U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual Printing (GPO)


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An official guide to the form and style
of Federal Government publishing | 2016
Keeping America Informed | OFFICIAL | DIGITAL | SECURE
Production and Distribution Notes
is publication was typeset electronically using Helvetica and Minion Pro typefaces.
It was printed using vegetable oil-based ink on recycled paper containing 30% post
consumer waste.
e GPO S M will be distributed to libraries in the Federal Depository
Library Program. To nd a depository library near you, please go to the Federal
depository library directory at http://catalog.gpo.gov/fdlpdir/public.jsp.
e electronic text of this publication is available for public use free of charge at
Use of ISBN Prefix
is is the ocial U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein
identied to certify its authenticity. ISBN 978–016–093601–2 is for U.S.
Government Publishing Oce ocial editions only. e Superintendent
of Documents of the U.S. Government Publishing Oce requests that any
reprinted edition be labeled clearly as a copy of the authentic work, and that a new ISBN be assigned.
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0081-215 )202( aera CD ;0081-215 )668( eerf llot :enohP vog.opg.erotskoob :tenretnI
notgnihsaW ,CCDI potS :liaM 4012-215 )202( :xaF1000-20402 CD ,
ISBN 978-0-16-093601-2 (Paper)
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: United States. Government Publishing Oce, author.
Title: Style manual : an ocial guide to the form and style of federal
government publications / U.S. Government Publishing Oce.
Other titles: Ocial guide to the form and style of federal government
publications | Also known as: GPO style manual
Description: 2016; ocial U.S. Government edition. | Washington, DC : U.S.
Government Publishing Oce, 2016. | Includes index.
Identiers: LCCN 2016055634| ISBN 9780160936029 (cloth) | ISBN 0160936020
(cloth) | ISBN 9780160936012 (paper) | ISBN 0160936012 (paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Printing—United States—Style manuals. | Printing,
Public—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. | Publishers and
publishing—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. | Authorship—Style
manuals. | Editing—Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Classication: LCC Z253 .U58 2016 | DDC 808/.02—dc23 | SUDOC GP 1.23/4:ST
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016055634
Davita E. Vance-Cooks
Previous printings of the GPO S M: 1894, 1898, 1900, 1903, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914,
1917, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1945, 1953, 1959, 1962, 1967,
1973, 1984, 2000, 2008
Tony N. Gilbert, Chairman
James E. Bender Michelle R. Overstreet
Peter W. Binns David J. Robare
Kristina Bobe Margaret V. Ross-Smith
Mark C. Czajka Kathleen M. Swigert
Yalanda Johnson Charlotte E. Timmons
Carolyn B. Mitchell
Ex ocio
Andrew M. Sherman, Chief of Sta
John W. Crawford, Managing Director, Plant Operations
Gregory Estep, Deputy Managing Director, Plant Operations
Shelley N. Welcher, Production Manager, Plant Operations
Reneé Rosa, Manager of Operations, Pre-Press Division
Myra L. Taylor Darlene Rios-Bay Tracy D. Shields
Foreperson Foreperson Foreperson
Proof and Copy Markup Section Proof and Copy Markup Section Proof and Copy Markup Section
Shi 1 Shi 2 Shi 3
Representative Gregg Harper, Chairman
Senator Roy Blunt, Vice Chairman
Representative Candice S. Miller Senator Pat Roberts
Representative Rodney Davis Senator John Boozman
Representative Robert A. Brady Senator Charles E. Schumer
Representative Juan Vargas Senator Tom Udall
(TITLE 44, U.S.C.)
§ 1105. Form and style of work for departments
e Director of the Government Publishing
Oce shall determine the form and style in which
the printing or binding ordered by a depart ment
is executed, and the material and the size of type
used, having proper regard to economy, work-
manship, and the purposes for which the work is
(Pub. L. 90620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1261; Pub.
L. 113–235, div. H, title I, § 1301(c)(1), Dec. 16, 2014,
128 Stat. 2537.)
H  R N
Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., § 216 (Jan. 12,
1895, ch. 23, § 51, 28 Stat. 608).
2014—Pub. L. 113–235 substituted “Director
of the Government Publishing Oce” for “Public
About This Manual
e GPO S M, as it is popularly known, is issued under the
authority of section 1105 of title 44 of the U.S. Code, which requires the
Director of the GPO to “determine the form and style in which the printing
. . . ordered by a department is executed, . . . having proper regard to econ-
omy, workmanship, and the purposes for which the work is needed.” e
M is prepared by the GPO Style Board, composed of proofreading,
printing, and Government documents specialists from within GPO, where
all congressional publications and many other key Government documents
are prepared.
e rst GPO S M appeared in 1894. It was developed origi-
nally as a printer’s stylebook to standardize word and type treatment, and
it remains so today. rough successive editions, however, the M has
come to be widely recognized by writers and editors both within and outside
the Federal Government as one of the most useful resources in the edito-
rial arsenal. And now in the 21st century, writers and editors are using the
M in the preparation of the informational content of Government
publications that appear in digital formats.
Writers and editors whose disciplines have taught them aspects of style dif-
ferent from those found in the GPO S M will appreciate the
diculty of establishing a single standard. Users of this M should
consider it instead as a general guide. Its rules cannot be regarded as rigid, for
the printed word assumes many shapes and variations in nal presentation,
and usage changes over time as language evolves. Periodically the M
is updated, as this edition has been, to eliminate obsolete standards, update
form and usage, and adjust the guidance for document preparation and ap-
pearance to current custom.
Comments and suggestions from users of the GPO S M are wel-
comed. All such correspondence may be emailed to the GPO Style Board at
A digital version of this M appears on GPOs govinfo at https://www.
govinfo.gov/gpo-style-manual. Revisions and updates are made to the on-
line version of this M periodically. Accordingly, that document rather
than the printed edition should be consulted as the most up-to-date version
For the purposes of the GPO S M, examples provided through-
out both the printed and digital versions are to be given the same weight as
the enumerated rules.
e GPO Style Board would like to thank the following people for assistance
in the production of this edition of the GPO S M:
Special thanks go to Michael M. Shelton, Program Analyst, Oce of Policy,
National Park Service, and Member of the U.S. Board on Geographic
Names, for his wealth of knowledge, special consultation, and research dur-
ing the entire revision process of this M. He has, indeed, been a true
friend to the Board.
M. Michael Abramson, past Chair of the GPO Style Board, who acted as an
adviser to the present Style Board.
Elizabeth Appel, Bureau of Indian Aairs, U.S. Department of the Interior,
for advice on the issue of capitalization of “Tribe” and “Tribal.
Douglas Caldwell, Geospatial Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer
Research and Development Center and Jacqueline Nolan, Geography and
Map Division, Library of Congress, for information on acronyms and car-
tographic names.
e oces of Indiana Senators Dan Coats and Joe Donnelly and Indiana
Governor Mike Pence for information regarding the demonym “Hoosier.
Rachel R. Creviston, Chief of Sta, Oce of the Secretary of the Senate;
Matthew P. McGowan, Senate Committee on Rules and Administration;
and Corey Plank, Lead Cartographer—Remote Sensing, Bureau of Land
Management, for consulting on the issue regarding compass directional
vi About This Manual
Linda Crown, Administrative Specialist, Oce of Weights and Measures,
National Institute of Standards and Technology, for information on terms
of measures.
Robert W. Dahl, Cadastral Surveyor, U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Land Management, Minerals & Realty Management Directorate,
Division of Lands, Realty & Cadastral Survey (WO–350), for his contribu-
tion of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines of the United States tables,
Chapter 18.
Cynthia L. Etkin, Program Planning Specialist, Oce of the Superintendent
of Documents, Government Publishing Oce, for her assistance in the pro-
duction of this M.
Dean Gardei, Brand and Web Manager, Government Publishing Oce, for
the design of the cover and title page.
Solange A. Garvey, Foreign Aairs Ocer and Leo Dillon, Oce of the
Geographer and Global Issues, U.S. Department of State; and Trent Palmer,
Executive Secretary for Foreign Names, U.S. Board on Geographic Names,
for information on foreign countries and terms.
Jeremy Gelb, IT Specialist, Government Publishing Oce, for technical as-
sistance in the production of this M.
Christine Jones, Editorial Team Lead, Information Design and Publishing
Sta, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, for information on medical eponyms.
Library Services & Content Management Sta, including Patricia
A. Duplantis, Systems Librarian; Laurie B. Hall, Chief and Acting
Superintendent of Documents; James M. Mauldin, Manager, Oce of
Archival Management; and Kelly M. Seifert, Strategic Communications
Coordinator, for their feedback and support.
Christine McMahon, Program Planner, Programs, Strategy and Technology,
Government Publishing Oce, for her contribution in updating the GPOs
Digital Information Initiatives.
James Moore, Gibbs & Cox, Inc., for information regarding technical
About This Manual vii
Kirk Petri and Jon Quandt, Lead Program Planners, Programs, Strategy
and Technology, and John Foley and Jiang (John) Zheng, IT Specialists,
Information Technology, Government Publishing Oce, for their contri-
butions in updating the information technology acronyms and initialisms
section in the abbreviations and letter symbols chapter.
Kathleen Swiatek, IT Specialist, IT Product Support, for Bill language
Marcia ompson, Chief, Congressional Record Index Oce, Government
Publishing Oce, for revisions to the pages relating to the Congressional
Record Index.
Louis Yost, Executive Secretary and Jennifer Runyon, Sta, U.S. Board on
Geographic Names, for help on a variety of names and geographic issues.
Employees of the Production Planning and Control Division, Government
Publishing Oce, for their contributions during the preproduction/produc-
tion process.
Employees of the Proof and Copy Markup Section, Government Publishing
Oce, for their constant contributions to the GPO S M.
Current users who have contributed many ideas and suggestions that were
incorporated into this edition of the GPO S M.
viii About This Manual
GPO’s Digital Information Initiatives
In the digital age, GPO is responsible for providing public access to the digi-
tal versions of many of the ocial documents it prints, as well as—to the
greatest extent possible—the digital versions of Government publications
that are not printed but are otherwise made available on other Federal web-
sites. GPO recognizes that a Federal author today oen begins the content
creation process at a computer, and frequently publishes the nal document
to the web without creating a print version that will make its way to a user's
hands or a library's shelves.
GPO Access
To accommodate this transition in Federal publishing strategies while pre-
serving GPO’s core responsibility for ensuring public access to Government
publications, Congress enacted Public Law 103–40, the Government
Printing Oce Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act of 1993,
which required GPO to establish access to key Government publications in
digital format and provide a system of storage to ensure permanent public
access to the information they contain. Opened to the public in 1994, the
resulting website, GPO Access, was GPO's entrance into the digital age. In
2003, the National Archives and Records Administration formally recog-
nized GPO as an aliate archive for the digital content on the GPO Access
site. GPO Access operated for 15 years before it was retired following the
introduction of GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys).
Federal Digital System (FDsys)
To meet continued public demand for access to digital Government publi-
cations, provide for an increased range of search and retrieval options, and
ensure the preservation of ocial Government information content in the
21st century, GPO embarked on the construction of a more comprehensive
online capability, called the Federal Digital System, or FDsys, available at
FDsys was launched as a beta website in 2009 and permanently replaced
GPO Access in 2011. FDsys provides free access to hundreds of thousands
of ocial Federal Government publications in digital format from all three
branches of the Federal Government, including congressional bills, the
Congressional Record, the Federal Register, the Compilation of Presidential
Documents, the U.S. Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, and opinions
from more than 100 Federal courts. In 2016, GPO reached a milestone of
two billion retrievals of digital Government information from FDsys (the
equivalent of nine retrievals per second over seven years of operation).
govinfo beta website
In February 2016, GPO launched the next generation of digital public access,
govinfo (at www.govinfo.gov) as a public beta website to eventually replace
the FDsys public website. govinfo is a redesign of FDsys featuring a modern,
easy-to-use look and feel that syncs with the need of today’s Government
information users for quick and eective digital access across a variety of
digital platforms. It was developed with a focus on implementing feedback
from users and improving overall search and access to FDsys content. e
redesigned, mobile-friendly website incorporates state-of-the-art innovative
technologies and includes several new features for an overall enhanced user
experience. govinfo is the new front door to accessing the same ocial, pre-
served content that GPO has made available through GPO Access and FDsys
for more than two decades.
e key new features of govinfo include the capability to link related content,
new ways to browse content, a new open-source search engine, enhance-
ments to the search lters, and more options for sharing pages and content
on social media.
Digital preservation
Content in FDsys and govinfo is preserved to ensure permanent availabil-
ity in electronic form. As a preservation repository, GPO follows archival
system standards to ensure long-term preservation and access to digital
content. GPOs digital stewardship vision is to operate a standards-based
preservation repository and to implement user-friendly, responsive, and in-
novative technologies to ensure that all archived content information can
be obtained, rendered, used, and understood by the designated community
into the future.
x GPO’s Digital Information Initiatives
In 2015, GPO began pursuing certication of its agship system as a
Trustworthy Digital Repository for Government information under ISO
16363: Audit and Certication of Trustworthy Digital Repositories.
Authentication of digital documents
e increasing use of documents in digital format poses a special challenge
in verifying authenticity, because digital technology makes such documents
easy to alter or copy in unauthorized or illegitimate ways. GPO assures users
that the publications available from GPO websites are as ocial and authen-
tic as publications that have been printed by GPO for many years. GPO
digital systems operate with established trust relationships between all par-
ties in digital transactions. A visible digital signature, viewed as the GPO
Seal of Authenticity signied by an eagle, veries document integrity and
authenticity on GPO online Federal documents. e visible digital signature
on PDF documents on FDsys and govinfo signies a guarantee that the in-
formation in the document is ocial, authentic, and secure.
XML bulk data repository
Since the launch of FDsys, GPO has worked with partners in the legislative
and executive branches to expand the availability of Government informa-
tion content in support of an open and transparent government. One such
eort involves making content available in machine-readable Extensible
Markup Language (XML) format for bulk download. e eort began in
2009 and has grown to nine collections now available through GPOs bulk
data repository at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/bulkdata. e repository features
data collections including text, summary, and status information for bills
introduced in the House of Representatives and the Senate, the annual of-
cial and unocial digital versions of the Code of Federal Regulations, the
Federal Register, the U.S. Government Manual, and the Public Papers of the
Presidents of the United States.
Information available on GPOs XML bulk data repository helps maximize
the ways this data can be used or repurposed by users. Making informa-
tion available in XML permits data to be reused and repurposed for mobile
web applications, data mashups, and other analytical tools by third-party
providers, contributing to eorts supporting openness and transparency in
GPO’s Digital Information Initiatives xi
Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP)
GPO is responsible for creating a catalog and index for all public documents
published by the Federal Government that are not condential in character.
is work serves libraries and the public nationwide and enables people to
locate desired Government publications in all formats. e public interface
for accessing these cataloging records is the Catalog of U.S. Government
Publications (CGP), which is available in digital format at http://catalog.gpo.
gov. Using the CGP, anyone can freely access descriptive information for
historical and current Government publications as well as digital links to
their full content. Print versions of U.S. Government publications may be
found by contacting a Federal depository library: https://catalog.gpo.gov/
Ben's Guide to the U.S. Government
Bens Guide, available at http://bensguide.gpo.gov, provides learning tools
for K12 students, parents, and educators. e site provides age-specic ex-
planations about how the Federal Government works, explains the use of
the primary source materials available on FDsys and govinfo, and explains
GPO's role in the Federal Government.
Online U.S. Government Bookstore
Government information users may also locate and order publications avail-
able for sale in both print and digital—including eBook—formats through
GPO's Publication and Information Sales Program. Orders may be placed
online securely at https://bookstore.gpo.gov.
Applicability of the GPO STYLE MANUAL to digital publications
e rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and related matters, as stated
in this M, will serve well when preparing documents for digital
access. Most of the documents on FDsys and govinfo are derived from data-
bases used in the printing of Government publications. As the availability of
Government publications in digital formats continues to grow, the rules as
stated in this M will continue to be GPOs standard for all document
preparation, whether for conventional printing or digital access.
xii GPO’s Digital Information Initiatives
Chapter Page
About is Manual ......................................................................... v
GPOs Digital Information Initiatives .......................................... ix
1. Advice to Authors and Editors ...................................................... 1
2. General Instructions ....................................................................... 7
3. Capitalization Rules ........................................................................ 27
4. Capitalization Examples ................................................................. 45
5. Spelling .............................................................................................. 81
6. Compounding Rules ....................................................................... 97
7. Compounding Examples ............................................................... 111
8. Punctuation ...................................................................................... 193
9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols................................................ 221
Standard word abbreviations .................................................... 238
Standard letter symbols for units of measure ......................... 248
Standard Latin abbreviations ................................................ 252
Information technology acronyms and initialisms ............... 256
10. Signs and Symbols ........................................................................... 263
11. Italic ................................................................................................... 269
12. Numerals........................................................................................... 273
13. Tabular Work ................................................................................... 285
14. Leaderwork ...................................................................................... 303
15. Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines ............................... 307
16. Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures ........................................... 313
17. Useful Tables .................................................................................... 325
U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents ......................................... 325
State Populations and eir Capitals ....................................... 326
Principal Foreign Countries ..................................................... 327
Demonyms: Names of Nationalities ........................................ 337
Currency ....................................................................................... 339
Metric and U.S. Measures .......................................................... 345
Common Measures and eir Metric Equivalents ............... 346
Measurement Conversion ......................................................... 347
18. Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions ................................ 349
19. Congressional Record ..................................................................... 377
Congressional Record Index ......................................................... 413
20. Reports and Hearings ..................................................................... 425
Index .................................................................................................. 441
1. Advice to Authors and Editors
e GPO S M is intended to facilitate the production of
Government publications. Careful observance of the following suggestions
will aid in expediting your publication and reduce costs.
1.1. Making changes aer submission of copy delays the production of
the publication and adds to the expense of the work; therefore, copy
must be carefully edited before being submitted to the Government
Publishing Oce.
1.2. Legible copy, not faint reproductions, must be furnished.
1.3. Copy should be on one side only with each sheet numbered con-
secutively. If both sides of copy are to be used, a duplicate set of copy
must be furnished.
1.4. To avoid unnecessary expense, it is advisable to have each page
begin with a new paragraph.
1.5. Proper names, signatures, gures, foreign words, and technical
terms should be written plainly.
1.6. Chemical symbols, such as Al, Cl, Tl are sometimes mistaken for
A1, C1, T1. Editors must indicate whether the second character is a
letter or a gure.
1.7. Footnote reference marks in text and tables should be arranged
consecutively from le to right across each page of copy.
1.8. Photographs, drawings, and legends being used for illustrations
should be placed in the manuscript where they are to appear in
the publication. ey should be on individual sheets, as they are
handled separately during typesetting.
1.9. If a publication is composed of several parts, a scheme of the desired
arrangement must accompany the rst installment of copy.
1.10. To reduce the possibility of costly blank pages, avoid use of new odd
pages and halitles whenever possible. Generally these renements
should be limited to quality bookwork.
2 Chapter 1
1.11. Samples should be furnished if possible. ey should be plainly
marked showing the desired type, size of type page, illustrations if
any, paper, trim, lettering, and binding.
1.12. In looseleaf or perforated-on-fold work, indicate folio sequence, in-
cluding blank pages, by circling in blue. Begin with rst text page
(title). Do not folio separate covers or dividers.
1.13. Indicate on copy if separate or self-cover. When reverse printing in
whole or in part is required, indicate if solid or tone.
1.14. Avoid use of oversize fold-ins wherever possible. is can be done
by splitting a would-be fold-in and arranging the material to appear
as facing pages in the text. Where fold-ins are numerous and can-
not be split, consider folding and inserting these into an envelope
pasted to the inside back cover.
1.15. Every eort should be made to keep complete jobs of over 4 pages to
signatures (folded units) of 8, 12, 16, 24, or 32 pages. Where possible,
avoid having more than two blank pages at the end.
1.16. Indicate alternative choice of paper on the requisition. Where pos-
sible, conne choice of paper to general use items carried in inventory
as shown in the GPO Paper Catalogue (https://www.gpo.gov/pdfs/
1.17. If nonstandard trim sizes and/or type areas are used, indicate head
and back margins. Otherwise, GPO will determine the margins.
1.18 . Customers should submit copy for running heads and indicate the
numbering sequence for folios, including the preliminary pages.
1.19. Corrections should be made on rst proofs returned, as later proofs
are intended for verication only. All corrections must be indicated
on the “R” (revise) set of proofs, and only that set should be returned
to GPO.
1.20. Corrections should be marked in the margins of a proof opposite
the indicated errors, not by writing over the print or between the
lines. All queries on proofs must be answered or no change will be
Advice to Authors and Editors 3
1.21. e following GPO publications relate to material included in this
Government Paper Specification Standards
e purpose of these standards is to achieve compliance with relevant
statutes regarding printing papers; address environmental, workplace
safety, and paper longevity issues; and achieve maximum savings in the
Governments paper purchases. 2011 (https://www.gpo.gov/pdfs/customers/
GPO Paper Samples
is publication is a supplement to Government Paper Specication
Standards. It includes samples of papers used by GPO. Used as a planning
aid and guide in selecting an adequate grade, weight, and color of paper for
a job of printing. 2011.
4 Chapter 1
1.22. Corrections made to proofs should be indicated as follows:
1 In lieu of the traditional mark “tr” used to indicate letter or number transpositions, the striking out of the
incorrect letters or numbers and the placement of the correct matter in the margin of the proof is the preferred
method of indicating transposition corrections.
2 Corrections involving more than two characters should be marked by striking out the entire word or number
and placing the correct form in the margin. is mark should be reserved to show transposition of words.
3 e form of any query carried should be such that an answer may be given simply by crossing out the complete
query if a negative decision is made or the right-hand (question mark) portion to indicate an armative answer.
Advice to Authors and Editors 5
N.—e system of marking proofs can be made easier by the use of an imaginary vertical line
through the center of the type area. e placement of corrections in the le-hand margin for those
errors found in the le-hand portion of the proof and in the right-hand margin for right-side errors
prevents overcrowding of marks and facilitates corrections.
2. General Instructions
Job planning
2.1. New publications are evaluated by application specialists who re-
view their requirements and design the necessary formats. Each
format is made to conform exactly to the copy’s specications for
page dimensions, line length, indentions, typefaces, etc. Upon com-
pletion, sample pages are produced and submitted to the customer.
At this time, customer agencies are requested to indicate precise de-
tails of any style changes because this set of pages serves as a guide
for the copy preparer, the beginning of actual production.
2.2. Changes in the needs of the library community have led to a move
toward uniform treatment of the component parts of publications.
In developing standards to guide publishers of Government docu-
ments, consideration has been given to the changing needs of those
who seek to produce, reference, index, abstract, store, search, and
retrieve data. Certain identifying elements will be printed on all
publications in accordance with this M and with standards
developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain:
(a) Title and other title information;
(b) Name of department issuing or creating the publication;
(c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or individual);
(d) Date of issuance;
(e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address);
(f) Superintendent of Documents classication and stock numbers,
if applicable; and
(g) International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
(See ANSI Standard Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book.)
8 Chapter 2
Reports of a scientic or technical nature should contain:
(a) Title and other title information;
(b) Report number;
(c) Author(s);
(d) Performing organization;
(e) Sponsoring department;
(f) Date of issuance;
(g) Type of report and period covered;
(h) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address);
(i) Superintendent of Documents classication and stock numbers
if applicable.
(See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.182005 (R2010), Scientic and
Technical Reports—Preparation, Presentation, and Preservation.)
Journals, magazines, periodicals, and similar publications should
(a) Title and other title information;
(b) Volume and issue numbers;
(c) Date of issue;
(d) Publishing or sponsoring department;
(e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address);
(f) International Standard Serial Number; and
(g) Superintendent of Documents classication and stock numbers
if applicable.
(See ANSI Standard Z39.1, American Standard Reference Data and
Arrangement of Periodicals.)
General Instructions 9
Federal Aviation
Office of Aerospace Medicine
Washington, DC 20591
Use of Weather Information
by General Aviation Pilots,
Part I, Quantitative:
Reported Use and Value of
Providers and Products
William R. Knecht
Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Oklahoma City, OK 73125
March 2008
Final Report
name and
Type of
(1) is sample report cover is reduced in size.
(2) In this sample, items are justied le. Other cover designs and
typefaces are acceptable.
(3) is sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of the
American National Standards Institute, www.ansi.org. Users of
ANSI standards are cautioned that all standards are reviewed pe-
riodically and subject to revision.
10 Chapter 2
2.3. e design and makeup of a publication is the responsibility of
the publisher. However, when the following elements occur in
Government publications, they generally appear in the sequence
listed below. e designation “new odd page” generally refers to
bookwork and is not required in most pamphlet- and magazine-
type publications.
(a) False title (frontispiece, if any, on back).
(b) Frontispiece, faces title page.
(c) Title page (new odd page).
(d) Back of title, blank, but frequently carries such useful biblio-
graphic information as list of board members, congressional
resolution authorizing publication, note of editions and print-
ings, GPO imprint if departmental imprint appears on title
page, sales notice, etc.
(e) Letter of transmittal (new odd page).
(f) Foreword (new odd page), diers from a preface in that it is an
introductory note written as an endorsement by a person other
than the author. An introduction diers from a foreword or a
preface in that it is the initial part of the text; if the book is di-
vided into chapters, it should be the rst chapter.
(g) Preface (new odd page), by author.
(h) Acknowledgments (new odd page), if not part of preface.
(i) Contents (new odd page), immediately followed by list of illus-
trations and list of tables, as parts of contents.
(j) Halitle, new odd page preceding rst page of text.
(k) Text, begins with page 1 (if halitle is used, begins with p. 3).
(l) Glossary (new odd page).
(m) Bibliography (new odd page).
(n) Appendix (new odd page).
(o) Index (new odd page).
General Instructions 11
2.4. Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. Pages in the
back of the book (index, etc.), use lowercase Roman numerals.
2.5. Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more economically with
a self-cover. A table of contents, title page, foreword, preface, etc., is
not usually necessary with so few pages. If some of this preliminary
matter is necessary, it is more practical to combine them (e.g., con-
tents on cover; or contents, title, and foreword on cover 2).
2.6. Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at top of pages
are to be avoided, if possible, but are permitted if absolutely neces-
sary to maintain uniform makeup and page depth. Rewording to
ll the line is a preferred alternative.
2.7. Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page whenever necessary.
If it is found necessary to make a short page, the facing page should
be of approximate equal depth.
2.8. A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the head of
each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth; pages with
a depth of from 36 to 45 picas, inclusive, will carry a 5-pica sink;
pages less than 36 picas, 4 picas.
2.9. When centered top folios are used, the folio on a new page is set 2
points smaller than the top folios, centered at the bottom, and en-
closed in parentheses.
2.10. When running heads with top folios are used, running heads are
included in overall page depth. However, rst pages of chapters and
other pages with bottom folios do not include the folios as part of
the overall page depth.
2.11. Jobs that have bottom folios will align them in the margin, including
those on preliminary pages. If at all possible, avoid use of running
heads in conjunction with bottom folios.
2.12. Contents, list of illustrations, preface, or any other matter that
makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica sink.
2.13. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines
over tables, unless special orders are given not to do so.
12 Chapter 2
2.14. When a table continues, its headnote is repeated without the word
2.15. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an even to an
odd page must be positioned to read through the center (gutter) of
the publication when its size is not sucient to ll both pages.
2.16. A broadside table of less than page width will center on the page.
2.17. Centerheads, whether in boldface, caps, caps and small caps, small
caps, or italic, should have more space above than below. Uniform
spacing should be maintained throughout the page.
2.18. In making up a page of two or more columns, text preceding a
page-width illustration will be divided equally into the appropriate
number of columns above the illustration.
2.19. All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom).
Copy preparation
2.20. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be plainly
marked. New Odd or New Page, Preliminary, Cover, Title, or Back
Title should also be plainly indicated.
2.21. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily understood
when reading the manuscript. ey must also mark the correct ele-
ment identier code for each data element, as well as indicate other
matters of style necessary to give the publication good typographic
2.22. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the beginning of
each extension, verify folios, and plainly indicate references, foot-
notes, cut-ins, etc.
2.23. Quoted or extract matter and lists should be set smaller than text
with space above and below. Quotation marks at the beginning and
end of paragraphs should be omitted. If the same type size is used,
quoted matter should be indented 2 ems on both sides with space
top and bottom, and initial and closing quotes should be omitted.
2.24. In congressional hearings, the name of the interrogator or witness
who continues speaking is repeated following a head set in boldface,
General Instructions 13
a paragraph enclosed in parentheses, or a paragraph enclosed in
In a head set in boldface, the title “Mr.” is not used, and “the
Honorable” preceding a name is shortened to “Hon.” Street ad-
dresses are also deleted. Example: “Statement of Hon. John P. Blank,
Member, American Bar Association, Washington, DC”.
2.25. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by gures or let-
ters in parentheses will close up, as “section 7(B)(1)(a),” “paragraph
23(a),” “paragraph b(7), “paragraph (a)(2)”; butsection 9(a) (1) and
(2), “section 7 a and b. In case of an unavoidable break, division
will be made aer elements in parentheses, and no hyphen is used.
2.26. e customer should indicate use of capital and lowercase letters.
Datelines, addresses, and signatures
2.27. Copy preparers must mark caps, small caps, italic, abbreviations,
indentions, and line breaks where necessary. (For more detailed in-
structions, see Chapter 16 “Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.”)
Decimals and common fractions
2.28. In gure columns containing both decimals and common fractions,
such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned. e columns
will be set ush right.
“Et cetera,” “etc.,” and “and so forth”
2.29. In printing a speaker’s language, the words and so forth or et ce-
tera are preferred, but in “FIC & punc.” matter etc. is acceptable.
If a quoted extract is set in type smaller than that of the preceding
text and the speaker has summed up the remainder of the quota-
tion with the words and so forth or et cetera, these words should be
placed at the beginning of the next line, ush and lowercase, and an
em dash should be used at the end of the extract.
14 Chapter 2
Folioing and stamping copy
2.30. Folios should be placed in the upper right corner, preferably half an
inch from the top.
2.31. e element identier codes to be used for all headings must be
marked. Caps, caps and small caps, small caps, caps and lowercase,
sentence case, or italic must be prepared. (See rule 3.53.)
2.32. e jacket number of a job from which matter is to be picked up
must be indicated. New matter and pickup matter should conform
in style.
Sidenotes and cut-in notes
2.33. Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line ush le and ragged
right, unless otherwise prepared, and are always set solid. Sidenotes
are usually set in 6 point, 4½ picas wide. Footnotes to sidenotes and
text should be set 21½ picas.
An alleged violation of the rule relating to admission to the oor
S. 920. Abuse presents a question of privilege (III, 2624, 2625; VI, 579), but not a
of the rule. higher question of privilege than an election case (III, 2626). In one
case where an ex-Member was abusing the privilege . . . .
Signs, symbols, etc.
2.34. All signs, symbols, dashes, superiors, etc., must be clearly marked.
Names of Greek letters must be indicated, as they are frequently
mistaken for italic letters or symbols.
2.35. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look the same as
gures. A lowercase l resembles a gure 1 and a capital O looks like
a gure 0. Questionable characters will be printed as gures unless
otherwise marked.
Letters illustrating shape and form
2.36. Use the same font for text and capital letters that convey shape and
form, e.g., U-shape(d), A-frame, T-bone, and I-beam.
General Instructions 15
2. 37. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the letter s to letters
illustrating shape and form, such as T’s and Y’s. Golf tee(s) should be
spelled, as shape is not indicated.
2.38. A capital letter is used in U-boat, V–8, and other expressions which
have no reference to shape or form.
Fol. lit. and FIC & punc.
2.39. Aer submittal to GPO, manuscript copy is stamped “Fol. lit.” or
“FIC & punc.” e dierence between these two typesetting in-
structions is explained thus:
Copy is followed when stamped “Fol. lit.” (follow literally). Copy au-
thorized to be marked “Fol. lit.” must be thoroughly prepared by the
requisitioning agency as to capitalization, punctuation (including
compounding), abbreviations, signs, symbols, gures, and italic.
Such copy, including even obvious errors, will be followed. e lack
of preparation on copy so designated will, in itself, constitute prepa-
ration. “Fol. lit.” does not include size and style of type or spacing.
Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked “FIC & punc.” (follow,
including capitalization and punctuation).
2.40. Bill copy will be followed as supplied and treated as “FIC & punc.
(See rule 2.39.) is data is transmitted to the GPO with formatting
codes in place, requiring minimal copy preparation.
2.41. Copy preparer’s instructions, which accompany each job, are writ-
ten to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or deviations
from style. ese instructions must be followed.
2.42. In marking abbreviations to be spelled, preparers must show what
the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations are common.
An unfamiliar abbreviation, with spelled-out form unavailable, will
not be changed.
16 Chapter 2
Type composition
2.43. Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules governing
2.44. In correcting pickup matter, the operator must indicate plainly on
the proof what portion, if any, was actually reset.
2.45. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling of proofs, as it
is necessary for the reviser to see clearly every mark on the margin
of a proof aer it has been corrected.
2.46. Queries intended for the author are not to be corrected. Such que-
ries, however, are not to be carried on jobs going directly to press.
Leading and spacing
2.47. Spacing of text is governed by the leading, narrow spacing being
more desirable in solid than in leaded matter.
2.48. Solid matter (text) is dened as those lines set without horizontal
space between them. Leaded text is dened as lines separated by 1
or 2 points of space.
2.49. A single justied word space will be used between sentences (key
one space when typing). is applies to all types of composition.
2.50. Center or ush heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or
boldface are keyed with regular justied spaces between words.
2.51. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of spacing. More
space is always inserted above a heading than below. In 10-point
type, the spacing would be 10 points over and 8 points under a head-
ing; in 8- and 6-point type, the spacing would be 8 points above and
6 points below.
2.52. Unless otherwise marked, ush heads are separated from text by 4
points of space above and 2 points of space below in solid matter,
and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of space below in leaded
2.53. Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted extracts
are not separated by space from adjoining matter.
General Instructions 17
2.54. Extracts that are set o from the text by smaller type or are indented
on both sides or indented 3 ems on the le side (courtwork only) are
separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points of
space in solid matter.
2.55. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from the text by 6
2.56. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 points of space in
leaded matter and by 4 points in solid matter.
2. 57. Footnotes and legends are leaded if the text is leaded, and are solid
if the text is solid.
2.58. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 points above and 4 points
2.59. In measures less than 30 picas, the paragraph indent is 1 em.
Paragraph indents in cut-in matter are 3 ems, overs are 2 ems.
Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems.
Addresses are set ush le.
2.60. In measures 30 picas or wider, the paragraph indent is 2 ems.
Paragraph indents in cut-in matter are 6 ems, overs are 4 ems.
Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems.
Addresses are set ush le.
2.61. In measures less than 30 picas, overruns in hanging indents are 1
em more than the rst line. To avoid conict with an indent that
follows, such as a subentry or paragraph, the overrun indent is made
1 em more than the following line.
2.62. In measures 30 picas or wider, overruns in hanging indents are 2
ems more than the rst line. To avoid conict with an indent that
follows, such as a subentry or paragraph, the overrun indent is made
2 ems more than the following line.
2.63. Indents of matter set in smaller type should be the same, in points,
as that of adjoining main-text indented matter.
18 Chapter 2
2.64. Two-line centerheads are centered, but heads of three or more lines
are set with a hanging indent.
2.65. Overs in ush heads are indented 2 ems in measures less than 30
picas, and 3 ems in wider measures.
Legends for illustrations
2.66. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data consisting of one or
two lines are set centered, while those with more than two lines are
set with a hanging indent. Legends are set full measure regardless of
the width of the illustration. Paragraph style is acceptable.
2.67. Legend lines for illustrations that appear broad or turn page
(landscape) should be printed to read up; an even-page legend
should be on the inside margin and an odd-page legend on the out-
side margin.
2.68. Unless otherwise indicated, legends for illustrations are set in
8-point roman, sentence case.
2.69. Periods are used aer legends and explanatory remarks beneath il-
lustrations. However, legends without descriptive language do not
use a period. (See rule 8.116.)
2.70. At the beginning of a legend or standing alone, Figure preceding the
identifying number or letter is set in caps and small caps and is not
F 5, not F. 5 F A, not F. A
2.71. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes, the legend is placed
above the chart.
2.72. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are set in lowercase
italic without periods.
2.73. All special instructions, layouts, and style sheets must be included
with the rst installment of each job.
2.74. If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous statements, it is
their responsibility to query them.
General Instructions 19
2.75. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to the author’s set
of proofs.
2.76. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner defective must be
called to the attention of the deskperson.
2.77. e manner in which correction marks are made on a proof is of
considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical characters,
disconnected marks placed in the margin above or below the lines
to which they relate, irregular lines leading from an incorrect let-
ter or word to a correction, large marks, marks made with a blunt
pencil, indistinct marks, and frequent use of the eraser to obliter-
ate marks hastily or incorrectly made are faults to be avoided. e
transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or in
gures. It is better to cancel the letters or gures and write them in
the margin in the order in which they are to appear.
2.78. In reading proof of wide tables, the proofreader should place the
correction as near as possible to the error.
2.79. To assure proper placement of footnotes, the proofreader and re-
viser must draw a ring around footnote references on the proofs,
then check o each corresponding footnote number.
2.80. Proofreaders must not make important changes in indents or tables
without consulting the referee.
2.81. Follow the marks of the copy preparer, as they are in a position to
know more about the peculiarities of a job than one who reads but
a small portion of it.
2.82. Any proposed deviation from the prepared manuscript must be
queried to the referee.
2.83. All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by readers.
2.84. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and marked on the
2.85. All instructions, comments, and extraneous notes on both copy
and proofs that are not intended to be set as part of the text must be
20 Chapter 2
Revising galley proofs
2.86. e importance of revising proofs cannot be overemphasized.
Although a reviser is not expected to read proof, it is not enough to
follow the marks found on the proof. e reviser should detect er-
rors and inconsistencies and must see that all corrections have been
properly made and that words or lines have not been transposed or
eliminated in making the corrections.
2. 87. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the proofreaders or
make any important changes. If an important change should be
made, the reviser must submit the proposed change to the supervi-
sor for a decision.
2.88. In the body of the work, new pages must be properly indicated on
the proof. (For new-page information, see rule 2.3 “Makeup.”)
2.89. All instructions and queries on proofs must be transferred to the
revised set of proofs.
Revising page proofs
2.90. Page revising requires great diligence and care. e reviser must see
that the rules governing the instructions of previous workers have
been followed.
2.91. e reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and o-center pages.
2.92. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the preceding page.
2.93. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected matter. If it
appears that a correction has not been made, the reviser should
carefully examine each line on the page to see if the correction was
inserted in the wrong place.
2.94. e following rules must be carefully observed:
(a) See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if necessary.
(b) Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the data on the
galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous makeup.
General Instructions 21
(c) Make sure that dierent sets of proofs of the same job are cor-
rectly marked in series (“R,” “2R,” “3R,” etc.); where a sheet is
stamped “Another proof,” carry the same designating “R” on the
corresponding clean proof. Advance the “R,” “2R,” “3R,” etc., on
each set of page proofs returned from the originating oce.
(d) Run the page folios, make sure they are consecutive and that
the running heads, if used, are correct. Check connection pages.
Verify correct sequence for footnote references and placement.
It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on the same page
as their reference, unless style dictates that all footnotes are to
appear together in one location.
(e) Watch for dropouts, doublets, and transpositions.
(f) Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad should
be printed to read up—the even-page legend on the binding or
inside margin and the odd-page legend on the outside margin.
(g) If a footnote is eliminated, do not renumber the footnotes;
change footnote to read “Footnote eliminated.
2.95. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding number with a
superior letter added, as 15a.
2.96. If a table (with or without footnotes) ends a page that has footnotes
to the text, the text footnotes fall at the bottom of the page, with a
50-point rule above them. (See rule 13.76.)
Press revising
2.97. Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. e press re-
viser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and makeup of
Government publications. ey are required to OK all forms that
go to press—bookwork, covers, jobwork, etc.—and must see that
all queries are answered. Knowledge of the bindery operations re-
quired to complete a book or job and familiarity with all types of
imposition, folds, etc., is helpful. e reviser must be capable of as-
certaining the proper head, back, and side margins for all work, to
ensure proper trimming of the completed job.
22 Chapter 2
2.98. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser, ac-
curacy is still paramount and must not be sacriced.
Signature marks, etc.
2.99. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 6-point low-
ercase and indented 3 ems.
2.100. Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket number in sig-
nature marks:
1 25–3 27—164 116 – 52 9 —16— vo l . 1 — 3
116 – 52 9 —16— p t . 5 — 3
2.101. When the allmark () and signature or the imprint and signature
appear on same page, the signature line is placed below the allmark
or imprint. (See rule 2.113.)
2.102. e allmark is placed below the page, bulletin, or circular number
but above the signature line, if both appear on the same page.
2.103. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text are
placed at the bottom of the page.
2.104. On a congressional job reprinted because of a change, the House
and Senate have approved the following styles:
House of Representatives: Senate:
17–2 3 4 —16 — 2 17–2 35 —16 — 2 (Star Print)
2.105. e following forms are used for signature marks in House and
Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets:
H. Doc. 73, 161 2 S. Doc. 57, 16–1 2
S. Doc. 57, 16–2, pt. 1— 2 S. Doc. 57, 16–2, vol. 1 2
H. Rept. 120, 16–2— 8 S. Rept. 100, 16–2— 9
2.106. In a document or report printed on other than a session jacket, use
the jacket number, year, and signature number only, omitting the
document or report number. (See rule 2.100.)
General Instructions 23
2.107. For pasters or foldouts, the jacket number, the year, and the page
to be faced by the paster or foldout are used as follows (note
12–344 16 (Face p. 10)
2.108. On a paster or foldout facing an even page, the marks are placed on
the lower right-hand side; on a paster or foldout facing an odd page,
the marks are placed on the lower le-hand side.
2.109. If more than one paster or foldout faces the same page, they are
numbered as follows:
12–344 16 (Face p. 19) No. 1
12–344 16 (Face p. 19) No. 2
2.110. When a paster or foldout follows the text, the allmark is placed on
the last page of the text and never on the paster or foldout.
2.111. Unless otherwise stipulated, the GPO imprint must appear on all
printed matter, with the exception of certain classied work.
2.112. e full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a congressional
2.113. e imprint and allmark are not used together on any page; if one is
used, the other is omitted.
2.114. e imprint is not used on a halitle or on any page of a cover, with
the exception of congressional hearings.
2.115. If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the title page; but if
there is no title page, or if the title page is entirely an illustration, the
imprint is placed on the last page of the text 4 ems from ush right
and below the bottom folio.
2.116. e GPO logo is used only on GPO publications. If it is printed on
page , the full imprint is used on the title page; if it is printed on the
title page, use the half imprint only, thus—Washington : 2016.
24 Chapter 2
Imprint variations
2.117. is is one style of an imprint that can appear on the title page.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Publishing Oce
· Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov · Phone: Toll Free 866–512–1800
· DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2104
· Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402–0001
· www.govinfo.gov
2.118. In the event that a title page is not used, the imprint is printed on the
last page and positioned ush le below the text.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Publishing
· Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov · Phone: toll free 866–512–1800
· DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2250
· Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402–0001
· www.govinfo.gov
2.119. Outside-purchase publications are identied by the GPO logo at the
beginning of the imprint line. ese lines are positioned 4 ems from
the right margin.
2.12 0. Publications purchased outside that are reprinted by the GPO use
an em dash in lieu of the GPO logo.
2.121. Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO use an asterisk
in lieu of the GPO logo.
2.122. Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the GPO are
identied by cc printed at the end of the line.
General Instructions 25
2.123. To aid bibliographic identication of reprints or revisions, the dates
of the original edition and of reprint or revision should be supplied
by the author on the title page or in some other suitable place. us:
First edition July 2000 Original edition May 2000
Reprinted July 2005 Reprinted May 2005
First printed June 2000 Revised July 2007
Revised June 2005
2.124. e year in the imprint on cover, title page, or elsewhere is not
changed from that in the original print, nor are the signatures
changed, unless other revisions are necessary.
Sales notices
2.125. e use of sales notices is discouraged.
2.12 6. If there is a cover but no title page, the sales notice is printed on the
cover. Unless otherwise indicated, if there is a title page, with or
without a cover, the sales notice is printed at the bottom of the title
page below a cross rule. If there is no cover or title page, any sales
notice is printed at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the
two are separated by a cross rule.
2.127. e franking (mailing) privilege on covers for Government publi-
cations should be at least 1⅛ inches from the trim.
Bibliographies or references
2.12 8. ere are many styles available to bibliographers, for there are many
classes of documents.
A Government bulletin citation, according to one authority, would
be treated as follows:
Author’s name (if the article is signed); title of article (in quotation marks);
the publication (usually in italic), with correct references to volume, number,
series, pages, date, and publisher (U.S. Govt. Pub. O.).
26 Chapter 2
erefore the example would read:
U.S. Department of the Interior, “Highlights in history of forest and re-
lated natural resource conservation,Conservation Bulletin, No. 41 (serial
number not italic), Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior (or U.S. Govt. Pub.
O.), 1997. 1 p. (or p. 1).
Another Government periodical citation would read as follows:
Kirwan, Patrick S., “New Qualied Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle
Credit,” Internal Revenue Bulletin, No. 2009-48, pp. 713–717 (November 30,
2009), Internal Revenue Service.
Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book titles,
with only the rst word in the title of articles.
Other examples are:
Preston W. Slosson, e Great Crusade And Aer: 1914–1928 (New York:
Macmillan, 1930)
Edward B. Rosa, “e economic importance of the scientic work of the
government,” J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920)
Preston W. Slosson, e Great Crusade and Aer: 19141928 (New York:
Macmillan, 1930)
Edward B. Rosa, “e Economic Importance of the Scientic Work of the
Government,” J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920)
Note in this that the principal words in both book titles and titles
of articles are capitalized. Consistency is more important in biblio-
graphic style than the style itself.
e science of bibliography is covered in many texts, and the follow-
ing references are available for study:
e Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2010
Words Into Type, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974.
3. Capitalization Rules
(See also Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” and Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols”)
3.1. It is impossible to give rules that will cover every conceivable prob-
lem in capitalization, but, by considering the purpose to be served
and the underlying principles, it is possible to attain a considerable
degree of uniformity. e list of approved forms given in chapter 4
will serve as a guide. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. e
correct usage with respect to any term not included can be deter-
mined by analogy or by application of the rules.
Historic or documentary accuracy
3.2. Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientic accuracy is
required, capitalization and other features of style of the original
text should be followed.
Proper names
3.3. Proper names are capitalized.
Rome John Macadam Italy
Brussels Macadam family Anglo-Saxon
Derivatives of proper names
3.4. Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning are
Roman (of Rome) Johannean Italian
3.5. Derivatives of proper names used with acquired independent com-
mon meaning, or no longer identied with such names, are set
lowercased. Since this depends upon general and long-continued
usage, a more denite and all-inclusive rule cannot be formulated
in advance.
roman (type) macadam (crushed rock) italicize
brussels sprouts watt (electric unit) anglicize
venetian blinds plaster of paris pasteurize
28 Chapter 3
Common nouns and adjectives in proper names
3.6. A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a proper
name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a substitute for
the name of a place or thing is not capitalized.
Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue
Washington Monument; the monument
Statue of Liberty; the statue
Hoover Dam; the dam
Boston Light; the light
Modoc National Forest; the national forest
Panama Canal; the canal
Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke; the soldiers’ home
Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence)
Crow Reservation; the reservation
Cape of Good Hope; the cape
Jersey City
Washington City
but city of Washington; the city
Cook County; the county
Great Lakes; the lakes
Lake of the Woods; the lake
North Platte River; the river
Lower California
but lower Mississippi
Charles the First; Charles I
Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census
3.7. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a name
becomes separated from the rest of the name by an intervening
common noun or adjective, the entire expression is no longer a
proper noun and is therefore not capitalized.
Union Station: union passenger station
Eastern States: eastern farming States
United States popularly elected government
3.8. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a spe-
cic proper name is capitalized.
the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol building
the Channel (English Channel)
the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel)
the District (District of Columbia)
Capitalization Rules 29
3.9. e plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of a proper
name is also capitalized.
Seventh and I Streets
Lakes Erie and Ontario
Potomac and James Rivers
State and Treasury Departments
British, French, and United States Governments
Presidents Washington and Adams
3.10. A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to de-
note time or sequence, or for the purpose of reference, record, or
temporary convenience, does not form a proper name and is there-
fore not capitalized. (See also rule 3.39.)
abstract B gure 7 room A722
amendment 5 rst district (not rule 8
apartment 2 congressional) schedule K
appendix C ight 007 section 3
article 1 graph 8 signature 4
book II group 7 spring 1926
chapter III mile 7.5 station 27
chart B page 2 table 4
class I paragraph 4 title IV
collection 6 part I volume X
column 2 phase 3 ward 2
drawing 6 plate IV
exhibit D region 3
3.11. e following terms are lowercased, even with a name or number.
aqueduct irrigation project shipway
breakwater jetty slip
buoy levee spillway
chute lock turnpike
dike pier watershed
dock reclamation project weir
drydock ship canal wharf
Definite article in proper place names
3.12. To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the authorized form,
the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign language) is capitalized
when used as a part of an ocial name or title. When such name or
30 Chapter 3
title is used adjectively, the is not capitalized, nor is the supplied at
any time when not in copy.
British Consul v. e Mermaid (title of legal case)
e Dalles (OR); e Weirs (NH); but the Dalles region; the Weirs streets
e Hague; but the Hague Court; the Second Hague Conference
El Salvador; Las Cruces; L’Esterel
e National Mall; e Mall (Washington, DC only)
e Gambia
but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands
3.13. Rule 3.12 does not apply in references to newspapers, periodicals,
vessels, airships, trains, rm names, etc.
the Washington Post the U–3
the Times the Los Angeles
the Atlantic Monthly the Hotel Roanoke
the Mermaid the National Photo Co.
Particles in names of persons
3.14. In foreign names such particles as d’, da, de, della, den, du, van,
and von are capitalized unless preceded by a forename or title.
Individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed.
Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte
Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl
Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer
Von Braun; Dr. Wernher von Braun
but d’Orbigny; Alcide d’Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la Madrid
3.15. In anglicized names such particles are usually capitalized, even if
preceded by a forename or title, but individual usage, if ascertain-
able, should be followed.
Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven
omas De Quincey; William De Morgan
Henry van Dyke (his usage)
Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Irénée du Pont
3.16. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for example, La
Forge or Laforge), the two-word form should be used.
Capitalization Rules 31
3.17. In names set in capitals, de, von, etc., are also capitalized.
Names of organized bodies
3.18. e full names of existing or proposed organized bodies and their
shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, which are most
oen regarded as common nouns, are capitalized only in certain
specied instances to indicate preeminence or distinction.
National governmental units:
U.S. Congress: 114th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the Senate; the House;
Committee of the Whole, the Committee; but committee (all other con-
gressional committees)
Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of Publications, the
Division; similarly all major departmental units; but legislative, execu-
tive, and judicial departments
Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but the agency
Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency
Geological Survey: the Survey
Government Publishing Oce: the Publishing Oce, the Oce
American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; but the consulate; the con-
sulate general
Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National Treasury; Public
Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; New York Subtreasury, the
Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed Forces; All-Volunteer
Forces; but armed services
U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st Regiment;
Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army ocer; Regular Army of-
cer; Reserve ocer; Volunteer ocer; but army shoe; Grants army;
Robinson’s brigade; the brigade; the corps; the regiment; infantryman
U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) Establishment; Navy
ocer; but naval shipyard; naval ocer; naval station
U.S. Air Force: the Air Force
U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard
French Ministry of Foreign Aairs; the Ministry; French Army; British Navy
American Indian and Alaska Native federally recognized entities:
Shawnee Tribe, the Tribe; Cherokee Nation, the Nation; Alturas Indian
Rancheria, the Rancheria; Cahuilla Band of Indians, the Band; Takotna
Village, the Village; Akiak Native Community, the Community
International organizations:
United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat
32 Chapter 3
Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal (only in the proceed-
ings of a specic arbitration tribunal)
Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the Peace Conference;
the Conference
Common-noun substitutes:
Virginia General Assembly: the assembly
California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of California;
the highway commission; the commission
Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, Montgomery
County; the board of health; the board
Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common council; the council
Bualo Consumers’ League: the consumers’ league; the league
Republican Party: the party
Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; Southern Road;
the railroad company; the company
Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank
Metropolitan Club: the club
Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School of Law, Yale Uni-
versity; school of law
3.19. e names of members and adherents of organized bodies are capi-
talized to distinguish them from the same words used merely in a
descriptive sense.
a Representative (U.S.) a Shriner a Boy Scout
a Republican a Socialist a Knight (K.C., K.P., etc.)
an Elk an Odd Fellow
a Federalist a Democrat
Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions
3.20. e ocial designations of countries, national domains, and their
principal administrative divisions are capitalized only if used as
part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper adjectives.
(See Chapter 17, Principal Foreign Countries table.)
United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the Government; also
Federal, Federal Government; but republic (when not referring speci-
cally to one such entity); republican (in general sense); a nation devoted
to peace
New York State: the State, a State (a denite political subdivision of rst rank);
State of Veracruz; Balkan States; six States of Australia; State rights; but
state (referring to a federal government, the body politic); foreign states;
church and state; statehood; state’s evidence
Capitalization Rules 33
Territory: territory of American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands; Yukon,
Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), Terri torial
Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general sense)
Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, Provincial; but prov-
ince, provincial (in general sense)
3.21. e similar designations commonwealth, confederation (federal),
government, nation (national), powers, republic, etc., are capitalized
only if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper
British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth;
but a commonwealth government (general sense)
Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; the Federal
Government; but confederation, federal (in general sense)
French Government: the Government; French and Italian Governments: the
Governments; but government (in general sense); the Churchill govern-
ment; European governments
Cherokee Nation: the Nation; but Greek nation; American nations
National Government (of any specic nation); but national customs
Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); but our allies, weaker allies;
Central Powers (in World War I); but the powers; European powers
Republic of South Africa: the Republic; but republic (in general sense)
Names of regions, localities, and geographic features
3.22. A descriptive term used to denote a denite region, locality, or geo-
graphic feature is a proper name and is therefore capitalized; also
for temporary distinction a coined name of a region is capitalized.
the North Atlantic States
the Gulf States
the Central States
the Pacic Coast States
the Lake States
East North Central States
Eastern North Central States
Far Western States
Eastern United States
the West
the Midwest
the Middle West
the Far West
the Eastern Shore (Chesapeake Bay)
the Badlands (SD and NE)
the Continental Divide
Deep South
the Far East
Far Eastern
the East
Middle East
Middle Eastern
Mideastern (Asia)
Near East (Balkans, etc.)
the Promised Land
the Continent (continental Europe)
the Western Hemisphere
the North Pole
34 Chapter 3
3.23. A descriptive term used to denote direction or position is not a
proper name and is therefore not capitalized.
north; south; east; west
northerly; northern; northward
eastern; oriental; occidental
east Pennsylvania
southern California
northern Virginia; but Northern Virginia (D.C. suburbs)
west Florida; but West Florida (17631819)
eastern region; western region
north-central region
east coast; eastern seaboard
northern Italy
southern France
but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities)
Names of calendar divisions
3.24. e names of calendar divisions are capitalized.
January; February; March; etc.
Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc.
but spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter
Names of holidays, etc.
3.25. e names of holidays and ecclesiastic feast and fast days are
the North and South Poles
the Temperate Zone
the Torrid Zone
the East Side
Lower East Side (sections of a city)
Western Europe, Central Europe)
(political entities)
lower 48 (States)
the Northeast corridor
April Fools’ Day
Arbor Day
Armed Forces Day
Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Christmas Day, Eve
Columbus Day
Father’s Day
Feast of the Passover; the Passover
Flag Day
Fourth of July; the Fourth
Inauguration Day (Federal)
Independence Day
Labor Day
Lincoln’s Birthday
Memorial Day (also
Decoration Day)
Capitalization Rules 35
Trade names and trademarks
3.26. Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades and
brands are capitalized. Some trade names have come into usage
as generic terms (e.g., cellophane, thermos, and aspirin); when ref-
erence is being made to the formal company or specic product
name, capitalization should be used. (See Chapter 4 “Capitalization
Examples” trade names and trademarks.)
Choice lamb (market grade) Xerox (the company)
Red Radiance rose (variety) but photocopy (the process)
Scientific names
3.27. e name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is capitalized.
e name of a species is not capitalized, even if derived from a
proper name. (See rule 11.9.)
Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), Agnostidae
(family), Agnostus (genus)
Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsonii; Epigaea repens (genus and species)
3.28. In scientic descriptions coined terms derived from proper names
are not capitalized.
aviculoid menodontine
3.29. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name is capitalized.
Rhynchonellas Spirifers
3.30. In soil science the 12 soil orders are capitalized.
Alsols Gelisols Oxisols
Andisols Histosols Spodosols
Aridisols Inceptisols Ultisols
Entisols Mollisols Vertisols
Mother’s Day
New Year’s Day, Eve
Patriot Day
Presidents Day
Rosh Hashanah
St. Valentine’s Day
anksgiving Day
Veterans Day
Washington’s Birthday
Yom Kippur
but election day, primary day
36 Chapter 3
3.31. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies as well as the planets.
Sun Mars Alpha Centauri
Moon the Big Dipper Orion
Saturn Ceres the Milky Way
Earth Kepler-1647b but the moons of Jupiter
3.32. In general, names of diseases, viruses, and syndromes are not capi-
talized. An exception is when the disease is named for the person
who discovered it or the geographic location where the disease
Alzheimer(’s) disease Hodgkin lymphoma
cancer Lyme disease
diabetes measles
Down syndrome Parkinson(’s) disease
Ebola virus West Nile virus
group A strep infection; Zika virus
hepatitis C; herpes B virus
Historical or political events
3.33. Names of historical or political events used as a proper name are
Battle of Bunker Hill
Christian Era
Cold War
Dust Bowl
Fall of Rome
Great Depression
Great Society
Holocaust, the
Middle Ages
New Deal
New Federalism
New Frontier
the American
Revolution; the
V-E Day
War of 1812
War on Poverty
but Korean war; Vietnam war; Gulf war
3.34. A vivid personication is capitalized.
e Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York;
but I spoke with the chair yesterday.
For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly.
All of a sudden,
Time stood still.
Capitalization Rules 37
Religious terms
3.35. Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; names
for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; names of
confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their adherents; and
words specically denoting Satan are all capitalized.
Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; ee; ou; He; Him; but himself; You,
Your; y, ine; [Gods] fatherhood
Mass; Communion
Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine service
Son of Man; Jesus’ sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; messiahship; messi-
anic; messianize; christology; christological
Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; Talmud; also Biblical;
Scriptural; Koranic; Talmudic
New Testament; Ten Commandments
Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel music
Apostles’ Creed
Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant
Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize
Black Friars; Brother(s); King’s Daughters; Daughter(s); Ursuline Sisters;
Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devils advocate
Titles of persons
3.36. Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as well as those of
nobility, immediately preceding a name are capitalized.
President Obama Dr. Bellinger
Queen Elizabeth II Nurse Joyce Norton
Ambassador Acton Professor Leverett
Lieutenant Fowler Examiner Jones (law)
Chairman Williams Vice-Presidential candidate Smith
but baseball player Harper; maintenance person Flow; foreperson Taylor
3.37. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain specied in-
stances, a common-noun title immediately following the name of a
person or used alone as a substitute for it is capitalized.
Title of a head or assistant head of state:
Barack Obama, President of the United States: the President; the President-
elect; the Executive; the Chief Magistrate; the Commander in Chief;
ex-President Bush; former President Reagan; similarly the Vice President;
the Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Cheney
38 Chapter 3
Terry McAulie, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of Virginia; the
Governor; similarly the Lieutenant Governor; but secretary of state of
Idaho; attorney general of Maine
Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National governmental
John Kerry, Secretary of State: the Secretary; similarly the Acting Secretary;
the Under Secretary; the Assistant Secretary; the Director; the Chief or
Assistant Chief; the Chief Clerk; but Secretaries of the military depart-
ments; secretaryship
Titles of the military:
General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme Allied Commander;
General Joseph F. Dunford, Jr., Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Sta; Joint
Chiefs of Sta; Chief of Sta, U.S. Air Force; the Chief of Sta; but the com-
manding general; general (military title standing alone not capitalized)
Titles of members of diplomatic corps:
Walter S. Giord, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: the
American Ambassador; the British Ambassador; the Ambassador; the
Senior Ambassador; Her Excellency; similarly the Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Minister; the Chargé
dAaires; the Chargé; Ambassador at Large; Minister Without Portfolio;
but the consul general; the consul; the attaché
Title of a ruler or prince:
Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland: the Queen; the Crown; Her Most Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty;
similarly the Emperor; the Sultan
Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness
Titles not capitalized:
Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear admiral
Steven Knapp, president of e George Washington University: the president
C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor
Barbara Prophet, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the chairper-
son; the chair
3.38. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of governments, all
titles and descriptive designations immediately following the names
should be capitalized if any one is capitalized.
3.39. A title in the second person is capitalized.
Your Excellency Mr. Chairman but not conversational salutations
Your Highness Madam Chairman my dear General
Your Honor Mr. Secretary my dear sir
Capitalization Rules 39
Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc.
3.40. In the full or short English titles of periodicals, series of publica-
tions, annual reports, historic documents, and works of art, the rst
word and all important words are capitalized.
Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; Bancros History; Journal
(House or Senate) (short titles); but the code; the statutes
Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white paper
Chicago’s American; but Chicago American Publishing Co.
Reader’s Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek magazine
Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; Article 15:
Uniform Code of Military Justice; Senate Document 70; House Resolution
45; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order No. 24; Royal
Decree No. 24; Public Law 89–1; Private and Union Calendars; Calendar
No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 32, committee print;
but Senate bill 416; House bill 61; Congressional Record
Annual Report of the Government Publishing Oce, 2015; but seventh an-
nual report, 19th annual report
Declaration of Independence; the Declaration
Constitution (United States or with name of country); constitutional; but New
York State constitution: rst amendment, 12th amendment
Kellogg-Briand Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of Versailles;
Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty (descriptive designations); treaty
of 1919
United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law)
American Gothic, Nighthawks (paintings)
3.41. All principal words are capitalized in titles of addresses, albums, ar-
ticles, books, captions, chapter and part headings, editorials, essays,
headings, headlines, motion pictures and plays (including television
and radio programs), papers, short poems, reports, songs, subhead-
ings, subjects, and themes. e foregoing are also quoted.
3.42. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, or foreign) the
rst word and all important words are capitalized.
Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; Classication
Act; but the act; Harrison narcotic law; Harrison narcotic bill; interstate
commerce law; sunset law
3.43. e capitalization of the titles of books, etc., written in a foreign
language is to conform to the national practice in that language.
40 Chapter 3
First words
3.44. e rst word following a comma or a colon that introduces a com-
plete sentence or a direct quotation is capitalized. (See also rule 3.45)
e question is, Shall the bill pass?
He asked, “And where are you going?’
e following question came up for discussion: What policy should be adopted?
His only rule was this: Chickens are not allowed past the front parlor.
3.45. e rst word following a colon, an exclamation point, or a question
mark is not capitalized if the matter following is merely a supple-
mentary remark making the meaning clearer.
Revolutions are not made: they come.
Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be guided
by its masters voice.
But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two.
What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son?
3.46. e rst word of a fragmentary quotation is not capitalized.
She objected “to the phraseology, not to the ideas.’’
“e President,” he said, “will veto the bill.”
3.47. e rst word of a line of poetry is capitalized.
Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime.
3.48. e rst word of a run-in list following a colon is not capitalized.
(For lists that are not run in, see rule 8.28.)
ere are three primary pigment colors: magenta, yellow, and cyan.
e vote was as follows: in the armative, 23; in the negative, 11; not voting, 3.
His goals were these: (1) learn Spanish, (2) see the Grand Canyon, and (3)
climb Mt. Everest.
3.49. e rst word following Whereas in resolutions, contracts, etc., is
not capitalized; the rst word following an enacting or resolving
clause is capitalized.
Whereas the Constitution provides . . . ; and
Whereas, moreover, . . . : erefore be it
Whereas the Senate provided for the . . . : Now, therefore, be it
Resolved,at . . . ; and be it further
Resolved (jointly), at . . .
Capitalization Rules 41
Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), at . . . .
(Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.)
Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives concurring
therein), at . . . . (Concurrent resolution, using name of State.)
Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring therein), at . . . .
(Concurrent resolution, not using name of State.)
Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California (jointly), at . . . .
(Joint resolution, using name of State.)
Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, at . . .
Provided, at . . .
Provided further, at . . .
Provided, however, at . . .
And provided further, at . . .
Ordered, at . . .
Be it enacted, at . . .
Centerheads and sideheads
3.50. Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in capitals, and side-
heads are set in sentence case. In centerheads making two lines,
wordbreaks should be avoided. e rst line should be centered and
set as full as possible.
3.51. In heads set in caps, a small-cap c or ac, if available, is used in such
names as McLean or MacLeod; otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used.
In heads set in small caps, a thin space is used aer the c or the ac.
3.52. In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette, etc. (one-word forms
only), set in caps, the second letter of the particle is made a small
cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In heads set in small
caps, a thin space is used.
3.53. In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase, capital-
ize all principal words, including parts of compounds which would
be capitalized standing alone. e articles a, an, and the; the prepo-
sitions at, by, for, in, of, on, per, to, and up; the conjunctions and, as,
but, if, or, and nor; and the second element of a compound numeral
are not capitalized. (See also rule 8.133.)
World en Route to All-Out War
Curfew To Be Set for 10 o’Clock (To capitalized in an innitive verb)
Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe
No-Par-Value Stock for Sale
42 Chapter 3
Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race
Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted
Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements
but Building on Twenty-rst Street (if spelled)
One Hundred Twenty-three Years (if spelled)
Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle
Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production
Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here)
e Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun here); Lower Taxes
per Person (per is a preposition here)
3.54. If a normally lowercased short word is used in juxtaposition with a
capitalized word of like signicance, it should also be capitalized.
Buildings On and Near the National Mall
3.55. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and small caps, a
normally lowercased last word, if it is the only lowercased word in
the heading, should also be capitalized.
All Returns Are In
3.56. Verbs and the rst element of an innitive are capitalized.
Controls To Be Applied
but Aid Sent to Disaster Area (to is a preposition here)
3.57. In matter set in caps and small caps, such abbreviations as etc., et al.,
and p.m. are set in small caps; in matter set in caps and lowercase,
these abbreviations are set in lowercase.
P, G, S, . I    .. M
Planes, Guns, Ships, etc. In re the 8 p.m. Meeting
J B.  .
James, Nelson, et al.
3.58. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in heads set in
caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps and lowercase are
to be set as in copy.
 1.580(f)(1)
Addresses, salutations, and signatures
3.59. e rst word and all principal words in addresses, salutations, and
signatures are capitalized. See Chapter 16 “Datelines, Addresses,
and Signatures.’’
Capitalization Rules 43
3.60. e interjection “O” is always capitalized. Other interjections
within a sentence are not capitalized.
Sail on, O Ship of State!
For lo! the days are hastening on.
But, oh, how fortunate!
abstract B, 1, etc.
Air Force; the Academy
Andover; the academy
Coast Guard; the Academy
Merchant Marine; the Academy
Military; the Academy
National Academy of Sciences; the
Academy of Sciences; the academy
Naval; the Academy
but service academies
accord, Paris peace (see Agreement)
accords, Helsinki
Act (Federal, State, or foreign), short or
popular title or with number; the act:
Aordable Care
Clear Skies
Flood Control
Military Selective Service
No Child Le Behind
Organic Act of Virgin Islands
Panama Canal
Walsh-Healey Act; but Walsh-Healey
law (or bill)
act, labor-management relations
Acting, if part of capitalized title
Active Duty
Adjutant General, the (seee)
Administration, with name; capitalized
standing alone if Federal unit:
Farmers Home
Food and Drug
Transportation Security
but Obama administration;
administration bill, policy, etc.
Administrative Law Judge Davis; Judge
Davis; an administrative law judge
Admiralty, British, etc.
Admiralty, Lord of the
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Adviser, Legal (Department of State)
East Coast
South-West (Territory of)
West Coast
African American (noun)
African-American (adjective)
Agency, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to
Federal unit:
Central Intelligence; the Agency
Agent Orange
Age of Discovery
Dark Ages
Elizabethan Age
Golden Age (of Pericles only)
Middle Ages
but atomic age; Cambrian age; copper
age; ice age; missile age; rocket age;
space age; stone age; etc.
Agreement, with name; the agreement:
General Agreement on Taris and
Trade (GATT); the general agreement
4. Capitalization Examples
46 Chapter 4
International Coee Agreement; the
coee agreement
North American Free-Trade
Agreement (NAFTA)
Status of Forces; but status-of-forces
United States-Canada Free-Trade
Agreement; the free-trade agreement
but the Geneva agreement; the Potsdam
agreement; Paris peace agreement
Air Force:
Air National Guard (see National)
Base (with name); Air Force base (see
Base; Station)
Civil Air Patrol; Civil Patrol; the patrol
Command (see Command)
One (Presidential plane)
Reserve Ocers’ Training Corps
Airport: LaGuardia; Reagan National;
the airport
Alaska Native:
the Native; but Ohio native, a
native of Alaska, etc.
Al Jazeera
Alliance, Farmers’, etc.; the alliance
alliances and coalitions (see also powers):
Allied Powers; the powers (World
Wars I and II)
Atlantic alliance
Axis, the; Axis Powers; the powers
Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands,
Big Four (European); of the Pacic
Big ree
Central Powers; the powers (World
War I)
Coalition of the Willing
European Economic Community
Fritalux (France, Italy, Benelux
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(see Organization)
Western Powers
Allied (World Wars I and II):
Powers; the powers; but European
Supreme Allied Commander
Allies, the (World Wars I and II); also
members of Western bloc (political
entity); but our allies; weaker allies,
Alzheimer(’s) disease
British, etc.; the Ambassador; the
Senior Ambassador; His Excellency
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary;
the Ambassador; Ambassador at
Large; an ambassador
Baker amendment
Social Security Amendments of 1983;
1983 amendments; the Social Security
amendments; the amendments
to the Constitution (U.S.); but First
Amendment, 14th Amendment, etc.;
the Amendment
Federation of Labor and Congress of
Industrial Organizations (AFL−CIO);
the federation
Gold Star Mothers, Inc.; Gold Star
Mothers; a Mother
Legion (see Legion)
National Red Cross; the Red Cross
War Mothers; a Mother
AmeriCorps Program
Amtrak (National Railroad Passenger
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; a
Mason; a Freemason
Capitalization Examples 47
Annex, if part of name of building; the
Antarctic Ocean (see Arctic; Ocean)
appendix 1, A, II, etc.; the appendix; but
Appendix II (when part of title);
Appendix II: 1 Education Directory
appropriation bill (see also bill):
Department of Agriculture
for any governmental unit
independent oces
aquaculture; acquiculture
Arab States
Arabic numerals
Arboretum, National; the Arboretum
Archipelago, Philippine, etc.; the
Architect of the Capitol; the Architect
Archivist of the United States; the Archivist
but subarctic
arctic (descriptive adjective):
Area, if part of name; the area:
Cape Hatteras Recreational
White Pass Recreation; etc.
but area 2; free trade area; Metropolitan
Washington area; bay area;
nonsmoking area
Memorial Amphitheater; the Memorial
Amphitheater; the amphitheater
Memorial Bridge (see Bridge)
National Cemetery (see Cemetery)
Arm, Infantry, etc. (military); the arm
Armed Forces (synonym for overall
Military Establishment):
Retirement Home (AFRH)
of the United States
armed services
Armory, Springeld, etc.; the armory
Army, American or foreign, if part of name;
capitalized standing alone only if
referring to U.S. Army:
Active; Active-Duty
Adjutant General, the
Band (see Band)
branches; Gordon Highlanders; Royal
Guards; etc.
Brigade, 1st, etc.; the brigade;
Robinson’s brigade
Command (see Command)
Command and General Sta College
(see College)
Company A; A Company; the company
Confederate (referring to Southern
Confederacy); the Confederates
Continental; Continentals
Corps, Reserve (see Corps)
District of Washington (military); the
Division, 1st, etc.; the division
Engineers (the Corps of Engineers); the
Engineers; but Army engineer
Field Establishment
Field Forces (see Forces)
Finance Department; the Department
1st, etc.
General of the Army; but the general
General Sta; the Sta
Headquarters, 1st Regiment
e colon is preferred; a dash is permissible;
but a comma is too weak.
48 Chapter 4
Headquarters of the; the headquarters
Regiment, 1st, etc.; the regiment
Regular Army ocer; a Regular
Revolutionary (American, British,
French, etc.)
Surgeon General, the (see Surgeon
Volunteer; the Volunteers; a Volunteer
Lee’s army; but Clarks 5th Army
mule, shoe, etc.
of occupation; occupation army
Arsenal, Rock Island, etc.; the arsenal
article 15; but Article 15, when part of title:
Article 15: Uniform Code of
Military Justice
of Confederation (U.S.)
of Impeachment; the articles
Asian American (noun)
Asian-American (adjective)
Assembly (see United Nations)
Assembly of New York; the assembly (see
also Legislative Assembly)
Assistant, if part of capitalized title; the
assistant, Presidential (see Presidential)
Assistant Secretary (see Secretary)
Associate Justice (see Supreme Court)
Association, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to
Federal unit:
American Association for the
Advancement of Science; the
Federal National Mortgage (Fannie
Mae); the Association
Young Womens Christian; the
Astrophysical Observatory (see
Atlantic (see also Pacic):
Charter (see Charter)
Coast States
Destroyer Flotilla; the destroyer otilla;
the otilla
Fleet (see Fleet)
time, standard time (see time)
but cisatlantic; transatlantic
Attorney General (U.S. or foreign country);
but attorney general of Maine, etc.
attorney, U.S.
Authority, capitalized standing alone if
referring to Federal unit:
National Shipping; the Authority
Port Authority of New York and New
Jersey; the port authority; the
Tennessee Valley; the Authority
Auto Train (Amtrak)
Avenue, Constitution, etc.; the avenue
Distinguished Service
Mother of the Year
the award (see also decorations, etc.)
Axis, the (see alliances)
Ayatollah; an ayatollah
baby boomer
Badlands (SD and NE)
Balkan States (see States)
Capitalization Examples 49
Baltic States (see States)
Band, if part of name; the band:
Army, Marine, Navy
Bank, if part of name; the bank; capitalized
standing alone if referring to
international bank:
Export-Import Bank of the United States;
Ex-Im Bank; the Bank
Farm Loan Bank of Dallas; Dallas Farm
Loan Bank; farm loan bank; farm loan
bank at Dallas
Farmers & Mechanics, etc.
Federal Land Bank of Louisville;
Louisville Federal Land Bank; land
bank at Louisville; Federal land bank
Federal Reserve Bank of New York;
Richmond Federal Reserve Bank;
but Reserve bank at Richmond;
Federal Reserve bank; Reserve
bank; Reserve city
First National, etc.
German Central; the Bank
International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development; the Bank
but blood bank, central reserve, soil bank
Bar, if part of name; Maryland (State) Bar
Association; Maryland (State) bar; the
State bar; the bar association
Barracks, if part of name; the barracks:
Disciplinary (Leavenworth)
Marine (District of Columbia)
but A barracks; barracks A; etc.
Base, Andrews Air Force; Air Force base;
the base (see also Naval); but Sandia
Basin (see geographic terms)
Battery, the (New York City)
Battle, if part of name; the battle:
of Gettysburg; but battle at Gettysburg;
of Fallujah; of the Marne; of the
Wilderness; of Waterloo; etc.
battleeld, Bull Run, etc.
battleground, Manassas, etc.
Bay, San Francisco Bay area; the bay area
Belt, if part of name; the belt:
but money belt
Beltway, capitalized with name; the beltway
Bench (see Supreme Bench)
Benelux (see alliances)
Bible; Biblical; Scriptures; Ten
Commandments; etc. (see also book)
bill, Kiess; Senate bill 217; House bill 31 (see
also appropriation bill)
Bill of Rights (historic document); but GI
bill of rights
Bizonia; bizonal; bizone
Black (African American)
Black Caucus (see Congressional)
bloc (see Western)
block (grants)
Bluegrass region, etc.
B’nai B’rith
Board, if part of name; capitalized standing
alone only if referring to Federal or
international board:
Employees’ Compensation Appeals
Federal Reserve (see Federal)
Military Production and Supply
National Labor Relations
of Directors (Federal unit); but board of
directors (nongovernmental)
of Health of Montgomery County;
Montgomery County Board of Health;
the board of health; the board
of Regents (Smithsonian)
of Visitors (Military and Naval
on Geographic Names
Railroad Retirement
Boko Haram
series EE
books of the Bible
First Book of Samuel; etc.
Good Book (synonym for Bible)
book 1, I, etc.; but Book 1, when part of title:
Book 1: e Golden Legend
border, United States-Mexican
Borough, if part of name: Borough of the
Bronx; the borough
Botanic Garden (National); the garden (not
Botanical Gardens)
Bowl, Dust, Rose, Super, etc.; the bowl
Boy Scouts (the organization); a Boy Scout;
a Scout; Scouting; Eagle Scout;
Explorer Scout
Branch, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone only if referring to a
Federal unit:
Public Buildings
but executive, judicial, or legislative
Bridge, if part of name; the bridge:
Arlington Memorial; Memorial;
Francis Scott Key; Key
but Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge
Brother(s) (adherent of religious order)
Budget of the United States Government,
the Budget (publication)
Building, if part of name; the building:
Capitol (see Capitol Building)
House (or Senate) Oce
Russell Senate Oce
Cannon House Oce
the National Archives; the Archives
Treasury; Treasury Annex
Bulletin 420; Farmers’ Bulletin No. 420
Bureau, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to Federal
or international unit:
of Customs (name changed to U.S.
Customs and Border Protection)
of Engraving and Printing
of Indian Aairs
Cabinet, American or foreign, if part of
name or standing alone (see also
foreign cabinets):
British Cabinet; the Cabinet
the Presidents Cabinet; the Cabinet;
Cabinet ocer, member
Calendar, if part of name; the calendar:
Consent; etc.
No. 99; Calendars Nos. 1 and 2
of Bills and Resolutions
Unanimous Consent
Wednesday (legislative)
Cambrian age (see Ages)
50 Chapter 4
Capitalization Examples 51
Camp Lejeune; David, etc.; the camp
Canal, with name; the canal:
Cross-Florida Barge
Cape (see geographic terms)
Capital, Capital City, National Capital
(Washington, DC); but the capital
Capitol Building (with State name); the
Capitol, the (Washington, DC):
Architect of
caucus room
Halls (House and Senate)
Halls of Congress
Hill; the Hill
Police (see Police)
Power Plant
Prayer Room
Press Gallery, etc.
Senate wing
stationery room
Statuary Hall
the well (House or Senate)
west front
Caucasian (see White)
caucus: Republican; but Congressional
Black Caucus (incorporated name);
Sun Belt Caucus
Cemetery, if part of name: Arlington
National; the cemetery
Twenty-third Decennial (title);
Twenty-third (title); the census
2000 census
2000 Census of Agriculture; the census
of agriculture; the census
the 23d and subsequent decennial
Center, if part of name; the Center
(Federal); the center (non-Federal):
Agricultural Research, etc.; the Center
Kennedy Center for the Performing
Arts; the Kennedy Center; the
Center (Federal)
the Lincoln Center; the center (non-
central Asia, etc.
Central America
Central Europe
Central States
central time (see time)
century, rst, 21st, etc.
Chairman, Chairwoman, Chair:
of the Board of Directors; the
Chairman (Federal); but chairman of
the board of directors (non-Federal)
of the Committee of the Whole House;
the Chairman
of the Federal Trade Commission; the
chairman, chairwoman, chair
of the Appropriations Committee
of the Subcommittee on Banking
but Chairman Rogers, Chairwoman
Chair, the, if personied
Chamber of Commerce; the chamber:
of Ada; Ada Chamber of Commerce;
the chamber of commerce
of the United States; U.S. Chamber of
Commerce; the chamber of
commerce; national chamber
Chamber, the (Senate or House)
52 Chapter 4
channel 3 (TV); the channel
Chaplain (House or Senate); but Navy
chapter 5, II, etc.; but Chapter 5, when
part of title: Chapter 5: Research and
Development; Washington chapter,
Red Cross
Chargé dAaires, British, etc.; the Chargé
dAaires; the Chargé
chart 2, A, II, etc.; but Chart 2, when part of
legend: Chart 2.—Army strength
Charter, capitalized with name; the charter:
United Nations
cheese: Camembert, Cheddar, Parmesan,
Provolone, Roquefort, etc.
Chief, if referring to head of Federal unit;
the Chief:
Forester (see Forester)
Intelligence Oce
Justice (U.S. Supreme Court); but chief
justice (of a State)
Magistrate (the President)
of Division of Publications
of Engineers (Army)
of Naval Operations
of Sta
Christian; Christendom; Christianity;
Christianize; but christen
church and state
church calendar:
Pentecost (Whitsuntide)
Church, if part of name of organization or
Circle, if part of name; the circle:
but great circle
Circular 420
cities, sections of, ocial or popular names:
East Side
French Quarter (New Orleans)
Latin Quarter (Paris)
North End
Northwest Washington, etc. (District
of Columbia); the Northwest; but
northwest (directional)
the Loop (Chicago)
City, if part of corporate or popular name;
the city:
Kansas City; the two Kansas Citys
Mexico City
New York City; but city of New York
Twin Cities
Washington City; but city of Washington
Windy City (Chicago)
but Reserve city (see Bank)
civil action No. 46
civil defense
Civil War (see War)
Clan, if part of tribal name; Clan
MacArthur; the clan
class 2, A, II, etc.; but Class 2 when part of
title: Class 2: Leather Products
Clerk, the, of the House of Representatives;
of the Supreme Court of the United
clerk, the, of the Senate
cloud computing; the cloud
coal sizes: pea, barley, buckwheat, stove, etc.
coalition; coalition force; coalition
members, etc.
coast: Atlantic, east, gulf, west, etc.
Coast Guard, U.S.; the Coast Guard;
Coastguardsman Smith; but a
coastguardsman; a guardsman;
Coastal Plain (Atlantic and Gulf)
Capitalization Examples 53
Code (in shortened title of a publication);
the code:
Federal Criminal
Internal Revenue (also Tax Code)
International (signal)
of Federal Regulations
Penal; Criminal; etc.
Pennsylvania State
Uniform Code of Military Justice
United States
ZIP Code (copyrighted)
but civil code; ag code; Morse code
codel (congressional delegation)
collection, Brady, etc.; the collection
collector of customs
College, if part of name; the college:
Armed Forces Sta
Command and General Sta
National War
of Bishops
but electoral college
college degrees: bachelor of arts, master’s, etc.
Colonials (American Colonial Army); but
colonial times, etc.
Colonies, the:
irteen American
irteen Original
but 13 separate Colonies
colonists, the
Command, capitalize with name; the
Air Force Materiel
Central (CENCOM)
Naval Space
Zone of Interior
Commandant, the (Coast Guard or Marine
Corps only)
Commandos, the; Commando raid; a
Commission (if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to Federal
or international commission):
International Boundary, United States
and Canada
of Fine Arts
Public Buildings
Commissioner, if referring to Federal or
international commission; the
Land Bank; but land bank
commissioner loans
of Customs and Border Protection
U.S. (International Boundary
Commission, etc.)
but a U.S. commissioner
Committee (or Subcommittee) (if part of
name; the Committee, if referring to
international or noncongressional
Federal committee or to the
Committee of the Whole, the
Committee of the Whole House, or
the Committee of the Whole House on
the state of the Union):
American Medical Association
Committee on Education; the
committee on education; the
Appropriations, etc.; the committee;
Subcommittee on Appropriations; the
subcommittee; subcommittee of the
Appropriations Committee
Democratic National; the national
committee; the committee;
Democratic national committeeman
Democratic policy committee; the
Joint Committee on Printing; the Joint
Committee; the committee; but a joint
54 Chapter 4
of Defense Ministers (NATO); the
Committee (see also Organization,
North Atlantic Treaty)
of One Hundred, etc.; the committee
on Finance; the committee
Presidents Advisory Committee on
Management; the Committee
Republican National; the national
committee; the committee;
Republican national committeeman
Republican policy committee; the
Senate policy committee
Subcommittee on Immigration; the
but Baker committee
ad hoc committee
conference committee
Committee Print No. 32; Committee Prints
Nos. 8 and 9; committee print
Common Cause
Common Core State Standards Initiative;
Common Core
British Commonwealth; the
of Australia
of Kentucky
of Massachusetts
of Pennsylvania
of Virginia
Communist Party; a Communist
compact, U.S. marine sheries, etc.; the
Company, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to unit of
Federal Government:
Procter & Gamble Co.; the company
Comptroller of the Currency; the
Comptroller General (U.S.); the
Confederacy (of the South)
Confederation, Articles of
Conference, if referring to governmental
(U.S.) or international conference:
Bretton Woods; the Conference
Judicial Conference of the United
States; U.S. Judicial Conference;
Judicial Conference; the Conference
Tenth Annual Conference of the
United Methodist Churches; the
Congress (convention), if part of name;
capitalized standing alone if referring
to international congress:
of Industrial Organizations
of Parents and Teachers, National; the
Congress (legislature), if referring to
national congress:
of Bolivia, etc.; the Congress
of the United States; First, Second,
10th, 103d, etc.; the Congress;
Library of
Black Caucus; the Black Caucus; the
Directory, the directory
District, First, 10th, etc.; the First
District; the congressional district; the
Medal of Honor (see decorations)
but congressional action, committee, etc.
Congressman; Congresswoman;
Congressman at Large; Member of
Congress; Member; membership
Conservative Party; a Conservative
Capitalization Examples 55
Constitution, with name of country;
capitalized standing alone when
referring to a specic national
constitution; but New York State
Constitution; the constitution
consul, British, general, etc.
consulate, British, etc.
Consumer Price Index (ocial title); the
price index; the index; but a
consumers’ price index (descriptive)
Continent, only if following name;
North American Continent; the
continent; but the Continent
(continental Europe)
Army; the Army
Congress; the Congress
Divide (see Divide)
Outer Continental Shelf
Shelf; the shelf; a continental shelf
continental Europe, United States, etc.
Continentals (Revolutionary soldiers)
Convention, governmental (U.S.),
international, or national political;
the convention:
89th National Convention of the
American Legion
Constitutional (United States, 1787);
the Convention
Democratic National; Democratic
Genocide (international)
on International Civil Aviation
Republican National; Republican
Universal Postal Union; Postal Union
also International Postal; Warsaw
copper age (see Ages)
Corporation, if part of name; the
Corporation, if referring to unit of
Federal Government:
Commodity Credit
Federal Deposit Insurance
National Railroad Passenger (Amtrak)
Rand Corp.; the corporation
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development
St. Lawrence Seaway Management
Union Carbide Corp.; the corporation
Virgin Islands
Corps, if part of name; the corps, all other
Adjutant General’s
Army Reserve
Foreign Service Ocer (see Foreign
Judge Advocate Generals
Marine (see Marine Corps)
Military Police
of Cadets (West Point)
of Engineers; Army Engineers; the
Engineers; but Army engineer; the
Peace; Peace Corpsman; the corpsman
Reserve Ocers’ Training (ROTC)
VII Corps, etc.
but diplomatic corps
corpsman; hospital corpsman
corridor, Northeast
Council, if part of name; capitalized
standing alone if referring to Federal
or international unit (see also United
Boston City; the council
Her Majestys Privy Council; the Privy
Council; the Council
56 Chapter 4
National Security; the Council
of Foreign Ministers (NATO); the
of the Organization of American States;
the Council
Philadelphia City; the council
counsel; general counsel
County, Prince George’s; county of Prince
George’s; County Kilkenny, etc.;
Loudoun and Fairfax Counties; the
Court (of law) capitalized if part of name;
capitalized standing alone if referring
to the Supreme Court of the United
States, to the Court of Impeachment
(U.S. Senate), or to an international
Circuit Court of the United States for the
Tenth Circuit; Circuit Court for the
Tenth Circuit; the circuit court; the
court; the tenth circuit
Court of Appeals for the State of North
Carolina, etc.; the Tenth Circuit Court
of Appeals; the court of appeals; the
Court of Claims; the court
Court of Impeachment, the Senate; the
District Court of the United States for
the Eastern District of Missouri; the
district court; the court
International Court of Justice; the Court
Permanent Court of Arbitration; the
Superior Court of the District of
Columbia; the superior court; the
Supreme Court of the United States (see
Supreme Court)
Supreme Court of Virginia, etc.; the
supreme court; the court
Tax Court; the court
U.S. Court of Appeals for the District
of Columbia; the court
Covenant, League of Nations; the covenant
Creed, Apostles’; the Creed
Crown, if referring to a ruler; but crown
colony, lands, etc.
Current, if part of name; the current:
North Equatorial
customhouse; customs ocial
czar; czarist
Dalai Lama
Dalles, e; but the Dalles region
Dark Ages (see Ages)
Daughters of the American Revolution;
a Daughter
daylight saving time
Declaration, capitalized with name:
of Independence; the Declaration
of Panama; the declaration
decorations, medals, etc., awarded by
United States or any foreign national
government; the medal, the cross, the
ribbon (see also Award):
Air Medal
Bronze Star Medal
Commendation Ribbon
Congressional Medal of Honor
Croix de Guerre
Distinguished Flying Cross
Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Good Conduct Medal
Legion of Merit
Medal for Merit
Medal of Freedom
Medal of Honor
Purple Heart
Silver Star Medal
Soldiers Medal
Victoria Cross
Victory Medal
but oakleaf cluster
also Carnegie Medal; Olympic Gold
Medal; Mother of the Year ;
but gold medal
Decree (see Executive); Royal Decree
Deep South
Defense Establishment (see Establishment)
Deity, words denoting, capitalized
Delegate (U.S. Congress)
Delegates, Virginia House of