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Dimensions Menus in Forth The ~orthcard'" STAND ALONE OPERATION $299 Evaluation Unit Part #STD65F11-05 includes: ForthCard, Development ROM, 8Kbyte RAM, Manuals STD BUS INTERFACE EPROMIEEPROM PROGRAMMER RS-232 1 1 0 PARALLEL 110 -- ROCKWELL FORTH CHIP The Forthcard provides OEMs and end users with the ability to develop Forth and assembly language programs on a single STD bus compatible card. Just add a CRT terminal (or a computer with RS-232 port), connect 5 volts and you have a self contained Forth computer. The STD bus interface makes it easy to expand. Download Forth source code using the serial port on your PC. Use the onboard EPROMIEEPROM programming capability to save debugged Forth and assembly language programs. Standard UV erasable EPROMs may also be programmed with an external Vpp supply. OEM Version as low as Part #STD65F11-00 $ does not include memory or manuals 199 NEW! Options and Application Notes Electrically Eraseable PROMS(EEPROMs) FREEZE the dictionary in EEPROM (save in non-volatile memory, to be restored on power up) Download Software for your IBM PC or CP/M Non-Volatile CMOS RAM with battery 2K, 8K, optional Clocklcalendar Fast 2MHz clock (4MHz crystal) Disk Controller Card (5%") Self Test Diagnostics Parallel printer interface Ask about our ForthBoxTM A complete STD bus oriented system including the ForthCard, Disk Controller, Disk Drive(s), STD Card Cage, Cabinet and power supply. CALL TODAY FOR COMPLETE INFORMATION! H!TBG~Eqa!pm~mGGarparaQi@m 9560 Black Mountain Road San Diego, CA 92126 (619) 566- 1892 FORTH Dimensions Published by the Forth Interest Group Dimensions July/August 1985 Volume VII, Number 2 FEATURES Editor Marlin Ouverson 15 Menus in Forth by Frans Van Duinen Production Cynthia Lawson Forth Dimensions solicits editorial material, comments and letters. No responsibility is assumed for accuracy of material submitted. Unless noted otherwise, material published by the Forth Interest Group is in the public domain. Such material may be reproduced with credit given to the author and to the Forth Interest Group. Subscription to Forth Dimensions is free with membership in the Forth Interest Group at $15.00 per year ($27.00 foreign air). For membership, change of address and to submit material for publication, the address is: Forth Interest Group, P.O. Box 8231, San Jose, California 95 155. Symbol Table Simple; introductory tutorials and simple applications of Forth. Intermediate; articles and code for more complex applications, and tutorials on generally difficult topics. Advanced; requiring study and a thorough understanding of Forth. Code and examples conform to Forth-83 standard. Code and examples conform to Forth-79 standard. Code and examples conform to fig-FORTH. Deals with new proposals and modifications to standard Forth systems. Volume VII, No. 2 Make life easier for users of application programs - this article includes definitions that make it simple for you to develop menus. 25 Another Subroutine Technique by Donald Simard Want to call code subroutines from either colon or other code definitions, but can't afford the run-time penalty of earlier methods? This one may come closer to the mark for you. 27 The Hacker's LOCKER by Cecil McGregor If a terminal supports line lock, one can use it from Forth to preserve useful data on the screen. Here's a simple way to do it. 28 I Mass Transit Forth Bus passengers in this English city don't have to wonder when a late bus will arrive or whether an approaching bus is the correct one to board. A Forth application tells them, at the touch of a button. 30 P 38 Forth Spreadsheet, Part I1 by Craig A. Lindley This source code accompanies the article and pseudo-code in the preceding issue, giving Forth users a customizable application program. (For a machine-readable version, turn to the end of the listing.) Rochester Forth Conference 1985 Forth programmers, project managers and visionaries from several countries convened recently to discuss software engineering, management and productivity. The result was an exciting display of Forth and its adherents at their best. 40 Probabilistic Dictionaries by John S. James Have you wondered how a 60,000-word spelling dictionary can be compressed into RAM? Ultra-fast text searches can be performed using techniques pertinent to a variety of applications. DEPARTMENTS 5 9 12 42 Letters Editorial: "Journey to the East" Ask the Doctor: "Forth on the Front" by William F. Ragsdale FIG Chapters 3 FORTH Dimensions MOVE UP TO 76bit FORTH COMPUTING ENTER THE POWERFUL WORLD OF 68008 PROCESSING TODAY d- FOR ONLY , + $399 HC120 8MHz - 68008 CPU HlGH SPEED CMOS LOGIC FOR HlGH NOISE IMMUNITY LOW POWER CONSUMPTION 1 MEGABYTE LINEAR ADDRESSING 2 SERIAL PORTS - RS23214221423 20 PROGRAMMABLE 110 LINES REAL TIME CLOCK HARDWARE WATCHDOG ON BOARD BATTERY BACK-UP INCLUDES *+ COMPREHENSIVE POWERFUL 16K ROM BASED L A X E N & PERRY'S F83 16K DEBUG PACKAGE + BATTERY BACKED 24K RAM & CLOCK ** COMPLETE 80 PAGE MANUAL WlTH CIRCUITS FULL MULTI-TASKING F83 FORTH SOURCE LISTING * ACAN RUN TOTALLY "STAND ALONE" L L THIS FOR JUST $399 AND WIN A PRIZE DlSC BASED FORTH SYSTEMS ALSO AVAILABLE FROM THE HC RANGE. EXAMPLE: $99 HC100 - 8 SLOT BACKPLANE $199 HC11O - POWER SUPPLY 110/220/240v (please indicate) HC130 - DMA DlSC CONTROLLER WlTH 8K BYTES $299 CACHE FOR SUPERFAST COMPI LATIONS $29 F83 FULL SOURCE CODE ON 5'/4/3K DlSC (please indicate) AND MORE! - WRITE FOR DETAILS ADD $10 FOR SHIPPING 80 PAGE SYSTEMS MANUAL $25 S E N D M O N E Y O R D E R I C H E Q U E W l T H O R D E R , A L L M A I N CURRENCIES ACCEPTED. D E L I V E R Y 2-4 WEEKS. 3 9 HlGH STREET, COWBRIDGE, S O U T H G L A M O R G A N , U.K. T E L . ( 0 4 4 6 3 ) 2 4 0 9 & 4661 TELEX498215 CF7 7 A E Standard Bearers Dear Mr. Ouverson: The Financial Services Division of Computone Systems has developed an applications language specific to insurance using the Forth-83 Standard. We think the remarkable thing about our language is that it runs on 8086/8088,6502 and Z80-based machines. There is a lot of talk about languages being transportable, but we found that most of it really is nothing but talk. Without the new standard, it is not likely that we could have accomplished the level of transportability that we have. Computone has been developing software in Forth for the past two and one-half years. Initially, Forth was dictated by the machine we chose to market. We began our support of additional machines by purchasing Forth packages from outside vendors. One fact became clear early in our development phase: there was no generally accepted standard and little continuity in vocabularies and functions among the Forth versions we were working with. These differences between versions prevented our applications code from being as transportable as we needed. Eventually, we had to decide whether or not to continue our development exclusively in Forth. When evaluating other languages as possible substitutes for Forth, we found that several of them offered more complete development systems and more liberal licensing agreements. Many of the packages offered better speed and more thorough floatingpoint tools. On the other hand, there was still no language available that we could alter so that the applications code would be identical on all the machines we were supporting. We found that the better-supported systems were expensive and had their own drawbacks: link/compile time, nonstandard extensions, speed or size limitations and highly variable support for machine-specific devices, I/O, etc. Forth was one language that could be altered at the machine level. If the Volume VII, No. 2 right version could be found for each processor we were supporting, adjustments could be made to the kernel via the metacompiler to develop the multimachine applications language we needed. After some investigation, we found that several individuals had produced public-domain versions based on the new Forth-83 Standard. These versions were similar in philosophy and came complete with the source for their compilers, and had most of what we needed for development. Using the public-domain versions, we were able to extend the machinespecific code and duplicate the current language that our applications team was using. We found that by simply transferring the high-level code from one machine to another and recompiling, our applications would run on virtually all our machines. We eliminated the eventual need for retraining our staff and extended the useful life of the tools and applications we had developed. Ultimately, our decision to develop exclusively in Forth allowed us to cut our programming costs and development time drastically. We were able to simplify software development by reducing the number of systems we had to learn and use. We increased productivity by reducing the number of application variations that had to be developed and supported. We were able to deliver the software faster and with far fewer problems. The final result was an increase in our bottom line, and after all, the real value of a language is in how it impacts profits. We are convinced that without the 83 standard, our integration of language and systems could not have been achieved. The standard proved to be a rallying point from which individuals were willing to work to produce systems which were compatible over a wide range of machines and available to the Forth community at low cost. The presence of a standard for highlevel code only serves to make the language more transportable and useful to developers who work with an 5 ever-increasing number of machines. The presence of standards within the community need not curtail the adaptability of the language, but rather serves as a bridge to new solutions, tools and ideas. The new standard and its wide acceptance will help Forth gain the industry-wide credibility it deserves. Sincerely, Michael D. Pollard Donald S. Schrader Computone Systems Atlanta, Georgia Hore Today, EXITed Tomorrow Dear FIG: Hore (Forth Dimensions VI/6) provides a solution to the so-called "double-loop-exit" problem, as it has been referred to in other quarters. His solution entails the derivation of an alternative DO LOOP structure. Screen 1 shows yet another alternative. In this solution, the systemdependent word DROP.LOOP is created which, when executed, allows a normal EXIT (given as ;S in the example, as it is in a fig-FORTH dialect). DROP.WOP does what the sequence R> R > PDROP would do if it were included at the equivalent point in the definition of LOOK.UP. For those unfamiliar with the use of EXIT, it forces the end of the word, from anywhere in the word - with the notable exception of within a DO LOOP. DO LOOPS typically leave two or more values on the return stack. Since EXIT makes use of the value which sits below those two or more values, we have to dispose of them before we can exit. A little brute force (trial and error) experimentation will show you how your system works. The only other element you may need to take care of would be a Forth-83 implementation of DO LOOP, which sets a flag to indicate being in a loop. Your system probably doesn't do this, but the flag should be indicated in your user variables if it does. The objection raised to the kind of maneuver presented here typically FORTH D~rnens~ons comes from the Wirth school of programming - the solution used does not have a "common end." And, so the argument goes, without a common end, another person reading a long program will get lost and be unable to follow the flow of the program. Arguing from first principles, a la Dijkstra, it sounds sound. Evidence, however, has a way of modifying principle. WOK.UP is, in fact, totally unambiguous. A stranger to the code (but not to Forth, of course) would understand immediately the action of the word. The difference which matters here is the size of the word: when the program is trivially small and program elements are selfdescriptive, it is demonstrably good programming for a word with two distinct outcomes to have two distinct ends. A key distinction is whether the program is trivially small and is made of self-descriptive program elements, whose own elements have the same characteristics. Which, as I think about it, isn't a bad description of what a Forth program should - and can be. I have included screen 2 to show some more uses of those interesting words COMPILE, [COMPILE] a n d IMMEDIATE. It was my fifth time through Starting Forth before I began to grasp them. Useable examples sometimes teach better than either words or pictures. The word DO+ saves a little typing and eliminates the clutter of all those WER + SWP sequences we use with a range of addresses. LOOP.EXIT performs the functions of DROP.WOP and EXIT, as the F83 word does. I typically keep them separate in my programs, as I have found times when program flow is clearer if I do. Regards, Henry J. Fay Cazenovia, New York Missing Mathquiz Dear Marlin, I'd like to look at the Mathquiz program on pages 13-14 of Forth FORTH Dimensions 5CH 11 1 HES 64FORTH HJF OlMAY85 0 \ DROP-LOOP EXAMPLE 1 2 : DROP.LOOP 3 COMPILE R> COMPILE R> \ BRING LOOP INDICES BACK HOME 4 COMPILE ZDROP \ GET RID OF THEM : IMMEDIATE \ NATURALLY 5 6 7 1 VARIABLE TABLE 2 8 . . 3 4 , . 5 ( VALUE/TABLE-ADDR/#ENTRIES OVER + SWAP DO DUP I E! = IF DROP I DROP. LOOP :S ENDIF LOOP FALSE : 9 : LOOK-UP 10 11 12 13 14 15 SCH V # ADDR' OR 0 ) 2 IMMEDlATE FUN \ --- HES 64FORTH HJF 01MAY85 1 2 : LOOP-EXIT 3 [COMPILE> DROP-LOOP C0MPILE:S : IMMEDIATE 4 5 : DO+ ( START-ADDH/#ENTRIES ) 6 COMPILE OVER COMPILE + COMPILE SWAP 7 CCOMPILEI DO : IHMEDIATE --- E) 9 Mathquiz SCR 0 1 2 3 4 X72 LDH 08/84 ) ( PROGRAM VARIABLES VARIAELE CHOICE 1 CHOICE ! ( Get and store players choice # 1 VARIABLE RESULT 0 RESULT ! ( Store result for *, +, & - 1 VARIABLE SCORE 0 SCORE ! ( Maintain players # of correct ans ) VARIABLE LEVEL 0 LEVEL ! ( Store difficulty level ) 5 6 7 8 ( Delay routznes V : DELAY 10 11 : 2DELAY 12 SCR 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V 10 II 12 13 14 15 LDM 08/84 15000 0 DO LOOP ; Null loop t ~ m edelay ( 25000 0 DO LOOP ; ( Longer time delay ) ) X73 ( TITLE PAGE--HATH-QUIZ ) : STAR 42 EMIT ; : STARLINE 4 0 0 DO STAR LOOP ; : ELANKLINE STAR 38 SPACES STAR ; : INFO-L1 STAR 1 4 SPACES HATH QUIZ " 14 SPACES STAR ; : INFO-LZ STAR 13 SPACES " VERSION 1.3 " 13 SPACES STAR ; : INFO-L3 STAR 18 SPACES BY" 18 SPACES STAR ; : INFO-L4 STAR 12 SPACES LYLE D. NORTON" 1 2 SPACES STAR ; : HATHTITLE PAGE STARLINE ELANKLINE BLANKLINE INFO-LI BLANKLINE INFO-LZ BLANKLINE BLANKLINE INFO-L3 BLANKLINE INFO-L4 ELANKLINE BLANKLINE STARLINE CR CR ; ." . ." ." SCR #74 0 ( INSTRUCTIONS FOR MATH-QUIZ ) 1 : INSTRUCT 3 SPACES HELLO. YOU " 2 ARE ENTERING THE WORLD " CR 3 " OF MATH-QUIZ. PLEASE ENJOY " 4 " YOURSELF' " CR " BE ADVISED " 5 INVERSE " THE UPPER LEVELS MAY REQUIRE" 6 CR " A PENCIL AND PAPER. " NORMAL " GOOD LUCK! " ; 8 ." ." . . . 7 ) . . . Continued 9 6 Volume VII.No. 2 Dimensions (VI/6) but some of the screens seem to be missing. Words like GETNAME and ANSWER in the text, and many of the words shown in screen 83 are not defined. Could I get a copy of the full set of screens? I'd like to set up the program for my wife's school kids and I'd like to study it to learn something about keyboard input. Klaus Schleisiek has picked a wonderful place as site of the euroFORML conference. I've been in Heilbronn and through the Neckar valley a couple of times. 1'11 be at the European FORML conference for sure. Best! Nathaniel Grossman Los Angeles, California Editor's note: Sincere apologies go to our readers and to author Lyle D. Morton who wrote "Mathquiz." In our issue VI/6 we unintentionally printed only four screens (numbered 71, 79, 80 and 83). The accompanying screens 72- 78, 81 and 82 are published here to complete the program. You Screen, I Scream Dear Marlin, The Forthodoxy commands that we Forth our programs into screens, the "natural unit of thought." As a confirmed heterodox, I think it is time to examine what screens offer and do not offer, in contrast to their alternative. Right off, let's admit that screens are not a natural unit of anything except computer memory or CRT display. The mind doesn't inherently work with 1024-byte units - certainly not when any number of those bytes can be blank. To the extent that screens keep us 1K-bound, they make it difficult to deal with our code at flexible levels of detail and generality. To appreciate how disfunctional screens are, note their perfect analogy to the numbered lines of BASIC. Like line numbers, screen numbers are inherently meaningless, presenting housekeeping chores and working against self-documentation. The process of copying, moving and inserting screens is tedious (even hazardous), VolumeVII, No. 2 SCR # 7 5 o ( M A T H a u ~ z- - - A D D I T I O N M O D U L E 1 2 VARIABLE ADD1 0 ADD1 ! ( addend X 1 ) 3 VARIABLE ADD2 O ADD2 ' ( addend # 2 ) 4 : A N S W E R Q U E R Y B L WORD NUMBER D R O P ; ( g e t s p l a y e r s a n s w e r ) 5 : ADDITION ( MAKE P R O E & G E T A N S ) 6 L E V E L @ C H O O S E A D D 1 ' ( g e t difficulty l e v e l a n d 7 L E V E L @ CHOOSE ADD2 I ( use CHOOSE t o s e l e c t addends j + " 8 CR ADD1 @ 9 ADD2 @ " = " ( 8 & 9 format problem ) 10 ANSWER 11 A D D 1 @ A D D 2 @ + DUP R E S U L T ' ( add t h e addends & s t o r e lt ! 12 = IF . ' CORRECT " 1 SCORE + ! 13 E L S E CR " WRONG, T H E C O R R E C T " 14 ANSWER IS " R E S U L T @ THEN ; 15 . . . ." . ." . S C R X76 O ( S U B T R A C T I O N MODULE ! 1 2 VARIABLE SUBl O S U B l ! ( minuend ! 3 VARIAELE SUEZ 0 SUEZ ! ( subtrahend ) 4 : SUBTRACTION ( MAKE P R O B - G E T ANS) 5 L E V E L @ D U P C H O O S E + ( a d d random number t o L E V E L h SUE1 ! ( t o make a m i n u e n d 1' s u b t r a h e n d ) L E V E L @ C H O O S E SUB; ! ( choose s u b t r a h e n d ) @ CR SUB1 Y SUB2 @ = " ( 8 & '? f o r m a t p r o b l e m ) 10 ANSWER 11 S U B 1 @ S U E 2 @ - DUP R E S U L T ' ( g e t d i f f e r e n c e and s t o r e 12 = IF CORRECT " 1 SCORE + I 13 E L S E CR " WRONG, T H E C O R R E C T " 14 ANSWER I S ' R E S U L T @ 15 THEN ; ' i . . . ." ." ) . ." . SCR t77 0 ( M U L T I P L I C A T I O N MODULE ) 1 2 VARIABLE MULTl O MULTl ' ( multiplicand ) 3 VARIAELE MULT2 0 M U L T ? ! ( multiplier ! 4 : MULTIPLICATION ( g e t problem and p l a y e r s answer ) 5 L E V E L @ CHOOSE M U L T l ! ( randomly c h o o s e m u l t i p l i c a n d ) 6 L E V E L @ CHOOSE MULT2 ! ( randomly c h o o s e m u l t i p l i e r ) CR MULTl @ * " 8 MULTZ @ = " ( 7 g 8 format t h e problem ) 9 ANSWER 10 M U L T l @ MULT2 @ * DUP RESULT ( y e t p r o d u c t and s t o r e 11 = IF CORRECT' " 1 SCORE + ' 12 E L S E CR WRONG, T H E C O R R E C T " 13 " ANSWER I S " R E S U L T @ 14 THEN ; 15 . ." . ." 7 ." . ." ) . S C R 878 0 ( D I V I S I O N MODULE 1 2 VARIABLE D I V I l 0 DIVIl ' ( dlvisor ) 3 VARIABLE D I V I 2 O DIVI2 ' ( quotient ) 4 : DIVISION ( G E T P R O B & ANSW ) 5 L E V E L @ C H O O S E 1 + DUP D I V I l ' ( g e t 3 0 d i v i s o r ) h L E V E L @ C H O O S E 1+ D U P D I V I Z ' ( g e t 7 O q u o t r e i n t ) * RESULT ' CR ! develop dividend ) 8 RESULT @ i " ,? DIVIl @ = " ( 8 F 9 format t h e prohlem 1 10 ANSWER D I V I 2 @ ( compare q u o t l e n t w i t h p l a y e r ' s a n s ) 11 = IF " CORRECT " 1 SCORE + ' 1 2 E L S E CR WRONG, T H E C O R R E C T " 13 " ANSWER I S " D I V I Z @ I 4 THEN ; 15 Continued - . ." . ." . ." . 7 . FORTH Dimensions SCR 0 1 2 3 4 5 X81 ( G R E E T I N G MODULE 1 CREATE : GREET : b -, : 9 : 8 10 11 1 2 : 13 1 4 15 NAME 4 0 A L L O T PAGE " WELCOME T O " " MATHQUIZ VERSION 1 . 3 I " ; GETNANE CR E N T E R YOUR F I R S T " NAME. " CR OUERY 1 T E X T ( g e t p l a y e r s name I P A D NAME 40 CMOVE ; ( move s t r l n g from P A D t o NAME PLAYER NAME 4 0 - T R A I L I N G T Y P E ; REGREET PAGE PLAYER YOU " MAY C H O O S E FROM T H E " CR " F O L L O W I N G MENU : " CR ; COMMENCE G R E E T GETNAME ; . ." . ." ) ." , ." . SCR # 8 2 0 L O O P & S C O R E MODULE ) 1 : DISPLAY CR PLAYER , YOU " 2 WERE C O R R E C T " S C O R E B DUP 3 "UP T I M E S " CR . " O U T O F 1 0 . " 4 I N V E R S E 8 :, I F VERY G O O D ' " Z D R O P E L S E 5 b > IF N O T B A D ' " DROP E L S E b B E T T E R WORK H A R D E R ' " T H E N T H E N NORMAL ; 8 : 10-ADD 0 S C O R E ' 1 0 0 DO ( t h e s e s e t up b l o c k s o f 1 0 ) 9 A D D I T I O N LOOP DISPLAY ; 10 : 1 0 - S U B 0 S C O R E ' 1 0 O DO 11 SUBTRACTION LOOP D I S P L A Y ; ( and zero t h e score a t the 12 : 10-MULT O S C O R E ' 1 0 0 DO 13 M U L T I P L I C A T I O N LOOP D I S P L A Y ; ( beglnnlng of each block 14 : 1 0 - D I V 0 S C O R E ' 1 0 0 DO 15 D I V I S I O N LOOP DISPLAY ; ." ." ." . ." ." ." 7 FEATURES -FORTH-79 Standard Sub-Set -Access to 8031 features -Supports FORTH and machine code interrupt handlers -System timekeeping malntalns time and date w ~ t hleap year correction -Supports ROM-based selfstarting applications COST 130 page manual -S 30.00 8K EPROM with manual-$100.00 Postage pald In North Arnertca lnqurre for llcense or quantlty prlclng Bryte Computers, Inc. P.O. Box 46, Augusta, ME 04330 (207) 547-32 18 $ .-.-.-.-...-.-.-.-.-.-. -.....-.-.-.-.-.-........,.. _..._ ......-............. .........-.-...-.-......... 2...... ..-...................... .... .......-.......*.*. .....+::: . hence we create "spaghetti loads" that make source code harder to follow. Indeed, the LOAD command is BASIC's GOT0 expressed at a different level. In addition to spaghetti loads, screen boundaries encourage "meatball code." Long, horizontally formatted, uncommented definitions are a natural result of a screen boundary that takes effort to cross - and the fact that blank areas get wasted. By the way, index lines - manually added redundance - are another space waster. So far, I've said that screens work against flexibility, space economy and self-documentation. Readability suffers from spaghetti and meatballs, plus excess baggage (screen number in decimal and hex, initials, date, index line and line numbers). Screen editors themselves are horribly weak, so even interactivity can suffer. There is hardly a virtue claimed by Forth that screens do not work against. When resources are limited, screens offer an easily implemented, interactive way to write programs in an incremental fashion. Fortunately, resources are no longer that limited, and file systems with powerful editors have 8 ) already been implemented. The most natural, least restrictive way to produce code is with good text editors or word processors. I won't dwell on their advantages over Forth editors. To anyone who has tried them, the difference is obvious (in New York, "FIG edit" means "forget it"!). Besides offering greater power, ease and flexibility, a real editor conserves disk space (I know - big deal) while encouraging commenting and high readability. With a good file system, it offers self-documenting file names for code modules of whatever size the programmer chooses. Any problems? One is indexing; without it, well-organized code in wellnamed files is important (a good idea in any case). Another problem is navigation between Forth and the editor; to which fast operating systems, multitasking, desktop utilities or non-screen editors within Forth are all solutions. Lastly, compilation speed may suffer, depending on how politely Forth relates to its host; the trend is toward politeness, which eliminates the problem. Volume VII, NO. 2 Journey to the East We recently returned from the annual Rochester Forth Conference. The lively event was sponsored by the Institute for Applied Forth Research in cooperation with the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the IEEE Cornputer Society. That says something interesting about the times if anything does. The directors and staff of the Forth Institute assembled a stimulating program that is reviewed elsewhere in this issue in necessarily brief terms there were about sixty presentors. In this issue we make good on promises past. Due to a last-minute error, our last cover promised "Menus in Forth" but it was nowhere to be found inside - the article had been rescheduled. This time you'll find it, honest! Also included herein are screens to accompany Morton's "Mathquiz." Thanks to the readers who wrote to request them. As a side note, columnists John Hall and Henry Laxen are absent, at least for the time being. Add to the list of FIG membership benefits a new one: major medical insurance. In the U.S. only, FIG members, their families and possibly their employees are now eligible for group rates. Current members will be receiving notice in the mail with specifics about the health-care plan. hose of you who work independently or who run a small business may be particularly interested. And, finally, we would like to wel- come five new chapters of the Forth Interest Group. Members are now holding official meetings and other Forth-related activities at MAD Apple FIG Chapter, Madison, Wisconsin; Cache Forth FIG Chapter, Oak Park, Illinois; Permian Basin FIG Chapter, Odessa, Texas; Japan FIG Chapter, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan; and Rockland County FIG Chapter, Pearl River, New York. Welcome to each group, may your meetings prosper. For a complete listing of all international FIG Chapters, turn to the back pages of this magazine. I've used a file-and-editor system for three years, and in spite of dire warnings, the only lightning I've been struck by is my own programming speed. I think it is vital that we move toward elimination of the restrictions represented by screens. Unless it can adapt to the progress around it, the Forth may not always be with us. Sincerely, Laughing Water Helena, Montana period#. This simple math is all that is required for any number of periods. The word daylnterval adjusts the date for a change of n days. It is dependent on the calendar module used and serves no purpose in this discussion. The periods used are: 0 = dawn, 1 = morning, 2 = afternoon, 3 = evening and 4 = night. If one begins with morning (setting period# to I), then - 7 perlodaway resets period# to -6 and -6 5 /MOD returns 4 -2. This adjusts the date two back and resets the period# to 4 (night), as it should be. What could be simpler? I raise my hat to the standards team on this one. Zaffar Essak, M.D. v ~ British Columbia ~ ~ canada Division Floors Him Dear Marlin, I have never been one to pride myself on an understanding of divisional mathematics, and the debates between floored-to-zero versus floored-tonegative-infinity have escaped me. Well, you can imagine my delight when I recently had occasion to use division in a situation that illustrates the usefulness of the latter method. In an appointment scheduler, the day has been divided into five periods. It is necessary to access prior and later periods. A single word perlodaway can handle the necessary calculations. sdjustperlod# uses /MOD to calculate the number of days crossed and resets Volume VII, No. 2 -Marlin Ouverson Editor Block:: # 1 ( ', periodaway dayinterval Appointments ( n--) SF(:!? 12~ j Qdjusts date b y n days. O VALUE period# : ad justperiod# ( - - ) period# 5 ,'MOD dayinterval TO period# ; \ ,. floored t n negative infinity ideal ! ! ( n--) AT period# + ! period# (1) 4 WITHIN (:I= IF adjustperiod# THEN ; : periodaway EX IT 9 FORTH Dimensions ~ * ................................ A Case of Brackets Editor, Henry Laxen's article in your March/April issue (VI/6) was very interesting for his discussion of using ] as a callable compiler. Looking into just how this works in the Perry/Laxen F83 system, described in C.H. Ting's book Inside F83, I find a difficulty. When reading from the terminal, the ] in F83 compiles only one line of text. Colon definitions in F83 can have multiple lines because compilation is continued by repeated ] calls in QUIT. No return into the definition of colon is made, but none is necessary. Yet, such a return into the defining word is just what is wanted from ] as it is used in Henry's CASE, for example. This restriction seems inherent in trying to use ] as a callable compiler instead of some other word. The ] is used not just to begin compilation, but is used with [ to enclose an interpreted expression embedded in the source text of a compiled definition. Such embedded expressions really require a single interpreter vectored back and forth from compiling to interpreting by brackets, rather than calling and returning. This interpreter, actually the word INTERPRET, already does everything Henry's ] does, if called with state set to compile. Like Henry's 1, though, INTERPRET only compiles one line from the terminal. Rather than change I, therefore, I would want to change INTERPRET. The repeated loop over QUERY ... INTERPRET in QUIT should be moved into INTERPRET so that a single call will process all the lines. The loop must repeat only when input comes from the terminal instead of disk. The null word executed at the end of a line should return into this loop, while exiting from INTERPRET is done by ; at the end of a definition. of a line. Semicolon can be defined simply as an exit one more level, to the caller of INTERPRET, which will be a defining word. The other work now done by semicolon - compiling EXIT, etc. to finish a colon definition - can actually be done in colon. Semicolon then can be used to terminate any compiler construct, not just those using colon. Henry's version of semicolon lacks this generality. PRODUCTS BY DR. INSIDE F83 New e d i t i o n ( p e r f e c t b i n d i n g 1. E v e r y t h i n g you want t o know a b o u t t h e Perry-Laxen F83 s y s t e m b u t a f r a i d t o a s k . 288 packed pages d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s : t u t o r i a l on F83 s y s t e m , F o r t h kernel, u t i l i t i e s , and 8086 specific tools. I t i s b a s e d on F83 V e r s i o n 2.1 f o r t h e IBM-PC, b u t u s e f u l a s a r e f e r e n c e manual f o r a l l o t h e r F83 Systems. $25.00 FORTH NOTEBOOK New e d i t i o n ( p e r f e c t b i n d i n g ). L a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f examples of Forth progranmxng style in s o l v i n g moderate t o c o m p l i c a t e d problems. Topics include: games, i n s t r u m e n t c o n t r o l , image processing and analysis, m i c r o a s s e m b l e r , e n d many more. $25.00 Henry described the compiling ] as an outgrowth of Forth-83, which eliminates state-smart words. (I still like state-smart words, but they really are irrelevent here. Besides, Forth-83 does not define 1 as processing text; like Forth-79, it defines both brackets vaguely, as setting state so that text is "subsequently compiled" or "subsequently interpreted." Code using Henry's ] therefore may not work on some quite standard systems. SYSTEMS GUIDE TO fig-FORTH The most a u t h o r i t a t i v e t r e a t i s e on how's and why's o f t h e f i g - F o r t h Model d e v e l o p e d by Bill Ragsdale. The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of F o r t h system. $25 .OO fig-FORTH FOR NOVZ COfiPUTER 8" d i s k $50.00 Source l i s t i n g $15.00 On another subject, credit should be given to D. Val Schorre for his paper on "Adding Modules to Forth" in the proceedings of the 1980 FORML Conference. He presented the same technique described by Carol Pruitt in your March/April issue under the title "Local Definitions." FORTH-79 ROM CARD FOR APPLE I [ ROM c a r d $50.00 Source l i s t i n g $15.00 ******************.***r********* PERRY-LAXEN F83 SYYTSk DISKS F83 (V.2.1) a s d i s t luted by No V i s i b l e S u p p o r t , I:la. Please c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f y yuu- CPU, O/S, a n d d e s i r e d d i s k fo-mat. $25.30 p e r d i s k . PC-DOS DD Format: 1 . F83/8086 f o r IBM-PC CP/M 8" SSDD Format: 2. F87/8080 f o r CP/M 3. F83/8086 f o r CP/M-& 4. F83/68000 f o r CP!M-68K IBM-PC CP/M46 DD F > r m a t : 5. F83/8080 f o r C P / M 6 . F83/8086 f o r CP/M-86 7 . F83/68000 f o r CP/M-68K L i s t i n g f o r IBM-PC F83 $10.00 Sincerely yours, George Lyons Jersey City, New Jersey WIL BADEN'S F83X FOR APPLE I [ F83 a d a p t e d t o Apple I [ computer 5.25" d i s k w i t h d o c u m e n t a t i o n $25.00 ................................ Send check o r money o r d e r t o : O f f e t e E n t e r p r i s e s , Inc. 1306 S. B S t . , San Mateo, Ca. 94402 Mailing & Handling, 10% o f order. C a l i f o r n i a n s p l e a s e add 6.5% s a l e s t a x . One way to do this is by having INTERPRET call a component word (INTERPRET) to process each line. Null can then be simply EXIT,as in figFORTH; it exits (INTERPRET) at the end FORTH Dimensions C. H. TINC ................................ 10 . VolumeVII. No. 2 NEW BOOKS - + "FORTH GUIDE" by Haydon. An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s of MVP-FORTH "FORTH A p p l i c a t i o n s " by Weber $13.00 k- THE FORTH MVP-FORTH Stable - Transportable - Public Domain - Tools $20.00 7 SOURCE^^ FORTH MSKS You need two primary features in a software development package a stable operating system and the ability to move programs easily and quickly to a variety of computers. MVP-FORTH gives you both these features and many extras. This public domain product includes an editor, FORTH assembler, tools, utilities and the vocabulary for the best selling book "Starting FORTH". The Programmer's Kit provides a complete FORTH for a variety of computers. Other MVP-FORTH products will simplify the development of your applications. MVP Books - A Series FORTH with editor, assembler, and manual. $100 q APPLE by MM, 83 q 8086188 by LM. 83 $100 25 I3 68000 by L", 83 $250 *& q Mac'nt0sh by MM983 q ATARIm valFORTH q VIC FORTH by HES. $60 $100 VIC20 cartridge 520 q CP/M by MM, 83 q C64 by HES Commodore q HP-85 by L~~~~ $90 rn HP-75 by Cassady 50 64 cartridge $40 q IBM-PC by LM, 83 IBM-PC by MM. 83 q 280 by LM, 83 *O Voi. 1, All about FORTH by Haydon. MVP-FORTH glossary with cross references to fig-FORTH, Starting FORTH, and FORTH-79 Standmi 2"4 ~ d . q Voi. 2, MVP-FORTH Assembly Source Code. lncludes IBM-PC" CPlMm , and APPLEm listing for kernel $20 0 Vol. 3, Floating Point Glossary by Springer $10 q Vol. 4, Expert System with source code by Park $1 5 Voi. 5, File ManagementSystem with interrupt security by Moreton $25 Vol. 6, Expert Tutorial for Volume 4 by M & L Derick . MVP-FORTH Software - A Transportable FORTH O MVP-FORTH Programmer's Kit including disk, documentation, $100 5125 51 00 q by HW, q TIS 10001ZX-81 q 2068 $25 $30 ~ ~ h FORTH ~ ~with: ~ ~ - e~ l o d a t i npoint, g ~ - ~ r a p h i c T-~utorial, s, S-Stand Alone, M-Math Chip Support, MT-Multi-Tasking, X-Other Extras, 79-FORTH-79, 83-FORTH-83. Ci APPLE by MM, q C64 with EXPERT-2 by F.G. & 8 3 $180 PS $99 q ATARi by PNS, F,G, & X. $90 q Extensions for LM Specify q CP/M by MM, F & 83 $1 40 IBM. Z80. or 8086 q Software Floating q TRS-8011 or ill by MMS F, X, & 79 $1 30 Point $1 00 q c64 by PS MVP. F, G & x $96 $1 00 q(IBM-PC 8087 or 8086) I3 9511 Support Key tor.ndors: HW Hawg W I I Software ~ (Z8O or 8086) $1 00 LM Laboralory Mlcrosystems I3 Color Graphics MM MlcroMotlon $1 00 (IBM-PC) MMS Miller Microcomputer Serv~ces PNS Plnk Nolse studto I3 Data Base PS Parsec Management $200 Volumes 1 & 2 of MVP-FORTH Series (All About FORTH, 2nd Ed. & Assembly Source Code), and Startfng FORTH. q CPIM, CP/M 86, 21 00, APPLE. q STM PC, q IBM PCIXTIAT, I3 PCIMS-DOS, O Osborne, q Kaypro, q MicroDecisions. DEC Rainbow. q TI-PC, O NEC 8 2 0 1 . 0 TRS-801100 $1 50 MVP-FORTH Enhancement Package for IBM-PCIXTIAT ProgramFORTH MANUALS, GUIDES DOCUMENTS mer's Kit. lncludes full screen editor, MSDOS file interface, disk Starting FORTH by Brod~e. display and assembler operators. $1 16 d0 Thlnking FORTH b y Leo Best instructional manual Brodie' author Of best selling q MVP-FORTH Floatlng Point & Matrix Math for IBM PCIXTIAT with available. (soft cover) $20 "Starting FORTH $16 8087 or Apple with Applesoft $85 ALL ABOUT FORTH by q 68000 fig-Forth with q MVP-FORTH Graphlcs Extension for IBM PCIXTIAT or Apple $65 Haydon. MVP Glossary $25 assembler $25 q MVP-FORTH Programming Aids for CPIM, IBM or APPLE Programq FORML Proceedings q FORTH Encyclopedia by mer's Kit. Extremely useful tool for decompiling, cailfinding, translatDerick & Baker $25 q 1980 1981 Vol 1 ing. and debugging. 0 1981 Vol 2 0 1982 q FYS FORTH from the +@ 0 1983 q 1984 each $25 q MVPFMrm Cross Compller for CP/M Programmer's Kit. :::G : *OL Netherlands ates headerless code for ROM or target CPU $300 q User Manual $25 q 1981 Rochester Proceedings q MVP-FORTH Meta Compiler for CPIM Programmer's kit. Use for q Source Listing $25 01981 01982 01983 each $25 IgB4 applications on CPIM based computer. Includes public domain 40 FORTH Tools and Applic. by source $1 50 Feierbach $1 9 q Bibliography of FORTH $1 7 I3 The Journal of FORTH q The Complete FORTH MVP-FORTH PADS (Professional Application Development System) $16 Application & Research by Winfield for IBM PCIXTIAT or PCjr or Apple II. 11+ or Ile. An integrated system for 0Vol.111 OV01.112 customizing your FORTH programs and applications. The editor in- 8 0 Learning FORTH by 0 Vol. 211 q vo1. 212 cludes a bidirectional string search and is a word processor specially Armstrong understanding FORTH 0 Vol. 213 each 51 7 designed for fast development. PADS has almost triple the compile I3 METAFORTH by Cassady $30 speed of most FORTH's and provides fast debugging techniques. by Reymann $3 Minimum size target systems are easy with or without heads. Virtual 13Threaded interpretive overlays can be compiled in object code. PADS is a true professional $25 q ~ O ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ , Languagss " ~ ~ i s l development system. Specify Computer. $500 Vol. II Glossary $14 q Systems Guide to fig-FORTH MVP-FORTH MSDOS file interface for IBM PC PADS 40 Mastering FORTH by by Ting $25 $85 Anderson & Tracy $18 0 inside F83 Manual by q MVP-FORTH Floating Point &Matrix Math see above q Beginning FORTH by +&Ting 525 $65 q MVP-FORTH Graphics Extension see above FORTH Notebook by Ting 525 $1 7 MVP-FORTH EXPERT-2 System for learning and developing invitation to FORTH $20 q FORTH Encyci. Pocket knowledge based programs. Both IF-THEN procedures and analytical *& subroutines are available. Source code is provided. Specify q Apple, Guide $7 PDP-11 User Man. $20 O IBM, or CPIM. Includes MVP Books, Vol. 4 & 6 $1 00 And So FORTH by Huang. A q 6502 U a r ' s Manual by FORTKWriter, A Word Processor for the IBM PClXTlAT with 256K. college level text. $25 Rockwell Intl. $1 0 FORTH Programming by e\\MVP-FORTH compatible kernel with Files. Edit and Print systems. q FORTH-83 Standard $1 5 Scanlon Includes Disk and Calculator systems and ability to compile additional q FORTH-79 Standard 51 5 FORTH words. $1 50 C] MVP-FORTH R a t Floating Pdnt lncludes 951 1 math chip on board q instaliatlon Manual for flg-FORTH $1 5 with disks, documentation and enhanced virtual MVP-FORTH for Apple $450 C I Source Listings of fig-FORTH, Specify CPU 515 II, 11+ , and lie. Ordering Iniormatlon: Check. Money Order (payable to MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, by Air. $5 for each item under $25. $10 for each item between $25 and $99 and $20 for INC.). VISA. Mastercard. American Express. COD'S$5 extra. Minimum order $1 5. NO each item over $1 00. All prices and products subject to change or withdrawal without billing or unpaid W's. California residents add sales tax. Shipping costs in US included notice. Single system and/or single user license agreement required on some in price. Foreign orders, pay in US funds on US bank, include for handling and shipping products. a *' *' *' * ' * * * MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC. PO BOX 4656 I 4' MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 (415) 961-4103 William F: Ragsdale Hayward, California "Ask the Doctor" is Forth Dimensions' health maintenance organization devoted to helping you understand and use Forth. Questions of a problemsolving nature, on locating references, or just regarding contemporary techniques are most appropriate. When needed, your good doctor will call in specialists. Published letters will receive a preprint of the column as a direct reply. This month your faithful practitioner deviates from his usual format. In the last three issues, we examined aids to learning Forth. Interest shifts this month to news and commentary on the latest events impacting the Forth community. The first stop on our morning rounds occurs at the Forth nursery, otherwise known as the Chip Hatching Department. Novix NC4000 Processor The hottest topic of interest in the Forth world must be the Novix NC4000P Processor, Charles Moore's embodiment of Forth in silicon. This sizzler of a processor gives about 10,000,000 Forth instructions per second (10 mips). Up to four Forth instructions (like DUP I +) can execute at each 125 ns clock cycle. A call takes one clock cycle and a return takes none! This rewrites the book on software, obviating interest in linear code and macros. To bring this topic into focus, we peek behind the scenes to witness a bit of the genesis of the Forth processor. The courtship began in October of 1980. The moment of conception was on January 19, 1981. First things first. Forth, Inc. had decided to expand its Board of Directors. Bill and Anne Ragsdale entertained Mr. John Peers at dinner in Palo Alto in October 1980, with the ultimate result of Mr. Peers being invited to join the Board. John Peers was the founder of Logical Machines, which had an innovative, extensible language called Adam. He was involved in robotics FORTH Dimensions and in the quest for aware machines. The spark that set the Forth processor development into motion came just two months later. We owe a debt of gratitude to Christine Colburn (president of Creative Solutions), who gave a $1000 birthday present to husband Don. Don had been examining computer architectures and had developed a passion to see the advantages of Forth directly applied in silicon. Don thus funded a one-day, projectorganizing session with Charles Moore, Bill Ragsdale and a chip design consultant. This was the spark needed for Chuck to confirm that others were seriously in support of his idea for a Forth processor. John Peers saw the beauty of approaching Forth from several levels. He founded Technology Industries in March 1981, with the encouragement of Chuck Moore and Elizabeth Rather of Forth, Inc. As the story unfolds, Forth Inc. merged into Technology Industries in August 1981. The charter of Technology Industries was to be an umbrella for three divisions of Forth: hardware, software and applications. Unfortunately, the full scope of this plan was not reached and the merger was rescinded in October 1982. The chip development still continued, funded with the limited resources of Technology Industries. Charles Moore demonstrated a color simulation of the processor in March 1983. A funding partner, Sysorex International, became interested in July, and by March of 1984 the Novix partnership commenced operation. John Golden transferred from Technology Industries as general manager, and continues in the capacity today. Silicon generation was almost anticlimatic. It took four years and a million dollars to get to the detail design stage. It took just seven months and seven hundred thousand dollars to realize the dream of an operational Forth processor in silicon. EDN magazine had the privilege of introducing the NS4000 in their March 1985 cover article. John Golden, guiding light of Novix, says, "The EDN article put us on the map. Three hun12 dred inquiries were developed. We found that Forth has friends throughout industry just waiting to show their management the opportunities." The first production run of development boards is nearly sold out. Mr. Golden says shipments will commence in the latter part of July with full documentation and developmental software (by Gregg Bailey). Production units were demonstrated at the Silicon Valley FIG Chapter meeting and at the Rochester Forth Conference. Purchasers' names read like a who's who of technology. There are automobile manufacturers, a computer media firm and a computer company that is into fruit. The processor is even being considered as a controller co-processor for a recent thirty-two-bit family. When queried on their motive, a spokesman replied, "We see this as a way to get a leg up on the rest of the world." Forth and Voice Mail FIG'S own John Cassady is getting no end of attention in the technical and popular press. He was recently "discovered" by Infoworld columnist John Dvorak. Mr. Dvorak, you will recall, is fondly remembered for his quote that he has never seen a credible application done in Forth. He has met his match, as John Cassady recently introduced the DynaCom Voice Mailbox System. It is programmed in Forth and is a honey of a product. Dvorak devoted an entire column in the San Francisco Chronicle to Cassady's product and then gave it another hit in his Infoworld column. You may try the system and leave remarks for John Dvorak at his voice mailbox by calling (415) 763-2002. When the system answers, tone in 454. The system supports twenty-five users, each with his own addressable "box." Callers leave messages which may be interactively reviewed by the boxholder. But each boxholder may grant up to thirty of his friends their own guest mail boxes for replies! Imagine 750 people with selective use of digitally controlled voice communica- Volume VII. No. 2 tions. The box is an IBM P C look-alike processor board with a hard disk, speech digitizer and Touch-Tone signalling. From the outside, it looks like just another industrial box. But on the inside, the VMS has a heart of pure Forth. John Cassady was previously best known as the implementor of figFORTH on the 8080. He published the 8080 assembler in widest use and is the author of the book Metaforrh. The DynaCom system is to be demonstrated at the Silicon Valley FIG Chapter meeting on July 28. Too bad our publication date means you will receive this issue of Forth Dimensions the following week! FIG even has its own voice mail box. For information on the next Silicon Valley Chapter meeting call (415) 763-2002 and tone in 44414. For a demonstration, key in 564. The Rochester Conference The Fifth Rochester Forth Conference continues to recieve rave reviews from attendees. During early June, over 180 people were hosted by Thea Martin and Larry Forsley. Participants traveled from all over the U.S., Canada, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. The program featured ten papers on Forth computers, with three from Novix. Novix' Bob Murphy packed the house with the best rundown yet on the internals of the NC4000. Major firms are using Forth and appear to be making a significant commitment in their project work. High-visibility attendees at Rochester included Standard Oil, Bell Canada and the GM Delco Division. The working group on standards, presided over by Mahlon Kelly (no relation to Guy Kelly, Forth Standards Team chairman), got into the topic of transitions from Forth-79 to Forth-83. A significant attitude was expressed about the burden and value of shifting to Forth-83 from an earlier dialect. Some opinion was offered that system and application changes weren't justified by the small perceived benefit. Switch or Fight? Forth-79's five-year lead has finally produced a comfortable user base. Working group members asked 1 "Why update to Forth-83? Is the effort worth the improvement? What will be the common model of a full implemention?" fig-FORTH was the common model prior to Forth-79. MVP-Forth carried the FIG model forward, and has become the de facto model for Forth-79. real-time applications involving F83, the Laxen-Perry model, is only ROBOTICS, INSTRUMENTATION, now coming into its own as the leading PROCESS CONTROL, GRAPHICS contender for the Forth-83 Model and more, is now available for.. sweepstakes. Your faithful servant offers a few opinions. (Who said, "Anybody can have the facts, but it takes real character to have opinions"?) PolyFORTH II offers IBM PC First, it takes four years for a language standard to become accepted Unlimited control tasks and popular. Do you remember the Multi-user capability hue and cry about Forth-79? It was 8087 mathematics cosupposed to be the worst disease since processor support the plague. Refer to your back issues of Reduced application Forth Dimensions to check it out. We development time a r e t w o - a n d - a - h a l f years i n t o Forth-83. It will catch full swing in another eighteen months. Just wait! Now included at no extra cost: Second, the Forth Interest Group Extensive interactive GRAPHICS must abandon fig-FORTH. The system SOFTWARE PACKAGE! Reputed design and listings are four years beto he the fastest graphic package hind the times, unsupported, imposand the only one to run in a true sible for the novice to self-install, and multi-tasking environment , it at cross purposes to the learning prooffers point and line plotting, cess. (The only viable replacement for graphics shape primitives and the revenue that would be lost is a diskinteractive cursor control. based applications library, but this has PolyFORTH II is fully supported its own set of complications.) by FORTH, Inc.'s: Third, some complaining occurred Extensive on-line at Rochester that the shift to Forth-83 documentation was being pressured upon those comComplete set of manuals plaining. This is a touchy topic. Some Programming courses standards are required. Building code The FORTH, Inc. hot line standards, for example, are enforced Expert contract programming by local governments. But Forth usage and consulting services remains voluntary. The Forth StanFrom FORTH, Inc., the inventors dards Team went to special lengths to of FORTH, serving professional make this clear. Read the copyright programmers for over a decade. notice on Forth-83, to wit: Also available for other popular "The existence of a Forth Standard mini and micro computers. does not in any respect preclude anyFor more information contact: one . . . from implementing, marketing, purchasing or using products, processes, or procedures not conform2309 Pacific Coast Hwy. ing to the Standard." Herrnosa Beach, The complainers probably are reacting to their perception of the transition FICA TELEX: 275182 around them, and divert attention to Eastern Sales Office the ogre of enforced change when try1300 N. 17th St. ing to cling to the past. My understandArlington, VA 22209 . 7031525-7778 Volume VII, No 2 7 F NGS FORTH FORTH, OPTIMIZED FOR W E I B M PERSONAL COMPUTER AND A FAST M-DOS COMPATIBLES. STANDARD FEATURES INCLUDE : e79 STANDARD .DIRECT 1/0 ACCESS .FUIL ACCESS TO MS-DOS FILES AND FUNCTIONS mENVIRONME3IT SAVE &m OMULTI-SEGMENTED FOR LARGE APPIJCATIONS .EXTENDED ADDRESSING .MEMORY ALLOCATION CONFIGURABLE ON-LINE .AUTO LOAD SCREEN BOOT .LINE & SCREEN EDITORS .DECOMPILER AND DEBUGGING AIDS 08088 ASSEMBLER .GRAPHICS & SOUND eNGS ENHANCEMENTS .DETAILED MANUAL .INEXPENSIVE UPGRADES eNGS USER NEWSA COMPLGTE m mH Dh'VEI;OPMEZV!P SYSTEM. FOR TRS-80 MODELS 1,3,4,4P IBM PCIXT, AT&T 6300, ETC. \ THE COMPLETE FORTH GETS A MAJOR UPDATE: MMSFORTH V2.4 A totat software envtronment: custom drtvers for prtnter, video and keyboard Improve speed and flexrblltty. (New TRS80 M.4 verston, toot) Common SYS format gives you a big 395K (195K s~nglastded)per disk, plus a boot track! Common wordset (79-Standard plus MMSFORTH extensfons) on all supported computers. Common and powerful applications programs available (most wtth MMSFORTH source code) so you can use them compatibly (with the Same data disks) across all supported computers. Very fast comptle speeds and advanced program development environment. A fantastic full-screen Forth Editor Auto-Find (or -Replare) any word (forward or back). compare or Palrs-Edit any two ranges of blocks, much more. l Temporary dtctionary areas. QUANs, VECTs, vectored I/O, and many more of the latest high-performance Forth constructs. Manual and demo programs are bigger and better than ever! * Same thorough support: Users Newsletter, User Groups worldwide, telephone tips. Full consulting services. Personal Licensing (One person on one computer) IS standard. Corporate Site Licensing and Bulk Dtstrlbution Licenstng available to professional users. NEW-IIP-150 & IIP-110 VERSIONS AVAILRBLE IT'S BETTER THAN EVER. The total software environment for IBM PC/XT, TRS-80 Model 1 , 3 , 4 and close friends. *Personal License (required). MMSFORTHV2.4 Splem Dbk $178.85 ITRS-W Modd 1 raqurss louercse, DDEN 1 4Utrack dnn, ) . . . *Personal License (addit~onalmodules): FORTHCOM commun~cat~ons module . . . . $ 49.95 UTILITIES ............... a 9 5 GAMES . . . . . . . . . . 38.95 EXPERT-2expert system 69.95 DATAHANDLER . . . . . . . . . . . 59.95 DATAHANDLER-PLUS(PC only, 1 a K req ) 99.95 FORnrWRtTE word p r w s w r . . . . . . 99.95 *Corporate Site License Extensions ...... rmm$~,ooa *Bulk Distribution trorn $Soo/sounnr. . . *Some recommended Forth books; 19.95 STARTINGFORTH (programmmng) THlNKfNGFORTH ItechnIqueJ 15.95 BEGINNINGFORTH (re MMSFORTH] . . . 16.95 Shlpp~ngfhandlmg& taxextra No returns onsoftware Ask your dealer to show you the world of .... ....... MMSFORTH, or request our free brochure. NEXT GENERATION SYSTEM PoOoBOX 2987 SANTA CLARA, CA. 95055 (408) 241-5909 For More Information For information on the NC4000P processor, contact John Golden at Novix, 10590 N. Tantau Ave., Cupertino, California 95014; (408) 996-9363. For data on the DynaCom VMS Voicestar, contact John Cassady at 339-15th Street, Oakland, California 94612; (415) 763-6636. MVP-Forth is distributed by Mountain View Press, Post Office Box 4656, Mountain View, California 94040; (415) 961-4103. F83, the Laxen & Perry Model, is available on diskette at $25 for IBM PC, CP/M 8080 and 68000, from No Visible Support Software, P.O. Box 1344, 2000 Center Street, Berkeley, California 94704. The Rochester Forth Conference is held in June, organized by the Institute for Applied Forth Research, Inc., 70 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York, 14611; (716) 235-0168. ~WJFORTH ......... PRICES BTART AT $70 ing of the standards team's expression is: if your application is done in a prior standard, let it run. If you are considering new effort, and want it to have the longest life, use the latest standard available. As a professional, you have a choice. Next Issue The clinic will resume addressing reader inquires in the next issue. Machine-specific problems such as how to install fig-FORTH on a VAX under UNIX aren't of general interest. Questions should revolve around Forth, in the manner of, "When
0 @ 3 .RDEC .Iq - " R> Q)W2DUP + >R TYPE CR ; : .#ON (S -> CaMPILE ( . # l a ) , I 4 .\ Menu U t i l i t y words : (.M") R> (S -> 2DUP + ) >R \Shwmuentry#O \ Shaw item no zero \ Step p a s t text f o l l w i n g \ & display ) \ Canpile mnu item zero ; IMMEDIATE 2 - Version 1 FVD28Apr84 \ Shcu un-numbered m u e n t r y \ Step past text following \ & display \ Canpiling? TYPE CR ; : .Me' SrATE @ IF COMPILE ( .MI' ) ,I' ELSE ASCII ,, WXD a c w p TYPE CR \ Show item text ENDIF ; m I A T E : M? (S mix min -> no ) \ Get mnu selection (0-9 max) ASCII 0 + S W ASCII 0 + \ S e t max & min a s d i g i t s BEGIN KGi >R \ Get selection & save \ Infuture Check f o r ? o r Esc 2DUP R@ -ROT BFlWEEN O= \ Validate selection WHILE R> MiOP REPERT \ W i l e not v a l i d \ Return number 2DROP R> ASCII 0 - ; Figure One First Version of Menu Word - - .\ &US Version 1 example : .MIX DARK .MI1 MXSET Program" ; : .MN4EN (S -> \ M i n Menu FVD28Apr84 OM# M . Hm .M" -Main Menu-" CR printer" CR #" Double density" CR .#Ogl Exit program" CR m# @ 0 M? \ G e t mnu s e l e c t i o n .In Set . Building Menus Three things are involved in menus: (1) Display the text of the menu, (2) accept the menu option selected and (3) execute the code corresponding to that selection. Those are must-haves. For good measure, we'll also throw in (4) a Help facility and (5) the ability to back out of a menu without selecting any of its items. - version vAluA&E M# \Noofmuitem&rnax : . R D x BASE @ DECIMAL .R BASE ! ; \ Display d e c h l no : OM# M# W F ; \ Reset menu no t o zero : (.#") (S -> \Definenunberedmuentry 1 M # +! M# @ 3 .RDK: \ Show item no R> 030NT 2DUP + >R \ Step Return addr p a s t text f o l l w i n g TYPE CR ; \ & display : .#It (S -> ) \ Canpile n u n b e r e d m u item a3lL'ILE (.#"I ," ; I.mEDIATE r \ Must be cunpleted w i t h CASE Figure Two Version One Example 15 FORTH Dimensions I've included three versions of menu words. Each successive version is more elaborate and somewhat more difficult to understand. This progression from simple to reasonably complete is how I developed the various ideas. (This code is available on various RCP/M bulletin boards. The file MXSET.BLK is a program written in F83 to configure the Epson printer. Note that it is not a complete program, but rather a "Study in Menus." There is also EDITOR.BLK, a Wordstar-compatible screen editor that I adapted to F83 from the original version published by Laxen in Dr. Dobb's Journal, September 1981.) Figure one shows the first approach. It is concerned primarily with display- .\ Menu support m r d s - Version 2: .A" !ANS FVD28Apr84 !ANS (S char -> 1 \ Save allowed response PAD DUP C@ 1+ 2DUP SWAP C! + C! ; \ Update response list : : (.A") (S -> + \ Display =nu item \ Step p a s t text EMIT \ Display l e a d char \ & save a s a l h m e d response lYPE CR ; \ Display rest ) CDWT 2DUP >R 1- StW DUP C@ DUP !ANS R> DASH, FIND 6; ASSOCIATES ." - " a 1t (S : .A" COMPILE -> ( .A" ) \ Canpile m u item ) ," IMMEDIATE ; O u r company, DASH. F I N D & ASSOCIATES. is in the business of placing FORTH Programmers in positions su~tedto t h e ~ rcapabllitles. We deal only with FORTH Programmers and compan~esusing FORTH. I f you would like to have your resum& included in our data base, or i f you are looking for a FORTH Programmer. contact us or send your resumt to: .\ Menu response mrds - (HELP), UKEY DEFER (HELP) \ Help word f o r ? response (S -> A 1 KEY CUP ASCII a ASCII z FEZWEEN IF ODF AIQ ENDIF ; \ Get upper case key : UKEY \ Reference no f o r Help V?UUABLE HELP# DASH. FIND di ASSOCIATES 8013 Dalworth. S u ~ t eB Grand Prairle TX 75050 ( 2 1 4 ) 642-5495 AW Committed t o Excellence FVD28Apr84 - Version 2: NEW-MENU FVD28Apr84 (M-STK) OE MJDl' \ Stack of Menu RP@ & SP@ \ The kknu Stack (&SIX) m i n t a i n s exit RP@ & SP@ ad& f o r 6 \ l e v e l s of rnenus. This is used by M-EXIT to a b o r t c u r r e n t m u ) : SIX-MENU ( S -> 1 R> RP@ SP@ (M-SIX) WP @ 2+ + 21 \ RP@ f o r c a l l i n g w3 4 (M-STK) +! >R ; : USTK-MrmU ( S -> RP@ SP@ ) -4 (M-STK) +! (M-STK) DW @ 2+ + 2@ ; : NEW-Sm ( S help# -> ) 0 PAD ! \ S e t new s e l e c t i o n , not r e t u r n addr HELP# ! ; \ S e t help reference .\ Menu support mrds VARIABLE (S help# : NEW-mu NEW-SEL STK-MENU .\ Menu -> ; - M-WT - Version : Em-MENU USTK-MENU 1 \ Clear screen & v a l i d responses \ Where to r e t u r n to on Esc 2DROP ; \ 2 E d of m u FVD29Apr84 - clear s t a c k item (S -> ) USTK-MENU Wm RP@ 1 ABORT" Wlg in unstacking menus" U< ABORT" Menu unstack e r r o r " SP! RP! ; (S exit c u r r e n t =nu & r e t u r n to c a l l i n g l e v e l m u ) : M-EXIT \ Note - Should work but does not. FORTH Dimensions 16 Continued Volume VII. No. 2 ing the menu. The word .#*I compiles the text following it, and the run-time word (.#"). The word (.#") displays that text. It also displays the menu selection number for that item. M# is the variable for the menu item number. .w3' and (.wH) are used for menu item zero, if at all. M? accepts a single digit, zero up to the maximum in M#. The word .MII is used to display an item without a number. It's like .I* but with a built-in CR. The .#" word is actually more complex than necessary. It does not have to be state dependent. That was done for some other experiments. This version does nothing to execute the code for the selected option. You have to define a CASE construct with words for each option. Version one works, but it did not satisfy me. I did not like the numeric selection (difficult to remember), and I wanted more features. A Better Version Enter version two (see figure three). Instead of using a counter, I used .AI* and (.A9') - the successors to .#" and - to build a list of valid response codes in PAD. By convention, the first character of the item text would be displayed separately as the selection character and would be added to the list in PAD. The first byte in PAD counts the number of entries. In this version, I also added a Help exit and an escape mechanism. MENUSEL accepts the input and validates it. Valid responses are those in PAD, A C (break) to abort, ? for help and Esc to exit to the calling menu. We still have the word@) to display the menu, MENU-SEL to get a valid response, and then a CASE to execute the selection, based on the index returned by MENUSEL. Have a look at figure four. This is the main menu for the Epson set-up program. How many items are displayed depends on the variable GTRAX. (There are more options on the printer with Graftrax than on the one without.) The problem is that now we have a variable length list of codes and a fixed (.#II) Volume VII. No. 2 .\ Define m u s - Version 2 MENU-SEL ." ? ( 3 -> index : " FVD28Apr84 ) BEGIN UKEY 0 \ Get key & set index PAD O D W OiER t SWAP \ Scan allowed responses Do OVER I C@ = \ -> char index flag ?LEaVE 1t LOOP \ -> char index PAD C@ 1- OWR < \ Index past end? - yes WHILE DROP \ Drcp index, check specials DUP 3 = ABORT" Break" \ TerIni~teon ^C DUP ASCII ? = IF' (HELP) ELSE 15 = IF M-I-MIT ENOIF \ exit calling menu BEEP ENDIF \ No BEEP after Help REPEAT SWAP EMIT CR ; \ -> index (P Accept input key, & mtch against acceptable list, returns in dex. If not matched, abort on ^C, HELP on ?, exit on ESC. Exit only on valid response.) Figure Three Enhanced Menu Words : .TITLE DARK . " MXSET - Printer Setup" CR CR ; (S -> ) (GTR) @ IF \ Is this graftrax .A" KReset printer to defaults" .An LSet uni-directional print on/offN .A" S e t bit 8 handling" .Au S e t graphics &" .A" OHprint head" ELSE .A" KSelect character set" ASCII K DUP 2DUP !ANS !ANS !ANS !ANS \ Allign psn : .MKm ENDIF ; \ Graftrax dependent features .\ Define menus E'VD29Apr84 (S -> 1 .TITLE " Main Menu" CR CR .A" ASet printer type" .A" =elect dmracter font" .A" CSet line spacing" .A" S e t page size" .A" S e t to top of form" .A" FSet perforation skip" .A" GSet out af paper signal" .A" HPrint test" .A" IKeyboard to printer" : .MAIN . .MwlR .A" zTo return to CP/M" ; .\Menus - M N 10 CASE: :MAIN MX80/100 InNT KEYBOARD BYE 8BIT GRAPHIC \ Options specific to GIBAX/not \ Position dependent EVD28Apr84 SPACING PAGE WET/OHAR UNL ONE-my-1 BYE ; : MAIN 0 NFW-MENU BEGIN 0 NEVI-SEL .MAIN 15 !ANS \ Intercept Esc MENU-S5 :MAIN AGAIN ; Figure Four Examples Using Version Two Menu Words 17 FORTH D~mens~ons (positional) CASE statement. Every item in the menu had better always be in the same spot. The ELSE clause in .MNGTR enters dummy responses in PAD to ensure its length does not change. If Exit is the fifteenth word in the CASE, then MENU-SEL had better always return a 15 when Exit is selected! The escape mechanism, too, was troublesome. As a general facility, it should clean up the stack as well as exit. Since we are talking about returning t o a calling routine/menu, a simple solution is to keep track of the position on the stack before calling the lowerlevel routine. Should that lower-level routine abort (error exit, etc.), simply restore the stack pointer to that known value. I generalized this to cover both stacks, and set up a little menu stack. On this is kept the value for the two regular stack pointers. This is to allow nesting of menus and returning one level at a time. I never did get it to work. It should - the concept is sound - but it is fragile code. Messing with the return stack must be done just right, or it will crash the system. The Ultimate Version Fortunately, by this time I had solved the problem. Version three is a little more complicated, but much more readable. It actually works. In version three, the menu items and the corresponding execution word are combined. There is no CASE statement. Have a look at the sample in figure six first. .A" is now called .AX'' and is followed by the name of a Forth word first and then by the text. (.AX") now not only puts the response code in PAD but also the address of the word that is to be executed should that code be selected. The first byte in PAD still counts the entries, which are now three bytes long. We have removed the positional dependence of the CASE statement. MENUSEUC gets the answer, validates it and executes the word whose address is stored immediately following. We have also done away with the menu stack. If the option is Esc, do nothing; don't FORTH D~mensions should be cleaned up and the menu restored. I've done this by passing the address of the word that displays the menu to MENU-SELX, which will reexecute it after Help has been invoked. There it is. I hope it is of use to others as well. Feel free to use this code for any purpose that is legal and moral. execute any word, merely return to the calling word/menu. The Help concept is shown here in its more rudimentary form, a word called from MENU-SEL when ? is pressed. It uses the variable HELP# as set in each menu by NEW-MENU or NEW-SEL. The number in HELP# would indicate what help information is relevant for that specific menu. The one limitation I am aware of (and have fixed since) is that after a Help message is displayed, the screen Acknowledgments The Forth dialect used is Forth-83 as implemented by Henry Laxen and .\ Menu s u p p o r t w r d s - Version 3: .AX" !AN= FVD28Apr84 ( S ad& c h a r -> ) \ Save allowed response PAD COUNT 2DUP 3 + SWAP 1- C! \ Update count byte + DUP 1+ -mr ! ! ; (P !AN= stores m n u char & rtn addr in pad, updates o f f s e t ) : (.AX") (S -> ) \ Display m n u i t e m R> DUP @ S A P 2+ \ -> mrd, text a d d r COUNT 2DUP + >R \ Step r e t u r n addr p a s t text SNAP DUP C@ \ Get lead char DUP EMIT -ROT - " \ -> addr char a u n t addr 1+ SW 1- TYPE CR \ Display rest -> w r d a&, char !AN= ; \ & s a v e as allowed response (P D i s p l menu item & store its select. char & rtn addr i n PAD) : .AXt1 (S -> ) \ C a n p i l e m u mrd & text i t e m EMPILE (.AXw) \ l w v e s ( . A X w ) , w r d , text [CDPILEI ' , ,I' ; IMMEDIATE : !ANSX ." .\ Define -us : MENU-SELX 3 Version ." ? (S " -> FVD28Apr84 ) BEGIN UKEY 0 \ PAD C O W OVER + \ Do OVER I C@ = \ ?L!ZAVE 3 + 3 +IIXIP \ PAD C@ 1- OVER < \ WHILE IXOP \ DUP 3 = ABORT" Break" \ DUP ASCII ? = W(HELP) 1B = IF EXIT ENDIF \ REPmT M A P ENIT PAD + 2+ @ M E W E ' CR HELP I S c h a r index f l a g c h a r index Index p a s t end? - y e s Drcp index, check s p e c i a l s Terminate on -C ELSE HELP# @ \ -> index CR - HELP .\ Define =us -> -> exit MENU-SEJX \ No BEEP after Help BEEP ENDIF : HELP Get key & set index Scan allowed responses ; \ Get selected wrd addr ." See h e l p no: " . CR FVD28Apr84 ; (HELP) Figure Five Execution Version of Menu Words 18 Volume VII, NO. 2 Multiuser/Multitasking for 8080,280,808.6 Michael Perry. It is readily adaptable to fig-FORTH, etc., though I don't know why anyone with an 8080/Z80 system would use anything other than Laxen and Perry's F83. For those who are not aware, these two gentlemen implemented a metacompiled version of Forth per the 83-Standard and put it in the public .\ Menus - using domain. It includes all kinds of bells and whistles, is one of the best Forth systems around, and the price is hard to beat. Most RCP/M computer bulletin boards around North America carry it as library SIGM 154A.LBR and SIGM154B.LBR. Thanks Henry! Thanks, Michael! : MX80/100 E'VD28Apr84 version 3 : MX8GX MX80 GWFTRAx ; : MXlOGX MXlOO GRAFTRAX : MX8m MX80 NXTRAX ; : M X O lm MXlOO NXXRAX ; ; ." 2 NEW-SEL .TITLE S e t P r i n t e r Type" CR CR .AX" MX8W ASet MX80" .AX" MX8GX S e t MX80 w i t h Graftrax" .AX" MXlONCX C s e t MX100" .AX" MXlOGX DSet MXlOO with Graftrax" m-SELX ; \ Note t h a t , I 8 used w i l l n o t skip leading blanks, hence m l y \ one blank before menu text (applies to .A" ard .AXw) TaskFORTH,. The First Professional Quality Full Feature FORTH System at a micro price* LOADS OF TIME SAVING PROFESSIONAL FEATURES: a Unlimited number of tasks Q Multiple thread dictionary, superfast compilation .\ Mus - Line spacing, Page s i z e FVD28Apr84 : SPACING 3 NEW-SEL .TITLE S e t Line Spacing" CR CR .AX" LS-6 A S e t 6 lines per inch" .AXw LS-8 W e t 8 l i n e s per inch" .AX" LS-72 C S e t l i n e spacing in 1/72 inch increments" (GTR) @ I F .AX" LS-10 BSet 10.3 lines per inch" .AX" LS-216 DSet l i n e spacing i n 1/216 inch increments" .AX" LS-216-1 S e t 1 l i n e spacing in 1/216 inch increments" mIF' MENU-SELX ; : PAGE Set Page Size" CR CR 4 NEW-SEL .TITLE FG-LN ASet page l e n g t h i n l i n e s " .AX" FG-IN Set page length in inches" .AXn .AX" FG-WLYl'H S e t page width in &aractersto MENU-SELX ; . . Figure Six Sample of Execution Version of Menu Words . a Novice Programmer Protection package^^ a Diagnostic tools, quick and simple debugging Q Startlng FORTH, FCRTH-79, FORTH-83 compatible Q Screen and serial editor, easy program generation a Hierarchical file system w ~ t h data base management ' Stafler package 5250 FUN package $395 Slngle user and commercal llcaoses ava~laSle If you are an experienced FORTH programmer, this is the one you have been waiting for! If you are a beginning FORTH programmer, this will get you started r~ght,and quickly tool Available on 8 inch disk under CP/M 2.2 or greater also various 51h" formats and other operating systems FULLY WARRANTIED, DOCUMENTED AND SUPPORTED DEALER lNOUlRES IhilITED = Shaw Laboratories, Ltd. 24301 Southland Drive, #216 Hayward, California 94545 (415) 276-5953 Volume VII, No. 2 October 23, 1985 - November 3, 1985 FORML Forth Modification Laboratory presents EuroFORML Conference Stettenfels Castle Heilbronn, Federal Republic of Germany Followed by SYSTEMS Trade Fair, Munich Computers and Communications 9th International Trade Fair and International User's Congress and Selected sightseeing tours and entertainment in Germany International technical conference October 25-27, 1985 Stettenfels Castle Software Metrics - Programs and methods to measure program performance, complexity, structure, programmer productivity, development methods, models, tools, program verification aids, and procedures. Individual participation is encouraged and attendees are requested to submit a conference paper. Conference proceedings will be published. SYSTEMS 'Ikade Fair October 28 - November 1, 1985 Munich Fair Grounds Computers and Communications - This is a major international event covering computers and communications. The trade fair is scheduled October 28 through November 1, 1985. Guest and Tour Program - A complete program will be available for guests not attending the technical conference sessions. Sightseeing escorted tours are planned for the group. Reservations, authors instructions, itinerary, special group rate - Write to EuroFORML, Forth Interest Group, Post Office Box 8231, San Jose, CA 95155 or telephone the FIG Hotline (408) 277-0668. East and West Coast departures are planned. Advance reservations are required. West Coast Departure $1995.00 East Coast Departure $1795.00 FORTH INTEREST GROUP MAIL ORDER FORM P.O. Box 8231 San Jose, CA 95155 (408)277-0668 I IN THE FORTH INTEREST GROUP 107 - MEMBERSHIP in the FORTH INTEREST GROUP & Volume 7 of FORTH DIMENSIONS. No sales tax, handling fee or discount on membership. See the back page of this order form. The annual membership dues are based on the membership year, which runs from May 1 to April 30. I When you join , you will receive issues that have already been circulated for the current volume of Forth Dimensions and subsequent issues will be mailed to you as they are published. The Forth Interest Group is a worldwide non-profit member-supported organization with over 5,000members and 80chapters. FIGmembership includes a subscription to the bi-monthly publication, FORTH Dimensions. FIG also offers its members publication discounts, group health and life insurance, an on-line data base, a job registry, a large selection of Forth literature. and many other services. Cost is $20.00 per year for USA. Canada & Mexico; all other countries may select surface ($27.00) or air ($33.00) delivery. You will also receive a membership card and numberwhichentitles you to a 10% discount on publications from FIG. Your member number will be required to receive the discount, so keep it handy. HOW TO USE THIS FORM 1. E a c h i t e m y o u w i s h t o o r d e r l i s t s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t Price categories: C o l u m n 1 - U S A , Canada, M e x i c o C o l u m n 2 - Foreign Surface Mail C o l u m n 3 - Foreign Air Mail 2. Select t h e i t e m a n d n o t e y o u r p r i c e i n t h e s p a c e provided. 3. A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g y o u r s e l e c t i o n s e n t e r y o u r o r d e r o n t h e f o u r t h p a g e o f t h i s f o r m . 4. D e t a c h t h e f o r m a n d r e t u r n it w i t h y o u r p a y m e n t t o The Forth Interest Group. An excellent source of references to articles about Forth throughout microcomputer literature. Over 1300 references. FORTH DIMENSIONS BACK VOLUMES The six issues of the volume year (May -April) bound in a single text. 101 - Volume 1 FORTH Dimensions (1979180) $15116118 102 - Volume 2 FORTH Dimensions (1980181) $15116118 - ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE SOURCE CODE LISTINGS 103 - Volume 3 FORTH Dimensions (1981182) $15116118 104 - Volume 4 FORTH Dimensions (1982183) $15116118 - Assembly Language Source Listings of fig-Forth for specific CPUs and machines with compiler security and variable length names. 105 - Volume 5 FORTH Dimensions (1983184) $15116118 - 513 - 1802lMARCH 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $15116118 - 106 - Volume 6 FORTH Dimensions (1984185) $15116118 - 514 - 6502lSEPT 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15116118 515 - 6800lMAY 79.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15116118 - REFERENCE 516 - 6809lJUNE 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $15116118 - 305 - FORTH 83 STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15116118 The authoritative description of 83-Standard Forth. 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BOOKS ABOUT FORTH 31 1 - FORML PROCEEDINGS 1981 (2V) . . . . . . $40143145 Nucleus layer, interactive layer, extensible layer, metacompilation, system development, file systems, other languages, other operating systems, applications and abstracts without papers. 200 - ALL ABOUT FORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25126135 Glen B. Haydon An annotated glossary for MVP Forth; a 79-Standard Forth. 312 - FORML PROCEEDINGS 1982 . . . . . . . . . . $25128135 Forth machine topics, implementation topics, vectored execution, system development, file systems and languages, applications. 205 - BEGINNING FORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $17118121 Paul Chirlian Introductory text for 7SStandard. 215 - COMPLETE FORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $16117120 Alan Winfield A comprehensive introduction including problems with answers. (Forth 79) 313 - FORML PROCEEDINGS 1983 . . . . . . . . . . $25128135 Forth in hardware, Forth implementations, future strategy, programming techniques, arithmetic & floating point, file systems, coding conventions, functional programming, applications. 220 - FORTH ENCYCLOPEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25126135 Mitch Derick & Linda Baker A detailed look at each FIG-Forth instruction. 314 - FORML PROCEEDINGS 1984 . . . . . . . . . . $25128135 Expert systems in Forth, using Forth, philosophy, implementing Forth systems, new directions for Forth, interfacing Forth to operating systems, Forth systems techniques, adding local variables to Forth. 225 - FORTH FUNDAMENTALS, V. 1 . . . . . . . . $16117120 Kevin McCabe A textbook approach to 79 Standard Forth. 230 - FORTH FUNDAMENTALS, V. 2 . . . . . . . . $13114116 Kevin McCabe A glossary. 233 -- ROCHESTER PROCEEDINGS - FORTH TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $19121123 - The Institute for Applied Forth Research. lnc. is a non-profit organization which supports and promotes the application of Forth. It sponsors the annual Rochester Forth Conference. Gary Feierbach & Paul Thomas The standard tools required to create and debug Forthbased applications. 321 - ROCHESTER 1981 (Standards Conference) $25128135 7SStandard, implementing Forth, data structures, vocabularies, applications and working group reports. 237 - LEARNING FORTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $17118121 Margaret A. Armstrong Interactive text, introduction to the basic concepts of Forth. Includes section on how to teach children Forth. 322 - ROCHESTER 1982 (Data bases & Process Control). ...... $25128135 Machine independence, project management, data structures, mathematics and working group reports. 240 - MASTERING FORTH ................. $18119122 Anita Anderson & Martin Tracy (MicroMotion) A step-by-step tutorial including each of the commands of the Forth-83 International Standard; with utilities, extensions and numerous examples. 323 - ROCHESTER 1983 (Forth Applications) . $25128135 Forth in robotics, graphics, high-speed data acquisition, real-time problems, file management, Forth-like languages, new techniques for implementing Forth and working group reports. 245 - STARTING FORTH (soft cover). . . . . . . . $20121122 Leo Brodie (FORTH, Inc.) 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The following publications are recent additions to the Forth lnterest Group Order Form as selected by the FIG Publications Committee. 401 - JOURNAL OF FORTH RESEARCH V.l #1$15116118 Robotics. LEARNING FORTH. A Self-Teaching Guide by Margaret A. Armstrong. Learning FORTH takes you step-by-step through the various stages of programming, using a payroll program as an example. 402 - JOURNAL OF FORTH RESEARCH V.2 #1$15116118 Data Structures. In addition to developing a basic working knowledge of the language, Learning FORTHteaches good programming style and easy debugging techniques. There's also a section on how to teach children to use Forth. 403 - JOURNAL OF FORTH RESEARCH V.2 #1 $15116118 Forth Machines. 404 - JOURNAL OF FORTH RESEARCH V.2 #2 $15116118 Real-Time Systems. 1 1 4 FORML CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS The sixth annual FORML Conference was held November 23-25, 1984 at the Asilomar Conference Center i n Monterey. California, USA. 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Many thanks to Robert Berkey and Dave Kilbridge for compiling, designing and producing the card. 420 - BYTE REPRINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $51617 Eleven Forth articles and letters to the editor that have appeared in Byte magazine. 421 - POPULAR COMPUTING 9183.. ...........$51617 Special issue on various computer languages, with an in-depth article on Forth's history and evolution. DR. DOBB'S PUBLICATIONS SURVEY This magazine produces an annual special Forth issue which includes source-code listings for various Forth applications. 423 - DR. DOBB'S 9183.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$51617 - If you would like to suggest any other publication for review by the FIG Publications committee for inclusion in the Forth Interest Group Order Form, please complete the information below and return to FIG. 424 - DR. DOBB'S 9184.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$51617 - Title: 422 - DR. DOBB'S 9182. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$51617 - Author: HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS Publisher: 501 - KlTT PEAK PRIMER.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$25127135 One of the first institutional books on Forth. Of historical interest. Comments: 502 - FIG-FORTH INSTALLATION MANUAL . . $15116118 Glossary model editor - We recommend you purchase this manual when purchasing the source-code listings. Your comments on any of the publications we currentlycarry are most welcome, please complete information below. Title: MISCELLANEOUS 601 - T-SHIRT SIZE (small, medium, large, extra large) Comments: $10111112 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15116118 616 - HANDY REFERENCE CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE 683 - FORTH-83 HANDY REFERENCE CARD . . . . . . FREE - 602 - POSTER (BYTE Cover) Volume VII, No. 2 23 FORTH Dimensions Another Subroutine Technique Donald Simard Severn, Maryland David Held's article and subsequent letter (Forth Dimensions V/3 and V/5) concerning code definitions callable by colon and code definitions, provided a very u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e . A f t e r understanding his ideas, I came up with a variation which avoids some of the inherent execution-time overhead when his method is used from a colan definition. I 1 Name Fleld L l n k Code machlne f ~ e l d F i e l d code 1 Using Mr. Held's technique from a colon definition required storing the address of the subroutine that he wanted to call into the calling routine each time that word is executed. This overhead can be eliminated. Figure one illustrates what a subroutine definition will look like after being compiled using the defining words presented here. One can see that the code field points to a JSR to the parameter field address. The code that is then to be executed must be a machine language subroutine and must return accordingly. When the word is called from a colon definition, the inner interpreter will be directed through the code field to the JSR PFA. When the machine language subroutine in the parameter field returns a JMP then NEXr is executed, which is the normal exit for CODE definitions. If the subroutine is to be used from a code definition, first it is necessary to use ' to find the PFA, then JSR to this address. The execution overhead associated with this technique is just an extra JSR and RTS from a normal colon definition; there is no overhead from code definitions. The extra memory required is the four bytes for the JSR and JMP in the definition. Volume VII, No. 2 RTS 2 Figure One : SUB , C CUMPI L E I ASSEMBLER CREATE SMUDGE LATEST PFA CFA : END-SUB ASSEMBLER HERE OVER ! CCOMPILEI ASSEMBLER 2+ J S R , NEXT JMP, END-CODE 3 EXAMPLE : SUB TEST 4 1 # LDA, P R I N T JSR, RTS EI.ID-SIJB , CALLED FROM COLON: : PRINT. 1 TEST CALLED FROM C:ODE : CODE P R I N T . l .'' TEST JSR, t.IE'!<';T ,jp.;P END-CODE , 25 FORTH Dimensions PORTIIII UNTEWE8.TGROUP PRESENTS, Forth National Convention September 20 - 21, 1985 Complete conference program, educational seminars, and commercial exhibits. Hyatt Rickeys in Palo Alto, California USA euroFORML Conference October 23, 1985 - November 3, 1985 International Technical conference at Stettenfels Castle SYSTEMS Trade Fair in Munich Guest and Tour Program in Germany Complete group travel arrangements from USA to Germany and return. Forth Modification Laboratory November 29, 1985 - December 1, 1985 A technical conference for advanced Forth practitioners. Asilomar Conference Center Monterey Peninsula overlooking the Pacific Ocean Pacific Grove, California USA Complete information available from the Forth Interest Group. I The Mirth Dimension : PROJECTDIRECTOR EXPECT UPDATE VERSION , WARNING IF SILENT TOGGLE WRITE-CHECK AND EXPECT COLD HANDSHAKE ELSE COMPILE AGAIN AND B SILENT ; : FORTH-PROGRAMMER TRAVERSE COLD SILENT OUTER SPACE AND CREATE RANDOM DEFINITIONS ; : FORTH-SOURCECODE EMIT RANDOM WORD AND REPLACE ERROR UNTIL SPACE = MAX LIMIT OR TIME OVER ; - Scott Heiner & Steve Gledhill FORTH Dimensions 26 Volume VII, No. 2 I Hacker's LOCKER Cecil McGregor Santa Clara, California Many times, when debugging Forth code, it is convenient to use small "throw away" parts that will not be used in the later, bug-free version. This could include a few lines of output that would be handy to keep on the display, or portions of a dump to compare with something else. It is not always desirable to edit this onto a screen and reload from that for changes, nor is it always convenient to print it as hard copy. These small gems then scroll off the top of the screen. Or perhaps you are looking at the stack and would like to keep it around while you scrounge about analyzing a bug. A few lines of typing and it, too, goes off the top of the screen. If you have a terminal that permits line lock (such as a TeleVideo 950 and many others) you can simulate a window that will lock the contents of the line until you release it. Scrolling will then ignore these locked lines. While the appearance is rather odd at first, the usefulness is great. To implement this, you must look in your terminal manual for the codes that will lock a line, unlock a line or screen, move up and down a line. As can be seen in the accompanying code, the word LINE-LOCK locks; and the word SCR-UNLOCK unlocks the entire screen. The constants UP-ARROW and DN-ARROW move the cursor up and down a line, respectively. Each of these is terminal dependent and must be tailored to your terminal. The word LOCKER gets a keystroke, and moves up or down a line if the up and down arrows are input. UP-ARROW and DN-ARROW allow positioning of the cursor onto the line to be locked. Striking an "L" will cause the current line to be locked; a "U" will unlock the entire screen; and any other key will exit LOCKER. This screen will compile under figFORTH and Laboratory Microsystems' 83-Forth, and it should be easily transportable to almost any standard Forth. If your terminal has line-lock capabilities, you will like this utility. 11. 0 (3 \ LJ3C:t::ER -- lock/ur111:11:k: 1 i r 1 e 5 ctrl p a g e 1-:kiM3 1.-ll.lt-5:4. 1 HEX 2 : 1. 1NE-LlIlC:K ( --.) ( TV95(3 r n r ~ t r r ~ t ol 1ol:I:. a lirle ) :3 1B EMIT 21 E M I T :31 E M I T ; 4 : SIZR-LINL..OT;K ( ----- ) ( TV95O ~:ctrttr.~:,l tl:~1.1r11clcI:.e r 1 t i r . p c;~:r.i-en ) 5 1B EMIT 2 1 EMIT 3% E M I T ; 15 (3E CIIINSTANT I-IP-ARRIIIW J b rIrINSl-fiNT rIN-fiRFrnW 7 : LOCKER ( --- ) ( s e l e c t i v e l . . , > loci:: l j . r ~ e slrlrl 1:r.t ) 8 H E G I N KEY ~7 n!F I-IF'-ARROW = J F EMIT El.:;F ( rnsvc. I.IP 10 DI.IF DN-ARROW = I F EMIT EL.:5F ( rntr~ve ~j i010r1 ) 3. 1. 13l-IF 4 C ( L ) = 1 F TI~?IX' 1 I NE-L.OC:l::: El.F;E( lock ) 12 nlJP 55 ( IJ ) = T F Df?I:SP SCR -I.!Nl OI~P: El..-SF: ( 5 r r I.J rl 1 i t c k ) 3: :1 ISRClP 131-1J T ( a rl ;i. n t he r. 1::e .Y. e ::.: i. f s ) 14 THEN THEN THEN THEN 15 A G A I N ; DEC:IMAL- '7 c r e e rl # . VolumeVII, No. 2 27 FORTH Dimens~ons Mass Transit Forth From June onwards, some bus stops up with the user as he keys in a long in the resort and retirement town of numeric string. Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, U.K., The terminal can be used both for will never be at a loss for words. Waiting passengers will hear a quiet entering data and instructions and for beeping and, if they then press a button receiving prompts from the laboratory at the source of the sound, a computer. For example, it could give personable female voice will announce the operator a cue about what reading the time of day, what buses are using to make next or indicate that a reading is out of range. The terminal that stop and when they are due. communicates with the laboratory When a bus is running off schedule, computer systems through a n inductive loop sensors buried in the RS-232-C interface at 9,600 bits per road interrogate circuitry in the bus second or through an IEEE-488 port. cab to identify it. The microprocessor Triangle has now acquired rights to controller in the speech synthesizer scans the sensor, detects the oncoming the terminal from NPL and is also bus and a voice will announce negotiating with the Department of something like, "The bus now Transport for the rights to the passengapproaching is a No. 10." Meanwhile, er advisory service, which clearly has the controller figures out when the next potential applications in road, rail and airplane terminals, just for starters. one is due. For those companies with Sufficient London-based Triangle Digital Services Ltd., a one-man outfit set up by expertise to assemble their Own SysPeter Rush, developed the prototype tems, Triangle also Sells its various hardware for the system. Formerly a board products directly. One is a product manager with General Instru- speech-synthesizer board that can be ment Microelectronics Ltd., Rush set operated directly from relay contacts, up shop to provide a systems service to asynchronous links over twisted pairs or parallel binary-coded decimal potential users of voice systems. inputs. He has developed a custom speech chip using a digital logic array. This is mounted on a self-contained Eurocardsized board. To go with it, there is a Forth Talk Forth-language microcomputer board. Triangle has also developed a Forth Rush says he chose Forth because its development board based on a Hitachi high-level-language capability speeds 6303 a complementary-MOS variant development work. of a Motorola part - and running Using the speech-synthesizer board Triangle's own Forth system. The and the microcomputer board (which board is a useful tool for real-time serves as its own development system), applications, since multi-tasking Rush can quickly meet a customer's programs can be written in a high-level requirements, even tailoring the voice language. to the applications. For Britain's National Physical Laboratory, for Moreover, users can extend the example, Triangle has developed a language as they go along, building handheld keypad with sixteen-digit their own expertise into their systems. alphanumeric display. It is used to Rush has used this feature to develop check readings as they are entered into progressively more sophisticated the laboratory computer. With the speech-control algorithms. The result synthesizer speaking in a brisk manner has been speech with very acceptable with truncated enunciation, it can keep quality. FORTH Dimensions 28 The Department of Transport system shows off the microcomputer's multitasking capability. First, it keeps a calendar that tracks the minute, hour, day and month. It responds to changes in summer and winter schedules and switches to the appropriate timetable. Second, it scans the inductive loop sensors and decodes the detected signal. Next, it controls the speechsynthesizer chip's vocabulary and adjusts the volume to compensate for ambient noise levels. "The lady shouts when a lorry goes by," says Rush. There is also a switched-capacitor-filter board with a twelve-decibel-per-octave cut-off. -Kevin Smith Reprinted from Electronics, May 31, 1984. Copyright @ 1985, McGrawHill, Inca A& rights reserved. Volume VII, No. 2 Now You Can Add ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE To Your Programs Using a Powerful Combination - - - By Elliot Schneider & Jack Park Heres Your Chance t o Profit by being on the Forefront, Write 5th Generation Software Easy Graphics & Sound Words Learn How To: Create Intelligent Programs Build Expert Systems Write Stand Alone License Free Programs Construct Rule Bases Do Knowledge Engineering Use Inference Engines Write Intelligent Programs For: Home Use Robotics Medical Diagnosis Education Intelligent CAI Scientific Analysis Data Acquisition Easy Control of all I/O.. . Data Analysis Business Real Time Process Control Fast Games Graphics Financial Decisions RS232 Functions Access all C-64 Peripherals Interactive Interpreter Forth Virtual Memory Full Cursor Screen Editor Full String Handling Trace & Decompiler Conditional Macro Assembler Double Precision 2E+38 with Auto. Sci Not. nxexLogx Loge Sin Cos Tan SQR 1/X. .. Matrix and Multidimensional Lattice Math Algebraic Expression Evaluator Interactive Compiler Romable Code Generator 40K User Memory All Commodore File Types Conversational User Defined Commands Great Documentation SUPERFORTH 64+AI LISP - Easy to Read 350 pg. Manual with Tutorials Source Screen Provided Meets all MVP Forth-79 Industrial Standards Personal User Support LOGO C PASCAL B&C FORTRAN ASSEMBLER - .-. . I A Total Integrated Package for the Commodore 64 SuperForth 64 Saves You Time and Money Ordering Information: Check Money Order (payable to MOUNTAIN VlEW PRESS INC ) VISA Mastercard. Amer~canExpress COD s $5 00 extra No b ~ l l ~ norg u n p a ~ dPO'S C a l ~ f o r n ~ a res~dentsadd sales tax S h ~ p p ~ ncosts g In US Included In prlce Fore~gnorders pay In US funds on US bank Include for handl~ngand s h ~ p p ~ n$10 g "Parsec Research Commodore 64 TM of Commodore Interrupt Routines Utilities Extended Math Functions Fast ML Floating Point & Integer Math SuperForth 64 is more powerful than most other computer languages Turtle Graphics Koala Pad Graphics Integrator Hires Circle, Line, Arc Music Editor Sound Control Hires Plotting Windows Split Screen Printer/Plotter Ctrl Sprite & Animation Editor Call: SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER only $990° 20330Value Limited Time Offer (415) 961-4103 MOUNTAIN VlEW PRESS INC PO. Box 4656 Mt. View, CA 94040 Dealer for PARSEC RESEARCH Drawer 1776, Fremont, CA 94538 Part Two Forth Spreadsheet Craig A . Lindley Manitou Springs, Colorado ! 4 c1 09/2!184 \ spreadsheet 0 \ spreadsheet - loader block 1 2 dark ( Spreadsheet Compiling) 3 4 ! 45 +thru . warning o f f variable variable variable variable variable variable C J b ;is 7 load the spreadsheet i n t o the f o r t h 8 i f you wish t o save the spreadsheet, 9 0 ' spreadsheet i s boot 1 save-system f ilename.com dictionary do so as follows: - constant & v a r i a b l e declarations lode-41 ag order-f lag format-flag cur-col cur-row col-disp \ auto c a l c u l a t e f l a g \ c a l c u l a t i o n order f l a g i number output f o r n a t f l a g \ top l e i t display colunn I 'i top l e f t display row ! cur-col on d i s p l a y \ rou displaceaent from \ cur-row on d i s p l a y \ beginning o f formula area \ operator stack f o r algebraic \ equation c o r p i l a t i o n v a r i a b l e dict-mark variable op-stack 44 a l l o t 1 3 t h i s w i l l save the e n t i r e f o r t h system aiofig w i t h the spread4 sheet as an executable f i l e named filename. When the f i l e 5 i s executed, your spreadsheet w i l l execute automatically. 2 0 \ spreadsheet - case statement 1 2 : lcomp s t a t e @ not a b o r t " C o r p i 1 a t i o n only' ; 7 . , I ?pairs 0 aborte Bad CASE statementn ; 4 5 : case ?coop csp @ !csp 4 ; i n r e d i a t e 4 : of 4 ?pairs 7 compile over compile = compile ?branch 8 here 0 compile drop 5 ; imrediate 9 : endof 5 ?pairs coapile branch here 0 0 swap >resolve 4 ; irmediate 1 : endcase 4 ?pairs compile drop 2 begin sp@ csp @ 0 3 while >resolve repeat 4 csp ! ; i r r e d i a t e 5 5 c1 06128184 \ spreadsheet - constant & variable declarations constant constant constant constant constant constant constant row-max col-nax col-nare-len row-name-len col-org row-org byteslcell \ create : tarray 1D s t r i n g array depth characters deep -- \ ( #rows depth 1 \ ( row# s t r i n g addr ) dug here swap blank a l l o t create dup c, does> dup c@ r o t + + 1+ ; * 6, c l 06/24/84 \ spreadsheet I of spreadsheet rows I of spreadsheet columns flax length of column name rax length of row nare coluon o r i g i n of data on display '\ row o r i g i n of data on display \ # of bytes per c e l l \ \ \ \ \ ct 06131i84 * 2 3 26 4 26 5 12 b 17 7 21 0 3 ? b 0 1 2 3 4 array d e f i n i t i o n s ** , 3 D \ spreadsheet 1 - high level \ create 20 array depth bytes deep : array \ I #rows Xcols depth -- ) compiie time \ ( row# c o l t -- element addr 1 run time create 2dup swap c, c, dup here swap erase a l l o t does) dup c@ X r o l l 2 r o l l + over 1+ c@ + + 2+ ; . , I \ coiuan displacerent f r o n v a r i a b l e row-disp (cri (cr) c l 07104184 \ \ \ \ -- coapile t i r e run t i ~ e - array d e f i n i t i o n s c! 06\28/84 define a 2D array f o r spreadsheet data s t r u c t u r e each c e l l contains b bytes 2 f o r f o r a u l a execution address ( i f any) 4 f o r double nurber value storage row-rax col_aax b y t e s i c e l l array c e l l 5 \ define a s t r i n g array f o r holding the row naaes row-mar row-name-fen $array row-names \ define a s t r i n g array f o r holding the column names col-flax col-nane-len (array col-names C 1 \ FORTH Dlmenslons 30 Volume VII, No. 2 7 10 cl 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet - mist word definitions cl 07/04/84 \ input special iPH keys : Ifd.) tuck dabs \ dollarlcents forrating word \(--cJ (# # f a s c i i hold #s r o t \ formats double f on TOS '\ p r i n t s leading t sign a s c i i $ hold #> ; O \ spreadsheet - aisc word definitions 1 : Ifin-key 2 key ?dup O= 3 i f key 128 + then ; 4 5 : dtin b pad l + ?O 2dup blank expect 7 span @ pad c! pad nuaber ; 8 9 : t i n dtin drop ; 0 1 . : 4d.r )r (fd.1 r ) \ input double f from keyboard \ -- dl over - spaces type ; \ f o r r a t df i n d o l l a r s l c e n t s i n \ r i g h t j u s t i f i e d f i e l d width w '\ : formatt \ input single nufiber \ ( n) \ \ \ \ forrat-flaq @ if 10 fd.r e l s e 10 d.r then ; -- 7 L (d n -- 1 format double number in one of two formats as dollars/cents ,noraal nurber 3 4 5 E 11 3 \ spreadsheet - r i s c word definitions cl 07/04i84 cl 07/02/84 \ spreadsheet - display word definitions ! : posl 0 21 2dup a t 0 blot a t ; \ position cursor on cad l i n e 2 : pos2 0 22 Zdop a t O blot a t i \ position cursor on cmd l i n e : dis-data \ display a l l cell data 3 cur-col @ dup 4 + swap \ for 4 screen columns 4 : yin \ ( -- T if yes F i f no I do i col-nax = ?leave \ if past l a s t possible coluas 5 posl Are You Sure ?: " \ display msq cur-row @ dup 15 + swap \ for 15 screen rows 6 key upc ascii Y = ; \ return i l a g do i row-max = ?leave \ if past l a s t possible rwi I j cur-col @ - 13 * 2: + \ calcc,iate display col position 8 : mark-cell \ nark cell on display i cur-row B 3 + a t \ calculate display row position 9 Zdup a t ascii ( emit swap 11 \ (row# c o l t -- ) i j c e l l s 2+ 2@ format# \ get data and display i t 0 + swap a t ascii ) emit ; \ mark ceil l i k e "( )" 1oop ! loop for a l l data displayed 1 loop ; 2 : uneark-cell \ unmark c e l l of display 3 2dup a t space swap 11 t snap \ (row# col# -- I 4 a t space ; \ rerove ( ) marks from display ." C 12 9 O \ spreadsheet - nisc word definitions cl 07/01/81 ! : cell-ptr \ r e t u r ~address of c e l l pointed ? 3 4 5 O 7 E cur-rou @ row-disp @ + cur-col 8 col-disp & + cells ; \ a t by I > display marker \ ( -- c e l l addr ) \ spreadsheet - display ~ o r d6eflnitions \ display spreadsheet h a r d e r 5 on the sireen : dis-hoarder ! dispfap spreadsheet boarders \ i - - ) 18 3 : ca!-:ell-disp-l~c co!-disp@13*iol-orgt row-disp @ rou-org + ; \ calcolate location on display \oicelldisplaymarkers \ ( -- col rgw ) ? 0 : place_cell-marker t place r e i l marker around i e i l 1 cai-cell-disp-lac nark-cell ; 2 3 : erase-eel!-marker \ erase c e l l aarker around ce! 1 4 iai-cell-disp-loc unmark-cell ; 5 Volume VII, No. 2 cl 07/02/84 31 do 20 i a t 4 O do a s c i i I e a i t 12 spaces loop a s c l i I emit 1oop 80 O do i 2 a t ascii 0': 5 - enrt loup do i !S a t ascil - em: t loop : FORTH Dimensions 13 16 0 \ spreadsheet display word d e f i n i t i o n s c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet - display word d e f i n t i o n s c l 06/31/84 1 2 \ display spreadsheet renu o f options on r i g h t side of display : dis-status i display spread sheet status 3 48 19 a t Row: ' display current rowlcol 4 : dis-renu cur-row @ row-disp @ + 5 74 3 a t Nenu:' 60 19 a t ."Colurn: * 6 74 4 a t .' C l o l m 74 5 a t A)gaine cur-col @ col-disp @ + a s c i i A t e u i t Dlata' 74 7 a t ."EE)qu.' 47 20 a t Node: ' mode-flag e \ display calc, rode 7 74 6 a t 8 74 e a t . ' F ) o r m . " 7 4 9 a t ."G)otoU i f . " A u t o * else Norralm then P 74 10 at N)ode' 74 11 a t Nlew' 61 ?O a t .* Order: " order-f lag @ \ display calc, order 0 74 12 at 0)rder' 74 13 a t P)refm i f . " C / R ' e l s e ."KC' then R l u i t m 74 15 a t R)ow" pas2 1 74 14 a t 2 posl Conrand: ' \ output corrand p r o r p t \ place c e l l rarker on display 3 p l ace-cell-marker ; 4 5 - ." .' .' .' .' .' . .' ." .' ." .' .' ' .' 14 17 0 \ spreadsheet display word d e f i n i t i o n s c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet display word d e f i n i t i o n s 1 2 : dis-row-labels \ label the rows on display : dis-row-change \ display i n f o that 3 cur-row e dup 15 swap \ l a b e l from cur-row dis-row-nares \ a row change \ f o r 15 l i n e s or u n t i l row-rax dis-row-labels \ row nares, l a b e l s 4 do i row-rax = ?leave 5 18 i cur-row e 3 + at \ forrat i n deciral I s dis-data ; 6 i2.r : dis-col-change \ display i n f o t h a t 7 loop ; \ a col change 8 d i s-col -nares 9 : dis-row_names \ display row nares f r o & array \ col nares, l a b e l s dis-col-labels 0 cur-row @ dup 15 swap \ only show nares that f i t on dis-data ; 1 do i row-rax = ?leave \ display 2 0 i cur-row 8 3 t a t \ place cursor a t location 3 i row-nares row-name-len \ type required chars type 4 5 loop ; - - * - * c l 06/31/84 changes with and data changes with and data - 15 18 0 \ spreadsheet - display word d e f i n i t i o n s c l 07/03/84 \ spreadsheet display word d e f i n i t i o n s c l 07/04/84 \ label the colurns on display : dis-screen \ display spreadsheet screen 1 : dis-col-labels 2 cur-col @ dup 4 + swap \ l a b e l from cur-col dark 31 0 a t \ f o r 4 cols. or u n t i l col-rax Forth Spreadsheet" \ display t i t l e 3 do i col-max = ?leave i cur-col @ - 13 t 27 t \ f o r r a t i n alphabetic chars dis-boarder \ draw boarders 4 5 2 at i ascii I + e r i t \ A thru 1 dis-renu \ display operation menu 6 loop; dis-col-labels \ label columns ik-1) 7 d i s-col-nares i display column nares 8 : dis-col-nares \ display colurn nares dis-row-labels \ label rows (0-25) ? 7 1 at Title' \ only show names that f i t on dis-row-nares i display row naaes 0 cur-col @ dup 4 * swap \ display dis-data \ display appropriate data 1 do i col-rax = ?leave \ f o r data window being i cur-col @ 13 t 21 t 2 \ place cursor a t location \ displayed 3 1 a t i col-nares col-nare-len 0 row-disp ! 0 col-disp ! \ set rark at o r i g i n 4 type \ type required Iof chars dis-status ; \ display status 5 loop ; - ." .' - ~p FORTH Dimensions 32 volume VII, No. 2 0 \ spreadsheet 19 - cell calculation words 22 cl 06/31/84 \ spreadsheet 20 0 \ spreadsheet - cell calculation words 23 cl 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet - cell rarker positioning words cl 07/02/84 1 \ talc forrula of cell if i t has : right-arrow \ rove cell marker right 1 cell 2 : calculate 3 @ ldup if execute then ; \ one ( cell addr -- 1 col-disp P 3 = \ marker in right rost cell ? 4 if cur-col @ 4 + col-rax 0 \ if so i s i t the l a s t cell (2) 5 : talc-c/r \ talc colurns then rows \ rove display column right one if 1 cur-co1 +! 6 r~w-rax 0 di s-col-change \ scroll right 7 do col-rax 0 then \ if nark a t colurn I ignar 8 do j i c e l l s calculate loop \ get forrula and execute i t else \ if rark not a t right most 9 loop ; erase-cell-rarker \ colurn of display rove it 0 1 col-disp +! \ right one cell without 1 : talc-r/c \ cal rows then colurns then \ scroll 2 col-nxO place-cel 1 -rarker ; \ draw new cell narker 3 do row-rax 0 4 do i j c e l l s calculate loop \ get forrula and execute i t 5 loopi 1 2 : talc-cells 3 4 5 6 7 8: 9 0 1 2 3 4 order-f lag @ if talc-clr else talc-rlc then ; \ \ \ \ - cell rarker positioning words deternine which to talc f i r s t : up-arrow by state of order-flag row-disp e 0= if 1 talc cols then rows if cur-row @ 0 0 if 0 talc rows then cols if -1 cur-row +! di s-row-change then else erase-cel 1-barker -1 row-disp +! then place-cell-marker ; order \ prompt user for talc order posl Specify calculation order' pos2 Row/Coi(O) or Col / R a i i ( l ) : ' key ascii 1 = \ get response and set flag if true \ accordingly else false then order-flag ! ; .' .' \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ c l 07/02/84 rove cell rarker up 1 cell i s cell at top display pos. ? if so are we a t the top of the spreadsheet ? if not rove up a cell and scroll upward if already a t top ignor if mark not a t top of display erase nark move up one cell \ draw new cell rarker r 21 24 6 \ spreadsheet - cell narker positioning words cl 07/02/84 cl 07/02/84 \ spreadsheet - cell narker positioning words 1 2 : left-arrow \ rove cell marker l e f t 1 cell : down-arrow '\ rove cell marker down 1 cell 3 col-disp @ 0= \ cell rark at l e f t of display ? row-disp @ 14 = \ are we a t bottor of display ? 4 if cur-col @ 0 0 ! i f so i s at a t f i r s t colurn 1 if cur-row e 15 + row-nax 0 \ if so are we on last row ? 5 if -1 cur-col +! \ move display colunn l e f t once if 1 cur-row +! \ if not rove down one cell 4 dis-col-change \ scroll display l e f t \ scroll downward di s-row-change 7 then if a t f i r s t column ignor then \ if at last row ignor 8 else \ cell rark not at l e f t colurn else \ if not at bottor oi display 9 erase-cel 1-aarker \ erase current mark erase-cel i-marker \ erase cell rark 0 -1 col-disp + I \ rove l e f t without scroll 1 row-disp + ! \ rove down one cell 1 then \ of display then 2 place-cell-rarker ; \ draw new cell marker place-re1 1-marker ; \ draw new cell earker 3 4 5 VolumeVII, No. 2 33 FORTH Dimensions 25 0 \ spreadsheet - c e l l marker p o s i t i o n i n g words 1 2 : f i r s t - c o l 0 cur-col ! 3 dis-col-change ; 4 5 : last-col 6 col-lax 4 - cur-col ! 7 dis-col-change ; 28 c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet \ go t o column A immediately \ cur-col t o 0 and s c r o l l : assign-id col-maz 0 \ go t o column W inmedlately \ cur-col t o Y and s c r o l l assign-id a 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 - algebraic functions do i c o l - i d loop ; c l 07/04/84 \ loop used t o assign values t o ! the alphabetic columns A 5 C D E F 5H I J K L 4 N0P Q R S T U V Y X Y Z is : top-row Ocur_row! dis-row-change ; \ go t o row 0 immediately \ cur-row t o O and s c r o l l f o r example: 1 A r e t u r n s the double i n t value of ce!i 1 A Column i d s A-Z r e t u r n values of 0-25 respectively : bottom-row row-pax 15 - cur-row ! dis-row-change i \ go t o column 11 iamediately \ cur-row t o 11 and s c r ~ l l 26 29 0 \ spreadsheet - c e l l marker p o s i t i o n i n g words c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet - algebraic functions c l 0bi3ll84 1 : opp@ ! r e t u r n oprand stack p o s i t i o n 2 : left-4-cols \ love marker l e f t 4 columns op-stack dup @ + ; \ 1st l o c a t i o n i s stack p t r 3 40doleft-arrow loop; \atatice \ ( addr i 4 : >op 4 op-stack + ! oppe 2! ; \ s t o r e c f a and precedence 5 : right-4-cols \ move marker r i g h t 4 columns \ top of oprand stack 4 4 0 do right-arrow loop ; \ at a t i r e \ !cfa prec -- 1 7 : op> oppE 2@ -4 op-stack + ! i pop c f a and prec o f f oprand 8 drop ; \ stack and compile i n t o d i c t . 9 \ r e t u r n precedence from top : prec? oppe E ; \ top of oprand stack 0 1 \ ( prec) 2 : l a begin prec? \ end algebraic compilatios 3 while op) repeat \ pop remaining oprands o f f s t k 4 f o r t h ; immediate \ and compile then select f o r t h 5 i vocabulary again -- , -- 27 30 c l 07/04/84 c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet algebraic functions \ create high l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n t h a t performs algebraic 1 vocabulary algebra algebra also d e f i n i t i o n s 2 \ compilation. See t e x t f o r d e t a i l s of operation 3 \ c o l - i d f u n c t i o n assigns n t o i d a t compile time (n -- 1 : infix ' \ create new algebraic operator 4 \ expects row I on TO5 a t run t i r e 5 \ subsequent usage of i d fetches double value of c e l l t o stack create swap innediate \ compile c f a of f o r t h operator 6 does> 2e \ and assigned precedence \ column-id high l e v e l d e f i n i n g begin dup prec? i not \ a t coapile time execute i f 7 : col-id 8 create \ word. Creates c o l i d s A-Z while >r )r op> r ) r.) \ prec i s l o ~ e rthen oprand on 9 does) e c e l l s 2+ \ expect a t on the TO5 and repeat >op ; ! top of oprand stack 0 2@ ; \ pushes the c e l l value onto 1 \ the parameter stack 2 : d t dup r o t r o t r o t u a t r o t t ; \ double m u l t i p l i c a t i o n 3 : d l swap over /rod i i swap \ doubie d i v i s i o n 4 unlnod swap drop r ) ; 5 : dmod d l drop 0 ; \ double rodulus - 0 \ spreadsheet - algebraic functions ,, , * FORTH Dimensions 34 Volume VII, No. 2 31 0 1 2 3 4 \ spreadsheet 7 infix df 34 c l 07/03/84 cl 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet - input words : input-col-nares ! input column nares \ create new algebraic operators posl Input Col Nares' \ display corrand prorpt \ with assigned precedence pos2 . " S t a r t i n g with Col: " key upc a s c i i R - cur-col ! \ get s t a r t i n g col t s t o r e col-rax cur-col @ \ in cur-col. From there t i l l \ missing 1 message do p052 \ l a s t col input nares ! if r i s s i n g then abort Col Y ascii A + emit . V " \ d i s p l a y cot I i col-naoes col-name-len \ get address in col-name array \ l e f t paren 2dup blank expect \ clear it and then input \ prec=l cf a=)missinq message span @ O= ?leave \ i f just (CR) then e x i t loop \ push on oprand stack i 4 nod 0= \ every 4 nares s c r o l l display if i cur-col ! \ new cur-col change display dis-col -change \ e l s e only change the e l s e dis-col-nares then \ display col nares loop ; - algebraic functions t b infix d+ + 7 infix d/ 1 6 infix d- - 5 infix drod rod 5 b : jrissing 7 1 a h o r t V i s s i n g 1" .' ." 8 9: ( O [ ' I )oissing 1 jop ; 1 irmediate 2 T 4 5 32 35 3 \ spreadsheet - algebraic functions cl 06131184 \ spreadsheet - input words 1 2 : I [ forth I ? r i g h t paren : get# j begin ! prec? < \ causes a l l items on oprand dtin 4 while op) repeat ! stack t o be corpiied until format-flag !I 5 1 prec? = i l e f t paren found if dpl @ S r i n 6 if -4 op-stack +! \ l e f t paren should have prec. case 7 else 1 abort" Rissing I" \ of 1 e l s e error msg output -1 of 100 d* endof 8 then ; immediate 0 of 100 d* endof 9 1 of 10 d* endof 0 forth definitions 2 of noop endof 1 3 of 10 d l endof 2 : a[ 0 op-stack ! algebra ; i s t a r t algebraic corpiiation endcase 5 imaediate \ reset oprand stack and then ; 4 \ select algebra vocabulary 5 ,"a O \ spreadsheet - inpat words 1 : input-rau_naaes 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 0 i Z 5 4 5 ." cl 0?i03/94 \ input row nares \ display cormand prompt !, pos! Input ROW Hares' : posZ , " S t a r t i n g with Row: ' t i n cur-row f i get starting row Y s t c r e row-aax cur-row @ \ i n cur-row. Fros there t i l l dc p ~ s 2 \ l a s t row input names Row " i 2 .r : " \ display raw # i row-napes rcu-name-lee ' get address i n run-nafir a r ~ a y ldupblankexpect \ clear i t rnd thec input span @ O= ?leave i lf I & ICR) then exit Ioop i 5 mod 0= every 5 nanes scro!I display if i iur-row ! ! new cur-row change d ~ s p f a y dis-row-change i e l s e oniy change the e l s e dis-rou-names then 1% d ~ s p i a yrow names lctj~i i .' ." 36 spreadsheet - ." \ get double I scale i f needed \ get double i n t f r o r operator :dollarslcents f o r r a t 7 \ if so scale according1 y \ no DP value t 100 \ 0 DF value 106 i 1 DP value 10 \ 2 DFs oo sraling * * i 3 DPs value 1 10 \ if normal format ; no scaling perfarred inpat words input-cell-data posl !npbt Ce!! Daat"\ po52 . " M a : " get# :ell-ptr 2+ 2i rtcde-flag @ ii posZ Caicuiating" talc-cells then dis-data ; ." cl 07/04/84 c: 07/04/94 \ in@ data t o c e l l promgt f c r data e n t r y '\ yet d a t a \ arid s t c r e lt get mode f l r g \ i r a ~ t ocalc,>!ate A J ~ E ', selected !he? calculate ! a l l :r:l data \ ii,,,PW tbe new l a t a k Volume VII, NO. 2 35 FORTH Dimensions 37 40 0 \ spreadsheet - input words c l 07/04/84 c l 09/2!/84 \ spreadsheet - high l e v e l coseands 1 : input-equ i input equation i n t o d i c t 2 posl lnput Celi Equation" \ prompt f o r equation : format \ select # f oraat 3 pos2 Equation: " p ~ S i Select input number formate 4 t i b 127 b!ank clear t i b pos2 ' Normal=O o r DollarslCents=l: ' 5 ? formula a[ ' \ prearble t o aove t o t i b key a s c i i i = ! get operator response b t i b swap cmore 't aove i t t o t i b i f true \ i f ( then t r u e t o f o r r a t - f l a g 7 t i b 13 + dup 127 expect \ get equation t o t i b else f a l s e \ otherwise f a l s e t o format-flag i p t at end of input then 8 span @ + 9 " l a [ c e l l - p t r 2 t 1 l i t e r a l 2 ! ; l a s t @ name) c e l l - p t r !"format-flag ! 0 -rot swap r o t came \ r o v e t o t i b also dis-data ; \ show data i n new format 1 span @ 70 + t t i b ! \ make f o r t h t h i n k i t a l l 2 blk off > i n o f f \ came f r o a the keys 3 algebra \ select algebra vocabulary 4 interpret \ compile equation i n t o d i c t 5 forth ; i back t o f o r t h vocabulary .' ." .' . 41 38 c l 07/04/84 0 \ spreadsheet - high l e v e l coarands c l 07/04/84 \ spreadsheet high level commands \ e x i t spread sheet 1 : quit-talc \ ask again i f YES then q u i t : again-rep1 \, r e p l i c a t e column data 2 y l n abort' BYEn ; f c e l l - p t r 2+ 21 \ b r i n g c e l l data t o TOS \ clear e x i s t i n g spreadsheet post . Y o l u m n r e p l i c a t e c e l l data' 4 : new y l n 5 i f 0 0 cells posZ ."Number o f colurns: ' \ ask again i f yes clear i t b row-aax col-max b y t e s f c e l l # i n ?dup \ get I of columns 7 t erase \ erase c e l l s array if 0 \ i f answer 0 0 8 0 row-names do right-arrow \ move r i g h t \ and store data 9 row-oau row-nare-len t erase \ erase row-name array Zdup c e l l - p t r 2+ 2! 0 0 col-names 1oop col-nax col-name-len t erase \ erase col-name array ?drop \ clean up the stack 1 2 dict-rark p e r f o r r \ erase a11 f o r r u l a s dis-data \ and display the new data 3 0 row-disp ! 0 col-disp ! \ set rarker t o o r i g i n then ; \ else ignor i f col=O 4 dis-screen \ d ~ s p l a ycleared screen 5 then ; - * 39 0 \ spreadsheet 42 c l 07/04/84 l e v e l corpands c l 07/03/84 \ spreadsheet high l e v e l commandr \ set auto calculation mode 1 : rode : go-to \ goto specified row/co! 2 posl 3 Set auto calculation nodee posl .* Row(0-25): " \ pronpt f o r row t 4 pos2 # i n dup 0 r~w-nax within \ check f o r proper range 5 Norral=O or Auto=l: ' \ prompt operator i f cur-row ! \ i f ok store i t b key a s c i i 1 = \ get response pas2 Colurn(A-W): * \ prorpt f o r coI l e t t e r A-W 7 i f true \ set mode-f 1ag key upc a s c i i d dup \ get i t and check i t s range R elsefalse \ accordingly 0 col-max 3 within \ i f ok goto data window 9 then i f cur-col ! ! store col I 0 rode-+ lag ! ; 0 col-disp ! 0 r o ~ - d i ~ p \ piace c e l l marker a t o r i g i n dis-screen \ show new screen 1 2 : perfora-calc \ force calculations else drop \ drop #s i f out of range \ execute formulas then 3 calc_cells 4 dis-data ; \ show r e s u l t else drop 5 then ; - high - .' .' .' - FORTH Dimensions 36 - Volume VII, No. 2 Availability of spreadsheet Source Code and F83 To save some rather tough typing, the source code for this program is available postage paid from the author for $25 (6 Sutherland Place, Manitou Springs, Colorado 80829). It is, however, only available on 5.25" disk format for MS-DOS or PC-DOS. The public-domain F83 program should be available from No Visible Support Software, Mike Perry, 1125 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, California 94702. This is an incredible implementation of Forth-83. Everyone even remotely interested in Forth should buy a copy of it. The entire Forth community should give thanks to Laxen and Perry for donating such an excellent piece of software to the public domain. 4; c l 07/04/04 0 \ spread sheet - operator i n p u t processing i : coaaand-in case 2 a s c i i A of again-rep1 endof \ r e p l i c a t e c e l l data 3 a s c i i C ot input-col-names endof \ i n p u t column names 4 a s c i i 0 of input-cell-data endof \ i n p u t c e l l data 5 a s c i i E of input-equ endof i input c e l l equation endof \ i n p u t # display for mat b a s c i i F of f o r a a t 7 a s c i i G c f go-to endof \ qoto eel1 B a s c i i il o i mode endof \ set t a l c mode 9 a s c i i N of new endof \ clear spreadsheet asci i D of order endof \ set calc order 1 a s c i i f of perfora-talc endof \ force c a l c u l a t i o n s ? a s c i i P of quit-calc endof \ qu! t spreadsheet 3 a s c i i R of input-row-names endof \ input row naaes 4 beep \ ifnone c f the above 5 endcase ; 44 G i spread sheet 1 : control-in 2 3 4 5 b 7 6 f G 1 2 3 4 5 case 199 o i top-row 200 of up-arrow 201 of l e f t - 4 - c o l s 203 of left-arrow 205 of right-arrow 207 of hottor-row 208 of down-arrow 203 of right_4_co!s 243 of f i r s t - c o l 244 of l a s t - c o l beep endcase ; endaf endof endof endof endof endof endof endof endof endoi 45 0 ;' spreadsheet - r a i n program 1 2 : spreadsheet 3 dis-screen 4 begin 5 1B#-key b p i h dup 198 ) 7 it control-in B else caanand-in 9 then O dis-status 1 igain ; i goto top row of i up one c e l l 'i go i e f t 4 colurns \ ! e f t one c e l l ': r i g h t one c e l l \ yoto bottom row o i \ down one c e l l \ go r i g h t 4 co!umns \ goto f i r s t column of \ goto l a s t coluan of \ i f cone of above sheet The Mirth Dimension 2SWAP DROPY With apologies to Lewis Carroll. sheet 'Twas SYSOUT and the SFlLL toves Did SRW in the wabe; All FOUTPUT were the borogoves, And the BOOT COLD outgrabe. sheet sheet "Beware the 2SWAP DROP my son! The ROLLS that bite, the DOs that catch! Beware the DLlT LOOP and shun The NORETCOND Bandersnatch!" He took his OUTER PlCK in hand! Long time the PCOND PORT he sought. S o rested he by the IF ELSE tree, And FLUSH PMODE in thought. ! main program nord i show screen And as in PIXBLT thought he stood. The 2SWAP DROP, with ROTS of flame. Came TONED through the /MOD wood And as it came! i get key E O ~ ! V Et ~c ~2C \ i a n t r c l cr command kei ! contr51 key input ! camaand key i n p u i ? One, two! One, two! And through and through The OUTER PlCK went snicker-snack! He left it WARNING and with its head He went CPATH back. i she* oek s t a t u s \ 63 fofever "And hast thou slain the 2SWAP DROP? Come Dl + my QUSER boy! A TYPED day! Callooh callay!" He RANDOM in his joy. L 3 lark no-for~ulas 4 ' no-formulas ditt-mark 5 na:-ning on \ d i r t - a a r k has c f a o i ! 'i word '\ t o delete fcrnu!as warn~ngas95 back on I I 'Twas SYSOUT and the SFlLL toves Did SRW in the wabe; All FOUTPUT were the borogoves, And the BOOT COLD outgrabe. -Wayne Cox Volume VII, No. 2 37 FORTH Dimensions Rochester Forth Conference 1985 Forth programmers, project managers, vendors and evaluators gathered in Rochester, New York in June at the annual Forth conference held there. The directors and staff of the Institute for Applied Forth Research assembled a broad spectrum of presentors who gave us a clear profile of the expertise being brought to bear in today's Forth community. From applications on the space shuttle and automation of an entire airport, to object-oriented programming, to putting Forth in hardware, the papers were intelligent, sometimes witty, and occasionally mind boggling. to strict standards and conventions; and responsibility. She believes all of these points to be crucial, and that the importance of each increases with the overall size of the task. It would appear that those same ingredients contributed to the success of the Forth programmers and scientists who worked on experiments performed aboard space shuttle missions in November 1981 and October 1984. Dr. Henry Harris of Pasadena's Jet Propulsion Laboratory described his work with JPL and the Johnson Space Center. The three-year project focused on instrument control and, in the end, Elizabeth Rather of Forth Inc. spoke was beset by in-orbit hardware probon the subject of developing and im- lems that would have been insurmounplementing a large-scale application. table if it were not for Forth's Titled "Fifteen Programmers, 400 interactiveness. Computers, 36,000 Sensors and JPL chose to use Forth for this proForth," the talk described work done ject because of its adaptability to a to automate and fully integrate an inwide range of needs and conditions. ternational airport in the Middle East. They employed intense numberMajor applications such as safety, security, climate control, personnel, crunching, graphics and sophisticated power distribution, runway lighting, arrays of geometrical attitudes, cometc., all reside in one large system, with prising something like a megabyte of largely common subsystems providing compiled code. The team implemented facilities to each. Forth lends itself well elements of LISP and Prolog in their to this method of using modular com- LMI Forth system, which was then used to develop a context-sensitive mon factors to serve in diverse areas. editor and critical constraint checking Rather described the months of t o define permissible instrument strategy, planning and testing required movements. by the project. Much of the work was Dr. Harris asserted that, because of done in Alabama, where the team its modularity, Forth excels in large worked in two-weeks-on, one-week-off programs. It is good for jqbs with critishifts. A huge hangar-like room was cal deadlines (such as a launch date) used to house a crowded maze of and where interactive control can help cables and interconnected machines meet changing conditions (as when it each programmable from any of the was used to save the shuttle experiment others - that represented only about a during hardware failures). Harris then third of the actual site equipment. presented three myths that have been After describing the size and com- dispelled by recent accomplishments: plexity of this task, the speaker went that Forth is only good for small proon to offer her observations about the grams; that no good software has ever requirements for success with large been written in Forth; and that if a projects: knowledgeable management, program is larger than 64K, it isn't and direction; professional skill in all right. By way of one example, JPL's parts of the working team; good com- Forth on an IBM-XT more accurately munication between the team and man- predicted the space shuttle's position agement, and between management than did the mainframe at Johnson and the client; the discipline to adhere Space Center. FORTH Dimensions 38 All told, the Rochester Forth Conference provided a platform for about sixty speakers to address an audience of nearly two hundred. Several described their experiences with creating significant extensions to Forth for purposes of education, artificial intelligence and adding object orientation, for example. It became apparent that Forth is a natural seedbed for the best features of contemporary computer languages, which can be easily implemented in Forth without the possible restrictions of the environment in which they originate. Charles Duff discussed NEON, an object-oriented language making waves in the greater Macintosh community; Pierre Moreton presented HFORTH, an "English-like business application language"; and Arnold Epstein intrigued listeners with his MAGIC/L, which incorporates a Pascal-like syntax for ease of maintainence. For an afternoon session, the conference divided into about a dozen working groups, special-interest gatherings ranging in size from six to twenty members. Topics included education, Forth under Unix, robotics, image processing and artificial intelligence, state machines, Forth in hardware, standards and others. Brief reports from the groups indicated a variety of progress, with at least one working group determining to continue research and to report back at next year's conference. One evening was devoted to a tour of the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, with whose cooperation the conference was held. For two hours, conference attendees inspected the Forth-controlled fusion research facility, whose multiple-beam laser can be fired at half-hour intervals. LLE workers were kind enough not only to tolerate the presence of more than one hundred visitors crowding an evening shift, but to answer many questions a n d generally humor us. The lecture program concluded with Volume VII, No. 2 a presentation by Lawrence Forsley , conference chairman. His paper on "nth-Order Defining Words" discussed clearly a subject that is somewhat abstract for many, the definition of words that will define other words. Although limited by time, Larry also managed - with the help of an assistant - to demonstrate programming on the fly, and the difficulties of debugging an overhead projector. Needless to say, the audience was delighted. The final day consisted of a number of well-attended exhibits, including Forth Inc., Miller Microsystems, Forth machines from Novix and Metaforth, the Institute for Applied Forth Research, the Forth Interest Group and Dash-Find Assoc., a Forth-specific employment referral service. Concurrent tutorials attracted members of the community as well as conferees. In addition to the caliber of presentations, integral to the success of the Rochester conference was the inspiration and efficiency of its organizers. Congratulations and thanks go to Lawrence P. Forsley, conference chairman; Thea Martin, conference coordinator; and to Jonathan Ross and Sherry Snyder of the institute. Their friendly and patient efforts were a reward to all who attended. -Marlin Ouverson For details of the approximately sixty presentations, watch for the published Proceedings of the 1985 Rochester Forth Conference. 1 with LMI FORTHTM1 I 1 For Programming Professionals: an expanding family of compatible, high-performance, Forth-83 Standard compilers for microcomputers For Development: Interactive Forth-83 Interpreter/Compilers 16-bit and 32-bit implementations Full screen editor and assembler Uses standard operating system files 400 page manual written in plain English Options include software floating point, arithmetic coprocessor support, symbolic debugger, native code compilers, and graphics support For Applications: Forth-83 Metacompiler Unique table-driven multi-pass Forth compiler Compiles compact ROMable or disk-based applications Excellent error handling Produces headerless code, compiles from intermediate states, and performs conditional compilation Cross-compiles to 8080, Z-80, 8086, 68000, and 6502 No license fee or royalty for compiled applications Support Services for registered users: Technical Assistance Hotline Periodic newsletters and low-cost updates Bulletin Board System Call or write for detailed product information and prices. Consulting and Educational Services available by special arrangement. m~aboratoryMicrosystems Incorporated Post Office Box 70430, Marina del Rey, CA 90295 credit card orders to: (213) 306-7412 Oversees Distributors. Volume VII, No. 2 Germany: Forth-SystemeAngel~kaFlesch. D-7820 Tillsee-Neustadt UK: System Science Ltd., London E C l A 9JX France: Micro-Slgrna S.A.R.L., 75008 Paris Japan: Southern Pacific Ltd.,Yokohama 220 , Australia: Wave-on~cAssociates, 6107 W~lson.W.A Ultra-Fast Text Search Using Probabilistic Dictionaries John James Santa Cruz, California After all 40,000 English words have been entered in this way, somewhat fewer than 400,000 bits - half of the Suppose you have a large database 800,000 available - will have been set. of text files, such as the documents in a Now, to look up a word, compute the lawyer's office, perhaps one or 100 ten hash functions on it and see if all megabytes or more in dozens or hund- ten bits are set. If even one of the bits is reds of separate files. You want to not set, then the word is definitely not search the whole database for any files in the dictionary. If all ten of the bits which contain certain words, phrases, are set, the word is probably in the or AND and OR combinations of dictionary. But with each bit having words and phrases. And you want the about a fifty percent probability of search to be very fast, almost being set anyway, there is about one instantaneous. chance in a thousand of a false hit, I haven't implemented this proce- meaning that a word not in the dure, and don't know of anyone who dictionary would be "found." For a has. So it's impossible to know for sure spelling program, this represents a onehow well it will work. Despite the in-a-thousand chance that a misspelled uncertainty, this tutorial seems worth word would not be detected, a risk publishing because it illustrates which may be acceptable. Hence the important data structures and concepts name "probabilistic dictionary ." as well as offering the promise of important practical benefits. Background: Hashing Background: The Probabilistic Dictionary The point of "hashing" is to take a value, such as an English word or a lengthy part number, and transform it Used in some spelling checkers, the into an arbitrary number which is a probabilistic dictionary is a most inter- more suitable key for indexing into a esting data structure, and one which table. In the example, we need to opens new approaches to a number of transform an English word into a problems. I'll explain it first with an number from 0 to 799,999. Of course, example. Suppose a spelling checker different words may transform into the needs a dictionary of about 40,000 same number (a "collision"); but we English words but only has lOOK bytes try to select a computational procedure to store them in RAM and can't afford such that the numbers don't tend to the speed penalty of keeping the words bunch up, so there won't be too many on disk, which could require a separate collisions. disk access for each word being A common hashing computation is checked. A probabilistic dictionary can to divide by an appropriate number, comfortably store the words in two- throw away the quotient and take the and-a-half bytes each, no matter how remainder. In the example above, this long the actual words are. divisor would be a little less than To build the dictionary, start by 800,000, so that the remainder will be clearing all the l00K bytes (800K bits) the right size to select one of the bits. to zero. Now, to add each word to the The divisor should be a prime number; dictionary, use ten different "hashing" for more background on picking a functions (see below for explanation of good one, see ~ n u t h ~In. the above hashing) on the ASCII strings which example, ten different divisors would represent the word. Each hashing be used to select the ten bits in the table function will select one of the bits, by of 800,000. Note that before division, computing a number between zero and the English word whose ASCII string 799,999 from the ASCII string. Set will be the dividend should be lefteach of the ten selected bits to "1" - justified or rearranged in some other whether or not it had been set before. way; otherwise, for short words the FORTH Dimensions 40 dividend would be less than 800,000 and all ten divisions would give the same remainder. Picking a good hashing function can be tricky. Dictionary for Text "Search" Now let's use the probabilistic dictionary for another purpose - text searching. The trick is to prepare a separate, small dictionary for each file in the database. All these little dictionaries might fit into RAM or in a small file on disk. Then, to search for a word in the entire text database, just look it up in all of the dictionaries. Only one pass through the dictionaries is enough, even for a complex search involving many words, phrases, and AND and OR combinations of them. Different kinds of condensed dictionaries could be used, not only the probabilistic dictionary suggested here. We suggested this one because it is compact, easy to implement and very efficient, especially when many dictionaries must be searched for the same words. How big should each of the dictionaries be? A typical text document of about 10,000 words will have only about 1500 distinct words; a 3000 word dictionary would accommodate much more than a 20,000 word document. Two-and-a-half bytes per word gives 7.5K bytes for each document's dictionary. And note that each dictionary can actually hold more than 3000 words and in fact will never overflow, although performance degrades gradually if too many words are added. The actual dictionary size can be selected by the end user, although for any given database of text files, it's easier to keep all dictionaries the same size than to have larger ones for large documents. If 500K of RAM is available, over sixty dictionaries of 7.5K each could be kept there for faster searches, although it wouldn't hurt much to keep these dictionaries as a file on disk, since a search would need only one pass through that file. Each dictionary should also contain the name of the file Volume VII, No. 2 ESRUE'ISB 3 On October Ist, 1985, the price for fieFORTH w l l be increased to $89.95 ;Order NOW and you can have the complete figFORTH system for only $ 74 95 1 which it represents. Then the search through the dictionaries could yield a list of file names. These files would then be searched word by word (full text search), both to eliminate the few false hits resulting from the probabilistic nature of the dictionary, and also to locate the words or phrases sought, in case the user wanted to examine them in context. entering or searching for any word. Some false hits will occur, but they will be resolved during the full text search, at a modest cost in performance. Let users know that irregular plurals must still be searched explicitly, with an AND. (6) In the full text search, you can do better than looking at every letter. For example, when you are searching text for a word, look at the last-letter position in the text first. A quick Miscellaneous Hints lookup in a small table specially (I) Logical AND and OR searches prepared for the word being sought are easily handled, but NOT presents a will usually show that that particular problem because it changes false hits, letter is not contained anywhere in the which are tolerable, into false misses, word; and in that case, the interwhich are not. So use the full text mediate character positions don't need search before excluding any file from to be examined at all, since they could not possibly be part of the word being consideration. sought. Many other refinements have (2) Searches are fast. The hash func- been developed, since text searching tions need only be computed once, no has such practical importance. matter how many dictionaries need to (7) Include each file's lastbe searched, so the time to compute them should be imperceptible. And for modification date and time with its any single word or AND of words, a dictionary. Then the search program single bit mask can be prepared for can examine the directory of files, to high-speed test against the dictionaries. automatically regenerate the dictionary It's reasonable to estimate that the dic- for any new or changed text file. This tionary search of dozens of files, even mechanism will also generate the long ones, could be completed within a dictionary initially, the first time the second or two. Any full text searches program is run. required would take longer, but usually they can be concurrent with display of the output to the user. (3) The suggested 7.5K-bytes dictionary size requires hash-function divisors around 60K. If your system doesn't have an unsigned division available, consider getting one bit by another method, such as adding the ASCII letters of the English word together and taking the last bit of the sum. But note that this bit will be the same for all ten hash values of a given word. References 1. Bentley, J o n , "A Spelling Checker," Communications of the ACM, May 1985, Vol. 28, No. 5. This "Programming Pearls" article includes background on text documents and on several methods of checking spelling, and has good references for further (4) Phrases can be handled as an research. AND of the words, with false hits excluded later in the full text search. 2. Knuth, Donald E., The Art of Com(5) This method won't find parts of puter Programming, Vol. 3, Addisonwords. But common prefixes and Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1973. This suffixes can be treated. For example, to classic programming text has a long avoid missing plurals of words, just section on hashing and related drop the final "s" or "es" before methods. 1IgFORTH from SOTA Computrng Systems Limited IS rapldly becomlng the FORTH of cholce lor both the novice and experienced FORTH programmer Featuring a complete, accurate lmplementatron of the figFORTH model, figFORTH from SOTA Computing Systems Llmlted also olfers full featured string handling floating point screen editor assembler beginner's tutorial comprehensive programmer's guide exhaustive reference manual unparalleled technical support source listings no licensing requirements no royalty arrangements unbeatable price For the best implementation of FORTH that money can buy -- at a truly allordable price -- order figFORTH from SOTA Computing Systems Limited today! I 1 Gentlemen: I want to save mone I OEnclosed 1s mv Ocheclc Omon:-order , lor i 7 4 95 (U S Funds) OBill my OVISA OMastercard ~ I have lndlcaled m y card number and expiry date below P l e s n rush me m y CODY of ~IEFORTH b v SOTA for nnmE: STREET: STRTE: CRRD TYPE: CARD no: ZIP: EXPIRY: 0OWM)O. TRS-80 is a reelstered trademark of Radio Shack CP/M and CP/M Plus are registered trademarks of Volume V I I .NO. 2 41 1 I I ALABAMA Huntsville FIG Chapter Call Tom Konantz 205/881-6483 ALASKA Kodiak Area Chapter Call Horace Simmons 907/486-5049 ARIZONA Phoenix Chapter Call Dennis L. Wilson 602/956-7678 Tucson Chapter Twice Monthly, 2nd & 4th Sun., 2 p.m. Flexible Hybrid Systems 2030 E. Broadway #206 Call John C. Mead 602/323-9763 ARKANSAS Central Arkansas Chapter m i c e Monthly: 2nd Sat., 2 p.m. & 4th Wed., 7 p.m. Call Gary Smith 501/227-7817 CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Chapter Monthly, 4th Sat., 10 a.m. Hawthorne Public Library 12700 S. 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