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June, 1971
Vol. 20, No.6


Who's Who in Data Processing Edition 5, Supplement 1,
Part 1

A Multimedia Approach to
Learning Diagnostic Skills

Organizing for the Computer

I. The Decline - and Possible
Fall - of Constitutional Democracy
in America

The National Crime Information
Center (NCIC) ofthe FBI:
Do We Want It?









lOS Sf



The Most Important of All Branches of Knowledge
(Based on the editorial in the April 1971 issue of Computers and Automation)
I t may be that there is a branch of knowledge which is
the most important of all.
If so, I would maintain that it is a subject which used to
have the name "wisdom" but nowadays does not have a
recognized scientific name, or in any college a recognized
department or faculty to teach it. This subject currently is a
compound of common sense, wisdom, good judgment,
maturity, the scientific method, the trained capacity to
solve problems, systems analysis, operations research, and
some more besides. Its earmark is that it is a general
subject, not a special one like chemistry or psychology or
astronautics. Useful names for this subject at this time are
"generalogy" or "science in general" or "common sense,
elementary and advanced".
Many editorials published in "Computers and Automation" have in one way or another discussed or alluded to
this subject:
Examples, Understanding, and Computers / December 1964
The Barrels and the Elephant: Crackpot vs. Pioneer /
May 1965
Some Questions of Semantics / August 1965
Perspective / April 1966
Computers and Scientific Models / May 1967
New Ideas that Organize Information / December
How to Spoil One's Mind - As Well as One's
Computer / August 1968
The Catching of Errors by Inspection / September
Tunnel Vision / January 1969
The Cult of the Expert / May 1969
Computers, Language, and Reality / March 1970
Computers and Truth / August 1970
The Number of Answers to a Question/March 1971
In the editorial "The Cult of the Expert" we offered a
leaflet that belongs in this subject, "Right Answers - A
Short Guide for Obtaining Them". More than 600 readers
asked for a copy; so clearly this subject is interesting to the
readers of C&A.
This subject is related to computers and the computer
field in at least two ways:
First, many of the general principles which this subject
contains can be investigated in experimental or real situations by means of a computer. In fact, far more can be
investigated by computer than can possibly be investigated
by ordinary analytical mathematics.
Second, since computer professionals are in charge of
computing machines, many people consider these professionals responsible for the worthwhileness of the results of
computers. Because of "garbage in, garbage out" , computer
professionals have a responsibility to apply common sense
and wisdom in at least three ways:

Input - in the selection and acceptance of the data
with which they begin;
Processing - in the processing through a system;
Output - in the interpretation and use of the answers.
Then the computerized systems will produce stlong structures that human beings can use and rely on, and not weak
structures which will crash with false information or ridiculous results.
"·C~mputers and Automation" for April 1971 conta~ns an
article, "Common Sense, Wisdom, General Science, and Computers", which deals with this subject. For more than a dozen years I have been studying this subject - ever since I searched in avery large and good public library for a textbook ~m
common sense or wisdom and found none at all. There IS,
however, a great deal of i'nformation to be gathered on this
subject because a large number of great men, ancient, medieval, and modern, have made remarks and comments (usually while talking or writing about something else) that belong
. . .
in this subject.
. The subject of wisdom is partIcularly Important III these
modern days. The subject has been neglected, while special
sciences have been cultivated. Investigators have pursued
the special sciences with the enthusiasm of a child with a
new toy. Specialized science and specialized technology
have rendered our earthly world almost unrecognizable:
All major cities on the planet are only a few hours
apart by jet plane.
Millions upon millions of people who otherwise
would be dead are alive because of miracle drugs,
- thus creating a population explosion;
Nuclear weapons if used can destroy mankind and
civilization in a few hours; etc.
To deal with so many diverse, vast problems we need
wisdom. To use wisdom we should study it.
The staff of "Computers and Automation" have decided
that it is desirable to make the drawers full of information
we have been collecting on this subject more accessible and
more widely distributed. We have decided to publish twice
a month a publication of newsletter type called "The C&A
Notebook on Common Sense, Elementary and Advanced".
For more details, see the announcement on page 3 opposite.
(T1.t e first few issues of the Notebook are free.)
We invite you, our readers, to join us in the pursuit of
this subject, as readers of the Notebook, and as participators with us in the research and study.
Wisdom is a joint enterprise - and truth is not shaped so
that it can fit into the palm of anyone person's hand.



815 Washington St., Newtonville, Mass. 02160 invites your subscription to:

The C&A Notebook on
devoted to research, development, exposition, and illustration of the most
important (or one of the most important) of all branches of knowledge, i.e.,
the subj ect of













~s to old problems

help you (and us and anyboc
prevent mistakes before thE
display new paths around 0]
apply in practical situati(
and wisdom of great scienti!


Edmund C. Berkeley

editorial on

Computers and Automation
815 Washington St., Newtonvilll
'Y and Adva nced" -

Yes, please enter my subscript
( ) as aRE,
Please enroll me~(
) as a PAl
In order to be a participator,
ject of at least 400 words per
dotes, proverbs, etc. (Note:

Itributions to this prolciples, examples, anec;iption of "reasonable

Please send me as free premium
1. Right Answers -- a Sh01


2. The Empty Column
3. The Golden Trumpets of

:the Elephant
Ithe Beard

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San Jose


Public Library


Address (including zip) _______~

Careful usage of books is expected and any soiling
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I No.


Vol. 20, No. 6

June, 1971

and automation

The nwgnziuc of the drsign, opplications. ond im})Zications
of information proccssing systcms.

Edmund C. Berkeley

Assistant Editors

Linda Ladd Lovett
Neil D. Macdonald

Software Editor

Stewart B. Nelson


Bernard Lane

Art Directors

Ray W. Hass
Daniel T. Langdale


John Bennett

Compu ter Professionals

Edition 5, Supplement 1, Part 1, AAG to HOl
Updating information for all three volumes of the fifth
edition, last names beginning AAG to HaL.





Computers and Medicine

Moses M. Berlin
Andrew D. Booth


John W. Carr III
Ned Chapin
Alston S. Householder
Leslie Mezei
Ted Schoeters


Richard E. Sprague



James J. Cryan
-Alston S. Householder
Bernard Quint

by Raymond R. Haggerty
A properly-organized hospital is the key to the installation of
a successful computer system in that hospital.
by Dr. Richard F. Walters
How the ability of the computer to greatly facilitate access to
non-computerized files is being used to help medical students
at the Univ. of Calif. at Davis to develop dragnostic skills.

William J. McMillan

Computers and the Frustratio/l of the Public

Editorial Offices


by Margo
The computer is the "illegitimate lovechild of the devil and an
elephant": "the Victims are tragic characters because they
are helpless-it is well nigh impossible to get a mistaken
computerized bill squared away."


by Edmund C. Berkeley, Editor, Computers and Automation
What is needed is an Ombudsman for the computer industry,
which will take up specific complaints and make sure that the
faulty computer program at issue is actually corrected.

Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St.,
Newtonville, Mass. 02160


Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St.,
Newtonville, Mass. 02160

Computers and Automation is published monthly
(except two issues in June) at 815 Washington
,St., Newtonville, Mass. 02160, by 8erkeley Enterprises, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.
Subscription rates: United States, 11 monthly
issues and two issues in June (one of which
is a directory issue) - $18.50 for 1 year, $36.00
for 2 years; 12 monthly issues (without directory
issue in June)
$9.50 for I yl'M; $18.00 for
2 years. Canada, add SO¢ a YI'M for postage;
foreign, add $3.50 a year for postage. Address
all U.S. subscription mail to: Berkeley Enterprises,
Inc., 815 Washington St., Newtonville, Mass.
02160. Second Class Postage paid ilt Boston, Mass.
Postmaster: Please send all forms 3579 to Berkeley
Enterprises, Inc., 815 Washington SI., Newtonville,
Mass. 02160. (oJ Copyright 1971, by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
Change of address:
If your dddress changes,
please send us both your new ilddrl".~ and your old
address (as it appears on the rllJ9Jzine address
imprint and allow three weeks for the chanrJe to
be made.

Computers and the Law

by Stanley Robinson
An evaluation of the computerized crime information center
currently being implemented through local, state, and national
law enforcement agencies.

Computers and Society:
The Profession of Information Engineer and His Bridges to Society

by Senator J. William Fulbright, Chairman, Senate Foreign
Relations Committee
What the subordination of constitutional process to political
expediency in time of "crisis" is doing to the balance of
power in our government.


by Senator Fulbright
Why the Middle East may provide us with the best opportunity
since World War II to make use of the peacekeeping procedures of the .United Nations and, in so doing, create a
valuable precedent for the resolution of international controversy in the future.


by the Associated Press and by the Editor
Clark Squire, computer programmer, and all other New York
Black Pantherdefendantsacquitted by the jury in three hoursafter over two years of imprisonment without bail under
Judge Murtagh's jurisdiction; and a call for impeachment of
Judge Murtagh for violation of the United States Constitution.

Computers A broad

by Ted Schoeters





Computers, Science and Assassinations
by Bernard Fensterwald, Attorney, Executive Director, National
Committee to Investigate Assassinations
Bolden wanted to tell the Warren Commission about a Chicago
plot to k ill President Kennedy, and was jailed six years on a
framed-up charge for trying to do so;

The Golden Trumpet

by Data Processing Management Association


by Phyllis Little, student, and the Editor


The front cover displays a computer-produced drawing entitled
"Soaring", It was submitted in
1970 by Mr. J. Elenbaas, Technical Service & Development, Dow
Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan
The drawing was programmed
on an IBM 1800 computer and
drawn on aCal Camp 565 plotter.

Computers, Common Scnsc, Wisdom, and General Science


This Month's Coper





Across the Editor's Desk
Education News
Miscell aneou s
Advertising Index
Calendar of Coming
Classified Advertisement
Monthly Computer
New Contracts
New Installations
New Products and


by John Kerry, Chairman, Vietnam Veterans Against the War

Computers and Puzzles

fAl - Article


Numbles, by Neil Macdonald

[El - Editorial


Numbles Honor Roll, by G.P, Peterson

[F] - Readers' Forum


Problem Corner, by Walter Penney, COP

[Gl - The Golden Trumpet
[R] - Reference Information



C- a

The Handwriting on the Wall

Open Letter to All Computer Professionals
Dear Friends,
On the page opposite this one appears a piece entitled
"Computerized" by "Margo" (whoever "Margo" may be) as
printed in the Boston Globe of May 1, 1971.
I draw your attention to this piece because it zeroes in
on three important facets of computers which are generally
ignored by computer professionals:
• The public hatred of the computer. This, of
course, in one sense is silly nonsense, because it
should be hatred of the computer programming
produced by thoughtless, harried, somewhat arrogant human beings who have not done a really
good job of systems analysis.
• Advocacy of ways to make trouble for the computer. This is the opposition of the little man to a
system which is too big for him. This evolves into
passive resistance and sabotage on a large scale.
And eventually this becomes repressive public
• Failure by the Computer Business to provide the
"Computer Victims" with a sensible, effective
procedure to use in solving the problems which
afflict them from the computer.
If I get angry with my local oil delivery company (which
services my home and perhaps a thousand other accounts),
because a section of metal chimney pipe connecting the
furnace to the chimney blew off recently and for two days
(before I found out) oily soot settled on almost everything
in my cellar, then I can telephone "service" in a local call,
and as fast as possible they will take care of my complaint,
which is legitimate, because they want me to continue
buying $400 of fuel oil from them each year as a steady
and satisfied customer, which I have been for a dozen years.
But at present there is nothing sensible I can do when a
head accounJing office for three million accounts in Des
Moines, Iowa, sends me for the third time a wrong bill
produced by a computer. Even if I should try to phone
them long distance, there would not be anybody at the
other end of the phone who could do anything sensible for
me at all. The action I would logically expect is that
someone would write down my complaint, incorrectly, and
then Jose that also into the vast maw of the computer

system, the "illegitimate love-child of the devil and an
When this is the real rub, it is just plain silly to try to
"improve the public relations of the computer" or to
protest spreading the idea among the public that a computer thinks. The trouble is elsewhere.
What is needed is an Ombudsman for the computer
industry - a Ralph Nader Plus Consumer "Ambassador at
the Court of St. James" for the computer field. This person
(or this industry body) will take up specific complaints. He
(or they) will make sure that the faulty computer program
at issue is actually corrected - no matter where it may be.
Then each kind of trouble as revealed by each bug can be
permanently removed from the particular computer system
that produced that particular bug.
This is not impossible. For example, so far as I know,
the computer for American Airlines' reservations does not
make mistakes. I have never been treated badly or wrongly
or mistakenly in regard to'any plane seat reservation I have
ever made with American Airlines. Furthermore, I have
never heard any of my friends or acquaintances complain
about that computerized reservations system.
If the American Airlines computer system can do that
good a job, then almost all other computer systems (that
are not too gigantic) can also. It is not impossible.
The issue reduces to just this question:
• Shall we, as computer professionals, apply common sense now to correct our computer programs
now so that they function properly with due
friendliness and respect for the human beings
affected (coefficient of success to be 99.99%, and
improving)? • Or shall we wait until we are kicked in the teeth
by an aroused public and by repressive legislation?
The handwriting is on the wall. And there are many
ways of implementing the idea of an Ombudsman.
Yours sincerely,

Edmund C. Berkeley
Editor ,
Computers and Automation


by Margo
Wanna know where the computer came from?
It's the illegitimate love-child of the devil and an elephant.
It remembers absolutely everything it's told while showing a steadfast proclivity for bringing out the worst in
The problem with computers is that some of the information they "remember" happens to be incorrect. This
produces bills which have no relation to reality, and people
who get cranky and frustrated.
These people shall hereinafter be called The Victims.
The Victims are tragic characters because they are
helpless. It is well nigh impossible to get a mistaken
computerized bill squared away.
That's because it's so hard to argue with exotic machines. They have hand-welded circuits, but alas, no ears.
When a Victim complains about a computer's mistake,
the grievance will likely be handled by another computer.
I had a secret meeting with a runaway computer expert.
Unable to stand it any longer, he fled in to a repu table line
of work - with people.
To purge his conscience, I suspect, for the years he
provided them with aid and comfort, he confIded to me
some of the ways in which Victims have gotten even with
the classy adding machines.
A computer's Achilles heel, strangely enough, is printed
right on the billions of statements it cranks out: Do Not
Fold, Spindle, or Mutilate.
A computer, you see, cannot cope with the slightest
deviation from the programmed routine. And herein lies the
key to computer retaliation: Do not fold, spindle, or
mutilate ... unless you want to annoy the computer and
whoever is sending you the bill.
A major credit card company has computerized bills
with a series of one's and zero's. Cutting off a few one's

here and a couple of zero's there causes the computer to
undergo an electronic version of indigestion. And then
mechanics with PhD's have to come straighten things out.
Some computerized bills have a stub you are to tear off
and return with your payment. If you are having trouble
getting their attention back there at the old computer center,
and if you should neglect to send back the stub with your
payment and write your account number instead on your
check, 10 and behold, a human being must look everything
up in your account records and refeed it into the computer.
Because this takes manpower and costs money, you
suddenly are noticed.
On bills from some IBM computers, the fIrst and second
rows of punches are meaningless. They are alphabetic
characters which have to do with operating the computer
and not for your particular bill. The following rows stand
for 0, 1, 2, 3, etc.
If the amount you owe is $25, the 2500 row will be
punched out. Some very clever Victims punch a hole here
or there and the computer automatically credits an erroneous amount as the payment.
A word of caution, however. If you do this wrong, the
amount you actually pay will be credited to somebody
else's account.
This procedure has only been undertaken by Victims
possessed of a gambler's instinct and mischievous altruism.
A major gasoline company uses a computer which will
accept payment of as little as a nickel a month. They will
not dun you for six months, because that's how long it
takes their computer to figure out you are in arrears.
Very few live bookkeepers will let you get away with
that. But then they don't have hand-welded circuits.


The foreman of the jury, James Fox, a black musician,
and one of the jurors, Frederick Hills, said that they had
gone into deliberation, "feeling very tense and with little
sense of where other people's minds were at". Each juror
"spoke for about five minutes, feeling each other out", and
the unanimous first ballot resulted.
In addition to eight months of trial the case went through
seven months of pre-trial hearings. Most of the defendants
have been in jail for more than two years.
The prosecution contended that the defendants were part
of a massive terrorist plot for April 1969. Charges against

1. Based on a dispatch by the Associated Press
On May 13, in New York City, thirteen Black Panthers
were acquitted on bombing and murder conspiracy charges
by a jury which agreed on the first ballot.
The jury received the case shortly after 1:00 pm on May
13 after an eight month trial, and deliberated only 3 and
1/2 hours before announcing its verdict, reached unanimouslyon the first ballot.

Reprinted from the Boston Globe, May 1, 1971

(Please turn to page 44 )

"During the development of our long range plans, we traveled to many
hospitals . .. to see an installation that was attacking various parts of the
total computer system with an eye on how it all/it together. This we did not
find. "

Raymond R. Haggerty
William Beaumont Hospital


About four years ago, the Board of Trustees of the
William Beaumont Hospital asked those of us in the
hospital administration to investigate whether the hospital
should become involved with computers. At that time we
had no computer talent or computer equipment. It was
concluded that the first step would be to hire a person with
a computer background and have him prepare a feasibility
study for presentation to the Board of Trustees. The plan,
like most other plans, would contain a timetable of events
spread over ten years, a review of the economics, and an
analysis of the various equipment in the marketplace.
A Search for a Successful Hospital System

During the development of the long range plans, we
traveled to many hospitals, read the literature, and talked
with all the major manufacturers. It was learned that most
manufacturers had studied the industry. They recognized
that hospitals depended quite heavily on communications.
When they talked about the capability of computers and
the needs of the hospitals, they knew their equipment was a
natural fit.
However, hospital after hospital we visited was plagued
with problems, and we were hard pressed to find what we
would classify as a highly successful hospital system. This
does not mean that there were not successful applications.
This was not what we were after. What we wanted to see
was an installation that was attacking various parts of the
total system with an eye on how it all fit together., This we
did not find. Looking back, there seemed to be a number of
reasons for this. Three of the most important were:
1. The equipment manufacturers underestimated the
complexity of the system. Because of this, the
equipment and software did not fulfill the hospital's needs.
2. An attempt to develop communications capabilities at the same time as central processing
capabilities was too much to undertake. Talent
was spread too thin and once the system was in
operation, most of the time was spent keeping it

Raymond R. Haggerty is the Associate Director of
Finance of William Beaumont Hospital, a 700-bed,
full-service community hospital. In 1970 it handled
over 30,000 admissions and over 57,000 emergency
room visits. Mr. Haggerty has been working on the
development of the Hospital's computer system for
four years. He received his M.B.A. from the Uiliv. of
Mich., and is a member of the Data Processing
Committee of the Hospital Financial Management

going rather than moving ahead into other areas.
3. Not enough thought had been given to how the
introduction of computers would affect the institution and the interrelationship of the various disciplines within the institution. As a result, the
financial, operating and medical units were all
developing their own system or systems independent of each other.

Because of these rather broad responsibilities and because of the importance of information to the entire
hospital, determining to whom this department would
report became the next important consideration. Based on
a review of our institution, it was determined that there
were three people to whom the manager could report: the
Hospital Director, the Associate Director of Operations or
the Associate Director of Finance.
In theory, it was our opinion that it would be best to
have the manager report directly to the Hospital Director,
because information processing is so very important that it
deserves that status in the organization. However, it was
also recognized that whoever had that function would have
to devote a considerable amount of attention to the
redesign of the present systems, and the hospital director
just did not have that kind of time available. So the
decision was whether the data processing manager would
report to Operations or Finance. After considerable
thought, it was finally agreed that he would report to the
director of Financial Activity.
There were two primary reasons for this. The first was
that the financial people spend about 80% of their time
accumulating, arranging and reporting information. As a
result they had a feel for what needed to be done. Second,
although the system design encompassed the entire hospital, the Accounts Receivable system was to be' the first
major system planned for installation.

Identifying the Goals for a Better System

From discussions within our own hospital, plus what we
learned while visiting other installations, we arrived at
certain conclusions.
The first was that regardless of the equipment manufacturer finally chosen, the success of the installation would
be directly related to the skills of those hired to develop the
systems and the programs. As a result, when we interviewed
each manufacturer to determine whose equipment we
would use, very little consideration was given to the
packages available.
Second, that there is such a thing as a total hospital
information system. True, it could not be completely
described, but it was there. Just because it was not possible
or practical to install such a system at this time should not
be considered important. Our goal would be a total system.
To that end all equipment (input, data processing, output)
would be evaluated in relationship to other equipment and
the organization would be established to allow for such
determina tions.
Third, the initial installation would have the capacity to
store large amounts of data and would have communications capability.
The Long Range Plan: Compatible Equipment

After six months of review the plan was presented to the
Building Committee;the Finance Committee and the Board
of Trustee~. The Board approved the long range plan and at
the same time established the first and perhaps one of the
more important organizational procedures. That is, they
decided that no individual department or discipline could
install a computer without their approval.
To obtain this approval it would be necessary to prove
the equipment could serve a need and that it fit into the
long range plan. The long range plan, simply stated, was
that the institution would have one central computer for
mass storage and communications. This same machine
would also do some processing; however, the main processing would be accomplished through the use of small special
purpose machines located in the departments. In the beginning these special purpose machines could work independently of the central system, but before placing an
order, it would have to be proven that on-line capability
existed between the specialized equipment and the central
Developing the Organization

With the overall guidelines established, our next important job was to develop an orga!1ization and a communications flow that would involve all those interested in
computers. This was accomplished through the development of a centralized systems and data processing department and the establishment of a data processing committee.
Systems and Data Processing Department
It was decided quite early in the program that if the

Data Processing Department were to succeed, it had to have
the responsibility for the system. This department would
need the opportunity to study and recommend changes in
the flow of data throughout the hospital, including forms
control, input and output devices, numbering systems, and
the review of various methods of patient registration.

Data Processing Committee

It was obvious in reviewing the Systems and Data
Processing organization, its reporting relationship, and its
first assignment, that no matter how much we stated we
were working on total systems, the function would be
related to the Financial Activity. This idea had to be
overcome. It was decided to do this in two ways.
The first was to create a Data Processing Committee.
This committee was made up of doctors plus people from
the financial, operating and data processing activities. The
purpose of the committee was to explore uses for the
computer or for special purpose computers and to recommend new applications or new uses for the programs
already described in the long range plans.
The second was to incorporate an on-line census system
for nursing as part of the accounts receivable system. In
addition, work with the laboratory on an automated system
was undertaken.
Other decisions that were made which helped convince
all we were working on a total system included: computer
training classes for all management personnel, tours of the
computer facility, and having members of the Board of
Trustees, doctors, and data processing personnel attend
seminars or visit at least one installation each year.
In this way all would get to participate in and feel they
were part of the entire program.

Status Report

Since the long range plan was presented to the Board of
Trustees in March of 1968, the following has been accomplished.
Rather than install a computer and build an
organization at the same time, we first developed
the organization, and in January, 1969, contracted
with a service bureau to handle our first applica9

tion, accounts receivable.
In March, 1970, we installed our own equipment,
a Burroughs B-2502, and in August the accounts
receivable system was turned on. At that time we
ended our relationship with the service bureau. In
addition to accounts receivable, a preventive maintenance program, medical record statistics, and
patient origin studies were computerized.
In February, 1971, we began using C.R.T.'s for
inquiry into our accounts receivable files. At this
time, clerical personnel were trained to use these
C.R.T.'s to determine the status of patient
accounts rather than referring to paper files.
Starting in April, 1971, we began parallel operation on census reporting. This will be an on-line
system. New admissions, transfers and discharge
information will come from the Admitting Department. By June it is planned to provide computer
census reporting to all that need to know and to
update the room and board charges from the same
Regarding the medical program, work has been
going on between our Chief of Hematology,
Berkeley Scientific Laboratories and our data
processing people for about a year. We plan to
install a highly automated system before the end
of the year. The laboratory computer and our
central computer can, if it is deemed desirable, go
on-line. For the time being it has been decided to
use the magnetic tapes from the laboratory system
to update our patient/accounts receivable file.
Also, for the foreseeable future, lab results' will go
directly from the laboratory computer to the
patient floor and/or doctors' boxes.
Investigations have begun on communication devices to be installed at the nursing station and in
the ancillary department. Our objective here is not
the ultimate in sophistication. Rather, it is to
secure a device that improves our present position,
works, is economically attractive, easy to operate
and can serve the needs of all. Our objective is to
have equipment installed by year end.

Neil Macdonald
Assistant Editor
Computers and Automation
A "numble" is an arithmetical problem in which: digits
have been replaced by capital letters; and there are two
messages, one which can be read right away and a second
one in the digit cipher. The problem is to solve for the
Each capital letter in the arithmetical problem stands for
just one digit 0 to 9. A digit may be represented by more
than one letter. The second message, which is expressed in
numerical digi ts, is to be transla ted (using the same key)
into letters so that it may be read; but the spelling uses
puns or is otherwise irregular, to discourage cryptanalytic
methods of deciphering.
We invite our readers to send us solutions, together with
human programs or computer programs which will produce
the solutions. This month's Numble was contributed by:
Stuart Freudberg
Newton High School
Newton, Mass.



A = U














Solution to Numble 715

One of the most difficult determinations facing a hospital that wants to become "computerized" is that of
developing the proper organization. The reason it is difficult is that the computer is so useful to all the disciplines in
the institution. If an organization is not developed that
allows all to participate, the danger exists that each will go
his own way. This will cause duplication and will lead to
interpersonnel problems and added costs.
To prevent this from occurring at our hospital, the
Board of Trustees has taken an active interest in all
computerization; we have centralized systems and data
processing, but at the same time encouraged all to participate through the establishment of a data processing committee, the conducting of training sessions and tours, plus
the attendance of all (Board of Trustees members, doctors
and data processing personnel) at seminars.
We feel it has worked for us; we hope our experience
may be of some value to others.

In Numble 715 in the May issue, the digits 0 through 9
are represented by letters as follows:




The message is: Self-trust is the first secret of success.
Our thanks to the following individuals for submitting
their solutions - to Numble 714: Mary E. Brindamour,
West Lynn, Mass.; A. Sanford Brown, Dallas, Texas; Debbie
and Gordon Bruno, Cliffside Park, N.J.; T. P. Finn, indianapolis, Ind.; D. F. Martin, Los Angeles, Calif.; John H.
MacMullen, Eden Prairie, Minn.; and G. P. Petersen, St.
Petersburg, Fla. - Numble 713: Mary E. Brindamour, West
Lynn, Mass. - to Numble 712: Elwood J. Moore, Skokie,
Ill.; and Dan Walther, Beaumont, Texas.

"If a computer retrieval system stores index numbers to separate files, it can
greatly facilitate the access to those files without having to store the files
themselves. It is this approach to computer use in education that offers
exciting possibilities of multimedia instruction without expensive interfacing. "
Dr. Richard F. Walters
Univ. of California
School of Medicine
Davis, Calif. 95616

Description of Approach

The process of differential diagnosis in medicine can be
learned most effectively through practice, preferably with
appropriate feedback for improvement. At the early stages,
a medical student feels more or less helpless to arrive at a
differential diagnosis; as his skill improves, he often seeks a
solution based on limited experience, only to find that he
has not considered other, perhaps more logical alternatives.
Analysis of the student's approach to this learning
process indicates that he relies most heavily on textbook
information about alternative diseases which relate to his
case, and if possible on other cases showing similar signs,
symptoms and etiology. Some aids that can assist the
student include the record room in the hospital, dictionaries of medical diseases, and the experience and advice of
colleagues and preceptors. Once the student has narrowed
his alternatives to a few choices, however, the final differential diagnosis may depend on more'detailed information, involving examination of microscope slides or review
of other information not routinely stored in medical
records. He may also wish to review certain diagnostic
procedures which would help him in his differential
Computers have begun to play an increasingly important
role in education. Beginning with Computer Assisted Instruction (CAl), the capabilities of the computer have been
extended into Computer Managed Instruction,! (CMI) and
Simulation. 2 These approaches extend the computer's
utility by assisting the instructor (CMI) as well as the
learner (Simulation) at key points in the learning process.
Another application in the medical world aids the clinician
in reaching diagnoses in areas such as Acid-Base balance
cases, where diagnosis is based primarily on analysis of
laboratory tests. 3 Another capability of the computer has
been partially explored in certain forms of CAl by addressResearch for the project described in this article was supported in
part by the Univ. of Calif. Regents Grant for Innovative Projects and
by the National Fund for Medical Education.

Dr. Richard F. WaIters is an Assistant Professor of
Medical Education and Human Physiology at the
School of Medicine at the Univ. of Calif. at Davis. His
major research interests include simulation, information systems, and biomedical computer applications.
Dr. Walters was born in Ploesti, Rumania, in 1930. He
received his B.A. from Williams College, his M.A.
from the Univ. of Wyoming, ·and his Ph.D. from
Stanford Univ.

ing pictorial images through random access projectors. 4 ,5 In
this capacity, the computer utilizes "its indexing capacity to
extend well beyond its own image-producing capability.
The computer's utility in an educational setting lies in
two prime capabilities: (1) rapid calculation; and (2) rapid
retrieval of information. The information retrieved need
not, however, be limited to the computer itself. If, for
example, a computer retrieval system stores index numbers
to separate files, it can greatly facilitate the access to those
ftles without having to store the files themselves. It is this
approach to computer use in education that offers exciting
possibilities of multimedia instruction without expensive
The CONSIDER Program

The computer can be used to provide a portion of this
support. A program has been developed elsewhere to permit
a student to retrieve alternative diagnoses through keywords in the Dictionary of Current Medical Terminology.6
With this assistance, a student can be provided a list of all
diagnoses fitting the keyword list he presents to the
program; he can then CONSIDER (the title of the program)
these alternatives and arrive at his own judgement of the
appropriate diagnosis for his case. The information available
to him is limited to a computer-stored dictionary of
keywords supplemented by the hospital records for patients
whose diagnoses might fit the alternatives available.

Dr. Richard F. Walters

Figure 1 - Microfiche Reader


Limitations of CONSIDER

This approach, while extremely useful, offers certain
limitations in cost and utilization. Storage of the entire
patient data base, while useful for other purposes, is
expensive for purposes of this program alone. Storage of
medical records for patients no longer in the hospital
becomes extremely costly, and some alternatives must be
found in order to maintain an adequate file of diagnoses for
student perusal. Furthermore, the cO"mputer-stored information omits additional data such as x-rays, slides, etc.
which may prove helpful in completing the differential
diagnosis. In addition, the student may benefit from consulting a particular reference or reviewing a film illustrating
a characteristic sign of the disease in question. It is at this
point that the computer's capability of indexing information not actually stored in the computer can be used
Auxiliary Information to Aid in Diagnoses

The project in operation at the U.c. Davis School of
Medicine uses a keyword dictionary similar to the CONSIDER program, with the exception that additional diseases
and keywords are added when the clinical faculty deems it
appropriate. The student can list any combination of
keywords, using AND, OR and NOT logic to combine
groups of words; the program then indicates which
diagnoses stored in its memory fit the student's search
criteria. In addition, however, the program also indicates
what auxiliary information is available to the student to
review these diagnoses. The information thus indexed may
include the following:

1. Microfiches of Patient Records. The recent introduction of color microfiches permits storage of
patient charts that can include histologic material,
x-rays, and other information that amplifies the
data normally kept in a patient's chart. These
microfiches are stored in a file box adjacent to the
computer terminal sequenced according to an index number referenced by the computer program.
A microfiche reader (Figure 1) is also situated
adjacent to the computer terminal, permitting the
student to review pertinent records as they are
referenced. An important feature of these charts is
their use of the Problem-Oriented Record 7 which
has been introduced in the pediatric ward of the
Sacramento Medical Center.
2. Microfiched References. Pertinent reference material is also microfiched and stored in the same
file box as the patient records.
3. The Dictionary of Current Medical Terminology.
Rather than store the entire dictionary in computer form, it is placed nearby the student's terminal,
so that he can review this material in book form.
4. Video Tapes. The multidisciplinary carrels at the
School of Medicine's main campus incorporate
television playback monitors hooked to a central
campus facility by special cables. This system is
simulated with video tape playback equipment in
the hospital adjacent to the computer terminal. It
is anticipated that many of these sequences will be
converted to 8 mm cartridges for more convenient
storage as the project gains a greater library of
video-taped sequences.

At present, plans do not call for the incorporation of
other material. However, the system is designed to permit
the introduction of new instructional media as they become
relevant to the acquisition of diagnostic skills. To introduce
a new medium, it will be necessary merely to indicate the
type of medium and access number on the computerized
index system.
Success Depends on Widespread Use

The success of a program of this sort is dependent on its
use by more than one institution. Collection of pertinent
instructional material to document different diseases is a
time-consuming process, and one school can operate most
effectively by working with groups of diseases, so that the
student can be given a complete set of reference material
when making a differential diagnosis in a particular subject
area. The School of Medicine at Davis, for example, has
concentrated on the areas of pediatrics and hematology to
date, and will add urology and nuclear medicine in the
coming year.
Programming the computer to conduct the searches has
been done with the hope that the interactive program can
be duplicated elsewhere with a minimum of difficulty. The
cross-referenced keyword dictionary is available on request,
and another interested institution would have only to write
its own retrieval program with appropriate indexing.
The exchange of microfiches should be a relatively
simple matter. Color microfiches prepared to teach clinical
pathology have already been prepared by another ~nstitu­
tion for distribution to any interested schools, USlllg the
same process. Compatible film cartridges can similarly be
exchanged. Thus two or more schools can expand their
areas of clinical coverage by agreeing to share their libraries
,of indexed information in different disease groupings.
Current Status

The project described above is in its early operational
stages. The computer program to retrieve the alternative
diagnoses is operational; patient charts have been prepared
for some patients, and video tapes have been made to
illustrate certain key features for certain pediatric cases.
The program is being introduced to third and fourth year
medical students during the latter part of the spring, 1971.
Funding for the extension of the project into additional
charts will become available at that time. Other institutions
interested in sharing in this project should contact the
Office of Medical Education, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis for further information.
1. Baker, F.B., "Computer-Based Instructional Management Systems: A First Look," Rev. Educ. Research. Vol. 41, No.1, pp.
2. Walters, R.F. and Munson, E.S., "Anesthetic Gas Exchange,"
Computer Assisted Instruction in the Health Professions, Newburyport, Massachusetts: ENTELEK, Inc., pp. 142-152, 1970.
3. Bleich, H.L., "The Computer and a Consultant," New Eng. J.
Med. Vol. 284, No.3, pp. 141-147, 1971.
4. Bitzer, M.D. and Boudreaux, M.C., "Using a Computer to Teach
Nursing," Nursing Forum, Vol. VII, No.3, 1969.
5. Alpert, D. and Bitzer, D.L., "Advances in Computer-Based
Education," Science. Vol. 167, pp. 1582-1590,1970.
6. Lindberg, D.A.B., TIle Computer alld Medical Care, Thomas, pp.
7. Weed, L., Medical Records. Medical Education, and Patient Care.
Case Western Reserve, 1969.

Stanley Robinson
9 Wheelock Rd.
Wayland, Mass.

"The FBI's National Crime Information Center plans to give its users
electronic access to 19,000,000 individual citizens' arrest records - nearly
10% of the country's population - beginning this fall. "

The FBI's computerized National Crime Information
Center (NCIC) should be a growing source of alarm for all
of us who are concerned with human rights - especially the
rights of those who are black, poor, or politically unpopular. This article gives some of the reasons for alarm,

Stanley Robinson is a free-lance computer programmer and consultant. He is the co-author of
several technical articles in the field of electronics and
computers, the Chairman 'of the Municipal Electric
Power Committee in Wayland, Mass., a member of
Computer People for Peace,' and was a speaker at
ACM 70. He received his A.B. from Oberlin College
and his M. Sci. from Ohio State Univ.


and describes my challenge of local police hookup to NCIC.
The challenge occurred in a New England Town Meeting in
Wayland, Massachusetts.
What Is NCIC?

NCIC is an automated nationwide police information
network. Teletypes are installed at local police stations,
connected by phone lines to state police computer centers,
which in turn are connected to a central computer operated
by the FBI in Washington, D.C. Records are stored and
searched on-line with both state and federal computers. At
present, the Massachusetts section, for example, provides
"immediate information on stolen cars, missing and wanted
persons, lost and stolen property, lost and stolen securities,
stolen guns, outstanding warrants, narcotic drug intelliCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for June, 1971

gence, and suspended and revoked drivers' licenses and
automobile registrations."}
These services, especially the narcotic drug intelligence,
seem to h~ve a potential for current misuse. Policemen are
instructed, for example, to arrest "suspicious" persons for
disorderly conduct to facilitate an NCIC check. 2
However, I am far more afraid of the future of the
system. I cannot give an authoritative future description of
NCIC for these reasons:

(1) Future plans are in a state of flux;
(2) Officials responsible for those plans insist the
planning is confidential, and the public will be
notified only after decisions are made;
(3) There is some variation in conception among the
different sources I consulted; and
(4) Part of the sales talk for NCIC is that it is
infinitely flexible and expandable.
Why the Alarm?

NCIC plans to give its users electronic access to
19,000,000 individual citizens' arrest records - nearly 10%
of the country's population - beginning this fall. 3
Euphemistically termed "criminal histories" (making it
sound as if any person who was ever arrested has a history
of criminality), these records will help police make decisions about arresting, searching, detaining, questioning, and
investigating suspects and "offenders".
The shabbiness of using arrest records as a guide to
police action cannot be overemphasized. At present, many
forms of arrest records do not note dropped charges nor
results of trials and appeals. Even when complete records
are kept, arrests that did not stick are listed, creating a
suspicion - indeed a presumption - of guilt which can lead
to further arrest and harrassment. As a local policeman told
me, "a person doesn't get arrested unless he was asking for
it." They believe that, judges believe it, employers believe
it, and society believes it.4
Plea Bargaining

Moreover, convictions are frequently entered on arrest
records as a result of the courtroom practice of plea
bargaining. An attorney might get an arrested person
acquitted of unjust charges, but an attorney costs money,
and there is still a chance of losing, even on appeal, which
costs more. Therefore many innocent defendants agree to
plead guilty in exchange for a reduced fine, reduced or
suspended sentence, or probation. The same idea extends to
appeals of unfair trials: making an issue of anything is
expensive and risky. (Several personal friends of mine have
found themselves in this trap as a result of nonviolent
political actions.)
Nowadays citizens can be arrested unfairly, searched
illegally, charged with violating dubious laws (disorderly
conduct, trespassing, blocking, loitering, or conspiracy),
and railroaded into prison by ignorant or vindictive police,
prosecutors, and judges. s The poor, the black, and the
political radicals ("troublemakers") receive the highest incidence of this kind of treatment. 6 Yet, in the name of
modern law enforcement, all these arrests and the convictions that go with them will go into the NCIC system.

The I ngredients of a Police State

Computerizing and nationalizing records of arrests
complete or incomplete - and inviting local police departments to use them routinely - these are the ingredients of a
police state. At the very best, discriminatory law enforcement and harassment practices will be cascaded, because an
arrest becomes a justification for another arrest, and so on.
I have never seen any evidence that this kind of law
enforcement helps prevent crime. There seems to be growing evidence, however, of the day-to-day effect of such a
system on citizens' lives. This is the chilling of free speech,
free association, free petition for redress of grievances, etc.
A telephone company manager recently explained this to
me in this way: "It behooves a person to avoid arrest."
Proponents of NCIC Say . ..

Proponents of NCIC argue that police already have
five-minute telephone access to statewide and 24-hour
access to nationwide arrest records of any person. They say
NCIC will provide fairer, more detailed and accurate arrest
records, distinguishing convictions from acquittals, for
example. They say NCIC's fast response will allow cleared
suspects to be released sooner, and arrested persons with
clean records to be released on recognizance, thereby
enhancing civil liberties. My response is that arrest records
do not constitute probable cause for arrest, regardless of
their accuracy; that detention without bona fide arrest is
illegal in any case; that selective release on recognizance is
really preventive detention in disguise; and that police
access to arrest records will be stepped up tremendously by
NCIC, thereby damaging civil liberties irretrievably.
NCIC Concern About Privacy and Ethics

The Project SEARCH Staff (System for Electronic
Analysis and Retrieval of Criminal Histories) has published
a booklee purporting to show that privacy and individual
rights are being taken into account in their system planning.
(Project SEARCH is now computerizing arrest records for a
ten-state federally-funded demonstration.) The booklet is
instructive. On page 1 it states: "criminal justice agencies
require, in making decisions regarding a suspect or offender,
knowledge of his prior involvement with the criminal
justice system." And on page 19: "there is every reason to
believe that (FBI) rap sheets ... faithfully record the
criminal histories of their subjects."
I found it difficult to read this booklet with any degree
of objectivity, because of its countless euphemisms about
"offenders" and "criminal justice"; it's a good illustration
of the medium being the message.
Policies Suggested by SEARCI-t

In no way is the concept of discriminatory or politically-inspired arrest and harassment even touched upon as
an area of concern, any more than the self-fulfilling properties of "criminal histories". The booklet presents many
policy suggestions which are meaningful in the context of
current law enforcement structures, such as improved
accuracy and completeness, the exclusion of "information
concerning juvenile .offenders", and "further studies ... to
specify inclusion or exclusion of specific misdemeanors".

However, let us examine four major areas:

(1) The SEARCH prototype "does not include subjective evaluations ... by police, judges, or detention authorities," just "hard data" on arrest, trial,
and punishment.


(If arrest, judgment, and parole decisions were made objectively, this world would be a different place today. I believe
"hard data" is an utterly false description of arrest records,
and one of the reasons why they are unsuitable for police


(2) Social security number, FBI number, operators
license number, and "any miscellaneous identifying number" are part of each person's file. These
are "not (to be used) as a device to permit
linkages or data sharing with other information
(Who's going to believe that? It simply can't be enforced.)

(3) Although highway patrols, registry authorities,
prosecutors, judges, probation officers, and
parole boards are to be given direct access to all
records, access is denied to the general public,
defense attorneys and legal aid societies, and to
the "offender" himself unless he submits to
fingerprinting and his state submits itself to a law
(4) A "code of ethics" pledges all participants in the
system to limit their use to "criminal justice as a
matter of government function," and other
generally commendable pledges.
(When the pledges do mean something, they do not seem to
be enforceable or even checkable.)
The principal author of· the booklet, Robert R. J.
Gallati, also directs the New York State Identification and
Intelligence System (NYSIIS) - the New York section of
NCIC and a SEARCH participant. NYSIIS has been pointed
out to me as a "model" for the national system in terms of
human rights. Some rather bizarre misuse 8 and data theft9
has occurred, but "civil liberties" and "due process" are
supposedly enhanced by reducing illegal detention of suspects from 24 to 3 hours. 10 In order to check his record,
however, an "offender" has to travel to Albany and pay a
fee to NYSIIS.
A recent position paperll outlines at least four major
concerns about data banks in relation to human rights:

(1) loss of privacy through security loopholes;
(2) transactions about individuals without their being
(3) merging and correlating dangerous information
from diverse sources; and
(4) operation without principled supervision.
NCIC has no features that satisfy a single one of these


notified of inquiries and transactions affecting
himself. It could take the last vestiges of the
"criminal justice system" entirely out of public
The addition of surveillance data to NCIC is but a
small step, technologically. The modern,
aggressive style of surveillance and infiltration
needs computer resources just like this, and there
is reason to believe the NCIC system would be
used for surveillance data.
NCIC could easily be used in the administration's
preventive detention program and in gathering
data for future "conspiracy" indictments.
The FBI runs NCIC. Its large scale undercover
surveillance activities force one to view the FBI's
ethics with suspicion, to say the least.
Computers are notorious for making mistakes
themselves as well as transmitting unevaluated
data, while policemen may well believe "anything
a computer tells them."
Who Pays for NCIC? Who Sells It?

The cost of NCIC equipment and operations, along with
its substantial dangers to human rights, could hardly be
ignored by responsible town officials in deciding whether to
hook their police up to this sytem. The financing structure
seems to be designed to circumvent this foible of democracy.
Towns in Massachusetts pay only their individual Teletype rental, about $2000 annually, to join NCIC. To ease
towns in painlessly, a 40% federal subsidy is provided to
reduce this rental cost. (Now that 131 towns are connected
to NCIC, the subsidy is ending.) Expenses borne by the
state, including phone lines and computer center operation,
are also subsidized federally. The rest of NCIC, including
development of SEARCH, is 100% federally funded, primarily by the so-called Safe Streets Act of 1968. We all pay
for NCIC, of course. But the fragmentation of payments
fosters a carefree feeling among budget-minded local and
state officials that "somebody else" is paying.
Perhaps officials might be attracted to NCIC by its
apparent bargain price, but still question its merits. To
minimize this problem in our state, the sales staff of New
England Telephone Company (supplier of lines and Teletypes) visited 117 towns in Massachusetts last year to
educate local boards and committees on the need for NCIC
in modern police operations. Quite by accident, I heard one
of those sales talks. It was very smooth and professional
indeed. Human rights were not mentioned. The officials
present agreed "the advantages outweigh the disadvantages," and incorporated NCIC in their town's budget.
Because of indirect financing and professional selling,
NCIC has begun operating almost entirely without the
knowledge or approval of the public it fundamentally

Other Reasons for Alarm

Thus I regard NCIC to be dangerous because of its basic
premise that police need arrest records of citizens, and can
use them safely. However, there are yet more reasons for
alarm as follows:
(I) NCIC forms the basis for a total gestapo (literally
"secret federal police") system, since the public
has no access to its data, nor is any person

A Challenge to NCIC in a Town Meeting

After I was defeated in an attempt to delete the NCIC
budget line pending further investigation and a full explanation, I introduced the following motion on the floor of the
Wayland, Mass., Town Meeting on March 8, 1971:
MOVED: That the Police Department be directed to
include in next 'year's Annual Report a statistical

tabulation of its usage of the NCIC computer system,
including the following information if at all possible:
(1) number of inquiries by type of inquiry and
reason for inquiry;
(2) results of inquiries, including arrests and
known convictions;
(3) a similar summary of information entered by
Wayland police; and
(4) troubles encountered (down-time, false arrest,
invasion of rights, etc.).
Despite angry opposition, the motion was carried by a
majority vote of those present.
The reporting should accomplish one or more of the
following objectives in addition to generating a list of
features and how and why they are used:

(1) stimulate discussion and questioning of NCIC by
exposure to the public of its existence;
(2) abate the chilling effect on free speech, association, etc., by removing the veil of mystery from
NCIC operations.
(3) deter questionable operations by the police by
requiring an accounting of such operations
(thereby opening them to criticism and veto);
(4) convey the doubts of concerned citizens about
NCIC to town fathers, police, state officials,
legislators, and Congressmen;
(5) stimulate public realization of the sham of the
entire so-called "criminal justice system" in
which NCIC is grounded; and
(6) give people courage to demand public accountability of all governmental functions, computerized or not.
These objectives could be served even if the police misconstrue or falsify the required report! Actually, the report
will be difficult to falsify because all NCIC transactions are
logged verbatim at the state level, thus facilitating crosschecking.
Finally, if town officials actually fail to report as
directed, perhaps because of secrecy statutes, then outraged
citizens can demand removal of NCIC from the police
department. (Wayland officials have indicated they intend
to cooperate at the present time.)
Among the voters with whom I spoke, a tremendous
number of factors affected their thinking on the issue of
NCIC. Some of these factors include:

(1) teenage offspring suffering police harassment;
(2) Senator Ervin's hearings on data banks;
(3) Arthur Miller's book and TV appearances;12

(4) unemployment and blackballing;


runaway military actions, the war in Vietnam;
suspicious assassinations;
conspiracy indictments;
corrupt, vindictive auto registry practices;
police brutality and dishonesty;
computerized. credit rating and billing;
the 1970 census;
Nazi Germany;
distrust of Nixon-Agnew-Hoover-Mitchell-Burger -Blackm un;
preventive detention and no-knock;
official lies; and
general principles of public disclosure.


In fact, all repression and manipulation of the public trust
could be related in one way or another to this alleged
an ticrime computer system.13
Personally, I think our souls felt a sense of renewal when
we debated NCIC in our Town Meeting and we saw some
hope of controlling or at least influencing, the widespread
implementation of this system. 14
1. The 1970 Comprehensive Criminal Justice Plan for Crime Prevention and Control, pp. 166-167. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Committee on Law Enforcement and Administration
of Criminal Justice, 80 Boylston Street, Boston.,
2. Communication Breakthrough in the Fight Against Crime:
National Crime Information Center. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, D.C. (1970). This 20-page booklet, prefaced by a letter signed by J. Edgar Hoover, is directed at
policemen, encouraging them to use NCIC.
3. "FBI to Computerize Rap Files; No New Safeguards Planned",
in Computerworld, September 30, 1970.
4. "Misuse of Data in File by Honest Police Cited", letter in
Computerworld, January 13, 1971. The letter describes discrimination against tenants based on arrest files.
5. What You're Up Against: A People's Legal Defense Manual,
Massachusetts Lawyers Guild, 70 Charles Street, Boston (1970).
6. See The Quality of Justice in the Le>wer Criminal Courts of
Metropolitan Boston, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights
Under Law, 15 Broad Street, Boston (1970). This booklet
describes a rigorous statistical analysis of police and court
discrimination against poor and black people. Readers should
also examine "conspiracy" cases all over the country, now in
7. Security and Privacy Considerations in Criminal History Information Systems, Project SEARCH Technical Report No.2,
Project SEARCH Committee on Security and Privacy, 1108
14th Street, Sacramento, California. (July, 1970).
8. "Lawyer Seeks to Nullify Wall Street Fingerprinting Law",
Computerworld, April 22, 1970. This article tells how 29
workers were fired because of NYSIIS arrest files, half of which
showed no convictions.
9. "Security Breach Leads to Police Data Theft", in Computerworld, February 10, 1971. This article tells of NYSIIS data
reaching airlines, credit agencies, and private detective organizations by illicit means.
10. "New York State Identification and Intelligence System", in
Computers and Automation, March, 1971.
11. "Data Banks - A Position Paper" by C. Foster, in Computers
and Automation, March, 1971.
12. The Assault on Privacy: Computers. Data Banks. and Dossiers.
by Arthur R. Miller. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor,
Michigan (1971).
13. "The Theory and Practice of American Political Intelligence,"
by Frank Donner, in The New York Review of Books. April 22,
1971, gives an excellent detailed accounting of the assumptions
and activities of the "intelligence mind" in this cou~try.
14. Shortly after this article was written, Massachusetts officials
reportedly decided to "hold off' joining the FBI arrest record
system, building instead a far more modest, "limited" statewide
arrest record network. (Although reported April 13, 1971, in
The Cambridge Phoenix, state officials have refused to confirm
these facts for me - while accusing me of not knowing what
I'm talking about! Finally I obtained confirmation from a
highly-placed clandestine source.) Their reasons were "92%
financial and 8% moral," according to my unquotable secret
source. Their moral objections would be met by restricting
reporting to conviction of "serious" offenses only, and establishing formal control by state law enforcement groups instead
of the FBI. I regard these changes as half-baked reforms; they
ignore the basic political discrimination and repression fostered
by arrest and "correction" reporting. For example, demonstrators who are beaten by police are often cOllvicted of "assault on
a police officer"; antiwar organizers are convicted of "conspiracy to incite riot"; and on and on - these are "serious"
crimes. Moreover, the door seems open for 92% re~onciliation
with the FBI through negotiation of a subsidy. In short, NCIC
is still dangerous.

Senator J. William Fulbright
Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee
U.S. Senate
Washington, D. C.

"To those who have developed an appreciation of the capacity of people in
high places for doing stupid things, there is much to be said for institutional
processes which compel people to think things over before plunging into
action. . .. I cannot emphasize too strongly my belief that a legislative
body's accomplishments consist as much in what it prevents as in what it
enacts. "

There is no better measure of a country's belief in its
own professed values than the ease or difficulty with which
it betrays them. America is having an exceedingly difficult
time in repudiating the ideals of Jefferson, Lincoln and
Wilson in favor of the new militarism which our leaders say
is ~ur destiny and responsibility. This shows the authenticity of our attachment to' democracy, but it does not
guarantee democracy's survival. The outcome of the present
crisis in our affairs - whether we are to remain a constitutional democracy or degenerate into an imperial dictatorship - is beyond our present range of vision. All that we
know for certain is that, if we do give up on democracy, if
we do turn our backs on the humane, rationalist values of
our tradition, we will not have done it easily, or gladly or, most ironically, with any real knowledge of what we
were doing.
The Jurisprudence of Crisis

Perspective is easily lost in time of crisis: you do what
you think you have to do to meet a threat or seize an
opportunity - with little regard for procedure or precedent. Ends give way to means, law is subordinated to
policy, in an atmosphere of urgency, real or contrived. In
1940 President Roosevelt usurped the treaty power of the
Senate by his "destroyer deal" with Great Britain, and
then, in 1941, he circumvented the war power of the
Congress - by engaging in an undeclared naval war on the
Atlantic - not because he wished to set himself up as a
dictator but because he judged the nation to be endangered
by Germany and Japan - as indeed it was - and he needed
to act in a hurry. In 1950 President Truman committed the
country, for its first time in history, to a full scale war without the benefit of Congressional authorization; he did not do
that because he wished to usurp the authority of Congress
but because he perceived a clear and present danger in Korea
and he needed to act in a hurry. In 1964 President Johnson
Note: This article, and the one following, "A New Internationalism", are based on two speeches by Senator Fulbright. The first
was delivered to the annual banquet of the Yale Law Journal on
April 3; the second \vas delivered to the Yale Political Union on
April 4.

subverted the Congress by persuading it, on the basis of
erroneous information, to adopt the Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution, which he invoked later to justify his massive
intervention in Vietnam. President Johnson too was in a
hurry; he said that he needed an immediate and overwhelming expression of Congressional support and, to our own
subsequent regret, we gave it to him.
The Subordination of Constitutional Process
to Political Expedience

These occurrences - and others I could cite -.have one
common attribute: the subordination of constitutional
process to political expediency in an atmosphere of urgency
and seeming danger, resulting in each case in an expansion
of Presidential power at the expense of Congress. The fact
that Roosevelt and Truman were substantially right in their
assessment of the national interest in no way diminishes the
banefulness of the precedents they set. FDR's deviousness
in a good cause made it much easier for LBJ to practice the
same kind of deviousness in a bad cause.
The favored euphemisms for executive usurpation is
"flexibility." Mr. Katzenbach, as Under Secretary of State,
argued for an "essentially political approach to the conduct
of our foreign affairs," leaving controversies over the
division of authority between the executive and legislative
branches of government to be resolved by "the instinct of
the nation and its leaders for political responsibility." 1 If
the rule of law must depend on a President's "instinct for
political responsibility" - especially when he goes into his
vainglorious role as Commander-in-Chief - then we are all
about as secure as gazelles in a tiger cage; our only hope is
that the tiger may not be hungry at the moment. Secretary
of State Acheson pretty well summed up the "jurisprudence" of crisis when he told the Senate in 1951 that it
ought not to quibble over "who has the power to do this,
that, or the other thing," in this "very critical hour."
"'Not only has the president the authority to use the
Armed Forces in carrying out the Broad foreign policy of
the United States and implementing treaties,' [Acheson
contended] , but it is equally clear that this authority may
not be interfered with by the Congress in the exercise of
Only if one subscribes to the cult of the "strong"

powers which it has under the Congress in the exercise of
powers which it has under the Constitution."2
Twenty years - and many a critical hour - have passed
since President Truman sent the troops to Europe, and
arguments about "who has the power to do this, that or the
other thing" still arouse intense distaste in the executive
branch of our government. It is best - so we are still told to leave matters of decision making in foreign policy to be
resolved according to the requirements of the moment, and
who can doubt what the requirements of any given moment
are going to be: the President is to be left unencumbered to
make war or commitments abroad essentially as he sees fit,
drawing Congress into the decision making insofar as he
finds it useful and convenient. Besides, in this time of crisis
- permanent, institutionalized crisis as it has developed appeasing Congress would surely be interpreted as a dangerous sign of Presidential "weakness," which could only lead
to further demands for power and participation. Is this
after all not the lesson of Munich? Burdened as he is with
weighty responsibilities in a dangerous world, a President
simply cannot afford to appear as a "pitiful, helpless giant"
- no more to the Senate than to the North Vietnamese
Power Should Be Mistrusted, Checked, and Balanced

Only if one subscribes to the cult of the "strong"
presidency which mesmerized American political science in
the fifties and early sixties can one look with complacency
on the growth of presidential dictatorship in foreign affairs.
In those days, when the magic glow of FDR still flickered
in our memories, when Eisenhower reigned with paternal
benignancy, and the Kennedys appeared on white chargers
with promises of Camelot, it was possible to forget the
wisdom of the Founding Fathers who had taught us to
mistrust power, to check it and balance it, and never to
yield up the means of thwarting it. Now, after bitter
experience, we are having to learn all over again that no
single man or institution can ever be counted upon as a
reliable or predictable repository of wisdom and benevolence; that the possession of great power can impair a man's
judgment and cloud his perception of reality; and that our
only protection against the misuse of power is the institutionalized interaction of a diversity of independent opinions. In this Constitutional frame of reference, a good
Executive is not one who strengthens his own office by
exercising his powers to the legal utmost and beyond, but
one who, by respecting the limits of his own authority,
contributes to the vitality of the constitutional system as a
Foreign Policy Has Become Subversive
When, as in recent years, the conduct of foreign policy is
thought to necessitate the steady attrition of established
constitutional processes, that foreign policy has become
subversive of the very ends it is meant to serve. 'Why after
all do we engage in foreign relations if not for the purpose
of securing certain values, including the preservation of our
constitutional democracy? The values of democracy are in
large part the processes of democracy - the way in which
we pass laws, the way in which we administer justice, the
way in which government deals with individuals. When the
exigencies of foreign policy are thought to necessitate the
suspension' 'of these processes, repeatedly and over a long
period of time, such a foreign'policy is not only inefficient
but utterly irrational and self-defeating. I am willing to

predict with reasonable confidence that, if democracy is
destroyed in America in the lifetime of the present university generation, it will not be the work of the Russians, or
of the Chinese, and certainly not of the Vietnamese
Communists; the totalitarianism toward which we are heading will be a home grown product. Like the American major
in Vietnam who found it necessary to "destroy Ben Tre in
order to save it," we may find some day, without quite
knowing when or how or why it happened, that we have
destroyed our own constitutional democracy - in order to
save it.
I used to puzzle over the question of how American
democracy could be adapted to the kind of role we have
come to play in the world. I think I now know the answer:
it cannot be done. Congress can adopt palliative measures
such as the Cooper-Church amendment or any of a number
of possible bills designed to regulate the President's use of
the armed forces, and these are all to the good. But they
will not of themselves either stop the war, restore the
Constitutional authority of Congress, or arrest the long
term trend toward authoritarian government. That trend, I
am now convinced, is irreversible as long as we continue to
play the kind of role we are now playing in the world, as
long as our course remains one of great power militarism.
The real question is not whether we can adapt democracy
to the kind of role we are now playing in the world - I am
sure that we cannot - but whether we can devise a new
foreign policy which will be compatible with our traditional
values, a foreign policy which will give us security in our
foreign relations without subverting democracy at home.


[Mr. Fullbright suggests a broad outline for such a new
American foreign policy in "A New Internationalism", also
published in this issue of Computers and Automation.]
The Decline of Congress

The distinguishing virtue of legislative bodies is neither
wisdom nor virtue nor prescience. Individual members may
sometimes possess these qualities, but no legislative body as
such has ever been endowed with evangelical or inspirational qualities; no Congress has ever been thought to
possess "charisma." The American Congress is indeed a
slow-moving and sometimes inefficient body, widely criticized for procedures which are said to be antiquated and
undemocratic. There is no doubt in the world that our
Congress is less efficient thatn the legislatures of certain
parliamentary democracies, and far less efficient than the
sham legislatures of totalitarian states.
If efficiency were the sole criterion of a good legislature,
there would be everything to be said for dismantling the
Congress, or at least for revamping its procedures and
introducing a system of strict party discipline. That is what
many reformers say they want to do, in the apparent belief
that decision is always better than delay and action better
than inaction - a dubious assumption indeed, rooted in a
utopian view of human nature. To those of us who have
developed an appreciation of the capacity of people in high
places for doing stupid things, there is much to be said for
institutional processes which compel people to think things
over before plunging into action. The SST is a case in point;
the decision of both houses of Congress last week to lay
that costly white elephant to rest would not have been
possible if Senator Proxmire had not led a group of us in a
salutary filibuster last December. But for that extended

debate, the SST would now be a going concern.
I for one am not much distressed by the charge that
Congress is not an up-to-date institution. In this age of the
SST, the ABM, the MIRV, and the Indochina war, being
"behind the times" may indeed be a mark of wisdom. And
"efficiency," as that term is applied to legislatures, sounds
very much to my ear like a euphemism for obedience to an
Executive. I cannot emphasize too strongly my belief, that
a legislative body's accomplishments consist as much in
what it prevents as in what it enacts. As Justice Brandeis
pointed out: "The doctrine of the separation of powers was
adopted by the convention of 1787, not to promote
efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power.
The purpose was, not to avoid friction, but, by means of
the inevitable friction incident to the distribution of the
governmental powers among three departments, to save the
people from autocracy.,,3
Results of Executive Incursion on the Foreign
Policy Powers of Congress

Executive incursions upon Congress's foreign policy
powers have had three main results: First, the authority to
initiate war, which the Constitution vested solely in Congress, has passed into the hands of the Executive. Second,
the treaty power, which was meant to give the Senate final
authority over significant foreign commitments, has been
reduced to a near nullity, sometimes by resort to executive
agreements and simple declarations, sometimes by the
simple device of reinterpreting treaties in such a way as to
impute to them meanings which were wholly unintended, if
not explicitly disavowed, at the time they were contracted.
Third, the "advise and consent" function has been so
diminished that little or no cognizance is now taken of the
Senate's counsel, while "consultation" is commonly used to
refer to ceremonial briefings which are provided from time
to time in order to acquaint Senators with decisions which
have already been made. In the words of one distinguished
historian, with reference both to public and Congressional
opinion, "Presidents Johnson and Nixon have made almost
a virtue of unresponsiveness.,,4
The gradual takeover by the Executive of the war and
treaty powers of Congress is part of a broader process of
expanding Presidential authority which is by no means
confined to foreign relations. Indeed, the trend toward
militarized, authoritarian government has already penetrated broad areas of our domestic life. The Justice
Department and the Army itself have engaged in spying and
surveillance to anyone and everyone, including Senators,
who, according to the peculiar lights of these agencies, may
be considered "subversive." Our economy has been distorted by the development of a permeating military-industrial-labor union-academic complex, built around the fact
that violence has become our country's leading industry. I
particularly regret the unhealthy relationship which has
grown up between many academic institutions and the
Department of Defense and other government agencies.
Even when these arrangements are entirely without
strings or prior conditions - as I am inclined to believe they
are for the most part - they are intellectually disruptive
and their thrust is anti-democratic. Lacking a use for poetry
and philosophy, the Department of Defense and the CIA
offer no funds for these disciplines; the Government is a
patron only of the more lethal arts.

A Basic Change in National Outlook Is Needed

The only reliable cure for these evils is a basic change in
our national outlook, including the adoption of a new
foreign policy which will be compatible with rather than
antithetical to our traditional democratic values. Until that
change can be accomplished - if it can - our best defense
against creeping authoritarianism is an assertive, independent legislature, supported as it must be by a responsible educated electorate. The virtues of Congress are
inseparable from its faults; slow and unwieldy as it may be
in accomplishing desirable reforms, Congress is equally
unsuited to the task of depriving people of their liberties. If
war and crisis should someday give rise to an aggressive,
anti-libertarian Congressional majority, that majority would
likely find itself hobbled by the Senate filibuster and the
tortuous workings of the committee system.
The greatest single virtue of a strong legislature is not
what it can do but what it can prevent. Incapable by reason
of its size and diversity of imposing an authoritarianism of
its own, the American Congress, with all its irrationalities,
remains the strongest institutional barrier to Presidential
dictatorship. But it can perform this vital service only as
long as it is willing to exercise its legislative authority in
foreign as well as domestic affairs, and only if it is willing to
accept the responsibility for thwarting the Commander-inChief when it seems necessary, bearing in mind the words
of Justice Holmes, that "We do not lose our right to
condemn either measures or men because the country is at
The Cult of the Presidency

As long as the President's capacity to dominate foreign
policy remained an unrealized potentiality, as was the case
until the twentieth century, and as long as that power, once
it did begin to take form, was exercised in a way that won
the approval of progressive-minded scholars and politicians,
criticism of the Presidential office was confined to a
handful of conservative Senators and academics who were
dismissed as reactionary mossbacks. Hardly anyone, for
example, took serious notice in 1950 when Senator Watkins
of Utah questioned the authority of President Truman to
commit the country to war in Korea without consulting
Congress, and said that, if he were President, he " ... would
have sent a message to the Congress of the United States
setting forth the situation and asking for authority to go
ahead and do whatever was necessary to protect the
situation."6 In retrospect, the so-called mossbacks seem
like prescient constitutionalists.
With all due respect for the failures of judgment of
recent Presiderits, some rather fundamental defects seem to
be inherent in the office itself, and in the electoral process
as it has evolved in recent decades. Building on Madison's
premise that "all men having power ought to be mistrusted," we are probably justified in extending our mistrust - or at least a certain wariness - toward any man who
desires power so much as to be willing to do all the arduous
things a man has to do to become President of the United
Politics as a ProfessiOR

The qualities of a good candidate are not identical with
those of a good leader. Indeed, an individual of perspective

and sensitivity who might make an excellent President is
hardly likely to have the taste for political rough and
tumble that a successful candidate requires. The packaging,
the image-making, the fraud, the huckstering, the extravagant, thorough-going irrationality of modern political campaigns, cannot fail to be distasteful to individuals of
judgment and sensitivity. At the outset of our history as an
independent republic, with a population of hardly more
than five million, we were governed by men of distinction.
Surely among a population of 200 million there must be
individuals of the caliber of Washington, Adams, Jefferson
and Madison. Wherever else they are, few indeed seem to
have chosen politics as their profession.
Among the shortcomings of the Presidential office, the
most important appears to be the unique capacity of the
office to isolate and deceive its occupant. So, at least,
writes George Reedy, who served as President Johnson's
press secretary and special assistant, in one of the most
thoughtful and disturbing books on the Presidency of
recent years. Encased from the day he takes office in an
atmosphere of privilege and deference that amounts to
royalty, the President is steadily divested of a politician's
primary requirement, the maintenance of contact with
reality, so much so, in fact, that, in Reedy's view, " ... the
White House is an institution which dulls the sensitivity of
political men and ultimately reduces them to bungling
amateurs in their basic craft - the art of politics.,,7
Isolation of the Apex of Power

The essential cause of the difficulty is the isolation of
the President at the apex of power. No one speaks to him
unless spoken to; no one, as Reedy points out, ever invites
him to "go soak his head;" no one in his presence ever
addresses himself to anyone except the President, and
always in terms of reverential respect. No one is his peer,
certainly not his White House assistants, nor the Cabinet
members who are his political servants, nor even Senators
and Congressmen when they meet the President on his
home ground. Even the most independent-minded Senator,
says Reedy, " ... enters cautiously, dressed in his Sunday
best and with a respectful, almost pious, look on his face,"
because "The aura of reverence that surrounds the President when he is in the Mansion is so universal that the
slightest hint of criticism automatically labels a man as a
Perhaps the single most important difference between an
American President and a British Prime Minister is that the
latter is compelled to meet his critics face to face, giving
him a lever on reality that the American President is denied.
"Under the American system" as one political scientist,
Professor Alexander Groth, points out, "the Executive is
virtually prevented from engaging in public debate on
policy by the Institutional setting of his office; under the
British system he is expected and, in fact, compelled to
engage continually in it."9 Every Thursday afternoon the
Prime Minister is obliged to descend into the arena of the
House of Commons where he has to answer questions,
respond to criticisms, and endure whatever barbs and
insults the 'Opposition chooses to throw at him. His appearance in the House is not a state occasion like the President's
infrequent visits to the Congress, which are steeped in
pomp and ceremony but usually quite lacking in political
substance. The Prime Minister cannot barricade himself

behind a phalanx of assistants and advisers; he is obliged to
think and speak for himself. As Professor Groth points out,
it is not the power to vote no confidence and compel the
Prime Minister's resignation which gives the House of
Commons its decisive influence, but rather its ability to
compel the Prime Minister and his Cabinet colleagues
continllally to explain and justify their policies to an
informed and critical body of colleagues. It is not "confidence" in its technical sense that a British Prime Minister
must retain but confidence in its ordinary sense - confidence in his judgment, competence and responsibility.
The Sham of Communication

The President, by contrast, is more nearly in the position
of the British Monarch, except for the crucial fact that he
has power and she does not. When the President speaks, it is
always from a pedestal. His annual State of the Union
message is seldom a serious analysis of the nation's problems and prospects; more commonly, it is a self-serving
catalogue of the Administration's alleged triumphs, interlarded with a lot of vacuous eloquence about "driving
dreams," or a "second American revolution" which turns
out to be a plan for some bureaucratic reshuffling. On other
occasions - notably when his standing in the polls sinks
alarmingly low - the President is likely to use his nearmonopoly of the television to speak "directly" to the
American people; on these occasions, it is usually not a new
policy that the President wishes to convey but a new
"image" - an image of honesty or strength or sincerity, or
even an image of indifference to "images." The total effect
of all this indirect and inauthentic sham "communication"
is to defraud the people of one of their most basic rights
and the President of one of his most basic needs: the
knowledge of each other's thinking.
War Breeds Dictatorship

Many promising correctives have been proposed of late;
they range from a number of excellent bills designed to
regulate the President's use of the armed forces to my own
proposal for restrictions on secrecy in the name of "executive privilege." But in the long run, even the most
energetic and ingenious means of reasserting Congressional
prerogative will of themselves prove insufficient for the
preservation of constitutional government. As Tocqueville
pointed out, war breeds dictatorship. I for one am fairly
well convinced that neither constitutional government nor
democratic freedoms can survive indefinitely in a country
chronically at war as America has been for the last three
decades. Sooner or later, war will lead to dictatorship.
Important though it is for Congress to assert its prerogatives
and to devise new means of enforcing them, the issue
ultimately will turn on questions outside of the legislative
process, on questions of the allocation of resources between
domestic needs and foreign involvements, questions of our
willingness, whenever possible, to rely on the United Nations rather than our own military power, questions having
to do with the kind of country we wan't America to be and
the kind of role we wish it to play in the world.
The Undermining of the Rule of Law

The worst single consequence for our society of this long
era of crisis and war has been the steady undermining of the

rule of law. From the White House to the university
campuses legal inhibitions have been giving way to faith and
fervor, to that terrible irrational certainty of one's own
rightness which leads men to break through the barriers of
civilized restraint. Outraged as they have had every right to
be by dishonesty, deviousness, and lack of restraint on the
part of people in high office, many of our young people
have seen fit, most regretably, to imitafe rather than
repudiate the example. Supposing that they, in their purity
of motive and intent, could right the injustices wrought by
unworthy leaders, they seem unwilling to recognize that it
has not been conscious malice or greed or hunger for power
that has led the leaders of this country to make the terrible
mistakes that have been made in these unhappy times, but
that very same quality of mind which many young people
themselves exhibit - a supreme, arrogant confidence in the
rightness of their own opinions.
That has been the worst of it: the breakdown of law really not of law itself but the state of mind in which
people value and respect law. We seem to be moving into an
era of uninhibited conscience, casting aside the insights of
Freud, and of the framers of the the American Constitution: that nothing can more surely deceive a man than his
own uninhibited conscience; that the human mind. is
limited and imperfect in its perceptions of morality; that
law is the closest approximation of institutionalized morality of which a human community is capable.
The founders of our country understood these things,
and that is why they mistrusted power. "Confidence," said
J efferson, "is everywhere the parent of despotism - free
government is founded in jealousy; ... it is jealousy and
not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to

bind down those we are obliged to trust with power .... In
questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the
chains of the Constitution .... "10
To arrest and reverse the decline of democratic government in America, we are going to have to recover our
mistrust of power - in the Presidency and wherever else it
is found.

1. "United States Commitments
to Foreign Powers," Hearings
Before the Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Senate, 90th
Cong., 1st sess., on S. Res. 151 (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1967), pp. 72-73.
2 "Assignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty in
the European Area," Hearing by Committees on Foreign Relations
and Armed Services. U.S. Senate, 82d Cong., 1st sess., on S. Con.
Res. 8, February 1-28, 1951 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951), pp. 92-93.
3 Myers v. United States, 1926, 272 U.S. 293, Mr. Justice Brandeis
4 Professor Alpheus T. Mason in a statement before the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee, March 25, 1971, "Constitutional
Crisis in 1971: The Uncertain Continuance of Reason."
5 Frohwerk v. U.S., 249 U.S. 204,208 (1919).
6 Congressional Record, 81st Cong., 2nd Sess., vol. 96, pt. 7,
Senate, June 27, 1950, pp. 9229-9233.
7 George E. Reedy, The Twilight of the Presidency, p. 14.
8 Ibid .. p. 80.
9 Alexander J. Groth, "Britain and America: Some Requisites of
Executive Leadership Compared," Political Science Quarterly, June
1970, p. 218.
10 Quoted in A. T. Mason, Free Government in the Making (1965),

Senator J. William Fulbright
Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee
U.S. Senate
Washington, D.C
"Our involvement in Southeast Asia became so great a disaster because of
our inexperience in world affairs, our obsessive fear of communism and the
obscure causes of that fear, the bitterness of our disillusionment with the
United Nations and the supposition that we could substitute ourselves for it,
the infatuation with science which caused us to suppose t~at we could make
foreign policy - and wars - with computers; and, perhaps most important,
that self-righteous certitude of a nation at the peak of its power which I have
called the arrogance of power. "
In one of his many recent interviews, President Nixon
said that he doubted we would ever have another war, that
Vietnam "is probably the very last one." Unless the
President meant that he expected the present war tQ finish
us off once and for all - which I doubt was his meaning - I
see little basis indeed for his hopeful prediction. My
pessimism arises from the absence of convincing evidence
Note: This article, and the one preceding, "The Decline - and
Possible Fall - of Constitutional Democracy in America", are based
on two speeches by Senator Fulbright: this article, on a speech
delivered to the Yale Political Union on April 4; and the other
article, on a speech delivered to the annual banquet of the Yale Law
Journal on April 3.

that we, or any other major nation, are willing to do the
things we would have to do to make lasting peace a real
possi bili ty .
We would need, for a start, to reconsider our most basic
assumptions about international relations. In the same
interview the President showed that he himself has not the
slightest inclination to engage in such an exercise, that,
indeed, he perceives no alternative to the foreign policy of
power politics which has always led to war in the past. Mr.
Nixon said, for instance, that "for the next twenty-five
years the United States is destined to play this superpower
role as both an economic and a nuclear giant. We just have
to do this. We cannot dodge our responsibilities."l

This outlook is illustrative of what Professor Marcuse
described as the "totalitarian dictatorship of the established
fact." Lost to view is the real possibility that things may be
as they are not because they have to be but because they
happen to be. 2 We "have to" play this superpower role,
says the President - as if the matter were patently beyond
the range of human choice, as if some heavenly force had
decreed it. With minds locked into this kind of certitude,
we cannot even grasp the notion of other possibilities. We
are compelled to do things in the disastrous, self-defeating
way we have done them in the past because we have locked
all other possibilities out of our minds. "Realism" is
reduced to the blind repetition of behavior patterns that
have been proven to be disastrous. Anything else is "unreal" - not because it has to be but because our minds are
in thrall to a bleak and fragmented conception of "reality."
Internationalism, Old and New

Drawn as it is from long experience, the conception of
international politics as an endless, mindless, purposeless
struggle for power is by no means a false or fanciful one. It
is after all a fairly accurate description of the normal
behavior of nations, especially big nations. The very fact
that, in international relations, nations refer to themselves
as "powers" - not as countries or communities - is itself
indicative of the nature of international politics. Behind the
grandiose euphemisms about somebody's "place in the
sun," or the more current "responsibilities of power ," is the
simple assumption that nations engage in international
relations in order to acquire power, and the more you get
of it, the more it is your duty or destiny to use it. It can
never be permitted to go unused; if you can be a bully, then
you must be - on pain of being thought a "pitiful, helpless
giant. "
This conception is false not in the sense of misrepresenting human experience but in the more important sense of
its dangerous obsoleteness, and its utter irrelevance to valid
human needs. Even the most dazzling success in the game
of power politics does nothing to make life more meaningful or gratifying for anybody except the tiny handful of
strategists and empire builders who have the exhilarating
experience of manipulating whole societies like pawns on a
chessboard. It is rather less fun for ordinary citizens, whose
sons are sent to useless wars, and whose earnings are
diverted from their real needs, like schools and homes and
community services. And, if you happen to be an American
GI, or a Vietnamese peasant, the "responsibilities of
power" do very little indeed to make life interesting or
gratifying - even if you succeed in staying alive.
Basic Antagonism: A Natural Condition of the World?

In his- book Six Crisis President Nixon refers to his
hesitation as a young man to enter the "warfare of
politics."3 The conception of politics as warfare seems to
have shaped the outlook not only of Mr. Nixon's Administration but, as far as international relations is concerned, of every Administration since World War II. It is
assumed, a priori, that the natural and inevitable condition
of the world is one of basic antagonism. Generalizing from
the monstrously atypical experience of Hitler and Nazi
Germany, we have assumed that China is determined to
conquer and communize Asia, that the Russians have an
unshakeable ambition to overrun Western Europe and
destroy the United States, and that the only thing that

stops the Communist countries from executing their evil
designs is the intimidating effect of American military
power. I do not contend that this assessment of Russian
and Chinese ambitions is untrue, but only that it is not
necessarily true, that, as Mark Twain would have said, we
may have derived from the experience of World War II
more wisdom than was in it. My own belief is that Russian
and Chinese behavior is as much influenced by suspicion of
our intentions as ours is by suspicion of theirs. This would
mean that we have great influence on their behavior, that,
by treating them as hostile, we assure their hostility. If
indeed politics is warfare, it is not because the Lord decreed
it but because nations, including our own, have made it so.
In the same interview which I quoted earlier President
Nixon expressed dismay at what he perceives as the conversion of "former internationalists" into "neo-isolationists." This raises the question of what an authentic internationalist is. It is true that many of us who supported the
United Nations Charter, the Marshall Plan and the NATO
treaty have become critical of our worldwide military
involvements and of bilateral foreign aid. Nonetheless, I still
consider myself as an internationalist. I believe that we
should honor all of our duly contracted treaties, both in
their requirements of military support as in the case of
NATO, and in their requirements of non-intervention as in
the case of the Charter of the Organization of American
States. I further believe that, even at this late date, we
should be doing everything in our power - and that there is
a great deal we can do - toward building the United
Nations into a genuine world security organization.
The United Nations Idea

There has been in this century one great new idea in the
field of international relations, one great break in the
"totalitarian dictatorship of the established fact:" the idea
of an international organization with permanent processes
for the peaceful settlement of international disputes, the
idea of an international legal instrument through which
someday we might hope to replace the "warfare of politics"
with something more civilized and humane.
That is the conception of internationalism which was
held by Presidents Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt and the
entire generation who led the United States out of its
nineteenth century isolation. It arose not only out of the
obsoleteness of isolationism but, far more importantly, out
of an active repudiation of the power politics which had
culminated in two world wars. Both might go under the
name of "internationalism," but they are radically different
conceptions: the one represents the outlook of Wilson and
Roosevel t; the other reverts to Bismarck and Metternich.
Having participated in the hopeful initiation of the United
Nations Charter and then in the bitter disillusion of hot and
cold wars, the people who are now being called "neo-isolationists" are by and large those who make a distinction
between the new internationalism and the old, who regret
the reversion to the old power' politics, and who retain
some faith in the validity and viability of the United
Nations idea.
Indochina: The Old Politics and Worse

Like a virulent organism in an otherwise healthy body,
the war in Vietnam has drained our society of confidence
and hope. This war cannot adequately be characterized as a
reversion to the old power politics; Metternich and Bis25

marck were at least rational in their amorality; it is hard to
conceive of them persisting in anything so stupid and
self-defeating. I do not really feel adequate to the task of
gauging the meaning of Vietnam in the context of American history and world politics, but if I had to try to sum it
up, I would judge that it represents a grotesquely miscarried
effort to apply traditional American values of self-determination and collective security. Americans will be debating
for many years how and why the involvement in Southeast
Asia became so great a disaster. The obvious factors include
the simple fact of our inexperience in world affairs; our
obsessive fear of communism and the obscure causes of that
fear; the bitterness of our disillusion with the United
Nations and the supposition that we could substitute
ourselves for it; the infatuation with science which caused
us to suppose that we could make foreign policy - and
wars - with computers; and, perhaps most important, that
self righteous certitude of a nation at the peak of its power
which I have called the arrogance of power.
The Real Meaning of Vietnamization
Although different tactics have been employed, the
objective of the Nixon Administration in Indochina is by all
available evidence the same as that of the Johnson Administration: to win the war in the sense of establishing
viable anti-Communist regimes in South Vietnam, Cambodia and probably Laos. A compromise political settlement, which could only mean a sharing of power between
Communists and noncommunists, or an arrangement leaving all the indigenous forces some opportunity for power,
has been .effectively ruled out. That is why the Paris
negotiations have failed - because there has been nothing
to negotiate from the standpoint of the North Vietnamese
and the Vietcong, except the terms of their surrender.
It insults the intelligence' of the American people to tell
them that we had to invade Cambodia and Laos simply in
order to cover our withdrawal; I do not think the North
Vietnamese and the Vietcong would be so stupid as to try
to interfere with an authentic, total American withdrawal.
is only in a political atmosphere dense with
obfuscation and mendacity that it becomes necessary to
deal with this argument at all. The real meaning of "Vietnamization," and of the expansion of the war into Cambodia and Laos, is that, for President Nixon as for President
Johnson, the objective is military victory.
Once again, with the military disaster in Laos, the mirage
of victory has receded from our grasp. When the "incursion" began, President Nixon suggested that decisive
battles· might be at hand, and he predicted that the North
Vietnamese will "have to fight here or give up the struggle
to conquer South Vietnam .... ,,4 Now that the operation
has ended in a "mobile maneuver" - which is Pentagonese
for "headlong retreat" - it appears that the North Vietnamese will not have to give up the struggle, that indeed it
will go on for as long as the South Vietnamese Army can
continue - in Mr. Nixon's felicitous term - to "hack it,"
for as long, perhaps, as the tortured peoples of Indochina
have blood to shed.
The American troop withdrawals will no doubt continue
- they are, at the very least a political necessity here at
home. It is also true, no doubt, that, to one degree or
another, the invasion of Laos delayed and disrupted the
flow of North Vietnamese supplies along the Ho Chi Minh
Trail. Time, however, is on the enemy's side. As American



strength is reduced toward whatever residual force the
President contemplates, an improved but still shaky South
Vietnamese Army - all the more so since the defeat in Laos
- will face an undefeated North Vietnamese Army in firm
control of its supply li"nes. At best, from the standpoint of
Presidents Nixon and Thieu, the prospect is for a war of
indefinite duration, with Asians doing the fighting on the
ground while Americans provide air power, supplies and
money. At worst, if the South Vietnamese Army falters,
they and the residual American Force will be confronted
with military disaster - the very specter of "humiliation
and defeat" that has so preoccupied the President for the
last two years.
What would we then do? hastily pull out our remaining
forces or raise the stakes by launching an all-out attack on
North Vietnam? The President has repudiated any intention
of using nuclear weapons - and for that we must 1?e
grateful - but it must also be remembered that people are
least likely to behave rationally when their backs are to the
wall, and President Nixon himself has not always responded
prudently in conditions of adversity.
The "Wasted People" of War
Never to be forgotten either - for people who wish to
preserve the United States as a humane democratic society
- is that the morals of this war are as twisted as its strategy.
Our leaders point with pride, when they can, to reduced
American casualties, but they have little to say about the
million or more South Vietnamese civilian casualties since
the war began, of whom at least 300,000 have died; these in
the cruel military phrase, are the "wasted" people - some
killed by Vietcong terror, many times more by American
fragmentation bombs, gunships, and napalm. Indochinese
peasants never actually see a B-52 because it flies so high,
but they know well what it can do. "We hear nothing,
nothing at all," a South Vietnamese farmer told an
American reporter recently. "Then a thunder louder than
the loudest rainstorm strikes, the earth shakes ... and we
wait to see who dies. "S
Nor have we heard very much from the White House or
the Pentagon about enormous South Vietnamese losses in
Laos, where casualties ran to at least 25 percent and
perhaps 50 percent, where large numbers of wounded were
left behind, begging their friends to shoot them or to leave
them hand grenades so that they could commit suicide
before the North Vietnamese got to them or before they
were blown to bits by B-52 bombs. 6
Having done damage beyond calculation to ourselves and
to the people of Indochina, we compound the selfdeception by talking about this war as if its objectives were
to be compared with those for which we fought in two
world wars. For all the reasons I have offered and many
others, this war is not a war for self-determination, or for
the prevention of future wars, much less of all future wars
as President Nixon has suggested. This war is a tragic
mistake - that is all it is or ever was - and the only rational
objective for our policy is to stop the war and begin to
repair the damage, at home and abroad.
The Middle East: A Chance for the New Politics
In the Middle East there is a chance - though probably
only a small one - that Americans, Russians and others
(Please turn to page 39)

Edition 5, Published March 1971
Supplement 1, Part 1, AAG to HOl, Published June 1971
The Fifth Edition of "Who's Who in Computers and
Data Processing", in three volumes, totaling over
1000 pages and containing over 15,000 capsule biographies, was published in March 1971.
The following Part 1 of Supplement 1 consists of
updating information (including new entries and corrections of prior entries) for the Fifth Edition,
for last names beginning AAG to HOL.
Three types of information are published here:
[no asteriSk] Entirely new capsule biography
Change(s) in, or confirmation of, the entry
in the Fifth Edition
** Entire capsule biography entry which replaces
the corresponding entry in the Fifth Edition
The changes reported here are based on information kindly sent to us by entrants: (1) which updates or corrects the information previously publishedj or (2) which was received by us before publication of the Fifth Edition but too late for inclusion in it; or (3) which was sent to us after
publication of the Fifth Edition.
It is hoped that this supplement will be helpful
to users of the Fifth Edition. Any purchaser of a
complete set (3 volumes) of the Fifth Edition and
who has entered (or enters) with us a standing order
for the Sixth and later editions will be sent supplement 1, Part 1, FREE on request. Any other purA

**AAGAARD, James S. I educator I b: 1930 I ed: PhD,
electrical engineering lent: 1964 I m-i: P Sy I
t: assoc prof electrical engineering & computer
sciences I org: Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL
60201 I pb-h: IEEE, ACM I h: 744 Lenox Lane, Glenview, IL 60025 I v: 3 I *C 71
*AAGARD, James S. -- replace by AAGAARD, James S.,
which see
*ABBOTT, Charles R. I v: 2 I *C 71
**ABBOTT, Richard E. I manager information processing I b: 1925 led: BA, economics lent: 1957 I
m-i: Mg I t: manager I org: General Electric Process Computer Products Dept, 2244 W Desert Cove,
Phoenix, AZ 85029 I pb-h: - I h: 918 W Wagon Wheel
Dr, Phoenix, AZ 85021 I v: 2 I *C 71
ABERNETHY, Robert J. I defense, aerospace I b:
1940 led: BS, EE & math, MBA lent: 1962 I m-i:
B Mg I t: asst prgm mgr I org: Hughes Aircraft Co,
Culver City, CA 90230 I pb-h: COP I h: 436 28 St,
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 I v: 2 I *C 70
*ABRAHAMSON, Earl A. I v: 3 I *C 71
*ABRAHAMSON, Edward I t: manager international operations I h: 119 Glendale Rd, Sharon, MA 02067 I
v: 2 I ':'C 71
**ABRAMS, Sumner M. I engineer I b: 1935 I ed: MIT I
ent: 1957 Im-i: A 0 L P Sy I t: product development manager I org: Honeywell Information Systems
and Components Operations, Old Connecticut Path,
Framingham, MA 01701 I pb-h: IEEE I h: 13 Duggan
Dr, Framingham, MA 01701 I v: 1 I *C 71
ORSA, Sigma Xi, Eta Kappa NUj 6 patents, author &
co-author 4 publns I v: 3 I *C 71
':'ADAMS, Alexander I m-i: Sy It: chief, systems requirement BR I h: 137 Westway PI, Battle Creek,
MI 49015 I v: 1 I *C 71
COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for April, 1971

chaser of one or more volumes of the Fifth Edition
may order Supplement 1, Part 1, at 50 cents (please
send amount with order to avoid bookkeeping costs).
It is anticipated that Part 2 of Supplement 1,
will be published in the July issue of "Computers
and Automation".
Abbreviations include:

entered computer field
main interests
publications, honors; memberships, other
h: home address
v: volume number

Main Interests:
A Applications
B Business
C Construction
0 Design
L Logic
,:'C 71:



Information compiled or checked in 1971
(similarly for other years)

':'AHRENSDORF, Robert E. I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
ALBASINY, .Ernest L. I numerical and mathematical
analysis I b: 1931 led: MA, Cambridge Univ lent:
1954 I m-i: Ma, numerical analysis I t: senior
principal scientific officer I org: National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, England I
pb-h: FIMA, over 20 papers on numerical and applied
mathematical topics I h: 46, Tranmere Rd, Whitton,
Middlesex, England I v: 3 I *C 70
i.'ALBERT, Joseph I pb-h: past chmn Southeast chapter
ACM; papers for ASTME, CIRP, ASQC I v: 2 I >!'C 71
':'ALBRIGHT, Harvey C. It: telecommunications coordinator I pb-h: ACM, COP, ICA, vice-chairman of JUG,
papers published on management of computer installations I v: 2 I *C 71
ALEXANDER, Andrew B. I systems programmer I b:
1942 led: Univ of Kentucky lent: 1965 I m-i:
ABO L Mg P Syj operations I t: systems programmer I org: Dynafacts, Inc, 2228 Young Dr, Lexington, KY 40505 I pb-h: DPMA, ASM I h: 564 Freeman
Dr, Lexington, KY 40505 I v: 1 I *C 70
':'ALEXANDER, F. Lynn I head of systems software &
commercial applications led: AB, math, Cornell;
JD, George Washington Univ I t: technical supervisor I pb-h: member, District of Columbia Bar I
v: 1


,:'C 71

':'ALLEN, Eugene V. I manager of computer opera tions I
org: So California Gas Co, 1801 S Atlantic Blvd,
Monterey Pk, CA 91754 I v: 2 I *C 71
ALLEN, Murray W. I educator I b: 1927 I ed: BE,
PhD I m-i: 0 Mg I t: professor I org: School of
Elect Eng, Univ of N.S.W., PO 1 Kensington 2033,
NSW Australia I pb-h: - I h: 8 Milray St, Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia I v: 3 I *C 70
*ALTER, Ralph I senior computer scientist I t: senior
computer scientist I org: Bolt Beranek & Newman,
Inc, 50 Moulton St, Cambridge, MA 02138 / v: 2 I
,.~C 71


':'AMBROSE, John A. I t: assistant vice pres I v: 2 I
~'C 71
~'ANDERS, Edward B. I pb-h: MM, AMS, ACM; au thor 1
book, several articles I v: 3 I *C 71
*ANDERSON, Alfred O. I v: 1 I *C 71
*ANDERSON, G. Ernest, Jr. I pb-h: past pres AEDS,
ACM, AERA, Psychometric Soc; many articles, 1
monograph on university scheduling I v: 3 I *C 71
ANDERSON, Frederick L. I DP administrator I b:
1938 led: BSEE, MSIE lent: 1963 I m-i: A 0 P Sy I
t: dir computer services for regional campuses I
org: Indiana Univ, Bloomington, IN 47401 I pb-h:
ACM I h: 800 N Smith Rd, A8, Bloomington, ·IN
47401 I v: 1 2 I *C 71
ANDERSON, William P. I director I b: 1925 led: BA,
Macalester; MS, Univ of Minnesota lent: 1955 I
m-i: A Mg Ma Sy; languages I t: director, computer
center I org: San Fernando Valley State College,
Northridge, CA 91324 I pb-h: ACM, MM I h: 12322
23rd Helena Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90049 I v: 2 I
,:'C 70
':'ANDERT, D. J. I h: 410 Meadow, Anaheim, CA 92803 I
v: 2 I ,:'C 71
*ANDRESEN, Kenneth W. led: BS, MSEE, lIT I org: KWARE, Inc, 3100 S Mich Ave, Chicago, IL 60616 I
v: 3 I ,:'C 71
*ANDRESS, Claude J. I pb-h: DPMA I v: 2 I *C 71
~'ANDREWS, Peter B. I pb-h: 1 book, 5 articles I
v: 3 I ~'C 71
ANGLEMYFR, Lawrence Lee I programmer, systems designer I b: 1933 led: BA, bus admin lent: 1957 I
m-i: B D Mg Sa I t: programmer systems analyst I
org: The Boeing Co, 3801 S Oliver, Wichita, KS
67210 I pb-h: - I h: R nl, Augusta, KS 67010 I
v: 1 2 I ':'C 70
ANTHONY, Michael I manager DP I b: 1934 I ed: BEE I
ent: 1958 I m-i: A 0 Mg Sy I t: coordinator of
computer services I org: Caltex Oil Pty, Ltd, 167
Kent St, Sydney 2000 Australia I pb-h: Fellow,
Aus Computer Soc (FACS), BCS I h: 7 Beauchamp Ave,
Chatswood, NSW 2067, Australia I v: 2 3 I *C 70
':'APPELBAUM, Lawrence T. I ed: Uni v of Notre Dame;
St. Louis Univ; Univ of Virginia I v: 3 I *C 71
*APPLEBAUM, Frank H. I pb-h: treasu~er Annual National Information Retrieval Colloquium, ACM, IEEE;
"Sorting in the RCA 501", ACM conference, 1959 I
v: 1 I *C 71
*':'APPLEQUIST, H. Duane I management I b: 1924 I ed:
Univ of Cincinnati lent: 1959 I m-i: A B Mg I
t: plant superintendent I org: Standard Oil Co
(Ohio), No 2 Refinery, Cleveland OH 44127 I pb-h:
Production & Inventory Control Handbook (APICS),
IMS, registered professional engineer in Ohio I
h: 701 Walnut Dr, Euclid, OH 44132 I v: 2 I *C 71
*ARCHER, Donald V. I h: 3699 E Nobles Rd, Littleton,
CO 80122 I v: 2 I *C 71
*ARCHIBALD, Russell D. I org: ITT Corp, 320 Park
Ave, New York, NY 10022 I pb-h: co-author Network
Based Management Systems (PERT/CPM)j 40 papers;
AIM; TIMS; VP Project Management Inst I h: 8
River Lane, Westport, CT 06880 I v: 3 I ·:,C 71
~'ARMBRUSTER, Larry F. I h: PO Box 262, CharI ton
Height s, WV 25040 I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
':'ARNETTE, Ruth I v: 1 3 I ~'C 71
*ARNOLD, Dorothy G. I v: 1 I *C 71
':'ARNOLD, Herbert, II! I executive led: BS, SMU I
t: vice president I org: DPA, Inc, 2636 Farrington,
Dallas, TX 75207 I h: 7209 Fernmeadow Dr, Dallas,
TX 75240 I v: 3 I *C 71
*ARNOLD, L. Wayne led: JD, Detroit College of Law I
pb-h: Amer Jurisprudence Award, 1969 - Simulation
Councils, Amer Soc of Intnl Law, Intnl Studies
Assoc, APSA, Peace Research Soc (Intnl), World
Peace Through Law Center I v: 3 I *C 71
.:' AR NONE , Patrick J. I org: Computer Network Corp,
5185 MacArthur Blvd, NW, Washington, DC 20016 I
v: 2 I ~'C 71

':'ARNOTT, Richard D. I pb-h: first insurance company
payroll application on IBM 650, national director
and officer, IASA I h: 701 Warren Ave, Washington
CH, OH 43160 I v: 2 I *C 71
*ARON, Joel D. I v: 1 2 I *C 71
':'ARRINGTON, J. L., I! led: BScEE, USN Post Graduate
School; MSEE I t: manager, process computers I
v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'ARRINGTON, Wendell S. I org: Wyeth Labs, PO Box
8299, Philadelphia, PA 19101 I v: 2 / *C 71
*ASHKINOS, Stanley / v: 2 / *C 71
*ASTRAHAN, Morton M. I t: research staff member I
org: IBM Research Div, Monterey & Cottle Rds, San
Jose, CA 95114 I pb-h: first chmn, IRE PGEC
('51-53); chmn, National Joint Computer Committee
('56-58), fellow of the IEEE (1969), chmn of AFIPS
Joint Computer Conference Committee ('66-69) I
v: 1 I ':'C 71
':'AUFENKAMP, Darrel Don I t: head, computer applications in research I h: 2942 Hewitt Ave, Silver
Spring, MD 20906 I v: 3 I ~'C 71
':'AULT, J. Gi Ibert I org: Ranger In surance, 5333
Westheimer, Houston, TX 77027 / v: 2 I ~'C 71
>!'AUSLANDER, David M. I m-i: A Sy / v: 3 I ':'C 71
>!'AUSTIN, Hubert I ed: BSEd, MA, EdD I h: 1929 Woodmont Dr, Muncie, IN 47304 I v: 2 I ':'C 71

*BACA, Apolonio I project manager / t: project manager I pb-h: DPMA, S~E, Texas Society Professional
Engineers / v: 2 / *C 71
~'BACHHUBER, John J. / h: 1818 E Lindbergh St /
v: 1 2 I >:'C 71
*BAER, Daniel J. I v: 3 I *C ~l
BAILEY, Robert E. I executive I b: 1949 I ed: AS,
science lent: 1969 I m-i: P Mg I t: president I
org: Analex Programs Inc, N Country Rd, Wading
River, NY 11792 I pb-h: - I h: Box 448, Wading
River,NY 11792 I v: 1 I ':'C 70
':'BAILEY,William S., Jr. / t: programmer, analyst I
pb-h: AMA, ACM, DPMA, registered business programmer by DPMA / h: 5650 Del Monte, Houston, TX
77027 I v: 1 I *C 71
':'BAIN, Dennis A. I org: Transport Clearings, PO Box
3220, St Paul, M'N 55101 I v: 2 I >!'C 71
*BAKER, Jack I v: 2 I *C 71
*BAKER, Ronald A. / org: Coty Div of Pfizer, Inc,
235 E 42 St, New York, NY 10017 I pb-h: COP,
DPMA I v: 2 I *C 71
**BAKER, William A. I director EDP research I b:
1936 led: AB, political science, Duke Univ lent:
1961 / m-i: B Mg P Sy; software & hardware / t:
director I org: Aetna Life & Casualty, 151 Farmington Ave, Hartford, CT 06115 / pb-h: COP, chmn
of GUIDE Remote Computing Group, past pres of
Telecomputer Applications Group / 26 Wolcott Ln,
Vernon, CT 06066 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'BALDWIN, George L. I m-i: Mg Sy It: director,
computing technology center I org: Bell Telephone
Labs, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 I pb-h: IEEE, ACM I
v: 2 I >:'C 71
*BALDWIN, Ruth C. Iv: 1 I *C 71
':'BANKS, F. E. I pb-h: COP, past pres Akron chapter
and international director ASM, lecturer Univ of
Akron, 3 papers I v: 2 / *C 71
BARBER, D. L. A. I systems programmer I b: 1929 I
ed: London BS; C Engrg; MIEE / ent: 1954 / m-i:
Mg Sy / t: head, information systems branch I org:
Ministry of Technology, Computer Science Div, NPL,
Teddington, Middlesex, England / pb-h: - I h: 26
Gordon Rd, Shepperton, Middlesex, England I v: 3 /
>!'C 70
*BARGER, Kenneth R. I h: 12244 Pointer Hill Ct,
Ellicott City, MD 21043 I v: 1 I *C 71
*BARNETT, Arnold / m-i: A B Mg Sa Sy; education &


consulting / pb-h: ACM, ASM, DPMA, ACPA, ASIS,
AMS, IMS (science), ASTD (development), SMIS, CPA,
CDP; books: Effective Systems Development & Effective Data Systems Development / v: 3 / *C 71
*BARNICLE, John F. / senior director / t: senior
director, mgmt info services / org: Triangle Industries, 550 Broad St, Newark, NJ 07102 / pb-h:
intnl dir SPA, chapter vice pres NAA, numerous
articles, speaker at AMA & professional meetings,
CDP / v: 2 / *C 71
*BAROLET, John A. / aircraft weapons systems testing / org: Systems Analysis Group, Weapons Systems
Test Div, Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River,
MD 20670 / h: 108 Elliott Ct, California, MD
20619 / v: 3 / ~'C 71
*BARON, Thomas M. / h: 3514 White Ave, LaVerne, CA
91750 / v: 1 / *C 71
**BARTELL, Kenneth N. / staff coordinator computer
systems / b: 1941 / ed: BS, Univ of Calif, Berkeley; MPA Calif State ColI, Hayward / ent: 1969 /
m-i: Sa Sy; sales forecasting, mgmt information
systems design, mini-computer mktg / t: staff
coordinator computer systems / org: Moore Business
Forms, Inc, 2950 Peralta Oaks Ct, Oakland, CA
94605 / pb-h: - / h: 2123 Raven Rd, Pleasanton,
CA 94566 / v: 3 / ':'C 71
>:'BARTON, Samuel G., III/v: 2/ ':'C 71
>:'BASHKOW, T. R. / org: Dept of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Columbia Univ, New York,
NY 10027 / pb-h: Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa
Nu, 11 published papers. edited book for Academic
Press / h: Jay St, Katonah, NY 10536 / v: 3 /
>:'C 71
*BASS, William B. / systems analyst / t: admin asst
information systems / v: 1 / *C 71
*BASTIAN, Dale W. / v: 2 / *C 71
*BAXTER, Wallace C. Jr. / manager / org: USMC HoagueSprague Div, 130 Eastern Ave, Lynn, MA 01903 /
h: 149 Burril St, Swampscott, MA 01907 / v: 2 /
>:'C 71
*>:'BAYLES, Richard U. / research & development mgmt /
b: 1942 / ed: BSCh / ent: 1960 / m-i: Mg / t:
vice pres research & development / org: National
CSS, Inc, 460 Summer St, Stamford, CT / pb-h: ACM,
SHARE, IBM Outstanding Contribution Award 1968 /
h: 18 Calvin Rd, Weston, CT 06880 / v: 1 2 / *C 71
':'BEATH, Paul R. / v: 3 / ':'C 71
':'BEATON, Albert Eugene / t: director, office of
data analysis research / v: 3 / *C 71
o;'BEAVEN, Arthur H. - (replacing BGAVEN, Arthur H.) /
pb-h: MBCS, author LANGUAGE H Programming Manual /
h: 1265 Brainard Woods Dr, Dayton, OH 45459 /
v: 1 / ';'C 71
>:'BECKER, Edward Charles, Jr. / pb-h: pres DPMA; VP,
Sales & Marketing Assoc / v: 2 / *C 71
*BEELER, Leon E. / v: 1 2 / *C 71
*BEGEDDOV, Aharon G. / h: Weizmann Institute of
Science, Rehovot, Israel/v: 1 3 / *C 71
*BEIN, Donald H. / division general manager / t:
manager data systems div / v: 2 / *C 71
*BELL, C. Gordon / t: professor / pb-h: ACM, IEEE,
Eta Kappa Nu; articles, co-author 1 book / v: 3 /
':'C 71
*BELL, James R. / m-i: D P / v: 1 2 / *C 71
*BELLI, Barth J. / h: 196 Maplewood Ave, Clifton,
NJ 07013 / v: 2 3 / *C 71
*BELLOMY, Fred L. / t: manager / org: UC Library,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106 / pb-h: past chmn IEEE
nuclear science group, ACM, SID "Digital Differential Analyzer" "Systems Approach", IEEE Santa
Barbara Section, chmn 70-71; Pub Mgmt Planning
for Lib Syst Dev in Jola / h: 5150 Vista Bahia,
Santa Barbara, CA 93105 / v: 2 / *C 71
*BENIMA, Benno / h: 82 Kingswood Rd, Auburndale, MA
02166 / v: 1 2 / *C 71
O:'BENNETT, James H. / b: 1938 / h: Rt 518 Blawenburg,
NJ 08504 / v: 2 / *C 71

*BERG, Hans S. I h: 12560 Woodley Ave, Granada
Hills, CA 91344 / v: 1 3 / *C 71
BERGER, Alan / manager-systems support / m-i: A L
Mg Sy / t: manager-systems & applic support /
v: 1 / ·:,C 71
BERGES, George A., Jr. / research associate / b:
1942 / ed: PhD. elec engrg / ent: 1966 / m-i: A /
t: research assoc / org: Montana State Univ, Bozeman, MT 59715 / pb-h: ACM, IEEE, SID / h: 1448
Ash, Bozeman, MT 59715 / v: 3 / ';'C 70
*BERGMAN, Ray Eldon I org: Naval Civil Engineering
Lab, Code L53, Port Hueneme, CA 93043 / pb-h:
NYAS, AAAS, 12 publns in numerical methods for
computers, simulation & math modeling of large
physical & organizational systems, American Men
of Science. Who's Who in the West / h: 1572 E
Prima Ct, Camarillo, CA 93010 7 v: 1 3 / *C 71
*BERGQUIST, J. William (Dr.) / v: 3 / *C 71
*BERGSTRESS~R, Richard V. / org: IBM, 1133 Westchester Ave, White Plains, NY 10604 / v: 2 / *C 71
*BERKELEY, Edmund Callis / b: 1909 / v: 1 2 3 /
·:,C 71
';'BERNARD, Robert H. / ent: 1958 / t: chmn /org:
Natl CSS, Inc, 460 Summer St, Stamford, CT 06901 /
v: 1 2 / *C 71
*BERRY, J. Douglass / v: 2 / *C 71
*BERTONE, C. M. / ed: PhD, psychology / org: Bunker
Ramo Corp, 31717 La Tienda Dr, Westlake Village,
CA 91360 / v: 3 / ';'C 71
BESSIS, George / educator / b: 1931 / ed: doctorates sciences physiques / ent: 1958 / m-i: Ma P;
theoretical physics / t: professor / org: Faculte
des Sciences de Lyon, 69 Villeurbaune, France /
pb-h: APS; over 20 publns / h: - / v: 3 / *C 70
*BETTS, Joseph M., Jr. / pb-h: AERA, AAAS, ACM,
ADIS; 12 papers / h: 103 W George Mason Rd, Falls
Church, VA 22046 / v: 1 / ';'C 71
':'BICK, Ellis T. / pb-h: ASM (Mgmt), CDP / v: 2 /
':'C 71
'~BICKFORD, Paul A. / h: 205 Spring St, Apt 1, Greencastle, IL 46135 / v: 2 / *C 71
*BIERMAN, Kenneth John / pb-h: ALA; ASIS; several
publns / h: 1824 Cameron Ave, Moore, OK 73060 /
v: 2 / ':'C 71

o;'BIGELOW, Richard / pb-h: NCTM, AAAS / v: 2 / ':'C 71
*BIRD, Richard M. / v: 2 / *C 71
*BISHOP, Ronald A. / ed: business school; mgmt
course, Univ of Nebraska at Omaha / v: 2 / ,;,C 71
':'BLALOCK, James E. / org: Naval Ship Research &
Development Center, Washington, DC 20034 / pb-h:
officer ALWAC users assn, XDS users assn / v: 3 /
';'C 71
*BLEDSOE, Lewis J. / h: 2918 Deon Dr, Ft Collins,
CO 80521 / v: 1 / *C 71
*BLESSUM, William T. / t: assistant professor, acting
director-Biometrics Lab / h: 2792 Vireo, Costa
Mesa, CA 92626 / v: 3 / *C 71
*BLISHAK, Theodore L. / t: manager, electronics development / org: SCM Radiation Lab, 3210 Porter
Dr, Palo Alto, CA 94304 / h: 430 Claremont Way,
Menlo Pk, CA 94025 / v: 3 / *C 71
':'BLOCK, Charles / v: 2 / >:'C 71
*BLUE, Allan G. / org: Advanced Research Projects
Agency, DOD, RM 730, 1400 Wilson Blvd, Arlington,
VA 22209 / v: 2 / *C 71
':'BLUMBERG, Samuel / org: US Government, Dept of Defense, Defense Documentation Center, Bldg ~5,
Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314 / pb-h: CDP,
designed & taught course in basic programming;
authored Defense Documentation Center Report on
Computer-Output-Microfilm (AD 708-600) / h: 6168
Edsall Rd, ~23, Alexandria, VA 22304 / v: 1 / ':'C 71
*BLUMENSTEIN, Brent A. / h: 1501 Clairmont Rd, Decatur, GA 30033 / v: 1 2 / *C 71
':'BOCKELMAN, Melvin / h: 6020 Main, Kansas City, MO
64113 / v: 2 / *C 71
*BOCKIAN, James B. / t: principal consultant; manager

of systems services I org: McDonnell Douglas Automation Co, 666 Park Ave, East Orange, NJ 07017 I
v: 3


':'C 71

*BOESCH, Kenneth C. I t: corporate systems and O/R
mgr I org: Anaconda Aluminum Co, PO Box 1654,
Louisville, KY 40201 I pb-h: SPA, ASM I h: 10602
Sunderland Rd, Louisville, KY 40243 I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
··:'BOGAN, Thomas M. I systems supervisor I b: 1941 I
ed: BA, philosophy, MBA, administrative science I
ent: 1962 I m-i: A B Mg P Sy I t: supervisor systems I org: Chrysler Corp, SIPC, Highland Pk, MI
48203 I pb-h: CDP I h: 27071 Arden Pk Circle,
Farmington, MI 48024 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'BOLL, William L. I executive I t: vice president I
org: Automatic Data Processing of S W Conn, Inc,
264 Atlantic St, Stamford, CT 06901 I pb-h: - I
h: 8 Dibble St, Rowayton, CT 06853 I v: 2 I *C 71
*BOND, Richard A. I t: department manager I org:
Systems Development Corp, PO Box C, Whippany, NJ
07981 I v: 2 I *C 71
*BOOKE, Henry M. I manager technical support staff I
ed: BIE, North Carolina State Univ I v: 2 I *C 71
~'BORST, Richard I computing center director It:
director, computing center j v: 2 I *C 71
*BOST, John D. I h: 4372 Motor Ave, Culver City, CA
90230 I v: 1 I *C 71
':'BOWDEN, John C. I v: 2 I >:'C 71
':'BRADY, David A. I v: 1 2 I ':'C 71
':'BRANDT, Ronald J. I pb-h: CDP, DPMA, ASM, pres Madison Chapter SAM, Fellow LOMAI I v: 2 I *C 71
*BRASS, Ivan led: BS, New York Univ; MBA, Adelphi
Univ I v: 1 I *C 71
*BRAY, Thomas A. I org: Boeing Scientific Research
Labs, PO Box 3981, Seattle, WA 98124 I v: 1 I *C 71
BRECHER, Mary Louise I programmer, analyst I b:
1944 led: BS, math, Carnegie Mellon Univ lent:
1966 I m-i: A D P Sa I t: ~ystems engineer lorg:
Westinghouse Tele-Computer Systems Corp, 2040 Ardmore Blvd, Pittsburgh, PA 15221 I pb-h: Pi Delta
Epsilon I h: 305 Michael Dr, Irwin, PA 15642 I
v: 1 I ':'C 71
*BREMER, John P. I b: 1926 I t: principal I org:
Systemation Assoc Inc, 36 Washington St, Wellesley
Hills, MA 02181 I h: 25 Marlborough St, Boston,
MA 02116 I v: 2 I *C 71
~'BREMNER, Richard W. It: proj ect manager I v: 2 I
':'C 71
':'BREWER, Bob R. I org: Dept of Labor & Industries,
Washington State, Olympia, WA 98501 I h: 1123
Homann Dr, Lacey, WA 98501 I v: 1 I *C 71
*BRIDGES, Robert G. I pb-h: ASM I v: 2 I *C 71
*BRIDGHAM, Minot R. led: BSCE, MIT; MCE, Brooklyn
Polytechnic Inst I pb~h: ACM, CDP, ex-Assoc SOA I
v: 3 I ':'C 71
*BROCK, John J. j engineering manager I t: department
manager I v: 1 I *C 71
~'BROMBERG, Howard I m-i: B P; proprietary packages,
pre-compilers, standards I t: president. I pb-h:
chief U S delegate to the ISO Technical Comm on
Programming Languages Standardization; chmn ANSI
AFIPS; many published articles I v: 2 I *C 71
**BROOKS, Frederick Phillips, Jr I professor I b:
1931 led: BA, physics, Duke Univ~ SM, PhD, applied math, Harvard Univ lent: - I m-i: education I
t: professor, chmn dept of com sci I org: Univ of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 I pb-h: ACM,
AAAS, Fellow, IEEE; Phi Beta Kappa~ Sigma Xi, 5
patents, 5 computer designs, film, numerous books,
papers, & lectures, McDowell Award, DPMA "Man of
the Year" I h: - I v: 2 3 I ':'C 71
':'BROOKS, WarrenB. I manager, computer & telecommunications dept I org: Mobil Oil Corp, 150 E 42nd
St, New York, NY 10017 j v: 2 I ':'C 71
*BROWN, Donald Meeker I v: 1 I ':'C 71
':'BROWN, Francis J. I t: assistant professor I pb-h:
DPMA, ISA, AEDS, NBEA. Delta Pi Epsilon, Iota

Lamda Sigma I h: 1410 N Wash Ave, Royal Oak, MI
48067 I v: 3 I *C 71
':'BROWN, George J. I systems-mgmt It: mgmt analyst I
. org: Executive Office of the President, Office of
Mgmt & Budget, Washington, DC 20503 I h: 1203
Fourth St, SW, Washington, DC 20024 I v: 1 I ~'C 71
*BROWN, Ira B. I v: 2 3 I *C 71
*BROWN, Lawtence I v: 1 I *C 71
':'BROWN, Robert J. I ed: BSEE, Uni v of Illinoi s; MBA
cand, Indiana Univ I h: R R 8, Columbus, IN 47201 I
v: 2 I *C 71
BROWN, Robert R. I computer scientist I b: 1926 I
ed: PhD, math, UCLA lent: 1952 I m-i: A Ma I
t: vice pres I org: Arcata National, 2750 Sand
Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 I pb-h: - I h: 495
Arbor Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 I v: 2 I *C 70
~'BROWNE, James C. I v: 3 I ':'C 71
*BRUCKS,. Norman I executive I org: Brucks Personnel
Corp, 2541 Monroe Ave, Rochester, NY 14618 I v: 2 I
':'C 71
':'BRYANT, Howard W. I h: 568 Jordan Rd, McFarland, WI
53558 I v: 2 I *C 71
*BUFFORD, Robert E. I h: 361 Greenmore, Ballwin, MO
63011 I v: 2 I *C 71
BULGREN, William G. I educator I b: 1937 led: BA,
MS, PhD, Iowa lent: 1959 I m-i: A Ma P Sy, simulation I t: assoc prof cmptr sci I org: Univ of
Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66044 I pb-h: 2 books, 15
papers I h: 515 Kasold Dr, Lawrence, KS 66044 I
v: 3 I ':'C 70
':'BULGRIN, James G., Jr. I h: 835B Country Club Dr,
Libertyville, IL 60048 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'BUNN, A. Owen I t: asst vice pres I pb-h: DPMA I
v: 2


':'C 71

*BURGER, Norman A. I executive I t: president I org:
Corporate Computers Inc, 420 Lexington Ave, New
York, NY 10017 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'BURNETT, Barbara I t: assoc operations research
mathematician I v: 1 I *C 71
':'BUTLER, Donovan W. I pb-h: Operations Comm, Bank
Admin Inst I h: 1011 Court Dr, Charlotte, NC
28211 I v: 2 I *C 71
BUTLER, James Earl I system analyst I b: 1943 I
ed: ScB, chern lent: 1966 I m-i: A B D Sa I t:
system analyst I org: B.F. Goodrich Co, 500 S
Main St, Akron, OH 44318 I pb-h: - I h: 1320 Lake
Roger Dr, Kent OH 44240 I v: 1 I *C 71
~'BUTLER, Kenneth, Jr. I v: 3 I ':'C 71

Lee Dr. I t: adjunct prof med (biomath) I
I ':'C 71
'~CALDWELL, R. Dean I org: Data Systems, Inc, Hennepin
Square, 2021 E Hennepin Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55413
I h: 5874 Hackmann Ave, Minneapolis MN 55432 I v: 2
I ·~C 71
'~CALLAHAN, William P. I org: Holyoke Works, Compressor
& Engine Intn'l, Div. of Worthington Corp, 37
Appleton St, Holyoke, MA 01040 I v: 2 I ·~C 71
CALLAWAY, Royce, L. I product manager I b: 1934 I
ed: BS geology, math I eng: 1959 I m-i: medium
systemsl t: product managerl org: Burroughs Corp,
460 Sierra Madre Villa, Pasadena, CA 91107 I
pb-h: - I h: 3626 Tilden Ave, Los Angeles, CA
90034 I v: 2 I ·C 70
'~CAMPBELL, Rex R. It: director of demographic data
service I v: 3 I *C 71
'~CANDLIN, Hugh I m-i: A B L P Sy I org: Blue Cross
Assoc, 520 N Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60610 I h:
1455 W Highland Ave, Chicago, IL 60626 I v: 1 I
~~C 71
·CANNON, Francis R. I v: 1 3 I *C 71
':'CANTER, John D. I m-i: P Sy; information theory,
heuristics, information storage & retrieval, bio'~CADY,

v: 3



medical computing, graphics I pb-h: Phi Beta Kappa,
8 publns I v: 3 I .C 71
.CANTOR, David G I pb-h: ACM, MMA, AMS, Sloan fellow,
numerous research papers I h: 20259 Inland La,
Malibu, CA 90265 I v: 2 I ·C 71
·CARELLI, Ralph, Jr. I v: 2 I ·C 71
.CARLEY, William F. I org: Data Systems Analysts
Inc, Pennsauken, NJ 08109 I h: Gomorushof 102,
Hilversum, Netherlands I v: 1 I ·C 71
CAROL, Bernardi statistical consultant I b: 1914 I
ed; BA, MS in ed;MA, math stat lent: 1953 I
m-i: A I t: biomathematician I org: Montefiore
Hospital & Medical Center, III E 210 St, Bronx,
NY 10467 I pb-h: 22 articles on theory & practice
of statistics with computer application/ h: 15
Linden St, Great Neck, NY 11021 I v: 3 I ·~C 70
·CARROLL, Robert L. I h: 619 Addison St, Philadelphia,
PA 19147 I v: 2 I ·:cC 71
·CARSON, Doyne J. I t: general mgr - corp dp I pb-h:
CDP, registered business programmer I v: 2 I ·C 71
·CARTER, Harvey P. I v: 2 I ·C 71
·CARTER, Launor F. I v: 2 I ·C 71
·CARTER, Robert L., Jr. I eng: 1956 I t: chief I
org: LTV Aerospace Corp. Vought Aeron2utics Co,
POB 5907, Dallas, TX 75222 I h: 1724 Ridgeview
Dr, Arlingt, TX 76012 I v: 2 I ·C 71
·CARTER, William Caswell I pb-h: SIAM, IEEE, national
lecturer ACM, American Men of Science, Phi Beta
Kappa, Sigma Xi, American Assn of Rhodes Scholars,
32 technical papers, 13 patents I v: 3 I ·C 71
·CASALI, Harold O. I t: director of DP I org: State
of West Va, Dept. of Finance & Admin, Charleston,
WV 25305 I h: 721 Canterbury Dr, Charleston,
WV 23514 / v: 1 2 I ·C 71
':'CATANZARO, Thomas P. / m-i: A 13 L Mg P Sa Sy I
v: 1 i I ':'C 71
·CATRAMBONE, Joseph A. I administrator I v: 2 I
*C 71
':CCAVES, William E. led: BA, physics, The George
Washington Univ I v: 3 I ·C 71
*CAYLOR, Myron G. I t: control manager I org:
MDC Data Centers Inc, 26 Fellowship Rd, Cherry
Hill, NJ 08034 I v: 3 I .C 71
·CELMINS, Airvarsl ed: Dr rer nat Clausthal,
Germany I v: 3 I ·C 71
':'CHAITIN, Leonard J. I m-i: A Mg P Sy; compilers,
time-sharing, real time, artificial intelligence,
on line MIS I t: senior systems programmer I
v: 1 I *C 71
*CHAMBERS, Robert L. I org: Westinghouse Electric
Corp, 700 Bradock Ave, 7L47, East Pittsburgh,
PA 15112 I pb-h: past chmn Pittsburgh chapter
ACM, ASME, IEEE, Pennsylvania PE; 3 transaction
papers I h: 348 Long Rd, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 I
v: 2 I ·:cC 71
CHAN, ~hu-Park, Dr. I educator I b: 1929 led:
PhD, in EE, Univ. of Ill. lent: 1960 I m-i: A
Ma I t: professor & chairman of EE Dept I org:
Univ of Santa Clara, Dept of Elec Engrg, Santa
Clara, CA 95053 I pb-h: Introductory Topological
Analysis of Electrical Networks, numerous papers,
Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, Pi Mu Epsilon, Phi
Kappa Phi, Sigma Xi, IEEE I h: 2085 Denise Dr,
Santa Clara, CA 95050 I v: 1 3 I *C 70
*CHAPIN, Ned I pb-h: 5 books & more than 50 papersj
memberships in more than a dozen associations;
CDP, RBT, PE I v: 3 I .C 71
**CHASE, Milton I supervisory computer systems
analyst I b: 1928 I ed: Temple Univ lent: 1956 I
m-i: A B Mg P Sy I t: chief, applications analysis
division I org: USA Electronics Command, 225 S
18th St, Philadelphia, PA 19103 / pb-h: ORS, Assoc
of US Army, US Naval Institute I h: 2033 Nester
St, Philadelphia, PA 19115 / v: 2 1 I ·C 71
~CHASE, Peter Paul I pb-h: ACM, Pi Mu Epsilon, 3
papers I h: 3044 Matilda St, Coconut Grove, FL
33133 I v: 3 I *C 71


>!'CHENEY, Philip W. I h: 20 Old Vi llage Rd, Acton,
MA 01720 I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
CHENG, George C. I research and managing I b:
1929 led: BA, economics, MSEE I ent:1959 I
m-i: A D Mg Sy I t: biomathematics div head I
org: National Biomedical Research Foundation,
Silver Spring, MD 20901 I pb-h: over 30 publns I
h: 11200 Lockwood Dr, Apt 118, Silver Spring,
MD 20901 I v: 2 3 I *C 70
~"CHEYDLEUR, Benj amin F. I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
':'CHI, Benjamin E. I t: chairman I v: 3 I ,:'C 71
':":'CHIAPPlNELLI, A., Jr. I consul tant-EDP I b: 1932
led: BA; grad studies in statistics lent: 1956
I m-i: Mg Sy I t: pres I org: Computer Methods
Corp, 470 Mamaroneck Ave, White Plains, NY 10605
I pb-h: lecturer A~ffi, ACM, DPMA, ASM, SRI I h:
:Allison Rd, Katonah, NY 10536 I v: 2 3 I *C 71
CHICOREL, Marietta I executive and educator I
b: - led: MA, Lib Sci I ent:1964 I m-i: B;
publishing, consultant, education I t: pres,
asst prof I org: Chicorel Library Publg Corp,
330 W 58 St, New York, NY 10019; Queens College,
Flushing, NY I pb-h: - I h: 315 W 57 St, New
York, NY 10019 I v: 3 I .C 71
':'CHRISMAN, Campbell H., Jr. I t: branch head, data
systems branch I org: US Naval Research Lab,
Code 7930, Washington, DC 20025 I v: 3 I *C 71
**CHRIST, Duane M. I programmer I b: 1932 led:
BS, Iowa State; MA, Univ of Minnesota lent:
1960 I m-i: A D Ma P Sy It: staff programmer I
org: IBM, New York, NY 10020 I pb-h: ACM, ORSA,
SIAM / h: 502 W 122 St, New York, NY 10027 I
v: 1 I ,:'C 71
':'CHUANG, Yin Huang It: associate professor I h:
12538 Fee Fee Rd, Creve Coeur, MO 63141 I v: 3
I ,:'C 71
CICCHETTI, John B. I v: 3 I *C 71
**CICONE, Ralph J. I data processing manager I b:
1923 I ed: AS, data processing lent: 1957 I
m-i: B D L Mg P Sy I t: dir of mgmtinformation
sys I org: Philip A Hunt Chemical Corp, Roosevelt
Place, Palisades Park, NJ 07650 I pb-h: pres
Honeywell Users Org Eastern Region; pres DP~ffi
Garden State Chapter I h: 17 Marcy St, Bloomfield, NJ 07003 I v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'CLAFFEY, William J. I pb-h: texts Principles of
Data Processing Dickenson Publ, '67; Principles
of Programming the IBM 1620 Dickenson Publ, '68
Keypunch Operation Dickenson Publ, '69 I v: 3 I
·~C 71
':":'CLARK, John R. I teacher / b: 1932 I ed: MS,
Univ of Kansas, M Ed, Harvard / eng: 1957 I mi:
Ma P; teaching techniques, Computer Assisted
Instruction I t: Consultant Computer Assisted
Instruction I org: Coast Community College
District, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 I pb-h: "Comments
and Curricula Related to Third Generation Data
Processing and Specifically IBM S/360"; RPG I
and RPG II Programming for S/360 and S/3"; ACM,
APL Users Group, MAA, NCTM I h: 2701 Fairview
Rd, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 I v: 231 ~'C 71
*CLARK, Linda M. I consultant / t: president /
pb-h: vice pres Chicago chapter ASA (Stat)
1970-71, director, Chicago chapter ASA (Stat)
1971-72, lecturer AMA (Mgmt) seminar on Computerbased Data Systems for Market Research; author
2 articles on computer use in medical research /
v: 3 / *C 71
>:'CLARKE, Alfred L. I manager / pb-h: Chairman COM
policy committee, NMA I v: 2 / *C 71
CLARKE, Richard W. / executive I b: 1930 led:
BME; BS, Univ of Minn/ ent: 1956 / m-i: Mg /
t: president / org: Data Action Corp, 4445 W 77
St, Minneapolis, MN 55435 / pb-h: Tau Beta Pi,
Pi Tau Sigma; patented flying head device / h:
16535 Ninth Ave North, Wayzata, MN 55391 I v:
3 / ~"C 70

.CLAY, James R. I pb-h: AMS, MAA, Sigma Xi, American
Men of Science, Who's Who in the West, numerous
publications I h: 2201 Frannea Dr, Tucson, AZ
85712 I v: 3 I .C 71
.CLIPPINGER, R. F. I h: 41 Joellen Dr, Merrimack,
NH 03054 I v: 3 I ,:'C 71
.CLOVER, H. Dick I executive I t: vice president,
GSA & Master Agreements I h: 2201 E Old Shakopee
Rd, Bloomington, MN 55420 I v: 2 I 'leC 71
':'CLUTTERHAM, David R. I v: 3 I ,:'C 71
•• COADY, Edward R. I computer systems administrator
I b: 1931 lent: BS, MS I eng: 1956 I M-i: Mg I
t: chief, EDP branch I org: Social Security Adm,
Rm 20A-I0, 6401 Security Blvd, Baltimore, MD
21235 I pb-h: "Selection & Training of Computer
Personnel at ~ocial Security Ad~' (paper delvd
at SJCC-70 IFIP World Conference on Computer
Education, 1970), ACM I h: 1629 Kirkwood Rd,
Baltimore, MD 21207 I v: 2 I ·C 71
':'COFFMAN, T. Edgar I M-i: A B Mg P Sy It: technical
services manager I pb-h: CDP, ASM I v: 2 I ·C 71
.COHAN, Morton D. I t: manager computer science I
org: E. R. Squibb & Sons, 25 Kennedy Blvd., E
Brunswick, NJ 08816 I h: 43 Sudbury Rd, Morganville,
NJ 07751 I v: 2 I ·C 71
':'COHEN, Edwi n I v: 3 I ·:·C 71
':'COHN, Charles E. I pb-h: Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi,
ANS, APS, MENSAi 14 publications / v: 3 / ,:'C 71
'!!:'EPSTEIN, George / mathematician / b: 1934 / ed:
BS, Cal Tech; MS, Univ of Ill; PhD, UCLA / ent:
1957 / m-i: D L Ma / t: senior staff scientist /
org: ITT, Gilfillan, 7821 Orion Ave, Van Nuys, CA
91406 / pb-h: IEEE, ACM, AMA, Intern'l Society for
General Semantics, ASL, AMS, Pi Mu Epsilon, Sigma
Xi, over 20 publns in math, engineering, poetry
philosophy, cybernetics, psychologYi 4 patent
applns / h: 3726 Seahorn Dr, Malibu, CA 90265 /
v: 3 (change from 1) / *C 71
ERVIN, Dr. Frank R. / research director / b: 1926
/ ed: BA, Univ of Texas; MD, Tulane Univ Sch of
Med / ent: 1960 / m-i: A / t: assoc prof / org:
Harvard Medicali Mass Genl Hosp; Cyber Inc, 276
Third St, Cambridge, MA 02141 / pb-h: AAAS, IEEE,
ACM, Boston Soc of Psychiatry an~ Neurology,
Intertl League Against Epilepsy, Interntl Soc of
Research in Stereoencephalotomy, Interntl Journal
of Psychiatry, assoc editor; Mass Soc for Research
in Psychiatry, Soc for Biological Psychiatry,
World Federation for Medical Electronicsi 6 publications / h: 46 Kendal Comm Rd l Weston t MA


02193 / v: 3 / *C 70
*ESTRIN, Gerald / pb-h: Fellow, IEEE, Guggenheim
Fellowships 1961 and 1967; National Lecturer,
ACM 1966-1967; Distinguished Speaker, 1969 /
v: 3 / ':'C 71

EVANS, Robert L. / executive / b: 1934 / ed: BA
/ ent: 1956 / m-i: Mg / t: corp dir information
sys / org~ Union Camp Corp, 1600 Valley Rd,
Wayne, NJ 07470 / pb-h: - / h: 76 Edgemont Rd,
Up Montclair, NJ 07043 / v: 2 / *C 70
':'EVANS, W. Buell / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'EXCELL, Richard O. / pb-h: CDP, ORSA, TIMS, ACM,
ASA, AMS, SIAMi guest lecturer at local chapters
& educational institutions / v: 3 / *C 71

*FABER, Jack H. / t: financial control manager /
pb-h: - / h: 89 Fuller Rd, Briarcliff Manor,
NY 10510 / v: 2 / *C 71
*FALOR, Kenneth / executive / t: vice pres /
org: Cullinane Corp, One Boston Place, Boston,
MA 02108 / pb-h: many articles in trade publications / v: 2 / *C 71
FARMER, John / systems analyst / b: 1915 / ed:
BS, SUNY; Mgmt Studies, NYUi GSBA / eng: 1945
/ m-i: A B Mg Sy; increment research / t: education systems coordinator / org: Board of
Cooperative Educational Services, 61 Parrott Rd,
W Nyack, NY 10960 / pb-h: DPMA, NYSAEDS / h:
3-2E Sali sbury Manor, S Nyack, NY 10960 /
v: 1 / ':'C 70
FAST, David R. / systems analyst, manager / b:
1941 / ed: BS marketing / ent: 1962 / m-i: D P
Sy / t: software development mgr / org: Computers
for Medicine, 730 Welch Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304
/ pb-h: ACM / h: 22571 Neston Way, Los Altos,
CA 94022 / v: 12/ *C 71
*FEURZEIG, Wallace / org: Bolt Beranek & Newman
Inc, 50 Moulton St, Cambridge, MA 02138 / v:
1 2 / ':'C 71
*FIDDLER, Robert Mark / ed: 4 yrs college / ent:
1968 / t: asst dp mgr / v: 1 2 / *C 71
FINCHAM, William / educator / b: 1930 / ed: BS,
PhD / ent: 1958 / m-i: Sy, biological signal
analysis, on-line control of plant / t: professor / org: Queen Mary ColI, Mile End Rd,
London, El, Eng / pb-h: MIEE, DIC, ACGI; several
publications / h: - / v: 3 / *C 70
':'FINLAY, Frank A., Jr. / owner and manager / org:
Direction Systems Corp, 4546 El Camino Real, Los
Altos, CA 94022 / v: 2 / *C 71
*FINN, T. Paul/manager / t: manager, fulfillment
services and systems /·h: 7388 Creekbrook Dr,
Indianapolis, IN 46227 / v: 1 2 / *C 71
':'FIRESTONE, Roger M. / programmer / b: 1945 / ed:
Brown Univi Sc. M, Brown Univi MS New York Univ;
PhD New York Univ / t: principal programmer /
org: UNIVAC Div Sperry Rand Corp, MS 4953, 2276
Highcrest Dr, Roseville, MN 55113 / v: 1 3 / *C 71
*FISCHBACH, Joseph W. / v: 2 3 / *C 71
':'FISCHLER, Martin A. / t: staff scientist / v: 3
/ ':'C 71
';'FITTS, Charles H. / t: vice pres / org: Burlington
Management Services Co, 3330 W FriendlyRd,
Greensboro, NC 27420 / h: 30007-E Patriot Way,
Greensboro, NC 27408 / v: 3 / '~C 71
';'FLEISHER, Dr. Harold / t: program manager / pb-h:
over 30 patents; Fellow, IEEE; bookchapters,
IEEE proc / v: 2 3 / *C 71
';'FLETCHER, Jerald L. / v: 1 / ':'C 71
':'FOGELSON, Paul N. / ed: BA,'MBA / pb-h: ASM,
TI MS •. SMIS / v: 2 / ':'C 71
*FOGLE, Ben P. / t: mgr operations and tech support
/ pb-h: ACM, DPMA / v: 1 / 'loC 71

COMPUTERS and AUTO.MATION for June, 1971

*FOK, John S. I system designer I h: 515 Faraday
Rd, Hockessin, DE 19707 I v: 1 3 I *C 71
*FOK, Thomas D. Y. I v: 2 3 I *C 71
':'FONG, Russell S. I m-i: A B Mg Ma Sy; management
sciences I t: mgr DPSC I org: State of Calif,
Dept General Services, 915 Cap Mall, Sacramento,
CA 95814 I v: 1 2 I *C 71
':'FORMAN, Andrew M. I org: S L Optner & Associates,
11661 San Vicente Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90049 I
v: 3 I ,:'C 71
':'FRANKE, Ernest A. I t: professor; dean, school of
engineering I v: 3 I *C 71
':'FRANKFELDT, Chester I pb-h: ACM, TAPP!, former
chapter pres DPMA, CDP, Phi Beta Kappa, Tau
Kappa Alpha I v: 3 I *C 71
':'FRANKLIN, Mark I org: Lumbermans Mutua 1 Ca sualty
Co, Long Grove, IL 60047 I h: 405 E Highland,
Mt. Prospect, IL 60056 I v: 1 I *C 71
*FRAZER, Leonard L. I v: 2 I *C 71
*FREDERICK, John! director I t: director I org:
Jackson Area Educational Data Center, Jackson
County Intermediate School District, 290 W
Mich Ave., Jackson, MI 49201 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'FREDETTE, Richard C. It: manager programming
language standards I org: US Navy, Pentagon,
Rm 2C319, Washington, DC 20350 I pb-h: "The
Case for Higher Level Languages in the Navy",
"Navy Audit Routines Show Flaws in COBOL Compilers"; lecturer on standards in data processing, DPMA chapter speaker I v: 1 I ,:'C 71
':'FREELAND, L. Paul I banker, comptroller's staff
I v: 2 I ':'C 71
*FREILICH, Arthur I executive I t: pres I v: 3 I
':'C 71
*FREIREICH, Ira I executive I t: vice pres, data
processing I h: 287 Weaver St, Larchmont, NY
10538 I v: 2 I *C 71
':'FREITAG, Harlow - (in place of Frei tay, Harlow)
I t: manager, sub-systems & integration I v:
1 2 I ':'C 71
*FRYE, Sister Ignatia I v: 3 I *C 71


*GALLIE, Thomas M., Jr. I professor of computer
science I v: 3 I *C 71
':'GALUMBECK, Dennis R. I t: asst vice pres and
dir, advanced systems planning I pb-h: ASM,
SMIS I v: 1 I *C 71
':'GARDNER, StanleyA. It: senior specialist I
pb-h: ACM, TIl\1S I h: 627 Fourth Ave, Westfield,
NJ 07090 I v: 3 I ':'C 71
':'GARVIN, Paul L. I org: Dept of Lingui stics, Sta te
Univ of New York at Buffalo, 302 Hayes Hall,
Buffalo, NY 14214 I pb-h: past pres AMCTL; five
books, many articles and reviews I v: 3 I *C 71
*GAUGHRAN, Stephen J. I v: 2 I *C 71
**GEIGER, John H. I pres I b: 1923 led: BS .
Rutgers Univ; MCP Mass Inst of Tech lent: 1955
I m-i: A B L Ma 5y; game theory simulation,
theory of graphs I t: pres I org: John H. Geiger
& Assoc, Inc, and Metroplan, Inc, 57 N Maple Ave,
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920 I pb-h: gaming simulation hardware for metropolitan land development
patent, various copyrights I h: - I v: 2 I *C 71
GEISENHElMER, Norman K. I electronic sales, marketing I b: 1940 I ed: AIM lent: 1968 I m-i:
B; sales order entry, sales analysis I t: supv,
mktg svcs I org: Allen-Bradley Co, 1201 S 2nd
St, Milwaukee, WI 53204 I pb-h: Vanguard User
Award, Systems Dept, Allen-Bradley Co I h:
6599 Kipling Dr, Hales Corners, WI 53130 I
v: 3 I ,:'C 70
GIBBONS, Greg I teacher I b: 1941 I ed: Carnegie
Mellon lent: 1963 I m-i: artifical intelligence
I t: asst prof I org: Penn State Univ, University

Pk, PA 16802 I pb-h: ACM I h: 248 E Prospect,
State College, PA 16801 I v: 3 I ':'C 70
GIBBS, Edward Henry I he~d, systems devt br,
EDP Div I b: 1920 led: BCom, Melbourne lent:
1958 I m-i: A Mg Sy I t: assistant secretary
(EDP) I org: Australian Dept of Defence,
Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia I pb-h: 6
papers; Canberra Computer Soc; execut comm,
Australian Computer Soc; assoc editor "The
Australian Computer Journal", Fellow Australian
Computer Soc I h: 120 Mackenzie St, Hackett,
A.C.T. 2600, Australia I v: 2 I *C 70
':'GIEGER, John H. - replace by GEIGER, John H.,
which see
GILDEA, Robert A. J. I info processing specialist
I b: 1924 led: BS, physics; MS applied math I
ent: 1953 I m-i: information processing I t:
technical staff I org: The Mitre Corp, PO Box 208,
Bedford, MA 01730 I pb-h: CDP by DPMA; Editor,
Newsletter for Blind Computer Programmers; ACM
Professional Activities of the Blind Conf, Pgm
Chmn; article in SBANE I h: 6 Parker St,
Lexington, MA 02173 I v: 3 I ,:'C 70
':'GLAUZ, Robert D. I pb-h: MIS, MM, ACM, BCS,
SIAM; 9 papers I h: 3363 Club House Dr, El
Macero, CA 95618 I v: 3 I ,:'C 71
':'GOETZ, Martin A. I v: 2 I ,:'C 71
*GOLDBERG, I. Bennett I staff programming planner
I t: staff programming planner I h: Haddon
View Apts, 1016-E, Westmont, NJ 08108 I v: 1 I
':'C 71
':'GOLDBERG, Jay N. I h: 162 W 54 St, New York,
NY 10019 I v: 2 I *C 71
*GOLDBERG, Leonard I h: 212 Auburn St, Auburndale, MA 02166 I v: 3 I ,:'C 71
GOLDMAN, Benton A. I systems analyst I b: 1931 I
ed: BBA, MA, economics lent: 1962 I m-i: Mg;
education I t: manager, Honeywell Institutes
of Information Sciences I org: Honeywell EDP
Div, 120 S Riverside Plaza, Chicago, IL 60606
I pb-h: AMA, ASTD I h: 2519 Sherman Ave,
Evanston, IL 60201 I v: 1 I *C 71
*GOSSETT, Doris E. I h: 13124 Superior St,
Rockville, MD 20853 I v: 1 I *C 71
*GRABER, Glen G. I t: senior systems analyst I
h: 5525 N Winthrop ~406A, Chicago, IL 60640 I
v: 1 I ':'C 71
*GRABILL, Wilson F., Jr. I h: 204 Springwood Dr,
Oxford, OH 45056 I v: 2 I *C 71
*GREEN, Claude Cordell I org: Advanced Research
Projects Agency, 1400 Wilson Blvd., Arlington,
VA 22209 I v: 2 I *C 71
GREEN, Robert I controller I b: 1921 led:
BME lent: 1960 I m-i: A B Mg Sy I t: controller
of admin services I org: Falk Corp, PO Box 492,
Milwaukee, WI 53201 I pb-h: - I h: 6441 N Elm
Tree Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53209 I v: 3 I *C 70
*GRIFFIN, Thomas J. I h: 8282 Imperial Dr, Laurel,
MD 20810 I v: 1 I ':'C 71
GRIFFITH, Arnold K. I researcher I b: 1942 led:
BA, Swarthmore College; PhD, MIT lent: 1961 I
m-i: A Ma I t: staff member, division of
sponsored research I org: Project MAC, MIT,
Cambridge, MA 02139 I pb-h: Phi Beta Kappa,
Cum Laude Society, Sigma Xi, ACM, AMS (Math) I
h: 57 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, l\~ 02116 I
v: 3 I ,:'C 70
*GRIGGS, Thomas S. I t: director of data processing I pb-h: ACM, DPMA, CDP I h: 142 Bird La,
Milford CT 06460 I v: 2 I *C 71
*GROSS, Louis led: Univ of Chi6ago, Northeastern
Univ, Mass Inst of Technology I m-i: A P Sy I
h: 28 Russell St, Arlington, MA 02174 I v: 1 I
,:'C 71
':'GRUNINGER, George W. I t: senior systems analyst
I org: Texaco Inc, 135 E 42 St, New York, NY
10017 I v: 1 I *C 71

*GUBSER, Robert A. / pb-h: IEEE, Toastmasters
International, CAD in Integrated Circuits,
"Solution to Accounting on Time Shared Computer" / h: 3623 E Sunnyside Dr, Phoenix,
AZ 85028 / v: 3 / *C 71
':'GUSTAVSON, Fred G. / pb-h: 15 papers, Sigma Xi,
Pi Mu Epsilon, MAA; IBM Outstanding Contribution
Award / v: 3 / *C 71

*HAGSTROM, Stanley / t: assoc director, research
computer center; assoc prof of chemistry; assoc
prof of computer science / v: 3 / *C 71
':'HAIR, Robert H. / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'HAJJAN, Frederick E. - see HAJJAR, Frederick E.
':'HAJJAR, Frederick E. -- (instead of HAJJAN,
Frederick E. which is a duplicate entry in
Volume 1, pg 83)
':'HALE, Michael Robert / manager, marketing research division / t: manager marketing research
divisions / v: 2 / *C 71
HALL, Frederick Leonard / manager / b: 1923 / ed:
BEc, Adelaide Univ; Assoc Bankers Inst of Australia / ent: 1959 / m-i: Mg Sa / t: deputy general manager/ org: IBM World Trade Corp, PO
Box 2557, Wellington, New Zealand / pb-h:
Fellow, Australian Computer Society, Fellow,
Royal Economic Soc, Australian Inst of Management / h: 10 Sheather Ave, St Ives, New South
Wales 2075, Australia / v: 2 / *C 70
':'HALL, Harold L. / pb-h: chrmn, DP curriculum,
Univ of Kentucky Lexington Tech Inst; Pres,
Louisville and Central Kentucky ASM (Mgmt); 3
papers / v: 1 / *C 71
':'HANSON, Lyle C. / ent: 1962 / v: 2 / ':'C 71
HANSON, Phillip J. / manager / b: 1933 / ed:
BA, languages / ent: 1958 / m-i: 0 Sa / t:
manager, information systems / org: Los Angeles
Technical Services Corp, 3600 Wilshire Blvd,
Los Angeles, CA 90005 / pb-h: - / h: 6232D Tapia
Dr, Malibu, CA 90265 / v: 1 2 / *C 70
':'HARDEY, Jack A. / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'HARDING, Harold R. / b: 1930 / org: Systemation
Assoc Inc, 36 Washington St, Wellesley Hills,
MA 02181/ v: 3 / ':'C 71
*HARPER, Fielding F. / systems analyst / org:
Shell Oil, Information & Computer Services, PO
Box 20127, Houston, TX 77025 / v: 1 / *C 71
';'HARPER, George W. / t: asst vice pres of data
proc / h: 5812 Walnut Rd, North Little Rock,
AR 72116 / v: 2 / *C 71
':'HARRISON, Joseph 0., Jr. / v: 3 / ':'C 71
HARSCH, Albert F. / manager / b: 1935 / ed:
BSEE, MSEE, Carnegie-Mellon Univ / ent: 1959 /
m-i: A Mg Ma P Sy; supervisory control direct
digital control, process control computers / t:
manager, software systems / org: Westinghouse
Tele-Computer Systems Corp, 2040 Ardmore Blvd,
Pi ttsburgh, PA 15221 / pb-h: Eta Kappa Nu, ACM;
several publns, co-holder of two patents (pending) / h: 108 Loretta Ct, Irwin, PA 15642 /
v: 1 2 / ':'C 71
':'HARTHORN, William G. / h: 200 E 84 St, New York,
NY 10028 / v: 2 / ';'C 71
HARTLEY, H. O. / administrator, professor / b:
1912 / ed: PhD, magna cum laude in math, Berlin
Univ; PhD, math statistics, Cambridge Univ;
DSc, math statistics, Univ of London / ent: - /
m-i: A Ma / t: director / org: Institute of
Statistics, Texas A&M Univ, College Station,
TX 77843 / pb-h: Fellow, IMS; Fellow, ASA (Stat);
Int'l Statistical Inst; pres, Eastern North
American Region, Biometric Soc; Fellow, Texas
Academy of Science; 5 books, 85 papers / h:


1600 Dominik Dr, College Station, TX 77840 /
v: 3 / ':'C 70
':'HARTMANN, David P. / v: 3 / ';'C 71
':'HARTMANN, Svend E. / org: Time Brokers Inc, 500
Executive Blvd, Elmsford, NY 10523 / v: 2 / *C 71
';'HARTWEG, William J. / t: design engineer, terminal
and central telegraph office design / org: RCA
Global Communications Inc, 66 Broad St, New
York, NY 10004 / h: - / v: 1 / *C 71
HARVEY, Samuel B. / executive / b: 1925 / ed:
BS, Penn State; Temple Univ grad schl / ent:
1953 / m-i: A B D Mg P Sy / t: assist VP / org:
The Singer Co, 30 Rockfeller Plaza, New York,
NY 10020 / pb-h: - / h: 100 Jefferson Ave,
Haddonfield, NJ 08033 / v: 2 / *C 70
':'HATTERY, Lowell H. / org: The American Univ, Ward
Circle Bldg, Washington, DC 20016 / pb-h: ACM,
IMS; author or editor of 11 books and monographs, author of over 40 periodical articles,
chapters in'books and other publications /
v: 3 / ':'C 71

*HAYDEN, Lawrence B. / org: DP Div, Eastern
Iowa Community College, 601 West Second St,
Davenport, IA 52801 / v: 1 3 / *C 71
':'HAZEL, Karl E. / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'HEALY, William H. / t: manager computer operations / pb-h: CDP, AMS (Mgmt) / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'HEAVILON, Ernest B. / ent: 1937 / org: Ernest
B. Heavilon & Assoc, Box 239, Cedar Grove, NJ
07009 / h: 65 N Fullerton Ave, #44, Montclair,
NJ 07042 / v: 3 / ':'C 71
':'HEGAN, William P. / org: Time Brokers Inc, 500
Executive Blvd, Elmsford, NY 10523 / pb-h:
Tau Kappa Alpha, Eta Mu Pi, several articles on
time brokerage; lecturer for AMA / h: RR 1 Fox
Den Rd, Mt Kisco, NY 10549 / v: 2 / *C 71
*HELLDORFER, C. Gerard / org: Planning Research
Corp, 7600 Old Springhouse Rd, McLean, VA 22101
/ v: 1 / ':'C 71
':'HENDERSON, Ronald V. / t: vice president, computer systems / pb-h: DP~ffi, URISA / h: 2600
Bushnell Ave, #12, Cincinnati, OH 45204 / v:
2 / ':'C 71
':'HENRY, Andrew F. / h: 611 Conewango Ave, Warren,
PA 16365 / v: 2 / ':'C 71
*HERBSTER, James R. / m-i: A B Mg Ma Sy / t:
section head / pb-h: COP / v: 1 / *C 71
':":'HERZING, John M. / manager / b: 1928 / ed: BS /
ent: 1952 / m-i: A B Mg Sy / t: manager, grp
info systems office / org: Xerox Corp, Rochester, NY 14603 / pb-h: SPA, DPMA; several
publns in professional journals / h: 611 Clover
Hills Dr, Rochester, NY 14618 / v: 2 / *C 71
':'HESSLER, William G. / pb-h: CDP / v: 1/ ':'C 71
':'HESTENES, A. D. / manager / v: 2 / ':'C 71
':'HEVENOR, Charles M. / pb-h: 1 paper; ASME Gas
Turbine Power Award for best paper 1968 / v: 1 /
':'C 71
*HIGHT, J. C. / t: asst vice pres, MIS administration / org: Zale Corp, 3000 Diamond Pk, Dallas,
TX 75247 / v: 2 / *C 71
HILL, J. Carver / system architect / b: 1939 /
ed: BSEE, Clemson; MSEE, PhD, Oregon State
Univ / ent: 1963 / m-i: D L; system architecture
/ t: systems engineer / org: Lawrence Radiation
Lab, Box 808, L-48, Livermore, CA 94550 / pb-h:
Phi Eta Sigma, Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi;
several publns / h: 1054 Dolores St, #16,
Livermore, CA 94550 / v: i / *C 70
':'HINRICHS, Karl / org: Lockheed Electronics Co,
6201 E Randolph St, Los Angeles, CA 90040 /
v: 1 / ,:'C 71
':'HOC~ffiN, John H. / h: 245 Mt Pleasant Ave,
Mamaroneck, NY 10543 / v: 1 2 / ,:'C 71
':'HOLTH, Joan / systems programming / ed: MS /
v: 1 / ':'C 71


Who's Who in Computers and Data Processing -

Sixth Edition

Who's Who in Computers and Data Processing is published jointly by The New York Times Book and Educational Division
and Computers and Automation. The Fifth Edi tion (in hard cover, in three volumes, over 1000 pages) containing over 15,000
capsule biographies was published inthe Spring, 1971. Supplements to the Fifth Edition are being published in issues of
Computers and Automation. The Sixth Edition is expected to be published in three volumes in hard cover in 1972:
Vol. 1 -- Systems Analysts and Programmers
Vol. 2 -- Data Processing Managers and Directors
Vol. 3
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In this edition we expect to include upwards of 20,000 capsule biographies including as many persons as possible
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educ: PhD, lIT; MBA, Univ of Chicago /
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Fulbright (Continued from page 26 )
may actually come together to facilitate a settlement
through the procedures of the United Nations. It need not
be an "imposed" settlement - although I myself am not as
shocked by that term as are some of my Senate colleagues,
inasmuch as the United Nations: Charter, to which we are a
party by act of the Senate in 1945, provides quite explicitly
for certain kinds of "imposed" settlements. Be that as it
may, Secretary Rogers, it seems to me, is pursuing an
intelligent policy of encouraging a voluntary agreement
between Arabs and Israelis, which he would then have
enforced by a United Nations peace force in which both
Russians and Americans might participate.
For reasons which may warrant our sympathy, but not
our support, Israel pursues a policy of antiquated - and to
a great degree delusional - self-reliance. As Foreign
Minister Eban expressed it, "a nation must be capable of
tenacious solitude."? In fact, neither Israel nor any other
nation is capable of so profound an isolationism in our
time. Israel is heavily dependent on the United States for
both arms and economic assistance. Only last December
Congress appropriated a half billion dollars for military
assistance to Israel. Since 1948 the United States Government has provided $1.4 billion in direct economic assistance to Israel; this does not include military aid. Since
1948 private American citizens have provided another $3
billion in tax-deductible contributions and regularly purchase between $3 and $400 million a year in Israeli bonds.
Included in the massive American military aid, which has
increased greatly since the 1967 war, have been aircraft,
missiles and electronic systems more advanced than those
provided to the countries with whom we are allied in
NATO or SEATO. I do not see how this can be reconciled
with a policy on Israel's part of "tenacious solitude."
Our Stake in the Arab-Israeli Crisis

Even more important than Israel's dependency upon us
is the fact that we ourselves have a crucial stake in the
Middle East - the avoidance of conflict with the Soviet
Union. It takes no great feat of imagination to conjure up
some new Arab-Israeli crisis in which the two sides managed
to draw their respective patrons into a head-on conflict.
Premier Meir says that we ought not to press for Israeli
withdrawal from the conquered Arab territories because, as
she puts it, "This is not the border of the USA .... "8 If
indeed that were the whole of the matter, if Israel, as the
Premier says, really were prepared to "stand up for itself'
without involving others, it might make sense to let the
Arabs and Israelis work out their differences, or fight them
out, and come to their own solution. We all know, however,
that that is not the case, that American interests of the
most crucial nature are involved, that another war in the
Middle East might well set us against the Russians, and that,
therefore, we have not only the right, but a positive
responsibility, to bring an influence to bear.
Israel has a different conception of American interests in
the Middle East, an essentially cold war conception. Picturing herself as the bastion of democracy in the Middle East,
Israel professes to be defending American interests by
holding the line against a surging tide of Communist
imperialism. Indeed, I recall a television interview last fall in
which Foreign Minister Eban professed to believe that the
Russians were not interested in destroying Israel but were
motivated by a desire to expel American power and
influence from the Middle East.

I n the Name of Anti-Communism

Recent visitors to the Middle East assure me that the
Israelis are quite sincere in their fear of being "thrown into
the sea" and in their conception of the Soviet Union as an
insatiable imperialist power, bent, presumably, upon the
conquest and communization of the Middle East. Nonetheless, I perceive in this some of the same old Communist-baiting hum buggery that certain other small countries have used to manipulate the United States for their
own purposes. When it comes to anti-communism, as we
have noted in Vietnam and elsewhere, the United States is
highly susceptibie, rather like a drug addict, and the world
is full of ideological "pushers." It is a fine thing to respect a
small country's independence and to abstain from interference in its internal affairs. It is quite another matter
when, in the name of these worthy principles - but really
because of our continuing obsession with communism - we
permit client states like Israel and South Vietnam to
manipulate American policy toward purposes contrary to
our interests, and probably to theirs as well.
This is not to suggest that the Russians are lacking in
ambitions in the Middle East. There is no doubt that they
desire to maximize their "influence" in the Arab world and
'that they derive gratification from sailing their warships
around the Mediterranean. This, however, is normal behavior for a great power; it is quite similar to our own. We
too keep a fleet in the Mediterranean, which is a good deal
farther from our shores than it is from the Soviet Union;
and our main objection to Soviet "influence" in the Arab
countries is that it detracts from our own. Were it not for
the fact that they are Communists - and therefore "bad"
people - while we are Americans - and therefore "good"
people - our policies would be nearly indistinguishable.
Can a New Precedent for Resolving International
Controversy Be Set?

Despite the inflexibility of the Israelis and the great
power rivalry of the Russians and Americans, it appears to
me that the situation in the Middle East provides as
promising an opportunity as ever we have had to resolve a
major international controversy through the procedures of
the United Nations and, in so doing, to create a valuable
precedent for the future.
The primary, essential factor is the apparent recognition
by both the Soviet Union and the United States that they
have a surpassing interest in the avoidance of a major
confrontation with each other. The Russians, for their part,
have consistently counselled their Arab associates against
reckless action; they are reported, for instance, to have
warned the Egyptians that they would not support a
military operation across the Suez Canal. Nor have the
Russians ever indicated any expectation of, or desire for,
the destruction of Israel; they were indeed among the first
to recognize the state of Israel when it came into existence
in 1948. The Soviet position now is that Israel should
return to the borders of 1967; that is substantially our
position as well, and it is consistent with the Security
Council Resolution of November 1967, which calls among
other things for the "termination of all claims or states of
belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the
sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence
of every state in the area."

The Arab Attitude
Another promising factor has been the remarkable evolution of Arab attitudes. The Jordanians have long been
known to be willing to come to terms with Israel - to end
the state of war and recognize Israel's existence as a state in
return for the restoration of occupied territory. The United
Arab Republic, in its reply of February 16, 1971, to
questions put by Ambassador Jarring, stated unequivocally
that, if Israel would withdraw from occupied Egyptian
territory, Egypt would be prepared to end the state of
belligerency, ensure freedom of navigation through the
Suez Canal and the Strait of Tiran, establish demilitarized
zones, agree to the establishment of a United Nations
peace-keeping force, and "enter into a peace agreement
with Israel. ... "
The Egyptian reply concedes to Israel all that she once
desired, all that she claimed to be struggling for in three
wars. Nonetheless, in its own reply to Ambassador Jarring
of February 26, 1971, the Israeli Government stated bluntly that "Israel will not withdraw to the pre-June S, 1967
lines." Israel, Mrs. Meir subsequently explained, insists
upon the retention with her own forces of Sharm el Sheikh;
the Gaza Strip; the Golan Heights - because, as the Premier
explained. "We paid for it"-; Jerusalem of course; and
certain undefined parts of the west bank. In addition, said
the Premier, Sinai must be demilitarized, and the demilitarization must be guaranteed by a mixed force including
Israelis. The Egyptians too might participate in this force
on their own territory. All this, Mrs. Meir conceded, would
be painful for President Sadat of Egypt, but people must
pay for their deeds. 6
Prime Minister Ben Gurion's View
A different view is taken by Israel's wise elder statesman
and first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion. "Peace," he
said recently, "real peace, is now the great necessity for us.
It is worth almost any sacrifice. To get it, we'must return to
the borders before 1967." "As for security," Mr. BenGurion continued, "militarily defensible borders, while
desirable, cannot by themselves guarantee our future. Real
peace with our Arab neighbors - mutual trust and friendship - that is the only true security."lO
Mr. Ben-Gurion's outlook is substantially that of
Secretary Rogers, whose basic position, reiterated many
times since, was expressed in a speech in December 1969 in
which he stated, as to the Arab-Israeli borders in the wake
of the 1967 war, that " ... any changes in the preexisting
lines should not reflect the weight of conquest and should
be confined to insubstantial alterations required for mutual
security." 11 Secretary Rogers has also been a consistent
supporter of the Security Council Resolution of November
1967, which emphasizes "the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war. ... " In recent weeks the Secretary
has spelled out a position calling as well for American
participation in a United Nations peacekeeping force, which
could not be removed by anybody's unilateral decision.
What Does It All Mean?
The principles - and opportunities - involved in this
Middle East situation go beyond the fears and ambitions of
Israel and the Arab states and their great power mentors. I
perceive here an opportunity to breathe life and force into
the United Nations by putting it to effective .llse for the
purposes for which it was founded. We have an opportunity

to take a single substantive step in the direction of a new
kind of politics in the world, toward the purposes spelled
out in the Charter itself, "to save succeeding generations
from the scourge of war. ... "
To accomplish this purpose, I would not shrink from
applying certain sanctions as a last resort for the preservation of peace. The United Nations Charter, to which every
nation involved in the Middle East has voluntarily subscribed, spells out a graduated series of sanctions, from
economic to military, for the enforcement of peace. It
makes no sense at all for us to shrink in horror at the very
notion of an "imposed" solution, not only because we are
legally bound by the Charter to accept certain kinds of
"imposed" solutions, but because the absolute sovereignty
of nations is an outmoded principle; it is indeed a principle
of international anarchy. No community can function
without some capacity for coercion; as President Wilson
said of the Covenant of the League of Nations, "Armed
force is in the background ... if the moral force of the
world will not suffice, the physical force of the world
shall."12 The crucial distinction is not between coercion and
voluntarism, but between duly constituted force, applied
through law and as a last resort, and the arbitrary coercion
of the weak by the strong.
The Middle East may provide us with the best opportunity since World War II to make use of the peacekeeping
procedures of the United Nations in approximately the
manner envisioned by the framers and, in so doing, to
create a valuable precedent for the future. I regret that no
such prospect is in sight for Indochina, but I would not pass
up the opportunity in the Middle East for the sal~e of a
baneful consistency. Perhaps, if the war in Indochina ever
does end, as presumably it will, we will have the wisdom in
any future "Vietnams" to make it clear at the outset that
we will readily act in cooperation with other nations to
implement decisions of the United Nations, but that we will
not again attempt to substitute ourselves for it. Through
positive acts of abstention we shall have to make it clear
that we are no longer interested in the imperial dream of a
Pax Americana, that indeed we are neither isolationists nor
imperialists, but internationalists in the only sense in which
that term makes either moral or political sense.
1 C. L. Sulzberger, "Nixon, in Interview, Says This Is Probably
Last War," New York Times, March 10, 1971, pp. 1,14.
l Herbert Marcuse, "The Problem of Social Change in the
Technological Society," in Le Developpement Social, UNESCO
Symposium (Paris: Mouton and Co. 1965), p. 158.
3 Richard Nixon, Six Crises, (New York: 1968), p. 317.
4 Press Conference of February 17, 1971.
sQuoted by Tom Fox in New York Times, March 21, 1971,
6 Gloria Emerson, "Spirit of Saigon's Army Shaken in Laos,"
New York Times, March 28, 1971, pp. 1, 14.
7 Quoted by Peter Grose in "Israel and U.S. in a Game of
'Diplomatic Chicken,' " New York Times, March 21,1971, p. 4E.
a Ibid.
9 Interview with a correspondent of the London Times, in "Mrs.
Meir Cites Border Changes Sought by Israel," New York Times,
March 13, 1971, pp. 1,6.
10 Interview with John McCook Roots, quoted in "Ben-Gurion
Quoted in Article as Favoring Major Pullback," the Evening Star,
Washington, D.C., p. A-3.
11"A Lasting Peace in the Middle East: An American View,"
December 1969.
12 Quoted in Seth Tillman, Anglo-American Relations at the Paris
Peace Conference of 1919 (Princeton University Press, 1961, p.

COMPUTERS· and AUTOMATION for June, 1971

- Who Wanted to Tell the Warren Commission
About a Chicago Plot to Kill President Kennedy
Bernard Fensterwald, Attorney
Executive Director, National Committee to Investigate Assassinations
927 15th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20005

And Was Jailed Six Years for Trying

(Based on a chapter in a forthcoming book by ~ernard Fensterwald)

An Attempted Phone Call to the
Chief Counsel of the Warren Commission

On a sunny Sunday afternoon in May, 1964, a Secret
Service guard at the White House quickly and cheerfully admitted an average-looking, youngish Negro in
civilian clothes. The guard passed him through with
a minimum of formalities,for he knew him as a fellow
Secret Service agent who had formerly been a member of the White House detail. The man admitted was
Abraham W. Bolden, and he was in Washington to attend
a special Secret Service School which was to begin
the next morning.

before U. S. Commissioner C.S.B. Pike, in Chicago,
on May 19th, almost 24 hours after he had unwittingly, but in fact, been placed in criminal custody.
That his trip to Chicago was "under pretext" (and in
effect constituted a kidnapping), that he was held
incommunicado, that he was denied the right of counsel have all been conceded by the government as set
forth in an opinion of the U.S. Court of Appeals for
the Seventh Circuit denying him a new trial.
Who is Abraham W. Bolden and what had he done to
warrant such harsh and unconstitutional treatment?

Bolden crossed the White House lawn, and entered
the Executive Office Building on the west side of
the Mansion. Once inside, Bolden placed a phone call
to the home of Mr. J. Lee Rankin, the Chief Counsel
of the Warren Commission but he got no answer.
After a short while Bolden left the White House, and
returned to his hotel.
His failure to reach Rankin made him apprehensive,
for Bolden had noted that all of his activities that
afternoon were being carefully observed by another
Agent, Garry McLeod, who was also from Chicago, and
who was rooming with Bolden in Washington while they
both were attending the Special School. At 2:30
a.m. on Monday, Agent McLeod received a mysterious
phone call which he declined to discuss with Bolden.
At 7:00 a.m., Agents Bolden and McLeod arose,
dressed, breakfasted, and departed for school. During an intermission between classes, Bolden was suddenly approached by the Special Agent in charge of
personnel, Howard Anderson, who told him that the
Secret Service Office in Chicago had just discovered
a counterfeiter's printing plant in a suburb of
Chicago, and that all Chicago agents were to return
to Chicago immediately to assist in the investigation. Bolden and McLeod were driven to Dulles airport by Anderson and put on a plane to Chicago.
Arrest of Abraham Bolden

Upon their arrival, instead of being taken to the
Secret Service office, the Agents were taken to the
Office of the United States Attorney Hanrahan. Although,as Bolden later learned, a warrant had been
sworn out for his arrest, it wasn't served on him.
Nevertheless, Bolden was held incommunicado from
early afternoon until midnight, charged with solicitation of a bribe, and was, moreover, denied the
right to counsel.
Finally, at midnight, he was formally placed
under arrest, and permitted to call a lawyer. He
was incarcerated in the Du Page county jail, Wheaton,
Illinois, on the night of May 18-19, and taken


Abe Bolden grew up in one of the toughest sections
of East St. Louis, Illinois, one of the toughest
cities in the United States. Despite the handicaps
of his racial and economic background, he worked his
way through college, graduating cum laude from Lincoln University at Jefferson City, Missouri. Even
in college, Bolden showed stubborn traits of character that were to get him into deep trouble later. A
college classmate has written of him:
... he may be classified as foolish or as a
man of courage, depending upon one's views.
For example, I will recall a few incidents
from his college days. During freshman hazing
all of us did as we were told, whether it was
trying to blowout a light bulb, marching in
a straight line, or staying away from co-ed
dormitories. Bolden did not conform, he defied upperclassmen and refused to do anything
that was not included in the school manual.
Before entering college Bolden had won several
medals as a trumpet player in Illinois. One
of our college instructors teasingly referred
to him as "Medals". Whereas most of us would
have been afraid to say or do anything, Bolden
emphatically let the instructor know that he
would not be called "Medal s" again .• Once he
wrote a letter to the campus editor criticizing
the granting of scholarships to men who were
poor scholars but good athletes. Since Lincoln takes pride in its athletic teams, the
entire student body became enraged, and several times he was threatened with violence. In
spite of it all, Bolden never compromised his
Upon graduation from college in 1955, Abe Bolden
worked for the Pinkerton Detective Agency for a year
and then spent four years as an Illinois State
Trooper. His record was so outstanding that he became an Eisenhower appointee to the United States
Secret Service in 1960, and subsequently President
Kennedy made him the first Negro member of the
Secret Service White House detail.


Unpopularity for Being Stubbornly Honest

Bolden's stubborn traits of honesty and "playing
it by the book" soon began to make him very unpopular with his fellow agents. While on duty at the
Hyannisport Compound, he voiced strong objection to
what he characterized as laxity of the protection
being given to President Kennedy. He refused to
drink and play cards with his fellow agents, and
deeply resented Southern agents' talk about "niggers".
As a result of his dissatisfaction, he was transferred out of the White House detail and sent to
Chicago for less glamorous anti-counterfeiting duty.
As it turned out, however, he was not long to be
free from duties with respect to Presidential protection, because John F. Kennedy scheduled a visit
to Chicago for November 1, 1963, to come to an ArmyAir Force football game. The visit had political
implications, as JFK had "stood-up" Mayor Daley on
a similiarly scheduled visit the previous year ... and
the President was most anxious to mend his political
fences before the next year's election.
Plan for Assassinating President Kennedy in Chicago

Mayor Daley had big plans for the President, including an eleven mile parade from the airport to
the stadium. This parade caused considerable misgivings to the Secret Service agents in Chicago who
had primary responsibility for the President's
safety. Their misgivings were greatly heightened by
a call to Agent-in-charge Martineau from Secret Service Chief Rowley in Washington. Rowley told Martineau that the Secret Service had word of an assasEination plot which was supposed to be executed
during JFK's coming visit to Chicago. According to
Rowley, four men had come or were to come to Chicago
to carry out the death plot.
Martineau called in all men under his command in
Chicago, took them off all other assignments, and
gave them these rather unusual instructions:
(1) there were to be no written reports; all information was to be given to Martineau orally; (2)
nothing was to be sent to Washington by TWX; Martineau was to report to Rowley personally by phone;
and (3) no file number was to be given to this case.
All agents in Chicago were shown photos and given
names and descriptions of four men who were allegedly
involved in the plot.
After a quick but intensive investigation,_ the
agents reported back that the plot was genuine.
They had located at least two men in a North Clark
Street boarding house who fit the descriptions given
them. As a result of their finds, President Kennedy
was persuaded at the very last moment to cancel his
plans for Chicago, although the plane Air Force I,
full of other dignitaries, did come to Chicago and
the scheduled festivities. The extraneous excuse,
a Far East crisis which demanded his presence in
Washington was concocted to explain the President's
absence. It is interesting to note, however, that
this Far East crisis consisted of the overthrow and
assassination of Premier Diem of South Vietnam by
"the generals" with the foreknowledge, if not the
assistance, of the United States Central Intelligence
Mayor Daley was predictably upset, but the
President lived three weeks longer than he might
otherwise have lived.
Preempting of the Secret Service by the FBI

President Kennedy was actually assassinated in
Dallas on November 22, 1963. For weeks afterwards,

the Secret Service in Chicago, as elsewhere, did
little else than work at tracking down assassination
On the night of November 22nd, or possibly the
23rd, Bolden received a call at home from a Dallas
agent who wanted "instant information" on (1)
Klein's Sporting Goods store and Oswald's rifle,
and (2) the possibility that Oswald received money
~rom Chicago, as alleged by the Chicago American.
Ironically, it turned out that neither Bolden,
nor any other Secret Service agent, could get any
information on either lead as they were preempted
by the FBI, who had gotten to Klein's and the newspaper first, and who had warned all concerned to
talk to no one, including the Secret Service. Subsequently, an Inspector Kelley came to Chicago, and
Agent-in-charge Martineau accompanied him on a trip
to the North Clark Street address where the suspects
had holed up.
Shortly thereafter, Martineau called in all his
agents and instructed them to talk to no federal
agents about the assassination, especially the FBI,
who, according to Martineau, were anxious to take
over the role of Presidential protector. Furthermore, all Secret Service agents were required to
turn in their I.D. cards, an unheard-of procedure.
This strange occurence indicates that the Secret
Service took seriously the persistent rumors that
certain phoney Secret Service badges had been
flashed in Dealey Plaza on the day of the assassination.
Bolden's Desire to Testify Before the Warren Commission

After the appointment of the Warren Commission,
Bolden expressed a desire to testify if no one else
from the Secret Service was going to tell of the
plot investigated in Chicago in late October. He
felt that this testimony was not only relevant but
also essential to the work of the Commission. He
also wished to tell the Commission of the laxity
he had observed in the Service, especially with
regard to the White House detail.
When his request for permission to testify
turned down by his superiors, and when he was
that no one from the Secret Service was to so
tify about the Chicago plot, Bolden discussed
matter at length with his fellow Negro agent,
rad Cross.


Then when Bolden went to Washington for the
Secret Service School on May 17th, he was accompanied by a "baby sitter", agent McLeod, who overheard his attempted call to Commission Counsel
Rankin. This was the beginning of the end for
Bolden. He was hustled out of Washington the next
morning on the pretext that he was needed in
Bolden Indieted

After being held incommunicadO, denied the
right to counsel, and questioned for twelve hours
without being formally arrested or arraigned, he
was charged with the solicitation of a bribe. What
were the facts according to the indictment?
Bolden was charged with having offered to sell
the secret government file on an indicted counter~
feiter, named Joseph Spagnoli, for $50,000. The
money, according to the charge, was to be split
with one Frank William Jones, another counterfeiter, who had been previously arrested by Bolden but
who had been selected as gO-between in the soUJ~JCOMPUTERS and AUTOMATION for June, 1971

tation of Spagnoli. And it was Jones who gave the
sworn statement which resulted in Bolden's arrest.
The Two Witnesses Against Bolden Were Counterfeiters

The only witnesses against Bolden were two
counterfeiters, one of whom was currently under indictment, the other of whom had previously been
arrested by Bolden himself. Yet on the basis of
their statements, Bolden was brought to trial before
Federal Judge Joseph Sam Perry.
On July 12, 1964, after the first jury before
whom he was tried reached an impasse, Judge Perry
called the jurors back into the courtroom and stated,
"In my opinion, the defendant is guilty of counts
one, two, and three of the indictment," adding
clearly, however, that the jury could entirely disregard his opinion. Some of the jurors apparently
did, as they remained deadlocked and a mistrial was
Judge Perry scheduled a new trial almost immediately. As would be expected, Bolden's lawyer asked
that Judge Perry excuse himself as prejudiced and
let the case be tried before another judge. Judge
Perry refused, stating: "Maybe, I'll give you a
fair trial the next time. Maybe the evidence won't
show that he's guilty thi s time."
On the second trial Bolden was convicted, and on
August 12, 1964, he was sentenced by Judge Perry to
a term of six years in prison.
One of the Witnesses Admitted He Lied About Bolden
at the Request of the Prosecutor

Subsequently, Spagnoli was brought to trial for
counterfeiting. In the course of the trial, again
before Judge Perry, Spagnoli admitted under oath
that he had perjured himself when he testified
against Bolden. In fact Spagnoli stated that he
perjured himself at the request of the prosecutor,
Richard Sikes. And a yellow sheet of legal paper,
in the handwriting of Sikes, was submitted into
evidence to verify Spagnoli's allegations.
The Appeals Court Dismissed the Motion for a New Trial

All of this notwithstanding, the Seventh Circuit
Court of Appeals turned down Bolden's plea for a new
trial and sent him off to the Federal Penitentiary
in Springfield, Missouri, to serve his term.
The Appeals Court dismissed the propriety of a
second trial before Judge Perry by saying that "an
opinion as to what the evidence has demonstrated
cannot be equated with personal bias."
As to the constitutional questions ~aised, the
Court admitted the following: "In this posture, we
must accept as fact (1) that the defendant requested
the aid of counsel, (2) that his request fell on
deaf ears, and (3) that certain inculpatory statements were made thereafter."
Having admitted all of this, the court dismissed
it wi th the following wave of the hand: "The voluntary character of the defendant's statement, of
course, would in no way excuse the failure of the
law enforcement officials to grant him an opportunity
to consult with his attorney upon request. The importance of timely legal guidance to even the most
sophisticated layman is unquestioned. However, the
denial of a request for counsel, as a constitutional
violation, must in turn be judged according to the
particular circumstances in the case and by the

prejudice resulting therefrom. Escobedo v.
Illinois, 378 U.S. 478, 491 (1964)".
The unusual circumstances of Bolden's return to
Chicago, as well as his newly discovered evidence
(i.e., the admitted perjury of the principal witness (Spagnoli) against Bolden) and the subornation
of perjury by the prosecutor failed to persuade the
Appeals Court; and Judge Perry's denial of a motion
for a new trial was affirmed.
On June 20, 1966, the Supreme Court of the United
States (with the Warren Commission's Chairman as its
Chief Justice) declined to review the case. And
thus might have ended the tale of Abe Bolden.
Solitary Confinement Following Publicity
~n December of 1967, Bolden was visited at
Springfield by his new, court appointed lawyer,
John Hosmer, accompanied by an Assistant District
Attorney from New Orleans and by Mark Lane, a lawyer known for his books critical of the Warren Commission Report. As a result of this visit, Bolden's
"story" was given world-wide circulation; yet,
instead of this resulting in his case getting a new
hearing, he was put into solitary confinement.

Attacks on His Family

If Bolden's own tragedy were not sufficient,
what had befallen his family is equally shocking.
In October, 1966, an attempt was made to bomb and/
or burn his home. On another occasion, his garage
was burned down. On December 31, 1966, a shot was
fired through the window of his home. His wife has
been followed, and a brick has been heaved through
the window of her car.
The only ray of hope so far for Bolden is the
interest taken in his case by Federal Judge William
R. Collinson of Kansas City. Tiring of appealing
to Judge Perry in Chicago, Bolden filed a writ of
habeas corpus with Judge Collinson. Technically
such a writ must go back through Judge Perry; so,
Judge ~ollinson couldn't be of immediate help.
However, he was so impressed with the merits of
Bolden's appeal that he appointed John Hosmer of
Springfield as Bolden's lawyer. In his letter to
the lawyer, he enclosed a personal letter to Bolden
which said: "I will, of course; enter judgement
in your habeas corpus matter in order that you may
perfect your appeal to the Eighth Circuit. However,
I will be in Springfield next week and would like
to see if Mr. Hosmer would wish to file an amended
application setting forth any grounds which his
investigation may have uncovered in order that you
may have a full record to go before the Eighth
Bolden Now Out of Prison, Having Served His Term

Yet, thus far, neither Judge Collinson nor John
Hosmer have had any luck in getting justice for
Abraham Bolden. He has now served his term and is
out of prison, but he has never been able to get a
new trial.
After all, he did threaten to tell the Warren
Commission about a previous conspiracy to kill
President Kennedy in Chicago three weeks before
Kennedy was murdered in Dallas; and this might have
invited further criticism of the Warren Commission
report which is the establishment's official version of what happened. And he was outspoken in his
criticism of the establishment's agents, a perilous
course of action in recent years.

Panthers (Continued from page 7)
the defendants included conspiracy to bomb police
stations and other public places. plotting to kill
policemen. and possession of weapons and explosives.
The defense contended that the Panthers were merely
The case was the longest criminal proceeding in
the history of New York State. It began in April
1969 with the arrest of the defendants and the indictment of 22 persons. The case cost an estimat-ed
two million dollars.
2. From the Editor

This case interested "Computers and Automation"
as soon as we found out about the involvement of a
computer professional, when the case was described
by Computer People for Peace at the national meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery. on
Sept. I, 1970, in New York. CPP said that a computer programmer, Clark Squire, was one of the defendants.
In the November 1970 issue of C&A we printed an
article. "The Life and Times of Clark Squire: Computer Programmer, Black Panther, Prisoner", by Joseph Hanlon.
In the January 1971 issue of C&A we published a
letter by Clark Squire confirming the substantial
accuracy of Hanlon's article. but making a few minor
In the February 1971 issue we published "The Case
of Clark Squire: Computer Programmer. Black Panther.
Prisoner - Interim Report" by George Capsis, Kenneth M. King. Monroe Newborn, Computer People for
Peace, Michael B. Griswold, E.C. Witt. and the Editor.
This report stated that after $50,000 bail had
at last been raised for getting Clark Squire out 01.
j ai 1 on bail, Judge Murtagh had the.reupon rai sed the
bail of Clark Squire to $100.000 so that he had to
stay in jail. In my part of the interim report, I
quoted two articles of the Bill of Rights of the
Constitution of the United States (right to a speedy
trial; right to nonexcessive bail); and I pointed
out that Judge Murtagh had violated those two articles. I also said that:
The behavior of Judge Murtagh is a ~isgrace to
the Constitution of the United States and to
the traditional English and American system
of even-handed justice begun with Magna Carta
in 1216.
After the February issue had gone to press, on
January 27, I watched court proceedings in Judge
Murtagh's courtroom for about 2 and 1/2 hours. During this time, a paid informer testified for the
district attorney in regard to some of the Black
Panthers on trial. This informer could not remember
most of the details that he was supposed to testify
to. So' with the full approval of Judge Murtagh,
this informer over and over again consulted a previous written record given to him on the witness
stand by the district attorney -- which he (the
informer) looked at and consulted to try to refresh
his memory. Though I am no lawyer, it appalled me
that this way of putting words into a witness's mouth
was tolerated by Judge Murtagh.
Apparently though, the jury was not fooled -the twelve members reaching a unanimous verdict on
the first ballot, "not gull ty".

Although the defendants have been acquitted.
certain issues raised by this trial are not disposed of. These important questions, at least,
1. What indemnity is to be given to these 13
persons held in jail for over 25 months
without bail? Nothing?

2. Does New York (city or county or state) now
pay the cost of the defense lawyers. or not?
3. Why was such a flimsy case brought up in the
first place? Was it an attempt by the district attorney to make himself famous at
the expense of some Black Panthers? Was it
part of a federal government plot against
the Black Panthers? Was it both?

4. Who decided it was worth $2 million (in
these days of urban poverty) to press this

5. Is Judge Murtagh to be unimpeached, untried,
and unpunished for violating the Constitution and laws of the United States?

Phyllis Little
126 Anita St.
LaMarque, TX 77568

I'm a freshman at College of the Mainland. I'm
considering making the two-year Data Processing
program my major.
I'm writing this letter to request additional
information about this particular field. I was looking through the "Occupation Outlook Handbook 70-71",
and it indicated that beginners hired for this particular field are transferred from other positions
in their firms, and are seldom expected to have
specific training as operators.
My real question is what advantage will an A.A.S.
degree in Data Processing give me over an untrained
person already employed by a given firm?
From the Editor

You ask "What advantage will an A.A.S. degree in
Data Processing give me, over an untrained person
already employed by a given firm?"
The only adequate answer that can be given,it seems
to me, is simply "it all depends". If your courses
are good courses and well taught, and if you get
high marks in them, and if you pass with flying colors a data processing aptitude test that your prospective employer gives you when you apply for a job,
then I think it is quite likely that you will have
a substantial advantage over an untrained person
already employed by the firm, - but again your advantage depends on the capacities and knowledge of
that person, your unknown competitor.
There is no doubt that education is a very substantial help in preparing oneself for future
jobs - but there remain variables of tremendous
importance - such as power to observe, capacity
to use common sense, ability to catch on fast, etc.
Real competence in any field requires a lot of hard





"Each day someone has to give up his life so that the United States doesn't have to
admit something that the entire world already knows, - that we have made a mistake.
Someone has to die so that President Nixon won't be, and these are his words, "the
first president to lose a war".

John Kerry, Chairman
Vietnam Veterans Against the War
Waltham, MA 02154

Following is the text of the speech given by
Former Navy Lieutenant John Kerry of Waltham,
Mass. before the Foreign Relations Committee of
the United States Senate on April 22, 1971.
Kerry spoke on behalf of the organization y
Vietnam Veterans Against the War; he is at present a Yale Law student. and is 27 years old.
This talk is published here in accordance
with the continuing policy of "Computers and
Automation" to deal with the truthfulness of
information about important controversial subjects.
The degree of truth of input data profoundly
affects the fulfillment by computer professionals
of their mission to apply computers in all sorts
and varieties of problems, including those where
distortion, misrepresentation, bias, and lies
have occurred.

1. Investigation in Detroit on War Crimes
2. Raped, Cut Off Ears, Cut Off Heads •••
3. The Winter Soldiers, Who Did Not Desert at
Valley Forge
4. Millions of Men Who Have Been Taught to Trade
in Violence
5. Angry, Because We Feel We Have Been Used
6. Agnew's "Misfits"
7. Quadriplegics and Amputees Forgotten in the VA
8. Nothing in South Vietnam which Realistically
Threatens the U.S.A.
9. Most Vietnamese Did Not Even Know the Difference
Between Co.n:uuni sm and Democracy
10. American Men Dying in Paddies for Want of Support from Their Allies
11. Destroying Villages "In Order to Save Them"
12. Cheapness of Lives of Orientals
13. Falsification of Body Counts
14. Incredible Arrogance of "Vietnamizing" the Vietnamese
15. Each Day Someone Dying So That the U.S. Does Not
Have to Admit a Mistake
16. The Last Man to Die for a Mistake
17. Veterans Not Really Wanted -- ·22% Unemployment
18. Deaths in VA Hospitals Because Nobody is There
to Take Care of Them
19. 27% of Veterans in VA Hospitals Have Tried Suicide
20. Shrugging Off the Loss of Lives -- Because of
Being Exhausted by Past Indignations

21. No Difference Between Ground Troops and Helicopter Crew':)
22. No Ground Troops in Laos -- So It Is All Right
to Kill
23. We are Asking for Action from Congress
24. The Issue is Hypocrisy
25. An American Indian Soldier in Vietnam: "My God,
I am doing to these people the same thing
that was done to mine" -- and He Stopped
26. Where Are McNamara, Rostow, Bundy, Gilpatric
27. These Men Have Left the Casualties; They Are
Commanders Who Have Deserted Their Troops;
They Have Retreated Behind a Shield of Public Rectitude
28. The Ultimate Dishonor -- Disowning Us
29. We Wish a Merciful God Could Wipe Away Our
30. Our Determination to Search and Destroy the
Last Vestige of this Barbaric War

Kerry: Thank you very much, Senator Fulbright,
Senator Javits, Senator Symington, Senator Pelle
I would like to say for the record, and also for the
men behind me who are also wearing the uniform and
their medals, that my sitting here is really symbolic. I am not here as John Kerry. I am here as one
member of the group of 1000, which is a small representation of a very much larger group of veterans
in this country, and were it possible for all of
them to sit at this table they would be here and
have the same kind of testimony.
I would simply like to speak in very general
terms. I apologiz~ if my statement is general because I received notification 'yesterday you would
hear me and I am afraid because of the injunction
I was up most of the night and haven't had a great
deal of chance to prepare.
1. Investigation in Detroit on War Crimes

I would like to talk, representing all those
veterans, and say that several months ago in Detroit,
we had aninvestigation at which over 150 honorably
discharged and many very highly decorated veterans
testified to war crimes committed in Southeat Asia,
not isolated incidents but crimes committed on a
day-to-day basis with the full awareness of officers at all levels of command.
It is impossible to describe to you exactly what
did happen in Detroit: the emotions in the room, the

feelings of the men who were reliving their experiences in Vietnam; but they did, they relived the
absolute horror of what this country, in a sense,
made them do.
2. Raped, Cut Off Ears, Cut Off Heads ...

They told the stories; at times they had personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads, taped
wires from portable telephones to human genitals
and turned up the power, cut off limbs, blown up
bodies, randomly shot at civilians, razed villages
in fashion reminiscent of Genghis Khan, shot cattle
and dogs for fun, poisoned food stocks, and generally ravaged the countryside of South Vietnam in
addition to the normal ravage of war, and the normal and very particular ravaging which is done by
the applied bombing power of this country.
3. The Winter Soldiers,
Who Did Not Desert at Valley Forge

We call this investigation the Winter Soldier
Investigation. The term "winter soldier" is a play
on words of Thomas Paine's in 1776 when he spoke of
the "sunshine patriot" and "summer time soldiers"
who deserted at Valley Forge because the going was
We who have come here to Washington have come
here because we feel we have to be winter soldiers
now. We could come back to this country, we could
be quiet, we could hold our silence, we could not
tell what went on in Vietnam but we feel because of
what threatens this country, the faci that the
crimes threaten it, not Reds and not redcoat s but
the crimes which we are committing that threaten it
that we have to speak out.
4. Millions of Men Who Have Been Taught to
Trade in Violence

I would like to talk to you a little bit about
what the result is of the feelings these men carry
with them after coming back from Vietnam. The
country doesn't know it yet but it has created a
monster, a monster in the form of millions of men
who have been taught to deal and to trade in violence, and who are given the chance to die for the
biggest nothing in history, men who have returned
with a sense of anger, and a sense of betrayal which
no one has yet grasped.
5. Angry, Because We Feel We Have Been Used

As a veteran and one who feels this anger I
would like to talk about it. We are angry because
we feel we have been used in the worst fashion by
the Administration of this country.
6. Agnew's "Misfits"

In 1970 at West Point Vice President Agnew said
"Some glamorize the criminal misfits of society
while our best men die in Asian rice paddies to
preserve the freedom which most of those misfits
abuse," and this was used as a rallying point for
our effort in Vietnam.
7. Quadriplegic~ and Amputees
Forgotten in the VA Hospitals

But for us, as boys in Asia whom the country was
supposed to support, his statement is a terrible
distortion from which we can only draw a very deep
sense of revulsion, and hence the angqr of some of

the men who are here in Washington today. It is a
distortion because we in no way consider ourselves
the best men of this country, because those he calls
misfits were standing up for us in a way that nobody else in this country dared to, because so many
who have died would have returned to this country
to join the misfits in their efforts to ask for an
imnediate withdrawal from South Vietnam, because
so many of those best men have returned as quadriplegics and amputees, and they lie forgotten in
Veterans Administration hospitals in this country
which fly the fl ag which so many have chosen as
their own personal symbol, and we cannot consider
ourselves America's best men when we are ashamed
of and hated what we were called on to dO'in Southeast Asia.
8. Nothing in South Vietnam
Which Realistically Threatens the U.S.A.

In our opinion, and from our experience, there
is nothing in South Vietnam, nothing which could
happen that realistically threatens the United
States of America. And to attempt to justify the
loss of one American life in Vietnam, Cambodia or
Laos by linking such loss to the preservation of
freedom, which those misfits supposedly abuse, is
to us the height of criminal hypocrisy, and it is
that kind of hypocrisy which we feel has torn this
country apart.
We are probably much more angry than that, and
I don't want to go into the foreign policy aspects
because I am outclassed here. I know that all of
you talk about every possible alternative to getting out of Vietnam. We understand that. We know
you have considered the seriousness of the aspects
to the utmost level, and I am not going to try to
dwell on that. But I want to relate to you the
feeling that many of the men who have returned to
this country express because we are probably angriest about all that we were told about Vietnam and
about the mystical war against communism.
9. Most Vietnamese Did Not Even Know
the Difference Between Communism and Democracy

We found that not only was it a civil war, an
effort by a people who had for years been seeking
their liberation from any colonial influence whatsoever, but also we found that the Vietnamese, whom
we had enthusiastically molded after our own image,
were hard put to take up the fight against the
threat we were supposedly saving them from.
We found most people didn't even know the difference between communism and democracy. They
only wanted to work in rice paddies without helicopters strafing them and bombs with napalm burning their villages and tearing their country apart.
They wanted everything to do with the war, particularly with this foreign presence of the United
States of America, to leave them alone in peace,
and they practiced the art of survival by siding
with whichever military force was present at a
particular time, be it Viet Cong, North Vietnamese
or American.
10. American Men Dying in Paddies
for Want of Support from Their Allies

We found also that all too often American men
were dying in those rice paddies for want of support from their allies. We saw first-hand how
monies from American taxes were used for a corrupt dictatorial regime. We saw that many people

in this country had a one-sided idea of who was
kept free by our flag, as blacks provided the highest percentage of casualties. We saw Vietnam ravaged equally by American bombs as well as by searchand-destroy missions, as well as by Viet Cong terrorism, and yet we listened while this country
tried to blame all of the havoc on the Viet Congo
11. Destroying Villages "In Order to Save Them"
We rationalized destroying villages in order to
save them. We saw America lose her sense of morality as she accepted very coolly a My Lai and
refused to give up the image of American soldiers
who hand out chocolate bars and chewing gu~.
12. Cheapness of Lives of Orientals
We learned the meaning of free fire zones~ shooting anything that mJves, and we watched while America placed a cheapness on the lives of Orientals.
13. Falsification of Body Counts
We watched the Uni ted States' fal sification of
body counts, in fact the glorification of body
counts. We listened while month after month we
were told the back of the enemy was about to break.
We fought using weapons against "oriental human
J..eings," with quotation marks around that; we fought
using weapons against those people which ! do not
believe this country would dream of using were we
fighting in the European Theater or let us say a
non-Third World people theater; and so we watched
while men charged up hills because a general said
that hill has to be taken, and after losing one
platoon or two platoons they marched away to leave
the high for the re-occupation by the North Vietna~ese because we watched pride allow the most unimportant of battles to be blown into extravaganzas,
because we COUldn't lose, and we COUldn't retreat,
and because it didn't matter how many American
bodies were lost to prove that point, and so there
were Hamburger Hills andKhe Sanh's and Hill 881's
and Fire Base 6's and so many others.
14. Incredible Arrogance of "Vietnamizing"
the Vietnamese
Now we are told that the men who fought there
must watch quietly while American lives are lost
so that we can exercise the increaible arrogance
of Vietnamizing the Vietnamese.
Each day (applause) -Chairman: ! hope you won't interrupt~ He is
making a very significant statement. Let him proceed.
15. Each Day' Someone Dying So That the U.S.
Does Not Have to Admit a Mistake
Kerry: 'Each day, to facilitate the process by
which the United States washes her hands of Vietnam, someone has to give up his life so that the
United States doesn't have to admit something that
the entire world already knows, so that we can't
say that we have made a mistake. Someone has to
die so that President Nixon won't be, and these
are his words, "the first President to lose a war."
16. The Last Man to Die for a Mistake
We are asking Americans to think about that because how do you ask a man to be the last man to

die for a mistake? But we are trying to do that,
and we are doing it with thousands of rationalizations, and if you read carefully the President's
last speech to the people of this country, you can
see that he says and says clearly: "But the issue,
gentlemen, the issue is communism, and the question is whether or not we will leave that country
to the communists or whether or not we will try to
give it hope to be a free people." But the point is
they are not a free people now under us, they are
not a free people, and we cannot fight communism all
over the world, and'! think we should have learned
that lesson by now.
17. Veterans Not Really Wanted - 22% Unemployment
But the problem of veterans goes beyond this personal problem, because you think about a poster in
this country wi th a picture of Uncle Sam and the picture says: "I Want you." And a young man comes out
of high school and says: "That is fine, I am going
to serve my country." and he goes to Vietnam and
he shoots and he kills and he does his job or maybe he doesn't kill, maybe he just goes and he comes
back and when he gets back to this country,he finds
that heisn't really wanted because the largest unemployment figure in the country, it varies depending on who you get itfrom, the VA Administration
15 percent, various other sources 22 per'cent, but
the largest corps of unemployed in this country are
veterans of this war, and of those veterans 33 percent of the unemployed are black. That means one
out of every 10 of the nation's unemployed is a
veteran of Vietnam.
18. Deaths in VA Hospital
Because Nobody is There to Take Care of Them
The hospitals across the country won't or can't
meet their demands. It is not a question of not
trying: they haven't got the appropriations. A
man recently died after he had a tracheotomy in
California, not because of the operation but because
there weren't enough personnel to clean the mucus
out of his tube and he suffocated to death.
Another young man just died in a
hospital the other day; a friend of
in a bed two beds away and tried to
couldn't. He rang a bell and there
there to service that man and so he

New York VA
mine was lying
help him but he
was nobody
died of convul-

19. 27% of Veterans in VA Hospitals
Have Tried Suicide
57 percent, I understand 57 percent, of all
those entering the VA hospitals talk about suicide.
Some 27 percent have tried, and they try because
they come back to this country and they have to
face what they did in Vietnam, and then they come
back and find the indifference of a country that
doesn't really care, that doesn't really care.
20. Shrugging Off the Loss of Lives Because of Being Exhausted by Past Indignations
Suddenly we are faced with a very sickening
situation in this country, because there is no moral
indignation and, if there is, it comes from people
who are almost exhausted by their past indignations,
and I know that many of them are sitting in front
of me. The country seems to have lain down and
shrugged off something as serious as Laos, just
as we calmly shrugged off the loss of 700,000 lives
in Pakistan, the so-called greatest disaster of
all times.

But we are here as veterans to say we think we
are in the midst of the greatest disaster of all
times now because they are still dying over there,
and not just Americans, Vietnamese, and we are
rationalizing leaving that country so that those
people can go on killing each other for years to
Americans seem to have accepted the idea that
the war is winding down, at least for Americans.
and they have also allowed the bodies which were once
used by a President for statistics to prove that we
were winning that war, to be used as evidence against
a man who followed orders and who interpreted those
orders no differently than hundreds of other men in
21. No Difference Between Ground Troops
and Helicopter Crews

We veterans can only look with amazement on the
fact that this country has been unable to see there
is absolutely no difference between ground troops
and a helicopter crew, and yet people have accepted
a differentiation fed them by the Administration.
22. No Ground Troops in LaosSo It Is All Right to Kill

No ground troops are in Laos so it is all right
to kill Laotians by remote control. But, believe
me, the helicopter crews fill the same body bags
and they wreak the same kind of damage on the Vietnamese and Laotian countryside as anybody else, and
the President is talking about allowing that to go
on for many years to come. One can only ask if we
will really be satisfied only when the troops march
into Hanoi.
23. We Are Ask ing for Action from Congress
~e are asking here in Washington for some action,
actIon from the Congress of the United States of
America which has the power to raise and maintain
armies, and which by the Constitution also has the
power to declare war.

We have come here, not to the President, because
we believe that this body can be responsive to the
will of the people, and we believe that the will of
the people says that we should be out of Vietnam now.
24. The Issue is Hypocrisy

We are here in Washington also to say that the
problem of this war is not just a question of war and
diplomacy. It is part and parcel of everything that
we are trying as human beings to communicate to people in this country: the question of racism, which
is rampant in the military, and so many other questions. Also, the use of weapons, the hypocrisy in
our taking umbrage in the Geneva Conventions and
using that as justification for a continuation of
thi s war, when we are more guilty than any other
body of violations of those Geneva Conventions, in
the use of free fire zones, harassment interdiction
fire, search-and-destroy missions, the bombings: the
torture of prisoners, the killing of prisoners, .accepted policy by many units in South Vietnam. That
is what we are trying to say_ It is part and parcel
of everything.
25. An American Indian Soldier in Vietnam: "My God
I am doing to these people the same thing
that was done to mine" - and He Stopped

An American Indian friend of mine who lives in
the Indian nation of Alcatraz put it to me very

succinctly. He told me how as a boy on an Indian
reservation he had watched television and he used
to cheer the cowboys when they came in and shot the
Indians, and then suddenly one day he stopped in
Vietnam and he said: "My God, I am doing to these
people the very same thing that was done to my people," and he stopped. And that is what we are trying to say, that we think this thing has to end.
26. Where Are McNamara, Rostow, Bundy, Gilpatric ... ?

We are also here to ask, we are here to ask, and
we are here to ask vehemently: Where are the leaders
of our country, where is the leadership? We are
here to ask where McNamara, Rostow, Bundy, Gilpatric and so many others, where are they now that we,
the men whom they sent off to war, have returned?
These are ?ommanders who have deserted their troops,
and there IS no more serious crime in the law of
war. The Army says they never leave their wounded.
27. These Men Have Left the Casualties:
They Are Commanders Who Have Deserted Their Troops;
They Have Retreated Behind
a Shield of Public Rectitude

The Marines say they never leave even their
dead. These men have left all the casualties and
retreated behind a pious shield of public rectitude.
They have left the real stuff of their reputations
bleaching behind them in the sun in this country.
28. The Ultimate Dishonor - Disowning Us

Finally, this Administration has done us the
ultimate dishonor. They have attempted to disown
us and the sacrifices we made for this country.
In their blindness and fear they have tried to
deny that we are veterans or that we served in Nam.
We do not need their testimony. Our own scars and
stumps 'of limbs are witness enough for others and
for ourselves.
29. We Wish a 'Merciful God
Could Wipe Away Our Memories

We wish that a merciful God could wipe away our
own memories of that service as easily as this Administration has wiped their memories of us.
30. Our Determination to Search and Destroy
the Last Vestige of This Barbaric War

But all that they have done and all that they
can do by this denial is to make more clear than
ever our own determination to undertake one last
mission, to search out and destroy the last vestige
of thi s barbaric war, to pacify our own hearts, to
conquer the hate and the fear that have driven this
country these last 10 years and more, and so when
in 30 years from now our brothers go down the street
without a leg, without an arm, or a face, and small
boys ask why, we will be able to say "Vietnam" and
not mean a desert, not a filthy obscene memory but
mean instead the place where America finally turned
and where soldiers like us helped it in the turning.

Following is an Associated Press dispatch describing what happened after Kerry's speech to
the Foreign Relations Committee.

WASHINGTON -- The 27-year-old former Navy Lieutenant. his shaggy black hair curling over the collar

of his green fatigues, talked in quiet tones of Vietnam horrors carried out by GIs "in the fashion of
Genghis Khan."
When John Kerry, a Yale law student who heads the
Vietnam Veterans Against the War, finished, members
of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee were nearly
"You have a Silver Star?" asked Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo.).
"Yes, sir", said Kerry who was wearing the Army's
third highest award for valor at the top of four
rows of campaign ribbons.
"You have a Purple Heart with two clusters?"
asked Symington.
"Yes, sir."
"You were wounded three times?"
"Yes sir."
"I have no further questions," said the senator.
"Credentials are something vIe always think about,"
said Sen. Jacob K. Javi ts (R-N. Y.) "Your credentials couldn't be higher."
As it has been since the committee opened hearings
on proposals to end the war Tuesday, the room was
packed with some 120 green-clad veterans, youthful
peace demonstrators, tourists.
They applauded Kerry more than a dozen times as,
in the New England tones of his native Waltham,
Mass., he denounced two administrations and predicted growing numbers of GIs would refuse to fight
unless Congress acts to halt the war.
"There's a GI movement within this country as
well as over there," he said. "We're going to
change doctors. We're going to take our prescriptions to someone else. We're not going to fight."
Kerry spoke for 30 minutes or so when the hearing opened. Then, looking each senator straight in
the eye, he answered questions with an unhesitating
style that brought the responses out in measured
paragraphs, not just sentences.
On President Nixon's policy: "What we are trying to do when we talk of getting out with honor is
we are trying to whitewash ourselves. You cannot
talk about peace when you are arming a people and
tell them to go on fighting. That's not peace,
that's war."
On the conviction of Lt. William L. Calley Jr.:
"What he did qui te obviously was a horrible, horrible, horrible thing. I have no bone to pick with
the fact he was prosecuted.
"But the responsibili ty lies elsewhere .•. If
you are going to try Calley, you must at the same
time try those other people who have responsibility."
On congressional efforts to end the war: "Too
many members of this body have failed to take a
gutsy position. To many have refused to face any
question other than their own re-election."
On why the veterans came to Washington: "We have
one last mission: To search out and destroy the last
vestige of this war."

Walter Penney, CDP
Problem Editor
Computers and Automation

"How come you're writing down all those bits?" asked
Joe, looking at the string of 1's and O's Pete had written:
1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1. "Hey, they're 1 0 1 1 except for that second group of four and that's the complement."
"You're very observant," said Pete. "Yes, this is a stream
formed from an original 1 0 1 1 by replacing each 1 by
1 0 1 1 and each 0 by 0 1 0 O. Now, I'll do the same tl;1ing
with this stream, getting one 64 bits long."
"What's the point?"
"Well, I'm trying to figure out what I'd get if I repeated
this operation any number of times."
"You could write a program to do that, couldn't you?"
"Yes, but I'd just get a number for a particular configuration repeated a certain number of times", said Joe.
"I'm after the general solution."
"Won't the length of the initial stretch and the distribution of the 1's and O's playa part in this?"
"The number of bits will affect the total, but not the
way they're distributed."
"Say you start with aI's and b O's, how many of each
will you have after n steps?"
"Now you've got the idea. That's what I'm trying to
determine." How many 1's and O's will there be?
Solution to Problem 715: A Run Around the Bases

Call the base B; then we have, from 1 0 . 0 1 X
100.01 = 101 0.000 1 that (B + I/B 2) (B 2 + I/B2) =
B3 + B + I/B 4 , from which B2 - B-1 = 0, or B = )6 ±
)6(5)1/2. The base is then either )6 + )6(5)112 (approximately
1.61803) or )6 - )6(5)11: approximately - .61803) and there
is no way of determining which. The two examples represented 2 X 3 = 6 and 5 + 6 = 11.
Readers are invited to submit problems (and their solutions) for
publication in this column to: Problem Editor, Computers and
Automation, 815 Washington St., Newtonville, Mass. 02160.


In the May 1971 issue of Computers and Automation,
the following corrections should be made:
Page 3, The C&A Notebook on Common SENSE, ELEMENTARY AND ADVANCED; under Purposes:
Col. 1, last line: replace "wise me" with
"wise men"
Page 4, "Departments": Include "45 Books
and Publications"
Page 7, Editorial: In the last line, replace
"page 29" with "page 32"
Page 26, "Numbles": In the 1 ast line of
Numble 715, replace "+ 0 FIE F I"
with "=0 FIE F I"



An Ohio State University professor has developed a computer technique for creating "1 i ve" threedimensional
change size and shape, and duplicate the movements of objects they
The drawings, which are
etched with an el ectron beam on
the face of a computer's video tube,
respond when the arti st instructs
the computer to induce movement,
follow a prescribed path or change
from one shape to another.
For example, a helicopter drawn
on the TV -like screen of the terminal hovers and moves in any direction - its two blades turning
at different speeds.
The arti st
executes changes in movement of the
obj ect wi th the electron beam called
a "light pen," and a special keyboard. The photo below, which employs a double exposure to show the
helicopter movement, depicts the
electronically created drawing as
it would be seen from inside theterminal looking out.

The technique was developed under
a National Science Foundation grant
by OSU's Charles Csuri (shown holding the "light pen"), professor in
the University's College of Arts.
The program employs an IBM 1130 computing system and an IBM 2250 graphic
display unit.
To capture drawings made wi th the
system, a black and white video tape
is made of the moving obj ect, right
from the screen of the computer
By processing the tape
through a special converter, it's
possible to produce a second tape
that introduces any color or combination of colors to the drawings.


The technique of electronic animation has visual aid potential for
education, business, medicine and
the arts, including the TV and film

A computer at the University of
Illinois Medical Center Campus in
Chicago is being transformed into
a life-saving medical instrument to
combat a $20 bill ion heal th problem
that kills more than 115,000 persons
annually in the United States. The
Medical Center Campus and Cook
County Ho spi tal's trauma uni t, which
have pooled their efforts through
the work of Dr. DavidR. Boyd, assistant professor of surgery, in the
U. of I. College of Medicine, have
establi shed a computerized trauma
registry to collect detailed information on the types and treatment of trauma cases, such as industrial and auto accidents.
Using an IBM System 360/Model 44
computer in the Research Resources
Laboratory at the Medical Center
Campus, data is stored daily on
epidemiologic and medical research
of cl inical treatment and the total
delivery of emergency health care.
The computer is programmed to store
data electronically sent via telephone lines, and to feedback information over the same lines.
Doctors will receive the data on
small di spl ay terminal s linked to
the computer.
The registry is capable of providing numerous types of reports,
incl uding individual patient hi stories, clinical
summaries for
given injuries and results of specific treatment.
An English language system and uniform diagnostic
coding are used, enabling physicians and other health care professionals to utilize the registry
without any special computer training. Dataphones are being used to
input information byordinary telephone hook up.
A lack of comprehensive information and time lags between accidents and treatment have plagued
emergency care in the past and contributed to the heavy death toll.
The registry directly addresses
itself to these problems. The registry is receiving state ana federal support, including a $56,146
grant from the National Institutes
of Health. It is part of a statewide program to provide fast, expert care for accident victims
throughout Illinois.


Glosson Motor Lines, Inc. of
Lexington, N.C., is using closedcircuit television and an IBM System/3 Model 10 to help solve the
problem of "shortages" - the biggest problem facing the nation's
trucking industry. Each year this
$7 billion industry loses nearly
$600 million through "shortages" the loss of shipped goods by theft
and by errors in order handling.
For Glosson alone, the annual loss
exceeds $100,000 according to the
company's controller, Melton B.
Glosson's is using their System/3
Model 10 to plan for a new inventory
control system that will help keep
track of each piece of furniture
from the time it arrives from the
manufacturer until it's on the way
to customers.
A computer card is
punched for each piece of furni ture
picked-up from a manufacturer. The
card is attached to the carton when
it's unloaded at Glosson's warehouse and is removed when the carton
is loaded back onto a truck for
customer delivery.
from the card keeps track of inventory and helps the company prepare
bills and shipping instructions.
Televi sian cameras trained on
the front gate and on the nearly
600-foot-Iong conveyor in the warehouse al so monitor each shipment
as it moves through the distribution
cycle. Unauthorized trucks in the
shipping yard or people in the ware-,
house can be quickly spotted.

Astronomers staring into the
depths of outer space are using an
IBM computer to find stars which
can't be seen from Earth. Information from NASA's Orbiting Astronomical Observatory is fed into the
University of Toledo's (Ohio) System/360 Model 44 and a "map" of the
universe is created in the computer
Dr. Adolph Witt, assistant professor of astronomy, uses the university's 40-inch telescope to observe stars thousands of light years
from the Earth. Hi s current research includes the study of life
on other pI anet s by examining the
material floating in space between
A recent di scovery found
amino acids on a meteor which 1 anded
on Earth These acids - which com0



bine to form protein, the building
block of life - existed on the
meteor in combinations much different from those normally found
on Earth.
"Most astronomers," Dr. Witt said,
"feel that the 1 aws of probabil i ty
indicate 1 ife of one form or another
most certainly exists elsewhere in
the universe. The computer is enabl ing us to determine more preci sely where such I ife might exi st.


Baggage handlers at O'Hare International Ai rport, Chicago, Illinoi s,
now are operating minicomputers to
make sure pas sengers and thei r I uggage depart on the same flight. The
new Uni ted AirLines baggage handling system uses a Varian Data Machines 620/i minicomputer to remember the destination of as many as
12,000 suitcases an hour. The automated system expedites handling of
1 uggage of any size or shape, including golf bc:gs and even mail sacks.
Physically, the computer-operated
material handl ing system consi sts
of a giant triangular network of
conveyers - each side of the triangle mea~uring 300 feet in length.
As the tagged luggage whizzes by
two corners of the triangle at the
rate of up to 200 pieces per minute,
a dispatcher at each corner enters
the destination code of each bag
into the minicomputer terminal keyboard. From this point, each piece
of luggage is transported on its
own sorter tray to the destination
accumulation conveyor.
The sorting system, known as a
.. controlled til t tray sorter," allows
each tray to til t under remote command.
The Varian 620/i instructs
the tilt tray mechanism to divert
each piece to the proper accumulation lane. Here, baggage handlers
load the 1 uggage onto baqgage carts
destined for every aircraft scheduled
to depart during the next two hours.
Under peak condi tions, UAL said,
the average time elapsed between
the acquisition of a piece of baggage into the system and its deli very to the appropriate inbound chute
is from four to six minutes.
each flight departs,the minicomputer
is automatically updated.
The system was designed by the
Industrial Systems Division of Aerojet-General Corp., Frederick, Md.


Reliable Investors Corp. of Madison, Wisconsin, has broken with a
tradi tion which in recent years has
become an increasingly difficul t
problem for Wall Street. The Wisconsin corporation is using an IBM
System/360 Model 20 to produce
punched card stock certificates,
thereby eliminating the tradi tional
engraved, larger-sized certificate.
"The stock exchanges have been
researching the possibility of trans
ferring all of their stocks to
punched card certificates for some
time," said George Stewart, president. "But as far as we know, we
are the only company presently issuing certificates on punched cards.

Certificate printing costs, for
the firm, have been reduced by
about 60%.
A one-time savings of
over $40,000 was realized in a recent reissue of stocks. There have
been a number of other cost-saving
byproducts from the new system, incl uding a stock regi ster for filing
with various regulatory bodies.
"The punched card is simple and
efficient," Mr. Stewart said, "and
it has reduced our stock certificate
storage requirements by 75 per cent.
The ease of entering information
into the certificate file and getting it out again is fantastic."

In the forests of Michigan's
upper peninsula. a computer is showing industry how it can profit and
still enable the public to enjoy 2
forest's beauty. A computerized
forest inventory has shown that
forests that are cut frequently
for short-growth pulpwood crops,
can be enj oyed longer aesthetically,
and produce greater dollar return
by a switch to the longer-term investment in hardwood logs used to
make fine furniture. This is just
one of several new forest management
ideas formulated by foresters at
Michigan Tech Uni versi ty (Houghton).
Professor James W.


Meteer, re-

search forester at Michigan Tech's
Ford Forestry Center, said, "We've
shown that changes in forest management can be good for both the economy and publ ic enj oyment of the
land. Simply growing wood fiber
is a borderline proposition wi th
our short growing season and minimum rainfall, and right now there
is a surplus of pulpwood."
The inventory is based on a
sampling technique of trees in a
4,000 acre research forest.
center keeps records on each of 30
to 40 trees in 1,000 one-fifth-acre
plots. Field workers classify the
trees, soil condi tions and rainfall
on each plot.
They measure and
record tree growth and note mortali ty of overmature trees.
All of
this information is placed in an
IBM System/360 Model 44 which completes statistical analysis of the
sample and proj ects data to cover
the entire forest. In a real way,
the computer is contributing to
better management of a natural resource by optimizing the variables
of the forest and relating them
to both productivity and public
enjoyment, Professor Meteer noted.
" ••• the forest is a long-term
investment ••• Continuous production
higher-value, longer-growirig
hardwood species will boost both
the economy and the beauty of the
In this age of ecological
awareness, wethink that's important."


Dartmouth College (Hanover, N.H.)
through its multi-mill ion doll ar
Kiewit Computation Center, is providing high-speed computer services
to a network of colleges and high
schools in seven eastern states as
well as to its own undergraduates
and graduate students. As of early
1971, thousands of miles of telephone
1 ines and sophi sticated ci rcui try
connected 30 high school sand 20
colleges in New York, New Jersey,
and five New England States, to the
Kiewi t Network.
At the heart of
the system are two Honeywell-635
central computers, two Datanet 30
communications computers which can
take orders from as many as 145
persons simultaneously, and some
600 telephone circuits connected
to more than 200 consoles located
at Dartmouth and off-campus.
While the 3,250 undergraduates,
600 graduate students and 500 faculty members at Dartmouth automatically are elegible users of the

system, more than 7,500 high school
students al so have user accounts,
while the balance of users are
students and faculty members at
other colleges in the Kiewit Network. Last year, more than 13,400
persons used the Center; of these
10,300 were student s and teachers
at schools outside of Dartmouth.
During a single day in December
1970, the computer performed nearl y
20,000 jobs in a 17-hour period.
The Kiewit Network now is in operation more than 100 hours a week.
The ability of the Kiewit Computer to service this growing network, to handle more than 100 users
simultaneously, to converse in any
one of seven languages ranging from
BASIC to LISP, and to perform over
500,000 cal cuI ations a second, makes
the Dartmouth, Time-Sharing System
(orss) one of the largest educational
computing facilities in the world.
The most commonly used computer
1 anguage on the system is BASIC,
authored in 1963 by Dartmouth President John G. Kemeny and Mathematics
Professor Thomas E. Kurtz, director
of Kiewit. BASIC is easy to learn,
even by an elementary school pupil,
and enables the user to communicate
with the computer in a conversational
manner, yet also is a vehicle of
highly complex com[llterized research.
There are more than 500 programs
in the Kiewi t Computer 1 ibrary ranging from language drills in German
to football games and computerized
art. Once considered by some as a
waste of time, recreational game
playing now is recognized as a way
in which the reluctant or apprehensive beginning user may overcome
any fears he might have of the computer. "It takes 15 minutes to play
the simulated football game, but it
takes the computer only about one
and one-half seconds of computing
time, " President Kemeny s'aid. "After
you play one football game, the
mystery and. fear of the computer
suddenly are gone."
Reinforcing the original philosophy that the DTSS system should be
used primarily as a learning tool,
a recent survey of on-campus use
showed that 57% of the total computer time was dedicated to course
assignments and only 16% to research.
The remaining 27% of the computer
time was used by students and others
for recreational purposes.
Although Dartmouth students and
facul ty account for only 31% of the
total user population, they consume
more than 68% of the terminal hours,
85% of the computing time, and 90%
of the storage" capaci ty of the computer. Indeed, as an academic tool,
the computer has been so thoroughly
integrated into the course or re-


search work of literally all departments that nearly 90% of all
Dartmouth's undergraduates gain
familiarity with computing prior
to graduating.
Off-campus use of the Kiewi t Computer continues to grow. Why Dartmouth provides such widespread computer services is best described by
President Kemeny:
"When we set out to develop a
time-sharing system in 1963, it was
with the conviction that knowledge
and use of the high-speed electronic
brain should be an integral part of
every student's basic education.
It was also our intention that the
system be designed to handle thousands of people with small jobs for
the computer rather than hundreds
of people with large jobs.
"The end resul t was the Dartmouth
Time-Sharing System, which became
the first freely accessible and
easily usable system in the nation
to serve a 1 arge number of small

It al so has made Dartmouth a pacemaker for the nation in educational
use of computing - a tool whose
potential President Kemeny believes
has only been scratched in extending
the horizons of the mind of man.
(The first duplicate of the DTSS
system was installed in February
1971 at the U.S. Naval Academy at
Annapolis, Md., and provides timesharing computer services for 4,200

decisions they have made. Participants in the one-credit course will
be graded on oral andwritten,rqJorts.
While some other colleges and
universities also have offered this
kind of class, it usually has been
on the graduate rather than undergraduate level, and in the field
of business engineering.



Lockheed Mi ssiles & Space Co.
(Sunnyvale, Calif.) isgoing to recycle the thousands of miles of
printout paper it uses each year.
The Sunnyvale mi ssiles and space
company, producer of the Pol a ri s
and Poseidon mi ssiles and the Agena
satellite, buys 5,426 miles of computer printout paper each year.
Approximately 100 acres of forest
are needed to produce thi s amount
of paper. By recycling, that much
timber could be preserved.
The idea came from young computer
programmer, Timothy M. Ames, shown
surrounded by a small part of the
computer printout paper which hi s
company will recycle for new paper
after use.
An ardent conservationi st, Ames saw a means of reusing
a natural resource, the pulp that
goes into computer readout paper.


Next fall at Polytechnic Insti tute of Brooklyn (New York), a
new "Decision-Making Laboratory"
will use computer simul ation of
business operations to give senior
System Engineering students the
opportunity tomake executive-level
The class will be divided into rival "companies" competing for customers in the same
market area. Working from initial
information concerning thei r companies, market areas and the general
economy, they will use the computer
to forecast sales, allocate resources and prepare profi t statements. The student-executives will
decide how much to charge for their
products, how much to produce, how
much to spend on adverti sing, and
how much overtime should be worked.
At the end of the semester,
boards of directors - consisting
of graduate students, faculty members and industrial executives will l i sten while members of each
team (company) explain reasons for

This "easy chair" represents a halfday's consumption of the high quali ty paper used by Lockheed in its
computer printout machines. After
the data has been used, and the paper
becomes waste,it will go to the BJ
Services of San Franci sco, with whom
Lockheed has singed a pilot contract
for recycling into new computer
paper, bonded paper or other high
quality products.




Operates in a variety of applications through micro-programming / configurations include both single and dual
CPU: three control memory configurations are available
/ microme:nory capacity up to 16,384 words / cycle time
200 nsec / core memory expands to a 65K x 8 capacity
with 1.0 msec cycle time
Four computers -- 19065, 19045, 19035 19025 / fully
compatible members of 1900 Series / major in~reases
in performance over corresponding A series / on-site
upgrading of A Series
Latest member of P-350 series for the small to medium
business or decentralized departments of larger operations / has 762-digit magnetic ledger card system and
a 30-inch split platen for larger forms / 800- or 1.200
word core memory available ! modular concept permits
compatible growth with user's expanding requirements
For scientific batch processing: also for use in realtime applications / 16,384 words of core memory / disk
pack system stores to 10 million words of data / floating point processor enables arithmetic operations to be
completed 10 times faster than by software routines

Microdata Corporation
644 East Young St.
Santa Ana, CA 92705
Attn: Robert Oakley



Micro 1600 Minicomputer

19005 Series Computers

P-359 minicomputer

PDP-15/50 system

Rex Berry
Suite 1202
595 Madison Ave.
New York, NY 10022
Phillips Business Systems Inc.
292 Madison Ave.
New York, NY 10017

Digital Equipment Corp.
Maynard, MA 01754
Attn: Dennis C. Goss

Special Purpose Systems

ADAPTS (measurement and
control system)

MUMPS (Massachusetts
General Hospital
!!tility.Multi-frogramming ~stem)
Search Brokerage House
System (SBHS)

704 Data Acquisition
and Control System

For use in science and industry / modular data 3CqUISltion system providing real-time analog and digital processing and testing / uses Varian 620 16-bit-word minicomputer: Varian Extended BASIC language controlls all
functions and subroutines / four configurations, all
with choice of either 750-nsec Varian 620/f or Varian
620/L, both with 12.288-word memories
For handling patient medical records / uses DEC's PDP15 and a general-purpose language also called MUMPS /
can be operated by up to 22 persons simultaneously requiring access to a common data base / developed by
Laboratory of Computer Sciences of Mass. Gen'l Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston
Turn-key data processing system designed to eliminate
front and back office paper work problems for small
brokerage houses / developed by Search, Inc., a Connecticut-based systems designer / includes PDP-8/L
computer, a Search printer, magnetic tape deck storage unit, and a Search data source terminal / automates variety of tasks
Off-the-shelf system for wide variety of data gathering, logging, processing, storage, and contr0l functions / includes elements for multiplexed A-to-D and
D-to-A conversion and input-output of discrete events
/ all functions of basic system are expandable

Varian Data Machines, G/DS
6ll Hansen Way
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Attn: John Koudela, Jr.

Digital Equipment Corp.
Maynard, MA 01754
Attn: William D. Hirst

Digital Equipment Corp.
Maynard, MA 01754
Attn: Howard Steiner

Baytheon Data Systems Co.
1415 Boston-Providence Tpke.
Norwood, MA 02062


CorPak 8 Memory System
Model 560 MUlti-Channel
Tape Reader

Models ARM-30 and ARM
2365 core memories

Add-on core memory for DEC PDP-8/1 / provides up to 28K
words of additional core memory / available in 4K x 12
increments for total of 28K x 12 add-on memory
Provides random access, read-only batch memory system
for minicomputers, process control systems, automatic
typewriters, other devices accepting digital input /
stores up to 100 different, varying length programs
on an endless-loop tape
Designed to replace main-frame core memories of IBMs
360/30, /65, /67 and /75 computers at lower cost / no
equipment or software modification: matches IBMs in
speed and capaci ty / both model s are modul ar-expandable


Information Control Corp.
9610 Bellanca AVe.
Los Angeles. CA 90045
Data Test Corp.
822 Challenge Drive
Concord, CA 94520
Marketing Communications,
MS 7-13
Ampex Corp.
401 Broadway
Redwood City, CA 94063




(Memories, continued)
Model D1U-250, miniature magnetic tape

NM-6000 family


Terabit Memory (TBM)

XMD-2100 minicomputer
mass memory system

For use in avionics and field computer diagnostics
systems / bit-serial system has per track capacity of
2,400,000 data bits on 250 ft. 1/4 inch magnetic tape
/ totally sealed cartridge maintains tape in its own
clean room / size, complete with electronics for 2
tracks write/read or 4 tracks of write or read, is
8"L x 5"W x 3.5"H; 6 Ibs including tape / options for
expansion avp~lable
Electrically alterable read only memory (EAROM) / uses
NW-lOO plated wire as basic memory element / speeds
are read access 180ns, read time 300 ns, write time
500 ns, and read/write 650 ns / operates in non-destructive read out mode (ND~O) / maximum capacity
81.920 bits
For present PDP-81 and PDP-8L users / provides from
2,048 to 32,768 additional words of storage / includes
all controls for interacing and user software system /
memory access within 1.6 usec; data transfer rate up to
1.6 usec per word
Uses videotape recording techniques to provide on-line
random access to as many as 400 billion bytes (3 trillion bits) of computer data / expandable from a minimum system of 11 billion bytes / can be plug-compatible with any presently available commercial computer /
requires no change in computer or its basic programming, although special access programs will be needed
Disk drive system (similiar to the IBM 2310) offering
10 million bits of storage / standard disk is 1025
bi t-per-inch / system includes coupler, di s!c controller,
all necessary cables and power supplies and one disk
drive / software includes a maintenance program, disk
formatter, and I/O driver / options available

Circuit Systems Corporation
816 East Edna Place
Covina, CA 91722

A modular verb-oriented programming language requiring little or no computer background / for use on
medium-to-large computers equipped for graphics output / designed to expand with user's requirements / a
variety of options available for specialized plotting
For professional firms, e.g o , lawyers, accountants,
consulting engineers / generates reports of business
activity, statement issuance, internal profitability
and client or project profitability / operational on
IBM and Honeywell computers
Permits on-line symbolic debugging of COBOL programs /
syntax of simple command language closely related to
COBOL's English-like structure; no knowledge of machine
language is required
Allows IBM computer users to operate most IBM DOS/360
programs under either OS/360 or OS/370 without reprogramming / provided at no extra cost to CT center
clients; may be leased or purchased by System/360 or
System/370 user for use at own center
A real time "total business package library" for use
on any computer that supports COBOL or FORTRAN IV /
approximately 40 programs / operate in either batch
Inode or conversationally from control console or console CRT
Programming method utilizing large computers to develop programs for minicomputers / portion of large computer simul ates selected minicomputer; rest of computer,
and peripherals, develop and test program that will be
fully operational, ready to load directly into minicomputer
Now compatible with IBM SORT~483 / retains advantages
of "plug compatibility" / sorts fixed-length records
about 30% faster than other available sorts / sorts a
file with 1/2 disk work area required by SORT 483 or
sort SMI / 30-day free trial; then month-by-month lease

Unitech, Inc.
1005 East St. Elmu Road
Austin, TX 78715

Nemonic Data Systems, Inc.
1301 West Third Avenue
Denver, CO 80223
Attn: Robert A. Fillingham
Memory Technology, Inc.
83 Boston Post Road
Sudbury, MA 01776
Attn: Paul Rosenbaum
Marketing Communications,
MS 7-13
Ampex Corporation
401 Broadway
Redwood City, CA 94063
Xebec Systems, Inc.
918 North Rengstorff Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94040


CPS-l (Contour Plotting

CEMIS (Client-Employee
Management Information


MIAS (Management Information and Accounting

PI SORT 2 program


Peter J. Oeth
VP Marketing
Western Data Sciences
5055 North 12th Street
Phoenix, 85014
PDA Systems, Inc.
12 East 86th Street
New York, NY 10028
University Computing Co.
1500 UCC Tower
P.O. Box 6228
Dallas, TX 75222
Computing Corp. International, Inc.
3375 South Bannock
Englewood, CO 80110
Mr. J. David Ellis
Trippe Systems Inc.
120 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
Programnatics Inc.
11661 San Vicente Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90049





(Software, continued)
Tire Registration

Software application package for tire retreading firms,
manufacturers and tire brand name owners / will maintain records of tire sales and leases and provide periodic reports required by new federal regulations /
available at 40 NCR data centers throughout the U.S.

The National Cash Register
Dayton, OH 45409

For management information and control, both industrial-commercial and military / accepts masses of data;
data can be retrieved, changed, communicated to matching systems or other output devices, without using a
For Data General, Digi tal Equipment, or Hewlett-Packard
computer user / replaces all system paper tape functions / one transport contains entire system library;
second transport handles source information; object
program is written on third transport / operation is
fully automatic
Portable, remote computer terminal / 128 ASCII characters in transmit mode; prints full 64 characters
ASCII Dense SUb-set / mul ti-copy printout uses ordinary
paper and standard typewriter ribbon / acoustic coupler
requires only telephone and 115 v AC power outlet for
full operation
Speeds from 1240 to 1500 lpm using 48 characters and
132 columns / character fonts may be changed from 48
to 96, or 64 to 128 characters, by simply exchanging
chain modules / numeric, alphanumeric, and symbolic
character sets available / standard fanfold paper,
from 4 to 18 1/2" Wi maximum length, 22"
Free-standing, desk-top device prints 356 80-column
lines per minute / 8" W print area / multi-copies to
six parts / all 64 ASCII characters / complete software package available / computer requires one level
of priority interrupt to interface with line printer
For Victor Series 800 small-scale billing and accounting computers / provides automatic data input at rate
of up to 30,000 digits per minute / magnetic ledter
cards utilized add up to 1024 digits of alphanumeric
data storage / cards also provide hard copy
For Varian 620/i users who have a COl LINC Tape Mass
Memory Peripheral/provides capability to generate
and edit source text on LINC Tape / Editor is both
line number and context oriented
Hard-copy terminal for direct use with Digital Equipment's PDP-8 minicomputers / can operate at 15 cps /
has 92-character set, full upper and lower case / 27
different font elements including OCR

Electronic Systems Di vi sion
The Bunker-Ramo Corp.
31717 La Tienda Drive
Westlake Village, CA 91361

Peripheral Equipment

BR-700 Information

Cassette Magnetic Tape
Operating System

Data Terminal

LP 3500 line printer

Line printer for 700Series computers

Model 720 Ledger Card

Source Text Editor

Tyco~ 35/37 console

send-receive (CSR)

Dicom Industries
715 N. Pastoria Aveo
Sunnyvale, CA 94086

David Mendelsohn
Compudata Corp., Inc.
100 Manton Avenue
Providence, RI 02909
Potter Instrument Co., Inc.
532 Broad Hollow Road
Melville, NY 11746

Raytheon Data Systems Coo
1415 Boston-Providence Hwyo
Norwood, MA 02062
Victor Comptometer Corp.
3900 N. Rockwell St.
Chicago, IL 60618
Computer Operations, Inc.
10774 Tucker St.
Beltsville, MD 20705
Attn: Marketing Dept.
Terminal Equipment Corp.
750 Hamburg Turnpike
Pompton Lakes, NJ 07442

Data Processing Accessories

Magnetic Tape Preserver

Special carrying case for magnetic tape / prevents "MagData Processing Security,
netic Pollution" caused by numerous everyday items (e.g.,
ai r conditioners, elevators, electric storms) during stor- 1550 Northwest Highway
age or transportation / two models available / special con- Park Ridge, IL 60068
figurations for specific applications are in design

Computer-Related Services

Developing new language

International broking
and sales network

Produce PL/l-based code for any available computer / recent version (under $50K) operates on IBM/360; generates
code for NOVA or SUPERNOVA minicomputer; includes almost
all features of standard IBM PL/I Lanugage Subset for
TOS/DOS/service offered to all computer users
Specializingin sale of refurbished, used computers and
peripheral equipment / wide range of 2nd and 3rd generation computer equipment completely refurbished and
working to specification of original manufacturer


391 Totten Pond Road
Waltham, MA 02154
Attn: Cornelium Peterson
Computer Sales & Service Ltd.
49/53 Pancras Road
London NWI, England


Univac Defense Systems Div.
St. Paul, Minn.

Federal Aviation Admn.,
Washington, DC

Incoterm Corp.,
Marlborough, Mass.

Transac Div. of Cit-Alcatel
(a CGE Co.) France

Burroughs Corp.,
Detroi t, Mich.

Philco-Ford Corp.,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Tri-Data Corp.,
Mountain View, Calif.
Integrated Systems Support,
Inc., Virginia Beach, Va.

Data Products Div. of
Lockheed Electronics Co.,
Inc, Los Angeles, Calif.
Navy's Fleet Computer Programming Center, Atlantic

Tracor Data Systems, Inc.,
Austin, Texas

General Services Administration

National Sharedata Corp.,
Dallas, Texas

Citizens National Bank,
Lubbock, Texas

International Computers
(USA) Limited, New York, N.Y.
Information Storage Systems,
Cupertino, Calif.

Farrington Manufacturing
Co., Falls Church, Va.
Logic Corp.,
Cherry Hill, N. J.

Ampex Corp., Culver City,
Calif •

Rohr Corp., Inglewood,

Data Systems Analysts, Inc.,
Pennsauken, N. J.

Defense Communications Agency
of the U.S. Dept. of Defense

Ampex Corp., Culver City,
Calif •

Hughes Aircraft Co.,
Fullerton, Calif.

Corporation S, Dallas,

Marathon Oil, Houston,

Bunker-Ramo Corp.,
Westlake Village, Calif.

Naval Electronic Systems
Command, Washington, D.C.

Mnemotech Computer Systems,
Inc., New York. N.Y.
Librascope Div. of The
Singer Co., Glendale, Calif.

Edwards & Hanly,
New York, N.Y.
The Boeing Co., Seattle,

Computing and Software, Inc.,
Los Angeles, Calif.

Southern Arizona Bank,
Tucson, Ariz.

Cambridge Memories, Inc.,
Newton, Mass.

Teradyne, Inc.,
Boston, Mass.

Interdata, Inc.,
Oceanport, N.J.

Ford Motor Co.,
Rawsonville, Mich.

Moshman Associates, Inc.,
Washington, D.C.

Federal Judicial Center,
Washington, D.C.


Sixty-two ARTS III systems; first has been
$30.7 million
installed at Chicago's OHare Int'l Airport;
25 more scheduled to be installed during
1971 in FAA's program to increase efficiency
and improve safety at high and medium density
airports throughout the nation
Common market sales of INCOTER~fD products
$15 million
over next 48 months; agreement calls for
completion by late '71 of French manufacturing facility for licensed production by
TRANSAC of INCOTERM computer terminals
$3.5 million
A sixth Burroughs computer, a B 6700 data
processing system; systems are used for DP
services in inventory control, payroll, industrial relations, engineering, financial
Minicomputer magnetic tape systems for in$2.5 million
corporation in Lockheed Electronics MAC 16
Development, production and maintenance of
$2.5 million
computer programs as well as studies and
development of concepts for Naval Tactical
Data System (NTDS)
Rental and installation of TDS-711 and TDS- $2.1 million
733 Disc Drives, and TDS-833 Controllers;
will replace IBM's disk storage systems,
operating in conjunction with computer systems at U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force and Government agencies located throughout country
Assume management of the bank's data pro$2 million
cessing operation and computer center for
five-year period
Purchase of ICL pneumatic transports, for
$2 million
handling paper and card stock documents
Renewal of previous contract; provides for
$1+ million
increased quantities of ISS 714 and ISS
701 disk drives for use in KeyDisc systems
Four Model ECM-65 extended core memories
to increase throughput and capacity of two
IBM 360/65 computer systems.
Computer programming to enhance operation
of overseas portion of AUTODIN network:
originally programmed by the firm in 1966
Militarized core memory stacks to be used
in systems for Phase II of Defense Dept's
407L Tactical Air Control System program
A conversion of Marathon existing optical
scanning credit card processes to a Recognition Equipment Inc. system; calls for
hardware, all necessary software and assistance with systems development
Three BR-700's for an input/output data
display message processing systems and a
fourth BR-700 for a data management and
retrieval system: field engineering and
support services for both systems
Processing E & H's brokerage back office
Manufacture of data printer for Ai r Force's
Short Range Attack Millile (SRAM) program: it will plug into launch aircraft's
computer and print out stored data to
provide profile of SRAM training flights
Operating portion of bank's computer facili ties, providing a variety of internal
data processing functions and program application services for outside customers
ExpandaCore 18 memory systems for use in
digital IC test system, one of which is
SLOT (Sequential LOgic Tester) Machine
Four Model 5 computers; 3 will monitor
and control production testing of carburetor subassemblies; one will be used as a
communicati06s processor
A study and preparation of al ternative geographic reorganizations of the U.S. Circuit
Courts of Appeal: more options and greater
sensitivity in current version of legislative redi stricting program used in 1965 for
Illinois and California






Burrou9hs B2500 system

Advance Schools, Inc., Chicago, Ill.
Birmingham Small Arms Co., Inc.,
Verona, N.J.
Bunker Hill Co., Kellogg, Idaho
Texas Rehabilitation Commission
Austin, Texas

Burroughs B3500 system

University of the Pacific,
Stockton, Calif.
Citizens National Bank, Tenafly,
Technicolor, Inc., Information
Systems Div., Hollywood, Calif.

Control Data 3300 system

Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA)

Control Data 6400 system

University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada
Interphase Computer Systems, Salt
Lake City, Utah
Merchants Shipper Credit Corp.,
Bellevue, Wash.
Mine and Smelter Supply Co.,
_D..:. e_n..:. .v. :. e_r.L. '_C..:...o_l_o.-.;...______--:--:-~__----,._______
Western American Bank (Europe),
Ltd., London, England
Midwest Life Nebraska, Lincoln,
Borough of Hammersmith, London,

Honeywell Model 110 system
Honeywell Model 115 system

Accounting, payroll, inventories, purchasing, and
complete student record and student processing
Inventory control, billing, accounts receivable,
statistical reporting; future plans include a data
communications network by end' of 1471
(system valued at over $517.000)
Payroll, cost accounting, mining applications, metallurgical accounting, a forecasting application
Caseload management accounting, payroll, personnel,
purchasing,'equipment inventory; also a data bank
for processing client statistical information from
150 field offices throughout the state
Educational, research and business applications
(system valued at over $481,000)
More efficient performance of present bankin9 applications via systems multiprocessing capabilities
(system valued at over $780,000)
Applications including service packages to CATV
system operators, market research services for
broadcasters and advertisers, and all internal computer services to six other Technicolor divisions
(system valued at over $1,500,000)
Automating business data processing functions and
increasing efficiency of railroad operations
(system valued at $900,000)
Academic instruction, general research and student
Stock brokerage accounting and stock transfer as
well as general accounting purpose~s~~__~~_______
A billing service for the transportation industry

Sales order processing, sales analysis, accounts
payab l_e a nd a c c 0 u n t s re c e i vab l.e____________ _
All major aspects of its business, including loans and
deposit~ foreign exchang~ Eurodollar, bond dealings
Honeywell Model 125 system
Processing over 70,000 life and health insurance
Honeywell Model 1250 system
Handling an expanding load of non-financial work
for the town, including an electors' register of
126,000 persons, and a library catalog system
Honeywell Model 2200 system
Associated Container Transportation, Handling paperwork related to its through-transport
container services between the UK/Europe and AusLondon, England
tralia and between Australia/New Zealand and the
East Coast of the U.S.j replaces smaller ~H~-~20~0~~_
NCR Century 100 system
Upstate Milk Co-op, Buffalo, N.Y.
Route accounting, preparing wholesale and retail
billings, payroll, miscellaneous data proc'g work
NCR Century 200 system
Process Consulting and Computing,
Retail store accounting services and large volume
Inc., San Diego, Calif.
billing operations
AGE Messenger Service, Houston,
Keeping track of fleet of delivery trucks, logging
IBM System/3 Model 6
day's activities, preparing customer invoic~~~
Tracking any of 6,000 shipping containers used to
Four Winds Forwarding, Inc'., San
ship household goods when Americans move abroad or
Diego, Calif.
return to United States
Massey-Ferguson Inc., Des Moines,
Financial analysis; also analyze sales and inventory
==~~____~~~~~~______________~I~o~w~a~__~~~__~~~~~__~~_____ volumes, product_acceptance projects, and others
IBM System/3 Model 10
Citizens National Bank & Trust Co.,
Demand deposits, savings accounts, installment
Towanda, PaD
loans, Christmas Club and Ready-Credit
Wooster Community Hospital, Wooster, Providin9 floor-by-floor census of the ~95-bed hosOhio
pi tal, inclur;lin9 a count of patients, their bed assignments, dates of admission and attending doctors;
also patient billing, payroll, general accounting
Provident Life and Accident InsurEntering information from new life insurance appliIBM System/360 Model 50
cations' and keeping track of the status of pending
ance Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.
IBM System/370 Model 155
Liberty National Life Insurance Co., Core of remote field accounting service; terminals
link 145 offices in 7 states; will handle other apBirmingham, Ala.
plications inclUding corporate accounting
McDonnell Douglas Automation Co.,
Handling company's Information Management System
(IMS): replaces a System/360
S 1. Lo u i s. Mo ~
Geophysical data processing
Geocom, Houston, Texas
UNIVAC 1106 system
(system valued at about $1.9 million)
Enhancement of Telex, TWX and MAILGRAM services;
Western Union, Information Services
UNIVAC 1108 and 418-111 systems
Computer System Center, Middletown, Va: also in conjunction with modernization of WU's
(three 1108s; three 418-IIIs)
public message services
~~~~~~________________________~--:-~____=-__~=-__~__~____~~____~(~s~ystemsl value exceeds several million dollars)
UNIVAC 9200 system
Morrison Steel Co., New Brunswick,
Billing, accounts receivable, accounts payable,
general accounting
UNIVAC 9400 system
General Logics Inc., Dallas, Texas
Real time pricing system for photo-finishers; system
will show exact status of all film being processed,
at any time


Neil Macdonald
Survey Eill tor
The following is a surrunary made by COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION of reports and estimates of the number of general purpose electronic digital computers manufactured and installed, or to be manufactured and on
order. These figures are mailed to individual computer manufacturers
from time to time for their information and review, and for any updating or comments they may care to provide. Please note the variation
in dates and reliability of the information. Several important manufacturers refuse to give out, confirm, or comment on any figures.
Our census seeks to include all digital computers manufactured anywhere. We invite all manufacturers located a~ywhere to submit information for this census. We invite all our readers to submit information that would help make these figures as accurate and complete as
Part I of the Monthly Computer Census contains reports for United
States manufacturers. Part II contains reports for manufacturers
outside of the United States. The two parts are published in alternate months.

The following abbreviations apply:
(A) -- authoritative figures, derived essentially from information
sent by the manufacturer directly to CO~WUTERS AND
figure is combined in a total
acknowledgment is given to DP FOcus, Marlboro, ~'ass., for
their help in estimating many of these figures
figure estimated by COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION
manufacturer refuses to give any figures on number of installations or of orders, and refuses to comment in any
way on those numbers stated here
(R) -- figures derived all or in part from information released
indirectly by the manufacturer, or from reports by other
sources likely to be informed
sale only, and sale (not rental) price is stated
X -- no longer in production
information not obtained at press time


Part II.
Manufacturers Outside united States
A/S Norsk Data Elektronikk
6s10, Norway
(A) (Apr. 1971)
A/S Regnecentralen
Copenhagen, Denmark
RC 4000
(A) (Apr. 1971)
Elbit Computers Ltd.
Haifa, Israel
(A) (Feb. 1971)
Series 90-2/10/20
GEC-AEI Automation Ltd.
New Parks, Leicester, England
(Jan. 1969)
CON/pAC 4020
CON/PAC 4040
CON/PAC 4060
International Computers, Ltd. (ICL)
Atlas 1 & 2
London, England
KDF 6-10
(Apr. 1971)
Leo 1, 2,
Orion 1 & 2
803 A, B, C
Elliott 4120/4130
System 4-30 to 4-75

$ (000)



























NmffiER OF








Japanese Mfrs.
(N) (Sept. 1970)
Marconi Co., Ltd.
Chelmsford, Essex, England
(A) (Jan. 1970)
N.V. Philips Electrologica
Apeldoorn, The Netherlands

(Apr. 1971)

Redifon Limited
Crawley, Sussex, England
(A) (Apr. 1971)
Saab-Scania Aktiebolag
Linkoping, Sweden
(A) (Mar. 1971)
Selenia S.p.A.
Roma, Italy
(A) (Mar. 1971)


(Mfrs. of various models include: Nippon Electric Co., Fujitsu,
Hitachi, Ltd., Toshiba, Oki Electric Industry Co., and Mitsubishi
Electric cOrp.)
Myriad I
:036.0-:066.0 (S)
:022.0-:042.5 (S)
Myriad I I
P9200 t.s.





4150 E


















Munich, Germany
(Apr. 1971)


(May 1969)







$ (000)
51. 5




URAL 11/14/16
and others



6000 E




June 1·4, 1971: Seventh Annual Data Processing and Automation Con·
ference, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, The Riviera
Hotel, Atlanta, Ga. / contact: C. E. Aultz, NRECA, 2000 Florida Ave.,
N.w., Washington, D.C. 20009
June 2·5, 1971: 3rd IFAC/IFIP Conference on Digital Computer Applications to Process Control, Technical University, Otaniemi, Finland / contact: 3rd IFAC/IFIP Conference, Box 10192, Helsinki 10,
June 3·5, 1971: Conference on Area·Wide Health Data Network,
School of Medicine, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo,
N.Y. / contact: Continuing Medical Education, 2211 Main St., Buffalo, N.Y. 14214
June 21.22, 1971: Ninth Annual Conference of the Special Interest
Group on Computer Personnel Research of the Association for
Computing Machinery, Center for Continuing Education, Univ. of
Chicago, III. / contact: Fred A. Gluckson, EDP Systems Dept.,
National Bank of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 48232
June 24, 1971: Tenth Annual Technical Symposium, Washington, D. C.
Chapter ACM, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. /
contact: Association for Computing Machinery, c/o J. D. Madden,
Exec. Director, 1133 Ave. of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036
July 19·21, 1971: 1971 Summer Computer Simulation Conference.
Sheraton-Boston Hotel, Boston, Mass. / contact Dona Id H. Niesse,
McDonnell Automation Co., Dept. K676, Box 516, St. louis, Mo.
63166, or, Peter Stein, McGraw-Hili Publishing Co., 607 Boylston
St., Boston, Mass. 02116
July 19·23, 1971: Conference on Computers in Chemical Education and
Research, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, III. / contact: Dr. F. M.
Miller, Dept. of Chemistry, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, III. 60115
July 26·29, 1971: First International Computer Exposition for Latin
America, sponsored by the Computer Society of Mexico, Camino
Real Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico / contact: Bernard lane, Computer
Exposition, Inc., 254 West 31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001
Aug. 3·5, 1971: ACM '71 "Decade of Dialogue", Conrad Hilton Hotel,
Chicago, III. / contact: AI Hawkes, Computer Horizons, 53 West
Jackson Blvd., Chicago, III. 60604
Aug. 3·6, 1971: IFAC Symposium on The Operator, Engineer and Man·
agement Interface with the Process Control Computer, Purdue University, lafayette, Ind. / contact: Dr. Theodore J. Williams, Purdue
laboratory for Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, Lafay-'
ette, Ind. 47907


Aug. 11-13, 1971: Joint Automatic Control Conference, Washington
Univ., St. louis, Mo. / contact: R. W. Brockett, Pierce Hall, Harvard
Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 02138
Aug. 16·19, 1971: International Symposium on the Theory of Ma·
chines and Computations, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel/contact: Sheldon B. Akers, Secretary, IEEE
Technical Comm. on Switching and Automata Theory, General
Electric Co., Bldg. 3, Room 226, Electronics Park, Syracuse, N.Y.
Aug. 16·20, 1971: Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology,
Jerusalem, Israel/contact: The Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology, P.O.B. 7170, Jerusalem, Israel
Aug. 24·27, 1971: Western Electronic Show & Convention (WESCON),
San Francisco Hilton & Cow Palace, San Francisco, Calif. / contact:
WESCON Office, 3600 Wilshire Blvd., los Angeles, Calif. 90005
Aug. 30·Sept. 10, 1971: International Advanced Summer Institute. on
Microprogramming, Saint Raphael, French Riviera / contact: Guy
Boulaye and Jean Mermet, Institute de Mathematiques AppJiquees,
Cede x 53, 38 - Grenoble/Gare, France
Sept. 1·3, 1971: Second International Joint Conference on Artificial
Intelligence, Imperial College, london, England / contact: The
British Computer SOciety, Conference Department, 29 Portland
Place, London, W.l., U.K.
Sept. 7·9, 1971: lEE 1971 Conference on Computers for Analysis and
Control in Medical and Biological Research, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, England / contact: Manager, Conference Dept., lEE, Savoy
Place, london WC2R OBl, England
Sept. 14·17, 1971: Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS)
Annual National Conference, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Canada /
contact: Jack McCaugherty, James Lovick Ltd., Vancouver, British
Columbia, Canada
Sept. 6·10, 1971: IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Con·
trol) Symposium on Digital Simulation of Continuous Processes,
Budapest, Hungary / contact: The Organizing Committee, Symposium on Simulation, Budapest 112, POB 63, Hungary
Sept. 27·29, 1971: EleHronica '71 -1st International Conference. on
Applications of Electronics in the Industry, 21 st International Technical Exhibition, Turin, Italy / contact: Dr. Ing. Giovanni Villa, Elettronica 71, Corso Massimo d'Azeglio 15, 10126 Turin, Italy
Oct. 18·20, 1971: 27th Annual Natlonal Electronics Conference and
Exhibition (NEC/71), Pick-Congress Hotel, McCormick Place, Chicago,
III. / contact: NEC, Oakbrook Executive Plaza #2, 1211 W. 22nd
St., Oak Brook, III. 60521






Ted Schoeters
Stanmore, Middlesex

We have eleven months of a new right-wing government behind us as well as a disastrous postal
strike and the truly shameful collapse of RollsRoyce, a leader in all present-day technologies in
Britain. including computing and a major force in
the development of PLI.
Since the new regime came in. sectors of the
data processing market have gone sour, some because
the prime influence in them has come from a number
of American companies who have been forced to cut
back. some because there has been a sharp reduction
in new capital outlays by British industry as a
result of Government policies closely akin to President Nixon's less successful economic measures. and
finally, some as a result of the crass incompetence
of the people venturing into the particular area
of the market under the impression that to put
"computing" into their company title amounted to a
license to print money.
There is no sharp downturn, yet. But there are
a number of signs that the second half of 1971 and
possibly a large chunk of 1972 will see tight belts
on hitherto "fat cats" and many more closures or
cheap takeovers than at any time before -- it has
to come; there are an estimated 450 bodies providing
some form of EDP "service" in Britain.
Beginning with the main frame makers: IBM has
made its first move towards really significant
production in Britain for international markets of
equipment which couid sell in the thousands. I mean
the 370/135. produced at Havant for Europe and Commonwealth countries as well as a number of other areas
outside America and Japan~
Customary caution prompted Eddie Nixon. head of
IBM(UK) not to make any guess as to annual output
from Britain. But he will be providing processors
(the 165 as well) to a market in which three countries -- Germany. Britain and France -- each take
over 1000 machines a year. Add 2000 for the remainder and remember that IBM's slice of this 5000
a year cake is around 65 per cent and you can see
how the pendulum is swinging towards Britain.
It ne~ds to. Britain's deficit in overseas trading in computers and support equipment for 1970 is
a heavy $170 million. This year it could easily go
to $250 million. The trouble lies in massive imports
of computer peripherals such as discs, drums and
printers and of parts for computers and peripherals.
including read-only memories.
This stems from recent computer history in Britain since only six years ago as many as six small
companies were fighting hard fpr each one's minuscule portion of a then insignificant domestic market, concentrating practically all their efforts
on "clever" processor design. taking swinging price
cuts with a smile just to get into the business and
then -- surprise, surprise -- having just about
enough money left over to do a little of the necessary software work. Peripherals only too often were
acquired from "good names". Now the lack of real,
across-the-board peripheral competence has come home
to roost with a vengeance.

International Computers. Britain's white hope
resulting from mergers of the above six companies
or their data processing branches. is performing
prodigies of export deliveries. It sends 40 per
cent of output overseas, in 1970 exporting close on
$50 million more than it imported. It accounts for
40 percent of Britain's exports of computing equipment and for only 7 per cent of imports.
But the political climate has changed considerably for ICL as I predicted it would. Direct R&D
aid is coming to an end and while the Government has
not been able to wriggle out of the commitment its
predecessor became involved in under an unprecedented Act of Parliament providing for government participation directly in a private company through
subscription to stock of that company, it has undoubtedly tried to get out from under.
Replacing the R&D contribution of about $6
million a year is a rather nebulous offer of "development contracts" on the US problem. But the promise made recently by a Minister whose lack of experience is painfully obvious is worth •.• what?
There is also a chance that support funds could
come through the Advanced Computer Technology Project, but to make any significant effects the money
allocated through this means will have to be stepped
up way above the $5 million or so a year at which
it has been running.
Its own ideas as to what development contracts
should embody do not appear to be any more precise
than those of HM Government.
Meanwhile, ICL has launched its own answer to
the new IBM equipment under the name of the 1900S
series. Much faster in operation than the machines
they replace, the four models are completely programcompatible with the 3000 or so computers of the
same stable ICL has sold with great success since
1964. An interesting aspect of the introduction is
the indication that it provides of what the ultimate
series, to be brought out in one or two years' time,
is likely to be. It should be compatible with the
System-4 machines of Spectra 70 architecture. as
well as the 1900,and the expectations are that the
new equipment will gradually emerge from the S range,
starting at the top and coping with compatibility
problems through translators, computers, emulators
and the like.
Another important feature in the S range. absent
from the 370 development, is the provision of a
small front-end processor to facilitate time-sharing
work, for which a fast and compact remote printer
also has been evolved.
So much for ICL. The other manufacturers with
plants in Britain do not appear to be very happy and,
for instance. Honeywell's forward orders have dipped.
Burroughs still is embroiled in a difficult situation
with two major banks, who have had to call in toplevel systems and programming support. NCR's sales
of Century machines are a disappointment after the
success of the admittedly quite different 500's.
All three have cut back personnel on the manufacturing side.

, ,

Univac, with its new Scottish plant, undoubtedly
will have the opportunity of picking up all the
fully-trained staff it needs.
Turning to the service bureaus, official figures
indicate a growth in 1970 and early 71 of 35 to 40
per cent. Senior bureau staff do not believe this
and estimate true growth at 20 per cent. The upsurge is due partly to decimalisation of the UK
currency in February and partly to a cut-back in new
purchases by capital-conscious users.
Software houses, after a flourishing period of
demand from the hard-pressed DIP managers needing
to convert sterling programs to decimal, are facing
a very lean period and many good men are coming on
to the market, particularly since the collapse of
the big Systems International service and software
organisation -- SI was largely founded by RollsRoyce.
Forward ordering for the rest of the year seems
to have dropped to between 10 and 15 per cent for
hardware. In subsequent years, the growth should
recover to over 20 per cent.
All in all, the UK market, on the eve of entry
into the European Community~is far healthier than
an American EDP man would ever expect.

The crux of the new ruling is that systems engineering and programming service performed for the
taxpayer will no longer be allowed as a business
expense by the taxpayer. Instead, the taxpayer must
capitalize such costs as an intangible cost and
write them off over a five-year period for tax purposes.
Thus, programming and systems design work performed by the taxpayer's employee is tax deductible
in the year incurred. The same work performed by an
outsider (non-employee) will be deductible over a
five-year period. In effect, expense for research
and development in information sciences will be
treated differently from research and development
costs in other sciences, under Section 174 of the
We contend research and development software to
be sold or leased to others or software for a company's own internal use which is done by research
institute foundations, software companies, and others
should not be treated differently.
The new ruling if issued will produce a severe
hardship for thousands of service bureaus, software
houses, and others, as well as computer manufacturers who supply such services.
It would also be a hardship on smaller companies
who cannot afford their own systems and programming
staff, and those that must always have others create
or modify software packages for them.
In May, 1969, we participated in hearings by IRS
on the tax treatment of software. At that time we
took the position that software development work
should be treated as research and development under
section 174 of the IRS code.


G. P. Petersen
General Electric Co.
PO Box 11508
St. Petersburg, F L 33733

Following is the Honor Roll for solving Numbles,
beginning wi th the Numble in April 1969 and ending
wi th the Numbl e in December 1970.
To be eligible for this Honor Roll, one must have
correctly submitted the solutions for five Numbles.

L. J.
D. F.
A. O.




Data Processing Management Association
505 Busse Highway
Park Ridge, I L 60068

The U.S. Internal Revenue Service is about to
issue a ruling which may be detrimental to the data
processing profession. We have requested IRS to
delay the decision until all interested parties are
We believe IRS is about to issue a technical information release to all IRS agents, regarding the
tax treatment of software costs under its revision
procedure 69-21.

In the following October, IRS issued guidelines
atating that software development costs fall within
the purview of Section 174.
Since then, we understand that a taxpayer has
requested an IRS ruling on the tax treatment of
software, and has received a private ruling letter.
The ruling to be issued reportedly will deny the
application of provisions under Section 174 for software development costs paid to outsiders (non-employees).

Save up to $140 on 14-35 day Japanese tour. Attend
Tokyo Symposium (Association Internationale pour Ie
Calcul Analogique) or just be a tourist. Depart
September 1st West Coast or Hawaii, return by route
of choice. For details contact Suzette McLeod, Box
2228, La Jolla, CA 92037.

Following is the index of advertisements. Each item
contains: name and address of the advertiser / page
number where the advertisement appears / name of
agency, i f any
the Americas, New York, N. Y. 10036 / Page M /
Corporate Presence, Inc.
COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION, 815 Washington St., Newtonville, Mass. 02160 / Pages 2, 3
NEW YORK TIMES Boole & Education Div., 299 West 43 St.,
New York, N.Y. 10036·/ Page 38 / Kingen Feleppa

At ACM'71 in·
Chicago August 3-5,
he'll meet the men
who designed it.

computing. Now I'll get a chance to
meet most of the authors-at ACM'71.

Mel Schwartz manages software
development and teaches computer
science at Northwestern University.
He's an active ACM member and
Technical Program Chairman of
ACM'71, our annual conference to be
held August 3-5 in Chicago.

"It'll be like a gathering of eagles,
with every 'name' in computing you
can think of, including Eckert and
Mauchly, who designed" Univac I.

Reading about computers is almost
a hobby to Mel. "Even before I joined
ACM, I borrowed and read every
copy of Communications I could lay
my hands on," he says. "I think I've
read.most of the classic articles on

"Meeting people you've read and
respected is the best part of a conference," says Mel. "And asking an
author questions he probably didn't
think of himself when he wrote a
paper or an article. At ACM'71, we're

introducing new technical session
formats to maximize this kind of
A conference like ACM'71 isn't the
only reason to join ACM. There are
many others. Like technical publications, seminars and special interest
groups. And the pride of belonging
to the oldest, most respected professional society in the field.
Look into joining ACM before
ACM'71. Send in the coupon today.

Association for Computing Machinery
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
I would like to consider joining ACM.
Please send more information.
for Computing





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