two weeks. It had actually been running but not very much. Three young service engineers, with a full library of charts and diagrams, were still tinkering and experimenting. The harried systems man told me he had been working "all hours" trying to get the thing running, and was busy explaining to a member of management that there are mechanical bugs, etc., etc. Operating Policy on Role of Data Processing Function Perhaps some organizations can get by without classi<:al systems analysis. So let us consider the second of the two major reasons mentioned - failure to establish adequate operating policy as to the place and role of the data processing function. Since a great number of computer applications are an outgrowth of punch card tabulating functions, let us concentrate our attention back in the tabulating department and inquire immediately: Is your tabulating department a service department? 18 There are many illogical situations in business offices. Think of the systems function, fettered under the jurisdiction of an old school accounting officer. Or think of the tabulating department used as a tool at the whim of the controller; keeping' only the records he wants kept, making only the reports and analyses that serve his purposes; actually providing an imbalance of information which distracts management attention from important matters and gives birth to a cardinal sin of data processing, duplicate records. These duplicate records are maintained by each division as a defense against the highly mechanized record keeping in the controller area. Let us not carry this illogical philosophy and thinking into computer installations - if we want success. One of the best insurances against this carryover of illogical thinking is to make your tabulating department a service department now. Overloaded Tabulating Department Writing in SYSTEMS magazine, Vincent P. Connolly observed: "A sudden demand for a tab report by the executive committee of a large steel mill confronted its comptroller. The chore, accepted as routine, revealed that the tab department on three shifts was working just about to capacity. Investigation showed that any employee in the organization on the level of supervisor could requisition a machine tabulation job, while the tab accountant had no discretion, only a squawk, about taking it on." This far from healthy situation is not uncommon. Underloaded Tab:.Ilating Department In other companies we find a deplorable situation which is the opposite of the above. The tabulating department is on a one-shift basis and overtime is frowned upon. In this situation the machine accountant, through his superior, exercises what may be too much discretion - to the extent that the services of the electric accounting machines are denied to legitimate users. In some situations desirable reports either are done by longhand methods or on some cumbersome office machine, or not done at all. Such operating conditions emphasize t4e need for an intelligent perspective in relation to the use of tabulating equipment; a perspective and an approach which help to furnish maximum service in the issuance of essential reports and analyses, on time, and at minimum cost. In one medium size company whose tab department was on a one-shift basis on the controller's department, it was found that their "loaded to the hilt" situation not only denied the company the clerical savings of mechanical preparation of reports, but it presented a serious roadblock to any unemotional, openminded approach to the possibilities of integrated or electronic data processing applications. It was recommended that if they were ever to get into a position to benefit from integrated application of machines to paperwork, they must first of all break the road block. Basic Principles To begin with, management had to agree that in the area of control reports for management there are three COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 main considerations: 1) the objective of the report; 2) the content or requirements of the report; and 3) the cost of preparation, issuance and use of the report. Next a review of policies showed that it was explicitly not their accounting policy to charge individual departments for the reports that were prepared specifically for them in the tabulating section. The rental cost of equipment, supplies and salaries of operating personnel were being charged, against a budgeted allowance, to the factory accounting department. It was pointed out to management that this lack of specific accounting charges for reports defeats the establishment of sound requirements, specifications, and economic justification for reports. We were able to illustrate how some reports were being run simply because "the right guy had asked for them" or some one had happened to ask for them at the right time, or because "they always ran that report in tabulating." Accounting Charges for Services Performed We stressed that tabulating work is of a service nature and that the concept of service cannot be properly developed if accounting charges are not made for services performed. Furthermore, we pointed out that even an approved report on the approved list, suffers if specific accounting for services rendered is lacking. The following two paragraphs from our report to management cover this point: To get a concrete picture of the type of problem created by your present policy let us consider the area of statistical sales reporting and analysis. From a sales administration standpoint, Sales Management rightfully has the authority to realign geographic territories, to reassign salesmen or to reassign accounts. The manner and degree to which these steps are taken has direct bearing on the cost of administering your machine accounting section. Without a "charge for service" concept your machine accounting section is subject to conditions which encourage improvisation and short cuts; and which require costly manual operations and extra difficult schedules, all of which reflect unfavorably upon the machine accounting section and on the equipment used. Because all work performed in the machine accounting section is charged to the factory accounting department, it puts them under the pressure of their departmental budget. This produces a tendency to do the minimum and often results in unsatisfactory sales reports coming off the machines - of which there is ample evidence. We suggested that as a matter of philosophy and policy any department of the company should have equal right to request a report or an analysis that would help them in their departmental operations. Based on this request a cost of performing the service would be computed by the machine accounting section. If the using department agreed to pay the cost and management gave the report the blessing, then the report would be produced on a service basis by the machine accounting section and charged, accountingwise, to the benefiting department or departments. Price Tags on Reports Based on this thesis, management agreed to change policy to conform to a service concept. To implement this we worked out a set of rates per hour to be used as standard service charges for tabulating reports (see appendix A.) We also established a budgeted allowance for each division against which reports would be charged - with the Division Head's approval. Now each report has a price tag. The using department pays the price. A re-evaluation of existing reports in terms of what it costs versus how useful it may be, is serving as a real control over the number and kinds of reports being turned out by the tabulating department. More important, having removed the roadblock, the company is now in a position to go ahead with plans for future use of their equipment - interim and long range. To this end they have established an office automation committee. The work of this committee is to review present procedures and methods and examine the possibilities of instituting integrated data, or electronic data processing methods into their reporting processes. If they do develop a feasible plan, they know that they will have a greener light based on the merits and economic justification of the proposed application. They will not have to worry about being stifled by an unscientific situation such as observed by Mr. Connolly. APPENDIX A SCHEDULE OF SERVICE CHARGES FOR IBM TAB REPORTS Key Punch Alpha. Key Punch Numerical Key Punch Numerical Key Verifier Collator Sorcer Tab. 402 Reproducer 514 Calculator 602-A Rental Monthly Cost Yearly Excise Tax Total Hourly* Cost Labor Total 40. 35. 35. 50. 100. 55. 440. 110. 245. 480. 420. 420. 600. 1200. 660. 5280. 1320. 2940. 48. 42. 42. 60. 120. 66. 528. 132. 294. 528. 462. 462. 660. 1220. 726. 5808. 1452. 3234. .44 .39 .39 .55 1.10 .61 4.84 1.21 2.70 4.68 4.68 4.68 4.68 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.12 5.07 5.07 5.23 6.56 6.07 10.30 6.67 8.16 13320. 1332. 14652. 160% overhead = 4.68 Labor @ 1.80/hr 160% overhead = 5.46 Labor @ 2.10/hr "Based on 60% Efficiency Normal Operation, 1200 hrs. per yr. + + *MO'nthly rental figures subject to change. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 19 SURVEY OF RECENT ARTICLES Beginning in this issue, we plan to publish frequently a survey of articles related to computers and data processors, and their applications and implications, occurring in certain magazines. We hope to cover at least the following magazines, beginning with issues dated January 1, 1959, or later: Automatic Control Automation Automation and Automatic Equipment News (British) Business Week Control Engineering Datamation Electronic Design Electronics Harvard Business Review Industrial Research Instruments and Automation ISA Journal Proceedings of the IRE Management Science The Office Scientific American It is not easy to look into more than. fifteen magazines each month, and make a search; the purpose of this type of reference' information is to help anybody interested in computers find articles of particular relation to' this field in these magazines. For each article, we shall publish: the title of the article / the name of the author(s) / the magazine and issue where it appears / the publisher's name and address / two or three sentences telling what the article is about. Wodd Brains Ponder Mechanisation of Thought Processes / G. Mobell / Automation and Automatic Equipment News, yol. 4, no. 5, Jan., '59, p 929 / A. and A. E. News, 9 Gough Square, Fleet St., London, E.C. 4, Eng. A report of the Teddington, Middlesex, symposium on advanced electronic machines which perform logical operations, and certain other "intelligence" operations. The findings and opinions of certain international scientists are' cited. How Electronics Controls Depth of Anes. thesia / J. Weldon Bellville, M.D., Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, and G. M. Attura, Chief Engineer, Industrial Control Co., Lindenhurst, N.Y. / Electronics, vol. 32, no. 5, Jan. 30, 1959, P 43 / McGraw-Hill, 330 West 42 St., New York Automatic controls may be used to check continuously the "border-of-wakefulness" of a patient undergoing a surgical operation. A servo-driven automatic system replaces the human anesthesiologist in the administration of anesthetic agents; it regulates the amount of anesthetic being administered. Mechanization in a British Public Library / John Grindrod / The Office, vol. 49, no. 2, Feb., '59, p 16 / The Office, Office Publications Inc., 232 Madison Ave., New York 16, N.Y. The use of both marginal punched cards and machine tabulating cards in London's libraries; how the systems are effectively used, and how much they cost. Digital System Positions Shafts Over Phone Line / R. B. Palmiter, Chief Electronics Engr., Amer. Mach. and Foundry Co. / Electronics, vol. 32, no. 7, Feb. 13, 1959, P 62 / McGraw-Hill, 330 West 42 St., New York A modulator superimposes positions of master shaft expressed in digital codes on a carrier wave; mixes the modulated signal with control information; transmits the composite signal at the rate of 750 bits per second. An amplifier and demodulator reproduces the original signals, which are then compared with positions of slave shafts expressed in digital codes. Differences are then converted' into analog signals correcting the slave shafts. Magnetic Drum Provides Analog Time Delay / H. L. Daniels and D. K. Sampson, Remington Rand Univac, Division of Sperry Rand Corp., St. Paul, Minn. / Electronics, yol. 32, no. 6, Feb. 6, 1959, P 44 / McGraw-Hill, 330 West 42 St., New York A relatively uncomplicated drum recording system has been developed to make analog simulations in designing continuous-processing systems, which provide a time delay. In a highly stable system, applkable also to' tape, precision of 0.1 percent is exceeded, between recorded and played-back low-frequency analog voltages. Tape Recording System Speeds Data Processing / Way Dong Woo, DATAmatic Div., Minneapolis - Honeywell Regulator Co., Newton Highlands, Mass. / Electronics, vol. 32, no. 6, Feb. 6, 1959, P 56 / McGraw-Hill, 330 West 42 St., New York The use of a technique for recording pulse duration and a 31-channel block format give large information content, while minimizing "dead space" and effect from tape skew, plus the ability to rerecord on individual blocks, These unique uses of magnetic tape enable a dataprocessing system to handle information at a rate of 40,000 alpha-numeric characters per second. Automatic Failure Recovery in a Digital Computer / R. H. Doyle, R. A. Meyer, and R. P. Perdowitz / IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 3, no. 1, Jan., '59, p 2 / IBM Corp., 590 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. A program which enables a complex digital data processing system to discover and correct its own errors. The "Fix" program compensates for its errors, achieving recovery with a negligible loss of time. Some methods of the program are discussed, as well as reliability techniques, program design, and recovery procedures. On the Mathematical Theory of ErrorCorrecting Codes / H. S. Shapiro, and D. L. Slotnick / IBM Journal of Research and Development, yol. 3, no. 1, Jan., '59, p 25 / IBM Corp., 590 Madison AYe., New York 22, N.Y. A discussion of the use of "Hamming codes" for efficient transmission O'f binary data over a noisy channel. Hamming reconstruction considered errorfree signalling over a channel which corrupts no more than one binary digit in each sequence of length n; the authers consider the problem for channels which can corrupt a greater number of digits. An Experimental Modulation-Demodulation Scheme for High-Speed Data Transmission / E. Hopner / IBM Journal of Research and Development, yol. 3, nO'. 1, Jan., '59, p 74 / IBM Corp., 590 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. The theoretical and practical problems involved in a system designed to determine speed and reliability limitations on transmitting binary data over telephones designed for speech transmission. Probe [Please turn to page 25] COMPUTERS amI AUTOMATION for March, 1959 all-new, all-transistorized The only all-purpose medium-scale data processing system that starts economically, expands with your needs, ''- and cannot be outgrown " .,'" .': ""'H ",'- ., COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959',: ,... + ',' ", 2.t. The all-transistorized Honeywell 800 is the only computer that gives you the ability to process up to eight programs simultaneously - each independently written and automatically controlled. No complex and costly programming is necessary to utilize the full efficiency of the Honeywell 800; a single powerful control unit supervises each and every independent operation speeding in parallel. This achievement we call automatically controlled parallel processing. Its practical economic advantages are sizable for work loads large and small, business or scientific. For example, you could run off a payroll, update your inventory and schedule production all at the same time, and all as independent jobs. And if your engineering staff needed to solve a complex scientific problem in a hurry, you could put that on Honeywell 800 too - whil€" data processing is going on. All these operations are meshed into a machine-determined schedule, always geared to utilize Honeywell 800 to its maximum efficiency. The central processor does not wait for relatively slow mechanical operations such as card reading or printing. All programs are automatically dovetailed to fill in ttdead time" when the computer would otherwise lie idle. Honeywell 800 thus introduces heretofore unimagined simplicity, efficiency and economy in this vital area of programming and scheduling. Your entire day's work can now be accomplished smoothly and on schedule with several of your key programs operating in parallel and automatically controlled. The profitable use of the basic Honeywell 800 system begins far down the ladder to include relatively small volumes of work, and it can be utilized to accommodate your company's growth for years to come. This extraordinary capacity can be expanded at any time in small steps and at small cost. No management need make such additions until they can efficiently and profitably use them. And you can't outgrow Honeywell 800. Its tremendous potential capacity plus its ability to operate more than a dozen data processing devices simultaneously make it your profitable partner indefinitely. And with Honeywell 800 you will never again have to face the cost of reprogramming. Does all this sound costly? Honeywell 800 is competitively priced with other systems. In a working day it can process more data per dollar than any other computer. Both the equipment and the programs of Honeywell 800 are backed by years of experience - and the caliber of service which users of Honeywell's DATAmatic '1000 have come to expect. 22 Vital Statistics of The Honeywell 800 Word Definition 12 decimal digits, 8 alphanumeric characters or 48 binary digits Memory Size 4,096 to 16,384 words Order Structure Three-address Internal Operating Speeds Single active address operations-60,006 per second Three-address operations-30,000 per second Information transfer rate-140,000 words per second Accumulations-125,000 per second Input-Output MAGNETIC TAPE (%:" wide) Speed-96,000 decimal digits per second per unit Tape Capacity-up to 20,000,000 decimal digits (Maximum of eight units reading and eight units writing in simultaneous operation) STANDARD CARD READER-240 cards per minute (Maximum of 8 units in simultaneous operation) HIGH SPEED CARD READER-750 cards per minute (Maximum of eight units in simultaneous operation) STANDARD PRINTER-l 50 lines per minute (Maximum of eight units in simultaneous operation) HIGH-SPEED PRINTER-600/900 lines per minute (Maximum of 8 units in simultaneous operation) STANDARD CARD PUNCH-lOO cards per minute (Maximum of 8 units in simultaneous operation) HIGH-SPEED CARD PUNCH-200 cards per minute (Maximum of eight units in simultaneous operation) Standard Features 1. Parallel processing of up to eight independent programs 2. Parallel operation of input output devices 3. Binary and decimal arithmetic 4. Indexing 5. Word masking 6. Tape reading in either direction 7. Fast tape rewind 8. On-line inquiry processing 9. Multi-function instructions 10. Orthotronic Control 11. Automatic programming routines 12. Library routines 13. Bi-sequence operation mode Optional Features Floating-point arithmetic Random-access storage Paper-tape input-output equipment How To Get More Facts If you would like more information about Honeywell BOO, please let us know. We will send you complete details by retUrn mail. Write Minneapolis-Honeywell, DATAmatic Division, Dept. A, Newton Highlands 61, MassacllUsetts. Honeywell [jj] DATArnatic ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 HONEVlNELL BOO * * * * * * * * do up to a different independently programmed jobs simultaneously - business, sCientific, or both process many business jobs independently in no more time than it takes to do the longest job alone solve complex scientific problems more efficiently than computers marketed for this purpose process small-volume applications economically expand capacity in small, economical stages grow without limit to meet your future needs grow without re-programming (with its heavy costs) process more data per dollar in a working day than any ot her system Honeywell 800 is priced competitively with other systems. It cuts costs for floor space, air-conditioning, and power, and is backed by Honeywell's electronic experience and the type of service you have come to expect from Honeywell. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 HON EVWE LL 800 (continued) OPPORTUNITIE'S AT HONEYWELL for experienced methods analysts and engineers The overwhelming acceptance of Honeywell 800 has created immediate openings for ambitious and imaginative people with experience in the field of electronic data proce~sing. If you are looking for the opportunity to make substantial contributions to advances in this field, if you seek the recognition that comes through performing difficult assignments well, if you enjoy working with competent, stimulating associates on projects that have solid management support, consider the following: SYSTEMS AND METHODS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DESIGN AND DEVELOP- ANALYSTS ENGINEERS MENT ENGINEERING Systems and Methods Analysts assist Sales Engineers in analyzing and developing potential customer applications. They provide the necessary training and guidance to assure optimum utilization of the system, combining a knowledge of the customers office systems and procedures with their command of the Honeywell 800 system. Systems Analysis Engineers are responsible for advanced logical and systems design and evaluation; the design and implementation of compilers, utility routines, operating procedures for automatic routines, library subroutines; test routines; and new automatic programming techniques. Depending on training, experience and qualifications; systems, circuit and logical design projects are available involving the advanced application of transistors, cores, tubes, diodes, and a variety of magnetic devices; electronic and electromechanical design of manipulative memory and peripheral conversion equipment; component evaluation and design; or the design of complex digital systems test equipment. Formal background desired: Formal background desired: High academic standing in business administration or a field of science. Data proce~sing or computer programming experience desirable. High academic standing in a field of science. Formal background desired: Data processing experience and advanced degrees desirable. Electronic Engineering. Physics. Mechanical Engineering. SEND RESUME TO: Personnel Director, Dept. 10 Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company DA TAmatic Division Newton Highlands 61, Massachusetts 24 Honeywell Ijjl ~ DATAmatic ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING COMPUJ:ERS and AUTOMATION - for March, 1959 Survey of Recent Articles [Continued from page 20] lems such as impulse noise, phase distortion and choice of modulation scheme, are covered, while performance of the equipment is reported with the reliabilities experienced at 600, 1000, 1600, and 2400 bits per second. Fast Automation - Britain's Salvation / J. W. Murray / Automation and Automatic Equipment News, vol. 4, no. 5, Jan., '59, P 904 / Automation and Automatic Equipment News, 9 Gough Sq., Fleet St., London, E.C. 4, Eng. The seventh and concluding article in a series by the author on the problems of automation. The series dealt with comparative economic and political problems in the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. This article discusses future prosperity based upon automation. Diffusion Attenuation, Part I / J. A. Swanson / IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 3, no. 1, Jan., '59, p 13 / IBM Corp., 590 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. The problem of calculating the attenuation of signals consisting of compensated space charges moving in an electric field of general, but prescribed, form is solved by pertubation methods. An iteration process is developed for obtaining the general solution in the one-dimensionaL case; asymptotic formulas for attenuation and phase shift are derived. A Survey of British Digital Computers (Part I) Joseph L. F. De Kerf Research Laboratories Gevaert Photo-Producten N.V. Mortsel, Belgium Introduction N THE United Kingdom, as, in the United States, most of the innovations in design, development, and use of computers, have come from university and other scientific research laboratories. Sometimes these studies were supported by government or interested manufacturers. As most of us know the first automatic digital calculator was designed by a British subject, Charles Babbage. Though constructed in parts, his engines were never completed. It was only about 1944 that, in the U.S., H. H. Aiken set the first digital computer into operation: the IBM ASCC or Mark I (Harvard University). Since that time a lot of pioneer work has been done in the United Kingdom. The first computer using a magnetic drum storage, the ARC, was 'constructed by A. D. and K. V. H. Booth, both of Birkbeck College. ' A prototype SEC and the APE(X)C series followed later. The first British computer with delay line storage, EDSAC I, was constructed by M. V. Wilkes of Cambridge University. Recently an expanded type (EDSAC II) with magnetic core storage has been completed. Another computer with delay lines, the well-known Pilot ACE, was completed at the National Physical Laboratories, the counterpart of the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. Later on this I computer w~s replaced by an engineered version, while Pilot ACE was bequeathed to the British Science Museum for exhibition. An expanded type ACE has been completed recently. The use of cathode-ray tubes as store element was pioneered by F. C. Williams of the Manchester University in his Mark I. An expanded type (Mark II) and an experimental transistor machine followed soon. Like EDSAC II, Mark II has a magnetic core storage. From all these experimental machines several commercial versions were derived. It must be noticed however, that in Great Britain the total number of computers installed or on order is only about three hundred (1958). This number is small, compared with that in the U.S., but on the European computer market, Great Britain is undoubtedly leading. Readers of this journal receive yearly a list of information about what is available in the computer field. The Computer Directory and Buyers' Guide embraces only the U.S. products (and those overseas products, represented in the U.S.). Details about British commercial computers are given in some journals and other publications related to the field, but so far as we know, a complete description has never been published in the U.S. It is the purpose of this repon to do so. Most of the information was COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 assembled by the author as a member of a course on digital computers, organized at the end of 1957 by the British Council, and as a visitor t(} the Electronic Computer Exhibition, held at London (Olympia) in November-December 1958. The author is indebted to the direction of the Gevaert Photo-Producten N.V., Monsel, Belgium, who. made this study possible. He wishes also to thank the manufacturers who. checked the information given. British C(}mputers and Manufacturers THE BRITISH TABULATING MACHINE CO., LTD, Hyde Park, London. The company has been marketing Hollerith punched card equipment (80 column cards) for nearly fiftyyears. Allied with International Bus·~ iness Machines Corporation, the com· pany became independent about ten years ago. Recently BTM has entered into association with the Laboratory for Electronics, Boston,. Mass. and with the General Electric Company, Kingsway, London. A proposed merger between BTM and Powers-Samas should be finalized in 1959. Since 1951 a series of electroniccalculating punches, the most recent being the Hollerith type 555 electronic calculator, has been developed. About fifteen 555' s have been delivered so far. In 1953 an electronic 25- computer for scientific calculations, Hec 2, was introduced. To satisfy the needs of business and industry Hec 4, now called Hec type 1201, has been constructed. A similar com'puter, but with expanded storage ca'pacity, is the Hec type 1202. About fifty Hec's have been installed or are on order. Data processing systems .also have been designed. The first, type 1400, will be completed in the near future. - Hollerith 555 Controlled by panels. Operation mode: .serial parallel. Number base: binary
,",~,R""~,,,,~~~::~:y':~"l l' " ~ fiR '$ T:' in" t h 'e :H.W~ __ ~ ~,:._/~~., , "' ~ ,~" ""=, ", r n d U $ t r i ci 1,'" fie' I' &if" d ': : 'w~ "_"~~. ~_:""~ .,;. "~W'~"~"~~~U"" >,,~~,,_",,-,~~ 31 NEW PATENTS RAYMOND R. SKOLNICK Reg. Patent Agent Ford Inst. Co., Div. of Sperry Rand Corp. Long Island City 1, New York HE followin~ i~ a compilation of patents pertalrung to computers and associated equipment from the "Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office," dates of issue as indicated. Each entry consists of: patent number / inventor(s) / assignee / invention. Printed copies of patents may be obtained from the U.S. Commissioner of Patents, Washington 25, D.C., at a cost of 25 cents each. T July 22, 1958: 2,844,308 I Roger R. Dussine, Paris, Fr. I Societe d'Electronique et d'Automatisme, a Corp. of Fr. I Circuits for the addition and subtraction of numbers. 2,844,310 I John Robert Cartwright, Letchworth, Eng. I - I A data column shifting device. 2,844,312 I James M. McCampbell, San Francisco, Calif. I U.S.A. as repre- @ffig) SHIFT REGISTERS LOWEST POWER PER BIT: up to 25 stages driven by a 50 mw transistor LOWEST COST PER BIT: $4.90 for 25 KC unit HIGHEST ONE/ZERO RATIO: up to 30/1 minimum HIGH RELIABILITY from generous operating margins, long life, three years of field testing. COMPLETE SHIFT REGISTER LINE: magnetic, transistor, coincident-current. Among USERS of our shift registers: Dupont, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Lockheed Aircraft Try our SAMPLE REGISTER ASSEMBLIES - ready to operate. See the DII AN difference for yourself DII AN Controls., Inc. 40 Leon St. Boston 15, Massachusetts Telephone: HIghlands 5-5640 TWX: Roxbury, Mass., 1057 .' .. Niaii Thi~' C~~~~~· (~~ .~ ~~py' ~f .it) .. • To: DI/AN CONTROLS, Inc., 40 Leon St., Boston 15, Mass. Please send me information on shift registers, 0 counters, buffer storage. My name and address are attached. o o sented by the Sec. of the Navy I A radiation intensity dosage analogue computer. July 29, 1958: 2,845,219 I Gerard J. R. Piel, Paris, Fr. I Societe d'Electronique eLd'Automatisme, Paris, Fr. I A scaleconversion apparatus for converting a numerical quantity expressed in a binary scale of notation to the corresponding expression of said quantity in the denary scale of notation. 2,845,220 I Lowell S. Bensky and Linder C. Hobbs, Haddonfield, N.J. I Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware I An electronic comparator. 2,845,222 I Joseph F. Genna and Robert E. Stalcup, Indianapolis, Ind. I U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of the Navy I A high speed parallel type binary electronic adder. 2,845,597 I George D. Perkins, Duarte, Calif. I Consolidated Electrodynamics Corp., Pasadena, Calif. I A system for digitizing analog signals. 2,845,609 I Edward A. Neuman, Teddington, Donald W. Davies, Southsea, and David O. Clayden, Hanwell, London, Eng. I National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. I A method of recording digital information. 2,845,610 I Warren A. Cornell, Murray Hill, and John H. McGuignan, New Providence, N.J., and Orlando J. Murphy, New York, N.Y. I Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y. I A magnetic data storage system. 2,845,611 I Frederic C. Williams, Oakhurst, Romiley, Eng. I National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. I A digital storage system. August 5, 1958: 2,846,141 I Roy Bailey, Woolhampton, and Gerhard Liebmann, Aldermaston, Eng. I Sunvic Controls Limited, London, Eng. I An electrical analogue computing apparatus. 2,846,593 I Eugene A. Sands, Mount Kisco, N.Y. I - - I A logical computing element. August 12, 1958: 2,847,161 I Alexander Greenfield, Detroit, Mich. I Bendix Aviation Corp., Detroit, Mich. I A counting circuit. 2,847,568 I Julian A. Saucedo, Covina, Calif. I Hoffman Electronics' Corp., a Corp. of Calif. I A distance digital display circuit arrangement. 2,847,615 I Douglas C. Engelbart, ,0akland, Calif. I Digital Techniques, ~nc., Berkeley, Calif. I A memory device. 2,847,658 I Francis V. Adams, Endicott, N.Y. I International Business Machines Corp., New York, N.Y. I A drum storage look-up device. August 19, 1958: 2,848,160 I Ben Biderman, Cedar Rapids, Iowa I Collins Radio Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa I A trigonometric computing apparatus. 2,848,161 I Harry J. Woll, Audubon, N.}. I R.C.A., a Corp. of Del. I An analogue multiplication device. 2,848,532 I Robert L. Weida, Elmhurst, N.Y. I Underwood Corp., New York N.Y. I A data processor. 2,848,605 I Saul Kuchinsky, Phoenixville, Pa. I Burroughs Corp., Detroit, Mich. I An analogue-to-digital conversion using cathode ray sampler to control a cathode ray coder. 2,848,670 I Leroy U. S. Kelling and Lawrence R. Peaslee, Schenectady, N.Y. I General Electric Co., a Corp. of New York I An Automatic programming servomotor control system. 2,848,709, 1 Curtis M. Jansky, New York, and Arthur W. Vodak, Garden City, N.Y. I Sperry Rand Corp., a Corp. of Delaware I A digital data storage circuit. August 26, 1958: 2,849,181 I Jules Lehmann, Trenton, N.}. I R.C.A., a Corp. of Del. I A time-division computing device. 2,849,183 I John H. Kuck, Silver Spring, Md. I U.S.A. as represented by the Secretary of the Navy I An analyzer for plotting the probability of the occurrence of a given amplitude in an electrical wave. 2,849,184 I Arden H. Fredrick, Mount Kisco, and John W. Gray, Pleasantville, N.Y. I General Precision Lab., Inc., a Corp. of N.Y. I A navigational system wind computer. 2,849,704 I Glyn A. Neff, Pasadena, Calif. I Consolidated Electrodynamics Corp., Pasadena, Calif. I A data processing system. 2,849,705 I Munro K. Haynes, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. I I.B.M. Corp., New York, N.Y. I A multidimensional high speed magnetic element memory Matrix. 2,849,706 I Charles L. Hamblin, London, Eng. I General Electric Co., Lim., London, Eng. I An electronic circuit for deriving a voltage proportional" to the logarithms of the magnitude of a variable quantity. Sept. 2, 1958: 2,850,236 I David H. Schaefer, Wash., D.C., and Donald G . Scorgie, Pittsburgh, Pa. I U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of the Navy I A polarity sensitive analogue divider. 2,850,237 I Gordon C. Irwin, Fair Haven, N.J. / Bell Telephone Lab., Inc., New York, N.Y. I A number scanning circuit. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 IN THE COMPUTER FIELD WHO? WHAT? WHERE? • Answers, Basic Source Information, Available to You from COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION PEOPLE: Mailing plates for over 18,500 computer people. We address your envelopes. $19.00 per M ORGANIZATIONS: The Computer Directory and Buyers' Guide, 1958 (the June, 1958, issue of COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION): 740 organization listings, 3220 product and service listings. $6.00 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS: Over 480 careful, clear, understandable definitions. 4th cumulative edition. (20 or more copies, 10% discount.) $1.00 BACK COPIES: (For seven years of publication.) If available, $1.25 each, except Directory issues June 1955 to 1957, $4.00 each; June, 1958, $6.00. SUBSCRIPTIONS: U.S.A. one year $5.50; two years $10.50; add 50c per year for Canada, $1.00 per year elsewhere. BULK SUBSCRIPTIONS: These rates apply to prepaid subscrip. tions to COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION coming in together direct to the publisher. BULK SUBSCRIPTION RATES (U nited States) Number of Simultaneous Subscriptions Rate for Each Subscription, and Resulting Saving: One Year Two Years 7 or more 4 to 6 $4.20,24% $7.25,31% 4.60, 16 8.00, 24 5.00, 9 8.80, 16 3 2 5.25, 5 9.55, 9 For Canada, add 50 cents for each year; outside of the United States and Canada, add $1.00 for each year. Send prepaid orders or requests for more information to: COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION 815 Washington St., Newtonville 60, Mass. If not satisfactory, returnable in seven days for full refund. 2,850,667 / Frederic C. Williams, Romiley, Eng. / National Research Development Corp., London, Eng. / An apparatus for storing binary digits. 2,850,719 / Richard J. LaManna, Orange, N.J. / Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Orange, N.]. / A data entering means for storage devices . Sept. 9, 1958: 2,851,219 / Luther W. Hussey, Sparta, N.]. / Bell Telephone Lab., Inc., New York, N.Y. / A serial adder for adding successive pairs of binary digi ts. 2,851,220 / Richard E. Kimes, Concord, Calif. / Beckman Instruments, Inc., South Pasadena, Calif. / A transistor counting circuit for counting electric pulses. Sept. 16, 1958: 2,852,191 / Howard A. Lazarus, Brooklyn, N.Y. / Reeves Instrument Corp., New York, N.Y. / A circuit for computing the cosine of the angular position of a shaft. 2,852,764 / Donald MeL. Frothingham, Darien, Conn. / Barnes Bngineering Co., Stamford, Conn. / A data conversion system. Sept. 23, 1958: 2,853,234 / Roger R. Dussine Paris Fr. / Societe d'Electronique et d'Autdmatisme, Courbevoie, Fr. / An electronic digital adder-subtractor computer device. 2,853,235 / John F. Brinster, Homer M. Hill, Jr., and Erwin Donath, Princeton, N.]. / Applied Science Corp. of Princeton, Princeton, N.]. / A binary digit multiplier circuit for USe in digital computers. 2,853,238 / Robert R. Johnson, Pasadena, Calif. / Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. / A binary-coded flip-flop counter. 2,853,357 / Alfred W. Barber, Flushing, N.Y. / John T. Potter, Locust Valley, N.Y. / A pulse packing system for magnetic recording of binary coded information. 2,853,697 / Sheldon D. Silliman, Forest Hills, and Willard A. Derr, Pittsburgh, Pa. / Westinghouse Electric Corp., East Pittsburgh, Pa. / A logic-element decimal register. 2,853,699 / Stephen]. O'Neil, Lexington, Mass. / U.S.A. as represented by the Sec. of the Air Force / A digital-toanalogue shaft position transducer. Sept. 30, 1958: 2,854,191 / Gordon Raisbeck, Basking Ridge, N.J. / Bell Telephone Lab., Inc., New York, N.Y. / An apparatus for computing the correlation of two signals. 2,854,~18 / William W. Pharis, Rochester, New York / General Dynamics Corp., Rochester, N.Y. / A digit adding selector. 2,854,573 / James E. Fernekees, Wappingers Falls, N.Y. / International Business Machines Corp., New York, N.Y. / An electronic storage device employing a phantastion with arrangement for gating synchronizing pulses. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 Data Processing Engineers To Maximize Intercept Performance with General Electric SAMPLE PROBLEM: Determine the optimum detection criteria for a particular class of radar target. Examine the potentials for basic information in the applicable class of radars. Specify the logical criteria for the design of a data processing system to utilize the chosen class of radar against the particular target. Intercept Data to be Evaluated Increases Geometrically with Increasing Target Speeds • As target speeds enter the hypersonic region, necessitating proportionate increases in radar range, a rising Hood of target information demands split-second evaluation - data link transmission and conversion into forms useful for tactical decision making. Are you interested in the problems of applying non-classical approaches to achieve a new order of systems capabilities critically needed? If so, you are invited to look into the many opportunities open now on a diversity of projects in: Display Systems ** 3-D Large Screen Display Systems * Digital Detector Trackers * Air Traffic Control Systems * Environments Integrated Air Defense Positions at Several Levels Write to: M}"~~eo~ge~. <::allender, Div: 21-MC Heavy Military Electronics Dept. GENERAL. ELECTRIC Court Street, Syracuse, New York 33 WHO'S WHO IN THE COMPUTER FIELD (Supplement) A full entry in the "Who's Who in -the Computer Field" consists of: name / title, organization, address / interests (the capital letters of the abbreviations are the initial letters of Applications, Business, Construction, Design, Electronics, Logic, Mathematics, Programming, Sales) / year of birth, college or last school (background), year of entering the computer field, occupation / other information such as distinctions, publications, etc. An absence of information is indicated by - (hyphen). Other abbreviations are used which may be easily guessed like those in the telephone book. Every now and then a group of completed Who's Who entry forms come in to us together from a single organization. This is a considerable help to a compiler, and we thank the people who are kind enough to arrange this. In such cases, the organization and the add~ess are represented by . . . (three dots). Following are several sets of such Who's Who entries. Bendix Aviation Corp., Systems Division, 3300 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. Becher, William D / Staff Engr, . . . / DL / '29, Tri-State Call, V of Mich, '58, engr / Member of IRE Buzzard, Robert D / Engr, . . . / A / '26, MIT, San Diego State Call, '53 Dye, Robert H / Staff Engr, . . . / AL / '29, V of Mich, '53 / Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, co-author of VMRI Tech Rpt #79 Gordon, David George / Staff Engr, . . . / DL / '34, Case Inst of Tech, '58, engr Gildner, Gilbert G / Staff Engr, . . . / ADL / '32, Mich ColI of Mining & Tech, '57, elecncs engr (data procg) Johnston, George A / . . . / AD / '31, Nwn V, '56, engr Collins, Arthur B / ... / ACEDL / '29, Mich State V, '53 Kloosterm:!n, James L / Staff Engr, . . . / ALP / '33, Western Mich V, '55 Loughray, Jr, Bruce / Data Procg Proj Engr, . . . / ACEDL / '29, Vniv of Conn, '52 Potter, William H / Engr, ... / EMDL / '22, Ind Vniv, V of Mich, '52 5 me Data Bloc • Data-Pac Versatile, High-Speed digital building blocks for data handling, data conversion systems ... special purpose counters ... process cont~ol and automation ... laboratory research and test equipment. NMR instrumentation, electromagnets and power supplies, error signal comparator ... digital components. HARVEY.WELLS ELECTRONICS, INC. Research and Development Division 5168 WASHINGTON ST., WEST ROXBURY 32, MASS. 34 Smith, James F / . . . / MP / '29, Sou'n Methodist Vniv, '58 Van Valkenburg, E S / Head, Data Procg & Display Dept, . . . / ACDL / '23, V of Mich, '47, engr Computer Control Co., 2251 Barry Ave., Los Angeles 64, Calif. Alexander, James C / Head of Autom Prgmg, . . . / AMP /' '30, Vniv of Wash, '55, Sr Prgmr Arnold, Dorothy E / Head, WLA Math Gp, . . . / CDMPS / '22, Vniv of Ariz, '53, mathn Baugh, Harold W / Sr Proj Engr, . . . / AELM / '24, CIT, '51, elecnc engr Baumer, William E / Asst Engr, " / CDEL / '29, VCLA, '56, engr Brathwaite, Louis K / Analyst, . , / AMP / '27, NYV Grad Sch, '54, mathn Brinckerhoff, Frank E / Prgmr, . . . / AMP / '32, Vniv So Cal, '56, mathn Coker, Louise / Mathn Prgmr, . . . / MP / - , VCLA, '55, mathn Dyer, James / Analyst, . . . / MP / '21, VCLA, '52, mathn Fairbrother, Edward M / Prgmr, . . . / MP / '29, VCLA, '56, mathn Frieden, Howard / Mathn-Prgmr, . / LMP / '35, Vniv of Chi, '54, mathn Giese, Gerald J / Prgmr, .'. . / AMP / '34, Ariz State at Tempe, '~6, mathn Holden, Louise / Prgmr, ... / P / '0.5, Nwn Vniv, Evanston, Ill, '54, prgmr Holguin, Raul E / Prgmr, ... / MP / '28, VCLA, '53, prgmr Kampe, Elza M / Prgmr, . . . / MP / '16, Vniv of Mich, '54, mathn Kosinski, Walter J / Math Sales Mgr, . . . / ABCDELMPS / '31, Vniv of Conn, VCLA, '54, mathn McMillan, Malcolm C / Analyst, . . . / LMP / '27, VCLA, '55, mathn Nickols, Alexander / Prgmr, ... / AMP / '32, VCLA, '54, mathn Rawl, Wilfred E / Mathn, . . . / MP / '27, Ind Vniv, USC, UCLA, '52, mathn Ritland, Lloyd 0 / Head, CCC Math Gp, . . . FMP / '06, VCLA, '56, prgmr Skidmore, John W / Prgmr, . . . / MP / '05, Case Inst of Tech, '57, mathn Spargur, Janet L / Compr Operator, ... / ALMP / '27, LA Jr Call, '56, compr . operator Sprong, D C / Head, Engrg Dept, . . . / CDEL / '09, VCLA, '48, engr Stockmal, Frank / Head, Math Dept, ... / AMP / '21, Univ of Rochester, '51, mathn Wesley, Louis W / Compr Analyst, . . . / MP / '20, Vniv of Minn, '42, mathn Wiegert, Samuel C / Prgmr, . . . / MP / '29, Iowa St Teach Call, '55, mathn Remington Rand Univac, Div. of Sperry Rand Corp., Univac Park, St. Paul 16, Minn. Callahan, James I / Prod Planner ... / COMPUTERS and AVTOMATION for March, 1959 Call on Clevite's Computer Know-How ABDPS / '29, Wm & Mary, Univ of Ill, '56, prod planner Clamons, Eric H / Mgr, New Products · . . / ABMP / '19, Univ of Minn, ,48, mech engr, mathn Cramer, John B / Mathn, . . . / ABP / '23, Univ of Colo, '50, mathn Dyal, J 0 / Head, Prod Proposal Sec · . . / planning computer products / '25, Univ of N C, '49, physicist Ericksen, Gerald L / Mathn, . . . / A / '31, Univ of Minn (M.A.), '54, prod planning Higgins, Jr., Leo J (Aplcns Analyst, . . . / ABP / '24, Univ of Wisc (BBA '51), '56. accountant (prior to computers) / Phi Beta Kappa, Beta Gamma Sigma Hildreth, Dalton L / Aplns Analyst,. . . / ABP / '21, Univ of Ill, '56, accountant Holston, Alfred A / Systems Analyst, ... / AP, air traffic contr systems / '20, N Tex State ColI, '56, analyst Jarvis, Donald T / Supvr, Systems Re- ;u~~~~~ ;e~22~~ni~r~~ ~~~~, ·'56: Ke:;et:'~aVid E / Supvr, New Prod Dept · .. / ABD / '23, Univ of Va, '49, prod planning Lunger, George F / Staff Consultant, ... / ABDELMP / '18, Univ of Mich, '56, mathl statn / "Theory of Queens" publ • by Univac Div; co-author of two papers on lake trout fisheries Rennacker, Harvey E / Mgr, Planning Support Dept, . . . / prod planning of new prod & modifns to current products / '23, US Naval Acad, '54, elecl engr Sampson, Lewis H / Aplns Analyst, ... / ABDELMP / '27, Univ of Minn, '56, aplns analyst The Datics Corporation, 6000 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas Austin, Kenneth L / Pres, ... / ABDELMPS / '25, Univ of Okla, '50, mgt of compr svc orgn Ergle, John L / Datatician, . . . / A / '29, Georgia Tech, '55, chern engr Marotta, Anthony F / Dir of Data Proc Svcs, . . . / ABMP / '30, Texas Christian Univ, '56, Dir, Data Proc Svcs / Journal of Petroleum Technology, Oil & Gas Journal, Ninth Oil Recovery Conference at Texas A&M McIntire, Robert L / Vice Pres, . . . / AP / '24, Purdue & Iowa State, '50, registered engr / 20 patents in field of engrg and papers in tech journals Medwedeff, Marion C / Datatician, / APS, engrg / '29, Lamar State Call of Tech, '56, campr prgmr Roberts, Cloyd M / Ch of Opns, . . . / A / '27, Texas A&M, '56, ch of opns Schneider, John C / Datatician, . . . / MPS, engrg, stat analysis / '28, St. Edward's Univ, '53, data proc engr Titt, Mrs La Veta / Statistician, . . . / M, statistics, engrg / '06, Univ of Chic & Univ of Md, '53, mathl statn Vinson, Jon A / Datatician, ... / AMPS, engrg probs / '29, Centenary ColI of La, ;55, mathn NEW Low-Nol.se Memory Drum . Drive · This stainless steel belt drive was developed to reduce the noise of instantaneous speed variations and backlash inherent in gear drives. In actual tests with FM recorded data, the noise level was four to six decibels lower than the finest gear drives available for comparison. Signal-to-noise ratios of over 60 db (with noise cancella,tion) have been measured. Unusually durable, this stainless steel belt drive holds its low noise level for years. While this drive is! for a specialpurpose magnetic memory drum, similar drives can be designed for any memory drum or tape transport. This precision component is just one example of the specialized engineering and production skills to be found at Clevite, Texas Division. We are producing complete analog computer systems with an overall accuracy of 1 part in 6000. We are also equipped to design and build sub-systems and computer-controlled servosystems to any specification. If you want to know more about us and what we can do, just write. We will be glad to send you our brochure describing facilities or arrange for an appointment at your convenience. Clevite Corporation, Texas Division, 9820 South Main Street~ Houston 25, Texas Other Divisions of Clevite Corporation serving industry and defense: Brush Instruments • Cleveland Graphite Bronze • Clevite Electronic Components • Clevite Harris Products • Clevite limited • Clevite Ordnance • Clevite Research Center • Clevite Transistor Products • Intermeta II G.m.h.H. COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 CLEVITE CORPORATION T EX A S DIVISION 35- COMPUTER SPECIALISTS GROW PROFESSIONALLY WITH .BURROUGHS Burroughs Corporation, ElectroData Division, has just completed the most successful sales year in its five-year history. In this dynamic, youthful organization new opportunities are constantly arising. For professionals who seek the advantages of a completely computer-centered company, in all its aspects, ElectroData Division has much to offer. Openings exist in Pasadena in Product Planning, Applied Programming, Publications and Training, and in scientific and commercial applications .. In the field, throughout the U. S., there are openings for Application and Programming Specialists who are interested in being part of a sales operation, with all its variety, excitement and rewards. If you feel you can meet the standards of this quality-conscious organization, and if you want to participate personally in one of the most stimulating business dramas of the 20th century, contact the nearest Burroughs-ElectroData -office-or write to Professional . Personnel Director in Pasadena. Burroughs Corporation ElECTRODATA DIVISION PA SAD E N A,C A l IF 0 R N I A "NEW DL'tfENSIONS! in eleclronicJ and dala prOO'JJing .!,YJtem,s" 36 General Electric Company, Evendale Computations Building 305, Cincinnati 15, Ohio Allison, M H / Mgr, Automatic Test Data Procg Unit, . . . / P / '26, Ohio State Un iv, '57, Bailey, Barbara Wells / Numerical Analyst, . . . I LP I '32, Goucher Col--~ lege (B.A. Physics), '54, prgmr Baker, J M / Automatic Test Data Redn Analyst, ... / P, Testing Area of Data Reduction / '26, Hanover Colleg':!, '55 Banan, Frederick B / Mgr, Compr Techniques Devt, . . . / P. Opernl Systems / '14, Worcester Poly Inst, '56, Bartlett, Jan C / Systems Devt Analyst, . . . LMP, Systems / '32, Univ of Cincinnati, '56, 704 systems devt Booher, W L / Numerical Analyst, .. , / ALMP / '28, Purdue Univ, '58 Campbell, Donald J / Math Compns Analyst, ... / LMP / '33, Univ of Mich, '56, prgmr Caplan, L N / Bus Systems Analyst, / ABLMP / '3D, Carnegie Tech, '55, bus systems analyst / "Orgn of Scientific Compg Installations" in "Computers and Automation" Carr, George J / Mgr, Thermodynamics & Performance Compns, . . . / AMP / '32, Villa Madonna ColI; Univ of Cincinnati, '55, mathn Clarks, Dorothea S / Automatic Coding Analyst, . . . / Systems & Automatic Coding Devt I '21, Hiram College, '53 Cruickshank, Robert D / statl analyst, ... / AM / '31, AB, Oberlin College, '57, mathn, statn Donovan, David P / Mgr Compns Facilities, . . . / BP / '24, Univ of Cincinnati, Earner, George E / Thermodynamics Compns Analyst, . . . / LMP / '3~, Miami Univ, Oxford, Ohio, '58 - / MA Thesis on "Applications of the Fields of Integers, Modulo P, to the Fermat Problem" Entzminger, Thomas A / Thermodynamics Compns Analyst, . . . / LMP / '26, Va State ColI '57 Erickson, Daryth Y / Prgmr, ... / AMP / '36, Colo ColI, '56, prgmr Hahn, Donald J / Thermodynamic Compns Specialist, .. , AMP / '31, Univ of Cincinnati, '54, Holt, Roy Vincent / Engrg Systems Compns Analyst, . . . / AM / '26, Ohio State Univ, '52, math I analyst Hunter, William Heber / Automatic Test Data Procg Analyst, . . . / ALMP / '35, Ohio Un iv, '58 Kuzirian, James H / Automatic Test Data Procg Analyst,. . / AP, test and tech data' procg / '33, Wayne State Univ, '57 Marlette, Lora Lee / Prgmr, ... / AMP / '32, Hanover ColI, Xavier Univ, '58, prgmr Robertson, Yancey V / Prgmr, . . . / AMP / '34, Georgetown ColI, '55, prgmr Schatz, Vernon L / Mgr, Bus Systems Aplns, . . . / AB / '21, Iowa State ColI, '57. engrg / Registered Engr, Ohio Member SAE Schneider, Martha May / Numerical Analyst, ... / MP / '34, Univ of Ky, '56, numerical analyst WHO'S WHO IN THE COMPUTER FIELD Each year we like to bring up to date our "Who's Who in the Computer Field." We are currently asking all computer people to fill in the following Who's Who Entry Form, and send it to us for their free listing in the Who's Who that we publish from time to time in Computers and Automation. We are often asked questions about computer peopleand if we have up to date information in our file, we can answer those questions. If you are interested in the computer field, please fill in and send us the following Who's Who Entry Form (to avoid tearing the magazine, the form may be copied on any piece of paper). Name? (please print) ................................... . Your Address? .................................................. . Your Organization? ....................................... Its Address? ........................................................... . Your Title? ............................................................ Your Main Computer Interests? ( ) Applications ( ) Business ( ) Construction ( ) Design ( ) Electronics ( ) Logic ( ) Mathematics ( ) Programming ( ) Sales ( ) Other (specify): Year of birth? ...................................................... College or last school? ................._.............. Year entered the computer field ?......... Occupation? ..................................._.......... _.......... . Anything else? (publications, distinctions, etc.) ........................................._.......... . ...................................-..................................... _........................... . .........................................._....................................-................. . When you have filled form please send it to: Editor, Computers and 815 Washington Str~et, 60, Mass. in this entry Who's Who Automation, Newtonville COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 MANUSCRIPTS WE ARE interested in articles, papers, reference information, and discussion relating to computers and automation. To be considered for any particular issue, the manuscript should be in our hands by the first of the preceding month. ARTICLES: We desire to publish articles that are factual, useful, understandable, and interesting to many kinds of people engaged in one part or another of the field of computers and automation. In this audience are many people who have expert knowledge of some part of the field, but who are laymen in other parts of it. Consequently, a writer should seek to ex· plain his subject, and show its context and significance. He should define urifamiliar terms, or use them in a way that makes their meaning unmistakable. He should identify unfamiliar persons with a few words. He should use examples, details, comparisons, analogies, etc., whenever they may help readers to understand a difficult point. He should give data supporting his argument and evidence for his assertions. We look particularly for articles that explore ideas in the field of computers and automation, and their applications and implications. An article may certainly be controversial if the subject is discussed reason ably. Ordinarily, the length should be 1000 to 3000 words. A suggestion for an article should be submitted to us before too much work is done. TECHNICAL PAPERS: Many of the foregoing requirements for articles do not necessarily apply to technical papers. Undefined technical terms, unfamiliar assumptions. mathematics, circuit diagrams, etc., may be entirely appropriate. Topics interesting probably to only a few people are acceptable. REFERENCE INFORMATION: We desire to print or reprint reference information: lists, rosters, abstracts, bibliographies, etc., of use to computer people. We are interested in making arrangements for systematic publication from time to time of such information, with other people besides our own staff. Anyone who would like to take the responsibility for a type of reference information should write us. NEWS AND DISCUSSION: We desire to print news, brief discussions, arguments, announcements, letters, etc., anything, in fact. if it is not advertising and is likely to be of substantial interest to computer people. PAYMENTS: In many cases, we make small token payments for articles and papers, if the author wishes to be paid. The rate is ordinarily Yzc a word, the maximum is $15, and both depend on length in words. whether printed before, whether article or paper, etc. All suggestions, manuscripts, and inquiries about editorial material should be addressed to: The Editor, COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION, 815 Washington Street, Newtonville 60, Mass, Stephens, Garnett L / Mathl Compns Analyst, . . . / ALMP / '31, Univ of Ky, ' 56, mathn Toth, Fred C / Prgmr, . . . / ABLMP / '34, Univ of Cincinnati, '57 Trenkamp, Paul J / Engine Performance Compns Analyst, . . . / LMP / '3~, Villa Madonna College, '55 Tumbusch, James J / Specialist, Statl Aplns, . . . / AM / '29, Univ of Dayton, Purdue Univ, '56, statn Vollenweider, Mrs. Deborah B / Reactor Compns Analyst, . . . / LMP / '33, Wellesley ColI, Univ of Cincinnati, '55 Watson, Doneley H / Mechanics Compns Analyst, ... / AMP, astronomy / '29, Omaha Univ, Indiana Univ, Univ of Cincinnati, '55, mathl analyst / Cincinnati Engrg Society, many pubns on prgmg, etc. Watson, Flora J / Part-Time Compr Prgmr, . . . / MP, astronomy / '28, Hunter College, Indiana Univ, '50, analysis prgmg / Sigma-Xi Williams, Gregory P / Compr Aplcns Specialist, . . . / AMP, stat / '26, Columbia ColI, '54Woldstad, Carole / Numerical Analyst, ... / P / '34, Univ of Mich, '57, mathn U. S. Navy, Electronic Supply Office Building 3500, Great Lakes, Ill. ' Adams, Alexander / Program Branch Head . . . / PO / '21, Newark ColI, Univ of Ala, '56, compr prgmg Alexander, Clarence 0 / Supt Compr Prgmr . . . / ABLPO / '27, Met Sch of Music, '56, Syst Analyst, prgmg Clark, Betty J / Compr Prgmr, . . . / P / '24, Ohio State Univ, Wilberforce Univ, '57, prgmr Copeland, James L / Compr Prgmr / LP / '32, Lake Forest ColI, '56, prgmr Hayes, Lucy A / Compr Prgmr . . . / P / '24, Univ of Wyo, 56, prgmr Johnson, June M / Compr Prgmr . . . / - / '27, Wright Jr ColI, '56, prgmr Keddie, Clifford M / - , ... / ABLMPS / '25, Western Mich Univ, '56, prgmranalyst Kollman, Robert C / compr prgmr ... / ACDELP / '24, - , '57, prgmr Kula, Walter A / compr prgmr . . . / ALP / '26, - , '57, prgmr Leszko, Nick J / Supervisory Compr Prgmr ... / ABELP / '28, Lane Tech, '56, prgmr Lillehamer, Arne M, Jr. / Compr Prgmr ... / ABLMP / '29, Wisc State Teacher's ColI, '57, prgmr Matoushek, Edith / Compr Prgmr, Integrated Data Procg Div . . . / BP / '22, Univ of Chi, '55, prgmr Niemann, Clifford R / Asst Dir, Integrated Data Proc Div ... / AB / '18, Univ of Chicago, '55, systems devt analyst Olmer, Jane / Staff Mathn, . . . / BMP / '12, Wellesley ColI, Sorbonne, Ecole libre des Sciences Politiques, Wash Univ, '56, Mathn, Res Prgmr / Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Pi Mu Epsilon Paul, John William / Compr Prgmr, . . . / GMP / '26, Cath Univ of Amer, '56, economist, prgmr COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 Send us your entrtes and your advertising orders for THE COMPUTER DIRECTORY AND BUYERS' GUIDE 1959 5th Annual Issue, the only directory in the computer field, the June 1959 issue of Computers and Automation CONTENTS: Part 1, ROSTER OF ORGANIZATIONS. Each entry gives: Name of your organization / Ad/ Telephone number / Types of computers, data processors, accessories, components, services, etc., that you produce or offer / Approximate number of your employees / Year your organization was established dre~s (The 1958 directory had over 740 organization entries) Part 2, BUYERS' GUIDE: ROSTER OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. Each expanded boldface entry gives: Name or identification of product or service / Brief description (20 to 50 words) / Uses / Price range, between ... and ... / Heading., under which it should be listed (The 1958 directory had over 3200 product and service entries in total) The 1959 Computer Directory will close for entries April 15 and for advertising May 10. Ordinary entries are condensed and are FREE. Boldface, expanded entries cost $10 each, except that if you take display advertising (one page black and white, $330; 1/6 page, $80; . . . . ) you receive a certain number of expanded bold-face entries free. MAIL THIS COUPON (or a copy of it) To: Directory Editor, Computers and Automation 815 Washington St., R140, Newtonville 60, Mass. ( ) We enclose our entries for the 1959 Computer Directory. ( ) Please send us more information about the 1959 Computer Directory. Name ................,............ Title.............. Organization ...................................... Address ................................•............. 37 Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Ave., Columbus 1, Ohio Belzer, Jack / Consultant, ... / ABLMP / '10, Cooper Union, '40, engr-mathn / Publns: many articles on Computer Applications, including Astronomy, Thermodynamics, Mathematics, Engineering; also various tables in book form Boyd, Roger S / Prine Physicist, . . . / AL, nuclear-reactor simulation / '31, Ohio State Univ, '56, physicist / licensed to operate Battelle Research Reactor Fletcher, B L / Prine Physicist, . . . / AP / '22, Ohio State Un iv, '56, physicist Gordon, Ben / Proj Leader, ... / ADE, pertaining to analog comprs / '26, Ohio State Univ, '55, elect! engr Hulbert Lewis E / Prine Mathn, . . . / MP '24, Ohio State Un iv, '52, mathn Jenkinson, George H / Proj Leader, . . . / ADEL / '21, Marshall ColI, '47, engr / publn "Communicating with Computers" King, Rolland D / Proj Leader, . . . / CDEL / '29, Otterbein CoIl, '54, proj leader in systems engrg Kuhn, George R / Prine Mathn, . . . / AMP / '32, Ohio State Univ, St. Louis Univ, '56, mathn Nealeigh, Thomas R / Prine Mathn, . . . / AMP / '25, Ohio State Univ, '55, mathn Pritsker, A. Alan B. / Proj Leader, . . . / ABLM / '33, Columbia Univ, Ohio State Univ, '55, engr - both electl and indusl publns: "Evaluation of Microfilm as a Method of Book Storage," "Simulation to Obtain a Systems Measure of an Air Duel Environment" Smith, Richard L / Prine Engr, . . . / i ALMP / '33, Ohio State Univ, '52, indus engr Solomon, Josef G / Prine Mathn, . . . / ALMP / '31, Ohio State Univ, '56, mathn-physicist Positions are open for computer engineers capable of making significant contributions to advanced computer technology. These positions are in our new Research Center at Newport Beach, California, overlooking the harbor and the Pacific Ocean - an ideal place to live. These are career oppormnities for qualified engineers in an intellectual environment as stimulating as the physical surroundings are ideal. Qualified applicants are invited to send resumes, or inquiries, to Mr. L. R. Stapel, Aeronutronic Systems, Inc., Box NE486, Newport Beach, California. Telephone KImberly 5-9421. Positions Open: Systems Engineers Logical Designers Magnetic Memory Engineers Communications Engineers Digital Computer Programmers Circuit Engineers Mechanical Engineers Following is the index of advertisements. Each item contains: Name and address of the advertiser / page number where the advertisement appears / name of agency if any. Aeronutronic Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Co., 1234 Air Way, Glendale, Calif. / Page 38 / Honig-Cooper, Harrington & Miner Bendix Aviation Corp., Computer Div., 5630 Arbor Vitae St., Los Angeles, Calif. / Page 17 / Shaw Advertising Inc. C. P. Clare & Co., 3101 Pratt Blvd., Chicago 45, Ill. / Page 31 / Reincke, Meyer & Finn Clevite Corp., 9820 S. Main St., Houston 25, Tex. / Page 35 / Rives, Dyke & Co. Di-An Controls, 40 Leon St., Boston 15, Mass. / Page 32/ElectroData Div. of Burroughs Corp., 460 Sierra Madre Villa, Pasadena, Calif. / Pages 28, 36 / Carson Roberts Inc. ESC Corp., 534 Bergen Blvd., Palisades Park, N.J. / Page 5 / Keyes, Martin & Co. General Electric Co., Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Dept., P.O. Box 132, Cincinnati 15, Ohio / Page 39 / Deutsch & Shea, Inc. General Electric Co., Apparatus Sales Office, Schenectady, N.Y. / Page 27 / G. M. Basford Co. Areas of Interest: Computer:; & Data Processors Memory Systems Flight Data Entry Digital Circuit Design Advanced High Speed Computer Systems Storage Units Display Devices Computer Components Solid State Devices AERONUTRONIC ADVERTISING 38 Weissberg, Alfred / Prine Mathn, . . . / M / '28, Univ of N.H., '57, mathn Wetherbee, John K / Div Chief, . . . / ACD / '26, Ohio State Univ, '50, elect! engr IN D E X General Electric Co., Heavy Military Electronics Dept., Court St., Syracuse, N.Y. / Page 33 / Deutsch & Shea, Inc. Harvey-Wells Electronics, Inc., Research & Development Div., 5168 Washington St., W. Roxbury 32, Mass. / Page 34 / Industrial Marketing Associates Lockheed Missiles & Space Div., 962 W. El Camino Real, Sunnyvale, Calif. / Page 30 / Hal Stebbins Inc. Minneapolis - Honeywell Regulator Co., DATAmatic Div., Newton Highlands, Mass. / Pages 21-24 / Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn Philco Corp., Government & Industrial Div., 4700 Wissahickon Ave., Philadelphia 44, Pa. / Page 3 / Maxwell Associates, Inc. Radio Corp. of America, Semiconductor and Materials Div., Harrison, N.J. / Page 40 / Al Paul Lefton Co. Royal McBee Corp., Data Processing Div., Port Chester, N.Y. / Page 8 / C. J. LaRoche & Co. System Development Corp., 2500 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, Calif. / Page 7 / Stromberger, LaVene, McKenzie Technical Op~rations, Inc., Burlington, Mass. / Page 2 / Dawson Macleod & Stivers COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 mathematicians, PHYSICISTS, ENGINEERS, EE, ME The complexity of the mathematical problems involved in the design of a reactor for aircraft nuclear propulsion at General Electric has led mathematicians to develop new techniques in the statistical design of experiments, of interest to both applied scientists and theoreticians. At this time a number of positions are open with groups working on these problems: APPLY advanced mathematical procedures and approaches in resolving diverse and complex problems in areas of aircraft nuclear power plant design and development. Requires experience in utilization and capability of high speed computers. (PhD, JWS) CON DUCT theoretical investigation of the effect of neutrons and photons on matter. (PhD) CARRY OUT engineering analysis of physical systems in electro-mechanical areas, deriving equations associated with systems study I developing generalized digital programs for parametric study. (PhD, JWS) ANALYZE and simulate nuclear powerplant control systems, through the use of analog computers. Develop controls systems integration. (JWS, BS) ALSO - EE with 1 year's experience, to assume operating responsibility for data reduction equipment. Develop data reduction techniques I formulate engineering analysis computer programs. MATHEMATICIANS, ENGINEERS and SCIENTISTS who value the opportunity to do original work with a company that fosters free inquiry and initiative, are invited to inquire about positions now open in the above areas. Please include salary requirements with resume. Write to Mr. P. W. Christos, Div. 21-MC AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION DEPARTMENT GENERAL. ELECTRIC P.O. Box 132 COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for March, 1959 Cincinnati 15, Ohio 39 CAIN-BAND WIDTH PAODUCT (UC) 50 75 Curves illustrate typical delay time per stage vs. gain·bandwidth product and fanout for the switching circuit shown below . +) 0 VOL TS NOTe , A LL RESISTA Nce VALU(S A RE IN OHMS. · S· VOL T ZENER DIODE 2N643 2N644 Minimum gain· bandw id th product" Mc 20 40 60 Minimum co llector-breakdown volts 30 30 30 Minim um DC current tra nsfer rat io" 20 20 Max imum collector capacitance ~lJ.1f == ·Co ll ector Volts -7, collector ma .. • Collector Current 100 ~la == == -5 RCA-2N643 , RCA-2N644 , and RCA-2N645 fe atu re con t roll e d min imum gain-bandwid t h p rodu cts, of 2 0 , 40, and 6 0 Mc RCA continues to pioneer superior-quality semiconductor devices with th e new RCA-2N643, RCA-2N644, and RCA-2N645 "Drift" transistors . These three new units feature controlled minimum gain-bandwidth products permitting the design of extremely high-speed non-saturating switching circuits with rise, fall, and propagation time in the order of 20 millimicroseconds . For your high-speed switching circuits r equiring pulse repetition rates up to 10 Mc, investigate the superior design possibilities and benefits available to you with the new RCA "Drift" transistors-RCA-2N643, RCA-ZN644, and RCA-2N645-hermetically sealed in cases utilizing dimensions of J etec TO-9 outline. Your RCA field representative has complete details. Call him today. For technical data, write RCA Commercial Engineering, Section C-90-NN, Somerville, N . J . RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA Semiconductor and Materials Division Somerville, N. J . RCA Field Offices EAST : 744 Brood Street Newark 2 , N. J. HUmboldt 5·3900 NORTHEAST: 64 ·· A·· Stree t Needham Heig ht s 94, Mass . Hillc re st 4 -7200 EAST CENTRAl..: 714 New Ce nter Bldg., Detroit 2, Mich . TRini ty 5 -5600 CENTR-AL : Suite 1154, Merchandise Ma rt Plaza Chicago 54, III. WHiteha ll 4-2900 WeST : 6355 E. Was hington Blvd. los Angeles 22, Ca lif. RAymo nd 3-8361 GOV '; . 224 N . Wilki nson Street Dayto n, Ohio BAldwin 6 -2366 1625 ··K ·· Street, N.W . We-shi nglon, D. C. District 7- 1260 AVAILABLE , TOO , AT YOUR LOCAL. AUTHORIZED RCA DISTRIBUTOR
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