User Manual: 44100

Open the PDF directly: View PDF PDF.
Page Count: 49

TOP 1%
Selection of our books indexed in the
Book Citation Index in Web of Science
Core Collection (BKCI)
Chapter from the book
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
Downloaded from: http://www.intechopen.com/books /mycotoxin-and-food-safety-in-
de veloping-countries
World's largest Science,
Technology & Medicine
Open Access book publisher
Interested in publishing with InTechOpen?
Contact us at book.department@intechopen.com
Chapter 9
© 2013 Hamzah et al., licensee InTech. This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African
Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review
R.U. Hamzah, A.A. Jigam, H.A. Makun and E.C. Egwim
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
1. Introduction
Africa is blessed with vast amount of vegetables, fruits and mushrooms which are
consumed for their nutrients or for their medicinal purposes. In recent years these
vegetables, fruits and mushrooms have been shown to possess valuable antioxidants of
great nutritional and therapeutic values. Antioxidants are substances which when present at
low concentration compared to those of an oxidizable substrate [1] significantly delay or
prevent the oxidation of that substrate. They are capable of preventing or attenuating
damages such as lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage to membranes, glycation of proteins
and inactivation of enzymes caused by free radicals. There are several evidences that show
that oxidative stress resulting from reactive oxygen species including free radicals such as
hydroxyl (OH.), superoxide (O2.-), nitric oxide (NO.), nitrogen dioxide (NO2.-), peroxyl
(ROO.) and non free radical like hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen play an important
role in the development of several pathological conditions such as lipid peroxidation,
protein oxidation, DNA damage and cellular degeneration. These have been implicated in
the aetiology of these pathological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes,
inflammatory diseases, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, monogolism, ageing
process and perhaps dementia [2,3-4, 5] .
Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species are constantly formed in the human body
during normal cellular metabolism e. g during energy production in the mitochondria electron
transport chain, phagocytosis, arachidonic acid metabolism, ovulation, fertilization and in
xenobiotic metabolism [6]. They can also be produced from external sources such as food,
drugs, smokes and other pollution from the environment [7]. Organisms are endowed with
endogenous (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase/reductase) and
exogenous (vitamin C, E, β-carorene) antioxidant defense system against reactions of free
radicals. However the generation of free radicals in the body beyond its antioxidant capacity
leads to oxidative stress which has been implicated in the aetiology of several pathological
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
conditions such as lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage and cellular
degeneration related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory disease, cancer and
parkinson disease [8]. As a result of this much attention is been focused on the use of
antioxidants especially natural antioxidant to inhibit and protect damage due to free radicals
and reactive oxygen species. Synthetic antioxidant such as butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA),
tert-butylated hydroxyquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene have been of utmost concern to
many researcher because of their possible activity as promoters of carcinogenesis[9] Plant
based antioxidant are now preferred to the synthetic ones because of their safety.
Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of vegetables and fruits can
protect humans against oxidative damage by inhibiting or quenching free radicals and
reactive oxygen species [8].Many plants including fruits and vegetables are recognized as
sources of natural antioxidants that can protect against oxidative stress and thus play an
important role in the chemoprevention of diseases that have their aetiology and
pathophysiology in reactive oxygen species (10, 11-12]. These positive effects are believed to
be attributable to the antioxidants; particularly the carotenoids, flavonoids, lycopene,
phenolics and β-carotene [13] Mushrooms which have long been appreciated for their
flavour and texture are now recognized as a nutritious food as well as an important source
of biologically active compounds of medicinal value [14]. Mushrooms accumulate a variety
of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and
steroids. Also, a mushroom phenolic compound has been found to be an excellent
antioxidant and synergist that is not mutagenic [15]. Studies have shown that tropical
mushrooms are highly rich in proteins, minerals, vitamins, crude fiber and carbohydrate
with low fat and oil content. The protein content of mushrooms has been reported to be
twice that of vegetables and four times that of oranges and significantly higher than that of
wheat [16, 17]. The high level of vitamins in mushrooms particurlary vitamin C and D has
been reported as responsible for its antioxidative activity [17, 18]. Mushrooms contains also
an appreciable quantities of crude fibres, although, little information exist on Total Dietary
Fibre (TDF) content of mushrooms. The crude fibre content values reported from many
studies suggest that mushrooms are potential sources of dietary fibre [16]. Mushrooms
generally contain low fat and oil content [16]. Because of the low fat and oil content, they are
recommended as good source of food supplement for patients with cardiac problems or at
risk with lipid induced disorders.
Also a lot had been reported on the nutrient; antinutrient and mineral composition of some
edible mushrooms in Nigeria [19, 20] however there are few reported data on the antioxidant
properties of commonly consumed mushrooms. This Chapter is therefore intended to discuss
the antioxidant properties of selected African vegetables fruits and mushrooms.
2 Antioxidant properties of selected vegetables
2.1. Vernonia amygdalina (VA)
Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial shrub that belongs to the Asteraceae family and is
popularly called bitter leaf in English a. It is known as ‘Grawa’ in Amharic, ‘Ewuro’ in
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 205
Yoruba, ‘Etidot’ in Ibibio, ‘Onugbu’ in Igbo, ‘Ityuna’ in Tiv, ‘Ilo’ in Igala ‘Oriwo’ in Edo and
‘Chusar-doki’ in Hausa.It has petiolate leaves of about 6mm diameter and ellicptic in shape.
The leaves are green with a characteristic odour and bitter taste [21]. They are well
distributed in tropical African and Asia and are commonly found along drainage lines and
in natural forest or commercial plantation.
In most part of Africa, the leaves of VA are used as soup condiments after washing or boiled
to get rid of the bitter taste. Specifically it is used to prepare the popular Nigerian bitter leaf
soup, “onugbo” and as spice in the Cameroon dish called “Ndole” [22].
VA has a long history of use in folk medicine particularly among the sub Saharan African.
Huffman and Seifu [23] reported the use of VA in the treatment of parasite related disease in
wild chimpanzee in Tanzania. This necessitated quite a great number of researches to test
the efficacy of different part of the plant in managing a wide array of ailments [22, 24]. Many
traditional medicine practitioners use different parts of the plants in treating various
ailments for instance the whole plant is being used as antihelminth, antimalaria and as a
laxative [25]. Others use the aqueous extract of the leaves as a digestive tonic, appetizer and
for treatment of wounds [26]. The decotion from leaves is used in the treatment of malaria
fever in Guinea and cough in Ghana [24]. The leaf is also in Ethiopia as hops in preparing
beer [27]. In Malawi and Uganda it is used by traditional birth attendants to aid expulsion of
placenta after birth, aid post-pertum uterine contraction, induce lactation and control
postpartum haemorrhage.
Their traditional use is not limited to human alone, in northern Nigeria it has been added to
horse feed to provide a strengthening or fattening tonic chusan Dokin in Hausa.
Different extracts of VA has been shown to posses antioxidant properties both invitro and
invivo. Ayoola et al [28] showed the invitro antioxidant properties of the ethanolic extract of
leaves of VA using the diphenyl picyryl hydrazyl radical (DPHH) scavenging test. V.
amygdalina was shown to have moderate inhibition of 77.7% thus indicating the scavenging
ability of the vegetable. Also the aqueous and ethanolic extract of VA has further been
shown to have potent antioxidant properties as they were able to inhibit bleaching of B-
carotene, oxidation of linoleic acid and lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/ ascorbate in a rat
liver microsomal preparation. This study showed that the antioxidant activity of the
ethanolic extracts was higher than that of the aqueous extracts, and compared favourably
with synthetic antioxidant BHT and BHA [29]. However another study reported that
methanol extract displayed highest antioxidant activity followed by acetone and water
extract [30].
Adesanoye and Farombi [31] reported the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract
of Vernonia amygdalina leaves against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and
oxidative stress in mice. Administration of Vernonia amygdalina resulted in accelerated
reversion of hepatic damage via reduction of liver marker enzymes like ALT, AST, ALP,
Lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin. Similarly antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide
dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione concentration and catalase
activity were increased significantly at different doses of the methanolic extract of VA. This
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
study is in agreement on previous work reported on the antioxidant properties of VA on
aacetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in mice [32]. The presence of flavonoids, phenols
and other phytochemicals in this vegetable have been attributed to its antioxidant properties
Further confirmation of the antioxidant activities of VA was carried out by Oloyede and
Ayila [33]. They investigated the antioxidant activity of different extracts, aqueous,
methanol, hexane, ethylacetate and butanol extracts of Vernonia amygdalina using three
methods: scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH), hydroxyl
radical and peroxide oxidation by ferric thiocynate method. All fractions showed significant
antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared with antioxidant standards like butylated
hydroxyl anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol used in the assay. This plant
contains natural antioxidants against aqueous radicals and reactive species ions [30].
Oxidative stress has been implicated in numerous human diseases including cancer,
atherosclerosis, diabetes, malaria, iron overload, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson disease,
and in HIV infection and AIDS [1]. This term actually refer to the imbalance between the
generation of reactive oxygen species and the activity of the antioxidant
defenses[34].Reactive oxygen comprises both free radicals such as hydroxyl (OH!),
superoxide (O2.-), nitric oxide (NO. ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2.-), peroxyl (ROO.) and lipid
peroxyl (LOO. And non free radical or oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ), ozone (O3 ),
singlet oxygen (1O.), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), nitrous acid (HNO3 ), peroxynitrite
(ONOO¯), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3 ), lipid peroxide (LOOH), oxidants, although, they can
easily lead to free radical reactions in living organisms [35]. Many of these ROS serve useful
physiological functions but can be toxic when generated in excess or inappropriate
environment thus causing oxidative damage to membranes and enhanced susceptibility to
lipid peroxidation or enzyme inactivation.
Vernonia amygdalina has been used in various part of Africa for the treatment of several
ailments ranging from diabetes, malaria, cancer and for general wellbeing. This local
treatment has been backed up in recent times scientifically.
Nwanjo [36] reported the antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract VA in streptozotocin
induced diabetic rats. He showed in his finding that VA was capable of reducing plasma
glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol and the marker of oxidative stress
malondialdehyde. These may be due to decreased oxidative stress which may be via direct
scavenging of the ROS or by increasing the synthesis of antioxidant molecule [37].
Recently Akpaso et al [21] showed that the antidiabetic effect of the combined leaf extracts
of vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gongronema latifolium on the pancreatic β – cells of
streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats. The extracts were observed to increase the animal
body weight against the loss in weight in the diabetic group. In the same manner the serum
glucose significantly decreased after 28days of treatment with the combined extract.
Regeneration of islets cells was explained to be the one of the possible cause as there will be
an increase in insulin production and secretion [38]. Previous studies by Ebong et al [39]
reported this possible synergestic action using the extracts of Azadirachta indica and VA. It
has been clearly demonstrated that Vernonia amygdalina extract contains active ingredients
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 207
such as vernoniosides, glucosides, (VA) flavonoids and antioxidants [40] which may be
responsible for their potentials in reversing pancreatic damage caused by STZ or alloxan in
experimental animals. It was proposed that sesquiterpene lactones and the bitter principle of
the plant may also be responsible for insulin production, stimulation and release of
pancreatic islets from the beta-cells [41]. On the other hand, tannin, flavoniods glycosides
and phytosterols of the plant may also act as alpha glucosidase inhibitor which contributed
to the hypoglycemic effect of the plant.
Cancer has become a serious global problem. Prostate cancer and breast cancer are the most
diagnosed non-skin cancers in men and women respectively. Breast cancer represents 15%
of new cases of all cancers [42] while prostate cancer represents 15.3% of all cancers in men
in the developed countries [43]. V. amygdalina Del. is increasingly becoming a strong
contender for cancer management. Coumarins, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones and
edotides may be the principles in VA that are responsible for its anticancer activity [44-46].
It was reported that the aqueous extract of VA exhibited a cytotastic action on cultured
human breast tumour cells (MCF-7) growth in vitro. This implies tumour stabilization or
preventive effects in vivo [46]. Fractions of Vernonia amygdalina extract were found to inhibit
DNA synthesis. However the physiological concentrations of the water-soluble Vernonia
amygdalina extract potently inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner
both in the presence and absence of serum [27]. It was also reported that fractions of hexane,
chlorofrm, butanol and ethylacetate extracts of VA was capable of inhibiting the growth of
human breast cancer cells even at very low concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml to concentration of 1
mg/ml, the inhibition was as high as 98% for some fractions of the extract [47]
Cold water, hot water and ethanol extract were found to induce apoptosis against acute
lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from the patients with
IC50 ranging between 5 to 10 μg/ml. Ethanol extract was found to be most effective against
both ALL and AML when compared to cold and hot water extract [48. Petroleum ether/
ethyl acetate leaf extract also possessed cytotoxic effect towards human hepatoblastoma
(HepG2) and urinary bladder carcinoma (ECV-304) cell lines [49]. These findings establish
the usefulness of V. amygdalina Del. in managing breast cancer.
Bioactive peptides from the aqueous extract of the plant leaves (edotides) have been shown
to be potent in managing cancer by its activity on mitogen activated protein kinases and
signal transduction pathways [46, 50].
Vernoninia amgdalina leaf is a vegetable with several potentials in the prevention and
treatment of various ailments associated with oxidative stress.
2.2. Telfairia occidentalis (T.O.)
Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. commonly called fluted pumpkin occurs in the forest zone of
West and Central Africa, most frequently in Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon. It is a popular
vegetable all over Nigeria. It has been suggested that it originated in south-east Nigeria and
was distributed by the Igbos, who have cultivated this crop since time immemorial [51]. It is
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
a vigorous perennial vine, growing to 10m or more in length. The stems have branching
tendrils and the leaves are divided into 3– 5 leaflets. The fruits are pale green, 3 – 10 kg in
weight, strongly ribbed at maturity and up to 25cm in diameter. The seeds are 3– 5cm in
diameter [52]. The leaf is consumed in different parts of the country because of the
numerous nutritional and medicinal attributes ascribed to it. It has different traditional
names; among Igbos, it is known as “Ugu”, “iroko” or aporoko in Yoruba, ubong in Efik,
umee in Urhobo and umeke in Edo [53]. Young succulent shoots and leaves are used as
vegetables in the eastern part of Nigeria. The herbal preparation of the plant has been
employed in the treatment of sudden attack of convulsion, gastrointestinal disorders,
rmalaria and anaemia [54].Also the plant has agricultural and industrial importance in
addition to its nutritional value [55].
Quite a number of researchers in the field of medical sciences have observed free radical
scavenging ability and antioxidant property in Telfairia occidentalis. The darkish green leafy
vegetable of Telfairia occidentalis and extracts (such as aqueous and ethanol extracts) from the
leaves have been found to suppress or prevent the production of free radical and scavenge
already produced free radical, lower lipid peroxidation status and elevates antioxidant
enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase and Catalase) both in vitro and in vivo ([56,57-
61,62]. They reported that extracts of this vegetable using various solvents were able to offer
a chemopreventive and protective effects on oxidative stress induced serum and organs like
kidney, liver and brain. Studies have shown that T.O. leaves are rich in antioxidants such as
ascorbic acid and phenols [63, 64].
Specifically Oboh et al [57] in their study showed the antioxidant properties of T. O. by
assessing their total phenolic content, reducing property and free radical scavenging
properties against DPHH radical. From that study the aqueous extracts had a significantly
higher total phenol content than the ethanolic extracts which clearly indicates that the
phenols present in Telfairia occidentalis leaves are more water soluble than ethanol,
consequently, the aqueous extracts could be a more potent antioxidant than the ethanolic
extracts. this gives credit to the fact that aqueous extracts of the leaf is presently used in the
management and prevention of anaemia and diabetes. This high phenol content in the
aqueous extracts could have contributed to the prevention/ management of hemolytic
anaemia [65] diabetes [66] which is associated with free radical damage.
Antioxidants may been classified into two separate groups: those that suppress the
generation of reactive oxygen species and those that scavenge the reactive oxygen species
generated[57] . Also in the same study it was observed that the aqueous extract had a
significantly higher reducing power and higher free radical scavenging ability than the
ethanolic extracts. The higher phenolic content in the aqueous extract would have accounted
for the higher ability of the aqueous extract to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II) in the FRAP test for
reducing ability [67]. Also the chelating properties of phenols have been reported to have
high reducing power [68] which clearly indicate that Telfairia occidentalis leaf antioxidant
potentials will be more harness in its aqueous extraction than the ethanolic extraction and
this is in accord with the form in which the plant is presently been used. Furthermore, the
high reducing power and free radical scavenging ability of the extracts clearly indicate that
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 209
both extracts of Telfairia occidentalis could suppress the generation of free radical and scavenge
free radical. Protocatechiuc acid (PRA) and caffeic acid was shown to be the main
polyphenolic compound present in the leaves of T.O.[69]. Cafeic acid is a phenollic compound
present in the plant kingdom [70]. It is known to have a large number of physiological
activities including anti-inflammatory, anti allergic and anti tumour [71, 72, 73]. They also
revealed in their study the high flavonoid content, total antioxidant content, lipid peroxidation
inhibition, free scavenging activity towards hydroxyl radical and superoxide scavenging
abilities of Telfairia occidentalis amongst other vegetables. Therefore the consumption of leaves
of T O will provide adequate antioxidants capable of preventing diseases arising from
oxidative stress thus promoting the general well being of an individual.
The hepatoprotective properties of polyphenol extracts on T O leaves on acetaminophen
induced liver damage was observed [58]. It was demonstrated that the soluble free
polyphenol had a higher protective effect on the liver than bound polyphenol in this
vegetable. This agrees with previous studies where correlation was reported between
antioxidant properties and total polyphenolic content of some commonly consumed
vegetables and fruits [56, 57, 74, 75,] Free phenolics are more readily absorbed and thus
exert beneficial bioactivities in early digestion. The significance of bound phytochemicals to
human health is however not clear [75, 76] and Chu et al 2002.
Telfairia occidentalis leaves have been reported to also be protective against liver damage [76,
77]. The use of the leaves in folk medicine in Nigeria in the treatment of certain diseases in
which the participation of reactive oxygen species have been implicated could be as a result
of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability [62].
Oxidative stress which have been implicated in quite a number of diseases such as anaemia,
malaria, diabetes cancer and so on have been reported to be relieved by antioxidants inherent
in vegetables, fruits and other plants. It is to this end that Salama et al [78] reported that
aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar and increases
haematological and reproductive indices in male rats. T. occidentalis actually caused significant
increases in packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and white
blood cell count in addition to a significant decrease in blood glucose. The increase in the
hematological indices observed in this study is consistent with the observations made when
rats were fed with the diet preparation of the air-dried leaves of T. occidentalis for four weeks
[79] This study has also shown for the first time that new blood cells would have started
appearing in the circulation after the fifth day of treatment with T. occidentalis and the increase
would become significant after the seventh day of treatment and beyond. This increase is due
to the chemical composition of Telfairia occidentalis particularly the presence of the vitamin A
and C which are well known antioxidants capable of scavenging free radicals [80]. Some of
these constituents are well-established haemopoietic factors that have direct influence on the
production of blood in the bone marrow. For instance, iron is a well known haemopoietic
factor [81]. Also the amino acids derived from T. occidentalis could also be used for the
synthesis of the globin chains of the haemoglobin and this could also contribute to the increase
in haemoglobin concentration. The significant increase observed in this study is however
inconsistent with the insignificant change in haematological parameters observed when birds
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
were fed with the dietary preparation of the sun-dried leaves of the plant [82]. The
insignificant change observed with the sun-dried leaves might be due to the denaturing of the
active ingredients especially proteins in the leaves during exposure to sunlight. In addition,
the inconsistence may be an indication of a species variation in the responses to the effects of
the plant. In the same study the leaves were observed to reduce blood sugar significantly, an
indication of its hypoglycemic properties. This was confirmed in recent study on the
comparative hypoglycemic properties of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves and
seeds of this plant [83]. The hypoglycemic property is more in the leaves and was concluded to
be better extracted with ethanol than water.
In the same way it was shown that this leave extract improve sperm motility, viability and
counts generally improving sperm quality [78]. This is attributed to the actions of some of its
active ingredients which have well documented spermatogenic activities. In this respect,
studies have shown that nutritional therapies with zinc [84], vitamin C [85], vitamin E [86]
and arginine [87] proved beneficial in treating male infertility. Therefore it may be very
useful in the treatment and management of infertility especially that associated with
reduction in sperm performance.
The antianaemic potentials of the aqueous extract of leaves of Telfairia occidentalis extracts
against phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemia in rabbits was investigated [88]. Anaemia
constitutes a serious health problem in many tropical countries because of the prevalence of
malaria and other parasitic infections. In anaemia there is decreased level of circulating
haemoglobin, less than 13 g dL-1 in male and 12 g dL-1 in females [89]. In the tropics, where
malaria is endemic, between 10 to 20% of the population presents less than 10 g dL-1 of
Haemoglobin [90]. Children are more vulnerable. The leaves are rich in iron and play a key
role in the cure of anaemia, they are also noted for lactating properties and are in high
demand for nursing mothers [91].
Elaboration of the therapeutic effect of Telfairia occidentalis on protein energy malnutrition-
Induced liver damage was specifically emphasized in previous study [61]. The protein
deficient diet caused a significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the
liver function enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and
aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities in the serum. It also caused a marked reduction
in glutathione level, significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and catalase (CAT) and significant damage to the hepatocytes. Recovery diets of
protein alone and protein supplemented with T. occidentalis had significant effects on all the
parameters. The MDA level and the serum liver function enzymes were significantly
reduced while glutathione and antioxidant enzymes levels were markedly increased and a
highly significant hepatocyte healing observed in the histology images.
The genus ocimum is represented by over 50 species of herbs and shrubs in Africa. Ocimum
basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum are known in Africa to manage different diseases. They
belong to the family of plant known as Lamiaceae [92]. Local names of different species of
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 211
ocimum in various ethnic groups include Efirin (Yoruba), neh-anwu (Ibo), ntion (Efik) and
dai-doya ta gida (Hausa). The leaves can be petiolate or sessile, often toothed at the margin.
They are erected and have characteristic pleasant aroma due to their volatile oil [92].
Ocimum gratissimum leaf or the whole plant is known to be popular treatment remedy for
diarrhoea [93]. The plant is rich in voltile oils, which contain up to 75 percent of thymol, the
antimicrobial activity of which is well known. Infact, the antimicrobial activity of the water-
saturated oil had been shown to be proportional to the thymol content [94].
Ocimum gratissimum is effective in the management of upper respiratory tract infection,
diarrhoea, headache, skin disease, pneumonia, fever, and conjuctivities.[95]. Traditionally
Ocimum basilicum (basil) has been used as a medicinal plant for various ailments, such as
headaches, coughs, diarrhoea, constipation, warts, worms and kidney malfunction. It is also
thought to be an antispasmodic, stomachicum, carminative, antimalarial, febrifuge and
stimulant [96, 97]. Ethnobotanical surveys report the traditional utilization of basil as a
veterinary medicinal plant as well. Basil oil, especially the camphor containing oil, has
antibacterial properties. The vapour of boiling leaves is inhaled for nasal or bron-chial
catarrh and colds. The leaves may be rubbed between the palms and sniffed for colds. It
cures stomach- ache and constipation. The leaves are crushed and the juice is used as
vermifuge. It is further used to repel mosquitoes and as a broom to sweep chicken house in
order to get rid of fleas.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in some of the disorders associated
with the traditional uses of some vegetables, such as malaria, anaemia, gastrointentional
tract disorders, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory injury. Hence this forms the basis for the
investigation of the antioxidant properties of some of these vegetables in order to validate
the acclaimed traditional use.
A comparative study on the antioxidant properties of two Nigerian species of Ocimum
showed that the methanolic extract of Occimum gratissimum posses a higher polyphenolic,
flavonoid comoponent and free radical scavenging activities when compared to the
methanolic extract of O. basillicum [98]. Thus this may be reason behind wider utilization of
O. gratissimum in Nigerian folk medicine than O. basillicum.
Basil has been shown to contain flavonoid glycosides (0.6–1.1%) and flavonoid aglycones. A
flavone, xanthomicrol (5, 4’-dihydroxy-6, 7, 8-trimethoxyflavone) was isolated from the
leaves of a Nigerian O.basilicum [99, 100]. Basil herb (O.basilicum) contains apart from
essential oil and flavonoids also tannins and polyphenols (2.2–2.3%)[ 99, 100].
The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of Ocimum
gratissimum (OG) were investigated and the results showed the presence of flavonoids,
steroids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, phlobatannins in both extract [101]. The methanoilic
extract of OG was shown to exhbit a higher DPHH scavenging activity (84.6%) at 250 μg/ml
and a reductive potential of 0.77 at 100 μg/ml comparable with those of gallic acid, 91.4% at
250 μg/ml and ascorbic acid, 0.79 at 60 μg/ml as standards for DPPH scavenging activity
and reductive potential, respectively. Thus OG - leaf extracts possess antioxidant potential
probably because of its phytochemical constituents which has also been reported in other
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
studies [102,103-104]). Also the hepatoprotective effect of extract of leaf of OG was also
reported [105].
The methanolic extract of leaf of OG was also shown to be capable of scavenging the free
radiacal 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) radical, superoxide anion radical (O2.–),
hydroxyl radical (.OH), nitric oxide radicals (NO.), as well as inhibiing lipid peroxidation,
using appropriate assay systems compared to natural and synthetic antioxidants.
The analgesic and hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum
(L.) leaves in carbon tetrachloride hepatoxic - albino rats was reported. A significant
decrease in the liver enzmes were observed in the the hepatoxic albino rats after treatment
with the methanolic extract of OG thus showing its protective effect on the damaged liver
2.4. Adansonia digitata
Baobab (Adansonia Digitata L) is a tree found widely throughout Africa and known locally in
African countries as the “tree of life” due to its ability to sustain life owing to its water
holding capacity, as well as its many traditional medicinal and nutritional uses [107]. The
baobab tree is an important food, water and shelter source in many African countries [108].).
Adansonia digitata is commonnly called Kukah by the Hausa of Northern Nigeria, Niger
konian, Kenyans Mwambom, Mali sira, Senegal, goui ([109]). Adansonia digitata is one of eight
species of the Adansonia genus, and its name originates from the fact that the oblong leaves
of the tree, often formed in groups of five, look like the fingers or digits of the human hand.
It is a deciduous tree which has four growth phases and produces a fruit consisting of a
yellowish-white pulp which has a floury texture and numerous hard, round seeds, enclosed
in a tough shell [107].
The leaves of the baobab tree are a staple for many populations in Africa, especially the
central region of the continent [110, 111]. During the rainy season when the baobab leaves
are tender, the leaf is harvested fresh. During the last month of the rainy season, leaves are
harvested in great abundance and are dried for domestic use and for marketing during the
dry season. The leaves are typically sun-dried and either stored as whole leaved or pounded
and sieved into a fine powder [112]. The Powdered leaves are used as a tonic and an anti-
asthmatic and known to have antihistamine and anti-tension properties. The leaves are also
used to treat insect bites, guinea worm and internal pains, dysentery, diseases of the urinary
tract, opthalmia and otitis ([109].). In Indian medicine, powdered leaves are similarly used to
check excessive perspiration ([109].). Baobab leaves are used medicinally as a diaphoretic, an
astringent, an expectorant and as a prophylactic against fever [113].
Baobab leaves have been investigated in an attempt to identify the potential bioactives
associated with this part of the plant [12,114,115-116,117. Certain bioactive compounds may
be responsible for the treatment of certain ailments, as well as containing properties that can
be beneficial to overall health. Examples of such bioactive compounds include tannins,
phlorotannins, terpenoids, glycosides, saponins and terpenoids [116] as well as antioxidants
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 213
including flavonoids and polyphenols [114]. The chemical profile of the methanolic and
aqueous extracts of the leaves of the plant was also investigated [118]. They reported the
presence of glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, protein and amino acid, phenolic compounds
and tannins, gums, mucilage and flavanoids. Only few authors have investigated the
vitamin A content of baobab leaves. Scheuring et al. [119] found that the simple practice of
drying baobab leaves in the shade protects against deterioration of provitamin A. The
selection of small leaves further increased provitamin A by 20%. The combination of small
leaves and shade drying enabled the retention of the provitamin content up to 27 μg retinol
equivalent per gram of dried leaf powder. Other authors mention the carotenoid content of
baobab leaves [120,121].
Literature review revealed a great variation in reported values of nutrient contents of
baobab part. According to Chadare et al [122] the causes of these variations are not well
known, however they made several assumptions. The variation may be due to the quality of
the sample, the provenance of the sample, the age of the sample, the treatment before
analysis, the storage conditions, the processing methods, a probable genetic variation, and
the soil structure and its chemical composition.
It is a known fact that the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods can contribute to the
prevention of oxidation in the human cell, hence of some diseases. In addition to the general
chemical composition of baobab pulp and leaves discussed previously, the antioxidant
content of the aqueous extract of wild plants including Adasonia digitata was investigated
[123]. They showed that baobab leaves have an antioxidant content of 7.7 μmol/g dw
expressed as Trolox equivalents. This result is almost 1000 times lower than composition
and nutritional value of baobab foods the one reported by Vertuani et al. (2002), who found
that the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of dry baobab leaves was 6.4 mmol Trolox
equivalent/g. These antioxidant activities were measured in fresh raw material and the effect
of cooking and storage is not well known. Only Tarwadi and Agte [125] reported the
antioxidative activity of some fruits and root vegetables before and after cooking. The
antioxidant activity was measured as the inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOSA), and ferrous iron
chelating ability (FICA). They reported that there were significant cooking losses for each of
the assessed antioxidant parameters.
A. digitata leaves, fruit-pulp and seeds have earlier been reported to show antiviral activity
against influenza virus, herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus and polio [117].
Chemical analyses have reported the presence of various potentially bioactive ingredients
including triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds [122]. These bioactive
compounds especially flavonoids and phenolic may be responsible for the nutritive and
medicinal properties of this vegetable.
Karumi et al [125] also reported the gastro protective effect of Adansonia digitata leaf on
ethanol induced ulceration. This study elucidated a significant dose- dependent increase
both in preventive ratio and percentage ulcer reduction after pretreatment with Adansonia
digitata leaves. Ethanol is an established ulcerogen especially in empty stomach [126]. The
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
ulcerogenicity of ethanol is due to intracellular oxidative stress producing mitochondrial
permeability, transition and mitochondrial depolarization which results to the death of cells
in gastric mucosa [126,127]. This is because of its congestive inflammation and tissue injury.
It is a known fact that flavonoids and anti-oxidant (Vit A, E and C) present in this plant has
protective role. This view is supported by the fact that gastric mucosa is known to have
certain antioxidant activity thereby reducing mucosal damage mediated by free
radicals[128] which in turn attack cell membrane causing a lipid derived free radicals such
as conjugated diene and lipid hydroperoxides which are extremely reactive and unstable.
This study corroborate with previous report on the anti-ulcerative properties of the aqueous
extract of Adasonia digitata leaves against ethanol induced ulceration in rats [129]. Although
the precise mechanism of action of A. digitata is not clear, it was proposed that the
gastoprotective role of this vegetable extract may be partly due to its high content of
flavonoids and antioxidant [130] which are well known compounds that prevent and
combat the formation of reactive oxygen species. Another possible mechanism is the fact
that the leaves being an astringent may have precipitated microproteins on the site of ulcer
thereby forming an impervious protective pellicle over the lining to prevent absorption of
toxic substance and resist the attack of proteolytic enzymes [131].
2.5. Corchorus olitorius
Corchorus olitorius (Linn). is a leafy vegetable that belongs to the family tiliaceae and
commonly called jute mallow in English and “ewedu” in the south western Nigeria. It is an
animal herb with a slender stem and an important green leafy vegetable in many tropical
area including Egypt, Sudan, India, Bangladesh, in tropical Asia such as Philippine and
Malaysia, as well as in tropical Africa, Japan, the Caribbean and Cyprus [132]. The plant is
widely grown in the tropics for the viscosity of its leaves. The leaves (either fresh or dried)
are cooked into a thick viscous soup or added to stew or soup and are rich sources of
vitamin and minerals [133]. Nutritionally, C. olitorius on the average contain 85-87 g H2O,
0.7 g oil, 5 gcarbohydrate, 1.5 g fiber 250-266 mg Ca, 4.8 mg Fe, 1.5 mg 300010 vitamin A, 0.1
mg thiamine, 0.3 mg riboflavin, 1.5 mg nicotinamide, and 53-100 mg ascorbic acid per 100 g
In West African countries including Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, the vegetable is
cultivated for the stem bark which is used in the production of fibre (Jute) and for its
mucilaginous leaves which are also used as food vegetable [135] The leaf extract of the plant
is also employed in folklore medicine in the treatment of gonorrhea, pain, fever and tumour
[136]. It is reportedly consumed as healthy, vegetable in Japan because of its rich contents of
carotenoids, vitamin B1, B2, C and E, and minerals [137]. Its leaves and roots are eaten as
herbal medicine in South East Asia [136]. In some part of Nigeria leaves’ decoction used for
treating iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency, as well as treatment of anaemia. Leaves also
act as blood purifier [138] and the leaf twigs is used against heart troubles [139] while cold
leaf infusion is taken to restore appetite and strength, leaves used for ascites, pains, piles,
tumours, gonorrhoea and fever [140]
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 215
The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic etract of ewedu amongst other vegetables
against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats was studied [141]. Ethanolic extracts of
Corchorus olitorious was shown to produce a significant hepatoprotective effect by decreasing
serum and liver levels of ALT, AST, and total protein at dose of 250 and 500mgkg-1 in carbon
tetrachloride induced hepatotoxic rats [141]. Their result also shows a significant inhibition
of lipid peroxidation as illustrated by the decreased value on the MDA Values.
The phenolic antioxidants in the leaves of Corchorus olitorious was identified to include
phenolic [5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin 3-
galactoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), and quercetin
3-(6-malonylgalactoside) (tentative)] were identified from the leaves of Corchorus olitorious L.
by NMR and FAB-MS. The contents of these phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and alpha-
tocopherol in C. olitorius leaves were determined, and their antioxidative activities were
measured using the radical generator-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results
obtained showed that 5-caffeoylquinic acid was a predominant phenolic antioxidant in C.
olitorius leaves (phenolic antioxidants from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. None of these
phenolic compounds was detected in recent study on the chemical composition and invitro
antioxidant properties of some selected vegetables [69]. Only caffeic acid acid was present to
significance in the vegetable by the GC-MS analysis. Caffeic acid is a phenolic compound
widely present among many plants which has been studied extensively and known to share
a spectrum of physiological activities including anti-inflammatory anti-allergic and anti
tumour [142-144] They further investigated the peroxidation inhibitory capacity of
corchorus oliotorius among other vegetables and they resolved that though all vegetables
evaluated were able to inhibit lipid peroxidation, the consumption of the vegetables
especially Vernonia amygdalina and Corchorus olitorious may afford a better cytoprotective
effects. Further results from these study showed that the ethanolic extract of Corchorus
olitorious and other evaluated vegetables has high superoxide and hydrogen peroxide
scavenging ability of Corchorus olitorious which could possibly be due to the presence of
caffeic acid, flavonoids and in general the high total antioxidants.
Oboh et al [145] carried out a comparative study of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic
extract (HE) and lipophilic extract (LE) constituents of the Corchorious olitorius. HE and LE of
the leaf were prepared using water and hexane, respectively and their antioxidant
properties were determined. HE showed a significantly higher (1,1-diphenyl-2-
picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability ,reducing power ,trolox equivalent antioxidant
capacity than LE. conversely, LE showed a significantly higher hydroxyl scavenging activity
than HE while there was no significant difference in their Fe(II) chelating ability. The higher
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability, reducing power and trolox
equivalent antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract may be due to its significantly
higher total phenol (630.8 mg/100 g), total flavonoid (227.8 mg/100 g) and non-flavonoid
polyphenols (403.0 mg/100 g), and its high ascorbic acid content (32.6 mg/100 g). While the
higher OH. Scavenging ability of LE may be due to its high total carotenoid content (42.5
mg/100 g). Therefore, the synergistic antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic
constituents may contribute to the medicinal properties of C. olitorius leaf [145].
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
Further study illustrated the the protective effect of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius
leaves (AECO) against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in experimental rats [146]. A
significant inhibition of hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide
dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione
reductase were observed. The level of reduced glutathione decreased while the levels of
oxidized glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the selected tissues were
increased following arsenic intoxication. Treatment with AECO at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg
body weight p.o. for 15days after arsenic intoxication significantly improved hepatic and
renal antioxidant markers in a dose dependant manner. AECO treatment also significantly
reduced the arsenic-induced DNA fragmentation of hepatic and renal tissues. Histological
studies on the ultrastructural changes of liver and kidney supported the protective activity
of the AECO [146]. Thus aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves is significant in
protecting animals from arsenic induced hepatic and renal toxicity.
2.6. Gongronema latifolium
Gongronema latifolium belongs to the family of Asclepiadaceae family. The plant common
name is amaranth globe. The parts commonly used are leaves, stem and root. The origin of
the plant is traced to Nigeria in West Africa. Gongronema latifolium is called madumaro by
Yoruba ethnic group in Nigeria commonly called ‘utazi’ by the Ibo of south eastern part if
Nigeria. It is a tropical rainforest plant primarily used as spice and vegetable in traditional
folk medicine [147,148]. They are sharp-bitter, sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable
and as a spice for sauces, soups and salads. Gongronema latifolium is widely used in West
Africa for medicinal and nutritional purposes. An infusion of the aerial parts is taken to treat
cough, intestinal worms, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria. It is also taken as a tonic to treat
loss of appetite. In Sierra Leone an infusion or decoction of the stems with lime juice is taken
as a purge to treat colic and stomach-ache. In Senegal and Ghana the leaves are rubbed on
the joints of small children to help them walk. The boiled fruits in soup are eaten as a
laxative. In Nigeria a leafy stem infusion is taken as a cleansing purge by Muslims during
Ramadan. A decoction of leaves or leafy stems is commonly taken to treat diabetes and high
blood pressure. The latex is applied to teeth affected by caries. It is also taken for controlling
weight gain in lactating women and overall health management. Asthma patients chew
fresh leaves to relieve wheezing. A cold maceration of the roots is also taken as a remedy for
asthma [149]. A decoction of the roots, combined with other plant species, is taken to treat
sickle cell anaemia. A maceration of the leaves in alcohol is taken to treat bilharzia, viral
hepatitis and as a general antimicrobial agent [150].The leaves are used to spice locally
brewed beer. In Sierra Leone the pliable stems are used as chew sticks. The bark contains
much latex and has been tested for exploitation.
Phytochemical screening of Gongronema latifolium vegetable showed the presence of
alkaloids, tannnis, glycosides, polyphenols, saponins and flavonoids [151, 152]. Other
chemical analyses on the leaves revealed several 17β-marsdenin derivatives (pregnane
glycosides) as well as β-sitosterol, lupenyl cinnamate, lupenyl acetate, lupeol, essential oils
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 217
and saponins. The essential oil from the leaves contains as main components linalool
(19.5%), (E)-phytol (15.3%) and aromadendrene hydrate (9.8%) [151, 153-154].
Hepatoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in albino rats was found to be relieved by the
ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium GLE [155]. Carbon tetrachloride induction in the
rats resulted in hepatic injuries hence the marker of liver damage AST and ALT was
reported to be significantly high in carbon tetrachloride induced rats however ALP was not
siginificantly increased. It is well documented from histological studies on the liver that
necrosis in the centrilobular zone is a major cause of carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver
injury [156]. Treatment with the ethanol extract of Gongronema latifolium was shown to
reduce the AST and ALT concentration significantly. Reduced levels of ALT and AST in rats
treated with the extract could be attributed to the ability of the GLE to prevent the
metabolism of carbon tetrachloride into more toxic metabolite and minimized the
production of free radicals and also boost the activities of the scavengers of free radicals
[157] thus minimizing hepatocellular injury produced. No evident increase or decrease in
the level of ALP was observed. Absence of any concomitant increase of decrease on the ALP
levels, under experimental conditions, was attributed to the fact that the single dose,
intraperitioneal injection of the carbon tetrachloride at the pre-stated concentration/dosage,
may not have caused any significant (P<0.05) billiary tract obstruction or disease [158] while
causing acute hepatocellular injury [159]. Also the protective role of Gongronema latifolium in
acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats was elucidated by [160]. Serum
enzyme activities such as AST, ALTand ALP were increased following acetaminophen and
caffeine administration in their study. The increase in liver enzymes following
acetaminophen administration has earlier been reported by [39,161]. It has been reported
that acetaminophen could be bioactivated enzymatically by cytochrome P4502EI in both
liver and kidney. The metabolic activation by reactive intermediate N-acetyl
parabenzoquinoneimine is believed to play an important role in acetaminophen mediated
toxicity [162]. The proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) and
interleukin-la, that are released in response to acetaminophen intoxication are thought to be
responsible for some pathological manifestations of acetaminophen induced toxicity [161].
However, the simultaneous administration of acetaminophen, caffeine and extract of G.
latifolium significantly lowered AST, ALT and ALP concentrations when compared with
those that received acetaminophen only and acetaminophen and caffeine. This is in line with
the work of [155, 163].The mechanism by which G. latifolium lowered liver enzymes may be
attributed to their ability to maintain liver cell integrity. It can therefore be concluded that
acetaminophen offer protection against acetaminophen and caffeine induced hepatoxicity.
Earlier the oral administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Gonogronema latifolium
was shown to possess’ antidiabetic properties on streptozotocin-induced diabetic [147]. Also
both extracts were shown to significantly increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and
the level of reduced glutathione. The aqueous extract further increased the activity of
glutathione reductase while the ethanolic extract caused a significant increase in the activity
of glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and a significant
decrease in lipid peroxidation.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
Gongronema Latifolium has also been shown to possess antiplasmodal activity; this supports
the traditional use of the leaf extract of the plant for local treatment of malaria. Akuodor
[164] and his team in their review stated that Gongronema Latifolium (madumaro) is used in
South Eastern Nigeria to treat various ailments such as cough, loss of appetite, malaria and
stomach disorders.The liquor usually obtained after the plant is sliced and boiled with lime
juice or infused with water over three days is usually taken as a purge for colic and stomach
pains. Various parts of the plant, particularly the stems and leaves are used as chewing
sticks or liquor in Sierra Leone. It is also used to treat symptoms related to worm infections.
Gongronema Latifolium is good for maintaining healthy blood glucose level and has
antibacterial activity.
It was also reported that the ethanol extract of Gongronema Latifolium leaves when evaluated
were found to possess anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The plant enjoys
reputation as a remedy for inflammation, bacteria, ulcer, malaria, diabetes and analgesic
Other researches show its antimalarial effect, anti-inflammatory properties, and antisickling
properties [165, 166]. This vegetable is reservoir of many antioxidants capable of preventing
and treating different diseases.
2.7. Gnetnum africanum
Gnetum africanum is one of the most popular leafy vegetable in Nigeria which is gaining
popularity as a delicious food leaf in other African countries such as Cameroon, Gabon,
Congo and Angola [167]. It is called with different Local names: ‘fumbwa’ (DRCongo),
‘okok’, ‘eru’ (Cameroon), ‘afang’, ‘okazi’ (Nigeria). G. africanum, a lone genus belonging to
the family Gnataceae is a dioecious wild undestorey liana that grows on trees in the humid
forest of Africa [168].
The leaves of G africanum are elliptic in shape and are lined with reticulate veins comparable
to those of a dicotyledonous angiosperm [169]. Its leaves are eaten as a vegetable, either raw
or finely chopped and cooked; they are also widely used as an ingredient in soups and
stews and are much in demand for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. It is
traditionally used in the treatment of enlarged spleen, sore throat and as as a cathartic [170].
It is also used to relief nausea and neutralizes poison in Congo as well as been applied
externally to manage boils, warts and used to reduce child birth pain. The leaves of A.
Gnetum species are also used as a disinfectant for wounds treat heamorrhoid and increase
blood production in the human organism [171].
In Nigeria, the leaf of G. africanum is used in the treatment of an enlarged spleen, sore
throats and as a cathartic [171]. In Ubangi (DR Congo), it is used to treat nausea and is
considered to be an antidote to some forms of poison [171. In Congo-Brazzaville, the leaves
of both species are used as a dressing for warts and boils and a tisane of the cut-up stem is
taken to reduce the pain of childbirth [ 172].Gnetum africanum is also reported to be used for
medicinal purposes in Mozambique [173].
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 219
The leaves have very high nutritional value and constitute an important source of protein,
essential amino acids and mineral elements [168]. Flavonoids, phenols anthocyanins have
been shown to be present in the leaves of Gnetum africanum [174]. As is already know
flavonoids is a class of secondary plant phenolics with powerful antioxidant properties.
Phenols are regarded as the most important oxidative components of plants, hence
correlation between the concentration of total plant phenolics and total antioxidant
capacities have been reported [175]. The presence of these phytochemicals agrees with
previous work of Iweala et al [176] who elucidated the presence of phenolic substances,
flavonoids, anthocyanidins, phytosterols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides,
cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides ingnetum africanum leaves. Long term feeding of
Gnetum africanum supplemented diet caused significant increase in weight, haemoglobin
and white blood cells [176]. Glutathione s transferase and superoxide dismutase where
increased significantly while lipid peroxidation and serum protein was reduced
significantly with supplementation of Gnetum africanum supplemented diet. The gain in
weight was explained o be due to the presence of high quality nutrient present in this leafy
vegetable while reduction in protein may be a consequence of indigestibility and
unavalaibilty of protein content of Gnetum africanum. The presence of invitro antioxidants
lile flavonoids and phenolic substance was reported to be responsible for the decrease in
lipid peroxidation and increase in GST and SOD as well as increase in haemoglobin and
white blood cells [176]. Also a recent study on the biochemical and histological changes in
paracetamol induced hepatoxic rats showed that consumption of Gnetum africanum
supplemented diet reduced liver necrosis caused by paracetamol induction [177]. They also
reported that lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the diet supplemented group.
Although the precise mechanism for this protective role was not reported, it may be
associated to presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the vegetable. In a more
recent study [174] as earlier reported also evaluated the invitro antioxidant properties of the
methanolic extract of two leafy vegetables telfaira occidenatalis and Gnetum africanum. They
revealed that both vegetable extracts had strong DPHH radical and hydroxyl radical
scavenging ractivities compared to the water soluble natural antioxidant ascorbic acid.
Howevever Telfaira occidentalis extract was concluded to posses more scavenging activities
than Gnetum africanum. The potent antioxidant activity of the two methanolic extracts might
result from their high content of polyphenolic compound.
3. Antioxidant properties of selected fruits in African
Africa is blessed with several varieties of fruits which are either consumed for their
nutrients or for their medicinal values. They are known to be rich with antioxidants that
help in lowering incidence of degenerative diseases such as cancer, arthritis, arteriosclerosis,
heart disease, inflammation, brain dysfunction and acceleration of the ageing process
[6,178,179]. Antioxidants are substances which when present at low concentration are
capable of preventing or delaying oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by
reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species include reactive free radicals such as
superoxide, hydroxyl, peroxyl, alkoxyl and non- radicals such as hydrogen peroxide,
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
hypochlorous, etc. They scavenge radicals by inhibiting initiation and breaking chain
propagation or suppressing formation of free radicals by binding to the metal ions, reducing
hydrogen peroxide, and quenching superoxide and singlet oxygen [180]. The most abundant
antioxidants in fruits are polyphenols, Vitamin C, Vitamins A, B and E while carotenoids are
present to a lesser extent in some fruits. These polyphenols, most of which are flavonoids,
are present mainly in ester and glycoside forms [181]. The defensive effects of the natural
antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are related to the three major groups: vitamins,
especially vitamin C; phenolics; and carotenoids, especially β-carotene [182]. Vitamin C and
phenolics are known as hydrophilic antioxidants, while carotenoids are known as lipophilic
antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of a number of tropical fruits have been
investigated on an individual basis using different analytical methods [183-185].
3.1. Psidium guajava L.
One of the most gregarious of fruit trees, the guava, Psidium guajava L belongs to the myrtle
family (Myrtaceae), is almost universally known by its common English name or its
equivalent in other languages. In Africa the names are: gwaabaa (Hausa); woba (Efik); ugwoba
(Igbo); guafa (Yoruba) ugwaba in Efik [186]. Guava fruit, usually 4 to 12 centimetres (1.6 to 4.7
in) long, are round or oval depending on the species [187]. The outer skin may be rough,
often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying between species, the skin can be any
thickness, is usually green before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or green when
ripe. Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon rind
but less sharp. Guava pulp may be sweet or sour, tasting something between pear and
strawberry, off-white ("white" guavas) to deep pink ("red" guavas), with the seeds in the
central pulp of variable number and hardness, depending on species.
Guava is a good source of minerals like iron, calcium, and phosphorus as well as many
vitamins like ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin A, carotenoids such as B- carotene and
lycopene, and niacin [188]. Single common guava (P. guajava) fruit contains about four
times the amount of vitamin C as an orange [189]. The fruit has also been shown to contain
saponin combined with oleanolic acid. Morin-3-O-α-L-lyxopyranoside and morin-3-O-α-L-
arabopyranoside and flavonoids, phenolic compounds such as ellagic acid, anthocyanin,
guaijavarin, and quercetin are also reported [189]. chemical analysis of guava plant extract
have revealed the presence of anti-microbial compounds [190], tannins, phenol triterpenes,
flavonoids, guajivolic acid, guajavanoic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, guavacoumaric
acid, galaturonic acid, asphaltic acid, benzaldehyde, essential oils, saponins, carofenoid,
cectin, fibre ,fatty acids and a high content of vitamins C and A in its fruit [191].
The hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant properties of guava fruits were reported by
Thaipong [192]. They concluded from their investigation that both white and pink flesh
guavas fruits showed high hydrophilic antioxidant activity and compounds for phenolic
and vitamin C indicated that regular consumption of guava might be beneficial to health.
Also hydrophilic antioxidant activity, the major activity, had high correlations with both
total phenolic and vitamin C indicating that the use of the total phenolic or vitamin C
content to determine antioxidant activity level in guava fruit was feasible. Phenolic and
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 221
vitamin C are the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of guava fruits, while the
contribution of carotenoid is negligible.
A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits showed that
guava possess primary antioxidant potential, as measured by scavenging DPPH and iron
(III) reducing assays [193]. Primary antioxidants scavenge radicals to inhibit chain initiation
and break chain propagations. This characteristic of guava is attributed to its high total
phenolic compounds. This result is in agreement with the report of a study which
enumerated the antioxidant activity of guava fruits [194] thus the fruit of guava can be
harnessed either for protective or preventive roles against diseases arising from oxidative
3.2. Carica papaya
The papaya is the fruit of Carica papaya which belongs to the genus Carica in the myrtle
family (Caricaceae). The papaya is one of native plants of Central America but is wide
spread throughout tropical Africa. It is a berry developing from syncarpous superior ovary
with parietal plancentation [195]. It is popularly called pawpaw. Pawpaw fruit is one of the
most nutritional fruits grown and consumed in Africa. A green papaya fruit has been
reported to provides 26 calories, 92.1 g H2O, 1.0 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 6.2 g total carbohydrate,
0.9 g fiber and 0.6 g ash{ [196]. USDA National Nutrient database recorded an orange-
freshed papaya (per 100 g) contained 39 calories, 88.8 g H2O, 0.61 g protein, 0.14 g fat, 9.81 g
total carbohydrate, 1.8 g fiber, 0.61 g ash. Additionally, Oyoyede [197] tested the chemical
profile of unripe pulp of carica papaya and reported papaya fruit was very rich in
carbohydrate (42.28% starch, 15.15% sugar) but low levels of fat. Papaya fruit also contains
high levels of vitamin C (51.2 mg/100g), vitamin A precursors including β-carotene (232.3
μg/100g), and β-cryptoxanthin (594.3 μg/100g), as well as magnesium (19.2-32.7 mg/100g),
which has been reported by Wall [198] Papaya fruit also contains papain which is a major
component of papaya latex and widely applied for meat tenderisation.In recent years,
papain and other endopeptidases have been proven to have several medical benefits, such
as defibrinating wounds and treatment of edemas [199]. In some African countries, such as
Gambia, tropical papaya is used to treat paediatric burns due to its proteolytic enzymes.
Exception of papain, other endopeptidases, such as leukopapain and chymopapain, is also
able to facilitate wound cleaning, promoting growth and improving the quality of the scar.
Some physical behavious (such as color and size) of papaya fruit are various due to various
Though C. papaya is an edible and flavorful fruit, it has been used throughout Africa for its
medicinal benefits since it was introduced from the Americas. C. papaya has been used as
treatment for numerous maladies, ranging from gastrointestinal disorders to asthma and
sexually transmitted diseases. Perhaps the most common use of C. papaya is that of its been
an antihelmintic. Often, the plant is boiled along with herbal adjuvants in order to expel
worms [200]. A decoction made from the seeds of C. papaya has been used to much the same
effect. The leaves have also been used in infusions to treat internal parasites [201].
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
Along with its use as an antihelmintic, C. papaya has been used to treat numerous
gastrointestinal disorders. The whole fruit of C. papaya has also been boiled and used as an
infusion in order to treat stomach ulcers In Madagascar, a tea made of from C. papaya leaves
has also been used in order to treat gastric ulcers as well as general gastric discomfort [202].
In the Congolese region of Africa, a decoction made of the ripe seeds is said to be a very
effective treatment of dysentery [203]. C. papaya is also thought to be effective in treatment of
malaria. Along with the leaves of Azadirachta indica, C. papaya has been used as a steam
treatment for malaria [201]. The fruit of C. papaya has also been used as a popular
hepatoprotective agent. In cases of jaundice and hepatitis, immature fruit is either eaten or
used in a decoction [200]. Most studies reported that papaya fruits and its leaves had high
antioxidant capacity due to their high contents of vitamin B (in leaves), vitamin C, E (in
fruits), and carotenoids [193, 203,204].
Recently Oloyede et al [205] reported the antioxidative properties of ethyl acetate fraction of
unripe pulp of carica papaya in mice. Quercetin and β-sitosterol were isolated from the
methanolic extract and later liquid-liquid extract of unripe carica papaya fruits using soxhlet
apparatus. They further investigated the invitro antioxidant properties of this fruit in mice
and the result showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of Gluthaione
reductase, Glutathione peroxidase, Gluthathione, and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
with a slight reduction in catalase activity in the ethyl acetate fraction in the liver. On the
other hand No significant change in activities of GR, GST and CAT were observed in groups
of animals administered ethyl acetate (100mg/kg) or Aqueous extract when compared to
control that received distilled water only, but renal GPx activity decreased following
administration of ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that quercetin and β-sitosterol may be
responsible for the antioxidant potential demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction from
unripe fruit. Therefore it was suggested that carica papaya unripe fruit may be useful in the
management of diseases such as diabetes, sickle cell anaemia and cardiovascular diseases
where free radicals are often generated
3.3. Citrullus lanatus
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) which belong to the family of is a vine-like flowering plant
originally from southern Africa [206] . The watermelon fruits loosely considered a type of
melon has a smooth exterior rind(green, yellow and sometimes white) and a juicy, sweet
interior flesh usually deep red to pink but sometimes orange, yellow and even green if not
ripe. [206].water melon rinds are also edibles but most people avoid eating them due their
unpleasant flavor.
C. lanatus is an annual herb with long (up to 10 m) stems lying or creeping on the ground,
with curly tendrils. Leaves are 5-20 by 3-19 cm, and hairy, usually deeply palmate with 3-5
lobes, on 2-19 cm long petioles. Fruits vary considerably in morphology, size range from
about 7cm in diameter to over 20cm. In addition, they vary in colour from pale yellow or
light green (wild form) to dark green (cultivars), and with or without stripes; the pulp varies
from yellow or green (wild forms) to dark red (cultivars). The flesh amounts to about 65% of
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 223
the whole fruit, and of this 95% is water. The plant has become naturalized in many drier
parts of West Africa [207, 208].
Water melon fruit is a good source of, amino acid citrulline, vitamin A, vitamin C, the
antioxidant lycopene, Beta carotene and potassium. Cucurbitacin the bitter principle in some
species has diuretic and purgative properties. The fruit has but few medicinal uses in West
Africa; Bitter forms are used in Senegal as a drastic purge and are considered poisonous [209].
Some other ethno-medicinal uses of the fruit include diuretic, purgative, remedy for urinary
conditions suggestive of gravel and stone in the bladder, gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea in
women [210,211].
lycopene and citrulline have been shown to be present in this fruit and are helpful in
preventing some chronic diseases[212]. The amount of lycopene in watermelon is highly
variable, but generally exceeds that of tomato.Citrulline is present in all parts of the fruit
[213]. Lycopene was found to be relatively stable in fresh cut watermelon, and could
increase slightly in whole fruit held at room temperature [214]. Seedless watermelon
generally had more lycopene than seeded types, and lycopene was present in red fleshed
fruit, with small amounts in orange fleshed watermelon, and none in yellow fleshed types.
Lycopene has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties,
in contrast to many other food phytonutrients, whose effects have only been studied in
animals, lycopene has been repeatedly studied in humans and found to be protective
against a growing list of cancers, these cancers now include prostate cancer, breast cancer,
endometrial cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancers [215,216]. The antioxidant function of
lycopene lies in its ability to help protect cells and other structures in the body from oxygen
damage. Protection of DNA (our genetic material) inside of white blood cells has also been
shown to be an antioxidant role of lycopene [217]. The amino acid citrulline in watermelon
is a known stimulator of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is known to relax and expand blood
vessels much like the erectilw dysfunction drug Viagra and may increase libido [218]. The
health benefit of watermelon fruit is associated with its status as a powerful antioxidants
found in vit A, lycopene and beta carotene. These helps to neutralize free radicals hence can
be use in the the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetes,
asthma, artherosclerosis and so on.
3.4. Persea Americana
Persea americana belongs to the family Lauraceaea along with cinnamon, camphor, and bay
laurel. . Avocados are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and
Mediterranean climate throughout the world. They are a green skinned, fleshy body that
may be pear shaped egg shaped or spherical and ripens after harvesting. It is commonly
called in English as avocado, in Yoruba “igba”, ibo “Ube-beke” and Swahili “mparachichi,
mpea, mwembe mafuta”.
Avocado has been shown to possess valuable phytochemicals. These compound classes may
be divided into alkanols (also sometimes termed "aliphatic acetogenins"), terpenoid
glycosides, various furan ring-containing derivatives, flavonoids, and a coumarin. The
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
highly functionalized alkanols [218,219-221] of avocado have exhibited quite diverse
biological properties thus far. For example, Oberlies et al isolated 1, 2, 4-trihydroxyheptadec-
16-ene, 1, 2, 4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-yne , and 1, 2, 4 -trihydroxynonadecane from the
unripe fruits of P. americana, and found these substances to be moderately cytotoxic when
evaluated against a small panel of cancer cell lines [219].Kawagishi et al isolated 5 alkanols
from avocado fruits with "liver suppressing activity" (as determined by the changes in
plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), including
compounds 9-11[221]
Avocado has sometimes received the reputation as a fruit too high in fat. While it is true that
avocado is a high-fat food (about 85% of its calories come from fat), the fat contained in
avocado is unusual and provides research-based health benefits. The unusual nature of
avocado fat is threefold. First are the phytosterols that account for a major portion of
avocado fats. These phytosterols include beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol and
they are key supporters of our inflammatory system that help keep inflammation under
control [222]. The anti-inflammatory benefits of these avocado fats are particularly well-
documented with problems involving arthritis. Second are avocado's polyhydroxylated
fatty alcohols (PFAs). PFAs are widely present in ocean plants but fairly unique among land
plants—making the avocado tree (and its fruit) unusual in this regard. Like the avocado's
phytosterols, its PFAs also provide us with anti-inflammatory benefits [223]. Third is the
unusually high amount of a fatty acid called oleic acid in avocado. Over half of the total fat
in avocado is provided in the form of oleic acid—a situation very similar to the fat
composition of olives and olive oil. Oleic acid helps our digestive tract form transport
molecules for fat that can increase our absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like carotenoids
[224]. As a monounsaturated fatty acid, it has also been shown to help lower our risk of
heart disease [225]. Hence its reputation as a fruit high in fat is of great importance in
maintain the the integrity of the heard. Like other high-fat plant foods (for example, walnuts
and flaxseeds), avocado provides unique health benefits precisely because of its unusual fat
Avocados are also good source of Vitamin K, dietary fiber, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Folate
and copper. Avocados are also a good source of potassium: they are higher in potassium
than a medium banana. They also contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, sugar,
soluble and insoluble fiber, It is also good source of oil containing monounsaturated fat its
oil contents varies depending on its varieties and the period of extraction of oil by cold-press
process. Avocado is a rich source of mineral [226]. The presence of the above mentioned
phtytochemicals and vitamins makes avocado fruit a rich source of antioxidants hence
capable of preventing quite a large number of diseases which are usually as a result of
excessive free radical generation. For instance avocado has the ability to help prevent the
occurrence of cancers in the mouth, skin, and prostate gland. This has been studied at a
preliminary level by health researchers, mostly through the use of cancer cells or lab studies
involving animals and their consumption of avocado extracts. But even though this anti-
cancer research has been limited with respect to humans and diet, it is believed that the
preliminary results are impressive. The anti-cancer properties of avocado are definitely
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 225
related to its unusual mix of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients [227]. That
relationship is to be expected since cancer risk factors almost always include excessive
inflammation (related to lack of anti-inflammatory nutrients) and oxidative stress (related to
lack of antioxidants). But here is where the avocado story gets especially interesting. In
healthy cells, avocado works to improve inflammatory and oxidative stress levels. But in
cancer cells, avocado works to increase oxidative stress and shift the cancer cells over into a
programmed cell death cycle (apoptosis), lessening the cancer cell numbers [228]. In other
words, avocado appears to selectively push cancer cells "over the brink" in terms of
oxidative stress and increase their likelihood of dying, while at the same time actively
supporting the health of non-cancerous cells by increasing their supply antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory nutrients.
4. Antioxidant properties of mushrooms
Mushrooms have been used for many years as nutritional food and food flavouring
materials as well as medicines [229]. Because of their flavour and aroma, mushrooms are
greatly appreciated in many countries. According to the definition of Chang and Miles [230],
a mushroom is ‘a macrofungus with a distinctive fruiting body, which can be hypogeous or
epigeous, large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked by hand’. They
constitute at least 14 000 and perhaps as many as 22 000 known species. The number of
mushroom species on the earth is estimated to be 140 000, suggesting that only 10% are
known [231]. Research indicates mushrooms have potential antiviral, antimicrobial,
anticancer, antihyperglycemic, cardioprotective, and anti-inflammatory, activities.
A number of bioactive molecules, including antitumor substances, have been identified in
many mushroom species. Polysaccharides are the best known and most potent mushroom
derived substances with antitumor and immunomodulating properties [232,233].
Historically, hot-water-soluble fractions (decoctions and essences) from medicinal
mushrooms, i.e., mostly polysaccharides, were used as medicine in the Far East, where
knowledge and practice of mushroom use primarily originated [234). Mushrooms such as
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) and many
others have been collected and used for hundreds of years in Korea, China, Japan, and
eastern Russia. Those practices still form the basis of modern scientific studies of fungal
medical activities, especially in the field of stomach, prostate, and lung cancers. It is notable
and remarkable how reliable the facts collected by traditional eastern medicine are in the
study of medicinal mushrooms [235].
They are reputed to possess anti-allergic and anticholesterol activities. Aqueous extracts
from Pleurotus sajor caju have been proven good in renal failure [236] showed mushrooms
cure epilepsy, wounds, skin diseases, heart ailments, rheumatoid arthritis, cholera besides
intermittent fevers, diaphoretic, diarrhea, dysentery, cold, anesthesia, liver disease, gall
bladder diseases and used as vermicides.
Ganoderma lucidum are known to lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol concentration
of hypertensive rats [237]. Lentinus tigrinus and G. lucidium are proved anticholesterolmic
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[238]. Lentinus edodus has been used to enhance vigour, sexuality, energy and as an anti
aging agent [239]. Lentinan sulphate obtained from Lentinus species inhibits HIV [239]. Jong
et al. [240] reported that mushrooms cause regression of the disease state. Puffballs have
been used in urinary infections [241]. Maitake extract has been shown to kill HIV and
enhance the activity of T-helper cells [242,243] Ganoderma nutriceuticals have also exhibited
promising antiviral effects like, anti-hepatitis B [243]Kino et al., 1989), anti-HIV [245,246]Kim
et al., 1993; Liu and Chang, 1995). Dreyfuss and Chapela ([247] reported hundreds of
secondary metabolites of fungal origin possessing biological activity. Mushrooms act as
biological response modifiers by promoting the positive factors and eliminating the negative
factors from the human body and thus regarded as the fourth principal form of the
conventional cancer treatment.
Karst is believed to act as an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic agent [248]. It is also used
by Indian tribals for treating joint pain [249] Various reported medicinal uses of mushrooms
like reishi, cordyceps, enoki, maitake, lion’s mane and splitgill have been reported for cancer
treatment; shiitake, blazei, reishi, enoki, cordyceps, maitake, mesima and oyster were found
effective against cholesterol reduction. Reishi, cordyceps, shiitake and maitake is used for
reducing stress. Lion’s mane has been used for memory improvement; reishi for inducing
sleep cordyceps for physical endurance and sexual performance, reishi, cordyceps, chaga
and lion’s mane for asthma and allergy treatment. They are also believed to be a good health
elevator [250]. Auricularia species were used since times for treating hemorrhoids and
various stomach ailments [251]. Pleurotus tuber-regium mushroom have been used for
curing headache, high blood pressure, smallpox, asthma, colds and stomach ailments
[252,253]. It has been reported that P. ostreatus lowers the serum cholesterol concentration in
rats [254]. Puffballs (Clavatia, Lycoperdon) have been used for healing wounds [255]. Fresh
mushrooms are known to contain both soluble and insoluble fibres; the soluble fibre is
mainly beta-glucans polysaccharides and chitosans which are components of the cell walls
[256]. Soluble fibre present in mushrooms prevents and manages cardiovascular diseases
[257]. Wasser [258] reported that mushroom health supplements are marketed in the form of
powders, capsules or tablets made of dried fruiting bodies, extracts of mycelium with
substrate, biomass or extract from liquid fermentation. P. sajor-caju has been found to be
inductive for growth of probiotic bacteria [259]. Cordyceps sinensis also treated as half
caterpillar and half mushroom has been known and used for many centuries in traditional
Chinese medicine. Cordyceps has been used to induce restful sleep, acts as anticancer,
antiaging, and antiasthama agents besides proved effective for memory improvement and
as sexual rejuvenator [260].
The antioxidant properties of mushroom have been reported. They are regarded as
organisms which possess naturally occurring antioxidants. This is correlated with their
phenolic and polysaccharide compounds [261]). Mau et al. [262] found antioxidant
properties of several ear mushrooms. Tyrosinase from A. bisporus is antioxidant [180].
Lakshmi et al. [263] determined antioxidant activity of P. sajor caju. [264] observed that
triterpenoides are the main chemical compounds in G. lucidium.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 227
Three species of Pleurotus florida, P. pulmonarius and P. citrinopileatus were examined for their
antioxidant potentialities with a view to popularize medicinal mushrooms among common
middle class people at low-cost instead of administering costly medicines. Reducing power,
chelating activity of Fe2+ and total phenol were observed to be higher in P. florida than in P.
pulmonarius and P. citrinopileatus respectively. Among antioxidative enzymes, P. florida
exhibited highest peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) where as catalase activity
was found to be highest in P. pulmonarius [265]. The alcohol and aqueous extracts of G.
lucidum and C. sinensis showed a high anti-oxidative activity by giving protection against
oxidative DNA damage[ 266]. The reducing power and chelating activity of Fe2+ of G.
lucidum and C. sinensis ethanol extract has been shown to increase with increase in
concentration. The G. lucidum ethanol extract showed higher anti-oxidative properties than
C. sinensis, probably due to differences in the compounds present in the fruiting bodies
[267]. Previous workers obtained 6.001+0.04 μmg-1, 7.501+0.10 μmg-1 and 6.72+0.05 μmg-1 of
phenol components in ethanol extract of P. sajor-caju, P. florida and P. aureovillosus
respectively [268, 269]. It is showed that antioxidant activity of Phellinus rimosus seems to be
more effective than the Pleurotus florida, P. sajour-caju and G. lucidum [263,270]. Fruiting
bodies of medicinal mushroom (G. lucidum) contain polysaccharides, triterpenoids,
adenosine, germanium, protein (L2-8), amino acids which have been found to have
antitumor and immuno-modulating affect [271]. Methanol extract of P. rimosus have been
shown to effectively reduce ferric ion in FRAP assay and scavenged DPPH radicals [272].
Extracts from fruiting bodies and mycelia of G. lucidum occurring in South India were found
to possess in vitro antioxidant activity [266] and antimutagenic activities [263]. Antioxidant
assays of the ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extract of G. lucidum effectively scavenged
the O2 and OH radicals [272]. However the aqueous extract was not effective to inhibit the
ferrous ion induced lipid peroxidation [266] The extract showed significant reducing power
and radical scavenging property as evident from FRAP assay [272] and DPPH radical
scavenging assay [263,272]. The antioxidant potential of L. edodes methanol extract was
investigated in the search for new bioactive compounds from natural resources. The
measured DPPH radical scavenging activity is depicted by Sasidharan et al. [273]. The free
radical scavenging activities were 39.0%, 41.0% and 66.00% for the L. edodes extract, vitamin
E and BHT, respectively. The EC50 value is 4.4 mg/mL (y = 11.7x - 1.693, R2 = 0.988) which is
the concentration of the crude extract that decreases the initial DPPH radical concentration
by 50%. Effectiveness of antioxidant properties was found to be inversely correlated with
EC50 values. Cheung and Cheung [274] also reported the antioxidant activity of L. edodes
against lipid peroxidation. They found that the low molecular weight sub-fraction of the
water extract of L. edodes had the highest antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation of
rat brain homogenate, with IC50 values of 1.05 mg/mL. In addition, other mushrooms have
also been reported to possess antioxidant activity. Wong and Chye [275] reported the
antioxidant activity of Pleurotus porrigens, Hygrocybe conica, Xerula furfuracea (Rooted oude),
Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus tenuiculus (Pore fungus) and Pleurotus florida. Petroleum
ether (PE) and methanolic extracts from these edible wild mushrooms were effective in
DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating ability. PE extracts were more effective than
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
methanolic extracts in antioxidant activity using the DPPH, whereas methanolic extracts
were more effective in reducing power and metal chelating ability.
5. Chemoprotective effects of African vegetables, fruits and mushrooms
against mycotoxin induced oxidative stress and diseases
There are compelling evidences to show that mycotoxins are amongst the dietary factors
that contribute to the risk of several types of diseases. The toxicologist and Nutritionist
are particularly interested in mycoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins,
Zeralenone and deoxynivalenol as they are attributed to the implication of several disease
Aflatoxin BI is the commonest form of Aflatoxin which is produced by Apergillus flavus. It is
has been implicated in quite a number of diseases including, kwarshiorkhor, hepatitis, lung
cancer, and liver cancer. It can either cause cancer alone or in synergy with hepatitis [276].
Cancer is induced by Aflaxoxin BI via metabolic activation by CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and/ or
CYP1A2 [277, 278] to exo-8,9-epoxide which can form adduct with DNA leading to guanine
nucleotide substitutions [279] specifically to codon 249 of the p53 gene [280].
Epidemiological studies have shown increased codon- 249 p53 mutations in areas of high
aflatoxin B1 exposure [281]. Since hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin exposure have also been
linked to hepatocellular carcinoma, recent studies have shown the interactive effect of
increasing p53 mutation in persons with hepatitis B and coexposure to aflatoxin [282].
Ochratoxin A, a toxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus carbonarius and
Penicillium verrucosum, is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins [283]. It
is found as contaminant in human foods, including various cereals, coffee, cocoa, wines and
dried fruits. Depending on the dose, OTA may be carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic or
teratogenic and even neurotoxic [284]. Exposure to OTA has been associated with the
incidence of a kidney disease in humans, involving chronic interstitial nephritis as well as
tumours of the urinary tract termed Baslkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) because of its
geographical distribution [285]. It has been reported that occurrence of OTA with aflatoxin
B1 in the same crop potentiates the mutagenic ability of the latter [286].
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus
Fusarium in foods and feeds. It is frequently implicated in reproductive disorders of farm
animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. It is found
worldwide in a number of cereal crops such as maize, barley, wheat, oats and sorghum
[287]. A wide variety of clinical effects attributed to zearalenone have been described in
the literature. Decreased fertility, abnormal estrus cycles, swollen vulvas, vaginitis,
reduced milk production and mammary gland enlargement are the most common
findings reported in cattle and swine. ZEA binds to estrogen receptors influencing
estrogen dependent transcription in the nucleus [288]. Receptor binded by ZEA has been
shown to inhibit the binding estrogenic hormones in rat mammary tissues [289]. It was
reported also by Hagler [290] that zearalenone causes hyperoestrogenism in swine. The
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 229
potential for Zearelenon to stimulate growth of human breast cancer cells has also been
demonstrated [291].
Fumonisins are a family of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium
verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme), a common fungal contaminant of maize [292]
Studies have shown the implication of fumonisins in the aetiology of a number of diseases
such as rat liver cancer and haemorrhage in the brain of rabbits [293]. It has been reported
that Fumonisin induce apoptosis in cultured human cells [294] and nephrotoxicity in certain
animals [295].
Although fumonisin contaminated food has not been conclusively linked to human health
harzards however a few studies have associated consumption of maize contaminated with
fuminisins to human oesophageal carcinoma in some parts of South Africa and China [296].
Recently fumonisin toxicity has been linked reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. For
Instance It was reported that there was increase in lipid peroxidation, production of ROS,
increase in caspase-3- like protease activity, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and
intracellular reduction of glutathione in human U-118MG glioblastoma cells treated with
fumonisin B1 [297].
Deoxynivalenol (also called DON or vomitoxin) is one of an array of trichothecene
mycotoxins produced by Fusarium graminearum and several other species of Fusarium that
cause Fusarium head blight (also called FHB or scab) of wheat, barley, and other grasses and
ear and stalk rot of corn. DON does not constitute a significant threat to public health. In a
few cases short-term nausea and vomiting have been recorded [298].
The protective effect of various extract of Vernonia amygdalina on breast and prostate
cancer has earlier been reported above. Mycotoxins such as Aflatoxin B1 are potent
causative agent of several forms of cancer and this result from oxidative damage on
macromolecules like DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Vegetables, fruits and
mushrooms have been reported to be reservoirs of antioxidants capable of scavenging and
chelating reactive oxygen species thus preventing and protecting against such diseases
arising from mycotoxin induced oxidative damage. For instance It was shown in a study
that a diet incorporated with VA protected weanling albino rats against aflatoxin B1-
induced hepatotoxicity [299]
Recent findings on the cause of cancer reveal that the damage caused by free radical to
DNA is one of the reasons for carcinogenesis. The Ocimum sanctum has been well known
for its antioxidant property with active ingredient such as eugenol and hence the plant
has been studied for its anticancer activity. The protective effect of alcoholic extract of the
leaves of
Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)
and aflatoxin B, (AFB(1)) induced skin tumorigenesis in a mouse model was reported[300].
The extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf was shown to provide protection against chemical
carcinogenesis in one or more of the following mechanisms: (i) by acting as an antioxidant;
(ii) by modulating phase I and II enzymes; (iii) by exhibiting antiproliferative activity [300].
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
Treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum at 50μg/ml in mice
bearing Sarcoma-180 solid tumors mediated a significant reduction in tumor volume and an
increase in lifespan.These findings conclude Ocimum sanctum extracts possess anticancer
activity [301].
Several studies have been reported to show that different types of fruits and vegetables are
valuable sources of nutraceuticals. According to several studies as noted above these fruits
and vegetables have high values of important nutrients and phytochemicals which exhibit
antioxidant functions hence many form of diseases arising from the consumption of
mycotoxin contaminated food can be protected. Lycopene, a carotenoid is present in many
fruits and vegetables; such as grapefruit, guava, watermelon ansd pawpaw however,
tomatoes and processed tomato products constitute the major source of lycopene [302].
Several studies have indicated that lycopene is an effective antioxidant and free radical
scavenger. Lycopene, because of its high number of conjugated double bonds, exhibits
higher singlet oxygen quenching ability compared to β-carotene or α-tocopherol [303]. In in
vitro systems, lycopene was found to inactivate hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen dioxide
[304, 305]. Using pulse radiolysis techniques, Mortesen et al. [306] demonstrated its ability to
scavenge nitrogen dioxide (NO2·), thiyl (RS·) and sulphonyl (RSO2·) radicals. Lycopene is
highly lipophilic and is most commonly located within cell membranes and other lipid
components. It is therefore expected that in the lipophylic environment lycopene will have
maximum ROS scavenging effects. Hsiao et al. [307] showed the scavenging activity of
lycopene on DPPH radical in rat brain homogenates and its ability to inhibit nitric oxide
formation in cultured microglia stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. They further reported the
protective effect of lycopene on ischemic brain injury in vivo.Epidemiological data strongly
imply that lycopene consumption and tomato products contribute to prostate cancer risk
reduction via different mechanisms which cooperate in reducing the proliferation of normal
and cancerous prostate epithelial cells thereby reducing DNA damage and improving
oxidative stress defense from free radicals arising from mycotoxins. . The mechanisms
include inhibition of prostatic IGF-I signaling, IL-6 expression, and androgen signaling
([308] Moreover, lycopene improves gap-junctional communication and induces phase II
drug metabolizing enzymes as well asoxidative defense genes. Lycopene was also
demonstrated to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK,
and the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB [309]
Mushrooms have been reported as useful in preventing diseases such are hypertension,
hypercholesterolemia, cancer and other diseases linked to reactive oxygen species damage
their extracts may act as biological response modifiers with anticancer activities. Though the
mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and
modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central.
A study on the protective effect of some edible mushrooms on aflatoxin B1 induction
revealed that mushroom at low doses of 100mg/Kg and 200mg/Kg body weight significantly
reduced aflatoxin B1 toxicity [310]. The Liver function enzymes, AST. ALT and marker of
kidney function, uric acid and creatine was shown to be reduced significantly on treatment
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 231
with the extract of mushroom species while the antioxidant superoxide dismustase was
significantly increased when compared to the aflatoxin B1 induced rats.
6. Conclusion
This chapter has reviewed only few vegetables, fruits and mushrooms with
chemopreventive and antioxidant properties in African which validates some of the
acclaimed traditional use. There is still a great deal of vegetables, fruits and mushrooms in
African whose antioxidant studies has been carried out both at the preliminary and
advanced stage. The consumption of these vegetables, fruits and mushrooms is capable of
preventing and protecting against some of the diseases arising from the ingestion of
mycotoxin contaminated foods in both humans and livestock.
Author details
R.U. Hamzah, A.A. Jigam, H.A. Makun, and E.C. Egwim
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
7. References
[1] Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge., J.M. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon
press, Oxford. Press: Oxford; 1989.
[2] Aruoma O. I. Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant
actions of bioactive components in food plants. Mut. Res. 2003; 523 – 524:9-2.
[3] Knekt, P.; Kumpulainen, J.; Järvinen, R.; Rissanen, H.; Heliövaara, M.; Raunanen, A.;
Hakulinen, T.; Aromaa, A.. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin.
Nutr., 2002; 75: 560-568
[4] Amin, I, Zamaliah, M. M, and Chin, W. F. (2004)Total Antioxidnat activity and phenolic
contented of selected vegetables. Food Chem: 87: 581-586.
[5] Sahlin, E., Savage, G.P. and Lister, C.E. Investigation of the antioxidant properties of
tomatoes after processing. Journal of Food composition and Analysis. 2004; 17: 635-647.
[6] Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Fourth Edition,
Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2007.
[7] Miller, R.A., Britigan, B.E. Role of oxidants in microbial pathophysiology. Clin.
Microbiol. Rev. 1997;1 0 ;1 – 18..
[8] Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative
diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993; 90:7915-22.
[9] Atiqur, Rahman, Mizanur, Rahman M, Md Mominul et al., 2008. Free radical
scavenging activity and phenolic content of Cassia sophera. L: Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7
[10] Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K. et al. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important
sources of dietary antioxidants. Nutr. 2003; 133(5):1286-1290.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[11] Odukoya, O.A., A.E. Thomas and A. Adepoju-Bello, 2001. Tannic acid equivalent and
cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plants. West Afr. J. Pharm., 15: 43-45.
[12] Atawodi SE (2005). Antioxidant potential of African medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol.
[13] Amin I, Zamaliah MM, Chin WF. (2004)Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content
in selected vegetables. Food Chem.; 87:581–586.
[14] Breene, W. (1990). Nutritional and medicinal value of speciality mushrooms. Journal of
Food Production 53, 883-894.
[15] Fasidi IO Studies on Volvariella esculenta mass singer, Cultivation on Agricultural
Wastes and Proximate Composition of Stored Mushrooms, Food Chemistry, 1996; 55:161
– 163.
[16] Okwulehie IC and Odunze ET Evaluation of the Myco-chemical and Mineral
Composition of Some Tropical Edible Mushroom. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and
Environment, 2004 6:1; 63-70.
[17] Bano ZS and Rajarathnam.( 1981). Studies on the Cultivation of Pleurotus Species.
Mushroom J., 101:243 – 245.
[18] Kurasawa S L, Sugahana J and Hayashi J Studies on Dietary Fibre of Mushroom and
Edible Wild Mushroom and Plants. Nut. Rep. Int.1982; 26:167-173.
[19] Ola, F.L. and G. Oboh, 2000. Nutritional Evaluation of Cassia siamea Leaves. J.
Technosci., 4: 1-3.
[20] Adejumo, T. O. and Awosanya, O. B. 2005. Proximate and mineral composition of four
ediblemushroom species from South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology
4 (10): 1084-1088.S
[21] Akpaso, M. I., Atangwho, I J., Akpantah, A., Fischer1, V. A. Igiri, A. O and Ebong, P. E.
Effect of Combined Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter Leaf) and Gongronema
latifolium (Utazi) on the Pancreatic β-Cells of Streptozotocin- British Journal of Medicine &
Medical Research 2011 1(1): 24-34.
[22] Yeap, S. K. ,.Ho, W Y. Beh, , B. K., Liang, W. S., Ky, H., Yousr1 A. N and Alitheen, B.
Vernonia amygdalina, an ethnoveterinary and ethnomedical used green vegetable with
multiple bioactivities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010; 4(25): 2787-2812
[23] Huffman MA, Seifu M . Observation on the illness and consumption of a possibly
medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina (Del.), by a wild chimpanzee in the Mahale
Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 1989; 30: 51-63.
[24] Ijeh, I. I. and Ejike. C.E. C. C. Current perspectives on the medicinal potentials of
Vernonia amygdalina Del Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2011; 5(7): 1051-1061.
[25] Igile, G. O., Olezek, W., Jurzysata, M., Burda, S., Fafunso, M., Fasanmade, A.A.
Flavonoids from Vernonia amygdalina and their antioxidant activities. Journal of
Agricultrual and Food Chemistry 1994; 42 (11): 2445 –2448.
[26] Iwu MM .Empirical investigation of dietary plants used in Igbo- Ethnomedicine. In:
Iwu MM. Plants in indigenous medicine and diet. Nina Etkined Redgrove Publishers
Co, New York, 1986: 131-50.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 233
[27] Farombi, E. O. and Owoeye, O.Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of
Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011
8; 2533-2555.
[28] Ayoola GA, Coker HAB, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweva K, Ezennia EC,
Atangbayila TO (2008). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some
selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop. J.
Pharm. Res., 7: 1019-1024.
[29] Owolabi MA, Jaja SI, Oyekanmi OO, Olatunji J Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity
and Lipid Peroxidation of the Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. J. Compl. Integr. Med.
2008; 5: 21.
[30] Erasto P, Grierson DS, Afolayan AJ. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and the fatty acid
profile of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina growing in South Africa. Food Chem.2007b;
104: 636-642.
[31] Adesanoye, O.A.; Farombi, E.O. Hepatoprotective effects of Vernonia amygdalina
(astereaceae) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2010, 62, 197-
[32] Iwalokun BA, Efedede BU, Alabi-Sofunde JA, Oduala T, Magbagbeola OA, Akinwande
A. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Vernonia amygdalina on
acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. J. Med. Food 2006; 9: 524-539.
[33] Oloyede, G.Kand Ajila J. M . Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Extracts: A Source Of
Noncytotoxic Antioxidant Agents. EJEAFChe 2012; 11 (4): 339-350.
[34] Aruoma OI (1993). Experimental tools in free radical Biochemistry in: O:I. Aruoma (ed)
free radical in tropical disease. Harwood Academic Publishers, U.S.A pp 233 – 267.
[35] Genestra M (2007). Oxyl radicals, redox-sensitive signalling cascades and antioxidants.
Cell Signal 19, 1807–1819.
[36] Nwanjo HU (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernoniaamygdalina on plasma
lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci., 20: 39-42.
[37] Gutpa, S., Shukla, R., Prabhu, K.M., Agarwal, S., Rusia, U. and Murthy, P.S. (2002).
Acute and chronic toxicitystudies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from
water extract of bark of Ficus bengalensis Ind. J.Cli. Biochem., 17: 56-63
[38] Atangwho IJ, Ebong PE, Egbung GE, Eteng MU, Eyong EU (2007a).Effect of Vernonia
amygdalina Del. on liver function in alloxaninduced hyperglycaemic rats. Journal of
Pharmacy and Bioresources,4, R Retrieved January 13, 110, from
[39] Ebong PE, Atangwho IJ, Eyong EU, Egbung GE (2008) The antidiabetic efficacy of
combined extracts from two continental plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) (Neem) and
Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) (African bitter leaf). Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 4: 239-244.
[40] Jisaka M, Ohigashi H, Takegawa K, Hirota M, Irie R, Huffman MA, Koshmizu K
(1993a). Steroid gluccosides from Vernonia amygdalina, a possible chimpanzee medicinal
plant. Phytochem., 34: 409-413
[41] Osinubi AAA (2007). Effects of Vernonia amygdalina and chlorpropamide on blood
glucose. Med.J. Islam. World Acad. Sci., 16: 115-119.
[42] American Cancer Society (ACS) (2010). Cancer facts and letters. Atlanta GA, pp. 9-11.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[43] Parkin OM, Bray FI, Devesa SS (2001) Cancer burden in the year 2000: the global
picture. Eur. J. Cancer, 37(8): 54-66.
[44] Jisaka M, Ohigashi H, Takagaki T, Nozaki H, Tada T, Hiroto M, Irie R, Huffman MA,
Nishida T, Kagi M, Koshimizu K (1992). Bitter steroid glucosides, vernoniosides A1, A2,
A3 and related B1 from a possible medicinal plant - Vernonia amygdalina used by wild
chimpanzees.Tetrahedron, 48: 625-632.
[45] Wall ME, Wani MC, Manikumar G, Abraham P, Taylor H, Hughes TJ, Warner J,
MacGivney R (1998). Plant antimutagenic agents,flavonoids. J. Nat. Prod., 51: 1084-1089.
[46] Izevbigie EB (2003). Discovery of water-soluble anticancer agents (edotides) from a
vegetable found in Benin City, Nigeria. Exp. Biol. Med., 228: 293-298.
[47] Oyugi DA, Luo X, Lee KS, Hill B, Izevbigie EB (2009). Activity markers of the anti-
breast carcinoma cell growth fractions of Vernonia amygdalina extracts. Exp. Biol.
Med., 234: 410-417.
[48] Khalafalla MM, Abdellatef E, Daffalla HD, Nassrallah AA, Aboul-Enein KM, Lightfoot
DA, Cocchetto A, El-Shemy HA (2009). Antileukemia activity from root cultures of
Vernonia amygdalina. J. Med. Plants Res., 3: 556-562.
[49] Froelich S, Onegi B, Kakooko A, Schubert C, Jenette-Siems K (2006). In vitro
antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of ethnobotanically selected east African plants
used for the treatment of malaria. Planta Medica, 72: https://www.thiemeconnect.
de/ejournals/abstract/plantamedica/doi/10.1055/s-2006- 949815.
[50] Izevbigie EB, Byrant JL, Walker A (2004). A novel natural inhibitor of extracellular
signal-regulated kinases and human breast cancer cell growth. Exp. Biol. Med., 229: 163-
[51] A.A.A. Kayode and O.T. Kayode, 2011. Some Medicinal Values of Telfairia occidentalis: A
Review. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1: 30-38.
[52] FAO. Some medicinal plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Forestry Paper, 67.
Rome 1989.
[53] Akoroda, M.O., 1990. Ethnobotany of Telfairia occidentalis (cucurbitaceae) among Igbos
of Nigeria. Econ. Bot., 44: 29-39.
[54] Gbile, Z.O., 1986. Ethnobotany, Taxonomy and Conservation of Medicinal Plants. In:
The State of Medicinal Plants Research in Nigeria, Sofowora, A. (Ed.). University of
Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[55] Oboh, G., 2005. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Telfairia
occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress. J. Med.
Food, 8: 560-563.
[56] Oboh, G. and A.A. Akindahunsi, 2004. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and
antioxidant activity of sun-dried commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in
Nigeria. Nutr. Health, 18: 29-36.
[57] Oboh, G., E.E. Nwanna and C.A. Elusiyan, 2006. Antioxidant and antimicrobial
properties of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted pumpkin) leaf extracts. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol.,
1: 167-175.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 235
[58] Nwanna, E.E. and G. Oboh, 2007. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of
polyphenol extracts from Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaves on
acetaminophen induced liver damage. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 2682-2687.
[59] Adaramoye, O.A., J. Achem, O.O. Akintayo and M.A. Fafunso, 2007. Hypolipidemic
effect of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. J. Med.
Food, 10: 330-336.
[60] Emeka, E.J.I. and O. Obidoa, 2009. Some biochemical, haematological and histological
responses to a long term consumption of Telfairia occidentalis-supplemented diet in rats.
Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 1199-1203.
[61] Kayode, O.T., A.A. Kayode and A.A. Odetola, 2009. Therapeutic effect of telfairia
occidentalis on protein energy malnutrition-induced liver damage. Res. J. Med. Plant, 3:
[62] Kayode, A.A.A., O.T. Kayode and A.A. Odetola, 2010. Telfairia occidentalis ameliorates
oxidative brain damage in malnorished rats. Int. J. Biol. Chem., 4: 10-18.
[63] Oboh, G., 2005. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Telfairia
occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress. J. Med.
Food, 8: 560-563.
[64] Oboh, G. and A.A. Akindahunsi, 2004. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and
antioxidant activity of sun-dried commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in
Nigeria. Nutr. Health, 18: 29-36.
[65] Oboh, G., 2004. Prevention of garlic-induced hemolytic aneamia by some tropical green
leafy vegetables. Biomed. Res., 15: 134-137.
[66] Baynes, J.W., 1991. Perspective in diabetes: Role of oxidative stress in development
complications in diabetes. Diabetes, 40: 405-412.
[67] Amic, D., D. Davidovic-Amic, D. Beslo and N. Trinajstic, 2003. Structure-radical
scavenging activity relationship pf flavonoids. Croatia Chem. Acta, 76: 55-61.
[68] Blazovics, A., A. Lugasi, K. Szentmihalyi and A. Kery, 2003. Reducing power of the
natural polyphenols of Sempervivum tectorum in vitro and in vivo. Acta Biol. Szeg., 47: 99-
[69] Salawu O. S, Akindahunsi, A.A. and Comuzzo, P. chemical composition and invitro
antioxidant Activities of some Nigerian vegetables. Journal of Pharmacology and
Toxicology 2006(1)5: 429-437
[70] Duke, J.A., 1992. Handbook of Biological Active Phytochemicals and Their Activity. 1st
Edn., CRC Press, New York, ISBN-10: 0849336708.
[71] Moreira, A. S., V. Spitzer, E.E. Schapoval and E.P. Schenkel. Anti-inflammatory activity
of extracts and fractions from the leaves of Gochnatia polymorpha. Phytother. Res.,
[72] Hudson, E. A., P. A. Dinh, T. Kokubun, M.S. Simmonds and A. Gescher, 2000.
Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that
inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark.
Prev., 9: 1163-1170.
[73] Soleas, G.J., Grass, P. D. Josphy, D.M. Goldberg and E.P. Diamandis. A comparison of
the anticarcinogenic properties of four red wine polyphenols. Clin. Biochem;35: 119-124
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[74] Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X and Liu RH (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of
common fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 7449-7454.I
[75] Chu YF, Sun J, Wu X and Liu RH (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of
common vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 6910-6916.
[76] Eseyin, O.A., A.C. Igboasoiyi, E. Oforah, P. Ching and B.C. Okoli, 2005. Effects of leaf
extract of Telfairia occidentalis on some biochemical parameters in rats. Global J. Pure
Applied Sci., 11: 77-79.
[77] Kayode, A.A.A. and Kayode, O.T. . Some Medicinal Values of Telfairia occidentalis: A
Review. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011; 1: 30-38.
[78] Salman,T.M, Olayaki, L. A. and. Oyeyemi, W. A. Aqueous extract of Telfairia
occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar and increases haematological and reproductive
indices in male ratsAfrican Journal of Biotechnology . 2008; 7 (14:) 2299-2303.
[79] Alada, A.R.A., 2000. The haematological effect of Telfairia occidentalis diet preparation.
Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 3: 185-186.
[80] Fasuyi, A.O., 2006. Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable leaf meals chemical
characterization and functional properties. Afri. J. Biotechnol., 5: 49-53.
[81] Ganong WF (2005). A review of medical physiology. Appleton and Lange; p. 496.
[82] Fasuyi AO, Nonyerem AD . Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of
Telfairia Occidentalis leaf meal as protein supplement in broiler starter diets. Afr. J.
Biotechnol.2007; 6(8): 1055-1063.
[83] Eseyin O. A. Ebong, P., Eyong , E. U., Umoh,E Awofisayo, O. Comparative
Hypoglycaemic Effects of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaf and Seed of
Telfairia Occidentalis. Turk J. Pharm. Sci 2010;. 7 (1),:29-34, 2010.
[84] Tikkiwal M, Ajmera RL, Mathur NK . Effect of zinc administration on seminal zinc and
fertility of oligospermic males. Indian. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1987;31; 30-34.
[85] Dawson EB, Harris WA, Rankin WE, Charpentier LA, McGanity WJ.Effect of ascorbic
acid on male fertility. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1987; 498: 312-323.
[86] Vezina D, Mauffette F, Roberts KD, Bleau G . Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in
infertile men. Effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution.
Biol. Trace. Elem. Res. 1996; 53: 65- 83.
[87] Scibona M, Meschini P, Capparelli S, Pecori C, Rossi P, Menchini Fabris GF . L-arginine
and male infertility. Minerva. Urol. Nefrol, 1994;. 46: 251-253.
[88] Ogbe, R. J.,, Adoga, G. I. and Abu, A. H. Antianaemic potentials of some plant extracts
on phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemia in rabbit. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research
2010; 4(8): 680-684.
[89] Okochi, V.I., J. Okpuzor and L.A. Alli, . Comparision of an african herbal formula with
commercially available haematinics. Afr. J. Biotechnol.,2003; 2: 237-240.
[90] Diallo, A., M. Gbeassor, A. Vovor, K. Eklu-Gadegbeku and K. Aklikokou et al.,. Effects
of Tectona grandis on phenylhydrazine induced anaemia in rats. Fitoterapia, 2008;` 79:
[91] Okoli, B.E. and C.M. Mgbeogu, 1983. Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis: West African
vegetable crop. Econ. Bot.,1983; 37: 145-149.
[92] Mindel E. H, Herb Bible. Simon and Schuster, New York (1992) pp. 55-59. 2. J.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 237
[93] Dalziel, J. M. Useful Plant of West Tropical Africa, Crowns Agents for Overseas
Government, London, (1956).
[94] F. El-Said, E. A. Sofowora, S. A Malcolm and A. Hofer, An Investigation into the
Efficacy of Ocimum Gratissimum (Linn) as Used in Nigerian Native Medicine. Planta
Medica., 17, 195 (1969).
[95] F. D. Onajobi, Smooth Muscle Contracting Lipid Soluble Principles in Chromatographic
Fractions of Ocimum Gratissimum, J. Ethnopharmacol., 18, 3-11(1986).
[96] Wome B. Febrifuge and antimalarial plants from Kisangani, upper Zaire. Bulletin de la
Societe Royale de botanique de Belgique, 115, 1982:243–250.
[97] Giron LM, Freire V, Alonzo A and Vaceres A.Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal
flora used by the cribs of Guatemala. J. Ethnopharmacol., 34, 1991:173– 187.
[98] Omale J., Olajide J. E. and Okafor P.N. Comparative Evaluation Of Antioxidant
Capacity And Cytotoxicity Of Two Nigerian Ocimum Species Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 6(4),
2008, 1742-1751
[99] Viorica H. Polyphenols of Ocimum basilicum L.Chujul Med., 60, 1987:340–344.
[100] Fatope MO and Takeda Y. The constituents of the leaves of Ocimum basilicum. Planta
Medica,54, 1988: p-190.
[101] Akinmoladun, A C. Ibukun, E. O., Afor, E., Obuotor E. M., and Farombi E.O.
Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum
gratissimum. Scientific Research and Essay Vol. 2 (5), pp. 163-166, May 2007.
[102] Dubey NK Tiwari TN Mandin D Andriamboavonjy H Chaumont JP Antifungal
properties of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (ethyl cinnamate chemotype). Fitoterapia
2000; 7(15): 567-569.
[103] Sulistiarini D, Oyen LPA, Nguyen Xuan Dung Ocimum gratissimum L. In: Plant
Resources of South-East Asia. No. 19: Essentialoils Plants. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia. 1999;. 140-142.
[104] Holets FB, Ueda-Nakamura T, Filho BPD, Cortez DAG, Morgado-Diaz JA, Nakamura
CV (2003). Effect of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on the trypanosomatid
Herpetomonas samuelpessoai. Act. Protonzool 42: 269-276.
[105] Awah F. M. and Verla,A. W. Antioxidant activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and
phenolic contents of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract. Journal of Medicinal Plants
Research 2010;4(24), pp. 2479-2487
[106] Uhegbu, F.O. Elekwa,I., Akubugwo, E. I. Godwin C. C. and Iweala, E E.J. Analgesic
and Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.)
Research journal of medicinal plant 2012; 6[1]:108-115.
[107] Wickens GE, Lowe P .The Baobabs: Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia,
Springer; 2008.
[108] Venter F, Venter J (1996). Baobab In Making the most of indigenous trees. Briza
publications, Pretoria, South Africa, 196; 26-27.
[109] Sibibe M, Williams JT .Baobab – Adansonia digitata. Fruits for the future. Int. Centre
Underutil. Crops, Southampton, UK, 2002;
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[110] Yazzie D.; VanderJagt D. J.; Pastuszyn A.; Okolo A.; Glew R. H., (1994), The amino
acid and mineral content of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) leaves. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis, 7, (3), 189-193
[111] Gebauer J, El-Siddig K, Ebert G (2002). Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): A review on a
multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 67: 155-
[112] Sidibe, M., Scheuring, J.F., Tembely, D., Sidibé, M.M., Hofman, P., Frigg, M. (1996).
Baobab – Homegrown Vitamin C for Africa. Agroforestry Today, 8 (2), 13-15.
[113] Wickens, G.E. Chapter 15: The uses of the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Africa. In:
Taxonomic aspects of African economic botany, editor, Kunkel, G., 1979.
[114] Vertuani S, Braccioli E, Buzzoni V, Manfredini S (2002). Antioxidant capacity of
Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves. Acta Phytotherapeutica, 86: 2
[115] Vimalanathan S, Hudson JB (2009). Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in
Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds. J. Med. Plants Res., 3: 576-582.
[116] Masola SN, Mosha RD, Wambura PN (2009). Assessment of antimicrobial activity of
crude extracts of stem and root barks from Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae) (African
baobab). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8: 5076-5083.
[117] Anani K, Hudson JB, de Souzal C, Akpagana K, Tower GHN, Amason JT, Gbeassor M
(2000). Investigation of medicinal plants of Togo for antiviral and antimicrobial
activities. Pharm. Biol., 38: 40-45.
[118] Shri V T, Ramprasath. D, Karunambigai.K. Nagavalli. D, Hemalatha. S . Studies of
Pharmacognostical Profiles of Adansonia digitata Linn.Ancient Science of Life 2004; 24(2).
[119] Scheuring J.F., Sidibé M. and Frigg M. (1999). Malian agronomic research identifies
local baobab tree as source of vitamin A and vitamin C. In Sight of Life Newsletter pp 21-
[120] Sena L.P., Vanderjagt D.J., Rivera C., Tsin A.T.C., Muhamadu I., Mahamadou O.,
Millson M., Pastuszyn A. and Glew R.H. (1998). Analysis of nutritional components of
eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 52 (1), 17-
[121] Nordeide M.B., Hatloy A., Folling M., Lied E. and Oshaug A. (1996). Nutrient
composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an
agricultural district, K outiala, in Southern Mali. International Journal of Food Sciences and
Nutrition 47 (6), 455-468.
[122] Chadare, F.J., Linnemann, A.R., Hounhouigan, J.D., Nout, M.J.R., Van Boekel, M.A.J.S.
(2009). Baobab Food Products: A Review on their Composition and Nutritional Value.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49, 254-274.
[123] Cook J.A., Vanderjagt D.J., Dasgupta A., Mounkaila G., Glew R.S., Blackwell W. and
Glew R.H. (1998). Use of the Trolox assay to estimate the antioxidant content of
seventeen edible wild plants of Niger. Life sciences 63, 105-110.
[124] Tarwadi K. and Agte V. (2005). Antioxidant and micronutrient quality of fruit and root
vegetables from the Indian subcontinent and their comparative performance with green
leafy vegetables and fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85, 1469-1476.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 239
[125] Karumi Y, Augustine AI, Umar IA (2008). Gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract
of Adansonia digitata leaf on ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. J. Biol. Sci. 8: 225-228.
[126] Hirokawa, T., Boon-Chieng, S. and Mitaku, S. (1998) SOSUI: Classification and
Secondary Structure Prediction System for Membrane Proteins. Bioinformatics
(formerly CABIOS), 14(4), 378-379.
[127] Hernandez, J.A., A. Jimenez, P. Mullineaux and F. Sevilla, 2000. Tolerance of pea
(Pisum sativum L.) to long term salt stress is associated with induction of antioxidant
defences. Plant Cell Environ., 23: 853-862.
[128] Penisi, A., Piezzi, R., 1999. Effect of dehydroelucidine on mucus production. A
quantitative study. Digestion Disease Sciences 44, 708–712.
[129] Bagchi D., Carry, O., Tran, W., Krolin, T.,Bagchi, D. J.,Garry, A., Bagchi, M.,Mitra, S.,
and Stohs, S. Stresss, diet and alcohol induced oxidation gastrointestinal mucosal injury
in rats and protection by bismuth and subsalicylate. J.Applied Toxicol.,1998;18(1): 3-13.
[130] Arrigori, O. and De Tullio, M. C. Ascorbic acid: Much more than just an antioxidant.
Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 2002;1569(1-3): 1-9.
[131] Nwafor, P. A., K. D. Effraim and T. W. Jacks.Gastroprotecitve effects of Aqueous
extract of Kaya sinegalensis on indomethecin induced ulceration in rats. West Afri. J.
Pharmacol.Drug Res.,1996; 12:45-50.
[132] Samra, I., Piliz, S., Ferdag ,C.(2007):Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Corchorus
olitorius L. (Molekhia extracts) international Journal of natural and Engineering Sci. 1 (3) 39-
[133] Tindall, H.D. (1983.) Vegetables in the tropics. Macmillan, London. Pp. 325-379
[134] Oke,O.I.(1968): Chemical changes in some Nigerian vegetables during growth.
ExperimentalAgriculture 4: 345-349.
[135] Zakaria, Z.A., Somchit, M.N., Zaiton, H., Mat-Jais, A.M., Suleiman, M.R., Farah,
W.,Nazaratul- Marawana, R. and Fatimah, C.A.(2006): The invitro antibacterial activity
of Corchorous olitorius extracts. Int. J . of Pharmacology 2(2) 213-215.
[136] Ndlovu, J. and Afolayan, A.J.(2008): Nutritional analysis of the south African wild
vegetable Corchorus olitorius L. Asian J of Plant Science 7 (6) 615-618.
[137] Zeghichi, S.S., Kallithkara and Simopoulos, A.P. (2003): Nutritional composition of
molehiya (Corchorus olitorius) and Stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum) in: plants in human
health and nutrition policy (eds. Simopoulus A.P. and C. Gopalan). Karger, Basel pp 1-
[138] Aiyeloja AA, Bello OA (2006). Ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria:
A case study of Enugu state. Educ. Res. Rev., 1 (1): 16-22.
[139] Fondio L, Grubben GJH (2004). Corchorus olitorius L. In: Grubben GJH, Denton OA
(Editors). PROTA 2: Vegetables/Légumes. [CD-Rom].PROTA, Wageningen,
[140] .Fasinmirin JT, Olufayo AA (2009). Yield and water use efficiency of jute mallow
Corchorus olitorius under varying soil water management strategies. J. Med. Plants Res.,
3(4): 186-191.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[141] S.O. Salawu and A.A. Akindahunsi. Protective Effect of Some Tropical Vegetables
Against CCl4 -Induced Hepatic Damage Journal of Medicinal Food. June 2007, 10(2):
[142] Soleas, G. J., Grass, L.,Josphy, P. D., Goldberg, D. M. and Diamandis, E. P. A
comparison of the anticarcinogenic properties of four red wine polyphenols. Clin.
Biochem, 35: 119-124.
[143] Moreira, A. S, Spitzer, V.,Schapoval, E. E. and Schenkel, E. P. Anti-inflammatory
activity of extractsand fractions from the leaves of Gochnatia polymorpha. Phytother.
Res. 2000;14: 638-640.
[144] Kimata, M. , Inagaki, N and Nagai. Effect of luteolin and other flavonoids on IGE-
mediated allergic reactions. Planta Med., 2000; 66: 25-29.
[145] Oboh, G · Raddatz, H · Henle, T Characterization of the antioxidant properties of
hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaf. Epub 2009;60
[146] Das AK, Bag S, Sahu R, Dua TK, Sinha MK, Gangopadhyay M, Zaman K, Dewanjee S.
Protective effect of Corchorus olitorius leaves on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in
experimental rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 ;48(1):326-35.
[147] Ugochukwu NH, Babady NE. Antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous and ethanolic
extracts of Gongronema latifolium leaves on glucose and glycogen metabolism in livers of
normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2003;73(15):1925–1938. doi:
[148] Ugochukwu NH, Babady NE, Cobourne M, Gasset SR. The effect of Gongronema
latifolium leaf extract on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress of hepatocytes of
diabetic rats. J Biosci. 2003;28:1–5.
[149] Sonibare, M.A. & Gbile, Z.O. Ethnobotanical survey of anti-asthmatic plants in south
western Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative
Medicine 2008; 5(4): 340–345.
[150] Burkill, H.N., The useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Kew, published by Royal
Botanic Gardens. 2nd Edition,1985; 456-596.
[151] Morebise, O., Fafunso, M.A., Makinde, J.M., Olajide, O.A. & Awe, E.O.
Antiinflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium. Phytotherapy
Research 2002; 16(1): 75–77.
[152] Atangwho IJ, Ebong PE, Eyong EU, Williams IO, Eteng MU, Egbung GE (2009b).
Comparative chemical composition of leaves of some antidiabetic medicinal plants:
Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium Afr. J. Biotech.,
8: 4685- 4689.
[153] Schneider C, Rotscheidt K, Breitmaier E. 4 new pregnane glycosides from Gongronema
latifolium (Asckepiadaceae) Liebigs Annalen Der Chemie. 1993;10:1057–1062.
[154] Morebise O, Fafunso MA. Antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities of saponin extracts
from two Nigerian edible medicinal plants. Biokemistri. 1998;8(2):69–7.
[155] Etim, O.E., Akpan, E.J. & Usoh, I.F. Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective
effect of Gongronema latifolium. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;
21(3): 269–274.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 241
[156] Shi J, Asiaki K, Ikawa Y and Wake K.. Evidence of hepatocyte apoptosis in rat liver
after the administration of carbontetrachloride. J. Med. Res.2003; 4: 1-8.
[157] Chung HS, Chong LC, Lee SK, Shamon LA, Breemen RBV, Mehta RG, Farnsworth NR,
Pezzuto JN and Kinghorn AD Flavonoids constituents of chlorinzan diffused with
potential cancer chemopreventive activity. J. Agric. Food Chem.,1999; 47:35-4.
[158] Wettstern M, Gerol W and Hausinger D.Hypoxia and CCl4-induced liver injury, but
not acidosis, impair metabolism cysteinyl. Hepatol.,1990; 11: 866-873
[159] Recknagel RO. Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Pharmacol. Rev., 1987;19: 145-195
[160] Ita SO, Akpanyung EO, Umoh BI, Ben EE, Ukafia SO. Acetaminophen induced hepatic
toxicity: protective role of Ageratum conyzoides. Pak J Nutr 2009; 8(7): 928-932. .
[161] Nnodim J. Emejulu A. The protective role of Gongronema latifolium in acetaminophen
induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
201); 5151-5154.
[162] Raucy JL, Lasker JM, Lieber CS, Black M. Apap activation by human liver cytochromes
P4502EI and P4501A2. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989; 271: 270-283.
[163] Kumarappan C, Vijayakumar M, Thilagam E, Balamurugan M, Thiagarajan M, Senthil
S, et al. Protective and curative effects of polyphenolic extracts from Ichnocarpus
frutescense leaves on experimental hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride and
tamoxifen. Ann Hepatol 2011; 10(1): 63-72.
[164] Akuodor, G.C., M.S. Idris-Usman, C.C. Mbah, U.A. Megwas and J.L. Akpan et al.
Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ethanolic leaf extract of
Gongronema latifolium in rodents. Afr. J. Biotechnol.2010; 9: 2316-2321.
[165] Eguyoni, A., Moody, J.O. & Eletu, O.M., 2009. Anti-sickling activies of two
ethnomedicinal plant recipes used for the management of sickle cell anaemia in Ibadan,
Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(1): 20–25.
[166] Etetim, E.N., Useh, M.F. & Okokon, J.E., 2008. Pharmacological screening and
evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of Gongronema latifolium (utazi) against
Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice. Nigerian Journal of Health and
Biomedical Sciences 7(2): 51–55.
[167] Eyo E and Abel U (1983): Chemical composition of amino – acid content of Gnetum
Africanum leaves, Nig J. Nutr. Sci, 4, 52 – 57.
[168] Mialoundama, F. 1993. Nutritional and socio-economic value of Gnetum leaves in
Central African forest. In Hladik, C.M. et al., Tropical forests, people and food: Biocultural
interactions and applications to development. Carnforth, UK: Parthenon Publishing Group.
[169] Doyle, J. A. Molecules, morphology, fossils and the relationship of Angiosperms and
Gnetales. Mol. Phylogenet, Evol., 448-462.
[170] Burkill, H.M. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2: Families E-I. Kew. Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1194;90-94.
[171] Ndam M,J.P Nkefor and P. Blackmore(2000): Domestication of Gnetum africanum and
G.buchholzianum, an over exploited wild forests vegetable of the Equato – Congolian
Region. In press XVIth AETFAT proceeding.
[172] Bouguet, A. 1969. Féticheurs et medicines traditionnelles du Congo (Brazzaville),Paris:
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[173] Watt, J.M.A & M.G. Breyer-Brandwijk. 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of
Southern and Eastern Africa. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone.
[174] Akintola A. O, Ayoola P.B, and Ibikunle, G.J Antioxidant Activity of Two Nigerian
Green Leafy Vegetables. Journal Of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2012.;14:
15 1-5.
[175] Moskotivz J, Yim K.A, Choke P.B (2002): Free radicals and disease. Arch Biochem.
Biophys, volume 397, pp: 354-59.
[176] Iweala, E.E.J., F.O. Uhegbu and O. Obidoa, 2009. Biochemical and histological changes
associated with long term consumption of Gnetum africanum Welw. Leaves in Rats.
Asian J. Biochem., 4: 125-132.
[177] Iweala, E. J. and Osundiya O. A. (2010). ). Biochemical, Haematological and
Histological Effects of Dietary supplementation with leaves of Gnetum africanum welw
on paracetamol induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. International Journal of pharmacology
(6): 872-879.
[178] Feskanich, D., Ziegler, R. G., Michaud, D. S., Giovannucci, E. L., Speizer, F. E., Willett,
W. C., et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung
cancer among men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2000;92:1812–
[179] Gordon, M. H. (1996). Dietary antioxidants in disease prevention. Natural Product
Reports, 265–273.
[180] Shi, H. L., Noguchi, N., & Niki, E. Introducing natural antioxidants. In J. Pokorny et al.
(Eds.), Antioxidants in food: practical applications. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. and CRC
[181] Fleuriet, A., & Macheix, J. J.. Phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables. In C. A. Rice-
Evans & L. Packer (Eds.), Flavonoids in health and disease. Marcel Dekker Inc..2003.
[182] Klein, B. P., & Kurilich, A. C. Processing effects on dietary antioxidants from plant
foods. HortScience,2000; 35(4): 580-584.
[183] Jimenez-Escrig, A., Rincon, M., Pulido, R., & Saura-Calixto, F. Guava fruit (Psidium
guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber. Journal of Agricultural and
Food Chemistry 2001; 49: 5489–5493.
[184] Leong, L. P., & Shui, G. (2002). An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in
Singapore markets. Food Chemistry, 76, 69–75.
[185] Someya, S., Yoshiki, Y., & Okubo, K. (2002). Antioxidant compounds from bananas
(Musa Cavendish). Food Chemistry, 79, 351–354.
[186] Okujagu, T. F., Etatuvie Sam O., Ifeyinwa E., Jimoh B., Nwokeke. Book of abstract of
published Research finding on Nigerian Medicinal plant and traditional medicine
practice. 2005; 1: 90.
[187] Dey, Kanny Lall: The indigenous drugs of India - short descriptive notices of the
principal medicinal plants met with in British India. 2nd edition. Thacker, Spink & Co.
1896. Calcutta.
[188] Mercadante AZ, Steck Z, Pfander H. Carotenoids from guava (Psidium guajava L.):
isolation and structure elucidation. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:145-51.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 243
[189] Misra K, Seshadri TR. Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava.
Phytochemistry 1968; 7:641-45.
[190] Arima, H.; Danno, G.: Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from guava (Psidium
guajava L.) and their structural elucidation. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry.
2002;66(8) 1727-1730.
[191] Suntornsuk, L. Quantitation of vitamin C content in herbal juice using direct titration.
J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2002;28(5) : 849 -855.
[192] Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne D (2006).
Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant
activity from guava fruit extracts. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19: 669-675.
[193] Lim Y.Y., Lim, T.T., and Tee J.J.. Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A
comparative study. Food Chemistry 2007); 103:1003–1008.
[194] Jimenez-Escrig, A.. Guava fruit (Psidium Guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant
Dietary fiber. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 2002;49(11): 5489-93.
[195] Rice RP, Rice LW, Tindall HD (1987). Pawpaw. In: Fruits and vegetable production in
Africa. A Textbook. Macmillan publishers ltd, London.1987, p170.
[196] Dukes, J.O., (1992). Handbook of medicinal herbs, CRC Press, N.Y., pp: 11-30, 102.
[197] Oyoyede, O. L. Chemical profile of unripe pulp of carica papaya. Pak. J. Nutri. 2005;
496: 379-381.
[198] Wall.,M .M. Ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.)
and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii.Journal of Food Composition
and Analysis; 2006(19); 434–445.
[199] Nitsawang S, Hatti-Kaul R, Kanasawuda P 2006. Purification of papain from Carica
papaya latex: aqueous two-phase extraction versus two-step salt precipitation. Enzyme
Microb Technol 39: 1103-1107.
[200] Neuwinger HD. African Traditional Medicine: A Dictionary of Plant Use and
Applications. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Gmbh Scientific Publishers; 2000
[201] Iwu, Maurice. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;
[202] Novy JW. Medicinal plants of the eastern region of Madagascar. J Ethnopharmacol.
Jan 1997;55(2):119-126
[203] Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlietinck AJ. Antiamoebic and
phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol.
[204] Setiawan, B., Sulaeman, A., Giraud, D. W., & Driskell, J. A. (2001). Carotenoid content
of selected Indonesian fruits. Journal of Food Composition Analysis, 14, 169–196..
[205] Oloyede O., Franco, J., Roos Dl, Rocha, J., Athayde, M. Boligon A. Antioxidative
Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Unripe Pulp of Carica Papaya In Mice 2011; 1 (3):
[206] Koocheki, A., S.M.A. Razavi, E. Milani, T.M. Monghadam, S. Alamatiyan and S.
Izadkhah..Physical properties of watermelon seed as a function of moisture content and
variety. Int. Agrophysics, 2007; 21: 349-359.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[207] Vaughan JG, Geissler C. The new Oxford book of food plant (second edition), Oxford
University press. 2009; Pp 348.
[208] Janiene E . Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)Matsun. & Nakai. http://www.FAO/Watermelon
citan 2010
[209] Florabase. Flora of western Australia, Plant description by Amanda Spooner, James
Carpenter, GillianSmith and Kim Spence 2007,
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/7370. Accessed on 15/12/2011.
[210] Plants for a future. http://www.ptaf.org/database/plants.php/Citrullus+lanatus
Accessed on 06/12/2011.
[211] Schaefer H, Renner SS. Phylogenetic relationships in order cucurbitales and a new
classification of the gourd family cucurbitaceae. Taxon. 2011; 60(1): 122-138
[212] Edwards AJ, Vinyard BT, Wiley ER et al. Consumption of watermelon juice increases
plasma concentrations of lycopene and beta-carotene in humans. J Nutr
[213] Collins JK, Wu G, Perkins-Veazie P, Spears K, Claypool PL, Baker RA, Clevidence BA.
Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults.
Nutrition. 2007;23(3):261-6.
[214] Perkins-Veazie P, Collins JK. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage. J
Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(16):5868-74.
[215] Jian L, Lee AH, Binns CW. Tea and lycopene protect against prostate cancer. Asia Pac J
Clin Nutr. 2007; 1:453-7.
[216] Erhardt JG, Meisner C, Bode JC, Bode C. Lycopene, beta-carotene, and colorectal
adenomas. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 ;78(6):1219-24.
[217] Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press;
[218] Kashman Y, Neeman I, Lifshitz A. New compounds from avocado pear. Tetrahedron
[219] Oberlies NH, Rogers LL, Martin JM, McLaughlin JL. Cytotoxic and insecticidal
constituents of the unripe fruit of Persea americana. J Nat Prod 1998;61:781-5.
[220] Rodriguez-Saona C, Millar JG, Trumble JT. Isolation, identification, and biological
activity of isopersin: a new compound from avocado idioblast oil cells. J Nat Prod
[221] Kawagishi H, Fukumoto Y, Hatakeyama M, He P, Arimoto H, Matsuzawa T, et al.
Liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (Persea americana). J Agric Food
Chem 2001;49:2215-21.
[222] Ojewole JA, Kamadyaapa DR, Gondwe MM et al. Cardiovascular effects of Persea
americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.
Cardiovasc J Afr. 2007;18(2):69-76.
[223] Rosenblat G, Meretski S, Segal J et al. Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from
avocado suppresses inflammatory response and provides non-sunscreen protection
against UV-induced damage in skin cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 245
[224] Naveh E, Werman MJ, Sabo E et al. Defatted Avocado Pulp Reduces Body Weight and
Total Hepatic Fat But Increases Plasma Cholesterol in Male Rats Fed Diets with
Cholesterol. J. Nutr., 2002; 132: 2015 - 2018.
[225] Guzmán-Gerónimo RI and Dorantes L. Fatty acids profile and microstructure of
avocado puree after microwave heating. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008;58(3):298-302.
[226] Batista Cadeno, A., Cerezal Mezquita, P. and Funglay, V. (1993). E.I. Aguacate (persea
Americana) Nutritional Composition of Avocado Pear, (63):63-69
[227] Donnarumma G, Paoletti I, Buommino E et al. AV119, a Natural Sugar from Avocado
gratissima, Modulates the LPS-Induced Proinflammatory Response in Human
Keratinocytes. Inflammation. 2010
[228] Ding H, Han C, Guo D et al. Selective induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cell
lines by avocado extracts via a ROS-mediated mechanism. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(3):348-
[229] Tel G, Apaydın M, Duru ME, Öztürk M. Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibition
Activities of Three Tricholoma Species with Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents: The
Edible Mushrooms from Anatolia. Food Anal. Methods 2012;5:495–504.
[230] Chang ST, Miles PG. Mushrooms biology—a new discipline. Mycologist 1992;6:64–5.
[231] Lindequist U, Niedermeyer THJ, Julich W. The Pharmacological Potential of
Mushrooms. eCAM 2005;2(3)285–299.
[232] Tzianabos Ao: Polysaccharide immunomodulators as therapeutic agents: structural
aspects and biologic function. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000; 13: 523-533,.
[233] Reshetnikov SV, Wasser SP, Tan KK Higher Basidiomycota as a source of antitumor
and immunostimulating polysaccharides. Int J Med Mushrooms 2001;3:361–394.
[234] Hobbs C.Medicinal value of Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Agaricomycetideae). A
literature review. Int J Med Mushrooms 200; 2:287–302.
[235] Stamets P .Growing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, 3rd edn. Ten Speed Press,
Berkeley, Calif 2000.
[236] Bahl N. Medicinal value of edible fungi. In: Proceeding of the International Conference
on Science and Cultivation Technology of Edible Fungi. Indian Mushroom Science II,
1983; 203-209.
[237] Kabir Y, Kimura S, Tamura T. Dietary effect of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom on blood
pressure and lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). J. Nutr. Sci.
Vitaminol., 1988;34: 433-438.
[238] Ren L, Visitev AV, Grekhov AN, Tertov VV, Tutelyan VA. Antiatherosclerotic
properties of macrofungi. Voprosy Pictaniya, 1989;1: 16- 19.
[239] Gareth JEB Edible Mushrooms in Singapore and other South East Asian countries. The
Mycologist, 1990; 4: 119-124.
[240] Jong SC, Birmingham JM Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Adv. Appl.
Microbiol., 1991; 37: 101-134.
[241] Buswell JA, Chang ST (1993). Edible mushrooms attributes and applications. In:
Genetics and breeding of edible mushrooms (Chang, S.T.J. Buswell, J.A and Miles PG (Eds).
Gordon and Breach, Philadelphia, pp. 297-394.
[242] Nanba H (1993). Maitake mushroom the king mushroom. Mushroom News, 41: 22-25.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[243] King TA (1993). Mushrooms, the ultimate health food but little research in U. S to
prove it. Mushroom News, 41: 29-46.
[244] Kino KY, Yamaoka K., Watanabe J, Kotk SK, Tsunoo H (1989). Isolation and
characterization of a new immunomodulatory protein Zhi-8 (LZ-8) from Ganoderma
lucidum. J. Biol. Chem., 264: 472- 478.
[245] Kim BK, Kim HW, Choi EC (1993). Anti-HIV activity of Ganoderma lucidum. J. Biol.
Chem., 264: 472-478.
[246] Liu FO, Chang ST (1995). Antitumor components of culture filtrates from Tricholoma
sp. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 11: 486-490.
[247] Dreyfuss MM, Chapela IH (1994). Potential of fungi in the discovery of natural
products with therapeutic potential (Gull, V.P. ed.) Bulterworth- Heinemann, Boston
MA, pp. 49-80.
[248] Teow SS (1997). The effective application of Ganoderma nutriceuticals. In: Recent
progress in Ganoderma lecidum research (Kim BK, Moon CK, Kim TS eds.). Seoul Korea.
Pharm. Soc. Korea, pp. 21-39.
[249] Harsh NSK, Rai BK, Tiwari DP (1993). Use of Ganoderma lucidum in folk medicine. J.
Trop. Biodivers., 1: 324-326
[250] Mizuno T (1996). Oriental medicinal tradition of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in India.
In: Ganoderma lucidum (Mizuno,T and Kim,B.K eds.). Li Yang Pharm. Co. Ltd., Seoul,
Korea, pp. 101-106.
[251] Chang ST, Buswell JA (1996). Mushroom Nutriceuticals. World J. Microbiol.
Biotechnol., 12: 473-476.
[252] Oso BA (1997). Pleurotus tuber-regium from Nigeria. Mycologia 69: 271-279.
[253] Fasidi IA, Olorunmaiye KS (1994). Studies on the requirements for vegetative growth
of Pleurotus tuber regium (Fr) Singer. Mushroom Food Chem., 50: 397-401.
[254] Bobek P, Ozdin L, Kuniak L (1996). Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and
its ethanolic extract in diet on absorption and turnover of cholesterol in
hypercholesterolemic rat. Nahrung, 40: 222-224.
[255] Delena T (1999). Edible and useful plants of Texas and South west –A practical guide
university of Texas press, pp. 542.
[256] Sadler M (2003). Nutritional properties of edible fungi. Br. Nutr. Found. Nutr. Bull. 28:
[257] Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ (2000).
Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N.
Eng. J. Med., 342:1392-1398
[258] Wasser SP (2005). Reishi or Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum). Encyclopedia of Dietary
Supplements, Marcel Dekker, Germany, pp. 603-622.
[259] Oyetayo VO, Oyetayo FL (2005). Preliminary investigation of health promoting
potentials of Lactobacillus fermentum OVL and Plerotus sajor caju administered to rats.
Pakistan J. Nutr., 4: 73-77.
[260] Sharma TK (2008). Vegetable caterpillar, Science Reporter. 5th May ISBN 0036-8512.
National institute of science communication and information resources (NISCAIR),
CSIR, pp. 33-35.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 247
[261] Mau, J. L., Tsai, S. Y., Tseng, Y. H., & Huang, S. J. (2005). Antioxidant properties of hot
water extracts from Ganoderma tsugae Murrill. LWT Food Science and Technology, 38,
[262] Mau CN, Huang SJ, Chen CC (2004). Antioxidant properties of methanolic extract
from Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta and Termitomyces albuminosus mycelia. Food
Chem., 87: 111-118.
[263] Lakshmi, B., Tilak, J.C., Adhikari, S., Devasagayam, T.P.A., Janardhanan, K.K. (2004).
Evaluation of antioxidant activity of selected Indian mushrooms. Pharmaceutical Biol.,
42, 179-185.
[264] Russell R, Paterson M (2006). Ganoderma – A therapeutic fungal factory
Phytochemistry. J. Phytochem., 67: 1985-2001
[265] Khatun, S., Bandopadhyay, S., Mitra, S., Roy, P., Chaudhuri, S.K., Dasgupta, A.,
Chattopadhyay, N.C. (2009). Nutraceutical and antioxidative properties of three species
of Pleurotus mushrooms. Proc. 5th Int. Medicinal Mushroom Conference, Mycological
Society of China, Nantong, China. pp. 234-241.
[266] Jones, S., Janardhanan, K.K. (2000). Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Ganoderma
lucidum (Cart. Fr.) P.Karst.-Reishi (Aphyllophoromycetidae) from South India. Int. J.
Med. Mushroom, 2, 195-200
[267] Singh, R.P., Mishra, K.K., Singh, M. (2006). Biodiversity and utilization of medicinal
mushrooms. J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 3, 446-448.
[268] Laganathan, K.J., Gunasundari, D., Hemalatha, M., Shenbhagaraman, R., Kaviyarasan,
V. (2010). Antioxidant and phytochemical potential of wild edible mushroom
Termitomyces reticulatus: Individual cap and stipe collected from South Eastern Part of
India. Int. J. Pharm. Sci., 1(7), 62-72.
[269] Laganathan, K.J., Ramalingam, S., Venkatasubbu, V., Venketesan, K. (2008). Studies on
the phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of three indigenous
Pleurotus species. Journal of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, 1, 20-29.
[270] Ajith, T.A., Janardhanan, K.K. (2003). Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore
macrofungus Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat, J. Ethnopharmacol. 84, 157-162.
[271] Singh, R.P., Pachauri, V., Verma, R.C., Mishra, K.K. (2008). Catepillar fungus
(Cordyceps sinensis). A review. J. Eco-Friendly Agric., 3(1), 1-15.
[272] Ajith, T.A., Janardhanan, K.K. (2007). Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of
Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 40, 157-162.
[273] Sasidharan, S., Aravindran, S., Lachimanan, Y.L., Ratnasamy, V., Saravanan, D.,
Santhanam, A. (2010). In vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of
Lentinula edodes against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Molecules., 15, 4478- 4489.
[274] Cheung, L.M., Cheung, P.C.K. (2005). Mushroom extracts with antioxidant activity
against lipid oxidation. Food Chem., 89, 403-409.
[275] Wong, J.Y., Chye, F.Y. (2009). Antioxidant properties of selected tropical wild edible
mushrooms. J. Food Compos. Anal., 22, 269-277.
[276] Groopman JD, Kensler TW The light at the end of the tunnel for Chemical specific
biomarkers: daylight or headlight? Carcinogenesis 1999; 20:1-11.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[277] Ueng YF, Shimada T, Yamazaki H, Guengerich FP. Oxidation of aflatoxin B1 by
bacteria recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1995;. 8:
[278] Wang H, Dick R, Yin H, Licad-Coles E, Kroetz DL, Szklarz G, Harlow G, Halpert JR,
Correia MA . Structure-function relationships of human liver cytochrome P450 3A:
Aflatoxin B1 metabolism as a probe. Biochemistry 1998; 37: 12536-12545
[279] Lilleberg SL, Cabonce MA, Raju NR, Wagner LM, Kier LD. Alterations in the p53
tumor suppressor gene in rat liver tumors induced by afatoxin B1. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res.
1992; 376:203-222.
[280] Aguilar F, Hussdain SP, Cerutti P. Aflatoxin B1 induces the transversion of GT in
codon 249 of the p. 53 tumor suppressor gene in human hepatocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. USA. 1993; 90: 8586-8590.
[281] Greenblatt MS, Bennett WP, Hollsten M, Harris CC . Mutations in the p53 tumor
suppressor gene: clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res. 1994;
54: 4855-4878.
[282] Lunn RM, Zhang YJ, Wang LY, Chen CJ, Lee PH, Lee CS, Tsai WY, Santella RM. p.53
Mutations, chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and aflatoxin exposure in hepatocellular
carcinoma in Taiwan. Int. J. cancer 1997; 54: 931-934
[283] Al-Anati L, Petzinger E (2006). "Immunotoxic activity of ochratoxin A". J. Vet.
Pharmacol. Ther.2006; 29 (2): 79–90.
[284] Neal GE, Judah DJ (2000). Genetic implications in the metabolism and toxicity of
mycotoxins. In Molecular Drug Metabolism and Toxicology (eds) Williams GM,
Aruoma OI, OICA Intl.(UK) Limited Lond. pp. 1- 15.
[285] Petkova-Bocharova T, Castegnaro M, Michelon J, Maru V. Ochratoxin A and other
mycotoxin in cereals from an area of Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract
tumors in Bulgaria In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors
(eds) Castegnaro M, Plestina R, Dirheimer G, Chemozensky IN, Barsch H.1991; 245-253.
IARC Scientific Publications: Lyon.
[286] Sedmikova M, Resinerora H, Dufkova Z, Burta I, Jilek F .Potential harzard of
simulataneous occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A. Vet Med. 2001; 46:169-174.
[287] D’Mello, J. P. F., and A. M. C. Macdonald. Mycotoxins. Animal Feed Sciences
Technology.1997; 69: 155-166.
[288] Kolb, E. Recent knowledge on the mechanism of action and metabolism of
mycotoxins. Zeitschrift Gesamte Innovation in Medicine. 1984; 39: 353-358.
[289] Boyd, P. A. and Wittliff, J. L. Mechanism of Fusarium mycotoxin action in mammary
gland. Journal of Toxicology Environment of Health. 1978; 4:1-8.
[290] Hagler, W. M. Jr., N. R. Towers, C. J. Mirocha, R. M. Eppley, and W. L. Bryden.
Zearalenone: Mycotoxin or mycoestrogen? In B. A. Summerell, J. F. Leslie, D.
Backhouse, W. L. Bryden and L. W. Burgess (Eds). Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial
Symposium. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota 2001; 321–331.
[291] Ahamed, S. Foster, J. S., Bukovsky, A and Wimalasena, J. Signal transduction through
the ras/ERK pathway is essential for the mycoestrogen zearelenone –induced cell cycle
progression in MCF-7 cells. Molecular carcinogenesis, 2001; 30:88-98.
Antioxidant Properties of Selected African Vegetables, Fruits and Mushrooms: A Review 249
[292] Marasas WF, Riley RT, Hendricks KA, Stevens VL, Sadler TW, Gelineau-van Waes J,
Missmer SA, Cabrera J, Torres O, GelderblomWC, Allegood J, Martinez C,
Maddox.Fumonisins disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube
development in embryo culture and in vivo: a potential risk factor for human neural
tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin contaminated maize.
J.Nutr.2004; 134 (4):711-716.
[293] Marasas WFO Fumonisins: their implications for human and animal health. Nat.
Toxins. 1995; 3: 193-198.
[294] Tollenson WH, Dooley KL, Sheldon WC, Thurman JD, Bucci TJ, Howard PC. The
mycotoxin fumonisin induces apoptosis in cultured human cells and in livers and
kidneys of rats. In: Jackson LS et al.,(eds) Fumonisins in food, Advances in
Experimental Med. And Biol. Plenum Press, New York. 1996; 237-250.
[295] Howard PC, Eppley RM, Stack ME, Warbritton A, Voss KA, Lorentzen RJ, Kovach
RM, Bucci TJ. Fumonisin b1 carcinogenicity in a two-year feeding study using F344 rats
and B6C3F1 mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2001; 109 (2):277–282.
[296] IPCS. (International Program on Chemical Safety) Environ. Health Criteria 219-
Fumonisin B1 WHO, Geneva. 2000; 1-150.
[297] Stockmann-Juvala H, Mikkola J, Naarala J, Loikkanen J, Elovaara E, Savolainen K.
Fumonisin B1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in U-118MG glioblastoma cells.
Toxicology 2004; 202(3): 173-83.
[298] Perkowski J, Chelkowski J, Wakulinski W. Deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-
deoxynivalenol in wheat kernels and chaff with head fusariosis symptoms. Nahr Food.
1990; 34:325–328.
[299] Ijeh II, Obidoa O Effect of dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina Del. on
AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity in weanling albino rats. Jamaican J. Sci. Tech., 2004; 15:
[300] Rastogi, Shipra; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Paul, Bhola N.; Chowdhuri, D. Kar; Khanna,
Subhash K.; Das, Mukul. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-
methylcholanthrene, 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin
tumorigenesis in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2007; 224(3):228-240.
[301] Karthikeyan K, Gunasekaran P, Ramamurthy N, Govindasamy S. Anticancer activity
of Ocimum sanctum, Pharm. Biol., 1999; 37(4):285-290.
[302] Nguyen ML, Schwartz SJ. Lycopene: chemical and biological properties. Food
Technol. 1999; 53: 38-45.
[303] DiMascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H: Lycopene as the most effective biological carotenoid
singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989; 274: 532–538.
[304] Bohm F, Tinkler JH, Truscott TG: Carotenoids protect against cell membrane damage
by the nitrogen dioxide radical. Nature Med 1995;1: 98–99.
[305] 305. Lu Y, Etoh H, Watanabe N: A new carotenoid, hydrogen peroxide oxidation
products from lycopene. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1995;59: 2153–2155.
[306] Mortensen A, Skibsted LH: Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and
homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
FEBS Lett1997; 417: 261–266.
Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries
[307] Hsiao G, Fong TH, Tzu NH, Lin KH, Chou DS, Sheu JR . A potent antioxidant,
lycopene, affords neuroprotection against microglia activation and focal cerebral
ischemia in rats. In Vivo 2004; 18(3):351-6.
[308] Wertz K, Siler U, Goralczyk R. Lycopene: modes of action to promote prostate
health.Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004; 430(1):127-34.
[309] Kim GY, Kim JH, Ahn SC, Lee HJ, Moon DO, Lee CM, Park YM. Lycopene suppresses
the lipopoly-saccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine
dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear
factor-kappaB. Immunology 2004; 113(2): 203-11.
[310] Q.A. Nogaim, H.A.S. Amra and S.A. Nada. The Medical Effects of Edible Mushroom
Extract on Aflatoxin B1. Journal of Biological Sciences, 2011; 11: 481-486.

Navigation menu