2016 FARS CRSS Coding And Validation Manual 812449

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DOT HS 812 449

2016 FARS / CRSS
Coding and Validation
Manual

October 2017

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Table of Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Table of Figures ............................................................................................................................................. 7
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 8
Crash vs. Accident ......................................................................................................................................... 9
2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary ............................................................................................ 10
Crash Level Changes................................................................................................................................ 10
Vehicle Level Changes ............................................................................................................................. 11
Driver Level Changes ............................................................................................................................... 14
Precrash Level Changes........................................................................................................................... 14
Person (MV Occupant) Level Changes .................................................................................................... 16
Person (Not A MV Occupant) Level Changes .......................................................................................... 17
2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions ....................................................................................................... 19
Crash Level Elements .............................................................................................................................. 19
Vehicle Level Elements ........................................................................................................................... 22
Driver Level Elements ............................................................................................................................. 25
Precrash Level Elements ......................................................................................................................... 27
Person (MV Occupant) Level Elements ................................................................................................... 30
Person (Not A MV Occupant) Level Elements......................................................................................... 32
100. FARS Submission Instructions ............................................................................................................. 36
101. How To Submit ............................................................................................................................... 36
102. When To Submit............................................................................................................................. 36
103. Data Sources .................................................................................................................................. 36
FARS Coding Forms ..................................................................................................................................... 37
Crash Level Form ..................................................................................................................................... 37
Vehicle Level Form .................................................................................................................................. 38
Driver Level Form .................................................................................................................................... 39
Precrash Level (Vehicle / Driver) Form ................................................................................................... 40
Person Level (MV Occupant) Form ......................................................................................................... 41
Person Level (Not A MV Occupant) Form ............................................................................................... 42
200. Form Coding Instructions .................................................................................................................... 43
201. General Instructions ....................................................................................................................... 43
202. Deletion Instructions ...................................................................................................................... 45
203. Request For Case Listing Instructions ............................................................................................ 45
204. How To Structure A Case ............................................................................................................... 45
300. Data Element Coding Instructions ...................................................................................................... 49
301. SECTION ORGANIZATION ............................................................................................................... 49
State Number – FARS Only.......................................................................................................................... 50
Consecutive Number - FARS Only ............................................................................................................... 52
Crash Level Data Elements ....................................................................................................................... 53
C3 - Number of Forms Submitted for Persons Not in Motor Vehicles ................................................... 54
C4 - Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted .............................................................................................. 55
C5 - Number of Motor Vehicle Occupant Forms Submitted................................................................... 57
C6 - County / C7 City - FARS Only............................................................................................................ 58
C8 - Crash Date........................................................................................................................................ 60
C9 - Crash Time ....................................................................................................................................... 62
C10 - Trafficway Identifier - FARS Only ................................................................................................... 65

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2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual
C11 - Route Signing - FARS Only.............................................................................................................. 69
C12 - Land Use and Functional System - FARS Only ............................................................................... 72
C13 - Ownership - FARS Only .................................................................................................................. 76
C14 - National Highway System - FARS Only........................................................................................... 78
C15 - Special Jurisdiction - FARS Only ..................................................................................................... 79
C16 - Milepoint - FARS Only .................................................................................................................... 80
C17 - Global Position ............................................................................................................................... 81
C18 - Crash Events................................................................................................................................... 84
C19 - First Harmful Event ........................................................................................................................ 90
C20 - Manner of Collision...................................................................................................................... 106
C21 - Relation to Junction ..................................................................................................................... 110
C22 - Type of Intersection ..................................................................................................................... 121
C23 - Relation to Trafficway .................................................................................................................. 124
C24 - Work Zone ................................................................................................................................... 132
C25 - Light Condition ............................................................................................................................. 134
C26 - Atmospheric Conditions .............................................................................................................. 136
C27 - School Bus Related....................................................................................................................... 139
C28 - Rail Grade Crossing Identifier - FARS Only ................................................................................... 141
C29 - Notification Time EMS - FARS Only.............................................................................................. 142
C30 - Arrival Time EMS - FARS Only ...................................................................................................... 144
C31 - EMS Time at Hospital - FARS Only ............................................................................................... 146
C32 - Related Factors – Crash Level ...................................................................................................... 148
C33 - Interstate Highway - CRSS Only ................................................................................................... 155
C34 - Stratum - CRSS Only ..................................................................................................................... 156
C35 - Police Jurisdiction - CRSS Only ..................................................................................................... 158
Additional State Information ................................................................................................................ 159
Vehicle Level Data Elements .................................................................................................................. 160
V3 - Vehicle Number – Vehicle Level .................................................................................................... 161
V4 - Number Of Occupants ................................................................................................................... 162
V5 - Unit Type........................................................................................................................................ 166
V6 - Hit-and-Run.................................................................................................................................... 170
V7 - Registration State .......................................................................................................................... 172
V8 - Registered Vehicle Owner - FARS Only .......................................................................................... 175
Vehicle Make/Vehicle Model Overview................................................................................................ 177
V9 - Vehicle Make ................................................................................................................................. 179
V10 - Vehicle Model .............................................................................................................................. 181
Alphabetical Listing of Makes ............................................................................................................... 183
Numerical Listing of Makes ................................................................................................................... 185
Vehicle Make / Model / Body Type Tables ........................................................................................... 187
V11 - Body Type .................................................................................................................................... 283
V12 - Vehicle Model Year ...................................................................................................................... 301
V13 - Vehicle Identification Number..................................................................................................... 303
V14 - Vehicle Trailing ............................................................................................................................ 306
V15 - Trailer Vehicle Identification Number ......................................................................................... 312
V16 - Jackknife ...................................................................................................................................... 315
V17 - Motor Carrier Identification Number .......................................................................................... 317
V18 – GVWR / GCWR ............................................................................................................................ 321
V19 - Vehicle Configuration .................................................................................................................. 324

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2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual
V20 - Cargo Body Type .......................................................................................................................... 328
V21 - Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard ............................................................................... 332
V22 - Bus Use ........................................................................................................................................ 338
V23 - Special Use ................................................................................................................................... 340
V24 - Emergency Motor Vehicle Use .................................................................................................... 344
V25 - Travel Speed ................................................................................................................................ 346
V26 - Underride/Override - FARS Only ................................................................................................. 348
V27 - Rollover ........................................................................................................................................ 351
V28 - Location of Rollover ..................................................................................................................... 353
V29 - Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas ........................................................... 355
V30 - Extent of Damage ........................................................................................................................ 364
V31 - Vehicle Removal .......................................................................................................................... 366
V32 - Sequence of Events...................................................................................................................... 368
V33 - Most Harmful Event..................................................................................................................... 386
V34 - Related Factors – Vehicle Level ................................................................................................... 399
V35 - Fire Occurrence ........................................................................................................................... 403
V36 - Vehicle License Plate Number - CRSS Only .................................................................................. 404
Driver Level Data Elements ....................................................................................................................... 405
D3 - Vehicle Number – Driver Level ...................................................................................................... 406
D4 - Driver Presence ............................................................................................................................. 407
D5 - Driver’s License State .................................................................................................................... 410
D6 - Driver’s Zip Code ........................................................................................................................... 413
D7 - Non-CDL License Type/Status – FARS Only ................................................................................... 415
D8 - Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status – FARS Only................................................................ 422
D9 - Compliance With CDL Endorsements – FARS Only ....................................................................... 424
D10 - License Compliance With Class Of Vehicle - FARS Only .............................................................. 427
D11 - Compliance With License Restrictions – FARS Only .................................................................... 430
D12 - Driver Height – FARS Only ........................................................................................................... 432
D13 - Driver Weight – FARS Only .......................................................................................................... 434
D14, D15, D16, D17, D18 - Driver Level Counters – FARS Only ............................................................ 435
D19, D20 - Date of First and Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction - FARS Only...................................... 440
D21 - Violations Charged ...................................................................................................................... 442
D22 - Speeding Related ......................................................................................................................... 447
D23/NM14 - Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash ........................................................................ 448
D24 - Related Factors – Driver Level ..................................................................................................... 451
D25 - Driver License Number – CRSS Only ............................................................................................ 463
Precrash Level Data Elements ................................................................................................................... 464
Precrash Data Overview........................................................................................................................ 465
PC3 - Vehicle Number – Precrash Level ................................................................................................ 492
PC4 - Contributing Circumstances, Motor Vehicle ............................................................................... 493
PC5 - Trafficway Description ................................................................................................................. 496
PC6 - Total Lanes in Roadway ............................................................................................................... 499
PC7 - Speed Limit .................................................................................................................................. 502
PC8 - Roadway Alignment ..................................................................................................................... 505
PC9 - Roadway Grade............................................................................................................................ 507
PC10 - Roadway Surface Type - FARS Only ........................................................................................... 509
PC11 - Roadway Surface Conditions ..................................................................................................... 511
PC12 - Traffic Control Device ................................................................................................................ 513

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2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual
PC13 - Device Functioning .................................................................................................................... 519
PC14 - Driver’s Vision Obscured By ....................................................................................................... 520
PC15 - Driver Maneuvered to Avoid ..................................................................................................... 523
PC16 - Driver Distracted By ................................................................................................................... 526
PC17 - Pre-Event Movement (Prior to Recognition of Critical Event).................................................. 530
PC18 - Critical Event – Precrash (Category) .......................................................................................... 537
PC19 - Critical Event – Precrash (Event)................................................................................................ 539
PC20 - Attempted Avoidance Maneuver .............................................................................................. 550
PC21 - Pre-Impact Stability ................................................................................................................... 553
PC22 - Pre-Impact Location................................................................................................................... 555
PC23 - Crash Type ................................................................................................................................. 557
Person Level (MV Occupant) Data Elements ............................................................................................ 586
P3 - Vehicle Number – Person Level (MV Occupant)............................................................................ 587
P4/NM3 - Person Number .................................................................................................................... 588
P5/NM5 - Age........................................................................................................................................ 589
P6/NM6 - Sex ........................................................................................................................................ 591
P7 - Person Type ................................................................................................................................... 592
P8/NM8 - Injury Severity....................................................................................................................... 596
P9 - Seating Position ............................................................................................................................. 600
P10 - Restraint System/Helmet Use...................................................................................................... 606
P11 - Any Indication of Mis-Use of Restraint System/Helmet Use ....................................................... 611
P12 - Air Bag Deployed.......................................................................................................................... 612
P13 - Ejection ........................................................................................................................................ 614
P14 - Ejection Path - FARS Only............................................................................................................. 616
P15 - Extrication - FARS Only ................................................................................................................ 618
P16/NM15 - Police Reported Alcohol Involvement .............................................................................. 619
P17/NM16 - Method of Alcohol Determination by Police - FARS Only ............................................... 621
P18/NM17 - Alcohol Test ...................................................................................................................... 624
P19/NM18 - Police Reported Drug Involvement .................................................................................. 630
P20/NM19 - Method of Drug Determination by Police - FARS Only ................................................... 632
P21/NM20 - Drug Test .......................................................................................................................... 635
Alphabetical Drug Index ........................................................................................................................ 641
Drugs by Category Type ........................................................................................................................ 648
P22/NM21 - Transported to First Medical Facility by ........................................................................... 656
P23/NM22 - Died at Scene/En Route – FARS Only ............................................................................... 659
P24/NM23 - Death Date – FARS Only ................................................................................................... 661
P25/NM24 - Death Time – FARS Only ................................................................................................... 663
P26 - Related Factors – Person (MV Occupant) Level........................................................................... 665
Person Level (Not a Motor Vehicle Occupant) Data Elements ............................................................... 675
NM3/P4 - Person Number .................................................................................................................... 676
NM4 - Number of Motor Vehicle Striking Non-Motorist ...................................................................... 677
NM5/P5 - Age........................................................................................................................................ 681
NM6/P6 - Sex ........................................................................................................................................ 683
NM7 - Person Type ............................................................................................................................... 684
NM8/P8 - Injury Severity....................................................................................................................... 690
NM9 - Pedestrian/Bike Typing .............................................................................................................. 692
NM10 - Non-Motorist Location at Time of Crash ................................................................................. 699
NM11 - Non-Motorist Action/Circumstances ....................................................................................... 706

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2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual
NM12 - Non-Motorist Contributing Circumstances.............................................................................. 710
NM13 - Non-Motorist Safety Equipment.............................................................................................. 715
NM14/D23 - Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash ........................................................................ 718
NM15/P16 - Police Reported Alcohol Involvement .............................................................................. 719
NM16/P17 - Method of Alcohol Determination by Police - FARS Only ............................................... 720
NM17/P18 - Alcohol Test ...................................................................................................................... 721
NM18/P19 - Police Reported Drug Involvement .................................................................................. 723
NM19/P20 - Method of Drug Determination by Police - FARS Only ................................................... 724
NM20/P21 - Drug Test .......................................................................................................................... 725
NM21/P22 - Transported to First Medical Facility by ........................................................................... 728
NM22/P23 - Died at Scene/En Route - FARS Only ................................................................................ 730
NM23/P24 - Death Date - FARS Only .................................................................................................... 731
NM24/P25 - Death Time - FARS Only.................................................................................................... 733
NM25 - Related Factors – Person (Not a Motor Vehicle Occupant) Level........................................... 734
Supplemental Data Elements.................................................................................................................... 741
SP1 - Death Certificate Number - FARS Only ........................................................................................ 742
SP2 - Fatal Injury at Work - FARS Only .................................................................................................. 744
SP3 - Race/Hispanic Origin - FARS Only ................................................................................................ 745
Appendices................................................................................................................................................ 762
2016 Consistency Checks ...................................................................................................................... 763
References ............................................................................................................................................ 816

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Table of Figures

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Created Records Message............................................................................................................ 47
Figure 2: General Guidelines for Sideswipe Codes 07 & 08 ...................................................................... 107
Figure 3: Interchange Area........................................................................................................................ 114
Figure 4: Example Parking Lot Area .......................................................................................................... 115
Figure 5: Driveway Access ......................................................................................................................... 115
Figure 6: Interchange Accidents ............................................................................................................... 116
Figure 7: Example of a Typical Single-Lane Roundabout .......................................................................... 122
Figure 8: Trafficway with Frontage Road .................................................................................................. 130
Figure 9: Trafficway with Multiple Roadways in the Same Direction ....................................................... 130
Figure 10: Four Examples of Gores ........................................................................................................... 131
Figure 11: Examples of Left-Justified Coding of Motor Carrier Identification Number ............................ 318
Figure 12: Nine Classes of Hazardous Materials ....................................................................................... 335
Figure 13: Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point Element Values Diagram ............................................ 356
Figure 14: Damaged Areas Element Values Diagram ............................................................................... 359
Figure 15: Clockpoint Diagram .................................................................................................................. 361
Figure 16: Ran Off Roadway Examples ..................................................................................................... 370
Figure 17: End Departure Examples.......................................................................................................... 371
Figure 18: Bridge Components Diagram ................................................................................................... 379
Figure 19: Example of an Out of State Driver Data Response Form ......................................................... 436
Figure 20: Typical Order of a Single Critical Crash Envelope .................................................................... 466
Figure 21: Typical Order of Multiple Critical Crash Envelopes.................................................................. 467
Figure 22: Channel with Turn Bay, Channel without Turn Bay ................................................................. 500
Figure 23: Diagram of Roadway Grades ................................................................................................... 507
Figure 24: Diagram of a Vehicle Turning Left and its Extended Travel Lane ............................................ 541
Figure 25: Seating Positions for Different Vehicle Configurations............................................................ 605
Figure 26: Intersection with Only Two Crosswalks ................................................................................... 700

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Introduction

Introduction
NHTSA has collected motor vehicle traffic crash data since the early 1970s to support its mission to
reduce motor vehicle traffic crashes, injuries, and deaths on our Nation’s trafficways. The two data
systems included in this Coding and Validation Manual are the Fatality Analysis Reporting System
(FARS) and the Crash Report Sampling System (CRSS).
FARS
FARS contains data derived from a census of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes within the 50 States, the
District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. To be included in FARS, a crash must involve a motor vehicle
traveling on a trafficway customarily open to the public and must result in the death of at least one
person (occupant of a vehicle or a non-motorist) within 30 days of the crash. FARS was conceived,
designed, and developed by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) of the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration in 1975 to provide an overall measure of highway safety, to help
identify traffic safety problems, to suggest solutions, and to help provide an objective basis to evaluate
the effectiveness of motor vehicle safety standards and highway safety programs.
CRSS
CRSS builds on the retiring, long running National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates
System (NASS GES). CRSS is a sample of police-reported motor vehicle traffic crashes involving all types
of motor vehicles, pedestrians, and cyclists, ranging from property-damage-only crashes to those that
result in fatalities. CRSS is used to estimate the overall crash picture, identify highway safety problem
areas, measure trends, drive consumer information initiatives, and form the basis for cost and benefit
analyses of highway safety initiatives and regulations. The target population of the CRSS is all policereported traffic crashes of motor vehicles (motorcycles, passenger cars, SUVs, vans, light trucks, medium
or heavy-duty trucks, buses, etc.). The CRSS target population is the same as the previous NASS GES
target population.

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Crash vs. Accident

Crash vs. Accident
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has adopted the policy to use the term
Crash. Accordingly, the term Crash is used throughout this manual.
As used in this manual, Crash shall always refer to a Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident as rigorously defined
in the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) D16.1 – The Manual on Classification of Motor
Vehicle Traffic Accidents (2007). Incidents or scenarios involving collision events, and those involving
non-collision events, as defined in ANSI D16.1, are included.
Collision events include those involving a motor vehicle and fixed objects (poles, walls, buildings,
barriers, bridge supports, etc.) and those involving a motor vehicle and non-fixed objects (pedestrians,
animals, pedal cyclists, other motor vehicles, etc.).
Besides scenarios involving a collision, a crash also shall include non-collision scenarios such as the
following:
● A single motor vehicle on a roadway catches fire
● A motor vehicle runs off of a trafficway and is immersed in a body of water
● An occupant of a motor vehicle is injured by falling from that vehicle while it is in motion or on a
roadway
● An occupant of a motor vehicle is injured by shifting cargo or flying objects within that vehicle
during emergency handling / braking
● A vehicle suffers damage from a pavement irregularity (loose plate, high manhole, pot hole,
etc.)
● And others
Consult ANSI D16.1, Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents (The ANSI Manual) for a
more precise and complete presentation of these concepts. As a minimum, the following ANSI D16.1
terms should be well understood to properly select and classify cases for FARS and CRSS. The paragraph
reference numbers from the ANSI Manual are provided to aid look-up.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

2.2.1 Trafficway
2.4.1 Harmful Event
2.4.2 Deliberate Intent
2.4.3 Legal Intervention
2.4.4 Unstabilized Situation
2.4.5 Cataclysm
2.4.6 Accident
2.4.9 Transport Accident
2.4.12 Motor Vehicle Accident
2.4.17 Road Vehicle Accident
2.4.18 Traffic Accident
2.4.19 Non-traffic accident
2.4.22 Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident

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2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
Below is a list of elements that have substantial changes for 2016. These changes, as well as others, are
highlighted throughout the manual by bold/italic type.
IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU REVIEW THE ENTIRE MANUAL FOR ALL CHANGES
Crash Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

100
204
C3

C5

C10
C16
C18

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

Submission
Instructions
How to
Structure a Case
Number of
Forms
Submitted for
Persons Not in
Motor Vehicles
Number of
Motor Vehicle
Occupant Forms
Submitted
Trafficway
Identifier
Milepoint
Crash Events Sequence of
Events

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X
X
X

X

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

COMMENTS

• Added hierarchy for Police Reported Information
on the PAR.
• Added new section to clarify how to structure a
case within FARS/CRSS.
• Sentence Restructure to match form title.

X

• Updated Definition.
• Updated Remarks section referencing the new
204. How to Structure a Case section.

X

• Added remarks to clarify coding Other Land Ways.

X

• Added remarks to clarify coding of milepoint on
entrance and exit ramp.
• Revised Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 73
(Object That Had Fallen Fell From Motor Vehicle
In-Transport) and 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or
Other Supports).
• Added new Attribute and Remarks for new
Attribute: 74 (Road Vehicle on Rails).
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 01
(Rollover/Overturn), 10 (Railway Vehicle), 26
(Other Traffic Barrier), 33 (Curb), 42 (Tree
[Standing Only]), 44 (Pavement Surface
Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]), 49
(Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance), 67
(Vehicle Went Airborne).
• Updated guidance for Coding Guidelines for
Running Off Roadway (Right or Left) and Crossing
Median.
• Updated Examples under 01 (Rollover/ Overturn)

X

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2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

C19

First Harmful
Event

C21b

Relation to
Junction Specific Location
Atmospheric
Condition

C26
C34

Stratum

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES
X

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

X

X

COMMENTS
• Revised Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 73
(Object That Had Fallen Fell From Motor Vehicle
In-Transport) and 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or
Other Supports).
• Added new Attribute and Remarks for new
Attribute: 74 (Road Vehicle on Rails).
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 01
(Rollover/Overturn), 10 (Railway Vehicle), 26
(Other Traffic Barrier), 33 (Curb), 42 (Tree
[Standing Only]), 44 (Pavement Surface
Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]), 49
(Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance).
• Added remarks to clarify coding of Intersection
when a ramp is involved in the crash.

X

• Updated Remarks for Attribute: 01 (Clear).
• Updated general remarks.

X

• Revised to reflect CRSS Stratum.

Vehicle Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES
X

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

V4

Number of
Occupants

V6
V7

Hit and Run
Registration
State
Registered
Vehicle Owner

X
X

Vehicle
Identification
Number

X

V8

V13

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

X

COMMENTS

• Updated Attribute Range from 01-95 Actual Value
if known except: to 01-98 Actual [If Known].
• Removed Attribute: 96 (Ninety-six or more).
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 01-98 Actual [If
Known] and 99 (Unknown).
• Updated Remarks for Attribute: 1(Yes).
• Updated Remarks for Attribute: 00 (Not
Applicable).
• Updated Remarks for Attribute: 0 (Not
Applicable/Vehicle Not Registered)
• Added New Remarks for Attribute: 3 (Vehicle
Registered as Business/Company/ Government
Vehicle).
• Updated Element Definition
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 0s (No VIN
Required) and 9s (Unknown).
• Updated CRSS Special Instruction.

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2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

New V15

Trailer Vehicle
Identification
Number

Old V15
New V16
Old V16
New V17

Jackknife

Old V17
New V18
Old V18
New V19
Old V19
New V20
Old V20
New V21

Old V21
New V22
Old V22
New V23
Old V23
New V24
Old V24
New V25
Old V25
New V26
Old V26
New V27
Old V27
New V28
Old V28
New V29
Old V29
New V30

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES
X

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS
• Added new Element Format: 3 sets, 17
alphanumeric.
• Add new Attributes and Remarks for Attributes:
00000000000000000 (No VIN Required), Any
Alphanumeric Characters – Actual VIN,
7777777777777777 (No Trailing Units),
88888888888888888 (Not Reported),
99999999999999999 (Unknown).
• Moved Element from V15 to V16.

Motor Carrier
Identification
Number
GVWR/GCWR

• Moved Element from V16 to V17.

Vehicle
Configuration
Cargo Body
Type
Hazardous
Material
Involvement/
Placard
Bus Use

• Moved Element from V18 to V19.

Special Use

• Moved Element from V22 to V23.

Emergency
Motor Vehicle
Use
Travel Speed

Underride/
Override
Rollover

• Moved Element from V17 to V18.

• Moved Element from V19 to V20.
• Moved Element from V20 to V21.

• Moved Element from V21 to V22.

X

X

• Moved Element from V23 to V24.
• Added updated general remarks for coding
Emergency Motor Vehicle Use.
• Moved Element from V24 to V25.
• Updated general remarks for coding Travel
Speed.
• Moved Element from V25 to V26.
• Moved Element from V26 to V27.

Location of
Rollover
Areas of Impact

• Moved Element from V27 to V28.

Extent of
Damage

• Moved Element from V29 to V30.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

• Moved Element from V28 to V29.

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2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS

COMMENTS
• Moved Element from V30 to V31.

Old V30
New V31
Old V31
New V32

Vehicle Removal
Sequence of
Events

X

X

Old V32
New V33

Most Harmful
Event

X

X

Old V33
New V34
Old V34
New V35
Old V35
New V36

Related Factors
- Vehicle Level
Fire Occurrence
Vehicle License
Plate Number
(CRSS Only)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

• Moved Element from V31 to V32.
• Revised Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 73
(Object That Had Fallen Fell From Motor Vehicle
In-Transport) and 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or
Other Supports).
• Added new Attribute and Remarks for new
Attribute: 74 (Road Vehicle on Rails).
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 01
(Rollover/Overturn), 10 (Railway Vehicle), 26
(Other Traffic Barrier), 33 (Curb), 42 (Tree
[Standing Only]), 44 (Pavement Surface
Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]), 49
(Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance),
67 (Vehicle Went Airborne).
• Updated guidance for Coding Guidelines for
Running Off Roadway (Right or Left) and
Crossing Median.
• Updated Examples under 01 (Rollover/ Overturn)
• Moved Element from V32 to V33.
• Revised Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 73
(Object That Had Fallen Fell From Motor Vehicle
In-Transport) and 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or
Other Supports).
• Added new Attribute and Remarks for new
Attribute: 74 (Road Vehicle on Rails).
• Updated Remarks for Attributes: 01
(Rollover/Overturn), 10 (Railway Vehicle), 26
(Other Traffic Barrier), 33 (Curb), 42 (Tree
[Standing Only]), 44 (Pavement Surface
Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]), 49
(Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance).
• Moved Element from V33 to V34.
• Moved Element from V34 to V35.

X

• Moved Element from V35 to V36.
• Added New Remarks for Attributes: 0000000000
(No License Plate) and 9999999999 (Unknown).

13

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
Driver Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

D15

D21
D24

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

Previous
Recorded
Suspensions and
Revocations
Violations
Charged
Related Factors
- Driver Level

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS

• Updated remarks regarding cancellation of a
CDL.

X

• Updated Element Definition.

X

• Updated Remarks regarding coding hit and run
drivers under attribute: 00 (None).

Precrash Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

Precrash
Overview
PC5
PC7

Trafficway
Description
Speed Limit

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS

•

X

•
•
•

X

PC12

Traffic Control
Device

X

•
•

PC18

Critical Events Precrash
(Category)

X

•

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

•

Additional guidance was added as a Note under
Precrash General Rule #10.
Updated Examples
Updated Remarks for Attribute: 1 (Two-Way,
Not Divided).
Added new attributes to range: 05-80 95 Actual
Speed Limit (in 5 mph increments)
Updated Element Definition
Updated remarks regarding Traffic Calming
Devices.
Added new remarks regarding driver right-ofway.
Added Remarks for Attribute: 1 (This Vehicle
Loss Control Due To:).

14

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

PC19

Critical Events Precrash
(Events)

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES
X

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS
•
•

•
•

•
•
•
PC20

Attempted
Avoidance
Maneuver

X

X

•
•
•

PC21

Pre-Impact
Stability

X

•
•

PC22

Pre-Impact
Location

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

X

•

Updated Attribute: 64 (From Parking
Lane/Shoulder, Median/Crossover, Shoulder,
Roadside).
Updated Remarks for Attributes: 04 (NonDisabling Vehicle Problem [e.g., Hood Flew Up]
[Specify:]), 05 (Poor Road Conditions [Puddle,
Pot Hole, Ice, Etc.] [Specify:]), 06 (Traveling Too
Fast For Conditions), 10 (Over the Lane Line on
Left Side of Travel Lane),
11 (Over the Lane Line on Right Side of Travel
Lane), 90 (Object in Road), 98 (Other Critical
Precrash Event [specify:]).
Updated Remarks and Atttributes: 15 (Turning
Left at Junction), 16 (Turning Right at Junction),
17 (Crossing Over (Passing Through)
Intersection Junction).
Added new Remarks and Attributes: 20
(Backing) and 21 (Making a U-Turn).
Updated general remarks regarding "Other"
and "Unknown" attributes.
Added additional remarks under Other Vehicle
Encroaching section.
Deleted Remarks and Attributes for: 02
(Braking [No Lockup]), 03 (Braking [Lockup]),
04 (Braking [Lockup Unknown]).
Add new Remarks and Attributes: 15 (Braking
and Unknown Steering Direction) and 16
(Braking).
Updated Attribute value: 99 (Unknown/Not
Reported).
Added Precrash Overview General Rule #10 to
the remarks section.
Updated Remarks for Attributes: 9 (Precrash
Stability Unknown).
Updated Element Definition.

15

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
Person (MV Occupant) Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

P8

Injury Severity

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES
X

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS

•
•

P9

Seating Position

X

•
•

•
X

•

X

•

P13

Restraint
System - Helmet
Use
Air Bag
Deployed
Ejection

X

•

P15

Extrication

X

•

P16

Police Reported
Alcohol
Involvement
Alcohol Test
Police Reported
Drug
Involvement
Method of Drug
Determination
by Police
Drug Test

X

•

X
X

•
•

X

•

X

•

P10

P12

P18
P19

P20

P21

X

•
P26

Related Factors
- Person (MV
Occupant) Level

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

X

•

Updated Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 9
(Unknown/Not Reported).
Removed remarks for coding a PAR that is
"blank".
Updated Remarks for Attributes: 18 (Front
Seat, Other), 28 (Second Seat, Other), 38 (Third
Seat, Other) and 48 (Fourth Seat, Other).
Added new Remarks for Attributes: 19 (Front
Seat, Unknown), 29 (Second Seat, Unknown),
39 (Third Seat, Unknown) and 49 (Fourth Seat,
Unknown).
Added new charts for coding Other and
Unknown.
Updated Remarks regarding the use of VIN
Decoder for coding this element.
Added FARS Special Instruction regarding the
use of VIN Decoder for coding this element.
Deleted remarks regarding hit and run drivers
under attribute: 0 (Not Ejected)
Updated Remarks for Attribute: 0 (Not
Extricated or Not Applicable).
Deleted remarks regarding hit and run drivers
under attribute: 9 (Unknown [Police
Reported]).
Revised Coding Examples under Test Results.
Deleted remarks regarding hit and run drivers
under attribute: 9 (Unknown [Police Reported])
Updated Attributes and Remarks for Attribute;
2 (Drug Recognition Expert (or Evaluator) (DRE)
Technician (DRT) determination).
Updated Format for element: 1 set 1 numeric; 3
sets, 1 numeric; 3 sets, 3 numeric
Updated Remarks for Attribute: 3 (Both: Blood
and Urine Tests).
Deleted remarks regarding hit and run drivers
under attribute: 99 (Unknown)

16

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
Person (Not A MV Occupant) Level Changes
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

NM8

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

Injury Severity

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS

•
•

NM9

NM9

NM11

NM12

NM13

NM15

NM16

NM17
NM18

NM19

Pedestrian/Bike
Typing - Marked
Crosswalk
Present
Pedestrian/Bike
Typing Intersection Leg
Non-Motorist
Action/Circumstances
Non-Motorist
Contributing
Circumstances

X

X

•

X

•

Updated Attribute: 9 (Unknown/None of the
Above).

X

•

Added general remarks to address attributes in
combination.

X

•

Added general remarks to address attributes in
combination.
Added Remarks for Attribute: 17 (Making
Improper Entry to or Exit from Trafficway)
Updated Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 3
(Reflective Clothing/Carried Item (jacket,
backpack, etc.).
Updated Remarks for Attribute: 9 (Unknown
[Police Reported])
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P16.
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P17.

•

Non-Motorist
Safety
Equipment
Police Reported
Alcohol
Involvement

X

•

X

•

Method of
Alcohol
Determination
by Police
Alcohol Test

X

•

X

•

Police Reported
Drug
Involvement
Method of Drug
Determination
by Police

X

•

X

•

•

•

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Updated Attribute and Remarks for Attribute: 9
(Unknown/Not Reported).
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P8.
Updated Remarks for Attribute: 1 (Yes).

Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P18.
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P19.
Updated Attributes and Remarks to Attribute; 2
(Drug Recognition Expert (or Evaluator) (DRE)
Technician (DRT) evaluation).
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element on P20.

17

2016 FARS / CRSS Manual Changes Summary
ELEMENT # ELEMENT NAME

NM20

NEW/
REVISED
VALUES

Drug Test

NEW/
REVISED
REMARKS
X

COMMENTS
•
•

NM25

Related Factors
Person (Not a
MV Occupant)
Level

X

X

•

Updated Format for element: 1 set 1 numeric; 3
sets, 1 numeric; 3 sets, 3 numeric
Revised remarks referencing remarks for
element P21.
Added new Attribute and Remarks for 93 (NonMotorist Wearing Motorcycle Helmet)

NEED HELP IN CODING? CONTACT NISR THROUGH THE CDAN HELPDESK

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

18

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
Crash Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
C1

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definitions

State Number

FARS Only

C2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

C3

Number of Forms Submitted
for Persons Not in MV

Case Structure

C4

Number of Vehicle Forms
Submitted

Case Structure

C5

Number of Person Forms
Submitted

Case Structure

C6

County

FARS Only

C7

City

FARS Only

C8

Crash Date

FARS/CRSS

C9

Crash Time

FARS/CRSS

C10

Trafficway Identifier

FARS Only

C11

Route Signing

FARS Only

Land Use and Functional
System

FARS Only

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element records the number of
Person Level (Not a Motor Vehicle
Occupant) forms that are applicable to
this case.
This element records all contact motor
vehicles which the officer has reported
on the Police Accident Report (PAR) as a
unit involved in the crash.
This element records the number of
Person Level (Motor Vehicle Occupant)
forms that are applicable to this case.
This element refers to the location of the
unstabilized event with regard to the
County.
This element refers to the location of the
unstabilized event with regard to the City.
This element identifies the date on which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the time at which
the crash occurred.
This element captures the identity
(name) of the trafficway on which the
crash occurred.
This element identifies the route signing
of the trafficway on which the crash
occurred.
• Land Use: The classification of the
segment of the trafficway on which
the crash occurred based on FHWAapproved adjusted Census boundaries
of small urban and urbanized areas.
• Functional System: This element
identifies the functional classification
of the segment of the trafficway on
which the crash occurred.

C12 (a/b)

Element Name

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

19

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
C13

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definitions

Ownership

FARS Only

C14

National Highway System

FARS Only

C15

Special Jurisdiction

FARS Only

C16

Milepoint

FARS Only

C17

Global Position

FARS/CRSS

C18

Crash Events

FARS/CRSS

C19

First Harmful Event

FARS/CRSS

C20

Manner of Collision

FARS/CRSS

C21 (a/b)

Relation to Junction

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies the entity that has
legal ownership of the segment of the
trafficway on which the crash occurred.
This element identifies whether or not
this crash occurred on a trafficway that is
part of the National Highway System.
This element identifies if the location on
the trafficway where the crash occurred
qualifies as a Special Jurisdiction even
though it may be patrolled by state,
county or local police (e.g., all State
highways running through Indian
reservations are under the jurisdiction of
the Indian reservation).
This element identifies the milepoint
nearest to the location where the crash
occurred.
This element identifies the location of the
crash using Global Position coordinates.
The Crash Events table records in
chronological sequence, the set of events
resulting from an unstabilized situation
that constitutes a motor vehicle traffic
crash.
The First Harmful Event is defined as the
first injury or damage producing event of
the crash.
This element identifies the orientation of
two motor vehicles in-transport when
they are involved in the First Harmful
Event of a collision crash. If the First
Harmful Event is not a collision between
two motor vehicles in-transport it is
classified as such.
The coding of this data element is done in
two subfields and based on the location
of the first harmful event of the crash. It
identifies the crash's location with
respect to presence in an interchange
area and the crash’s location with respect
to presence in or proximity to
components typically in junction or
interchange areas.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

20

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
C22

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definitions

Type of Intersection

FARS/CRSS

C23

Relation to Trafficway

FARS/CRSS

C24

Work Zone

FARS/CRSS

C25

Light Condition

FARS/CRSS

C26

Atmospheric Condition

FARS/CRSS

C27

School Bus Related

FARS/CRSS

C28

Rail Grade Crossing Identifier

FARS Only

C29

Notification Time EMS

FARS Only

C30

Arrival Time EMS

FARS Only

C31

EMS Time at Hospital

FARS Only

C32

Related Factors - Crash Level

FARS/CRSS

C33

Interstate Highway

CRSS Only

C34
C35

Stratum
Police Jurisdiction

CRSS Only
CRSS Only

This element identifies and allows
separation of various intersection types.
This element identifies the location of the
crash as it relates to its position within or
outside the trafficway based on the First
Harmful Event.
This data element captures that this was
a “Work Zone Accident” as defined in
ANSI D16.1, 7th Edition. If the crash
qualifies as a "Work Zone Accident" then
the type of work activity is identified.
This element records the type/level of
light that existed at the time of the crash
as reported in the case materials.
This element identifies the prevailing
atmospheric conditions that existed at
the time of the crash as recorded on the
crash report form.
This data element indicates if a school
bus, or motor vehicle functioning as a
school bus, is related to the crash.
This element identifies if the crash
occurred in or near a Rail Grade Crossing.
Notification Time EMS is the time
Emergency Medical Service was notified.
Arrival Time EMS is the time Emergency
Medical Service arrived on the crash
scene.
EMS Time at Hospital is the time
Emergency Medical Service arrived at the
treatment facility to which it was
transporting victims of the crash.
This element identifies factors related to
the crash expressed by the investigating
officer.
This element identifies whether or not
the crash occurred on an interstate
highway. Interstate highway is a Federal
Highway Administration classification.
The CRSS stratum applicable to this PAR.
The number (range 1 through 120) of the
police jurisdiction from which the PAR
was originally sampled.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

21

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
Vehicle Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
V1

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

State Number

FARS Only

V2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

V3

Vehicle Number

V4

Number of Occupants

V5

Unit Type

FARS/CRSS

V6

Hit-And-Run

FARS/CRSS

V7

Registration State

FARS/CRSS

V8

Registered Vehicle Owner

FARS Only

V9

Vehicle Make

FARS/CRSS

V10

Vehicle Model

FARS/CRSS

V11

Body Type

FARS/CRSS

V12

Vehicle Model Year

FARS/CRSS

V13

Vehicle Identification
Number

FARS/CRSS

V14

Vehicle Trailing

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element identifies the number
assigned to this vehicle in the crash.
This element identifies the number of
occupants in each vehicle.
This element identifies the type of unit
that applies to this motor vehicle at the
time it became an involved vehicle in the
crash and was reported as a unit on the
Police Accident Report (PAR).
This element refers to cases where a
vehicle is a contact vehicle in the crash
and does not stop to render aid (this can
include drivers who flee the scene on
foot).
This element identifies the state in which
this vehicle was registered.
This element is used to determine the
type of registered owner of the vehicle.
This element identifies the make
(manufacturer) of this vehicle.
This element identifies the model of this
vehicle within a given make.
This element identifies a classification of
this vehicle based on its general body
configuration, size, shape, doors, etc.
This element identifies the
manufacturer's model year of this
vehicle.
This element records the vehicle
identification number (VIN) of a single
vehicle or the power unit of a
combination vehicle.
This element identifies whether or not
this vehicle had any attached trailing
units or was towing another motor
vehicle.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Case Structure
FARS/CRSS
FARS/CRSS

22

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
V15

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Trailer Vehicle Identification
Numer

FARS/CRSS

V16

Jackknife

FARS/CRSS

V17

Motor Carrier Identification
Number

FARS/CRSS

V18

GVWR/GCWR

FARS/CRSS

V19

Vehicle Configuration

FARS/CRSS

V20

Cargo Body Type

FARS/CRSS

V21

Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard

FARS/CRSS

V21 (1)

Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard - HM1

FARS/CRSS

V21 (2)

Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard - HM2

FARS/CRSS

V21 (3)

Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard - HM3
Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard - HM4

FARS/CRSS

Hazardous Material
Involvement/Placard - HM5

FARS/CRSS

Bus Use

FARS/CRSS

This element records the vehicle
identification number (VIN) of any
trailing units of a combination vehicle.
This element identifies if this vehicle
experienced a "jackknife" anytime during
the unstabilized situation.
This element records the issuing
authority and motor carrier identification
number if applicable to this vehicle.
This element identifies the gross vehicle
weight rating of this vehicle when
applicable.
This element identifies the general
configuration of this vehicle when
applicable.
This element identifies the primary cargo
carrying capability of this vehicle when
applicable.
This element identifies the presence of
hazardous cargo for this vehicle and
records information about the hazardous
cargo when present.
This element indicates whether the
vehicle was carrying hazardous materials
- involvement.
This element indicates the presence of
hazardous materials and whether the
vehicle displayed a hazardous materials
placard.
This element indicates the 4-digit
identification number.
This element indicates the single-digit
hazardous material class number for the
vehicle.
This element indicates whether or not
any hazardous cargo was released from
the cargo tank or compartment.
This data element describes the common
type of bus service this vehicle was being
used for at the time of the crash or the
primary use for the bus if not in service at
the time of the crash.

V21 (4)

V21 (5)

V22

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

FARS/CRSS

23

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
V23

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Special Use

FARS/CRSS

V24

Emergency Motor Vehicle
Use

FARS/CRSS

V25

Travel Speed

FARS/CRSS

V26

Underride/Override

FARS Only

V27

Rollover

FARS/CRSS

V28

Location of Rollover

FARS/CRSS

V29

Areas of Impact - Initial
Contact Point

FARS/CRSS

V29

Areas of Impact - Damaged
Areas

FARS/CRSS

V30

Extent of Damage

FARS/CRSS

V31

Vehicle Removal

FARS/CRSS

This data element identifies if a special
use is applicable to this vehicle at the
time it was involved in the crash.
Emergency Motor Vehicle Use indicates
operation of any motor vehicle that is
legally authorized by a government
authority to respond to emergencies with
or without the use of emergency warning
equipment, such as a police vehicle, fire
truck or ambulance while actually
engaged in such response.
This element records the speed the
vehicle was traveling prior to the
occurrence of the crash as reported by
the investigating officer.
This element indicates whether an
underride or override occurred during
the crash involving this vehicle.
This element identifies whether a rollover
or overturn occurred during the crash
involving this vehicle.
This element identifies the location of the
trip point or start of the vehicle's roll.
This subfield identifies the area on this
vehicle that produced the first instance of
injury to non-motorists or occupants of
this vehicle, or that resulted in the first
instance of damage to other property or
to this vehicle.
This subfield identifies all the areas on
this vehicle that were damaged in the
crash as reflected in the case materials.
This element indicates the amount of
damage sustained by this vehicle in this
crash as indicated in the case materials
based on an operational damage scale.
This data element describes the mode in
which the vehicle left the scene of the
crash.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

24

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
V32

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Sequence of Events

FARS/CRSS

V33

Most Harmful Event

FARS/CRSS

V34

Related Factors - Vehicle
Level

FARS/CRSS

V35

Fire Occurrence

FARS/CRSS

V36

Vehicle License Plate Number

CRSS Only

The events in sequence related to this
motor vehicle, regardless of injury and/or
property damage. Code each event for
this vehicle in the order in which they
occur, time wise, from the Police
Accident Report (PAR) narrative and
diagram.
This element identifies the event that
resulted in the most severe injury or, if
no injury, the greatest property damage
involving this motor vehicle.
This element identifies factors related to
this vehicle expressed by the
investigating officer.
This element identifies whether or not a
fire in any way related to the crash
occurred in this vehicle.
This element captures the license plate
number of this vehicle.

Driver Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
D1

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

State Number

FARS Only

D2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

D3
D4

Vehicle Number - Driver
Level
Driver Presence

D5

Driver’s License State

FARS/CRSS

D6

Driver’s Zip Code

FARS/CRSS

D7

Non-CDL License Type /
Status

FARS Only

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element identifies the vehicle
number associated with this driver.
This element identifies whether or not a
driver was present in this vehicle at the
onset of the unstabilized situation.
This element identifies the state of issue
for the license held by this driver.
This element identifies the zip code of
this driver's area of residence.
This element identifies in two subfields
the type license held by this driver and
the status of the license at the time of
the crash.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Case Structure
FARS/CRSS

25

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
D8

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Commercial Motor Vehicle
License Status

FARS Only

D9

Compliance with License
Endorsements

FARS Only

D10

License Compliance with
Class of Vehicle

FARS Only

D11

Compliance with License
Restrictions

FARS Only

D12
D13
D14

Driver Height
Driver Weight
Previous Recorded Crashes

FARS Only
FARS Only
FARS Only

D15

Previous Recorded
Suspensions and Revocations

FARS Only

D16

Previous DWI Convictions

FARS Only

D17

Previous Speeding
Convictions

FARS Only

D18

Previous Other Moving
Violation Convictions

FARS Only

D19

Date of FIRST Crash,
Suspension, Conviction

FARS Only

This element indicates the status for a
driver’s Commercial Driver’s License
(CDL) if applicable.
This element indicates whether the
vehicle driven at the time of the crash
requires endorsement(s) on a
Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) and
whether this driver is complying with the
CDL endorsements.
This element refers to the type of license
possessed or not possessed by the driver
for the class of vehicle being driven at the
time of the crash.
This element identifies if a driver was
compliant with restrictions on their
license.
This element identifies a driver's height.
This element identifies a driver's weight.
This element records any previous
crashes for this driver. Counts only the
events occurring within five years from
the crash date.
This element records any previous license
suspensions or revocations for this driver.
Counts only the events occurring within
five years from the crash date.
This element records any previous DWI
convictions for this driver. Counts only
the events occurring within five years
from the crash date.
This element records any previous
Speeding convictions for this driver.
Counts only the events occurring within
five years from the crash date.
This element records any other previous
moving violations or convictions for this
driver. Counts only the events occurring
within five years from the crash date.
This element identifies the date of the
first crash, suspension, or conviction
recorded in elements D14 through D18.
Counts only dates of events occurring
within five years from the crash date.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

26

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
D20

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Date of LAST Crash,
Suspension, Conviction

FARS Only

D21

Violations Charged

FARS/CRSS

D22

Speeding Related

FARS/CRSS

D23

Condition (Impairment) at
Time of Crash

FARS/CRSS

D24

Related Factors - Driver Level

FARS/CRSS

D25

Driver’s License Number

CRSS Only

This element identifies the date of the
last crash, suspension, or conviction
recorded in elements D14 through D18.
Counts only dates of events occurring
within five years from the crash date.
This element identifies all violations,
citations, and infractions noted as
charged to this driver in this crash.
This element identifies if the driver's
speed was related to the crash as
identified by law enforcement.
This element identifies physical
impairments to this driver or nonmotorist which may have contributed to
the cause of the crash as identified by law
enforcement.
This element identifies factors related to
this driver expressed by the investigating
officer.
This element identifies the driver's
license number of this driver.

Precrash Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
PC1

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

State Number

FARS Only

PC2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

PC3

Vehicle Number - Precrash
Level
Contributing Circumstances,
Motor Vehicle

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element identifies the number
assigned to this vehicle in the crash.
This element describes the possible preexisting motor vehicle defects or
maintenance conditions that may have
contributed to the crash.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
describes the trafficway flow just prior to
this vehicle’s critical precrash event.

PC4

PC5

Element Name

Trafficway Description

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FARS/CRSS

FARS/CRSS

27

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
PC6

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Total Lanes in Roadway

FARS/CRSS

PC7

Speed Limit

FARS/CRSS

PC8

Roadway Alignment

FARS/CRSS

PC9

Roadway Grade

FARS/CRSS

PC10

Roadway Surface Type

FARS Only

PC11

Roadway Surface Conditions

FARS/CRSS

PC12

Traffic Control Device

FARS/CRSS

PC13

Device Functioning

FARS/CRSS

PC14

Driver’s Vision Obscured By

FARS/CRSS

PC15

Driver Maneuvered to Avoid

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
describes the number of travel lanes just
prior to this vehicle’s critical precrash
event.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
represents the speed limit just prior to
this vehicle’s critical precrash event.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
represents the roadway alignment prior
to this vehicle’s critical precrash event.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
represents the roadway grade prior to
this vehicle’s critical precrash event.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
represents the roadway surface type
prior to this vehicle’s critical precrash
event.
This element identifies the value
indicated in the case materials which best
represents the roadway surface condition
prior to this vehicle’s critical precrash
event.
This element identifies the sign or signal
indicated in the case materials which best
describes the traffic controls in the
vehicle's environment just prior to this
vehicle's critical precrash event.
This element identifies the functionality
of the traffic control device recorded for
this vehicle in the element Traffic Control
Device.
This data element records impediments
to a driver’s visual field that were noted
in the case materials.
This data element identifies the thing(s)
the driver attempted to avoid while the
vehicle was on the road portion of the
trafficway, just prior to the first harmful
event for this vehicle.

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2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
PC16

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Driver Distracted By

FARS/CRSS

PC17

Pre-Event Movement (Prior
to Recognition of Critical
Event)

FARS/CRSS

PC18

Critical Event - Precrash
(Category)

FARS/CRSS

PC19

Critical Event - Precrash
(Event)

FARS/CRSS

PC20

Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver

FARS/CRSS

PC21

Pre-Impact Stability

FARS/CRSS

PC22

Pre-Impact Location

FARS/CRSS

PC23

Crash Type

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies the attribute(s)
which best describe this driver’s attention
to driving prior to the driver’s realization
of an impending critical event or just prior
to impact if realization of an impending
critical event does not occur. Distraction
from the primary task of driving occurs
when drivers divert their attention from
the driving task to some other activity.
Also, driving while daydreaming or lost in
thought is identified as distracted driving
by NHTSA. Physical conditions/
impairments (fatigue, alcohol, medical
condition, etc.) or psychological states
(anger, emotional, depressed, etc.) are
not identified as distractions by NHTSA.
This element identifies the attribute that
best describes this vehicle's activity prior
to the driver's realization of an impending
critical event or just prior to impact if the
driver took no action or had no time to
attempt any evasive maneuvers.
This element identifies the category of
the event that was critical to this vehicle
being involved in the crash.
This element identifies the critical event
which made the crash imminent (i.e.,
something occurred which made the
collision possible).
This element identifies movements/
actions taken by the driver, within a
critical crash envelope, in response to a
Critical Precrash Event.
This element assesses the stability of the
vehicle after the critical event, but before
the impact.
This element assesses the location of the
vehicle after the critical event, but before
the first harmful event for this vehicle.
This element describes the type of crash
this in-transport vehicle was involved in
based on the First Harmful Event and the
precrash circumstances.

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2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
Person (MV Occupant) Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
P1

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

State Number

FARS Only

P2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

P3

Vehicle Number - Person
Level

Case Structure

P4

Person Number

Case Structure

P5

Age

FARS/CRSS

P6

Sex

FARS/CRSS

P7

Person Type

FARS/CRSS

P8

Injury Severity

FARS/CRSS

P9

Seating Position

FARS/CRSS

P10

Restraint System/Helmet Use

FARS/CRSS

P11

FARS/CRSS

P12

Any Indication of Mis-Use of
Restraint System/ Helmet
Use
Air Bag Deployed

P13

Ejection

FARS/CRSS

P14

Ejection Path

FARS Only

P15

Extrication

FARS Only

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element identifies the vehicle
number associated with this motor
vehicle occupant.
This element identifies a number for the
motor vehicle occupant in consecutive
order for the vehicle they occupied.
This element identifies the person’s age,
in years, with respect to the person's last
birthday.
This element identifies the sex of the
person involved in the crash.
This element describes the role of this
person involved in the crash.
This element describes the severity of the
injury to this person in the crash.
This element identifies the location of
this person in or on the vehicle.
This element records the restraint
equipment in use by the occupant, or the
helmet in use by a motorcyclist, at the
time of the crash.
This element indicates any mis-use of the
restraint system or helmet used by this
person.
This element is used to record air bag
availability and deployment for this
person as reported in the case materials.
This element describes the ejection
status and degree of ejection for this
person, excluding motorcycle occupants.
This element identifies the path by which
this person was ejected from the vehicle.
This element identifies if equipment or
other force was used to remove this
person from the vehicle.

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30

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
P16

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Police Reported Alcohol
Involvement

FARS/CRSS

Method of Alcohol
Determination (By Police)

FARS Only

P18 (1)

Alcohol Test Status

FARS/CRSS

P18 (2)

Alcohol Test Type

FARS/CRSS

P18 (3)

Alcohol Test Result

FARS/CRSS

P19

Police Reported Drug
Involvement

FARS/CRSS

P20

Method of Drug
Determination (By Police)

FARS Only

P21 (1)

Drug Test Status

FARS/CRSS

P21 (2)

Drug Test Type

FARS/CRSS

P21 (3)

Drug Test Result

FARS/CRSS

P22

Transported to First Medical
Facility By

FARS/CRSS

P23

Died at Scene/En route

FARS Only

P24

Death Date

FARS Only

P25

Death Time

FARS Only

This data element reflects only the
judgment of law enforcement as to
whether alcohol was involved or not for
this person.
This element describes the method by
which the police made the determination
as to whether alcohol was involved or not
for this person.
This element identifies if an alcohol test
was given to this person.
This element identifies the type of the
alcohol test that was used for this person.
This element identifies the alcohol test
result for this person.
This data element reflects only the
judgment of law enforcement as to
whether drugs were involved or not for
this person.
This element identifies the method by
which the police made the determination
as to whether drugs were involved or not
for this person.
This element identifies if a chemical test
for the presence of drugs was given to
this person.
This element identifies the type of
chemical test for the presence of drugs
that was used for this person.
This element identifies the result of a
chemical test for the presence of drugs
for this person.
This element identifies the method of
transportation this person was provided
to receive treatment at the first hospital
or medical facility.
This element identifies if this person died
at the scene of the crash or en route to a
hospital or treatment facility.
This element records the month, day and
year of this person’s death.
This element identifies the hour and
minute of this person’s death utilizing the
24-hour clock format.

P17

Element Name

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2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
P26

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Related Factors - Person (MV
Occupant) Level

FARS/CRSS

SP1

Death Certificate Number

FARS Only

SP2

Fatal Injury at Work

FARS Only

SP3

Race/Hispanic Origin

FARS Only

This element identifies factors related to
motor vehicle occupants other than
drivers expressed by the investigating
officer.
This element identifies the four-digit GSA
code for the City where the death
occurred, the two-digit state number and
the six-digit sequence number from the
death certificate as assigned by the State
Vital Statistics or Vital Records
Department.
This element indicates if the death
certificate identified this person as being
"at work" at the time of the crash.
This element indicates the race and
Hispanic origin of this person from the
death certificate.

Person (Not A MV Occupant) Level Elements
2016
Element
Number
NM1

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

State Number

FARS Only

NM2

Consecutive Number

FARS Only

NM3

Person Number

NM4

Number of Motor Vehicles
Striking Non-Motorist

FARS/CRSS

NM5

Age

FARS/CRSS

NM6

Sex

FARS/CRSS

NM7

Person Type

FARS/CRSS

NM8

Injury Severity

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies the state in which
the crash occurred.
This element identifies the unique case
number assigned by the data entry
system.
This element identifies a number for
persons that are not in a motor vehicle in
consecutive order.
This data element captures the intransport vehicle that made contact with
this non-motorist.
This element identifies the person’s age,
in years, with respect to the person's last
birthday.
This element identifies the sex of the
person involved in the crash
This element describes the role of this
person involved in the crash.
This element describes the severity of the
injury to this person in the crash.

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Case Structure

32

2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
NM9

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Pedestrian/Bike Typing

FARS/CRSS

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB28

Marked Crosswalk Present Pedestrian
Marked Crosswalk Present Bicyclist
Sidewalk Present - Pedestrian

NM9 - PB28

Side Walk Present - Bicyclist

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB29

School Zone - Pedestrian

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB29

School Zone - Bicyclist

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB30

Crash Type - Pedestrian

FARS/CRSS

This element describes, through a series
of on-screen prompts, the sequence of
events and precipitating actions leading
to crashes between motor vehicles and
pedestrians or bicyclists.
This element identifies if a marked
crosswalk was present at the crash site.
This element identifies if a marked
crosswalk was present at the crash site.
This element identifies if a sidewalk was
present at the crash site.
This element identifies if a sidewalk was
present at the crash site.
This element identifies if the crash
occurred in a school zone.
This element identifies if the crash
occurred in a school zone.
This element summarizes the
circumstances of the crash for this
pedestrian.
This element summarizes the
circumstances of the crash for this
bicyclist.
This element summarizes the
circumstances of the crash for this
pedestrian.
This element identifies if the crash
location with respect to an intersection.
This element identifies the location of the
pedestrian with respect to the trafficway
when contacted.
This element identifies the location of the
bicyclist with respect to the trafficway
when contacted.
This element identifies the compass
direction of travel of the pedestrian prior
to being contacted.
This element identifies the travel
direction of the bicyclist with respect to
the flow of traffic prior to being
contacted.
This element identifies the compass
direction of travel of the motorist prior to
being involved in the crash.

NM9 - PB27
NM9 - PB27

Element Name

FARS/CRSS
FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB30B Crash Type - Bicyclist

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB31

FARS/CRSS

Crash Location - Pedestrian

NM9 - PB31B Crash Location - Bicyclist

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB32

FARS/CRSS

Pedestrian Position

NM9 - PB32B Bicyclist Position

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB33

FARS/CRSS

Pedestrian Initial Direction

NM9 - PB33B Bicyclist Direction

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB34

FARS/CRSS

Motorist Initial Direction

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2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
NM9 - PB35

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Motorist Maneuver

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB36

Intersection Leg

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB37

Pedestrian Scenario

FARS/CRSS

NM9 - PB38

Crash Group - Pedestrian

FARS/CRSS

This element identifies if the motorist
was engaged in a turning maneuver at an
intersection prior to being involved in the
crash.
This element identifies on which leg of an
intersection the crash occurred.
This element summarizes the movements
of the pedestrian and motorist in an
intersection area.
This element provides general groupings
of the more specific individual Crash
Types - Pedestrian.
This element provides general groupings
of the more specific individual Crash
Types - Bicyclist.
This element identifies the location of the
non-motorist with respect to the
roadway at the time of the crash.
This element describes the action(s) of
the non-motorist at the time of their
involvement in the crash.
This element describes the action(s)
and/or circumstances of the nonmotorist that law enforcement indicated
may have contributed to the crash.
This element indicates the safety
equipment that was used by the nonmotorist involved in the crash.
This element attempts to identify any
physical impairment to this non-motorist
which may have contributed to the cause
of the crash.
This data element reflects only the
judgment of law enforcement as to
whether alcohol was involved or not for
this person.
This element describes the method by
which the police made the determination
as to whether alcohol was involved or not
for this person.
This element identifies if an alcohol test
was given to this person.
This element identifies the type of the
alcohol test that was used for this person.

NM9 - PB38B Crash Group - Bicyclist

FARS/CRSS

NM10

Non-Motorist Location at
Time of Crash

FARS/CRSS

NM11

Non-Motorist Action/
Circumstances

FARS/CRSS

NM12

Non-Motorist Contributing
Circumstances

FARS/CRSS

NM13

Non-Motorist Safety
Equipment

FARS/CRSS

NM14

Condition (Impairment) at
Time of Crash

FARS/CRSS

NM15

Police Reported Alcohol
Involvement

FARS/CRSS

NM16

Method of Alcohol
Determination (By Police)

FARS Only

NM17 (1)

Alcohol Test Status

FARS/CRSS

NM17 (2)

Alcohol Test Type

FARS/CRSS

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2016 FARS / CRSS Element Definitions
2016
Element
Number
NM17 (3)

Element Name

FARS, CRSS,
Case Structure

Definition

Alcohol Test Result

FARS/CRSS

NM18

Police Reported Drug
Involvement

FARS/CRSS

NM19

Method of Drug
Determination (By Police)

FARS Only

NM20 (1)

Drug Test Status

FARS/CRSS

NM20 (2)

Drug Test Type

FARS/CRSS

NM20 (3)

Drug Test Result

FARS/CRSS

NM21

Transported to First Medical
Facility By

FARS/CRSS

NM22

Died at Scene/En route

FARS Only

NM23

Death Date

FARS Only

NM24

Death Time

FARS Only

NM25

Related Factors - Person (Not
a MV Occupant) Level

FARS/CRSS

SP1

Death Certificate Number

FARS Only

SP2

Fatal Injury at Work

FARS Only

SP3

Race/Hispanic Origin

FARS Only

This element identifies the alcohol test
result for this person.
This data element reflects only the
judgment of law enforcement as to
whether drugs were involved or not for
this person.
This element identifies the method by
which the police made the determination
as to whether drugs were involved or not
for this person.
This element identifies if a drug test was
given to this person.
This element identifies the type of drug
test that was used for this person.
This element identifies the drug test
result for this person.
This element identifies the method of
transportation this person was provided
to receive treatment at the first hospital
or medical facility.
This element identifies if this person died
at the scene of the crash or en route to a
hospital or treatment facility.
This element records the month, day and
year of this person’s death.
This element identifies the hour and
minute of this person’s death utilizing the
24-hour clock format.
This element identifies factors related to
persons not in a motor vehicle expressed
by the investigating officer.
This element identifies the four-digit GSA
code for the City where the death
occurred, the two-digit state number and
the six-digit sequence number from the
death certificate as assigned by the State
Vital Statistics or Vital Records
Department.
This element indicates if the death
certificate identified this person as being
"at work" at the time of the crash.
This element indicates the race and
Hispanic origin of this person from the
death certificate.

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100. Submission Instructions

100. FARS Submission Instructions
101. How To Submit
Each case must have at least one Person Level form with INJURY SEVERITY attribute Fatal Injury
• 2016 Data
Enter data directly using procedures described in the FARS Microcomputer Data Entry Manual (MDE
Manual).
102. When To Submit
Make submissions at any time during the week via the MDE
103. Data Sources
1. Use the ANSI D16.1 Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents for definitions in
coding the FARS forms.
2. Obtain information from death certificates for persons who die as a result of injuries sustained
in a motor vehicle crash.
3. Use the State Driver Licensing Files, Vehicle Registration Files, Highway Department Files, Crash
Reports, and Vital Statistics Reports.
4. See the FARS MDE manual for instructions on obtaining data and responding to requests for
data on vehicles and drivers not registered or licensed in your state.
5. The message system should be used to obtain data on involved Out-of-State drivers and
vehicles.
6. Hierarchy for Case Materials:
a. An Early Notification Report can get corrected/replaced/ clarified by
b. A Police Accident Report (PAR) can get corrected/replaced/ clarified by
c. A Supplemental Police Accident Report (PAR) can get corrected/ replaced/clarified by
d. A Reconstruction Report
7. Hierarchy for police reported information on the PAR:
a. If information provided in the narrative directly contradicts a coded box, the narrative
detail takes precedence over the checkbox.

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36

FARS Coding Forms

FARS Coding Forms
Crash Level Form

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FARS Coding Forms
Vehicle Level Form

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38

FARS Coding Forms
Driver Level Form

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39

FARS Coding Forms
Precrash Level (Vehicle / Driver) Form

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FARS Coding Forms
Person Level (MV Occupant) Form

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41

FARS Coding Forms
Person Level (Not A MV Occupant) Form

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42

200. Form Coding Instructions

200. Form Coding Instructions
201. General Instructions
201.1 Codes
201.1.1 All codes are numeric except TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER, ADDITIONAL STATE
INFORMATION, RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER, VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER,
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, and MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER.
201.1.2 All codes are on the forms except: OWNERSHIP, GLOBAL POSITION, CRASH EVENTS,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT, RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER, RELATED FACTORS (Crash,
Vehicle, Driver, Person – Occupant, and Person – Not an Occupant), VEHICLE MAKE,
VEHICLE MODEL, BODY TYPE, MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, SEQUENCE
OF EVENTS, MOST HARMFUL EVENT, VIOLATIONS CHARGED, TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE,
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT), CRASH TYPE, NON-MOTORIST LOCATION AT TIME
OF CRASH, PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING, DEATH CERTIFICATE NUMBER, FATAL INJURY AT
WORK and RACE/HISPANIC ORIGIN. See the appropriate data element pages for these
codes.
201.1.3 The code for attribute Unknown is always nine. Unknown should only be used when all
sources for obtaining information on an element have been searched and the
information is missing or stated unknown. In an element that includes the attribute Not
Reported, Unknown is only used for stated unknowns.
201.1.4 The code for attribute Not Applicable or its equivalent is always zero(s), except for data
elements C29-C31 where Not Applicable (Not Notified) is 8888, P13 where Not
Applicable is 8, P24/NM23 where Not Applicable (non-fatal) is 88888888, P25/NM24
where Not Applicable (non-fatal) is 8888, and SP2 where Not Applicable (not a fatality)
is 8.
201.1.5 The code for attribute None is always zero except for Alcohol Test Result.
201.2 Coding Forms
201.2.1 Blanks are used only in fields to be later updated with four exceptions:
201.2.1.1 If DRIVER PRESENCE is coded “0” or “9” all other driver information except
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must be blank.
201.2.1.2 If VIN is less than seventeen characters, do not zero-fill, leave remaining
characters blank. If a State is not allowed to code the entire VIN, code the
partial VIN and zero-fill the characters that cannot be completed.
201.2.1.3 If TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER is less than 30 characters, do not zero-fill or 9-fill.
Leave remaining characters blank. The second TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER field
is also left blank for non-junction crashes.
201.2.1.4 If MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is less than 9 characters, do not
zero-fill or 9-fill. Leave remaining characters blank.
201.2.2 All codes are right-justified except VIN, TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER and MOTOR CARRIER
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER.

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200. Form Coding Instructions
201.3 Vehicle, Driver, Precrash and both Person Level Forms. These forms are automatically
numbered by the system.
201.3.1 Vehicles are numbered consecutively beginning with “001.”
201.3.2 For each vehicle, persons are numbered consecutively beginning with “001.” Order is
not important. The driver does not have to be “001.”
201.3.3 Persons not in motor vehicles are numbered consecutively beginning with “01.” Order is
not important.
201.4 Miscellaneous
201.4.1 The number of changes per case is not limited.
201.4.2 Request of other States for information should always follow the format of the MDE
systems Out-Of-State Data Request whether the MDE System itself or the mail is used.
201.4.3 Refer all coding questions through the CDAN Helpdesk.
201.4.4 Copies of all cases or other actions submitted must be retained for 3 years after the
data collection year.
201.4.5 If a State will not allow transmittal of complete VIN, send a memorandum to the COTR
informing her/him of this fact.
201.5 Special Case - Coding Fatal Traffic Crashes for which there is only a death certificate.
201.5.1 Be sure the death occurred within thirty (30) days of the crash. If you don’t know, do
not submit the case. If it occurred after 30 days, do not submit.
201.5.2 For the cases you do submit, you must complete Forms HS-214, HS-214A, HS-214B, HS214C, HS-214D, HS-214E unless you have been granted an exemption.
201.6 Code the required elements as follows:
The following elements must be coded. If any of these elements are left blank or if an edit check
is violated which involves the coding of one of these elements, you will not have a usable FARS
case.
Crash Level (Form HS-214)
Crash Date - Appropriate Day, Month and Year
Crash Time - Appropriate hour and minute if known, 9999 if not known
Number of Forms Submitted for Persons Not in Motor Vehicles - 00-99
Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted - 001-999
Number of Motor Vehicle Occupant Forms Submitted - 000-999
Crash Events - Table completed in MDE
First Harmful Event - Appropriate attribute derived from table, 99 if not known
Vehicle Level (Form HS-214A)
Vehicle Number - 001-999
Number of Occupants - 01-98 if known, 99 if unknown
Unit Type - 1-4
Driver Level (Forms HS-214B)
Vehicle Number - 001-999

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200. Form Coding Instructions
Driver Presence - Appropriate attribute if known, 9 if unknown
Precrash Form (Form HS-214C)
Vehicle Number - 001-999 if occupant
Crash Type - 01-99
Person Level (Motor Vehicle Occupant) (Form HS-214D)
Vehicle Number - 001-999 if occupant
Person Number - 001-999
Person Type - 01-03, 09 for occupants
Person Level (Not a Motor Vehicle Occupant) (Form HS-214E)
Person Number - 001-999
Number of Motor Vehicle Striking Non-Motorist - 001-999
Person Type - 04-08, 10, 19 for non-occupants
201.6.1 Code all other elements with the proper attribute if information is known. If no
information is known, code the items Unknown or Not Reported. There are three
exceptions to this, Rollover, Emergency Motor Vehicle Use and Fire Occurrence should
all use the attribute “0” (No Rollover, Not Applicable and No or Not Reported,
respectively).
202. Deletion Instructions
See FARS Microcomputer Data Entry Manual for instructions on how to delete a case.
203. Request For Case Listing Instructions
See FARS Microcomputer Data Entry Manual for instructions on how to list a case.
204. How To Structure A Case
When creating an MDE case structure, it is important to understand and correctly enter the proper
number of Persons Not in Motor Vehicles, Vehicles, and Motor Vehicle Occupants. This initial
structuring of the case is important for dependent data elements once your case is created. The
following instructions are intended to assist in the proper structuring of your case.

Step 1: Number of Persons Not in Motor Vehicles
Enter the number of persons involved in this crash who are not in motor vehicles. This includes:
• Occupants of Non-Motor Vehicle Transport Devices (i.e., persons riding in an animal-drawn
conveyance, on an animal or injured occupants of a railway train or a road vehicle on rails)
• Pedestrians
• Bicyclists
• Other Cyclists
• Persons on Personal Conveyances
• Persons In/On Buildings
• Unknown Types of Non-Motorists
For detailed explanations and examples of each, please see (NM7) PERSON TYPE.
Important things to consider:
• Do not include non-contact persons. For example, if the PAR identifies three pedestrians and
only one of them was contacted by a vehicle or something set into motion by a vehicle, you do
not include the two who were not contacted.
• Do not include witnesses or other persons not directly involved in the crash.
• Do not include uninjured occupants of railway trains or road vehicles on rails.

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45

200. Form Coding Instructions

Step 2: Number of Vehicles (in-transport, parked/stopped off roadway)
Enter the number of vehicles involved in this crash. This includes:
• Motor Vehicles In-Transport (Inside or Outside the Trafficway)
• Motor Vehicles Not In-Transport Within the Trafficway
• Motor Vehicles Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway
• Working Motor Vehicles (Highway Construction, Maintenance, Utility only)
For detailed explanations and examples of each, please see (V5) UNIT TYPE.
Important things to consider:
• You must have at least one motor vehicle “In-Transport” involved in the crash to be considered
a FARS or CRSS case.
• Do not include Phantom or Non-Contact Vehicles (i.e., a vehicle that did not directly contact
another vehicle and has no harmful event in the crash).
• It is possible to have a case where one vehicle sets something into motion, and then the thing
set into motion hits another vehicle. In this case, even though the two vehicles never made
direct contact with each other, both vehicles would be considered contact vehicles and should
be entered because they both had harmful events. For more information about set-in-motion
cases, please see (C32) RELATED FACTORS – CRASH LEVEL, and (V29) AREAS OF IMPACT.
• A vehicle that sets something into motion, striking a person or property and causes injury or
damage is a contact vehicle and should be included in this count

Step 3: Number of Person Forms for a Vehicle
Enter the number of occupants in the vehicle. An occupant is any person who is part of a motor vehicle
(i.e., in it, on it, or attached to it).
For special handling of uninjured occupants for which there is NO Person Level data in the case
materials, see “Created Records” below.
There are three special rules for counting occupants when structuring a case:
• Buses: For vehicle body types 50-52, 55, 58, and 59 you will enter ONLY the Driver (regardless
of injury) and injured passengers when you are structuring the case. Do not include uninjured
passengers. The total number of occupants (including uninjured occupants) will be added later
on the Vehicle Form once your case has been created.
• Unknown: If the actual number of motor vehicle occupants is unknown, include the driver, if
there is one, plus all other known occupants in the count (even if there is no information on
the PAR).
• Uninjured Passengers with no information in the case materials: See Created Records below.
Important things to consider:
Persons ejected or who fall from a motor vehicle in-transport are still considered occupants of that
vehicle for the duration of the unstabilized situation

Step 4: Injury Severity
Enter the injury severity for each of the Person Forms you entered in Steps 1 and 3. For detailed
explanations and examples, please see P8/NM8 INJURY SEVERITY.

Created Records
This is intended to streamline data entry and only applies when information is not available for some
or all uninjured passengers, as is the case in some states which do not require information to be

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

46

200. Form Coding Instructions
collected for uninjured passengers. In these situations, the system automatically generates a created
record with a set of standard values. A Created Record is generated when the total number of
occupants (entered on the Vehicle form) is greater than this Number of Person Forms for a vehicle
entered when structuring the case and the body type is not a bus (Body Types 50, 51, 52, 55, 58, or 59
[large buses]).
If there are uninjured passengers of an in-transport motor vehicle (other than Body Types 50, 51, 52,
55, 58, or 59 [large buses]), the MDE will automatically populate all of the data elements on the
"Created" Person Level (MV Occupant) Form generated by MDE. Because this is a shortcut to auto-fill
data, and this data cannot be edited, ensure the values that would apply to each occupant exactly
match the values shown in the table below. You will be prompted in MDE to confirm your acceptance
of created records (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Created Records Message

Case Structuring Inducing Created Records:
1. When structuring a case, enter the Number of Occupants excluding uninjured passengers for
which you have no data anywhere in the case materials.
2. On the Vehicle form, code the Number of Occupants data element with the total number of
occupants (both injured and uninjured) in the vehicle, as indicated in the case material.
3. Once the Body Type has been entered, and it is not a large bus, the system will generate
"Created" Person Level (MV Occupant) forms for the additional occupants (i.e., forms for the
uninjured passengers excluded when structuring in "1" above.). A confirmation message will
appear (see Figure 1 above). Once confirmed, the system then fills in the form with the data
shown in the Table below.
In the following situations people must be counted when structuring a case in Number of Person
Forms for a Vehicle:
1. If the vehicle is a large Bus (Body Types 50-52, 55, 58, 59), only the driver and injured bus
passengers are to be entered into the system for these vehicles, and additional Person forms
will not be automatically created.
2. Any driver or injured passenger of a motor vehicle in transport
3. Any occupant of a motor vehicle not in transport
4. Any uninjured passenger in a motor vehicle in-transport if the information for that passenger
is in any way different than the table below. This is because if the information is different from
below, then you must have additional information on that occupant. A Created Record cannot
be edited and is populated with the following values:

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47

200. Form Coding Instructions
Created Records Standard Set of Values
Element Name
Age
Sex
Person Type
Injury Severity
Seating Position
Restraint System/Helmet Use
Any Indication of Mis-Use of Restraint
System/Helmet Use
Air Bag Deployed
Ejection
*Ejection Path
*Extrication
Police-Reported Alcohol Involvement
*Method of Alcohol Determination (By Police)
Alcohol Test Status
Alcohol Test Type
Alcohol Test Result
Police Reported Drug Involvement
*Method of Drug Determination (By Police)
Drug Test Status
Drug Test Type (1)
Drug Test Results (1)
Drug Test Type (2)
Drug Test Results (2)
Drug Test Type (3)
Drug Test Results (3)
Transported to First Medical Facility By
*Died at Scene/En Route
*Death Date
*Death Time
Person Related Factor (1)
Person Related Factor (2)
Person Related Factor (3)
*Death Certificate Number
*Fatal Injury At Work
*Race
*Hispanic Origin
*FARS Only Elements

Code
998
8
2
0
98
98
0
98
7
0
0
8
9
0
0
996
8
8
0
0
000
0
000
0
000
0
0
88 88 8888
8888
00
00
00
0s
8
00
00

Attribute
Not Reported
Not Reported
Passenger of a Motor Vehicle in Transport
No Apparent Injury (O)
Not Reported
Not Reported
No
Not Reported
Not Reported
Ejection Path Not Applicable
Not Extricated/Not Applicable
Not Reported
Not Reported
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Not Reported
Not Reported
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Test Not Given
Not Transported
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
None
None
None
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Special Instructions for Hit-and-Run Vehicles:
For uninjured passengers of hit-and-run vehicles, the Created Records are editable and each of the
values in the table above can be edited as appropriate. The standard edit checks are activated.

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48

300. Data Element Coding Instructions

300. Data Element Coding Instructions
301. SECTION ORGANIZATION
301.1 For each element on the FARS forms, an instruction page follows in the order of the elements on
the forms. In an element that is duplicated on more the one form, the instructions are provided
in the first occurrence of the element with reference to the second occurrence.
301.1.1 The letters in the upper right hand corner refer to the forms:
• ‘C’ – Crash Level Form
• ‘V’ – Vehicle Level Form
• ‘D’ – Driver Level Form
• ‘PC’ – Precrash Level (Vehicle/Driver) Form
• ‘P’ – Person Level (MV Occupant) Form
• ‘NM’ – Person Level (Not a MV Occupant) Form
301.1.2 The Format section gives the type element and whether it must be coded for an original
case or whether it can be changed.
301.1.3 The Element Value section lists the attributes for the element and their associated
codes.
301.1.4 The Remarks section contains coding instructions, special instructions, etc., for the
element.

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49

State Number – FARS Only

C1, V1, D1, PC1, P1, NM1

State Number – FARS Only
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.STATE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
01
02
04
05
06
08
09
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Attribute
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana

Codes
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

Attribute
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Virgin Islands
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Definition: This element identifies the state in which the crash occurred.
Remarks: None.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(200P)
CITY is greater than 0000 and less than
9997, and COUNTY is greater than 000
and less than 997,
(220P)
LIGHT CONDITION equals 4, and STATE is
not equal to 02,
(2300)
LIGHT CONDITION equals 5, and STATE is
not equal to 02,
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
COUNTY and CITY must be valid codes for the
STATE.
CRASH TIME must equal 0300-0900, 9999.
CRASH TIME must equal 1600-2200, 9999.

50

State Number – FARS Only
Check
(A010)

(A940)

IF
STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION
equals 4,
STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION
equals 5,
STATE NUMBER equals 02, 11, 52

(A945)

STATE NUMBER equals 15,

(A950)

STATE NUMBER equals 09, 10, 25, 34, 36,
41, 43, 44, 50, 55,
STATE NUMBER equals 01, 05, 06, 12, 13,
17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 33, 37,
39, 42, 45, 47, 51, 53, 54,
STATE NUMBER equals 04, 08, 16, 20, 22,
23, 31, 35, 38, 40, 48, 49, 56,
STATE NUMBER equals 30, 32, 46

(A020)

(A955)

(A960)
(A961)
(G01P)

(G02P)
(G03P)
(G04P)

(G05P)
(G06P)
(V983)
(V984)

STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION LATITUDE (degrees) is not equal to 77, 88,
99,
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION
LATITUDE (degrees) equals (1d),
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION
LATITUDE (degrees) equals (2d),
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION
LONGITUDE (degrees) is not equal to 777,
888, 999,
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION
LONGITUDE (degrees) equals (3d),
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION
LONGITUDE (degrees) equals (4d),
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 3,
STATE does not equal 04, 08, 16, 18, 20,
30-32, 38-41, 46, 49,

C1, V1, D1, PC1, P1, NM1
THEN
CRASH TIME should equal 0300-1000, 9999.
CRASH TIME should equal 1500-2359, 9999.
maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 55.
maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 60.
maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 65.
maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 70.
maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 75.
Maximum SPEED LIMIT (not including 98 or 99)
should equal 80.
LATITUDE (degrees) must be equal to, or greater
than (1d), and LATITUDE (degrees) must not be
greater than (2d).
LATITUDE (minutes) must be equal to, or greater
than (1s).
LATITUDE (minutes) must not be greater than (2s).
LONGITUDE (degrees) must be equal to, or greater
than, (3d), and LONGITUDE (degrees) must not be
greater than (4d).
LONGITUDE (minutes) must be equal to, or greater
than (3s).
LONGITUDE (minutes) must not be greater than
(4s).
STATE should equal 04, 08, 16, 18, 20, 30-32, 38-41,
46, 49.
VEHICLE TRAILING should not equal 3.

Consistency Check (FARS Only)
Check
Language
(U370)
UNLIKELY: EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 8 if STATE NUMBER does not equal 17, 34, 48, 49, or 53.

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51

Consecutive Number – FARS Only

C2, V2, D2, PC2, P2, NM2

Consecutive Number - FARS Only
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.ST_CASE
ELEMENT VALUES:
•

0001-9999 Assigned Number

Definition: This element identifies the unique case number assigned by the data entry system.
Remarks: Please complete FARS forms with the MDE assigned case number.

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52

Crash Level Data Elements

Crash Level Data Elements
C1 – State Number – FARS Only
C2 – Consecutive Number – FARS Only
C3 – Number of Forms Submitted for Persons Not in Motor Vehicles
C4 – Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted
C5 – Number of Motor Vehicle Occupant Forms Submitted
C6 – County / C7 City – FARS Only
C8 – Crash Date
C9 – Crash Time
C10 – Trafficway Identifier – FARS Only
C11 – Route Signing – FARS Only
C12 – Land Use and Functional System – FARS Only
C13 – Ownership – FARS Only
C14 – National Highway System – FARS Only
C15 – Special Jurisdiction – FARS Only
C16 – Milepoint – FARS Only
C17 – Global Position
C18 – Crash Events
C19 – First Harmful Event
C20 – Manner of Collision
C21 – Relation to Junction
C22 – Type of Intersection
C23 – Relation to Trafficway
C24 – Work Zone
C25 – Light Condition
C26 – Atmospheric Conditions
C27 – School Bus Related
C28 – Rail Grade Crossing Identifier – FARS Only
C29 – Notification Time EMS – FARS Only
C30 – Arrival Time EMS – FARS Only
C31 – EMS Time at Hospital – FARS Only
C32 – Related Factors – Crash Level
C33 – Interstate Highway – CRSS Only
C34 – Stratum – CRSS Only
C35 – Police Jurisdiction – CRSS Only
Additional State Information

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53

Number of Forms Submitted for Persons Not in Motor Vehicles

C3

C3 - Number of Forms Submitted for Persons
Not in Motor Vehicles
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.PEDS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00-99

Attributes
Actual Number

Definition: This element records the number of Person Level (Not a Motor Vehicle Occupant) forms that
are applicable to this case.
Remarks: This count will match exactly the persons counted in the case structure field “Number of
Persons Not in Motor Vehicles” (formerly called “Number of Non-Motorist Forms Submitted”).
Occupants of any motor vehicle in-transport, parked/stopped off roadway motor vehicles, working
motor vehicles, or motor vehicles in motion outside the trafficway will not be counted in this field.
The count for this field includes:
1. Occupants of a Non-Motor Vehicle Transport Device (persons riding in an animal-drawn
conveyance, on an animal, injured occupants of railway trains) - Person Type (NM7) attribute 04
(Occupant of a Non-Motor Vehicle Transport Device).
2. Pedestrians, Bicyclists and Other Cyclists - Person Type (NM7) attributes: “05, 06, and 07.”
3. Other Persons on Personal Conveyances (i.e., skaters, wheel chair occupants) – Person Level (Not
a Motor Vehicle Occupant) form Person Type attribute 08 (Person on Personal Conveyances).
4. Any injured persons outside the trafficway that are not in a motor vehicle (in buildings) - Person
Level (Not a Motor Vehicle Occupant) form Person Type attribute 10 (Persons In/On Buildings).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(5Y0F)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15,
(CSI4)

(PB34)

(PB35)

NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES must
equal the actual number of persons not in
motor vehicles in this case.
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR PERSONS
NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES must not equal 00.
--

PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING -CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN must not equal 320, 330, 360, 680,
830, 890, 900 or 910.
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING -CRASH LOCATION PEDESTRIAN must equal 1.

54

Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted

C4

C4 - Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.VE_TOTAL
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-999

Attributes
Actual Number

Definition: This element records all contact motor vehicles which the officer has reported on the Police
Accident Report (PAR) as a unit involved in the crash.
Remarks: Included are: in-transport vehicles, not in-transport vehicles (parked/stopped off roadway/
working motor vehicles) or vehicles located outside the trafficway boundaries.
When identifying contact vehicles for this count:
1. Remember all vehicles that are part of the unstabilized situation are part of the crash.
Therefore, when recording the number of vehicles involved, the vehicles need not make contact
with one another. They need only have a harmful event as part of the unstabilized situation.
For example, two vehicles are traveling through an intersection when a pedestrian steps into the
roadway. The first vehicle strikes the pedestrian and the second vehicle swerves to avoid the
first, loses control, and overturns. Both vehicles in this situation are “contact” vehicles;
therefore, this is a two-vehicle crash.
2. Even though there are no injuries in the vehicle or the amount of damage sustained is below the
state threshold, if the vehicle is involved in a harmful event it is still a contact vehicle within the
entire crash and should be included in this count even if the vehicle information section is not
completed on the PAR.
IMPORTANT:
Remember, you must have at least one motor vehicle “In-Transport” involved in the crash for this to be
a reportable case.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(050P)
PERSON TYPE equals 04-08, 19, and NUMBER
OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED equals 001,
(1A0P)
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 14,
(2Z0F)
(428P)
(429P)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 12, 14, 45,
54, 55,
CRASH TYPE equals 20-91,
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED
equals 001,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NONMOTORIST must equal 001.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
CRASH TYPE must equal 00, 01-16, 92, 98, 99.

55

Number of Vehicle Forms Submitted
Check
(42AP)

(431P)

(432P)
(670F)
(A080)

(A090)
(AZDQ)
(CSI1)

(CSI2)

IF
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES FORMS
SUBMITTED equals 001, and RELATION TO
TRAFFICWAY equals 02, 04, 06-08, and
ATTEMPTED AVOIDANCE MANEUVER equals
00 or 01,
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED
equals 002, and UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE
equals 1-8, 9 for one vehicle,
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED
equals 001,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, 14, 45, 54,
55,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, and NUMBER OF
VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED equals 002,
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED is
greater than 001,
DRIVER MANEUVERED TO AVOID equals 04,
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS must equal the
actual number of Vehicle Level forms for this
case.
There must be exactly one Driver Level form
corresponding to each Vehicle Level form.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C4
THEN
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT) should
equal 01-06, 08-14 or 19.

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE for the other vehicle
must equal 0.
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE must equal 0.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
one RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should
equal 20.
there should be at least one vehicle with
TRAVEL SPEED of 001-151, 997-999, or blanks.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
--

--

56

Number of Motor Vehicle Occupant Forms Submitted

C5

C5 - Number of Motor Vehicle Occupant Forms Submitted
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.PERSONS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
000-999

Attributes
Actual Number

Definition: This element records the number of Person Level (Motor Vehicle Occupant) forms that are
applicable to this case.
Remarks: This element is derived when structuring the case. See 204. How to Structure a Case section
for remarks.
Consistency Check:
Check
Language
(CSI3)
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE OCCUPANT FORMS SUBMITTED must equal the actual number of
Person Level (Motor Vehicle Occupant) forms for this case.

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57

County / City – FARS Only

C6/C7

C6 - County / C7 City - FARS Only
FORMAT: one set 3 numeric, one set 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.COUNTY, Person.COUNTY, Accident.CITY
ELEMENT VALUES:
County:
Codes
000
001-996
997
998
999

Attributes
Not Applicable
GSA Codes
Other
Not Reported
Unknown

City:
Codes
0000
0001-9996
9997
9898
9999

Attributes
Not Applicable
GSA Codes
Other
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element refers to the location of the unstabilized event.
Remarks: COUNTY and CITY are considered one field. Both must be submitted at the same time.
If COUNTY only is known, CITY may be 9999 (Unknown).
Code CITY as 0000 (Not Applicable) if the crash does not occur within city limits.
Code CITY as 9997 (Other) if CITY is other than those given by the GSA Codes.
Code CITY as 9999 (Unknown) if crash location is unknown.
Code COUNTY as 997 (Other) if COUNTY is other than those given by the GSA Codes.
Code COUNTY as 999 (Unknown) if location is unknown.
In general, Not Applicable should be used when there is no GSA code for the crash location.
Other should be used when the Analyst knows there is a GSA code for the location, but the attribute does not
appear on the master GSA code list provided by NHTSA Headquarters. Both situations should be reported to
NHTSA Headquarters.
Not Reported
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code Not Reported in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).

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58

County / City – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(200P)
CITY is greater than 0000 and less than 9997,
and COUNTY is greater than 000 and less
than 997,
(210P)
CITY is greater than 0000 and less than 9997,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C6/C7

THEN
COUNTY and CITY must be valid codes for the
STATE.
COUNTY must not equal 999.

59

Crash Date

C8

C8 - Crash Date
FORMAT: 2 sets of 2 numeric and 1 set of 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.DAY, Vehicle.DAY, Person.DAY, parkwork.PDAY, Accident.MONTH, Accident.DAY_WEEK,
Accident.YEAR; Vehicle.MONTH; Person.MONTH; parkwork.PMONTH
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
01-12
01-31
Current (pre-printed)

Attributes
Month
Day
Year

Definition: This element identifies the date on which the crash occurred.
Remarks: If the PAR indicates that the crash (usually a hit-and-run) occurred between some PM and AM time
(e.g., 8:00 PM and 6:00 AM) on either a preceding or following day, code the crash as occurring on the following
day. If a range of days is indicated (e.g., between Sunday and Friday), code the last date of the range (e.g.,
Friday).
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
In cases where the crash date is reported as Unknown on the PAR, refer to the death certificate for the
death date to establish the crash date.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
The date of the crash is rolled up from CRSS sampling program.
If the date of the crash is unknown, use the date the crash was reported. If the time of the crash is unknown,
record the time as 9999.
If the month cannot be determined from the PAR, enter the month of the Ending Contact Date from the
Inventory Record.
If the crash date on the PAR does not match the crash date shown on the data entry screen and it is determined
that the crash date on the PAR is correct, the crash date is corrected.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1C0P)
the MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or
9999,
(3K0P)
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must be less than or equal to
CRASH DATE.
(3U0P)
DEATH DATE equals CRASH DATE, and
CRASH TIME is not equal to 9999,
(4V1F)
INJURY SEVERITY equals 4,

(4V2F)

CRASH MONTH equals 12, and DEATH
MONTH equals 01,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the vehicle MODEL YEAR must not be greater than
CRASH YEAR plus ONE.
--

DEATH TIME must not be less than CRASH TIME.
DEATH DATE and DEATH TIME for this person
must be within 720 hours of the CRASH DATE and
CRASH TIME.
DEATH YEAR must equal CRASH YEAR plus 1.

60

Crash Date
Check
(4V3F)
(4V4F)

C8

(A030)

IF
CRASH MONTH equals 12,
CRASH MONTH equals 02-11, and DEATH
MONTH is not equal to 88 or 99,
CRASH MONTH equals 01, and DEATH
MONTH is not equal to 88 or 99,
The Year of DATE OF FIRST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION must be within
five years of the Year of CRASH DATE.
DEATH DATE must not be less than CRASH
DATE.
DEATH YEAR equals 9999,
MAKE is not 97, 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,

(A040)

CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,

(FP4F)
(V620)

CRASH DATE is blank, case status is flawed.
CRASH MONTH is between January and
March,

(4V5F)
(5K0P)

(6V0P)
(7V0F)
(921P)

Consistency Check (FARS Only)
Check
IF
(P520)
CRASH DATE and DEATH DATE are the
same, and CRASH TIME and DEATH TIME
are the same,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
DEATH MONTH must equal 01, 12, 88, 99.
DEATH MONTH must equal CRASH MONTH or
CRASH MONTH plus 1.
DEATH MONTH must equal CRASH MONTH or
CRASH MONTH plus 1 or CRASH MONTH plus 2.
--

-CRASH MONTH must not be 01-11.
MODEL YEAR must equal ___, or CRASH YEAR plus
1.
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS should not equal 03,
04, 11, 12.
ROADWAY SURFACE CONDITIONS should not
equal 03, 04, 10.
-the VEHICLE MODEL YEAR should NOT be greater
than the CRASH YEAR unless it equals 9998 or
9999 (contact Coding Assistance through the
CDAN Helpdesk.).
THEN
TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL FACILITY BY
should equal 0, and DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE
should equal 7.

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Crash Time

C9

C9 - Crash Time
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Hour, Accident.Minute; Vehicle.HOUR, Vehicle.MINUTE, Person.HOUR, Person.MINUTE,
parkwork.PHOUR, parkwork.PMINUTE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0000-2359
9999

Attributes
Valid military time (Code midnight as “0000”)
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the time at which the crash occurred.
Remarks: Enter the time at which the crash occurred as shown on the PAR. This is the preferred time in all
cases. If the crash time is not reported, unknown, or known to be in error, then all available information in the
case materials should be used to determine Crash Time. If the hour cannot be determined, then enter 9999
(Unknown).
If the PAR indicates the crash occurred during some time interval of greater than one hour (e.g., 8:00 PM to 6:00
AM, or 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM), enter 9999 (Unknown). However, if the interval is one hour or less, code the
midpoint of the interval.
Examples:
• 8:00 PM to 9:00 PM, enter 2030
• 8:30 PM to 9:30 PM, enter 2100
• 8:50 PM to 9:30 PM, enter 2110
When the time is available but AM versus PM is not shown on the PAR, base the time on Light Condition (e.g.,
time is 10:00, LIGHT CONDITION is 2 (Dark - Not Lighted); code as 2200).
Midnight or 12 AM is coded as 0000 in military time and is the start of a new day. One minute after midnight is
12:01 and is coded as 0001.
AM - Starts at 00:00 Midnight
PM - Starts at 12:00 Noon
If the case materials state the crash occurred at the beginning or early moments of the day, midnight is coded as
0000.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
If the day of the crash and the day of EMS Notification do not have the same date, then be sure to use attribute
18 (Date of Accident and Date of EMS Notification Were Not the Same Day) in RELATED FACTORS - CRASH
LEVEL.

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Crash Time

C9

How to Code Midnight:
In general, code midnight as 0000. However, there may be confusion over which day midnight falls into. CRASH
TIME is recorded between 00:00-23:59. Midnight is coded as 0000 to represent the beginning of a new day. This
may not be the practice followed in your sources. Therefore, you have to determine which part of the day is
being considered in your sources.
End of Day:
If your data sources give you a Crash Date and are consistent in talking about the end of that day, when they
give the time of the crash as midnight, 12:00-midnight, 24:00 or 00:00, then you should code Crash Time as
2359.
Beginning of Day:
If your sources give a Crash Date and are consistent in referring to the beginning or early moments of that day
when they give a crash time, code midnight as 0000.
See remarks - Notification/Arrival Time EMS, EMS Arrival At Hospital.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
The time of the crash is rolled up from CRSS sampling program. If the time of the crash is unknown, record the
time as 9999 (Unknown).
If the time of the crash on the PAR does not match the crash time shown on the data entry screen and it is
determined that the crash time on the PAR is correct, then the crash time should be changed to reflect the time
listed on the PAR.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(220P)
LIGHT CONDITION equals 4, and STATE is not
equal to 02,
(2300)
LIGHT CONDITION equals 5, and STATE is not
equal to 02,
(3U0P)
DEATH DATE equals CRASH DATE, and CRASH
TIME is not equal to 9999,
(4V1F)
INJURY SEVERITY equals 4,

(A010)
(A020)
(A041)
(A050)
(A060)
(A070)
(FP5F)
(P56P)

STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION
equals 4,
STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION
equals 5,
CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,
CRASH TIME equals 0900-1600,
CRASH TIME equals 2300-0400,
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998 or
9999,
CRASH TIME is blank, case status is flawed.
DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE equals 7,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
CRASH TIME must equal 0300-0900, 9999.
CRASH TIME must equal 1600-2200, 9999.
DEATH TIME must not be less than CRASH TIME.
DEATH DATE and DEATH TIME for this person
must be within 720 hours of the CRASH DATE
and CRASH TIME.
CRASH TIME should equal 0300-1000, 9999.
CRASH TIME should equal 1500-2359, 9999.
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FIRST HARMFUL EVENT,
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 48.
LIGHT CONDITION should not equal 2-6.
LIGHT CONDITION should not equal 1, 4, 5, 9.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS should not be more
than 120 minutes later than CRASH TIME.
-DEATH TIME should be within 30 minutes of the
CRASH TIME.

63

Crash Time
Consistency Checks (FARS Only):
Check
IF
(P520)
CRASH DATE and DEATH DATE are the same,
and CRASH TIME and DEATH TIME are the
same,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C9

THEN
TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL FACILITY BY
should equal 0, and DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE
should equal 7.

64

Trafficway Identifier – FARS Only

C10

C10 - Trafficway Identifier - FARS Only
FORMAT: 2 sets, 30 alphanumeric
SAS NAME: Accident.TWAY_ID; Accident.TWAY_ID2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
-9s

Attributes
Actual Posted Number, Assigned Number, or Common Name (if no posted or assigned number)
except:
Unknown

Definition: This element captures the identity (name) of the trafficway on which the crash occurred.
Remarks: Beginning in 2004, a second trafficway identifier was added to accommodate intersection and
intersection-related crashes where the officer provides the identifier for the second trafficway.
For Non-Junction Crashes:
Code the trafficway identifier from the police report or highway department in the top row. Leave the bottom
row blank.
For Intersection Crashes (Not Within an Interchange Area):
Code the trafficway identifier for the trafficway with the highest function class in the top row. Code the second
trafficway identifier at the intersection, if provided by the police, in the bottom row. If the vehicles are traveling
on different roadways of equal class, assign the crash to the roadway on which the motor vehicle precipitating
the crash is traveling and record this roadway in the top row.
For Intersection-Related Crashes (Not Within an Interchange Area):
Code the trafficway identifier for the trafficway provided by the police in the top row. This does not necessarily
have to be the highest functional class. In all cases, this will be the trafficway where the first harmful event
occurred or the Unstabilized Situation began. Code the second trafficway identifier at the intersection, if
provided by the police, in the bottom row.
For Intersection Crashes Within an Interchange Area:
If the first harmful event occurs within the intersection of a ramp and the surface roadway:
• Code the trafficway identifier provided on the police report or highway log in the top row (this does not
necessarily have to be the highest function class).
• Code Route Signing for the trafficway in the top row.
• It is important to code the Land Use and Functional System, Ownership, and National Highway System
for the highest class of trafficway at this intersection.
• Use the bottom row to record the second trafficway identifier provided by the police for this
intersection.
For Intersection-Related Crashes Within an Interchange Area:
Code the trafficway identifier for the trafficway provided by the police in the top row. In many cases, this will be
the trafficway where the first harmful event occurred or the Unstabilized Situation began. Code the second
trafficway identifier at the intersection, if provided by the police, in the bottom row.
For Ramp Crashes:
If the crash occurs on the ramp or is related to the ramp, include the word “RAMP” and/or the ramp ID number
after the trafficway’s identifier (e.g., I-10 RAMP).

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Trafficway Identifier – FARS Only

C10

General Guidelines for Coding Trafficway Identifier:
This data is obtained from the State Highway Department, or if same as that used by the State Highway
Department, from the police accident report. Enter all alphabetic characters with CAPITAL LETTERS. If less than
30 characters, left-justify and do not zero-fill.
• Use standard abbreviations for the street name suffix (ex. AVE, BLVD, CT, FWY) (see FARShelf for full list
of USPS street abbreviations).
• Do not enter the street address where the crash occurred. For example, 245 Elm St. would be entered
as ELM ST.
• Do not enter milepoints here following the trafficway even if provided on the report. Milepoints are
entered in the element Milepoint.
• Do not enter a cross street referenced by the investigating officer for a non-junction crash. For
example, if the report states: “the crash occurred on Main Street, 0.6 miles south of Girard Avenue,”
Girard Avenue does not go in Trafficway Identifier 2. Trafficway Identifier 2 is reserved for intersection
and intersection-related crashes.
• If a trafficway is known to have both a route identifier and a common name record the route identifier
first followed by the common name (Example: State Route 3 is also Indian Head Highway would be
coded as SR-3 Indian Head Hwy).
Obtained from the State Highway Department, or if same as that used by the State Highway Department, from
the police accident report.
• If Route Signing is 1 (Interstate), you must enter “I-” in the first two spaces of Trafficway Identifier.
• If Route Signing is 2 (US Highway), you must enter “US-” in the first three spaces of Trafficway Identifier.
• If Route Signing is 3 (State Highway), you must enter “SR-” in the first three spaces of Trafficway
Identifier.
• If Route Signing is 4 (County Road), you must enter “CR-” in the first three spaces of Trafficway Identifier
followed by the route number OR name if there is no number.
Immediately after the route designation (I-, US- or SR-), you should enter the corresponding highway number.
For example, Interstate 70 should be coded as “I-70” and US 66 should be coded as “US-66.” You must use a
dash in the highway designation between the capital letters and the number.
If one trafficway is both, a State Highway and an Interstate Highway, Route Signing must always be coded “1Interstate.” You should always try to obtain the route number and milepoint that correspond to the Route
Signing (Interstate).
a) If the Trafficway Identifier and Milepoint are available for only the State Highway then code Route
Signing as 1 (Interstate), enter “I-” in the first two spaces of Trafficway Identifier followed by the full
State Highway Identifier as normal (including any letters.) Code the State Highway Milepoint under
the element Milepoint.
Example:
If California business loop (CA215) is also Interstate 15, then code “I-SR215” or “I-CA215.”
b) If the Trafficway Identifier and Milepoint are available for both the State Highway and the Interstate
Highway, enter “I-” in the first two spaces of Trafficway Identifier followed by the Interstate number.
You may then also enter the State Highway Identifier anywhere after the Interstate route number.
Code the Interstate Milepoint under the element Milepoint.
Example:
“I-15” (SR215) or “I-15” (CA215)

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Trafficway Identifier – FARS Only

C10

Similarly, if a State Highway is also a US Highway, Route Signing must always be coded “2-US Highway.” You
should always try to obtain the route number and milepoint that correspond to the Route Signing (US Highway).
a) If the Trafficway Identifier and Milepoint are available only for the State Highway, then code Route
Signing as 2 (US Highway), enter “US-” in the first three spaces of Trafficway Identifier followed by
the full State Highway Identifier as normal (including any letters). Code the State Highway Milepoint
under the element Milepoint.
Example:
If Florida Route 25 is also US Route 27, then code “US-SR25” or “US-FL25.”
b) If the Trafficway Identifier and Milepoint are available for both the US Highway and the State
Highway, enter “US-” in the first three spaces of Trafficway Identifier followed by the US route
number. You may then also enter the State Highway Identifier anywhere after the US route
number. Code the US Route Milepoint under the element Milepoint.
Example:
“US-27” (SR25) or “US-27” (FL25).
Overlapping Roadways of Equal Function Class
For situations where you are presented with a roadway with two equal functional class identifiers for the same
roadway, such as a stretch of roadway that is both US-10 and US-25, record both trafficways in Trafficway
Identifier #1 using the “slash” format. The lower number trafficway should appear before the slash (e.g., “US10/25”). This would also apply to Interstates, State and County roadways with two designations of equal class.
Other Land Ways
Crashes that occur on parking lot ways or other privately owned land ways open to the public for
transportation will likely not be named in the State Highway Department inventory. If the police provide a
name for this trafficway, use that name. If however, you are provided a street address OR the name of the
adjacent trafficway (i.e. not the location where the crash occurred) OR the location information is blank enter
“NONE”.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1F1P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03,
(340P)
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
(341P)

(350P)

(351P)

(360P)

the first position of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER
#1 equals “I” and the second position equals
“-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 2,

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 equals “US” and third position
equals “-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 3,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the second TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER should be
blank.
the first position of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER #1
must be “I” and the second position must be “-”.
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 1 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “US” and the third
position must be “-”.
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 2 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “SR” and the third
position must be “-”.

67

Trafficway Identifier – FARS Only
Check
(361P)

(362P)

IF
the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 equals “SR” and third position
equals “-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 4,

(781P)

TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 02-07, 10,

(AC0A)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 03,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C10
THEN
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 3 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFIC-WAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “CR” and the third
position must be “-”.
TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER (b) should not be
blank.
the second TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER should not
be all blank.

68

Route Signing – FARS Only

C11

C11 - Route Signing - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.ROUTE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Attributes
Interstate
U.S. Highway
State Highway
County Road
Local Street - Township
Local Street - Municipality
Local Street - Frontage Road
Other
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the route signing of the trafficway on which the crash occurred.
Remarks: Before coding this element, be certain of which trafficway is to be coded. This element is coded with
respect to the trafficway in the top row of Trafficway Identifier. If there is any question, refer to the remarks
section of Trafficway Identifier for a hierarchy for selecting the appropriate trafficway to be coded.
CODING FRONTAGE ROADS
If the crash occurs on a frontage road which is part of a larger, higher order trafficway (such as Interstate, U.S.
Highway or State Route), use the following guideline to code the highway elements:
• Code Trafficway Identifier and Land Use and Functional System (b) for the 01 (Interstate), 02 (Principal
Arterial - Other Freeways and Expressways) or 04 (Minor Arterial)
• Code Route Signing 7 (Local Street - Frontage Road)
Make sure to include the highway designation in Trafficway Identifier when using 7 (Local Street - Frontage
Road). See Trafficway Identifier.
If the Frontage Road is a separate trafficway, code all highway elements for that trafficway. Frontage Road is
not used.
8 (Other) includes ‘Other Limited Access’ and ‘Other Major Artery.’
Federal Highway Administration classification obtainable from the State Highway Department must be used. No
other classification source is acceptable. Refer problems in obtaining the FHWA classification to Regional State
Assignee.

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Route Signing – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(260P)
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
(320P)
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and ROUTE SIGNING does not
equal 7,
(330P)
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,
(340P)
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
(341P)

(350P)

(351P)

(360P)

(361P)

the first position of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER
#1 equals “I” and the second position equals
“-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 2,

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 equals “US” and third position
equals “-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 3,

(362P)

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 equals “SR” and third position
equals “-”,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 4,

(A280)

ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,

(A290)

ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,

(A291)
(A300)
(A310)
(A320)
(A330)
(A350)
(A360)
(A700)

ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, 2,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
RELATION TO JUNCTION(b) equals 07,
SPEED LIMIT is greater than 65 for every
vehicle,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C11

THEN
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM must equal 1.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM must equal 1.

ROUTE SIGNING must not equal 1.
the first position of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER #1
must be “I” and the second position must be “-”.
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 1 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “US” and the third
position must be “-”.
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 2 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFICWAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “SR” and the third
position must be “-”.
ROUTE SIGNING must equal 3 or 7.

the first two positions of TRAFFIC-WAY
IDENTIFIER #1 must be “CR” and the third
position must be “-”.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 1-5, 8,
9.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
02-04, 06, 08, 16.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 5, 6.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 2, 3, 6
for at least one vehicle.
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for any vehicle.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 05-40 for any
vehicle.
ROADWAY SURFACE TYPE should equal 1, 2, 8
for at least one vehicle.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 10.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 4.
ROUTE SIGNING should equal 1-4.

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Route Signing – FARS Only
Check
(A820)

(A840)
(A850)
(A882)
(A920)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 7,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 02, and ROUTE SIGNING equals 2,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C11
THEN
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 1.

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
equal 01-03.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM should equal 1.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 1.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 02, and ROUTE SIGNING should not
equal 2.

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Land Use and Functional System – FARS Only

C12

C12 - Land Use and Functional System - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric occurring 1 time, 2 numeric occurring 1 time
SAS NAME: TBD
ELEMENT VALUES:
C12a: Land Use
Codes Attributes
1
Rural
2
Urban
6
Trafficway Not in State Inventory
8
Not Reported
9
Unknown
C12b: Functional System
Codes Attributes
01
Interstate
02
Principal Arterial – Other Freeways and Expressways
03
Principal Arterial – Other
04
Minor Arterial
05
Major Collector
06
Minor Collector
07
Local
96
Trafficway Not in State Inventory
98
Not Reported
99
Unknown
Definition (Land Use): The classification of the segment of the trafficway on which the crash occurred based on
the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) approved adjusted Census boundaries of small urban and
urbanized areas.
Definition (Functional System): This element identifies the functional classification of the segment of the
trafficway on which the crash occurred.
Remarks: Before coding this element, be certain of which trafficway is to be coded. This element is coded with
respect to the trafficway selected in NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM, OWNERSHIP, ROUTE SIGNING, and in the top
row of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER. The exception would be an intersection accident in an interchange. Please see
the remarks below and in TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER for a hierarchy for selecting the appropriate trafficway to be
coded.
Code the value that represents the FHWA approved Land Use and Functional System. FHWA classification
obtainable from the State Highway Department must be used.
No other classification source is acceptable. Refer problems in obtaining the FHWA classification to the state
DOT planning office.

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Land Use and Functional System – FARS Only

C12

Land Use:
6 (Trafficway Not in State Inventory) is used when a qualifying motor vehicle traffic accident occurs on a
trafficway that is not included in the state highway inventory. Examples include accidents that occur on
parking lot ways or other privately owned landways open to the public for transportation.
8 (Not Reported) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway but the information to record
LAND USE is missing or unavailable.
9 (Unknown) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway, but it is unknown if the crash
location is within the boundaries of an urban area. If LAND USE is unknown, FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM,
OWNERSHIP and NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM can still be coded with known values. For example, it may
be known that the crash occurred somewhere along on an interstate. Thus the trafficway is owned by the
state and is part of the NHS. However, it may not be known if the location was within urban boundaries or
not.

Functional System:
96 (Trafficway Not in State Inventory) is used when a qualifying motor vehicle traffic accident occurs on a
trafficway that is not included in the state highway inventory. Examples include accidents that occur on
parking lot ways or other privately owned landways open to the public for transportation.
98 (Not Reported) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway but the information to record
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM is missing or unavailable.
99 (Unknown) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway, but the functional classification of
the segment of the trafficway on which the crash occurred can’t be determined or the applicable segment
can’t be determined. If FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM is unknown, LAND USE, OWNERSHIP and NATIONAL
HIGHWAY SYSTEM can still be coded with a known value. For example, it may be known that the crash
occurred within or outside urban boundaries (LAND USE). However, the trafficway may change
classification along its length and the segment of the trafficway on which the crash occurred may not be
known.
NON-JUNCTION CRASHES
Assign the crash to the trafficway on which the first harmful event occurred. If the first harmful event occurred
on private property, assign the crash to the trafficway on which the vehicle was traveling when the Unstabilized
Situation began.
INTERSECTION CRASHES (Not Within an Interchange)
In an at-intersection crash, assign the crash to the highest function class of trafficway at the intersection.
If the vehicles are traveling on different roadways of equal class, assign the crash to the roadway on which the
motor vehicle precipitating the crash is traveling.
INTERSECTION CRASHES (Within an Interchange)
Interchange crashes that occur in an intersection of a ramp that connects a higher and a lower class trafficway
should be assigned to the highest-class trafficway. For example: vehicle #1 strikes vehicle #2 in the intersection
of the I-270 ramp and US-10. Code FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM as 01 (Interstate).
Ramps are part of the highest class of trafficway to which they connect. Therefore, if a crash occurs on a ramp,
including in the merge/diverge lanes, and it is not an Intersection crash, it is assigned to the highest class of
trafficway to which the ramp connects. Example: vehicle #1 overturns on the ramp of I-270 and US-10. Code

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C12

FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 01 (Interstate). This includes intersection-related and entrance/exit ramp related crashes
for RELATION TO JUNCTION.
OTHER CRASHES (Within an Interchange)
For other crashes that occur within an interchange, other than intersection crashes, code Functional System for
the trafficway on which the vehicles were traveling. Example, vehicle #1 strikes vehicle #2 on US-10 bridge
within the I-270 interchange (not in the intersection of any ramp, or on any ramp). Code FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM
for US-10 and not I-270.
QUESTIONABLE CASES
In any questionable case, the higher function class takes precedence.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1T0P)
SPEED LIMIT for every vehicle is greater than
55, and not equal to 98 or 99,

(300P)

NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,

(320P)

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and ROUTE SIGNING does not
equal 7,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,

(A110)
(A11A)
(A12A)
(A13A)
(A14A)
(A15A)

(A150)

(A160)
(A170)
(A180)
(A190)
(A200)

FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 01,
either FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) or
OWNERSHIP equals 96,
LAND USE (a) equals 6,
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 96,
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 99,

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01-06,
ROADWAY SURFACE TYPE equals 3-5 for
every vehicle,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 02,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (a) should
not equal 2 or 6, and LAND USE AND
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should not equal 06,
07, or 96.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) must
not equal 01.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM must equal 1.

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01-03.
OWNERSHIP must equal 01 or 31.
both must equal 96.
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) must equal 96.
LAND USE a must equal 6.
LAND USE (a) should equal 9, OWNERSHIP
should equal 99, and NATIONAL HIGHWAY
SYSTEM should equal 9.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
02-04, 06, 08.
ROADWAY SURFACE TYPE should equal 1, 2, 8 or
9 for at least one vehicle.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01-06.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 1-5, 8,
9.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 4.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 06, 07 or 96.

74

Land Use and Functional System – FARS Only
Check
(A210)

(A220)

(A230)
(A240)

(A250)

(A720)
(A810)

(A840)
(A850)

IF
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 10,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (a)
equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01-03, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (a)
equals 1, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b)
does not equal 03, 05, 20,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 7,

(A860)

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 02, and ROUTE SIGNING equals 2,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 1,

(A883)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(A900)

SPEED LIMIT equals 60, 65 for every vehicle,

(A910)

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 04-07 or 96,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,

(A920)

(U684)
(U685)
(U686)

UNLIKELY LAND USE (a) equals 8.
UNLIKELY FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 98.
UNLIKELY LAND USE and FUNCTIONAL
SYSTEM (a/b) equals 9, 99.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C12
THEN
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 0104, 07, 20, 23, 40, 50, 65.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 05-40 for any
vehicle.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01-03.
TRAVEL SPEED should not equal 005-040 for any
vehicle.
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for the vehicles involved in the first harmful
event.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 2, 3, 6
for at least one vehicle.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01.

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
equal 01-03.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM should equal 1.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
equal 01-03.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 04-07 or 96.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM should equal 0, 9.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 02, and ROUTE SIGNING should not
equal 2.
----

75

Ownership – FARS Only

C13

C13 - Ownership - FARS Only
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: TBD
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
01
02
03
04
11
12
21
25
26
27
31
32
40
50
60
62
63
64
66
67
68
69
70
72
74
80
96
98
99

Attributes
State Highway Agency
County Highway Agency
Town or Township Highway Agency
City or Municipal Highway Agency
State Park, Forest or Reservation Agency
Local Park, Forest or Reservation Agency
Other State Agency
Other Local Agency
Private (other than Railroad)
Railroad
State Toll Road
Local Toll Authority
Other Public Instrumentality (i.e., Airport)
Indian Tribe Nation
Other Federal Agency
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Fish and Wildlife
U.S. Forest Service
National Park Service
Tennessee Valley Authority
Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Reclamation
Corps of Engineers
Air Force
Navy/Marines
Army
Trafficway Not in State Inventory
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the entity that has legal ownership of the segment of the trafficway on which
the crash occurred.
Remarks: Before coding this element, be certain of which trafficway is to be coded. This element is coded with
respect to the trafficway selected in NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM, LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM,
ROUTE SIGNING, and in the top row of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER. The exception would be an intersection
accident in an interchange. Please see the remarks section of TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER for a hierarchy for
selecting the appropriate trafficway to be coded.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

76

Ownership – FARS Only

C13

Code the level of government that best represents the highway owner irrespective of whether agreements exist
for maintenance or other purposes.
• "State" means owned by one of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico including quasi-official State commissions or organizations;
• "County, local, municipal, town, or township" means owned by one of the officially recognized
governments established under State authority;
• "Federal" means owned by one of the branches of the U.S. Government or independent establishments,
government corporations, quasi-official agencies, organizations, or instrumentalities;
• "Other" means any other group not already described above or nongovernmental organizations with the
authority to build, operate, or maintain toll or free highway facilities.
• Only private roads that are open to public travel (e.g., toll bridges) are to be reported in HPMS.
96 (Trafficway Not in State Inventory) is used when a qualifying motor vehicle traffic accident occurs on a
trafficway that is not included in the state highway inventory. Examples include accidents that occur on parking
lot ways or other privately owned landways open to the public for transportation.
98 (Not Reported) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway but the information to record
Ownership is missing or unavailable.
99 (Unknown) is used when the crash occurred on a reportable trafficway, but it can’t be determined which
entity has legal ownership of the segment of the trafficway on which the crash occurred or the applicable
segment can’t be determined. If OWNERSHIP is unknown, LAND USE and FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM and NATIONAL
HIGHWAY SYSTEM can still be coded with known values. For example, it may be known that the crash occurred
in an urban area on a minor collector that is not part of the NHS. However, the location detail may not be
sufficient to determine ownership (e.g., 03 (Town or Township Highway Agency) or 04 (City or Municipal
Highway Agency)).
Federal Highway Administration classification obtainable from the State Highway Department must be used.
No other classification source is acceptable. Refer problems in obtaining the FHWA classification to the state
DOT planning office.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A11A)
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 01,
(A12A)
either FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) or
OWNERSHIP equals 96,
(A15A)
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 99,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
OWNERSHIP must equal 01 or 31.
both must equal 96.
LAND USE (a) should equal 9, OWNERSHIP
should equal 99, and NATIONAL HIGHWAY
SYSTEM should equal 9.

77

National Highway System – FARS Only

C14

C14 - National Highway System - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.NHS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
9

Attributes
This section IS NOT on the NHS
This section IS ON the NHS
Unknown if this section is on the NHS

Definition: This element identifies whether or not this crash occurred on a trafficway that is part of the National
Highway System.
Remarks: The National Highway System includes the Interstate System, and consists of principal arterial system
routes and some Strategic Highway Network connectors functionally classified below principal arterial.
Federal Highway Administration classification obtainable from the State Highway Department must be used. No
other classification source is acceptable. Refer problems in obtaining the FHWA classification to Regional State
Assignee.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(260P)
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
(300P)
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,
(320P)

(330P)
(A15A)

(A850)
(A860)
(A910)
(A920)

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and ROUTE SIGNING does not
equal 7,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) equals 99,

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 02, and ROUTE SIGNING equals 2,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 1,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 04-07 or 96,
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM equals 0, 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM must equal 1.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) must
not equal 01.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM must equal 1.

ROUTE SIGNING must not equal 1.
LAND USE (a) should equal 9, OWNERSHIP
should equal 99, and NATIONAL HIGHWAY
SYSTEM should equal 9.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM should equal 1.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
equal 01-03.
NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM should equal 0, 9.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 02, and ROUTE SIGNING should not
equal 2.

78

Special Jurisdiction – FARS Only

C15

C15 - Special Jurisdiction - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.SP_JUR
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
8
9

Attributes
No Special Jurisdiction
National Park Service
Military
Indian Reservation
College/University Campus*
Other Federal Properties*
Other
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies if the location on the trafficway where the crash occurred qualifies as a
Special Jurisdiction even though it may be patrolled by state, county, or local police (e.g., all State highways
running through Indian reservations are under the jurisdiction of the Indian reservation).
Remarks: Road must be under the regulation of Special Jurisdiction, although it may be patrolled by state,
county, or local police forces.
There is a difference between a National Park and National Forest. Only areas described as National Parks
should be 1 (National Park Service). State parks should be coded as 8 (Other) and National Forests should be
coded as 0 (No Special Jurisdiction).
State highways running through Indian Reservations must be coded as 3 (Indian Reservation).
* These values are unlikely occurrences and will raise an error flag.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A180)
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01,
(A190)
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 02,
(A280)
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
(U010)

UNLIKELY: SPECIAL JURISDICTION equals 4, 5.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 1-5, 8,
9.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 4.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION should not equal 1-5, 8,
9.
--

79

Milepoint – FARS Only

C16

C16 - Milepoint - FARS Only
FORMAT: 5 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.MILEPT
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0000.0
-9999.8
9999.9

Attributes
None
Actual to Nearest Tenth Mile
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the milepoint nearest to the location where the crash occurred.
Remarks: Refer to the remarks section under LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM for the hierarchy of
selecting the trafficway to be coded.
Code the MILEPOINT for the respective TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER. For crashes that occur on entrance or exit
ramps use the milepoint associated with the ramp location with respect to the trafficway to which it belongs.
When transitioning between two trafficways of equal functional class choose the milepoint of the exiting
trafficway.
Obtained from the Police Accident Report (PAR) or from the State Highway Department. Code the actual
Milepoint to the nearest .1 mile with decimal. Right justify if less than 5 digits. For example, if Milepoint is 10,
you must code “0010.0.”
9999.8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 9999.8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

80

Global Position

C17

C17 - Global Position
FORMAT: 8 numeric, 9 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Latitude/Accident.Longitud
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
--7s
8s
9s

Attributes
Latitude (dd.mm.ss.ss) (degrees/minutes/seconds)
Longitude (ddd.mm.ss.ss) (degrees/minutes/seconds)
Not Reported
Not Available
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the location of the crash using Global Position coordinates.
Remarks: “Global Position” refers to the geographic location of the crash. It is expressed in Degrees, Minutes,
and Seconds of Latitude; and Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds of Longitude:
Latitude: dd mm ss.ss (Degrees/Minutes/Seconds)
Longitude: ddd mm ss.ss (Degrees/Minutes/Seconds)
In some instances, your source documents may display Longitude as a negative (-) number. You may disregard
the minus (-) sign.
Right-Justify Degrees and Minutes:
Note that Longitude Degrees can be up to three digits. Code Degrees less than three digits in the right-most
positions and “0s” to the left. Code Latitude or Longitude Minutes less than two digits in the right-most position
with “0s” to the left. Examples: Longitude “77 degrees – 7 minutes - no seconds” is coded 077 07 00.00;
Longitude “80 degrees - no minutes - no seconds” is coded 080 00 00.00; Latitude “30 degrees - one minute - 30
seconds” is coded 30 01 30.00.
Latitude and Longitude Seconds:
Code the value of Latitude or Longitude Seconds to two significant places after the decimal. If the Latitude or
Longitude Seconds precision is less than two decimal positions, enter “0s” in the right-most positions of
Seconds. Always right-justify any data before the decimal point with added “0s” to the left (e.g., 5.1 seconds is
05.10 with no spaces before the decimal point).
7s (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 7s (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).

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81

Global Position

C17

9s (Unknown) is selected if the investigating officer reported that the global position of the crash was not
known.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
The state Police Accident Report (PAR) may include the geographic location in a format compatible with this
element, or the State Highway Department may be able to provide it from a state Geographic Information
System (GIS) or Global Positioning System (GPS).
A Geo-locator tool is available on the FARS microcomputer to assist generating latitude and longitude when they
are not available through state sources.
If data is unknown, code all “9s.” For example, if you are in a state that does record geographic location
coordinates, but you don’t have those coordinates, and the Geo-locator tool cannot provide the coordinates,
the data is unknown.
Code the complete valid Latitude and Longitude, if available, if not blank and if not unknown. You must code
valid Latitude or Longitude minutes and seconds when coding a valid value for Latitude or Longitude degrees.
(For example: Latitude - 38 99 99.99 is invalid.)
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
This data element is only coded if it is present on the PAR and in Lat/Long format, otherwise code as Not
Reported.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(G01P)
STATE is ____ and GLOBAL POSITION LATITUDE (degrees) is not equal to 77, 88, 99,
(G02P)
(G03P)
(G04P)

(G05P)
(G06P)
(G07P)
(G08P)
(G09P)
(G10P)
(G11P)

STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION LATITUDE (degrees) equals (1d),
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION LATITUDE (degrees) equals (2d),
STATE is ____ and GLOBAL POSITION LONGITUDE (degrees) is not equal to 777,
888, 999,
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION LONGITUDE (degrees) equals (3d),
STATE is ____, and GLOBAL POSITION LONGITUDE (degrees) equals (4d),
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LATITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 8s,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LONGITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 8s,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LATITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 9s,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LONGITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 9s,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LATITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is blank,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
LATITUDE (degrees) must be equal to, or greater
than (1d), and LATITUDE (degrees) must not be
greater than (2d).
LATITUDE (minutes) must be equal to, or greater
than (1s).
LATITUDE (minutes) must not be greater than
(2s).
LONGITUDE (degrees) must be equal to, or
greater than (3d), and LONGITUDE (degrees)
must not be greater than (4d).
LONGITUDE (minutes) must be equal to, or
greater than (3s).
LONGITUDE (minutes) must not be greater than
(4s).
all parts of LATITUDE must be all 8s.
all parts of LONGITUDE must be all 8s.
all parts of LATITUDE must be all 9s.
all parts of LONGITUDE must be all 9s.
all parts of LATITUDE must be blank.

82

Global Position
Check
(G12P)
(G0AP)
(G0BP)

IF
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LONGITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is blank,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LONGITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 7s,
any part of GLOBAL POSITION - LATITUDE
(degrees, minutes or seconds) is all 7s,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C17
THEN
all parts of LONGITUDE must be blank.
all parts of LONGITUDE must be all 7s.
all parts of LATITUDE must be all 7s.

83

Crash Events

C18

C18 - Crash Events
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: (See Below)
Remarks: The Crash Events table records in chronological sequence, the set of events resulting from an
unstabilized situation that constitutes a motor vehicle traffic crash. The “crash” is concluded in time when all
events which originate from the unstabilized situation are stabilized. The Crash Events table is designed to
provide a coded description of all qualifying events which occurred in the crash.
With this coded chronological sequence of qualified crash events, traffic safety analysts can review the entire
series of events involving in-transport motor vehicles. Various areas of concern to the highway safety
community can be easily assessed using this data. For instance, the injury severity in crashes can be assessed
relative to the number and type of impacts involved. Likewise, certain collision configurations that may create a
greater hazardous condition for the occupants can be identified. Other possible areas of analysis would be the
mix of vehicles sizes or the types of objects the different classes of vehicles impact.
To complete the Crash Events table, each event for each vehicle is recorded in the order in which they occur,
time-wise, based on the description of the crash from the crash report narrative, diagram or other relevant case
materials. Crash Events includes both harmful and non-harmful events that occur in the crash. Recording of
Crash Events ends at the last harmful event of the entire crash. Therefore, a non-harmful event (e.g., Crossing
the Centerline) that occurs following the last harmful event of the crash will not be included.
The Crash Events table is completed based on the actions of the in-transport motor vehicle(s) in the case.
Consequently, other involved traffic units (parked motor vehicle, pedestrian, etc.) are only identified in the
events for the in-transport motor vehicle that contacted it. If the crash report includes an event that involves
only not in-transport motor vehicles and/or non-motorists, that specific event is not entered as an event in the
coded crash sequence.
Examples Include:
• Not in-transport vehicle impacts pedestrian, other not in-transport vehicle, or fixed object
• Pedestrian or pedalcyclist impacts an object, a not in-transport vehicle, other non-motorist
*Note: Data recorded in the Crash Events table is used to derive the following data elements:
1. First Harmful Event (FHE) – the first injury or damage producing event in each crash.
2. Areas of Impact / Initial (AOI/Initial) – the first Areas of Impact value for each vehicle
3. Sequence of Events (SOE) – all events (harmful and non-harmful) associated with each in-transport
motor vehicle in the table.
For items identified in a “damaged property” section on the report, include all items listed associated with the
applicable vehicle in the best order that can be determined. If the actual order cannot be determined, use the
listed order of items. In a multi-vehicle crash, if it cannot be determined which vehicle is associated with the
damaged property listed; assign these items to the vehicle most likely to be associated with this property. If this
cannot be established, omit these events.
C18 Crash Events Table Columns

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

84

Crash Events

C18

Event Number
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.EVENTNUM; Vevent.EVENTNUM
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-999

Attributes
Actual Number

Remarks: This is a computer assigned number beginning with ‘001.’ The event number(s) show the
chronological sequence of the qualifying harmful and non-harmful events in the crash. Qualifying events are
those which involve an in-transport motor vehicle or an object set-in-motion by an in-transport motor vehicle.
In the MDE system this will be the row position and not displayed as a column in the entry table.

Vehicle Number (This Vehicle)
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.VNUMBER1; Vevent.VNUMBER1
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-999

Attributes
Actual Number

Remarks: Enter the number of the in-transport motor vehicle associated with the event in the Sequence of
Events column of the Crash Events Table. Vehicles are assigned the PAR’s vehicle number unless a vehicle
number from the PAR is not used in the case (e.g., non-contact vehicle).

Areas of Impact (This Vehicle)
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.AOI1; Vevent.AOI1
ELEMENT VALUES: *
Codes
00
01-12
13
14
61
62
63
81
82
83
18
19
98
99

Attributes
Non-Collision
Clock Points
Top
Undercarriage
Left
Left-Front Side
Left-Back Side
Right
Right-Front Side
Right-Back Side
Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion
Other Objects Set-In-Motion
Not Reported
Unknown

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

85

Crash Events

C18

Remarks: Identifies the contact point (if applicable) for the vehicle coded in Vehicle Number (This Vehicle)
associated with this event. If the event is a Collision event, code the value that identifies the impact area or
indicates this vehicle set an object in motion. If the event is a Non-Collision event, use the attribute 00 (NonCollision). If the event is a Non-Harmful event, then skip entry of an Areas of Impact (This Vehicle) value for that
event.
This field uses the same values and Remarks as the Vehicle Level data element Areas of Impact – Initial Contact
Point. The Vehicle Level data element Areas of Impact - Initial Contact Point is derived from the Crash Events
Table and will always be the first recorded areas of impact value for each vehicle in the table.

Sequence of Events
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.SOE; Vevent.SOE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Non-Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
61
Equipment Failure (blown tire, brake failure, etc.)
62
Separation of Units
63
Ran Off Roadway-Right
64
Ran Off Roadway-Left
79
Ran off Roadway - Direction Unknown
71
End Departure
65
Cross Median
68
Cross Centerline
66
Downhill Runaway
67
Vehicle Went Airborne
69
Re-entering Roadway
70
Non-harmful, Swaying Trailer/Jackknife
60
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (non-harmful)
Non-Collision Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
01
Rollover/Overturn
02
Fire/Explosion
03
Immersion or Partial Immersion
04
Gas Inhalation
51
Jackknife (harmful to this vehicle)
06
Injured in Vehicle (Non-Collision)
44
Pavement Surface Irregularity (Ruts, Potholes, Grates, etc.)
07
Other Non-Collision
72
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (harmful to this vehicle)
16
Thrown or Falling Object
05
Fell/Jumped from Vehicle

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86

Crash Events

C18

Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
Codes Attributes
12
Motor Vehicle In-Transport
54
Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport
55
Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway
Collision with Object Not Fixed:
Codes Attributes
08
Pedestrian
09
Pedalcyclist
10
Railway Vehicle
74
Road Vehicle on Rails
11
Live Animal
49
Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance
18
Other Object (Not Fixed)
15
Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance
14
Parked Motor Vehicle
45
Working Motor Vehicle
73
Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Collision with Fixed Object:
Codes Attributes
17
Boulder
19
Building
58
Ground
20
Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion
50
Bridge Overhead Structure
21
Bridge Pier or Support
23
Bridge Rail (Includes Parapet)
24
Guardrail Face
52
Guardrail End
25
Concrete Traffic Barrier
57
Cable Barrier
26
Other Traffic Barrier
59
Traffic Sign Support
46
Traffic Signal Support
30
Utility Pole/Light Support
31
Other Post, Other Pole, or Other Supports
32
Culvert
33
Curb
34
Ditch
35
Embankment
38
Fence
39
Wall
40
Fire Hydrant

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Codes
41
42
48
53
43

C18

Attributes
Shrubbery
Tree (Standing Only)
Snow Bank
Mail Box
Other Fixed Object

Unknown
Codes Attributes
99
Unknown
Remarks: This data element is derived from the Crash Events Table. Recording of Crash Events ends at the last
harmful event of the entire crash. Therefore, a non-harmful event (e.g., Crossing the Centerline) that occurs
following the last harmful event of the crash will not be included. Correction to the Sequence Events order must
be made by revision to the Crash Events Table. This field uses the same values and Remarks as the Vehicle Level
data element Sequence of Events.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A042)
CRASH EVENTS-SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals
17, 19-21, 23-26, 30-35, 38-43, 52, 53, 57 for
a vehicle,
(A612)
PERSON TYPE equals 04, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals ____,
(A619)
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
05 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,
(A61A)
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
08 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,
(A61B)
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
10 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,

THEN
at least one previous CRASH EVENTS-SEQUENCE
OF EVENTS should equal 63, 64, 71 or 79 for that
vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
10 or 49 for that vehicle number in the CRASH
EVENTS table.
the number of events equal to 08 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.
the number of events equal to 15 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.
the number of events equal to 08 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.

Vehicle Number (Other Vehicle)
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.VNUMBER2; Vevent.VNUMBER2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-999

Attributes
Actual Number

Remarks: This identifies the vehicle number of the vehicle contacted by the motor vehicle in-transport recorded
in “Vehicle Number (This Vehicle).” This field is applicable only when the event is a collision between two motor
vehicles (i.e., Sequence of Events codes 12, 54, 55, 14 or 45). If the event is not a collision between two motor
vehicles, then Vehicle Number (Other Vehicle) is not applicable and left blank.

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Areas of Impact (Other Vehicle)
FORMAT: (Completed in MDE)
SAS NAME: Cevent.AOI2; Vevent.AOI2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01-12
13
14
61
62
63
81
82
83
18
19
98
99

Attributes
Non-Collision
Clock Points
Top
Undercarriage
Left
Left-Front Side
Left-Back Side
Right
Right-Front Side
Right-Back Side
Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion
Other Objects Set-In-Motion
Not Reported
Unknown

Remarks: Identifies the contact point (if applicable) for the vehicle coded in Vehicle Number (This Vehicle)
associated with this event. If the event is a Collision event, code the value that identifies the impact area or
indicates this vehicle set an object in motion. If the event is a Non-Collision event, use the attribute 00 (NonCollision). If the event is a Non-Harmful event, then skip entry of an Areas of Impact (This Vehicle) value for that
event.
This field uses the same values as the Vehicle Level data element Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point. The
Vehicle Level data element Areas of Impact - Initial Contact Point is derived from the Crash Events Table and will
always be the first recorded areas of impact value for each vehicle in the table.

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C19 - First Harmful Event
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.HARM_EV; Vehicle.HARM_EV; Person.HARM_EV; parkwork.PHARM_EV
ELEMENT VALUES:
Non-Collision Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
01
Rollover/Overturn
02
Fire/Explosion
03
Immersion or Partial Immersion
04
Gas Inhalation
51
Jackknife (harmful to this vehicle)
06
Injured in Vehicle (Non-Collision)
44
Pavement Surface Irregularity (Ruts, Potholes, Grates, etc.)
07
Other Non-Collision
16
Thrown or Falling Object
72
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (harmful to this vehicle)
05
Fell/Jumped from Vehicle
Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
Codes Attributes
12
Motor Vehicle In-Transport
54
Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport
55
Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway
Collision with Object Not Fixed:
Codes Attributes
08
Pedestrian
09
Pedalcyclist
10
Railway Vehicle
74
Road Vehicle on Rails
11
Live Animal
49
Ridden Animal or Animal Drawn Conveyance
18
Other Object (Not Fixed)
15
Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance
14
Parked Motor Vehicle
45
Working Motor Vehicle
73
Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport

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Collision with Fixed Object:
Codes Attributes
17
Boulder
19
Building
58
Ground
20
Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion
50
Bridge Overhead Structure
21
Bridge Pier or Support
23
Bridge Rail (Includes Parapet)
24
Guardrail Face
52
Guardrail End
25
Concrete Traffic Barrier
57
Cable Barrier
26
Other Traffic Barrier
59
Traffic Sign Support
46
Traffic Signal Support
30
Utility Pole/Light Support
31
Other Post, Other Pole, or Other Supports
32
Culvert
33
Curb
34
Ditch
35
Embankment
38
Fence
39
Wall
40
Fire Hydrant
41
Shrubbery
42
Tree (Standing Only)
48
Snow Bank
53
Mail Box
43
Other Fixed Object
Unknown
Codes Attributes
99
Unknown
Definition: The First Harmful Event is defined as the first injury- or damage-producing event of the crash.
Remarks: on following page.

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Non-Collision Harmful Events
Non-Collision events involving motorcycles and vehicles with a “load”:
Non-Collision events may occur before or after a collision event. They should not be coded as a separate event
if they occur as part of a collision event.
Examples:
• A motorcycle strikes a deer, overturns and the rider becomes separated from the vehicle. Code the
collision event, not the non-collision “Rollover/Overturn” and “Fell/Jumped from Vehicle” that occur as
part of the collision event.
• One tractor/trailer rear-ends another tractor/trailer. The impact pushes the lead vehicle’s load into the
back of the tractor cab with part falling onto the roadway. Code the collision event, not the noncollision “cargo-loss or shift” that occurred as part of the collision event.
01 (Rollover/Overturn) is used when a motor vehicle rotates (rollover) at least one quarter turn onto its side or
end. For motorcycles, laying the motorcycle down on its side is sufficient to code 01 (Rollover/Overturn) as a
harmful event if damage or injury is produced, even though the data element Rollover is not applicable to
motorcycles.
If there is a 01 (Rollover/Overturn) that begins in another location but involves a ditch or embankment in the
case (e.g., “rolled through the ditch,” “rolled down the embankment,” “came to rest against the embankment”),
then the rule applies where if there is no damage associated with an impact with the fixed object during the
rollover, it is not included in the Crash Events. If there is indication that damage resulted from an impact with
the fixed object, it is included in the Crash Events. This follows the same logic as striking a tree or another
vehicle during an overturn.
Note: For medium/heavy trucks with attached trailers by fixed linkage, when either the power unit or the trailer
rolls over, the entire vehicle will be considered a rollover.
02 (Fire/Explosion) is used for a vehicle fire or explosion that occurs during the crash sequence or as a result of
the crash.
As it pertains to the occurrence of 02 (Fire/Explosion), the crash circumstances are not considered stabilized
until the threat of damage to this vehicle, or injury consequences to this vehicle's occupants, has ceased.
Therefore, the crash sequence is not considered stabilized until all occupants have exited the vehicle and the
scene has been declared safe by police or other authority. Fires that occur at a later time to vehicles abandoned
at the scene (e.g., in open fields, on hillsides, etc.) or to vehicles removed from the scene to another location
(tow yard, curbside, etc.) are not considered part of the crash sequence.
03 (Immersion or Partial Immersion) is used when an in-transport motor vehicle enters a body of water and
results in injury or damage. This code would also be used if the vehicle came to rest in water and the depth
cannot be ascertained from case materials. NOTE: In immersion fatalities the injury to the person may be noted
as “drowning”.
04 (Gas Inhalation) includes injury or death as a result of toxic fumes, such as carbon monoxide fumes leaking
from a motor vehicle in-transport.

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51 (Jackknife [harmful to this vehicle]) applies to a condition that occurs to an articulated vehicle, (any vehicle
with a trailing unit(s) connected by a hitch; e.g., truck tractor or single-unit truck with one or more trailers,
articulated bus, car pulling a boat on a trailer, etc.) while in motion. The condition reflects a loss of control of
the vehicle by the driver in which the trailer(s) yaws from its normal straight-line path behind the power unit,
striking the power unit, causing damage to the power unit or trailer. Jackknife should only be coded as a
harmful event if there is clear indication of damage to the jackknifed vehicle or injury to its occupants caused by
the jackknife.
06 (Injured in Vehicle [non-collision]) is used when an occupant is injured during an unstabilized situation
without a collision, excluding cargo/equipment loss or shift. Examples: Driver slams on brake, causing an
unrestrained passenger to be injured. Driver makes a sharp turn causing driver to strike head on side window,
knocking driver unconscious.
44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]) is used when the pavement surface irregularity
is on a paved surface. Other examples include indication of contact with a dip, depression, low spot, trough,
etc.) If the impact is with a surface irregularity (e.g. ruts, potholes) not on a paved surface use the 58 (Ground).
For a vehicle that "bottoms out" on the paved surface (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a
pavement surface irregularity, use attribute 07 (Other Non-Collision).
07 (Other Non-Collision). Non-collision not captured in the listed non-collision attributes.
Examples:
• Damage to the vehicle produced by its own dislodged vehicle parts (including hood flying up and
contacting the windshield).
• A vehicle “bottoms out” on the roadway (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a
pavement surface irregularity. For impacts on the roadway due to pavement surface irregularities
should be coded 44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]).
16 (Thrown or Falling Object) is used when any object (1) is thrown (intentionally or unintentionally) and
impacts an in-transport vehicle, or (2) falls onto, into, or in the path of an in-transport motor vehicle. If a tree
limb falls from a tree and is contacted by a car, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). If a person maliciously
throws an object off an overpass into traffic below, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). This excludes contacts
made by loads or objects set in-motion by a motor vehicle (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is
Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport)).
72 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [harmful to this vehicle]) refers specifically to the loss or shift of items
carried on or in a motor vehicle or its trailing unit, and not to the vehicle, its parts or trailing unit, itself. This
attribute is only used when the injury- or damage-producing event in the crash is the loss or shift of cargo in/on
a vehicle causing damage to that vehicle, its cargo, or injury to its occupants. This attribute should never be
used to refer to a “collision” event (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or
Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport)).
Example:
A pickup truck brakes rapidly to avoid a collision. This causes a piece of lumber in the pickup bed to smash
through the rear window.
05 (Fell/Jumped from Vehicle) is used when an occupant of this vehicle falls or jumps (not suicide) from the
vehicle causing injury. For example, an occupant of a motor vehicle in-transport leans against the car door, it
opens and the occupant falls out; or a person riding on a vehicle’s exterior (hood, roof, running board, etc.) falls
or jumps, and is injured by the fall. If an occupant falls or jumps from a vehicle and is struck by that vehicle, use
this attribute.

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Collision with a Motor Vehicle In-Transport
12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is two motor vehicles intransport making contact within the trafficway boundaries. In-transport means that the motor vehicle is inmotion or on the roadway portion of a trafficway.
54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is two motor vehicles
in-transport making contact by something set-in-motion by one of the vehicles. In these circumstances, both
vehicles will have this attribute extracted and included in their SEQUENCE OF EVENTS.
In crashes involving harmful events caused by objects set-in-motion by a Motor Vehicle in-transport, remember
that a vehicle’s load is considered part of the vehicle.
Examples:
• If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes another motor vehicle in-transport, this is
treated as a two-vehicle crash. Therefore, the proper code for both vehicles is 54 (Motor Vehicle InTransport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in- Motion from/by Another Motor
Vehicle In-Transport) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 18 (Cargo/Vehicle
Parts Set-In-Motion).
•

If an in-transport vehicle strikes an at-rest object in the roadway that was previously cargo or part of
another motor vehicle in-transport, the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for that event is 73 (Object That Had
Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport). If that object is then propelled into another motor vehicle
in-transport, the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute for this next event is 54 (Motor Vehicle InTransport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor
Vehicle In-Transport) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 19 (Other Objects
Set-In-Motion).

•

If an in-transport vehicle strikes an at-rest object in the roadway that was not cargo or part of
another motor vehicle in-transport, the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for that event is 18 (Other Object
[Not Fixed]). If that object is then propelled into another motor vehicle in-transport, the proper
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS code for this next event is 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck
by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) and the
AREA OF IMPACT (This Vehicle) column is coded 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).

This attribute does not apply when the cargo, persons or objects set-in-motion by an in-transport motor vehicle
strikes something other than another in-transport motor vehicle. In this case, use the applicable "collision with
non-fixed object", or "collision with fixed object" code for the thing struck by the cargo, person, or object set-inmotion.
Examples:
• If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes another vehicle that is not in-transport, the
proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute is 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) or 45 (Working Motor Vehicle)
depending on which type of not in-transport vehicle was contacted by the load and the AREA OF
IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion).
•

If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes a pedestrian, the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENT
attribute would be 08 (Pedestrian) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 18
(Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion).

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•

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If a pedestrian is struck by an at-rest object propelled by an in-transport vehicle (e.g., parked motor
vehicle, stop sign, etc.), the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute for this harmful event is 08
(Pedestrian) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 19 (Other Objects Set-InMotion).

55 (Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is
two motor vehicles in-transport making contact outside the trafficway boundaries in a motor vehicle traffic
crash.
Example:
A vehicle loses control attempting to turn into a gas station and strikes another vehicle pulling away
from the pump in the station lot.

Collision with Object Not Fixed
08 (Pedestrian) is used for all those not on a personal conveyance. A person pushing a vehicle should be coded
08 (Pedestrian). A person being carried by another person should also be considered a 08 (Pedestrian).
09 (Pedalcyclist) is used for any person on a non-motorized other road vehicle propelled by pedaling. Examples
include a bicycle, tricycle, unicycle or pedal car.
10 (Railway Vehicle) is any land vehicle that is (1) designed primarily for, or in use for, moving persons or
property from one place to another on rails and (2) not in use on a land way other than a railway.
• Inclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way
• Exclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
74 (Road Vehicle on Rails) is any land vehicle on rails operating in a trafficway.
• Inclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
• Exclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way, Street car/trolley or electric bus
operating on tires.
11 (Live Animal) is used for collisions with live animals (domesticated or wild) that are not themselves being
used as transportation or to draw a wagon, cart or other transport device (see ANSI D16.1). Default to 11 (Live
Animal) if it cannot be determined if the struck animal is alive, dead or if it was being ridden or drawing a
transport device.
Use 49 (Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance) for ridden animals and animals drawing transport
devices. See 18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) for an animal carcass.
18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) is used when a motor vehicle in-transport strikes a non-fixed object that is known
NOT to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport or when it is UNKNOWN whether the
object was the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport (i.e., refers to objects such as a dead body,
animal carcass, construction cones or barrels, an unattached trailer, a bicycle without a rider or downed tree
limbs or power lines, debris from a prior crash). For objects that have become separated from a motor vehicle
in-transport not as a result of a prior crash, use attribute 73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle InTransport).

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15 (Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance) is used for pedestrians using personal conveyances. A personal
conveyance is a device, other than a transport device, used by a pedestrian for personal mobility assistance or
recreation. These devices can be motorized or human powered, but not propelled by pedaling.
Inclusions:
1. Rideable toys
a. Roller Skates, in-line skates
b. Skateboards
c. Skates
d. Baby carriage
e. Scooters
f. Toy Wagons
2. Motorized rideable toys
a. Motorized skateboard
b. Motorized toy car
3. Devices for personal mobility assistance
a. Segway-style devices
b. Motorized and non-motorized wheelchair
c. Handicapped scooters
Exclusions:
1. Golf cart
2. Low Speed Vehicles (LSVs)
3. Go-carts
4. Minibike
5. “Pocket” motorcycles
6. Motor scooters
7. Moped
14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) is used when the impact occurred between a motor vehicle in-transport and a motor
vehicle neither on a roadway nor in motion. A vehicle stopped off the roadway, its door open over a roadway, is
not in-transport.
45 (Working Motor Vehicle) is used to indicate the motor vehicle contacted was in the act of performing
construction, maintenance or utility work related to the trafficway when it became an involved unit. This
“work” may be located within open or closed portions of the trafficway and motor vehicles performing these
activities can be within or outside the trafficway boundaries. This code does not include private
construction/maintenance vehicles, or vehicles such as garbage trucks, delivery trucks, taxis, emergency
vehicles, tow trucks, etc.
Examples:
1. Asphalt/steam roller working in a highway construction zone paving the roadway or flattening dirt.
2. State highway maintenance crew painting lane lines on the road, mowing grass on the roadside or
median, repairing potholes, removing debris from the roadway, etc.
3. Utility truck or a “cherry picker”, performing maintenance on power lines along the roadway or
maintaining a traffic signal.
4. A private excavating company contracted by the State digging the foundation for a new overpass.
5. A state, county or privately owned snow plow, plowing ice/snow as part of a highway maintenance
activity.
6. Street sweeper sweeping the street.

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7.
8.

C19

A vehicle in a mobile work convoy displaying arrow boards or other signaling devices warning
motorists of the work activity.
A law enforcement vehicle which is participating strictly in a stationary construction or mobile
maintenance activity as a traffic slowing, control, signaling or calming influence.

NOTE: Before 2004, this code was called Transport Device Used as Equipment. It included other working
activities in addition to construction, maintenance and utility work on trafficways. From 2004 forward, code
“45” excludes working activities other than highway construction, maintenance or utility vehicles (e.g., garbage
truck picking up trash, mail/delivery trucks while making deliveries, personal vehicles plowing snow, etc. These
are considered motor vehicles In-transport). Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level 42 (Other Working Vehicle [Not
Construction, Maintenance, Utility, Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle]) to identify these vehicles.
A question may arise when a police, fire or emergency medical vehicle is struck on the roadway while at the
scene of a crash, at a traffic stop, or as traffic control. The question becomes, “has its function changed from
being a motor vehicle in-transport to a working vehicle?” The answer is “no.” Treat these situations as a motor
vehicle in-transport striking another motor vehicle in-transport. Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level 41 (Police,
Fire, or EMS Vehicle Working at the Scene of an Emergency or Performing Other Traffic Control Activities) to
identify that this vehicle was struck while performing these work activities.
73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when a motor vehicle in- transport
impacts a non-fixed object at rest that is known to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle intransport. Do not use this attribute for debris from a prior crash. This attribute does not include vehicle
occupants that are ejected or fall from a motor vehicle in-transport. (Example: Motorcycle operator falling
from a motorcycle.) For people falling from a motor vehicle see non-collision event 05 (Fell/Jumped From
Vehicle). For impacts involving two motor vehicles in transport resulting from cargo, persons, or objects set in
motion see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion
from/by another Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
For example, if cargo that fell from a vehicle and was at rest in the roadway is struck, this attribute would
apply. If the cargo was at rest in the roadway as a result of a prior accident, use attribute 18 (Other Object
[Not Fixed]).

Collision with Fixed Object
The attributes 58 (Ground), 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch), and 35 (Embankment) are grouped under the Collision with
Fixed Object subset because they are intended to be harmful events in the crash (i.e. – they are associated with
an impact that produces injury or damage).
When coding these events there must be fields on the PAR or verbiage in the narrative such as "struck," "hit,"
"impacted," etc. that identify these as harmful.
For cases where the indication of the harmful event came from the narrative, there may not be a corresponding
indication of damage in any PAR field. In these instances, code the harmful event as stated in the narrative and
include the corresponding attribute under Areas of Impact.
If there is no indication of damage from contact with the fixed object in fields on the PAR and the narrative
language does not identify it as a harmful event (e.g., “came to rest on the embankment" or "drove through" or
"drove across" the ditch and/or the embankment, or "drove over" the curb do not code 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch) or
35 (Embankment) in the Sequence of Events.

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Guidelines for PAR Combination Attributes:
If there is no clarification in the case materials, default to the first attribute listed in the combination. For
example, if a PAR attribute identifies "Earth Embankment/Rockcut /Ditch", code 35 (Embankment) unless the
narrative clearly indicates one of the other attributes (e.g. "rockcut" or "ditch").
17 (Boulder) is a rock of sufficient mass that when struck by a motor vehicle moves very little and remains
basically intact. It may be considered as a fixed object.
19 (Building) is used when the vehicle impacts a roofed and walled structure built for permanent use. The type
of construction material used is not of interest, nor is the use of the building.
58 (Ground) is used when the impact is with an earthen or paved surface off of the roadway. 58 (Ground) is not
to be entered when the harmful event is 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
Indication of furrowing, gouging, or digging in of the tires/wheels is not sufficient to code the collision event 58
(Ground). For example, if the PAR narrative states; “the trucks tires dug into the turf causing the vehicle to roll
over,” the harmful event should be 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
20 (Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion) is a device for controlling the absorption of energy released during
vehicle collision (crash cushion). Its most common application involves the protection of fixed roadside objects
such as bridge piers, elevated gores at exit ramps, etc. Examples include barrels filled with water or sand, and
plastic collapsible structures.
50 (Bridge Overhead Structure) is used when striking the bottom of a bridge while traveling on a trafficway
underneath it. See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge Components.
21 (Bridge Pier or Support) is a square or round column of stone, concrete, brick, steel or wood for supporting a
bridge between abutments. This attribute includes the bridge abutments which are supporting the ends of a
bridge. Abutments are generally designed for retaining or supporting the embankment under bridge ends and
composed of stone, concrete, brick or wood (includes the wing-walls). See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge
Components.
23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) is a wooden, brick, stone, concrete, or metal fence-like structure which runs
along the outer most edge of the roadway or sidewalk on the bridge or a rail constructed along the top of a
parapet. Balustrade is often used synonymously with parapet. See See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge
Components.
• Bridges do not need to support another roadway. It may be an overpass for a train or even for a viaduct
(water conduit).
24 (Guardrail Face) is a low barrier that has the primary longitudinal structure composed of metal (plates, mesh,
box beam, etc.). A guardrail is differentiated from 25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) by the material making up the
greatest part of the longitudinal portion of the structure. In the case of guardrails, this is metal whereas in
concrete barriers this is concrete (including concrete rails). If the crash report does not differentiate between
guardrail face and end, default to guardrail face.
Guardrails, which serve as bridge rails, should be coded as 23 (Bridge Rails [includes Parapet]).
52 (Guardrail End) is used if a vehicle strikes the end of a guardrail. Guardrails can have a separate flat or
rounded piece of metal attached to the end of an expanse of guardrail face.

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25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) refers to the longitudinal traffic barriers constructed of concrete. This includes all
temporary concrete barriers regardless of location (i.e., temporary Jersey Barrier on a bridge being used to
control traffic during bridge repair/construction). Concrete walls (vertical side surfaces) do not apply here; see
39 (Wall).
57 (Cable Barrier) refers to a flexible barrier system which uses several cables typically supported by steel posts.
These barriers are designed to help lessen impact or keep vehicles within the confines of the road.
26 (Other Traffic Barrier) is used for all other longitudinal barriers such as wood or rock.
59 (Traffic Sign Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic sign, or the sign itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport. This includes mile marker posts and signs above the trafficway.
46 (Traffic Signal Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic signal, or the signal itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport.
30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) refers to supports for highway lighting systems, not including other private
lighting systems (e.g., parking lot lights). 30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) is used for electrical, telephone, cable &
other utility pole-type supports.
31 (Other Post, Other Pole, or Other Supports) is used for posts other than highway signs, utility poles, or light
supports. (e.g., reflectors on poles alongside of roadway, parking meters, flag poles, etc.). For mail box posts,
use 53 (Mail Box). For fence posts, use 38 (Fence).
32 (Culvert) is a man-made drain or channel crossing under a road, sidewalk, etc.
33 (Curb) is a concrete or asphalt structure that borders the paved surface. It provides drainage control and
pavement edge delineation. The face of the curb may be sloped or vertical. Ensure that the PAR provides some
indication that damage has occurred when a vehicle strikes a curb. This attribute includes collisions with curbing
that forms raised islands, medians, or separators. For example, if the report identifies the vehicle struck/collided
with a traffic island, channelizing island, raised median, or separator use 33 (Curb) not 43 (Other Fixed Object).
34 (Ditch) includes any man-made structure for drainage purposes. A ditch ends where a culvert begins and
resumes on the opposite side of the culvert. Reference to a “ditchbank”, “embankment of the ditch”, or “ditch
embankment” should be coded under 34 (Ditch).
35 (Embankment) is a raised structure to hold back water, to carry a roadway or the result of excavation or
washout (including erosion) which may be faced with earth (or rock, stone or concrete). A 35 (Embankment)
can usually be differentiated from a 39 (Wall) by its incline whereas a wall is usually vertical. However, there are
exceptions to this; such as a retaining wall that may be inclined or a vertical embankment that is caused by a
natural event such as a washout.
In crashes involving a field approach or driveway crossing, use attribute 35 (Embankment) when no specific
components (e.g., culverts or ditches) are identified.
38 (Fence) includes the fence posts. A Fence can be made of wood, chain link, stone, etc.

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C19

39 (Wall) is a primarily vertical structure composed of concrete, metal, timber or stone which is not part of a
building or a fence but typically is used for retaining earth, abating noise, and separating areas (but not for
containment as in the primary function of a fence). Also included as 39 (Wall) is headwalls (or endwalls) that are
sometimes provided on culvert ends principally to protect the sides of the embankment around the culvert
opening against erosion. This does not include wing-walls, which are attached to ends of bridge abutments and
extend back at an angle from the roadway. Wingwalls should be coded as 21 (Bridge Pier or Support).
40 (Fire Hydrant) refers to the roadside device used by fire departments to provide water for fighting fires.
Usually made of steel, these devices are also referred to as fire plugs or fire stand pipes in some areas.
41 (Shrubbery) refers to vegetation which is usually of a woody multi-stemmed variety and in most instances is
low growing rather than tall. May also be called bushes. Some common examples are boxwood, hawthorn, and
mountain laurel.
42 (Tree [Standing Only]) is used when a vehicle strikes a standing tree. This includes impacts from overhanging
branches, tree stumps or large cactus (Saguaro). If a vehicle strikes a fallen tree, use 18 (Other Object [Not
Fixed]). If a tree falls on a vehicle as it is passing by, use 16 (Thrown or Falling Object).
48 (Snow Bank) is used when snowfall and/or road plowing creates essentially fixed barriers of snow/ice which
are not snow-covered earth or rock embankments.
53 (Mail Box) refers to a private residence mail/newspaper box including the post. A cluster of private
mailboxes is included in this attribute. This element does not include U.S. Mailbox, which are typically blue and
are for general public use. Code a U.S. Mailbox as 43 (Other Fixed Object).
43 (Other Fixed Object) is used when the object is fixed (considered a permanent structure) and is not described
by any of the other fixed object attributes. This attribute excludes collisions with curbing that forms raised
islands, medians, or separators (See also 33 (Curb).)
Examples:

•

Bus shelters

•
•
•
•

Pedestrian walkways
Toll booths
Guy wires supporting utility poles
U. S. Mailbox for public use

Other examples would include property damage to standing crops, yards and other vegetation (excluding: 41
(Shrubbery), 42 (Tree [Standing Only]), and 58 (Ground)) if noted on the crash report.
When the case materials identify a non-specific object impact, apply the following guidelines. If the case
materials only identify the harmful event as:
• "Fixed Object", then use 43 (Other Fixed Object)
• "Sign", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Post", then use 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or Other Supports)
• "Sign Post", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Bridge", then use 23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) when the vehicle is on top of the bridge, when the
vehicle is going under the bridge, then use 21 (Bridge Pier or Support)
• "Barrier", then use 26 (Other Traffic Barrier)

Unknown
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

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First Harmful Event
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(42CP)
there are two vehicles involved in the FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT,
(440F)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01,

(450F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(460F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 02,

(470F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 03, 08, 10,

(480F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 04, 06,

(490F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 05,

(500F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01-11, 14-21,
23-26, 30-35, 44-53, 57-59, 72, 73,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, 54, 55,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,

(510F)
(520F)

(530F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 99,

(531F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 11,

(540F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 02,

(550F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,

(560F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 09,

(570F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 05, 06,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C19

THEN
those two vehicles’ CRASH TYPES must belong
to the same CRASH TYPE Configuration.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 01-03,
09-11, 13, 16, 23, 98 or 99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 14.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 02, 20.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 20, 22,
28, 98, 99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 09, 16,
20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 98, 99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 24, 25.
MANNER OF COLLISION must not equal 01, 02,
06-11, 98, 99.
MANNER OF COLLISION must not equal 00.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE must not equal 0104, 07-09, 20-50, 98 for the vehicle involved in
the first harmful event.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 09, 98,
99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 11.
the vehicle involved in the first harmful event
must have FIRE OCCURRENCE equal to 1.
at least one person must have PERSON TYPE
equal 05, 10.
at least one person must have PERSON TYPE
equal to 06, 07.
at least one PERSON TYPE equal to 01-03, 09
must have INJURY SEVERITY equal to 1-5 or
blank.

101

First Harmful Event
Check
(580F)

(590F)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14, and
RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV
OCCUPANT) LEVEL does not equal 32, 89 for
at least one occupant in the not in-transport
motor vehicle involved in the first harmful
event,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 15,

(5Y0F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15,

(670F)
(9C0P)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, 14, 45, 54,
55,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 55,

(A041)

CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,

(A080)

(A110)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, and NUMBER OF
VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED equals 002,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT is not equal to 02, 04,
05, 10, 16, 18,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,

(A350)
(A370)

ROUTE SIGNING equals 1,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 99,

(A380)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01 and this
vehicle is involved in the first harmful event,
and BODY TYPE does not equal 80-89 for this
vehicle, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY
equals _____,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 17, 19-21, 2326, 30-35, 38-43, 52, 53, 57,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 02-07,16, 44,
51, 72,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01-07, 16, 44,
51, 72,
CRASH TYPE equals 13,

(A100)

(A390)
(A3C0)
(A3D0)
(A3E0)
(A41A)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 02, 04, 07, 16,
44 or 54,

(A420)
(A421)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 24, 25, 30, 33,
34, 35, 40, 46, 52, 57, 59,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C19
THEN
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01.

at least one Person Level form must have a
PERSON TYPE of 08.
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR PERSONS
NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES must not equal 00.
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
there must be at least one vehicle with UNIT
TYPE equal to 1.
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FIRST HARMFUL EVENT,
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 48.
one RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should
equal 20.
there should be one vehicle with TRAVEL SPEED
of 001-151, 997-999, or blanks.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01-03.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 10.
MANNER OF COLLISION should not equal 00, 0111.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER should equal _____
respectively.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01,
02, 07, 11.
CRASH TYPE must equal 00 for the vehicle
involved in the first harmful event.
CRASH TYPE must not equal 20-91.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT must equal 08, 09, 11,
15 or 49.
CRITICAL EVENT - PRECRASH (EVENT) should
equal 98 for the vehicles involved in the FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 06.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should equal 03, 04,
08 or 10.

102

First Harmful Event
Check
(A480)

IF
CRASH TYPE equals 00,

(A4A0)
(A4BP)

CRASH TYPE equals 01-16,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54 or 55,

(A4DP)
(A4EP)
(A60F)

CRASH TYPE equals 20-91,
CRASH TYPE equals 11,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14,

(A61F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 11, 15,
49, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01,
02, 07, 11, and PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT
(PRIOR TO RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT)
is not equal to 00, 13 for the vehicle involved
in the first harmful event,
the FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, and
PERSON TYPE equals 05, and NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT THE TIME OF CRASH equals 21,
22, 24, 25, 28, and the NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is
involved in the first harmful event,
the FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 09, and
PERSON TYPE equals 06, 07, and NONMOTORIST LOCATION AT THE TIME OF
CRASH equals 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, and the
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NONMOTORIST is involved in the first harmful
event,
the FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 15, and
PERSON TYPE equals 08, and NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT THE TIME OF CRASH equals 21,
22, 24, 25, 28, and the NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is
involved in the first harmful event,
the FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 49, and
PERSON TYPE equals 04, and NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT THE TIME OF CRASH equals 21,
22, 24, 25, 28, and the NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is
involved in the first harmful event,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 18, 43 or 73,
and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or
11,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01,

(A61G)

(A61H)

(A61J)

(A61K)

(A62F)

(A63F)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C19
THEN
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT must equal 02-07, 16,
44, 51, 72.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT must not equal 12.
CRASH TYPE must equal 98 for the vehicles
involved in the first harmful event.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT must equal 12.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT must equal 14.
CRASH TYPE must equal 01-11, 14, 15, 92, 98,
99.
CRASH TYPE should equal 13 for the vehicle
involved in the first harmful event.

CRASH TYPE should not equal 13 for this vehicle.

CRASH TYPE should not equal 13 for this vehicle.

CRASH TYPE should not equal 13 for this vehicle.

CRASH TYPE should not equal 13 for this vehicle.

CRASH TYPE should equal 12 or 15 for the
vehicle involved in the first harmful event.
CRASH TYPE should equal 01-10, 98, 99 for the
vehicle involved in the first harmful event.

103

First Harmful Event
Check
(A65F)

(A66F)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14, and
RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV
OCCUPANT) LEVEL equals 32 or 89 for an
occupant of the parked vehicle involved in
the first harmful event,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14, and CRASH
TYPE equals 01-10 or 14,

(A67F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14, and CRASH
TYPE equals 15,

(A770)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A780)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A790)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A800)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A801)
(A810)

(A830)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(AC1A)
(AM1P)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54,

(AZ2P)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT does not equal 02-07,
16, 44, 51, 72, and CRITICAL EVENTPRECRASH (EVENT) equals 14, and
ATTEMPTED AVOIDANCE MANEUVER equals
01,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals blank, case
status is flawed.

(A820)

(FA0F)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C19
THEN
CRASH TYPE should equal 15, 92 or 98 for the intransport vehicle involved in the First Harmful
Event.

RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV OCCUPANT)
LEVEL must not equal 32 or 89 for any occupant
of the parked vehicle involved in the First
Harmful Event.
RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV OCCUPANT)
LEVEL should equal 32 or 89 for an occupant of
the parked vehicle.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 01-04
for the vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 00
for the vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
01, 07.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01,
02, 05, 07, 11.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 5.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01.

ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 1.

SPEED LIMIT should be less than 55 for the
vehicle involved in the first harmful event.
MANNER OF COLLISION should equal 11.
one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must
equal 14.
CRASH TYPE must equal 14 for the vehicle
involved in the first harmful event.

--

104

First Harmful Event
Check
(PB34)

(U640)
(V750)

IF
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,
UNLIKELY: FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 02,
04, 06, 51, 72.
UNLIKELY: FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12,
55, and MANNER OF COLLISION equals 10,
11.
UNLIKELY: FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 99
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 1-3,

(V760)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 4-6,

(V79P)

ROLLOVER equals 2, and FIRST HARMFUL
EVENT equals 01,

(PB35)

(U020)
(U030)

Consistency Check (CRSS Only):
Check
IF
(A3K0)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C19
THEN
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN must not equal 320, 330, 360, 680,
830, 890, 900, or 910.
PEDESTRIAN/ BIKE TYPING - CRASH LOCATION PEDESTRIAN must equal 1.

---

-FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 12, 55.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 14, 45.
CRASH TYPE must equal 01-10, 14, 15 or 98 for
the vehicle involved in the first harmful event.
THEN
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY should not equal 1.

105

Manner of Collision

C20

C20 - Manner of Collision
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.MAN_COLL; Vehicle.MAN_COLL; Person.MAN_COLL; parkwork.PMAN_COLL
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
02
06
07
08
09
10
11
98
99

Attributes
Not a Collision with a Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Front-to-Rear
Front-to-Front
Angle
Sideswipe-Same Direction
Sideswipe-Opposite Direction
Rear-to-Side
Rear-to-Rear
Other
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the orientation of two motor vehicles in-transport when they are involved in
the First Harmful Event of a collision crash. If the First Harmful Event is not a collision between two motor
vehicles in-transport it is classified as such.
Remarks:
00 (Not Collision with a Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the First Harmful Event is not an impact
between two in-transport motor vehicles.
01 (Front-to-Rear) is used when a collision occurs between the rear of one vehicle and the front of another
vehicle. If this attribute is selected, the points of impact for the vehicles involved in the first harmful event must
be front to back.
02 (Front-to-Front) is used when a collision occurs between the front end of one vehicle and the front end of
another vehicle. If this attribute is selected, the points of impact for the vehicles involved in the First Harmful
Event must both be front.
06 (Angle) is a crash where two motor vehicles impact at an angle. For example, the front of one motor vehicle
impacts the side of another motor vehicle. If this attribute is selected, the points of impact for the vehicles
involved in the First Harmful Event must not be front to front, front to back, back to back, or back to side.
07 (Sideswipe - Same Direction) is used when the case materials report that a sideswipe occurred while the two
vehicles were traveling in the same direction. (See Figure 2.)
Clarification for coding sideswipe attributes 07 and 08:
Sideswipe codes are used for both vehicles when the initial engagement has no significant involvement of the
front or rear surface areas where the impact swipes along the side surfaces of the vehicles parallel to their
direction of travel. If it is unclear if the collision was an angle or a sideswipe, then code it 06 (Angle). Endswipes
and side-to-side angle impacts are coded as 11 (Other). (See Figure 2.)

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Manner of Collision

C20

Figure 2: General Guidelines for Sideswipe Codes 07 & 08

08 (Sideswipe - Opposite Direction) is used when the case materials report that a sideswipe occurred while the
two vehicles were traveling in opposite directions. (See Figure 2.)
09 (Rear-To-Side) is used when a collision occurs between the rear of one vehicle and the side of another
vehicle. If this attribute is selected, the points of impact for the vehicles involved in the First Harmful Event must
back for one and side for the other.
10 (Rear-To-Rear) is used when a collision occurs between the rear of one vehicle and the rear of another
vehicle. If this attribute is selected, the points of impact for the vehicles involved in the First Harmful Event must
both be back.
11 (Other) should be used for any collision between two motor vehicles in-transport where the collision is not
described by attributes “01-10,” including set-in-motion situations.
Examples include:
• One vehicle’s “end” swipes (endswipe) another vehicle instead of their “sides” swiping.
• One vehicle slides into another vehicle at an angle such that they impact side-to-side.
• One vehicle is airborne and makes contact with its front or undercarriage to the other vehicle’s hood or
top.
• Cargo or other load on one motor vehicle in-transport shifts and lands or is thrown into/onto another
vehicle.
• The tire of one motor vehicle in-transport throws a stone through the windshield of another vehicle.
• A vehicle occupant or motorcyclist falls or is thrown from a vehicle striking or is struck by another
vehicle.
If a PAR data element is coded with the attribute “Other” but the officer does not specify what this refers to:
1. Code 11 (Other) if the PAR attribute choices can be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
2. Code 98 (Not Reported) if the PAR choices cannot be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.

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Manner of Collision

C20

Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element, AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed to
code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the element
(e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.
Consistency Checks
Check
IF
(420P)
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 07,08,

(421P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 01,

(422P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 02,

(423P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 06,

(424P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 09,

(425P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 10,

(426P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 02,

(427P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 06,

(500F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01-11, 1421, 23-26, 30-35, 44-53, 57-59, 72, 73,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
there must be at least two vehicle forms with
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT equal
to 01-05, 07-11, 61-63, 81-83, 98, 99.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
one vehicle in the first harmful event must equal
12, and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT
POINT for the other vehicle in the first harmful
event must equal 06.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
one vehicle in the first harmful event must equal
12, and AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL CONTACT
POINT for the other vehicle in the first harmful
event must equal 12.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
one vehicle in the first harmful event must equal
01, 11, 12, 98, 99, and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL
CONTACT POINT for the other vehicle in the first
harmful event must equal 01-05, 07-11, 61-63,
81-83 98, 99.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
one vehicle in the first harmful event should
equal 06, and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL
CONTACT POINT for the other vehicle in the first
harmful event should equal 01-05, 07-11, 61-63,
81-83, 98, 99.
AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
one vehicle in the first harmful event should
equal 06, and AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL
CONTACT POINT for the other vehicle in the first
harmful event should equal 06, 98, 99.
CRASH TYPE must not equal 64-67 for the
vehicles involved in the first harmful event.
CRASH TYPE must not equal 20-43 or 50-53 for
the vehicles involved in the first harmful event.
MANNER OF COLLISION must not equal 01, 02,
06-11, 98, 99.

108

Manner of Collision
Check
(510F)
(9BAP)

(9BDP)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, 54, 55,
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 07, and PREEVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) equals
10 or 11 for neither one of the vehicles
involved in the first harmful event,
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 08, and PREEVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) equals
10 or 11 for neither one of the vehicles
involved in the first harmful event,
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 01,

(A370)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 99,

(AC1A)
(BZ80)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54,
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 00,

(U030)

UNLIKELY: FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals
12, 55, and MANNER OF COLLISION equals
10, 11.

(9BCP)

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THEN
MANNER OF COLLISION must not equal 00.
CRASH TYPE should equal 44-49, 98, 99 for the
vehicles involved in the first harmful event.

CRASH TYPE should equal 64-67, 98, 99 for the
vehicles involved in the first harmful event.

CRASH TYPE should not equal 44-49 for the
vehicles involved in the first harmful event.
MANNER OF COLLISION should not equal 00, 0111.
MANNER OF COLLISION should equal 11.
CRASH TYPE must equal 00, 01-16, 92, 98, 99 for
the vehicle in the first harmful event.
--

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C21

C21 - Relation to Junction
FORMAT: 1 numeric occurring 1 time, 2 numeric occurring 1 time
SAS NAME: Accident.RelJct1, Accident.RelJct2
ELEMENT VALUES:
C21a: Within Interchange Area?
Codes Attributes
0
No
1
Yes
8
Not Reported
9
Unknown
C21b: Specific Location
Codes Attributes
01
Non-Junction
02
Intersection
03
Intersection-Related
05
Entrance/Exit Ramp Related
20
Entrance/Exit Ramp
06
Railway Grade Crossing
07
Crossover-Related
04
Driveway Access
08
Driveway Access Related
16
Shared-Use Path Crossing
17
Acceleration/Deceleration Lane
18
Through Roadway
19
Other location within interchange area
98
Not Reported
99
Unknown
Definition: The coding of this data element is done in two subfields and based on the location of the first
harmful event of the crash. It identifies the crash's location with respect to presence in an interchange area and
the crash’s location with respect to presence in or proximity to components typically in junction or interchange
areas.
Remarks:

Subfield 1 (C21a): Within Interchange Area?
Interchange: An interchange is a system of interconnecting roadways in conjunction with one or more grade
separations, providing for the movement of traffic between two or more roadways on different levels.
0 (No) is used if the first harmful event of the crash occurs outside of the boundaries of an interchange.
1 (Yes) is used if the location of the first harmful event of the crash is within an interchange area.

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8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
9 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.

Subfield 2 (C21b): Specific Location
01 (Non-Junction) is used for crashes where the first harmful event occurs outside an interchange area and does
not occur in or related to a junction, ramp, rail grade crossing, crossover, or shared-use path or trail. This
attribute includes crashes that occur on a parking lot way (access road) at the connection of a parking aisle. (See
Figure 4.)
02 (Intersection) is used when the first harmful event occurs in an area which: (1) contains a crossing or
connection of two or more roadways not classified as a driveway access, and (2) is embraced within the
prolongation of the lateral curb lines or, if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways. Where the distance
along a roadway between two areas meeting these criteria is less than 10 meters, the two areas and the
roadway connecting them are considered to be parts of a single intersection.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
In an Intersection, within Interchange Area: if the first harmful event occurs within the intersection of a
ramp and the surface roadway: It is important to always code National Highway System and Land Use and
Functional System for the highest class of trafficway at this intersection.
03 (Intersection-Related) means that the first harmful event: (1) occurs on an approach to or exit from an
intersection and (2) results from an activity, behavior or control related to the movement of traffic units through
the intersection.
Note:
• For crashes where the first harmful event occurs in a crosswalk at an intersection area, use 03
(Intersection-Related).
• For Traffic Circles and Roundabouts, enter 02 (Intersection) when the first harmful event occurs within
the area formed by the prolongation of curb or edge lines of the approach legs of the intersection,
regardless of whether or not the collision was in any way related to an intersection. Use 03
(Intersection-Related) if the first harmful event occurs in the central island or any directional island
which serves the rotary intersection.
05 (Entrance/Exit Ramp Related) is used when the first harmful event occurs off the entrance/exit ramp
roadway, but is related to the use of or entry onto the ramp. (See Figure 3)
Note: If the first harmful event occurs in the intersection of a ramp then use 02 (Intersection). If the first
harmful event occurs on the ramp outside of an intersection of the ramp and the surface roadway and is
related to the movement of traffic through the intersection, then use 03 (Intersection-Related).

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20 (Entrance/Exit Ramp) is used when the first harmful event occurs on an entrance or exit ramp roadway and
is not the result of an activity, behavior or control related to the movement of traffic units through an
intersection. This would include all the areas between the gore and entrance/exit ramp intersection. (See Figure
3)
06 (Railway Grade Crossing) is used when the first harmful event occurred in the area formed by the at-grade
connection of a railroad bed and a roadway. Crashes occurring outside a railway grade crossing due to traffic
congestion associated with a railway grade crossing are considered non-junction.
07 (Crossover-Related) is used when the first harmful event occurs in a crossover or on approach to or exit from
a crossover and related to the use of the crossover.
Note: A crossover is the area of the median of a divided trafficway where motor vehicles are permitted to
cross the opposing lane or traffic or execute a U-turn.
04 (Driveway Access) is used when the first harmful event occurs:
1. on a driveway access (See ANSI D16.1 Manual 2.5.9) (See Figure 5)
2. or involves a road vehicle entering or leaving by way of a driveway access where at least one traffic unit
(vehicle, pedalcyclist, or pedestrian) is physically on the driveway access within the trafficway.
This attribute includes crashes occurring on sidewalks within the driveway access.
Examples:
• A car turning into a private residence driveway strikes a bicyclist riding on the sidewalk that crosses over
the driveway access.
• A tractor trailer backing out of a business entrance onto the trafficway, while partially on the driveway
access, is struck by a car on the roadway.
08 (Driveway Access Related) is used when the first harmful event:
1. occurs on the trafficway,
2. does not occur on a 04 (Driveway Access), but
3. results from an activity, behavior or control related to the movement of traffic units onto or out of a
driveway (See ANSI D16.1 Manual 2.5.9.1). (See Figure 5)
Examples:
• A vehicle attempting to turn left into a driveway from the eastbound lanes is struck broadside by
another vehicle traveling in the westbound lanes,
• A vehicle that has just entered the trafficway from a driveway is struck in the rear before it can gain
speed.
Note: When a driveway access junction is within an intersection and the crash would meet the criteria of
driveway access or driveway access related, enter 02 (Intersection) if the first harmful event was within the
boundaries of the intersection or 03 (Intersection-Related) if it was not, but related to the intersection.
Note: If there is not sufficient detail available to differentiate between driveway access and driveway access
related, but it is known that the vehicle was coming out of (or going into) a driveway, default to 08
(Driveway Access Related). (See Figure 5.)

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16 (Shared-Use Path Crossing) is used when the first harmful event occurs at the crossing of a roadway and a
shared-use path (see Note below for the definition of a shared use path). At least one non-motorist has to be
physically in the crossing of the roadway and the shared-use path and the crash has to be related to the use of
it. If the crossing of a roadway and a shared-use path overlaps/coincides with a crosswalk in a non-intersection
area (e.g., mid-block), then select 16 (Shared-Use Path Crossing).
Note: A shared-use path is a bikeway physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open
space or barrier and either within the highway right of way or an independent right of way. Shared-use
paths will also be used by pedestrians, skaters, wheelchairs, joggers and other non-motorist users. A shareduse path is not a sidewalk and where a shared-use path crosses another land way is similar to, but not a
crosswalk. A shared-use path crossing may overlap/coincide with a crosswalk.
17 (Acceleration/Deceleration Lane) is used when the first harmful event occurs on the roadway in an
interchange area on an auxiliary or speed-change lane that allows vehicles to accelerate to highway speeds
before entering the through roadway or decelerate to safe speeds to negotiate a ramp without interrupting
traffic flow on the through roadway exited. (See Figure 3)
18 (Through Roadway) (See Figure 3) is used when the first harmful event occurs on the roadway within an
interchange area but does not occur:
• In an intersection or related to an intersection - 02 (Intersection) or 03 (Intersection - Related).
• On a 20 (Entrance/Exit Ramp) or related to the use of the ramp - 05 (Entrance/Exit Ramp Related)
• In a 17 (Acceleration/Deceleration Lane)
19 (Other location within interchange area) is used when the first harmful event occurs within an Interchange,
off of the roadway (e.g. median, shoulder, roadside) and is not related to the use of or the entry onto a ramp.
(See Figure 3)
Examples:
• A vehicle on the 18 (Through Roadway) portion of the interchange departs the roadway and overturns
in the median.
• A vehicle leaves the 18 (Through Roadway) portion of the interchange and strikes a vehicle parked on
the shoulder.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.

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Valid Combinations for Subfield 1 and Subfield 2
If Subfield TWO is coded:
01 Non-Junction
02 Intersection
03 Intersection-Related
04 Driveway Access
05 Entrance/Exit Ramp Related
06 Railway Grade Crossing
07 Crossover Related
08 Driveway Access Related
16 Shared-Use Path or Trail
17 Acceleration/Deceleration Lane
18 Through Roadway
19 Other Location Within Interchange Area
20 Entrance/Exit Ramp
98 Not Reported
99 Unknown

Subfield ONE may only be coded as:
0 No
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
1 Yes
1 Yes
1 Yes
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown
0 No, 1 Yes, 8 Not Reported, 9 Unknown

Figure 3 below will help identify Relation to Junction codes 05 (Entrance/Exit Ramp Related), 17
(Acceleration/Deceleration Lane), 18 (Through Roadway), 19 (Other Location Within Interchange Area), and
20 (Entrance/Exit Ramp).
Figure 3: Interchange Area
(See ANSI D16.1 - 2007, 7th Edition)

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Figure 4: Example Parking Lot Area
(01 – Non-junction, 02 – Intersection)

Figure 5: Driveway Access
(See ANSI D16.1 - 2007, 7th Edition)

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C21

Figure 6 below will help identify if the crash occurred within an Interchange Area for Relation to Junction (C21a)
– Within Interchange Area
Figure 6: Interchange Accidents
Accidents which occur within the shaded area are interchange accidents (See ANSI D16.1 - 2007, 7th Edition)

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Relation to Junction
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1F1P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03,
(1Y0P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 06,
(250P)

(254P)

(3E00)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 02, 04,
06, 07, 16-19, 98, 99, and RELATION TO
TRAFFICWAY equals 03,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 20,

(730P)

CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
65-68 or 70-73 for a vehicle involved in the
first harmful event,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

(740P)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

(750P)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

(770P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(772P)
(773P)
(773Q)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01,
RELATION TO JUNCTION(b) equals 04, 06, 07,
or 16,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 17 or 18
or 19,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 04-08,
16-20,
CRASH TYPE equals 14,
CRASH TYPE equals 68-91,
CRASH TYPE equals 14,

(775P)
(778P)
(77AP)
(77BP)
(77CP)
(77DP)
(780P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 10,

(782P)
(783P)
(784P)

TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 02-07, 10,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 98, 99,
TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 01,

(A131)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 04, 06,
16, 17, or 20,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 18,

(A141)

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THEN
the second TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER should be
blank.
RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must not
equal 0000000.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 2, 3 for
at least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION must equal 6 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 01
or 18.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 0407, 10, 11, 99.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION must equal 2, 3 for
at least one vehicle.
RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must equal
0000000.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 01, 03,
08, 19, 98, 99.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) must not equal 1.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) must equal 0.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) should not equal 1.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) must equal 1.
TYPE OF INTERSECTION must equal 01.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 01.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 01, 03,
19.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 03,
08.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02,
04, 08.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 02, 03.
TYPE OF INTERSECTION should equal 01, 98, 99.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02,
03.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01 or 11.

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Relation to Junction
Check
(A150)

(A1E0)

IF
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE equals 20, 21 for a
vehicle involved in the first harmful event,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 19,

(A1E1)
(A200)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 20,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

(A210)

LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, 02, and RELATION TO JUNCTION
(a) equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (a)
equals 0,
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01-03, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (a)
equals 1, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b)
does not equal 03, 05, 20,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,
WORK ZONE equals 1-3, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 03,

(A1B0)

(A220)

(A240)

(A250)

(A290)
(A291)
(A293)

(A294)

WORK ZONE equals 1-3, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 04, 05, 08, 17-19,

(A310)

ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
ROUTE SIGNING equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (a) equals 0,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) equals 1011 for a vehicle involved in the first harmful
event,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 06,

(A320)
(A360)
(A420)
(A430)

(A440)

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THEN
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
02-04, 06, 08.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 01,
18.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 01,
05, 11, 98, 99.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 06, 07, or 96.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 0104, 07, 20, 23, 40, 50, 65.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 05-40 for any
vehicle.
TRAVEL SPEED should not equal 005-040 for any
vehicle.
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for the vehicles involved in the first harmful
event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
02-04, 06, 08 16.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 5, 6.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 01-03,
20, 40, 97 or 98 for the vehicle(s) involved in the
first harmful event.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 00, 21,
28, 40, 50, 97 or 98 for the vehicle(s) involved in
the first harmful event.
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for any vehicle.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 05-40 for any
vehicle.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 4.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 06.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 01,
18.

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 65 for
any vehicle involved in the first harmful event.

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Relation to Junction
Check
(A481)

(A4C0)

IF
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION equals 6, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 04,

(A610)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 05,

(A611)

TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION equals 6 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A790)
(A810)

(A890)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
02, 03, 05,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01,

(AC0A)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 03,

(AZ5P)

CRITICAL EVENT-PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
70-73 for a vehicle involved in the first
harmful event,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 36 for a
vehicle involved in the first harmful event,
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN for a person involved in the first
harmful event equals 211, 212, 461, 465, 680,
830, 890, 900 or 910,
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE BICYCLE for a person involved in the first
harmful event equals 311, 312, 313, 321, 322
or 323
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE BICYCLE for a person involved in the first
harmful event equals 141-144, 147, 151-157
or 159,

(A820)

(D530)
(PB04)

(PB07)

(PB08)

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THEN
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should equal 1, 2, 8,
9.
at least one PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) for the
vehicles involved in the first harmful event
should equal 10, 11, 13 or 98.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 6 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 02, 03,
05, 17-20.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 01,
07.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01.

ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 1.

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 0103 for any vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
the second TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER should not
be all blank.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 04 or
08.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 06.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02.
Note: this edit is restricted to vehicles which are
involved in only one event with pedestrian(s).
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 04 or
08. Note: this edit is restricted to vehicles which
are involved in only one event with bicyclist(s)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 02 or
03. Note: this edit is restricted to vehicles which
are involved in only one event with bicyclist(s).

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Relation to Junction
Check
(PB34)

(PB35)

(PC30)

IF
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,
NUMBER OF FORMS SUBMITTED FOR
PERSONS NOT IN MOTOR VEHICLES equals
01, and FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08,
and RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02,
PRE-IMPACT LOCATION for a vehicle involved
in the first harmful event equals 4, 5, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
04, 05,

Consistency Checks (CRSS Only)
Check
IF
(A3G0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03
or 05 or 20,
(A3H0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03
or 05 or 20,
(A3I0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1,
(A3J0)

(A930)

INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03
or 05 or 20,
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03
or 05 or 20,

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THEN
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN must not equal 320, 330, 360, 680,
830, 890, 900, or 910.
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH LOCATION PEDESTRIAN must equal 1.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01
or 11.

THEN
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for at least one vehicle involved in the first
harmful event.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should not equal 4
for at least one vehicle involved in the first
harmful event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 02,
04, 06, 08 or 16.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 01-40 for at least
one vehicle involved in the first harmful event.

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 0103, 20, 23 or 65 for at least one vehicle involved
in the first harmful event.

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Type of Intersection

C22

C22 - Type of Intersection
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Typ_Int
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
10
98
99

Attributes
Not an Intersection
Four-Way Intersection
T-Intersection
Y-Intersection
Traffic Circle
Roundabout
Five-Point, or More
L-Intersection
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies and allows separation of various intersection types.
Remarks: The data element value selected should be based on the location of the first harmful event and is only
applicable to intersection or intersection-related crashes. If it is known that a rotary type of intersection was
involved but it is not known if it was a traffic circle or a roundabout, default to a traffic circle.
Intersection refers to an area which 1) contains a crossing or connection of two or more roadways not classified
as driveway access and 2) is embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, the lateral
boundary lines of the roadways. Where the distance along a roadway between two areas meeting these criteria
is less than 33 feet, the two areas and the roadway connecting them are considered to be parts of a single
intersection. (See ANSI D.16 - 2.5.10)
01 (Not an Intersection) identifies that this crash was not intersection or intersection-related.
02 (Four-Way Intersection) refers to two roadways which cross or connect.
03 (T-Intersection) refers to an intersection where two roadways connect and one roadway does not continue
across the other roadway. The roadways form a “T”.
04 (Y-Intersection) refers to an intersection where three roadways connect and none of the roadways continue
across the other roadways. The roadways form a “Y”.
05 (Traffic Circle) refers to an intersection of roads where motor vehicles must travel around a circle to continue
on the same road or leave on any intersecting road.
A 05 (Traffic Circle) must meet the following criteria:
• Entering traffic is controlled by a stop sign, traffic signal or by no traffic control
• Parking is allowed within the circle
• Pedestrians are allowed access to the central island
• Circle traffic can be required to yield to entering traffic

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06 (Roundabout) refers to an intersection of roads where motor vehicles must travel around a circle to continue
on the same road or leave on any intersecting road. (See Figure 7 below.) A 06 (Roundabout) must meet the
following criteria:
• Entering traffic is controlled by a yield sign only
• Circulating traffic has the right of way
• Pedestrian access is allowed behind the yield sign line
• No parking is allowed in the circle
Figure 7: Example of a Typical Single-Lane Roundabout
(See Roundabouts: An Informational Guide – FHWA)

07 (Five-Point, or More) refers to an intersection where more than two roadways cross or connect.
10 (L-Intersection) refers to a two-armed intersection in which one roadway intersects with another roadway
but neither roadway extends beyond the other roadway. (Note: this should be configured as an intersection
where the arms consist of two different named trafficways.)
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.
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Type of Intersection
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(251P)
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 98, 99,
(778P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 04-08,
16-20,
(781P)
TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 02-07, 10,
(782P)
(783P)
(784P)

TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 02-07, 10,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 98, 99,
TYPE OF INTERSECTION equals 01,

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THEN
TYPE OF INTERSECTION should equal 98, 99.
TYPE OF INTERSECTION must equal 01.
TRAFFICWAY IDENTIFIER (b) should not be
blank.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 02, 03.
TYPE OF INTERSECTION should equal 01, 98, 99.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02,
03.

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Relation to Trafficway

C23

C23 - Relation to Trafficway
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.REL_ROAD
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
10
11
98
99

Attributes
On Roadway
On Shoulder
On Median
On Roadside
Outside Trafficway
Off Roadway – Location Unknown
In Parking Lane/Zone
Gore
Separator
Continuous Left-Turn Lane
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the location of the crash as it relates to its position within or outside the
trafficway based on the First Harmful Event.
Remarks:
01 (On Roadway) - The roadway is that part of a trafficway designed, improved, and ordinarily used for motor
vehicle travel or, where various classes of motor vehicles are segregated, that part of a trafficway used by a
particular class. Separate roadways may be provided for northbound and southbound traffic or for trucks and
automobiles. Roadway may be noted as the “travel lanes” and, if present, includes the area between the
painted “fog lines”. Additionally, a driveway access area is considered part of the roadway of the trafficway to
which it connects. This attribute may also be used for cases involving a parked vehicle opening a door into
moving traffic, extended mirrors into the travel lane.
02 (On Shoulder) (if present) is that part of a trafficway contiguous with the roadway for emergency use, for
accommodation of stopped vehicles, and for lateral support of the roadway structure. A shoulder should be
improved or maintained for these purposes. Not all roadways have shoulders.
03 (On Median) is defined as that area of a divided trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in
opposite directions. The principal functions of a median are to provide the desired freedom from interference
of opposing traffic, to provide a recovery area for out-of-control vehicles, to provide a stopping area in case of
emergencies, and to minimize headlight glare. Medians may be depressed, raised or flush. Flush medians can
be as little as 4-feet wide between roadway edge lines. Painted roadway edge lines four (4) or more feet wide
denote medians. Medians of lesser width must have a barrier to be considered a median. Continuous Left-turn
Lanes are not considered Medians (see 11 (Continuous Left-Turn Lane)).

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04 (On Roadside) refers to a location off the roadway, but inside the right-of-way. It is the outermost part of the
trafficway which lay between the outer property line or other barrier and the edge of the first road encountered
in the trafficway. Bicycle lanes and shared use path or trails contiguous with the roadway and sidewalks are also
included. For cases involving a vehicle that goes off the roadway into a "tree line", "wood line", "brush line",
etc. that is adjacent to the roadway, code as 04 (On Roadside) unless there is specific information available in
the case materials that identify the First Harmful Event was beyond the boundaries of the trafficway (e.g., a
"tree line" in a homeowner’s front yard). In addition, use this attribute if the first harmful event occurs in a
raised or painted center island (directional or channeling) of a traffic circle, roundabout or junction.
05 (Outside Trafficway) is used for areas not open to the public as a matter of right or custom for moving
persons or property. This includes property beyond the roadside outside the boundaries of the trafficway. Also,
a portion of the trafficway closed for construction is not a trafficway and would be considered 05 (Outside
Trafficway).
06 (Off Roadway - Location Unknown) refers to a location off the roadway, but its relationship to the trafficway
boundaries/right-of-way is not known. This should only be used when no reasonable assessment can be made
as to the location of the FHE because the information in the case is too ambiguous.
07 (In Parking Lane/Zone) refers to an area on the roadway, or next to the roadway, on which parking is
permitted in marked or unmarked spaces. This includes curbside and edge of-roadway parking (for example,
legal residential parking, city-street parking, etc.). Sometimes a strip of roadway can be designated for parking
at certain hours of the day (parking lane) and for regular travel at other hours (travel lane). This code should
NOT be used during hours when parking is NOT permitted (see 01 (On Roadway)).
08 (Gore) is an area of land where two roadways diverge or converge. The area is bounded on two sides by the
edges of the roadway, which join at the point of divergence or convergence. The direction of traffic must be the
same on both of these roadways. The area includes shoulders or marked pavement if any, between the
roadways. The third side is 60 meters (approximately 200 feet) from the point of divergence or convergence or,
if any other road is within 70 meters (230 feet) of that point, a line 10 meters (33 feet) from the nearest edge of
such road. (See Figure 10)
Gore Inclusions:
• Areas at rest area or exit ramps
• Areas at truck weight station entry or exit ramps
• Areas where two main roadways diverge or converge
• Areas where a ramp and another roadway or two ramps, diverge or converge
• Areas where a frontage road and another roadway or two frontage roads diverge or converge
Gore Exclusions:
• Islands for channelizing of vehicle movements
• Islands for pedestrian refuge
10 (Separator) is the area of a trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in the same direction or
separating a frontage road from other roads. A 10 (Separator) may be a physical barrier or a depressed, raised,
flush or vegetated area between roads.
11 (Continuous Left-Turn Lane) is a two-way left turn lane positioned between opposing straight-through travel
lanes.

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98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.

Additional Guidance for Relation to Trafficway
For collision events when the vehicle is overlapping adjacent areas:
• For fixed object collisions (FHE), base “Relation to Trafficway” on the location of the object struck.
• Fixed objects that are associated with the trafficway such as curbs, ditches, guardrails, sign supports,
utility poles, etc. are not located in the travel lanes or on the shoulder. Therefore, when these fixed
objects are contacted in the FHE, Relation to Trafficway should be coded as 04 (On Roadside),
regardless of the location of the entire vehicle.
• Non-fixed object collisions (e.g., striking a vehicle on the shoulder or pedestrian on the sidewalk) when
the striking vehicle is overlapping two locations (e.g., roadway and shoulder) are also coded with respect
to the object contacted, not the striking vehicle.
For Rollover/Overturn crashes when the vehicle is overlapping two locations (e.g., roadway and shoulder)
when the roll begins:
• When a vehicle begins an overturn and is overlapping two locations at the onset of the overturn, use
the LAST area the vehicle entered as the location. For example, Roadside would be correct for a
case where the documentation identifies a vehicle runs off the roadway, partially through the
shoulder, and the front wheels enter the roadside.
Default rules for the location of Ditches, Culverts, Embankments and Fences:
• Unless there is clear reason to believe otherwise in the case materials, ditches, culverts and
embankments are design features common to trafficways. Therefore, if included as the FHE the
appropriate Relation to Trafficway is 04 (On Roadside).
• Unless there is clear reason to believe otherwise in the case materials (e.g., a snow fence in the
median), a fence either surrounds private property outside the trafficway or marks the property line
boundary ending the trafficway. Therefore, if included as the FHE the appropriate Relation to
Trafficway is 05 (Outside Trafficway).

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Relation to Trafficway
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(250P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 02, 04,
06, 07, 16-19, 98, 99, and RELATION TO
TRAFFICWAY equals 03,
(251P)
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 98, 99,
(252P)
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, 02, 03,
04, 07, 08, 10, 11, 98 or 99,
(253P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 03,

(254P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 20,

(255P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or 11,

(256P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or 11,

(257P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 05,

(42AP)

NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES FORMS
SUBMITTED equals 001, and RELATION TO
TRAFFICWAY equals 02, 04, 06-08, and
ATTEMPTED AVOIDANCE MANEUVER equals
00 or 01,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01,

(440F)

(450F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(460F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 02,

(470F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 03, 08, 10,

(480F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 04, 06,

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C23

THEN
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 2, 3 for
at least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
TYPE OF INTERSECTION should equal 98, 99.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
must not equal 3.
CRASH TYPE should equal 06-10, 98 or 99 for the
in-transport vehicles involved in the first
harmful event.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION must equal 6 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (THIS VEHICLE)
involved in the first harmful event must equal 1.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
should equal 1 or 4.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
must equal 1, 3 or 4.
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT) should
equal 01-06, 08-14 or 19.

there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 01-03,
09-11, 13, 16, 23, 98 or 99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 14.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 02, 20.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 20, 22,
28, 98, 99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 09, 16,
20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 98, 99.

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Relation to Trafficway
Check
(490F)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 05,

(530F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 99,

(531F)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 15, and
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 11,

(580F)

(730P)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 14, and
RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV
OCCUPANT) LEVEL does not equal 32, 89 for
at least one occupant in the not in-transport
motor vehicle involved in the first harmful
event,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 07,

(770P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(772P)
(77DP)
(780P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 10,

(A1E0)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 19,

(A1E1)
(A131)

(A4B0)

RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 20,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 04, 06,
16, 17 or 20,
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 18,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01 and this
vehicle is involved in the first harmful event,
and BODY TYPE does not equal 80-89 for this
vehicle, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY
equals _____,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 17, 19-21, 2326, 30-35, 38-43, 52, 53, 57,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 24, 25, 30, 33,
34, 35, 40, 46, 52, 57, 59,
CRASH TYPE equals 01-10 or 14

(A4B2)

CRASH TYPE equals 11,

(A141)
(A380)

(A390)
(A421)

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C23
THEN
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 24, 25.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 09, 98,
99.
there must be at least one Person Level (Not a
MV Occupant) form with NON-MOTORIST
LOCATION AT TIME OF CRASH equal to 11.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 0407, 10, 11, 99.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must equal 01, 03,
08, 19, 98, 99.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (a) must not equal 1.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal 03,
08.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) must not equal 02,
04, 08.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 01,
05, 11, 98, 99.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01 or 11.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER should equal _____
respectively.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01,
02, 07, 11.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should equal 03, 04,
08 or 10.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 01,
02, 07 or 11. If the first harmful event occurs on
a different road than the road it departed, see
98 (Other Crash Type).
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 01,
03, 04, 05, 08, 10, or 11.

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Relation to Trafficway
Check
(A4B3)

IF
CRASH TYPE equals 12 or 13,

(A4B4)

CRASH TYPE equals 12 or 13,

(A610)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) equals 05,

(A61F)

(A800)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 08, 09, 11, 15,
49, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01,
02, 07, 11, and PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT
(PRIOR TO RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT)
is not equal to 00, 13 for the vehicle involved
in the first harmful event,
CRASH TYPE equals 06-10, and TRAFFICWAY
DESCRIPTION equals 3,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 18 43 or 73,
and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or
11,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 46,

(A801)
(A881)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 12,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 11,

(A882)
(A883)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 07,

(PB05)

PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN for a person involved in the first
harmful event equals 311, 312 or 313,
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN for a person involved in the first
harmful event equals 510, 520 or 590,

(A620)
(A62F)

(PB12)

(PC20)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 02-08 or
10,

(PC30)

PRE-IMPACT LOCATION for a vehicle involved
in the first harmful event equals 4, 5, and
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) does not equal
04, 05,
PRE-IMPACT LOCATION for a vehicle involved
in the first harmful event equals 1-3, 6,

(PC40)

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C23
THEN
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 03,
05, 08, or 10.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 4
unless the First Harmful Event occurs in a bicycle
lane.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 6 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
CRASH TYPE should equal 13 for the vehicle
involved in the first harmful event.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should equal 03.
CRASH TYPE should equal 12 or 15 for the
vehicle involved in the first harmful event.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01,
02, 05, 07, 11.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 5.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 5 for at
least one vehicle.
ROUTE SIGNING should not equal 1.
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must equal 01 or 11.
Note: this edit is restricted to vehicles which are
involved in only one event with pedestrian(s).
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY must not equal 01 or
11. Note: this edit is restricted to vehicles which
are involved in only one event with
pedestrian(s).
PRE-IMPACT LOCATION of the vehicle(s)
involved in the first harmful event should equal
0, 4, 5 or 9.
RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should not equal 01
or 11.

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY should equal 01 or
11.

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Relation to Trafficway

C23

Figure 8: Trafficway with Frontage Road
(See ANSI D16.1 - 2007, 7th Edition)

Figure 9: Trafficway with Multiple Roadways in the Same Direction
(See ANSI D16.1 – 2007, 7th Edition)

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Relation to Trafficway

C23

Figure 10: Four Examples of Gores
(See ANSI D16.1 – 2007, 7th Edition)

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Work Zone

C24

C24 - Work Zone
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Wrk_Zone
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4

Attributes
None
Construction
Maintenance
Utility
Work Zone, Type Unknown

Definition: This data element captures that this was a “Work Zone Accident” as defined in ANSI D16.1, 7th
Edition. If the crash qualifies as a "Work Zone Accident" then the type of work activity is identified.
Remarks: If the crash is a work zone crash, work zone type must be clearly distinguished within the case
materials; otherwise 4 (Work Zone, Type Unknown) should be used.
The use of these codes does not imply that the crash was caused by the construction, maintenance, or utility
activity.
Work Zone:
A work zone is defined as an area of a trafficway where construction, maintenance, or utility work activities are
identified by warning signs/signals/ indicators, including those on transport devices (e.g., signs, flashing lights,
channelizing devices, barriers, pavement markings, flagmen, warning signs, and arrow boards mounted on the
vehicles in a mobile maintenance activity) that mark the beginning and end of a construction, maintenance or
utility work activity. It extends from the first warning sign, signal, or flashing lights to the END ROAD WORK sign
or the last traffic control device pertinent for that work activity. Work zones also include roadway sections
where there is ongoing, moving (mobile) work activity such as lane line painting or roadside mowing only if the
beginning of the ongoing, moving (mobile) work activity is designated by warning signs or signals.
Work Zone Crash:
A work zone crash is a motor vehicle traffic crash in which the first harmful event occurs within the boundaries
of a work zone or on an approach to or exit from a work zone, resulting from an activity, behavior or control
related to the movement of the traffic units through the work zone.
See the 7th Edition of ANSI D16.1 definitions of “Work Zone” and “Work Zone Accident” for inclusions and
exclusions.
To determine which attribute is appropriate, the duration of the work must be considered. If the work is shortterm (i.e., takes less than one period of daylight and is not performed during hours of darkness), 2
(Maintenance) or 3 (Utility) are applicable. If the maintenance or utility work is long-term, 1 (Construction) must
be used.
0 (None) is used when there is no indication that the crash is a work zone crash as defined above.
1 (Construction) is used when the available information indicates that there is long-term stationary construction
such as building a new bridge, adding travel lanes to the roadway, extending an existing trafficway, etc.
Highway construction includes construction of appurtenances such as guardrails or ditches, surveying activity,
installation of utilities within the right-of-way, etc.
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2 (Maintenance) is used when the available information indicates that there are work activities, including
moving work activities, such as striping the roadway, median and roadside grass mowing/landscaping, pothole
repair, snowplowing, etc., where there are warning signs or signals marking the beginning of the moving work
area.
3 (Utility) is used when the available information indicates that there is short-term stationary work such as
repairing/maintaining electric, gas, water lines or traffic signals. The utility company must perform the work.
4 (Work Zone, Type Unknown) is used when there is insufficient information to distinguish between 1
(Construction), 2 (Maintenance), or 3 (Utility).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A293)
WORK ZONE equals 1-3, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) equals 02, 03,
(A294)

WORK ZONE equals 1-3, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) equals 01, 04, 05, 08, 17-19,

(A470)

WORK ZONE equals 0, and TRAFFICWAY
DESCRIPTION equals 1-3, 5,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 45,

(AL2P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 01-03,
20, 40, 97 or 98 for the vehicle(s) involved in the
first harmful event.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 00, 21,
28, 40, 50, 97 or 98 for the vehicle(s) involved in
the first harmful event.
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1.
WORK ZONE should equal 1-4.

133

Light Condition

C25

C25 - Light Condition
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.LGT_COND
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
1
2
3
6
4
5
7
8
9

Attributes
Daylight
Dark - Not Lighted
Dark - Lighted
Dark - Unknown Lighting
Dawn
Dusk
Other
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element records the type/level of light that existed at the time of the crash as reported in the
case materials.
Remarks:
2 (Dark - Not Lighted) is used when the available information describes a condition where no “natural” light
exists and no overhead “man-made” lighting is present on the roadway where the crash occurs.
3 (Dark - Lighted) is used when the available information describes a condition where no “natural” light exists
but there is overhead “man-made” lighting on the roadway where the crash occurs. Lighted areas will generally
include streets within cities or towns and some interchange areas. This does not include lighting from store
fronts, houses, parking lots, etc.
6 (Dark - Unknown Lighting) is used if it cannot be determined if 2 (Dark - Not Lighted) or 3 (Dark - Lighted)
applies.
Sometimes the case materials will have conflicting information because more than one light condition is
indicated in the coded boxes and/or the narrative. If necessary, use the crash time to aid in determing the
“best” attribute.
4 (Dawn) describes the transition period going from “dark of night” to a daylight condition. This is typically the
30-minute period before the sun rises.
5 (Dusk) describes the transition period going from a daylight condition to the “dark of night”. This is typically
the 30-minute period after the sun sets.
Rules for determining applicable attribute:
1. If 4 (Dawn) or 5 (Dusk) are marked then use the crash time to select either 4 (Dawn) or 5 (Dusk).
2. If 3 (Dark - Lighted) and 4 (Dawn) are marked then use 4 (Dawn).
3. If 3 (Dark - Lighted) and 5 (Dusk) are marked then use 5 (Dusk).
4. If Dark and 5 (Dusk) are marked then use 5 (Dusk).
5. If Dark and 4 (Dawn) are marked then use 4 (Dawn).
6. If more than 2 attributes are checked then use 9 (Unknown).

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C25

7 (Other) is used when the conditions above do not apply.
If a PAR data element is coded with the attribute “Other” but the officer does not specify what this refers to:
1. Code 7 (Other) if the PAR attribute choices can be matched to or include all the attributes in FARS/CRSS.
2. Code 8 (Not Reported) if the PAR choices cannot be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks is NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
9 (Unknown) is used when the investigating officer indicates that the lighting condition was unknown.
Consistency Checks
Check
IF
(220P) LIGHT CONDITION equals 4, and STATE is not equal
to 02,
(2300) LIGHT CONDITION equals 5, and STATE is not equal
to 02,
(A010) STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION equals 4,
(A020) STATE equals 02, and LIGHT CONDITION equals 5,
(A050) CRASH TIME equals 0900-1600,
(A060) CRASH TIME equals 2300-0400,
(U390) UNLIKELY: LIGHT CONDITION equals 8.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
CRASH TIME must equal 0300-0900, 9999.
CRASH TIME must equal 1600-2200, 9999.
CRASH TIME should equal 0300-1000, 9999.
CRASH TIME should equal 1500-2359, 9999.
LIGHT CONDITION should not equal 2-6.
LIGHT CONDITION should not equal 1, 4, 5, 9.
--

135

Atmospheric Conditions

C26

C26 - Atmospheric Conditions
FORMAT: 2 numeric - occurring 2 times.
SAS NAME: Accident.Weather; Accident.Weather1; Accident.Weather2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
10
02
03
12
04
11
05
06
07
08
98
99

Attributes
No Additional Atmospheric Conditions
Clear
Cloudy
Rain
Sleet or Hail
Freezing Rain or Drizzle
Snow
Blowing Snow
Fog, Smog, Smoke
Severe Crosswinds
Blowing Sand, Soil, Dirt
Other
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the prevailing atmospheric conditions that existed at the time of the crash as
recorded on the crash report form.
Remarks: If the case materials indicate more than two atmospheric conditions, select the two conditions that
most affect visibility. If the case material attributes are a combination of the above attributes (e.g.,
Clear/Cloudy, Clear or Cloudy, Sleet/Hail/Freezing Rain, Snow/Sleet/Hail), and you cannot determine which
was the prevalent weather condition, then code 98 (Not Reported).
Temperature is not an atmospheric condition for the purposes of this element.
When coding this element, do not interpret indication of Rain, Sleet, or Snow as also Cloudy. Cloudy must be
explicitly stated in the case materials.
00 (No Additional Atmospheric Conditions) should only be used for the second Atmospheric Condition subfield,
when there is no second Atmospheric Condition listed on your case materials.
01 (Clear) includes partial cloudiness if sunlight is not diminished. If your case materials provide the attribute
“no adverse condition,” use 98 (Not Reported) unless there is sufficient detail to establish that 01 (Clear) or 10
(Cloudy) applies.
10 (Cloudy) usually refers to “overcast” but may include partial cloudiness if light is diminished.
02 (Rain) refers to precipitation other than snow, hail or sleet. Mist should be coded as 02 (Rain).
03 (Sleet or Hail) would apply to conditions where precipitation is falling as ice (sleet or hail)
12 (Freezing Rain or Drizzle) would apply when precipitation is falling as liquid (rain) and then freezing on the
roadway.

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Atmospheric Conditions

C26

04 (Snow) is used when precipitation is falling as frozen flakes at the time of the crash.
11 (Blowing Snow) applies to snow that is falling and/or to snow that has fallen to the ground and is set aloft by
wind.
05 (Fog, Smog, Smoke) refers to a natural or man-made condition that causes reduced visibility.
06 (Severe Crosswinds) refers to winds traveling at an angle with respect to the travel lanes at velocities
significant enough to create a risk that vehicles could be diverted from their path or high profile vehicles could
be blown over. These are winds that are strong enough to affect vehicle stability.
07 (Blowing Sand, Soil, Dirt) refers to particulate matter set aloft by winds creating a condition of reduced
visibility which constitutes a hazard for vehicles operating in the area. This attribute should be used for “dust
storms.” This attribute should not be used in conjunction with 06 (Severe Crosswinds) unless the winds are
affecting vehicle stability in addition to reducing visibility.
08 (Other) atmospheric conditions not described above.
If a PAR data element is coded with the attribute “Other” but the officer does not specify what this refers to:
1. Code 08 (Other) if the PAR attribute choices can be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
2. Code 98 (Not Reported) if the PAR choices cannot be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed to
code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the element
(e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A030)
CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,
(A1A0)

(A510)
(AT00)
(AT10)

ROADWAY SURFACE CONDITIONS equals 01
for a vehicle involved in the first harmful
event,
any ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS equals 0204, 11, 12,
An ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS 01-08, 10-12,
98, 99 can be used only once per crash.
the first ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS equals
99,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS should not equal
03, 04, 11, 12.
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS should not equal
02-04, 11, 12.
ROADWAY SURFACE CONDITIONS should not
equal 01, 07, 08, 99 for any vehicle.
-the second ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS must
equal 00.
137

Atmospheric Conditions
Check
(AT20)
(AT30)
(AT40)
(AT50)

IF
the first ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS equals
01-08, 10-12, 99,
First ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS must not
equal 00.
the first ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS equals
01,
the second ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS must
not equal 01.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C26
THEN
the second ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS must
not equal 99.
-the second ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS must
equal 00.

138

School Bus Related

C27

C27 - School Bus Related
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.SCH_BUS, Person.SCH_BUS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1

Attributes
No
Yes

Definition: This data element indicates if a school bus, or motor vehicle functioning as a school bus, is related to
the crash.
Remarks:
The “school bus” can be:
• with or without a passenger(s) on board
• involved as a contact motor vehicle, or
• indirectly involved as a non-contact motor vehicle
A school bus is a motor vehicle used for the transportation of any school pupil at or below the
12th-grade level to or from a public or private school or school-related activity. A motor vehicle is not a school
bus while on trips which involve the transportation exclusively of other passengers or exclusively for other
purposes.
A motor vehicle is a school bus only if it is externally identifiable by the following characteristics:
1. Its color is yellow
2. The words “school bus” appear on the front and rear
3. Flashing red lights are located on the front and rear
4. Lettering on both sides identifies the school or school district served, or the company operating the bus
0 (No) is used when there is no indication of a school bus, or motor vehicle functioning as a school bus, being
involved in the crash.
1 (Yes) is used when there is any indication that a school bus, or vehicle functioning as a school bus, is involved
in any component of the crash.
For directly involved or contacted vehicles, 1 (Yes) must be selected if the Special Use data element equals 02
(Vehicle Used for School Transport).
To capture those instances where the vehicle is involved indirectly (non-contact vehicle) the following rules
apply:
• If the case materials indicate “School Bus” the assumption is that the Law Enforcement agency
conformed to the definition of school bus, thus 1 (Yes) School Bus Related.
• If there is no indication that a school bus was indirectly involved 0 (No) must be selected.
Examples of School Bus Related (indirectly):
1. A police reported “school bus” stops on the roadway. Subsequently an approaching motor vehicle
swerves to avoid the stopped bus and contacts another motor vehicle head-on.
2. A police report indicates that a “child” exited a “school bus” and was crossing in front of the stopped bus
when a vehicle passed the bus on the left side and struck the child.
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School Bus Related

C27

3. A line of cars is stopped for a school bus which is discharging passengers. A motor vehicle approaches
and is unable to stop in time and strikes the last stopped motor vehicle in the line.
Examples of NOT School Bus Related:
1. An empty school bus, having completed its route, is parked alongside the road. A motor vehicle
approaching from the rear loses control and strikes the bus.
2. A “Bus” is reported as stopped in traffic and a vehicle swerves to avoid the bus and contacts another
vehicle. In this example, there is no positive indication of a “school bus” being involved.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(3D0P)
SPECIAL USE for any vehicle equals 02,
(PB22)
SCHOOL BUS RELATED equals 1, and PERSON
TYPE equals 05 or 08,
(PB23)
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 342, and PERSON TYPE
equals 05 or 08,
(V330)
SCHOOL BUS RELATED equals 1,

(V440)

BODY TYPE equals 50,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
SCHOOL BUS RELATED must equal 1.
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN should equal 342.
SCHOOL BUS RELATED should equal 1.

BODY TYPE of at least one of the involved
vehicles should equal 50 (School Bus), or
SPECIAL USE for at least one involved vehicle
should equal 02 - Vehicle Used as School Bus,
and BUS USE for at least one vehicle should
equal 01.
SCHOOL BUS RELATED should equal 1.

140

Rail Grade Crossing Identifier – FARS Only

C28

C28 - Rail Grade Crossing Identifier - FARS Only
FORMAT: 6 numeric followed by 1 alphabetic
SAS NAME: Accident.RAIL
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0000000
nnnnnnA
9999999

Attributes
Not Applicable
Six Numeric, Followed by One Alphabetic Valid F.R.A. Codes
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies if the crash occurred in or near a Rail Grade Crossing.
Remarks: Code complete identifier. The format must always be six numbers followed by a letter. (Two
exceptions: 0000000 (Not Applicable) and 9999999 (Unknown).)
Identifiers are obtainable from your Federal Railroad Administration representative.
0000000 (Not Applicable) is used for crashes that do not involve a rail grade crossing.
Code when any part of the crash occurs at a rail grade crossing. Include crashes in which a vehicle is waiting at a
rail grade crossing but does not necessarily travel over the tracks.
Inform your COTR if you have any problems obtaining identifiers.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1Y0P)
RELATION TO JUNCTION(b) equals 06,
(650P)
651P

(750P)

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE equals 65 for any
vehicle,
RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must
equal BLANKS, 0000000, 9999999, or
nnnnnnA; where n is a numeric character
and A is an uppercase alphabetic character.
RELATION TO JUNCTION(b) equals 07,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must not
equal 0000000.
RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must not
equal 0000000.
--

RAIL GRADE CROSSING IDENTIFIER must equal
0000000.

141

Notification Time EMS – FARS Only

C29

C29 - Notification Time EMS - FARS Only
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.NOT_HOUR; Accident.NOT_MIN
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
8888
0000-2359
0099-2399
9998
9999

Attributes
Not Applicable (Not Notified)
Valid Military Times
Known Hours but Unknown Minutes
Unknown if Notified
Unknown EMS Notification Time

Definition: Notification Time EMS is the time Emergency Medical Service was notified.
Remarks: Every effort should be made to determine the Notification Time EMS, Arrival Time EMS, and EMS
Time at Hospital.
Code the official EMS times as received. Do not alter the times because of discrepancies with the crash time.
All EMS time formats are in hours and minutes. If you receive an EMS time that includes the seconds’ position,
truncate to the reported minutes. Example: 10:51:35 would be 10:51.
If the day of the crash and the day of EMS Notification have different dates, then be sure to use the 18 (Date of
Crash and Date of EMS Notification Were Not the Same Day) in Related Factors-Crash Level. Code Notification
Time EMS and Arrival Time EMS no matter how much time has elapsed since the Crash Time.
8888 (Not Applicable [Not Notified])
Enter this code only if EMS was never notified as part of an emergency transport.
• If it is known that EMS transport was called for non-emergency transport purposes (e.g., to transport a
body to the morgue) then use this code.
• DO NOT use this code if the EMS was officially canceled. Cancellation is coded under Arrival Time EMS
and EMS Time at Hospital.
• If the EMS was notified then canceled, code the actual notification time and 9997 (Officially Canceled)
under ARRIVAL TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL.
0000 - 2359 (Valid Military Times), 0099 - 2399 (Known Hours but Unknown Minutes)
Code Notification Time of the first EMS unit to arrive on the scene. If unknown minutes, code the actual hour
and “99” for the minutes. Code midnight as “0000.” One minute after midnight is coded “0001.” See remarks
“How to Code Midnight” under Crash Time.
9998 (Unknown if Notified)
Enter this attribute if you cannot determine whether or not any EMS was ever notified.
9999 (Unknown EMS Notification Time)
Enter this attribute if EMS was notified but the time of notification is unknown.
Helicopters that transport victims to treatment facilities are coded as EMS units, but not police who may be
trained to render emergency aid. This guidance is not meant to exclude helicopters that are used to transport
victims for treatment that may be owned by police departments.

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Notification Time EMS – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A070)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998 or
9999,
(A540)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
or 9999, and ARRIVAL TIME EMS is not 8888,
9997, 9998, 9999,
(A560)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
or 9999, and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not
8888, 9997, 9998, 9999,
(E01P)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 9998,
(E03P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E04P)

NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E07P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9997,

(E08P)

NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not 8888,
9996, 9997, 9998,
all persons TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL
FACILITY BY equals 2, 4,

(P093)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C29

THEN
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS should not be more
than 120 minutes later than CRASH TIME.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS should not be more than
120 minutes later than NOTIFICATION TIME
EMS.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not be more
than 180 minutes later than NOTIFICATION TIME
EMS.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must equal 9998, and EMS
TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888 or 9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT
HOSPITAL must equal 8888.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL
must equal 8888.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS must not equal 8888,
9998.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must not equal 9997 or
9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS, ARRIVAL TIME EMS,
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888.

143

Arrival Time EMS – FARS Only

C30

C30 - Arrival Time EMS - FARS Only
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.ARR_HOUR; Accident.ARR_MIN
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
8888
0000-2359
0099-2399
9997
9998
9999

Attributes
Not Applicable (Not Notified)
Valid Military Times
Known Hours but Unknown Minutes
Officially Canceled
Unknown if Arrived
Unknown EMS Scene Arrival Time

Definition: Arrival Time EMS is the time Emergency Medical Service arrived on the crash scene.
Remarks: This excludes any transport by anyone other than EMS. (e.g., Law Enforcement, POV, etc.). Every
effort should be made to determine the Notification Time EMS, Arrival Time EMS, and EMS Time at Hospital.
Code the official EMS times as received. Do not alter the times because of discrepancies with the crash time.
All EMS time formats are in hours and minutes. If you receive an EMS time that includes the seconds’ position,
truncate to the reported minutes. Example: 10:51:35 would be 10:51.
Code Notification Time EMS and Arrival Time EMS no matter how much time has elapsed since the Crash Time.
8888 Not Applicable [Not Notified])
Enter this attribute only if EMS was never notified. DO NOT use this code if the EMS was notified then canceled.
0000 - 2359 (Valid Military Times), 0099 - 2399 (Known Hours but Unknown Minutes)
Code the arrival time of the first EMS unit to arrive on the scene. If unknown minutes, code the actual hour and
“99” for the minutes. Code midnight as “0000.” One minute after midnight is coded “0001”. See remarks “How
to Code Midnight” under Crash Time.
9997 (Officially Canceled)
Enter this attribute if EMS was officially canceled.
9998 (Unknown if Arrived)
Enter this attribute if there is no indication of official cancellation, but there is uncertainty or doubt that EMS
ever arrived on the scene or not.
9999 (Unknown EMS Scene Arrival Time)
Enter this code if EMS did arrive on scene, but the time of arrival is unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A540)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
or 9999, and ARRIVAL TIME EMS is not 8888,
9997, 9998, 9999,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
ARRIVAL TIME EMS should not be more than
120 minutes later than NOTIFICATION TIME
EMS.

144

Arrival Time EMS – FARS Only
Check
(A550)

(E01P)

IF
ARRIVAL TIME EMS is not 8888, 9997, 9998,
or 9999, and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not
8888, 9997, 9998, 9999,
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 9998,

(E02P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9998,

(E03P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E04P)

NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E05P)
(E06P)
(E07P)

EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL equals 9997,
ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9997,
ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9997,

(E08P)

NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not 8888,
9996, 9997, 9998,
all persons TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL
FACILITY BY equals 2, 4,

(P093)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

C30
THEN
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not be more
than 60 minutes later than ARRIVAL TIME EMS.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must equal 9998, and EMS
TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888 or 9998.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888 or
9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT
HOSPITAL must equal 8888.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL
must equal 8888.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must equal 9997.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 9997.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS must not equal 8888,
9998.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must not equal 9997 or
9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS, ARRIVAL TIME EMS,
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888.

145

EMS Time at Hospital – FARS Only

C31

C31 - EMS Time at Hospital - FARS Only
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.HOSP_HR; Accident.HOSP_MN
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
8888
0000-2359
0099-2399
9996
9997
9998
9999

Attributes
Not Applicable (Not Transported)
Valid Military Times
Known Hours but Unknown Minutes
Terminated Transport
Officially Canceled
Unknown if Transported
Unknown EMS Hospital Arrival Time

Definition: EMS Time at Hospital is the time Emergency Medical Service arrived at the treatment facility to
which it was transporting victims of the crash.
Remarks: This excludes any transport by anyone other than EMS. (e.g., Law Enforcement, POV, etc.). Every
effort should be made to determine the Notification Time EMS, Arrival Time EMS, and EMS Time at Hospital.
Code the official EMS times as received. Do not alter the times because of discrepancies with the crash time.
All EMS time formats are in hours and minutes. If you receive an EMS time that includes the seconds’ position,
truncate to the reported minutes. Example: 10:51:35 would be 10:51.
Questions arise when there is more than one EMS unit or when there is more than one injured person. Code
EMS Time at Hospital according to the following guidelines:
8888 (Not Applicable [Not Transported])
Use this attribute if all the injuries are on-scene fatalities (no one is transported for treatment.) Also use this
attribute if there are live victims, but no one is transported to a treatment facility by EMS.
0000 - 2359 (Valid Military Time), 0099 - 2399 (Known Hours but Unknown Minutes)
Code the EMS time at hospital of the unit transporting the most severely injured victim. The most severely
injured victim includes (and usually is) the victim who dies en route to the treatment facility or later, but not the
one who dies on-scene.
If unknown minutes, code the actual hour and “99” for the minutes. Code midnight as “0000.” One minute
after midnight is coded “0001.” See remarks. “How to Code Midnight” under Crash Time.
9996 (Terminated Transport)
Enter this attribute if there is indication that EMS was notified, arrived at the scene but while in transit
terminated the trip to hospital because the person died en route. This attribute should not be used when there
is a hospital arrival time available for a person dead on arrival at the hospital.
9997 (Officially Canceled)
Enter this attribute if EMS was officially canceled before on scene.

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EMS Time at Hospital – FARS Only

C31

9998 (Unknown if Transported)
Enter this attribute if there is no indication of official cancellation, but there is un-certainty or doubt that any
victims were transported for treatment or not.
9999 (Unknown EMS Hospital Arrival Time)
Enter this attribute if EMS transported victims for treatment, but the time of arrival at the hospital or treatment
facility is unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A550)
ARRIVAL TIME EMS is not 8888, 9997, 9998,
or 9999, and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not
8888, 9997, 9998, 9999,
(A551)
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL equals 8888, 9997,
9998,
(A560)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
or 9999, and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not
8888, 9997, 9998, 9999,
(E01P)
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 9998,
(E02P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9998,

(E03P)

ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E04P)

NOTIFICATION TIME EMS equals 8888,

(E05P)
(E06P)
(E08P)

(P530)

EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL equals 9997,
ARRIVAL TIME EMS equals 9997,
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS is not 8888, 9998,
and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL is not 8888,
9996, 9997, 9998,
TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL FACILITY
BY equals 1, 3, 5,
all persons TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL
FACILITY BY equals 2, 4,
TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL FACILITY
BY equals 0 for every person in the case,
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL equals 8888, 9997,
9998,
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL equals 9996,

(P54P)

DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE equals 8,

(P091)
(P093)
(P095)
(P510)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not be more
than 60 minutes later than ARRIVAL TIME EMS.
TRANSPORTED TO FIRST MEDICAL FACILITY BY
should not equal 1, 3, 5 for any PERSON.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not be more
than 180 minutes later than NOTIFICATION TIME
EMS.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must equal 9998, and EMS
TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888 or 9998.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888 or
9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT
HOSPITAL must equal 8888.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS and EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL
must equal 8888.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must equal 9997.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 9997.
ARRIVAL TIME EMS must not equal 9997 or
9998.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not equal 8888,
9997, 9998.
NOTIFICATION TIME EMS, ARRIVAL TIME EMS,
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must equal 8888.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL must not equal 00002399, 9999.
DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE should not equal 8
for any PERSON.
DIED AT SCENE/EN ROUTE must equal 8 for at
least one person.
EMS TIME AT HOSPITAL should not equal 8888,
9997, 9998.

147

Related Factors – Crash Level

C32

C32 - Related Factors – Crash Level
FORMAT: 2 numeric occurring 3 times
SAS NAME: Accident.CF1; Accident.CF2; Accident.CF3
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
*01
*02
03
*04
05
*06
07

Attributes
None
Inadequate Warning of Exits, Lanes Narrowing, Traffic Controls, etc.
Shoulder Design or Condition
Other Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition
No or Obscured Pavement Marking
Surface Under Water
Inadequate Construction or Poor Design of Roadway, Bridge, etc.
Surface Washed Out (caved-in, road slippage)

Special Circumstances:
Codes Attributes
13
Aggressive Driving / Road Rage by Non-Contact Vehicle Driver
14
Motor Vehicle Struck by Falling Cargo, or Something That Came Loose from, Or Something That
was Set-in-Motion by a Vehicle.
15
Non-Occupant Struck by Falling Cargo, or Something That Came Loose from, or Something that
was Set-in-Motion by a Vehicle
16
Non-Occupant Struck Vehicle
17
Vehicle Set-in-Motion by Non-Driver
*18
Date of Crash and Date of EMS Notification Were Not the Same Day
19
Recent Previous Crash Scene Nearby
20
Police Pursuit Involved
21
Within Designated School Zone
*22
Speed Limit is a Statutory Limit as Recorded or was Determined as This State’s “Basic Rule”
23
Indication of a Stalled/Disabled Vehicle
24
Unstabilized Situation Began and All Harmful Events Occurred Off of the Roadway
25
Toll Booth / Plaza Related
26
Backup Due to Prior Non-Recurring Incident
27
Backup Due to Prior Crash
28
Backup Due to Regular Congestion
99
Unknown
* FARS ONLY ATTRIBUTES
Definition: This element identifies factors related to the crash expressed by the investigating officer.
Remarks: Code information provided by the investigating officer in the narrative or contributing
factors/circumstances field on the crash report.
For attributes 01-07, if the officer states “the witness said," these should not be coded. Care must be used in
coding these attributes. The Police Accident Report (PAR) should state that the environmental condition was a
factor or existed at this location; cannot be inferred.

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Related Factors – Crash Level

C32

Attributes 13-28 - SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES, are exceptions to the prior remarks. These are codes for unusual
factors that occurred during the crash. If you can determine that any of these factors did happen, then these
codes should be used.
This element can be coded in conjunction with other elements even if similar information is identified; for
example, if a traffic control is temporarily down, it can be coded under both DEVICE FUNCTIONING and RELATED
FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL 01 (Inadequate Warning of Exits, Lanes Narrowing, Traffic Controls, etc.). In the case
that more than three factors are identified, you may omit factors that are coded/identifiable in other elements.
00 (None) is used when no applicable related factors are noted in the case materials. Zero-fill all fields. Also, use
00 (None) to complete the remaining fields when you will be recording less than three crash related factors. DO
NOT leave any remaining fields blank.
*01 (Inadequate Warning of Exits, Lanes Narrowing, Traffic Controls, etc.) is used when the case materials
identify that there was inadequate warning provided to motorists associated with the trafficway. In the case of
more than three applicable factors, this attribute takes precedence over 06 (Inadequate Construction or Poor
Design of Roadway, Bridge, etc.) and 03 (Other Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition). Do not use
this attribute in situations that would include construction sites or work areas (see 03 (Other Maintenance or
Construction-Created Condition)).
Examples include:
• Inadequate warning due to obscured signs
• Inadequate warning because signs were temporarily down
• Lack of necessary signage (e.g., merge or diverge warning, downhill grade).
*02 (Shoulder Design or Condition) is used when the case materials identify problem conditions pertaining to
the actual design or condition of the shoulder. In the case of more than three applicable factors, this attribute
takes precedence over 06 (Inadequate Construction or Poor Design of Roadway, Bridge, etc.) and 03 (Other
Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition).
Examples include:
• Soft or collapsing shoulders
• Inadequate shoulder width
• Shoulder is at a different level from the roadway (e.g., drop-off, lifted, not flat).
03 (Other Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition) is used when the case materials identify problem
conditions pertaining to "inadequate maintenance" of the roadway (e.g., potholes, ruts in roadway) or
conditions cited by the officer that are related to construction activity (e.g., addition of barricades, change in
traffic patterns, merging lanes, etc.)
*04 (No or Obscured Pavement Marking) is used when the case materials identify problem conditions
pertaining to any pavement marking situations. In the case of more than three applicable factors, this attribute
takes precedence over 06 (Inadequate Construction or Poor Design of Roadway, Bridge, etc.) and 03 (Other
Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition).
Examples include:
• New asphalt that has covered old pavement markings
• Areas where pavement marking has worn off.
• The case materials mention ice/snow/mud was obscuring the pavement markings.

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05 (Surface Under Water) is used when the case materials identify that the roadway surface is under water
beyond normal accumulation (i.e., depth of water). Also use this attribute when the case materials mention
situations where the roadway is permanently under water (i.e., fords). In the case of more than three applicable
factors, this attribute takes precedence over 06 (Inadequate Construction or Poor Design of Roadway, Bridge,
etc.) and 03 (Other Maintenance or Construction-Created Condition).
*06 (Inadequate Construction or Poor Design of Roadway, Bridge, etc.) is used when the case materials identify
problems with the roadway design. This attribute does not include shoulder-related situations, pavement
marking situations, or situations with inadequate warnings (See attributes 01 (Inadequate Warning of Exits,
Lanes Narrowing, Traffic Controls, etc.), 02 (Shoulder Design or Condition) and 04 (No or Obscured Pavement
Marking)).
Examples include:
• Original design of the trafficway (i.e., roadway bridges, medians, guardrails, traffic barriers) is poor
• Blind intersections due to highway design, not due to visual obstructions (i.e., shrubbery) etc.
• Improper banking
• Lack of a lane for merging
• Inadequate road surface (dirt, gravel surfaces, etc.); however, this must not be inferred; must be
explicitly stated in police report as a “factor”
07 (Surface Washed Out [caved-in, road slippage]) is used when the case materials identify the roadway was
previously washed out, caved-in, or had slipped due to prior events associated with the environment (e.g.
flooding, earthquakes, etc.)
13 (Aggressive Driving/Road Rage by Non-Contact Vehicle Driver) is only used for situations where the
investigating officer indicates that a non-contact vehicle (“phantom vehicle”) was being operated aggressively.
The officer must use the term “Aggressive” in describing a driver’s behavior. This can be indicated in the case
materials under related/contributing factors/circumstances or in the narrative. You may encounter the term
“Road Rage” used to describe aggressive driving behavior. Always be cautious with this term as the two terms
are not technically interchangeable. For contact vehicles, see Driver Level-Related Factor 08 (Aggressive
Driving/Road Rage).
14 (Motor Vehicle Struck by Falling Cargo, or Something That Came Loose from, Or Something that was Set-InMotion by a Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify that a vehicle became a contact vehicle in the
crash as a result of being struck by cargo or objects that fell from another vehicle or by something that was setin-motion by another vehicle. The term “set-in-motion” generally applies to non-fixed or fixed objects struck
and propelled by a vehicle (including pedestrians or parked vehicles). This can also include a circumstance
where one vehicle overrides another and then directs or controls the overridden vehicle’s movement.
Examples include:
• Cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and lands on another motor vehicle in-transport or a parked
vehicle.
• A car runs off the roadway at an intersection, hits a stop sign and propels the stop sign into a vehicle
traveling on the intersecting roadway.
• A motorcycle rider overturns in a curve, the rider is separated from the vehicle and the rider slides
across the centerline into a vehicle traveling in the opposing lanes.
• A tractor trailer overrides a passenger car and with the car still pinned under the truck, the combined
vehicles continue on to contact other objects.

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15 (Non-Occupant Struck by Falling Cargo, or Something That Came Loose from, or Something that was Set-inMotion by a Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify that a non-occupant (e.g. pedestrian, bicyclist,
person on personal conveyance) was struck by cargo or objects that fell from a motor vehicle or by something
that was set-in-motion by motor vehicle. The term “set-in-motion” generally applies to non-fixed or fixed
objects struck and propelled by a vehicle (including pedestrians or parked vehicles).
Examples include:
• Cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and lands on a bicyclist on the shoulder.
• A car runs off the roadway at an intersection, hits a stop sign and propels the stop sign into
skateboarder waiting to cross the intersection.
• A car strikes a deer in the roadway and propels the deer into person jogging on the sidewalk.
16 (Non-Occupant Struck Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify that a non-occupant (e.g. pedestrian,
bicyclist, person on personal conveyance) “struck” or “ran into” a motor vehicle (usually the side or back of the
vehicle). This does not include non-occupants which are struck in the vehicle's path of travel.
Examples include:
• A bicyclist runs into the mirror of a parked car and falls into the path of a motor vehicle in-transport.
• A runner collides with the side of a vehicle that comes to a sudden stop and the runner is subsequently
struck by another vehicle.
17 (Vehicle Set-In-Motion by Non-Driver) is used when the case materials identify the crash involved a
passenger's action.
Examples include:
• Passenger shifting gears on the vehicle.
• Passenger hitting the accelerator
• Passenger turning the ignition key or hitting the ignition button.
NOTE: This attribute is different from Related Factors-Person Level 05 (Interfering with the Driver).
*18 (Date of Crash and Date of EMS Notification Were Not the Same Day) is used when the crash victim(s) is
not discovered immediately or when the effects of the crash are not immediately known.
19 (Recent Previous Crash Scene Nearby) is used when the case materials identify that a previous crash
somehow influenced or contributed to the occurrence of this crash.
Examples include:
• A change in the traffic patterns
• An obstruction on the roadway
• A reduction in traffic speed
• Occupants and/or vehicles on the roadway
20 (Police Pursuit Involved) is used when the case materials identify a police pursuit had been initiated by the
police and was active at the time of the crash. This attribute is also used when a pursuit had been initiated and
terminated, but the pursuit action is still related to the crash. This applies for both air and ground pursuing
vehicles. To identify the individual(s) involved in the pursuit, please see Related Factors-Driver Level for 37
(Police Pursuing this Driver or Police Officer in Pursuit).)
Definition of Police Pursuit: A pursuit is an event that is initiated when a law enforcement officer, operating
an authorized emergency vehicle, gives notice to stop (either through the use of visual or audible
emergency signals or a combination of emergency devices) to a motorist who the officer is attempting to
apprehend, and that motorist fails to comply with the signal by either maintaining his/her speed,
increasing speed, or taking other evasive action to elude the officer’s continued attempts to stop the

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motorist. A pursuit is terminated when the motorist stops, or when the attempt to apprehend is
discontinued by the officer or at the direction of a competent authority.
21 (Within Designated School Zone) is used when the case materials identify the crash occurred in an area
signed or marked as a "School Zone". This may or may not be a school-bus-related. "School Zones" are zones
near or at a school which exist during months and hours when zone signing is in effect.
*22 (Speed Limit is a Statutory Limit as Recorded or was Determined as This State's "Basic Rule") is used when
the case materials identify there is no posted speed limit but the state law sets the maximum speed limit on a
local road or street.
23 (Indication of a Stalled/Disable Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify that a stalled or
mechanically disabled vehicle was somehow related to the crash. It includes both contact and non-contact
vehicles that are stalled/disabled for mechanical reasons not due to crash-related damage.
Examples include:
• A pedestrian is struck when walking from their stalled vehicle.
• A vehicle is stalled in the travel lanes causing another vehicle to lose control and crash.
24 (Unstabilized Situation Began and All Harmful Events Occurred Off of the Roadway) is used when the case
materials identify the unstabilized situation began within the trafficway but off the roadway and all harmful
events occurred off the roadway.
Examples include:
• A vehicle stopped on the roadside begins to accelerate to re-enter the roadway and runs into a ditch
and overturns.
• An ATV is driving along the roadside and strikes a tree stump.
• A vehicle strikes a pedestrian while driving down the road shoulder.
25 (Toll Booth/Plaza Related) is used when the case materials identify that the crash occurred at or in the
vicinity of a toll booth (manned or unmanned) or a toll plaza. These are crashes that occur in the upstream
approach to the toll booth/plaza area and continues as the approach area (where the toll road begins to widen)
leading up to the toll booths and in the departure area where the road begins to narrow leading back to the
normal number of lanes comprising the toll road downstream departure area.
26 (Backup Due to Prior Non-Recurring Incident) is used when the case materials identify that the crash
occurred in or related to an area of the trafficway where there was congestion on the roadway caused by an
unusual and unplanned event.
Examples include:
• A tractor trailer transporting a trailer designated as a Wide Load
• Debris in the roadway causing a backup.
• Backup due to traffic going to or coming from a funeral procession, sporting event, parade or traffic
signal outage.
27 (Backup Due to Prior Crash) is used when the case materials identify there was an accumulation of traffic
caused by vehicles slowing or stopping due to traffic flow being impacted by a prior crash. The distance from
the prior crash does not matter; only the relevance to this crash.
28 (Back up Due to Regular Congestion) is used when the case materials identify the crash occurred in or
related to an area of trafficway where there was congestion due to heavy traffic during rush hour.

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99 (Unknown) is used when the circumstances surrounding the crash are unknown and reported as Unknown
by the investigating officer. In these circumstances, nine-fill all fields. If 99 (Unknown) is used for any field, ALL
fields must be Unknown. DO NOT leave any remaining fields blank.
* FARS ONLY ATTRIBUTES
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1A0P)
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 14,
(1A1P)

RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 05,

(640F)

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE equals 23 for any
vehicle,
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 21,

(641F)
(642F)
(840P)
(850P)

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE equals 00 for any
vehicle,
any RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals
99,
the first RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL
equals 00,

(860P)

any RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL is blank,

(870P)
(880F)

A RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL 01-07, 1328 can be used only once per crash.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 16,

(890F)

RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 15,

(8L8S)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18
or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals 14,
45 or 54,
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 14,

(8L8T)

(8L8U)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18
or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals 08,
09, 15, 49,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
ROADWAY SURFACE CONDITIONS must equal 06
for at least one vehicle.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL should equal
21.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 00
for every vehicle.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL should not
equal 21.
all RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal
99.
all RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must be 00.
If the second equals 00, then the third must
also.
all RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must be
blanks.
-there must be a Person Level (Not a MV
Occupant) form with PERSON TYPE equal to 0408, 19.
there must be a Person Level (Not a MV
Occupant) form with PERSON TYPE equal to 0408, 10, 19.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 14.

there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE
or OTHER VEHICLE) equals 18 or 19 and the
corresponding event in that row equals 14, 45
or 54.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 15.

153

Related Factors – Crash Level
Check
(8L8V)

IF
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 15,

(AM1P)

FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54 or 73, or
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 54, 73 for any
vehicle,
any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals
37,
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 05,

(D470)
(D500)
(PB63)

PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 230,

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THEN
there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS
VEHICLE) equals 18 or 19, and the
corresponding event in that row equals 08-10,
15, 18 or 49.
one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must
equal 14.
at least one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL
should equal 20.
at least one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL
should equal 20.
at least one RELATED FACTORS - CRASH LEVEL
should equal 19 or 23.

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Interstate Highway – CRSS Only

C33

C33 - Interstate Highway - CRSS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Int_Hwy
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
9

Attributes
No
Yes
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies whether or not the crash occurred on an interstate highway. Interstate
highway is a Federal Highway Administration classification.
Remarks: The Interstate Highway System includes those trafficways that are within the national system for
interstate transport and defense purposes. Interstates typically have limited access and multiple lanes of travel.
Crashes which occur on ramps leading to or away from an Interstate should be coded 1 (Yes).
Enter 0 (No) when the PAR indicates that the crash occurred on any of the following: US Highway, State
Highway, County Road, Township Road, or Municipal Road.
Enter 1 (Yes) when the PAR indicates the crash occurred on an interstate highway. Some PARs use a specific
block to indicate interstate. Interstate can also be identified by the prefix “I” used in the roadway name.
Consistency Checks (CRSS) Only:
Check
IF
(A3G0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and RELATION
TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03 or 05 or 20,
(A3H0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and RELATION
TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03 or 05 or 20,
(A3I0)
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1
(A3J0)

(A3K0)
(A930)

INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and RELATION
TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03 or 05 or 20,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 10,
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY equals 1, and RELATION
TO JUNCTION (a) equals 1, and RELATION TO
JUNCTION (b) is not equal to 03 or 05 or 20,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
TOTAL LANES IN ROADWAY should not equal 1
for at least one vehicle involved in the first
harmful event.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should not equal 4
for at least one vehicle involved in the first
harmful event.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should not equal
02, 04, 06, 08 or 16.
SPEED LIMIT should not equal 01-40 for at
least one vehicle involved in the first harmful
event.
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY should not equal 1.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal
01-03, 20, 23 or 65 for at least one vehicle
involved in the first harmful event.

155

Stratum – CRSS Only

C34

C34 - Stratum - CRSS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.Stratum
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Stratum Number
Stratum 2
Stratum 3
Stratum 4
Stratum 5
Stratum 6
Stratum 7
Stratum 8
Stratum 9
Stratum 10

Definition: The CRSS stratum applicable to this PAR.
Remarks: Only motor vehicle traffic crashes are included in the CRSS. See the current CRSS Sampling Manual,
for the definition of a CRSS crash.
CRSS Strata Definitions
Stratum #
Definition
Stratum 2
MVTAs involving at least one injured (A, B, C, or ISU*) or Killed (K) person who was not in
a motor vehicle (i.e., non-motorist).
Stratum 3
MVTAs not qualifying for Stratum 2 involving at least one injured (A, B, C, or ISU*) or
Killed (K) occupant of a motorcycle or moped.
Stratum 4
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2 or 3 involving at least one occupant of a late model
year (LMY) passenger vehicle who was injured with a Suspected Serious Injury (A) or Killed
(K).
Stratum 5
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, or 4 involving at least one occupant of a non-late
model year (NLMY) passenger vehicle who was injured with a Suspected Serious Injury (A)
or Killed (K).
Stratum 6
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, 4, or 5 involving at least one occupant of a late
model year (LMY) passenger vehicle who was injured (B, C, or ISU*).
Stratum 7
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 involving at least one medium or heavy
truck or bus (includes school bus, transit bus, and motor coach) with GVWR equal to or
greater than 10,001 pounds.
Stratum 8
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 involving at least one occupant of a nonlate model year (NLMY) passenger vehicle who was injured (B, C, or ISU*).
Stratum 9
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 involving at least one late model year
(LMY) passenger vehicle AND no one in the crash was injured (A,B,C, or ISU*) or Killed (K).
Stratum 10
MVTAs not qualifying for Strata 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
*ISU = Injured, Severity Unknown

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C34

Important Notes:
A. In stratum 2, non-motorist does not include occupants of a motor vehicle not in-transport.
B. Motor vehicles that are not in-transport are not considered for stratification. Likewise, injuries
sustained by occupants of motor vehicles that are not in-transport are also not considered for
stratification.
C. A motor vehicle with no occupants that is in-transport IS considered in the stratification.
D. Late model year (LMY): the vehicle model year is equal to the crash year, the following year, or 4 prior
years.
E. Non-late model year (NLMY): the vehicle model year is older than 4 prior years or the model year of
the vehicle is unknown.
Unstabilized Situations
As defined by ANSI D-16 7th Edition, Section 2.4.4, “An unstabilized situation is a set of events not under
human control. It originates when control is lost and terminates when control is regained, or in the absence of
persons who are able to regain control, when all persons and property are at rest.” “Property” can refer to the
involved vehicles, separated components of the vehicles, cargo, or objects set in motion. The duration of an
unstabilized situation establishes the beginning and end of an individual crash.
At times, one PAR may contain more than one crash. This may happen when events constituting a crash have
stabilized and units involved in the first sequence are subsequently involved in another crash sequence and
recorded on the same PAR. If more than one crash is recorded on a PAR, ALL of the crashes are to be listed and
stratified separately. This includes CRSS, NTS, and those which are Out-of-Scope. In a multi-vehicle crash, if it
cannot be determined conclusively that all persons and property had come to rest at some point prior to the
involvement of all vehicles listed on the PAR, the events would be part of a single unstabilized situation and
thus considered one crash.
Consistency Check (CRSS Only):
Check
Language
5AAP
The Final Stratum should equal the Original Stratum.

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Police Jurisdiction – CRSS Only

C35

C35 - Police Jurisdiction - CRSS Only
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Accident.PJ
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-128

Attributes
Range

Definition: The number (range 1 through 120) of the police jurisdiction from which the PAR was originally
sampled.
Remarks: This is the police jurisdiction from which the PAR is selected; it is written at the top of the PAR and is
prefaced by the character “PJ”. The police jurisdiction may also be shown as the second of three numbers
separated by -s. The first number in the set of three is the primary sampling unit, the second is the police
jurisdiction, and the third is the PAR number. The jurisdiction number written on the PAR must match the
number shown in the “CRSS Input Form” PAR/Jurisdiction field.

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Additional State Information

Additional State Information
FORMAT: Alphanumeric
SAS NAME: None
ELEMENT VALUES:
• Blanks
• Any Alphanumeric Characters
Remarks: This space is reserved for each individual state’s use. Suggested uses depend on potential needs of
the state. This space may contain:
1. Police Accident Report number.
2. Additional crash location information.
If HPMS number is available, it may be inserted here.

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Vehicle Level Data Elements

Vehicle Level Data Elements
V1 – State Number – FARS Only
V2 – Consecutive Number – FARS Only
V3 – Vehicle Number – Vehicle Level
V4 – Number of Occupants
V5 – Unit Type
V6 – Hit-and-Run
V7 – Registration State
V8 – Registered Vehicle Owner – FARS Only
Vehicle Make/Vehicle Model Overview
V9 – Vehicle Make
V10 – Vehicle Model
Alphabetical Listing of Makes
Numerical Listing of Makes
Vehicle Make/Model/Body Type Tables
V11 – Body Type
V12 – Vehicle Model Year
V13 – Vehicle Identification Number
V14 – Vehicle Trailing
V15 – Trailer Vehicle Identification Number
V16 – Jackknife
V17 – Motor Carrier Identification Number
V18 – GVWR/GCWR
V19 – Vehicle Configuration
V20 – Cargo Body Type
V21 – Hazardous Materials Involvement/Placard
V22 – Bus Use
V23 – Special Use
V24 – Emergency Motor Vehicle Use
V25 – Travel Speed
V26 – Underride/Override – FARS Only
V27 – Rollover
V28 – Location of Rollover
V29 – Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point/Damaged Areas
V30 – Extent of Damage
V31 – Vehicle Removal
V32 – Sequence of Events
V33 – Most Harmful Event
V34 – Related Factors – Vehicle Level
V35 – Fire Occurrence
V36 – Vehicle License Plate Number – CRSS Only

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Vehicle Number – Vehicle Level

V3

V3 - Vehicle Number – Vehicle Level
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Veh_No; Parkwork.VEH_NO
ELEMENT VALUES:
•

001-999

Definition: This element identifies the number assigned to this vehicle in the crash.
Remarks: Each motor vehicle in a crash must be assigned a unique number. The numbers assigned to vehicles
must be consecutive, starting with ‘001’ with no missing numbers.
Motor vehicles are assigned the PAR's vehicle number unless a number is skipped because of a non-contact
vehicle included on the PAR with a vehicle number or a non-motorist included with a unit number.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(060P)
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NONMOTORIST is not equal to 000, 999,

(CSI5)
(CSI6)

(PBA0)

(PBA1)

VEHICLE NUMBER at the Person Level is
greater than 000,
For each VEHICLE NUMBER, PERSON
NUMBERS must be consecutive, beginning
with 001 and with no gaps.
PEDESTRIAN/ BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE BICYCLE equals 111, 211, 212, and VEHICLE
NUMBER - VEHICLE LEVEL equals NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST,
PEDESTRIAN/ BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE BICYCLE equals 112, 151, 213, 214, 217 or
218, and VEHICLE NUMBER - VEHICLE LEVEL
equals NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE
STRIKING NON-MOTORIST,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING
NON-MOTORIST must equal some VEHICLE
NUMBER in the case, and the UNIT TYPE must
equal 1.
VEHICLE NUMBER at the Person Level must
equal a VEHICLE NUMBER at the Vehicle Level.
--

PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) should equal
11.
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) should equal
10.

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Number of Occupants

V4

V4 - Number Of Occupants
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Numoccs; Parkwork.PNUMOCCS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01-98
99

Attributes
None
Actual Value* [if Total Known]
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the number of occupants in each vehicle.
Remarks: This data element must be coded for each motor vehicle involved in the crash. Code the total number
of occupants (injured and uninjured) in this motor vehicle. In bus crashes, the total number of occupants,
including the driver, must be entered.
00 (None) is used when this motor vehicle is unoccupied.
01-98 (Actual Value [If Total Known]) is used when the number of occupants in the vehicle is known. Person
Level (MV Occupant) forms should be submitted for all known occupants (even if there is no information in the
case materials).
Buses are an exception. For buses (Body Types 50-52, 55, 58,59), the total number of occupants, including the
driver, should be recorded, but Person Level (MV Occupant) forms should only be submitted for occupants
known to be injured and for the driver, whether the driver is known to be injured or not. NOTE: This does NOT
apply to small van-based buses (Body Type 21). Always submit a person level form for all occupants of vanbased vehicles, including small van-based buses.
99 (Unknown) is used when the number of occupants for the motor vehicle is unknown. Unless evidence clearly
establishes the number of occupants present, this code is used when this motor vehicle is a “hit-and-run”
vehicle.
If the actual number of motor vehicle occupants is unknown, Person Level (MV Occupant) forms should be
submitted for all known occupants (even if there is no information on the PAR).
Buses are an exception. For buses (Body Types 50-52, 55, 58, 59), if the total number of occupants is unknown,
Person Level (MV Occupant) forms should be submitted for the driver (if there was one) and all occupants
known to be injured. This does NOT apply to small van-based buses (Body Type 21). If the total number of
occupants is unknown for small van-based buses (Body Type 21), always submit a person level form for all
known occupants (even if there is no information in the case materials).
Also use 99 (Unknown) when the State reports information only on drivers and INJURED passengers and the
total number of occupants is unknown.
* Values greater than 30 are unlikely and will raise a “U” flag.

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Number of Occupants
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(2F0F)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS equals 00,
(4C1P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94,
95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT
equal 0,
(4C2P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C3P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C4P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C5P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
(4C6P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C7P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C8P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C9P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C0P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4F1P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 01-05, 07-10, 13, 17, 8083, 88-90, 91-95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,
(4F2P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
(4F3P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
(4F4P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83,88,89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V4

THEN
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 77.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 15.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.

163

Number of Occupants
Check
(4F5P)

(4F6P)

(4F7P)

(4F8P)

(4F9P)

(4F9Q)

(4F0P)

(5F0F)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 15, 16, 42, 73, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, 12, 14-16, 19, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS equals 00-98, and
BODY TYPE does not equal 50-52, 55, 58, 59,

(BJ4P)

any DRIVER DISTRACTED BY equals 03,

(V170)

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94, 95,
97,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 06, 11,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 12,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 80-83, 88, 89,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 15, 16, 42, 73,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79,

(V180)

(V190)

(V200)

(V210)

(V220)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V4
THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 50.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
the number of Person Level forms for that
vehicle must be equal to the NUMBER OF
OCCUPANTS.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must be greater than
01.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.

164

Number of Occupants
Check
(V230)

(V240)

(V250)

(V260)

(V290)
(V340)

(V350)

(V360)

(V370)

(V380)

(V390)

(V400)

(V410)

(V420)

(V430)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 91,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 90,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is, 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 99,
BODY TYPE equals 90,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 97,
and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 98, 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V4
THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should equal 01.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.

165

Unit Type

V5

V5 - Unit Type
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.UNITTYPE; Parkwork.PTYPE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
1
2
3
4

Attributes
Motor Vehicle In-Transport (Inside or Outside the Trafficway)
Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Within the Trafficway
Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway
Working Motor Vehicle (Highway Construction, Maintenance, Utility only)

Definition: This element identifies the type of unit that applies to this motor vehicle at the time it became an
involved vehicle in the crash and was reported as a unit on the Police Accident Report (PAR).
Remarks: IMPORTANT: Remember, you must have at least one motor vehicle “In-Transport” involved in the
crash for this to be a reportable case.
NOTE: For Unit Type attributes “2-4,” you must only submit selected elements on the Vehicle Level. V15, V25,
and V32 are not coded. Also, all elements on the Driver level must be left blank, except D4 (Driver Presence) and
D24 (Related Factors-Driver Level). Related Factors-Driver Level must be coded all “00.”
1 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport [Inside or Outside the Trafficway]) is used to indicate that this is a motor vehicle
in-transport. “In-Transport” means any part of the vehicle’s primary outline as defined by the four sides of the
vehicle (excluding open doors or mirrors) or load, if any, is within the roadway (travel lanes) or the vehicle is in
motion anywhere within or outside the trafficway boundaries. If it can't be determined if a not in-transport,
non-working motor vehicle is within or outside the trafficway, default to 3 (Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport
Outside the Trafficway).
Examples:
1. Motor vehicle in traffic on the highway.
2. Motionless motor vehicle abandoned on the roadway travel lanes.
3. Motor vehicle on roadway stopped at traffic signal.
4. Motor vehicle driving or in motion on the shoulder, median or roadside.
5. Motor vehicle driving down a private driveway.
6. Motor vehicle in motion, outside the trafficway boundaries (e.g., vehicle pulling up to a pump in a gas
station, not within trafficway; vehicle in motion in a parking lot aisle; lawn tractor driving in a field
adjacent to the trafficway; ATV driving on a dirt track next to trafficway; etc.).
7. A tractor trailer with its load hanging over the roadway edge line.
8. A pickup truck on the shoulder with lumber extending into the travel lanes.
2 (Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Within the Trafficway) is used to indicate that this is a motor vehicle not intransport located within the trafficway boundaries when it became an involved unit. The trafficway boundaries
are from property line to property line.
Examples:
1. Motor vehicle parked in designated curbside parking lane.
2. Motor vehicle parked in designated curbside parking lane with an open door crossing into the travel
lane.
3. Motor vehicle stopped completely on the shoulder, median or roadside.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

166

Unit Type

V5

3 (Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway) is used to indicate that this is a motor vehicle not intransport located outside the trafficway boundaries when it became an involved unit by being struck by a motor
vehicle in-transport. If it can't be determined if a not in-transport, non-working motor vehicle is within or
outside the trafficway, default to 3 (Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway).
Examples:
1. Motor vehicle parked in a private driveway, parking lot space, or other private property (outside the
trafficway boundaries).
2. Any vehicle (not in motion) used for private construction occurring outside the trafficway boundaries.
4 (Working Motor Vehicle [Highway Construction, Maintenance, Utility only]) is used to indicate that this is a
motor vehicle that was in the act of performing highway construction, maintenance or utility work related to the
trafficway when it became an involved unit. This “work” may be located within open or closed portions of the
trafficway and motor vehicles performing these activities can be within or outside the trafficway boundaries.
This code does not include private construction/maintenance vehicles, or vehicles such as garbage trucks,
delivery trucks, taxis, emergency vehicles (except example #8 below), tow trucks, etc.
Examples:
1. Asphalt/steam roller working in a highway construction zone paving the roadway or flattening dirt.
2. State highway maintenance crew painting lane lines on the road, mowing grass on the roadside or
median, repairing potholes, removing debris from the roadway, etc.
3. Utility truck or a “cherry picker”, performing maintenance on power lines along the roadway or
maintaining a traffic signal.
4. A private excavating company contracted by the State digging the foundation for a new overpass.
5. A state, county, or privately owned snow plow, plowing ice/snow as part of a highway maintenance
activity.
6. Street sweeper sweeping the street.
7. A vehicle in a mobile work convoy displaying arrow boards or other signaling devices warning motorists
of the work activity.
8. A law enforcement vehicle which is participating strictly in a stationary construction or mobile
maintenance activity as a traffic slowing, control, signaling, or calming influence.
When not in the act of performing “work” and involved in the crash, these highway construction, maintenance
or utility vehicles can be:
1. In-Transport when traveling from one construction site to the next (Unit Type 1 (Motor Vehicle InTransport [Inside or Outside the Trafficway]).
2. Not In-Transport Within the Trafficway when stopped on the shoulder or within a highway work zone
(Unit Type 2 (Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport Within the Trafficway)).
3. Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway when parked and refueling at a depot (Unit Type 3 (Motor
Vehicle Not In-Transport Outside the Trafficway)).
4. In-Transport Outside the Trafficway when relocating off the trafficway from a work activity area to
another off-trafficway parking location.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

167

Unit Type

V5

Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(060P)
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NONMOTORIST is not equal to 000, 999,

(252P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01, 02, 03,
04, 07, 08, 10, 11, 98 or 99,

(255P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or 11,

(256P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 01 or 11,

(257P)

RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY equals 05,

(2H1F)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and EXTENT OF DAMAGE
equals 6,
there is only one vehicle involved in the First
Harmful Event where UNIT TYPE equals 1,

(3BAP)
(3C0P)
(42BP)

(4Z1P)

(9A2P)
(9A3P)
(9A5P)
(9B3P)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and FIRE OCCURRENCE
equals 1,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and BODY TYPE equals
80, 81, 83, 88, 89, and any RELATED FACTORS
- VEHICLE LEVEL does not equal 30,
UNIT TYPE equals 2, 3,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
PERSON TYPE equals 03,
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 7,

(9B4P)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 8,

(9B5P)
(9B7P)

UNIT TYPE equals 2, 3,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

(9B9P)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 55,

(9C4P)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,

(5A0P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING
NON-MOTORIST must equal some VEHICLE
NUMBER in the case, and the UNIT TYPE must
equal 1.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
must not equal 3.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (THIS VEHICLE)
involved in the first harmful event must equal 1.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
should equal 1 or 4.
UNIT TYPE for VEHICLE NUMBER (OTHER
VEHICLE) involved in the first harmful event
must equal 1, 3 or 4.
DRIVER’S VISION OBSCURED BY must equal 95.
CRASH TYPE must equal 00, 04, 09, 15, 32, 42,
48, 52, 62, 66, 74, 84, 90, 93 or 98.
VEHICLE REMOVAL should equal 2, 8, 9.
the number of vehicles where CRASH TYPE is
coded 00, 1-16, 92, 93 or 99 (excluding from the
vehicles being counted, those where CRASH
TYPE equals 98) must not equal 0 or be greater
than 1.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
02.
ROLLOVER and LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must
equal 0.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must equal 6.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
UNIT TYPE must equal 2-4.
there must be at least one vehicle with UNIT
TYPE equal to 1.
there must at least one vehicle with UNIT TYPE
equal 2-4.
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE must equal 0.
PERSON TYPE of all occupants of this vehicle
must equal 03.
there must be at least one other vehicle with
UNIT TYPE equal to 1.
DRIVER MANEUVERED TO AVOID must only
equal 95.

168

Unit Type

V5

Check
(9C0P)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 55,

(9C1P)

UNIT TYPE equals 4,

(9C6P)
(AL3P)

UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

(AL4P)

there is one and only one parked vehicle
(UNIT TYPE equals 2 or 3) in the crash,
UNIT TYPE equals 1,

(AL5P)
(AL6P)
(AL7P)

MOST HARMFUL EVENT equals __, and UNIT
TYPE equals 1,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

(AZ20)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,

(BJ1P)

(VH25)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 1,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER DISTRACTED
BY equals 16,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and CRASH TYPE equals
blank, case status is flawed.
UNIT TYPE is blank, case status is flawed.
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and CRITICAL EVENT –
PRECRASH (CATEGORY) equals blank, case
status is flawed.
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and CRITICAL EVENT –
PRECRASH (EVENT) equals blank, case status
is flawed.
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and ROLLOVER equals 1,
2, 9, or LOCATION OF ROLLOVER equals 1-7,
9,
UNIT TYPE equals 4,

(VH70)
(VH75)

UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
UNIT TYPE equals 4,

(VH80)

UNIT TYPE equals 4,

(BJ2P)
(BJ3P)
(FP2F)
(FP3F)
(FP6F)

(FP7F)

(V74P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
there must be at least one vehicle with UNIT
TYPE equal to 1.
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL must not
equal 39.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must equal 0.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT must not equal 54 for
this vehicle.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT for the parked vehicle
must not equal 14.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal the MOST HARMFUL EVENT.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal __.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 04-07,
16, 51, 72.
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) must equal
00.
DRIVER DISTRACTED BY must equal 16.
DRIVER DISTRACTED BY must not equal 16 or
blank.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 or 9.
----

--

at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
01 for this vehicle.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not equal
6, 9.
elements V15, V24, V31 must all be left blank.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 05,
20, 21, 10.
CARGO BODY TYPE should not equal 06, 07, 11,
12, 22.

169

Hit and Run

V6

V6 - Hit-and-Run
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Hit_Run, Parkwork.PHit_Run
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
9

Attributes
No
Yes
Unknown

Definition: This element refers to cases where a vehicle is a contact vehicle in the crash and does not stop to
render aid (this can include drivers who flee the scene on foot).
Remarks: In many states, the investigating officer will note this in the narrative or check the appropriate box on
the PAR. In some cases, the driver can be cited for failing to render assistance. Review the case materials
carefully for references to hit-and-run or failure to render aid.
It does not matter whether the hit-and-run vehicle was striking or struck. The hit-and-run vehicle(s) is (are) the
one(s) that “departed prior to investigation by the police,” or that vehicle which is “abandoned” at the scene
when its occupant(s) fled from the area. If the police report indicates that the vehicle was involved in a collision
which was investigated, but there is no information on that vehicle or the driver/owner because of departure
prior to police arrival on-scene, then hit-and-run is indicated.
0 (No) is used if there is no reason to believe a hit-and-run occurred involving this vehicle or its driver. Example:
If a vehicle is involved in a multi-vehicle collision and one of the other contact vehicles leaves the scene.
Examples include:
1. if occupants of a vehicle are taken or go directly from the scene to a medical treatment facility or
physician. However, if doubt exists concerning the departure for treatment, assume hit-and-run.
2. a driver who leaves the scene but furnishes name, address, vehicle make, model and model year such
that it is recorded in the available information and the available information does not indicate hit-andrun.
3. vehicles which set an object in motion such that (a) the object is contacted, before it stabilizes, by
another in-transport motor vehicle, and (b) the vehicle which set the object in motion leaves the scene
without providing the pertinent information (compare with exception two above), and (c) the available
information does not indicate hit-and-run.
1 (Yes) is used when it has been determined that this vehicle’s driver left the scene with or without their vehicle.
A hit-and-run occurred when this vehicle’s driver left the scene after:
• striking a pedestrian or other type of non-motorist.
• striking a parked/stopped off roadway motor vehicle (with or without occupants).
• being struck while parked or in-transport.
If Hit-and-Run is 1 (Yes), Driver and Person Level (MV Occupant) forms must be submitted for the driver and
any known passengers of this vehicle involved in the crash regardless of the fact that it was a hit-and-run.
When the presence of a hit-and-run vehicle is indicated and the available information does not provide the
number of occupants, NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must equal 9 (Unknown).
9 (Unknown) is used when the police indicate “Unknown.”

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

170

Hit and Run

V6

Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(8K0P)
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 07, 08,
(U340)
UNLIKELY: HIT-AND-RUN equals 0 or 9 and
SEX equals 9.
(U360)
UNLIKELY: HIT-AND-RUN equals 0 or 9 and
AGE equals 999.
(U070)
UNLIKELY: More than one vehicle with HITAND-RUN equal to 1.
(V860)
HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 61-64,
(V880)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,

(VH87)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and AREAS OF
IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT equals 0114,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
HIT-AND-RUN must not equal 0.
---VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 02,
04, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-10,
12, 96-98
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 05-08,
19, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04,
06-12, 96-98.
the corresponding code should be included in
DAMAGED AREAS or DAMAGED AREAS should
equal 15.

171

Registration State

V7

V7 - Registration State
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.REG_STAT; Parkwork.PREG_STAT
ELEMENT VALUES:

Codes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Attributes
Not Applicable
Alabama
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Codes
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98

Attributes
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Virgin Islands
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Not Reported
No Registration
Multiple State Registration
U.S. Government Tags (includes military)
Canada
Mexico
Other Foreign Country*
Other Registration (includes Native
American Indian Nations)
99
Unknown
*This value is an unlikely occurrence and will raise
an error flag.

172

Registration State

V7

Definition: This element identifies the state in which this vehicle was registered.
Remarks: For a vehicle with an expired registration, code the state where the vehicle was registered at the time
of expiration.
91 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 91 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
For combination vehicles, use the registration state of the power unit only.
00 (Not Applicable) is used for vehicles that are not required to be registered. This is state specific based on
state vehicle registration requirements.
Use state codes for all state registered vehicles, including state government vehicles. However, if your state
does not register government-owned vehicles, use 00 (Not Applicable).
92 (No Registration) applies to vehicles that are required by state law to be registered and are NOT registered.
93 (Multiple State Registration) is used for commercial vehicles that are registered in more than one state
under a valid reciprocal agreement (such as the International Registration Plan (IRP)).
94 (U.S. Government) is used to indicate the license was issued by the U.S. Government, such as military or
State Department Foreign Service.
If a PAR data element is coded with the attribute “Other” but the officer does not specify what this refers to:
1. Code 98 (Other Registration) if the PAR attribute choices can be matched to or include all the attributes
in FARS/CRSS.
2. Code 91 (Not Reported) if the PAR choices cannot be matched to or include all the attributes in
FARS/CRSS.
99 (Unknown) is used when the registration information for a vehicle cannot be identified. Example
unidentified hit-and-run vehicle’s registration reported as “Unknown” by police.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(9K0P)
HM2 equals 2,
(AQ0P)
REGISTRATION STATE equals 00, 92,
(AV0P)
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 3, 4,
(D330)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and
REGISTRATION STATE is not equal to 00, 92,
99,
(U040)
UNLIKELY: REGISTRATION STATE equals 97.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 00.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must equal 0, 5, 6.
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3-6.

--

173

Registration State
Check
(V060)
(V070)
(V550)
(V560)

IF
SPECIAL USE equals 04,
HM1 equals 2,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 93, 94,
SPECIAL USE equals 04,

(V600)
(V630)

REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 9,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 00, 92,

(V670)
(V960)

REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 1, 2,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 99,

Consistency Checks (FARS Only):
Check
IF
(6G0P)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
(U450)
UNLIKELY: REGISTRATION STATE equals 91.
(V592)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 37,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V7
THEN
REGISTRATION STATE should equal 94.
REGISTRATION STATE should not equal 92.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3, 4.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3,
and REGISTRATION STATE should equal 94.
REGISTRATION STATE should equal 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should NOT equal
5.
REGISTRATION STATE should NOT equal 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 5, 6,
9.
THEN
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 00, 92.
-REGISTRATION STATE should not equal 00, 92.

174

Registered Vehicle Owner – FARS Only

V8

V8 - Registered Vehicle Owner - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS Name: Vehicle.OWNER, parkwork.POWNER
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
9

Attributes
Not Applicable, Vehicle Not Registered
Driver (in this crash) Was Registered Owner
Driver (in this crash) Not Registered Owner (other private owner listed)
Vehicle Registered as Business/Company/Government Vehicle
Vehicle Registered as Rental Vehicle
Vehicle Was Stolen (reported by police)
Driverless/Motor Vehicle Parked/Stopped Off Roadway
Unknown

Definition: This element is used to determine the type of registered owner of the vehicle.
Remarks: The type of ownership, “loan vs. lease,” does not change the coding. An individual or company should
be the Registered Vehicle Owner, regardless of the bank holding the loan or lease. Banks and leasing companies
should be the Registered Vehicle Owner for their own fleets only.
Vehicle Registration data takes precedence over police reported information.
0 (Not Applicable, Vehicle Not Registered) applies to vehicles that are not registered, both not required to be
registered (state specific based on state vehicle registration requirements) and illegally not registered. (See 5
(Vehicle Was Stolen [reported by police]) for stolen vehicles.) For plated Business/Company/Government
Vehicles that are exempt from normal registration see 3 (Vehicle Registered as Business/ Company/
Government Vehicle).
2 (Driver (in this crash) Not Registered Owner [other private owner listed]) is used for private owners other
than the driver. Also, this includes when if the driver is a spouse of the owner but is not a co-owner.
3 (Vehicle Registered as Business/Company/Government Vehicle) is used for vehicles that are registered in a
Business or Company name, or as a local, county, state or federal Government Vehicle. Use this attribute even
if the Government vehicle is exempt from normal registration. Example: city owned police cruisers.
4 (Vehicle Registered as Rental Vehicle) applies for rental vehicles, such as: Hertz, Ryder trucks, etc.
5 (Vehicle Was Stolen [reported by police]) takes precedence over codes “0, 2, 3, 4, 6,” when multiple
conditions exist.
6 (Driverless/Motor Vehicle Parked/Stopped Off Roadway) is used for both in-transport and not in-transport
motor vehicles. This attribute should always be used if Unit Type is coded as “2” or “3,” even if other applicable
conditions exist. This attribute is also used to indicate that this is a “driverless” motor vehicle in-transport (e.g.,
driverless vehicle stopped in a travel lane). If indicating this is a “driverless” motor vehicle in-transport, this
attribute does not take precedence over codes “0, 3, 4, 5,” when multiple conditions exist.
9 (Unknown) is used when information on the registered owner is unknown or unclear; and in certain cases
when the driver cannot be determined, but the registered owner is known.

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175

Registered Vehicle Owner – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(9A2P)
UNIT TYPE equals 2, 3,
(AQ0P)
REGISTRATION STATE equals 00, 92,
(AR0P)
SPECIAL USE equals 04,
(AS0P)
(AV0P)
(CB0P)
(D330)

(V550)
(V560)

RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 3, 4,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 6,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and
REGISTRATION STATE is not equal to 00, 92,
99,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 93, 94,
SPECIAL USE equals 04,

(V570)

HM1 equals 2,

(V580)
(V600)
(V630)

HM1 equals 2,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 9,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 00, 92,

(V670)
(V960)

REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 1, 2,
REGISTRATION STATE equals 99,

(VH25)

UNIT TYPE equals 4,

Consistency Checks (FARS Only):
Check
IF
(V590)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
(V593)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 37,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V8

THEN
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must equal 6.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must equal 0, 5, 6.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must not equal 0,
1, 2, 4.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must not equal 0.
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 99.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3-6.

REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3, 4.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3,
and REGISTRATION STATE should equal 94.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not equal
0, 1, 2, 4.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3.
REGISTRATION STATE should equal 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should NOT equal
5.
REGISTRATION STATE should NOT equal 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 5, 6,
9.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not equal
6, 9.
THEN
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 1-3.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not equal
0.

176

Vehicle Make / Vehicle Model Overview

Vehicle Make/Vehicle Model Overview
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
VEHICLE MAKE, VEHICLE MODEL, BODY TYPE, and VEHICLE MODEL YEAR as shown on crash reports must be
verified with registration data. In the case of inconsistencies, registration data takes precedence over crash
report data. Note that vehicle information should be gathered only from state records. Do not use any other
sources to determine any of these elements; that is, you should not use sources such as the NATB Passenger
Vehicle Identification Manual.
VEHICLE MAKE attributes are organized into general groups. These groups are:
Codes
Attributes
01-28
Domestic Passenger Car
29
Other Domestic Passenger Car
30-67
Import Passenger Car
69
Other Import Passenger Car
70-77
Motored Cycle/Moped
80-89
Truck/Bus
90-94
Bus
97
Not Reported
98
Other Make (where MAKE “29” or “69” are not applicable)
99
Unknown Make
VEHICLE MODEL refers to the series of vehicles for a make (e.g., Pintos, Galaxies, Mustangs are Models of Ford).
It does not refer to the various styles within a model unless they are listed in the codes for VEHICLE MODEL.
VEHICLE MODEL attributes are organized into general groups. These groups are:
Codes
Attributes
001-399
Passenger Car (automobile)
400-499
Light Trucks (including truck based utility vehicles, light duty pickup trucks, standard pickup
trucks, vans, mini vans, van-based station wagons, van-based buses, van derivatives, and
truck-based station wagons).
598
Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) / Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV)
700-739
Motored Cycles (including motorcycles, mini-bikes, motor scooters, dirt bikes, and mopeds).
850
Motor Home (truck based)
870
Medium/Heavy Van-Based Vehicle
880-897
Trucks (including all trucks over 10,000 lbs. GVWR except those pick-up type trucks
mentioned under BODY TYPE code “30-31” [Pickup]).
898
Other, Unknown, truck over 10,000 lbs. GVWR.
980-996
All buses except those that are van-based.
988
Other bus over 10,000 lbs. GVWR.
989
Unknown Bus
997
Not Reported
998
Other Vehicle
999
Unknown Vehicle
Note that for both VEHICLE MAKE and VEHICLE MODEL the use of the terms “other” and “unknown” have very
specific meanings. “Other” refers to a VEHICLE MAKE or VEHICLE MODEL that is known but is not explicitly listed.

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177

Vehicle Make / Vehicle Model Overview
“Unknown” refers to the situation where no specific named VEHICLE MAKE or VEHICLE MODEL is known.
Selection of the proper “other” or “unknown” code can only be made with consideration of the vehicle BODY
TYPE in accordance with the applicable BODY TYPE for given combinations of “other” and/or “unknown”
VEHICLE MAKE and VEHICLE MODEL.
4WD, FWD, or Four-Wheel Drive does not automatically imply on/off road vehicle (Utility Vehicles), body types
“14” and “15.”
Reconstructed/Altered Vehicles: In cases where someone builds a “homemade” vehicle from drastically mixed
parts, there may be no clear MAKE or MODEL. In addition, the state may issue an Identification Number in place
of the Standard VIN. In such cases, code the VIN as all “0s”; code MAKE, MODEL, and MODEL YEAR as “9s.” Code
BODY TYPE as appropriate. Be sure to use RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL code Reconstructed/Altered
Vehicle.
In reconstructed/altered vehicles where the modifications are less drastic and you can determine the MAKE,
MODEL, and VIN, code these elements appropriately and be sure to use the Related Factors-Vehicle Level code
for Reconstructed/Altered Vehicle.
If any detail is known regarding the vehicle’s Make/Model/Body/Year, code what is known and then code the
other elements as unknown. For example, you know it’s a Ford 4-door passenger car but the specific model and
year are not reported. Code Vehicle Make as 12 (Ford), Vehicle Model as 399 (Unknown (Automobile)), Body
Type as 04 (4-Door Sedan, Hard Top), and Vehicle Model Year as 9999 (Unknown).
Code Not Reported only when Vehicle Make, Vehicle Model, Body Type, and Vehicle Model Year are all Not
Reported.
Not Reported
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code Not Reported in these situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).

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178

Vehicle Make

V9

V9 - Vehicle Make
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Make, Person.Make; Parkwork.PMAKE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes Attributes
01
American Motors
02
Jeep/Kaiser-Jeep/Willys-Jeep
03
AM General
06
Chrysler
07
Dodge
08
Imperial
09
Plymouth
10
Eagle
12
Ford
13
Lincoln
14
Mercury
18
Buick/Opel
19
Cadillac
20
Chevrolet
21
Oldsmobile
22
Pontiac
23
GMC
24
Saturn
25
Grumman
26
Coda
29
Other Domestic Manufacturers
30
Volkswagen
31
Alfa Romeo
32
Audi
33
Austin/Austin Healey
34
BMW
35
Datsun/Nissan
36
Fiat
37
Honda
38
Isuzu
39
Jaguar
40
Lancia
41
Mazda
42
Mercedes-Benz
43
MG
44
Peugeot
45
Porsche
46
Renault
47
Saab
48
Subaru
49
Toyota
50
Triumph
51
Volvo

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Codes
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
67
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
97
98
99

Attributes
Mitsubishi
Suzuki
Acura
Hyundai
Merkur
Yugo
Infiniti
Lexus
Diahatsu
Sterling
Land Rover
Kia
Daewoo
Smart
Scion
Other Import
BSA
Ducati
Harley-Davidson
Kawasaki
Moto-Guzzi
Norton
Yamaha
Victory
Brockway
Diamond Reo/Reo
Freightliner
FWD
International Harvester/Navistar
Kenworth
Mack
Peterbilt
Iveco/Magirus
White/Autocar White/GMC
Bluebird
Eagle Coach
Gillig
MCI
Thomas Built
Not Reported
Other Make
Unknown Make

179

Vehicle Make

V9

Definition: This element identifies the make (manufacturer) of this vehicle.
Remarks: SEE ADDITIONAL REMARKS UNDER VEHICLE MAKE/ VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW
Note that for both Vehicle Make and Vehicle Model, the use of the terms “other” and “unknown” have very
specific meanings. “Other” refers to a make or model which is known but is not explicitly listed. “Unknown”
refers to the situation where no specific make or model is known. Examples: 399 (Unknown (Automobile)), 499
(Unknown (Light Truck)), 739 (Unknown cc (ATV)), 884 (Medium/Heavy Truck - Unknown Engine Location),
999 (Unknown).
Selection of the proper "other" or "unknown" code can only be made with consideration of the vehicle’s body
type. For example, if a medium/heavy truck or bus make is known and is not listed, Vehicle Make is coded
OTHER MAKE (med/heavy truck/bus or “other”) and the appropriate model code is used. If the make is
unknown but the body type is known as a “school bus”, for instance, Vehicle Make is coded 99 (Unknown Make)
and Vehicle Model is coded 989 (Unknown (Bus).
99 (Unknown Make) is used for a "hit-and-run" vehicle unless reliable evidence indicates the vehicle's make.
97 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 97 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials). If a vehicle make or vehicle model is encountered
that is not listed, NHTSA headquarters is notified.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(920P)
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, equals Not Reported
[MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY TYPE (98),
and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
(921P)
MAKE is not 97, 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
(930P)
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, does not equal Not
Reported [MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY
TYPE (98), and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
(960P)
MAKE is not 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
(U480)
UNLIKELY: VEHICLE MAKE equals 97.
(V922)
MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,
(V961)
MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the other three must also equal Not Reported.

MODEL YEAR must equal ___, or CRASH YEAR
plus 1.
the other three must also not be coded as Not
Reported.

BODY TYPE must equal ___.
-MODEL YEAR should equal ___.
BODY should equal ___.

180

Vehicle Model

V10

V10 - Vehicle Model
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Model; Person.Model; Parkwork.PMODEL
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
001-397
398
399
401-497
498
499
598
599
701-706
709
731-734
739
801-809
850
870
880
881
882
883
884
890
898
901-908
981-987
988
989
997
998
999

Attributes
Automobiles
Other (Automobile)
Unknown (Automobile)
Light Trucks
Other (Light Trucks)
Unknown (Light Trucks)
Other (Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) / Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV))
Unknown (Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) / Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV))
Motorcycles
Unknown cc (Motorcycles)
All-Terrain Vehicles
Unknown cc (ATV)
Other Make (Medium/Heavy Trucks)
Motor Home
Medium/Heavy Van-Based Vehicle
Medium/Heavy Pickup (pickup-style only – over 10,000 lbs.)
Medium/Heavy Trucks – CBE
Medium/Heavy Trucks – COE (low entry)
Medium/Heavy Trucks – COE (high entry)
Medium/Heavy Trucks – Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy Trucks – COE (entry position unknown)
Other (Medium/Heavy Trucks)
Other Make (Buses)
Buses
Other (Bus)
Unknown (Bus)
Not Reported
Other (Vehicle)
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the model of this vehicle within a given make.
Remarks: SEE ADDITIONAL REMARKS UNDER VEHICLE MAKE/VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW
Note that for both Vehicle Make and Vehicle Model, the use of the terms “other” and “unknown” have very
specific meanings. “Other” refers to a make or model which is known but is not explicitly listed. “Unknown”
refers to the situation where no specific make or model is known. Examples: 399 (Unknown (Automobile)), 499
(Unknown (Light Trucks)), 739 (Unknown cc (ATV)), 884 (Medium/Heavy Trucks - Unknown Engine Location),
999 (Unknown).

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181

Vehicle Model

V10

Selection of the proper "other" or "unknown" code can only be made with consideration of the vehicle’s body
type. For example, if a medium/heavy truck or bus make is known and is not listed, Vehicle Make is coded
OTHER MAKE (med/heavy truck/bus or “other”) and the appropriate model code is used. If the make is
unknown but the body type is known as a “school bus”, for instance, Vehicle Make is coded 99 (Unknown Make)
and Vehicle Model is coded 989 (Unknown (Bus).
Unknown Make is used for a "hit-and-run" vehicle unless reliable evidence indicates the vehicle's make.
997 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 997 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed to
code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the element
(e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
If a vehicle make or vehicle model is encountered that is not listed, NHTSA headquarters is notified.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(920P)
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, equals Not Reported
[MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY TYPE (98),
and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
(921P)
MAKE is not 97, 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
(930P)
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, does not equal Not
Reported [MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY
TYPE (98), and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
(960P)
MAKE is not 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
(U460)
UNLIKELY: VEHICLE MODEL equals 997.
(V922)
MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,
(V961)
MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the other three must also equal Not Reported.

MODEL YEAR must equal ___, or CRASH YEAR
plus 1.
the other three must also not be coded as Not
Reported.

BODY TYPE must equal ___.
-MODEL YEAR should equal ___.
BODY should equal ___.

182

Alphabetical Listing of Makes

Alphabetical Listing of Makes
FARS
Make
Code
54
31
03
01
69-031
32
33
29-001
98-802
69-042
69-052
90
34
69-032
80
70
69-064
18
19
98-903
69-062
29-002
20
06
69-033
26
98-904
64
60
35
69-034
29-398
69-048
81
98-905
98-803
07
71
10
91

Make

Acura
Alfa Romeo
AM General
American Motors
Aston Martin
Audi
Austin/Austin Healey
Avanti
Auto-Union-DKW
Bentley
Bertone
Bluebird
BMW
Bricklin
Brockway
BSA
Bugatti
Buick
Cadillac
Carpenter
Caterham
Checker
Chevrolet
Chrysler
Citroen
Coda
Collins Bus
Daewoo
Daihatsu
Datsun
DeLorean
Desoto
Desta
Diamond Reo or Reo
DINA
Divco
Dodge
Ducati
Eagle
Eagle Coach

NCIC
Code*
(ACUR)
(ALFA)
(AMGN)
(AMER)
(ASTO)
(AUDI)
(AUST)
(AVTI)
(AUTU)
(BENT)
(BERO)
(BLUI)
(BMW)
(BRIC)
(BROC)
(BSA)
-(BUIC)
(CADI)
--(CHEC)
(CHEV)
(CHRY)
(CITR)
--(DAEW)
(DAIH)
(DATS)
(DELO)
(DESO)
-(DIAR)
(DINA)
(DIVC)
(DODG)
(DUCA)
(EGIL)
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

FARS
Make
Code
29-398
69-035
36
69-398
12
82
83
69-398
92
23
25
72
69-036
98-806
37
29-398
55
08
58
84
38
88
39
69-037
02
02
73
85
63
69-058
69-053
69-038
40
62
59
13
69-039
86
69-061
69-040

Make

NCIC
Code*

Excalibur
Ferrari
Fiat
Fisker
Ford
Freightliner
FWD
Gazelle
Gillig
GMC
Grumman
Harley-Davidson
Hillman
Hino
Honda
Hudson
Hyundai
Imperial
Infiniti
International Harvester
Isuzu
Iveco/Magirus
Jaguar
Jensen
Jeep
Kaiser-Jeep
Kawasaki
Kenworth
Kia
Koenigsegg
Lada
Lamborghini
Lancia
Land Rover
Lexus
Lincoln
Lotus
Mack
Mahindra
Maserati

(EXCL)
(FERR)
(FIAT)
-(FORD)
(FRHT)
(FWD)
(GZL)
-(GMC)
(GRUM)
(HD)
(HILL)
(HINO)
(HOND)
(HUDS)
(HYUN)
(CHRY)
(INFI)
(INTL)
(ISU)
(IVEC)
(JAGU)
(JENS)
(AMER)
(AMER)
(KAWK)
(KW)
(KIA)
-(LADA)
(LAMO)
(LNCI)
(LNDR)
(LEXS)
(LINC)
(LOTU)
(MACK)
-(MASE)

183

Alphabetical Listing of Makes
FARS
Make
Code
69-056
41
69-063
93
42
14
56
98-302
98-906
69-054
43
52
69-055
69-041
74
84
98-902
35
75
21
18
98-907
98-805
29-398
29-003
87
44
09
22
45
69-049
46
69-042

Make

Maybach
Mazda
McLaren
MCI
Mercedes-Benz
Mercury
Merkur
Meyers Motors
Mid Bus
Mini-Cooper
MG
Mitsubishi
Morgan
Morris
Moto-Guzzi
Navistar
Neoplan
Nissan
Norton
Oldsmobile
Opel
Orion
Oshkosh
Packard
Panoz
Peterbilt
Peugeot
Plymouth
Pontiac
Porsche
Reliant (British)
Renault
Rolls Royce

NCIC
Code*
(MAYB)
(MAZD)
-(MCIN)
(MERZ)
(MERC)
(MERK)
--(MNNI)
(MG)
(MITS)
(MORG)
(MORR)
(MOGU)
(NAVI)
(NEOP)
(NISS)
(NORT)
(OLDS)
(OPEL)
(ONTR)
(OSHK)
(PACK)
(PANZ)
(PTRB)
(PEUG)
(PLYM)
(PONT)
(PORS)
(RELA)
(RENA)
(ROL)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

FARS
Make
Code
47
29-004
24
98-807
67
69-044
69-398
65
69-057
61
98-809
29-001
29-398
48
69-045
53
29-005
98-301
94
49
50
69-046
98-808
98-908
77
30
51
98-804
89
89
02
76
57

Make

Saab
Saleen
Saturn
Scania
Scion
Simca
Singer
Smart
Spyker
Sterling
Sterling
Studebaker
Stutz
Subaru
Sunbeam
Suzuki
Tesla
Think
Thomas Built
Toyota
Triumph
TVR
UD
Van Hool
Victory
Volkswagen
Volvo
Western Star
White/Autocar
White/GMC
Willys-Jeep
Yamaha
Yugo

NCIC
Code*
(SAA)
-(STRN)
(SCAN)
(SCIO)
(SIM)
(SIN)
(SMRT)
-(STLG)
(STLG)
(STU)
(STUZ)
(SUBA)
(SUNB)
(SUZI)
--(THMS)
(TOYT)
(TRIU)
(TVR)
(UD)
-(VCTY)
(VOLK)
(VOLV)
(WSTR)
(WHIT)
(WHGM)
(AMER)
(YAMA)
(YUGO)

184

Numerical Listing of Makes

Numerical Listing of Makes
FARS
Make
Code
01
02
02
02
03
06
07
08
09
10
12
13
14
18
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
30
31
32
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Make

American Motors
Jeep
Kaiser-Jeep
Willys-Jeep
AM General
Chrysler
Dodge
Imperial
Plymouth
Eagle
Ford
Lincoln
Mercury
Buick
Opel
Cadillac
Chevrolet
Oldsmobile
Pontiac
GMC
Saturn
Grumman
Coda
Volkswagen
Alfa Romeo
Audi
Austin/Austin Healey
BMW
Datsun
Nissan
Fiat
Honda
Isuzu
Jaguar
Lancia
Mazda
Mercedes-Benz
MG
Peugeot

NCIC
Code*
(AMER)
(AMER)
(AMER)
(AMER)
(AMGN)
(CHRY)
(DODG)
(CHRY)
(PLYM)
(EGIL)
(FORD)
(LINC)
(MERC)
(BUIC)
(OPEL)
(CADI)
(CHEV)
(OLDS)
(PONT)
(GMC)
(STRN)
(GRUM)
-(VOLK)
(ALFA)
(AUDI)
(AUST)
(BMW)
(DATS)
(NISS)
(FIAT)
(HOND)
(ISU)
(JAGU)
(LNCI)
(MAZD)
(MERZ)
(MG)
(PEUG)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

FARS
Make
Code
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
67
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
80
81
82
83
84
84
85
86
87
88

Make

NCIC
Code*

Porsche
Renault
Saab
Subaru
Toyota
Triumph
Volvo
Mitsubishi
Suzuki
Acura
Hyundai
Merkur
Yugo
Infiniti
Lexus
Daihatsu
Sterling
Land Rover
Kia
Daewoo
Smart
Scion
BSA
Ducati
Harley-Davidson
Kawasaki
Moto-Guzzi
Norton
Yamaha
Victory
Brockway
Diamond Reo or Reo
Freightliner
FWD
International Harvester
Navistar
Kenworth
Mack
Peterbilt
Iveco/Magirus

(PORS)
(RENA)
(SAA)
(SUBA)
(TOYT)
(TRIU)
(VOLV)
(MITS)
(SUZI)
(ACUR)
(HYUN)
(MERK)
(YUGO)
(INFI)
(LEXS)
(DAIH)
(STLG)
(LNDR)
(KIA)
(DAEW)
(SMRT)
(SCIO)
(BSA)
(DUCA)
(HD)
(KAWK)
(MOGU)
(NORT)
(YAMA)
(VCTY)
(BROC)
(DIAR)
(FRHT)
(FWD)
(INTL)
(NAVI)
(KW)
(MACK)
(PTRB)
(IVEC)
185

Numerical Listing of Makes
FARS
Make
Code
89
89
90
91
92
93
94
29-001
29-001
29-002
29-003
29-004
29-005
29-398
29-398
29-398
29-398
29-398
69-031
69-032
69-033
69-034
69-035
69-036
69-037
69-038
69-039
69-040
69-041
69-042
69-042
69-044
69-045
69-046

Make

White/Autocar
White/GMC
Bluebird
Eagle Coach
Gillig
MCI
Thomas Built
Avanti
Studebaker
Checker
Panoz
Saleen
Tesla
Desoto
Excalibur
Hudson
Packard
Stutz
Aston Martin
Bricklin
Citroen
DeLorean
Ferrari
Hillman
Jensen
Lamborghini
Lotus
Maserati
Morris
Bentley
Rolls Royce
Simca
Sunbeam
TVR

NCIC
Code*
(WHIT)
(WHGM)
(BLUI)
--(MCIN)
(THMS)
(AVTI)
(STU)
(CHEC)
(PANZ)
--(DESO)
(EXCL)
(HUDS)
(PACK)
(STUZ)
(ASTO)
(BRIC)
(CITR)
(DELO)
(FERR)
(HILL)
(JENS)
(LAMO)
(LOTU)
(MASE)
(MORR)
(BENT)
(ROL)
(SIM)
(SUNB)
(TVR)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

FARS
Make
Code
69-048
69-049
69-052
69-053
69-054
69-055
69-056
69-057
69-058
69-061
69-062
69-063
69-064
69-398
69-398
69-398
98-301
98-302
98-802
98-803
98-804
98-805
98-806
98-807
98-808
98-809
98-902
98-903
98-904
98-905
98-906
98-907
98-908

Make

Desta
Reliant (British)
Bertone
Lada
Mini-Cooper
Morgan
Maybach
Spyker
Koenigsegg
Mahindra
Caterham
McLaren
Bugatti
Fisker
Gazelle
Singer
Think
Meyers Motors
Auto-Union-DKW
Divco
Western Star
Oshkosh
Hino
Scania
UD
Sterling
Neoplan
Carpenter
Collins Bus
DINA
Mid Bus
Orion
Van Hool

NCIC
Code*
-(RELA)
(BERO)
(LADA)
(MNNI)
(MORG)
(MAYB)
-------(GZL)
(SIN)
--(AUTU)
(DIVC)
(WSTR)
(OSHK)
(HINO)
(SCAN)
(UD)
(STLG)
(NEOP)
--(DINA)
-(ONTR)
--

186

Vehicle Make / Model / Body Type Tables

Vehicle Make / Model / Body Type Tables
Passenger Vehicles
Motored Cycles
Trucks
Buses
Other Make
Unknown Make

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

187

Passenger Vehicles

Passenger Vehicles
MAKE: Acura (54) (ACUR)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
031
Integra
032
033

Includes
GS, LS, RS, GS-R, Type R
L, LS, GS, Special Edition, GS-R
NSX-T

034
035

Legend
NSX (For 1991-2005 only.
For 2016 on see model
043.)
Vigor
TL

036

RL/RLX

3.5, 3.7, Hybrid

037

CL

2.2, 2.3, 3.0, 3.2, Type S

038
039

RSX
TSX

040
041

ZDX
ILX

043
044
398

NSX (2016 on. For 19912005 see model 033.)
TLX
Other (automobile)

2.0, Type S
2.4, 3.5, Hybrid, Special
Edition, V6
3.7, SH-AWD
2.0, 2.4, Hybrid, Premium, ASpec
Sport

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
SLX
402
421
499

RDX
MDX
Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes Models
999
Unknown (ACURA)

-3.2, 3.5, 3.7, SH-AWD (AT/MT)

2.4, 3.6 V-6, Standard
---

Includes
-2.3, SH-AWD
Standard
--

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1986-2001,
9999
1986-95,9999
1991-2005,
9999

Body Types
03-05,07,09

1992-94,9999
1996-2014,
9999
1996-2017,
9999
1997-2003,
9999
2002-06,9999
2004-14,9999

04
04

2010-13,9999
2013-17,9999

05
04

2016-17, 9999

02

2015-17,9999
1986-2017,
9999
1986-2017,
9999

04
02-09

Model Years
1996-2000,
9999
2007-17,9999
2001-17,9999
1996-2017,
9999

Body Types
14

Model Years
1986-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

02,04,08,09
02

04
02
03
04, 06, 09

02-09

14
15
19

188

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Alfa Romeo (31) (ALFA)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
031
Spider (Spyder)

032

Sports Sedan

033

Sprint/Special

034
035
036
037
398

GTV-6
164 (Alpha 164)
4c
Giulia
Other (automobile)

Includes
Roadsters, Veloce,
Quadrifoglio, Duetto,
Graduate, 1600/1750/1900/
2000 roadsters, Giulia,
Giulietta, Giulietta Veloce, Tipo
4-door sedans (except 164);
Milano, Giulietta, Super,
Berlina, Alfetta, Giulia
1750/1900/2000/2600 sedans,
Alpha 90
2-door coupes; Alfetta GT,
Monteal, 1750/1900/2000/
2600 GTV, Sprint GT, GT
Veloce, Giulia, Giulietta, Super,
GTA, GTV, GTZ, TZ2
-LS, Q, Quadrifoglio
Launch Edition, Base
Base, Ti, Quadrifoglio
Alfa, Montreal

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

Model Years
1933-94,9999

Body Types
01,02,09

1933-89,9999

04

1933-80,9999

02

1981-86,9999
1990-95,9999
2014-16,9999
2016-17,9999
1933-95,
2014-17,9999
1933-95,
2014-17,9999

02
04
01,02,09
04
01-04,08,09
01-04,08,09

MAKE: AM General (03) (AMGN)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
Dispatcher
402
Hummer
421

431

441
466
481

482

Hummer (SUV from 19932003; see 431 for 2004 on)
(for Pickup, see model 481)
Hummer (2004 on; see
model 421 for 1993-2003)

MV-1
Dispatcher
Hummer (Pickup) (for SUV
see model 421 for 19932003; see 431 for 2004 on)
Hummer

Includes
Post Office (Jeep)
H3 (Base, Luxury, Adventure,
Limited Edition), x, Alpha
Slantback-HMSB, H1, H2

Model Years
1965-94,9999
2006-11,9999

Body Types
14
14

1992-2003,
9999

15

H1 (Base, Luxury,
Adventure), H2 (Base,
Luxury, Adventure),
Limousine
SE, DX, LX, Taxi
DJ-Series-Post Office Van
H1, H2 (Base, Luxury,
Adventure, Limited Edition),
Alpha
H3T (Adventure, Luxury,
Alpha)

2004-11,9999

16

2013-15,9999
1965-91,9999
1992-2011,
9999

20
22
31

2009-11,9999

31

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

189

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
498

Models
Other (light truck)

Includes
--

Model Years
1940-2011,
2013-15,9999

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

1940-2011,
2013-15,9999

Includes
Military off-road

Body Types
60-64,71,72,78

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes Models
884
Medium/Heavy Truck
898
BUSES
Codes
983
988
989

Body Types
14-16,19,20, 22,
31-33, 39, 40, 41,
42, 45, 48
14-16,19, 20, 22,
31-33, 39, 40, 41,
42, 45, 48, 49

Other (medium/heavy
truck)

--

Model Years
1965-2011,
9999
1965-94,9999

Models
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
Other (bus)
Unknown Bus Type

Includes
Transit
---

Model Years
1965-94,9999
1965-94,9999
1965-94,9999

Body Types
52
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-94,9999
1965-2011,
2013-15, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
49, 79, 99

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (AM GENERAL)

60-64,71,72,78

MAKE: American Motors* (01) (AMER)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
001
Rambler American

002

Rebel

002

Matador

002
003

Marlin
Ambassador

004
005
006

Pacer
AMX
Javelin

Includes
Rogue, 220, 330, 440, 440-H,
Scrambler Deluxe, Custom,
Super, Classic, Brougham, SC
Mariner, Briarcliff,
Westerner, The Machine,
SST, 550, Grant, King
Brougham, X, Oleg Cassini,
Barcelona, Police, The
Machine
Black, Radar, Tahiti, Marlin II
800, 880, 990, SST, DPL,
Brougham, DDL, Limited
D/L, X, Limited
(2-seater only)
SST, AMX (1971-1974)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1954-69,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1967-70,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

1971-78,9999

02,04,06,08,09

1965-67,9999
1958-74,9999

02,08,09
02,04,06,08,09

1975-80,9999
1968-70,9999
1968-74,9999

02,03,06,09
02,03,09
02,03,09

190

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
007

Models
Hornet

Includes
Model Years
Body Types
SST, Sportabout, AMX D/L,
1970-77,9999
02-04,06,08,09
SC-360, Gucci Edition, Levi
Trim Package, X
007
Concord
AMX Limited, D/L, Levi Trim, 1978-83,9999
01-04,06,08,09
Sport, Base, Sundancer
008
Gremlin
Base, X, Levi Trim, GT, AMX
1970-78,9999
03,09
008
Spirit
GT, AMX, D/L, SST
1979-83,9999
02,03,09
009
Eagle
Sport, Series 30, Sundancer,
1980-88,9999
01-04,06,08,09
Limited
010
Eagle SX-4
50 Series, Kammback, Sport
1981-84,9999
02,03,09
398
Other (automobile)
-1940-88,9999
01-04,06,08,09
399
Unknown (automobile)
-1940-88,9999
01-04,06,08,09
* NOTE: Alliance, Encore, Premier (including L, DL, and Limited) are coded under Renault (46).

MAKE: Audi (32) (AUDI)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
031
Super 90
032
100
033
034

Fox
4000

035

5000

036
037
038
039
040

80/90
200
V-8 Quattro
Coupe Quattro
S4 (1992-1994; 2000-2011
only. See model 055 for
2012 on)/S6 (1992-1994;
2000-2011 only. See
model 056 for 2013 on.)
Cabriolet (1994-1998)
A6

041
042

Includes
-S, CS, LS, GL, Quattro (1989on)
-Quattro, Coupe, Coupe GT,
CS, S
Quattro, CS, S, CS Turbo
Quattro, T
Quattro, Coupe Quattro
Turbo Quattro
100 series
4000 series
Quattro, Avant Quattro
(Wagon), 3.0, 4.2 Saloon,
Avant (2.7), RS4, Special
Edition, V10, 5.6, 5.2

Model Years
1966-72,9999
1970-77; 198994,9999
1973-79,9999
1980-93,9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09

1978-93,9999

04,06,09

1988-95,9999
1989-92,9999
1990-94,9999
1990-91,9999
1992-95; 200011,9999

04
04,06,09
04
02,03,09
01,04,06,09

-Avant Quattro Wagon (3.0L,
3.0T), Quattro (2.7T, 4.2),
FrontTrak (2.8, 3.0L), RS6,
3.2, S Line, 3.0T (Premium,
Premium Plus, Prestige), 2.0T
(Premium, Premium Plus),
Special Edition

1994-98,9999
1995-2017,
9999

01
04, 06, 09

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02,04,06,08,09
02,04,08,09

191

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
043

Models
A4

044

A8

045

TT/TTS

046

S8

047
048

Allroad (2001-05 only. See
403 for 2013 on)
A3

049

A5

050

R8

051

A7

052

S5

054
055

057
058
059
398

RS5
S4 (2012 on only. See
model 040 for 1992-1994;
2000-2011)
S6 (2013 on. See model
040 for 1992-1994; 20002011)
S7
RS7
S3
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

056

Includes
Avant Wagon (1.8T, 2.0T, 2.8,
3.0, 3.2), Avant Quattro
Wagon, FrontTrak (1.8, 2.8,
3.0), Quattro (1.8T, 2.0T, 3.0,
3.2), Special Edition, S Line,
2.0T (Premium, Premium
Plus, Prestige)
4.2 Quattro, L, W12, NWB,
3.0T, 4.0T, TDI, Sport
FWD, Quattro AWD, 180, 225
Quattro Roadster, FrontTrak
(180), 1.8L, 2.0, 3.2L, S Line,
RS (Premium, Premium Plus,
Prestige), 2.0T (Premium
Plus, Prestige), RS
4.2 Quattro, 5.2, 4.0 TFSI

Model Years
1996-2017,
9999

Body Types
01,04,06,09

1997-2017,
9999
2000-17,9999

04

2001-03; 200709; 2012-17,
9999
2001-05, 9999

02,04,09

2.0T/FSI, 3.2 S Line
(Premium, Premium Plus),
TDI, 1.8, Prestige, Sportback
e-tron
2.0, 2.0T, 3.2, (Premium,
Premium Plus, Prestige)
4.2, 5.2, Spyder (V8, V10), GT
(Spyder), (V8, V10, V10 Plus)
Premium, Premium Plus,
Prestige, (3.0 TFSI/TDI)
4.2, 3.0T (Premium Plus,
Prestige)
4.2 Prestige, V8
3.0T Prestige, Premium Plus

2006-17,9999

01, 03, 04, 05, 09

2008-17,9999

01,02,09

2008-17,9999

01,02,09

2008-10, 201217, 9999
2008-17,9999

04, 05, 09

2013-15,9999
2012-16,9999

01,02,09
04

4.0TFSI Premium Plus,
Prestige

2013-17,9999

04

4.0, Prestige
4.0 TFSI, Performance
2.0 (Premium Plus, Prestige)
--

2013-17,9999
2014-17,9999
2015-17,9999
1970-2017,
9999
1970-2017,
9999

04, 05, 09
05
04, 05, 09
01-06,08,09

QuattroWagon, 2.7T, 4.2

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

01-03, 09

06

01,02,09

01-06,08,09

192

Passenger Vehicles
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
Q7

402

Q5

403
404
405

Allroad (2013 on. For
2001-2005 see model 047.)
SQ5
Q3

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes Models
999
Unknown (AUDI)

Includes
3.6/4.2, 3.0T, TDI (Premium,
Premium Plus, Prestige)
Hybrid, S Line,
2.0T, 3.2, 3.0T (Premium,
Premium Plus, Prestige),
Hybrid (2.0)
2.0T (Premium, Premium
Plus, Prestige)
3.0 (Premium Plus, Prestige)
2.0 TFSI (Premium Plus,
Prestige)
--

Model Years
2007-17,9999

Body Types
14

2008-17,9999

14

2013-17,9999

14

2014-17,9999
2015-17,9999

14
14

2007-17,9999

14

Includes
--

Model Years
1966-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 99

MAKE: Austin/Austin Healey (33) (AUST)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
031
Marina
032
America
033
Healey Sprite
034
035
398

Healey 100/3000
Mini/Mini Cooper/Mini
Moke
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

Includes
GT
-Mark II, MKIV/Princess
(Special Order)
M, S, Mark III
850, S

Model Years
1973-75,9999
1968-72,9999
1958-70,9999

Body Types
01-04,08,09
02
01,04,09

1953-67,9999
1960-69,9999

01
01,02,06,09

A35, A40, Westminster,
Cambridge, Somerset, Seven,
Hereford, Sports, Sheerline,
Atlantic, Countryman,
Dorset, Devon
--

1947-75,9999

01-04,06,08,09

1947-75,9999

01-04,06,08,09

Model Years
1955-76,9999

Body Types
01-04,08,09

1956-76,9999

01-03,09

1969-74,9999

04

MAKE: BMW (34) (BMW)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
031
1600/1800/2000/2002

032

Coupe (before 1975)

033

Bavarian Sedan

Includes
Ti, Tii, Tilux, TR, CS, 1600-2,
SA, Turbo, A, 1500, 2600,
501, 502
2800CS, 3.0CS, 3.0csi, 3.0csl,
3200, 503, 507, M1, 1802,
2000c/cs, 2002
2500, 2800, 2.8 Bavarian

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

193

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
034

Models
3-series

035

5-series

036

6-series

037

7-series

038
039

8-series
Z3

040
041
042

Z8
V5
Z4

043
044
045
046
047

1-Series
X6 (For 2008-2015. For
2016 on, see model 404.)
i3
i8
4-Series

048
049
398

2-Series
X4
Other (automobile)

Includes
3.0s/si, 318i/is/ti/ic, 320i,
323iS/iC/i/Ci,325e/es/i/iS/ii/
C/Ci/Cic/xi/iT/xiT, Sport
Wagon (iT/xiT), 328 d/i/iS/ti/
iC/Ci/x/xi, xDrive, 330i/Ci/
Cic/xi, 335i/is/xi/d, xDrive,
ActiveHybrid, M3, Gran
Tourismo (328i), 340i
524i,525i/xi,528i/iT/xi,
xDrive, 530i/iT/xi,533i,
535d/i/xi, xDrive, 550i,
xDrive 540/i/iA/iT, TD Sport
Wagon,525i/iT, (wagon
1992-93), M5, 545i, 550i/ix,
Gran Turismo (535i, 550i),
ActiveHybrid 5
630, 633, 635, csi, M6, L6,
640i, 645Ci, 650i/ix, Neiman
Marcus Edition, xDrive,
Alpina B
733i, 735i, L7, 740 d/i/L/iL
/iA/Li Protection,750 i/iL/Li/
Lxi/ix Protection,745i/Li,
760i/Li, Alpina B7, Individual,
ActiveHybrid 7, xDrive
840Ci/cia, 850i/iS/Ci/Cia
2.3/2.8/2.5i/3.0i Roadster,
MRoadster, MCoupe,
2.8/3.0i Coupe
--2.5i, 2.8i, 3.0i/si, 3.5i/is,
Z4M/s/sDrive, 28i, 30i, 35s
128i, 135i/is, Electric
35i, 50i, ActiveHybrid, M,
xDrive
Base, Range Extender
-428i, 435i, xDrive, M4, 430i,
440i
228i, 230i, M235i, M240i
28i, 35i
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1971-2017,
9999

Body Types
01-06,08,09

1975-2016,
9999

04-06,09

1976-89, 200417, 9999

01,02,04,09

1978-2017,
9999

04

1991-97, 9999
1996-2003,
9999

02
01-03, 09

2000-03, 9999
2007-08, 9999
2003-16, 9999

01
06
01,02,09

2008-14, 9999
2008-15, 9999

01,02,09
05

2014-17, 9999
2014-17, 9999
2014-17, 9999

03
02
01, 02, 04, 09

2015-17, 9999
2015-16, 9999
1955-2017,
9999
1955-2017,
9999

01, 02, 09
05
01-06,08,09
01-06,08,09

194

Passenger Vehicles
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
X5 (For 2000-16. For 2017
on, see model 421)

402

X3

403
404

X1
X6 (For 2016 on. For 20082015, see model 044.)
X5 (For 2017 on. For 200016, see model 401)
Unknown (light truck)

421
499

MOTORCYCLES
Codes Models
703
125-349cc
705
450-749cc

Includes
3.0i/si, 4.0is, 4.4i, 4.6is, 4.8is,
M, 35d, Premium, 35d/i, 50i,
Sport Activity, Premium.
sDrive
25i, 28 d/i, 3.0i/xDrive, 35i,
4.8is, M Sports Package
28i/is, 35i, xDrive
35i, 50i, xDrive, sDrive

Model Years
2000-16,9999

Body Types
14

2004-17,9999

14

2012-17, 9999
2016-17, 9999

14
14

--

2017

15

--

2000-17,9999

14, 15

Includes
---

Model Years
1948-66,9999
1950-2003;
2006-17,9999
1969-2017,
9999
1948-2017,
9999

Body Types
80
80

Model Years
1948-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 99

Model Years
1936-73, 9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1959-2005,
9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

1959-2005,
9999
1991-96,9999
1963-93; 199599,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09
04,06,09
01,02,09

706

750cc and over

--

709

Unknown cc

--

UNKNOWN
Codes Models
999
Unknown (BMW)

Includes
--

80
80

MAKE: Buick (18) (BUIC)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
001
Special/Skylark

002

LeSabre/Centurion/
Wildcat

003

Electra/Electra 225/Park
Avenue (1991-on)
Roadmaster
Riviera

004
005

Includes
GS (350, 400, 455), Deluxe GS
California, Sport Wagon,
Custom Roadmaster (194659), Skylark Edition
Estate Wagon, Invicta,
Custom, Limited, T-Type, Ltd,
C.M.I, LE, Celebration
Edition, Best Seller
Limited, Park Avenue, Ultra,
Base, Prestige, SE
Estate Wagon, Limited
S-Type, T-Type, Coupe
Anniversary Edition, Silver
Arrow

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

195

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
007

Models
Century

Includes
Luxus, T-Type, FWD (82-on),
Custom, Regal (72-77),
Limited, LE, SE, Base, Special
Skylark (75), S/R
Turbo, Luxus, Grand National
GNX, T-Type
S-Type, Roadhawk, T-Type,
GT
S/R, S, Limited, Sport, T-Type
Skylark (86-on), Somerset,
GS, Regal, Custom, Limited,
T-Type
GS, CXL, Turbo, Premium I/ II,
Base, Grand National, Sport
Touring
Limited, Custom, Gold, Grand
Sport GS, LS, Sport
-CX, CXL (FWD/AWD), CXS,
Super, Leather, Premium I/II,
Touring, Preferred
CX, CXL V6, CXL V8, CXS,
Super, Special Edition
CX, CXL (FWD/AWD)

Model Years
1954-2005,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

008
010

Apollo/Skylark
Regal (RWD only)

1973-76,9999
1978-88,9999

02-04,08,09
02,04,06,08,09

012

Skyhawk

1975-80; 198289,9999
1975-85,9999
1985-98,9999

02-04,06,08,09

015
018

Skylark (76-85)
Somerset/Skylark

019

Regal (2011 on)

2011-17,9999

04

020

Regal (FWD)

1987-2004,
9999
1988-91,9999
2005-17,9999

02,04,08,09

021
022

Reatta
LaCrosse

023

Lucerne

2006-11,9999

04

024

025

Enclave (2008-12 model
years only. For 2013 on
see model 421.)
Verano

2008-12,9999

06

2012-17,9999

04

2016-17, 9999

01

1965-72,9999
1966-75,9999

02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09

Opel GT
Opel Isuzu
Other (automobile)

Base, Convenience, Leather,
Turbo, Premium, Sport,
Touring
1SV, Premium, Sport,
Touring
-1900, Luxus, Ralley, Sports
Coupe
-Deluxe, Sport
--

026

Cascada

031
032

Opel Kadett
Opel Manta

033
034
398

02
02,04,08,09
01-04,06,08,09

Unknown (automobile)

--

1969-75,9999
1976-79,9999
1965-2017,
9999
1950-2017,
9999

399

Model Years
2002-07,9999
2004-07,9999

Body Types
14
14

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
Rendezvous
402
Rainier

Includes
CX, CXL, Ultra, Plus
CXL, CXL Plus

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02-04,08,09
02,04,08,09

01,02,09
04

01-04,06,08,09

196

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
404

Models
Encore

405

Envision

421

441
498

Enclave (2013 on. See
model 024 for 2008-12
model years.)
Terraza
Other (light truck)

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes Models
999
Unknown (BUICK)

Includes
Convenience, Leather,
Premium, Base, Sport
Touring, Preferred (I, II)
Essence
Preferred, Premium (I, II)
Essence
Convenience, Leather,
Premium

Model Years
2013-17,9999

Body Types
14

2016-17, 9999

14

2013-17,9999

15

CX, CXL
--

2005-07,9999
2002-07, 201317, 9999
2002-07, 201317, 9999

20
14, 15, 20

Model Years
1946-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

--

Includes
--

14,15, 20

MAKE: Cadillac (19) (CADI)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes Models
003
Deville/Fleetwood (except
Limousine)

004

Limousine

005

Eldorado

006

Commercial Series

009
014

Allante’
Seville

Includes
Coupe de Ville, Sedan de
Ville, Fleetwood Brougham,
Fleetwood 60 Special,
d’Elegance, Concours, DHS,
DTS
Fleetwood 75, Formal,
Deville-based, DTS
Biarritz, El-doro, Touring
Coupe, ESC, ETC
Ambulance/Hearse,
Professional
-Elegante, STS, SLS

016
017

Cimarron
Catera

D’Oro
Sport

018

CTS/CTC

Luxury, Luxury Sport, VSeries, 2.8L, 3.0L, 3.6L, 6.2L
Supercharged, Premium,
Performance, Standard,
Luxury

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1940-2005,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,08,09

1940-2017,
9999
1967-2003,
9999
1940-2017,
9999
1987-93,9999
1976-2004,
9999
1982-88,9999
1997-2001,
9999
2003-17,9999

12
01,02,09
09, 10-12
01,02,09
04
04
04
02-04,06,09

197

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
019

Models
XLR

020

SRX

021

STS

022

DTS

023

XTS

024

ATS

025
026
398

ELR
CT6
Other (automobile)

Includes
Neiman Marcus Edition, VSeries, Standard, Platinum
V6, V8, Sports Package, 2.8L
Turbo, 3.0L, Luxury,
Performance, Premium,
Standard
V6, V8, V-Series, Luxury,
Premium, Standard,
Platinum, 3.6L
Luxury I, II, III, V8, 3.6L,
Performance, Platinum
Standard, Luxury, Premium,
Platinum, V-Sport,
Limousine, Funeral Hearse
2.0L/2.5L/3.6L (Standard,
Luxury, Performance,
Premium, Turbo) V-Series
----

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
XT5
421
Escalade/ESV (from 2004
on; see 431 for 2003 only)
431
480

498

Escalade ESV (2003 only)
Escalade EXT (from 2002 2006; for 2007 on see 481)
Escalade EXT (from 2007
on; see 480 for 2002-2006)
Other (light truck)

499

Unknown (light truck)

481

UNKNOWN
Codes Models
999
Unknown (CADILLAC)

Includes
4WD, 2WD, Standard,
Platinum, Limousine, Hybrid,
Luxury, Premium
Luxury, Premium, Platinum
4WD, 2WD
4WD, 2WD, Luxury,
Premium, Standard
---

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
2004-09,9999

Body Types
01

2004-16,9999

06

2005-11,9999

04

2006-11,9999

04

2013-16,9999

04, 09, 11, 12

2013-17,9999

02,04,09

2014-16,9999
2016
1965-2017,
9999
1950-2017,
9999

02
04
01,02,04,06,
08,09, 11, 12
01,02,04,06,
08,09, 11, 12

Model Years
2017
1999-2000;
2002-16,9999

Body Types
14
15

2003, 9999
2002-06,9999

16
31

2007-13, 9999

31

1999-2000;
2002-17, 9999
1999-2000;
2002-17,9999

15, 16, 31

Model Years
1940-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

19, 39, 49

198

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Chevrolet (20) (CHEV)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Chevelle/Malibu (thru
’83)
002

Impala/Caprice (For SS
from 2014 on, use 20021.)

004

Corvette

006

Corvair

007
008

El Camino
Nova (-’79)

009

Camaro

010

Monte Carlo (thru ’88)

011
012
013
015
016

Vega
Monza
Chevette
Citation
Cavalier

017
019

Celebrity
Beretta/Corsica

020
021

Lumina
SS (For 2014 on. For
Impala/Caprice SS use
model 20-002.)
Cobalt

022
023
024

025

HHR
Traverse (2009-2012
only. For 2013 on see
model 423.)
Cruze

Includes
Classic, Councours, Laguna**,
S-3, Greenbriar, Estate, 300,
SS-396/454, Deluxe
Biscayne, Belair, Super Sport,
Classic, Classic Brougham,
Townsman, Brookwood,
Kingswood, LS, LT, LTZ, Sport,
SS, Luxury
Stingray, C5, Z06, Z06-R 50th
Anniversary Edition,
Commemorative Edition,
Indy Pace Car, ZR1, Grand
Sport, 427, 1LZ, 2LZ, 3LZ, ZL1
Monza, Corsa, 500, Yenko

Model Years
1963-83,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1955-96; 200017, 9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

1953-82; 19842017, 9999

01-03,09

1960-69,9999

Royal Knight, SS
Chevy II, LN, LE, Concours, SS350/396, Rally
SS, RS, LT, Berlinetta, Iroc-Z,
Z/28, LS, LT, ZL1, 2.0L, 3.6L,
6.2L
LS, SS, Aerocoupe, Landau,
Z34
GT, Cosworth
Spyder, 2 + 2, Towne Coupe
S, Scooter, CS
X-11, Citation II
CS, RS, Z24, LS, Sport, Special
Value Package
CS, Eurosport, VR
GT, GTZ, LT, LTZ, PX, QX, KX,
LX, MX, Z26
Z-34, Euro, LTZ, LS
LS, LT, LTZ

1958-94,9999
1962-79,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09
10
01-04,06,09

LS, LT, LTZ, SS, SS, Base
Supercharged, Sport, VL
LS, 1LT, 2LT, SS, Panel
LS, LT, LTZ

1967-2002,
2010-17,9999

01-03,09

1970-88,9999

02

1971-77,9999
1974-80,9999
1976-87,9999
1980-85,9999
1982-2005, 9999

02-04,06,08,09
02-04,06,08,09
03-05,07,09
02-05,07,09
01-04,06,08,09

1982-90,9999
1982-96,9999

02,04,06,08,09
02,04,05,08,09

1990-2001, 9999
2014-16,9999

02,04,06,08,09
04

2005-11,9999

02,04,09

2006-11,9999
2009-12,9999

06
06

LS, LT, LTZ, ECO, Turbo Diesel, 2011-17,9999
Limited

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02, 04, 05, 09

199

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
026
027
028
029
031
032
033
034
035
036

Models
Volt
Caprice PPV
Sonic
Spark
Spectrum
Nova/Geo Prism/Prism
Sprint/Geo Sprint
Geo Metro/Metro
Geo Storm
Monte Carlo (1995 on)

Includes
Model Years
Body Types
Premier
2011-17,9999
05
-2011-17,9999
04
Base, LS, LT, LTZ, RS
2012-17,9999
04,05,09
LS, LT, EV
2013-17,9999
05
-1985-89,9999
02-05,08,09
CL, NUMMI-built vehicles, LSi 1985-2002, 9999 02-05,07-09
(Cultus - foreign)
1985-89,9999
03,05,07,09
Lsi, Xfi
1989-2001, 9999 01,03-05,07,09
Gsi
1985-93,9999
02,03,09
FWD, LS, Z34, LS, LT, LTZ, SS,
1995-2007, 9999 02
Sport Edition
037
Malibu/Malibu Maxx
Base, LS, LT, LTZ, SS, Hybrid,
1997-2017, 9999 04-06,09
ECO, Classic, Limited
038
SSR
Signature Series, LS, LS5, 1SS, 2003-06,9999
10
2SS, 3SS
039
Aveo/Aveo 5
Base, LS, LT, Special Value
2004-11,9999
04,05,09
398
Other (automobile)
Fleetmaster, Fleetline, Styline 1930-2017, 9999 01-09, 10-11
Special, One-fifty, Bel-Air, Del
Ray, Biscayne
399
Unknown (automobile)
-1930-2017, 9999 01-09, 10-11
**Nomad, Malibu, Laguna, and other similar terms may be used on all models as a reflection of trim type.
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes Models
401
S-10 Blazer/TrailBlazer
(2002 only; for 2003 on, see
403)
402
Geo Tracker/Tracker
403
404
405
406
421

422

TrailBlazer (from 2003 on;
for 2002, see 401)
Equinox
Captiva
Trax
Fullsize Blazer/Tahoe

441

Suburban (from 2004 on;
see 431 for 1950-2003)
Traverse (2013 on. For
2009-2012 see model 024.)
Suburban (from 1950-2003;
see 422 for 2004 on)
Astro Van

442

Lumina APV

423
431

Includes
S-10 p/u based, LS, LT, ZR2
TrailBlazer, Xtreme, ZR2, LS,
LT, LTZ, EXT
Lsi, LT, ZR2

Model Years
1982-2005,
9999

Body Types
14

1989-2004,
9999
2003-09,9999

14

2005-17,9999
2012-15,9999
2015-17,9999
1969-2016,
9999

14
14
14
15

2004-16,9999

15

LS, LT, LTZ

2013-17,9999

15

all models (C1500/2500,
K1500/2500), LS, LT, Z71
Minivan, Cargo, Passenger,
LT, LS, Conversion
Minivan, MPV

1950-2003,
9999
1985-2005,
9999
1990-96,9999

16

LS, LT, LTZ, North Face
Edition, EXT, SS (LS/LT)
LS, LT, LTZ, Sport
Sport, LS, LT, LTZ
LS, LT, LTZ
K-series, fullsized p/u based,
LS, LT, LTD, LTZ, 4WD, Z71,
Hybrid
LS, LT, LTZ, Z71

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

14

20
20
200

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
443

Models
Venture

444

Uplander

445
461

City Express
G-series van

466
470

P-series van
Van derivative

471

S-10/T-10 Pickup

472
473

LUV
Colorado

481

C, K, R, V-Series pickup/
Silverado

482

Avalanche

498

Other (light truck)

4 x 4, Fleetside, Extended,
Crew, LS, S-10, Xtreme, ZR2,
ZR5, electric pickup*
Imported pickup
Z71, Z85, Sport, LS, LT, Work,
Value, Shoreline, Midnight
(LT, Z71), Trail Boss
C10-C30, K10-K30, R10-R30,
V10-V30, Silverado: 1500 (CK, HD), 2500 (C-K, HD), 3500
(CK), ST, LS, LT, Z71,
Fleetside, Sportside,
CrewCab, SS, Hybrid, LTZ,
WT, High Country, Rally ½,
Midnight (HD, Base),
Realtree, Custom Sport,
Blackout, Special Ops
1500/2500 Premium, North
Face Edition, Z71, Z66, LS, LT,
LTZ, Black Diamond
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

1932-2017,
9999

Includes
Truck-based

Model Years
1949-2016,
9999

MOTOR HOME
Codes Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Cargo, Passenger, Plus, LS, LT,
Value, Value Plus, Extended,
W. B. Edition, Entertainer
Base, LS, LT, LT(AWD), LT
Entertainer
LS, LT
Beauville, Chevy Van, Sport
Van, G10-G30, Express,
G1500/2500/3500, LT, LS
-Parcel Van, Hi-cube

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1997-2005,
9999

Body Types
20

2005-08,9999

20

2015-16,9999
1957-2016,
9999

20
21,22,28,29

1965-99,9999
1965-2016,
9999
1982-2005,
9999

22,28,29
28,29

1972-91,9999
2004-12, 201516, 9999

30,32, 40, 42
30

1940-2017,
9999

31,32,39, 40, 42

2002-13,9999

31

1940-2017,
9999

14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-32,39,
40, 42, 45,48
14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-32,39,
40, 42, 45,48,49

30,32, 40, 42

Body Types
65,73

201

Passenger Vehicles
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes Models
870
Medium/Heavy Van-Based
Vehicle
880
Medium/Heavy Pickup
(pickup-style only – over
10,000 lbs.)
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

882
883
884
890
898

BUSES
Codes
981

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE high
entry
Medium/Heavy – Unknown
engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Models
Bus**: Conventional (Engine
out front)
Other (bus)

Includes
Express 3500/4500
--

C50/60/65; M60/65;
H70/80/90; J70/80/90; Bison
90; Kodiak (C4500) all other
CBE
T60/65, all other COE low
entry
Titan 90, all other COE high
entry
----

Model Years
1957-2016,
9999
1953-2016,
9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

1955-2016,
9999

60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78

1960-2016,
9999
1971-80,9999

60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78

1951-2016,
9999
1965-2016,
9999
1949-2016,
9999

Model Years
1967-2016,
9999
988
-1965-2016,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2016,
9999
** Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (CHEVROLET)

Includes
S-60 series

Includes
---

Model Years
1934-2016,
9999
1933-2017,
9999

67

Body Types
50-52, 58, 59
50-52, 58, 59
50-52, 58, 59

Body Types
92, 93, 97
49, 79, 99

MAKE: Chrysler/Daimler Chrysler (06) (CHRY)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
009
Cordoba

Includes
Crown, 300, LS

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1975-83,9999

Body Types
02

202

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
010

Models
New Yorker (thru 78)/
Newport/5th Avenue/
Imperial (1979-83)
(excludes all FWD)

Includes
Town and Country,
Brougham, Custom, Royal,
300 (thru 1971) Frank Sinatra
editions (FS), Royal Limo,
Windsor Wagon/ Ambulance
FWD vehicles, Turbo, Salon

Model Years
1946-89,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09, 11,12

014

015
016

New Yorker/E-Class/
Imperial (1990-93)/ Fifth
Avenue
Laser
LeBaron

1980-93,9999

02,04,08,09

1984-86,9999
1977-94,9999

03
01-09

1982-95,9999

01-09

2011-16,9999

01,04,09

2017
2013-14,9999

04,05,09
02

TC (Maserati Sport)
Conquest
Concorde

Turbo, XE, XT
Premium, Salon (RWD),
Landau, LX, Town and
Country cars and wagon,
Medallion, FWD except GTS
or GTC Sport Coupe
GT, GTS-Turbo, GTC- Sport
Coupe
Limited (Base, Platimun), LX,
Touring, S, Super S, C (Base,
Platinum)
-Standard, GTS, TA, GT3-R,
GTS-R
Turbo Convertible
TSI, Turbo
LX, Lxi, Limited

017

LeBaron GTS/GTC

018

200

019
021

100
SRT Viper

031
035
041

01-03,09
03
04

042

LHS

New Yorker (1994-on)

043

Sebring

044

Cirrus

JX, Jxi, LX, Lxi, GTC, Tsi,
Limited, Plus, Platinum,
Touring, Signature Series
LX, Lxi

1988-91,9999
1987-89,9999
1993-2004,
9999
1994-97; 19992001, 9999
1995-2011,
9999

04

050
051

Executive
300M/300/300C/300S

1995-2000,
9999
1983-87,9999
1999-2016,
9999

Sedan and Limo
Special, Platinum, Touring,
Limited, SRT, Signature
Series, SRT8, LX, SRT,
Heritage, Great American,
Walter P. Chrysler, Glacier,
Executive Series, Luxury,
Motown Edition, John
Varvatos Edition

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

04
01,02,04,08,09

04,09, 11,12
04

203

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
052

Models
PT Cruiser

Includes
Base, Touring, Limited, GT,
Turbo, Dream Cruiser,
Platinum, Series 4, Signature
Series, Street Cruiser, Pacific
Coast Highway, LX, Sunset
Blvd.
Roadster, Black Tie Edition

Model Years
2001-10,9999

Body Types
01,06,09

053

054

Prowler (for 2002)
(1997,1999-01 see
Plymouth)
Pacifica

2002

01

2004-08,9999

06

Crossfire
Other (automobile)

Premium, Luxury, Touring,
Signature Series, LX
Limited, SRT6, Standard
--

055
398

01,02,09
01-09, 11,12

Unknown (automobile)

--

2004-08,9999
1946-2017,
9999
1946-2017,
9999

399

Includes
Limited, Signature, Hybrid
Minivan, SX, L, LX, Lxi, Ltd.,
SWB, LWB, AWD, FWD, eL,
eX, Touring, Platinum,
Signature Series, Limited,
30th Anniversary, S
Base, Popular, Value, LX, eC

Model Years
2007-09,9999
1990-2016,
9999

Body Types
15
20

2000-03,9999

20

LX, Touring (Base, L, L Plus)
Limited
--

2017

20

1990-2017,
9999

15, 20,29

Includes
--

Model Years
1946-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
421
Aspen
441
Town and Country

442
443

Voyager (2000 on; 198400 see Plymouth)
Pacifica

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (CHRYSLER)

01-09, 11,12

MAKE: Coda (26)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Coda
398
Other (automobile)
399
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
----

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
2012-13,9999
2012-13,9999
2012-13,9999

Body Types
04,05,09
04,05,09
04,05,09

204

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Daewoo (64) (DAEW)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Lanos

Includes
S, SE, SX, Sport

032

Nubira

SX, CDX, SE

033

Leganza

SE, SX, CDX

398

Other (automobile)

--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

Model Years
1999-2002,
9999
1999-2002,
9999
1999-2002,
9999
1999-2002,
9999
1999-2002,
9999

Body Types
03,04,09
04,06,09
04
03, 04, 05, 06,
07,09
03-07,09

MAKE: Daihatsu (60) (DAIH)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Charade
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Rocky
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (DAIHATSU)

Includes
--

Model Years
1988-94,9999

Body Types
03,04,09

Includes
--

Model Years
1990-92,9999

Body Types
14

Includes
--

Model Years
1988-94,9999

Body Types
03,04,09, 14

Includes
170, 270, Custom, GT,
Swinger, Demon, 340, 360,
Special, Sport, Special Edition
Brougham, Custom,
Superbee, 500, Crestwood,
Deluxe, XE, R/T, 440, SE,
Police
Custom, Special, Police, Taxi,
Crestwood, Brougham
RT/10, GTS, ACR, SRT-10, GT,
SRT
R/T, T/A, Rallye

Model Years
1960-76,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1964-79,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

1964-78,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09
01,02,09

Custom, Special Edition,
Police, R/T, Sport
Medallion, S, Salon, SE

1976-80,9999

02,04,06,08,09

1977-89,9999

02,04,06,08,09

MAKE: Dodge (07) (DODG)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Dart (1960-76 only. For
2013 on; see model 029.)
002

Coronet/Magnum/
Charger (thru 1978)

003

Polara/Monaco/ Royal
Monaco
Viper

004
005

006

Challenger (1970-74 only;
see model 028 for 2008
on)
Aspen

007

Diplomat

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

1992-2010,
2016, 9999
1970-74,9999

01,02,09

205

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
008

Models
Omni/Charger (1983-87;
for 2006 on see vehicle
model 024)

009
010
011
012
013
014
015

Mirada
St Regis
Aries (K)
400
Rampage (car-based
pickup)
600
Daytona

016
017
018
019
020

Lancer
Shadow
Dynasty
Spirit
Neon

021
024

Magnum
Charger (2006 on; see
model 008 for 1983-87)

025

Caliber

026

Avenger

027

Journey

028

Challenger (2008 on; for
1970-74 see model 005)

Includes
024, DeTomaso, Miser,
Charger 2.2, GLH, Custom,
Shelby, GLHS, America, Expo,
SE
-Police, Taxi
Custom, SE, LE
LS
2.2, GT, Sport

Model Years
1978-90,9999

Body Types
03,05,07,09

1980-83,9999
1979-81,9999
1981-89,9999
1982-83,9999
1982-84,9999

02
04
02,04,06,08,09
01,02,04,08,09
10

ES, Turbo, SE
Turbo Z, C/S Competition,
Shelby Z/CSX, Pacifica, IROC
R/T
Pacifica, Turbo, ES, Shelby
ES, Turbo, America
-ES, Shelby, R/T
Competition, Highline, SE, ES,
ACR R/T, SRT-4, SXT
SE, SXT, R/T, SRT8
Daytona, SRT8, R/T, SE, SXT,
Super Bee, 3.5L, Rallye, Plus,
Max, Road and Track,
Blacktop, 100th Anniversary,
Red Line, Road & Track, Scat
Pack, SRT 392, SRT Hellcat
SE, SXT, R/T, SRT4, Sport,
Heat, Mainstreet, Rush,
Uptown, Express
SE, SXT, R/T, Heat, Express,
Blacktop
SE, SXT, R/T, Heat, Hero,
Uptown, Express, Crew,
Mainstreet, Lux, American
Value Package, Blacktop,
AVP, SXT Plus, Limited,
Crossroad
SRT (392, Hellcat), SE, R/T
(Plus, Classic, Scat Pack, Road
& Track), Plum Crazy Edition,
Classic, SXT, SXT Plus, Rallye
Redline, Blacktop, Shaker,
100th Anniversary

1983-88,9999
1984-93,9999

01,02,04,08,09
03

1985-89,9999
1987-94,9999
1988-93,9999
1989-95,9999
1995-2005,
9999
2005-08,9999
2006-16,9999

02-09
01-03,05,07,09
02,04,08,09
01,02,04,08,09
02,04,08,09

2007-12,9999

05

2008-15,9999

04

2009-16,9999

06

2008-16,9999

02

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

06
04

206

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
029

033
034

Models
Dart (2013 on. See model
001 for 1960-1976 model
years.)
Challenger
Colt (includes 2WD Vista)

035
039
040
041

Conquest
Stealth
Monaco
Intrepid

042

ES

043

Avenger (see model 026
for 2008 on)
Stratus

398

Other (automobile)

--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
RaiderSport
402
Durango (1998-2003 only;
see model 422 for 2004
on)
403
Nitro
421
422

441
442

443
444

Includes
Limited, Rallye, SE, SXT,
Special Edition, Mopar '13,
Aero, GT, Blacktop
all import
GT, Custom, Carousel,
Premier, Deluxe, E, DL, GTS,
Turbo, RS
Turbo
RT, ES
-ES, R/T, S, SE, SXT

ES, SE, R/T, Plus, SXT

Includes
Sport
Sport, R/T, SLT, SXT, Plus,
Blacktop

SLT, SXT, R/T, SE, Heat,
Detonator, Shock
Ramcharger
-Durango (2004 on; see 402 ST, SLT, Limited, SXT,
for 1998-2003 models)
Adventurer, Hybrid, Express,
Crew, LUX, Citadel, R/T,
Blacktop, Plus, Rallye
Vista Van
4x4 (Only)
Caravan/Grand Caravan
Mini Ram Van, 112 & 19 WB,
SE, ES, LE, Sport, EX, eC, eL,
AWD, Sport, EPIC-elec* SXT,
C/V, Special Edition, Cargo,
Hero, American Value
Package, R/T, Crew, Blacktop,
AVP, 30th Anniversary, SE
Plus, SXT Plus
Ram C/V
Tradesman
Promaster City
Cargo, Passenger,
Tradesman (Base, SLT)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
2013-16,9999

Body Types
04

1978-83,9999
1974-94,9999

02
02-09

1984-89,9999
1991-96,9999
1990-92,9999
1993-2004,
9999
1995-2000,
9999
1995-2007,
9999
1946-2016,
9999
1946-2016,
9999

03
02,03,09
02,04,08,09
04

Model Years
1986-94,9999
1998-2003,
9999

Body Types
14
14

2007-11,9999

14

1974-93,9999
2004-16,9999

15
15

1984-91,9999
1984-2016,
9999

20
20

2014-16, 9999
2015-16, 9999

20
20

02
02,04,08,09
01-09, 10,12
01-09, 10,12

207

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
461

Models
B-Series Van/fRam Van/
Ram Wagon

462
463

Sprinter
Ram Promaster

470

Van Derivative

471
472

D50, Colt pickup, Ram
50/Ram 100
Dakota

481

D, W-Series pickup

482

Ram Pickup

Includes
Sportsman, Royal,
Maxiwagon, Ram, B1500B3500, Tradesman, Ram
Maxivan (1500, 2500, 3500),
Ram Wagon (1500, 2500,
3500) Conversion, Cargo Van
(1500: van, non-maxi van,
maxi van; 2500: non-maxi,
maxi van; 3500: non-maxi),
Dodge Wagon (1500, 2500,
3500)
Cargo, Passenger
Cargo, Chassis, Cutaway,
1500 (Low Roof, High Roof),
2500 (Low Roof, High Roof),
3500 (Low Roof, High Roof)
Kary Van, Parcel Van
-R/T, Limited Edition, Quad
Cab, Club Cab, Plus, SLT, ST,
SXT, Sport, Laramie, TRX, SE,
Big Horn, Lone Star, TRX4
Custom, Royal, Ram, Miser,
D100-D350, W100-W350
1500 (Limited, Longhorn,
Rebel, Laramie, Sport, Big
Horn, SLT, Express, ST, Black,
Tradesman, EcoDiesel,
Outdoorsman, Stinger
Yellow) 2500 (Limited,
Laramie, Longhorn, Power
Wagon, Big Horn, ST, SLT,
Outdoorsman, Tradesman),
3500 (Limited, Laramie,
Longhorn, Power Wagon, Big
Horn, ST, SLT, Outdoorsman,
Tradesman), Quad Cab, SLT,
SLT+, ST, SRT-10, Laramie,
Rumble Bee, Power Wagon,
Daytona, TRX Off-Road,
Sport, Black Ram, Red Wings
Edition, Lone Star

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1963-2003,
9999

Body Types
21,28, 40,41, 42,
48

2003-09,9999
2014-16,9999

21,28
21,28

1971-2016,
9999
1979-93,9999

28,29

1987-2012,
9999

30-33,39, 40

1955-93,9999

31,32, 40, 42

1994-2017,
9999

31,32, 40, 42

30,32

208

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
498

Models
Other (light truck)

Includes
--

Model Years
1979-2017,
9999

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

1949-2017,
9999

Includes
Truck-based

Model Years
1952-2016,
9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
Sprinter, Promaster

Model Years
1971-2009,
2014-16,9999
1953-2017,
9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

--

1966-2017,
9999
1967-77,9999

--

1967-77,9999

--

1962-2017,
9999
1965-77,9999

60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium/Heavy VanBased Vehicle
880
Medium/Heavy Pickup
(pickup-style only – over
10,000 lbs.)
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
883
884
890
898

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine Location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

--

--

---

1930-2017,
9999

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional
(not van based)
1966-77,9999
(Engine out front)
988
Other (bus)
-1965-77,9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-77,9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1965-2017,
9999

Body Types
14,15,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-33,39,
40, 41, 42, 45,
48
14,15,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-33,39,
40, 41, 42, 45,
48,49

67

Body Types
50-52, 58, 59
50-52, 58, 59
50-52, 58, 59

Body Types
92,93,97

209

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
999

Models
Unknown (DODGE)

Includes
--

Model Years
1952-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 79, 99

Model Years
1989-96,9999
1990-98,9999
1988-92,9999
1993-97,9999
1988-89,9999
1992-96,9999

Body Types
02-04,08,09
02,03,09
02,04,08,09
04
04,06,09
06

1988-98,9999
1988-98,9999

02-04,06,08,09
02-04,06,08,09

Includes
Sport

Model Years
1967-75,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09
01,02,09
02,04,06,08,09
01,02,09
01,02,04,06,
08,09
01,02,09
03,05,07,09
02,03,09

MAKE: Eagle* (10) (EGIL)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
034
Summit (excludes wagon)
037
Talon
040
Premier
041
Vision
044
Medallion
045
Summit Wagon

Includes
DL, LX, ES, ESi
FWD, Tsi, Tsi-FWD, Esi
LX, ES, ES Limited
Esi, Tsi
DL, LX
FWD, AWD, DX, LX
(Mitsubishi)
398
Other (automobile)
-399
Unknown (automobile)
-*Note: Eagle model listed under American Motors.

MAKE: Fiat (36) (FIAT)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
124 (Coupe/Sedan)
032
033
034
035

124 Spider/Racer
Brava/131
850 (Coupe/Spider)
128

Spider 2000/1500
----

1968-83,9999
1975-82,9999
1967-73,9999
1972-79,9999

036
037
038

X-1/9
Strada
500/500c

1975-83,9999
1979-83,9999
2012-16,9999

039
398

124 Spider
Other (automobile)

--Abarth, Pop, Sport, Lounge,
e, Cabrio, Turbo, Cattiva,
Gucci, eSport, GQ Edition,
1957 Edition
-600, 1100

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
500L
402

500X

499

Unknown (light truck)

Includes
Pop, Easy, Trekking, Lounge,
Urbana
Pop, Easy, Trekking, Lounge,
Trekking Plus
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

2017
1967-83, 201117,9999
1967-83, 201117, 9999

01
01-09

Model Years
2014-16,9999

Body Types
14

2016

14

2014-16,9999

14, 19

01-09

210

Passenger Vehicles

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
890
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy
truck)
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (FIAT)

Includes
--

Model Years
1967-83,9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78
60-64, 66, 71,
72, 78

--

1967-83,9999

--

1967-83,9999

--

1967-83,9999

Includes
---

Model Years
1967-83,9999
1967-83; 201117, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

Includes
FuturaSprint, GT, Futura
Torino (1968-70), 500,
Brougham

Model Years
1960-70,9999
1955-70,9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09
01,02,04,06,
08,09

Mach(I), Boss (302), Grande,
Cobra (SVT), Ghia, SVO, GT
(Premium, Base, Cal Spec.
Pkg.), LX, Shelby (GT350,
GT350R, GT500, GT500KR),
Deluxe, Premium, Bullitt, V6
(Base, Premium, Pony),
Fastback (V6, GT, Premium,
Ecoboost)
Landau, Heritage, Turbo
coupe, Elan, Fila, Sport, LX,
SC, Deluxe, Premium, Pacific
Coast Edition, 50th
Anniversary Edition
S, Squire, Brougham
XL, Landau, Ranch Wagon,
Country Squire, S, 500,
Brougham, XL, GT
Falcon/Fairlane based
Torino/LTD II based
Grabber
Pony, MPG, ESS

1964-2017,
9999

01-03,09

1955-98; 200205,9999

01,02,04,08,09

1977-79,9999
1963-86,9999

02,04,06,08,09
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1960-79,9999

10

1969-78,9999
1971-80,9999

02,04,08,09
02,03,06,09

MAKE: Ford (12) (FORD)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Falcon
002
Fairlane
003

Mustang/Mustang II

004

Thunderbird (all sizes)

005
006

LTD II
LTD/Custom/Galaxy (all
sizes)

007

Ranchero

008
009

Maverick
Pinto

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

211

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
010

Models
Torino/Gran Torino/Elite

011
012
013

Granada
Fairmont
Escort/EXP/ZX2

015
016

Tempo
Crown Victoria

017

Taurus/Taurus X

018
021
022
023

Probe
Five Hundred
Freestyle
Fusion

024

Edge

025
026
027
031

Flex
City
C-Max
English Ford

032

Fiesta

033
034
035

Festiva
Laser
Contour

036
037

Aspire
Focus

038
398

GT
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

Includes
GT, Cobra, Sport, Squire,
Brougham
ESS, Ghia
Futura, Sport Coupe
L, GL, GLX, SS, GT, LX, LXE, SE,
ZX2, Deluxe, Premium,
Standard
L, GL, GLX, Sport, 4X4
LX, LTD Crown Victoria, LX
Sport
MT-5, L, GL, LX, SHO, G, SE,
SVG, SES, SEL, Limited, Eddie
Bauer, Police Interceptor
GL, LX, GT
SE, SEL, Limited
SE, SEL, Limited
I4 S/SE/SEL, V6 SE/SEL, S, SE,
Sport, Hybrid (S, SE),
Titanium (Hybrid, Energi)
Energi (SE, Titanium)
SE, SEL, SEL Plus, Limited,
Sport, Titanium
SE, SEL, Limited, Titanium
-Hybrid, Energi, SE, SEL
Cortina, Anglia, Zephyr/
Zodiac Mark III
Sport, Ghia, S, SE, SES, SEL,
Titanium, ST
L, GL
-Sport, LX, SE, SVT
-ZX3, LX, SE, ZTS, SVT, ZX4,
ZX4, ST, ZX5, ZXW, S, SES,
SEL, SE, Titanium, Electric, ST,
RS
-Deluxe, Ford Six, Mainline,
Crestline, Futura, Galaxie,
Model A
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1971-76,9999
1975-82,9999
1978-83,9999
1981-2003,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
02-09

1984-94,9999
1981-2011,
9999
1986-2016,
9999

02,04,08,09
02,04,06,08,09

1988-97,9999
2005-07,9999
2005-07,9999
2006-17,9999

03
04
06
04

2007-16,9999

06

2009-16,9999
2000-02, 9999
2013-16,9999
1946-70,9999

06
02, 04, 09, 94
05
02,04,06,08,09

1978-80, 201116, 9999
1988-93,9999
1993-94,9999
1994-2001,
9999
1994-97,9999
2000-16,9999

03-05,09

2004-08,9999
1923-2017,
9999

01, 02, 09
01-09, 10,11, 94

1923-2017,
9999

01-09, 10,11, 94

04,06,09

03
02,03,09
04
03,05,07,09
02-06,09

212

Passenger Vehicles
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Bronco (thru 1977)/
Bronco II/Explorer/
Explorer Sport

402

Escape

421

Bronco-full-size (1978-on)

422

Expedition

423

Excursion

441
442

Aerostar
Windstar

443

Freestar

444

Transit Connect

461

E-Series Van/Econoline

462
470

Transit
Van Derivative

471

Ranger

Includes
Eddie Bauer, XL, XLT,
Explorer (1990 on) XLS,
Explorer Sport (Value, Choice
Premium), NBX, Adrenalin,
Ironman, Police Interceptor,
Base, Limited, Platinum
XLS (Value, Sport, V6
Choice/Premium), XLT
(Choice, Premium, Sport),
Hybrid (Base, Limited), No
Boundaries, Limited, S, SE,
SEL, Titanium
Eddie Bauer, Custom, XL, XLT

Model Years
1966-77; 19832017, 9999

Body Types
14

2001-17,9999

14

1978-96,9999

15

EL, XLS, XLT (4x4,4x2), Eddie
Bauer (4x4,4x2), NBX, Sport,
NBX, Limited, King Ranch,
Funk Master Flex Edition, XL,
Platinum
XLT, Limited (LTD), Ultimate,
Premium, XLS, Eddie Bauer
XLT, Cargo Van
GL, LX, XLT, Splash, Cargo
Limited, SE, SEL
Base, LX, SE, S, SEL, SES,
Limited
XL, (Van, Wagon), XLT (Van,
Wagon), Premium, EV,
Titanium
Clubwagon (XL, XLT),
Chateau, (XL, XLT), Parcel
Van, Econoline Wagon E-150
(XL/ XLT/ Premium); E-350
XL/XLT/ Extended), E-250
(EXT)
Van, Wagon (XL, XLT)
--

1996-2017,
9999

15

2000-05,9999

16

1985-97,9999
1995-2003,
9999
2004-07,9999

20
20

2010-16, 9999

20

1960-2016,
9999

21,22,28,29

2014-17,9999
1960-2016,
9999
1982-2012,
9999

21, 28, 29
28, 29

Supercab, 4x4, STX, SL, SLT,
Splash, XL (Standard/ Super
Cab), XLT, Tremor
(Standard/Super Cab/OffRoad/FX4), Edge (Regular/
Super Cab), EV* (electric),
Level II, Sport

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

20

30-32, 40, 42

213

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
473

Models
Explorer Sport Trac

Model Years
2001-11,9999

Body Types
30

1940-2017,
9999

31,32,39, 40, 42

Other (light truck)

Includes
2WD/4WD, Value, Choice,
Premium, XLS, XLT,
Adrenalin, Limited
F100, F150-F350, (XL, XLT,
Crew Cab, Super Cab, Regular
Cab, Lariat, Super Duty,
Flareside, Styleside, SVT
Lightning, Fireside, HarleyDavidson Edition, King Ranch,
SuperCrew, STX, Heritage
Edition, Sport Edition, FX4,
FX2), F450 (10,000 GVWR
and under) (see model 880
for F450 >10,000 GVWR),
Amarillo Package, Platinum,
Cabala's, STX, SVT Raptor,
Limited
--

481

F-Series pickup

498

1972-2017,
9999

Unknown (light truck)

--

1928-2017,
9999

14-16, 20,21,28,
29, 30-32, 40,41,
42, 45,48
14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-32,39,
40,41, 42, 45,4849

499

Includes
Truck-based, F-550

Model Years
1956-2017,
9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
Econoline E350, E450, Transit

Model Years
1956-2017,
9999
1953-2017,
9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

1953-2017,
9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78

1964-2017,
9999
1967-2017,
9999
1956-2017,
9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78
60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78
60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium/Heavy Van-Based
Vehicle
880
Medium/Heavy Pickup
(pickup-style only – over
10,000 lbs.)
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

882
883
884

Super Duty 350, F450/550,
Lariat, XL, XLT, King Ranch
F-5 thru F-8, L-series, FTseries, Super Duty F-Series:
450/550/650/750/800 (does
not include pickup style)
C/CT series, LCF

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE high C/CLT series, LCF
entry
Medium/Heavy –
-Unknown engine location

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

67

214

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
890
898
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

Includes
--

Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Other (bus)

Includes
B-series (not van based), FSeries
--

--

Model Years
1956-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999

Model Years
1964-2017,
9999
988
1940-2017,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1940-2017,
9999
** Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (FORD)

Includes
---

Model Years
1940-2017,
9999
1923-2017,
9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78
60-64, 66, 71, 72,
78
Body Types
50, 52, 58, 59
50, 52, 58, 59
50, 52, 58, 59

Body Types
92,93,97
49, 79, 99

MAKE: GMC (23) (GMC)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
007
Caballero
008
Acadia (2007-2012 only.
For 2013 on see model
423.)
399
Unknown (automobile)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Jimmy/Typhoon/Envoy

402
421

Terrain
Full-size Jimmy/Yukon

422

Suburban/Yukon XL (2004
on; see 431 for 19502003)

Includes
-SLE, SLT, Denali, SL

Model Years
1965-87,9999
2007-12,9999

Body Types
10
06

--

1965-2012,
9999

06, 10

Includes
S-15 based, (100.5 WB), T15,
SLE, SL, SLS, SLT, XL, XUV,
Denali
SLE, SLT, Denali
Fullsize pickup based, K5,
K18, SL, SLE, SLT, SLS,
Diamond Edition, Yukon
Denali, Denali, Hybrid
Yukon XL (Denali -15002500), SLE, SLT, Hybrid

Model Years
1983-2009,
9999

Body Types
14

2010-17, 9999
1969-2016,
9999

14
15

2004-16,9999

15

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

215

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
423

431

Models
Acadia (2013 on. For
2007-2012 see model
008.)
Suburban/Yukon XL (19502003 only; see 422 for
2004 on)

Includes
FWD/AWD, Denali, SLE, SLT

Model Years
2013-17,9999

Body Types
15

all models, SLE, C16, C26,
K16, K26, C1500-2500,
K1500-2500, Yukon XL
(Denali -1500-2500)
SLT, SLX, SLE, M15, L15, SL

1950-2003,
9999

16

1985-2005,
9999
1965-2016,
9999

20

1965-2016,
9999
1965-2016,
9999
1982-2004,
9999

22,28,29

2004-16, 9999

30

1940-2017,
9999

31,32,39, 40, 42

1930-2017,
9999
1951-2017,
9999

14-16, 20-22,28,
29, 40, 42, 45,48
14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 39, 40,
42, 45,48,49

Includes
--

Model Years
1950-2016,
9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
Savana 3500, 4500

Model Years
1965-2016,
9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

441

Safari (Minivan)

461

G-series van/Savana

466

P-series van

470

Van derivative

471

S15/T15/Sonoma

472

Canyon

481

C, K, R, V-series pickup/
Sierra

498

Other (light truck)

Hicube, Magna Van, Value
Van, Parcel Van
4 X 4, Syclone, SL, SLS, SLE,
Extended/Crew Cab, ZR2,
ZRX, ZR5
Base, SLE, SL, SLT, Z71, Z85,
Work Truck, Crew Cab,
Extended Cab
Excluding Yukon, C15-C35,
K15-K35, R15-R35, V15-V35,
Sierra, C/K1500, 2500, 3500,
Sportside, X81, SL, Special,
SLE, Classic, Extended Cab,
Denali, 1500HD/2500HD, C3,
Hybrid, SLT, Work Truck, 5SA
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium/Heavy VanBased Vehicle

Rally Van, Vandura, G15-G35,
Savana (G1500-3500) SLT,
Extended, SLE, LS, LT,
Uplifter, WT, Cargo
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

21,22,28,29

28,29
30,32, 40, 42

216

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
880

881

882
883
884
890
898
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Medium/Heavy Pickup
(pickup-style only – over
10,000 lbs.)
Medium/Heavy – CBE

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)
Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Other (bus)

Includes
--

Model Years
1953-2017,
9999

Body Types
67

W5000/6000/7000 series,
Kodiak Brigadier/General
models, Top Kick
W6000/W7000, all other
COE, low entry, W/WT Series
Astro 95, all other COE, high
entry, T Series
--

1967-2016,
9999

60-64,66,
71,72,78

1968-2016,
9999
1969-2016,
9999
1948-2016,
9999
1967-2016,
9999
1930-2016,
9999

60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78

---

Model Years
1950-2016,
9999
988
-1965-2016,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1950-2016,
9999
** Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (GMC)

Includes
B6000

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-2017,
9999
1940-2017,
9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
92,93,97
49, 79, 99

MAKE: Grumman/Grumman-Olson (25) (GRUM)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
LLV

Includes
Postal vehicle

441

Step-in van

Multi-stop, step van

498

Other (light truck)

--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999

Body Types
22
22
22
22

217

Passenger Vehicles
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

Model Years
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999
1987-2004,
9999

Body Types
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78

Model Years
1950-2004,
9999
988
-1950-2004,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1950-2004,
9999
** Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59

882
883
884
890
898
BUSES
Codes
983

Includes
--

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy - COE high
entry
Medium/Heavy - engine
location unknown
Medium/Heavy - entry
position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

--

Models
Bus**: Flat front, rear
engine
Other (bus)

Includes
Transit

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown
(GRUMMAN/GRUMMANOLSON)

-----

Includes
--

50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Model Years
1950-2004,
9999

Body Types
79, 99

Model Years
1973-2017,
9999

Body Types
02-09

MAKE: Honda (37) (HOND)
(Acura: See “54”)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Civic/CRX, del Sol

Includes
1300, 1500, CVCC, DX, EX,
VX, CX, FE, CRX, CRX Si, S, Si,
HF, LX, 4WD Wagon, GX
(NGV), HX, VTEC, VP, Si, Civic,
Hybrid, Special Edition, EX-L,
DX-VP, LX-S, Natural Gas,
Sport, Sport Touring

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

218

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
032

Models
Accord

033

Prelude

Includes
LX (V-6, ULEV), LXI, DX, CVCC,
SE-I, LX-I, V-6, SJE, SME, SMH,
SMK, EX (Wagon, ULEV, V-6),
SE (ULEV), Special Edition,
Hybrid, Value Package, LX-S,
LX-P, EX-L, Crosstour (EX, EXL, EX(V6), EX-L (V6)),
Premium, Plug-In Hybrid,
Sport, Hybrid (EX-L, Touring),
Touring
S, Si, VTEC, SNF, SH, SE

034
035
036

600
S2000
EV Plus*

Coupe, Sedan
Roadster, CR
*Electric vehicle (EV+)

037

Insight

038
039

FCX
Fit

041
398

CR-Z
Other (automobile)

*(Gasoline-Electric), MT/CVT,
LX, EX
Hydrogen Vehicle, Clarity
Base, DX, LX, Sport, EV, EX,
EX-L
EX, Hybrid, Sport
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Passport
402

CR-V

403

Element

404
421

HR-V
Pilot

441

Odyssey

471

Ridgeline

499

Unknown (light truck)

Includes
LX, EX, DX, EX-L
LX, EX, Special Edition (SE),
SC, EX-L, Touring
DX, EX, EX-P, LX, SC, Dog
Friendly
EX, EX-L, LX
EX, EX-L, LX, SE, Value
Package, Touring, Elite
LX, EX, EX-L (Res, NAVI),
Touring, Touring Elite, SE
RT, RTL, RTL-T, RTL-E, RTS,
RTX, Sport, Black Edition
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1976-2017,
9999

Body Types
02-09

1979-2001,
9999
1968-72, 9999
2000-09, 9999
1997-2000,
9999
2000-06, 201014, 9999
2004-14, 9999
2006-16, 9999

02

2010-16, 9999
1968-2017,
9999
1968-2017,
9999

03
01-09

Model Years
1994-2002,
9999
1997-2016,
9999
2003-11, 9999

Body Types
14

2016-17, 9999
2003-16,9999

14
15

1995-2016,
9999
2006-14, 2017,
9999
1994-2017,
9999

20

02
01
03
03,05,09
03,05,09
05

01-09

14
14

30
14,15,19, 20, 30,
49

219

Passenger Vehicles
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50 cc

Includes
--

702

51-124 cc

--

703

125-349 cc

--

704

350-449 cc

--

705

450-749 cc

--

706

750 cc or greater

--

709

Unknown cc

--

ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
732
51-124cc

733

125-349cc

734

350cc or greater

739

Unknown cc

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)

Includes
includes all ATVs/ATCs/ TRXs
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
includes all ATVs/ATCs/ TRXs
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
includes all ATVs/ATCs/ TRXs
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
includes all ATVs/ATCs/ TRXs
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.

Model Years
1978-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999
1970-2017,
9999
1970-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999

Body Types
80, 81,83,88, 89

Model Years
1972-2017,
9999

Body Types
90, 97*

1972-2017,
9999

90, 97*

1996-2017,
9999

90, 97*

1972-2017,
9999

90, 97*

80, 81,83,88, 89
80, 83, 88, 89
80, 83, 88, 89
80, 83, 88, 89
80,82, 83, 88, 89
80, 81, 83, 88,
89

Includes
Go Carts

Model Years
Body Types
1968-2017,
95, 97*
9999
999
Unknown (HONDA)
-1965-2017,
49, 99
9999
*Refer to Body Type attribute 97 (Other Vehicle Type) for remarks regarding side-by-side ATVs

MAKE: Hyundai (55) (HYUN)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Pony
032
Excel

Includes
Pony Excel (Foreign)
GL, GLS, GS

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1979-88,9999
1984-94,9999

Body Types
02,03,09
03-05,07,09

220

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
033

Models
Sonata

034
035

Scoupe
Elantra

036

Accent

037

Tiburon

038
039
040
041

XG300(2001)/ XG350
(2002 on)
Azera
Equus
Genesis

042

Veloster

398

Other (automobile)

SE, Limited, GLS
Signature, Ultimate
3.8, 4.6, 2.0T, R-Spec, Grand
Touring, Premium, Track, 5.0
R-Spec, Ultimate
Base, Turbo, Re-Mix, R-Spec,
RE-FLEX Edition, Rally Edition
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Santa Fe

402

Tucson

403
421

Veracruz (2007 only)
Veracruz (2008 on; see
403 for 2007 only)
Entourage
Unknown (light truck)

441
499

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (HYUNDAI)

Includes
GL, GLS, LX, SE, Limited,
Hybrid (SE, Limited), 2.0T
(Sport, Limited), Sport, Eco,
Plug-in
LS, Turbo
GLS, GL, GT, Limited, SE,
Touring (GLS, SE), GS, Sport,
Value Edition, ECO
L, GL, GS, Gsi, GT, GLS, SE,
Blue, Sport
FX, GT, GS, SE, Limited

Model Years
1989-2017,
9999

Body Types
04

1991-95,9999
1992-2017,
9999

02
02, 04-06,09

1995-2016,
9999
1997-2008,
9999
2001-05,9999

03-05,07,09

2006-16,9999
2011-16,9999
2009-16,9999

04
04
02,04,09

2012-16,9999

03

1984-2017,
9999
1984-2017,
9999

02-09

Includes
GL, GLS, LX, Limited, SE,
Sport (Base, 2.0T, Ultimate),
2.0T
GL, GLS, LX, Limited, SE, Fuel
Cell, ECO, Sport
GLS, Limited, SE
GLS, Limited, SE

Model Years
2001-17,9999

Body Types
14

2005-17,9999

14

2007
2008-12,9999

14
15

GLS, Limited, SE
--

2007-09,9999
2001-17,9999

20
14,15,19, 20

Includes
--

Model Years
1979-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 99

L

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02,03,09
04

02-09

221

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Imperial (08) (CHRY)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
010
Imperial
398
399

Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
LeBaron, Mark Cross, Crown
Imperial
---

Model Years
1954-75,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,08,09

1965-75,9999
1965-75,9999

01-09
01-09

Model Years
1990-92,9999
1990-2006,
9999
1991-96; 19992002, 9999
1993-97,9999
1996-2001,
9999
2002-04,9999
2003-13,9999

Body Types
01,02,09
04

2003-13,9999
2003-13,9999
2008-13,9999
2014-16,9999

04
06
06
04

2014-17,9999

01, 02, 09

2014-16,9999
2014-17,9999
2015-16,9999
2016
1990-2017,
9999
1990-2017,
9999

04
06
04
05
01,02,04,06,
08,09
01,02,04,06,
08,09

Model Years
1997-2003,
9999
2013
2014-16,9999
2014-17,9999

Body Types
14

MAKE: Infiniti (58) (INFI)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
M30
032
Q45

Includes
-Standard Touring, Q45t,
Luxury , Sport, Premium
G20t, Touring, Standard,
Luxury
-Standard, Touring, Luxury

033

G20

034
035

J30
I30

036
037

I35
G25/G35/G37

038
039
040
041

M35/M37/M45/M56
FX35/FX37/FX45/FX50
EX35
Q50

042

Q60

043
044
045
046
398

Q70
QX50
Q40
Q30
Other (automobile)

Touring, Luxury
x, 6MT, Journey, Sport,
Special Edition, IPL
Sport, x, Hybrid
-Journey
Base (3.7 Premium/AWD/
Hybrid) S (3.7 Premium/
AWD/Hybrid), Eau Rogue
Journey, AWD, 6MT, IPL
(Base and 6MT), S
L, Hybrid
Base, AWD, Journey
----

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
QX4
402
403
404

JX35
QX60
QX70

Includes
Luxury
Luxury, AWD
3.5, AWD, Hybrid
3.7, 5.0, AWD

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

04
04
04
04
01,02,04,09

14
14
14

222

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
421
422
499

Models
QX56
QX80
Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (INFINITI)

Includes
-Base, AWD
--

Model Years
2004-13,9999
2014-16,9999
1997-2017,
9999

Body Types
15
15
14,15,19

Includes
--

Model Years
1990-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 99

MAKE: Isuzu (38) (ISU )
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
I-Mark
032
Impulse
033
Stylus
398
Other (automobile)
399
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
S, RS, Turbo, DOHC
Turbo, RS
----

Model Years
1981-90,9999
1983-92,9999
1991-94,9999
1981-94,9999
1981-94,9999

Body Types
02-04,08,09
02,03,09
04
02-04,08,09
02-04,08,09

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Trooper/Trooper II

Includes
Deluxe, LS, S, LTD

Model Years
1984-2002,
9999
1991-2004,
9999
1989-94; 19982000, 9999
1999-2001,
9999
2002-04,9999
2003-08,9999
1996-99,9999
1976-95,9999
1996-2000,
9999
2006-2008,
9999
2006-2008,
9999
1981-2008,
9999
1981-2008,
9999

Body Types
14

402

Rodeo/ Rodeo Sport

S, LS, LSE

403

Amigo

--

404

VehiCROSS

VXO

405
421
441
471
472

Axiom
Ascender
Oasis
P’up (pickup)
Hombre

XS
LS, S, Limited, Luxury
S, LS
4X4
S, XS, XS Space Cab

473

i-280/i-290

S, LS, Luxury

474

i-350/i-370

LS, Limited, S

498

Other (light truck)

--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

14
14
14
14
15
20
30,32
30,32, 40, 42
30
30
14,15, 20, 30,32,
40, 42
14,15,19, 20,
30,32,39, 40, 42,
48,49

223

Passenger Vehicles
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

Model Years
1981-2004,
9999
1981-2017,
9999
1981-2017,
9999
1981-2017,
9999
1981-2017,
9999
1981-2017,
9999

Body Types
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78, 97

Model Years
1981-2017,
9999
982
-1981-2017,
9999
983
-1981-2017,
9999
988
-1981-2017,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1981-2017,
9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59

882
883
884
890
898
BUSES
Codes
981

Includes
--

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE,
high entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

NOR, NPR, NQR, N Series

Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Bus: Front engine, Flat
front
Bus: Rear engine Flat
front
Other (bus)

Includes
--

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (ISUZU)

FRR, FRRI, FSR, FTR, FVR, F
Series
----

Includes
--

50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Model Years
1981-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 79, 99

Model Years
1976-2008,
9999
1949-2016,
9999

Body Types
01,02,09

MAKE: Jaguar (39) (JAGU)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
XJ-S, XK8 Coupe
032

XJ/ XJL/ XJ6/ 12/ XJR/ XJ8/
XJ8L Sedan/ Coupe

Includes
S, SC, GT, H.E.
Mk II, Mk X, XJ,3.85, 3.8,
340/420 Sedan; XJ8(LWB, L,
Vanden Plas, Sport); XJ6(L),
C, L, Vanden Plas, III, GT,
Super 8, Limited, Portfolio,
Supersport, Supercharged,
Ultimate, Standard
Wheelbase, Long Wheelbase

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02,04,08,09

224

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
033

Models
XK-E

034

S-Type

035

XKR/XK

036
037

X-Type
XF/XF-R

038
039
398

F-Type
XE
Other (automobile)

Includes
V12, Roadster, 120,140, 150,
2+2
3.0, 4.0, 4.2, Base, Sport, L, R,
VDP Edition
Victory Edition, Portfolio, 175
Limited Edition, Black Pack,
XKR-S, Touring, GT, Final Fifty
2.5, 3.0, Sport, VDP Edition
4.2 Luxury, S, Premium
Luxury, Supercharged, 3.0,
2.0T, Portfolio, Sport,
Prestige
S, V8, Project 7
---

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
F-Pace
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (JAGUAR)

Model Years
1946-74,9999

Body Types
01-03,09

2000-08,9999

04

2000-15,9999

01-03,09

2002-08,9999
2008-16,9999

04,06,09
04

2014-16,9999
2016-17, 9999
1949-2017,
9999
1949-2017,
9999

01, 03, 09
04
01-04,06,08,09

Includes
20d/35t (Premium, Prestige,
First Edition, Sport, R-Sport)

Model Years
2017

Body Types
14

Includes
--

Model Years
1946-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 99

01-04,06,08,09

MAKE: Jeep* (Includes Willys**/Kaiser-Jeep) (02) (AMER)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Compass

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
CJ-2/CJ-3/CJ-4
402
CJ-5/CJ-6/CJ-7/CJ-8

Includes
Base, Sport, Limited,
Latitude, Altitude, High
Altitude

Model Years
2007-16,9999

Body Types
06

Includes
Model Years
Military
1940-66,9999
Scrambler, Renegade, Golden 1967-93,9999
Eagle, Laredo, Wrangler,

Body Types
14
14

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

225

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
403

Models
YJ series/Wrangler

404

Cherokee (1984-on) (For
Grand Cherokee for 2014
on use 02-422.)

405

Liberty

406

Commander

407

Patriot

408
421

Renegade
Cherokee (thru 1983)

422

431

Grand Cherokee (For 2014
on. Use model 403 for
model years prior to
2013.)
Grand Wagoneer

481
482
498

Pick-up
Comanche
Other (light truck)

Includes
SE, Sport (Base, S), Sahara, X,
Rubicon (Base, Hard Rock),
Unlimited (Altitude, Dragon,
Freedom, Polar, Rubicon X.
Willys Wheeler, Sport, S,
Sahara), Islander, Call of
Duty: Black Ops Edition,
Moab, Altitude, Freedom, Rio
Grande, 60th/65th
Anniversary Edition, Apex,
Columbia, Golden Eagle,
Rocky Mountain, Willys,
Willys Wheeler (Base, W),
Black Bear
Limited, Laredo, Pioneer,
Sport, Grand Cherokee, TSi,
Briarwood, Country, RHD, SE,
Classic, Overland, Special
Edition, SRT8, Summit,
Laredo X, Overland Summit,
Altitude, Trail Hawk, Sport,
Latitude, Limited
Sport, Limited Edition,
Renegade, Columbia Edition,
Rocky Mountain Edition,
CRD, Special Edition,
Latitude, Jet
Base, Limited, Overland,
Sport, Rocky Mountain
Sport, Limited, Latitude, X,
Altitude, High Altitude,
Freedom Edition
Trail Hawk, Latitude
Wide Track, Chief,
Commando, Jeepster
Laredo (Base/E), Limited,
Overland, Summit, SRT,
Trailhawk

Model Years
1986-95; 19972016, 9999

Body Types
14

1984-2016,
9999

14

2002-13,9999

14

2006-10,9999

14

2007-16,9999

14

2015-16,9999
1969-83,9999

14
15

2014-17,9999

15

Custom, Brougham Limited,
Wagoneer
J-10, J-20, Honcho
Chief
--

1971-91;
1993,9999
1940-93,9999
1986-92,9999
1940-2017,
9999

15

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

31,32, 40, 42
31,32, 40, 42
14,15,19, 31,32,
40,41, 42,
45,48,49

226

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
499

Models
Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (JEEP)

Includes
--

Model Years
1940-2017,
9999

Body Types
14,15,19,
31,32,39, 40,41,
42, 45,48,49

Includes
--

Model Years
1940-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

*Note that Jeep DJ-series are coded under MAKE 03, MODEL 466
**Willys Jeep can be coded 401 or 999.

MAKE: KIA (63) (KIA)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Sephia
032
Rio/Rio5
033
Spectra/Spectra5
034
Optima
035
036
037

Amanti
Rondo
Soul

038

Forte

039
040
398

Cadenza
K900
Other (automobile)

Includes
RS, LS, GS
Cinco (Wagon), LX, SX, EX
GS, GSX, GX, LS, LX, EX, SX
LX, SE, V6, EX, SX, SX Turbo,
Hybrid, Limited, SXL
-EX, LX
Base, sport, +, !, White Tiger,
EV
2.0 (EX, LX, SX) 2.4 (SX), Koup
(EX, LX, SX) 5 (EX, LX, SX)
Premium, Limited
Luxury
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Sportage
402

Sorento

421
441

Borrego
Sedona

Includes
EX, LX, 4WD, Limited, SX,
Base, Turbo
EX, EX-V6, L, LX, LX-V6, SX,
SX-V6, Limited, Limited-V6
EX, LX, LTD
EX, L, LX, L, SX, Limited, SXL

498

Other (light truck)

--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1994-01,9999
2001-17,9999
2000-09,9999
2001-16,9999

Body Types
04
04-06,09
04,05,09
04

2004-10,9999
2007-10,9999
2009-16,9999

04
06
06

2010-17,9999

02,04,05,09

2012-16, 9999
2015-16,9999
1994-2017,
9999
1994-2017,
9999

04
04
02,04-06,08,09

Model Years
1995-2003,
2005-17, 9999
2003-17, 9999

Body Types
14

2008-10,9999
2002-12, 201416, 9999
1995-2017
9999
1995-2017,
9999

15
20

02,04-06,08, 09

14

14,15,19, 20
14,15,19, 20

227

Passenger Vehicles
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (KIA)

Includes
--

Model Years
1994-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

Model Years
1976-82,9999
1976-82,9999
1977
1946-82,9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09
01,02,09
02
01-09

1946-82,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

MAKE: Lancia (40) (LNCI)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Beta Sedan – HPE
032
Zagato
033
Scorpion
398
Other (automobile)
399

Includes
Zagato
-(Mote Carlo- Europe Only)
Stratos, Fulvia, Flavia, Appia,
Aurelia, Aprilia
--

Unknown (automobile)

*NOTE: Lancia did not import in 1980. 1982 - last year imported

MAKE: Land Rover (62) (LNDR)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Discovery

402

Defender

403
404

Freelander (2004 on; see
422 for 2002-03.)
Range Rover Evoque

405
421

Discovery Sport
Range Rover

422
423

Freelander (2002-03 only;
see 403 for 2004 on)
LR3/LR4

424
498

LR2
Other (light truck)

Includes
SD, SE, SE7, LE, LSE, Series II,
Kalahari Edition, S, HSE, G-4
Edition
90

Model Years
1994-2004,
9999

Body Types
14

1993-95; 1997,
9999
2004-05,9999

14

Pure (Premium, Plus),
Prestige, Dynamic, SE
(Premium), HSE (Dynamic)
HSE (Base, Luxury), SE
County, County SE, Great
Divide, Hunter, LSE, County
LWB, 4.0SE, 4.6HSE, S, SE,
HSE, Westminster, Limited
Edition, Supercharged, Sport
(HST, SE, HSE, Supercharged,
Autobiography),
Supercharged, HSE-LUX,
Autobiography (Base, Black)
HSE, SE, S, SE3

2012-17,9999

14

2015-17,9999
1987-2016,
9999

14
15

2002-03,9999

15

HSE, SE, LUX, Plus, V8,
Limited Edition
i6, TD4, HSE, LUX, Plus
Land Rover (1948-1990),
Range Rover (before 1987)

2005-16,9999

15

2007-16,9999
1948-2017,
9999

15
14,15

HSE, SE, S, SE3, G4 Edition

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

14

228

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
499

Models
Unknown (light truck)

Includes
--

Model Years
1948-2017,
9999

Body Types
14,15,19

Model Years
1990-2017,
9999

Body Types
04

1990-2017,
9999
1992-2000,
9999
1993-2017,
9999
2001-16,9999
2002-10,9999
2010-12,9999
2011-17,9999
2012-16,9999
2015-17,9999
1990-2017,
9999
1990-2017,
9999

04

Model Years
1999-03,9999
2003-09,9999
2004-17,9999

Body Types
14
14
14

2010-17, 9999
2015-17,9999
1996-2017,
9999
1996-2017,
9999

14
14
15

Model Years
1990-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

MAKE: Lexus (59) (LEXS)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
ES-250/300/300h/330/
350
032

LS-400/430/460/L/600h/L

Includes
Black Diamond Edition,
Premium Plus, Ultra Luxury,
Hybrid
LS-F Sport, Hybrid

033

SC-400/300

2-Door Coupe

034

Hybrid, F Sport

035
036
037
038
039
040
398

GS-300/350/400/430/
450h/460
IS-250/300/350/500/200t
SC-430
HS 250h
CT 200h
LFA
RC
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
RX300/350
402
GX470
403
RX330/350/400h/450h

SportCross, Sport, F, C
Special Edition, Pebble Beach
Premium
F Sport
Standard, Special
300, 350, 350h, F Sport
--

404
405
421

GX460
NX
LX450/470/570

Includes
2WD, 4WD
Sport, Premium
Hybrid, Thundercloud, Mark
Levinson Package, F Sport
Sport, Premium, Luxury
200t, 300h, F Sport, Hybrid
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (LEXUS)

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

02
04
01,04,05,09
01
04
05
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,04,05,09
01,02,04,05,
08,09

14,15,19

229

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Lincoln (13) (LINC)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Continental (thru ‘81)/
Town Car

002

Mark

005

Continental (‘82 on)

011
012

Versailles
LS

013

Zephyr/MKZ

014

MKX

015
016

MKS
MKT

017

Continental

398

Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Aviator
402

MKC

Includes
Continental, (thru ‘81),
Signature/Designer Series,
Town Car (‘81 on, body 04
only), Cartier, Executive, L,
Premium, Ballistic Protection
Edition, Ultimate, Designer
Series, Limited
I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII LSC,
Signature/Designer Series
Signature/Designer Series,
Luxury
-Convenience, Premium,
Sport, Luxury, Ultimate
FWD, AWD, Hybrid (Premier
400A, Select 500A, Reserve
600A), 2.0L, 3.7L, EcoBoost,
Premiere (100A), Select
(200A), Reserve (300A),
Black Label (Vineyard,
Chalet, Thoroughbred)
FWD, AWD, Black Label
(Modern Heritage,
Indulgence, Thoroughbred,
The Muse)
EcoBoost, 3.7L FWD/AWD
EcoBoost, TownCar, 3.5L,
3.7L
Black Label Edition
(Rhapsody, Chalet,
Thoroughbred)
Cosmopolitan, Capri,
Premiere
--

Model Years
1940-2011,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,08,09,
11,12

1956-98,9999

01,02,04,08,09

1982-2002,
9999
1977-80,9999
2000-06,9999

02,04,08,09, 12

2006-17,9999

04

2007-16,9999

06

2008-16,9999
2010-17,9999

04
06,09, 11,12

2017

04

1940-2017,
9999
1940-2017,
9999

01-09, 10-12

Includes
Premium, Luxury, Ultimate,
Kitty Hawk Edition
FWD, AWD, Black Label
(Modern Heritage, Center
Stage, Indulgence)

Model Years
2003-06,9999

Body Types
14

2015-17,9999

14

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

04
04

01-09, 10-12

230

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
421

Models
Navigator

481
482
498

Blackwood
Mark LT
Other (light truck)

Includes
2WD, 4WD, Premium,
Luxury, Ultimate, L, 5.4L
-2WD, 4WD
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (LINCOLN)

Includes
--

Model Years
1997-2017,
9999
2002
2006-08,9999
1997-2017,
9999
1997-2017,
9999

Body Types
15

Model Years
1990-2017,
9999

Body Types
49

31
31
14,15, 31
14,15, 49

MAKE: Mazda (41) (MAZD)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
RX2
032
RX3
033
RX4
034
RX7
035
323/GLC/Protégé/
Protégé 5
036
Cosmo
037
626
038
039
040
041
042
043
044
045

808
Mizer
R-100
616/618
1800
929
MX-6
Miata/MX-5

046
047
048
049

MX-3
Millenia
MP3
RX-8

050

Mazda6

Includes
---S, GS, GSL, SE
DX, Protégé (1990-on), DX, LX,
ES, Mazdaspeed
-GT, GS, GSL, SE, DX, LX, ES
------Turbo, LS, M-Edition
Miata (LS), SE, SV,
Mazdaspeed, Sport, Touring,
Grand Touring, Club, Special,
Special Edition, PRHT, RF
GS
L, S, P, Millennium Edition
Limited Edition
Sport AT, Shinka, Touring,
Grand Touring, R3, Plus
Grand Touring, Sport,
Mazdaspeed6, Grand Sport,
SV, Plus, Touring

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1970-74,9999
1970-78,9999
1974-78,9999
1979-96,9999
1977-2003,
9999
1976-78,9999
1979-2002,
9999
1972-77,9999
1976
1950-72,9999
1968-72,9999
1968-72,9999
1988-95,9999
1988-97,9999
1990-97; 19992017, 9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
01-03,09
03-07,09

1992-95,9999
1995-02,9999
2001
2003-14,9999

02
04
04
04

2003-17,9999

04-06,09

02
02,04,05,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
02
02,04,08,09
04,06,09
04
02
01

231

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
051

Models
Mazda3

052

Mazda5

053

CX-7

054

055
056
398

CX-9 (2007-12 only. For
2013 on see model
421.)
Mazda2
CX-3
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Navajo
402
Tribute

403
421

441

CX-5
CX-9 (2013 on. See
model 054 for 2007-12
model years.)
MPV

471

Pickup/ B-Series Pickup

498

Other (light truck)

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (MAZDA)

Includes
i, (Sport, Touring, Grand
Touring, SV) s (Touring, Grand
Touring), SP23, Value,
Mazdaspeed3,
Sport, Touring, Grand Touring
i, s, Sport, Touring, Grand
Touring, SV
Sport, Touring, Grand Touring

Sport, Touring
Sport, Touring, Grand Touring
1200, 616
--

Includes
-DX, DX-V6, LX-V6, ES-V6, ES,
LX, i, s, Hybrid, Sport, Grand
Touring, Touring
Sport, Touring, Grand Touring
Sport, Touring, Grand Touring

Model Years
2004-16,9999

Body Types
04-06,09

2006-10, 201215, 9999
2007-12,9999

06

2007-12,9999

06

2011-15,9999
2016-17, 9999
1950-2017,
9999
1950-2017,
9999

05
05
02,03,09

Model Years
1991-94,9999
2001-12,9999

Body Types
14
14

2013-16,9999
2013-16,9999

14
15

LX, ES, DX, All Sport, LX-SV

05

01-09

1989-98; 200006, 9999
B2000, B2200, B2300, SE-5, LX, 1972-2009,
SE (2WD, 4WD), SX, DS, Cab
9999
Plus, B2500/B2600/
B3000/B4000, Dual Sport Cab
-1965-2016,
9999
-1965-2016,
9999

20

Includes
--

Body Types
49

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1950-2017,
9999

30,32, 40, 42

14,15, 20, 30,32,
40, 42
14,15, 20, 30,32,
39 ,40, 42, 48,49

232

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Mercedes Benz (42) (MERZ)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
200/220/230/240/
250/260/280/300/
320/420

032
033

037

230/280 SL
300/350/380/450/500/
560 SL
350/380/420/450/560
SLC
280/300 SEL
300/380/420/450/500/
560/SEL & 500/560, 600
SEC & 300/350 SDL
300/380/450 SE

038
039
040
041
042

600, 6.9 Sedan
190
300
400/500E
C Class (94 on)

043

S Class (95 on)

044

SL Class (95 on)

045

SLK

046

CL Class

047

CLK

034
035
036

Includes
Sedan and 5-passenger “C”
only; SE, CD, D, SD, TD, TE,
CE, E; DOES NOT include
280 SE (1975 on) or 300 SDsee code 037; C-Class up to
1993, E-Class up to 1997
2-seater only
2-seater only; 300/500 SL
(1990 on)
--

Model Years
1950-97,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06, 08,09,
12

1964-71,9999
1972-94,9999

01,02,09
01,02,09

1973-94,9999

02

---

1967-72,9999
1973-94,9999

02,04,08
02,04,06,08,09

280 S, 280 SE (1975 on),
300 SD Sedan/350 SD
Pullman
D, E, 2.3, 2.5
CE Cabriolet
-C220/C230 (Kompressor)/
C240/250/280/300/320/35
0/ 400 (W)/C32/
36/43/55/63/63S AMG,
Sport, Luxury, 450 (AMG)
S320/350/400(V)/420/430/
450/500/550(V/e)/600(V),
55/ 63/65 (AMG), Hybrid, 4M, S600 (Maybach)
SL320/400/500/550(R)/
600(R), Silver Arrow Edition,
SL55/63/65 AMG
SLK230/250/280/300/320/
350 (Sport), Kompressor,
SLK 32/55 (AMG), Special
Edition
CL500/550/600, CL55/63/
65 AMG
CLK 320/350/430/500/550,
Cabriolet, CLK 55/63/65
AMG

1968-94,9999

01,02,04,08,09

1978-87,9999
1984-93,9999
1993-94,9999
1992-94,9999
1994-2016,
9999

04, 12
04,06,09
01
01,02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,09

1995-2016,
9999

02,04,08,09

1995-2016,
9999

01,02,09

1998-2016,
9999

01

1998-2014,
9999
1998-2009,
9999

02

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

01,02,09

233

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
048

Models
E Class (‘97 on)

049
050
051

SLR
R Class
CLS Class

052
053
054
055
056
398

SLS Class
B Class
CLA Class
GLA Class
AMG GT S
Other (automobile)

Includes
250/300/TD, 320/350 (4-M,
A, C, S, W)/400/420/430/
500/550 (4-M, A, C, W),
55/63/63S AMG, 320CDI,
Hybrid
McLaren, 722 Edition
R320/350/500, R63 AMG
CLS400/500/550, CLS55/63/
63S AMG
AMG (C/GT) Final Edition
-250, 45 (AMG)
250, 45 (AMG)
450
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
M/ML Class

402
403
404

G Class
GLK Class
GLE Class

405
421

GLC Class
GL Class

461

Sprinter

462
470

Metris
Van derivative

Includes
ML250/320/350/400/430/
450/500/550, 55/63 AMG
Special Edition, Hybrid, 4-M
G500/550, G55/63 (AMG)
220/250/280/320/350
300d, 350, 63 AMG, Coupe
(450/63S)
300
GL320/350/450/550, GL63
(AMG)
(for 2004-2010 see
“Freightliner” and “Dodge”)
Cargo, Passenger
Kurbstar

498

Other (light truck)

--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1996-2016,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,09

2005-10,9999
2006-12,9999
2006-16,9999

01,02,09
06
04

2011-15,9999
2014-16,9999
2014-16,9999
2015-16,9999
2016
1946-2016,
9999
1946-2016,
9999

01,02,09
05
04
05
02
01-09, 10-12

Model Years
1998-2015,
9999

Body Types
14

2002-16,9999
2010-15,9999
2016

14
14
14

2016
2007-16,9999

14
15

2002-03, 201016, 9999
2016
1982-2016,
9999
1946-2016,
9999

21,22,28,29

1946-2016,
9999

01-09, 10-12

20
28,29
14-16,19, 21,22,
31,32, 40,41, 42,
45,48
14-16,19, 21,22,
28,29, 31,32, 40,41,
42, 45,48,49

234

Passenger Vehicles
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium/Heavy VanBased Vehicle
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE
low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
884
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

Includes
Sprinter

Body Types
55, 61-64

---

Model Years
2002-03, 201016, 9999
1965-91,9999
1965-91,9999

--

1965-91,9999

60-64,78

--

1965-91,9999

60-64,78

--

1965-91,9999

60-64,78

--

1965-91,9999

60-64,78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional
-1965-91,9999
(Engine out front)
988
Other (bus)
-1965-91,9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-91,9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (MERCEDES
BENZ)

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-2016,
9999
1950-2016,
9999

60-64,78
60-64,78

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
91-93,97

Body Types
49, 79, 99
49, 79, 99

MAKE: Mercury (14) (MERC)
(Merkur: See “56”)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
002
Cyclone
003
Capri-domestic (for 1967
see 008)
004
Cougar (For 1967-1997.
See 038 for 1999-2002)
/XR7 (1967-1997)

Includes
GT, CJ, Spoiler
RS, Turbo, GS, Black Magic,
5.0
Villager, Brougham, RS, LS,
GS, Eliminator, XR-7

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1964-70,9999
1979-86; 198994,9999
1967-97,9999

Body Types
01,02,09
01,03,09
01,02,04,06,08,09

235

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
006

Models
Marquis/Monterey (car
version; for van version
2004 on see code 444)
/Grand Marquis

008

Comet

009
010
011
012
013
015

Bobcat
Montego (prior to 1976;
for 2005 on see code 020)
Monarch
Zephyr
Lynx/LN7
Topaz

017

Sable

020
021

Montego (2005 on)
Milan

031
033
036
037

Capri-foreign
Pantera-foreign
Tracer
Mystique

Includes
Marauder (prior to 2003,
2003 on see code 039),
Montclair, X-100, 5-55,
Parklane, S-55, Custom,
Brougham Grand Marquis
(GS, LS), Medalist, Turnpike,
Colony Park, GS, LS, LSE,
Limited Edition, Palm Beach
Edition
Caliente, Capri (1967), GT,
Voyager, 202, 404, Villager
Wagon
Runabout, Villager Wagon
GT, MX, Villager, Brougham,
Comet (1968-1970)
Ghia
GS, Z-7
L, LS, GS, RS, XR-3
L, LS, GS, 4x4, XR5, LTS,
Sport
LS, GS (Premium), GS Plus,
Platinum Edition, Premier,
Base
Luxury, Premier
I-4, V6 (Base/Premier),
Hybrid
Capri II, 2+2
deTomaso
L, GL, LTS, GS, LS
GS, LS

038

Cougar (1999-2002)

V-6, I-4, S, Sport, CR, XR

039
398

Marauder
Other (automobile)

M75, 300A
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Mountaineer
402

Mariner

Includes
Convenience, Luxury,
Premier (4.0/4.6L)
Convenience, Luxury,
Premier, Hybrid

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1952-2011,
9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,08,09

1960-79,9999

01,02,04,06,08,09

1975-80,9999
1968-76,9999

03,06,09
01,02,04,06,08,09

1975-80,9999
1978-83,9999
1981-87,9999
1984-94,9999

02,04,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
03,05-07,09
02,04,08,09

1986-2005,
2008-09,9999

04,06,09

2005-07,9999
2006-11,9999

04
04

1970-77,9999
1972-74,9999
1988-99,9999
1995-2000,
9999
1999-2002,
9999
2003-04,9999
1962-2011,
9999
1952-2011,
9999

03
01-09, 10
03-06,09
04

Model Years
1996-2010,
9999
2005-11,9999

Body Types
14

02,03,09
04
01-09, 10
01-09, 10

14

236

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
443

Models
Villager

444

498

Monterey (van version;
for car version prior to
2004 see code 006)
Other (light truck)

499

Unknown (light truck)

Includes
LS, GS, Nautica, Estate,
Sport, Sport Plus, Popular
Convenience, Luxury,
Premier

Model Years
1993-2002,
9999
2004-07,9999

Body Types
20

--

1993-2011,
9999
1993-2011,
9999

14, 20

Model Years
1950-2011,
9999

Body Types
49

--

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (MERCURY)

Includes
--

20

49

MAKE: Merkur (56) (MERK)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
XR4Ti
032
Scorpio
398
Other (automobile)
399
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
Turbo
Turbo
---

Model Years
1985-89,9999
1988-90,9999
1985-90,9999
1985-90,9999

Body Types
03
05
03-05,07,09
03-05,07,09

Model Years
1962-80,9999

Body Types
01

1955-80,9999
1967-74,9999
1945-62,9999

01,02,09
02,03,09
01,02,09

1945-62,9999
1968-69,9999
1945-66,9999

01,02,09
01,02,09
02,04,08,09

1945-80,9999
1945-80,9999

01-04,08,09
01-04,08,09

MAKE: MG (43) (MG)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Midget
032
033
034

MGB
MGB
MGA

035
036
037

TA/TC/TD/TF
MGC
Magnette/Sports Sedans

398
399

Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
GAN I/II/III/4/5, MK I, MK II,
MKIII
MK I/II/IV, 600 Limited, V-8
GT, MK III
1500, 1600, YT, TC, TD/II, MK
I/II, A
Y-Type, 430, TDC
GT
ZB, ZA/YA/YB, MK III, MK IV,
1100, 1300
---

MAKE: Mitsubishi (52) (MITS)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Starion
032
Tredia
033
Cordia

Includes
2+2, LE, Turbo, ESI
L, LS, Turbo
L, Turbo

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1982-89,9999
1982-88,9999
1982-88,9999

Body Types
03
04
03

237

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
034

Models
Galant

035

036
037

Mirage (For 1985-2002.
For 2014 on use model
048.)
Precis
Eclipse

038
039
040

Sigma
3000 GT
Diamante

041
045
046

iMEV
Expo Wagon
Lancer/Lancer
Sportback/Lancer
Evolution

047

Outlander

048
398

Mirage (2014 on. For
1985-2002 use 52-035.)
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Montero/Montero Sport

Includes
ECS, Sigma (through ‘88), ES,
LS, DE, GTS-V6, I-4, Special
Edition, Ralliart, Sport
Edition, SE, FE
L, Turbo, GS, LS, DS, DE, ES

Model Years
1985-2012,
9999

Body Types
04

1985-2002,
9999

02-04, 08, 09

-GS, DOHL, Turbo, GS-T, GSX,
Spyder, RS, GT, GTS, Remix
Edition, SE, Sport. Special
Edition
(Prior ‘89 see 034)
SL, VR-4, Spyder
LS, ES, LE, VR-X

1987-94,9999
1990-2012,
9999

03,05,07,09
01-03, 09

1989-90,9999
1991-99,9999
1992-2004,
9999
2012-17,9999
1992-95,9999
2002-17,9999

04
01-03, 09
04, 06, 09

2003-16,9999

06

2014-17,9999

04,05,09

500, 1000, Debonair, Galant
(1969)
--

1960-2017,
9999
1960-2017,
9999

01-09

Model Years
1983-2006,
9999
2004-12,9999
1987-90,9999
1983-96,9999
2006-10,9999
1983-2012,
9999
1983-2012,
9999

ES, SE
LRV, Sport
ES, LS, O-Z, Rally, Evolution
VII/VIII/IX/X, Sport, Ralliart
LS, MR Edition, DE, GSR,
GTS, Touring, SE, GT, SEL
ES, LS, SE, XLS, Limited, GT,
Sport, SE-S, GT-S
DE, ES, SE, GT, G4 (ES, SE)

402
441
471
472
498

Endeavor
Mini-Van
Pickup
Raider
Other (light truck)

Includes
Sport, LS, SR, XLS, ES, LTD,
20th Anniversary Edition, SE
LS, SE, XLS, Limited
LS
Mighty Max, SPX, 4x4
LS, Durocross, XLS
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

05
06
04-06, 09

01-09

Body Types
14
14
20
30,32, 40, 42
31
14, 20, 30-32, 40,
42
14, 20, 30-32, 40,
42, 48,49

238

Passenger Vehicles
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
882
Medium/Heavy – COE
low entry
898
BUSES
Codes
981

Includes
FUSO FE/FG/FH/FK/FM

Model Years
1983-2016,
9999

Body Types
60-64,66,71,72,78

Other (medium/heavy
truck)

--

1983-2016,
9999

60-64,66,71,72,78

Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Bus: Front engine, Flat
Front
Bus: Rear engine, Flat
front
Other (bus)

Includes
--

Model Years
1981-2004,
9999
982
-1981-2004,
9999
983
-1981-2004,
9999
988
-1981-2004,
9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1981-2004,
9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (MITSUBISHI)

Includes
--

Model Years
1983-2017,
9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
49, 79, 99

MAKE: Nissan/Datsun (35) (NISS) - (DATS)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
F-10
032
200SX/240SX
033
210/1200/B210
034
Z-car, ZX
035
036

310
510

037
038
039

610
710
810/Maxima

040

Roadster

041

311/411

Includes
-SE, SE-R, LE
110 series, Honeybee
240/260/280Z&ZX, 300 ZX,
2+2, Turbo
SPL
PL, WPL
PL, HL
PL
SE (Titanium Special), GXE,
GLE, 3.5SE/SL/SEL /S/SV/SR,
Platinum Edition
SPL311, SRL311, 1500, 1600,
2000, convertible, Fairlady
1000, Bluebird, PL311/
PL312/PL410/PL411/RL411

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1977-78,9999
1977-98,9999
1971-82,9999
1970-96,9999

Body Types
03,05-07,09
01-03,09
02-04,06,08,09
01-03,09

1979-82,9999
1968-73;
1978-81,9999
1973-76,9999
1974-77,9999
1977-2016,
9999

02,03,05,07,09
02-09

1950-70,9999

01

1959-67,9999

04,06,09

02-04,06,08,09
02-04,06,08,09
04,06,09

239

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
042
043

Models
Stanza
Sentra

044
045
046
047

Pulsar
Micra
NX 1600/2000
Altima

048

350Z/370Z

049

Murano

050

Versa

051

Rogue

052

Cube

053

GT-R

055
398

Leaf
Other (automobile)

Includes
XE
E, XE, GXE, S, SE, SE-R (Spec
V), GLE, CA, 2.5LE, 1.8, 1.8S,
2.0/S/SL/SR, Special Edition,
Platinum Edition, Spec-V, FE,
SV, FE+S, Nismo
NX, EXA (1986 on)
-T-bar coupe
XE, GXE, SE, GLE, 2.5
S/SL/SR/SV, 3.5 S/SE/SL/SR/
SV, SE-R, Hybrid, SR (Base,
Midnight), Platinum
Enthusiast, Performance,
Touring, Track, Base, 35th
Anniversary, Grand Touring,
Nismo, 40th Anniversary,
Sport, Sport Tech, Nismo
Tech, Touring Sport
SE, SL, S, LE, SV,
CrossCabriolet, Platinum, S
Plus
1.8S/SL, 1.6 S/SV/SL, Plus,
Note (S, S Plus, SV, SR, SL), S
Plus, SR
S, SL, SV, Krom/Special
Edition, Select (S)
1.8 S/SL, Krom Edition,
Indigo Edition
Base, Premium, Black
Edition, Track Edition,
Nismo, 45th Anniversary
S, SL, SV
110 sedan, K110

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Pathfinder

402

Xterra

Includes
MPV, 4X4, XE, LE, SE, S, OffRoad, FE+, SV, Silver Edition,
Hybrid, SL (Tech, Premium),
Platinum
XE (I-4), SE, (S/C), SE-R, Spec
V, X, S, Off-Road, Pro-4X

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1982-93,9999
1982-2016,
9999

Body Types
03-07,09
02,04,06,08,09

1983-90,9999
1987-94,9999
1991-94,9999
1993-2017,
9999

02,03,05,07,09
01-05,07-09
02,03,09
02,04, 09

2003-17,9999

01,02,09

2003-16,9999

01,06,09

2007-17,9999

04,05,09

2008-16,9999

06

2009-14,9999

06

2009-17,9999

02

2011-16,9999
1955-2016,
9999
1955-2016,
9999

05
01-09, 10

Model Years
1986-2017,
9999

Body Types
14

2000-15,9999

14

01-09, 10

240

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
403
421

Models
Juke
Pathfinder Armada

441
442
443

Van
Axxess
Quest

444

Altra EV*

446

NV200/eNV200

461
471

NV
Datsun/Nissan Pickup
(1955-1997)
Frontier (1998 on)

472

473
481

Titan (from 2004-06; see
481 for 2007 on)
Titan (from 2007 on; see
473 for 2004-06)

Includes
S, SL, SV, Nismo, Nismo RS
LE, SE, SE Off-Road,
Titanium, Platinum, SV, SL
XE, GXE
-XE, GXE, SE, GLE, 3.5
S/SE/SL, Special Edition, SV,
LE, Platinum
(electric vehicle*)
S, SV, Taxi, Compact Cargo,
Passenger, HD Cargo
1500, 2500, 3500
120,620 series, King Cab,
Hardbody, XE, SE
XE, SE, S/C (Regular Cab,
King Cab, Desert Runner,
Crew Cab), Open-Sky, SVE,
Nismo, Pro-4X, LE, SV, SL, S,
Diesel Runner
E, LE, SE, XE

498

Other (light truck)

LE, SE, XE, PRO-4X, S, SV, SL,
XD (S, SV, SL, Platinum
Reserve), Platinum
Patrol (1960)

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium/Heavy Van-Based
Vehicle
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high
entry
898
Other (medium/heavy
truck)
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown
(NISSAN/DATSUN)

Model Years
2011-16,9999
2004-17,9999

Body Types
14
15

1987-91,9999
1989-90,9999
1993-2002;
2004-09,
2011-16, 9999
1998-2005,
9999
2013-16,9999

20
20
20

2011-16,9999
1955-97,9999

21,22,28,29
30,32, 40, 42

1998-2016,
9999

30,32, 40, 42

2004-06,9999

31

2007-17,9999

31

1955-2017,
9999
1955-2017,
9999

14,15, 20,21,22, 3032
14,15,19, 20,29,
30,32,39, 40, 42,
48,49

20
20

Includes
NV

Model Years
2011-17,9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

--

1986-2017,
9999
1986-2017,
9999

60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78

Model Years
1950-2017,
9999

Body Types
49, 79, 99

--

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

241

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Oldsmobile (21) (OLDS)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Cutlass (RWD-only)

Includes
Supreme, S, LS, Salon,
Brougham Vista Cruiser, F85
(thru 1972), Rallye 350, Hurst
Olds, 442, Calais (thru 1985),
Classic (88)
Royale, Custom, Delta,
Jetstar 88, Delmont 88,
Starfire (Thru 1966), Custom
Cruiser, Jetfire, Eighty-Eight
(LS, 50th Anniv. Edition)
Luxury, Futuramic, Brougham
XS, XSR, Trofeo, Brougham
Custom
Ambulance/Hearse

002

Delta 88/LSS

003
005

Ninety-Eight/Regency
Toronado

006

Commercial Series

012
015
016
017

Starfire
Omega
Firenza
Ciera

018
020

Calais
Cutlass (FWD)

021

Achieva/Alero

SX, GT, ST
X-body type, Brougham
S, LS, SX, Cruiser, GT
Cutlass Ciera, Cutlass Cruiser,
Brougham, ES (International)
GT, ES, 500
Supreme (Excludes Ciera),
GLS, GL
SC, SL, GX, GL (1,2,4), GLS

022

Aurora

3.5L, 4.0L, Collector’s Series

023

Intrigue

GL, GX, GLS

398

Other (automobile)

66/68/70/90, Dynamic 70

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Bravada

441

Silhouette

499

Unknown (light truck)

Includes
2WD, 4WD, Collector’s
Series
GL, GLS, Series I, Series II, GS
Premier Edition, Collector’s
Series
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1960-88,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1949-99,9999

01-04,06,08,09

1949-99,9999
1966-92,9999

01,02,04,08,09
02

1940-2003,
9999
1975-80,9999
1973-85,9999
1982-88,9999
1982-96,9999

09, 10-12

1985-91,9999
1988-99,9999

01-03,09
02-04,08,09
03-06,07,09
01,02,04,06,
08,09
02,04,08,09
01,02,04,08,09

1992-2004,
9999
1995-99;
2001-03,9999
1997-2002,
9999
1930-2004,
9999
1930-2004,
9999

02,04,08,09

Model Years
1991-94;
1996-2004,
9999
1990-2004,
9999

Body Types
14

1932-2004,
9999

14, 20, 49

04
02,04,08,09
01-09, 10-12
01-09, 10-12

20

242

Passenger Vehicles
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (OLDSMOBILE)

Includes
--

Model Years
1932-2004,
9999

Body Types
49

MAKE: Peugeot (44) (PEUG)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
304
032
403
033
404
034
504/505

Includes
-Station Wagon
Station Wagon
STI, STX, Turbo, S, STI, STX,
GL, GLS Liberte, Station
Wagon, DSL, DL, GLX
SL, D
Mi-16, DL, S
202, 203
--

Model Years
1971-72,9999
1955-67,9999
1961-70,9999
1970-91,9999

Body Types
04-06,09
01,04,06,09
01,04,06,09
04-06,09

1977-84,9999
1989-91,9999
1945-91,9999
1945-91,9999

04
04,06,09
01-09
01-09

MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50 cc
702
51-124cc
709
Unknown cc

Includes
----

Model Years
1965-83,9999
1965-83,9999
1965-83,9999

Body Types
81
81
81

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (PEUGEOT)

Includes
--

Model Years
1960-91,9999

Body Types
99

035
036
398
399

604
405
Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

MAKE: Plymouth (09) (PLYM)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Valiant/Scamp/Duster
(thru 1976)
002

Satellite/Belvedere

003

Fury (Fury Gran thru ‘78)

004
005

Gran Fury (‘80 on)
Barracuda

006

Volare’

007

Caravelle

Includes
100, 200, Brougham, Signet,
Custom, Special, 340, 360,
Twister
Belvedere I/II, GTX,
Roadrunner (through 1974),
Brougham, Sebring, Sebring
Plus, Superbird
I, II, III, Roadrunner (1975),
Suburban, Salon, VIP, Sport
Sedan, Coupe, Salon
Formula, S, 340, Gran Coupe,
AAR, Cuda
Custom, Premier,
Roadrunner (1976 on), Police
Turbo, SE

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1960-76,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1951-74,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09, 10-12

1957-78,9999
1980-89,9999
1964-74,9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09
02,04,06,08,09
01,02,09

1976-80,9999

02,04,06,08,09

1985-88,9999

04
243

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
008

Models
Horizon/Turismo

011

Reliant (K)

013
017

Scamp- (car-based p/u)
Sundance

019
020

Acclaim
Neon (2002 and on, see
Dodge)
Cricket
Arrow
Sapporo
Champ/Colt import
(includes 2WD Vista)
Conquest
Laser
Breeze

031
032
033
034
035
037
038
039

398

Prowler (1997, 1999-2001
only. For 2002 on, see
Chrysler)
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
421
Trailduster
441
Vista Van
442
Voyager (minivan) (2000
and on, see Chrysler)
461
Van-fullsize (B-series)

Includes
TC-3, Turismo 2.2, Miser,
America, Custom, SE, Duster
(1985 on), Expo
SE, LE, Reliant America,
Limited
GT, 2.2
RS, Turbo, Sundance Duster,
America
LX, LE
Sport, Competition, Highline

Model Years
1978-90,9999

Body Types
03,05,07,09

1981-89,9999

02,04,06,08,09

1982-84,9999
1987-94,9999

10
03,05,07,09

1989-95,9999
1995-2001,
9999
1971-72,9999
1976-80,9999
1978-83,9999
1979-94,9999

04
02,04,08,09

1984-87,9999
1989-94,9999
1996-2000,
9999
1997; 19992001, 9999

03
02,03,09
04

Regant, Fleet, Savoy,
Concord, Cambridge
--

1930-95,9999

01-09, 10-12

1965-2001,
9999

01-09, 10-12

Model Years
1974-93,9999
1987-94,9999
1984-2001,
9999
1965-95,9999

Body Types
15
20
20

1975-91,9999
1965-2001,
9999
1974-2001,
9999

30,32
15, 20,21,28,29,
30,32, 42, 45,48
15, 20,21,29, 30,
32, 48,49

Model Years
1965-2001,
9999

Body Types
92,93,97

-GS, GT, Fire Arrow
all imported
Turbo, Custom, GL, SE, DL, E
Station wagon (1984 on)
TSI
RS, Turbo
-Roadster, Black Tie Edition

471
498

Arrow pickup (foreign)
Other (light truck)

Includes
-4X4 (only)
SE, LX, Grand Voyager, SE
Expresso, EPIC-electric*
Voyager (thru 1983), Sport,
Premier
---

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

04,06,09
03
02,03,09
02-09

01

21

244

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
999

Models
Unknown (PLYMOUTH)

Includes
--

Model Years
1957-2001,
9999

Body Types
49

Includes
Safari, T-37, Luxury, Grand
Sport, GTO (thru 1973), GT37, Sprint, Judge, Grand AM
(73-75), Grand Lemans
Brougham, Grand Safari,
Safari, Grandville, 2+2,
Executive, Starchief, SE, SSE,
SSEi, G, SLE, GXP
2M4, 2M6, GT, SE
II, SJ, Sprint, GTO (74-77),
Custom, Base, LS2
Esprit, Formula, GTA,
Redbird, Yellowbird, Skybird,
SE, Bandit, TransAm
J, LJ, SJ, Brougham, 2+2, GT,
STE, SE
Safari, SJ, Custom
Safari, Sport, Formula

Model Years
1961-81,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09

1954-2005,
9999

01,02,04,06,
08,09

1984-89,9999
1971-77;
2004-06,9999
1967-2002,
9999

02
02-04,09

1962-87,9999

01,02,09

1975-77,9999
1976-80,9999

02,03,06,09
01-09

2T
LJ, SJ
LE, SE, GT, 2000 Convertible,
2J, S, SE, GT, 1SA, 1SB, 1SC,
1SV
STE, SE, LE
SE, LE, GT, GT1, SE1, SE2,
SC/T Package
Base, GT
LE, SE, STE, GT, McLaren
Turbo, GTP, Limited Edition,
40th Anniversary Edition, GXP
Base, GT, GTP, Value Leader,
GXP
GXP
GT, GXP
-LE, SE, Tempest Canadian
GT, AWD, HB

1981-87,9999
1977-84,9999
1982-2005,
9999

03,05,07,09
02-05,07-09
01-09

1982-91,9999
1973-2005,
9999
2007-10,9999
1988-2008,
9999

02,04,06,08,09
02,04,08,09

2005-10,9999

01,02,04,09

2006-10,9999
2008-10,9999
2009-10,9999
1988-93,9999
2003-10,9999

01,02, 09
04
04,05,09
01-09
06

MAKE: Pontiac (22) (PONT)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Lemans (See model 031
for 1988 on)/Tempest
(thru 1970)
002

Bonneville/Catalina/
Parisienne

005
008

Fiero
Ventura/GTO

009

Firebird/Trans AM

010

Grand Prix (RWD)

011
012

Astre
Sunbird (thru 1980;1985
on see model 016)
T-1000/1000
Phoenix
Sunbird (1985-1994 only)
/J-2000/Sunfire (1995 on)

013
015
016

017
018

6000
Grand AM

019
020

G5
Grand Prix (FWD)

022

G6

023
024
025
031
032

Solstice
G8
G3
Lemans (1988 on)
Vibe

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

01-03,09

02
01,02,04,08,09

245

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
398

Models
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Aztek
403
441

Torrent
Trans Sport/
Montana/SV6

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (PONTIAC)

Includes
Torpedo, Streamliner,
Chieftain Star Chief, Super
Chief
--

Model Years
1946-2010,
9999

Body Types
01-09, 10

1926-2010,
9999

01-09, 10

Includes
GT, SE, 1SA, 1SB, 1SC, Rally
Edition
GXP
SE, Montana, Extended,
Versatrak, 1SV, 1SA, 1SX,
1SY, 1SE, Chrome Sport,
--

Model Years
2001-05,9999

Body Types
14

2006-09,9999
1990-2009,
9999

14
20

1990-2009,
9999

14, 20, 49

Includes
--

Model Years
1951-2010,
9999

Body Types
49

Model Years
1965-2016,
9999

Body Types
01,02,09

1966-69;
1976,9999
1970-76,9999
1977-88,9999
1978-95,9999
1979
1983-91,9999
1989-94,9999
1992-95,9999
1997-2016,
9999

01,02,09

MAKE: Porsche (45) (PORS)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
911/996

032

912

033
034
035
036
037
038
039
040

914
924
928
930
944
959
968
986/Boxster

041

Cayman

Includes
L, S, E, T, SC, Carrera (2, 4,
Cabriolet, Targa), GT,
Slopenose, 4S, Targa,
Speedster, Turbo, B series, SCoupe, Cabriolet (S), GT2,
GT3 (RS), GT, GTS
1600, E, T

1.7, 1.8, 2.0, S, 914/4/6
Turbo, S
S, S4, GT, GTS
Turbo
Turbo, S, S2
Not Imported to U.S.
-Boxster, Boxster Cabriolet, S
Roadster, S Anniversary,
Limited Edition, Spyder, Black
Edition, GTS
S, Hybrid, Black Edition, R,
2006-16,9999
GTS, GT4

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

01
01-03,09
02,03,09
02
01-03,09
01-03,09
01,02,09
01

02

246

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
042

Models
Panamera

043
398

918
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Macan
421
Cayenne

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (PORSCHE)

Includes
S, 4, 4S, Turbo, Turbo S,
Hybrid, GTS, S, Platinum
Edition, Executive, Edition,
Exclusive
Spyder, Weissach Pkg
Spyder, Speedster (prior to
‘65), 356 (A, B, C) Grund,
America, Super, 1500
--

Model Years
2010-16,9999

Body Types
05

2013-16,9999
1948-2016,
9999

01,02,09
01-03,05,09

1948-2016,
9999

01-03,05,09

Includes
S, S Diesel, Turbo
Turbo, S, Titanium, GTS (PD
Edition), Transsyberia,
Hybrid, Diesel
--

Model Years
2014-16,9999
2003-16,9999

Body Types
14
15

2003-16,9999

14, 15

Includes
--

Model Years
1965-2016,
9999

Body Types
99

Includes
R-5, R5TL, GTL, TL, DLX
all models, R-1190, R8 -1100

Model Years
1976-83,9999
1955-71,9999

Body Types
02-05,07-09
01,02,04,08,09

R-12L, R-12TL/GTL
R-15TL
R-16, R-1152
R17, Gordini Coupe, R17TL
R18i, Deluxe, DLX
TL, TS, GTL, GTS, Turbo
L, DL, Limited, X-37

1972-77,9999
1973-76,9999
1969-72,9999
1972-80,9999
1981-86,9999
1982-85,9999
1983-87,9999

04,06,09
02,03,09
06
01,02,09
04,06,09
02,03,09
01-05,07-09

1971-90,9999

02,03,09

1987
1987
1946-90,9999

04,06,09
04
01-09, 10,11

1946-90,9999

01-09, 10,11

MAKE: Renault (46) (RENA)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
LeCar
032
Dauphine/10/R-8
Caravelle
033
12
034
15
035
16
036
17
037
18i/Sportwagon
038
Fuego
039
Alliance/Encore GTA,
Convertible
041
Alpine

GT, GTA Coupe, Not
imported to U.S.
044
Medallion **
DL, LX
045
Premier**
-398
Other (automobile)
Juvaquatre, 4CV, Fregate,
Domaine
399
Unknown (automobile)
-** Note: Medallion and Premier listed under Eagle after 1987.
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

247

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Saab (47) (SAA)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
99/99E/900

032
033
034

Sonnett
95/96
9000

035

9-3/9-3x

036

9-5

037
038
398

9-2x
9-4x
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
9-7x
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (SAAB)

Includes
S, GL, GLE, L, LE, 2CM, 4CM
Turbo, Cabriolet, 2EM, 4EM,
CM, SE
II, III, 97
V-4, M, S, M-S, Special
S, Turbo, CS, CD, CDE, E,
AERO, CSE
SE (Hot), Viggen, Linear Arc,
Vector, Aero, 2.0T,
SportCombi, Combi, Estate
SE, Aero, 2.3T, Set, Arc,
Linear, Aero, SportCombi,
2.5T, Turbo X, Vector
Linear, Aero
-Monte Carlo 850, GT850,
GT750, 92/93
--

Model Years
1969-98,9999

Body Types
01-05,07-09

1967-74,9999
1959-73,9999
1985-98,9999

02
02,06,09
04,05,09

1999-2012,
9999

01,03-07,09

1999-2012,
9999

02,04,06,08,09

2005-06,9999
2009-12,9999
1950-2012,
9999
1950-2012,
9999

05
06
01-09

Includes
Arc, Linear, 4.2i, 5.3i, Altitude
Edition, Aero

Model Years
2005-11,9999

Body Types
14

Includes
--

Model Years
1950-2012,
9999

Body Types
49

Model Years
1991-2002, 9999
1991-2002, 9999
1993-2001, 9999
1997-2003, 9999
2000-05,9999

Body Types
04
02, 09, 17
06
02
04

2000-04,9999

06

2003-07,9999
2007-10,9999

04, 09, 17
01

01-09

MAKE: Saturn (24) (STRN)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
SL
002
SC
003
SW
004
EV1/EGV1*
005
LS
006

LW

007
008

Ion
Sky

Includes
SL, SL1, SL2
SC1, SC2
SW1, SW2
Electric Vehicle (Gen II)
LS, LS1, LS2, L100/L200/
L300, L300-1/2/3
LW1, LW2, LW200/
LW300-1/2/3
Quad-coupe, I3, Red Line
Red Line

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

248

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
009
010
011
398
399

Models
Aura
Outlook
Astra
Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Vue
441
499

Relay
Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (SATURN)

Includes
XE, XR, Hybrid
XE, XR
XE, XR, Sport
---

Model Years
2007-10,9999
2007-10,9999
2008-10,9999
1991-2010, 9999
1991-2010, 9999

Body Types
04
06
03,05,09
02-06,08,09, 17
02-06,08,09, 17

Includes
Red Line, 4, V6, Green
Line, XE, XR-4, XR-V6
2, 3
--

Model Years
2002-10,9999

Body Types
14

2005-07,9999
2002-10,9999

20
14, 20

Includes
--

Model Years
1991-2010, 9999

Body Types
49

MAKE: Scion (67) (SCIO)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
xB (2012 on. See Toyota
for 2004-2011)
032
tC (2012 on. See Toyota
for 2005-2011)
033
034
035
036
037
398
399

xD (2012 on. See Toyota
for 2007-2011)
iQ (2012 on. See Toyota
for 2010-2011)
FR-S
iA
iM
Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
1.0, 2.0 Series, Limited
Edition, 10th Anniversary
1.0 Series, Limited Edition,
8.0 Series, 10th
Anniversary
Limited Edition, 10th
Anniversary
10th Anniversary

Model Years
2012-15,9999

Body Types
06

2012-16,9999

03

2012-14,9999

05

2012-14,9999

03

10th Anniversary
-----

2013-16,9999
2016
2016
2012-16,9999
2012-16,9999

02
04
05
02,03,05,06,09
02,03,05,06,09

MAKE: Smart (65) (SMRT)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Fortwo
398
399

Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
Pure, Prime Passion,
Proxy, Electric
---

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
2008-16,9999

Body Types
01,02,09

2008-16,9999
2008-16,9999

01,02,09
01,02,09

249

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Sterling (61) (STLG)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
827
398
Other (automobile)
399
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
Li, SL, S, SLI
825, S, SL, Oxford Edition
--

Model Years
1987-91,9999
1987-91,9999
1987-91,9999

Body Types
04,05,09
04,05,09
04,05,09

MAKE: Subaru (48) (SUBA)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Loyale (1990 on)/DL/
FE/G/GF/GL/GLF/ STD

032
033
034

Star
360
Legacy/Outback (prior to
2003 only; see 045 for
2003 on)

035

XT/XT6

036
037
038

Justy
SVX
Impreza

039
043
044

RX
Brat
Baja

Includes
4-wheel drive, S, 1300,
1400, 1600, 1800, A15L,
A44L, Touring Wagon,
Turbo
FF -1 Star, 1100
-L, LS, LSI, 4WD, Outback
(Limited, Ltd, Sport, VDC,
L.L. Bean Edition), GT,
Brighton, Sport Utility
Sedan (Ltd.), 30th Anniv.
Outback, H-6, 35th Anniv.,
2.5, 2.5i/GT, spec. B, 3.0R,
Limited, Premium, Sport,
3.6R (Base, Limited)
4WD Turbo, convertible,
DL, GL
DL, GL, 4WD
LS, LSL, XR, Lsi
L, LS, Brighton, Outback
Sport, RS, L-Sport, LX,
2.5i/RS/S/TS/ GT, WRX,
WRX Sport/STI/SS/ TR,
Limited Edition, Premium,
SE, STI, STI-S, 2.0i
(Premium, Limited, Sport,
Sport Limited)
-DL, GL
Sport, Turbo

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1972-94,9999

Body Types
02-09

1971
1958-70,9999
1990-2017, 9999

02,04,06,08,09
02
04-06,09

1985-91,9999

01,02,09

1987-94,9999
1992-97,9999
1993-2017, 9999

03,05,07,09
02
02,04-06,08,09

1986-89,9999
1978-87,9999
2003-07,9999

03,04,09
10
10

250

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
045

046
047
398
399

Models
Includes
Outback (2003 on; see 034 H6-VDC, 35th Anniversary
for prior to 2003)
Edition, 2.5, 2.5i
(Premium, Limited),
2.5XT, 3.0R, Special
Edition, VDC Limited,
Sport, L.L. Bean Edition,
3.0R. Premium, 3.6R
(Limited)
BRZ
Premium, Limited
WRX (2015 on; see 038 for Premium, Limited, STi, STi
prior to 2015)
Limited
Other (automobile)
-Unknown (automobile)
--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Forester

402

B9 Tribeca

403

XV Crosstrek

499

Unknown (light truck)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (SUBARU)

Model Years
2003-16,9999

Body Types
04-06,09

2013-17,9999
2015-17,9999

03
04

1968-2017, 9999
1968-2017, 9999

01-09, 10
01-09, 10

Includes
L, S, 2.5i, 2.0XT, 2.5X,
2.5XS, 2.5XT, L.L. Bean
Edition, Limited (Plus),
Sport, Premium, Touring
Base, Limited, Special
Edition, Premium,
Touring, 3.6R
2.0i Premium/Limited,
Hybrid (Premium,
Touring)
--

Model Years
1997-2017, 9999

Body Types
14

2006-14,9999

14

2013-16,9999

14

1997-2017, 9999

14

Includes
--

Model Years
1958-2017, 9999

Body Types
49

MAKE: Suzuki (53) (SUZI)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Swift/SA310
032
033

Esteem
Aerio

034

Forenza

035
036

Verona
Reno

Includes
Gti, GTX, GLX, GA, GT, GL
GL, GLX, GLX+
S, G, LX, SX (Wagon),
Luxury
S, LX, EX, Premium,
Convenience, Popular
S, LX, EX, Luxury
S, LX, EX, Premium,
Convenience

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1989-2001,
2010,9999
1995-2002, 9999
2002-07,9999

Body Types
03-05,07,09

2004-08,9999

04,06,09

2004-06,9999
2005-08,9999

04
05

04,06,09
04,06,09

251

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
040

Models
SX4/SX4 Crossover

041
398
399

Kizashi
Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
Samurai
402
Sidekick/Vitara/ Vitara V6

403
404

X-90
Grand Vitara (2003 on; see
model 402 for models
prior to 2003)

405

XL-7 (2003 on; see 402 for
2002 model year)

481

Equator

498
499

Other (light truck)
Unknown (light truck)

MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
706
709

450-749cc
750cc-over
Unknown cc

Includes
Base, Sport, Convenience,
Touring, L, S, SD, SE, GTS,
LE, SportBack, JX,
Premium, Tech Value
Package
GTS, S, SE, SLS, Sport
800 Fronte, Alto
--

Model Years
2007-13,9999

Body Types
04,05,09

2010-13,9999
1981-2013, 9999
1981-2013, 9999

04
03-07,09
03-07,09

Includes
Standard, Deluxe, JL
JS, JX, JLX, JLS, Sport,
Grand Vitara (1999-2002
only; see model 404 for
2003 on) (JS, JLX, JLS, Ltd.)
XL-7 (2002 only; see
model 405 for 2003 on) LX
-JS, JLX, JLS, Limited, GX,
LX, XV6, Premium, Xsport,
Luxury, Special Edition,
Ultra Adventure Edition
Standard, Touring,
Limited, GX, LX, Premium,
Luxury
Comfort, Premium, Sport,
RMZ-4
Jimmy
--

Model Years
1986-96,9999
1989-2004, 9999

Body Types
14
14

1996-98,9999
2003-13,9999

14
14

2003-09,9999

14

2009-13,9999

31

1981-2013, 9999
1981-2013, 9999

14, 31
14, 31

Includes
-----

Model Years
1970-2013, 9999
1970-2017, 9999
1969-2017, 9999
1970-93; 200017,9999
1969-2017, 9999
1970-2017, 9999
1969-2017, 9999

Body Types
80,81,83,88,89
80,81,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

----

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80-83,88,89

252

Passenger Vehicles
ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
731
0-50cc

Includes
Model Years
Body Types
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
1969-87; 200290, 97*
designed solely for off-road
04, 2009-17,
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
9999
732
51-124cc
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
1969-2004, 2009- 90, 97*
designed solely for off-road
17, 9999
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
733
125-349cc
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
1969-2017, 9999 90, 97*
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
734
350cc or greater
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
1969-93; 199890, 97*
designed solely for off-road
2017, 9999
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
739
Unknown cc
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
1969-2017, 9999 90, 97*
designed solely for off-road
use and have 3 or 4 wheels.
*Refer to Body Type attribute 97 (Other Vehicle Type) for remarks regarding side-by-side ATVs
UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (SUZUKI)

Includes
--

Model Years
1969-2017, 9999

Body Types
49, 99

MAKE: Toyota (49) (TOYT)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Corona
032

Corolla

033

Celica

034
035
036
037
038

Supra
Cressida
Crown
Carina
Tercel

039
040

Starlet
Camry

Includes
Mark II, Custom, 1900, 2000,
Deluxe
1100, 1200, 1600, SR-5, LE,
DX, CE, Deluxe, Custom, FX,
FX16, Sport, GTS, VE, S, XRS,
XLE, CE, L, Special Edition, LE
Eco, 50th Anniversary, XSE,
iM
1900, 2000, GT, ST, GTS, VE,
GT-S
Celica Supra, Soarer, Turbo
-2300, 2600, Toyopets
2000
Corolla Tercel, 4WD, EZ, DX,
LE, DLX, CE
-LE, Deluxe, XLE, DLX, SE, AllTrac, CE, SE, Limited Edition,
L, Hybrid (CVT/LE/XLE/SE),
XSE, Special Edition

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1966-83,9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09

1969-2017, 9999

02-09

1971-2006, 9999

01-03,09

1979-98,9999
1978-92,9999
1958-71,9999
1972-73,9999
1980-99,9999

03
04-06,09
02,04,06,08,09
02
02-09

1981-84,9999
1983-2017, 9999

03
02,04-06,08,09

253

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
041

Models
MR-2/MR Spyder

Includes
Super Charged

042
043

Paseo
Avalon

044
045
046

Solara
ECHO
Prius *

047
048
049

Matrix
Scion xA
Scion xB (2004-2011
only. See 67-031 for
2012 on.)
Scion tC (2005-2011
only. See 67-032 for
2012 on.)
Yaris

Turbo, T-bar
XL, XLS, Limited, Touring, XLE,
Hybrid, Premium, Sport
Camry Solara (SE, SLE, Sport)
-*Electric hybrid, Touring, II,
III, IV, V (2/3/4/5), (CVT), 3rd
Generation (2/3/4/5), Plug-In
(Base/Advanced), c (1/2/3/4),
Persona Series
Base, XR, XRS, STD, S, SD, L
RS 1.0
1.0, 2.0 Series

050

051
052

055
398

Scion xD (2007-2011
only. See 67-033 for
2012 on.)
Venza
Scion iQ (2010-2011
only. See 67-034 for
2012 on.)
Mirai
Other (automobile)

399

Unknown (automobile)

053
054

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
4-Runner
402

RAV4*

403

Highlander

404
421
422

FJ Cruiser
Land Cruiser
Sequoia

Model Years
1984-95; 200007,9999
1992-97,9999
1995-2016, 9999

Body Types
01,02,09

1999-2009, 9999
2000-05,9999
2001-17,9999

01,02,09
02,04,09
03-06,09

2003-13,9999
2004-06,9999
2004-11,9999

06
05
06

1.0 Series

2005-11,9999

03

Liftback, S, CE, HB, LB, LE, RS,
SE, L, iA
--

2007-17,9999

03-05, 09

2007-11,9999

05

LE, XLE, Limited
--

2009-15,9999
2010-11,9999

05
04

-2000 GT Coupe (1960s),
Sports 800, Vipor, Tiara
--

2016-17, 9999
1960-2017, 9999

04
01-09, 10

1960-2017, 9999

01-09, 10

Includes
SR5, Limited, Sport, Trail, TRD
Pro
L, LE, EVs-electric*, Sport,
Limited, Hybrid, XLE
Limited, Hybrid, Sport, SE,
Plus, LE, LE Plus, XLE,
Platinum
Baja 1000, FJ, SE, TRD, AT, MT
4WD
SR5, Limited, Platinum

Model Years
1984-2016, 9999

Body Types
14

1996-2016, 9999

14

2001-17,9999

14

2007-14,9999
1964-2017, 9999
2001-16,9999

14
15
15

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

01,02,09
04

254

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
441
442

Models
Minivan (1984-90)/
Previa (1991 on)
Sienna

471

Pickup

472

Tacoma

481
482

T-100
Tundra

498

Other (light truck)

CE, LE, XLE, Symphony,
Limited, SE, L
SR-5, Extra Cab, Sport, LN44,
Chinook, Wonder Wagon
SR5, Xtracab, Limited,
PreRunner, Side Step, Double
Cab, S-Runner, 2.7L, 4.0L XRunner, T/X, T/X Pro, Access
Cab, TRD (Sport, Pro, OffRoad), SR
DX, SR5, Limited, Xtracab
SR5 (Access Cab), LTD,
(Access Cab), Double Cab,
Darrell Waltrip Special
Edition, CrewMax, 4.0L, 4.6L,
5.7L, Limited, SR, 1794
Edition, Platinum, TRD Pro
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

1973-2017, 9999

14,15,19, 20, 3032,39, 40, 42,
48,49

Includes
--

Model Years
1966-2017, 9999

Body Types
49

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (TOYOTA)

Includes
LE, Cargo, DX, XLE

Model Years
1984-97,9999

Body Types
20

1998-2017, 9999

20

1974-95,9999

30-32, 40, 42

1995-2017, 9999

30,32, 40, 42

1993-98,9999
1999-2017, 9999

31,32, 40, 42
31,32, 40, 42

1970-2017, 9999

14,15,19, 20,29,
30,31,32,39

MAKE: Triumph (50) (TRIU)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Spitfire
032
GT-6
033
TR4
034
TR6
035
TR7/TR8
036
Herald
037
Stag
398
Other (automobile)
399

Unknown (automobile)

MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc

Includes
I, II, III, IV, 1500
MK3
TR2, TR3, TR4A
--Vitesse
-1800, 2000, Mayflower,
Renown,1200
--

Model Years
1962-81,9999
1967-73,9999
1958-68,9999
1969-76,9999
1975-81,9999
1960-74,9999
1971-73,9999
1946-81,9999

Body Types
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,06,09
01,02,09
01,02,04,08,09

1946-81,9999

01,02,04,08,09

Includes
--

Model Years
1965-83,9999

Body Types
80

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

255

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
702
703
704
705
706
709
799

Models
51-124cc
125-349cc
350-449cc
450-749cc
750cc or greater
Unknown cc
Unknown (motored
cycle)

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (TRIUMPH)

Includes
--------

Model Years
1965-83,9999
1950-74,9999
1950-71,9999
1950-2016, 9999
1950-2017, 9999
1950-2017, 9999
1950-2017, 9999

Body Types
80
80
80
80
80
80
80

Includes
--

Model Years
1950-2016, 9999

Body Types
99

MAKE: Volkswagen (30) (VOLK)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Karmann Ghia
032
Beetle 1300/1500
033
Super Beetle
034
411/412
035
Squareback/Fastback
036
Rabbit
037
038
040

Dasher
Scirocco
Jetta/Jetta
SportsWagen

041

Quantum

Includes
-Flat windshield, 94.5 WB
Curved windshield 95.3 WB
Squareback/Fastback
Type 3, 1600
L, GTI, Sport, LS, Custom, DL,
Deluxe, S
-16V
III, GL (TDI, 1.9L, 2.0L), GLI
(2.0T, VR6), GLS
(1.8T,1.8L/l.9L/ 2.0L/2.8L/
TDI/VR6), GT, Carat, TDI, GLX
(VR6/ 2.8L), Turbo Diesel, 2.5L
Wolfsburg Edition, S/SE/ SEL,
Value Edition. 2.0T, 3.6,
Autobahn, Hybrid (SE, SEL, SEL
Premium), Premium, Edition
30, 1.4T, Sport
Synco

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1954-75,9999
1948-77,9999
1971-80,9999
1971-74,9999
1965-74,9999
1975-84, 200609,9999
1974-81,9999
1975-88,9999
1981-2017,
9999

Body Types
01,02,09
01,02,09
01,02,09
03,04,09
02
01,03,05-07,09

1982-88,9999

02,04,06,08,09

03,05-07,09
02
02,04,06,08,09

256

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
042

Models
Golf/Cabriolet/Cabrio/
GTI/ GLI

043
044
045
046

Rabbit Pickup
Fox
Corrado
Passat (CC - 2008 thru
2011; see 052 for 2012
on)

047

New Beetle

048
051

Phaeton
Eos

052

398

CC (For 2012 on. See
model 046 for 20082011.)
Other (automobile)

Includes
Golf II, GTI (GLS, GLX
1.8T/2.0T/2.8L), GT, GL(1.8T/
VR6/2.0L/1.9L/ TDI), Golf III,
GLS (1.8T/1.8L/1.9L/ 2.0/TDI),
Wolfsburg, Cabrio (GL, GLS,
GLX), 20th Anniversary, R32,
MkV, Convenience, R, 2.5L,
Driver's Edition, SE, SEL,
Autobahn, Launch
EditionSport Wagen (S, SE,
SEL), eGolf, Autobahn
car-based pickup
GL
-GL, GLS (1.8T, Synchro, V6),
TDI, GLX (1.8T, 2.0T, W8,
Synchro, V6), 4MOTION, 3.6
GL, Value Edition, CC, Highline,
Komfort, 2.5 (S/SE), Wolfsburg
Edition, Sport, Premium, Clean
Diesel, SEL
GL GLS TDI, 1.8T/1.8L/
1.9L/2.0L/2.5/2.5L Syncro/ V6,
GLX (1.8T), Turbo, Turbo S,
Fender Edition, Sun and
Sound, R-Line, GSR, Clean
Diesel, Classic
3.2L, 4.2L, V6, V8, W12
2.0T, 3.2L, Executive, Komfort,
Luxury, Turbo, VR6, Sport,
Final Edition
Luxury, Sport, Sport Plus, VR6,
R-Line, 2.0T, 4MOTION,
Executive, V6
--

399

Unknown (automobile)

--

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
The Thing (181)
402
Tiguan

Includes
-S, SE, SEL, R-Line, 4MOTION,
2.0T, Wolfsburg

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1985-2017,
9999

Body Types
01,03,05-09

1980-83,9999
1987-94,9999
1989-94,9999
1990-2017,
9999

10
02,04,06,08,09
02
04,06,09

1998-2010,
2012-16, 9999

01,03,09

2002-11,9999
2006-16,9999

04
01

2012-16,9999

04

1965-2017,
9999
1956-2017,
9999

01-09, 10

Model Years
1973-75,9999
2008-17,9999

01-09, 10

Body Types
14
14

257

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
421

Models
Touareg/Touareg 2

441
442

Vanagon/Camper
Eurovan

443
498

Routan
Other (light truck)

Includes
V6, V8, V10, VR6 FSI, Lux,
Executive, Hybrid, Sport, RLine, X Special Edition, TDI
Bus, Kombi, Van
GLS, MV, Camper,
Weekender Package
S, SE, SEL Premium/RSE
--

499

Unknown (light truck)

--

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (VOLKSWAGEN)

Includes
---

Model Years
2003-16,9999

Body Types
15

1955-91,9999
1992-04,9999

20
20

2009-13,9999
1967-2017,
9999
1965-2017,
9999

20
14,15, 20

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1956-2017, 9999

14,15, 20, 49

Body Types
92,93,97
49

MAKE: Volvo (51) (VOLV)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
122
032
140/142/144/145 *
033
164
034
240 series*/DL/GL/GLT
035

260 series/GLE

036
037
038

1800
PV544
760/780

039
040
041
042

740
940
960
850

043

70 Series (For XC70 for
2014 on, use model code
402)

044
045

90 Series
80 Series

046

40 Series

Includes
S
S, E, GL, GLS, Deluxe
S, E
242, 244, 245, DL, GL, GLT,
Deluxe
264,265,262, c, Volvo
Coupe, Volvo Diesel
E, S, ES, P1800
PV444
GLE, Turbo, Bertone Coupe

Model Years
1958-68,9999
1968-74,9999
1970-75,9999
1975-93,9999

Body Types
02,04,06,08,09
02,04,06,08,09
04
02,04,06,08,09

1976-82,9999

GLE, GT, Turbo, GL, SE
GLE, Turbo, SE
-GLT, Turbo, T-5, GTAS,
GTMS Cross Country
C70 (LT, HT, T5), S70 (GLT,
T5, AWD) V70 (R, SC Cross
Country, GLT, T5, M, 2.4T,
2.4, 2.5T, T6, R, 3.2) LPT,
HPT. XC70
S90, V90
S80 (2.9, T6, Executive,
Premier) 2.5, 2.5T, 3.2, V8
S40, V40, LSE, 2.5i, T5, 2.4i,
R-Design

1983-92,9999
1991-95,9999
1992-97,9999
1993-97,9999

02,04,06,08,09,
12
02,06,09
04,06,09
02,04,06,08,09,
12
04,06,09
04,06,09, 12
04,06,09, 12
04,06,09

1998-2013, 9999

01,02,04,06,09

1998
1999-2016, 9999

04,06,09
04

2000-11,9999

04,06,09

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

1960-73,9999
1947-65,9999
1983-92,9999

258

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
047

Models
60 Series

048
049
050

V50
C30
XC60

051

V60

398
399

Other (automobile)
Unknown (automobile)

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
401
XC90

402

499

XC70 (For 2014 on. For
prior to 2013, use model
code 043)
Unknown (light truck)

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
883
884
890
898
BUSES
Codes
981

Includes
S60 (2.4T, 2.4, 2.5 AWD,
T5, Polestar), 2.4M, 2.5T,
R, T5, T6, R-Design, Drive-E
Cross Country
2.4i, T5, R-Design
1.0, 2.0, T5, R-Design
3.2, T5 (Dynamic,
Inscription), T6 (Dynamic,
Inscription, R-Design), RDesign, Drive-E
T5, T6, R-Design, Drive-E,
Cross Country, Polestar
---

Model Years
2001-17,9999

Body Types
04

2005-11,9999
2008-13,9999
2008-17,9999

06
03
06

2014-17,9999

06

1958-2017, 9999
1958-2017, 9999

01-09, 10-12
01-09, 10-12

Includes
2.5T(AWD), T6(AWD), V8,
3.2, R-Design, SVR7, First
Edition, T5, Plug-In,
Excellence, T8
3.2, T6, Drive-E

Model Years
2003-17,9999

Body Types
14

2014-16,9999

14

--

2003-17,9999

14

Includes
--

Model Years
1981-93; 19962016, 9999
1981-93; 19962004, 9999
1981-93; 19962004, 9999
1981-93; 19962016, 9999
1981-93; 19962016, 9999
1981-93; 19962016, 9999

Body Types
60-64,66,78

Model Years
1981-2005, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

--

Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)

Includes
--

-----

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

60-64,66,78
60-64,66,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78
60-64,66,78
60-64,66,
71,72,78

259

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
983

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus: Rear engine, Flat
-2014-16,9999
front
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2016, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2016, 9999
**Use “981” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
OTHER AND UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
998
Other (Vehicle)
999
Unknown (VOLVO)

Includes
---

Model Years
1958-2016, 9999
1958-2016, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
92,93,97
49, 79, 99

MAKE: Yugo (57) (YUGO)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
GV/GVL/GVX

Includes
All models, Cabriolet

Model Years
1986-92,9999

Body Types
01-03,09

MAKE: Other Domestic Manufacturers (29)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
001
Studebaker/Avanti

002

Checker

003

Panoz

004

Saleen

005

Tesla

398

Other (automobile)

399

Unknown Make

Includes
Lark, Gran Turismo, Hawk,
Cruiser, all associated
subseries, light pick-up,
Studebaker XUV/XUT,
Lister
Marathon, Superba, Taxi,
Aerobus
Esperante (Magnussen
Edition), GT, GTS, GTLM,
JRD, Abruzzi, Roadster,
GTR1, 25th Anniversary,
Spyder (GT)
S7, S281, 435S, S302
(White Label, Yellow Label,
Black Label), 570, 620,
FOURSIXTEEN
Roadster (Base, Sport)
Model S (Base, Signature,
Performance), Model X,
Super Charger, Model 3
Desoto, Excalibur, Stutz,
FiberFab, Hudson, Packard,
Consulier, Gatsby, Auburn,
Phaeton, Citicar, Clenet
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1940-91; 200107,9999

Body Types
01,02,04,06,
08,09, 16, 31,39

1965-82,9999

04,06,09, 12

2000-16,9999

01,02,09

2001-15,9999

01,02,04,09

2008-16,9999

01,04,05,09, 14

1930-91,9999

01-09, 10-13

1940-2016, 9999

01-09, 10-13,
14,16, 39

260

Passenger Vehicles

MAKE: Other Import (69)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
031
Aston Martin

032
033
034
035

Bricklin
Citroen
DeLorean
Ferrari

036
037

Hillman
Jensen

Includes
Lagonda, Vantage, Volante,
Saloon, DB Mark III, DB4,
DB4GT, DB5, DB6, DB7
(Heritage/Vantage/Volante
), V12 (Vanquish S/Zagato/
Vantage, Vantage S), V8
(Vantage/ Vantage S), DB9
(Carbon Edition, GT),
Rapide (S), Cygnet, Carbon
Black, One-77, Virage
(Coupe/ Volante), DBS
(Coupe/ Volante), CC100,
Vantage GT, Rapid S,
Vulcan, GT12, DB11
---F355 (Berlinetta, GTS,
Spider, F1), F430, F456
(GTA, M, GT, MGTA), F550
(Maranello, Barchetta
Pininfarina), 360/430
(Spider, Modena,
Challenge) Maranello,
Berlinetta, MGT (Vintage),
Enzo, Challenge Stradale,
575M, 612 Scaglietti,
Superamerica, 599
GTB/GTO, California (T),
418 Italia, FF, SA Aperta,
458 (Spider/ Italia/
Challenge/ Speciale (A)),
F12 Berlinetta, FF,
LaFerrari, 488 GTB/Spider,
GTC4Lusso, F12TDF, F60
America
-Healy-Interceptor, 541R

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1950-2016, 9999

Body Types
01-09

1965-91,9999
1965-91,9999
1981-83,9999
1965-2016, 9999

02
02-09
02
01-05,07-09

1965-91,9999
1965-91,9999

01-09
01-05,07-09

261

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
038

Models
Lamborghini

039

Lotus

040

Maserati

041
042

Morris
Rolls Royce/Bentley

044
045
046
048
049
052
053

Simca
Sunbeam
TVR
Desta
Reliant
Bertone
Lada

Includes
Countach, 5000S, Jalpa,
Diablo, Miura, Murciélago
(LP640), Galladoro, LP 5502/560-4/570-4/670-4/7004, CP, Aventador (J, SV,
LP750-4, Roadster), Sesto
Elemento, Spyder,
Superlegga, Aventador,
Gallardo, Veneo, Huracan
(Base, Spyder), 350GT
Europe, Espirit (V8, GT-3,
V8-GT) Elise, Exige, Evora
(Range/GTE/400),
California, Club Racer,
Sport, 2-Eleven, Black,
Bespoke
Biturbo, Ghibli, 3200 GT,
Quattroporte, Spyder GT,
Sports GT, Executive GT,
90th Anniversary, MC12,
GranSport, GranTurismo,
GranCabrio, Stradale,
Kubang, Sport, MC, S, GTS,
S Q4, MC Centennial
Edition, Levante, Alfier
Minor
Rolls Royce: Cloud/ Shadow
series, Silver Spur, Silver
Dawn, Silver Spirit, Silver
Seraph, Corniche, Park
Ward), Phantom
(Drophead), Ghost; Bently:
(Arnaze, Azure, Continental
(GT, Speed Black Edition),
Mulliner), Brooklands,
Goodwood, EWB, 4,
Mulsanne, Flying Spur,
Super Sports, Wrath, Dawn
-----X/19
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
01,02,04,08,09

1967-2016, 9999

01,02,03, 04,
08,09

1965-99; 2002-17,
9999

01-05,07-09, 14

1965-91,9999
1926-2017, 9999

01-09, 10
01,02,04,08,09

1965-91,9999
1965-91,9999
1965-91,9999
1985-99,9999
1960-91,9999
1989-91,9999
1965-91,9999

01-09
01,02,04,08,09
01,02,09
14,15,19
01-09
01,02,09
01-09

262

Passenger Vehicles
Codes
054

Models
Mini-Cooper

055

Morgan (2003 on; Prior
to 2003 see 398)

056

Maybach

057

Spyker

058

Koenigsegg

061
062

Mahindra
Caterham

063

McLaren

064

Bugatti

398

Other (automotive)

399

Unknown Make

Includes
Mark I, II, III, S, SE, Sport,
MC40, Traveller, John
Cooper Works, Clubman,
Countryman, Paceman,
Coupe, All 4, Roadster,
Convertible
Aero 8, Plus 8, V6, Classic
Range, AeroMax, 4/4 Sport,
Super Sports Junior, Plus 4,
4 Seater, Aero, Eva GT, 3
Seater, 4/4, Plus 8, SP1, AR
Plus 4
57, 57S, 62, 62S, Laudualet,
Zeppelin, Guard
C8, Base, T, Laviolette,
Aileron, Spyder, Double
12R, Double 12S, C12
Zagato, L2014 M85, D, B6
Venator
CC8S, CCR, CCX, CCXR,
CCGT, Trevita, Agera, CC8S,
Agera R/S, Special Edition,
Regera, One:1
Scorpio (Lx, Sle, Vls, Vlx)
Classic, Roadsport,
Academy, Superlight
(R300/R400/R500), CSR,
Seven
(280/360/480/620R), SP
300R, Aeroseven,
Superflight Twenty
MP4-12C, P15, 675LT,
540C, 12C GT Spirit, 650S,
P1
Veyron 164 (Grand Sport,
Super Sport), Vitesse,
Chiron
Morgan (Prior to 2003;
2003 on see 055), Singer,
Gazelle, Fisker
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1961-74; 2002-17,
9999

Body Types
01,03,06,09

2003-16, 9999

01,02,09

2003-14,9999

04

2005-15,9999

01,02,09,17

2007-16, 9999

01

2010-16, 9999
2011-16, 9999

14, 30,39
01

2011-16, 9999

01

2005-16, 9999

01,02,09

1928-2017, 9999

01-09, 10-13, 17

1928-2017, 9999

01-09, 10, 19, 39

263

Motored Cycles

Motored Cycles
Note: Refer to Passenger Vehicle section for motored cycles produced by automobile manufacturers (BMW,
Honda, Peugeot, Suzuki, Triumph)

MAKE: BSA (70) (BSA )
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
750cc or greater
709
Unknown cc

Includes
--------

Model Years
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999
1950-72,9999

Body Types
80,81,83,88,89
80,81,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

MAKE: Ducati (71) (DUCA)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
709

750cc or greater
Unknown cc

Includes
--------

Model Years
1958-65,9999
1958-65,9999
1958-65,9999
1958-65,9999
1958-93; 19972016; 9999
1958-2016, 9999
1958-2016, 9999

Body Types
80,81,88,89
80,81,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89
80-83,88,89

MAKE: Harley-Davidson (72) (HD)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
709

750cc or greater
Unknown cc

Includes
--------

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1965-66,9999
1948-78,9999
1948-88,9999
1969-74,9999
1971-78, 2014-17,
9999
1932-2017; 9999
1932-2017, 9999

Body Types
80,81,88,89
80,81,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89
80,82,88,89
80,82,88,89

264

Motored Cycles

MAKE: Kawasaki (73) (KAWK)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
706
709

450-749cc
750cc or greater
Unknown cc

ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
731
0-50cc

732

51-124cc

733

125-349cc

734

350cc or greater

739

Unknown cc

Includes
-------Includes
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.

Model Years
1965-82, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1975-98; 2003-04;
2006-17, 9999
1972-2016, 9999
1972-2016, 9999
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
80,81,83,88,89
80,81,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

Model Years
2003-17, 9999

Body Types
90, 97*

1970-88; 2003-17,
9999

90, 97*

1970-2017, 9999

90, 97*

1970-2017, 9999

90, 97*

1970-2017, 9999

90, 97*

80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

998
Other (Vehicle)
1965-2017, 9999
91, 97*
*Refer to Body Type attribute 97 (Other Vehicle Type) for remarks regarding side-by-side ATVs

MAKE: Moto-Guzzi (74) (MOGU)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
704
350-449cc

Includes
--

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1965-76, 9999

Body Types
80,88,89

265

Motored Cycles
Codes
705

Models
450-749cc

Includes
--

706
709

750cc or greater
Unknown cc

---

Model Years
1965-87; 2004-16,
9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
80,88,89
80,88,89
80,88,89

MAKE: Norton (75) (NORT)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
750cc or greater
709
Unknown cc

Includes
-----

Model Years
1950-76, 9999
1950-76, 9999
1950-76, 9999
1950-76, 9999

Body Types
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

MAKE: Victory (77) (VCTY)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
Includes
Model Years
Body Types
706
750cc or greater
-1998-2017, 9999
80,88,89
709
Unknown cc
-1998-2017, 9999
80,88,89
998
Other (Vehicle)
-1998-2017, 9999
97*
*Refer to Body Type attribute 97 (Other Vehicle Type) for remarks regarding side-by-side ATVs

MAKE: Yamaha (76) (YAMA)
MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
750cc or greater
709
Unknown cc
ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
731
0-50cc

732

51-124cc

Includes
--------

Model Years
1979-2017, 9999
1972-2017, 9999
1969-2017, 9999
1972-2017, 9999
1971-2016, 9999
1974-2017, 9999
1969-2017, 9999

Body Types
80,81,83,88,89
80,81,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89
80,83,88,89

Includes
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.

Model Years
1965-91, 2005-17,
9999

Body Types
90, 97*

1965-2017, 9999

90, 97*

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

266

Motored Cycles
Codes
733

Models
125-349cc

Includes
Model Years
Body Types
includes all
1965-2017, 9999
90, 97*
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
734
350cc or greater
includes all
1993-2017, 9999
90, 97*
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
739
Unknown cc
includes all
1965-2017, 9999
90, 97*
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for offroad use and have 3 or 4
wheels.
998
Other (Vehicle)
Snowmobiles, Golf Car
1965-2017, 9999
91,95,97*
*Refer to Body Type attribute 97 (Other Vehicle Type) for remarks regarding side-by-side ATVs

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

267

Trucks

Trucks
MAKE: Brockway (80) (BROC)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy - COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy - COE high entry
884
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Includes
-----

Model Years
1965-77,9999
1965-77,9999
1965-77,9999
1965-77,9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-77,9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-77,9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1965-77,9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1965-77,9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1965-77,9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-77,9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-77,9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-77,9999

Body Types
65,73

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (BROCKWAY)

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-77,9999
1965-77,9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: Diamond Reo or Reo (81) (DIAR)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

882
883
884
890
898

Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
Other (medium/heavy truck)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Includes
DC101, C116,
M35 (A1, A2,
A3)
-C054-C088
--

Model Years
1950-88, 199399, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1954-75, 9999
1954-75, 9999
1954-75,9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1950-88, 199399, 9999
1950-88, 199399, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

268

Trucks
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1954-75, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1954-75, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1954-75, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1954-75, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1954-75, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1954-75, 9999

Body Types
65,73

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)

Includes
--

Model Years
1950-88, 199399, 9999
1950-88, 199399, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97

999

Unknown (DIAMOND REO or REO)

--

99

MAKE: Freightliner (82) (FRHT)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
461
Sprinter/Advantage

462
498
499

MT 35 Chassis
Other (light truck)
Unknown (light truck)

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium Heavy Van-Based Vehicle
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
884
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy truck)
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
front)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Includes
2500
(HC/SHC),
3500 (HC/SHC)
----

Model Years
2002-16, 9999

Body Types
21,22,28,29

1985-2013, 9999
1985-2016, 9999
1985-2016, 9999

22, 40, 42
20-22,28,29
20-22,28,29

Includes
Sprinter
-----

Model Years
2002-16, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1968-2013, 9999
1965-2013, 9999
1963-2013, 9999

Body Types
55, 61-64
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2013, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

Includes
--

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59

269

Trucks
Codes
982
983
988
989

Models
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
Other (bus)
Unknown (bus)

Includes
-----

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
65,73

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (FREIGHTLINER)

Includes
---

Model Years
1963-2017, 9999
1963-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: FWD (83) (FWD )
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
884
890
898

Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Includes
----

Model Years
1965-2001, 9999
1965-2001, 9999
1965-2001, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2001, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2001, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2001, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1965-2001, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1965-2001, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1965-2001, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2001, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2001, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2001, 9999

Body Types
65,73

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (FWD)

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-2001, 9999
1965-2001, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

270

Trucks

MAKE: International Harvester/Navistar (84) (INTL) - (NAVI)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
421
Scout

431
466

Travelall
Multistop Van

481

Pickup

498
499

Other (light truck)
Unknown (light truck)

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCK
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

882

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry

883

Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry

884

Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

890
898
BUSES
Codes
981
982
983

Models
Bus**: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Bus: Front engine, Flat
front
Bus**: Rear engine, Flat
front

Includes
Scout II, Utility pickup,
SS-2, Roadster, 800
series, Traveler, Terra
Traveltop,
1010-1210, 100-200
Metro RM, MS1510,
120-160, MS1210
R-100-500, 900A1500C/D, 1010-1510
---

Model Years
1962-80,9999

Body Types
15

1963-75,9999
1960-84,9999

16
22,28,29

1951-76,9999

31,33

1960-84,9999
1951-84,9999

15,16, 22,28,29
15,16,19, 22,28,29

Includes
Loadstar/Fleetstar,
Paystar, CBE Transtar,
4200, S-series Mixer,
8100, 8500, 9100, 9200,
9300, 9400, 9900, CXT,
RXT, MXT, Lonestar
CO, VCO, DCO, 1901950, Cargostar, LFM,
5370 (Garbage),
CF500/600
DCO, DCOT, UCO, VCOT,
405-series, COE
Transtar, Unistar, Conco
707B, 9600
--

Model Years
1963-2017, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1973-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1961-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1948-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1964-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

Fire truck - R140-R306,
CO 8190

1955-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

Includes
R153-1853 Loadstar,
1603-1853
173FC, 183FC

Model Years
1953-2017, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59

1972-2017, 9999

50-52,58,59

183RE, 193RE-transit

1965-2017, 9999

50-52,58,59

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

271

Trucks
Codes
Models
Includes
Model Years
988
Other (bus)
-1953-2017, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1953-2017, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (INTL.
HARVESTER/ NAVISTAR)

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
---

Model Years
1954-2017, 9999
1951-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
79, 99

MAKE: Kenworth (85) (KW)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE

882
883
884
890
898

Medium/Heavy – COE low
entry
Medium/Heavy – COE high
entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

Includes
520, 540, T400, T600,
T800, C500-550, W900,
T300
L700

Model Years
1947-2017, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1972-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

K100, K100E, K270,
K300, K350
--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1954-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1964-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional
-1965-2004, 9999
(Engine out front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat
-1965-2004, 9999
front
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front -1965-2004, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
65,73

272

Trucks
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (KENWORTH)

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: Mack (86) (MACK)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
884
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Includes
-----

Model Years
1968-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1977-2017, 9999
1956-2017, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1972-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1971-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1965-2004, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1976-2004, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1965-2004, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (MACK)

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: Iveco/Magirus* (88) (IVEC)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
884
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy truck)
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Includes
LCF
FL, FS
---

Model Years
1980-91,9999
1980-91,9999
1980-91,9999
1980-91,9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1980-91,9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1980-91,9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
273

Trucks
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1980-91, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1980-91, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1980-91, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1980-91, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1980-91, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

Includes
Truck based

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Model Years
1980-91,9999

Body Types
65,73

OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
Includes
Model Years
998
Other (vehicle)
1980-91,9999
999
Unknown (IVECO/MAGIRUS)
1980-91,9999
* Magirus stopped production in 1985; Iveco stopped production in 1991.

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: Peterbilt (87) (PTRB)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
883
884
890
898

Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Includes
357-379, 387,
385
270
362, 320
--

Model Years
1974-2017, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1961-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1964-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1965-2004, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1965-2004, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1965-2004, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2004, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
65,73

274

Trucks
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (PETERBILT)

Includes
---

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

MAKE: White/Autocar-White/GMC (89) (WHIT) – (WHGM)
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE high entry
884
Medium/Heavy – Unknown engine
location
890
Medium/Heavy – COE entry
position unknown
898
Other (medium/heavy truck)

Includes
-----

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999
1968-2017, 9999
1965-2017, 9999
1963-2017, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2017, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1965-2017, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1965-2017, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1965-2017, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1965-2017, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1965-2017, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999
Unknown (WHITE/AUTOCARWHITE/GMC)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2017, 9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
---

Model Years
1963-2017, 9999
1963-2017, 9999

Body Types
92,93,97
99

275

Buses

Buses
NOTES:
• Refer to the PASSENGER VEHICLE section for buses manufactured by Chevy, Dodge, Ford, GMC, Grumman,
Isuzu, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, and Volvo.
• Refer to the TRUCK section for buses manufactured by Brockway, Diamond Reo, Freightliner, FWD,
International Harvester, Kenworth, Mack, Peterbilt, and White/Autocar-White/GMC.
• Refer to the OTHER MAKE section for buses manufactured by Neoplan, Carpenter Industries, DINA, Mid Bus,
Orion, and Van Hool.
• Hino and Scania buses are located under OTHER MAKE (Medium/Heavy Trucks) since those manufacturers
also make trucks.

MAKE: Bluebird (90) (BLUI)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
461
Van Based

Includes
van-based school
bus, shuttle bus

Model Years
1927-2017, 9999

Body Types
21

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1927-2017, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1927-2017, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1927-2017, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1927-2017, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1927-2017, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59

BUSES
Codes
981

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (BLUEBIRD)

Includes
--

50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Model Years
1927-2017, 9999

Body Types
99

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1948-2001, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1948-2001, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1948-2001, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1948-2001, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1948-2001, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59

MAKE: Eagle Coach (91)
BUSES
Codes
981

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

276

Buses

MAKE: Gillig (92)
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1932-2016, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1932-2016, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1932-2016, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1932-2016, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1932-2016, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

MAKE: MCI (93) (MCIN)
BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1963-2016, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1963-2016, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1963-2016, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1963-2016, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1963-2016, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

MAKE: Thomas Built (94) (THMS)
LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
461
Van Based

Includes
van-based school
bus, shuttle bus

Model Years
1936-2017, 9999

Body Types
21

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional (Engine out
-1936-2017, 9999
front)
982
Bus: Front engine, Flat front
-1936-2017, 9999
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat front
-1936-2017, 9999
988
Other (bus)
-1936-2017, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1936-2017, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.

Body Types
50-52,58,59

BUSES
Codes
981

UNKNOWN
Codes
Models
999
Unknown (THOMAS BUILT)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Includes
--

Model Years
1936-2017, 9999

50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Body Types
99

277

Other Make

Other Make
MAKE: Other Make * (98)
AUTOMOBILES
(Unknown if DOMESTIC or FOREIGN) **
Codes
Models
Includes
Model Years
301
Think
City
2009-15, 9999
302
Meyers Motor
NmG
2008-15, 9999
398
Other (automobile)
Solectra (electric: Force)
1945-2016, 9999
**Do not use Other Make (98) if Other Domestic (29) or Other Import (69) is applicable.

Body Types
03
02
01-09, 10-13

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
498
Other (light truck)

Includes
Solectra (electric: Citivan Flash)

Model Years
Body Types
1960-2016, 9999 14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-33,39,
40,41, 42, 45,48

LSV/NEV
Codes
598

Includes
Tomberlin, Ford, Fly Bo

Model Years
2000-16, 9999

Includes
(Includes: ATK, Beta, Buell,
Cagiva, Cobra Trike, Jawa,
Husqvarna, KTM, Aprilia,
Maely, Riva, Strociek, BMC,
MV Agusta, Bimota, Husaberg,
Indian Scout, Indian, Laverda,
Big Dog, Polaris, Titan, Twin
Eagle, Viza, Viper)
----

Model Years
Body Types
1965-2016, 9999 80,81,88,89

Includes
includes all ATVs/ATCs/TRXs
designed solely for off-road use
and have 3 or 4 wheels.
Includes: Polaris
“
“
“
“

Model Years
Body Types
1965-2016, 9999 90, 97*

Models
Other (LSV/NEV)

MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702

51-124cc

703

125-349cc

704

350-449cc

705
706
709

450-749cc
750cc or greater
Unknown cc

ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
731
0-50cc

732
733
734
739

51-124cc
125-349cc
350cc or greater
Unknown cc

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Body Types
94

1965-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89
1965-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89
1965-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89
1965-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89
1965-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89
1945-2016, 9999 80-83,88,89

1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

90, 97*
90, 97*
90, 97*
90, 97*

278

Other Make
MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
802
Auto-Union-DKW
803
Divco
804
Western Star
805
Oshkosh
806

Hino

(includes trucks & buses)

1985-2016, 9999

807

Scania

(includes trucks & buses)

1986-2004, 9999

808
809
881
882

UD
Sterling
Medium/Heavy – CBE
Medium/Heavy – COE
low entry
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy VanBased Vehicle
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck) **

--DINA
DINA

1986-2016, 9999
1998-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
50,52-59, 60-64, 66,
71, 72, 78
50-52,58,59, 60-64,
66, 71, 72, 78
50-52,58,59, 60-64,
66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78
60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

--

1965-2016, 9999

55, 61-64

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

e.g., Marmon, Ward
LaFrance

1945-2016, 9999

60-64, 66, 71, 72, 78

Models
Neoplan
Carpenter
Collins Bus
DINA
Mid Bus
Orion
Van Hool
Bus***: Conventional
(Engine out front)
Bus: Front engine, Flat
front
Bus: Rear engine, Flat
front
Other (bus)

Includes
---------

Model Years
1950-2016, 9999
1923-2000, 9999
1967-2016, 9999
1989-2004, 9999
1963-2008, 9999
1978-2013, 9999
1947-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
50-52,58,59
21, 50-52,58,59
21
50-52,58,59
21
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

--

1976-2016, 9999

50-52,58,59

--

1965-2016, 9999

50-52,58,59

****

1945-2016, 9999

50-52,58,59

883
884
870
890
898
BUSES
Codes
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
981
982
983
988

Includes
---(includes trucks & buses)

Model Years
1965-88, 9999
1963-88, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

279

Other Make
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (OTHER
MAKE)

Includes
Truck-based

Model Years
1965-2016,
9999

Body Types
65,73

Includes
(e.g., farm vehicle, snowmobile,
go-cart, golf carts)
--

Model Years
1940-2016,
9999
1940-2016,
9999

Body Types
91-93,95,97
49, 79, 99

*Occurs when make is not explicitly listed here
**Do not use Other Make (98) if Other Domestic (29) or Other Import (69) is applicable.
***Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
****Prior to 1999, MCI buses were coded Other Make/Other Bus. Starting in 1999, MCI has its own Make
Code 93.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

280

Unknown Make

Unknown Make
MAKE: Unknown Make (99)
AUTOMOBILES
Codes
Models
399
Unknown (automobile)

Includes
--

Model Years
1945-2016, 9999

Body Types
01-09, 10-13

LIGHT TRUCKS
Codes
Models
499
Unknown (light truck)

Includes
--

Model Years
1945-2016, 9999

Body Types
14-16,19, 20-22,
28,29, 30-33,39,
40,41, 42, 45,48

LSV/NEV
Codes
599

Includes
--

Model Years
2000-16, 9999

Body Types
94

Includes
--------

Model Years
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1945-2016, 9999

Body Types
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89
80-83,88,89

Includes
includes all
ATVs/ATCs/TRXs designed
solely for off-road use and
have 3 or 4 wheels.
“
“
“
“

Model Years
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
90, 97*

1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

90, 97*
90, 97*
90, 97*
90, 97*

Includes
--

Model Years
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
55, 61-64

---

1965-2016, 9999
1965-2016, 9999

60-64,66,71,72,78
60-64,66,71,72,78

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64,66,71,72,78

Models
Unknown (LSV/NEV)

MOTORCYCLES
Codes
Models
701
0-50cc
702
51-124cc
703
125-349cc
704
350-449cc
705
450-749cc
706
750cc or greater
709
Unknown cc
ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES
Codes
Models
731
0-50cc

732
733
734
739

51-124cc
125-349cc
350cc or greater
Unknown cc

MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCKS
Codes
Models
870
Medium Heavy VanBased Vehicle
881
Medium/Heavy – CBE
882
Medium/Heavy – COE
low entry
883
Medium/Heavy – COE
high entry

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

281

Unknown Make
Codes
884
890
898

Models
Medium/Heavy –
Unknown engine location
Medium/Heavy – COE
entry position unknown
Other (medium/heavy
truck)

Includes
--

Model Years
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
60-64,66,71,72,78

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64,66,71,72,78

--

1965-2016, 9999

60-64,66,71,72,78

BUSES
Codes
981

Models
Includes
Model Years
Bus**: Conventional
-1965-2016, 9999
(Engine out front)
982
Bus: Front engine. Flat
-1976-2016, 9999
front
983
Bus: Rear engine, Flat
-1965-2016, 9999
front
988
Other (bus)
-1945-2016, 9999
989
Unknown (bus)
-1945-2016, 9999
**Use code “989” (bus) if the frontal plane or the engine location is unknown.
MOTOR HOME
Codes
Models
850
Motor Home
OTHER AND UNKNOWN VEHICLE
Codes
Models
998
Other (vehicle)
999

Unknown (as to
automobile, motored
cycle, light truck or truck)

Body Types
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59
50-52,58,59

Includes
Truck based

Model Years
1965-2016, 9999

Body Types
65, 73

Includes
(e.g., farm vehicle,
snowmobile, go-cart)
--

Model Years
1943-2016, 9999

Body Types
91-93, 95, 97

1945-2016, 9999

49, 79, 99

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

282

Body Type

V11

V11 - Body Type
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Body_Typ, Person.Body_Typ, parkwork.PBODYTYP
ELEMENT VALUES:
Automobiles
Codes Attributes
01
Convertible (excludes sun-roof, t-bar)
02
2-Door Sedan, Hardtop, Coupe
03
3-Door/2-Door Hatchback
04
4-Door Sedan, Hardtop
05
5-Door/4-Door Hatchback
06
Station Wagon (excluding van and truck based)
07
Hatchback, Number of Doors Unknown
17
3-Door Coupe
08
Sedan/Hardtop, number of doors unknown
09
Other or Unknown automobile type
Automobile Derivatives
Codes Attributes
10
Auto-Based Pickup (includes Chevrolet - El Camino, GMC -Caballero, Ford - Ranchero, Chevrolet SSR; Subaru-Baha, Brat, and Volkswagen - Rabbit Pickup)
11
Auto-Based Panel (Cargo Station Wagon, auto-based Ambulance/Hearse)
12
Large Limousine (More than four side doors or stretched chassis)
13
Three-Wheel Automobile or Automobile Derivative
Utility Vehicles
Codes Attributes
14
Compact Utility (ANSI D16.1 Utility Vehicle Categories “Small” and “Midsize”):
• Small: Chevy-Tracker; GMC- Jimmy/Typhoon; Isuzu - Trooper II; Oldsmobile - Bravada (199194); Suzuki - Samurai, Sidekick.
• Midsize: Acura - SLX, RDX; Audi - Q3, Q5, Q7, Allroad, SQ5; BMW - X1, X3, X5; Buick Rendezvous, Rainier, Encore, Enclave; Chevrolet - Captiva, S10-Blazer/TrailBlazer, Tracker
(1999 on), TrailBlazer (2003 on), Trax; Equinox; Diahatsu - Rocky; Dodge - Durango (19982003), Nitro, Raider; Fiat - 500L; Ford - Bronco II (1984 on), Escape, Explorer, Explorer Sport;
GMC - Jimmy (1995 on), Envoy, Terrain; Honda - CRV, Passport, Element; Hummer - H3;
Hyundai - Santa Fe, Tuscon, Veracruz (2007 only); Infiniti - QX4, JX35, QX60, QX70; Isuzu Amigo, Axiom, Rodeo, Rodeo Sport, Vehicross, Trooper, Hombre; Jeep - Cherokee (1984 on),
Commander, Grand Cherokee, Liberty, Patriot, Renegade, Wagoneer, Wrangler; Kia Sportage, Sorrento; Land Rover - Defender (1993, 1995-1997), Discovery, Discovery Sport,
Freelander (2002-2003) Evogue; Lexus - RX300, RX330, GX470; Lincoln - Aviator, MKC; Mazda CX5, CX9 Navajo, Tribute; Mercedes - M, ML, G, GLK; Mercury - Mariner, Mountaineer;
Mitsubishi - Montero, Montero Sport, Endeavor; Nissan - Juke, Pathfinder, Xterra; Oldsmobile
- Bravada (1996 on); Pontiac - Aztek, Torrent; Porsche - Macan; Saab - 9-7x; Saturn - Vue;
Subaru - B9 Tribeca, Forester, XV Crosstrek; Suzuki - Vitara, Vitara V6, Grand Vitara, X90, XL7;
Toyota - 4-Runner, FJ Cruiser, Highlander, RAV4; Volkswagen - Tiguan; Volvo - XC70, XC90.
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15

16
19

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Attributes
Large Utility (ANSI D16.1 Utility Vehicle Categories and “Full Size” and “Large”)
• Full Size: Acura - MDX; AMC - Hummer; Buick - Enclave (2013 on), Cadillac - Escalade;
Chevrolet Full-size Blazer, Tahoe, Traverse (2013 on); Chrysler - Aspen, Dodge - Durango
(2004 on), Ford - Full-size Bronco (78 and after), Expedition; Honda - Pilot; Hyundai Veracruz (2008 on); GMC - Acadia (2013 on), Jimmy (1991-1994), Yukon (Denali/XL);
Infiniti - QX56, QX80; Isuzu - Ascender; Jeep - Cherokee (83 and before); Kia - Mesa,
Borrego; Land Rover - LR2, LR3, Freelander (2004 on), Range Rover; Mazda - CX-9,
Mercedes Benz - GL; Nissan - Armada; Porsche - Cayenne; Lexus - LX450/470; Lincoln Navigator; Toyota - Land Cruiser, Sequoia; Volkswagen - Touareg.
• Large: Avanti - Studebaker XUV; AMC -Hummer (H1, H2)
Utility Station Wagon (includes suburban limousines), Cadillac - Escalade ESV; Chevrolet Suburban (Yukon XL (2000 on), Travellall, Ford - Excursion, Jeep - Grand Wagoneer)
Utility Vehicle, Unknown Body Type

Van-Based Light Trucks (GVWR < = 10,000 lbs.)
Codes Attributes
20
Minivan (AM General - MV-1; Buick-Terraza; Chevrolet-Astro, City Express, Lumina, Uplander,
Venture; Chrysler-Town and Country, Voyager; Dodge-Caravan, Grand Caravan, RAM-CV,
Promater City; Ford-Aerostar, Windstar, Freestar, Transit Connect; GMC-Safari, Savana; HondaOdyssey; Hyundai-Entourage; Isuzu-Oasis; Kia-Sedona; Mazda-MPV; Mercury-Monterey, Villager;
Mitsubishi-Minivan; Nissan-Altra EV, Axxess, Quest, Van; Oldsmobile-Silhouette; PlymouthVoyager, Grand Voyager, Vista; Pontiac-Transport, Montana; Saturn-Relay; Toyota-Previa, Sienna;
Volkswagen-Camper, Eurovan, Routan, Vanagon.
21
Large Van-Includes van-based buses (B150-B350, Sportsman, Royal Maxiwagon, Ram, Tradesman,
Voyager [83 and before], E150-E350, Econoline, Clubwagon, Chateau, G10-G30, Chevy Van,
Beauville, Sport Van, G15-G35, Rally Van, Vandura, Ford - Transit, Freightliner Sprinter/Advantage, Mercedes Benz -Sprinter, Dodge - Sprinter, RAM-Promaster, Nissan - NV,
Ford - Transit)
22
Step-van or walk-in van (GVWR <= 10,000 lbs.)
28
Other van type (Hi-Cube Van, Kary)
29
Unknown van type
Light Conventional Trucks (Pick-up style cab, GVWR < = 10,000 lbs.)
Codes Attributes
30
Compact pickup (GVWR < 4,500 lbs.) (Chevrolet - Colorado, Courier, S-10, T-10, LUV; Dodge - D50,
Colt P/U, Ram 50, Dakota; Plymouth - Arrow Pickup [foreign]; Ford - Courier, Ranger, Explorer
Sport Trac; GMC – Canyon, Dakota, S-15, T-15, Sonoma, Honda - Ridgeline; Isuzu - Hombre, i-280,
i-350; Mahindra - TR; Mazda - Pickup, B-Series; Mitsubishi - Pickup; Nissan/Datsun - Pickup,
Frontier; Toyota - Pickup, Tacoma)
31
Standard pickup (GVWR 4,500 to 10,000 lbs.) (AM General - Hummer Pickup; Avanti - Studebaker
XUT; Cadillac - Escalade EXT; Chevrolet - Avalanche, Silverado, C-K 1500, C-K 2500, C-K 3500, S/T,
Sierra, R100-R500; Dodge - Ram Pickup, Dakota, D100-D350, W100-W350, Ford - F100-F350; GMC
- C10-C35, K10-K35, R10-R35, V10-V35; Jeep - Pickup, Comanche; Lincoln - Blackwood, Mark LT;
Mitsubishi - Raider; Nissan - Titan; Suzuki - Equator; Toyota - Tundra, T-100.)
32
Pickup with slide-in camper
33
Convertible pickup

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Codes
39

V11
Attributes
Unknown (pickup style) light conventional truck type

Other Light Conventional Trucks (GVWR < = 10,000 lbs.)
Codes Attributes
40
Cab Chassis Based (includes Rescue Vehicle, Light Stake, Dump, and Tow Truck)
41
Truck Based Panel
45
Other light conventional truck type
48
Unknown light truck type
49
Unknown light vehicle type (automobile, utility vehicle, van, light truck)
Buses (excludes van-based buses with a GVWR < = 10,000 lbs.)
Codes Attributes
50
School Bus
51
Cross Country/Intercity Bus
52
Transit Bus (City Bus)
55
Van-Based Bus GVWR > 10,000 lbs.
58
Other Bus Type
59
Unknown Bus Type
Medium/Heavy Vehicle (GVWR > 10,000 lbs.)
Codes Attributes
60
Step Van (>10,000 lbs. GVWR)
61
Single-unit straight truck or Cab-Chassis (10,000 lbs. < GVWR < or = 19,500 lbs.)
62
Single-unit straight truck or Cab-Chassis (19,500 lbs. < GVWR < or = 26,000 lbs.)
63
Single-unit straight truck or Cab-Chassis (GVWR > 26,000 lbs.)
64
Single-unit straight truck or Cab-Chassis (GVWR unknown)
66
Truck-tractor (Cab only, or with any number of trailing units; any weight)
67
Medium/heavy Pickup (>10,000 lbs. GVWR)
71
Unknown if single-unit or combination unit Medium Truck (10,000 lbs. < GVWR < 26,000 lbs.)
72
Unknown if single-unit or combination unit Heavy Truck (GVWR > 26,000 lbs.)
78
Unknown medium/heavy truck type
79
Unknown truck type (light/medium/heavy)
Motor Homes
(Do NOT code commercial vehicle elements for motor homes, unless hazardous cargo is present):
Codes Attributes
42
Light Truck Based Motorhome (Chassis Mounted)
65
Medium/heavy truck based motor home
73
Camper or motor home, unknown truck type
Motorcycles, Mopeds, All-Terrain Vehicles; All-Terrain Cycles
Codes Attributes
80
Motorcycle
81
Moped (motorized bicycle)
82
Three-wheel Motorcycle or Moped – not All-Terrain Vehicle
83
Off-road Motorcycle (2-wheel)
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Codes
88
89
90

V11
Attributes
Other motored cycle type (mini-bikes, motor scooters, pocket motorcycles “pocket bikes”)
Unknown motored cycle type
ATV/ATC (All-Terrain Cycle)

Other Vehicles
Codes Attributes
91
Snowmobile
92
Farm equipment other than trucks
93
Construction equipment other than trucks (includes graders)
95
Golf Cart
94
Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) / Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV)
97
Other vehicle type (includes go-cart, fork-lift, city street sweeper, dune/swamp buggy)
98
Not Reported
99
Unknown body type
Definition: This element identifies a classification of this vehicle based on its general body configuration, size,
shape, doors, etc.
Remarks: SEE ADDITIONAL REMARKS UNDER VEHICLE MAKE/VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW

Automobiles
These attributes are used to classify different types of passenger cars. These type of light vehicles, referred to as
automobiles, are designed primarily to transport eight or fewer persons.
01 (Convertible [excludes sun-roof and t-bar]) refers to a passenger car equipped with a removable or
retractable roof. To qualify for this code, the entire roof must open. Convertible roofs are generally fabric;
however, removable hardtops are also included. This attribute takes priority over 2-door or 4-door codes.
02 (2-Door Sedan, Hardtop, Coupe) refers to a passenger car equipped with two doors for ingress/egress and a
separate trunk area for cargo (e.g., trunk lid hinged below the backlight). Folding rear seats do not necessarily
violate the separate “trunk area” concept.
03 (3-Door/2-Door Hatchback) refers to a passenger car equipped with two doors for ingress/egress and a rear
hatch opening for cargo (e.g., hinged above the backlight). The cargo area is not permanently partitioned from
the passenger compartment area.
04 (4-Door Sedan, Hardtop) refers to a passenger car equipped with four doors for ingress/egress and a
separate trunk area for cargo (e.g., trunk lid hinged below the backlight). Folding rear seats do not necessarily
violate the separate “trunk area” concept.
05 (5-Door/4-Door Hatchback) refers to a passenger car equipped with four doors for ingress/egress and a rear
hatch opening for cargo (e.g., hinged above the backlight). The cargo area is not permanently partitioned from
the passenger compartment area.
06 (Station wagon [excluding van and truck based]) refers to a passenger car with an enlarged cargo area. The
entire roof covering the cargo area is generally equal in height from front to rear and full height side glass is
installed between the C and D-pillars. The rearmost area is not permanently partitioned from the forward
passenger compartment area (e.g., “horizontal window shades” to hide cargo do not constitute partitions).

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07 (Hatchback, Number of Doors Unknown) refers to a passenger car with an unknown number of doors for
ingress/egress and a rear hatch opening for cargo (e.g., hinged above the backlight). The cargo area is not
permanently partitioned from the passenger compartment area.
17 (3-door coupe) refers to a passenger car equipped with three doors for ingress/egress in which 2 of the doors
are located on the driver's side and a separate trunk area for cargo (e.g., trunk lid hinged below the backlight).
Folding rear seats do not necessarily violate the separate “trunk area” concept.
08 (Sedan/Hardtop, number of doors unknown) refers to a passenger car equipped with an unknown number
of doors for ingress/egress and a separate trunk area for cargo (e.g., trunk lid hinged below the backlight).
Folding rear seats do not necessarily violate the separate “trunk area” concept.
09 (Other or Unknown automobile type) is used for any passenger car that cannot be described by the other
automobile codes OR when it is known that the vehicle is a passenger car, but there is insufficient data to
determine the type. Do not use this attribute if the Police Accident Report (PAR) alone or in combination with
other information gives sufficient detail to identify a more specific attribute.
• Example #1: If the possible choices are codes “01,” “02”, or “09” but there is enough detail to identify
that it is a 2-door and that it is NOT a convertible, then use 02 (2-Door Sedan, Hardtop, Coupe).
• Example #2: If there is information that it is a 4-door and the PAR eliminates the possibility of a
hatchback or station wagon, then use 04 (4-Door Sedan, Hardtop).

Automobile Derivatives
This describes certain passenger cars that have been modified to perform cargo-related tasks.
10 (Auto-Based Pickup) refers to a passenger car based, pickup type vehicle. The roof area (and side glass)
rearward of the front seats on a station wagon have been removed and converted into a pickup-type cargo box.
11 (Auto-Based Panel (Cargo Station Wagon, auto-based Ambulance/Hearse) refers to an automotive station
wagon that may have sheet metal rearward of the B-pillar rather than glass.
12 (Large Limousine) - more than four side doors or stretched chassis refers to an automobile that has sections
added within its wheelbase to increase length and passenger/cargo carrying capacity.
13 (Three-Wheel Automobile or Automobile Derivative) refers to three-wheel vehicles with an enclosed
passenger compartment.

Utility Vehicles
(< = 10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Utility Vehicles are designed for carrying persons, and generally considered a multi-purpose vehicle that is
designed to have off-road capabilities. These vehicles are: generally four-wheel drive (4 x 4), have increased
ground clearance, and are equipped with a strong frame. Four-wheel drive automobiles are not considered
utility vehicles.
14 (Compact Utility) refers to a short wheelbase and narrow tracked multi-purpose vehicle designed to operate
in rugged terrain.
15 (Large Utility) refers to full-size multi-purpose vehicles primarily designed around a shortened pickup truck
chassis. Generally, a station wagon style body, some models are equipped with a removable top.
16 (Utility Station Wagon) refers primarily to a pickup truck based chassis enlarged to a station wagon.

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19 (Utility Vehicle, Unknown Body Type) is used when it is known that the vehicle is a utility vehicle, but there is
insufficient data to determine the specific type.

Van-Based Light Trucks
(< = 10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Van-Based Light Trucks (< = 10,000 lbs. GVWR) are designed to maximize cargo/passenger area versus overall
length. Basically a “box on wheels”, these vehicles are identifiable by their enclosed cargo/passenger area and
relatively short (or non-existent) hood.
20 (Minivan) refers to down-sized cargo or passenger unibody vans.
21 (Large Van) refers to a standard cargo or passenger van and includes van-based buses less than 10,001 lbs.
GVWR. These vans will generally have a larger capacity in both volume and GVWR.
22 (Step Van or Walk-In Van [< = 10,000 lbs. GVWR]) refers to a multi-stop delivery vehicle with a GVWR less
than or equal to 10,000 lbs. Examples are the Grumman LLV used by the US Postal Service or the Aeromate
manufactured by Utilimaster Motor Corporation.
28 (Other Van Type) refers to a cargo or delivery van where the chassis and cab portions from the B-pillar
forward of this vehicle are the same as in Minivans or Large Vans with a frame mounted cargo area unit added
behind the driver/cab area or if the van cannot be described as a Minivan, Large Van, Step-van or a Van-based
motor home. Annotate the van type when using this code. This code takes priority over Minivans and Large
Vans.
29 (Unknown Van Type) is used when it is known that this vehicle is a light van, but its specific type cannot be
determined.

Light Conventional Trucks
(Pickup Style Cab, < = 10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Light Conventional Trucks are used to describe vehicles commonly referred to as pickup trucks and some of their
derivatives. These light trucks are characteristically designed with a small cab containing a single row of seats
(extended cabs with additional seats are available for some models), a large hood covering a conventional
engine placement, and a separate open box area (approximately 180 to 240 centimeters long) for cargo.
30 (Compact Pickup) is used to describe a pickup truck having a width of 178 centimeters or less.
31 (Standard Pickup) is used to describe a pickup truck having a width of greater than 178 centimeters.
32 (Pickup with Slide-in Camper) is used to describe any pickup truck that is equipped with a slide-in camper. A
slide-in camper is a unit that mounts within a pickup bed. Pickup bed caps, tonneau covers or frame mounted
campers are not applicable for this code.
33 (Convertible Pickup) refers to a pickup truck equipped with a removable or retractable roof. To qualify for
this code, the entire roof must open. Convertible roofs are generally fabric; however, removable hardtops are
also included. This code takes priority over compact and large pickups.
39 (Unknown (Pickup Style) Light Conventional Truck Type) is used when this vehicle is a Light Conventional
Truck, but there is insufficient data to determine the specific code.

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Other Light Trucks
(< = 10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Other Light Trucks are used to describe vehicles that are based upon a conventional light pickup frame, but a
commercial or recreational body has been affixed to the frame rather than a pickup box.
40 (Cab Chassis Based [includes rescue vehicles, light stake, dump and tow truck]) is used to describe a light
vehicle with a pickup style cab and a commercial (non-pickup) body attached to the frame. Included are pickup
based ambulances and tow trucks.
41 (Truck Based Panel) is used to describe a truck based station wagon that has sheet metal rather than glass
above the beltline rearward of the B-pillars.
45 (Other Light Conventional Truck Type) is used for light conventional trucks that cannot be described
elsewhere.
48 (Unknown Light Truck Type) is used when it is known that the vehicle is a light truck but further classification
into one of the more detailed light truck categories (utility, van, pickup or other light trucks) is not possible.
Example: It is known the light vehicle is a utility vehicle or van but it can't be determined which one.
49 (Unknown Light Vehicle Type [automobile, utility, van or light truck]) is used when it is known that the
vehicle is a light vehicle, but insufficient data exists to specify what type of light vehicle it is.

Buses
(excludes van-based buses GVWR < or = 10,000 lbs.)
Buses are defined as any motor vehicle designed primarily to transport large groups of passengers (nine or more
persons, including the driver).
50 (School Bus) (designed to carry students, not cross country or transit) is a bus designed to carry passengers to
and from educational facilities and/or related functions. The vehicles are characteristically painted yellow and
clearly identified as school buses. Use this code regardless of whether the vehicle is owned by a school system or
a private company. School buses converted for other uses (e.g., church bus) also take this code.
51 (Cross Country/Intercity Bus) describes a bus body type designed to travel long distances between cities (e.g.
Greyhound).
52 (Transit Bus [City Bus]) describes a bus body type designed for public transportation typically within a city.
55 (Van-Based Bus GVWR > 10,000 lbs.) describes a bus body type built on a van-based chassis.
58 (Other Bus Type) is a vehicle designed/converted to carry nine or more persons, including the driver, not
described by the attributes school bus, cross country/intercity bus, transit bus, or van-based bus. Examples
include a specialized tour bus or bus based motor home.
59 (Unknown Bus Type) is used when it is known the transport device is a bus but there is insufficient data to
choose between the bus attributes.

Medium/Heavy Trucks
(> 10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Medium/Heavy Trucks describe a single-unit truck specifically designed for carrying cargo on the same chassis as
the cab. They pertain to a truck-tractor designed for towing trailers or semi-trailers. Although towing is their
primary purpose, some truck-tractors are equipped with cargo areas located rearward of the cab.
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60 (Step Van [>10,000 lbs. GVWR]) defines a single-unit, enclosed body with a GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs.
and an integral driver's compartment and cargo area. Step vans are generally equipped with a folding driver seat
mounted on a pedestal and a sliding door for easy ingress/egress.
61-63 (Single-Unit Straight Truck or Cab-chassis) describes a non-articulated truck designed to carry cargo. The
attribute selected is based on the applicable GVWR range for the vehicle. Includes “incomplete” or “cutaway”.
64 (Single-Unit Straight Truck or Cab-chassis [GVWR unknown]) describes a medium/heavy non-articulated
truck designed to carry cargo. It is known not to be a step van, van, or pickup truck, but its GVWR is unknown.
Includes “incomplete” or “cutaway”.
66 (Truck-Tractor [Cab only or with any number of trailing units]) describes a fifth wheel equipped tractortrailer power unit. The number of trailing units is not a consideration.
67 (Medium/Heavy Pickup [>10,000 lbs. GVWR]) is a single-unit straight truck with a pickup body style with a
GVWR > 10, 000 lbs. Examples include the Ford Super Duty 350, 450, or 550.
78 (Unknown Medium/Heavy Truck Type) is used when it is unknown whether the medium/heavy truck is a
single-unit truck or a truck-tractor and/or trailer combination and it is known that the vehicle is either a medium
or heavy truck with GVWR >10,000 lbs.
79 (Unknown Truck Type [light/medium/heavy]) is used when it is known that this vehicle is a truck, but there
is insufficient data to classify the vehicle further.

Motor Homes
Motor Homes are recreational vehicles mounted on an incomplete vehicle chassis that is suitable to live in and
drive across the country. (Do NOT code commercial vehicle elements for motor homes, unless hazardous cargo
is present.)
42 (Light Truck Based Motor Home [chassis mounted]) is used to describe a frame mounted recreational unit
attached to a light van or conventional chassis.
65 (Medium/Heavy Truck Based Motor Home) describes a recreational vehicle mounted on a single unit
medium/heavy truck chassis.
73 (Camper or Motor Home, unknown truck type) is used when it is known the vehicle is a camper or motor
home, but the truck type is unknown.

Motorcycles, Mopeds, All-Terrain Vehicles, All-Terrain Cycles
80 (Motorcycle) is used when a motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of its operator is a twowheeled open (e.g., no enclosed body) vehicle propelled by an internal combustion engine. Motorcycles
equipped with a side car also use this code.
81 (Moped [motorized bicycle]) is used when the vehicle is a speed-limited motor-driven cycle capable of
moving either by pedaling or by an internal combustion engine.
82 (Three-Wheeled Motorcycle or Moped) is used when the vehicle is a three-wheeled open vehicle propelled
by an internal combustion engine or a three-wheeled motorized bicycle capable of moving either by pedaling or
by an internal combustion engine.

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83 (Off-road Motorcycle [2-wheel]) is used when the vehicle is a two-wheeled open vehicle propelled by an
internal combustion engine designed or built for off road use only.
88 (Other Motored Cycle [mini-bike, motor scooter, pocket motorcycles “pocket bikes”]) is used when the
vehicle in question does not qualify for attributes motorcycle, moped, three-wheeled motorcycle or moped
(e.g., motor scooter).
89 (Unknown Motored Cycle Type) is used when it is known that the vehicle is a motored cycle, but no further
data is available.
90 (ATV/ATC [All-Terrain Cycle]) is used for off-road recreational vehicles which cannot be licensed for use on
public roadways. ATV/ATCs have 3 or 4 wheels, a saddle type seat and handle bars for steering (no steering
wheel). Does not include side-by-side ATVs (automobile type seats and steering wheel). See code 97 (Other
Vehicle Type) for side-by-side ATV.

Other Vehicles
Other Vehicles describes all motored vehicles that are designed primarily for off-road use.
91 (Snowmobile) refers to a vehicle designed to be operated over snow propelled by an internal combustion
engine.
92 (Farm Equipment Other Than Trucks) refers to farming implements other than trucks propelled by an
internal combustion engine (e.g., farm tractors, combines, etc.).
93 (Construction Equipment Other Than Trucks) refers to construction equipment other than trucks propelled
by an internal combustion engine (e.g., bulldozer, road grader, etc.).
95 (Golf Cart) is a motor vehicle that is designed and manufactured for operation on a golf course for sporting or
recreational purposes. Golf carts or golf cars are different from code 94 (Low speed vehicle (LSV)/Neighborhood
Electric Vehicle (NEV)) in that if they are manufactured to go less than 20 mph they are not subject to the
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 500. As a result, golf carts will not have a 17-digit VIN. Golf
carts will have a nonstandard serial number that may be reported on the PAR. Also, typically golf carts will not
have safety features required of LSVs/NEVs under the FMVSS like safety belts, head lights, turn signal and tail
lamps, rear view mirrors, etc. (See definition of LSV/NEV below).
94 (Low speed vehicle (LSV)/Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV)) refers to a vehicle that is designed for travel
on secondary roads with speed limits equal to or less than 35 mph. LSVs can sometimes resemble golf carts but
differ in that they must adhere to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 500. Provisions of FMVSS 500
include the following:
The Vehicle must have:
• Four wheels
• Top speed of at least 20 mph, but it cannot exceed 25 mph
• GVWR less than 3,001 pounds
• Head, turn signal and tail lamps
• Reflex reflectors
• Parking brake
• Rear view mirrors
• Windshield
• Safety belts
• Seventeen (17) character VIN
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97 (Other Vehicle Type) is used when the motorized vehicle in question does not qualify for Construction
equipment other than trucks, Farm equipment other than trucks, or Snowmobile (e.g., fork-lift, city street
sweeper, dune/swamp buggy, side-by-side ATV (automobile type seats and steering wheel) go-kart, “kit” car,
etc.).
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown Body Type) is used when the available information regarding the type of vehicle is reported as
Unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1D0P)
SPECIAL USE equals 01,
(1Q0F)
(1R0P)
(1Z2P)

(2D0P)
(2Q0F)

PERSON TYPE equals 01, and BODY TYPE
equals 80-83, 88, 89,
SEATING POSITION equals 51, and BODY TYPE
equals 50-52, 55, 58, 59,
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 01, and
(BODY TYPE equals 01-79, 82, 90-99, or any
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 30),
SPECIAL USE equals 02,

(2U0P)
(2U0Q)

PERSON TYPE equals 02, 03, 09, and BODY
TYPE equals 01, 02, 04, 08, 10, 17, 31-33, 3941, 45, 48, 90, 91,
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE equals 0004, 07-12,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88-91,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,

(3A0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 07,

(3Q0F)

PERSON TYPE equals 02, 03, 09, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-17, 19, 20, 22, 28-33, 39, 41,
42, 50-52, 55, 58, 59, 65, 80-83, 88-92, 94,
95, 97,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,

(2R0P)

(4A0P)

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THEN
BODY TYPE must equal 02-09, 12, 14-21, 28, 29,
49, 99.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 12-55, 99.
INJURY SEVERITY must not equal 0, 9.
ROLLOVER must equal 1, 2, 9.

BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 19-21, 28, 29,
45, 48, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 31-50.

BODY TYPE must not equal 80-83, 88, 89, 90, 91.
AIR BAG DEPLOYED should equal 00.
AREAS OF IMPACT - INITIAL CONTACT POINT
should not equal 14.
BODY TYPE must equal 60-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78,
79, 99.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 50.

SPECIAL USE must not equal 01-03, 06, 07.

292

Body Type
Check
(4C1P)

(4C2P)

(4C3P)

(4C4P)

(4C5P)

(4C6P)

(4C7P)

(4C8P)

(4C9P)

(4C0P)

(4D0P)
(4F1P)

(4F2P)

(4F3P)

(4F4P)

V11
IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94,
95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT
equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
SPECIAL USE equals 03,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 01-05, 07-10, 13, 17, 8083, 88-90, 91-95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 77.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 28, 29, 50-52, 55, 58,
59.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 15.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.

293

Body Type
Check
(4F5P)

(4F6P)

(4F7P)

(4F8P)

(4F9P)

(4F9Q)

(4F0P)

(4N4P)

(4N5P)

(4N6P)
(4Q0F)
(4Q1F)
(4S0P)
(4S1P)
(5A0P)

(5B0P)
(5D0P)

V11
IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 15, 16, 42, 73, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, 12, 14-16, 19, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
does not equal 00-000000000,
BODY TYPE does not equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45,
48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92, 93, or
HM2 does not equal 2,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
equals 77-777777777,
PERSON TYPE equals 02, 03, 09, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,
PERSON TYPE equals 02, 03, and BODY TYPE
equals 21,
BODY TYPE equals 80-82, 83, 88, 89,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89 and HM1
does not equal 1,
BODY TYPE equals 80, 81, 83, 88, 89, and any
RELATED FACTORS - VEHICLE LEVEL does not
equal 30,
JACKKNIFE equals 0, and BODY TYPE equals
66,
SPECIAL USE equals 04,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 50.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45, 48-52,
55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 79, 92, 93, 99, or
HM2 must equal 2.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must equal 00-000000000, 99-999999999.
BODY TYPE should equal 28, 45, 48-52, 55, 5864, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 93 or HM1 should equal 2.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 12, 14-19,
22-50.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 50, 52.
EJECTION must equal 8.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS MUST
equal 0.
ROLLOVER must equal 0.

VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 1-4.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-12, 15-17, 19-22, 2833, 39-41, 45, 48-50, 55, 58, 59, 60-64, 66, 67,
71, 72, 78, 79, 90, 99.

294

Body Type

V11

Check
(5F0F)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS equals 00-98, and
BODY TYPE does not equal 50-52, 55, 58, 59,

(5Q0F)

PERSON TYPE equals 02, and BODY TYPE
equals 50-52, 55, 58, 59,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89 or 90,
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 1-8,
SPECIAL USE equals 05,

(5S0P)
(6A1P)
(6D0P)

(6G0Q)
(6Q0F)
(7D0P)
(7Q0F)
(8D0P)
(8L9P)

(8P0P)

(920P)

(930P)

(960P)
(981P)
(982P)
(A380)

any RELATED FACTORS - VEHICLE LEVEL
equals 30,
PERSON TYPE equals 02, 03, 09, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-67, 71, 72, 78, 79,
SPECIAL USE equals 06,
PERSON TYPE equals 09, and BODY TYPE
equals 50-52, 55, 58, 59,
SPECIAL USE equals 08,
BODY TYPE does not equal 80-83, 88-91, and
the CRASH EVENTS event equals 54, and the
corresponding AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS
VEHICLE) equals 19 in that row,
PERSON TYPE equals 01, and AGE is less than
008,
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, equals Not Reported
[MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY TYPE (98),
and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, does not equal Not
Reported [MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY
TYPE (98), and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
MAKE is not 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,90, 91,
BODY TYPE does not equal 80-83, 88, 89, 90,
91,
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01 and this
vehicle is involved in the first harmful event,
and BODY TYPE does not equal 80-89 for this
vehicle, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY
equals _____,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the number of Person Level forms for that
vehicle must be equal to the NUMBER OF
OCCUPANTS.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 11, 21-50,
98, 99.
EXTRICATION must equal 0.
BODY TYPE must not equal 80-83, 88-91.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-12, 14-17, 19-22, 2833, 39-41, 45, 48, 49, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78-82, 88-91, 94, 95, 97-99.
BODY TYPE must equal 80 for this vehicle.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 31-49.
BODY TYPE must equal 11, 14-17, 19, 21, 22, 28,
29, 40, 41, 45, 48, 49, 61, 62, 64, 79, 98, 99.
SEATING POSITION must not equal 12-50, 52-54.
BODY TYPE must not equal 60-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78, 79, 99.
there should be a previous event with CRASH
EVENTS event equal to 18 or 73 involving that
vehicle.
BODY TYPE must not equal 01-12, 14-17, 19-22,
28-33, 39-42, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-67, 71, 72, 7883, 89, 92, 93.
the other three must also equal Not Reported.

the other three must also not be coded as Not
Reported.

BODY TYPE must equal ___.
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE must equal
05, 16, 17, 19, 29, 97, 98.
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE must not
equal 05, 16, 17, 19, 29.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER should equal _____
respectively.

295

Body Type

V11

Check
(AE1P)
(AF2P)
(AH0P)

IF
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05-08,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 20, 21,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 00,
99,

(AH1P)
(AH2P)
(AL0P)
(AM0P)

BUS USE equals 08,
BUS USE equals 06,
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 22,
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 00, 99,

(BP0P)

MODEL YEAR is greater than 1999, and BODY
TYPE does not equal 50-52, 58-66, 71-79, 8083, 88-93, 95, 97, and SEATING POSITION
equals 11, 13, 18, 19,
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 63, 66, 72, or
HM1 equals 2,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 66,
PERSON TYPE equals 01-03, 09, and
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE equals 0104, 08, 10-12, and BODY TYPE does not equal
80-89,
EJECTION equals 8,

(D270)
(D440)
(D560)
(P01F)

(P094)
(P130)

(U080)
(U470)
(V020)

BODY TYPE equals 60-67, 71, 72, 78, 79, and
PERSON TYPE equals 01, 03, and INJURY
SEVERITY equals 4,
PERSON TYPE equals 01, and AGE is less than
009,
SEATING POSITION equals 21, 23, 28, 29, 31,
33, 38 or 39, and BODY TYPE equals 50-97,
AIR BAG DEPLOYED equals 01-03, 07-09, 20,
28, and BODY TYPE equals 01-49 and MODEL
YEAR equals 1998 or newer,
EJECTION equals 1-3, and BODY TYPE does
not equal 90, 91, 97,
BODY TYPE does not equal 21, 28, 29, 50-59,
UNLIKELY: BODY TYPE equals 98.
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1,

(V031)

RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 39,

(P180)
(P230)
(P290)

(P310)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE must equal 66.
BODY TYPE must equal 20, 21, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
BODY TYPE should equal 15,16, 21, 28, 31, 40,
41, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92,
93, or HM2 must equal 2.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 22, 28, 29, 50-59.
BODY TYPE should equal 21, 52 or 55.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 50-52, 55,58, 59.
BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 21, 28, 31, 40,
41, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92,
93, or HM2 must equal 2.
AIR BAG DEPLOYED should not equal 00.

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-52, 55, 63, 66,
72, and HM2 should not equal 2.
BODY TYPE should equal 80-83, 88, 89.
EJECTION should equal 0 or 7.

SEATING POSITION must equal 55, or BODY
TYPE must equal 80-83, 88, 89.
FATAL INJURY AT WORK should equal 1.

BODY TYPE should not equal 90.
AIR BAG DEPLOYED should equal 00.
SEATING POSITION should equal 11, 13, 21, 23,
31 or 33.
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE must not
equal 05, 16, 17, 19, 29.
UNLIKELY: SPECIAL USE equals 02 or 03.
-BODY TYPE should not equal 50-52, 55, 80-83,
88-91.
BODY TYPE should not equal 01, 12, 13, 32, 33,
42, 50-52, 55, 58, 59, 65, 73, 80-83, 88-92.

296

Body Type

V11

Check
(V032)

IF
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 40,

(V050)

RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE equals 05,
16, 17,19, 29,
BUS USE equals 01,
BUS USE equals 04,
BUS USE equals 05,

(V051)
(V052)
(V053)
(V054)
(V055)
(V170)

(V180)

(V190)

(V200)

(V210)

(V220)

(V230)

(V240)

(V250)

(V260)

(V290)
(V320)

BUS USE equals 07,
BUS USE equals 00,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94, 95,
97,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 06, 11,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 12,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 80-83, 88, 89,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 15, 16, 42, 73,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 91,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 90,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is, 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 99,
BODY TYPE equals 90,
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 58-66, 71-79
and SEATING POSITION does not equal 11,
13, 98,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE should not equal 01, 12, 13, 32, 33,
42, 50-52, 55, 58, 59, 60-67, 71-73, 78, 80-83,
88-93.
BODY TYPE must equal 80-83, 88-91.
BODY TYPE should equal 21, 50 or 55.
BODY TYPE should equal 51.
BODY TYPE should equal 12, 16, 21, 51, 55 or
58.
BODY TYPE should equal 21, 22, 29, 50 -59.
BODY TYPE must not equal 50-59.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should equal 01.
AIR BAG DEPLOYED should equal 00.

297

Body Type

V11

Check
(V330)

IF
SCHOOL BUS RELATED equals 1,

(V340)

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 97,
and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 98, 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
BODY TYPE equals 50,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 21,
GVWR/GCWR equals 1,
GVWR/GCWR equals 9,
BODY TYPE equals 60,
BODY TYPE equals 01-21, 28-30, 32-39, 4549,
BODY TYPE equals 61, 62, 67, 71, and
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 04,

(V350)

(V360)

(V370)

(V380)

(V390)

(V400)

(V410)

(V420)

(V430)

(V440)
(V46P)
(V504)
(V505)
(V506)
(V507)
(V50P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE of at least one of the involved
vehicles should equal 50 (School Bus) or SPECIAL
USE for at least one involved vehicle should
equal 02 - Vehicle Used as School Bus, and BUS
USE for at least one vehicle should equal 01.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 02.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
SCHOOL BUS RELATED should equal 1.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
BODY TYPE should equal 01-22, 28-39, 41-49.
BODY TYPE should not equal 61-63, 66, 67.
GVWR/GCWR should equal 2.
GVWR/GCWR should equal 0, 1.
GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 9. (See
GVWR/GCWR Remarks on how to use VIN
Decoder to determine GVWR.)

298

Body Type

V11

Check
(V51P)

IF
BODY TYPE equals 63, 66, 72,

(V540)
(V56P)
(V57P)

BODY TYPE equals 42, 65, 73, and HM1
equals 1,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 10,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05,

(V58P)
(V59P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 04,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 06,

(V60P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 07,

(V61P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 08,

(V640)
(V64P)
(V660)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 00,
99,
BODY TYPE equals 50-59, 60-64, 66-72, 78,
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 00, 99,

(V790)

BODY TYPE equals 20,

(V800)

BODY TYPE equals 21, 22, 28, 29,

(V810)
(V840)

BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 1-4,
BODY TYPE equals 50-59,

(V850)

BODY TYPE equals 60,

(V860)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 61-64,

(V870)

BODY TYPE equals 65,

(V880)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,

(V890)

BODY TYPE equals 71, 72,

(V900)

BODY TYPE equals 73,

(V910)

BODY TYPE equals 78,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
GVWR/GCWR must equal 3. (See GVWR/GCWR
Remarks on how to use VIN Decoder to
determine GVWR.)
GVWR/GCWR should equal 0.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-22, 28-49.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 12, 96, and BODY
TYPE must equal 66.
BODY TYPE must not equal 66.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 1.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 2.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 3.
BODY TYPE should not equal 28, 30, 42, 45, 48,
49.
GVWR/GCWR must not equal 0, 1.
BODY TYPE should not equal 28, 30, 42, 45, 48,
49.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, 04,
10, 20, 21, 99, and CARGO BODY TYPE should
equal 00, 01, 22, 99.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 04, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01, 03, 04, 09.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 21, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 03,
04, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 02,
04, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-10,
12, 96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 05-08,
19, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04,
06-12, 96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04, 08, 10,
96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 98.
299

Body Type
Check
(V915)
(V920)
(V930)
(V950)

(V961)
(V980)
(VH06)

V11
IF
BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,
BODY TYPE equals 79,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 00, or
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 00,
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is less than 1994, and
SEATING POSITION equals 31, 33, 39,
MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67,
71, 72, 78, 93, or HM1 equals 2,
BODY TYPE equals 82,

Consistency Checks (CRSS Only):
Check
IF
(V941)
BODY TYPE equals 90 or 91,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 97.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 99, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 99.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-64, 66-72, 78,
79.
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE should not
equal 01, 03, and BODY TYPE should equal 12,
15, 16, 19-21.
BODY should equal ___.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 00-000000000.
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL must not
equal 30.
THEN
VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE NUMBER should equal
0000000000.

300

Vehicle Model Year

V12

V12 - Vehicle Model Year
FORMAT: 4 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.MOD_YEAR, Person MOD_YEAR, Parkwork.PMODYEAR
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
---9998
9999

Attributes
Actual Four Digit Model Year
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the manufacturer's model year of this vehicle.
Remarks: SEE ADDITIONAL REMARKS UNDER VEHICLE MAKE/VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW
9998 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 9998 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
Code all four digits of the model year for which the vehicle was manufactured. For example, a vehicle
manufactured as a 1985 model is to be coded as “1985.”
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1C0P)
the MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or 9999,
(900P)

(902P)

VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) does
not equal 0s, 8s or 9s and VEHICLE MODEL
YEAR is a valid year and greater than or equal
to 1980 and VEHICLE MODEL YEAR equals
______,
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR > 1980, VEHICLE
MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or 9999,
and VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is not
equal to ‘00000000000000000’;

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the MODEL YEAR must not be greater than
CRASH YEAR plus ONE.
the 10th digit of the valid VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) should equal
_______ (contact NHTSA Headquarters for
VIN Assistance).
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions
1-8, 11-14 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, 0-9,
or, blank; VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
position 9 should equal 0-9, X, or blank;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position
10 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, 1-9, or,
blank; VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 15-17 should equal 0-9 or blank.

301

Vehicle Model Year
Check
(903P)

IF
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR > 1980, VEHICLE
MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or 9999,
and VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is not
equal to ‘00000000000000000’;

(920P)

(U510)
(V010)
(V011)

any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, equals Not Reported
[MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY TYPE (98),
and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
MAKE is not 97, 98, 99, and equals ___, and
MODEL equals ___,
any one of the fields MAKE, MODEL, BODY
TYPE, and MODEL YEAR, does not equal Not
Reported [MAKE (97), MODEL (997), BODY
TYPE (98), and MODEL YEAR (9998)],
MODEL YEAR is greater than 1999, and BODY
TYPE does not equal 50-52, 58-66, 71-79, 8083, 88-93, 95, 97, and SEATING POSITION
equals 11, 13, 18, 19,
AIR BAG DEPLOYED equals 01-03, 07-09, 20,
28, and BODY TYPE equals 01-49 and MODEL
YEAR equals 1998 or newer,
UNLIKELY: GVWR/GCWR equals 8 and VEHICLE
MODEL YEAR is greater than 1980 and not
equal to 9998 or 9999 and VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not equal 0s,
8s or 9s.
UNLIKELY: VEHICLE MODEL YEAR equals 9998.
MODEL YEAR should not be less than 1940.
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is less than 1950,

(V620)

CRASH MONTH is between January and March,

(V922)
(V950)

MAKE equals 98, 99, and MODEL equals ___,
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is less than 1994, and
SEATING POSITION equals 31, 33, 39,

(921P)
(930P)

(BP0P)

(P290)

(U490)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V12
THEN
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions
1-8, 11 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, or 0-9;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position
9 should equal 0-9, or X; VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 10 should
equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, or 1-9; VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions 12-14
should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, 0-9 or blank;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions
15-17 should equal 0-9 or blank.
the other three must also equal Not
Reported.

MODEL YEAR must equal ___, or CRASH YEAR
plus 1.
the other three must also not be coded as
Not Reported.

AIR BAG DEPLOYED should not equal 00.

SEATING POSITION should equal 11, 13, 21,
23, 31 or 33.
--

--VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER must
equal 0s.
the VEHICLE MODEL YEAR should NOT be
greater than the CRASH YEAR unless it equals
9998 or 9999 (contact Coding Assistance).
MODEL YEAR should equal ___.
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE should not
equal 01, 03, and BODY TYPE should equal 12,
15, 16, 19-21.

302

Vehicle Identification Number

V13

V13 - Vehicle Identification Number
FORMAT: 17 alphanumeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.VIN, Parkwork.PVIN
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00000000000000000
-88888888888888888
99999999999999999

Attributes
No VIN Required
Any Alphanumeric Characters – Actual VIN number
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element records the vehicle identification number (VIN) of a single vehicle or the power unit of
a combination vehicle.
Remarks: SEE ADDITIONAL REMARKS UNDER VEHICLE MAKE/VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW
Code the complete VIN of the single vehicle or the power unit of a combination vehicle. The VIN is always leftjustified. Trailer VINs are not coded in this element. See TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER to record
the VIN on any trailer. If the VIN for the power unit of a combination vehicle is not available, code 8s (Not
Reported) for this element, rather than the trailer VIN.
Vehicles manufactured after September 1980 conform to 49 CFR Part 565. This standard requires that each VIN
have 17 characters, not contain the letter “I”, “O” or “Q”, and pass a mathematical test (check digit). If the VIN
is less than 17-characters long (pre-1981 VIN), do not zero-fill. Instead, leave the remaining characters blank.
Only enter 8s (Not Reported) or 9s (Unknown) when the entire VIN is missing or unknown.
Enter all 0s (No VIN Required) if the vehicle is not required to have a VIN as per 49 CFR Part 565 (e.g. ATVs, off
road motorcycles, farm tractors, go-carts) AND there is no VIN data available. If VIN data is available enter
the VIN.
If the vehicle is required to have a VIN as per 49 CFR Part 565 (i.e. all vehicles designed for road use) and no
VIN data is available see 8s (Not Reported).
NOTE: For any multi-stage manufactured vehicle (e.g., school bus, motor home, limousine, tow truck, etc.),
enter the VIN for the vehicle’s power unit/chassis. Do not code the secondary manufacturer’s serial number,
which is not considered a VIN under 49 CFR Part 565.
If the vehicle is manufactured by the Ford Motor Company and the VIN begins or ends with a script “f”, the
script “f” is not entered. Proceed to the next character, as in the example below.
Example:
VIN: f 3 U 6 2 S 1 0 0 9 3 2 f
ENTER: 3 U 6 2 S 1 0 0 9 3 2
In addition, if any hyphens or periods are contained in the string of alphanumeric characters, ignore them as in
the example below.
Example:
VIN: S M - E . 3 0 7 6 4 2 1
ENTER: S M E 3 0 7 6 4 2 1
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

303

Vehicle Identification Number

V13

8s (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8s (Not Reported) in these three situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials), or
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials), or
3. Information on the PAR has been sanitized/redacted and no other information is available in the
case materials.
9s (Unknown) is used when the entire power unit VIN is reported as Unknown or this is a hit-and-run vehicle,
with no information available.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
If the state will not allow transmittal of a complete standard VIN, code the right-most four characters as numeric
zeroes. The vehicle registration file must be used to verify the VIN.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Leave “Blank” any column which does not have a VIN character. If part of the VIN is missing or not decipherable,
leave “blank” the column any such character would ordinarily occupy. In the special case where the first 11
columns of the VIN are blank, but part or all of columns 12 through 17 contain information, code Unknown
instead of the partial information contained in the columns 12 through 17 of the VIN.
If the information from VIN Decoder and the PAR are inconsistent, use the following guidelines:
• Make and model on the PAR takes precedence over the make and model indicated by the VIN.
• Model year - Use model year as indicated by VIN if the VIN Make and Model matches the make and
model shown on the PAR.
• Body type - Use body type indicated by the VIN if the VIN Make and Model matches the make and
model shown on the PAR.
If the information about make and model on the PAR is inconsistent, model takes precedence over the make.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(900P)
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) does
not equal 0s, 8s or 9s and VEHICLE MODEL
YEAR is a valid year and greater than or equal
to 1980 and VEHICLE MODEL YEAR equals
______,
(901P)
any VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)
that does not equal 0s,8s, or 9s,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
the 10th digit of the valid VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) should equal
_______ (contact NHTSA Headquarters for VIN
Assistance).
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) must
be unique within a crash.

304

Vehicle Identification Number
Check
(902P)

IF
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR > 1980, VEHICLE
MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or 9999,
and VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is
not equal to ‘00000000000000000’;

(903P)

VEHICLE MODEL YEAR > 1980, VEHICLE
MODEL YEAR is not equal to 9998 or 9999,
and VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is
not equal to ‘00000000000000000’;

(U490)

UNLIKELY: GVWR/GVCR equals 8 and
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is greater than 1980
and not equal to 9998 or 9999 and VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not equal 0s,
8s or 9s.
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is less than 1950,

(V011)
(V280)
(V300)
(V62P)

Possible error in VIN digit check
Possible error in VIN Production Number.
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 01-12, 97, 98, and
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not
equal Not Reported or Unknown,

V13
THEN
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions 18, 11-14 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, 0-9, or,
blank; VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
position 9 should equal 0-9, X, or blank;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 10
should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, 1-9, or,
blank; VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 15-17 should equal 0-9 or blank.
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions 18, 11 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, or 0-9;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 9
should equal 0-9, or X; VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 10 should
equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, or 1-9; VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions 12-14
should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, 0-9 or blank;
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER positions
15-17 should equal 0-9 or blank.
--

VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER must equal
0s.
--GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 3.

Consistency Checks (FARS Only):
Check
Language
(V270)
Possible error in VIN character types or number of characters.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

305

Vehicle Trailing

V14

V14 - Vehicle Trailing
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.TOW_VEH; Person.TOW_VEH; Parkwork.PTRAILER
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
9

Attributes
No Trailing Units
One Trailing Unit
Two Trailing Units
Three or more Trailing Units
Yes, Number of Trailing Units Unknown
Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle - Fixed Linkage
Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle - Non-Fixed Linkage
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies whether or not this vehicle had any attached trailing units or was towing
another motor vehicle.
Remarks: Trailing unit applies to any device connected to a motor vehicle by a hitch, including tractor-trailer
combinations, a single-unit truck pulling a trailer (truck trailer), a boat trailer hitched onto a motor vehicle, etc. If
the case materials do not provide sufficient information if the linkage was fixed or not, consider the linkage as
fixed.
A vehicle towing another motor vehicle is not considered to be a trailer but is considered to be a towed vehicle
(see 5 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle - Fixed Linkage) or 6 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle Non-Fixed Linkage)). A converter dolly is a device used to hitch a trailer to another semi-trailer or straight truck
and is not counted as a separate trailing unit. For combination vehicles (medium/heavy trucks), count only the
cargo-carrying units.
0 (No Trailing Units) is used when this vehicle was not pulling or towing a wheeled unit.
1 (One Trailing Unit) is used when one trailer was being pulled by this vehicle.
2 (Two Trailing Units) is used when this vehicle was pulling two trailers.
3 (Three or More Trailing Units) is used when this vehicle was pulling three or more trailers.
4 (Yes, Number of Trailing Units Unknown) is used when it is known that there was a trailer(s) but the number
of trailers cannot be determined.
5 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle - Fixed Linkage) is used to identify that a vehicle was towing another
motor vehicle(s) connected by a fixed linkage. The towed vehicle will have two or more wheels on the ground.
This will most commonly apply to drive-away/tow-away tow trucks. These are vehicles equipped with a
mechanism designed to be attached to a towed vehicle (e.g., hoist). This attribute would also be used for
saddle-mounted towed vehicles. An example of a saddle-mount unit would be a bobtail towing one or more
other bobtails. This attribute does not apply to vehicles towed by being loaded on a flatbed or auto transporter.
6 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle - Non-Fixed Linkage) is used to identify that a vehicle was towing
another motor vehicle(s) connected by a non-fixed linkage. A non-fixed linkage includes ropes, chains, or cables.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

306

Vehicle Trailing

V14

9 (Unknown) is used when it cannot be determined from any information if a unit was being pulled or towed.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
For vehicles being towed by an illegal hitch (rope, chain, cable), use the 22 (Towing or Pushing Improperly) for
the data element Related Factors-Driver Level.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(2B0P)
JACKKNIFE equals 1-3,
(4C1P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94,
95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT
equal 0,
(4C2P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C3P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C4P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C5P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
(4C6P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
(4C7P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C8P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C9P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4C0P)
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
(4E0P)
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1 or 2 or 3,
(4E1P)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 4,

(4F1P)

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 01-05, 07-10, 13, 17, 8083, 88-90, 91-95, 97, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0, 9.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.

NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 77.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 7s or blanks for all three sets.
TRAILVER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 7s for any of the three sets.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 15.

307

Vehicle Trailing
Check
(4F2P)

(4F3P)

(4F4P)

(4F5P)

(4F6P)

(4F7P)

(4F8P)

(4F9P)

(4F9Q)

(4F0P)

(4R0P)
(5B0P)
(5B0Q)
(AD0P)
(AE0P)
(AL1P)
(CI0P)
(V020)
(V170)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 15, 16, 42, 73, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
BODY TYPE equals 06, 11, 12, 14-16, 19, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING equals
0,
SEATING POSITION equals 54,
JACKKNIFE equals 0 and BODY TYPE equals
66,
JACKKNIFE equals 0,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 04, 06-08,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05, and
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 12,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 51, 62, 70,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1-4,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 94, 95,
97,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V14
THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 22.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 25.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 30.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 55.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 50.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 20.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS must not be greater
than 10.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 1-4.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 0, 5, 6, or 9.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 0.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0.
JACKKNIFE must not equal 0.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-52, 55, 80-83,
88-91.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.

308

Vehicle Trailing
Check
(V180)

(V190)

(V200)

(V210)

(V220)

(V230)

(V240)

(V250)

(V260)

(V310)
(V340)

(V350)

(V360)

(V370)

(V380)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is less than 99, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 06, 11,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 12,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 80-83, 88, 89,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 15, 16, 42, 73,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 91,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 90,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is, 01-98, and
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 99,
SEATING POSITION equals 54 and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 1-4,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 01-05, 07-09, 14, 15, 17, 19, 97,
and VEHICLE TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 06, 11, 16, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 12, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 42, 73, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V14
THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
AIR BAG DEPLOYED must equal 00.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 15.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 02.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.

309

Vehicle Trailing
Check
(V390)

(V59P)

IF
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 60-65, 71, 72, 79, and VEHICLE
TRAILING does NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 91, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 90, and VEHICLE TRAILING does
NOT equal 0,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS is 01-98, and BODY
TYPE equals 98, 99, and VEHICLE TRAILING
does NOT equal 0,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 06,

(V60P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 07,

(V61P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 08,

(V68P)
(V810)

CARGO BODY TYPE equals 12,
BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 1-4,
BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 3,

(V400)

(V410)

(V420)

(V430)

(V915)
(V983)
(V984)
(V985)

STATE does not equal 04, 08, 16, 18, 20, 3032, 38-41, 46, 49,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 5,

(V991)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0,

(V992)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1,

(V993)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 2,

(V994)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 3,

(V995)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 4,

(V997)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 6,

(V998)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V14
THEN
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 12.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 2.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 8.
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS should not be greater
than 5.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 1.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 2.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE
TRAILING must equal 3.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 5.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 04, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01, 03, 04, 09.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 97.
STATE should equal 04, 08, 16, 18, 20, 30-32, 3841, 46, 49.
VEHICLE TRAILING should not equal 3.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00,
10, 19-21.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04,
06-08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01,
02, 05, 07 or 08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01,
02, 05, 06 or 08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01,
02, 05-07.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01,
02, 05-08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04,
06-08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04-07
or 08.
310

Vehicle Trailing

V14

Consistency Check (CRSS Only):
Check
IF
(V986)
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 3,

THEN
PSU should equal OH, OK, SD, UT.

Consistency Check (FARS Only):
Check
IF
(V16P)
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 88,

THEN
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0, 9.

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Trailer Vehicle Identification Number

V15

V15 - Trailer Vehicle Identification Number
FORMAT: 3 sets, 17 alphanumeric
SAS NAME: TBD
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00000000000000000
-77777777777777777
88888888888888888
99999999999999999

Attributes
No VIN Required
Any Alphanumeric Characters – Actual VIN
No Trailing Units
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element records the vehicle identification number (VIN) of any trailing units of a combination
vehicle.
Remarks: SEE VEHICLE MAKE/VEHICLE MODEL OVERVIEW.
VINs for the power unit are not coded in this element. See V13 Vehicle Identification Number to record the
VIN on the power unit.
Code the complete VIN of any trailing units of a combination vehicle (up to three trailing units). The number of
VIN fields available to code is system generated based on the presence of a trailer or trailers in the element
VEHICLE TRAILING. For example, if VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0 (No Trailing Units), 5 (Vehicle Towing Fixed), 6
(Vehicle Towing Non-fixed), or 9 (Unknown) then TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER is auto-filled
with 7s (No Trailing Units). If VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1 (One Trailing Unit) then one TRAILER VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER set of 17 alphanumeric characters is available to code and the remaining two are 7filled by the system.
The VIN is always left-justified.
If the VIN for any trailing unit of a combination vehicle is not available, code 8s (Not Reported) here. For
example, if a truck tractor semi-trailer combination has no VIN information for the trailer, code 8s (Not
Reported) in the available field. If a truck tractor double-trailer combination has VIN information for only one
of the two trailers, code the known VIN in the first field and 8s (Not Reported) in the second Trailer Vehicle
Identification Number field.
Vehicles manufactured after September 1980 conform to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 115. This
standard requires that each VIN have 17 characters, not contain the letter “I,” “O,” or “Q”, and pass a
mathematical test (check digit). If the VIN is less than 17-characters long (pre-1981 VIN), do not zero-fill.
Instead, leave the remaining characters blank.
Only enter 8s (Not Reported) or 9s (Unknown) when the entire VIN is missing or reported unknown.
Enter all 0s (No VIN Required) if the vehicle has a trailer but the trailer is not required to have a VIN as per 49
CFR Part 565 Requirements for Trailer Manufacturers. This attribute should only be used for homemade or
custom trailers not manufactured for sale to the public.

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Trailer Vehicle Identification Number

V15

If the vehicle is manufactured by the Ford Motor Company and the VIN begins or ends with a script “f”, the
script “f” is not entered. Proceed to the next character, as in the example below.
VIN: f 3 U 6 2 S 1 0 0 9 3 2 f
ENTER: 3 U 6 2 S 1 0 0 9 3 2
In addition, if any hyphens or periods are contained in the string of alphanumeric characters, ignore them as
in the example below.
VIN: S M - E . 3 0 7 6 4 2 1
ENTER: S M E 3 0 7 6 4 2 1
8s (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in
those data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8s (Not Reported) in these three situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials), or
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information
needed to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to
code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials), or
3. Information on the PAR has been sanitized/redacted and no other information is available in the
case materials.
9s (Unknown) is used when the entire trailing unit VIN is reported as Unknown. For example, the police report
the vehicle information is unknown for hit-and-run vehicle known to have a trailer(s).
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
If the state will not allow transmittal of a complete standard VIN, code the right-most four characters as
numeric zeroes. The vehicle registration file must be used to verify the VIN.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Leave “Blank” any column which does not have a VIN character. If part of the VIN is missing or not
decipherable, leave “Blank” the column any such character would ordinarily occupy. In the special case where
the first 11 columns of the VIN are blank, but part or all of columns 12 through 17 contain information, code
Unknown instead of the partial information contained in the columns 12 through 17 of the VIN.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4E0P)
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1 or 2 or 3,
(4E1P)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 4,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 7s or blanks for all three sets.
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 7s for any of the three sets.

313

Trailer Vehicle Identification Number
Check
(904P)

IF
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
is not equal to ‘00000000000000000’,

(905P)

TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
is not equal to ‘00000000000000000’,

(U687)

UNLIKELY: TRAILER VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER equals 0s for any
of the three sets.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V15
THEN
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 1-8, 11-14 should equal A-H, J-N, P, RZ, 0-9, or, blank; TRAILER VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 9 should
equal 0-9, X, or blank; TRAILER VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 10 should
equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, 1-9, or, blank;
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 15-17 should equal 0-9 or blank.
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 1-8, 11 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z,
or 0-9; TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER position 9 should equal 0-9; TRAILER
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER position 10
should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-T, V-Y, or 1-9;
TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
positions 12-14 should equal A-H, J-N, P, R-Z, 09 or blank; TRAILER VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER positions 15-17 should equal 0-9 or
blank.
--

314

Jackknife

V16

V16 - Jackknife
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.J_KNIFE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3

Attributes
Not an Articulated Vehicle
No
Yes - First Event
Yes - Subsequent Event

Definition: This element identifies if this vehicle experienced a "jackknife" anytime during the unstabilized
situation.
Remarks: Jackknife can occur at any time during the crash sequence. This element is applicable for all power
unit/trailing unit combinations (e.g., truck tractor or single-unit truck with one or more trailers, articulated bus,
car pulling a boat on a trailer, light utility vehicle/trailing unit combination, etc.).
Jackknife applies to a condition that occurs to an articulated vehicle, any vehicle with a trailing unit connected
by a hitch (fixed linkage) while in motion. A jackknife occurs when there is an uncontrolled articulation between
the power unit and the trailing unit in which the trailing unit does not follow directly behind the power unit
(tracking), and the driver did not initiate the non-tracking situation. The condition reflects a loss of control of
the vehicle by the driver in which the trailing units’ normal straight-line path behind the power unit is not
maintained.
If the final resting configuration of the vehicle in the PAR diagram is in a jackknife position, it does not
necessarily mean that the vehicle has jackknifed. Turning and backing are examples of driver initiated nontracking controlled articulation and are not coded as a jackknife.
In the case materials, the terms “tractor jackknife” or “trailer swing” may be used to describe particular
incidences of uncontrolled articulation. Either incident shall be coded as Jackknife.
Jackknife is not likely to be a harmful event but may be part of an unstabilized condition just before the first
harmful event.
0 (Not an Articulated Vehicle) is used when this vehicle is not a vehicle-trailing unit combination. This attribute
can also be used when coding a hit-and-run vehicle when there is not an indication in the case materials that the
hit and run vehicle had a trailer.
1 (No) is used when no uncontrolled articulation was reported between a vehicle and a trailing unit.
2 (Yes - First Event) is used when an uncontrolled articulation was reported as occurring before or as part of the
first injury or damage producing event for this vehicle.
3 (Yes - Subsequent Event) is used when an uncontrolled articulation occurs after the first injury or damage
producing event for this vehicle.

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Jackknife

V16

Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(2B0P)
JACKKNIFE equals 1-3,
(3B0P)
JACKKNIFE equals 2, 3,
(5B0P)
JACKKNIFE equals 0 and BODY TYPE equals 66,
(5B0Q)
JACKKNIFE equals 0,
(7B0F)
JACKKNIFE equals 2, 3,
(AK00)
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 22, 96,
(AL8P)
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 51, 70,
(CI0P)
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1-4,
(V538)
JACKKNIFE equals 2,

(VH70)

UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0, 9.
TRAVEL SPEED must not equal 000.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 1-4.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 0, 5, 6, or 9.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 1.
JACKKNIFE should equal 0.
JACKKNIFE must equal 2, 3.
JACKKNIFE must not equal 0.
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) must not
equal 04, 05, 07-09 or 13 for this vehicle.
elements V15, V24, V31 must all be left blank.

316

Motor Carrier Identification Number

V17

V17 - Motor Carrier Identification Number
FORMAT: 1 set 2 numeric, 1 set 9 alphanumeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.MCARR_ID, parkwork.PMCARR_ID, Vehicle.MCARR_I1; parkwork.PMCARR_I1,
Vehicle.MCARR_I2; parkwork.PMCARR_I2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Issuing Authority:
Codes Attributes
00
Not Applicable
01-56 State Code
57
US DOT
58
MC/MX (ICC)
95
Canada
96
Mexico
88
None
77
Not Reported
99
Unknown
Identification Number:
Codes Attributes
-Actual Number
0s
Not Applicable
8s
None
7s
Not Reported
9s
Unknown
Definition: This element records the issuing authority and motor carrier identification number if applicable to
this vehicle.
Remarks: The Motor Carrier Identification Number is recorded on the Truck Supplement or PAR next to the
appropriate Source (Issuing Authority.) This information should be available on your Police Accident Report
(PAR) or Truck and Bus Supplement with other elements required by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Administration (FMCSA). You should expect to find motor carrier identification numbers for the following
qualifying vehicles:
1. Light trucks pulling a trailer with gross combination weight rating (GCWR) greater than 10,000 lbs.
2. Medium/Heavy Trucks: vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs.
3. Buses with 9 or more seats (including the driver).
4. Light Trucks, Vans, and Passenger Vehicles displaying a hazardous materials placard.
Federal regulations require that almost all commercial trucks/buses operating across state lines that meet the
above criteria (i.e., interstate) have Identification Numbers except those hauling “exempt” commodities (such as
unprocessed agricultural products). This will be a US DOT or MC/MX (ICC) Number. Some states issue
“Intrastate” motor carriers a state number that can also be recorded here.

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317

Motor Carrier Identification Number

V17

Identification Number should be left justified. If less than 9 characters, left-justify and do not zero-fill.
Figure 11: Examples of Left-Justified Coding of Motor Carrier Identification Number

Note: Many carriers will have a US DOT or MC/MX (ICC) Number plus a State Number.
HIERARCHY: When Identification Numbers are available from more than one Source (Issuing Authority), it is
most important to code the US DOT number then the MC/MX (ICC) number if one is available. It is next most
important to code the Mexican or Canadian issued number. Finally, State-issued numbers should be coded.
57 (US DOT NUMBERS): US DOT is used in “Issuing Authority” if a US DOT Number or a State Number and US
DOT Number are recorded on the PAR or Supplement. Enter the US DOT Number in “Identification Number.”
• US DOT Numbers are in the process of being assigned to Intrastate motor carriers in a number of states.
These should include the issuing state’s two-character abbreviation on the end; e.g., US DOT 123456XX
(where “XX” is the State abbreviation). See example of proper coding in Figure 11.
58 (MC/MX (ICC) NUMBERS): MC/MX (ICC) is used in “Issuing Authority” if an MC/MX (ICC) Number or a State
Number and an MC/MX (ICC) Number are recorded on the PAR or Supplement. Enter the MC/MX (ICC) Number
in “Identification Number.”
STATE NUMBERS: If only a State Number is recorded on the PAR or Supplement, then code the appropriate
FARS State Code in “Issuing Authority” and enter the State Number in “Identification Number.”
State Numbers are issued by a public utility commission, a public service commission, or some other state
agency, to vehicles that operate either in interstate commerce or only within that state. However, some states
do not regulate the motor carrier industry. Trucks and buses that operate strictly within such states (i.e.,
intrastate) may not have numbers.
CANADIAN/MEXICAN NUMBERS: Use attributes “95” or “96” in “Issuing Authority” if a Canadian or Mexican
authority (respectively) has issued the only Carrier Identification Number recorded on the PAR or Supplement.
00/0s (Not Applicable) would apply when you would never expect this style of vehicle to have a Motor Carrier
ID number (cars, motor homes, etc.). This vehicle would not appear on a truck supplement (supplemental truck
elements on the PAR would be coded N/A).

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318

Motor Carrier Identification Number

V17

88/8s (None) should be used when:
• you could expect this type of vehicle to have an ID Number, but it is exempt because of its use or activity
at the time of the crash (e.g. construction trucks or equipment);
• this type of vehicle often does have a number (but vehicle is operated strictly intrastate and activity not
regulated); or
• the PAR/supplement states “No Number.”
Note: In some states, school buses are exempt from requiring a Motor Carrier ID Number
99/9s (Unknown) is used if the investigating officer reported the motor carrier identification number as
unknown or when the body type of the vehicle is unknown.
Example:
• An unidentified hit-and-run vehicle.
77/7s (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 77/7s (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
Note: For this element, Not Reported is used when you could expect this type of vehicle to have a Motor
Carrier ID Number, but:
• the PAR or truck supplement leaves the field blank; or
• you don’t have a supplement or a field on the PAR (no further information given).
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
If your state uses separate Truck/Bus Supplements, you should seek help to get routine access to them, just as
with your state’s PAR. Your state’s SAFETYNET representative may be able to provide a Motor Carrier
Identification Number.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4N1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 00,
(4N2P)
(4N3P)
(4N4P)

(4N5P)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
equals 00-000000000,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Identification Number) equals 000000000,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
does not equal 00-000000000,
BODY TYPE does not equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45,
48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92, 93, or
HM2 does not equal 2,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 00-000000000.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must equal 00.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Issuing Authority) must equal 00.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45, 48-52,
55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 79, 92, 93, 99, or
HM2 must equal 2.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must equal 00-000000000, 99-999999999.

319

Motor Carrier Identification Number
Check
(4N6P)

IF
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
equals 77-777777777,

(4N7P)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Identification Number) equals 888888888 or
777777777 or 999999999,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Issuing Authority) equals 01-58, 95, 96,

(4NAP)

(4NBP)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Issuing Authority) equals 01-58, 95, 96

(4NCP)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Issuing Authority) is 00 or 77 or 88 or 99,

(U680)

UNLIKELY: MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER (Identification Number) equals
999999997.
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67,
71, 72, 78, 93, or HM1 equals 2,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 00,

(V980)
(V981)
(V982)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
does not equal 00-000000000,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V17
THEN
BODY TYPE should equal 28, 45, 48-52, 55, 5864, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 93, or HM1 should equal
2.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Issuing Authority) should be filled respectively
as 88 or 77 or 99.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Identification Number) should not equal
888888888, 777777777, 999999997,
999999999.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Identification Number) must not equal
000000000.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
(Identification Number) must be filled
respectively as 000000000 or 777777777 or
88888888 or 999999999.
--

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 00-000000000.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
should equal 00-000000000.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00.

320

GVWR / GCWR

V18

V18 – GVWR / GCWR
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating/
Gross Combination Weight Rating
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.GVWR, parkwork.PGVWR
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
8
9

Attributes
Not Applicable
10,000 lbs. or less
10,001 lbs. - 26,000 lbs.
26,001 lbs. or more
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the gross vehicle weight rating of this vehicle when applicable.
Remarks: Record the applicable weight range for a single vehicle’s Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or
combination vehicle’s Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR).
It may appear as a numeric value or as a range of values like those displayed above. This information should be
available on your Police Accident Report (PAR) or Truck and Bus Supplement with other elements required by
the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) is the value specified by the manufacturer as the recommended maximum
loaded weight of a single motor vehicle.
Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) is the value specified by the manufacturer(s) as the recommended
maximum loaded weight of a combination (articulated) motor vehicle. This is for truck tractors and single-unit
trucks pulling a trailer(s). GCWR is the sum of the gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) of all units, power unit
and its trailer(s).
For Truck/Trailer Combinations: If your state records the GVWR of the power unit and trailer(s) in separate
fields, be sure to add together the GVWRs of all the units when recording this element.
0 (Not Applicable) should be used for vehicles 10,000 lbs. or less, not displaying a hazardous materials placard,
for buses less than 9 seats (including driver), and for all motor homes.
1 (10,000 lbs. or less) should be used for passenger cars and light trucks with 10,000 lbs. or less GVWR/GCWR
when displaying a hazardous materials placard or for buses with 9 or more seats (including driver) with 10,000
lbs. GVWR or less.

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321

GVWR / GCWR

V18

8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
9 (Unknown) should be used when GVWR/GCWR information is reported as “Unknown” on your PAR or
Truck/Bus Supplement and the VIN Decoder is unable to return a value.
PROCEDURE FOR VERIFICATION OF GVWR/GCWR RANGE:
The MDE provides VIN Decoder values for GVWR. This information is available under the Vehicle Information
tab.
NOTE: The VIN decoding only provides the GVWR of a single vehicle or the GVWR of the power unit in a
combination unit motor vehicle.
• For Truck/Trailer Combinations:
1. If the VIN return fits within the range provided on the PAR or Truck and Bus supplement, use
that value.
2. If the VIN return falls below the range provided on the PAR or Truck and Bus Supplement, use
the value provided on the crash report to account for the addition of the trailer’s GVWR.
•

If GVWR/GCWR information is unavailable or not reported on your PAR or Truck/Bus Supplement, and
you have a valid VIN, utilize the information on the power unit provided by the VIN Decoder to code this
element.

Comparison of The VIN Decoder and Codes for GVWR/GCWR
THE VIN DECODER (trucks only)
FARS/CRSS CODES
-0 – Not Applicable
6,000 lbs. or less
1 – 10,000 lbs. or less
6,001 – 10,000 lbs.
“
10,001 – 14,000 lbs.
2 – 10,001 – 26,000 lbs.
14,001 – 16,000 lbs.
“
16,001 – 19,500 lbs.
“
19,501 – 26,000 lbs.
“
26,001 – 33,000 lbs.
3 – 26,001 lbs. or more
33,001 lbs. or more
“
Unknown
9 – Unknown
NOTE:
In FARS, prior to 2007, only the power unit was considered in recording the element Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating (GVWR). Starting in 2007, the element was modified to allow Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)
to be recorded for combination vehicles to match the nationally accepted reporting criteria for this element
(FMCSA’s SAFETYNET and MMUCC).

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GVWR / GCWR

V18

Use of GCWR instead of GVWR will only impact these vehicles:
1. Light trucks, 10,000 lbs. or less, pulling trailers (truck/trailers) (greater than 10,000 lbs. GCWR)
2. Single-unit trucks, less than 26,000 lbs., pulling trailers (truck/trailers) (greater than 26,000 lbs. GCWR)
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(U490)
UNLIKELY: GVWR/GVCR equals 8 and
VEHICLE MODEL YEAR is greater than 1980
and not equal to 9998 or 9999 and VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not equal 0s,
8s or 9s.
(V502)
GVWR/GCWR equals 0, and HM1 equals 1,
(V503)

GVWR/GCWR equals 1,

(V504)
(V505)
(V506)
(V507)
(V50P)

GVWR/GCWR equals 1,
GVWR/GCWR equals 9,
BODY TYPE equals 60,
BODY TYPE equals 01-21, 28-30, 32-39, 45-49,
BODY TYPE equals 61, 62, 67, 71, and
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 04,

(V51P)

BODY TYPE equals 63, 66, 72,

(V532)

(V64P)
(V65P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01, 02, 0408, 19, 21,
BODY TYPE equals 42, 65, 73, and HM1
equals 1,
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 01-12, 97-98, and
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not
equal Not Reported or Unknown,
BODY TYPE equals 50-59, 60-64, 66-72, 78,
GVWR/GCWR equals 2, 3,

(VA70)

GVWR/GCWR equals 1, and HM2 equals 2,

(V540)
(V62P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
--

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION and CARGO BODY
TYPE must equal 00.
HM2 should equal 2, or VEHICLE
CONFIGURATION should equal 20.
BODY TYPE should equal 01-22, 28-39, 41-49.
BODY TYPE should not equal 61-63, 66, 67.
GVWR/GCWR should equal 2.
GVWR/GCWR should equal 0, 1.
GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 9. (See
GVWR/GCWR Remarks on how to use VIN
Decoder to determine GVWR.)
GVWR/GCWR must equal 3. (See GVWR/GCWR
Remarks on how to use VIN Decoder to
determine GVWR.)
GVWR/GCWR should not equal 0 or 1.
GVWR/GCWR should equal 0.
GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 3.

GVWR/GCWR must not equal 0, 1.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 00,
and CARGO BODY TYPE must not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must equal 10.

323

Vehicle Configuration

V19

V19 - Vehicle Configuration
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.V_Config, Parkwork.PV_Config
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
10
01
02
04
05
06
07
08
19
20
21
99

Attributes
Not Applicable
Vehicle 10,000 pounds or less placarded for hazardous materials
Single-Unit Truck (2-axle and GVWR more than 10,000 lbs.)
Single-Unit Truck (3 or more axles)
Truck Pulling Trailer(s)
Truck Tractor (Bobtail)
Truck Tractor/Semi-Trailer
Truck Tractor/Double
Truck Tractor/Triple
Truck More Than 10,000 lbs., Cannot Classify
Bus/Large Van (seats for 9-15 occupants, including driver)
Bus (seats for more than 15 occupants, including driver)
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the general configuration of this vehicle when applicable.
Remarks: This information should be available on your PAR or Truck and Bus Supplement with other elements
required by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).
In some states, the data element “Vehicle Configuration” or its attributes may appear under another title, such
as: Unit Type, Vehicle Type, Type of Unit, etc. In many states, Vehicle Configuration is recorded for all vehicles.
However, in our data systems, only code Vehicle Configurations for the following qualifying vehicles:
1. Light trucks pulling a trailer with gross combination weight rating (GCWR) greater than 10,000 lbs.
2. Medium/Heavy Vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs.
3. Buses with 9 or more seats (including the driver).
4. Light Trucks, Vans and Passenger Vehicles displaying a hazardous materials placard.
If Vehicle Configuration is coded “01-99,” Cargo Body Type should be coded “01-99.”
00 (Not Applicable) is used for automobiles, motorcycles, passenger vans (with less than 9 seats, including
driver), and single-unit light trucks or cargo vans (10,000 lbs. or less GVWR), not carrying hazardous cargo.
A light truck carrying hazardous cargo is coded 10 (Vehicle 10,000 Pounds or Less Placarded for Hazardous
Materials). When vehicles in this category are not displaying a hazardous materials placard, use 00 (Not
Applicable).
01 (Single-Unit Truck [2-axle and GVWR more than 10,000 lbs.]) is a power unit that includes a permanently
mounted cargo body (also called a straight truck) that has only two axles and a GVWR of over 10,000 lbs. This
also includes a single-unit truck towing other vehicles where the towed vehicle has at least two wheels on the
ground. (See Cargo Body Type attribute 12 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle)).

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02 (Single-Unit Truck [3 or more axles]) is a power unit that includes a permanently mounted cargo body (also
called a straight truck) that has three or more axles. When counting axles on a single-unit truck, include raised
axles. This also includes a single-unit truck towing other vehicles where the towed vehicle has at least two
wheels on the ground. (See Cargo Body Type attribute 12 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle)).
04 (Truck Pulling Trailer [s]) is used for single-unit trucks pulling a trailer.
05 (Truck Tractor [Bobtail]) is a motor vehicle consisting of a single motorized transport device designed
primarily for pulling semi-trailers (e.g., cab only). These vehicles are sometimes referred to as a “bobtail.” This
also includes truck tractors towing other truck tractors in a saddlemount towing position, or towing other
vehicles where the towed vehicle has at least two wheels on the ground. (See Cargo Body Type attribute 12
(Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle)).
06 (Truck Tractor/Semi-Trailer) is used for truck tractors with one trailer. This attribute should not be used for
single-unit trucks pulling a trailer.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
NOTE: This attribute was used for truck tractors with any number of trailers before 2001.
07 (Truck Tractor/Double) is used for tractor pulling two trailers.
08 (Truck Tractor/Triple) is used for tractor pulling three trailers.
19 (Truck More Than 10,000 lbs., Cannot Classify) is used when you know the vehicle meets the definition of a
medium/heavy truck by GVWR/GCWR, but you cannot select from the above attributes. An example is a vehicle
with one trailer, but it is unknown whether it is a tractor-trailer or a single-unit truck pulling a trailer. Other
examples would include construction vehicles such as a bulldozer, crane, backhoe, etc.
20 (Bus/Large Van [seats for 9-15 people, including driver]) is used for smaller van-based buses (less than 16
seats, including driver). Examples include commuter vans and van-based school buses.
21 (Bus [seats for more than 15 occupants, including driver]). A van-based bus qualifies for this attribute if it is
configured to include enough seats. A CDL is required for the driver of this bus.
99 (Unknown) is used if the investigating officer indicates that the vehicle configuration is unknown or when the
body type of the vehicle is unknown. For example, an unidentified hit-and-run vehicle would be coded as 99
(Unknown).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4N1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not
equal 00,
(4N2P)
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER equals 00-000000000,
(AB1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01,
(AD0P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 04, 0608,
(AE0P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05 and
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 12,
(AE1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05-08,
(AF1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 20,
(AF2P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 20, 21,
2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER must not
equal 00-000000000.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must equal 00.
CARGO BODY TYPE must NOT equal 22.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 0.
BODY TYPE must equal 66.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 22.
BODY TYPE must equal 20, 21, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
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Vehicle Configuration
Check
(AH0P)

IF
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not
equal 00, 99,

(D280)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05-08,
21, or HM1 equals 2,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 21,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 21,
GVWR/GCWR equals 0, and HM1 equals
1,
GVWR/GCWR equals 1,

(D450)
(V46P)
(V470)
(V47P)
(V502)
(V503)
(V50P)

(V531)
(V532)

BODY TYPE equals 61, 62, 67, 71, and
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not
equal 04,
BUS USE equals 01, 04-07, 98,

(V56P)
(V57P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01, 02,
04-08, 19, 21,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 10,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05,

(V58P)
(V59P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 04,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 06,

(V60P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 07,

(V61P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 08,

(V640)
(V65P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not
equal 00, 99,
GVWR/GCWR equals 2, 3,

(V790)

BODY TYPE equals 20,

(V800)

BODY TYPE equals 21, 22, 28, 29,

(V810)
(V840)

BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 1-4,
BODY TYPE equals 50-59,

(V850)

BODY TYPE equals 60,

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V19
THEN
BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 21, 28, 31, 40, 41, 45,
48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92, 93, or HM2
must equal 2.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 05-08, 21,
and HM2 should not equal 2.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
CARGO BODY TYPE should be 01-05, 07, 12, 96-98.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 22.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION and CARGO BODY TYPE
must equal 00.
HM2 should equal 2, or VEHICLE CONFIGURATION
should equal 20.
GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 9. (See GVWR/GCWR
Remarks on how to use VIN Decoder to determine
GVWR.)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 20, 21, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.
GVWR/GCWR should not equal 0 or 1.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-22, 28-49.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 12, 96, and BODY TYPE
must equal 66.
BODY TYPE must not equal 66.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING
must equal 1.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING
must equal 2.
BODY TYPE must equal 66, and VEHICLE TRAILING
must equal 3.
BODY TYPE should not equal 28, 30, 42, 45, 48, 49.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 00 and
CARGO BODY TYPE must not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, 04, 10,
20, 21, 99, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00,
01, 22, 99.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 04, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01, 03, 04, 09.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 21, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 03, 04,
and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01.
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Vehicle Configuration
Check
(V860)

IF
HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 61-64,

(V870)

BODY TYPE equals 65,

(V880)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,

(V890)

BODY TYPE equals 71, 72,

(V900)

BODY TYPE equals 73,

(V910)

BODY TYPE equals 78,

(V915)

BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE
TRAILING equals 0,
BODY TYPE equals 79,

(V920)
(V930)
(V940)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 00, or
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 00,
HM1 equals 2,

(V981)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 00,

(V982)
(V985)

MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER does not equal 00-000000000,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 5,

(V991)
(V992)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 0,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 1,

(V993)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 2,

(V994)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 3,

(V995)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 4,

(V997)
(V998)

VEHICLE TRAILING equals 6,
VEHICLE TRAILING equals 9,

(VA70)

GVWR/GCWR equals 1, and HM2 equals
2,
UNIT TYPE equals 4,

(VH75)

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V19
THEN
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 02, 04,
and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-10, 12, 9698.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 05-08, 19,
and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04, 06-12,
96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04, 08, 10, 96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 97.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 99, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 99.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-64, 66-72, 78, 79.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00, 99
and CARGO BODY TYPE should not equal 00, 99.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER should
equal 00-000000000.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00, 10,
19-21.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04, 06-08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01, 02, 05,
07 or 08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01, 02, 05,
06 or 08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01, 02, 0507.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 01, 02, 0508.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04, 06-08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 04-07 or
08.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must equal 10.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 05, 20,
21, 10.

327

Cargo Body Type

V20

V20 - Cargo Body Type
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.CARGO_BT, Parkwork.PCARGTYP
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
22
96
97
98
99

Attributes
Not Applicable (N/A)
Van/Enclosed Box
Cargo Tank
Flatbed
Dump
Concrete Mixer
Auto Transporter
Garbage/Refuse
Grain/Chips/Gravel
Pole-Trailer
Log
Intermodal Container Chassis
Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle
Bus
No Cargo Body Type
Other
Unknown Cargo Body Type
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the primary cargo carrying capability of this vehicle when applicable.
Remarks: This information should be available on the PAR or Truck and Bus Supplement with other elements
required by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).
You should expect to find cargo body types for the following qualifying vehicles:
1. Light trucks pulling a trailer with gross combination weight rating (GCWR) greater than 10,000 lbs.
2. Medium/Heavy Trucks: vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs.
3. Buses with 9 or more seats (including the driver).
4. Light Trucks, Vans and Passenger Vehicles displaying a hazardous materials placard.
00 (Not Applicable [N/A]) is used for automobiles, motorcycles, passenger vans (with less than 9 seats, including
driver) and single-unit small trucks or vans (10,000 lbs. or less GVWR), not displaying hazardous material placard.
01 (Van/Enclosed Box) is used for all enclosed trailers and enclosed cargo vans.
03 (Flatbed) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body without sides or roof, with or without
readily removable stakes which may be tied together with chains/slats or panels. This includes “stake trucks.”
04 (Dump) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body designed to be tilted to discharge its
load by gravity.

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Cargo Body Type

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06 (Auto Transporter) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body capable of transporting
multiple, fully assembled automobiles on an “auto transporter” trailer. Do not use this code for flatbeds
transporting vehicles (e.g., flatbed tow truck, or flatbed semi-trailer carrying wrecked/salvaged automobiles).
07 (Garbage/Refuse) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body that is specifically designed
to collect and transport garbage and refuse. This includes both conventional rear-loading and over-the-top
bucket loading garbage trucks. Also included are recycle trucks and roll-off style garbage trucks.
08 (Grain/Chips/Gravel) is used when the available information refers to trucks that discharge their loads by
gravity from the bottom (i.e., belly dump).
09 (Pole-Trailer) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body type that consists of a trailer
designed to be attached to a towing vehicle by a reach or pole or by being boomed and secured to the towing
vehicle. These are ordinarily used to carry property of a long or irregular shape, such as telephone poles. The
pole trailer extends or retracts to accommodate varying lengths of cargo.
10 (Log) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body type with a fixed middle beam and side
support posts specifically designed for carrying logs. This includes single-unit log trucks.
09 (Pole-Trailer) and 10 (Log) may be listed on a PAR as “Pole/Log”. If the trailer can telescope to carry
different log lengths, then it should be considered a 09 (Pole-Trailer).
11 (Intermodal Container Chassis) is used when the available information refers to a cargo body type used for a
trailer specifically designed to have a rail or ship container mounted directly on the chassis. These should not be
confused with van/enclosed box cargo body types. Intermodal containers may also be mounted on a flatbed
trailer, in which case 03 (Flatbed) is the cargo body type.
12 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle) is used when the available information refers to vehicles that have
no cargo carrying capability but are in the act of towing another motor vehicle where the towed vehicle has at
least two wheels on the ground. These are often called “drive-away, tow-aways” and will be applicable to tow
trucks and specially rigged truck tractors. This includes “saddlemount” configurations. Does not apply to
vehicles “towed” by being loaded on a flatbed or auto transporter.
22 (Bus) is a motor vehicle with seating for transporting nine or more persons, including the driver.
96 (No Cargo Body Type) is used for any medium heavy truck with no cargo carrying capability (bobtail); a truck
chassis with a cab only (stripped chassis); and light trucks and passenger vehicles displaying a hazardous
materials placard. Other examples of 96 (No Cargo Body Type) would be Sign Trucks, Fire Trucks, Tow Trucks,
Construction Vehicle, etc.
97 (Other) is used when the cargo body type is other than the body types listed above. This includes 2-axle, 6tire pickups greater than 10,000 lbs. without a trailer. This does not include a pickup pulling a trailer
(truck/trailer). Use the Cargo Body Type of the attached trailer in these situations. This attribute previously
included “log trucks” which are now recorded under 10 (Log).
98 (Unknown Cargo Body Type) is used when the vehicle qualifies for this data element but the cargo body type
is not known or when there is not enough information to distinguish one cargo body type from another. An
example would be contradictory data on whether the truck is a van/enclosed box or a flatbed.
99 (Unknown) is used when the investigating officer indicates it was unknown as to cargo body type or when
the body type of the vehicle is unknown. For example, an unidentified hit-and-run vehicle.
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Cargo Body Type

V20

NOTE: For truck/trailer vehicle configurations where the power unit and trailer have different cargo body types,
code the cargo body type of the power unit. For example, a dump truck pulling a flatbed trailer should be coded
as 04 (Dump).
For truck/trailer vehicle configurations where the power unit’s Cargo Body Type would be coded 96 (No Cargo
Body Type) or 97 (Other), code the cargo body of the trailer. For example: a dual-rear-wheel pickup truck
pulling a flatbed trailer should be coded as 03 (Flatbed).
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Prior to 2007, 12 (Vehicle Towing Another Motor Vehicle) was recorded as code “96 – No Cargo Body”.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(AB1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01,
(AE0P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05, and
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 12,
(AF1P)
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 20,
(AK00)
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 22, 96,
(AL0P)
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 22,
(AM0P)
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 00, 99,

(V470)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 01,

(V47P)
(V502)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 21,
GVWR/GCWR equals 0, and HM1 equals 1,

(V531)

BUS USE equals 01, 04-07, 98,

(V57P)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05,

(V62P)

(V65P)

CARGO BODY TYPE equals 01-12, 97-98, and
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER does not
equal Not Reported or Unknown,
GVWR/GCWR equals 2, 3,

(V660)

CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 00, 99,

(V68P)
(V790)

CARGO BODY TYPE equals 12,
BODY TYPE equals 20,

(V800)

BODY TYPE equals 21, 22, 28, 29,

(V810)

BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 1-4,
BODY TYPE equals 50-59,

(V840)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
CARGO BODY TYPE must NOT equal 22.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 0.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 22.
JACKKNIFE should equal 0.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 21, 28, 31, 40,
41, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92,
93, or HM2 must equal 2.
CARGO BODY TYPE should be 01-05, 07, 12, 9698.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 22.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION and CARGO BODY
TYPE must equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 20, 21,
and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.
CARGO BODY TYPE must equal 12, 96, and BODY
TYPE must equal 66.
GVWR/GCWR must equal 2, 3.

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must not equal 00,
and CARGO BODY TYPE must not equal 00.
BODY TYPE should not equal 28, 30, 42, 45, 48,
49.
VEHICLE TRAILING must equal 5.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, 04,
10, 20, 21, 99, and CARGO BODY TYPE should
equal 00, 01, 22, 99.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 04, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01, 03, 04, 09.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 21, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.
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Cargo Body Type
Check
(V850)

V20
IF

BODY TYPE equals 60,

(V860)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 61-64,

(V870)

BODY TYPE equals 65,

(V880)

HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and BODY TYPE
equals 66,

(V890)

BODY TYPE equals 71, 72,

(V900)

BODY TYPE equals 73,

(V910)

BODY TYPE equals 78,

(V915)

BODY TYPE equals 67, and VEHICLE TRAILING
equals 0,
BODY TYPE equals 79,

(V920)
(V930)
(V940)

VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 00, or
CARGO BODY TYPE equals 00,
HM1 equals 2,

(VH80)

UNIT TYPE equals 4,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 03,
04, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, 02,
04, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-10,
12, 96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 05-08,
19, and CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04,
06-12, 96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 01-04, 08, 10,
96-98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 00, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 19, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 98.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 01, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 97.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 99, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 99.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-64, 66-72, 78,
79.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 00,
99 and CARGO BODY TYPE should not equal 00,
99.
CARGO BODY TYPE should not equal 06, 07, 11,
12, 22.

331

Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard

V21

V21 - Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard
FORMAT: 1 set, 1 numeric; 1 set, 1 numeric; 1 set, 4 numeric; 1 set, 2 numeric; 1 set, 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.HAZ_INV, Vehicle.HAZ_PLAC, Vehicle.HAZ_ID, Vehicle.HAZ_CNO, Vehicle.HAZ_REL,
Parkwork.PHAZ_INV, Parkwork.PHAZPLAC, Parkwork.PHAZ_ID, Parkwork.PHAZ_CNO,
Parkwork.PHAZ_REL
ELEMENT VALUES:
HM1: Hazardous Materials Involvement
Codes Attributes
1
No
2
Yes
HM2: Placard (Did This Motor Vehicle Display a Hazardous Material (HM) Placard?)
Codes Attributes
0
Not Applicable
1
No
2
Yes
8
Not Reported
HM3: 4-digit Hazardous Material Identification Number
Codes Attributes
0000 Not Applicable
Actual 4-digit number except
8888 Not Reported
HM4: 2-digit Hazardous Material Class Number
Codes Attributes
00
Not Applicable
01-09 Actual 1-digit number (with leading zero)
88
Not Reported
HM5: Release of Hazardous Material from the Cargo Compartment
Codes Attributes
0
Not Applicable
1
No
2
Yes
8
Not Reported
Definition: This element identifies the presence of hazardous cargo for this vehicle and records information
about the hazardous cargo when present.
Remarks: This element must be coded for all vehicles.
Placard and Hazardous Materials Released information should be available on your PAR or Truck and Bus
Supplement with other elements required by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) for
commercial vehicles.

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Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard

V21

Hazardous Material is a substance or material which has been designated by the U.S. Department of
Transportation, or other authorizing entity, as capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety and
property when transported in commerce. Any motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials in quantities
above the thresholds established by the U.S. Department of Transportation, or other authorized entity is
required to display a hazardous materials placard.
Exclusions:
• Fuel or oil carried by the vehicle for its own use.
Hazardous Materials Placard: is a sign required to be affixed to any motor vehicle transporting hazardous
materials in quantities above the thresholds established by the U.S. Department of Transportation, or other
authorized entity. This placard identifies the 1-digit hazard class division number; 4-digit hazardous material
identification number or name of the hazardous material being transported.
Vehicle transporting hazardous materials should have a diamond-shaped placard affixed indicating the material
carried. (See Figure 12below.)
HM1– Hazardous Materials Involvement
Definition: This element indicates whether the vehicle was carrying hazardous materials - involvement.
1 (No) is used when there is no indication of hazardous materials for this vehicle in the case materials. For cases
involving a hit and run, the default is “1 -No” when no details are reported regarding the hit and run vehicle.
If HM1 is 1 (No), HM2-HM5 will be coded Not Applicable.
2 (Yes) is used when hazardous materials were indicated for this vehicle in the case materials.
Examples for code 2 (Yes):
1. The officer records any information about a placard, whether or not he indicates that the vehicle was
carrying hazardous materials.
2. The officer does not record any information about a placard, however, you know that hazardous
material was involved.
3. Information identifying hazardous material is blank, but you know that hazardous material was released.
HM2 – Hazardous Materials Placard
Definition: This element indicates the presence of hazardous materials and whether the vehicle displayed a
hazardous materials placard.
0 (Not Applicable) is used when there is no indication of hazardous materials for this vehicle in the case
materials (HM1 equals 1 (No)).
1 (No) is used when hazardous materials are involved, but the officer indicates there was no placard.
2 (Yes) is used when hazardous materials are involved, and the vehicle does have a placard.
8 (Not Reported) is used when hazardous materials are involved, but the crash report does not record any
information about the presence of a placard.

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Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard

V21

HM3 – 4-Digit Hazardous Materials Identification Number
Definition: This element indicates the 4-digit identification number.
0000 (Not Applicable) – No indication of hazardous materials for this vehicle in the case materials (HM1 equals 1
(No)).
Actual 4-digit Number – Record the 4-digit Hazardous Materials Identification Number reported in the case
materials.
8888 (Not Reported) – Hazardous materials involved, but the 4-digit number was not recorded or this field is not
available on your crash report. If you are provided the name of the hazardous material on your report but not
the 4-digit number, use this attribute and be sure to record the 1-digit class number if it is provided.
HM4 – 2-Digit Hazardous Materials Class Number
Definition: This element indicates the single-digit hazardous material class number for the vehicle.
00 (Not Applicable) – No indication of hazardous materials for this vehicle in the case materials (HM1 equals 1
(No)).
Actual 2-digit Class Number (01-09) – Record the 1-digit Hazardous Materials Class Number recorded on your
crash report with a leading zero (e.g., if the 1-digit class number is 5, enter “05”). If you were given a two-digit
number with decimal point, record only the first digit with a leading zero (e.g., if the class number is “1.3” you
should record “01”). See Figure 12.
88 (Not Reported) – Hazardous Materials involved, but the 1-digit number was not recorded or this field is not
available in the crash materials.
HM5 – Release of Hazardous Materials from Cargo Compartment
Definition: This element indicates whether or not any hazardous cargo was released from the cargo tank or
compartment.
0 (Not Applicable) – No indication of hazardous materials for this vehicle in the case materials (HM1 equals 1
(No)).
1 (No) – Hazardous Materials involved, and the officer indicates there was no release of the material(s) from the
cargo compartment.
2 (Yes) – Hazardous Materials involved, and the officer indicates there was a release of the material(s) from the
cargo compartment.
8 (Not Reported) – Hazardous Materials involved, and you can’t determine from the crash materials whether or
not hazardous material was released from the cargo compartment.
Do not include fuel or oil carried by the vehicle for its own use which has been released.

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V21

Guideline for recording multiple hazardous materials:
• If the case has a hazmat spill and you know which material was released always record that material.
• If you were to get two hazardous materials reported of different classes (1-9), report the material from
DOT Hazmat Table 1 and its associated 4-digit UN number over materials in Table 2. Table 1 includes
Hazard Class or Divisions: 1.1, 1.2. 1.3, 2.3, 4.3, 5.2, 6.1, 7.
• If you have two materials of the same class (e.g. both class 8 - Corrosive) report the material in greatest
quantity if you have the information, if not report the material that is listed first on the report.
Examples of Hazardous Materials are:
Any transport vehicle containing any quantity of the following classes of material must be placarded:
• Explosives (1.1, 1.2, 1.3)
• Poison Gas
• Materials Dangerous When Wet
• Poison
• Radioactive
Any transport vehicle containing over 1,001 lbs. or more (gross weight) of the following classes of materials
must be placarded:
• Explosives (1.4, 1.5, 1.6)
• Flammable and Non Flammable Gas
• Flammable/Combustible Liquid (gasoline, fuel oil)
• Flammable Solid/Spontaneously Combustible
• Oxidizer/Organic Peroxide
• Poison
• Radioactive
• Corrosive
• Other (A material which presents a hazard during transportation which is not included in any other
hazard class)
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Beginning 2007, this element replaced the element “Hazardous Cargo”.
Figure 12: Nine Classes of Hazardous Materials

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Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4N4P)
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
does not equal 00-000000000,
(4N5P)

(4N6P)

(4S1P)
(9K0P)
(AH0P)

(AM0P)

(D270)
(D280)
(D300)
(D310)
(D440)
(D450)
(D580)
(V070)
(V090)
(V502)
(V503)
(V540)
(V570)
(V580)

BODY TYPE does not equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45,
48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 92, 93, or
HM2 does not equal 2,
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
equals 77-777777777,

V21

THEN
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 28, 31, 40, 45, 4852, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 79, 92, 93,
99, or HM2 must equal 2.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must equal 00-000000000, 99-999999999.

BODY TYPE should equal 28, 45, 48-52, 55,
58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 93, or HM1 should
equal 2.
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89 and HM1
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
does not equal 1,
MUST equal 0.
HM2 equals 2,
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION does not equal 00, BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 21, 28, 31,
99,
40, 41, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78, 92, 93, or HM2 must equal 2.
CARGO BODY TYPE does not equal 00, 99,
BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 21, 28, 31,
40, 41, 45, 48-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78, 92, 93, or HM2 must equal 2.
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 63, 66, 72, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
HM1 equals 2,
STATUS should not equal 00.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05-08, 21,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
or HM1 equals 2,
STATUS should not equal 00.
HM2 equals 2,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS should not equal 00 or 99.
HM2 equals 2,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should equal 1-3.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-52, 55, 63,
STATUS equals 00,
66, 72, and HM2 should not equal 2.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal
STATUS equals 00,
05-08, 21, and HM2 should not equal 2.
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 85,
HM1 should equal 2.
HM1 equals 2,
REGISTRATION STATE should not equal 92.
HM1 equals 2,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS should equal 06, 99.
GVWR/GCWR equals 0, and HM1 equals 1,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION and CARGO BODY
TYPE must equal 00.
GVWR/GCWR equals 1,
HM2 should equal 2, or VEHICLE
CONFIGURATION should equal 20.
BODY TYPE equals 42, 65, 73, and HM1 equals GVWR/GCWR should equal 0.
1,
HM1 equals 2,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not
equal 0, 1, 2, 4.
HM1 equals 2,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3.

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Hazardous Materials Involvement / Placard
Check
(V940)

(V980)

IF
HM1 equals 2,

(VA00)

BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 58-64, 66, 67,
71, 72, 78, 93, or HM1 equals 2,
HM1 equals 1,

(VA10)

HM1 equals 2,

(VA20)

any of HM2, HM5 equals 0, or HM4 equals 00
or HM3 equals 0000,
any of HM2, HM5 does not equal 0, or HM4
does not equal 00, or HM3 does not equal
0000,
HM5 equals 2,

(VA30)

(VA40)
(VA50)
(VA60)
(VA70)
(VA80)

HM3 equals 8888, and HM4 equals 88,
HM3 does not equal 0000, 8888, or HM4
does not equal 00, 88,
GVWR/GCWR equals 1, and HM2 equals 2,
HM3 – 4-Digit Hazardous Materials
Identification Number must contain 4 digits.

Consistency Checks (FARS Only)
Check
IF
(V100)
HM1 equals 2, and RELATED FACTORSDRIVER LEVEL does not equal 19,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V21
THEN
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal
00, 99 and CARGO BODY TYPE should not
equal 00, 99.
MOTOR CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
must not equal 00-000000000.
HM2, HM5 must equal 0, HM4 must equal 00
and HM3 must equal 0000.
HM2, HM5 must not equal 0, HM4 must not
equal 00 and HM3 must not equal 0000.
HM1 must equal 1.
HM1 must equal 2.

HM3 should not equal 8888, or HM4 should
not equal 88.
HM5 should not equal 2.
HM2 should equal 2.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION must equal 10.
--

THEN
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS should not equal 01, 02, 05.

337

Bus Use

V22

V22 - Bus Use
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Bus_Use, Parkwork.PBus_Use
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
04
05
06
07
08
98
99

Attributes
Not a Bus
School
Intercity
Charter/Tour
Transit/ Commuter
Shuttle
Modified for Personal/Private Use
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This data element describes the common type of bus service this vehicle was being used for at the
time of the crash or the primary use for the bus if not in service at the time of the crash.
Remarks: Buses are any motor vehicle with seats to transport nine (9) or more people, including the driver’s
seat. This element does not include vans that are owned and operated for personal use.
00 (Not a Bus) This should be used for vehicles with less than nine (9) seats (including the driver) and personaluse vans with nine (9) or more seats (including the driver) and also for vehicles that do not have a bus body type
AND are not being used as a bus in the crash.
01 (School) is used for vehicles that meet the definition of a bus and are being used by a public or private school
or district or contracted carrier operation on behalf of the entity, providing transport for school children (up to
the 12th grade) to/from school (public or private) or any other school function or activity.
In most cases, the decision to use this code will be based on a reference to the vehicle as a school bus in the
case materials. In this situation, assume the criteria are met unless it is otherwise stated in the case
materials.
In addition, School includes buses that are not externally identifiable as a school/pupil transport vehicle. (For
example, a transit bus, at the time of the crash, used exclusively [no other passengers except students] to
transport students to/from the school or school-related activity.)
04 (Intercity) is used when a company provides for-hire, long-distance passenger transportation between cities
over fixed routes with regular schedules (for example; Greyhound bus service between major cities).
05 (Charter/Tour) is used when a company provides transportation on a for-hire basis and demand-response
basis, usually round-trip service for a tour group or outing.
06 (Transit/Commuter) is used for a government entity or private company which provides passenger
transportation over fixed, scheduled routes, within primarily urban geographical areas. (For example; inner-city
mass transit bus/van service.)

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07 (Shuttle) is used when private companies provide transportation services for their own employees, nongovernmental organizations (such as churches and non-profit groups), and non-educational units of government
(such as departments of corrections). (Examples include buses/nine-passenger vans transporting people from
airports, hotels, rental car companies, and business facility to facility.)
08 (Modified for Personal/Private Use) is used when a bus body type has been modified for personal or private
use. For example, a bus with seats removed and exterior altered to allow for personal/private hauling of cargo
(instead of passengers). Also includes musical groups in cross-country bus with interior remodeled with homelike conveniences.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used if the information about this vehicle is reported as Unknown (e.g., an unidentified hit-andrun vehicle).
Note: if the investigating officer indicates a bus was involved but not how it was being used, use 98 (Not
Reported).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(AH1P)
BUS USE equals 08,
(AH2P)
BUS USE equals 06,
(V051)
BUS USE equals 01,
(V052)
BUS USE equals 04,
(V053)
BUS USE equals 05,
(V054)
BUS USE equals 07,
(V055)
BUS USE equals 00,
(V056)
SPECIAL USE equals 02,
(V057)
SPECIAL USE equals 03,
(V059)
BUS USE equals 01,
(V061)
BUS USE equals 04-07,
(V330)
SCHOOL BUS RELATED equals 1,

(V531)

BUS USE equals 01, 04-07, 98,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 22, 28, 29, 50-59.
BODY TYPE should equal 21 or 52 or 55.
BODY TYPE should equal 21 or 50 or 55.
BODY TYPE should equal 51.
BODY TYPE should equal 12, 16, 21, 51, 55 or 58.
BODY TYPE should equal 21, 22, 29, 50-59.
BODY TYPE must not equal 50-59.
BUS USE should equal 01.
BUS USE should equal 04-07, 99.
SPECIAL USE must equal 02.
SPECIAL USE must equal 03.
BODY TYPE of at least one of the involved vehicles
should equal 50 (School Bus), or SPECIAL USE for at
least one involved vehicle should equal 02 - Vehicle
Used as School Bus, and BUS USE for at least one
vehicle should equal 01.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should equal 20, 21, and
CARGO BODY TYPE should equal 22.

339

Special Use

V23

V23 - Special Use
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Spec_Use, Person.Spec_Use, Parkwork.PSP_USE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
13
98
99

Attributes
No Special Use
Taxi
Vehicle Used for School Transport
Vehicle Used as Other Bus
Military
Police
Ambulance
Fire Truck
Non-Transport Emergency Services Vehicle
Incident Response
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This data element identifies if a special use is applicable to this vehicle at the time it was involved in
the crash.
Remarks: This data element identifies any special use associated with this motor vehicle at the time of the crash.
The special function served by this motor vehicle should be coded regardless of whether the function is marked
on the vehicle.
00 (No Special Use) is used when the available information does not indicate or imply that this vehicle was
applicable to any of the special uses listed above.
01 (Taxi) is used when this vehicle was being used during this trip (at the time of the crash) on a “fee-for-hire”
basis to transport persons. Most of these vehicles will be marked and formally registered as taxis; however,
vehicles which are used as taxis, even though they are not registered (e.g., Gypsy Cabs), are included here.
Passengers do not have to be present at the time of the crash. Taxis and drivers which are off-duty at the time
of the crash are coded as 00 (No Special Use). If it is unknown whether or not the taxi is on-duty, code as 01
(Taxi). This attribute also applies for limousines on a “fee-for-hire” basis.
02 (Vehicle Used for School Transport) is used for any motor vehicle that satisfies all the following criteria:
• operated, leased, owned, or contracted by a public or private school-type institution;
• where the institution’s students may range from pre-school through high school;
• whose occupants, if any, are associated with the institution; and,
• at the time of the crash the vehicle is being used for transportation to and from a school or on a schoolsponsored activity or trip
Note: This attribute also includes vehicles which are not externally identifiable as a school/pupil transport
vehicle, but do meet all of the other criteria above. (For example, a transit bus, at the time of the crash, used
exclusively [no other passengers except students] to transport students to/from the school or school-related
activity).

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In most cases, the decision to use this attribute will be based on a reference to the vehicle as a school bus in the
available information. In this situation, assume the criteria are met unless it is otherwise stated in the available
information.
03 (Vehicle Used as Other Bus) is used when a motor vehicle is designed for transporting nine or more persons
including the driver and does not satisfy the above “school bus” criteria. For example, BODY TYPE code “School
Bus” transporting senior citizens to an activity.
04 (Military) is used for any vehicle which is owned by any of the Armed Forces regardless of body type. This
attribute includes:
• military police vehicles;
• military ambulances;
• military hearses; and
• military fire vehicles.
05 (Police) is a vehicle equipped with police emergency devices (lights and siren) that is owned or subsidized by
any local, county, State or Federal government entity. The police vehicle is presumed to be in special use at all
times, although not necessarily in “emergency use.” Vehicles not owned by a government entity that are used
by law enforcement officers (e.g., undercover) are excluded.
06 (Ambulance) is used for any readily identifiable (lights or markings) vehicles designed to transport sick or
injured persons. The ambulance is presumed to be in special use at all times, although not necessarily in
“emergency use.”
07 (Fire Truck) is used for any readily identifiable (lights or markings) vehicles specially designed and equipped
to respond to fire, hazmat, medical, and extrication incidents. This attribute includes medium and heavy vehicles
such as engines, pumpers, ladder, platform aerial apparatus, heavy rescue vehicles, water tenders or tankers,
brush or wilderness firefighting vehicles, etc.
08 (Non-Transport Emergency Services Vehicle) is used for any readily identified (lights and markings) vehicles
that do not meet the criteria for 06 (Ambulance), 07 (Fire Truck), or 13 (Incident Response) and are specifically
designed and equipped to respond to fire, hazmat, medical and extrication incidents. This attribute includes light
vehicles such as sedans, van, SUVs, pickups, trucks, motorcycles, etc. This attribute includes vehicles that have
been dispatched to an incident or have initiated operation in a non-emergency mode and are not transporting
passengers, such as patients or suspects. An example of a Non-Transport Emergency Services vehicle is a fire
chief’s unit, commonly an SUV.
13 (Incident Response) is used for Government vehicles typically equipped with a variety of tools, emergency
medical equipment, traffic cones and control signs, absorbent material (for responding to spills), emergency and
work lighting. These multi-purpose response units are intended to assist law enforcement, fire and rescue
personnel with trafficway incident management.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).

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Special Use

V23

2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown) is used if the investigating officer reported special use as unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1D0P)
SPECIAL USE equals 01,
(1D0Q)

SPECIAL USE equals 00-03,

(2D0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 02,

(3A0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 07,

(3D0P)
(4A0P)
(4D0P)

SPECIAL USE for any vehicle equals 02,
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,
SPECIAL USE equals 03,

(5D0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 04,

(5M0G)
(6D0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 06, and PERSON TYPE
equals 02 or 09,
SPECIAL USE equals 05,

(7D0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 06,

(8D0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 08,

(AR0P)

SPECIAL USE equals 04,

(U050)
(U080)
(U420)
(V056)
(V057)
(V058)

UNLIKELY: SPECIAL USE equals 04, 08.
BODY TYPE does not equal 21, 28, 29, 50-59,
UNLIKELY: SPECIAL USE equals 98.
SPECIAL USE equals 02,
SPECIAL USE equals 03,
EMERGENCY MOTOR VEHICLE USE equals 26,
BUS USE equals 01,
SPECIAL USE equals 04,
BUS USE equals 04-07,

(V059)
(V060)
(V061)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE must equal 02-09, 12, 14-21, 28, 29,
49, 99.
EMERGENCY MOTOR VEHICLE USE must equal
0.
BODY TYPE should equal 15, 16, 19-21, 28, 29,
45, 48, 50-52, 55, 58, 59.
BODY TYPE must equal 60-64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78,
79, 99.
SCHOOL BUS RELATED must equal 1.
SPECIAL USE must not equal 01-03, 06, 07.
BODY TYPE must equal 21, 28, 29, 50-52, 55, 58,
59.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-12, 15-17, 19-22, 2833, 39-41, 45, 48-50, 55, 58, 59, 60-64, 66, 67,
71, 72, 78, 79, 90, 99.
RELATED FACTORS - PERSON (MV OCCUPANT)
LEVEL should equal 86 or 92.
BODY TYPE must equal 01-12, 14-17, 19-22, 2833, 39-41, 45, 48, 49, 55, 58-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78-82, 88-91, 94, 95, 97-99.
BODY TYPE must equal 11, 14-17, 19, 21, 22, 28,
29, 40, 41, 45, 48, 49, 61, 62, 64, 79, 98, 99.
BODY TYPE must not equal 60-64, 66, 67, 71, 72,
78, 79, 99.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must not equal 0,
1, 2, 4.
-UNLIKELY: SPECIAL USE equals 02 or 03.
-BUS USE should equal 01.
BUS USE should equal 04-07, 99.
SPECIAL USE should equal 04-08, 13.
SPECIAL USE must equal 02.
REGISTRATION STATE should equal 94.
SPECIAL USE must equal 03.

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Special Use

V23

Check
(V330)

IF
SCHOOL BUS RELATED equals 1,

(V560)

SPECIAL USE equals 04,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
BODY TYPE of at least one of the involved
vehicles should equal 50 (School Bus), or
SPECIAL USE for at least one involved vehicle
should equal 02 - Vehicle Used as School Bus,
and BUS USE for at least one vehicle should
equal 01.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3,
and REGISTRATION STATE should equal 94.

343

Emergency Motor Vehicle Use

V24

V24 - Emergency Motor Vehicle Use
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.EMER_USE, Person.EMER_USE, Parkwork.PEM_USE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
2
3
4
5
6
8
9

Attributes
Not Applicable
Non-Emergency, Non-Transport
Non-Emergency Transport
Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment Not in Use
Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment in Use
Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment in Use Unknown
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: Emergency Motor Vehicle Use indicates operation of any motor vehicle that is legally authorized by
a government authority to respond to emergencies with or without the use of emergency warning equipment,
such as a police vehicle, fire truck, or ambulance while actually engaged in such response.
Remarks: Emergency Use also refers to an official motor vehicle that is usually traveling with emergency signals
in use while engaged in an emergency response; typically, red light blinking, siren sounding, etc. Services such
as escorting a funeral procession or providing traffic control assistance at a work zone or for a motorcade or
parade would not qualify as emergency uses.
If Special Use is 04 (Military), 05 (Police), 06 (Ambulance), 07 (Fire Truck), 08 (Non-Transport, Emergency
Services Vehicle), or 13 (Incident Response) then refer to the case materials to determine if the vehicle was on
an emergency response (i.e., red lights flashing, siren sounding, on route to hospital, etc.) at the time of the
crash.
0 (Not Applicable) is used when Special Use for this vehicle is coded 00 (No Special Use), 01 (Taxi), 02 (Vehicle
Used as School Transport), or 03 (Vehicle Used as Other Bus).
2 (Non-Emergency, Non-Transport) is used when the authorized emergency vehicle has been dispatched to an
incident or has initiated operation in a non-emergency mode and is not transporting passengers, such as
patients or suspects. The emergency vehicle operator is not using emergency lighting, audible siren or
emergency vehicle maneuvers.
3 (Non-Emergency Transport) is used when the authorized emergency vehicle has been dispatched to an
incident or has initiated a transport-related operation in a non-emergency mode. The emergency vehicle
operator is not using emergency lighting, audible siren or emergency vehicle maneuvers. Example: transport of a
suspect from one location to another or inter-facility transport of a patient in an ambulance to a nursing home.
4 (Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment Not in Use) is used when the authorized emergency
vehicle has been dispatched to an incident or has initiated an emergency operation and has no emergency
lighting or audible siren in use. The emergency vehicle operator may be using emergency vehicle maneuvers as
allowed under state law. Examples: a police car in the last mile approaching a bank robbery; transport of a
patient in an ambulance for which lights and sirens are not used per protocol.

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Emergency Motor Vehicle Use

V24

5 (Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment in Use) is used when the authorized emergency
vehicle has been dispatched to an incident or has initiated an emergency operation and is using an audible siren
and/or has illuminated its emergency lighting devices. The emergency vehicle operator is using or is prepared to
use emergency vehicle maneuvers as allowed by state law.
6 (Emergency Operation, Emergency Warning Equipment in Use Unknown) is used when the authorized
emergency vehicle has been dispatched to an incident or has initiated an emergency operation and it cannot be
determined if it is using an audible siren and/or has illuminated its emergency lighting devices.
8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
Examples:
• The case materials are not clear as to whether the vehicle was on an emergency response.
• The case materials are not clear as to whether the vehicle is legally authorized by a government
authority to respond to emergencies.
9 (Unknown) is used if the investigating officer reported emergency use as unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1D0Q) SPECIAL USE equals 00-03,
(PB44) PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 240,
(V058) EMERGENCY MOTOR VEHICLE USE equals 2-6,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
EMERGENCY MOTOR VEHICLE USE must equal 0.
EMERGENCY MOTOR VEHICLE USE should equal
2-6 for at least one vehicle.
SPECIAL USE should equal 04-08, 13.

345

Travel Speed

V25

V25 - Travel Speed
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.TRAV_SP
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
000
001-151
997
998
999

Attributes
Stopped Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Reported Speed Up to 151 MPH
Greater than 151 MPH
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element records the speed the vehicle was traveling prior to the occurrence of the crash as
reported by the investigating officer.
Remarks: Code the Travel Speed as indicated by the investigating officer. Do not enter the Speed Limit. Do not
use estimates by drivers or witnesses reported in the case materials. Travel Speed should be representative of
the vehicle’s speed associated with the pre-event movement, prior to any avoidance maneuvers. If the police
calculated a speed, please be aware that this may represent the impact speed which is not necessarily the travel
speed.
Code the nearest mph for this vehicle as reported on the case materials.
Examples:
Reported Speed
Code
40.2mph
40
40.5mph
41
If the officer gives a range, code the median speed and, if necessary, round up to the next higher whole number.
If the officer gives a minimum speed (e.g., “at least 55 mph” or “in excess of 60 mph”, then use that speed (e.g.,
code as “55” and “60” respectively).
Examples:
Reported Speed
Code
40-50mph
45
45-50mph
48
000 (Stopped Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when this vehicle is stopped on the roadway.
998 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 998 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).

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Examples:
1. the officer did not mention Travel Speed, or
2. did not indicate Travel Speed within a field in the case materials.
999 (Unknown) is used when the officer indicates that Travel Speed is unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(3B0P)
JACKKNIFE equals 2, 3,
(3B1P)
CRASH TYPE equals 21-23,
(A090)
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED is
greater than 001,
(A100)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT is not equal to 02, 04,
05, 10, 16, 18,
(A240)
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b)
equals 01, and RELATION TO JUNCTION (a)
equals 0,
(AZA0)
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) equals 05
or 07,
(VH70)
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
(U060)
UNLIKELY: TRAVEL SPEED should equal 98 or
99.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
TRAVEL SPEED must not equal 000.
TRAVEL SPEED must equal 000 for this vehicle.
there should be at least one vehicle with
TRAVEL SPEED of 001-151, 997-999, or blanks.
there should be one vehicle with TRAVEL SPEED
of 001-151, 997-999, or blanks.
TRAVEL SPEED should not equal 005-040 for any
vehicle.
TRAVEL SPEED must equal 000 for this vehicle.

elements V15, V24, V31 must all be left blank.
--

347

Underride / Override – FARS Only

V26

V26 - Underride/Override - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.UNDERIDE, Parkwork.PUNDERIDE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Attributes
No Underride or Override Noted
Underriding a Motor Vehicle In-Transport, Underride, Compartment Intrusion
Underriding a Motor Vehicle In-Transport, Underride, No Compartment Intrusion
Underriding a Motor Vehicle In-Transport, Underride, Compartment Intrusion Unknown
Underriding a Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport, Underride, Compartment Intrusion
Underriding a Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport, Underride, No Compartment Intrusion
Underriding a Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport, Underride, Compartment Intrusion Unknown
Overriding a Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Overriding a Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport
Unknown if Underride or Override

Definition: This element indicates whether an underride or override occurred during the crash involving this
vehicle.
Remarks:
Rationale: Needed to identify the magnitude of crashes in which an underride or override occurs to support
NHTSA rulemaking activities and motor vehicle bumper compatibility research.
NOTE: Prior to 2007, this element was limited to collisions involving a large vehicle (medium/heavy trucks) and a
smaller body type (e.g., automobiles, utility vehicles, etc.). Beginning 2007, this element is open to all body
types, excluding motorcycles, mopeds, ATVs, and snowmobiles.
NOTE: Prior to 1994, coding of vehicle underrides and overrides was not captured as a separate element. It was
included under Impact Points (clock point codes “15” and “16” [Underride and Override]). This change improved
both the capture and detail relating to these events.
For underrides and overrides, it is important to determine the vehicle performing the action. Two vehicles
cannot be considered to underride and override simultaneously.
In cases in which two vehicles collide “head-on” and one vehicle ends up under the other, you must determine
whether an Underride or Override has occurred.
An Underride refers to a vehicle sliding under another vehicle during a crash. The classic example is an
automobile striking the rear end or the side of a tractor-trailer and coming to a stop under the trailer. In this
example, the automobile is the underriding vehicle. We distinguish between those underriding vehicles with
compartment intrusion versus those with no compartment intrusion.
Compartment intrusion indicates a breach of the passenger compartment of this underriding (striking) vehicle.
For example, damage to the windshield or glass area.
No compartment intrusion means that the underridden vehicle (struck vehicle) did not directly enter the
passenger compartment of this vehicle (for example, damage to the hood or front bumper).
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It is possible for an auto to completely underride the trailer without stopping. Underride is not applicable to
motorcycles or snowmobiles.
An Override refers to a vehicle riding up over another (including a parked vehicle). A vehicle straddling a
guardrail, for example, is not coded as an override.
0 (No Underride or Override Noted) is used when there is no indication in the case materials that this vehicle
was involved in and underride or override as defined above.
Underrides and Vehicles Under Other Vehicles
Codes “1-3” are used when this vehicle underrides a motor vehicle in-transport (includes those in motion
outside the trafficway).
Codes “4-6” are used when this vehicle underrides a motor vehicle that is Not In-Transport. This includes
parked/stopped off roadway motor vehicles, working motor vehicles (e.g., cherry picker, paint-striping truck).
Compartment Intrusion Guidelines:
To use Codes “1 or 4,” the PAR should indicate that the passenger compartment of the underriding (striking)
vehicle has been damaged. Sources of this information can be the PAR narrative and/or the vehicle damage
scale. If the top of the vehicle is damaged, as noted by the vehicle damage scale, Codes “1 or 4” would apply.
Codes “2 and 5,” Underride, No Compartment Intrusion, are used when a portion of the vehicle is under
another, and it is known that there is no passenger compartment intrusion. Codes “3 and 6” are used when it is
unknown if there is passenger compartment intrusion.
Overrides
7 (Overriding a Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when this vehicle overrides a motor vehicle in-transport
(includes those in motion outside the trafficway).
8 (Overriding a Motor Vehicle Not In-Transport) is used when this vehicle overrides a motor vehicle not intransport. This includes parked/stopped off roadway motor vehicles, working motor vehicles (e.g. cherry picker,
paint-striping truck).
9 (Unknown if Underride or Override) is used when an Underride or Override occurred but it cannot be
determined which is appropriate.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(431P)
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED
equals 1 and UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 18, 9 for one vehicle,
(432P)
NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED
equals 1,
(6A1P)
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 1-8,
(9B3P)
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 7,
(9B4P)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 8,

(9B5P)

UNIT TYPE equals 2, 3,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE for the other vehicle
must equal 0.
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE must equal 0.
BODY TYPE must not equal 80-83, 88-91.
there must be at least one vehicle with UNIT
TYPE equal to 1.
there must at least one vehicle with UNIT TYPE
equal 2-4.
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE must equal 0.

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Check
(V750)

IF
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 1-3,

(V760)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 4-6,

(V770)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 7,

(V780)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 8,

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THEN
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 12, 55.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 14, 45.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this
vehicle) must equal 12, 55.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this
vehicle) must equal 14, 45.

350

Rollover

V27

V27 - Rollover
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Rollover; Person.ROLLOVER
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
9

Attributes
No Rollover
Rollover, Tripped by Object/Vehicle
Rollover, Untripped
Rollover, Unknown Type

Definition: This element identifies whether a rollover or overturn occurred during the crash involving this
vehicle.
Remarks: Rollover is defined as any vehicle rotation of 90 degrees or more about any true longitudinal or lateral
axis. Rollover can also be referred to as overturn, and can occur at any time during this vehicle’s critical crash
envelope.
Rollover does not apply to 2-wheeled motorcycles for this element (use 0 (No Rollover)). However, in the First
Harmful Event, Most Harmful Event, and Sequence of Events you may use 01 (Rollover/ Overturn) to record
that this vehicle (motorcycle) overturned.
A rollover can be used for 3- or 4-wheeled ATVs, snowmobiles, go-karts, and 3-wheeled motorcycles.
0 (No Rollover) is used when there is no indication that a rollover occurred.
1 (Rollover, Tripped by Object/Vehicle) is used when the vehicle’s lateral motion is suddenly slowed or stopped
by an opposing force, inducing a rollover. The opposing force may be produced by a curb, ditch, pot-hole,
another vehicle, pavement or soil dug into by the vehicle’s wheels. This includes instances where a vehicle
impacts a fixed object (i.e., tree, barrier, pole or post) then rolls over.
2 (Rollover, Untripped) is used when a rollover occurs, but not as a result of a collision with an object or a
vehicle or generated by any other opposing force as referred to in Rollover, Tripped by Object/Vehicle. An
untripped rollover is one for which there is no obvious cause other than normal surface friction. This is usually
the result of vehicle instability and there is no evidence of furrowing or gouging on the pavement, gravel, grass
or dirt surface.
9 (Rollover, Unknown Type) is used when a rollover occurred, but there is not sufficient information to
determine tripped versus untripped status.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1Z2P)
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 01, and
(BODY TYPE equals 01-79, 82, 90-99, or any
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 30),
(5A0P)
BODY TYPE equals 80, 81, 83, 88, 89, and any
RELATED FACTORS- VEHICLE LEVEL does not
equal 30,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
ROLLOVER must equal 1, 2, 9.

ROLLOVER must equal 0.

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Rollover
Check
(V700)
(V74P)

(V75P)
(V76P)
(V77P)
(V78P)
(V79P)

V27
IF
ROLLOVER equals 2,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and ROLLOVER equals 1,
2, 9, or LOCATION OF ROLLOVER equals 1-7,
9,
ROLLOVER is not blank,
ROLLOVER is blank,
ROLLOVER equals 1, 2, 9,
ROLLOVER equals 0,
ROLLOVER equals 2, and FIRST HARMFUL
EVENT equals 01,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
CRASH TYPE should equal 01-10, 14, 98 or 99 for
this vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
01 for this vehicle.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must not be blank.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must be blank.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must equal 1-7, 9.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must equal 0.
CRASH TYPE must equal 01-10, 14, 15 or 98 for
the vehicle involved in the first harmful event.

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Location of Rollover

V28

V28 - Location of Rollover
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.ROLINLOC
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9

Attributes
No Rollover
On Roadway
On Shoulder
On Median/Separator
In Gore
On Roadside
Outside of Trafficway
In Parking Lane / Zone
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the location of the trip point or start of the vehicle's roll.
Remarks:
1 (On Roadway) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll on the
roadway. A Roadway is that part of a trafficway designed, improved and ordinarily used for motor vehicle
travel. Where various classes of motor vehicles are segregated, that part of a trafficway used by a particular
class is the roadway (i.e., travel lanes). Separate roadways may be provided for northbound and southbound
traffic or for trucks and automobiles. This includes continuous left-turn lanes.
2 (On Shoulder) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll on the
shoulder. A Shoulder is that part of a trafficway contiguous with the roadway for emergency use, for
accommodation of stopped road vehicles, and for lateral support of the roadway structure.
3 (On Median/Separator) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll
on the median/separator. A Median is an area of a trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in
opposite directions. Continuous left-turn lanes are not considered painted medians. A Separator is the area of a
trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in the same direction or separating a frontage road.
4 (In Gore) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll in the gore. The
Gore is an area of land where two roadways diverge or converge. The area is bounded on two sides by the
edges of the roadways, which join at the point of divergence or convergence. The direction of traffic must be
the same on both of these roadways. The area includes shoulders or marked pavement, if any, between the
roadways. (See Figure 10)
5 (On Roadside) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll on the
roadside. Roadside is the outermost part of the trafficway from the property line or other boundary into the
edge of the first road.
6 (Outside of Trafficway) is used when the available information indicates the vehicle tripped or began its roll
outside the right-of-way.

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7 (In Parking Lane/Zone) refers to an area on the roadway, or next to the roadway, on which parking is
permitted in marked or unmarked spaces. This includes curbside and edge of-roadway parking (for example,
legal residential parking, city-street parking, etc.). Sometimes a strip of roadway can be designated for parking
at certain hours of the day (parking lane) and for regular travel at other hours (travel lane). This code should
NOT be used during hours when parking is NOT permitted (see 1 (On Roadway)).
9 (Unknown) is used when the location of the trip point cannot be determined from available resources.
If Relation to Trafficway equals:
01 - On Roadway
02 - On Shoulder
03 - On Median
04 - On Roadside
05 - Outside Trafficway
06 - Off Roadway - Location Unknown
07 - In Parking Lane/Zone
08 - Gore
10 - Separator
11 - Continuous Left-Turn Lane
98 - Not Reported
99 - Unknown
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A380)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 01 and this
vehicle is involved in the first harmful event,
and BODY TYPE does not equal 80-89 for this
vehicle, and RELATION TO TRAFFICWAY
equals _____,
(V74P)
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and ROLLOVER equals 1,
2, 9, or LOCATION OF ROLLOVER equals 1-7,
9,
(V75P)
ROLLOVER is not blank,
(V76P)
ROLLOVER is blank,
(V77P)
ROLLOVER equals 1, 2, 9,
(V78P)
ROLLOVER equals 0,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Then Location of Rollover should equal:
1 - On Roadway
2 - On Shoulder
3 - On Median/Separator
5 - On Roadside
6 - Outside of Trafficway
9 - Unknown
7 - In Parking Lane/Zone
4 - In Gore
3 - On Median/Separator
1 - On Roadway
9 - Unknown
9 - Unknown

THEN
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER should equal _____
respectively.

at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
01 for this vehicle.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must not be blank.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must be blank.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must equal 1-7, 9.
LOCATION OF ROLLOVER must equal 0.

354

Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas

V29

V29 - Areas of Impact –
Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas
FORMAT: 2 subfields: Subfield 1, 2 numeric; Subfield 2, Select all that apply
SAS NAME: Vehicle.IMPACT1, Person.IMPACT1, Parkwork.PIMPACT1; Damage.MDAREAS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Subfield 1: Areas of Impact - Initial Contact Point
Codes Attributes
00
Non-Collision
01-12
Clock Points
13
Top
14
Undercarriage
61
Left
62
Left-Front Side
63
Left-Back Side
81
Right
82
Right-Front Side
83
Right-Back Side
18
Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion
19
Other Objects Set-In-Motion
98
Not Reported
99
Unknown
Subfield 2: Damaged Areas
Codes Attributes
01-12
Clock Values
13
Top
14
Undercarriage
15
No Damage
99
Damage Areas Unknown
Definition (Areas of Impact - Initial Contact Point): This subfield identifies the area on this vehicle that
produced the first instance of injury to non-motorists or occupants of this vehicle, or that resulted in the first
instance of damage to other property or to this vehicle.
Definition (Damaged Areas): This subfield identifies all the areas on this vehicle that were damaged in the crash
as reflected in the case materials by the officer.
Remarks: If Areas of Impact- Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas are provided on the crash report in this exact
format, use the values from the report unless there are clear errors (e.g. officer switches vehicles by mistake). If
these elements are not provided on the crash report in this exact format, then similar report fields, narrative or
diagram information may be used to code these elements. These subfields do not refer to direction of force of
the impact. They identify the area(s) on the vehicle associated with the initial contact (Subfield 1) and all
damage to the vehicle identified in the case material (Subfield 2).

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Areas of Impact / Initial Contact Point (Subfield 1):
This subfield identifies the area on this vehicle that produced the first instance of injury to non-motorists or
occupants of this vehicle, or that resulted in the first instance of damage to other property or to this vehicle. The
event that produced the Initial Contact Point for this vehicle may or may not be the first harmful event for the
crash. This data is derived from the Crash Events Table and will always be the first recorded Area(s) of Impact
element value for each vehicle in the Crash Events Table.
*Note the same element values from Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point are used to complete the Areas of
Impact (AOI) fields in the Crash Events Table for all harmful events.
Figure 13: Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point Element Values Diagram

00 (Non Collision [Initial Contact Point])
If the first harmful event involving this vehicle in the Crash Events Table is a non-collision event, then Initial
Contact Point will be 00 (Non-Collision).
“01-12” refer to the points on a clock. (See Figure 13). The sides of the vehicle are divided into 5 equal
segments, 01 through 05 for the right side and 07 through 11 for the left side. The front (12), back (06), top (13)
and undercarriage (14) complete the outside surfaces of the vehicle. Use the diagrams in Figure 15 for examples
of how the 5 equal side segments are created on several vehicle types.
As procedure, start by looking for one of the “clock” values 01-12 or specific situation values 00, 13, 14, 18. If
sufficient detail is not available to choose one of these values, move out to the next set of values to try to
identify the appropriate codes (i.e., 62-63, 82-83, then 61, 81). (See Figure 13) Lastly, for missing information
pertaining to known harmful events, a 98 (Not Reported) attribute is available.
61-63 and 81-83:
Codes, 62-63 and 82-83 are used when there is not sufficient detail available in the case materials to identify a
more specific area of impact, 01-05 and 07-11, but one of the quadrants can be identified (i.e., 62 (Left-Front
Side), 63 (Left-Back Side), 82 (Right-Front Side), or 83 (Right-Back Side)). Also use these attributes if the case
materials indicate that the damage area is “between” or overlapping two known clock points. (e.g., if the
damage area is midway between or overlapping clock points 10 and 11, use 62 (Left-Front Side)).
Codes 61 and 81 are used when there is not sufficient detail available in the case materials to identify a more
specific area of impact, 62-63 or 82-83, but one of the sides can be identified (i.e., 61 (Left) or 81 (Right)).

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Guideline for Resolving Ambiguous Information
If the language in the narrative is ambiguous AND the diagram or other case information don’t provide
resolution, use the area indicated first in the narrative wording to select the Area of Impact to code. See
examples table below.
Examples:
Description
Front, left
Left, front
Front, corner
Right, rear
Back, right side

Coding
12
62
12
83
06

It is important to note that area of impact refers mainly to the area of the vehicle that sustained the damage and
does not depend upon the attitude of the vehicle (e.g., damage to a grille is still damage at 12 o-clock even if it
was caused by sliding sideways past a utility pole).
However, 13 (Top) may raise questions. The front and rear windows of some vehicles may also be viewed from
the top. It may also be difficult to code impacts to the hood and rear deck of a vehicle.
With 13 (Top) the direction of force sometimes has to be considered. The following are guidelines for using 13
(Top).
1. If the area was damaged by an impact that was received horizontally to an upright vehicle, use one of
the codes “01 to 12, 61-63, 81-83.”
2. If the area was damaged by an impact that was received from a vertical direction above the upright
vehicle, use 13 (Top).
3. If the impact was received or direction of force was at an angle of less than 15 degrees above the
horizontal, it is considered horizontal.
4. With a vehicle in other than upright attitudes, remember, it is the area of the vehicle which was
damaged that is important.
14 (Undercarriage) refers to non-horizontal impacts to the undercarriage or swiping or snagging of
undercarriage components (axles, exhaust system, etc.). Tire/Wheel impacts are coded to the AREA OF IMPACT
(01-12, 61-63, 81-83).
Special Instructions Involving Motorcycles:
For cases involving a motorcycle where the area of initial contact is described as “front tire/wheel” or “front
end” code as 12 (Front) or “rear tire/wheel” or “rear end” code as 06 (Back) if the impact was received on a
horizontal plane.
If the only event for a vehicle is a non-collision event, the Area of Impact - Initial is coded 00 (Non-Collision). If
following a non-collision event, a vehicle has a collision event; Area of Impact, Initial Contact Point is still coded
00 (Non-Collision).
Hitting the ground during a non-collision crash is not considered an “impact” for this subfield.

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Set-In-Motion Attributes:
“Loads” of a vehicle includes persons or property upon or set-in-motion by the vehicle, persons boarding or
alighting from the vehicle, and persons or property attached to and in position to move with the vehicle. A
vehicle that propels part of its load or has set something in motion, which then strikes another vehicle, person,
or property causing injury or damage, may not have a normal impact point because only the load has made
contact with the person or other property. However, a value must be coded. A load or object should not
receive a Sequence of Events 63 (Ran Off Roadway-Right), 64 (Ran Off Roadway-Left), 65 (Cross Median), 68
(Cross Centerline), or 69 (Re-entering Roadway) because these events apply to the vehicle itself and not to the
load or object that was propelled.
18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) is selected when the harmful event involves an impact between a
fixed/non-fixed object or vehicle and cargo or parts from an in-transport motor vehicle which are set-in-motion.
That is, use this code when the object set-in-motion is cargo (e.g., mattress, logs, tools, unsecured objects on the
in-transport motor vehicle) or a part of an in-transport motor vehicle (e.g., hubcap or mirror).
Examples:
Vehicle 1 (log truck) swerves to avoid a braking vehicle (Vehicle 2). A log becomes dislodged from Vehicle 1
and lands on Vehicle 2’s top.
• Vehicle 1 Area of Impact, Initial Contact Point would be coded as 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-InMotion).
• Vehicle 2 Area of Impact, Initial Contact Point would be coded as 13 (Top).
19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion) is used when the harmful event involves an object set-in-motion by an intransport motor vehicle which is NOT cargo or part of the in-transport motor vehicle (e.g., kicked-up stone,
motorcycle rider, parked vehicle, stop sign) or it is UNKNOWN whether the object was the cargo or a part of an
in-transport motor vehicle.
Examples:
Vehicle 1 kicks up a stone which impacts Vehicle 2's windshield.
• Vehicle 1 Area of Impact, Initial Contact Point would be coded as 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).
• Vehicle 2 Area of Impact, Initial Contact Point would be coded as 12 (Front).
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed to
code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the element
(e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
Areas of Impact - Initial Contact Point Examples of Not Reported:
• The case materials lack the detail to identify the initial contact point at all (e.g., narrative only states the
vehicle departed the roadway and impacted a tree).
• The case materials lack the detail to identify the initial contact point among a number of possible
choices for the first harmful event for the vehicle (e.g., crash report field indicates front and right side
damage from separate impacts and does not clarify which area is associated with the initial impact).
99 (Unknown) is used if the investigating officer reported that the Initial Contact Point was unknown.
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Areas of Impact - Damaged Areas (Subfield 2):
This subfield identifies all the areas on this vehicle that were damaged in the crash as reflected in the case
materials. For trailers that become separated from the power unit at the onset of the unstabilized situation or
during the crash, treat the entire combination as one unit when recording Damaged Areas. Please see the
Clockpoint Diagrams in Figure 15 to establish damage areas for the combination vehicles.
Vehicles noted as “totaled”:
This element is identifying the vehicle planes that were damaged so do not make the assumption that a
vehicle noted in the case materials as “totaled” translates to all areas being damaged. This term is often
referring to the cost to repair the damage not the areas damaged.
Figure 14: Damaged Areas Element Values Diagram

*Note: When entering the data there are three short cut selections in MDE for identifying multiple areas. Those
selections are:
1. All Areas – this will select all values 01-12, 13 (Top), and 14 (Undercarriage)
2. Left Side – this will select all the values 07-11.
3. Right Side – this will select all the values 01-05.
01-12 (Clock Values) refer to the points on a clock (see Figure 14) to identify areas on the vehicle that were
damaged in the crash. This subfield includes induced damage identified in the report. For example, the PAR
shows an impact centered at 03 (AOI – Initial Contact) that produced damage in 02, 03, 04. The sides of the
vehicle are divided into 5 equal segments, 01 through 05 for the right side and 07 through 11 for the left side.
The front (12), back (06), top (13), and undercarriage (14) complete the outside surfaces of the vehicle. Use the
diagrams in Figure 15 for examples of how the 5 equal side segments are created on several vehicle types.
13 (Top) includes damage to the hood, windshield, roof, rear window, and trunk deck.
14 (Undercarriage) includes damage to the tires/wheels, axles, exhaust system, etc.

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15 (No Damage) is used for vehicles that experience harmful events but the events do not produce physical
damage to the vehicle itself.
Examples include:
• Vehicles that have the non-collision harmful events of gas inhalation, injured in vehicle, fell/jumped
from vehicle, or other non-collision.
• Vehicles that have a collision event but the event does not produce damage to the vehicle such as;
running over a pedestrian lying in the roadway, striking a bicyclist, striking another vehicle where only
the struck vehicle is damaged, or when the only collision event is cargo falling from this vehicle that
lands on another vehicle or person.
99 (Damage Areas Unknown) is used when the case materials do not indicate which area or areas received
damage or when the information on the PAR is confusing or inadequate for the purposes of this determination.
Handling of known events with unknown damage areas:
For situations where you have known damage areas associated with a specific event(s) and additional harmful
events without knowing specific damage areas for the additional events, code only the known damage areas in
this subfield. For example, if the PAR narrative only states that “V1 departed the roadway striking several trees”
with the only indication of damage given as the initial front contact, and a PAR box marked ‘Totaled’, code only
12 for the known damage to the front of the vehicle.
Handling of non-collision harmful events that produce vehicle damage:
For situations where a vehicle is involved in the following non-collision harmful events: (01) Rollover/Overturn,
(02) Fire/Explosion, (03) Immersion or Partial Immersion, (16) Thrown or Falling Object, (44) Pavement
Surface Irregularity (Ruts, Potholes, Grates, etc.), (51) Jackknife (harmful to this vehicle), or (72)
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (harmful to this vehicle), code only the damage areas reflected in the case
materials by the officer.
For example, the investigating officer may indicate damaged locations that translate to:
• 01-12, 13, 14 for a vehicle that was consumed by a fire or immersed in a river.
• 01-05, 13 for a vehicle that rolls onto its right side and then roof.
• 13 for a vehicle that only has damage to the hood from a fire.
• 13 for a vehicle that has a tree fall its roof.
• 14 for a vehicle that strikes a pothole on its undercarriage.
Do not record damage at these locations for these non-collision harmful events unless so indicated by the case
materials.
If a vehicle that experiences only these non-collision events and has only “non-collision” reflected in the case
materials by the officer for its damaged areas, then use 99 (Damage Areas Unknown).
FARS and CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Prior to 2010, FARS recorded the Impact Point-Initial and the Impact Point-Principal for each vehicle. If a vehicle
had no impacts throughout a crash, the Initial and Principal Impact Points were both “00 - Non-Collision”. NonCollision Events (including Rollovers) are not considered “impacts”.
If the vehicle first had a Non-Collision Event but then experienced a Collision Event later in the accident, the
clock point on the vehicle associated with that collision was recorded as the Impact Point-Initial. If this was the
only Collision Event for the vehicle, then it was also the Impact Point-Principal for the vehicle. Otherwise,
Impact Point, Principal was the clock point on the vehicle associated with the Collision Event that produced the
most severe incidence of injury or property damage involving this vehicle.

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FARS began in 2010 recording INITIAL DAMAGED AREA and MOST DAMAGED AREA for this vehicle. If the initial
damage to the vehicle is caused by a Non-Collision Event, the INITIAL DAMAGED AREA is coded “00 - NonCollision”. The MOST DAMAGED AREA simply recorded the area of this vehicle sustaining the most damage in
the crash. GES adopted the "most damaged area" data element in 2010.
Beginning in 2012, as a result of modifications to the Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) FARS
and GES renamed INITIAL DAMAGED AREA as INITIAL CONTACT POINT and replaced MOST DAMAGED with the
new sub-field DAMAGED AREAS.
Figure 15: Clockpoint Diagram

Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(2U0Q)
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89,
(3B2P)
(3B3P)

CRASH TYPE equals 20, 24, 28, 34, 36, 38,
40, 50-54, 56, 58 or 60,
CRASH TYPE equals 21-23, 25-27, 29-31,
35, 37, 39 or 41,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
AREAS OF IMPACT - INITIAL CONTACT POINT should
not equal 14.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT must
equal 12 for this vehicle.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT must
equal 6 for this vehicle.

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Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas
Check
(3B6P)

IF
CRASH TYPE equals 87,

(3B7P)

CRASH TYPE equals 89,

(3CA0)
(420P)

EXTENT OF DAMAGE for this vehicle
equals 0,
MANNER OF COLLISION equals 07, 08,

(421P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 01,

(422P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 02,

(423P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 06,

(424P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 09,

(425P)

MANNER OF COLLISION equals 10,

(8L8Q)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals
18 or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS,
the CRASH EVENTS event equals 54,

(8L8R)
(8L8S)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals
18 or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals
14, 45 or 54,

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THEN
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT must
equal 01-05, 81-83 for this vehicle.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT must
equal 07-11, 61-63 for this vehicle.
DAMAGED AREAS must equal 15.
there must be at least two vehicle forms with
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT equal
to 01-05, 07-11, 61-63, 81-83, 98, 99.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for one
vehicle in the first harmful event must equal 12,
and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
the other vehicle in the first harmful event must
equal 06.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for one
vehicle in the first harmful event must equal 12,
and AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
the other vehicle in the first harmful event must
equal 12.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for one
vehicle in the first harmful event must equal 01, 11,
12, 98, 99, and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT
POINT for the other vehicle in the first harmful
event must equal 01-05, 07-11, 61-63, 81-83, 98,
99.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for one
vehicle in the first harmful event should equal 06,
and AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
the other vehicle in the first harmful event should
equal 01-05, 07-11, 61-63, 81-83, 98, 99.
AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL CONTACT POINT for one
vehicle in the first harmful event should equal 06,
and AREAS OF IMPACT- INITIAL CONTACT POINT for
the other vehicle in the first harmful event should
equal 06, 98, 99.
the corresponding event in that row must not equal
12 or 55.
AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) must equal 18 or
19 in that row.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 14.

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Areas of Impact – Initial Contact Point / Damaged Areas
Check
(8L8T)

IF
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals
14,

(8L8U)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals
18 or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals
08, 09, 15, 49,
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals
15,

(8L8V)

(8L8W)

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS is not equal to 45,

(8L8X)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals
18,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS is equal to 45
(Working Motor Vehicle),

(8L8Y)

(8L9P)

(BZ10)
(BZ20)
(FP1F)
(VH81)
(VH82)
(VH83)
(VH84)

(VH85)
(VH86)
(VH87)

BODY TYPE does not equal 80-83, 88-91,
and the CRASH EVENTS event equals 54,
and the corresponding AREAS OF IMPACT
(THIS VEHICLE) equals 19 in that row,
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT)
equals 53,
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT)
equals 51, 52,
AREAS OF IMPACT – INITIAL CONTACT
POINT equals blank, case status is flawed.
any DAMAGED AREAS equals 15 or 99,
EXTENT OF DAMAGE for this vehicle
equals 2, 4, 6,
the only harmful SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
for this vehicle equals 04-06,
the only harmful SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
for this vehicle equals 01-03, 16, 44, 51,
72,
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT
POINT equals 61-63,
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT
POINT equals 81-83,
HIT-AND-RUN equals 0, and AREAS OF
IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT equals
01-14,

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THEN
there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE or
OTHER VEHICLE) equals 18 or 19 and the
corresponding event in that row equals 14, 45 or
54.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 15.

there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE)
equals 18 or 19, and the corresponding event in
that row equals 08-10, 15, 18 or 49.
AREAS OF IMPACT (OTHER VEHICLE) should not
equal 18 or 19.
there should be a previous event involving that
vehicle where the CRASH EVENTS event equals 60.
AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) and AREAS OF
IMPACT (OTHER VEHICLE) should not both equal
18 or 19 in that same event row.
there should be a previous event with CRASH
EVENTS event equal to 18 or 73 involving that
vehicle.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT should
not equal 12 for this vehicle.
AREAS OF IMPACT-INITIAL CONTACT POINT should
not equal 06 for this vehicle.
-only that one values must be coded.
DAMAGED AREAS must not equal 15.
DAMAGED AREAS should equal 15.
DAMAGED AREAS should not equal 15.

DAMAGED AREAS should include at least one of the
codes 07-11, or DAMAGED AREAS should equal 15.
DAMAGED AREAS should include at least one of the
codes 01-05, or DAMAGED AREAS should equal 15.
the corresponding code should be included in
DAMAGED AREAS, or DAMAGED AREAS should
equal 15.

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V30 - Extent of Damage
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.DEFORMED, Parkwork.PVEH_SEV
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
2
4
6
8
9

Attributes
No Damage
Minor Damage
Functional Damage
Disabling Damage
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element indicates the amount of damage sustained by this vehicle in this crash as indicated in
the case materials based on an operational damage scale.
Remarks:
0 (No Damage) is used when there is no damage indicated in the available information for this vehicle.
2 (Minor Damage) is damage that does not disable or affect the operation of the motor vehicle. This attribute is
used when the case materials indicate damage to the vehicle to be Minor or less than Functional and the vehicle
is not towed due to damage.
Examples of 2 (Minor Damage) include: dented or bent fenders, bumpers, grills, body panels, and destroyed
hubcaps.
4 (Functional Damage) is damage that is not disabling, but affects the operation of the motor vehicle or its
parts. This attribute is used when the available information specifically indicates the damage is moderate or
functional.
Examples of 4 (Functional Damage) include:
• doors, windows, hood and trunk lids that will not operate properly;
• broken glass that obscures vision;
• damage that would prevent the motor vehicle from passing an official motor vehicle inspection;
• tire damage even though the tire may have been changed at the scene;
• bumpers that are loose;
• headlamp or taillight damage that would make night driving hazardous but would not affect daytime
driving; and,
• damage to turn signals, horn or windshield wipers, that makes them inoperative.
6 (Disabling Damage) is damage that precludes departure of the motor vehicle from the crash scene in its usual
daylight-operating manner after simple repairs. As a result, the motor vehicle would have had to have been
towed, or carried from the crash scene, or assisted by an emergency motor vehicle. This attribute should be
used when the available information specifically indicates disabling or severe damage. This attribute is also used
when the damage is indicated to be of greater magnitude than Functional (moderate), e.g., major, extensive,
totaled and the vehicle was towed from the scene.

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8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
9 (Unknown) is used when the available information specifically indicated the damage severity to be unknown.
Note: There is a distinction between the cost to repair the damage and the degree to which the damage affects
the vehicle’s operability (totaled, under/over monetary threshold). Operational damage is recorded here. For
example, if the available information indicates that the vehicle was totaled and the vehicle was towed away, use
6 (Disabling Damage). However, if the available information indicates that the vehicle was totaled, but the
vehicle was driven away, use 4 (Functional Damage).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(3C0P)
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and EXTENT OF DAMAGE
equals 6,
(3C1P)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 0, 2,
(3C1Q)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 0, 2,
(3C2P)
VEHICLE REMOVAL equals 2,
(3C3P)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 6,
(3CA0)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE for this vehicle equals 0,
(VH82)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE for this vehicle equals 2,
4, 6,

THEN
VEHICLE REMOVAL should equal 2, 8, 9.
VEHICLE REMOVAL must not equal 2.
VEHICLE REMOVAL should equal 3 or 5.
EXTENT OF DAMAGE must equal 6, 8, 9.
VEHICLE REMOVAL must not equal 3.
DAMAGED AREAS must equal 15.
DAMAGED AREAS must not equal 15.

Consistency Check (FARS ONLY):
Check
Language
(U370)
UNLIKELY: EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 8 if STATE NUMBER does not equal 17, 34, 48, 49, or 53.

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V31 - Vehicle Removal
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.TOWED, Parkwork.PTOWED
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
2
3
5
8
9

Attributes
Towed Due to Disabling Damage
Towed Not Due to Disabling Damage
Not Towed
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This data element describes the mode in which the vehicle left the scene of the crash.
Remarks: This data element describes the mode in which the vehicle left the scene of the crash. Towing includes
vehicles carried from the scene on a flatbed tow truck.
If the vehicle is a combination vehicle (power unit and at least one trailer), the power unit and/or trailer(s) are
considered when determining tow status. If the available information indicates the power unit, or trailer of a
combination unit, sustained enough damage to require towing, consider this vehicle as towed due to damage.
2 (Towed Due to Disabling Damage) is used for any towing which is due to disabling damage caused by this
crash which prohibits vehicle movement under its own power. Towed due to disabling damage includes any
towing when the reason for towing is unknown. In other words, if a vehicle is reported in the case materials as
towed but it cannot be determined whether it was due to disabling damage or for other reasons, then the
default assumption is that this vehicle was towed due to disabling damage - the data element Extent of Damage
can still be 8 (Not Reported) or 9 (Unknown).
If a vehicle was pushed by hand or by another vehicle after the crash because it was not drivable, then use 2
(Towed Due to Disabling Damage).
If a vehicle was towed due to damage AND for other reasons such as driver arrest, then code this vehicle as
2 (Towed Due to Disabling Damage).
3 (Towed Not Due to Disabling Damage) is used when the vehicle has been towed but the towing results from
other than disabling damage (e.g., minor damage, functional damage, mired vehicles, driver arrested, injured
driver, etc.).
5 (Not Towed) is used when it is specifically indicated in the available information that the vehicle was not
towed or when the preponderance of the information available indicates that the vehicle was driven away or
was not towed. Not Towed is also used when preponderance of the information available indicates that the
vehicle remained at the scene unless the damage severity for the vehicle is noted as disabling on the PAR. If the
preponderance of the information available indicates that the vehicle remained at the scene and the damage
severity for the vehicle is noted as disabling on the PAR, then use 2 (Towed Due to Disabling Damage).
NOTE: The PAR narrative may be used to supersede and/or clarify the above information.

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8 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 8 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
9 (Unknown) is used when the investigating officer indicates it was unknown as to how the vehicle was
removed.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(3C0P)
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and EXTENT OF
DAMAGE equals 6,
(3C1P)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 0, 2,
(3C1Q)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 0, 2,
(3C2P)
VEHICLE REMOVAL equals 2,
(3C3P)
EXTENT OF DAMAGE equals 6,
(U430)
UNLIKELY: VEHICLE REMOVAL equals 8.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE REMOVAL should equal 2, 8, 9.
VEHICLE REMOVAL must not equal 2.
VEHICLE REMOVAL should equal 3 or 5.
EXTENT OF DAMAGE must equal 6, 8, 9.
VEHICLE REMOVAL must not equal 3.
--

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V32

V32 - Sequence of Events
FORMAT: Read Only
SAS NAME: Cevent.SOE; Vevent.SOE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Non-Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
61
Equipment Failure (blown tire, brake failure, etc.)
62
Separation of Units
63
Ran Off Roadway-Right
64
Ran Off Roadway-Left
79
Ran off Roadway - Direction Unknown
71
End Departure
65
Cross Median
68
Cross Centerline
66
Downhill Runaway
67
Vehicle Went Airborne
69
Re-entering Roadway
70
Non-harmful, Swaying Trailer/Jackknife
60
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (non-harmful)
Non-Collision Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
01
Rollover/Overturn
02
Fire/Explosion
03
Immersion or Partial Immersion
04
Gas Inhalation
51
Jackknife (harmful to this vehicle)
06
Injured in Vehicle (Non-Collision)
44
Pavement Surface Irregularity (Ruts, Potholes, Grates, etc.)
07
Other Non-Collision
72
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (harmful to this vehicle)
16
Thrown or Falling Object
05
Fell/Jumped from Vehicle
Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
Codes Attributes
12
Motor Vehicle In-Transport
54
Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport
55
Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway
Collision with Object Not Fixed:
Codes Attributes
08
Pedestrian
09
Pedalcyclist
10
Railway Vehicle
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Sequence of Events
Codes
74
11
49
18
15
14
45
73

V32

Attributes
Road Vehicle on Rails
Live Animal
Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance
Other Object (Not Fixed)
Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance
Parked Motor Vehicle
Working Motor Vehicle
Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport

Collision with Fixed Object:
Codes Attributes
17
Boulder
19
Building
58
Ground
20
Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion
50
Bridge Overhead Structure
21
Bridge Pier or Support
23
Bridge Rail (Includes Parapet)
24
Guardrail Face
52
Guardrail End
25
Concrete Traffic Barrier
57
Cable Barrier
26
Other Traffic Barrier
59
Traffic Sign Support
46
Traffic Signal Support
30
Utility Pole/Light Support
31
Other Post, Other Pole, or Other Supports
32
Culvert
33
Curb
34
Ditch
35
Embankment
38
Fence
39
Wall
40
Fire Hydrant
41
Shrubbery
42
Tree (Standing Only)
48
Snow Bank
53
Mail Box
43
Other Fixed Object
Unknown
Codes Attributes
99
Unknown

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Definition: The events in sequence related to this motor vehicle, regardless of injury and/or property damage.
Code each event for this vehicle in the order in which they occur, time wise, from the Police Accident Report
(PAR) narrative and diagram.
Remarks: This data element is derived from the Crash Events Table. Recording of Crash Events ends at the last
harmful event of the entire crash. Therefore, a non-harmful event (e.g., Crossing the Centerline) that occurs
following the last harmful event of the crash will not be included.
Correction to the Sequence Events order must be made by revision to the Crash Events Table.

Non-Harmful Events:
61 (Equipment Failure) (blown tire, brake, etc.) Examples of equipment failure include blown tires, brake
failures, etc.
62 (Separation of Unit) is used when a trailing unit separates from its power unit or another trailing unit(s). This
applies to truck tractors with trailer(s), single-unit trucks with a trailer and other vehicles pulling a trailer (e.g.,
car pulling a boat or motor home).
63 (Ran Off Roadway-Right) is used if the vehicle runs off the right side of the roadway. Identification of
running off roadway can be determined from the case materials. This attribute can be used anytime in the event
sequence before or after any harmful events. This attribute does not apply to the "load" in cases involving Areas
of Impact 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) or 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).
64 (Ran Off Roadway-Left) is used if the vehicle runs off the left side of the roadway. Identification of running
off roadway can be determined from the case materials. This attribute can be used anytime in the event
sequence before or after any harmful events. This attribute does not apply to the "load" in cases involving Areas
of Impact 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) or 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).
Figure 16: Ran Off Roadway Examples

79 (Ran off Roadway-Direction Unknown) is used when it cannot be determined from the case materials and
there are no witness statements available to determine whether a vehicle ran off the roadway right or left.
Coding Guidelines for Running Off Roadway (Right or Left)
For Divided Highways:
On a divided highway, a vehicle can run off the roadway by leaving the roadway and entering the median. When
this occurs involving a vehicle on the correct side of a divided highway, the proper “Ran Off Roadway” attribute

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is always 64 (Ran Off Roadway - Left). In situations where a vehicle departs the roadway into the median,
traverses the median, and continues across the opposing roadway, code 64 (Ran Off Roadway - Left) followed
by 65 (Cross Median).
For vehicles turning at “T-intersections”:
For “T-intersections” when the vehicle loses control when in a turn, choose right or left based upon the direction
of travel for the vehicle’s proper travel lane for their intended travel path. For vehicles traveling straight
through “T-Intersections” use 71 (End Departure). See Figure 17 below.
71 (End Departure) is used if the vehicle leaves the roadway by traveling straight through the top of a “Tintersection” of a two-way trafficway or top of an intersecting one-way roadway. This code should also apply to
vehicles traveling off the end of dead end roadways or into the barrier of a closed trafficway. See Figure 17
below.
Figure 17: End Departure Examples

65 (Cross Median) is used when a vehicle departs its roadway and traverses the median and enters the shoulder
or travel lanes on the opposite side of a divided highway. This attribute does not apply to the "load" in cases
involving Areas of Impact 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) or 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).
68 (Cross Centerline) is used when a vehicle crosses over the centerline of a two-way, undivided highway. The
centerline must be delineated with paint or raised markers. This is also used for unstabilized situations involving
vehicles that depart from their initial travel lane(s) and enter the continuous left-turn lane, having a harmful
event that is located within the marked boundaries of the continuous left-turn lane. This attribute also applies
to vehicles that traverse the continuous left-turn lane area, having a harmful event that is located in the
opposing travel lane(s). This attribute does not apply to the "load" in cases involving Areas of Impact 18
(Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) or 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).
66 (Downhill Runaway) refers to any vehicle that cannot decelerate on a downhill grade.
67 (Vehicle Went Airborne) must only be used if the officer indicates by narrative or diagram that the vehicle
left the ground (excludes vehicles leaving the ground during a rollover event). Examples: the vehicle drove off a
cliff, the vehicle was launched into the air after striking another vehicle or after traversing a berm.

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69 (Re-entering Roadway) is used when a vehicle that departed the roadway portion of the trafficway returns to
the same roadway (e.g., a motor vehicle in transport runs off the roadway right, strikes the guardrail face, then
re-enters the roadway and collides with another motor vehicle in transport). This attribute does not apply to the
"load" in cases involving Areas of Impact 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion) or 19 (Other Objects Set-InMotion).
70 (Non-harmful, Swaying Trailer/Jackknife) applies to a condition that occurs to an articulated vehicle, (any
vehicle with a trailing unit(s) connected by a hitch; e.g., truck tractor or single-unit truck with one or more
trailers, articulated bus, car pulling a boat on a trailer, etc.) while in motion. The condition reflects a loss of
control of the vehicle by the driver in which the trailer(s) yaws from its normal straight-line path behind the
power unit.
60 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [non-harmful]) refers specifically to the loss or shift of items carried on or in
a motor vehicle or its trailing unit, and not to the vehicle, its parts or trailing unit, itself. This attribute should
never be used:
1. to refer to a “collision” event (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons
or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport))
2. to a harmful event related to the loss or shift of cargo in/on a vehicle causing damage to that vehicle, its
cargo, or injury to its occupants (see 72 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [harmful to this vehicle])).
Examples:
• A load of logs on a tractor semi-trailer shifts as the truck rounds a curve resulting in an overturn. The
shift of the load of logs would be a 60 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [non-harmful])
• A spare tire falls from a vehicle. The loss of the spare tire would be a 60 (Cargo/ Equipment Loss or
Shift [non-harmful])
• An axle on a vehicle breaks and the wheel then separates from the vehicle would be a (61 (Equipment
Failure)).
Non-Collision events involving motorcycles and vehicles with a “load”:
Non-Collision events may occur before or after a collision event. They should not be coded as a separate event
if they occur as part of a collision event.
Examples:
• A motorcycle strikes a deer, overturns and the rider becomes separated from the vehicle. Code the
collision event, not the non-collision “Rollover/Overturn” and “Fell/Jumped from Vehicle” that occur as
part of the collision event.
• One tractor/trailer rear-ends another tractor/trailer. The impact pushes the lead vehicle’s load into the
back of the tractor cab with part falling onto the roadway. Code the collision event, not the non-collision
“cargo-loss or shift” that occurred as part of the collision event.

Non-Collision Harmful Events:
01 (Rollover/Overturn) is used when a motor vehicle rotates (rollover) at least one quarter turn onto its side or
end.
NOTES regarding 01 (Rollover/Overturn):
• For motorcycles, laying the motorcycle down on its side is sufficient to use attribute 01
(Rollover/Overturn) as a harmful event if damage or injury is produced, even though the data element
Rollover is not applicable to motorcycles.

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Every vehicle that overturns will have contact with the ground. The collision event 58 (Ground) should
not be used in describing a non-collision 01 (Rollover/Overturn) event. For example: A vehicle’s tires
furrow into soft soil causing the vehicle to roll. The harmful event is 01 (Rollover/Overturn). If the
report identifies the vehicle “struck” the ground, and that harmful collision event caused the vehicle to
roll, the events are 58 (Ground), 01 (Overturn/Rollover). Note this will give you a Level 2 edit check. If
overriding the edit check, be specific in your override remarks.
The only instances 67 (Airborne) should be used immediately prior or immediately after 01
(Rollover/Overturn) is if the officer identifies “airborne” as defined in this element. Note this will give
you a Level 2 edit check. If overriding the edit check, be specific in your override remarks.
A vehicle rolls over 3 quarter turns. This is one rollover event involving 3 quarter turns.
If there is a 01 (Rollover/Overturn) that begins in another location but involves a ditch or embankment
in the case (e.g., “rolled through the ditch”, “rolled down the embankment”, “came to rest against the
embankment”), then the rule applies where if there is no damage associated with an impact with the
fixed object during the rollover, it is not included in the Crash Events. If there is indication that damage
resulted from an impact with the fixed object, it is included in the Crash Events. This follows the same
logic as striking a tree or another vehicle during an overturn.
For a vehicle that rolls over, impacts a fence and continues to rollover. Only two events would be coded
for that circumstance. The first event would be the rollover followed by an impact with the fence. In
order for more than one rollover event to appear in a vehicles sequence of events, the vehicle must
return to its wheels, and track for a period of time before experiencing a separate rollover event. This
would be a rare occurrence and must be clearly identified in the case materials.

Note: For medium/heavy trucks with attached trailers by fixed linkage, when either the power unit or the
trailer rolls over, the entire vehicle will be considered a rollover.
02 (Fire/Explosion) is used for a vehicle fire or explosion that occurs during the crash sequence or as a result of
the crash.
As it pertains to the occurrence of 02 (Fire/Explosion), the crash circumstances are not considered stabilized
until the threat of damage to this vehicle, or injury consequences to this vehicle's occupants, has ceased.
Therefore, the crash sequence is not considered stabilized until all occupants have exited the vehicle and the
scene has been declared safe by police or other authority. Fires that occur at a later time to vehicles abandoned
at the scene (e.g., in open fields, on hillsides, etc.) or to vehicles removed from the scene to another location
(tow yard, curbside, etc.) are not considered part of the crash sequence.
03 (Immersion or Partial Immersion) is used when an in-transport motor vehicle enters a body of water and
results in injury or damage. This code would also be used if the vehicle came to rest in water and the depth
cannot be ascertained from case materials. NOTE: In immersion fatalities the injury to the person may be noted
as “drowning”.
04 (Gas Inhalation) includes injury or death as a result of toxic fumes, such as carbon monoxide fumes leaking
from a motor vehicle in-transport.

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51 (Jackknife [harmful to this vehicle]) applies to a condition that occurs to an articulated vehicle, (any vehicle
with a trailing unit(s) connected by a hitch; e.g., truck tractor or single-unit truck with one or more trailers,
articulated bus, car pulling a boat on a trailer, etc.) while in motion. The condition reflects a loss of control of
the vehicle by the driver in which the trailer(s) yaws from its normal straight-line path behind the power unit,
striking the power unit, causing damage to the power unit or trailer. Jackknife should only be coded as a
harmful event if there is clear indication of damage to the jackknifed vehicle or injury to its occupants caused by
the jackknife.
06 (Injured in Vehicle [Non-Collision]) is used when an occupant is injured during an unstabilized situation
without a collision, excluding cargo/equipment loss or shift. Examples: Driver slams on brake, causing an
unrestrained passenger to be injured. Driver makes a sharp turn causing driver to strike head on side window,
knocking driver unconscious.
44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]) is used when the pavement surface irregularity
is on a paved surface. Other examples include indication of contact with a dip, depression, low spot, trough,
etc.) If the impact is with a surface irregularity (e.g. ruts, potholes) not on a paved surface use the 58 (Ground).
For a vehicle that "bottoms out" on the paved surface (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a
pavement surface irregularity, use attribute 07 (Other Non-Collision).
07 (Other Non-Collision). Non-collision not captured in the listed non-collision attributes.
Examples:
• Damage to the vehicle produced by its own dislodged vehicle parts (including hood flying up and
contacting the windshield).
• A vehicle “bottoms out” on the roadway (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a pavement
surface irregularity. For impacts on the roadway due to pavement surface irregularities should be coded
44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]).
16 (Thrown or Falling Object) is used when any object (1) is thrown (intentionally or unintentionally) and
impacts an in-transport vehicle, or (2) falls onto, into, or in the path of an in-transport motor vehicle. If a tree
limb falls from a tree and is contacted by a car, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). If a person maliciously
throws an object off an overpass into traffic below, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). This excludes contacts
made by loads or objects set in-motion by a motor vehicle (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is
Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport)).
72 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [harmful to this vehicle]) refers specifically to the loss or shift of items
carried on or in a motor vehicle or its trailing unit, and not to the vehicle, its parts or trailing unit, itself. This
attribute is only used when the injury- or damage-producing event in the crash is the loss or shift of cargo in/on
a vehicle causing damage to that vehicle, its cargo, or injury to its occupants. This attribute should never be
used to refer to a “collision” event (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or
Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport))
Example:
A pickup truck brakes rapidly to avoid a collision. This causes a piece of lumber in the pickup bed to smash
through the rear window.
05 (Fell/Jumped from Vehicle) is used when an occupant of this vehicle falls or jumps (not suicide) from the
vehicle causing injury. For example, an occupant of a motor vehicle in-transport leans against the car door, it
opens and the occupant falls out; or a person riding on a vehicle’s exterior (hood, roof, running board, etc.) falls
or jumps, and is injured by the fall. If an occupant falls or jumps from a vehicle and is struck by that vehicle, use
this attribute.

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Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is two motor vehicles intransport making contact within the trafficway boundaries. In-transport means that the motor vehicle is inmotion or on the roadway portion of a trafficway.
54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is two motor vehicles
in-transport making contact by something set-in-motion by one of the vehicles. In these circumstances, both
vehicles will have this attribute extracted and included in their SEQUENCE OF EVENTS.
In crashes involving harmful events caused by objects set-in-motion by a motor vehicle in-transport, remember
that a vehicle’s load is considered to be part of the vehicle.
Examples:
• If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes another motor vehicle in-transport, this is treated as
a two-vehicle crash. Therefore, the proper code for both vehicles is 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle InTransport) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-InMotion).
•

If an in-transport vehicle strikes an at-rest object in the roadway that was previously cargo or part of
another motor vehicle in-transport, the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for that event is 73 (Object That Had
Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport). If that object is then propelled into another motor vehicle intransport, the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute for this next event is 54 (Motor Vehicle InTransport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor
Vehicle In-Transport) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 19 (Other Objects SetIn-Motion).

•

If an in-transport vehicle strikes an at-rest object in the roadway that was not cargo or part of another
motor vehicle in-transport, the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for that event is 18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]). If
that object is then propelled into another motor vehicle in-transport, the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
code for this next event is 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or
Objects Set-in- Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS
VEHICLE) column is coded 19 (Other Objects Set-In-Motion).

This attribute does not apply when the cargo, persons, or objects set-in-motion by an in-transport motor vehicle
strikes something other than another in-transport motor vehicle. In this case, use the applicable "collision with
non-fixed object", or "collision with fixed object" code for the object struck by the cargo, person, or object setin- motion.
Examples:
• If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes another vehicle that is not in-transport, the proper
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute is 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) or 45 (Working Motor Vehicle) depending
on which type of not in-transport vehicle was contacted by the load and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS
VEHICLE) column is coded 18 (Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion).
•

If cargo falls from a truck (in-transport) and strikes a pedestrian, the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
attribute would be 08 (Pedestrian) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 18
(Cargo/Vehicle Parts Set-In-Motion).

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If a pedestrian is struck by an at-rest object propelled by an in-transport vehicle (e.g., parked motor
vehicle, stop sign, etc.), the proper SEQUENCE OF EVENTS attribute for this harmful event is 08
(Pedestrian) and the AREA OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) column is coded 19 (Other Objects Set-InMotion).

55 (Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is
two motor vehicles in-transport making contact outside the trafficway boundaries in a motor vehicle traffic
crash.
Example:
A vehicle loses control attempting to turn into a gas station and strikes another vehicle pulling away from
the pump in the station lot.

Collision with Object Not Fixed:
08 (Pedestrian) is used for all those not on a personal conveyance. A person pushing a vehicle should be coded
08 (Pedestrian). A person being carried by another person should also be considered a 08 (Pedestrian).
09 (Pedalcyclist) is used for any person on a non-motorized other road vehicle propelled by pedaling. Examples
include a bicycle, tricycle, unicycle, or pedal car.
10 (Railway Vehicle) is any land vehicle that is (1) designed primarily for, or in use for, moving persons or
property from one place to another on rails and (2) not in use on a land way other than a railway.
• Inclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way
• Exclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
74 (Road Vehicle on Rails) is any land vehicle on rails operating in a trafficway.
• Inclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
• Exclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way, Street car/trolley or electric bus
operating on tires.
11 (Live Animal) is used for collisions with live animals (domesticated or wild) that are not themselves being
used as transportation or to draw a wagon, cart or other transport device (see ANSI D16.1). Default to 11 (Live
Animal) if it cannot be determined if the struck animal is alive, dead, or if it was being ridden or drawing a
transport device.
Use 49 (Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance) for ridden animals and animals drawing transport
devices. See 18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) for an animal carcass.
18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) is used when a motor vehicle in-transport strikes a non-fixed object that is known
NOT to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport or when it is UNKNOWN whether the
object was the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport (i.e., refers to objects such as a dead body,
animal carcass, construction cones or barrels, an unattached trailer, a bicycle without a rider, downed tree limbs
or power lines, or debris from a prior crash). For objects that have become separated from a motor vehicle intransport not as a result of a prior crash, use attribute 73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle InTransport).

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15 (Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance) is used for pedestrians using personal conveyances. A personal
conveyance is a device, other than a transport device, used by a pedestrian for personal mobility assistance or
recreation. These devices can be motorized or human powered, but not propelled by pedaling.
Inclusions:
1. Rideable toys
a. Roller Skates, in-line skates
b. Skateboards
c. Skates
d. Baby carriage
e. Scooters
f. Toy Wagons
2. Motorized rideable toys
a. Motorized skateboard
b. Motorized toy car
3. Devices for personal mobility assistance
a. Segway-style devices
b. Motorized and non-motorized wheelchair
c. Handicapped scooters
Exclusions:
1. Golf cart
2. Low Speed Vehicles (LSVs)
3. Go-carts
4. Minibike
5. “Pocket” motorcycles
6. Motor scooters
7. Moped
14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) is used when the impact occurred between a motor vehicle in-transport and a motor
vehicle neither on a roadway nor in motion. A vehicle stopped off the roadway, its door open over a roadway, is
not in-transport.
45 (Working Motor Vehicle) is used to indicate the motor vehicle contacted was in the act of performing
construction, maintenance, or utility work related to the trafficway when it became an involved unit. This
“work” may be located within open or closed portions of the trafficway and motor vehicles performing these
activities can be within or outside the trafficway boundaries. This code does not include private
construction/maintenance vehicles, or vehicles such as garbage trucks, delivery trucks, taxis, emergency
vehicles, tow trucks, etc.
Examples:
1. Asphalt/steam roller working in a highway construction zone paving the roadway or flattening dirt.
2. State highway maintenance crew painting lane lines on the road, mowing grass on the roadside or
median, repairing potholes, removing debris from the roadway, etc.
3. Utility truck or a “cherry picker”, performing maintenance on power lines along the roadway or
maintaining a traffic signal.
4. A private excavating company contracted by the State digging the foundation for a new overpass.
5. A state, county, or privately owned snow plow, plowing ice/snow as part of a highway maintenance
activity.
6. Street sweeper sweeping the street.

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7. A vehicle in a mobile work convoy displaying arrow boards or other signaling devices warning motorists
of the work activity.
8. A law enforcement vehicle which is participating strictly in a stationary construction or mobile
maintenance activity as a traffic slowing, control, signaling or calming influence.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
NOTE: Before 2004, this code was called Transport Device Used as Equipment. It included other working
activities in addition to construction, maintenance, and utility work on trafficways. From 2004 forward, code
“45” excludes working activities other than highway construction, maintenance, or utility vehicles (e.g.,
garbage truck picking up trash, mail/delivery trucks while making deliveries, personal vehicles plowing snow,
etc. These are considered motor vehicles In-transport). Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level code 42 (Other
Working Vehicle [Not Construction, Maintenance, Utility, Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle]) to identify these
vehicles.
A question may arise when a police, fire or emergency medical vehicle is struck on the roadway while at the
scene of a crash, at a traffic stop, or as traffic control. The question becomes, “has its function changed
from being a motor vehicle in-transport to a working vehicle?” The answer is “no.” Treat these situations as
a motor vehicle in-transport striking another motor vehicle in-transport. Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level
code 41 (Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle Working at the Scene of an Emergency or Performing Other Traffic
Control Activities) to identify that this vehicle was struck while performing these work activities.
73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when a motor vehicle in- transport
impacts a non-fixed object at rest that is known to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle intransport. Do not use this attribute for debris from a prior crash. This attribute does not include vehicle
occupants that are ejected or fall from a motor vehicle in-transport. (Example: Motorcycle operator falling
from a motorcycle.) For people falling from a motor vehicle see non-collision event 05 (Fell/Jumped From
Vehicle). For impacts involving two motor vehicles in transport resulting from cargo, persons or objects set in
motion see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons, or Objects Set-in-Motion
from/by another Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
For example, if cargo that fell from a vehicle and was at rest in the roadway is struck this attribute would
apply. If the cargo was at rest in the roadway as a result of a prior accident, use attribute 18 (Other Object
[Not Fixed]).

Collision with Fixed Object:
The attributes 58 (Ground), 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch) and 35 (Embankment) are grouped under the Collision with
Fixed Object subset because they are intended to be harmful events in the crash (i.e. – they are associated with
an impact that produces injury or damage).
When coding these events there must be fields on the PAR or verbiage in the narrative such as "struck", "hit",
"impacted", etc. that identify these as harmful.
For cases where the indication of the harmful event came from the narrative, there may not be a corresponding
indication of damage in any PAR field. In these instances, code the harmful event as stated in the narrative and
include the corresponding attribute under Areas of Impact.

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If there is no indication of damage from contact with the fixed object in fields on the PAR and the narrative
language does not identify it as a harmful event (e.g., “came to rest on the embankment" or "drove through" or
"drove across" the ditch and/or the embankment, or "drove over" the curb do not code 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch), or
35 (Embankment) in the Sequence of Events.
Guidelines for PAR Combination Attributes:
If there is no clarification in the case materials, default to the first attribute listed in the combination. For
example, if a PAR attribute identifies "Earth Embankment/Rockcut /Ditch", code 35 (Embankment) unless the
narrative clearly indicates one of the other attributes (e.g. "rockcut" or "ditch").
17 (Boulder) is a rock of sufficient mass that when struck by a motor vehicle moves very little and remains
basically intact.
19 (Building) is used when the vehicle impacts a roofed and walled structure built for permanent use. The type
of construction material used is not of interest, nor is the use of the building.
58 (Ground) is used when the impact is with an earthen or paved surface off of the roadway. 58 (Ground) is not
to be entered when the harmful event is 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
Indication of furrowing, gouging, or digging in of the tires/wheels is not sufficient to code the collision event 58
(Ground). For example, if the PAR narrative states; “the trucks tires dug into the turf causing the vehicle to
rollover” the harmful event should be 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
20 (Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion) is a device for controlling the absorption of energy released during
vehicle collision (crash cushion). Its most common application involves the protection of fixed roadside objects
such as bridge piers, elevated gores at exit ramps, etc. Examples include barrels filled with water or sand, and
plastic collapsible structures.
Figure 18: Bridge Components Diagram

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50 (Bridge Overhead Structure) is used when striking the bottom of a bridge while traveling on a trafficway
underneath it. See Figure 18.
21 (Bridge Pier or Support) is a square or round column of stone, concrete, brick, steel or wood for supporting a
bridge between abutments. This attribute includes the bridge abutments which are supporting the ends of a
bridge. Abutments are generally designed for retaining or supporting the embankment under bridge ends and
composed of stone, concrete, brick or wood (includes the wing-walls). See Figure 18.
23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) is a wooden, brick, stone, concrete, or metal fence-like structure which runs
along the outermost edge of the roadway or sidewalk on the bridge or a rail constructed along the top of a
parapet. Balustrade is often used synonymously with parapet. See Figure 18
• Bridges do not need to support another roadway. It may be an overpass for a train or even for a viaduct
(water conduit).
24 (Guardrail Face) is a low barrier that has the primary longitudinal structure composed of metal (plates, mesh,
box beam, etc.). A guardrail is differentiated from 25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) by the material making up the
greatest part of the longitudinal portion of the structure. In the case of guardrails, this is metal whereas in
concrete barriers this is concrete (including concrete rails). If the crash report does not differentiate between
guardrail face and end, default to guardrail face.
Guardrails, which serve as bridge rails, should be coded as 23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]).
52 (Guardrail End) is coded if a vehicle strikes the end of a guardrail. Guardrails can have a separate flat or
rounded piece of metal attached to the end of an expanse of guardrail face.
25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) refers to the longitudinal traffic barriers constructed of concrete. This includes all
temporary concrete barriers regardless of location (i.e., temporary Jersey Barrier on a bridge being used to
control traffic during bridge repair/construction). Concrete walls (vertical side surfaces) do not apply here; see
39 (Wall).
57 (Cable Barrier) refers to a flexible barrier system which uses several cables typically supported by steel posts.
These barriers are designed to help lessen impact or keep vehicles within the confines of the road.
26 (Other Traffic Barrier) is used for all other longitudinal barriers such as wood or rock.
59 (Traffic Sign Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic sign, or the sign itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport. This includes mile marker posts and signs above the trafficway.
46 (Traffic Signal Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic signal, or the signal itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport.
30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) refers to supports for highway lighting systems, not including other private
lighting systems (e.g., parking lot lights). 30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) is used for electrical, telephone, cable &
other utility pole-type supports.
31 (Other Post, Other Pole or Other Supports) is used for posts other than highway signs, utility poles, or light
supports (e.g., reflectors on poles alongside of roadway, parking meters, flag poles, etc.). For mail box posts, use
53 (Mail Box). For fence posts, use 38 (Fence).
32 (Culvert) is a man-made drain or channel crossing under a road, sidewalk, etc.

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33 (Curb) is a concrete or asphalt structure that borders the paved surface. It provides drainage control and
pavement edge delineation. The face of the curb may be sloped or vertical. Ensure that the PAR provides some
indication that damage has occurred when a vehicle strikes a curb. This attribute includes collisions with curbing
that forms raised islands, medians, or separators. For example, if the report identifies the vehicle
struck/collided with a traffic island, channelizing island, raised median, or separator use 33 (Curb) not 43 (Other
Fixed Object).
34 (Ditch) includes any man-made structure for drainage purposes. A ditch ends where a culvert begins and
resumes on the opposite side of the culvert. Reference to a “ditchbank”, “embankment of the ditch”, or “ditch
embankment” should be coded under 34 (Ditch).
35 (Embankment) is a raised structure to hold back water, to carry a roadway or the result of excavation or
washout (including erosion) which may be faced with earth (or rock, stone or concrete). A 35 (Embankment)
can usually be differentiated from a 39 (Wall) by its incline whereas a wall is usually vertical. However, there are
exceptions to this; such as a retaining wall that may be inclined or a vertical embankment that is caused by a
natural event such as a washout.
In crashes involving a field approach or driveway crossing, use attribute 35 (Embankment) when no specific
components (e.g., culverts or ditches) are identified.
38 (Fence) includes the fence posts. A Fence can be made of wood, chain link, stone, etc.
39 (Wall) is a primarily vertical structure composed of concrete, metal, timber or stone which is not part of a
building or a fence but typically is used for retaining earth, abating noise, and separating areas (but not for
containment as in the primary function of a fence). Also included as a 39 (Wall) are headwalls (or endwalls) that
are sometimes provided on culvert ends principally to protect the sides of the embankment around the culvert
opening against erosion. This does not include wing-walls, which are attached to ends of bridge abutments and
extend back at an angle from the roadway. Wingwalls should be coded as 21 (Bridge Pier or Support).
40 (Fire Hydrant) refers to the roadside device used by fire departments to provide water for fighting fires.
Usually made of steel, these devices are also referred to as fire plugs or fire stand pipes in some areas.
41 (Shrubbery) refers to vegetation which is usually of a woody multi-stemmed variety and in most instances is
low growing rather than tall. May also be called bushes. Some common examples are boxwood, hawthorn, and
mountain laurel.
42 (Tree [Standing Only]) is used when a vehicle strikes a standing tree. This includes impacts from overhanging
branches, tree stumps or large cactus (Saguaro). If a vehicle strikes a fallen tree, use 18 (Other Object [Not
Fixed]). If a tree falls on a vehicle as it is passing by, use 16 (Thrown or Falling Object).
48 (Snow Bank) is used when snowfall and/or road plowing creates essentially fixed barriers of snow/ice which
are not snow-covered earth or rock embankments.
53 (Mail Box) refers to a private residence mail/newspaper box including the post. A cluster of private
mailboxes is included in this attribute. This element does not include U.S. Mailbox, which are typically blue and
are for general public use. Code a U.S. Mailbox as 43 (Other Fixed Object).

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43 (Other Fixed Object) is used when the object is fixed (considered a permanent structure) and is not described
by any of the other fixed object attributes. This attribute excludes collisions with curbing that forms raised
islands, medians, or separators (See also 33 (Curb).)
Examples:

•

Bus shelters

•
•
•
•

Pedestrian walkways
Toll booths
Guy wires supporting utility poles
U. S. Mailbox for public use

Other examples would include property damage to standing crops, yards and other vegetation (excluding: 41
(Shrubbery), 42 (Tree [Standing Only]), and 58 (Ground)) if noted on the crash report.
When the case materials identify a non-specific object impact, apply the following guidelines. If the case
materials only identify the harmful event as:
• "Fixed Object", then use 43 (Other Fixed Object)
• "Sign", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Post", then use 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or Other Supports)
• "Sign Post", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Bridge", then use 23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) when the vehicle is on top of the bridge, when the
vehicle is going under the bridge, then use 21 (Bridge Pier or Support)
• "Barrier", then use 26 (Other Traffic Barrier)

Unknown
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1Z0N)
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for this vehicle should
not include more than one occurrence of 01.
Please see SEQUENCE OF EVENTS remarks
for 01 (Rollover/Overturn) to confirm coding.
(1Z1N)
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for this vehicle should
not equal 01, 67 consecutively or 67, 01
consecutively.
(1Z1P)
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 66,
(1Z2P)

(2Z0F)
(4Z0P)
(4Z1P)
(5Z0F)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 01, and
(BODY TYPE equals 01-79, 82, 90-99, or any
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals
30),
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 12, 14, 45,
54, 55,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 02,
UNIT TYPE equals 1 and FIRE OCCURRENCE
equals 1,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 08,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
--

--

ROADWAY GRADE should equal 6 for this
vehicle.
ROLLOVER must equal 1, 2, 9.

NUMBER OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED must
be greater than 001.
FIRE OCCURRENCE for this vehicle must equal 1.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
02.
at least one person must have PERSON TYPE
equal to 05, 10.

382

Sequence of Events
Check
(671F)
(6Z0F)

IF
the only harmful event in the SEQUENCE OF
EVENTS for this vehicle equals 02 or 04,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 09,

(7Z0F)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 05, 06,

(8L8Q)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18
or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS,
the CRASH EVENTS event equals 54,

(8L8R)
(8L8S)

(8L8T)

(8L8U)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18
or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals 14,
45 or 54,
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 14,

(8L8V)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18
or 19 in the CRASH EVENTS and the
corresponding event in that row equals 08,
09, 15, 49,
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL equals 15,

(8L8W)

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS is not equal to 45,

(8L8X)

AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) equals 18,

(8L8Y)

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS is equal to 45
(Working Motor Vehicle),

(8L9P)

(8Z0F)

BODY TYPE does not equal 80-83, 88-91, and
the CRASH EVENTS event equals 54, and the
corresponding AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS
VEHICLE) equals 19 in that row,
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 15,

(9B9P)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 55,

(A041)

CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,

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V32
THEN
CRITICAL EVENT – PRECRASH (EVENT) must
equal 98.
at least one person must have PERSON TYPE
equal to 06, 07.
at least one occupant of this vehicle (PERSON
TYPES 01, 02, 09) must have INJURY SEVERITY
equal to 1-5, or blank.
the corresponding event in that row must not
equal 12 or 55.
AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) must equal 18
or 19 in that row.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 14.

there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE
or OTHER VEHICLE) equals 18 or 19 and the
corresponding event in that row equals 14, 45 or
54.
RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal 15.

there must exist at least one event in the CRASH
EVENTS where AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE)
equals 18 or 19, and the corresponding event in
that row equals 08-10, 15, 18 or 49.
AREAS OF IMPACT (OTHER VEHICLE) should not
equal 18 or 19.
there should be a previous event involving that
vehicle where the CRASH EVENTS event equals
60.
AREAS OF IMPACT (THIS VEHICLE) and AREAS
OF IMPACT (OTHER VEHICLE) should not both
equal 18 or 19 in that same event row.
there should be a previous event with CRASH
EVENTS event equal to 18 or 73 involving that
vehicle.
at least one Person Level (Not a MV Occupant)
form must have a PERSON TYPE code of 08.
there must be at least one other vehicle with
UNIT TYPE equal to 1.
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FIRST HARMFUL EVENT,
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 48.
383

Sequence of Events
Check
(A230)

IF
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 10,

(A520)

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 10,

(A521)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 46,

(A495)

TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION equals 0,

(A612)

PERSON TYPE equals 04, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 05, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 06, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 07, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 08, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 10, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
PERSON TYPE equals 19, and NUMBER OF
MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST
equals___,
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
05 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
08 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,
the total count of PERSON TYPES is equal to
10 for the vehicle in NUMBER OF MOTOR
VEHICLE STRIKING NON-MOTORIST is ____,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 51, 62, 70,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 45,
If UNIT TYPE equals 1,

(A613)

(A614)

(A615)

(A616)

(A617)

(A618)

(A619)

(A61A)

(A61B)

(AL1P)
(AL2P)
(AL5P)
(AL6P)
(AL8P)

MOST HARMFUL EVENT equals __, and UNIT
TYPE equals 1,
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 51, 70,

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V32
THEN
LAND USE AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM (b) should
not equal 01-03.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 0109, 20-29, 40-50, 98.
SPEED LIMIT should equal 05-50, 98 or 99 for
this vehicle.
the first event in SEQUENCES OF EVENTS for this
vehicle should not equal 63, 64, 69 or 71.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
10 or 49 for that vehicle number in the CRASH
EVENTS table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
08 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
09 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
09 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
15 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
08 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
99 for that vehicle number in the CRASH EVENTS
table.
the number of events equal to 08 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.
the number of events equal to 15 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.
the number of events equal to 08 in the CRASH
EVENTS table should equal ____ for that vehicle.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0.
WORK ZONE should equal 1-4.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal the MOST HARMFUL EVENT.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal __.
JACKKNIFE must equal 2, 3.

384

Sequence of Events
Check
(AM1P)

(V750)

IF
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 54 or 73, or
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 54, 73 for any
vehicle,
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 25 or 57,
CRITICAL EVENT - PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
01,
CRITICAL EVENT - PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
12, and PRE-IMPACT LOCATION is not equal
to 5,
CRITICAL EVENT - PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
13, and PRE-IMPACT LOCATION is not equal
to 5,
CRITICAL EVENT - PRECRASH (EVENT) equals
14,
CRASH TYPE equals 01-05, and PRE-IMPACT
LOCATION is not equal to 0 or 5,
CRASH TYPE equals 06-10, and PRE-IMPACT
LOCATION is not equal to 0 or 5,
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 110-910,
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE BICYCLE equals 111-980,
UNLIKELY: SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 62,
60 consecutively.
UNLIKELY: SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 01,
58 or 58, 01 consecutively.
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and ROLLOVER equals 1,
2, 9, or LOCATION OF ROLLOVER equals 1-7,
9,
UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 1-3,

(V760)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 4-6,

(V770)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 7,

(V780)

UNDERRIDE/OVERRIDE equals 8,

(V990)

any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 61,

(VH70)
(VH83)

UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
the only harmful SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for
this vehicle equals 04-06,
the only harmful SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for
this vehicle equals 01-03, 16, 44, 51, 72,

(AM2P)
(BZ40)
(BZ50)

(BZ60)

(BZ70)
(BZ90)
(BZ91)
(PB00)
(PB02)
(U651)
(U652)
(V74P)

(VH84)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

V32
THEN
one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL must equal
14.
TRAFFICWAY DESCRIPTION should equal 3, 6.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
61 for this vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
64 for this vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
63 for this vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
71 for this vehicle.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS prior to the
first harmful event must equal 63.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS prior to the
first harmful event must equal 64.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for the
striking vehicle must equal 08 or 15.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS for the
striking vehicle must equal 09.
--at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
01 for this vehicle.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 12, 55.
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT or at least one
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this vehicle) should
equal 14, 45.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this
vehicle) must equal 12, 55.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (for this
vehicle) must equal 14, 45.
CONTRIBUTING CIRCUMSTANCES, MOTOR
VEHICLE should not equal 00.
elements V15, V24, V31 must all be left blank.
DAMAGED AREAS should equal 15.
DAMAGED AREAS should not equal 15.

385

Most Harmful Event

V33

V33 - Most Harmful Event
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.M_HARM; parkwork.PM_HARM
ELEMENT VALUES:
Non-Collision Most Harmful Events:
Codes Attributes
01
Rollover/Overturn
02
Fire/Explosion
03
Immersion or Partial Immersion
04
Gas Inhalation
51
Jackknife (harmful to this vehicle)
06
Injured in Vehicle (Non-Collision)
44
Pavement Surface Irregularity (Ruts, Potholes, Grates, etc.)
07
Other Non-Collision
16
Thrown or Falling Object
72
Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift (harmful to this vehicle)
05
Fell/Jumped from Vehicle
Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
Codes Attributes
12
Motor Vehicle In-Transport
54
Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport
55
Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway
Collision with Object Not Fixed:
Codes Attributes
08
Pedestrian
09
Pedalcyclist
10
Railway Vehicle
74
Road Vehicle on Rails
11
Live Animal
49
Ridden Animal or Animal Drawn Conveyance
18
Other Object (Not Fixed)
15
Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance
14
Parked Motor Vehicle
45
Working Motor Vehicle
73
Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport
Collision with Fixed Object:
Codes Attributes
17
Boulder
19
Building
58
Ground
20
Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion
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386

Most Harmful Event
Codes
50
21
23
24
52
25
57
26
59
46
30
31
32
33
34
35
38
39
40
41
42
48
53
43

V33

Attributes
Bridge Overhead Structure
Bridge Pier or Support
Bridge Rail (Includes Parapet)
Guardrail Face
Guardrail End
Concrete Traffic Barrier
Cable Barrier
Other Traffic Barrier
Traffic Sign Support
Traffic Signal Support
Utility Pole/Light Support
Other Post, Other Pole, or Other Supports
Culvert
Curb
Ditch
Embankment
Fence
Wall
Fire Hydrant
Shrubbery
Tree (Standing Only)
Snow Bank
Mail Box
Other Fixed Object

Unknown
Codes Attributes
99
Unknown
Definition: This element identifies the event that resulted in the most severe injury or, if no injury, the greatest
property damage involving this motor vehicle.
Remarks: Must be the major event FOR THIS VEHICLE, even if different from the FIRST HARMFUL EVENT. Code
for each vehicle. May be different for each vehicle.
Code using the following hierarchy:
A. FATALITIES take precedence over INJURIES.
1. If this vehicle is involved in more than one event which causes fatality to its own occupants or to
persons not in a motor vehicle, choose the event which causes the greatest number of fatalities to
occupants of this vehicle or to persons not in a motor vehicle (not occupants of other vehicles).
2. If this vehicle is involved in more than one event that causes fatality to its own occupants or to
persons not in a motor vehicle; and if there are an equal number of fatalities in each such event,
choose the fatal event that is worst with respect to other injuries and property damage.
3. As last resort, choose the fatal event that occurred first, time-wise.
B. INJURIES take precedence over PROPERTY DAMAGE.
1. If the vehicle is not involved in events that cause fatality to its occupants or to persons not in a
motor vehicle, choose the event that produces the worst injury.
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V33

2. If in doubt, choose the event with the greatest number of injuries.
3. If in doubt, choose the event that occurred first, time-wise.
C. If only PROPERTY DAMAGE results for this vehicle:
1. Choose the event causing the most damage.
2. If in doubt, choose the event that happened first, time-wise.

Non-Collision Most Harmful Events:
Non-Collision events involving motorcycles and vehicles with a “load”:
Non-Collision events may occur before or after a collision event. They should not be coded as a separate event
if they occur as part of a collision event.
Examples:
• A motorcycle strikes a deer, overturns and the rider becomes separated from the vehicle. Code the
collision event, not the non-collision “Rollover/Overturn” and “Fell/Jumped from Vehicle” that occur as
part of the collision event.
•

One tractor/trailer rear-ends another tractor/trailer. The impact pushes the lead vehicle’s load into the
back of the tractor cab with part falling onto the roadway. Code the collision event, not the noncollision “cargo-loss or shift” that occurred as part of the collision event.

Most Harmful Event Coding Procedures for Parked and Working Motor Vehicles
1. If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for a parked/working motor vehicle is an impact with a motor vehicle intransport, use 12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
a. Example: A parked motor vehicle (V2) is struck by an in-transport motor vehicle (V1) and this is the
most harmful event for the parked motor vehicle (V2). The MOST HARMFUL EVENT for the parked
motor vehicle (V2) is 12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
2. If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for a parked/working motor vehicle is an impact with something after it
has been set-in-motion, code that other thing.
a. Example: In a chain reaction crash, an in-transport motor vehicle (V1) strikes a parked motor vehicle
(V2) injuring the person sitting in the driver's seat of V2. The parked motor vehicle (V2) is pushed
into an unoccupied motor vehicle (V3) and the parked motor vehicle (V3) strikes and kills a
pedestrian. The MOST HARMFUL EVENT for parked motor vehicle (V3) is 08 (Pedestrian).
3. If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for a parked/working motor vehicle is an impact with anything set-inmotion except another parked or working motor vehicle, see attribute 12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
4. If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for a parked/working motor vehicle is an impact with another parked or
working motor vehicle which has been set-in-motion, use 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) or 45 (Working
Motor Vehicle), whichever describes the object set-in-motion.
5. The MOST HARMFUL EVENT for a parked/working motor vehicle can be a non-collision harmful event
not recorded in the events list. For example, if a parked vehicle rolls over after an impact with an intransport motor vehicle and the MOST HARMFUL EVENT is the rollover, then use code 01
(Rollover/Overturn).
a. Example: A parked motor vehicle (V2) is struck by an in-transport vehicle (V1). Parked motor
vehicle (V2) is pushed down an embankment and rolls over. The case materials indicate the most
harmful event for parked motor vehicle (V2) is the rollover. MOST HARMFUL EVENT for parked
motor vehicle (V2) is 01 (Rollover/ Overturn).

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V33

01 (Rollover/Overturn) is used when a motor vehicle rotates (rollover) at least one quarter turn onto its side or
end. For motorcycles, laying the motorcycle down on its side is sufficient to code 01 (Rollover/ Overturn) as a
harmful event if damage or injury is produced, even though the data element Rollover is not applicable to
motorcycles.
If there is a 01 (Rollover/Overturn) that begins in another location but involves a ditch or embankment in
the case (e.g., “rolled through the ditch”, “rolled down the embankment”, “came to rest against the
embankment”), then the rule applies where if there is no damage associated with an impact with the fixed
object during the rollover, it is not included in the Crash Events. If there is indication that damage resulted
from an impact with the fixed object, it is included in the Crash Events. This follows the same logic as striking
a tree or another vehicle during an overturn.
Note: For medium/heavy trucks with attached trailers by fixed linkage, when either the power unit or the
trailer rolls over, the entire vehicle will be considered a rollover.
02 (Fire/Explosion) is used for a vehicle fire or explosion that occurs during the crash sequence or as a result of
the crash.
As it pertains to the occurrence of 02 (Fire/Explosion), the crash circumstances are not considered stabilized
until the threat of damage to this vehicle, or injury consequences to this vehicle's occupants, has ceased.
Therefore, the crash sequence is not considered stabilized until all occupants have exited the vehicle and the
scene has been declared safe by police or other authority. Fires that occur at a later time to vehicles
abandoned at the scene (e.g., in open fields, on hillsides, etc.) or to vehicles removed from the scene to
another location (tow yard, curbside, etc.) are not considered part of the crash sequence.
03 (Immersion or Partial Immersion) is used when an in-transport motor vehicle enters a body of water and
results in injury or damage. This code would also be used if the vehicle came to rest in water and the depth
cannot be ascertained from case materials. NOTE: In immersion fatalities the injury to the person may be noted
as “drowning”.
04 (Gas Inhalation) includes injury or death as a result of toxic fumes, such as carbon monoxide fumes leaking
from a motor vehicle in-transport.
51 (Jackknife [harmful to this vehicle]) applies to a condition that occurs to an articulated vehicle, (any vehicle
with a trailing unit(s) connected by a hitch; e.g., truck tractor or single-unit truck with one or more trailers,
articulated bus, car pulling a boat on a trailer, etc.) while in motion. The condition reflects a loss of control of
the vehicle by the driver in which the trailer(s) yaws from its normal straight-line path behind the power unit,
striking the power unit, causing damage to the power unit or trailer. Jackknife should only be coded as a
harmful event if there is clear indication of damage to the jackknifed vehicle or injury to its occupants caused by
the jackknife.
06 (Injured in Vehicle [Non-Collision]) is used when an occupant is injured during an unstabilized situation
without a collision, excluding cargo/equipment loss or shift. Examples: Driver slams on brake, causing an
unrestrained passenger to be injured. Driver makes a sharp turn causing driver to strike head on side window,
knocking driver unconscious.
44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]) is used when the pavement surface irregularity
is on a paved surface. Other examples include indication of contact with a dip, depression, low spot, trough,
etc.) If the impact is with a surface irregularity (e.g. ruts, potholes) not on a paved surface, use the 58 (Ground).
For a vehicle that "bottoms out" on the paved surface (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a
pavement surface irregularity, use attribute 07 (Other Non-Collision).

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V33

07 (Other Non-Collision). Non-collision not captured in the listed non-collision attributes.
Examples:
• Damage to the vehicle produced by its own dislodged vehicle parts (including hood flying up and
contacting the windshield).
• A vehicle “bottoms out” on the roadway (causing damage) due to speed but not because of a pavement
surface irregularity. For impacts on the roadway due to pavement surface irregularities should be coded
44 (Pavement Surface Irregularity [ruts, potholes, grates, etc.]).
16 (Thrown or Falling Object) is used when any object (1) is thrown (intentionally or unintentionally) and
impacts an in-transport vehicle, or (2) falls onto, into, or in the path of an in-transport motor vehicle. If a tree
limb falls from a tree and is contacted by a car, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). If a person maliciously
throws an object off an overpass into traffic below, enter 16 (Thrown or Falling Object). This excludes contacts
made by loads or objects set in-motion by a motor vehicle (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is
Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport)).
72 (Cargo/Equipment Loss or Shift [harmful to this vehicle)) refers specifically to the loss or shift of items
carried on or in a motor vehicle or its trailing unit, and not to the vehicle, its parts or trailing unit, itself. This
attribute is only used when the injury- or damage-producing event in the crash is the loss or shift of cargo in/on
a vehicle causing damage to that vehicle, its cargo, or injury to its occupants. This attribute should never be
used to refer to a “collision” event (see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or
Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport)).
Example:
A pickup truck brakes rapidly to avoid a collision. This causes a piece of lumber in the pickup bed to smash
through the rear window.
05 (Fell/Jumped from Vehicle) is used when an occupant of this vehicle falls or jumps (not suicide) from the
vehicle causing injury. For example, an occupant of a motor vehicle in-transport leans against the car door, it
opens and the occupant falls out; or a person riding on a vehicle’s exterior (hood, roof, running board, etc.) falls
or jumps, and is injured by the fall. If an occupant falls or jumps from a vehicle and is struck by that vehicle, use
this attribute.

Collision with Motor Vehicle In-Transport:
12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when the most injury- or damage-producing event is two motor vehicles
in-transport making contact within the trafficway boundaries.
Parked and Working Motor Vehicles:
This attribute is used for parked and working motor vehicles when their most harmful event is an impact with
a motor vehicle in-transport.
This attribute also applies to parked and working motor vehicles when their most harmful event is an impact
with any object set-in-motion other than another parked or working motor vehicle. Set-in-motion objects
include cargo, persons, stone, stop sign, tire tread and debris from a previous impact. If the object set-inmotion is another parked or working motor vehicle use 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) or 45 (Working Motor
Vehicle), whichever describes the object set-in-motion.
Examples:
• If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V1 (a motor vehicle in-transport) is when V1 impacts V2 (another
motor vehicle in-transport) within the trafficway boundaries, then the most harmful event for V1 is 12
(Motor Vehicle In-Transport).

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•
•
•

V33

If the most harmful event for V2 (a parked motor vehicle) is when V2 is struck by V1 (a motor vehicle intransport), then the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V2 is 12 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V2 (a parked motor vehicle) is when V2 is struck by a stop sign set-inmotion by V1 (a motor vehicle in-transport), then the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V2 is 12 (Motor
Vehicle In-Transport).
If V1 (a motor vehicle in-transport) strikes V2 (a parked motor vehicle) and V2 then strikes V3 (a parked
motor vehicle), then the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V3 is 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle).

54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by
Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) applies only to events involving two in-transport motor vehicles. It is used
in two situations: 1) The most harmful injury- or damage-producing event for an in-transport motor vehicle is
when something it sets in motion (cargo, person, object) strikes another in-transport motor vehicle. 2) The most
harmful injury- or damage-producing event for an in-transport motor vehicle is when it is struck by cargo,
persons or objects set-in-motion by another in-transport motor vehicle.
Example:
Cargo which fell from an in-transport motor vehicle (V1) is involved in an impact with V2, another intransport motor vehicle. The case materials indicate this is the most harmful event for both V1 and V2.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT is 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects
Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) for both V1 and V2.
When selecting the MOST HARMFUL EVENT, 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo,
Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) does not have to be the MOST
HARMFUL EVENT for both vehicles.
Example:
Cargo which fell from an in-transport motor vehicle (V1) is involved in an impact with V2, another intransport motor vehicle. This event is the only event for V1. Thus, 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes
or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in- Motion from/by Another Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is
the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V1. The case material identifies a subsequent impact by V2 with a tree on
the roadside as the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for V2. Thus, 42 (Tree [Standing Only]) is the MOST HARMFUL
EVENT for V2.
This attribute does not apply when the most harmful event for an in-transport motor vehicle is an impact
between cargo, a person, or object it set-in-motion and something other than a motor vehicle in transport. In
this case, use the "collision with non-fixed object", or "collision with fixed object" code that is applicable.
Examples:
• If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for an in-transport motor vehicle is when cargo which fell off its trailer
strikes a pedestrian, code 08 (Pedestrian).
• If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for an in-transport motor vehicle is when a parked motor vehicle it set-inmotion strikes a pedestrian, code 08 (Pedestrian).
• If the MOST HARMFUL EVENT for an in-transport motor vehicle is when cargo which fell off its trailer
strikes a parked motor vehicle, code 14 (Parked Motor Vehicle).
55 (Motor Vehicle in Motion Outside the Trafficway) is used when the injury- or damage-producing event is
two motor vehicles in-transport making contact outside the trafficway boundaries in a motor vehicle traffic
crash.
Example:
A vehicle loses control attempting to turn into a gas station and strikes another vehicle pulling away from
the pump in the station lot.

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Collision with Object Not Fixed:
08 (Pedestrian) is used for all those not on a personal conveyance. A person pushing a vehicle should be coded
08 (Pedestrian). A person being carried by another person should also be considered a 08 (Pedestrian).
09 (Pedalcyclist) is used for any person on a non-motorized other road vehicle propelled by pedaling. Examples
include a bicycle, tricycle, unicycle, or pedal car.
10 (Railway Vehicle) is any land vehicle that is (1) designed primarily for, or in use for, moving persons or
property from one place to another on rails and (2) not in use on a land way other than a railway.
• Inclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way
• Exclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
74 (Road Vehicle on Rails) is any land vehicle on rails operating in a trafficway.
• Inclusions: Street car/trolley operating on trafficway
• Exclusions: Railway Trains, Street car/trolley on private way, Streetcar/trolle or electric bus operating
on tires
11 (Live Animal) is used for collisions with live animals (domesticated or wild) that are not themselves being
used as transportation or to draw a wagon, cart or other transport device (see ANSI D16.1). Default to 11 (Live
Animal) if it cannot be determined if the struck animal is alive, dead or if it was being ridden or drawing a
transport device.
Use 49 (Ridden Animal or Animal-Drawn Conveyance) for ridden animals and animals drawing transport
devices. See 18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) for an animal carcass.
18 (Other Object [Not Fixed]) is used when a motor vehicle in-transport strikes a non-fixed object that is known
NOT to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport or when it is UNKNOWN whether the
object was the cargo or part of another motor vehicle in-transport (i.e., refers to objects such as a dead body,
animal carcass, construction cones or barrels, an unattached trailer, a bicycle without a rider, downed tree limbs
or power lines, or debris from a prior crash). For objects that have become separated from a motor vehicle intransport not as a result of a prior crash, use attribute 73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle InTransport).
15 (Non-Motorist on Personal Conveyance) is used for pedestrians using personal conveyances. A personal
conveyance is a device, other than a transport device, used by a pedestrian for personal mobility assistance or
recreation. These devices can be motorized or human powered, but not propelled by pedaling.
Inclusions:
1. Rideable toys
a. Roller Skates, in-line skates
b. Skateboards
c. Skates
d. Baby carriage
e. Scooters
f. Toy Wagons
2. Motorized rideable toys
a. Motorized skateboard
b. Motorized toy car
3. Devices for personal mobility assistance
a. Segway-style devices
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b. Motorized and non-motorized wheelchair
c. Handicapped scooters
Exclusions:
1. Golf cart
2. Low Speed Vehicles (LSVs)
3. Go-carts
4. Minibike
5. “Pocket” motorcycles
6. Motor scooters
7. Moped
14 (Parked Motor Vehicle) is used when the impact occurred between a motor vehicle in-transport and a motor
vehicle neither on a roadway nor in motion. A vehicle stopped off the roadway, its door open over a roadway, is
not in-transport. This attribute would also apply for a parked vehicle struck by another parked vehicle. For
example, if a motor vehicle in-transport hits a parked vehicle and pushes it into a second parked vehicle (the
only event for the second parked vehicle), the most harmful event for the second parked vehicle is 14 (Parked
Motor Vehicle).
45 (Working Motor Vehicle) is used to indicate the motor vehicle contacted was in the act of performing
construction, maintenance or utility work related to the trafficway when it became an involved unit. This
“work” may be located within open or closed portions of the trafficway and motor vehicles performing these
activities can be within or outside the trafficway boundaries. This code does not include private
construction/maintenance vehicles, or vehicles such as garbage trucks, delivery trucks, taxis, emergency
vehicles, tow trucks, etc.
Examples:
1. Asphalt/steam roller working in a highway construction zone paving the roadway or flattening dirt.
2. State highway maintenance crew painting lane lines on the road, mowing grass on the roadside or
median, repairing potholes, removing debris from the roadway, etc.
3. Utility truck or a “cherry picker”, performing maintenance on power lines along the roadway or
maintaining a traffic signal.
4. A private excavating company contracted by the State digging the foundation for a new overpass.
5. A state, county, or privately owned snow plow, plowing ice/snow as part of a highway maintenance
activity.
6. Street sweeper sweeping the street.
7. A vehicle in a mobile work convoy displaying arrow boards or other signaling devices warning motorists
of the work activity.
8. A law enforcement vehicle which is participating strictly in a stationary construction or mobile
maintenance activity as a traffic slowing, control, signaling or calming influence.
NOTE: Before 2004, this code was called Transport Device Used as Equipment. It included other working
activities in addition to construction, maintenance and utility work on trafficways. From 2004 forward, code
“45” excludes working activities other than highway construction, maintenance or utility vehicles (e.g.,
garbage truck picking up trash, mail/delivery trucks while making deliveries, personal vehicles plowing snow,
etc. These are considered motor vehicles In-transport). Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level code 42 (Other
Working Vehicle [Not Construction, Maintenance, Utility, Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle]) to identify these
vehicles.
A question may arise when a police, fire or emergency medical vehicle is struck on the roadway while at the
scene of a crash, at a traffic stop, or as traffic control. The question becomes, “has its function changed
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from being a motor vehicle in-transport to a working vehicle?” The answer is “no.” Treat these situations as
a motor vehicle in-transport striking another motor vehicle in-transport. Use Related Factors-Vehicle Level
code 41 (Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle Working at the Scene of an Emergency or Performing Other Traffic
Control Activities) to identify that this vehicle was struck while performing these work activities.
73 (Object That Had Fallen from Motor Vehicle In-Transport) is used when a motor vehicle in- transport
impacts a non-fixed object at rest that is known to have been the cargo or part of another motor vehicle intransport. Do not use this attribute for debris from a prior crash. This attribute does not include vehicle
occupants that are ejected or fall from a motor vehicle in-transport. (Example: Motorcycle operator falling
from a motorcycle.) For people falling from a motor vehicle see non-collision event 05 (Fell/Jumped From
Vehicle). For impacts involving two motor vehicles in transport resulting from cargo, persons or objects set in
motion see 54 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport Strikes or is Struck by Cargo, Persons or Objects Set-in-Motion
from/by another Motor Vehicle In-Transport).
For example, if cargo that fell from a vehicle and was at rest in the roadway is struck this attribute would
apply. If the cargo was at rest in the roadway as a result of a prior accident, use attribute 18 (Other Object
[Not Fixed]).

Collision with Fixed Object:
The attributes 58 (Ground), 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch), and 35 (Embankment) are grouped under the Collision with
Fixed Object subset because they are intended to be harmful events in the crash (i.e. – they are associated with
an impact that produces injury or damage).
When coding these events there must be fields on the PAR or verbiage in the narrative such as "struck", "hit",
"impacted", etc. that identify these as harmful.
For cases where the indication of the harmful event came from the narrative, there may not be a corresponding
indication of damage in any PAR field. In these instances, code the harmful event as stated in the narrative and
include the corresponding attribute under Areas of Impact.
If there is no indication of damage from contact with the fixed object in fields on the PAR and the narrative
language does not identify it as a harmful event (e.g., “came to rest on the embankment" or "drove through" or
"drove across" the ditch and/or the embankment, or "drove over" the curb do not code 33 (Curb), 34 (Ditch), or
35 (Embankment) in the Sequence of Events.
Guidelines for PAR Combination Attributes:
If there is no clarification in the case materials, default to the first attribute listed in the combination. For
example, if a PAR attribute identifies "Earth Embankment/Rockcut /Ditch", code 35 (Embankment) unless the
narrative clearly indicates one of the other attributes (e.g. "rockcut" or "ditch").
17 (Boulder) is a rock of sufficient mass that when struck by a motor vehicle moves very little and remains
basically intact. It may be considered as a fixed object.
19 (Building) is used when the vehicle impacts a roofed and walled structure built for permanent use. The type
of construction material used is not of interest, nor is the use of the building.

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58 (Ground) is used when the impact is with an earthen or paved surface off of the roadway. 58 (Ground) is not
to be entered when the harmful event is 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
Indication of furrowing, gouging, or digging in of the tires/wheels is not sufficient to code the collision event
58 (Ground). For example, if the PAR narrative states; “the trucks tires dug into the turf causing the vehicle
to roll over” the harmful event should be 01 (Rollover/Overturn).
20 (Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion) is a device for controlling the absorption of energy released during
vehicle collision (crash cushion). Its most common application involves the protection of fixed roadside objects
such as bridge piers, elevated gores at exit ramps, etc. Examples include barrels filled with water or sand, and
plastic collapsible structures.
50 (Bridge Overhead Structure) is used when striking the bottom of a bridge while traveling on a trafficway
underneath it. See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge Components.
21 (Bridge Pier or Support) is a square or round column of stone, concrete, brick, steel or wood for supporting a
bridge between abutments. This attribute includes the bridge abutments which are supporting the ends of a
bridge. Abutments are generally designed for retaining or supporting the embankment under bridge ends and
composed of stone, concrete, brick or wood (includes the wing-walls). See See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge
Components.
23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) is a wooden, brick, stone, concrete or metal fence-like structure which runs
along the outermost edge of the roadway or sidewalk on the bridge or a rail constructed along the top of a
parapet. Balustrade is often used synonymously with parapet. See Figure 18 for a diagram of Bridge
Components.
Bridges do not need to support another roadway. It may be an overpass for a train or even for a viaduct
(water conduit).
24 (Guardrail Face) is a low barrier that has the primary longitudinal structure composed of metal (plates, mesh,
box beam, etc.). A guardrail is differentiated from 25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) by the material making up the
greatest part of the longitudinal portion of the structure. In the case of guardrails, this is metal whereas in
concrete barriers this is concrete (including concrete rails). If the crash report does not differentiate between
guardrail face and end, default to guardrail face.
Guardrails, which serve as bridge rails, should be coded as 23 (Bridge Rails [Includes Parapet]).
52 (Guardrail End) is coded if a vehicle strikes the end of a guardrail. Guardrails can have a separate flat or
rounded piece of metal attached to the end of an expanse of guardrail face.
25 (Concrete Traffic Barrier) refers to the longitudinal traffic barriers constructed of concrete. This includes all
temporary concrete barriers regardless of location (i.e., temporary Jersey Barrier on a bridge being used to
control traffic during bridge repair/construction). Concrete walls (vertical side surfaces) do not apply here; see
39 (Wall).
57 (Cable Barrier) refers to a flexible barrier system which uses several cables typically supported by steel posts.
These barriers are designed to help lessen impact or keep vehicles within the confines of the road.
26 (Other Traffic Barrier) is used for all other longitudinal barriers such as wood or rock.
59 (Traffic Sign Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic sign, or the sign itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport. This includes mile marker posts and signs above the trafficway.

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46 (Traffic Signal Support) is used when the post supporting a traffic signal, or the signal itself, is hit by a motor
vehicle in-transport.
30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) refers to supports for highway lighting systems, not including other private
lighting systems (e.g., parking lot lights). 30 (Utility Pole/Light Support) is used for electrical, telephone, cable,
and other utility pole-type supports.
31 (Other Post, Other Pole or Other Supports) is used for posts other than highway signs, utility poles, or light
supports. (e.g., reflectors on poles alongside of roadway, parking meters, flag poles, etc.). For mail box posts,
use 53 (Mail Box). For fence posts, use 38 (Fence).
32 (Culvert) is a man-made drain or channel crossing under a road, sidewalk, etc.
33 (Curb) is a concrete or asphalt structure that borders the paved surface. It provides drainage control and
pavement edge delineation. The face of the curb may be sloped or vertical. Ensure that the PAR provides some
indication that damage has occurred when a vehicle strikes a curb. This attribute includes collisions with curbing
that forms raised islands, medians, or separators. For example, if the report identifies the vehicle
struck/collided with a traffic island, channelizing island, raised median or separator use 33 (Curb) not 43 (Other
Fixed Object).
34 (Ditch) includes any man-made structure for drainage purposes. A ditch ends where a culvert begins and
resumes on the opposite side of the culvert. Reference to a “ditchbank”, “embankment of the ditch”, or “ditch
embankment” should be coded under 34 (Ditch).
35 (Embankment) is a raised structure to hold back water, to carry a roadway or the result of excavation or
washout (including erosion) which may be faced with earth (or rock, stone, or concrete). A 35 (Embankment)
can usually be differentiated from a 39 (Wall) by its incline whereas a wall is usually vertical. However, there are
exceptions to this; such as a retaining wall that may be inclined or a vertical embankment that is caused by a
natural event such as a washout.
In crashes involving a field approach or driveway crossing, use attribute 35 (Embankment) when no specific
components (e.g., culverts or ditches) are identified.
38 (Fence) includes the fence posts. A Fence can be made of wood, chain link, stone, etc.
39 (Wall) is a primarily vertical structure composed of concrete, metal, timber or stone which is not part of a
building or a fence but typically is used for retaining earth, abating noise, and separating areas (but not for
containment as in the primary function of a fence). Also included as a 39 (Wall) are headwalls (or endwalls) that
are sometimes provided on culvert ends principally to protect the sides of the embankment around the culvert
opening against erosion. This does not include wing-walls, which are attached to ends of bridge abutments and
extend back at an angle from the roadway. Wingwalls should be coded as 21 (Bridge Pier or Support).
40 (Fire Hydrant) refers to the roadside device used by fire departments to provide water for fighting fires.
Usually made of steel, these devices are also referred to as fire plugs or fire stand pipes in some areas.
41 (Shrubbery) refers to vegetation which is usually of a woody multi-stemmed variety and in most instances is
low growing rather than tall. May also be called bushes. Some common examples are boxwood, hawthorn, and
mountain laurel.

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42 (Tree [Standing Only]) is used when a vehicle strikes a standing tree. This includes impacts from overhanging
branches, tree stumps or large cactus (Saguaro). If a vehicle strikes a fallen tree, use 18 (Other Object [Not
Fixed]). If a tree falls on a vehicle as it is passing by, use 16 (Thrown or Falling Object).
48 (Snow Bank) is used when snowfall and/or road plowing creates essentially fixed barriers of snow/ice which
are not snow-covered earth or rock embankments.
53 (Mail Box) refers to a private residence mail/newspaper box including the post. A cluster of private
mailboxes is included in this attribute. This element does not include U.S. Mailbox, which are typically blue and
are for general public use. Code a U.S. Mailbox as 43 (Other Fixed Object).
43 (Other Fixed Object) is used when the object is fixed (considered a permanent structure) and is not described
by any of the other fixed object attributes. This attribute excludes collisions with curbing that forms raised
islands, medians, or separators (See also 33 (Curb).)
Examples:
• Bus shelters
• Pedestrian walkways
• Toll booths
• Guy wires supporting utility poles
• U. S. Mailbox for public use
Other examples would include property damage to standing crops, yards, and other vegetation (excluding:
41 (Shrubbery), 42 (Tree [Standing Only]), and 58 (Ground)) if noted on the crash report.
When the case materials identify a non-specific object impact, apply the following guidelines. If the case
materials only identify the harmful event as:
• "Fixed Object", then use 43 (Other Fixed Object)
• "Sign", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Post", then use 31 (Other Post, Other Pole or Other Supports)
• "Sign Post", then use 59 (Traffic Sign Support)
• "Bridge", then use 23 (Bridge Rail [Includes Parapet]) when the vehicle is on top of the bridge, when
the vehicle is going under the bridge, then use 21 (Bridge Pier or Support)
• "Barrier", then use 26 (Other Traffic Barrier)

Unknown
99 (Unknown) is used when police indicate unknown.

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Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(A041)
CRASH MONTH equals 05-09,
(AL3P)

UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

(AL4P)

there is one and only one parked vehicle
(UNIT TYPE equals 2 or 3) in the crash,
UNIT TYPE equals 1,

(AL5P)
(AL6P)
(AL7P)

MOST HARMFUL EVENT equals __, and UNIT
TYPE equals 1,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,

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THEN
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FIRST HARMFUL EVENT,
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 48.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT must not equal 54 for
this vehicle.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT for the parked vehicle
must not equal 14.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal the MOST HARMFUL EVENT.
at least one event in the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
must equal __.
MOST HARMFUL EVENT should not equal 04-07,
16, 51, 72.

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Related Factors – Vehicle Level

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V34 - Related Factors – Vehicle Level
FORMAT: 2 numeric occurring 2 times
SAS NAME: Vehicle.VEH_SC1; Vehicle.VEH_SC2. parkwork.PVEH_SC1, parkwork.PVEH_SC2
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00

Attributes
None

Special Vehicle Flags:
Codes Attributes
30
Multi-Wheeled Motorcycle Conversion
*32
Vehicle Registration for Handicapped
33
Vehicle Being Pushed by Non-Motorist
35
Reconstructed/Altered Vehicle
*37
Transporting Children to/from Head Start/Day Care
39
Highway Construction, Maintenance or Utility Vehicle, In-Transport (Inside or Outside Work Zone)
40
Highway Incident Response Vehicle
41
Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle Working at the Scene of an Emergency or Performing Other Traffic
Control Activities
42
Other Working Vehicle (Not Construction, Maintenance, Utility, Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle)
44
Adaptive Equipment
99
Unknown
*FARS ONLY ATTRIBUTES
Definition: This element identifies factors related to this vehicle expressed by the investigating officer.
Remarks: Code information provided by the investigating officer in the narrative, contributing
factors/circumstances field or citations/violations section on the crash report.
CODING HIERARCHY: When more than two attributes apply, select the attributes that cannot be captured
under other elements
Vehicle conditions include manufacturer defects, driver’s changes that are defective and maintenance
conditions. RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL 24 (Operating Without Required Equipment) can be coded in
conjunction with vehicle level conditions.
00 (None) is used when no applicable related factors are noted in the case materials. Zero-fill all fields. Also,
use 00 (None) to complete the remaining fields when you will be recording less than two vehicle related factors.
DO NOT leave any remaining fields blank.
Attributes 30-44 are flags used to identify this vehicle as one with special circumstances. They do not necessarily
imply that this circumstance caused the crash.
30 (Multi-Wheeled Motorcycle Conversion) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is a motorcycle
that is converted to a multi-wheeled configuration from a 2-wheeled OEM motorcycle. These vehicles will not
have a body type attribute 82 (Three-Wheel Motorcycle) available in the manufacturer's Make/Model/Model
Year/Body Type table.

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*32 (Vehicle Registration for Handicapped) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is registered
and/or specially equipped for a handicapped individual. This information can be derived from the vehicle
registration. This excludes placards which are usually hung from the rear-view mirror and can be moved from
one vehicle to the other.
33 (Vehicle Being Pushed by Non-Motorist) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is being pushed
by a non-motorist with or without a driver at the controls.
35 (Reconstructed/Altered Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is a home-made vehicle
constructed from vehicle components or is significantly altered in some way. These vehicles may have standard
VIN or the State may issue a number in place of the VIN for their registration.
Examples include:
• The addition of enhanced performance engine chips or accessories.
• Significant altering of suspension system (e.g., "monster trucks," "low riders," etc.).
• Hydraulic systems or tilted/canted wheels.
*37 (Transporting Children to/from Head Start/Day Care) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is
used to transport children to Day Care/Head Start in vehicles arranged, operated or owned by Head Start or Day
Care Program. This attribute is not intended for children being transported to daycare by family/friends in
personal vehicles.
39 (Highway Construction, Maintenance or Utility Vehicle, In-Transport [Inside or Outside Work Zone]) is used
when the case materials identify this vehicle is a highway construction, maintenance, or utility vehicle that is intransport at the time it became involved in the crash. Note: This is only used when the vehicle is considered to
not be a working motor vehicle and is "in-transport." For example, while moving from one job site to another
job site or returning to the depot after concluding work activities. This attribute refers to vehicles owned by a
local, county, state, or federal agency. Private vehicles are excluded.
40 (Highway Incident Response Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is a state
government-owned vehicle whose function is to drive the major highways to assist motorists with flat tires,
provide gas, etc.
Examples include:
• DOT Help
• Good Samaritans
• Courtesy Patrol
• Motorist Assist Vehicle
41 (Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle Working at the Scene of an Emergency or Performing Other Traffic Control
Activities) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is a police car, fire truck, or ambulance
performing some work function related to working at the scene of an emergency or acting as traffic control.
Examples include:
• Police car, fire truck, or ambulance at the scene of a crash.
• Fire truck at the scene of a fire.
• Police car leading or trailing a convoy for a funeral.
• Police car blocking the entrance to a parade route.
• Police car at a check point.

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42 (Other Working Vehicle (Not Construction, Maintenance, Utility, Police, Fire, or EMS Vehicle) is used when
the case materials identify this vehicle is performing some other work activity at the time it was involved in the
crash and that activity is somehow associated with the crash.
Examples include:
• Garbage truck picking up trash.
• Personal pickup with a snow blade plowing.
• UPS or postal vehicle stopped in the roadway while making a delivery.
• Food delivery truck making a delivery.
44 (Adaptive Equipment) is used when the case materials identify this vehicle is equipped with adaptive
equipment for handicapped operator(s).
Examples include:
• Extended brake/gas pedals
• Special steering apparatus
• Hand brakes or accelerator, etc.
99 (Unknown) is used when “unknown” is reported for the vehicle condition in the Police Accident Report itself
and none of the special circumstances exist. In these circumstances, nine-fill all fields. If 99 (Unknown) is used
for any field, ALL fields must be 99 (Unknown). DO NOT leave any remaining fields blank. Also use this attribute
for Hit-and-Run vehicles and drivers when no factors are identified or reported by the officer for this vehicle or
driver.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1G0P)
one RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals
99,
(1Z2P)
any SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 01, and
(BODY TYPE equals 01-79, 82, 90-99, or any
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 30),
(2G0P)
either RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL
equals blanks,
(3G0P)
the first RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL
equals 00,
(4G0P)
A RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL between
30 and 44 can be used only once per vehicle
form.
(5A0P)
BODY TYPE equals 80, 81, 83, 88, 89, and any
RELATED FACTORS - VEHICLE LEVEL does not
equal 30,
(6G0Q)
any RELATED FACTORS - VEHICLE LEVEL
equals 30,
(9C1P)
UNIT TYPE equals 4,
(AS0P)
(VH06)

RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
BODY TYPE equals 82,

(V031)

RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 39,

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THEN
both factors must equal 99.
ROLLOVER must equal 1, 2, 9.

the other factor must also equal blanks.
the other factor must also equal 00.
--

ROLLOVER must equal 0.

BODY TYPE must equal 80 for this vehicle.
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL must not
equal 39.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER must not equal 0.
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL must not
equal 30.
BODY TYPE should not equal 01, 12, 13, 32, 33,
42, 50-52, 55, 58,59, 65, 73, 80-83, 88-92.
401

Related Factors – Vehicle Level
Check
(V032)

IF
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 40,

Consistency Checks (FARS Only):
Check
IF
(6G0P)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
(V590)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 32,
(V592)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 37,
(V593)
RELATED FACTORS-VEHICLE LEVEL equals 37,

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THEN
BODY TYPE should not equal 01, 12, 13, 32, 33,
42, 50-52, 55, 58,59, 60-67, 71-73, 78, 80-83, 8893.
THEN
REGISTRATION STATE must not equal 00, 92.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 1-3.
REGISTRATION STATE should not equal 00, 92.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should not equal
0.

402

Fire Occurrence

V35

V35 - Fire Occurrence
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.FIRE_EXP, Person.FIRE_EXP, Parkwork.PFIRE
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1

Attributes
No or Not Reported
Yes

Definition: This element identifies whether or not a fire in any way related to the crash occurred in this vehicle.
Remarks: For the purposes of this element, “vehicle” is defined to mean the power unit plus any and all trailing
units associated with the power unit.
If it cannot be determined that a fire occurred in the vehicle during the crash, use 0 (No or Not Reported).
1 (Yes) is used when the case materials indicate that this vehicle sustained fire damage.
In a multi-vehicle crash where a fire occurs, only the vehicles sustaining fire damage should be coded as 1 (Yes).
Fires that begin in a vehicle before the first impact may be counted. If fire damage is produced, 02
(Fire/Explosion) would be the First Harmful Event.
If the Most Harmful Event for this vehicle is 02 (Fire/Explosion), or a fire in the vehicle is produced by damage in
the crash, use 1 (Yes). The involved vehicles may be at rest for a short period of time.
If the vehicles are at rest long enough to raise a question about the fire’s relationship to the crash’s damageproducing events, use 0 (No or Not Reported).
Examples for Fire Occurrence:
Examples
1. Car (V#1) strikes tank truck (V#2) in rear, the car catches on fire
with no fire occurring for the tank truck.
2. Vehicle #1 catches fire, causing driver to strike vehicle #2.
3. Vehicle #1 catches fire, causing driver to stop vehicle in roadway
and all occupants exit vehicle. Two minutes later, a second car
(V#2) rear-ends the stopped car and its driver is killed from
collision. (Attributes reflect the second crash.)
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4Z0P)
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS equals 02,
(4Z1P)
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and FIRE OCCURRENCE
equals 1,
(540F)
FIRST HARMFUL EVENT equals 02,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

•
•
•
•
•
•

Code
V#1 – 1 (Yes)
V#2 – 0 (No or Not Reported)
V#1 – 1 (Yes)
V#2 – 0 (No or Not Reported)
V#1 – 0 (No or Not Reported)
V#2 – 0 (No or Not Reported)

THEN
FIRE OCCURRENCE for this vehicle must equal 1.
at least one SEQUENCE OF EVENTS must equal
02.
the vehicle involved in the first harmful event
must have FIRE OCCURRENCE equal to 1.

403

Vehicle License Plate Number – CRSS Only

V36

V36 - Vehicle License Plate Number - CRSS Only
FORMAT: 10 alphanumeric
SAS NAME:
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0000000000
-9999999998
9999999999

Attributes
No License Plate
Actual License Plate Number
Not Reported
Unknown

Definition: This element captures the license plate number of this vehicle.
Remarks:
0000000000 (No License Plate) would be used when the PAR identifies that this vehicle did not have a license
plate when required or plates are not required for this type of vehicle.
9999999998 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported.”
Code 9999999998 (Not Reported) in these situations:
• A coded data block exists and it is left blank, and
• No other information is available (e.g., narrative, diagram or case materials)
9999999999 (Unknown) is used for a police reported “unknown” for example an unidentified hit-and-run
vehicle.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(D093)
Any VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE NUMBER that
does not equal 0000000000, 9999999999, or
9999999998,
(V941)
BODY TYPE equals 90 or 91,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE NUMBER must be
unique within a crash.
VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE NUMBER must equal
0000000000.

404

Driver Level Data Elements

Driver Level Data Elements
D1 – State Number – FARS Only
D2 – Consecutive Number – FARS Only
D3 – Vehicle Number – Driver Level
D4 – Driver Presence
D5 – Driver’s License State
D6 – Driver’s Zip Code
D7 – Non-CDL License Type/Status – FARS Only
D8 – Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status – FARS Only
D9 – Compliance with CDL Endorsements – FARS Only
D10 – License Compliance with Class of Vehicle – FARS Only
D11 – Compliance with License Restrictions – FARS Only
D12 – Driver Height – FARS Only
D13 – Driver Weight – FARS Only
D14, D15, D16, D17, D18 – Driver Level Counters – FARS Only
D19, D20 – Date of First and Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction – FARS Only
D21 – Violations Charged
D22 – Speeding Related
D23 – Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash
D24 – Related Factors – Driver Level
D25 – Driver License Number – CRSS Only

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

405

Vehicle Number – Driver Level

D3

D3 - Vehicle Number – Driver Level
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Veh_No
ELEMENT VALUES:
• 000-999
Definition: This element identifies the vehicle number associated with this driver.
Remarks:
• Must be coded on an original submission
• System-Generated (MDE System Only)
• See Vehicle Number-Vehicle Level for assignments numbers.
• FOR DRIVERLESS, PARKED/STOPPED OFF ROADWAY/WORKING MOTOR VEHICLES, AND MOTOR
VEHICLES IN MOTION OUTSIDE THE TRAFFICWAY, ONLY CODE DRIVER PRESENCE (D4) AND RELATED
FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL (D24).
Consistency Check:
Check
Language
(CSI2)
There must be exactly one Driver Level form corresponding to each Vehicle Level form.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

406

Driver Presence

D4

D4 - Driver Presence
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Dr_Pres
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
Attribute
0
No Driver Present / Not Applicable
1
Yes
9
Unknown
Definition: This element identifies whether or not a driver was present in this vehicle at the onset of the
unstabilized situation.
Remarks:
0 (No Driver Present/Not Applicable) is used when there is no person who was controlling this vehicle at the
time of the crash.
Also, use 0 (No Driver Present/Not Applicable) when Unit Type for this vehicle is not a motor vehicle intransport (Unit Type attributes “2, 3, 4”). Use this attribute regardless of the presence of an occupant in the
driver’s seat.
1 (Yes) is used when there is a person who is physically controlling the vehicle at the onset of the unstabilized
situation for this crash. Do not use this attribute for a child sitting in the driver’s seat unless the case materials
indicate the child was in control of the vehicle. Hit-and-run drivers are included in this attribute. A driver under
medical distress would be included. This attribute includes when it is known there was a driver but it is unknown
which occupant was the driver at the time of the crash.
9 (Unknown) is used when it is unknown if there was a driver present in the vehicle at the time of the crash.
If coded 0 (No Driver Present/Not Applicable) or 9 (Unknown), all other elements on the Driver Level except
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must be left blank. A Person Level - Occupant of a Motor Vehicle form with
PERSON TYPE equal to 01 (Driver of a Motor Vehicle In-Transport) must not be submitted for that vehicle.
If coded 0 (No Driver Present/Not Applicable) or 9 (Unknown), Related Factors-Driver Level are coded “00”
unless UNIT TYPE is equal to 1 (Motor Vehicle In-Transport [Inside or Outside the Trafficway]). In such a case,
only select RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL that are applicable.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H0F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1H1F)
(1H2F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1H3F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1H4F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
PREVIOUS SPEEDING CONVICTIONS must be
blank.
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE must be blank.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must be blank.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS and COMMERCIAL
MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must be blank.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
be blank.

407

Driver Presence
Check
(1H6F)
(1H7F)
(1H8F)

IF
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1H9F)
(1HAF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1HBF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1HCF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1HDF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1HEF)
(1HFF)
(1HJF)
(2F0F)
(2H0F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER'S VISION OBSCURED BY equals 95,
NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS equals 00,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(2H1F)

(3H0F)

UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0,
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO
RECOGNITION OF CRITICAL EVENT) equals
00,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 1,

(4H0F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(5L0F)
(5L1F)

RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 20,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 04,
08, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 52, 53, 58, 59, 73, 74,
77-88,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(3BAP)
(3BGP)

(6H0P)
(6H1P)
(7B0F)
(9A3P)
(9C4P)

JACKKNIFE equals 2, 3,
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D4
THEN
VIOLATIONS CHARGED must be blank.
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES must be blank.
PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS must be
blank.
PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS must be blank.
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION
CONVICTIONS must be blank.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION, CONVICTION
must be blank.
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must be blank.
DRIVER HEIGHT (feet and inches) must equal
blank.
DRIVER WEIGHT must equal blank.
SPEEDING RELATED must be blank.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 or 9.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not equal
04, 08, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 52, 53, 58, 59, 73, 74,
77-88.
DRIVER’S VISION OBSCURED BY must equal 95.
CRASH TYPE must equal 00, 04, 09, 15, 32, 42, 48,
52, 62, 66, 74, 84, 90, 93 or 98.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 or 9.

there must be one and only one Person Level
form for that vehicle with PERSON TYPE equal to
01, or there must be no Person Level form for
that vehicle with PERSON TYPE equal to 01 and at
least two Person Level forms for that vehicle with
PERSON TYPE equal to 09.
there must not be a Person Level form for that
vehicle with PERSON TYPE equal to 01.
DRIVER PRESENCE must not equal 1, 9.
DRIVER PRESENCE must not equal 0 or 9.

DRIVER’S ZIP CODE must be blank.
CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF CRASH
(D23) must be blank.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 1.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
DRIVER MANEUVERED TO AVOID must only equal
95.

408

Driver Presence
Check
(9C5P)
(A080)

(AZ20)
(BJ0P)
(BJ1P)
(BJ2P)
(BJ3P)
(BN0P)
(CB0P)
(D330)

(FD0F)
(PB30)

(PB60)

(PB61)

IF
DRIVER MANEUVERED TO AVOID equals 95,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, and NUMBER
OF VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED equals 002,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 0 or 9,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER PRESENCE
equals 1,
UNIT TYPE equals 1, and DRIVER
DISTRACTED BY equals 16,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER equals 6,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and
REGISTRATION STATE is not equal to 00, 92,
99,
DRIVER PRESENCE is blank; case status is
flawed.
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 220,

PERSON TYPE equals 05 or 08, and DRIVER
PRESENCE equals 0 for the motor vehicle
which strikes the non-motorist
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN equals 220,

Consistency Check (CRSS Only):
Check
IF
(1HGF)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0 or 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D4
THEN
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 or 9.
one RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should
equal 20.
PRE-EVENT MOVEMENT (PRIOR TO RECOGNITION
OF CRITICAL EVENT) must equal 00.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE ENDORSEMENTS
must be blank.
DRIVER DISTRACTED BY must equal 16.
DRIVER DISTRACTED BY must not equal 16 or
blank.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 or 9.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
must be blank.
DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0.
REGISTERED VEHICLE OWNER should equal 3-6.

-at least one DRIVER PRESENCE must equal 0 for
the vehicle number identified in this person’s
NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE STRIKING NONMOTORIST.
PEDESTRIAN/BIKE TYPING - CRASH TYPE PEDESTRIAN should equal 220.
DRIVER PRESENCE should equal 0 for the motor
vehicle striking the non-motorist.
THEN
DRIVER LICENSE NUMBER must equal blank.

409

Driver’s License State

D5

D5 - Driver’s License State
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.L_STATE
ELEMENT VALUES:

Codes
01
02
03
04
05
06
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Attribute
Alabama
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

Codes
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

Attribute
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Virgin Islands
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Indian Nation
U.S. Government
Canada
Mexico
Other Foreign Country
Not Reported
Unknown

410

Driver’s License State

D5

Definition: This element identifies the state of issue for the license held by this driver.
Remarks: If no license is required or driver is not licensed, use the resident State of the driver. U.S. Government
is used to indicate the license was issued by the U.S. Government, such as military or State Department Foreign
Service.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H1F) DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1I0P)
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(1K0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(2I0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I1P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I2P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I3P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I4P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I5P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(BI0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(CJ00)

PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES equals 98,

(D010)
(D020)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,

(D030)
(D040)
(D050)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE must be blank.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must not equal 0-4, 6,
and COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
must not equal 00-08.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE must
not equal 0-3.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must not
equal 0-3.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
CRASHES must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS DWI
CONVICTIONS must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS SPEEDING
CONVICTIONS must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS OTHER
MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS must equal 99.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must not
equal 1, 2.
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE should equal 09, 13, 28, 30,
35, 49.
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES should equal 99.
PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS AND
REVOCATIONS should equal 99.
PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
PREVIOUS SPEEDING CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.

411

Driver’s License State
Check
(D180)
(D320)
(D480)
(D710)

IF
DRIVER LICENSE STATE equals 95- 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE does not equal
93-99,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 09, 13, 28,
30, 35, 49,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 02, 04, 09,
15, 20, 30, 38, 40, 56,

D5
THEN
DRIVER ZIP CODE should not equal 99999.
DRIVER’S ZIP CODE should equal 9999 or be a valid
zip code for DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE.
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES should equal 98.
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE should not equal 2.

Consistency Check (FARS Only)
Check
Language
(U410) UNLIKELY: DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 98.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

412

Driver’s Zip Code

D6

D6 - Driver’s Zip Code
FORMAT: 5 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.DR_Zip
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00000
nnnnn
99999

Attribute
Not a Resident of U.S. or Territories
Actual Value
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies the zip code of this driver's area of residence.
Remarks:
Code only the first five digits of nine-digit zip codes.
00000 (Not Resident of US or Territories) is used when the address found on the PAR indicates that the driver
resides at an address which has not been assigned a ZIP code by the US Post Office.
99999 (Unknown) is used whenever the Zip code cannot be determined. For example, use this attribute when
no information is provided on the PAR about the driver (e.g., hit-and-run). In addition, use this code if the
driver, licensed or not, has no permanent address. For example, the driver could be living out of his/her vehicle
(camper, motor home, etc.) or the driver could be “homeless.”
If a ZIP CODE is listed on the PAR but it is not a valid number use attribute 99999 (Unknown).
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
Use the following guidelines to resolve discrepancies between the Police Accident Report (PAR) and Driver
License File:
• If the street address is the same on both sources but the zip codes differ, use the zip code from the
License File.
• If you have internet access available, you may use the USPS Zip Code Look Up web site to confirm you
have the correct address.
• If the street addresses on the two sources differ, then use the zip code for the address reported on the
PAR.
• If you have both a residence address and a different mailing address (e.g., a P.O. Box) use the zip code for
the residence address.
If the PAR indicates an address in-state and a driver’s license from another state is recorded (with a different
residence address), attempt to determine the most current address for the driver. If the most current address
cannot be determined, use the zip code that corresponds to the address from the DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
For the purposes of this variable, a driver is considered to reside at the address listed on the police accident
report. This address was most likely taken from the driver's license given to the police officer and/or from the
licensing state's driver license file.
If the driver's address is present and the Zip code is missing or not available, then determine the correct Zip code
by using the National Five Digit Zip Code & Post Office Directory.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

413

Driver’s Zip Code
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(6H0P)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(BY0P)
DRIVER’S ZIP CODE must be a valid code,
blanks, 00000 or 99999.
(D160)
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS does not equal 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS does not equal 99,
(D180)
DRIVER LICENSE STATE equals 95-97,
(D320)
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE does not equal 93-99,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D6

THEN
DRIVER’S ZIP CODE must be blank.
-DRIVER’S ZIP CODE should not equal 99999.

DRIVER ZIP CODE should not equal 99999.
DRIVER’S ZIP CODE should equal 9999 or be a
valid zip code for DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE.

414

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only

D7

D7 - Non-CDL License Type/Status – FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric occurring 2 times.
SAS NAME: Vehicle.L_TYPE; Vehicle.L_STATUS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Type
Codes
0
1
2
7
8
9

Attributes
Not Licensed
Full Driver License
Intermediate Driver License
Learner’s Permit
Temporary License
Unknown License Type

Status
Codes
0
1
2
3
4
6
9

Attributes
Not Licensed
Suspended
Revoked
Expired
Canceled or Denied
Valid
Unknown License Status

Definition: This element identifies in two subfields the type of license held by this driver and the status of the
license at the time of the crash.
Source: Official driver record and police report. Official driver records take precedence over police-reported
information.
Remarks: Prior to 1993, this element was Driver License Status and included codes “5 – Valid-Single Class” and
“6 – Valid-Multiple Class.” Starting in 2004, this element was modified to capture both non-CDL license type and
status to accommodate graduated driver license (GDL) programs.
This element is used to establish the driver’s license type and status for all license classes except the commercial
driver’s license (CDL). It also captures the type and status of the NON-CDL driving privilege for drivers with CDLs.
The NON-CDL License Type/Status is coded for all drivers, including drivers with a CDL.
Use the “Type” field to record whether the driver has a full driver’s license, intermediate driver’s license,
learner’s permit, temporary license, or is not licensed. Use the “Status” field to record if the license is valid,
suspended, revoked, expired, canceled, or denied.
When involved drivers are in the military, the analyst should be cautious because some States automatically
(without driver application) renew drivers’ licenses or extend the license until the individual is discharged. Each
state analyst should be familiar with their state’s policy on military personnel and code these license variables
accordingly. In addition, when out-of-state driver requests are made the analyst requesting the data should note
that the driver is in the military.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

415

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only

D7

0 (Not Licensed) (for both Type and Status). 0 (Not Licensed) should be used only when it has been reasonably
established that the driver is not licensed (anywhere). Takes precedence over all other NON-CDL License
Type/Status attributes. Drivers who have a license but fail to have their license with them at the time of the
crash should be coded according to the type (class) of license they possess and the validity of the license. If the
police report indicates that the driver has “no license,” the analyst should first determine whether this means
that the person was not in possession of his/her license at the time of the crash, or that the driver is not a
registered motor vehicle operator. A review of the violations cited section of the police report may yield some
clues in this matter. If the person is cited for not possessing his/her license or for not having one, then code this
information in variables D21 Violations Charged and D24 Related Factors-Driver Level. If the analyst is uncertain
as to whether or not the person possesses a license, then code Unknown should be used.

Non-CDL License Type Remarks:
1 (Full Driver License) is used for unlimited driving privileges (with no GDL restrictions). This is based on your
state’s eligibility guidelines.
7 (Learner’s Permit) and 2 (Intermediate Driver License) are the first two stages of a tiered licensing process
that allows young drivers to obtain full driver license privileges through safe driving practices. Typical
restrictions include minimum age requirements, passing vision/ knowledge tests, and supervision by adult driver
over the age of 21. Other requirements may include limiting the number of passengers in the vehicle, occupants
must wear seatbelts, zero alcohol tolerance, and no at-fault crashes or convictions for a period of time.
NOTE: Beginning in 2004, if 7 (Learner’s Permit) or 2 (Intermediate Driver License) has expired, code Type
as 2 (Intermediate Driver License) or 7 (Learner’s Permit) and Status as 3 (Expired). (Prior to 2004, an
expired Learner’s Permit was coded as 0 (Not Licensed)).
NOTE: It is important that you know your state’s Graduated Driver License restrictions. GDL program
restrictions vary from state-to-state.
2 (Intermediate Driver License) is the second stage of obtaining a full license privilege. It is typically for drivers
between the ages of 16 and 17, and does not require total supervision during daylight hours (e.g., adult
supervision during the hours of midnight to 5 am). A 2 (Intermediate Driver License) may be suspended or
revoked under certain violations. Other conditions may include conviction-free performance, seat-belt use for
occupants, and some age restrictions for passengers. If any restriction is violated, this GDL restriction period can
be extended.
NOTE: 2 (Intermediate Driver License) does not apply for states that do not have a GDL program. However,
your state may have a Learner’s Permit. Also, your state may not use the name “Intermediate Driver
License” and may call it something else.
NOTE: 7 (Learner’s Permit) is the first stage of obtaining a full license privilege. It is typically for drivers
between 14 and 16 years of age, and typically requires total adult supervision, seat-belt use for occupants,
and conviction-free performance. If any restriction is violated, this GDL restriction period can be extended.
8 (Temporary License) includes any type of non-permanent license issued for a period of time less than that for
a permanent license (e.g., temporary license to drive within a resort area; temporary license issued to foreign
nationals). Short-term permanent licenses are not temporary (e.g., license issued to elderly drivers requiring
frequent re-testing).
7 (Learner’s Permit) and 2 (Intermediate Driver License) held by young drivers awaiting a 1 (Full Driver’s
License) are not to be coded 8 (Temporary License).

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

416

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only

D7

9 (Unknown License Type) should be used when the type of the license is unknown. 9 (Unknown License Type)
is also used when it is unknown whether the driver had a license or not (e.g., hit-and-run).

Non-CDL License Status Remarks:
0 (Not Licensed) should be used only when it has been reasonably established that the driver is not registered
(anywhere). 0 (Not Licensed) takes precedence over all other Non-CDL License Status attributes. Drivers who
have a license but fail to have their license with them at the time of the crash should be coded according to the
type (class) of license they possess and the validity of the license. If the police report indicates that the driver
has “no license,” the analyst should first determine whether this means that the person was not in possession of
his/her license at the time of the crash, or that the driver is not a registered motor vehicle operator. A review of
the violations cited section of the police report may yield some clues in this matter. If the person is cited for not
possessing his/her license or for not having one, then code this information in variables D21 Violations Charged
and D24 Related Factors-Driver Level. If the analyst is uncertain as to whether or not the person possesses a
license, then code 9 (Unknown) should be used.
1 (Suspended), 2 (Revoked) or 3 (Expired) are used if a 1 (Full Driver License) * is suspended, revoked, or
expired. A 2 (Intermediate Driver License) may be 1 (Suspended) or 2 (Revoked) under certain violations. If 7
(Learner’s Permit) or 2 (Intermediate Driver License) has expired, then code 3 (Expired).
Examples:
If a 1 (Full Driver License) is revoked or suspended but limited driving is permitted (e.g., to and from work),
use the following criteria:
a. If the crash occurs during permitted times of driving, code Non-CDL License Type as 1 (Full Driver
License) and Status as 6 (Valid), code Compliance with License Restrictions as 1 (Restrictions Complied
with), and code Related Factors-Driver Level as 19 (Legally Driving on Suspended or Revoked License).
b. If the crash occurs during invalid times for driving, code Non-CDL License Type as 1 (Full Driver License)
and Status as 1 (Suspended) or 2 (Revoked), code Compliance with License Restrictions as 2 (Restriction
Not Complied with), and do NOT use Related Factors-Driver Level as 19 (Legally Driving on Suspended
or Revoked License).
1 (Suspended) takes precedence over all other License Status attributes except 0 (Not Licensed).
4 (Canceled or Denied) is used whenever the driver’s official driver record indicates the driver’s license* (1) was
canceled; or (2) the driver’s request for license, or an extension of one, was denied.
6 (Valid) refers to any license held by the driver that is valid for a class of vehicle*. If the driver is in violation of
some aspect of his/her license (e.g., one of the restrictions) do not consider the license as being not valid.
Record the restriction on element Compliance with License Restrictions if applicable. If the police cite the driver
for the violation, then the information would be recorded under elements D21 Violations Charged and/or D24
Related Factors-Driver Level.
9 (Unknown License Status) should be used when the status of the license is unknown. 9 (Unknown License
Status) is also used when it is unknown whether the driver had a license or not (e.g., hit-and-run).
See Cross Reference table for coding elements D7 and D10, following the remarks section of element D10
License Compliance with Class of Vehicle.
* NON-CDL privilege only

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

417

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only

D7

IMPORTANT NOTE:
In distinguishing license requirements from restrictions, focus upon whether or not all drivers possessing the
type of license are mandated to obey the requirement. If they are, then the requirement is not a restriction, but
rather part of the definition of the license. Restrictions, on the other hand, are requirements specific to
individual drivers.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H3F) DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1I0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(5I0P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0,

(5I1P)

(7K0P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS for this person equals
9,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, and
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
equals 00,
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL
equals 19,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 71,

(8I0P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0-4, 9,

(6I0P)

(7I0P)

(8J0P) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 0,
(8J1P) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0,
(D060) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 1-4, 6, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
equals 1-8, and PERSON TYPE equals 01,
(D100) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,
(D110) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D120) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,
(D130) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,
(D140) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS and COMMERCIAL
MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must be
blank.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must not equal 0-4,
6, and COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS must not equal 00-08.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
must not equal 1-3, 9.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS should equal 99.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
must not equal 1-3.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 6.

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 0, 1, 2, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS must equal 01, 02, 05.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 19.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 0.
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE must equal 0.
AGE should not be less than 015.

all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
CRASHES should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS should equal
99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS DWI
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS SPEEDING
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS OTHER
MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS should
equal 99.

418

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only
Check
IF
(D160) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS does not equal 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
does not equal 99,
(D260) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
equals 99,
(D340) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 1-4, 6, 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
equals 01-08, 99,
(D350) VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 71,
(D380) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,
(D390) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0,
(D400) NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0-4,
(D620) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 7,
(D630) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 2,
(D640) AGE equals 014-017, and PERSON TYPE equals
01,
(D650) AGE equals 018-120, and PERSON TYPE equals
01, and NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS does not
equal 0,
(D680) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE does not equal 0, 9,
(D690) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 2, 7, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
(D700) NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 1, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
(D710) DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 02, 04, 09, 15,
20, 30, 38, 40, 56,
(D730) RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 73,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D7
THEN
DRIVER’S ZIP CODE should not equal 99999.

COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
should not equal 0.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 0.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS should not equal 0,
3, 6, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should equal 1, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 2, 3, 8, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 3, 8, 9.
AGE (for the driver) should equal 014-016.
AGE (for the driver) should equal 015-017.
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE should equal 2, 7.
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE should equal 1.

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS should not equal 0,
9.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
73, 74.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
74.
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE should not equal 2.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
should equal 2, and NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE
should equal 2, 7.

419

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only

D7

See the following tables for additional guidance for coding Non-CDL License Type/Status for young drivers with
GDL License (7 (Learner’s Permit) and 2 (Intermediate Driver Licenses)) and CDL Drivers:
Coding Scenarios for CDL Licenses
No. Coding Scenarios for CDL Licenses

1.

CDL w/no endorsement valid, driving a CDL
vehicle (no endorsement required). Non-CDL
License Type/Status is Full License/Valid.
2.
CDL w/hazardous material endorsement,
valid driving CDL vehicle w/hazardous cargo.
Non-CDL License Type/Status is Full
License/Valid.
3.
CDL w/hazardous material endorsement,
valid driving non-CDL vehicle. Non-CDL
License Type/Status is Full License/Valid.
4.
CDL w/ no endorsements suspended, driving
a CDL (double bottom) vehicle. Non-CDL
License Type/Status is Full License/Valid.
5.
CDL w/tanker endorsement, disqualified,
driving a tanker. Non-CDL License
Type/Status is Full License/Suspended.
6.
CDL w/tanker endorsement suspended,
driving a non-CDL vehicle. Non-CDL License
Type/Status is Full License/Valid.
7.
Non-CDL license driving CDL 24 passenger
bus. Non-CDL License Type/Status is Full
License/Valid.
8.
Non-CDL license driving 24 passenger bus.
Non-CDL License Type/Status is Full
License/Suspended.
9.
*CDL w/no endorsements valid, driving CDL
vehicle (endorsement requirement
unknown). Non-CDL License Type/Status is
Full License/Suspended.
10. *CDL w/no endorsements *CDL w/tanker
endorsements valid, driving non-CDL
vehicle. Non-CDL License Type/Status is Full
License/Suspended.
11. *CDL w/tanker endorsements valid, driving
non-CDL vehicle. Non-CDL License
Type/Status is Full License/Suspended.
* possible, but unlikely situation

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D7
Non-CDL
Type
1

D7
Non-CDL
Status
6

D8
CMV
Status
6

D10
Comp
w/ Class
3

D11
Comp w/
Restriction
0

1

6

6

3

1

1

6

6

3

0

1

6

1

2

2

1

1

5

2

1

1

6

1

3

0

1

6

0

2

2

1

1

0

2

2

1

1

6

8

9

1

1

6

2

0

1

1

6

2

0

420

Non-CDL License Type / Status – FARS Only
Coding Scenarios for GDL Programs
No. Coding Scenarios for Graduated Driver’s
Licensing Program
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

A 16-year-old driver with a valid
Intermediate License driving a vehicle
during prohibited driving hours without
corrective lenses.
A 15-year-old with a valid Learner’s Permit
driving alone (adult supervision required).
A 16-year-old with a valid Intermediate
License not complying with seat-belt
requirement during permitted daytime
driving hours.
A 17-year-old driver with a valid
Intermediate License. The officer reported
there was a 19-year-old non-family
passenger, in violation of the state’s GDL
requirements.
An 18-year-old driver with an expired
Learner’s Permit driving with no violations
of GDL restrictions.
A 15-year-old with a suspended Learner’s
Permit is driving without required
prescription lenses, and is complying with
all GDL restrictions.
A driver with a suspended Intermediate
Driver’s License complying with all GDL
restrictions.
A 19-year-old with a valid Intermediate
License which was extended due to prior
GDL violations is driving a truck greater
than 26,000 lbs. requiring a CDL during
prohibited hours.
A driver with a valid Full Driver’s License
driving without required corrective lenses.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D7

D7
Non-CDL
Type
2

D7
Non-CDL
Status
6

D11
Comp. w/
Restriction
2

D24
Related FactorsDriver Level
73, 74

7

6

2

73

2

6

2

73

2

6

2

73

7

3

1

00

7

1

2

74

2

3

1

00

2

6

2

73

1

6

2

74

421

Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status – FARS Only

D8

D8 - Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status – FARS Only
FORMAT: 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.CDL_STAT
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
99

Attribute
No (CDL)
Suspended
Revoked
Expired
Canceled or Denied
Disqualified
Valid
Learner’s Permit
Other - Not Valid
Unknown License Status

Definition: This element indicates the status for a driver’s Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) if applicable.
Remarks: This element indicates the status for a driver’s Commercial Driver’s License (CDL).
As of April 1, 1992, all states require a driver to have a CDL for driving a commercial motor vehicle in excess of
26,000 pounds; or for transporting hazardous materials in sufficient amounts to be placarded; or for
transporting 16 or more passengers, including the driver.
See the Coding Scenarios for CDL Licenses table for guidance on coding this element and related driver status
elements.
05 (Disqualified) is used for commercial drivers who have their CDL privilege taken away for violations against
the federal regulations. Although similar to suspension, the reasons for “disqualification” of a CDL may differ
from state suspension reasons.
08 (Other - Not Valid) should be used when a CDL is surrendered or not valid due to the lack of medical
clearance.
99 (Unknown License Status) should be used when the status of the CDL license is unknown or when it is
unknown whether the driver had a CDL license or not (e.g., hit-and-run).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H3F) DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1I0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(5I1P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS for this person
equals 9,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS and COMMERCIAL MOTOR
VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must be blank.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must not equal 0-4, 6, and
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must
not 00-08.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should equal 99.

422

Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status – FARS Only
Check
(6I0P)

(7K0P)

IF
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, and
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 71,

(BN0P) DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(CC0P)
(D060)

(D160)

(D260)

(D270)
(D280)
(D300)
(D340)

(D420)
(D430)
(D440)
(D450)
(D460)
(V090)
(V100)

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00, 99,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 1-4, 6,
or COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE
LICENSE STATUS equals 1-8, and PERSON
TYPE equals 01,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS does not equal
9, or COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE
LICENSE STATUS does not equal 99,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 99,
BODY TYPE equals 50-52, 55, 63, 66, 72, or
HM1 equals 2,
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION equals 05-08,
21, or HM1 equals 2,
HM2 equals 2,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 1-4, 6,
9, or COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE
LICENSE STATUS equals 01-08, 99,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
equals 1-3,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 99,
HM1 equals 2,
HM1 equals 2, and RELATED FACTORSDRIVER LEVEL does not equal 19,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D8
THEN
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must not
equal 1-3.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 0, 1, 2, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must
equal 01, 02, 05.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS must
be blank.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must not
equal 1.
AGE should not be less than 015.

DRIVER’S ZIP CODE should not equal 99999.

COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS should
not equal 0.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00 or 99.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 0.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSE-MENTS should not
equal 1-3.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
BODY TYPE should not equal 50-52, 55, 63, 66, 72,
and HM2 should not equal 2.
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION should not equal 05-08, 21,
and HM2 should not equal 2.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS should
equal 0, 3, 9.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should equal 06, 99.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 01, 02, 05.

423

Compliance with CDL Endorsements – FARS Only

D9

D9 - Compliance With CDL Endorsements – FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.L_ENDORS
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
9

Attribute
No Endorsements Required for the vehicle
Endorsement(s) Required, complied with
Endorsement(s) Required, not complied with
Endorsement(s) Required, compliance unknown
Unknown, if required

Definition: This element indicates whether the vehicle driven at the time of the crash requires endorsement(s)
on a Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) and whether this driver is complying with the CDL endorsements.
Remarks: These endorsements include: double/triple bottoms, passenger vehicles with 16 passengers, tank,
hazardous materials, combined tank/hazardous materials, and others. This element is to be coded
independently from CDL Status. The driver is not automatically failing to comply with a CDL endorsement by not
having a valid CDL. See the Guidance on Coding This Element per License Type and Vehicle section below.
0 (No Endorsements Required for the vehicle) is used when this vehicle requires no special endorsement on a
CDL or requires no CDL to operate.
1 (Endorsement(s) Required, complied with) is used when this vehicle requires a CDL and requires a particular
endorsement or set of endorsements, and the driver has a CDL and is in compliance with the specific
endorsements. (Note: The status of the CDL is not used in determining if the driver has complied with the
endorsement.)
2 (Endorsement(s) Required, not complied with) is used when this vehicle requires a CDL and particular
endorsement(s) on the CDL, but the driver does not have a CDL or does not have the particular endorsement(s)
required for the vehicle driven. The driver may have some other endorsement(s). (Note: The status of the CDL is
not used in determining if the driver has complied with the endorsement.)
3 (Endorsement(s) Required, compliance unknown) is used when this vehicle requires a CDL and particular
endorsement(s) on the CDL, but it is not known whether the driver was in compliance with the particular
endorsement(s) or it is not known whether the driver had a CDL.
9 (Unknown, if required) is used when it is unknown if the vehicle requires a CDL, or when it is unknown if an
endorsement is required on a CDL to operate the crash vehicle. The driver may or may not have a CDL.
Guidance on Coding This Element per License Type and Vehicle
The tables below provide guidance for coding this element for the type of license and vehicle driven in the crash:
Non-CDL Driver License
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non-CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D9
0
0
0
2
9

424

Compliance with CDL Endorsements – FARS Only

D9

CDL with No Endorsement
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non- CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

D9
0
0
0
2
9

CDL with Endorsement
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non- CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Matching Endorsement
CDL, W/Different Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

D9
0
0
0
1
2
9

CDL, Endorsement Unknown
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non- CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

D9
0
0
0
3
9

CDL Unknown
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non- CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

D9
0
0
0
3
9

Not Licensed
VEHICLE DRIVEN IN THE CRASH
Automobile
Non- CDL Truck/Bus
CDL, Not Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Requiring Endorsement
CDL, Unknown If Required

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D9
0
0
0
2
9

425

Compliance with CDL Endorsements – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4S1P)
BODY TYPE equals 80-83, 88, 89 and HM1
does not equal 1,
(BI0P)
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,
(BJ0P)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(BK0P)

LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 1,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
equals 1, and any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00, 99,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0,
HM2 equals 2,

(BL0P)

(CC0P)
(CG0P)
(D310)
(D410)
(D420)
(D430)
(D460)

LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
equals 1-3,
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 99,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D9

THEN
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS MUST
equal 0.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1, 2.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE ENDORSEMENTS
must be blank.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1-3, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1, 3.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should equal 1-3.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should not equal 1-3, 9.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should not equal 1-3.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 00.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should equal 0, 3, 9.

426

License Compliance with Class of Vehicle – FARS Only

D10

D10 - License Compliance With Class Of Vehicle - FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.L_COMPL
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
8
9

Attribute
Not licensed
No license required for this class vehicle
No valid license for this class vehicle
Valid license for this class vehicle
Unknown if CDL and/or CDL endorsement required for this vehicle
Unknown

Definition: This element refers to the type of license possessed or not possessed by the driver for the class of
vehicle being driven at the time of the crash.
Source: Official driver record and police report. Official driver records take precedence over police reported
information.
Remarks: This element is coded according to the driver’s Non-CDL License Status when driving a vehicle not
requiring a CDL and to the driver’s Commercial Motor Vehicle License Status when driving a vehicle requiring a
CDL.
Also see Remarks for D7 on military personnel.
0 (Not licensed) should be used only when it has been reasonably established that the driver is not licensed
(anywhere) and where D7 equals 0 (Not licensed). Drivers who have a license but fail to have their license with
them at the time of the crash should be coded according to the type of license they possess and the class of
vehicle they were driving. 0 (Not licensed) should not be used in this instance. If the police report indicates that
the driver has “no license,” the analyst must first determine whether this means the person was not in
possession of his/her license at the time of the crash or that the driver is not a licensed motor vehicle operator.
A review of the violations cited section of the police report might yield some clues in this matter. If the person is
cited for not possessing his/her license or for not having one, then code this information in variables D21
Violations Charged and D24 Related Factors-Driver Level. If the analyst is uncertain as to whether or not the
person possesses a license, then 9 (Unknown) should be used.
1 (No license required for this class vehicle) means that a license was not required for the vehicle being driven
(e.g., mopeds in some states).
2 (No valid license for this class vehicle) may be used for suspended, revoked, canceled, or expired driving
privileges. It also refers to drivers with a valid license but not for the class of vehicle driven at the time of the
crash. As an example, the driver has an “operator’s license” when a “public passenger” type license is required.
For this driver, 2 (No valid license for this class vehicle) should be coded. Another common situation occurs
when a separate license is required for a motorcycle. If the driver possesses a valid license for a passenger car
but not for the motorcycle, then 2 (No valid license for this class vehicle) should be used if the driver was
involved in this crash while driving a motorcycle.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

427

License Compliance with Class of Vehicle – FARS Only

D10

A license (or a portion of the license applicable to the class vehicle driven) that is not in effect because of
some action taken by the State, such as suspended, revoked, etc., is not to be coded as valid. Similarly,
learner’s permits that are not used under the proper conditions (for example, a required licensed driver for
the class of vehicle driven is not present to accompany the driver involved) are not to be coded as valid
either.
2 (No valid license for this class vehicle) should be used for suspended, revoked, disqualified, canceled, or
expired CDL licenses when the vehicle requires a CDL (see table for Coding Scenarios for CDL Licenses).
3 (Valid license for this class vehicle) refers to the class of vehicle being driven. As an example, the driver has a
“motorcycle” driver’s license only and was driving a motorcycle at the time of the crash; 3 (Valid license for this
class vehicle) should be used. On the other hand, a driver might possess a multiple-class license allowing him or
her to drive a passenger car as well as a motorcycle. If the vehicle being driven at the time of the crash is a
passenger car, also code this element 3 (Valid license for this class vehicle). If the vehicle driver requires a CDL
and the CDL status is valid, use 3 (Valid license for this class vehicle).
8 (Unknown if CDL and/or CDL endorsement required for the vehicle) should be used if it cannot be
determined if the vehicle driven requires a CDL or CDL endorsement. There should be sufficient cause to suspect
the need for a CDL or CDL endorsement to use this code, such as the vehicle’s size (26,001 lbs. or more),
configuration (tractor/trailer, combinations, tankers, etc.), or possibly hauling hazardous cargo.
9 (Unknown) should be used when the driver has a license but the type or validity are uncertain or if it is
unknown whether the driver had a license or not (e.g., hit-and-run).
A cross-reference table for coding variables D7 and D10 follows. Consult this table only when the driver is
operating a vehicle that does not require a CDL.
Cross Reference Table for D7 and D10
D7 (Status)
0
1
2
3
8
9
0
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
1
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
2
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
3
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
4
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
6
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
9
N
Y
N
N
N
Y
Y = Valid Combination
N = Invalid Combination
REMINDER: D7 applies to any license entry in the driver’s record (except CDL). D10 applies to this vehicle only.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

428

License Compliance with Class of Vehicle – FARS Only
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H2F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1K0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(6L0P)

(D380)

COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0-2, 9,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0, 1,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 1,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
equals 1, and any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 1-4, 6, 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 01-08, 99,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D390)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0,

(D400)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0-4,

(D410)

LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0,

(8L0P)
(9J0P)
(BK0P)
(BL0P)

(CG0P)
(D340)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D10

THEN
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must be blank.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must not equal 0-3.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 19.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
must not equal 1-3, 9.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1-3, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS must
not equal 1, 3.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 0.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should equal 1, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 2, 3, 8, 9.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
should not equal 3, 8, 9.
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
should not equal 1-3, 9.

429

Compliance with License Restrictions – FARS Only

D11

D11 - Compliance With License Restrictions – FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.L_RESTRI
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
1
2
3
9

Attribute
No Restrictions or Not Applicable
Restrictions Complied With
Restrictions Not Complied With
Restrictions, Compliance Unknown
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies if a driver was compliant with restrictions on their license.
Remarks: Refers to both physical restrictions (corrective lenses, automatic transmission, etc.) and imposed
restrictions (limited driving). Starting in 2004, it also refers to any limitations imposed on Learner’s Permits and
Intermediate Licenses in states with Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs. (e.g., driving during prohibited
periods [midnight to 5 AM]; driving without adult supervision, etc.). (See Coding Scenarios for GDL Licensing
Program table.)
Code all applicable restrictions regardless of license status.
Examples:
If a Non-CDL License Type of 1 (Full Driver License) is revoked or suspended but limited driving is permitted
(e.g., to and from work), use the following criteria:
a. If the crash occurs during permitted times of driving, code Non-CDL License Type as 1 (Full Driver
License) and Status as 6 (Valid), code Compliance with License Restrictions as 1 (Restrictions
Complied with), and code Related Factors-Driver Level as 19 (Legally Driving on Suspended or
Revoked License).
b. If the crash occurs during invalid times for driving, code Non-CDL License Type as 1 (Full Driver
License) and Status as 1 (Suspended) or 2 (Revoked), code Compliance with License Restrictions as 2
(Restriction Not Complied with), and do NOT use Related Factors-Driver Level as 19 (Legally Driving
on Suspended or Revoked License).
If due to a CDL, a driver has more than one license restriction, code compliance for the most appropriate license
restrictions based on the vehicle being driven at the time of the crash. (i.e. – if vehicle being driven requires a
CDL, use the CDL license restrictions).
0 (No Restrictions or Not Applicable) is used when the driver has no restrictions on their license, when the
driver is unlicensed or when they are operating a vehicle that does not require a license.
1 (Restrictions Complied With) is used when the driver is in compliance with the restrictions for their driver’s
license.
2 (Restrictions Not Complied With) is used when the driver is not compliant with the restrictions for their
driver’s license.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

430

Compliance with License Restrictions – FARS Only

D11

3 (Restrictions, Compliance Unknown) is used when it is known that this driver has restrictions on their license
but compliance is not known.
9 (Unknown) is used when it is unknown if the driver is licensed or when it is unknown if a licensed driver had
restrictions.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H4F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(2I0P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(5I0P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0,

(6I0P)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, and
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 00,
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 73,
74,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0, 1,
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE
STATUS equals 99,
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 2, 7, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 1, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 73,

(6L0P)

(7I0P)

(8J2P)
(9J0P)
(D260)

(D690)

(D700)

(D730)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
be blank.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
not equal 0-3.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
not equal 1-3, 9.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
not equal 1-3.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 6.

COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
equal 2.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
not equal 1-3, 9.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
should not equal 0.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
73, 74.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
74.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
should equal 2, and NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE
should equal 2, 7.

431

Driver Height – FARS Only

D12

D12 - Driver Height – FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 set 1 numeric, 1 set 2 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.DR_HGT
ELEMENT VALUES:
FEET
Codes
0
2-8
9
INCHES
Codes
00-11, 24-96
98
99

Attributes
See Inches
Actual Feet
Unknown
Attributes
Actual Inches
Other
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies a driver's height.
Remarks: Use the driver licensing files to code this element. The Coroner’s Report may be used and may contain
more current/accurate information.
Code the driver’s height in feet and inches, if available. Inches less than 10 must be right-justified with a leading
“0” (e.g., nine inches is coded “09”). If Height is only available in total inches, then code INCHES and code FEET
as “0.”
The tallest Height that can be recorded in total INCHES is 96 inches (8 ft.). The tallest Height that can be
recorded in FEET and INCHES is 8 ft. – 11 inches. If the driver is taller than 96 inches, then you must code Height
as feet and inches. If the driver is taller than 8 ft. – 11 inches, then you must code the DRIVER HEIGHT as “Other”
(0 FEET, 98 INCHES).
DRIVER HEIGHT less than “3 Feet” or greater than “7 Feet – 0 Inches” or less than “36 Inches” or greater than “0
Feet – 84 Inches” will raise an error flag.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1HDF) DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(4H1P) DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES is less than 12,
(4H2P) DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES is greater than 11,
(4H3P) DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET is 2-8,
(4H4P) DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET equals 9,
(4H5P) DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES equals 99,
(4H6P) DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES equals 98,
(4H7P) DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET is 0,
(D600) DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES is greater than 11,
(D610) DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET is not blank,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
DRIVER HEIGHT (feet and inches) must equal blank.
DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET must not be blank.
DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET must equal 0.
DRIVER HEIGHT/ INCHES must equal 00-11.
DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES must equal 99.
DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET must equal 9.
DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET must equal 0.
DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES must equal 24-96, 98.
DRIVER HEIGHT/INCHES should not be less than 48.
DRIVER HEIGHT/FEET should not be less than 3.

432

Driver Height – FARS Only
Check
(U260)
(U280)

IF
UNLIKELY: DRIVER HEIGHT is less than 3
feet or greater than 7 feet, verify data.
UNLIKELY: DRIVER HEIGHT is less than 36
inches or greater than 84 inches, verify
data.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D12
THEN
---

433

Driver Weight – FARS Only

D13

D13 - Driver Weight – FARS Only
FORMAT: 3 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.DR_WGT
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
040-700
998
999

Attributes
Actual weight in pounds
Other
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies a driver's weight.
Remarks: Use the driver licensing files to code this element. The Coroner’s Report may be used and may contain
more current/accurate information.
Code the driver’s weight in pounds, if available.
Weight should be right justified.
Weights less than 100 lbs. must be coded with a leading “0” in the left-most position (e.g., 98 lbs. is coded
“098”).
DRIVER WEIGHT less than 50 lbs. or greater than 399 lbs. will raise an error flag.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1HEF)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(U290)
UNLIKELY: DRIVER WEIGHT is less than 50 lbs.
or greater than 399 lbs., verify data.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
DRIVER WEIGHT must equal blank.
--

434

Driver Level Counters – FARS Only

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18 - Driver Level Counters – FARS Only
D14 - Previous Recorded Crashes*
D15 - Previous Recorded Suspensions and Revocations*
D16 - Previous DWI Convictions*
D17 - Previous Speeding Convictions*
D18 - Previous Other Moving Violation Convictions*
FORMAT: 2 numeric for each element
SAS NAME: Vehicle.PREV_ACC, Vehicle.PREV_SUS, Vehicle.PREV_DWI, Vehicle.PREV_SPD, Vehicle.PREV_OTH
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01-97
98
99

Attributes
None
Actual Value, but any value greater than 05 will be questioned (except for “Previous Recorded
Suspensions and Revocations” when any value greater than 10 will be questioned).
Crashes not reported on Driving Record (valid only for Previous Recorded Crashes)
Unknown

Definition for Previous Recorded Crashes: This element records any previous crashes for this driver. Count only
events occurring within five years from the crash date.
Definition for Previous Recorded Suspensions and Revocations: This element records any previous license
suspensions or revocations for this driver. Count only the events occurring within five years from the crash
date. If it can be identified on the driving record, do not include in this count recorded suspensions and
revocations resulting from non-traffic related issues or offenses (e.g., failure to pay child support, failure to
appear in court for a non-driving offense, a suspension imposed for a drug-related offense not involving the
operation of a motor vehicle). Also note that “cancellation” of a CDL license is not counted here.
Definition for Previous DWI Convictions: This element records any previous DWI convictions for this driver.
Count only the events occurring within five years from the crash date.
Definition for Previous Speeding Convictions: This element records any previous Speeding convictions for this
driver. Count only the events occurring within five years from the crash date.
Definition for Previous Other Moving Violation Convictions: This element records any other previous moving
violation convictions for this driver. Count only the events occurring within five years from the crash date. This
count excludes non-moving violations noted in the driver history. Examples include, registration or title
violations, operating a motor vehicle without insurance, failure to pay required toll, improper/illegal parking,
leaving child unattended in vehicle, driving on a suspended/revoked license, etc.
Remarks: If a driver has been DISQUALIFIED for a CDL, record this event in PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS
AND REVOCATIONS. DO NOT include the current crash in any of the counters.
Remember there is a difference between a violation and a conviction. The violation is not counted in Previous
DWI, Previous Speeding, and Previous Other Moving Violation Convictions. These elements refer ONLY TO
CONVICTIONS. Both convictions and violations appear on driver records in many states. Be careful that you code
the conviction dates and NOT the violation dates.
DWI refers to both alcohol and drug convictions.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

435

Driver Level Counters – FARS Only

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18

When you are responding to another state’s request for driver data, do the following:
1. In the counters, record both in-state and out-of-state convictions, crashes, suspensions, and revocations
that appear on your state’s record.
2. List out-of-state activity that is included in the counters in the area provided on the OUT-OF-STATE
DRIVER DATA RESPONSE (see Figure 19).
The Out-of-State Driver Data Response is provided through the message system.
Figure 19: Example of an Out of State Driver Data Response Form

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

436

Driver Level Counters – FARS Only

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18

Drivers can have a driving record or driver’s license from more than one state. When you are coding the driver
level counter elements (Crashes, Suspensions, Revocations, DWI, Speeding, and Other Moving Violation
Convictions), be sure to combine distinct events from all of the records you have. Be careful not to double-count
the same event. Also use Related Factors – Driver Level 89 (Driver has a Driving Record or Driver’s License from
More Than One State) when this situation occurs.
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS includes all other motor vehicle convictions. Some
examples of convictions include:
• running a red light,
• reckless driving,
• improper lane changing,
• failure to yield, etc.
* For Element _____, Values greater than ____ are unlikely and will raise an error flag:
Element
Value
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES
8
PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS
10
PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS
8
PREVIOUS SPEEDING CONVICTIONS
8
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS
8
Make sure you know what constitutes a MOVING VIOLATION in your state. The DMV should be able to help you
determine these.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H7F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1H8F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1H9F)
(1H0F)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1HAF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1J0P)
(1J1P)

any counter equals 99,
any counter equals 99,

(1J2P)

any counter equals 99,

(2J0P)

all counters are not blanks and PREVIOUS
RECORDED CRASHES is not equal to 98 and
any counter are not equal to 00, 99,
all counters are not blanks and PREVIOUS
RECORDED CRASHES is not equal to 98 and
any counter are not equal to 00, 99,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(2J1P)

(3I1P)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES must be blank.
PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS must be
blank.
PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS must be blank.
PREVIOUS SPEEDING CONVICTIONS must be
blank.
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION
CONVICTIONS must be blank.
all counters must equal 99.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal 999999.
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal 999999.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must not equal 000000, 999999.
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must not equal 000000, 999999.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
CRASHES must equal 99.

437

Driver Level Counters – FARS Only
Check
(3I2P)

IF
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I3P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I4P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(3I5P)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 99,

(4J0P)

all counters are not blanks and the sum of all
counters less than 98 is equal to 1,

(CJ00)

PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES equals 98,

(D010)
(D020)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,

(D030)
(D040)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,

(D050)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 96, 97,

(D100)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D110)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D120)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D130)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D140)

NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 9,

(D480)

DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE equals 09, 13, 28,
30, 35, 49,
UNLIKELY: PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES is
greater than 8 and less than 98.
UNLIKELY: PREVIOUS RECORDED
SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS is greater
than 10 and less than 98.
UNLIKELY: PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS is
greater than 8 and less than 98.

(U210)
(U220)

(U230)

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18
THEN
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS must equal
99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS DWI
CONVICTIONS must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS SPEEDING
CONVICTIONS must equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS OTHER
MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS must equal
99.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal DATE OF FIRST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION.
DRIVER’S LICENSE STATE should equal 09, 13,
28, 30, 35, 49.
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES should equal 99.
PREVIOUS RECORDED SUSPENSIONS AND
REVOCATIONS should equal 99.
PREVIOUS DWI CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
PREVIOUS SPEEDING CONVICTIONS should
equal 99.
PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING VIOLATION
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
CRASHES should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS RECORDED
SUSPENSIONS AND REVOCATIONS should equal
99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS DWI
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS SPEEDING
CONVICTIONS should equal 99.
all driver history counters PREVIOUS OTHER
MOVING VIOLATION CONVICTIONS should equal
99.
PREVIOUS RECORDED CRASHES should equal 98.
---

--

438

Driver Level Counters – FARS Only
Check
(U240)

(U250)

IF
UNLIKELY: PREVIOUS SPEEDING
CONVICTIONS is greater than 8 and less than
98.
UNLIKELY: PREVIOUS OTHER MOVING
VIOLATION CONVICTIONS is greater than 8
and less than 98.

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D14, D15, D16, D17, D18
THEN
--

--

439

Date of First and Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction – FARS Only

D19, D20

D19, D20 - Date of First and Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction FARS Only
FORMAT: 1 set 2 numeric, 1 set 4 numeric for each element.
SAS NAME: Vehicle.FIRST_MO, Vehicle.FIRST_YR / Vehicle.LAST_MO, Vehicle.LAST_YR
ELEMENT VALUES:
MONTH
Codes
00
01-12
99

Attributes
No Record
Actual Month
Unknown

YEAR
Codes
0000
-9999

Attributes
No Record
All 4 Digits of Actual Year
Unknown

Definition for Date of First Crash, Suspension, Conviction: This element identifies the date of the first crash,
suspension, or conviction recorded in elements D14 through D18. Count only dates of events occurring within
five years from the crash date.
Definition for Date of Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction: This element identifies the date of the last crash,
suspension, or conviction recorded in elements D14 through D18. Count only dates of events occurring within
five years from the crash date.
Remarks: If it can be identified on the driving record, do not include recorded suspensions and revocations
resulting from non-traffic related issues or offenses (e.g., failure to pay child support, failure to appear in court
for a non-driving offense, a suspension imposed for a drug-related offense not involving the operation of a
motor vehicle).
Code only dates of events occurring within five years from the crash date. Code the month and year in that
order.
This element, although it contains two pieces of information, should be treated as one element. That is never
leave month blank without leaving the year blank, and vice versa.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1HCF)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(1HBF)

DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(1J1P)

If any counter equals 99,

(1J2P)

If any counter equals 99,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must be blank.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must be blank.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal 999999.
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal 999999.

440

Date of First and Last Crash, Suspension, Conviction – FARS Only
Check
(2J0P)

(2J1P)

(2K0P)

(3J1P)

IF
all counters are not blanks and PREVIOUS
RECORDED CRASHES is not equal to 98 and
any counter are not equal to 00, 99,
all counters are not blanks and PREVIOUS
RECORDED CRASHES is not equal to 98 and
any counter are not equal to 00, 99,
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must be less than or equal to
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION.
all counters equal 00,

(4J0P)

all counters are not blanks and the sum of all
counters less than 98 is equal to 1,

(4K2P)

Month of DATE OF FIRST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION equals 00,
Year of DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION equals 0000,
If the sum of all counters less than 98 is
greater than fifteen,

(4K3P)
(5J0P)

(5K0P)

(990P)

(D150)

The Year of DATE OF FIRST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION must be within
five years of the Year of CRASH DATE.
any counter equals 99,

the sum of all counters less than 98 is greater
than five but less than fifteen,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

D19, D20

THEN
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must not equal 000000, 999999.
DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must not equal 000000, 999999.
--

DATE OF FIRST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal 000000.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must equal DATE OF FIRST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION.
Year (of same) must equal 0000.
Month (of same) must equal 00.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION must not equal DATE OF FIRST
CRASH, SUSPENSION, CONVICTION.
--

all counters and DATE OF LAST CRASH,
SUSPENSION, CONVICTION and DATE OF FIRST
CRASH, SUSPENSION, CONVICTION must equal
9999.
DATE OF LAST CRASH, SUSPENSION,
CONVICTION should not equal DATE OF FIRST
CRASH, SUSPENSION, CONVICTION.

441

Violations Charged

D21

D21 - Violations Charged
FORMAT: 2 numeric. Select all the apply.
SAS NAME: Violatn.MVIOLATN
ELEMENT VALUES:
Reckless/Careless/Hit-and-Run Type Offenses
Codes Attributes
00
None
01
Manslaughter or homicide
02
Willful reckless driving; driving to endanger; negligent driving
03
Unsafe reckless (not willful, wanton reckless) driving
04
Inattentive, careless, improper driving
10
Use of Telecommunications Device
05
Fleeing or eluding police
06
Fail to obey police, fireman, authorized person directing traffic
07
Hit-and-run, fail to stop after crash
08
Fail to give aid, information, wait for police after crash
09
Serious violation resulting in death
Impairment Offenses
Codes Attributes
11
Driving while intoxicated (alcohol or drugs) or BAC above limit (any detectable BAC for CDLs)
12
Driving while impaired
13
Driving under influence of substance not intended to intoxicate
14
Drinking while operating
15
Illegal possession of alcohol or drugs
16
Driving with detectable alcohol
18
Refusal to submit to chemical test
19
Alcohol, drug or impairment violations generally
Speed-Related Offenses
Codes Attributes
21
Racing
22
Speeding (above the speed limit)
23
Speed greater than reasonable & prudent (not necessarily over the limit)
24
Exceeding special limit (e.g.: for trucks, buses, cycles, or on bridge, in school zone, etc.)
25
Energy speed (exceeding 55 mph, non-pointable)
26
Driving too slowly
29
Speed related violations, generally

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Violations Charged

D21

Rules of the Road – Traffic Sign & Signals
Codes Attributes
31
Fail to stop for red signal
32
Fail to stop for flashing red
33
Violation of turn on red (fail to stop & yield, yield to pedestrians before turning)
34
Fail to obey flashing signal (yellow or red)
35
Fail to obey signal, generally
36
Violate RR grade crossing device/regulations
37
Fail to obey stop sign
38
Fail to obey yield sign
39
Fail to obey traffic control device
Rules of the Road – Turning, Yielding, Signaling
Codes Attributes
41
Turn in violation of traffic control (disobey signs, turn arrow or pavement markings; this is not a
right-on-red violation)
42
Improper method & position of turn (too wide, wrong lane)
43
Fail to signal for turn or stop
45
Fail to yield to emergency vehicle
46
Fail to yield, generally
48
Enter intersection when space insufficient
49
Turn, yield, signaling violations, generally
Rules of the Road – Wrong Side, Passing & Following
Codes Attributes
51
Driving wrong way on one-way road
52
Driving on left, wrong side of road, generally
53
Improper, unsafe passing
54
Pass on right (drive off pavement to pass)
55
Pass stopped school bus
56
Fail to give way when overtaken
58
Following too closely
59
Wrong side, passing, following violations, generally
Rules of the Road – Lane Usage
Codes Attributes
61
Unsafe or prohibited lane change
62
Improper use of lane (enter of 3-lane road, HOV designated lane)
63
Certain traffic to use right lane (trucks, slow-moving, etc.)
66
Motorcycle lane violations (more than two per lane, riding between lanes, etc.)
67
Motorcyclist attached to another vehicle
69
Lane violations, generally

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Violations Charged

D21

Non-Moving – License and Registration Violations
Codes Attributes
71
Driving while license withdrawn
72
Other driver license violations
73
Commercial driver violations (log book, hours, permits carried)
74
Vehicle registration violations
75
Fail to carry insurance card
76
Driving uninsured vehicle
79
Non-moving violations, generally
Equipment
Codes Attributes
81
Lamp violations
82
Brake violations
83
Failure to require restraint use (by self or passengers)
84
Motorcycle equipment violations (helmet, special equipment)
85
Violation of hazardous cargo regulations
86
Size, weight, load violations
89
Equipment violations, generally
License and Registration Violations
Codes Attributes
91
Parking
92
Theft, unauthorized use of motor vehicle
93
Driving where prohibited (sidewalk, limited access, off truck route)
97
Not Reported
98
Other moving violation (coasting, backing, opening door)
99
Unknown VIOLATION(s)
Definition: This element identifies all violations, citations, and infractions noted as charged to this driver in
this crash.
Remarks: This refers to those violations to the Vehicle Code charged as noted on the police accident report.
Code all violations listed on the PAR for this driver regardless of ownership of the vehicle (e.g., "borrowed",
"fleet", "rental cars", etc.).
If you are unable to distinguish between the violations within a specific category, use the General Code (i.e., 09,
19, 29, 39, 49, 59, 69, 79, 89) for that category.
00 (None) is used when there is indication that no violations were charged to this driver or when no violations
are noted in the case materials for this driver and that indicates no violations were charged to the driver.
CRSS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
In cases where the investigating officer has designated “pending” in the case materials use 00 (None).
71 (Driving While License Withdrawn) would include violations for operating a vehicle with a suspended or
revoked driver's license or violating the provisions of a work permit.

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Violations Charged

D21

72 (Other Driver License Violations) is used when the driver is cited for not complying with learner’s permit or
intermediate driver license restrictions (GDL Restrictions) or if the driver's license has expired. This attribute is
also used when the driver has been cited for driving without a license (i.e., never been issued a license. For
suspended or revoked, see 71 (Driving While License Withdrawn)).
97 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 97 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials)
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown Violation(s)) is used when it is known that this driver had one or more violations but the specific
violation(s) or violation category(ies) cannot be identified.
Examples:
• If it is known a driver had two violations but they cannot be identified code 99 (Unknown Violation(s))
once.
• If the driver has a known specific violation(s) and other unspecified violation(s) code all the specific
violation(s) and code 99 (Unknown Violation(s)) once.
FARS SPECIAL INSTRUCTION:
In cases where the investigating officer has designated “pending”, always follow up whenever possible to
confirm a violation was charged before entering 00 (None) or 99 (Unknown).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1H6F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(6K0P)
VIOLATION CHARGED equals 71,
(7K0P)

any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 71,

(7K1P)

VIOLATIONS CHARGED code 99 must not
be used more than once per driver.
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 07, 08,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 31-35,
37,
VIOLATION CHARGED equals 01-06, 09, 3169, 81-91, 98,
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 11-19, and
PERSON TYPE equals 01, 03,

(8K0P)
(A270)
(D080)
(D090)

(D350)

VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 71,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
VIOLATIONS CHARGED must be blank.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not equal
19.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 0, 1, 2, or
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
must equal 01, 02, 05.
-HIT-AND-RUN must not equal 0.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should equal 01-20, 98.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should not all
equal 00, 99.
POLICE REPORTED ALCOHOL INVOLVEMENT
should equal 1, or POLICE REPORTED DRUG
INVOLVEMENT should equal 1.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS should not equal 0, 3, 6,
9.

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Violations Charged
Check
(D500)

IF
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 05,

(D530)

any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 36 for a
vehicle involved in the first harmful event,
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 66,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 83,

(D560)
(D570)

(D580)
(D5A0)
(D5B0)
(D5E0)
(U440)

VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 85,
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 21-25, 29,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 11-13,
18, 19,
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 00 or 97,
UNLIKELY: VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals
97.

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D21
THEN
at least one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL
should equal 20.
RELATION TO JUNCTION (b) should equal 06.
BODY TYPE should equal 80-83, 88, 89.
not all occupants of this vehicle should have
RESTRAINT SYSTEM/HELMET USE equal to 01-05,
08, 10-12, 16, 19.
HM1 should equal 2.
SPEEDING RELATED must equal 2-5.
at least one CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME
OF CRASH (D23) should equal 09.
only that one code and no other must be coded
for this driver.
--

446

Speeding Related

D22

D22 - Speeding Related
FORMAT: 1 numeric
SAS NAME: Vehicle.Speedrel
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
0
2
3
4
5
9

Attributes
No
Yes, Racing
Yes, Exceeded Speed Limit
Yes, Too Fast for Conditions
Yes, Specifics Unknown
Unknown

Definition: This element identifies if the driver's speed was related to the crash as identified by law
enforcement.
Remarks: If the case materials state that more than one condition was present at the same time, enter the code
with the lowest value. For example, if the driver was charged with “Too Fast for Conditions” and had a factor
recorded for “Exceeded Speed Limit”, you would use code 3 (Yes, Exceeded Speed Limit) because that has a
lower value than 4 (Yes, Too Fast for Conditions).
Speed can be indicated in the case materials by the police issuing a citation for a speed offense, by their
indicating a related or contributing factor, or through a description in the narrative.
0 (No) is used if the case materials do not indicate any speed related charges (violations, citations) and do not
indicate any speed related factors.
2 (Yes, Racing) is used when two or more motor vehicles are engaged in a speed-related competition on the
trafficway.
3 (Yes, Exceeded Speed Limit) is used when a motor vehicle is traveling above the posted/statutory speed limit
on certain designated roadways and/or by certain types of vehicles; e.g., for trucks, buses, motorcycles, on
bridge, at night, in school zone, etc.). Do not compare an estimated travel speed to the posted speed limit for
determining the correct attribute for this data element. This attribute would apply in a case where law
enforcement reports actual or estimated speed as unknown and still identifies exceeding the speed limit as a
factor.
4 (Yes, Too Fast for Conditions) is used when a vehicle is traveling at a speed that was unsafe for the road,
weather, traffic or other environmental conditions at the time.
5 (Yes, Specifics Unknown) is used when it is known that Speed or Speeding applies but it cannot be determined
which of the more specific attributes apply.
9 (Unknown) is used if the police state that the circumstances of the crash are unknown (i.e., it is unknown what
factors, if any, may have been present at the time of the crash).
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1HFF)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
(D5A0)
VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 21-25, 29,

2016 FARS / CRSS Coding and Validation Manual

THEN
SPEEDING RELATED must be blank.
SPEEDING RELATED must equal 2-5.

447

Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash

D23/NM14

D23/NM14 - Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash
FORMAT: 2 numeric. Select all that apply
SAS NAME: Drimpair.DRIMPAIR
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
96
98
99

Attributes
None/Apparently Normal
Ill, Blackout
Asleep or Fatigued
Walking with a Cane or Crutches, etc.
Paraplegic or Restricted to Wheelchair
Impaired Due to Previous Injury
Deaf
Blind
Emotional (depressed, angry, disturbed, etc.)
Under the Influence of Alcohol, Drugs or Medication
Physical Impairment – No Details
Other Physical Impairment
Not Reported
Unknown If Impaired

Definition: This element identifies physical impairments to this driver or non-motorist which may have
contributed to the cause of the crash as identified by law enforcement.
Remarks: Select all that apply. These impairments can appear anywhere in the case materials--in the narrative
section, in the violations section, in a column entitled “Contributing Factors” or “Driver Action”, etc. Do not
consider pedestrian, non-motorist or witness statements unless verified by the investigating police officer by
being reported in the narrative section of the crash report.
00 (None/Apparently Normal) is used when:
• When the case materials make a positive statement that the individual was apparently normal or “none”
was indicated on the PAR.
• When the case materials do not indicate an impairment in an available field and not reporting an
impairment in that field indicates 00 (None/Apparently Normal).
• When the investigating officer
o is limited in the number of factors that can be displayed
o and cannot select an impairment in addition to another factor relevant to the crash
o and some other factor is selected
o and no other indication of impairment exists in the case materials.
• For omission of information see 98 (Not Reported) guidance below.
01 (Ill, Blackout) is used when indicated in the case materials. Enter this attribute even if the source of the
illness or loss of consciousness is alcohol or drug related. Use this attribute if the driver or non-motorist had
fainted and/or seizures were identified.

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D23/NM14

02 (Asleep or Fatigued) is used when indicated in the case materials. Also, use this attribute when the
investigating officer indicates the person was drowsy or sleepy. Alcohol or other drugs may be the source of this
impairment.
03 (Walking with a Cane or Crutches, etc.) is used when non-motorist is walking with a cane, walker, knee
scooter, or crutches when indicated in the case materials.
04 (Paraplegic or Restricted to Wheelchair) is used if this person has to use a wheelchair or is paraplegic (may
or may not have used a wheelchair).
05 (Impaired Due to Previous Injury) is used if the case materials specifically indicate this condition (e.g., if a
person is involved in this crash subsequent to his/her involvement in a previous crash in which the person was
injured). This attribute should be extremely rare.
06 (Deaf) is used when this condition is attributed to this person in the case materials.
07 (Blind) is used when this condition is attributed to this person in the case materials.
08 (Emotional [depressed, angry, disturbed, etc.]) is used when the person is arguing with someone, is having a
disagreement, is depressed, and/or is emotionally upset.
09 (Under the Influence of Alcohol, Drugs or Medication) is used when the investigating officer indicates that
the individual was under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or medication. This attribute excludes interpretation of
test results by the analyst/coder.
10 (Physical Impairment-No Details) is used when the case materials indicate a physical impairment existed but
provides no further details about the impairment.
96 (Other Physical Impairment) is used when the case materials indicate that a physical impairment was
involved but it isn’t a listed attribute.
98 (Not Reported)
If a state’s crash report manual instructs to leave blank data blocks that are not applicable, then a blank in those
data blocks are NOT considered “Not Reported”.
Code 98 (Not Reported) in these two situations:
1. No field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report to provide the information to code this
element AND no other information is available to code the element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case
materials).
2. A field or coding block exists on the state’s crash report that would provide the information needed
to code this element, but it has been left blank, AND no other information is available to code the
element (e.g., narrative, diagram, case materials).
99 (Unknown if Impaired) is used if the investigating officer states that the physical impairment of this person is
unknown. Hit-and-Run drivers are included in this attribute.

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Condition (Impairment) at Time of Crash

D23/NM14

Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(4X2F)
any CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF
CRASH (D23) equals 00 or 98 or 99,
(4X4F)
any CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF
CRASH (D23) equals 09,

(6H1P)
(B17P)
(D5B0)
(U530)
(U682)

THEN
only that one code and no other must be coded
for this driver.
POLICE REPORTED ALCOHOL INVOLVEMENT
(P16) or POLICE REPORTED DRUG
INVOLVEMENT (P19) should equal 1 for this
person.
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,
CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF CRASH
(D23) must be blank.
CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF
CRITICAL EVENT: PRECRASH (EVENT) should not
CRASH (D23) equals 09 for this driver,
equal 08 for this driver’s vehicle.
any VIOLATIONS CHARGED equals 11-13, 18,
at least one CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME
19,
OF CRASH (D23) should equal 09.
UNLIKELY: any CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT -TIME OF CRASH (D23) equals 03, 05 or 07.
UNLIKELY: CRITICAL EVENT: PRECRASH
-(EVENT) equals 08 for this vehicle and
CONDITION (IMPAIRMENT) AT TIME OF
CRASH (D23) does not equal 01 for this
vehicle’s driver.

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450

Related Factors – Driver Level

D24

D24 - Related Factors – Driver Level
FORMAT: 2 numeric occurring 4 times
SAS NAME: Vehicle.DR_SF1, Vehicle.DR_SF2, Vehicle.DR_SF3, Vehicle.DR_SF4
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00

Attributes
None

Physical/Mental Condition:
Codes
Attributes
06
Careless Driving
08
Aggressive Driving / Road Rage
*13
Mentally Challenged
*04
Reaction to or Failure to Take Drugs/Medication
*12
Mother of Dead Fetus/Mother of Infant Born Post Crash
Miscellaneous Factors:
Codes
Attributes
*15
Seat Back Not in Normal Upright Position, Seat Back Reclined
18
Traveling on Prohibited Trafficways
*19
Legally Driving on Suspended or Revoked License
20
Leaving Vehicle Unattended with Engine Running. Leaving Vehicle Unattended in Roadway
21
Overloading or Improper Loading of Vehicle with Passengers or Cargo
22
Towing or Pushing Improperly
23
Failure to Dim Lights or to Have Lights on When Required
24
Operating Without Required Equipment
*26
Following Improperly
*27
Improper or Erratic Lane Changing
*28
Improper Lane Usage
*29
Intentional Illegal Driving on Road Shoulder, in Ditch, on Sidewalk, or on Median
*30
Making Improper Entry to or Exit from Trafficway
*31
Starting or Backing Improperly
32
Opening Closure into Moving Traffic or While Vehicle is in Motion
*33
Passing Where Prohibited by Posted Signs, Pavement Markings, or School Bus Displaying
Warning Not to Pass
*34
Passing on Right Side
*35
Passing with Insufficient Distance, or Inadequate Visibility, or Failing to Yield to Overtaking
Vehicle
36
Operating the Vehicle in an Erratic, Reckless, or Negligent Manner
16
Police or Law Enforcement Officer
37
Police Pursuing This Driver or Police Officer in Pursuit
*38
Failure to Yield Right-of-Way
*39
Failure to Obey Actual Traffic Signs, Traffic Control Devices, or Traffic Officers. Failure to Obey
Safety Zone Traffic Laws
*40
Passing Through or Around Barrier
*41
Failure to Observe Warnings or Instructions on Vehicles Displaying Them

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Related Factors – Driver Level
Codes
*42
*45
*47
*48
50
51
*52
*53
54
58
59

D24

Attributes
Failure to Signal Intentions
Driving Less Than Posted Minimum
Making Right Turn from Left-Turn Lane, Left Turn from Right-Turn Lane
Making Other Improper Turn
Driving Wrong Way on One-Way Trafficway
Driving on Wrong Side of Two-Way Trafficway (Intentional or Unintentional)
Operator Inexperience
Unfamiliar with Roadway
Stopped in Roadway (Vehicle Not Abandoned)
Overcorrecting
Getting Off/Out of a Vehicle

Special Circumstances:
Codes
Attributes
*73
Driver Has Not Complied with Learner’s Permit or Intermediate Driver License Restrictions (GDL
Restrictions)
*74
Driver Has Not Complied with Physical or Other Imposed Restrictions (not including GDL
Restrictions)
*89
Driver has a Driving Record or Driver’s License from More Than One State
91
Non-Traffic Violation Charged (manslaughter, homicide, or other assault offense committed
without malice)
Skidding, Swerving, Sliding Due To:
Codes
Attributes
*77
Severe Crosswind
*78
Wind from Passing Truck
*79
Slippery or Loose Surface
*80
Tire Blowout or Flat
*81
Debris or Objects in Road
*82
Ruts, Holes, Bumps in Road
*83
Live Animals in Road
*84
Vehicle in Road
*85
Phantom Vehicle
*86
Pedestrian, Pedal Cyclist, or Other Non-Motorist
*87
Ice, Snow, Slush, Water, Sand, Dirt, Oil, Wet Leaves on Road
*88
Trailer Fishtailing or Swaying
Unknown:
Codes
Attributes
99
Unknown
* FARS ONLY ATTRIBUTES
Definition: This element identifies factors related to this driver expressed by the investigating officer.

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Related Factors – Driver Level

D24

Remarks: Code information provided by the investigating officer in the narrative, contributing factors/
circumstances field or citations/violations section on the crash report. This is a nominal list only and does NOT
imply a hierarchy. However, if more than four factors apply to this driver, capture those which cannot be
collected elsewhere in the data.
NOTE: RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL SHOULD BE CODED ONLY FOR “IN-TRANSPORT VEHICLES” (UNIT TYPE
“1”).
RELATED FACTORS FOR MOTOR VEHICLE OCCUPANTS OTHER THAN DRIVERS OF “IN-TRANSPORT" VEHICLES
SHOULD BE CODED UNDER RELATED FACTORS-PERSON (MV OCCUPANT) LEVEL (INCLUDING ALL OCCUPANTS
IN UNIT TYPES “2, 3, AND 4”.)
00 (None) is used when no applicable related factors are noted in the case materials, including hit-and-run
vehicle drivers when no factors are identified or reported by the officer for this vehicle or driver. Zero-fill all
fields. Also, use 00 (None) to complete the remaining fields when you will be recording less than four driver
related factors. DO NOT leave any remaining fields blank.

Physical/Mental Condition:
06 (Careless Driving) is used when the case materials include a factor or note a violation indicating careless
driving.
Examples include:
• driving without due care
• operating a motor vehicle in a careless manner
• failure to give full time and attention
• inattentive operation.
08 (Aggressive Driving/Road Rage) is used when the case materials include a factor or note a violation
identifying aggressive driving behavior. The officer must use the term "Aggressive" in describing this driver's
behavior. You may encounter the term "Road Rage" used to describe aggressive driving behavior. The two
terms are not technically interchangeable but both will be coded here.
*13 (Mentally Challenged) is used when the case materials identify that the driver has a mental illness or
intellectual disorder.
*04 (Reaction to or Failure to Take Drugs/Medication) is used when the case materials identify that this driver
had an allergic reaction to medication/drugs, a reaction to drug interaction (over the counter and/or
prescribed), or if there is information identifying that the driver failed to take required medication.
12 (Mother of Dead Fetus/Mother of Infant Born Post Crash) is used when the case materials identify that this
driver is the mother of a fetus that died in or as a result of this crash or it is identified that this driver gave birth
after the crash whether the child survives or not. Note that for crash classification purposes, a fetus is
considered to be part of a pregnant woman rather than a separate individual and, thus, is not counted as a
separate occupant in the crash.

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D24

Miscellaneous Factors:
*15 (Seat Back Not in Normal Upright Position, Seat Back Reclined) is used when the case materials identify
that this driver’s seat back was not in a normal, safe driving position prior to the crash.
18 (Traveling on Prohibited Trafficways) is used when the case materials identify this driver was driving on an
open trafficway that prohibited travel for the kind of vehicle they were operating. For example, driving a moped
on an interstate, driving a truck where prohibited, or operating a vehicle with hazardous materials cargo where
prohibited. For trucks or slower vehicles using the left lane when prohibited, use 28 (Improper Lane Usage).
*19 (Legally Driving on Suspended or Revoked License) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s
license was suspended/revoked but they were legally driving at the time of the crash. For example,
occupational restricted licenses typically allow drivers to drive to work, school, community service or certain
other activities, with restrictions including the times of day, days of week and areas to which they may drive.
Drivers whose licenses have been suspended or revoked for certain alcohol- or drug-related offenses can apply
for ignition interlock restricted licenses. These licenses permit them to drive if they use an ignition interlock
device, which tests breath for alcohol consumption, installed in their car.
20 (Leaving Vehicle Unattended with Engine Running. Leaving Vehicle Unattended in Roadway) is used when
the case materials identify this driver took improper actions where their vehicle was left in a location
intentionally and the driver was not present in or in close proximity to the vehicle.
Examples include:
• Leaving the vehicle curbside or in a driveway with a running engine.
• Abandoning a non-running vehicle in the middle of traffic.
• "Double-parked”
• "Parked on a bridge or tunnel"
• "Parking within an intersection"
21 (Overloading or Improper Loading of Vehicle with Passengers or Cargo) is used when the case materials
identify this driver improperly loaded the vehicle occupants or cargo into or on the vehicle.
Examples include:
• The vehicle had more than 3 passengers in the front seat.
• There were persons riding on the exterior of the vehicle.
• The vehicle was carrying occupants that were sitting or standing on the rails, tailgate of a pickup, or
improperly sitting in the bed of a pickup.
• More than one person secured in a belt restraint.
• An unsecured or uncovered load violation.
• The vehicle's trunk was open with extra-large cargo protruding.
• The case materials state the vehicle was overweight, over length or illegally or improperly oversize.
22 (Towing or Pushing Improperly) is used when the case materials identify this driver was operating the vehicle
that was towing another vehicle with an improper connection (e.g., by rope or cable) or was pushing another
vehicle in a dangerous manner (e.g., bumper to bumper).

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Related Factors – Driver Level

D24

23 (Failure to Dim Lights or to Have Lights on When Required) is used when the case materials identify this
driver failed to use proper headlight beams, failed to reduce high beams for an approaching vehicle or when
following another vehicle or used fog lights when prohibited.
Examples include:
• The vehicle has its headlamps adjusted improperly causing glare.
• The vehicle failed to have its headlights on in a tunnel.
• A motorcycle not using lights as required.
24 (Operating Without Required Equipment) is used when the case materials identify this driver was operating
the vehicle without a required piece of equipment or with required equipment being inoperable. For seatbelts,
child restraints, and motorcycle helmets do not use this attribute when there is indication that an available
restraint was not used (i.e., PAR Restraint Use box is marked as "Not Used").
Examples include:
• Defective or no lamps, brakes, mirrors, muffler, flares, wipers, horn, snow tires, chains, etc.
• A vehicle does not have extended side mirrors when required (e.g. when pulling a trailer).
• A vehicle driving in snow without snow tires when required.
• If the seatbelts have been removed from the vehicle.
• If there was no child safety seat(s) in the vehicle when required for the occupant(s).
• For a motorcycle rider that had no helmet with them when required by law.
• If the vehicle failed to have an airbag(s) reinstalled after a prior crash.
*26 (Following Improperly) is used when the case materials identify this driver followed too closely.
Examples include:
• Following a fire truck too closely.
• Failure to maintain a safe passing distance between trucks.
• Following another vehicle in a caravan too closely to allow entry by a merging vehicle.
• Following too close, generally. Also code for cases where the case materials document the vehicle was
following too closely for weather conditions.
NOTE: 26 (Following Improperly) denotes “after or before the process of lane change” while 27 (Improper
or Erratic Lane Changing) signifies “in the process.”
*27 (Improper or Erratic Lane Changing) is used when the case materials identify this driver was making unsafe
lane changes or failed to obey a "no lane change" sign or pavement marking prohibiting lane change. This may
also be used in cases where the officer states the vehicle was weaving in and out of traffic.
*28 (Improper Lane Usage) is used when the case materials identify this driver failed to properly keep their
vehicle in the appropriate lane of travel. This attribute does not apply to vehicles that run off the roadway or
that cross the median. Also do not use this value for a vehicle that leaves its lane because of a previous impact
or at the direction of a flagman or police officer. For situations where the vehicle is on the wrong side as a result
of a passing maneuver, see 33 (Passing Where Prohibited by Posted Signs, Pavement Markings or School Bus
Displaying Warning Not to Pass). See 51 (Driving on Wrong Side of Two-Way Trafficway [Intentional or
Unintentional]) for Driving on Wrong Side of Road.
Examples include:
• A vehicle that “drove left of center” striking an oncoming vehicle (includes both crossing a painted
centerline and failing to maintain the proper side of a 2 lane roadway with no painted centerline.)
• A vehicle that goes straight in a turn lane.
• A vehicle that was using more than one lane on its side of a multi-lane highway.
• Trucks, buses, or slow vehicles failing to keep right for faster moving traffic.

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*29 (Intentional Illegal Driving on Road Shoulder, in Ditch, on Sidewalk, or on Median) is used when the case
materials identify this driver was intentionally illegally driving in a location off of the roadway (e.g. shoulder,
median, roadside, etc.) This attribute should not be used when the vehicle enters one of these locations as part
of an avoidance maneuver or as a result of a critical or harmful event. Also do not use this value for a vehicle
that leaves its lane at the direction of a flagman or police officer.
*30 (Making Improper Entry to or Exit from Trafficway) is used when the case materials identify this driver
made an improper entry to or exit from the trafficway. For improper entry of the roadway from a parked or
stopped position see 31 (Starting or Backing Improperly).
Examples include:
• Driving onto or from a controlled access highway where prohibited.
• A vehicle entering a highway from a roadside location like a front yard, adjacent pasture or field.
• A vehicle entering a highway on an exit ramp or exiting on an entrance ramp.
*31 (Starting or Backing Improperly) is used when the case materials identify this driver improperly entered the
roadway from a parked or stopped position or improperly backed the vehicle in the roadway.
Examples include:
• Making an unsafe start from a parked position.
• Backing up on a one-way roadway.
• Starting onto a highway from a parked position on the shoulder.
32 (Opening Closure into Moving Traffic or While Vehicle is in Motion) is used when the case materials identify
this driver improperly opened their door into moving traffic. This would include opening the trunk while the
vehicle is in-transport.
*33 (Passing Where Prohibited by Posted Signs, Pavement Markings or School Bus Displaying Warning Not to
Pass) is used when the case materials identify this driver passed improperly by executing a passing maneuver
where prohibited as designated by traffic controls or rules of the road.
Examples include:
• A vehicle passing a stopped school bus.
• A vehicle crossing over the solid line to pass another vehicle.
• Passing a vehicle stopped to allow a pedestrian movement.
*34 (Passing on Right Side) is used when the case materials identify this driver was passing on the right side
where it was prohibited. Includes passing on the right shoulder, emergency lane, or roadside.
*35 (Passing with Insufficient Distance, or Inadequate Visibility, or Failing to Yield to Overtaking Vehicle) is
used when the case materials identify this driver exercised faulty judgment when passing or being passed.
Examples include:
• A vehicle passing uphill or in a curve that limits visibility.
• Cutting off the other vehicle while passing or being passed.
36 (Operating the Vehicle in an Erratic, Reckless, or Negligent Manner) is used when the case materials identify
this driver was operating the vehicle in an erratic, reckless, or negligent manner. These are circumstances where
the driver is engaged in a driving behavior with willful or wanton disregard for safety. This attribute can be used
in conjunction with other factors but must be explicitly stated on the police record.
Examples include:
• Driving erratically
• Erratic lane changing
• Suddenly changing speed

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16 (Police or Law Enforcement Officer) is used when the case materials identify this driver was a federal, state,
or local law enforcement officer working at the time of the crash. This attribute also includes military and park
police, border patrol, and all other sworn law enforcement officers.
37 (Police Pursuing This Driver or Police Officer in Pursuit) is used when the case materials identify this driver
was fleeing from or attempting to elude the police or this driver is a police officer engaged in a "pursuit" that is
active at the time of crash. For a case where both the fleeing driver and pursuing officer are in-contact vehicles,
this factor is used for both drivers. Identify the officer using factor 16 (Police or Law Enforcement Officer). Also
see Related Factors-Crash Level, for use of 20 (Police Pursuit Involved)).
Definition of Police Pursuit: A pursuit is an event that is initiated when a law enforcement officer, operating
an authorized emergency vehicle, gives notice to stop (either through the use of visual or audible emergency
signals or a combination of emergency devices) to a motorist who the officer is attempting to apprehend,
and that motorist fails to comply with the signal by either maintaining his/her speed, increasing speed, or
taking other evasive action to elude the officer’s continued attempts to stop the motorist. A pursuit is
terminated when the motorist stops, or when the attempt to apprehend is discontinued by the officer, or at
the direction of a competent authority.
*38 (Failure to Yield Right-of-Way) is used when the case materials identify this driver failed to yield the rightof-way.
Examples include:
• Failure to yield to pedestrian in a crosswalk.
• Failure to yield at an intersection or merge.
• Failure to yield to emergency vehicles.
• Failure to yield to streetcar already in intersection.
*39 (Failure to Obey Actual Traffic Signs, Traffic Control Devices or Traffic Officers, Failure to Obey Safety Zone
Traffic Laws) is used when the case materials identify this driver failed to obey an applicable traffic control
device. If a driver stops as required but then fails to yield, use code 38 (Failure to Yield Right-of-Way) and not
39 (Failure to Obey Actual Traffic Signs, Traffic Control Devices or Traffic Officers, Failure to Obey Safety Zone
Traffic Laws).
Examples include:
• Failure to obey flashing signal.
• Violation of “No Turn On Red”.
• Failure to obey lane use control signal.
• Failure to obey stop signs.
• Failure to obey yield sign (use both codes 38 (Failure to Yield Right-of-Way) and 39 (Failure to Obey
Actual Traffic Signs, Traffic Control Devices or Traffic Officers, Failure to Obey Safety Zone Traffic
Laws)).
• Passing around railroad gates.
• When vehicle does not stop when required by a traffic signal.
*40 (Passing Through or Around Barrier) is used when the case materials identify this driver was driving in a
prohibited area (play street, construction, etc.). This would denote "demarcated" areas. For driving around a
railroad gate use 39 (Failure to Obey Actual Traffic Signs, Traffic Control Devices or Traffic Officers, Failure to
Obey Safety Zone Traffic Laws).

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*41 (Failure to Observe Warnings or Instructions on Vehicles Displaying Them) is used when the case materials
identify this driver failed to heed warnings or follow instructions displayed on other vehicles.
Examples include:
• Construction instructions such as arrows directing traffic mounted on a vehicle
• Instructions on or warnings by emergency vehicles (ambulances, fire trucks, police cars)
• Failure to observe a wide right-turn warning on trucks or buses
• Failure to heed hazard lights on a disabled vehicle or a school bus arm
*42 (Failure to Signal Intentions) is used when the case materials identify this driver failed to signal their
intentions. This attribute includes a failure to signal by either lamp turn signal or hand.
*45 (Driving Less Than Posted Minimum) is used when the case materials identify this driver was driving too
slowly, or so as to impede traffic.
*47 (Making Right Turn from Left-Turn Lane, Left Turn from Right-Turn Lane) is used when the case materials
identify this driver was making an improper turn from a turn lane. To distinguish from 27 (Improper or Erratic
Lane Changing) and 28 (Improper Lane Usage), police officer must indicate the driver's intention to turn to use
this attribute.
*48 (Making Other Improper Turn) is used when the case materials identify this driver made a turn that was
improper because it was unsafe, poorly executed, or in bad judgment. This attribute excludes turns that are
improper because they are prohibited (e.g., No Right on Red, turning left in violation of a traffic signal).
Examples include:
• a “too wide” right or left turn
• an unsafe U-turn (from the shoulder, etc.).
50 (Driving Wrong Way on One-Way Trafficway) is used when the case materials identify this driver was driving
in the wrong direction on a one-way trafficway. If this is a divided highway, although each side is “one-way,”
driving against traffic should be coded as 51 (Driving on Wrong Side of Two-Way Trafficway [Intentional or
Unintentional]). If the vehicle was going the wrong way on an entrance or exit ramp, also use 30 (Making
Improper Entry to or Exit from Trafficway).
51 (Driving on Wrong Side of Two-Way Trafficway [Intentional or Unintentional]) is used when the case materials
identify this driver was established in and driving on the wrong side of the highway. “Unintentional” means they
may not be aware they are on the wrong side. For situations where a driver unintentionally crosses the centerline,
see 28 (Improper Lane Usage). For situations where the vehicle is on the wrong side as a result of a passing
maneuver, see 33 (Passing Where Prohibited by Posted Signs, Pavement Markings or School Bus Displaying
Warning Not to Pass).
Examples include:
• Driving the wrong way/on the wrong side of a divided trafficway.
• Driving on the wrong side of an undivided trafficway.
• Driving the wrong way on a Rotary Intersection.
• Driving on the left half of approaching bridge or tunnel.
*52 (Operator Inexperience) is used when the case materials identify this driver lacks experience operating the
vehicle they were driving at the time of the crash. Should be expressed by officer, driver, or passenger and not
presumed based on age, rental status, or state of residence.
Examples include:
• A new/young recently licensed driver

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•
•

D24

A driver inexperienced in the operation of a large truck or bus (based on the judgment of the police
officer)
A person driving a rental car where they are unfamiliar with the vehicle

*53 (Unfamiliar with Roadway) is used when the case materials identify this driver is unfamiliar with the
area/location where they were driving when the crash occurred. Should be expressed by officer, driver, or
passenger and not presumed based on age, rental status, or state of residence.
Examples include:
• A driver from out-of-state unfamiliar with area.
• A driver operating on a new stretch of road or section of road altered because of construction and/or
detour.
54 (Stopped in Roadway [Vehicle Not Abandoned]) is used when the case materials identify this driver stopped
their vehicle in the roadway/travel lanes. It is intended to capture an unusual condition where a vehicle is
stopped in the roadway with the driver present in or in close proximity to the vehicle. It includes both a vehicle
in the process of stopping and “stopped” vehicles. It excludes typical “stopping” situations such as stopping
in/for traffic, waiting to turn, or stopping for a traffic control.
Examples include:
• A vehicle disabled in a prior crash,
• A vehicle with a flat tire
• A vehicle that stops for debris in the roadway, etc.
58 (Overcorrecting) is used when the case materials identify this driver “overcorrected” based on the judgment
of the police officer. This must be stated by the officer in the narrative or PAR field to be coded. Overcorrecting
and Oversteering are technically different but this attribute may be selected for a PAR reported combination of
the two (e.g. overcorrecting/oversteering).
59 (Getting Off/Out of a Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify this driver was attempting to exit the
vehicle when involved in the crash. It applies for either moving or non-moving vehicles.

Skidding, Swerving, Sliding Due To:
This set of attributes is applicable to the driver that attempted to avoid one of the following or whose ability to
control the vehicle was affected by one of the following.
*77 (Severe Crosswind) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s ability to control the vehicle was
affected by severe crosswinds.
*78 (Wind from Passing Truck) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s ability to control the vehicle
was affected by winds produced by a passing truck.
*79 (Slippery or Loose Surface) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s ability to control the vehicle
was affected by the surface composition of the roadway and/or the condition of that composition. Not to be
used when the surface is slippery due to environment conditions such as rain, ice, or snow (see 87 (Ice, Snow,
Slush, Water, Sand, Dirt, Oil or Wet Leaves on Road).
Examples include:
• A slippery surface that is old or worn resulting in loose gravel on the roadway.
• Blacktop that is slick as a newly paved surface.

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*80 (Tire Blowout or Flat) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s ability to control the vehicle was
affected by a tire blowout or flat.
*81 (Debris or Objects in Road) is used when the case materials identify this driver attempted to avoid or lost
control as a result of debris in the road. Examples would include: nails, glass, trash cans, tire retread, trash,
dead animals, pile of sand, barricades, etc.
*82 (Ruts, Holes, Bumps in Road) is used when the case materials identify this driver attempted to avoid or lost
control as a result of road surface anomalies such as ruts, holes, dips, or bumps.
*83 (Live Animals in Road) is used when the case materials identify this driver attempted to avoid or lost control
as a result of a live animal(s) that was in the road.
*84 (Vehicle in Road) is used when the case materials identify this driver attempted to avoid or lost control as a
result of another vehicle in the road. This includes both contact and non-contact vehicles that remain at the
scene.
*85 (Phantom Vehicle) is used when the case materials identify this driver attempted to avoid or lost control as
a result of a non-contact vehicle that left the scene as described by the police officer.
*86 (Pedestrian, Pedal Cyclist, or Other Non-Motorist) is used when the case materials identify this driver
attempted to avoid or lost control as a result of a pedestrian, a pedal cyclist (bicyclist), or other type of nonmotorist.
*87 (Ice, Snow, Slush, Water, Sand, Dirt, Oil or Wet Leaves on Road) is used when the case materials identify
this driver’s ability to control the vehicle was affected by a substance on the roadway that caused the roadway
to be slick, which may interfere with the traction of the vehicle. This attribute does not include part of the
roadway composition. For cases involving roadway composition issues, see 79 (Slippery or Loose Surface).
*88 (Trailer Fishtailing or Swaying) is used when the case materials identify this driver’s ability to control the
vehicle was affected by a trailer fishtailing or swaying. This condition may or may not result in a jackknife.

Special Circumstances (73, 74, 89, 91):
73 (Driver Has Not Complied with Learner’s Permit or Intermediate Driver License Restrictions [GDL
Restrictions]) is used when the case materials identify this driver was a young driver and was not in compliance
with a Learner’s Permit or Intermediate Driver License restriction under a state’s Graduated Driver’s License
(GDL) program.
Examples include:
• Nighttime driving restrictions (e.g. midnight until 6:00 am).
• Unsupervised driving restrictions (e.g., the driver must have a passenger over the age of 21 to legally
drive the vehicle).
• Passenger Restriction (e.g., the driver is only allowed one other passenger in the vehicle when driving).
This should not be used for restrictions for eyeglasses, lenses, equipment or other physical restrictions (see 74
(Driver Has Not Complied with Other Imposed Restrictions [not including GDL Restrictions])).
*74 (Driver Has Not Complied with Physical or Other Imposed Restrictions (not including GDL Restrictions) is
used when the case materials identify this driver did not comply with physical or other imposed license
restrictions.
Examples include:
• Driving without corrective lenses when required.

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•
•
•

D24

Driving without required equipment (e.g., automatic transmission, adaptive controls, etc.).
Violating special privileges on a suspended/revoked license for other than permitted activities (e.g.,
driving permitted only to and from work). Not to be used for general “driving on a suspended or revoked
license”.
Driving vehicle without “Interlock System” when required.

*89 (Driver has a Driving Record or Driver's License from More than One State) is used when the case materials
identify this driver had any combination of a state or record in more than one state. This is coded regardless of
the status of the license or the driving privilege of the driver at the time of the crash.
91 (Non-Traffic Violation Charged [Manslaughter, Homicide or Other Assault Offense Committed Without
Malice]) is used when the case materials identify this driver will receive "Criminal" charges such as intoxicated
assault or vehicular manslaughter. It would exclude other criminal offenses such as hit-and-run or failure to
render aid at the scene of a crash.

Unknown
99 (Unknown) is used when the circumstances surrounding the crash are unknown and reported as “unknown”
by the investigating officer. In these circumstances, nine-fill all fields. If Unknown is used for any field, ALL fields
must be 99 (Unknown). DO NOT leave any remaining fields blank
*FARS ONLY ATTRIBUTES
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(1L0P)
any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals
blanks,
(2H0F)
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, 9,

(2L0P)
(3L0P)
(5L0F)
(5L1F)

(6K0P)
(7L0P)
(9C6P)
(9L0F)
(A080)

any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equal
99,
any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals
00,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 20,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 04,
08, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 52, 53, 58, 59, 73, 74,
77-88,
VIOLATION CHARGED equals 71,
Any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL can be
used only once per driver form.
UNIT TYPE equals 2-4,
PERSON TYPE equals 01, and RELATED
FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 12,
DRIVER PRESENCE equals 0, and FIRST
HARMFUL EVENT equals 12, and NUMBER OF
VEHICLE FORMS SUBMITTED equals 002,

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THEN
all RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must equal
blanks.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 04, 08, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 52, 53, 58, 59,
73, 74, 77-88.
then all RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must
equal 99.
all remaining RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL
must equal 00.
DRIVER PRESENCE must not equal 1, 9.
DRIVER PRESENCE must not equal 0 or 9.

RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 19.
-RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must equal 0.
SEX must equal 2, and AGE must be greater than
012.
one RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should
equal 20.

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Related Factors – Driver Level
Check
(D470)

IF
any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals
37,

Consistency Checks (FARS ONLY):
Check
IF
(4L0P) any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals
39 for this vehicle,
(6L0P) COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
(7I0P)
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 1, and RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
(8I0P)
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS equals 0-4, 9,
(8J2P)
(8L0P)
(BL0P)

(D080)
(D690)

(D700)

(D730)

(V100)
(V16P)

RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 73,
74,
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF
VEHICLE equals 0-2, 9,
COMPLIANCE WITH CDL ENDORSEMENTS
equals 1, and any RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER
LEVEL equals 19,
VIOLATION CHARGED equals 01-06, 09, 3169, 81-91, 98,
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 2, 7, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE equals 1, and
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
equals 2,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 73,

HM1 equals 2, and RELATED FACTORSDRIVER LEVEL does not equal 19,
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL equals 88,

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THEN
at least one RELATED FACTORS-CRASH LEVEL
should equal 20.
THEN
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE should not equal 00
for this vehicle.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
NON-CDL LICENSE STATUS must equal 6.

RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 19.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS must
equal 2.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL must not
equal 19.
LICENSE COMPLIANCE WITH CLASS OF VEHICLE
must equal 3.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should not all
equal 00, 99.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
73, 74.
RELATED FACTORS-DRIVER LEVEL should equal
74.
COMPLIANCE WITH LICENSE RESTRICTIONS
should equal 2, and NON-CDL LICENSE TYPE
should equal 2, 7.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSE STATUS
should not equal 01, 02, 05.
VEHICLE TRAILING must not equal 0, 9.

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Driver License Number – CRSS Only

D25

D25 - Driver License Number – CRSS Only
FORMAT: 20 alphanumeric
SAS NAME:
ELEMENT VALUES:
Codes
00000000000000000000
-98888888888888888888
99999999999999999999

Attributes
No License
Actual Driver License Number (DLN)
No Driver Present
Unknown

Remarks: Enter the driver license number.
Consistency Checks:
Check
IF
(D092)
any DRIVER LICENSE NUMBER that does not
equal 0s or 9s,

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THEN
DRIVER LICENSE NUMBER must be unique within a
crash.

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Precrash Level Data Elements

Precrash Level Data Elements
PC1 – State Number – FARS Only
PC2 – Consecutive Number – FARS Only
Precrash Data Overview
PC3 – Vehicle Number – Precrash Level
PC4 – Contributing Circumstances, Motor Vehicle
PC5 – Trafficway Description
PC6 – Total Lanes in Roadway
PC7 – Speed Limit
PC8 – Roadway Alignment
PC9 – Roadway Grade
PC10 – Roadway Surface Type – FARS Only
PC11 – Roadway Surface Conditions
PC12 – Traffic Control Device
PC13 – Device Functioning
PC14 – Driver’s Vision Obscured By
PC15 – Driver Maneuvered to Avoid
PC16 – Driver Distracted By
PC17 – Pre-Event Movement (Prior to Recognition of Critical Event)
PC18 – Critical Event – Precrash (Category)
PC19 – Critical Event – Precrash (Event)
PC20 – Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
PC21 – Pre-Impact Stability
PC22 – Pre-Impact Location
PC23 – Crash Type

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Precrash Data Overview

Precrash Data Overview
Precrash data elements are completed for each of the in-transport motor vehicles in the case. This means that
the entire crash is first completed from the perspective of one vehicle, then from the perspective of a second
vehicle, if any, and so forth. The precrash data elements are:
• Driver Distracted By
• Pre-Event Movement (Prior to Recognition of Critical Event)
• Critical Precrash Category
• Critical Precrash Event
• Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
• Pre-Impact Stability
• Pre-Impact Location
• Crash Type
The precrash data elements are designed to identify the following:
• What was this vehicle doing just prior to the critical precrash event?
• What made this vehicle's situation critical?
• What was the avoidance response, if any, to this critical situation?
• What was the movement of the vehicle just prior to impact?
The most important determination that must be made for each in-transport motor vehicle is: what was this
vehicle's Critical Precrash Event, (i.e., what action by this vehicle, another vehicle, person, animal, or non-fixed
object was critical to this vehicle's crash?). Once the critical event is determined, the remaining precrash data
elements are coded relative to this selected Critical Precrash Event.
Do not consider culpability as a factor for determining precrash data. Many crash scenarios will suggest fault,
but this is considered coincidental rather than by design.

Critical Crash Envelope
The critical crash envelope begins at the point where:
1. the driver recognizes an impending danger (e.g., deer runs into the roadway), or
2. the vehicle is in an imminent path of collision with another vehicle, pedestrian, pedalcyclist, other nonmotorist, object, or animal.
The critical crash envelope ends when:
1. all three:
a. the driver has made a successful avoidance maneuver, and
b. has full steering control, and
c. the vehicle is tracking; OR
2. the driver's vehicle impacts another vehicle, pedestrian, pedalcyclist, other non-motorist, object, or
animal.
Simple Single Critical Crash Envelope
Most crashes involve only a single critical crash envelope in which the object contacted is captured under the
Critical Precrash Event, (e.g., a vehicle is traveling straight on a roadway and a deer runs into the roadway and is
struck by the vehicle). This scenario, and similar ones, are very straightforward and will not present many
problems.

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Precrash Data Overview
Complex Single Critical Crash Envelope
However, some single critical crash envelopes are more complex.
Example A: A driver avoids one obstacle and immediately impacts another vehicle, person, object, or animal.
Because immediate is defined as not having an opportunity, or sufficient time, to take any additional avoidance
actions, the Critical Precrash Event is related to the vehicle, person, object, or animal which the driver
successfully avoided instead of the vehicle's first harmful event (i.e., its impact); see example 3 and example 5.
Example B: The driver avoids an obstacle only to (a) lose steering control and/or (b) have the vehicle stop
tracking, and the vehicle subsequently impacts another vehicle, person, object, or animal.
Regardless of whether the driver:
1. attempted to regain steering control,
2. caused the vehicle to resume a tracking posture, or
3. avoided the impacted vehicle, person, object, or animal,
the Critical Precrash Event is similarly related to the vehicle, person, object, or animal which the driver
successfully avoided because the driver's critical crash envelope was never stabilized.
In both examples above, the Attempted Avoidance Maneuver records the successful action taken to avoid the
Critical Precrash Event.
Vehicles that are not involved in an impact with another vehicle, person, object, or animal in the sequence of
crash events (that define this crash) are not included.
The coding order for a single critical crash envelope is illustrated in Figure 20.
Figure 20: Typical Order of a Single Critical Crash Envelope

Multiple Critical Crash Envelopes
When a case involves multiple critical crash envelopes, select only the final critical crash envelope. In this
situation, encode the element Pre-Event Movement (Prior to Recognition of Critical Event) as: Successful
avoidance maneuver to a previous critical event. The final critical crash envelope is the one that resulted in this
vehicle's first harmful event (i.e., its impact) as shown in Figure 21.

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Precrash Data Overview
Figure 21: Typical Order of Multiple Critical Crash Envelopes

When there is doubt as to whether this vehicle had experienced a complex single, or multiple critical crash
envelopes, choose the Critical Precrash Category/Event, to the vehicle, person, object, or animal which the
driver successfully avoided (i.e., default to Complex Single). See Complex Single Critical Crash Envelope examples
A and B above.
The following pages have: a method protocol, a flowchart illustrating the proper method and protocol for
determining the precrash data elements, ten Precrash General Rules, and eighteen examples of various crash
event sequences which contain one or more critical crash envelopes.

Method Protocol
Consider the information obtained from the Police Report and any supplemental documents as inputs to your
decision making process.
1. Determine Critical Precrash Category / Critical Precrash Event.
What action by this vehicle, another vehicle, person, animal, or object was critical to this driver becoming
involved in the crash (i.e., use the “BUT FOR” * test)?
* FOR EXAMPLE:
• “But for” Vehicle # going left-of-center, this vehicle would not have been involved in this crash.
• “But for” having entered into the intersection, this vehicle would not have been involved in this crash.
ASK yourself questions (a) through (f) below. Proceed through each question that applies to the crash you
are researching. Stop when the answer to the questions is "Yes". This is the Critical Precrash Category.
a. Did the vehicle exhibit a control loss?
b. Does the evidence suggest that the vehicle was in an environmentally dangerous position?
c. Was another vehicle "in" this vehicle's lane?
d. Was another vehicle entering into this vehicle's lane?
e. Was a pedestrian, pedalcyclist, or other non-motorist in or approaching this vehicle's path?
f. Was an animal in or approaching this vehicle's path or was an object in this vehicle's path?
2. Determine Driver Distracted By.
3. Determine Pre-Event Movement (Prior to Recognition of Critical Event).
4. Determine Attempted Avoidance Maneuver.
What does your information indicate that the driver tried to do to avoid the crash?
5. Determine Pre-Impact Stability.
6. Determine Pre-Impact Location.

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Precrash Methodology Flowchart

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Precrash General Rules
1. Attempted Avoidance Maneuver assesses what the driver’s action(s) was during the critical crash envelope
in response to his/her realization of impending danger.
2. The mere presence of a traffic control signal/sign typically does not make the situation critical when
determining Critical Precrash Event.
For example: A single vehicle approaches a stop sign and departs the right side of the road impacting a
tree, in an attempt to avoid passing through the intersection. The sign has no bearing and therefore,
does not make the situation critical.
3. When you know the Critical Precrash Category, but are unable to select a specific Critical Precrash Event,
use the following guideline:
Default to one of the “Other” or “Unknown” attributes within each Critical Precrash Event category,
rather than coding the entire Critical Precrash Category as “Other critical precrash event.”
4. If control is lost due to driver illness such as heart attacks, diabetic comas, etc., then Critical Precrash Event
should be coded as “Other cause of control loss.”
5. When coding Critical Precrash Category as “This vehicle loss of control”, the loss of control must have
occurred prior to the driver doing any avoidance maneuver. If the driver attempts a maneuver (i.e., brakes,
steers, etc.) as a result of the driver's perception of a vehicle, object, pedestrian, or non-motorist, then
select the vehicle, object, pedestrian, or non-motorist as the critical event because that is what made the
situation critical. If the vehicle is in a yaw prior to the driver taking an avoidance action, then loss-of-control
is what made it critical (e.g., critical curve scuff, hydroplaning, etc.).
6. When determining Critical Precrash Category/Event if you do not know from available sources which driver
had the right-of-way at a controlled or uncontrolled intersection, then use the following as a guideline:
a. If the junction is controlled by a 3-way / 4-way stop sign, or is uncontrolled, then use the common rule
that the vehicle on the right has the right-of-way for determining encroachment.
b. If the junction is controlled by an on-colors traffic control device, and both drivers claim a green light,
then both vehicles are in an environmentally dangerous position, and Critical Precrash Event for both
vehicles should be This Vehicle Traveling (Critical Precrash category) Crossing over (passing through)
junction (Critical Precrash Event).
7. When two vehicles are initially traveling on the same trafficway and one executes a left turn with the rightof-way (i.e. green arrow), use Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into Lane - From opposite direction-over
right lane line for the turning vehicle’s critical event. This applies to Crash Types 68, 69.
If the vehicles were initially on different trafficways (Crash Types 76, 77 and 82, 83) the critical event for the
vehicle turning left with the right-of-way should be Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching - From crossing street
across path.
8. “Fixed” objects (e.g., trees, poles, fire hydrants, etc.) cannot be in the roadway.
9. A motor vehicle is stopped in a travel lane and is impacted by another motor vehicle ricocheting off a
vehicle. The Critical Precrash Event for the vehicle stuck by the ricocheting vehicle is in the category of
either: Other Motor Vehicle In Lane or Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into Lane.

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10. Pre-Impact stability should be indicated as “Tracking” if the following are met:
a. no skid marks are present on the diagram or mentioned in the narrative.
b. the case materials do not indicate skidding AND
c. the vehicle did not rotate 30 degrees or more (either clockwise or counterclockwise).
Note regarding Pre-Impact Stability:
If the case materials do not include a diagram or the diagram and/or narrative lack enough detail to
determine precrash stability, code as 9 (Precrash Stability Unknown).
Trafficway and its component definitions (i.e., roadway, road, shoulder, and median) can be found in the ANSI
D16.1 Manual on the Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents.

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Precrash Examples
Example 1
Example 1 Diagram

Vehicle 1 was traveling northbound on a four lane roadway. Vehicle 2 was traveling westbound on an
intersecting four-lane roadway. The intersection was controlled by traffic signals. Both vehicles entered the
intersection and the right side of Vehicle 1 was struck by the front of Vehicle 2. Police could not determine
which vehicle had the right-of-way, both drivers claimed to have a green light. The driver of Vehicle 1 reported
that he never saw Vehicle 2 approaching.
“None” was identified by police on the crash report for both drivers in the data element for recording driver
distractions. The police also indicated that no skid marks were present at the scene associated with Vehicle 1,
but there were pre-impact skids present at the scene associated with Vehicle 2 and that this supported the
driver’s statement that he attempted to stop when he saw Vehicle 1 in his path.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going straight
This Vehicle Traveling
Crossing Over (Passing Through)
Junction
No Avoidance Maneuver
Tracking

Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Stayed in original travel lane
87

Vehicle 2
Not Distracted
Going straight
This Vehicle Traveling
Crossing Over (Passing Through)
Junction
Braking
Skidding Longitudinally Rotation
Less Than 30 Degrees
Stayed in original travel lane
86

In this example, the Critical Crash Envelope for Vehicle 1 (V1CCE) begins at the point where it is in an imminent
collision path with Vehicle 2. The Critical Crash Envelope for Vehicle 2 (V2CCE) begins at the point where the
drivers recognize the impending danger. The Critical Crash Envelopes end at the point of impact with the other
vehicle.
Since it could not be determined which vehicle had the right-of-way, the Critical Event is determined using
Precrash General Rule #6b. It states; "If the junction is controlled by an on-colors traffic control device, and
both drivers claim a green light, then both vehicles are in an environmentally dangerous position and the Critical
Event for both vehicles should be This Vehicle Traveling (Critical Event - Precrash (Category)) Crossing Over
(Passing Through) Junction (Crtical Event - Precrash (Event))."

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Vehicle 1’s Pre-Impact Stability was Tracking based on Precrash General Rule #10. Skidding Longitudinally
Rotation Less Than 30 Degrees was selected for Vehicle 2’s Pre-Impact Stability because tire marks were
identified on the report and there was no indication of rotation.
It is important to keep in mind the type of traffic control (traffic signal versus stop sign) when determining rightof-way. Using the same scenario but substituting stops signs for the traffic signals, would change the Critical
Event for both vehicles. Precrash General Rule #6a states; "If the junction is controlled by a 3-way or 4-way
stop sign, or is uncontrolled, the vehicle on the right [Vehicle 2 in this case] would have had the right-of-way for
determining encroachment."
Example 2
Example 2 Diagram

Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 are traveling in opposite directions on the same roadway. A police car (with lights
activated) is making a traffic stop on the north side of the road. The driver of Vehicle 1 is looking at the activity
on his left. Before he can react, Vehicle 1 crosses the centerline and strikes the front of Vehicle 2. The driver of
Vehicle 2 also noticed the police activity, but he was attentive to the slowing traffic ahead. Vehicle 2 attempted
to avoid the crash by braking and steering right.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Distracted by Outside Person,
Object or Event
Going straight
This vehicle traveling
Over the lane line on left side
of travel lane
No avoidance maneuver
Tracking
Stayed on roadway, but left
original travel lane
50

Vehicle 2
Not distracted
Going straight
Other motor vehicle encroaching into lane
From opposite direction over left lane line
Braking And Steering Right
Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
51

In this example, Vehicle 1 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) which begins at the point where Vehicle 1 is
in an imminent collision path with Vehicle 2. Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope ends at the point of impact with
Vehicle 2.
Vehicle 2’s Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE) begins when the driver recognizes impending danger and ends at the
point of impact with Vehicle 1.
When determining Crash Type, it is important to keep in mind that some Crash Configurations are plane of
impact dependent, while others are not. In this case, the Crash Type for Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 is ‘50’ and ‘51,’
Head-On respectively since it involved the front planes of both vehicles. If the collision had involved the side of
one or both of the vehicles, then the Crash Type would have been ‘64’ and ‘65,’ Angle/Sideswipe.

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Example 3
Example 3 Diagram

Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 are traveling in opposite directions on the same roadway. A noncontact vehicle (NCV) is
parked in front of a non-contact heavy truck on the road shoulder and suddenly enters the roadway into Vehicle
1’s travel lane. The driver of Vehicle 1 instantly brakes and steers left to avoid the non-contact vehicle. Vehicle 1
crosses over the center line and immediately impacts the front of Vehicle 2. Vehicle 2 had no avoidance
maneuvers. “None” was identified by police on the crash report for both drivers in the data element for
recording driver distractions.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not distracted
Going straight
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching
Into Lane
From Parking Lane/Shoulder
Braking and steering left
Tracking
Stayed on roadway, but left original
travel lane
58

Vehicle 2
Not Distracted
Going straight
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching
Into Lane
From Opposite Direction Over Left
Lane Line
No Avoidance Maneuver
Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
59

In this example, Vehicle 1 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE). Vehicle 1's Critical Crash Envelope involved a
successful avoidance of a non-contact vehicle and resulted in an immediate impact to Vehicle 2. Vehicle 1's
Critical Crash Envelope was initiated by the non-contact vehicle; afterwards there was no opportunity for
subsequent avoidance actions. Therefore, the encroachment of the non-contact vehicle into Vehicle 1's travel
lane is coded as the Critical Event - Precrash (Event) for Vehicle 1. Vehicle 1's Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
is coded as the action taken to avoid the non-contact vehicle.
Vehicle 2 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE) which begins at the point where Vehicle 1 is in an imminent
path of collision with Vehicle 2 and ends at the point of impact with Vehicle 1.
Tracking is selected as Vehicle 1’s Pre-Impact Stability based on Precrash General Rule #10.
Vehicle 1’s Pre-Impact Location is Stayed On Roadway But Left Original Travel Lane. This attribute best
describes the location of the vehicle after the critical event and before impact.
The non-contact vehicle and the non-contact truck were not involved in an impact in the sequence of crash
events and are, therefore, non-contact vehicles and not counted in the structuring of the case.

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Example 4
Example 4 Diagram

Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 are traveling in the same direction in adjacent lanes on a divided highway (with a
painted median). Vehicle 1 has a tire blow out and loses control, crosses the left lane line and impacts the right
rear of Vehicle 2. Vehicle 2 is redirected across the painted median, skidding and rotating clockwise, and
subsequently impacts Vehicle 3. Vehicle 3 attempted to avoid Vehicle 2 by steering right and accelerating.
“None” was identified by police on the crash report for all drivers in the data element for recording driver
distractions.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash
(Category)
Critical Pre-Crash
(Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going straight
This Vehicle Loss Control
Due To
Blow Out or Flat Tire

Vehicle 2
Not Distracted
Going straight
Other Motor Vehicle
Encroaching Into Lane
From Adjacent Lane (Same
Direction) - Over Right Lane
Line

Unknown/Not Reported

Unknown/Not Reported

Tracking
Stayed On Roadway, But
Left Original Travel Lane
45

Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel
Lane
44

Vehicle 3
Not Distracted
Going straight
Other Motor Vehicle
Encroaching Into Lane
From Opposite Direction Over Left Lane Line
Accelerating and Steering
Right
Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel
Lane
98

In this example, Vehicle 1 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) which begins with control loss due to the tire
blow out and ends at the point of impact with Vehicle 2. The blow out is the Critical Event - Precrash (Event).
Vehicle 2 has two Critical Crash Envelopes (V2CCE1 and V2CCE2). Vehicle 2’s first Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE1)
begins when Vehicle 1 enters Vehicle 2’s travel lane and ends at the point of impact with Vehicle 1. The first CCE
is selected because Precrash is only interested in coding the Critical Crash Envelope which leads to a vehicle’s
first harmful event. Vehicle 3 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V3CCE) which begins when Driver 3 recognizes
and reacts to Vehicle 2 which is in an imminent path of collision with Vehicle 3 and ends at the point of impact
with Vehicle 2.
Attempted Avoidance Maneuver was coded as Unknown/Not Reported for Vehicles 1 and 2 because of a lack of
information to assess attempted avoidance. The Crash Type for Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 is ‘45’ - ‘44,’
Sideswipe/Angle: Straight ahead, respectively based on their positions (i.e. left versus right) and because Vehicle
1 did not intend to change lanes. Situations involving vehicles that intended to change lanes are captured with
Crash Type codes ‘46’ and ‘47,’ Sideswipe/Angle: Changing lanes. The Crash Type for Vehicle 3 is ‘98,’ Other
since it was not involved in the first harmful event in the crash.

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Example 5
Example 5 Diagram

Vehicle 2 is stopped waiting to turn left in a left turn lane at an intersection controlled by a traffic signal. Vehicle
1 approaches the intersection and the driver is texting. Vehicle 1’s driver looks up at the last minute and brakes
and steers right leaving tire marks, but cannot avoid striking the rear of Vehicle 2. There is no information on
the crash report to assess distraction for the driver of Vehicle 2.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)

Vehicle 1
While Manipulating Cellular Phone
Going Straight
Other Vehicle In Lane
Other Vehicle Stopped

Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability

Braking and Steering Right

Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Skidding Longitudinally- Rotation Less
Than 30 Degrees
Stayed in Original Travel Lane
20

Vehicle 2
Not Reported
Stopped in Road
Other Vehicle In Lane
Traveling in Same Direction With
Higher Speed
No Avoidance Maneuver
Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel Lane
22

In this example, Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins at the point the driver recognizes Vehicle 2 is
stopped in the lane, and ends at the point of impact with Vehicle 2. Vehicle 2’s Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE)
begins and ends at the point of impact.
Vehicle 1’s Driver Distracted By is While Manipulating a Cellular Phone. Texting is captured in this attribute.
The Pre Event Movement and Critical Event coding can be tricky in rear end crash scenarios. Refer to the
Precrash Event Scenarios for Different Rear-End Collision Situations following the Precrash Examples for
additional guidance.
The Crash Type for Vehicle 2 is ‘22,’ Rear-end: Stopped Left because it was stopped and intended to turn left at
the intersection.
The Pre-Impact Stability for Vehicle 1 is Skidding Longitudinally- Rotation Less Than 30 Degrees as opposed to
Tracking because tire marks were present and rotation was minimal.

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Example 6
Example 6 Diagram

Vehicle 1 is traveling on a two-lane roadway and the driver, who is diabetic, has a hypoglycemic attack and
begins to lose consciousness. The vehicle departs the right side of the road as it enters a curve and strikes a
tree.
Precrash Element
Vehicle 1
Driver Distracted By
Not Distracted
Pre-Event Movement
Going Straight
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
This Vehicle Loss Of Control Due To
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Other Cause Of Control Loss
Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
None
Pre-Impact Stability
Tracking
Pre-Impact Location
Departed Roadway
Crash Type
01
Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins at the point where the vehicle is in imminent path of a
collision with the tree and ends at impact.
Driver Distracted By is coded as Not Distracted because the driver lost consciousness just prior to the Critical
Precrash Event and intoxication, illness, blackouts, falling asleep or being fatigued are not considered
distractions for the purposes of this element in FARS and CRSS.
The Critical Event is coded This Vehicle Control Loss Due To: Other Cause Of Control Loss following Precrash
General Rule #4 which addresses loss of control because of driver illness.
The Pre-Event Movement element describes the vehicle’s activity just prior to the Critical Event, in this case,
Going Straight.
The Crash Type for Vehicle 1 is ‘01,’ Right Roadside Departure: Drive Off road. Do not confuse the Critical Event
Category coding of This Vehicle Control Loss Due To with the Crash Type ‘02,’ Right Roadside Departure:
Control/Traction Loss.

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Example 7
Example 7 Diagram

Vehicle 1 is traveling on a two-lane roadway with moderate snow falling. The driver suddenly encounters black
ice on the roadway, loses control, and begins to rotate counterclockwise. The driver attempts to regain control
by braking and steering right, but overcorrects and the vehicle departs the right side of the roadway and strikes
a pole. The police on the crash report identify that the driver is “Not Distracted”.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going Straight
This Vehicle Loss Of Control Due To:
Poor Road Conditions (Specify:)
Braking And Steering Right
Skidding Laterally Clockwise Rotation
Departed Roadway
02

Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins when the vehicle encounters the black ice and ends at impact
with the pole.
The Critical Event in this example is This Vehicle Control Loss Due To: Poor Road Conditions (Specify: (Black ice)).
It can be difficult to determine the Critical Event in cases when weather, road conditions, roadway alignment,
and speed all potentially play a role in the crash. Examples 7 and 8 are prime examples, Poor Road Conditions,
Too Fast For Conditions, or This Vehicle Traveling category attributes (e.g. Off The Edge Of The Road On The
Right Side) could be selected based on the circumstances.
Typically, Poor Road Conditions such as ice and puddles are “suddenly” encountered by the driver and not an
ongoing situation.
Too Fast For Conditions applies when the vehicle’s movement and speed were not appropriate relative to the
vehicle’s surroundings; roadway curves are often involved.
If neither of these Loss Of Control Critical Events apply, then This Vehicle Traveling Category attributes are
appropriate.

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Example 8
Example 8 Diagram

Vehicle 1 is traveling on a two lane roadway with heavy rain falling. Police estimate the driver was traveling 55
mph in this 35 mph speed zone. While negotiating a curve, the driver loses control on the rain-slickened road
and the vehicle slides off the right edge of the road but does not sustain an impact. The driver steers left in an
attempt to regain control, crosses both travel lanes, and departs the left side of the road before striking a tree
with its right side. The crash report identifies “None” in a Contributing Circumstances field that includes various
driver distraction attributes among the factors available.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Negotiating A Curve
This Vehicle Loss Of Control Due To
Traveling Too Fast For Conditions
Steering Left
Skidding Laterally Counterclockwise Rotation
Departed Roadway
07

In this example, Vehicle 1 has one Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) which begins when the driver begins to lose
control and the vehicle begins to rotate counter-clockwise. The envelope ends at impact with the tree. This
crash is not a multiple Critical Crash Envelope scenario because Vehicle 1 never regained control.
The Critical Event is coded This Vehicle Control Loss Due To: Too Fast For Conditions because the vehicle’s
movement and speed were not appropriate relative to the vehicle’s surroundings (heavy rain and curve). This is
applicable in this case even without the officer specifically stating “too fast for conditions.”
The Pre Impact Location is coded Departed Roadway since the element is based on the location of the vehicle
after the critical event, and immediately before the first impact.
The Crash Type element is based on the first harmful event and the vehicle did not strike anything when it
departed the right side of the road, therefore, ‘07,’ Left Roadside Departure-Control/Traction Loss is selected as
the Crash Type.

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Example 9
Example 9 Diagram

Vehicle 1 is traveling westbound on a highway with a posted speed limit of 55 mph. Vehicle 2 is traveling east
on the same highway in sunny and dry conditions. A deer suddenly enters the roadway from the right and the
driver of Vehicle 1 attempts to brake and steer left, leaving several meters of tire marks, but strikes the deer.
Vehicle 1 then goes into a counterclockwise yaw and crosses into the oncoming lanes and strikes Vehicle 2.
The driver of Vehicle 1 had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.15 and was charged with driving under the
influence. There were no indications of distraction identified on the crash report for the driver of Vehicle 1.
Instead, in the Contributing Factors field where the officer could assess distraction he selected “animal in road”
and “had been drinking”. The Contributing Factors for the driver of Vehicle 2 were coded as “Unknown”. The
driver of Vehicle 2 was killed.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going Straight
Object Or Animal
Animal in Road
Braking and Steering Left
Skidding Longitudinally Rotation Less
Than 30 Degrees
Stayed On Roadway, But Left Original
Travel Lane
13

Vehicle 2
Unknown if Distracted
Going Straight
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching
Into Lane
From Opposite Direction Over
Left Lane Line
Unknown/Not Reported
Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel Lane
98

Vehicle 1 has two Critical Crash Envelopes (V1CCE1 and V1CCE2). Vehicle 1’s first Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE1)
begins when the driver recognizes the deer in the roadway and ends at the point of impact with the deer. The
Precrash coding is based on the Critical Crash Envelope which resulted in Vehicle 1’s first impact (V1CCE1).
Vehicle 2 has only one Crash Envelope (V2CCE) which begins when it’s in imminent path of collision with Vehicle
1 and ends at impact.
Not Distracted is selected for Vehicle 1 Driver Distracted By. The driver took evasive maneuvers to avoid the
deer which identifies that the driver was attentive prior to the Critical Event. Also, there were no indications of
distraction identified on the crash report for the driver of Vehicle 1 and in the Contributing Factors field, where
the officer could assess distraction, he selected “animal in road” and “had been drinking”. It’s important to note
that the BAC level or indication of alcohol as a factor in the crash for the driver of Vehicle 1 plays no role in
distraction coding.

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The Pre-Impact Location for Vehicle 1 is Stayed On Roadway- But Left Original Travel Lane since part of the
vehicle was out of its original lane prior to impact with the deer. Similarly, vehicles that depart the road and
strike a curb are coded as Departed the roadway even though the majority of the vehicle is still on the roadway.
The Crash Type for Vehicle 1 is ‘13,’ Pedestrian/Animal on road.
Vehicle 2 Driver Distracted By is coded Unknown if Distracted; the deceased driver could not be interviewed by
the police and the officer coded “Unknown” in the field where distraction would be assessed. Since no
information was available to assess Attempted Avoidance Maneuver Unknown/Not Reported was selected for
Vehicle 2. The Crash Type for Vehicle 2 is ’98,’ Other since it was not involved in the first harmful event in the
crash.
Example 10
Example 10 Diagram

The crash occurred at the intersection of a five-lane east/west roadway with a center left-turn lane and a twolane north/south roadway. The intersection was controlled by traffic signals. Vehicle 1 was eastbound in the
left-turn lane of the five-lane roadway. Vehicle 2 was traveling west on the same roadway. Vehicle 1 had a
green turn arrow and attempted to turn left to go north on the intersecting two lane road. Vehicle 2 passed
through the intersection and its front struck the right side of Vehicle 1. The officer reported that there was no
evidence of avoidance actions by either of the vehicles involved.
“Not Distracted” was identified by police on the crash report for the driver of Vehicle 1. The police crash report
did not detail the circumstances regarding Vehicle 2’s passing through the intersection, but the driver was cited
for running a red light.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Turning Left
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into
Lane
From Opposite Direction Over Right
Lane Line
No Avoidance Maneuver

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Vehicle 2
Not Reported
Going Straight
This Vehicle Traveling
Crossing Over (Passing Through)
Junction
No Avoidance Maneuver

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Precrash Element
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
68

Vehicle 2
Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
69

In this example, the Critical Crash Envelope for both vehicles (V1CCE) and (V2CCE) begin when they are in an
imminent path of collision. The Critical Crash Envelopes end at the point of impact.
The first portion of Precrash General Rule #7 applies to this crash. It states “When two vehicles are initially
traveling on the same trafficway and one executes a left turn with the right-of-way (i.e. green arrow), use Other
Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into Lane - From Opposite Direction Over Right Lane Line for the turning vehicle’s
Critical Event.”
A similar principle applies for Vehicle 1’s Pre-Impact Location; it’s considered to have Stayed In Original Travel
Lane while making the turn. Consider Vehicle 1’s “lane” as continuing left as they negotiate the turn through
the intersection.
Vehicle 2’s Driver Distracted By is coded Not Reported since the police crash report did not provide any
information on distractions.
Example 11
Example 11 Diagram

The crash occurred at the intersection of a five lane east/west roadway with a center left-turn lane and a twolane north/south roadway. The intersection was controlled by traffic signals. Vehicle 1 was southbound on the
two-lane roadway. Vehicle 2 was traveling west on the five- lane roadway. Vehicle 1 had a green turn arrow
and attempted to turn left to travel east on the intersecting five lane road. Vehicle 2 passed through the
intersection and its front struck the left side of Vehicle 1.
The driver of Vehicle 1 was attentive and took no avoidance actions. Vehicle 2’s driver reported that he was
thinking about an issue at work and did not notice the traffic signal until the last moment. He applied his brakes,
but no tire marks were present.

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Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Turning left
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into
Lane
From Crossing Street Across Path

Vehicle 2
Lost in Thought/Day Dreaming
Going straight
This Vehicle Traveling

No Avoidance Maneuver

Crossing Over (Passing Through)
Junction
Braking

Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
82

Tracking
Stayed In Original Travel Lane
83

In this example, Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins at the point where Vehicle 1 is in an
imminent collision path with Vehicle 2 and ends at the point of impact.
Vehicle 2’s Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE) begins when the driver recognizes Vehicle 1 turning in front of it in
the intersection and ends at impact.
The second portion of Precrash General Rule #7 applies to this crash. It states “When two vehicles are initially
traveling on different trafficways the Critical Event for the vehicle turning left with the right-of-way should be
Other Vehicle Encroaching Into Lane-From Crossing Street Across Path.”
Vehicles initially on different trafficways are captured in Crash Type Configuration ‘K,’ Turn Into Path (Crash
Types ‘76’ - ‘85’). So in this case, the Crash Types for Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 are ‘82’ and ‘83’ respectively.
Turning vehicles initially on the same trafficway are coded in Crash Type Configuration ‘J,’ Turn Across Path
(Crash Types ‘68’ - ‘75’). Unlike many of the other Crash Types, the plane contacted on the vehicle is irrelevant
for the Change Trafficway (Category IV) Crash Types.
Example 12
Example 12 Diagram

Vehicle 1 was eastbound on a two-lane roadway. Vehicle 2 was backing out of a driveway on the south side of
the road, intending to travel east. Vehicle 1 braked and steered left, but was unable to avoid striking the rear of
Vehicle 2. The driver of Vehicle 2 stated he saw the other vehicle approaching, but misjudged its speed and did
not think they were going to collide.

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The officer indicated that Vehicle 1 was traveling 50 mph in the 35 mph speed zone and applied the brakes just
prior to impact, but did not leave tire marks. Driver distractions were identified by police for both drivers on the
crash report as “None”.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going Straight
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into
Lane
From Driveway, Turning into Same
Direction

Vehicle 2
Not Distracted
Backing Up

Braking and Steering Left

No Avoidance Maneuver

Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel Lane
93

Tracking
Entered Roadway
92

This Vehicle Traveling
Backing

In this example, Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins at the point where the driver recognizes
Vehicle 2 is backing into the roadway and recognizes the danger. The Critical Crash Envelope for Vehicle 1 ends
at impact.
Vehicle 2’s Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE) begins when it’s in imminent path of collision with Vehicle 1 and
ends at impact.
Although Vehicle 1 was traveling 15 mph over the speed limit, the Critical Precrash Category for Vehicle 1 is
Other Vehicle Encroaching Into Lane. The situation that made the event critical was Vehicle 2’s movement
(backing out of the driveway) and not Vehicle 1’s speed. The Critical Event for Vehicle 1 is From Driveway
Turning Into Same Direction, since Vehicle 2 intended to travel east in the same direction as Vehicle 1.
The Critical Event for Vehicle 2 is This Vehicle Traveling- Backing.
Example 13
Example 13 Diagram

Vehicle 1 was eastbound on a five-lane roadway with center left-turn lanes approaching an intersection
controlled by a traffic signal. Vehicle 2 was westbound on the same roadway in the left turn lane. The signal
was solid green for eastbound and westbound traffic. Vehicle 2 attempted to make a U-turn at the intersection

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to travel east and was struck in the right side by the front of Vehicle 1. The driver of Vehicle 2 stated he scanned
the intersection for traffic but did not see Vehicle 1 approaching. The driver of Vehicle 1 was attentive and saw
the other vehicle approaching but did not think it would attempt to turn and consequently had no time to react.
Police charged the driver of Vehicle 2 with failure to yield.
Precrash Element
Driver Distracted By
Pre-Event Movement
Critical Pre-Crash (Category)
Critical Pre-Crash (Event)
Attempted Avoidance
Maneuver
Pre-Impact Stability
Pre-Impact Location
Crash Type

Vehicle 1
Not Distracted
Going Straight
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching Into
Lane
From Opposite Direction Over Left
Lane Line
No Avoidance Maneuver
Tracking
Stayed in Original Travel Lane
98

Vehicle 2
Looked but Did Not See
Making A U-Turn
This Vehicle Traveling
Making A U-Turn
No Avoidance Maneuver
Tracking
Stayed On Roadway but Left
Original Travel Lane
98

In this example, Vehicle 1’s Critical Crash Envelope (V1CCE) begins at the point where the driver recognizes
Vehicle 2 is making a U-turn in front of them and ends at impact.
Vehicle 2’s Critical Crash Envelope (V2CCE) begins when it’s in imminent path of collision with Vehicle 1 and
ends at impact.
The Critical Event for Vehicle 1