CHARTrunner 3.6 User Guide

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User's Guide
CHARTrunner
Version 3.6
Copyright © 2006-2011 Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc. Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc. is also
known as PQ Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this document may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Productivity-Quality
Systems, Inc.
The software contains proprietary information of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.; it is provided under a
license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and is also protected by copyright law.
Reverse engineering of the software is prohibited.
Due to continued product development this information may change without notice. The information and
intellectual property contained herein is confidential between Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc. and the
client and remains the exclusive property of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc. If you find any problems in
the documentation, please report them to us in writing. Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc. makes no
warranties, express or implied, concerning the system, including all warranties of merchantability and
fitness for a particular purpose. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise without the prior written permission of PQ Systems.
CHARTrunner is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
GAGEpack is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
SQCpack is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
PORTspy is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
MEASUREspy is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
DOEpack is a trademark of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
Total Quality Transformation is a trademark of QIP, Inc. and Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
TQT is a trademark of QIP, Inc., and PQ Systems, Inc.
AuthorIT™ is a trademark of AuthorIT Software Corporation Ltd.
Microsoft Word, Microsoft Office, Windows®, Window 95™, Window 98™, Windows NT®, and
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All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
owners.
This document was created using AuthorIT™, Total Document Creation (see AuthorIT Home -
http://www.author-it.com).
PQ Systems copyright notice
i
Contents
Welcome _________________________________________________________________________ 1
What's new in CHARTrunner 3.6 ...................................................................................................... 2
About your CHARTrunner documentation ......................................................................................... 3
About PQ Systems ............................................................................................................................ 4
How to contact PQ Systems .............................................................................................................. 5
Technical support .............................................................................................................................. 6
Maintenance support agreement ....................................................................................................... 6
PQ Systems End-User License Agreement for
Per-Computer or Concurrent-User License Model ............................................................................ 7
Request for new features .................................................................................................................. 9
Installing CHARTrunner ___________________________________________________________ 11
Hardware and software requirements ............................................................................................. 11
Using the installation README file ................................................................................................. 11
Installing CHARTrunner ................................................................................................................... 12
Upgrading from a prior version of CHARTrunner ............................................................................ 13
Chart definition files ................................................................................................................... 13
Style definition files ................................................................................................................... 13
Steps for migrating to CHARTrunner 3.6 .................................................................................. 14
Getting started ___________________________________________________________________ 15
New CHARTrunner users ................................................................................................................ 15
Why CHARTrunner? ........................................................................................................................ 16
Starting CHARTrunner .................................................................................................................... 16
The CHARTrunner definitions list .................................................................................................... 16
Chart definition form ........................................................................................................................ 17
Step 1: Chart name/type tab ..................................................................................................... 17
Step 2: Data source tab ............................................................................................................ 19
Step 3: Data definition tab ......................................................................................................... 20
Titles tab .................................................................................................................................... 21
Misc. tab .................................................................................................................................... 22
All other tabs ............................................................................................................................. 22
Multi-chart and chart workspace forms............................................................................................ 23
Chart style form ............................................................................................................................... 24
Saving chart, workspace, and style definitions ................................................................................ 24
Getting help ..................................................................................................................................... 25
Exiting CHARTrunner ...................................................................................................................... 25
Tutorial _________________________________________________________________________ 27
Lesson 1 - Set the working folder .................................................................................................... 27
Lesson 2 - Define a chart definition ................................................................................................. 29
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Lesson 3 - display and customize the chart .................................................................................... 37
To scroll through the data ......................................................................................................... 38
To close the chart display ......................................................................................................... 39
Editing the chart definition or style ............................................................................................ 39
Create a set of control limits on the chart ................................................................................. 39
To add an annotation to the chart ............................................................................................. 42
Data and chart types ______________________________________________________________ 45
Variables data .................................................................................................................................. 45
Measurement control charts ............................................................................................................ 46
X-bar and range ........................................................................................................................ 47
X-bar and sigma ........................................................................................................................ 48
Median....................................................................................................................................... 49
Individuals and moving range ................................................................................................... 50
Individuals and moving sigma ................................................................................................... 51
Moving average and moving range ........................................................................................... 52
Cusum ....................................................................................................................................... 54
Three-way control ..................................................................................................................... 55
Attributes data .................................................................................................................................. 56
Count (attributes) control charts ...................................................................................................... 57
p-chart ....................................................................................................................................... 57
np-chart ..................................................................................................................................... 58
c-chart ....................................................................................................................................... 59
u-chart ....................................................................................................................................... 60
p’ chart (p prime chart) .............................................................................................................. 61
np’-chart (np prime chart) .......................................................................................................... 62
c’ chart (c prime chart) .............................................................................................................. 63
u' chart (u prime chart) .............................................................................................................. 64
Pareto data ...................................................................................................................................... 65
Pareto charts - category data .......................................................................................................... 66
Pareto - bar chart ...................................................................................................................... 66
Pareto column chart ............................................................................................................... 67
Pareto - pie ................................................................................................................................ 68
Pareto stacked bars ............................................................................................................... 69
Pareto stacked columns ......................................................................................................... 70
When do you use Pareto charts? .............................................................................................. 70
Distribution and capability analysis.................................................................................................. 71
Histogram .................................................................................................................................. 71
Capability analysis ........................................................................................................................... 72
Line charts ....................................................................................................................................... 73
Run chart ................................................................................................................................... 73
Multi-line charts ......................................................................................................................... 74
Scatter diagrams ....................................................................................................................... 75
Advanced charts .............................................................................................................................. 76
Box and whisker ........................................................................................................................ 76
Short-run SPC ................................................................................................................................. 77
Short-run chart types ................................................................................................................. 77
Difference chart vs. zed chart ................................................................................................... 78
Rare event control charts ................................................................................................................ 79
t-chart ........................................................................................................................................ 79
g-chart ....................................................................................................................................... 80
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Basic chart definition _____________________________________________________________ 81
Database concepts .......................................................................................................................... 81
Basic chart definition concepts ........................................................................................................ 82
Step 1: Chart name/type tab ............................................................................................................ 83
Step 2: Data source tab ................................................................................................................... 84
If You Select Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, text file,
Dbase, or Lotus 123 as the type of data source ....................................................................... 86
If you select ODBC as the type of data source ......................................................................... 87
If you select ADO as the type of data source ........................................................................... 89
Step 3: Data definition tab ............................................................................................................... 91
Filtering chart data ........................................................................................................................... 97
Query parameters ............................................................................................................................ 99
Custom query ................................................................................................................................ 102
Multi-charts and Workspaces ______________________________________________________ 103
Multi-charts (multiple charts on one page) .................................................................................... 103
Workspaces (dealing with multiple charts) .................................................................................... 108
Customizing a chart definition _____________________________________________________ 113
Measurement control charts .......................................................................................................... 113
Types of measurement control charts ..................................................................................... 114
Limits/specs tab - measurement charts .................................................................................. 115
Control chart tab - measurement charts ................................................................................. 117
Attributes control charts ................................................................................................................. 125
Limits tab - attributes charts .................................................................................................... 126
Step 1: Chart name/type tab - attributes chart ........................................................................ 128
Data definition tab - attributes chart ........................................................................................ 129
Control chart tab - attributes charts ......................................................................................... 129
Cusum control charts ..................................................................................................................... 138
Cusum chart tab ...................................................................................................................... 139
Control chart tab - cusum charts ............................................................................................. 140
Chart options sub-tab - cusum charts ..................................................................................... 140
X-axis Y-axis sub-tab - cusum charts ..................................................................................... 142
Chart data display sub-tab - cusum charts ............................................................................. 144
Short-run control charts ................................................................................................................. 145
Types of short-run control charts ............................................................................................ 145
Limits/Targets tab - short-run charts ....................................................................................... 146
Control limits sub-tab - short-run charts .................................................................................. 147
Short-run targets sub-tab - short-run charts ........................................................................... 149
Chart options sub-tab - short-run charts ................................................................................. 150
X-axis Y-axis sub-tab - short-run charts .................................................................................. 153
Extra lines sub-tab - short-run charts ...................................................................................... 155
Chart data display sub-tab - short run charts .......................................................................... 157
Rare event control charts .............................................................................................................. 158
Types of rare event control charts .......................................................................................... 158
Describing the rare event ........................................................................................................ 159
Step 1: Chart name/type tab ................................................................................................... 160
Control chart tab rare event control chart ............................................................................ 160
Extra lines sub-tab - rare event control chart charts ............................................................... 161
Pareto charts ................................................................................................................................. 162
Pareto tab - pareto charts ....................................................................................................... 163
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Histogram charts............................................................................................................................ 166
Histogram tab - histogram charts ............................................................................................ 166
General sub-tab - histogram charts ........................................................................................ 167
Descriptive stats sub-tab - histogram charts ........................................................................... 169
Capability stats sub-tab - histogram charts ............................................................................. 171
X-Y Axis sub-tab - histogram charts ....................................................................................... 174
Stat columns sub-tab - histogram charts ................................................................................ 175
Specifications tab - histogram charts ...................................................................................... 176
Box and whisker charts ................................................................................................................. 177
Box and whisker tab - box and whisker charts ....................................................................... 177
Chart options sub-tab - box and whisker charts ..................................................................... 177
X-axis Y-axis sub-tab - box and whisker charts ...................................................................... 179
Extra lines sub-tab - box and whisker charts .......................................................................... 180
Chart data display sub-tab - box and whisker charts .............................................................. 182
Specifications tab - box and whisker charts ............................................................................ 183
Multi-line charts.............................................................................................................................. 183
Multi-line chart tab - multi-line charts ...................................................................................... 184
Chart options sub-tab - multi-line charts ................................................................................. 184
X-axis Y-axis sub-tab - multi-line charts .................................................................................. 185
Extra lines sub-tab - multi-line charts ...................................................................................... 187
Chart data display sub-tab - multi-line charts.......................................................................... 189
Specifications tab - multi-line charts ....................................................................................... 191
Scatter diagram charts .................................................................................................................. 192
Scatter diagram tab ................................................................................................................. 192
Titles tab - applies to all charts ...................................................................................................... 194
Chart title codes - titles tab ..................................................................................................... 196
Misc. tab - applies to all charts ...................................................................................................... 199
Other sub-tab - misc. tab - applies to all charts ...................................................................... 199
Image file defaults sub-tab - misc. tab - applies to all charts .................................................. 200
Web page defaults sub-tab - misc. tab - applies to all charts ................................................. 201
Advanced row selection ................................................................................................................. 203
How it works ............................................................................................................................ 203
Advanced row selection steps ................................................................................................ 204
Advanced row selection example 1 ........................................................................................ 206
Advanced row selection example 2 ........................................................................................ 208
Advanced row selection example 3 ........................................................................................ 210
Applying an extra line to specific subgroups ................................................................................. 212
Understanding the data order concept .......................................................................................... 214
Using charts ____________________________________________________________________ 215
Displaying charts ........................................................................................................................... 215
Controlling the chart display window ............................................................................................. 216
Charts that scroll ............................................................................................................................ 217
Other chart display menus ............................................................................................................. 218
Editing and copying chart definitions ............................................................................................. 220
Different methods to edit a chart definition ............................................................................. 220
Copying a chart definition........................................................................................................ 221
Editing and copying chart styles .................................................................................................... 222
Different methods to edit a chart style .................................................................................... 223
Copy a chart style ................................................................................................................... 223
Deleting charts and chart styles .................................................................................................... 223
Using annotations on charts .......................................................................................................... 223
Add an annotation to a chart ................................................................................................... 224
Line options ............................................................................................................................. 225
Text options ............................................................................................................................. 225
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Box options ............................................................................................................................. 225
Moving and sizing an annotation ............................................................................................ 226
Deleting annotations ............................................................................................................... 226
The annotation list ................................................................................................................... 226
Control limits .................................................................................................................................. 226
What are control limits?........................................................................................................... 227
What are temporary control limits? ......................................................................................... 227
Editing existing control limits ................................................................................................... 227
Disable (hide) control limits ..................................................................................................... 227
Delete control limits - from the chart display ........................................................................... 227
Delete control limits - from the chart definition form ............................................................... 228
To compute a new set of saved control limits ......................................................................... 229
The control limits dialog .......................................................................................................... 232
Using control charts and control limits .................................................................................... 233
Lloyd Nelson limits option ....................................................................................................... 235
Printing charts ................................................................................................................................ 236
Saving charts and sharing them with others ................................................................................. 238
Save chart as image dialog ..................................................................................................... 239
Save chart as web page dialog ............................................................................................... 240
Send chart as e-mail dialog .................................................................................................... 242
Linking to chart or dashboard images using Microsoft PowerPoint or Word ................................ 244
Publishing charts ........................................................................................................................... 245
Using a local share as a chart image repository ..................................................................... 246
Publishing charts on the Internet ............................................................................................ 246
The CHARTrunner software development kit ......................................................................... 246
Using styles to control the look of your charts ............................................................................... 247
What is a chart style? .............................................................................................................. 247
Selecting a style for a chart ..................................................................................................... 248
The chart style editor ............................................................................................................... 249
Out-of-control tests ........................................................................................................................ 251
Test rule syntax ....................................................................................................................... 251
The Swed Eisenhart run test rules .......................................................................................... 255
Out-of-control data markers .................................................................................................... 255
To specify out-of-control tests ................................................................................................. 256
Dashboards ____________________________________________________________________ 259
Introduction to dashboards ............................................................................................................ 260
The basic steps of creating and using dashboards ....................................................................... 263
Working with dashboard definitions ............................................................................................... 263
What type of image file should I use?............................................................................................ 264
Dashboard definition ...................................................................................................................... 265
Indicator definition.......................................................................................................................... 266
Indicator tab - indicator definition ................................................................................................... 267
Scale tab - indicator definition ....................................................................................................... 271
CHARTrunner chart tab - indicator definition ................................................................................ 273
Cpk Advisor Analysis ____________________________________________________________ 275
Introduction to Cpk Advisor Analysis ............................................................................................. 275
The basics steps to create a Cpk Advisor Analysis ....................................................................... 276
How the Cpk Advisor Analysis works ............................................................................................ 277
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OOC Summary __________________________________________________________________ 279
Introduction to OOC Summary ...................................................................................................... 279
Displaying the OOC Summary form .............................................................................................. 280
OOC Summary form settings ........................................................................................................ 281
System settings _________________________________________________________________ 283
Menu functions (for the main window) right-click context menus .................................................. 283
File menu functions ....................................................................................................................... 283
Edit menu functions ....................................................................................................................... 284
View menu functions ..................................................................................................................... 284
Setup menu functions .................................................................................................................... 284
Chart styles .................................................................................................................................... 285
Creating new styles ................................................................................................................. 285
Chart colors ............................................................................................................................. 286
Patterns ................................................................................................................................... 286
Lines ........................................................................................................................................ 287
Font options ............................................................................................................................ 287
Angle ....................................................................................................................................... 288
Data markers ........................................................................................................................... 288
Modifying styles ....................................................................................................................... 289
Copying styles ......................................................................................................................... 289
Deleting styles ......................................................................................................................... 289
CHARTrunner file extensions ........................................................................................................ 290
CST file extensions ................................................................................................................. 291
ADO data source templates .......................................................................................................... 292
Preferences ................................................................................................................................... 293
General tab ............................................................................................................................. 294
E-mail setup tab ...................................................................................................................... 297
Files and folders tab ................................................................................................................ 298
Roaming license administration ..................................................................................................... 300
CHARTrunner viewer _____________________________________________________________ 303
The CHARTrunner viewer program ............................................................................................... 303
Sample clipCHARTs ...................................................................................................................... 304
Using clipCHARTs via windows explorer ...................................................................................... 305
Appendix A: Formulas used by CHARTrunner _______________________________________ 307
Appendix B: CHARTrunner command line arguments _________________________________ 309
CHARTrunner command line arguments ...................................................................................... 309
Example command line usage ...................................................................................................... 311
Example text file containing command arguments ........................................................................ 312
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Appendix C: Tips and troubleshooting ______________________________________________ 313
Online information.......................................................................................................................... 313
CHARTrunner performance tip ...................................................................................................... 313
Comma and decimal separators .................................................................................................... 314
Time on the charts ......................................................................................................................... 314
Defining the advanced tab's week option - what is a week? ......................................................... 314
Filter to exclude outliers ................................................................................................................. 315
Filter for missing values as an identifier ........................................................................................ 315
Close data source after drawing chart ........................................................................................... 316
Microsoft Access data source ........................................................................................................ 316
Microsoft Excel data source .......................................................................................................... 317
Getting to Excel data via the ADO;OLE DB provider .................................................................... 317
Column to use for order by does not allow you to select anything ................................................ 318
Using the LIKE operator in a filter or SQL expression................................................................... 319
Accessing charts using windows explorer ..................................................................................... 320
Accessing dashboards using windows explorer ............................................................................ 321
Appendix D: Data sources ________________________________________________________ 323
Contact technical support if you need help connecting to your data ............................................. 323
Using Excel data ............................................................................................................................ 324
General rules for setting up Excel sheets for use with CHARTrunner .......................................... 332
Using ODBC data sources ............................................................................................................ 333
The DSN method of using ODBC .................................................................................................. 333
The DSN-less method of using ODBC .......................................................................................... 334
Using ADO;OLE DB data sources ................................................................................................. 334
Using ADO to connect to an XML recordset ................................................................................. 335
Using Text or CSV data ................................................................................................................. 336
Using FoxPro data ......................................................................................................................... 337
Using Paradox 3 data .................................................................................................................... 337
Using Minitab data ......................................................................................................................... 338
Using Lotus Notes databases ........................................................................................................ 338
Using Oracle databases ................................................................................................................ 339
Using SQL Server databases ........................................................................................................ 339
Charting from data on the clipboard .............................................................................................. 340
Appendix E: Out-of-control tests and codes _________________________________________ 343
AIAG .............................................................................................................................................. 343
AT&T .............................................................................................................................................. 344
Duncan .......................................................................................................................................... 344
Gitlow attributes ............................................................................................................................. 344
Gitlow variables ............................................................................................................................. 345
Hughes .......................................................................................................................................... 345
Juran .............................................................................................................................................. 346
Shewhart ........................................................................................................................................ 346
SQCpack ....................................................................................................................................... 346
Western ......................................................................................................................................... 347
Swed Eisenhart run chart tests (1% risk) ...................................................................................... 347
Swed Eisenhart run chart tests (5% risk) ...................................................................................... 348
Health basic ................................................................................................................................... 348
Health extended............................................................................................................................. 349
Health advanced ............................................................................................................................ 349
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Health API ...................................................................................................................................... 350
Index __________________________________________________________________________ 351
1
CHARTrunner provides an SPC charting solution for data stored virtually anywhere. Use it to chart and
analyze data that is stored in Excel, Access, SQL server, Oracle, text files, and other data sources.
In This Chapter
What's new in CHARTrunner 3.6 .....................................................................2
About your CHARTrunner documentation .......................................................3
About PQ Systems ...........................................................................................4
How to contact PQ Systems ............................................................................5
Technical support .............................................................................................6
Maintenance support agreement .....................................................................6
PQ Systems End-User License Agreement for Per-Computer or Concurrent-
User License Model .........................................................................................7
Request for new features .................................................................................9
CHAPTER 1
Welcome
2 CHARTrunner User's Guide
Copyright © 2011
What's new in CHARTrunner 3.6
Four new attribute control chart types for data that is overly dispersed
New control charts for count or classification (attribute) data were added. These are the P', C', U', and NP'
charts. The trailing apostrophe denotes these as "prime." For example, P' is named a "P prime" chart.
These charts are almost equivalent to their more traditional counterparts the P, C, U, and NP charts. In
some cases, when the data is overly dispersed, traditional control limit calculations result in limits that do
not accurately reflect the process. For the prime charts, a different algorithm is used to compute more
meaningful and useful control limits.
New statistical test for over dispersion for attribute control charts
If you are using a P, C, U, or NP chart, and the limits do not seem applicable, you may want to test your
data for over dispersion. This new test helps you decide if you should instead use a P', C', U', or NP'
chart.
New chart type: Stacked Bar, available as a Pareto chart option
For any of your Pareto charts which show a set of bar carts or a set of column charts, a new option allows
you to visualize these as stacked bar charts.
New option for multiple y-axis scales on multi-line charts
CHARTrunner has the ability to draw charts with multiple data lines. Think of each data line as a run
chart. This new feature allows you to have a y-axis for each of up to ten data lines. This makes
interpreting multi-line charts much clearer and allows you to more easily compare values that are plotted
on differing scales.
Expanded legend options on multi-line charts
To go along with the new multiple y-axis features, the legend options for multi-line charts have been
expanded and improved.
Median line option for T chart and G chart
These control charts for rare events can be made more informative with the addition of a median line.
This is now an option and the default behavior for health care users.
Select from three user types preferences: general, health or manufacturing
CHARTrunner is being used by people in a variety of industries. Different industries use differing
practices for SPC charting. This feature provides for three types of users: Health, Manufacturing, and
General. When you select a user type, various default setting are changed so that charts you create are
in line with your industry's practices. New sample charts are provided specific to each type of user.
Lloyd Nelson control limit option defaulted for all applicable charts for healthcare users
The Lloyd Nelson option customizes the way out-of-control points are used when calculating control limits
on some control chart types. This has become an important customization for healthcare users. We now
default this to "true" for healthcare users.
Welcome 3
Copyright © 2011
New out-of-control test rule set specifically for healthcare applications
We have added a set of out-of-control test rules named "API Health." This set of out-of-control test rules
is recommended by the API group for healthcare users by: "Associates for Process Improvement." This
group has experience in quality improvement within healthcare.
Improved terminology for chart categories
Different industries have different lexicons. Some chart category names have been changed to make
them more recognizable among different customer types: healthcare, manufacturing, or general.
About your CHARTrunner documentation
CHARTrunner documentation includes the following:
User Guide - The PDF document can be printed to create a hard-copy of the CHARTrunner
documentation.
On-line Help - Provides descriptions of the application's commands and windows. It is displayed when
you select a help option from the Help Menu, or press F1, or when you click on the green question mark
button . For more information, see the topic Getting help.
Quality Advisor - Provides an overview of using SQC tools. It explains SQC terminology and issues.
The Quality Advisor is an on-line help file that you can open from the Help Menu.
4 CHARTrunner User's Guide
Copyright © 2011
About PQ Systems
For more than 20 years, PQ Systems, Inc. has been dedicated to helping customers continuously
improve their organizations. We are a full service quality management firm offering a comprehensive
network of products and services designed to help all industries improve quality and comply with
standards. PQ Systems provides the expertise, training, and software tools necessary to assist
organizations through every step of the quality process. Our highly-regarded products have made us a
leader in the industry, but our commitment to customer service and support keeps customers coming
back.
Software
SQCpack® EZ combines powerful SPC techniques such as variables, attributes, and Pareto charting with
flexibility and ease of use.
GAGEpack® EZ builds a complete database of an unlimited number of measurement devices, instruments,
and gages from which users can generate a variety of reports. It supports ISO 9000, QS-9000, ISO/TS
16949-2002, ISO/IEC 17025, and other standards.
CHARTrunner® draws SPC charts and performs statistical analysis using data that resides in other
applications such as Microsoft Excel and Access.
DOEpack® is easy-to-use software that guides you through a logical, step-by-step process for planning,
designing, implementing, and interpreting effective experimental designs.
Quality Workbench helps organizations keep day-to-day control over their quality systems in order to
comply with ISO 9000 and other standards. It features document control, audits, nonconformities,
customer care, and internet viewing modules.
Training & Consulting
Our consultants and trainers have extensive knowledge and experience in the areas of SPC, continuous
improvement, ISO 9000, QS-9000, and trainer and leadership development in a wide variety of industries
and organizations. In addition to customized in-house training, we offer public seminars.
K-12 Process and Tools Training helps transform mountains of data into real information that will help bring
genuine, long lasting improvement to K-12 schools and shows how tools for planning, problem-solving,
data gathering, and analysis work within the PDSA cycle.
Training Tools
SPC Workout is an interactive multimedia training course on CD-ROM. It provides effective step-by-step
instruction on how to implement and apply SPC.
Six Sigma Start-Up is an interactive multimedia course on CD-ROM that provides an introductory course on
the principles and practices of Six Sigma.
Gage Mentor is an interactive multimedia training course on CD-ROM. It provides effective metrology
training for operators, engineers, and quality personnel.
FMEA Investigator is a step-by-step interactive multimedia training course on CD-ROM that provides
effective instructions on how to conduct both design and process FMEAs.
Welcome 5
Copyright © 2011
Total Quality Transformation® (TQT®) offers step-by-step help in facilitating quality improvement in
organizations. Materials include Practical Tools for Continuous Improvement, Practical Tools for
Healthcare Quality, Foundations for Leaders, Foundations of Quality, Team Skills, System Alignment
Guide, System Improvement Guide, and Strategic Quality Planning Guide. TQT is part of the
Transformation of American Industry training project, which has been used in a variety of manufacturing
and service organizations since 1984.
How to contact PQ Systems
PQ Systems invites your questions and comments about our products and services.
Sales Phone: 1-800-777-3020 or 937-885-2255
Sales E-mail: sales@pqsystems.com
PQ Systems, Inc.
210 B East Spring Valley Road
Dayton, OH 45458
Call Sales for:
General information to help you decide to purchase or evaluate the
software
To place an order or check the status of an order
You can send a fax to either Sales or Technical Support at 937-885-2252. To ensure that your fax is
delivered quickly to the right department, please send it to Attn: Sales or Attn: Technical Support.
World Wide Web URL
http://www.pqsystems.com (http://www.pqsystems.com)
International offices
U.K. PQ Systems Europe Ltd.
Ryeground House, Ryeground Lane
Freshfield, Formby, Merseyside L37 7EQ
England
Tel. 01704 871465
Fax 01704-875189
Australia PQ Systems Pty. Ltd.
Level 6 Peninsula Centre
435-437 Nepean Highway
Frankston, Victoria 3199 Australia
Tel. 03-9770-1960
Fax 03-9770-1995
6 CHARTrunner User's Guide
Copyright © 2011
Technical support
Phone: 1-800-777-5060 or 937-885-2255
E-mail: support@pqsystems.com
Call our experienced technical support team. Our experts can answer questions about software problems,
data analysis, and applications.
Before you call, please follow these steps to help our technical advisors answer your questions quickly:
1. Have your license/serial number ready. It is listed in the About dialog box. You can access this dialog
box by selecting Help > About from the menu.
2. Be at your computer, if possible.
3. Review the topic for which you have a question in the User Guide and On-line Help.
Maintenance support agreement
The product comes with an initial year of maintenance. After that, you must renew your product
maintenance in order to ensure your continued access to the following great benefits:
1. Free software updates via download or CDROM - The product continues to evolve with suggestions from
customers like you. Renewing your maintenance plan gives you access to 12 months of updates that
include new features, improved usability, and compliance with the latest regulations from ISO 9000,
JCAHO, FDA, and other regulatory bodies.
http://www.pqsystems.com/support/SoftwareUpdates.php
(http://www.pqsystems.com/support/SoftwareUpdates.php)
2. Access to our legendary technical support - Our legendary support has kept customers coming back for
more than 20 years. Renewing your maintenance plan will provide you access to our professional
support staff. You have access to software and statistical application help via the phone, and in North
America the number is toll-free.
3. Free subscription to Quality eLine - Quality eLine is our highly-acclaimed monthly electronic newsletter
offering tips and techniques to enhance your software use and make your day-to-day work easier.
Quality eLine includes Professor Cleary’s renowned and always-entertaining Quality Quiz. Renewing
product maintenance will ensure that you don’t miss a monthly issue.
http://www.pqsystems.com/eline/ (http://www.pqsystems.com/eline/)
4. Peace of mind - If your team depends on the product for its improvement charting, having a guaranteed
direct line of contact to a committed support team offers priceless peace of mind, especially during an
audit or survey. Renewing ensures that the privileges of product maintenance continue uninterrupted.
Contact PQ Systems to renew your maintenance support agreement.
Welcome 7
Copyright © 2011
PQ Systems End-User License Agreement for
Per-Computer or Concurrent-User License Model
This End-User License Agreement ("EULA") is a legal agreement between you (either an individual or a
single entity) and PQ Systems, Inc. for the PQ Systems software that accompanies this EULA, which
includes computer software and may include associated media, printed materials, "online" or electronic
documentation, and Internet-based services ("Software"). An amendment or addendum to this EULA may
accompany the software. YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS EULA BY
INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING THE SOFTWARE. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE, DO
NOT INSTALL, COPY, OR USE THE SOFTWARE; YOU MAY RETURN IT TO YOUR PLACE OF
PURCHASE FOR A FULL REFUND, IF APPLICABLE.
License
The Software may be licensed under the Per-Computer or the Concurrent-User license model.
Per-computer License Model - Under the per-computer license model, PQ Systems grants to you a
nonexclusive right to install and use the Software on a single computer that is owned or controlled by you.
You must purchase a registered per-computer license for each computer on which the Software is
installed. If you use the Software through a network, you must still obtain individual licenses for the
Software to cover each individual computer that will execute the Software through the network. For
instance, if ten different computers will use the Software, each computer must have its own registered
license, regardless of whether the Software is used at different times or concurrently.
Special provisions for using the per-computer license model in a terminal server environment - Windows
Terminal Server, Windows Terminal Services, and various Citrix products are technologies that allow
users from a variety of remote client devices to concurrently execute the Software that has been installed
on a Windows server. All of these technologies are referred to as a terminal server environment under
which the following licensing restrictions apply. A per-computer license must be purchased for each
'device' that 'runs' the Software. 'Device' encompasses client hardware devices, computers, workstations,
terminals, or other digital electronic or analog devices that enable an end user to run the Software. To
'run,' or 'running,' the Software means using, accessing, displaying, running, or installing the Software,
regardless of the medium of access to the product.
Concurrent-User License Model - Under the concurrent-user license model, PQ Systems grants to you a
nonexclusive right to install the Software on multiple networked computers that are owned or controlled
by you, and to concurrently use the Software, such that at any time, the total number of concurrent users
of the Software is equal to or less than the number of concurrent users purchased by you. You agree to
run a single instance of the PQ Systems' License Manager software within your network in order to limit
usage of the Software such that no more than the purchased number of users can concurrently run the
Software. You may install the PQ Systems' License Manager software on a backup computer to use only
in the event that the primary computer fails. Any attempt to concurrently run more than one instance of
the PQ Systems' License Manager, or by any other means to concurrently run more than the purchased
number of users, is in violation of this license and may result in termination of this license agreement.
License term
The term of this license may be perpetual or may be purchased in fixed units of time on a subscription
basis.
Perpetual Term - A perpetual license term does not expire.
8 CHARTrunner User's Guide
Copyright © 2011
Subscription Term - A subscription license term expires at the end of the time period purchased by you.
The Software will not function after the end of the purchased time period.
Evaluation period
Subject to the terms of this agreement, you are permitted to use the Software for evaluation purposes
without charge during the evaluation period. If you want to use the Software after the evaluation period,
then a license must be purchased. The evaluation period may vary from one PQ Systems product to
another, but in no case does the evaluation period extend beyond 90 days from the first use of the
Software.
Unregistered use of the Software after the evaluation period is in violation of U.S. and international
copyright laws.
Product-specific provisions
CHARTrunner This EULA does not apply when CHARTrunner software components, such as those
documented in the CHARTrunner Software Developer Kit (SDK), are used by the server side of a client-
server application. In that case, a different type of CHARTrunner license must be purchased. Contact PQ
Systems for further information.
Further explanation of copyright-law provisions
You may not otherwise modify, alter, adapt, merge, decompile, or reverse-engineer the Software and you
may not remove or obscure PQ Systems' copyright or trademark notices.
Per-computer License Model - You may transfer all of your rights to use the Software to another
computer, provided that you transfer to that computer (or destroy) all of the Software provided in this
package, together with all copies, tangible or intangible, including copies in RAM or installed on a disk, as
well as backup copies. Remember, once you transfer the Software, it may be used only on the single
computer to which it is transferred. Except as stated in this paragraph, you may not otherwise transfer,
rent, lease, sublicense, timeshare, or lend the Software. Your use of the Software is limited to acts that
are essential steps in the use of the Software on your computer as described in the documentation.
Concurrent-User License Model - You may not transfer, rent, lease, sublicense, timeshare, or lend the
Software. Your use of the Software is limited to acts that are essential steps in the use of the Software on
your computer as described in the documentation. You may not use any means that permits more than
the purchased number of users to concurrently use the Software.
Subscription Term - You may not use any means that permits the Software to run after the end of the
purchased time period.
Electronic communications
The Software may from time to time transmit data to and from PQ Systems servers via the internet. This
information transfer may be used to notify you when newer versions of the Software are available, for
verifying license compliance, or for other purposes. PQ Systems will not collect any personally identifiable
information from your computer during this process.
Governing law and general provisions
Welcome 9
Copyright © 2011
This license statement shall be construed, interpreted, and governed by the laws of the State of Ohio,
USA. If any provision of this statement is found void or unenforceable, it will not affect the validity of the
balance of this statement, which shall remain valid and enforceable according to its terms. If any remedy
provided is determined to have failed of its essential purpose, all limitations of liability and exclusions of
damages set forth in the Limited Warranty shall remain in full force and effect. This statement may be
modified only in writing signed by you and an authorized representative of PQ Systems, Inc. Use,
duplication, or disclosure by the US Government of computer software and documentation in this
package shall be subject to the restricted rights applicable to commercial computer software (under
DFARS 52.227-7013). All rights not specifically granted in this statement are reserved by PQ Systems,
Inc.
Disclaimer of warranty
THIS SOFTWARE AND THE ACCOMPANYING FILES ARE SOLD “AS IS” AND WITHOUT
WARRANTIES AS TO PERFORMANCE OR MERCHANTABILITY OR ANY OTHER WARRANTIES
WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. Because of the various hardware and software environments
into which the Software may be put, NO WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS
OFFERED.
Good data processing procedure dictates that any program be thoroughly tested with non-critical data
before relying on it. The user must assume the entire risk of using the Software. ANY LIABILITY OF THE
SELLER WILL BE LIMITED EXCLUSIVELY TO PRODUCT REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF
PURCHASE PRICE.
PQ SYSTEMS, INC.
Corporate Headquarters: 210 B East Spring Valley Road, Dayton, Ohio 45458, USA, (937) 885-2255,
http://www.pqsystems.com. International Offices: Australia 03-9770-1960, The United Kingdom
(01704)871465.
All PQ Systems products are trademarks of Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc., Copyright (c) 1998-2008
Productivity-Quality Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Request for new features
PQ Systems wants to provide you with software that meets your quality needs. To do this, we need your
input. If there is a feature, function, or operation that you would like to see in a future version of the
software, please contact Technical Support by e-mail at support@pqsystems.com or by phone at 1-800-
777-5060 or 937-885-2255.
10 CHARTrunner User's Guide
Copyright © 2011
11
In This Chapter
Hardware and software requirements ........................................................... 11
Using the installation README file ............................................................... 11
Installing CHARTrunner ................................................................................ 11
Upgrading from a prior version of CHARTrunner.......................................... 12
Hardware and software requirements
You need the following to run CHARTrunner:
Pentium PC with sufficient memory.
Generally speaking, the more memory the better your experience will be. If you are running Windows
XP, PQ Systems recommends 256 MB at an absolute minimum, and 512 MB (or more) is better.
At least 200 MB of free disk space.
Windows 98, 2000, Windows NT, Windows XP, or Windows Vista.
Using the installation README file
We strive to continuously improve our software and occasionally make changes that affect the look or use
of CHARTrunner. We are not always able to include this information in the documentation that you
receive with the product. Instead, PQ Systems includes this information in a ReadMe.htm file. To open
the ReadMe.htm file, double-click on the ReadMe icon in the CHARTrunner 3.6 area of the Start menu.
CHAPTER 2
Installing CHARTrunner
12 CHARTrunner User's Guide
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Installing CHARTrunner
To install CHARTrunner:
1. Put the Quality Suite CD in your CD drive and close the drive. The CD should launch automatically. If
it does not:
a) Open the Start Menu and select Run.
b) In the Run form, type the letter of your CD drive, followed by a colon, backslash, and setup. For
example, if your Quality Suite CD is in your D drive, you would type D:\setup.
c) Click the OK button.
2. From the introduction screen, click on >> or press the PageDown key. From the Quality Suite Main
Menu, select Install Products.
3. From the Quality Suite Software screen, click on CHARTrunner. Follow on-screen installation
instructions to complete the install.
Installing CHARTrunner 13
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Upgrading from a prior version of CHARTrunner
You should not install CHARTrunner 3.6 into the same folder where a previous version of CHARTrunner
has been installed.
You can safely install multiple versions of CHARTrunner on the same computer. This allows you to try out
the new features of CHARTrunner 3.6 without having to uninstall your prior version. However, please
understand that your CHARTrunner license does not permit you to install or run a prior version of
CHARTrunner on any computer other than the single licensed computer.
Chart definition files
When you edit a chart definition that was created in a version 1.7 or earlier, CHARTrunner 3.6 saves the
ChartName.CRF, MultiChartName.CRM, or WorkspaceName.CRW chart definition file in the new format
(which is not compatible with 1.7 or earlier versions). The prior version of the chart definition file is saved
with a .BAK file extension, e.g. ChartName.CRF.BAK, in case you need to recover it for use with the prior-
version of CHARTrunner.
If a 2.5 or higher chart definition is edited and saved by 3.6, the original definition file will not be saved
with a .BAK file extension.
If a Trend line is created in a chart definition using 3.6, and the chart definition is subsequently edited by
2.5, the Trend line will be converted to an "Extra line" with a y-axis value of zero. Thus, you should avoid
editing a 3.6 chart definition that contains a Trend line using CHARTrunner 2.5.
Style definition files
Prior to CHARTrunner 2.0, all style definition files (these are typically located in the Styles folder) had a
.CST file extension. Starting in CHARTrunner 2.0 (and higher), the following extensions are used
depending on the type of chart the style is used with:
Control Chart Style.CSC
Histogram Chart Style.CSH
Pareto Chart Style.CSP.
When you edit a style definition that was created in a prior version and now has the new 2.0 file
extension, CHARTrunner 2.0 does not save a .BAK copy of the prior version style file. The assumption is
made that if you have gone to the trouble of renaming the file extension to the 2.0 (and higher) naming
scheme, then that style will be used exclusively with CHARTrunner 2.0 (and higher).
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Steps for migrating to CHARTrunner 3.6
Follow these steps to migrate your existing chart and style definitions to CHARTrunner 3.6. If you are not
comfortable with using Windows Explorer to copy and rename files, then contact Technical Support at PQ
Systems, and they will assist you.
1. Copy your prior-version chart definitions to a new folder that will be used exclusively by
CHARTrunner 3.6 users so that, when CHARTrunner 3.6 saves changes in the new 3.6 chart
definition file format, you do not break the chart definition for prior versions of CHARTrunner. Omit
this step if you do not need to support prior versions of CHARTrunner.
2. If in your prior version of CHARTrunner you have customized any of the style definitions that look like
Default*.CST or have created one or more new style definitions, then copy these from the Styles
folder of the prior version of CHARTrunner into the Styles folder of CHARTrunner 3.6 (typically this is
C:\Program Files\PQ System\CHARTrunner 3.6\Styles). If you copied any of the Default*.CST style
files, you will need to first rename or delete the 3.6 version of that style. Then rename each of these
.CST style files so that they have the appropriate .CSC, .CSH, or .CSP file extension according to the
type of style definition.
15
The following topics illustrate key CHARTrunner forms and provides information on menu functions,
program settings, and navigating through the software.
In This Chapter
New CHARTrunner users ............................................................................. 15
Why CHARTrunner? ..................................................................................... 16
Starting CHARTrunner .................................................................................. 16
The CHARTrunner definitions list ................................................................. 16
Chart definition form ...................................................................................... 17
Multi-chart and chart workspace forms ......................................................... 23
Chart style form ............................................................................................. 24
Saving chart, workspace, and style definitions ............................................. 24
Getting help ................................................................................................... 25
Exiting CHARTrunner .................................................................................... 25
New CHARTrunner users
New users are encouraged to read Getting started (on page 15) and Tutorial (on page 27) to gain
familiarity with the basic concepts of using CHARTrunner.
We want your first experience with CHARTrunner to be a good one. If you are a new user, or even if you
are just evaluating a trial of CHARTrunner, you can contact PQ Systems for a guided tour of
CHARTrunner. To arrange a tour contact the nearest office.
Location Contact Information
United States Call: 1-800-777-5060 or 937-885-2255
E-mail: support@pqsystems.com
Europe Call: 01704 871465
E-mail: tech@pqsys.demon.co.uk
Australia Call: 03-9770-1960
E-mail: support@pqsystems.com.au
CHAPTER 3
Getting started
16 CHARTrunner User's Guide
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Why CHARTrunner?
CHARTrunner is designed for organizations that want to perform statistical process control analysis on
data already stored in a database or spreadsheet applications. Use it to monitor and improve systems
throughout an organization from sales to production to customer service. Working with data from Access,
dBASE, Excel, FoxPro, Paradox, and text files or through ODBC links or ADO;OLE DB database drivers,
CHARTrunner calculates statistics and produces control charts, Pareto diagrams, capability indices,
scatter diagrams, histograms, multi-line charts, dashboards, and more. CHARTrunner helps identify
process problems quickly and provides the tools for prioritizing them. It provides on line answers to your
SPC questions including chart selection and interpretation.
Starting CHARTrunner
To start CHARTrunner, click on the Start Menu and select CHARTrunner. This action is likely to be found
under Start > Programs > CHARTrunner 3.6 > CHARTrunner 3.6.
The CHARTrunner definitions list
When you start CHARTrunner, the first window that you see is the main window that displays the
CHARTrunner definitions list. This form shows the current working folder and all of the CHARTrunner
definitions found within the working folder.
Getting started 17
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Click on a button along the left side of the form to select the type of definition to display in the list. Click on
a tab above the list to select either the chart definitions list or the style definitions list.
Quick Search - When you press a key on the keyboard, the selection cursor in the definitions list will
advance to the new definition name that begins with that key.
Chart definition form
The chart definition form is used to create and define charts. It consists of a series of tabs, briefly
described below. For detailed information on the Chart Definition form and its tabs, please refer to
Charting Data. The Chart Definition form is displayed when you select the edit, copy, or new chart
definition functions.
Step 1: Chart name/type tab
The Step 1: Chart name/type tab, shown below, allows you to assign a chart name, description, chart type,
chart style, and refresh interval for your chart.
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Field Name Description
Chart Name Enter the name for this chart. The name you enter will be used as the file
name of the chart definition, so the following characters ? :”/\<>*| are not
allowed, since they cannot be used in a file name. If you change the name of
an existing chart definition, you will be asked if you want to retain the chart
definition with the old name. You may search for a chart based upon the
chart's name. This is a required field.
Chart Style Select a chart style name from the drop-down menu. The chart style defines
many of the visual “look-and-feel” aspects of the chart (such as the chart
background color). See Using styles to control the look of your chart for
more information about chart styles.
Description The description is used to provide additional information about the chart.
Because the description can be displayed in the CHARTrunner definitions list,
a chart description may help to locate charts more easily. You may search for
a chart based upon the chart description. This is an optional field.
Refresh interval
(blank - none) The refresh option will redraw a displayed chart at the specified interval. If
data is added frequently, set a refresh interval to keep the chart current. A
refresh interval may be set for a chart or multi-chart. Leave this field blank if
you do not want the chart to automatically refresh. Set this to the desired
number of seconds if you want the chart automatically to refresh while it is
displayed. Each time the refresh interval passes, the chart will be re-
displayed, reflecting any new data that may have arrived since the last
refresh.
NOTE: Be careful not to set the refresh interval too short. For example, if you
add new data to the underlying database once every 30 minutes, there is
really no need to set the refresh interval to 10 seconds. This makes the
computer do unnecessary work to re-query the database and re-draw the
chart. One use for the refresh interval is to monitor a chart in one location
based on data that is being collected in some other location. For example, in
showing data that is being collected during a manufacturing process.
Chart categories
and Chart type Specify the category and type of chart that you want. When you select a chart
type, the Sample chart image shows you a representation of what the chart
will look like. For descriptions of available chart types, please refer to Data
and chart types. For information on chart-specific settings, please refer to
Customizing a chart definition (on page 113).
When you have finished with the Step 1: Chart name/type tab, the next step is to tell CHARTrunner how to
connect to the database or data file for the chart by clicking the Step 2: Data source tab.
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Step 2: Data source tab
Use the Step 2: Data source tab to select the type of database, spreadsheet, or text file and specify the
source file path and name. For ODBC and ADO;OLE DB sources, this form also prompts for user name,
password, and a connection string.
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Step 3: Data definition tab
Settings in the Step 3: Data definition tab tell CHARTrunner where to find and how to handle data within the
source file. This tab deals with questions such as: Is the data stored in a table or a query in the database?
Or, do you want to create a custom query? Which columns of data should be included on the chart?
Which can be ignored? Which are identifiers? Data filters and advanced row selection are set on this tab
as well.
Getting started 21
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Titles tab
The Titles tab is used to enter titles that will be displayed on the chart.
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Misc. tab
The Misc. tab is used to set the printer orientation, default parameters for chart image files, and default
parameters for creating a chart's Web page.
All other tabs
All other tabs on the chart definition form are chart specific and will be discussed in Customizing a chart
definition (on page 113).
Getting started 23
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Multi-chart and chart workspace forms
The Multi-chart function lets you view several charts on a single page or screen. You can mix and match
charts from different source chart definitions.
A Chart workspace is a collection of two or more regular charts designed to be viewed or printed together.
However, each chart will appear in its own window or be printed on its own page.
The forms for setting up Multi-charts and Chart workspaces are virtually the same. Use these forms to
add, delete, or modify charts that will be displayed in a Multi-chart or Chart workspace.
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Chart style form
This Control chart styles form is displayed when you select New or Edit chart style. Depending on the
chart type, you can use the properties of a style definition to set colors, data markers, line styles, and
fonts.
Saving chart, workspace, and style definitions
CHARTrunner automatically saves your settings when you create or modify a definition and click the OK
button to close the editor.
Getting started 25
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Getting help
CHARTrunner offers several help options:
On-line Help - On-line help is a quick way to find answers to your questions about CHARTrunner while
working in the program. To access help for a specific form within the program, press the F1
key or click the green question mark button . For general help, open the Help menu and select
Contents.
Tool tips - If you hold the mouse pointer over an icon, a pop-up help message will appear. Move the
mouse away from the icon to clear the message.
Quality Advisor - The on-line SQC Quality Advisor provides answers to commonly asked questions
about SPC. To open the SQC Quality Advisor, open the Help menu and select Quality Advisor.
README file - This file contains updated information on CHARTrunner.
Technical Support - Our technical support team will be happy to answer your questions. For free technical
support, call 1-800-777-5060 or submit your questions to support@pqsystems.com
(http://www.support@pqsystems.com). Our fax number is 1-937-885-2252. Customers of our England
office can call 01704 871465 or fax to 01704 875189. Customers of our Australian office can call 03-
9770-1960 or fax to 03-9770-1995.
Exiting CHARTrunner
To exit CHARTrunner press the Alt+F4 keys or open the File menu and select Exit.
26 CHARTrunner User's Guide
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27
This brief walk-through introduces you to a few of the key features of CHARTrunner. It is designed to get
you started with a minimal amount of setup. To get the most from this tutorial, complete the topics in
order.
In This Chapter
Lesson 1 - Set the working folder ................................................................. 27
Lesson 2 - Define a chart definition .............................................................. 29
Lesson 3 - display and customize the chart .................................................. 36
Lesson 1 - Set the working folder
CHARTrunner can store your chart and dashboard definitions in one or more folders on your local or
network disk. The folder that CHARTrunner uses to display the list of available definitions is called the
working folder. For the walk-through, we will use the ...\SampleCharts\Manufacturing folder that was
installed with CHARTrunner.
Click on either of the buttons shown highlighted below to open the Browse for Folder dialog. Or, open the
File menu and select Set folder containing charts. Or, press the Ctrl-W hotkey. Or, select from a list of
recently used folders by clicking on the field that displays the current working folder.
CHAPTER 4
Tutorial
28 CHARTrunner User's Guide
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1. In the Browse for Folder window, select the “C:\Program Files\PQ Systems\CHARTrunner
3.6\SampleCharts\Manufacturing” folder, as shown below, and click on the OK button.
2. CHARTrunner displays the definitions found in the working folder as shown below.
Tutorial 29
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Lesson 2 - Define a chart definition
1. Right click on a chart definition in the list and select New chart from the pop-up menu. Or, click on
the New chart icon (the one that looks like a green plus sign) on the toolbar.
2. The chart definition form will open, and the Step 1: Chart name/type tab will be displayed. In the Chart
name field, enter WT-chart as shown below.
3. By default CHARTrunner selects an X-bar/range as the type of chart to be displayed, and that is the
chart type we will use for this walk-through. But you could select a different type of chart at this point
in creating a new chart.
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4. Notice that the Chart style drop-down menu automatically contains Default Control Chart Style. The
named chart style definition that you specify determines many of the visual properties of the chart,
such as the colors and fonts used by the chart. You can create your own style definitions, but for now
we will use the Default Control Chart Style.
5. Click on the Step 2: Data Source tab, where you will tell CHARTrunner what data source to use for your
chart.
6. From the Type drop-down menu, select Microsoft Access.
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7. Click on the Browse for file button to select the Microsoft Access database file to use. Select the
“C:\Program Files\PQ Systems\CHARTrunner3.6\SampleData\SampleAccess2k.mdb” file. If
CHARTrunner was installed into a different target folder, you must adjust the file location accordingly.
8. Click on the Step 3: Data definition tab, where you will specify the data to be used for the chart.
9. Select Table as the Source for data records.
10. From the Table drop-down menu, select the DailyProduction table.
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11. From the Column to use for Order By drop-down menu, select MfgDate. For a control chart, it is a good
idea to always specify the order for the chart's data. Some data source providers can vary the order
of the data from one run to another if no order has been specified, and this can result in a different
looking control chart each time the chart is rendered.
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12. After you select a Table, Query or view, Stored procedure, or Custom query, the How to treat the
columns grid will list the data columns that are available to you. You must tell CHARTrunner in the
Treat as column how to handle the data in each column.
To specify the Treat as for a column:
a. Click on the Treat as field.
b. Click on the down arrow to open the drop-down list. Select Treat as options from that list as
shown below.
Column Treat As
Key Ignore
MfgDate Unique Identifier
Operator Identifier
Length_1 Measurement
Length_2 Measurement
Length_3 Measurement
Length_cause Cause
Width_1 Ignore
Width_cause Ignore
NoreField Note
CAUTION! If you return to the Step 3: Data definition tab another time, columns that were not mapped will
not be listed. To list these columns, click on the Refresh button.
13. Click on the Limits/specs tab.
14. Select Use temporary limits computed from data in the chart.
15. Click on the Control chart tab. There are four sub-tabs where you specify the options you desire for this
chart.
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16. Select the options as shown on the next illustration.
17. Click on the X-axis Y-axis tab within the Control chart tab.
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18. Set the options as shown in the next illustration.
19. Click on the Titles tab.
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20. Enter the titles as shown on the graphic below by double-clicking on a title cell and entering the
desired text. You can use your own name in the “Prepared by” title.
21. Click on the OK button to save the chart definition.
Tutorial 37
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Lesson 3 - display and customize the chart
To display the new chart:
1. In the CHARTrunner definitions list, right-click on the chart named WT-chart.
2. Select Display from the pop-up menu. The chart will be displayed in a window similar to that shown
below.
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To scroll through the data
Move the cursor to the bottom of the chart and pause. The horizontal scroll bar will appear above the x-
axis as illustrated below. If not, verify that Enable horizontal x-axis scrolling is selected on the X-axis Y-axis
sub-tab of the Control chart tab.
Click on the scroll bar arrows to scroll the chart right or left across the chart's data. In the example shown
above, the scroll bar has been used to reduce the number of subgroups being displayed on the chart from
31 subgroups to 15 subgroups.
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To close the chart display
Click on the X in the upper right corner of the chart window or select File > Close on the menu or press
Alt+F4.
Editing the chart definition or style
Right-click on the control chart and select Edit chart definition or Edit chart style. Make the desired changes
and click on the OK button. Note that when you close the chart display window, you will be asked if you
want to save any changes that were made to the definition while the chart was displayed.
Create a set of control limits on the chart
1. Click on or near a data point and, holding the mouse button down, drag the mouse pointer to select
about 10 data points as illustrated below. The dotted selection rectangle shows you which data points
are currently selected. The mouse pointer must stay within the boundaries of the chart.
Release the mouse button when the desired data points have been selected and the selected data
points will be highlighted.
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2. Right-click on the selected area. From the pop-up men, select Compute limits. The Control limits form
will open, as illustrated below.
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Each set of limits has a name; the default for this set is “Set 1.” You can assign a different name if you
want to. The Standard method for computing limits is recommended. Click on the OK button to save this
set of limits. The chart now shows the “Set 1” limits that you created, as illustrated below.
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To add an annotation to the chart
1. Right-click on the chart display window at the place where you want the annotation to appear and
select Add annotation from the pop-up menu. The chart annotation form will open, as illustrated below.
2. Type “Look at this!” in the Annotation text field.
3. Set the options for Line, Text, Box, and Annotation Position as desired for the annotation. There are
many options to choose from, so experiment to become familiar with how each option affects the
annotation. As you change an option on the Annotation Editor, the annotation displayed on the chart
updates to reflect the change. You may need to reposition the annotation form by left-clicking and
dragging the title bar of the Annotation Editor, so that you can see how the parameter changes affect
the annotation.
The Connect X to the data option attaches the annotation to the x-axis position of the data point so that
as the data point moves across the chart, so does the annotation. In order to use this feature, one of
the data source columns must be treated as the Unique Identifier on the Step 3: Data definition tab.
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4. Click the OK button to save your changes. The new annotation will be displayed on the chart, as
illustrated below.
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45
CHARTrunner provides tools for analyzing variables, attributes, Pareto, and other types of data. The
following topics examine key data types and analytical tools, so that you can select the best one for your
data. Note, however, that the topics do not describe all possible applications of CHARTrunner's charts.
In This Chapter
Variables data ............................................................................................... 45
Measurement control charts.......................................................................... 46
Attributes data ............................................................................................... 56
Count (attributes) control charts .................................................................... 57
Pareto data .................................................................................................... 65
Pareto charts - category data ........................................................................ 66
Distribution and capability analysis ............................................................... 71
Capability analysis ........................................................................................ 72
Line charts ..................................................................................................... 73
Advanced charts ........................................................................................... 76
Short-run SPC ............................................................................................... 77
Rare event control charts .............................................................................. 79
Variables data
What is variables data?
Variables data is data that is collected through measurements, such as length, time, diameter, strength,
weight, temperature, density, thickness, or height. Variables data offers the advantage of choice in the
degree of accuracy required. For example, you can measure an item to the nearest centimeter, millimeter,
or micron.
What Charts are used for analyzing variables data?
CHARTrunner offers control charts, histograms, multi-line charts, scatter diagrams, and run charts for
analyzing variables data. Use variables control charts to determine if a process is predictable or to see
how changes affect the process. Use histograms to analyze the distribution of data from a stable process.
Use histograms with capability analysis to determine the capability and/or performance of the system.
Use run charts for a quick look at a system's direction or when you do not have enough data for
conventional control chart analysis.
CHAPTER 5
Data and chart types
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Measurement control charts
Variables data is usually analyzed in pairs of charts that present data in terms of location or central
tendency and spread. Location, usually the top chart, shows data in relation to the process average. It is
presented in X-bar or individuals charts. Spread, usually reflected in the bottom chart, looks at piece-by-
piece variation. Range (R), sigma (S), or moving range charts are used to illustrate process spread.
Because the median chart shows each observation, it illustrates both process spread and location.
Another aspect of these variables control charts is that the subgroup size is typically constant.
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X-bar and range
X-bar and range (R) charts create a picture of a process over time. This chart pair is used with data that
has a subgroup size of two or more. The X-bar chart, on top, illustrates variation between subgroups.
Each data point on the X-bar chart shows the average of each subgroup of data.
The range chart, on the bottom, illustrates variation within a subgroup. Data points on the range chart
show the range for each subgroup.
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When do you use X-bar and R charts?
Use X-bar and R charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data in subgroups larger than one.
X-bar and sigma
The X-bar and sigma (S) chart is a variation of the X-bar and range (R) chart. Again, the X-bar chart (top)
shows the average or mean of each subgroup of data. Instead of range, however, the lower chart shows
the standard deviation of each subgroup. This chart combination is generally used when the subgroup
size is large, for example, eleven or more observations per subgroup.
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When do you Use X-bar and S charts?
Use X-bar and S charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data with a subgroup size of eleven or more.
Median
A median chart is a special purpose variation of the X-bar chart. It uses the median or middle value of a
subgroup to show the system's central location. It shows all the individual observations of each subgroup.
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When do you use median charts?
Use median charts:
When you want to see if a process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you want to see all the individual data points on the chart
When you have collected data in subgroups larger than one.
Individuals and moving range
Individuals (X) and moving range (MR) chart combination is a variation of the X-bar and R chart. It is used
with subgroups containing one observation. The X chart, on top, shows individual data values. The MR
chart, on the bottom, creates ranges by finding the difference between consecutive data values. It uses
absolute values, thus avoiding negative moving range values.
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When do you use individuals and moving range charts?
Use individuals and moving range charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data in subgroups of one.
Individuals and moving sigma
Individuals (X) and moving sigma (MS) chart combination is a variation of the X-bar and sigma chart. It is
used with subgroups containing one observation. The individuals chart, on top, shows individual data
points. The MS chart, on the bottom, creates sigma by calculating the standard deviation between
consecutive data values.
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When do you use individuals and moving sigma charts?
Use individuals and moving sigma charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data in subgroups of one.
Moving average and moving range
Moving average is a smoothing technique for time series data. It averages out the short-term fluctuations
in the system and concentrates on long-term trends. Moving averages work much the same as moving
ranges work on the individual and moving range chart. These charts are used with subgroups containing
one observation, but, instead of plotting the individual values, you plot an average of two or more
observations. This hides minor (yet frequent) variation between individual readings and shows how the
system is running over time.
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When do you use moving average and moving range charts?
Use moving average and moving range charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data in subgroups of one
When the process changes slowly relative to how often samples are collected
When the individual data values are subject to considerable variation.
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Cusum
Cusum is an advanced analysis that uses current and historical data to detect small shifts in the process
average. Cusum stands for cumulative sum of deviations from the target and treats past and present data
equally. Studying cumulative sums rather than subgroup averages emphasizes ongoing changes in the
process mean.
When do you use a cusum chart?
Use a cusum chart:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When even a slight variation can result in waste and product deficiency
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When the time order is preserved.
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Three-way control
The three-way control chart estimates the process standard deviation using a moving range of subgroup
averages. As shown below, a three-way control chart consists of a chart of subgroup means (Xbar), a
moving range chart of the subgroup means (Range of Xbars), and a chart of subgroup ranges (Range
chart).
When do you use three-way control charts?
Use three-way control charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how planned change affects the process
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When you have collected data in subgroups larger than one
When each data subgroup you collect is almost identical to the previous subgroup. This is known as
auto-correlated data.
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Attributes data
What is Attributes data?
Attributes data is data that can be classified and counted. There are two types of attributes data:
nonconformities and nonconforming.
Nonconformities data refers to defects or occurrences that should not be present but are. It also refers to
any characteristics that should be present but are not. Dents, scratches, bubbles, and missing buttons are
examples of nonconformities.
Nonconforming data is a count of defective units. It is often described as go/no go, pass/fail, or yes/no,
since there are only two possible outcomes to any given check. It also refers to a count of defectives or
rejects. For example, a light bulb either works or it does not. You can track either the number failing or the
number passing.
What charts are used to analyze Attributes data?
CHARTrunner offers two control charts for each type of attributes data. For nonconforming units, these
are p-charts and np-charts. For nonconformities, these are u-charts and c-charts.
In addition to the four standard of attributes charts, (p, c, u, and np) CHARTrunner offers p', c', u' and np'
control chart. The ending apostrophe denotes these are variations on the basic chart. The apostrophe
can be pronounced as "prime" so the p' chart is verbalized as a "p prime chart."
The p', c', u', and np' charts are used in the same applications as their traditional counterparts. However,
the prime charts use a different method of computing control limits. They are used when your data is
overly dispersed. With overly dispersed data the traditional method of computing control limits is not
adequate. For these charts, the data is first transformed, limits are computed, and then the limit values
are normalized back to charting values. To know if you should use these chart types, look for the Test for
over dispersion button on the data definition tab for a p, np, c, or u chart. This test will tell you if your
data warrants use of these "prime" charts.
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Count (attributes) control charts
p-chart
A p-chart shows how a process changes over time. However, instead of using the actual count of
nonconforming units, p-charts use a proportion of the nonconforming items, since the subgroup size may
vary. Subgroup sizes that vary more than 25 percent from the average subgroup size may require special
handling of the control limits.
CHARTrunner can perform special calculations to adjust the control limits accordingly and then plot the
proportions.
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When do you use p-charts?
Use p-charts:
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are counting nonconforming units
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size can vary.
np-chart
An np-chart is an attributes control chart used with data collected in subgroups that are the same size.
Np-charts show how the process, measured by the number of nonconforming items it produces, changes
over time. The process attributes (or characteristic) is always described in a yes/no, pass/fail, or go/no go
form. For example, the number of incomplete accident reports in a constant daily sample of five would be
analyzed on an np-chart. Np-charts are used to determine if the process is stable and predictable, as well
as to monitor the effects of process improvement theories.
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When do you use np-charts?
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are counting nonconforming units
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size is constant.
c-chart
C-charts show process changes over time by looking at the number of nonconformities the process
produces. For c-charts, the subgroup size must be constant. C-charts show the actual number of
nonconformities per subgroup.
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When do you use c-charts?
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When the data is a count of nonconformities
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size is constant.
u-chart
U-charts show process changes over time by looking at the number of nonconformities the process
produces. The subgroup size can vary; therefore, u-charts show the number of nonconformities in
proportion to the subgroup size. Subgroups that vary more than 25 percent from the average subgroup
size may require special handling of the control limits. CHARTrunner can perform special calculations to
adjust the control limits accordingly and then plot the proportions for you.
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When do you use u-charts?
When you want to see if a process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When the data is a count of nonconformities
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size can vary.
p’ chart (p prime chart)
A p' chart shows how a process changes over time. However, instead of using the actual count of
nonconforming units, p' charts use a proportion of the nonconforming items, since the subgroup size may
vary. Subgroup sizes that vary more than 25 percent from the average subgroup size may require special
handling of the control limits.
Control limits for a p' chart are computed by first doing a data transform. The p' chart should be used in
situations where a p-chart is normally used but evidence of over dispersion in the data has been
confirmed.
CHARTrunner can perform special calculations to adjust the control limits accordingly and then plot the
proportions.
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When do you use p'-charts?
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are counting nonconforming units
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size can vary
When there is evidence of over dispersion in your data.
np’-chart (np prime chart)
An np' chart is an attributes control chart used with data collected in subgroups that are the same size.
Np' charts show how the process, measured by the number of nonconforming items it produces, changes
over time. The process attributes (or characteristic) is always described in a yes/no, pass/fail, or go/no go
form. For example, the number of incomplete accident reports in a constant daily sample of five would be
analyzed using an np' chart. Np' charts are used to determine if the process is stable and predictable, as
well as to monitor the effects of process improvement theories.
Control limits for an np' chart are computed by first doing a data transform. The np' chart should be used
in situations where an np chart is normally used but evidence of over dispersion in the data has been
confirmed.
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When do you use np'-charts?
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are counting nonconforming units
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size is constant.
When there is evidence of over dispersion in your data
c’ chart (c prime chart)
C' charts show process changes over time by looking at the number of nonconformities the process
produces. For c' charts, the subgroup size must be constant. C' charts show the actual number of
nonconformities per subgroup.
Control limits for the c' chart are computed by first doing a data transform. The c' chart should be used in
situations where the c-chart is normally used but evidence of over dispersion in the data has been
confirmed.
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When do you use c' charts?
When you want to see if your process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When the data is a count of nonconformities
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size is constant
When there is evidence of over dispersion in the data.
u' chart (u prime chart)
U' charts show process changes over time by looking at the number of nonconformities the process
produces. The subgroup size can vary; therefore, u' charts show the number of nonconformities in
proportion to the subgroup size. Subgroups that vary more than 25 percent from the average subgroup
size may require special handling of the control limits. CHARTrunner can perform special calculations to
adjust the control limits accordingly and then plot the proportions for you.
Control limits for a u' chart are computed by first doing a data transform. The u' chart should be used in
situations where a u-chart is normally used but evidence of over dispersion in the data has been
confirmed.
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When do you use u' charts?
When you want to see if a process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When the data is a count of nonconformities
When the time order of the subgroups is preserved
When the subgroup size can vary
When there is evidence of over dispersion in the data.
Pareto data
What is Pareto Data?
Pareto data counts items in various categories. It is used to rank the categories in decreasing order of
occurrence. Based on the twentieth-century principle developed by Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, it is
the law of the significant few versus the trivial many. The significant few cause 80 percent of the
problem(s), while the trivial many make up about 20 percent of problem(s).
What charts are used to analyze Pareto data?
Pareto diagrams are used to analyze Pareto data. Usually a Pareto diagram is a simple bar chart.
However, CHARTrunner also allows you to display count data in a pie chart.
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Pareto charts - category data
Pareto - bar chart
A Pareto chart is a sample bar chart. Each bar represents a count of items that fall into a category or
classification. The bars are typically rank ordered so that that the bar with the highest value is shown first.
Bar charts have the bars oriented horizontally as shown below.
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Pareto column chart
A Pareto chart is a sample bar chart. Each bar represents a count of items that fall into a category or
classification. The bars are typically rank ordered so that that the bar with the highest value is shown first.
Column charts have the bars oriented vertically as shown below.
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Pareto - pie
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Pareto – stacked bars
A Pareto chart is a sample bar chart. Each bar represents a count of things that fall into a category or
classification. The bars are typically rank ordered so that that the bar with the highest value is shown first.
When using a stacked bar option on a Pareto chart, each "bar" can be made up multiple "sub bars." This
is an option when you map multiple count columns or when you map a group by column that results in
each category being made up of sub-categories. When the stack bars option is used with a bar chart, the
bars will be horizontal as shown below.
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Pareto stacked columns
A Pareto chart is a sample bar chart. Each bar represents a count of things that fall into a category or
classification. The bars are typically rank ordered so that that the bar with the highest value is shown first.
When using a stacked bar option on a Pareto chart, each "bar" can be made up multiple "sub bars." This
is an option when you map multiple count columns or when you map a group by column that results in
each category being made up of sub-categories. When the stacked bars option is used with a column
chart, the bars will be vertical as shown below.
When do you use Pareto charts?
When your data can be arranged into categories
When the rank of each category is important.
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Distribution and capability analysis
Histogram
Histograms are bar charts that show how raw data is distributed. They show basic information such as
central location (mean), width of spread (range or standard deviation), and shape. CHARTrunner allows
you to select descriptive statistics, such as skewness and kurtosis, for histograms.
When do you use a histogram?
Use a histogram:
When you want to visualize the central location, shape, and spread of data
When the process is stable, and you want to predict future behavior.
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Capability analysis
Capability analysis is a set of statistical calculations performed on a set of data in order to determine the
capability of the system. The capability of the system refers to the ability of that system to perform with
respect to its specification limits. A system is said to be capable if it is producing 100 percent within
specification limits.
CHARTrunner offers the following capability indices. Please refer to the Quality Advisor for a detailed
description of each index and what you can learn from it. You can also refer to Appendix A for the
formulas. CHARTrunner capability indices include:
Cp Cpm Pp
Cpk Cpu Ppk
Cr Cpl Pr
When do you use capability analysis?
Use capability analysis:
When the system is stable
When the individual values of the variables data are normally distributed
If the system does not follow the normal distribution, you may want to choose “assume the distribution
is non-normal” when creating a histogram in CHARTrunner.
When you want to know how the system performs in relation to the specification limits.
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Line charts
Run chart
Run charts are line graphs of individual data points plotted over time. They are used to look for patterns
or trends in the data.
When do you use run charts?
Use run charts:
When data is collected over time
When the time order has been preserved
When you want a quick test of process performance
When you do not have enough data for conventional control chart analysis.
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Multi-line charts
A multi-line chart is used to look for trends across different characteristics or related data sets. You can
display up to 10 data lines.
When do you use multi-line charts?
Use multi-line charts when you want to compare data from different factors on the same chart.
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Scatter diagrams
They are graphs that show the plotted values of the factors with each point on the graph representing a
pair of measures. One factor is plotted on the horizontal axis and the other on the vertical. The purpose of
the scatter diagram is to identify whether the factors are related as indicated by the pattern formed by the
plotted values. If a relationship does exist, the factors are correlated.
If they are positively related, the values will fall on a line trending upward and have a correlation
coefficient (r) = 1.0. If the factors are negatively related, the values will tend to fall on a line trending
downward and have a correlation coefficient = -1.0. A correlation coefficient = 0 implies that there is no
linear relationship.
When do you use scatter diagrams?
Use scatter diagrams when you suspect the performance of one factor is related to the performance of
another factor.
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Advanced charts
Box and whisker
A box and whisker chart summarizes several different measurements in a single graphical display.
When do you use box and whisker charts?
Use box and whisker charts:
When you want to visually compare different sets of related data
When you want to visually compare both the range and the central
location of multiple related data sets.
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Short-run SPC
In some applications, control charts are not practical. One example of this is manufacturing operations
where small lots of many different products are produced. Since each product has different specifications,
monitoring this with traditional control charts can be cumbersome.
In Short-run SPC, special control charts allow you to chart differences from a target value. Sometimes the
absolute difference from target is plotted. In other cases a normalized difference from target is plotted.
The idea is that a zero difference from target is good and any deviation away from zero is bad.
A common example used to demonstrate short-run SPC is that of a machine set up to cut bar stock into
different lengths. The operator may cut 6-inch bars for an hour and then switch to 12-inch bars for a few
hours. Rather than keep one control chart for 6-inch bars and a different chart for 12-inch bars, short-run
SPC allows the operator to monitor 6-inch, 12-inch, and any other size bars all on a single chart. You
might think of the chart as monitoring “How well are we cutting bars?” rather than “How well are we
cutting 6-inch bars?”
For short-run SPC, CHARTrunner uses techniques described in Short Run SPC, Donald J. Wheeler,
PhD, SPC Press. 1991.
Short-run chart types
Here is a complete list of the short-run chart types. Notice that your options differ based on subgroup size
of one vs. subgroup size larger than one.
Subgroup size is 1 Subgroup size greater than 1
Difference from target, moving range Difference from target (X-bar), range
Zed, W Zed bar, W
Zed*, W* Zed bar*, W*
Mean ranges Mean ranges
The mean ranges chart is unique to short-run SPC. It will help you decide which type of chart you need
for your specific data set. Consider these two scenarios:
1. Scenario 1
You are making products that have similar target values and similar variation around the mean. In our
example, the 6-inch bars and 9-inch bars might qualify as similar.
2. Scenario 2
You are making products where both the target values and the variations are very different. For
example, the first product might have a target of 675 and vary from 650 to 700. The second product
might have a target of 1.1 and vary between .98 and 1.3.
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The important question is how different are your products in terms of the mean and the variation? If your
products are similar, you will use the difference chart. (There is an interesting sentence!) If your products
are not similar, you will use the zed charts.
If you display a mean ranges chart and all the points (products) fall within the control limits, use a
difference from target chart.
If you display a mean ranges chart and points are outside the control limits, select one of the zed charts.
Difference chart vs. zed chart
A difference chart is plotting the difference from target in absolute units. A zed chart takes the difference
from target, normalizes this difference in units of sigma, and plots this normalized value as the difference.
PQ Systems' Practical Tools for Continuous Improvement provides more details about the types of data
and tools for analysis. It also provides detailed information on tools for planning, problem-solving, and
interpreting control charts. Contact the PQ Sales Group for more information.
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Rare event control charts
t-chart
The t-chart creates a picture of a process over time. The units being plotted are time values. Each point
on the chart represents an amount of time that has passed since a prior occurrence of some rare event.
The time units might be hours, days, weeks, months, etc. For example, a chart might plot the number of
days between infection outbreaks at a hospital. Alternatively, it could plot the same information as the
number of weeks between infection outbreaks. A traditional plot of this data will contain many points at
zero and an occasional point at one. The benefit of the t-chart is visualizing this data in traditional control
chart form. The formulas for t-chart control limits are different to account for this type of data.
When do you use a t-chart?
When you want to see if the process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are tracking the passage of time between relatively rare events
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g-chart
The g-chart creates a picture of a process over time. Each point represents some number of units that
have been “produced” between occurrences of some relatively rare event. For example, in a production
setting, where parts are produced daily, you may have occasionally power outages. A g-chart might be
use to look at the number of units (products) produced between power outages. The units produced can
be almost anything. For example, you might look at the number of invoices printed, the number of
customers served, or the number of patients seen, between the occurrences of some event. A traditional
plot of data like this is not conducive to control chart interpretation. The benefit of the g-chart is visualizing
this data in traditional control chart form. The formulas for g-chart control limits are different to account for
this type of data.
When do you use a g-chart?
When you want to see if the process is stable and predictable
When you want to see how a planned change affects the process
When you are tracking the number of units produced between rare events
81
In This Chapter
Database concepts ....................................................................................... 81
Basic chart definition concepts ..................................................................... 82
Step 1: Chart name/type tab ......................................................................... 83
Step 2: Data source tab ................................................................................ 84
Step 3: Data definition tab ............................................................................. 91
Filtering chart data ........................................................................................ 97
Query parameters ......................................................................................... 99
Custom query .............................................................................................. 102
Database concepts
Since CHARTrunner uses data stored in databases, it might be helpful to review some basic database
terms and concepts.
Databases are used to store a wide variety of information. Most databases manage this information in
one or more tables. A table usually has a name and contains one or more fields (sometimes called
columns) of information. Database tables contain rows that are also called records. Tables can be quite
large and often contain thousands of rows of information.
Some information does not fit neatly into a single table. For example, in most order entry systems, a
single order may contain several distinct items. In this case, it does not make sense to put the customer
information for the order in the same table as all the items in the order (as it would be duplicated).
Instead, the information is stored in two tables that are linked by a common column such as Order
Number. In this way, a single row in the Order table is related to or linked to multiple rows in the Order
Detail table.
People who use the information in database tables often want to work with a subset of the rows within a
table, for example, all orders that come from Kentucky. Instead of looking through thousands of records
from each state, users can do a query to see a table that contains only the Kentucky records.
Queries are like questions that we ask the database; the answer looks like an ordinary table, but it is
really a subset of the rows in the table. Most databases allow you to remember and reuse queries. In this
case, refer to the name of the query as if it were a regular table. Queries that are saved in the database
are sometimes called views or stored procedures.
CHAPTER 6
Basic chart definition
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Basic chart definition concepts
Charts are created with the Chart definition form. This form consists of a series of tabs. The first three
tabs, Step 1: Chart name/type, Step 2: Data source, and Step 3: Data definition are used to specify the
chart type and to select the data for the chart. These three tabs are used for every type of chart definition.
The remaining tabs are used for titles, control and specification limits, and chart-specific options such as
x-axis and y-axis labels.
Basic steps to create a new chart definition:
Right-click on a chart in the CHARTrunner definitions list and select New chart from the pop-up menu. The
chart definition form will open. Or click on the New definition icon on the toolbar, . Or open the File
menu and select New definition.
1. On the Step 1: Chart name/type tab, define the chart name and type. (See Step 1: Chart name/type tab
(on page 17).)
2. On the Step 2: Data source tab, define how to connect to your database or data file. (See Step 2: Data
source tab (on page 84).)
3. On the Step 3: Data definition tab, define what data to use and how to treat the data columns. (See Step
3: Data Definition tab (on page 91).)
4. Using the other tabs, you can customize your chart by choosing specific settings for the type of chart
you have selected.
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Step 1: Chart name/type tab
The Step 1: Chart name/type tab, shown below, allows you to assign a chart name, description, chart type,
chart style, and refresh interval for your chart.
Field Name Description
Chart Name Enter the name for this chart. The name you enter will be used as the file
name of the chart definition, so the following characters ? :”/\<>*| are not
allowed, since they cannot be used in a file name. If you change the name of
an existing chart definition, you will be asked if you want to retain the chart
definition with the old name. You may search for a chart based upon the
chart's name. This is a required field.
Chart Style Select a chart style name from the drop-down menu. The chart style defines
many of the visual “look-and-feel” aspects of the chart (such as the chart
background color). See Using styles to control the look of your chart for
more information about chart styles.
Description The description is used to provide additional information about the chart.
Because the description can be displayed in the CHARTrunner definitions list,
a chart description may help to locate charts more easily. You may search for
a chart based upon the chart description. This is an optional field.
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Refresh interval
(blank - none) The refresh option will redraw a displayed chart at the specified interval. If
data is added frequently, set a refresh interval to keep the chart current. A
refresh interval may be set for a chart or multi-chart. Leave this field blank if
you do not want the chart to automatically refresh. Set this to the desired
number of seconds if you want the chart automatically to refresh while it is
displayed. Each time the refresh interval passes, the chart will be re-
displayed, reflecting any new data that may have arrived since the last
refresh.
NOTE: Be careful not to set the refresh interval too short. For example, if you
add new data to the underlying database once every 30 minutes, there is
really no need to set the refresh interval to 10 seconds. This makes the
computer do unnecessary work to re-query the database and re-draw the
chart. One use for the refresh interval is to monitor a chart in one location
based on data that is being collected in some other location. For example, in
showing data that is being collected during a manufacturing process.
Chart categories
and Chart type Specify the category and type of chart that you want. When you select a chart
type, the Sample chart image shows you a representation of what the chart
will look like. For descriptions of available chart types, please refer to Data
and chart types. For information on chart-specific settings, please refer to
Customizing a chart definition (on page 113).
When you have finished with the Step 1: Chart name/type tab, the next step is to tell CHARTrunner how to
connect to the database or data file for the chart by clicking the Step 2: Data source tab.
Step 2: Data source tab
The information on the Step 2: Data source tab tells CHARTrunner how to connect to your database or data
file in order to fetch the data to be charted.
When you are finished specifying the properties of the Step 2: Data source tab, you can proceed to the
Step 3: Data definition tab to select data to be used for the chart. See the topic Step 3: Data definition tab
for more information.
The first choice you must make on the Step 2: Data source tab is the Type of data source or access method
you want to use.
The fields on the Step 2: Data source tab rearrange themselves depending on the Type of data source you
specify. There are three basic data access methods to choose from. Later in this topic, a sample Step 2:
Data source tab is shown for each of these three methods.
1. Your data source is Microsoft Access (with no password), Microsoft Excel, a text file, Paradox, dBase or
Lotus 123. These data sources fetch data directly from a data or database file on the computer's disk.
The underlying data retrieval technology used by this method is Microsoft Data Access Objects
(DAO).
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2. ADO;OLE DB providerYour data source has an ADO or OLE DB provider. That's a fancy way of
saying that someone has written data access software that conforms to the OLE DB specification for
your particular data source. The major client-server databases, such as SQL Server and Oracle, have
an ADO;OLE DB data provider. The underlying data retrieval technology used by this method is
Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects (ADO). Given the choice between using an ODBC driver or an
ADO;OLE DB provider, typically the best results are obtained by using the ADO;OLE DB provider.
Please refer to Appendix D, Data Sources, for more information on using ADO;OLE DB to fetch data
from specific data sources.
3. ODBC; Open database connectivity - Your data source has an ODBC driver. That's a fancy way of saying
that someone has written data access software that conforms to the ODBC specification for your
particular data source. The major client-server databases like SQL Server and Oracle have an ODBC
driver. FoxPro data is also accessible via an ODBC driver. The underlying data retrieval technology
used by this method is Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). Given the choice between
using an ODBC driver or an ADO;OLE DB provider, typically the best results are obtained by using
the ADO;OLE DB provider. Please refer to Appendix D, Data Sources, for more information on using
ODBC to fetch data from specific data sources.
Type - Select the type of data source or access method from the drop-down menu. Your choices are:
Microsoft AccessIf the Access database requires a database or workgroup password, please
refer to Appendix D, Data Sources, for more information.
Microsoft Excel
Text file
Paradox
dBase
Lotus 123 (wk1)
Lotus 123 (wk3)
Lotus 123 (wk4)
ODBC; Open database connectivity
ADO; XML record setSelect this to have CHARTrunner fetch XML chart data from a Web site.
See Appendix D, Data sources, for more information on using this method.
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If You Select Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, text file,
Dbase, or Lotus 123 as the type of data source
The Step 2: Data source tab shown below is used for a file-based data source, such as Microsoft Access or
Excel, where you tell CHARTrunner the location of the data file on the computer's disk.
Database or file nameThis field is used when your data source comes from a disk file or folder. The
field is not visible when the data Type is ADO or ODBC. You may use [:AppPath:] as part of the file or
folder specification; this gets expanded to be the full path to the folder where CHARTrunner is
installed. Your entry in this field depends on the type of data source as explained below.
For Access, Excel and Lotus 123:Enter the directory and data file name in the Database or file name field.
Click the button to open the file selection dialog.
For dBase, Paradox, and text filesEnter only the folder (or directory) where the data files are located.
You will select the specific data file on the Step 3: Data definition tab. Click the button to open the
folder selection dialog.
Keep current column mapping and allow for non-existing fileThis field allows you to change the data
source without losing the How to treat the columns settings that are defined on the Step 3: Data definition
tab. This feature is useful if you need to switch between identical databases and retain the same
column Treat As definitions.
Why allow for a non-existent data file? You might need this:
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a) If you are creating a chart definition for a data file that is not available to you. For example,
you may want to set up a chart for someone else who will be able to access the specified data file.
b) If you are a CHARTrunner-e user and want to set up a chart definition for a data file not available
to your computer; use this feature to enter the path of a file or folder that is available to the
CHARTrunner-e server.
You must specify an appropriate “Connection string” for the ODBC driver you want to use.
If you select ODBC as the type of data source
When you select ODBC; Open database Connectivity as the Type, the Step 2: Data source tab looks like the
example shown above. You can provide the following ODBC connection information:
Field Description
ODBC Driver You can select the ODBC “Data Source Name” you want to use from this drop-
down list. This list contains the ODBC “Data Source Names” (DSN) that have
been defined on your computer. The Windows Control Panel is used to set up
ODBC data sources on your computer. When you select a DSN name from the
drop-down list, a default connection string of the form
“DSN=SelectedOdbcName;” will be entered for you. Selecting from the ODBC
Driver drop-down list is optional because you can always manually enter the
required connection string.
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View all table
objects on the
Data Definition
tab
When CHARTrunner builds the list of available tables and views on the Step 3:
Data definition tab, it limits the list to show only the most commonly used
database objects. With some data sources (such as Oracle and SQL Server),
select this option to expand the list to include all available database objects, not
just the most commonly used ones.
Keep current
column
mapping and
allow for non-
existing file
This field allows you to change the data source without losing the How to treat the
columns settings that are defined on the Step 3: Data definition tab. This feature
is useful if you need to switch between identical databases and retain the same
column Treat As definitions.
Why keep the current column mapping? You might need this:
If you are creating a chart definition for a data source that is not available to
you. For example, you may want to set up a chart for someone else who will
be able to access the specified data source.
If you are a CHARTrunner-e user and want to set up a chart definition for a
data source that is not available to your computer. Use this feature to enter
the connection string that is appropriate for the CHARTrunner-e server.
User Enter a valid user login name for the data source. The name you enter here will
be substituted into the Connection string wherever {{USER}} appears in the string
(as shown in the figure above). Alternatively, you may enter the user login name
directly into the Connection string (e.g., Uid=MyUserName), in which case you
would not enter the user name here.
Password Enter the password for the data source. The password you enter here will be
substituted into the Connection string wherever {{PASSWORD}} appears in the string
(as shown in the figure above). Alternatively, you may enter the password directly
into the Connection string (e.g. Pwd=MySecretPassword), in which case you would
not enter the password here. It is recommended that you use the Password field so
that the password is not stored in plain text in the chart definition file.
Connection
string If you selected the driver name from the ODBC Driver drop-down list, a default
connection string was created for you. Edit the connection string as appropriate
for your ODBC data source.
Prompt for
user/password
each session
Select this if you want CHARTrunner to prompt for the user login name and
password each time the chart initially opens the data source.
For more information on using specific ODBC data sources, see Appendix D, Data sources.
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If you select ADO as the type of data source
You must specify an appropriate Connection string for the ADO provider that you want to use.
When you select ADO;OLE DB provider as the Type, the Step 2: Data source tab looks like the example
shown above. You can provide the following ADO connection information:
Field Description
ADO;OLE DB
Provider You can select a connection string template for the ADO provider you want to use by
selecting from the drop-down list. A default template for that provider's connection
string will be placed in the connection string field. But you will still need to edit the
connection string to provide information that is specific to your situation. Selecting
from the ADO;OLE DB Provider drop-down list is optional because you can always
manually enter the required connection string.
View all table
objects on the
Data Definition
tab
When CHARTrunner builds the list of available tables and views on the Step 3: Data
definition tab, it limits the list to show only the most commonly used database
objects. With some data sources (such as Oracle and SQL Server), select this option
to expand the list to include all available database objects, not just the most
commonly used ones.
Keep current
column
mapping and
allow for non-
This field allows you to change the data source without losing the How to treat the
columns settings that are defined on the Step 3: Data definition tab. This feature is
useful if you need to switch between identical databases and retain the same column
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existing file
Why keep the current column mapping? You might need this:
If you are creating a chart definition for a data source that is not available to you.
For example, you may want to set up a chart for someone else who will be able
to access the specified data source.
If you are a CHARTrunner-e user and want to set up a chart definition for a data
source that is not available to your computer, use this feature to enter the
connection string that is appropriate for the CHARTrunner-e server.
User Enter a valid user login name for the data source. The name you enter here will be
substituted into the Connection string wherever {{USER}} appears in the string (as
shown in the figure above). Alternatively, you may enter the user login name directly
into the Connection string (e.g., Uid=MyUserName), in which case you would not enter
the user name here.
Password Enter the password for the data source. The password you enter here will be
substituted into the Connection string wherever {{PASSWORD}} appears in the string (as
shown in the figure above). Alternatively, you may enter the password directly into
the Connection string (e.g., Pwd=MySecretPassword), in which case you would not
enter the password here. It is recommended that you use the Password field so that
the password is not stored in plain text in the chart definition file.
Connection
string If you selected the driver name from the ADO;OLE DB Provider drop-down list, a default
connection string was created for you. Edit the connection string as appropriate for
your ADO provider.
Prompt for
user/password
each session
Select this if you want CHARTrunner to prompt for the user login name and
password each time the chart initially opens the data source.
For more information on using specific ADO data sources, see Appendix D, Data Sources.
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Step 3: Data definition tab
The Step 3: Data definition tab is where you tell CHARTrunner whether to fetch data from a table, query or
view, stored procedure, or custom SQL query. You can specify how the data will be ordered (for a table),
how to filter records, set up Advanced Row Selection to perform sampling or grouping of the data rows, and
how to treat the data source columns. When using a stored procedure that accepts input parameters, you
can specify the input values to be passed into the stored procedure.
Source for data recordsSelect one of the following four sources of data records:
Table This option tells CHARTrunner to get the records for this chart from a named table in the data
source.
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For databases such as Access, SQL Server and Oracle, the tables found in the database will
be listed in the Table drop-down list. Select the table that contains the data for the chart.
If you chose Microsoft Excel on the Step 2:Data source tab, the Table drop-down list contains
the worksheets and named regions found in the Excel file. Select the worksheet or named
region that contains the data for the chart.
If you chose Text File on the Step 2: Data source tab, the Table drop-down list contains the
text files found in the folder you specified. Only files with a .TXT file extension are listed.
Select the text file that contains the data for the chart.
If you chose dBase or Paradox on the Step 2: Data source tab, the Table drop-down list
contains the table files found in the folder you specified. Select the table that contains the data
for the chart.
Column to use for Order By When you choose Table, you should also specify the column that
you want to use to establish the order of the records from the table. This entry is not required;
however, with most relational databases, it is difficult to know exactly what order the records
will have if you do not make this selection. Thus, it is highly recommended that you specify the
column name to use in ordering the table data. The resulting data records will be ordered in
ascending order.
Query or viewThis option allows you to use queries that have already been defined in the database
as a source of records for this chart. If you select this option, the queries found in the database will be
listed in the Query drop-down list box. Note that some databases call these queries and others call
them views. Your database may not have any pre-defined queries, so it is possible the drop-down list
box will be empty. These queries are created and saved using your database program. It is a good
idea to treat one of the columns from the query or view as the Unique identifier to facilitate using
multiple control limits or attaching annotations to subgroups.
Query (drop-down list) The queries or views found in the database will be listed in the Query
drop-down list. Select the name of the query or view that fetches the data for the chart. The
order of the data records will be determined by the definition of the query or view.
Stored procedure This option is very similar to the Query or view option. A stored procedure can specify
a series of database commands that are processed in order to fetch the data records. In addition, you
can pass input parameters into a stored procedure in order to have some control over the rows that
are returned. Stored procedures are created and saved using your database program. If nothing is
listed in this field, either your database does not support stored procedures or these procedures have
not been defined. It is a good idea to treat one of the columns from the stored procedure as the
Unique identifier to facilitate using multiple control limits or attaching annotations to subgroups.
Stored procedure (drop-down list)The stored procedures found in the database will be listed in
the Stored procedure drop-down list. Select the name of the stored procedure that fetches the
data for the chart. The order of the data records will be determined by the definition of the
stored procedure.
Custom queryIf you select this option, the Edit Query button appears, allowing you to enter your own
SQL statement to query the database. Using this option requires knowledge of both SQL and the
structure of the database that you are accessing. See Custom query (on page 102) for more
information. It is a good idea to treat one of the columns from the stored procedure as the Unique
identifier to facilitate using multiple control limits or attaching annotations to subgroups. The order of
the data records will be determined by the ORDER BY clause of the custom query.
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Edit QueryClick this button to open an editor that allows you to edit your custom query. Because
SQL is powerful and flexible, it can also be complicated. A complete description of SQL is beyond the
scope of this user guide. If you have trouble with SQL, refer to one of the resources listed in the topic
“SQL Query.”
NOTE: The Custom query is a powerful feature; care must be taken to form a correct SQL statement
that does not unintentionally result in thousands of records being returned. Or, worse yet, results in
the modification or deletion of data.
Keep columns If this is checked, you can change the Source for data records selection and/or change
the name of the table, query/view, or stored procedure without losing your existing How to treat the
columns settings. If this field is unchecked and you change any of these fields, the How to treat the
columns settings will be cleared.
Filtering The Filtering button and check box allow you to filter the data from your data source so that
only those rows that “pass through the filter” are considered for your chart. If a filter is define</