SCRUM Coach|Agile COACH Interview Guide Master Supreme Action

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Scrum Master Supreme Action Guide Page 1
Preface
I have been involved in IT Software development since 1997. I have a unique combination of process,
technical and industrial skills. As a Certified Scrum Professional (CSP), ICAgile Certified Professional
in Agile Coaching (ICP-ACC), SAFe Program Consultant (SPC 4) I have expert level of knowledge in
agile and technology practices such as Bigdata-Hadoop, Java, SharePoint & .Net with this combination
I can help process and technology people, understand the world. Worked in India, USA, and UK which
creates a global experience and awarded as a best agile coach in MNC. Dedicated Scrum Master
Supreme Action Guide book to my Agile Guru’s, my family members, friends and Scrum professionals
across the world. Scrum Supreme Action Guide made handy and recollect everything at one shot.
Organization of this Book
Scrum Master Supreme Action Guide is designed to make you to success in the Scrum Master interview
by providing valuable discussion on Scrum Master, Agile Coach, Agile Transformations, Scrum
Exercises & videos. Practice Certification test to achieve Certified Scrum Master Certification. The
progressive elaboration of Scrum Master knowledge to an Agile Coach is awesome. Enjoy Reading!
Table of Contents
Lesson 1 Scrum Master Discussions
2
Lesson 2 Agile Coach Discussions
84
Lesson 3 Agile Transformation
118
Lesson 4 Scrum Exercises
123
Lesson 5 Scrum videos
143
Lesson 6 Certified Scrum Master Practice Test
146
Scrum Gurus
Jeff Sutherland
Mike Cohn
Nanda Lankalapalli
Sriram Balasubramanian
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Lesson 1 Scrum Master Discussions
Tell me about your introduction before proceed with?
Worked as an Scrum Coach | Agile coach| SAFe coach in MNC with 16 years of IT experience
out of which 8 Years have been dedicated to Agile, Scrum & SAFe practices at enterprise level
My Agile Certifications are - ICAgile Certified Professional in Agile Coaching (ICP-ACC) & SAFe
Program Consultant (SPC 4), Certified Scrum Professional (CSP)
I am expertise in Scrum Coaching, Agile Coaching, training and mentoring & Lead a proposal
with a big win to generate more business value, trained more than 1000+ Professionals on Agile
Principles & Practices, XP, Scrum, Kanban, Scaled Agile framework by making the organization
as an Agile Organization, build agile culture across 3 continents as an agile coach for distributed
team
Review how teams are conducting Sprint Planning, Scrum Daily calls, Sprint Review and Sprint
Retrospective ceremonies and provide feedback., track team velocity for teams after each
sprints and plan to Increase it each quarter using Graphs like CFD (Cumulative Frequency
Diagram)
Perform Project Management duties like Client Interaction, Estimations, Resource Handling and
delivering on time.
My agile websites and books are released by Syntel CEO & President -Rakesh Khanna &
Temenos CEO - Susan Gibson. I have published my agile books in amazon such as Handy
Agile, Agile A Key of Success, Scrum Alliance Professional, Agile Coaching, SAFe Q&A
Having good experience in technology such as Java, Big data, SharePoint & .Net projects to
support the development team
What are the good qualities of Scrum Master?
The good qualities of Scrum Master are: -
Responsible
Humble
Collaborative
Committed
Influential
Knowledgeable
Scrum Coach Sample Resume
Scrum Coach.docx
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1.1 Introduction to Scrum
What is Agile Manifesto? (Agile 4 Values)
Meeting at Snowbird resort by 17 software pundits and light weight methodologists, February 2001.
Created “Agile Manifesto”
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through
this work we have come to value. i.e., Agile Values
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
Author: - Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie Van Bennekum, Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin
Fowler, James Greening, Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jerries’, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert
C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas
Agile Manifesto In detail
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Individuals and interactions are most important
Processes and tools will be needed on projects
Projects are completed by people not processes and tools
Agile projects are people driven
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Agile project need to deliver value
Value is about the purpose or business need the project aims to deliver
Documentation is barely sufficient
Documentation is done just in time as the last responsible moment
Documentation might also be just because
o Industry requirements | Organizational requirements
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Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Agile is flexible, accommodating, and willing to change
Contracts are often rigid and uncooperative
Agile contracts must accommodate change
There’s a difference between being right and doing the right thing
Responding to change over following a plan
Agile welcomes change
Predictive projects plan everything in advance
Agile projects have lots and lots of many changes
Agile projects have uncertainty up front
What are Agile Principles? (Agile 12 Principles)
No
Principle
Shortened Version
1
Our highest priority is to satisfy the customers through early and
continuous delivery of valuable software
Customer
Satisfaction
2
Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile
processes harness change for the customer's competitive
advantage
Welcome Changes
3
Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a
couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale
Deliver Frequently
4
Business people and developers must work together daily
throughout the project
Work with business
5
Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the
environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job
done
Motivated People
6
The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to
and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
Face to Face
Communication
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7
Working software is the primary measure of progress
Measure Software
Done
8
Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors,
developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace
indefinitely
Maintain Sustainable
Pace
9
Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design
enhances agility
Maintain Design
10
Simplicity the art of maximizing the amount of work not done is
essential
Keep it Simple
11
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from
self-organizing teams
Team creates
Architecture
12
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more
effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
Reflect and Adjust
What are methodologies available in Agile?
Methodologies
Information
Scrum
Most popular agile methods
Strongly codified set of ceremonies, roles and artifacts
XP
Foremost of agile methodologies & Strong set of technical practices
Lean Kanban
Lean - Set of principles evolved from manufacturing to eliminate waste
Kanban literally means a “signboard” or “billboard” and it espouses the use
of visual aids to assist and track production.
Lean Kanban integrates the use of the visualization methods as prescribed
by Kanban along with the principles of Lean creating a visual incremental
evolutionary process management system.
DSDM
Offshoot of Rapid Application Development Methodology
Cost | Quality/time fixed and requirements prioritized as per MOSCOW
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Crystal
Principles are categorized according to criticality and size of the project.
Critical Levels: Comfort (C)| Discretionary Money | Essential Money (E) |
Life (L)
Feature Driven
Development
Plan | Develop and build by feature
Adaptive Software
Development (ASD)
ASD are constant adaptation of processes to the work at hand, provision of
solutions to problems surfacing in large projects, and iterative, incremental
development with continuous prototyping.
Agile Unified
Process (AUP)
AUP combines industry-tried-and-tested Agile techniques such as Test-
Driven Development (TDD), Agile Modelling, agile change management, and
database refactoring, to deliver a working product of the best quality
Domain-Driven
Design (DDD)
Domain-driven design is an Agile development approach meant for handling
complex designs with implementation linked to an evolving model.
Test Driven
Development
Test Driven Development is a software development method that involves
writing automated test code first and developing the least amount of code
necessary to pass that test later.
Definition of Scrum?
A framework within which people can address complex and adaptive problems while productively and
creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.
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Scrum uses a methodology called the scrum framework. Scrum is a framework for developing and
sustaining complex products. Scrum is a framework with agile principles and values. Scrum was
discovered from the Toyota Car Product Implementation by Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber. Scrum
was also taken from Rugby game.
Scrum is light-weight, makes easier to understand but hard to master. Scrum is flexible and allows
other agile practices like XP and Lean to plug-in.
The scrum framework is a set of practices, roles and responsibilities, events, artifacts, and rules
Scrum processes enable organizations to adjust smoothly to rapidly-changing requirements, and
produce a product that meets evolving business goals. An agile Scrum process benefits the
organization by helping it to
Increase the quality of the deliverable’s
Cope better with change (and expect the changes)
Provide better estimates while spending less time creating them
Be more in control of the project schedule and state
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Explain Scrum in a Page?
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Even though you have lot of frameworks in agile why Use Scrum framework?
Some of the key benefits of using SCRUM in any project are: -
1. AdaptabilityEmpirical process control and iterative delivery make projects adaptable and open
to incorporating change.
2. TransparencyAll information radiators like a Scrum board and Sprint Burn down Chart are shared,
leading to an open work environment.
3. Continuous FeedbackContinuous feedback is provided through the Conduct Daily Stand-up,
and Demonstrate and Validate Sprint processes.
4. Continuous ImprovementThe deliverables are improved progressively Sprint by Sprint,
through the Groom Prioritized Product Backlog process.
5. Continuous Delivery of ValueIterative processes enable the continuous delivery of value through
the Ship Deliverable’s process as frequently as the customer requires.
6. Sustainable PaceScrum processes are designed such that the people involved can work at
a sustainable pace that they can, in theory, continue indefinitely.
7. Early Delivery of High ValueThe Create Prioritized Product Backlog process ensures that
the highest value requirements of the customer are satisfied first.
8. Efficient Development ProcessTime-boxing and minimizing non-essential work leads to
higher efficiency levels.
9. MotivationThe Conduct Daily Stand-up and Retrospect Sprint processes lead to greater levels
of motivation among employees.
10. Faster Problem ResolutionCollaboration and colocation of cross-functional teams lead to
faster problem solving.
11. Effective Deliverable’sThe Create Prioritized Product Backlog process and regular reviews
after creating deliverable ensures effective deliverables to the customer.
12. Customer CentricEmphasis on business value and having a collaborative approach
to stakeholders ensures a customer-oriented framework
13. High Trust EnvironmentConduct Daily Stand-up and Retrospect Sprint processes
promote transparency and collaboration, leading to a high trust work environment ensuring low
friction among employees.
14. Collective OwnershipThe Approve, Estimate, and Commit User Stories process allows
team members to take ownership of the project and their work leading to better quality.
15. High VelocityA collaborative framework enables highly skilled cross-functional teams to
achieve their full potential and high velocity.
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16. Innovative EnvironmentThe Retrospect Sprint and Retrospect Project processes create
an environment of introspection, learning, and adaptability leading to an innovative and creative work
environment.
What are the characteristics of Scrum?
The characteristics of Scrum are: -
The most popular ‘Agile Processes’ in Agile software development is Scrum
A project management/execution process framework
Well suited for projects that require Empirical process control
Focuses on self-organizing teams
Requirements are captured in a prioritized list (Product Backlog)
Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints”
No specific engineering practices prescribed
Uses generative rules to create an agile environment for delivering projects
What is Scrum theory?
Scrum is founded on empirical process control theory, or empiricism. Empiricism asserts that
knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known. Scrum employs an
iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk. Three pillars uphold every
implementation of empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.
What is Defined & Empirical Process?
Defined Process
A Defined process defines all steps in advance, same output is expected every time the process is
followed, best suits for “Simple” and “Complicated” problem domains.
Follows pre-defined steps to achieve an Output.
Suitable when the output is well defined.
Same output is expected every time the process is followed.
Best suits for problems those fall into “Simple” and “Complicated” problem domains.
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Empirical Process
An Empirical process are interactive, incremental, change often, adapt, and pass through the
reviews, Empirical processes are change-driven
As software products and requirements cannot be 100% confirmed, fixed at the beginning, the best
way to build the winning product is to continuously inspect, and adapt at regular intervals, effectively
and efficiently. Empirical Process is based on such inspect and adapt cycle.
An Empirical Process is: -
Built based on the series of experiments
Experience based decision making
Suitable when the output can’t be well defined
Definition of output is refined based on the result of experiments
Steps in the process are adjusted based on the feedback from the experiments
Deming Wheel Plan DO Inspect -Adapt
In order to build the winning products and deliver value SCRUM has various feedback loops so that
product and process are inspected, adapted and transparent.
Three legs | pillars of SCRUM Inspection, Adaptation & Transparency: -
Inspection Frequent Inspection of artefacts helps stakeholders to make any changes to
achieve the goal
Adaptation Continuous improvement by adjusting the process based on the inspection
Transparency All artefacts of the process are visible to all the stakeholders. This helps
stakeholders to inspect the current stake and take any required action
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How would you say Scrum is based on empiricism?
Scrum is based in empiricism because: -
All Artifacts should be transparent to all stakeholders
All SCRUM roles are empowered to do the job right
All SCRUM meetings allow collaboration and opportunities for inspection ad adaptation
In SCRUM, the process is constantly adjusted if needed based on the short and continuous
feedback loops at iteration levels.
Why Agile methodology is empirical in nature?
Course correction at frequent intervals
Regular customer feedback
Failure detected early and hence early adoption of corrective measures
Status is visible to all stakeholders in a consistent way
Tell me Scrum in 100 words?
Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in
the shortest time.
It allows us too rapidly and repeatedly and repeatedly inspect actual working software in
every two weeks.
The business set the priorities. Team self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the
highest priority features.
Every two weeks to a month anyone can see the real working software and decide to release it
as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.
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How would you say Scrum is incremental and iterative?
Scrum team delivers value incrementally and Iteratively
Incremental Development
Incremental development is to build small increment of a full fledges product. Each increment adds
more software value like Adding package to a Software Product. After lot of increments, you have
got a big Software Product.
Benefits
Reduce risk during development
Early discovery and mitigation of risks
Accommodates changes early
Manageable Complexity
Higher confidence and satisfaction from early repeated successful delivery
Early and continuously visibility of product increment
Better predictability and progress
Higher quality and lower defects
Final product close to customer’s desire
Early and regular process improvement
Continuous collaboration ad engagement with customers
Effective and efficient
Usable product at any time
Sustainable pace of development
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Iterative Development
Iterative development is to build something, to get some feedback, then refine it to make better, keep
doing that until the product is good enough.
Benefits
Focus on high value and good Return on Investment (ROI)
Reduce rarely used features, maximize frequently used features
Usable product at any time
Quality Focus
Effective and efficient
Usable product at any time
Sustainable pace of development
What are the SCRUM values?
All work performed in SCRUM needs a set of values as the foundation for the team’s processes and
interactions. And by embracing these five values, the team makes them more instrumental to its health
and success.
Focus
Because we focus on only a few things at a time, we work well together and produce excellent work.
We deliver valuable items sooner.
Courage
Because we work as a team, we feel supported and have more resources at our disposal. This gives
us the courage to undertake greater challenges.
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Openness
As we work together, we express how we’re doing, what’s in our way, and our concerns so they can
be addressed.
Commitment
Because we have great control over our own destiny, we are more committed to success.
Respect
As we work together, sharing successes and failures, we come to respect each other and to help each
other become worthy of respect.
As an organization applies Scrum it discovers its benefits. At the same time, it sees how these values
inherently contribute to the success of Scrum and understands why they are both needed, and
bolstered, by Scrum.
Coin a SCRUM Word from the SCRUM values?
Tell me SCRUM Framework in short?
Already we have seen the Agile has 4 Values & 12 Principles
SCRUM is a simple process framework. SCRUM has
3 Legs : Inspect, Adapt, Transparent
3 Roles : Product Owner | Scrum Master | Development Team
3 Artifacts : Product Backlog | Sprint Backlog | Product Increment
4 Meetings : Sprint Planning | Daily SCRUM | Sprint Review | Sprint Retrospective
1 Activity : Product Backlog Refinement
5 Values : Focus | Courage | Openness | Commitment | Respect
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Product Backlog - Ordered list of items to be worked on for the product
Sprint Backlog - Product backlog items selected to work in the Sprint and the work plan to complete
those items
Product Increment - Completed product backlog items in a sprint, which are ready to be delivered to
the customer
Product Backlog Refinement - A meeting to get the product backlog items ready for the next few
sprints
Sprint Planning - A meeting to create the sprint goal and plan the work for the sprint
Daily Scrum - A daily 15-minute time boxed event for the Development Team to synchronize activities
and create a plan for the next 24 hours
Sprint Review - A meeting to inspect the product increment and adapt the product backlog if needed
Sprint Retrospective - A meeting for the scrum team to inspect and adapt the process, people and
tools
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What are the Principles of Scrum?
SCRUM principles are the core guidelines for applying the Scrum framework and should mandatory
be used in all Scrum projects. The six Scrum principles are: -
Empirical Process Control
Self-organization
Collaboration
Value-based Prioritization
Time-boxing
Iterative Development
---------------------------------------------------------------------Discussions----------------------------------------------------------------------
Compare Waterfall Vs Agile? How Scrum is different from waterfall?
In Waterfall
Plan driven process, predictive, fixed scope, adjust schedule to preserve scope
Long development cycle, linear, organize work into major phases, delivers value at project
completion
In Agile
Agile value driven Process, Adaptive, Fixed Schedule, Adjustable scope to preserve schedule
Short development cycle 2-4 weeks, cyclic, organizes work into small deliverables, delivers values
incrementally over time
The major differences are: -
The feedback from customer is received at an early stage in Scrum than waterfall, whereas the
feedback from customer is received towards the end of development cycle.
To accommodate the new or changed requirement in scrum is easier than waterfall.
Scrum focuses on collaborative development than waterfall where the entire development cycle is
divided into phases.
At any point of time we can roll back the changes in scrum than in the waterfall.
Test is considered as phase in waterfall unlike scrum.
When should you use Waterfall over Scrum?
Use waterfall if the requirements are simple, predictable, fully defined and understood, and
will not change.
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How is Scrum different from Iterative model?
Scrum is a type of iterative model only but it is iterative + incremental model.
Do you know any other agile methodology apart from Scrum?
Other Agile methodology include Kanban, XP, Lean
Explain Agile in 30 seconds?
Agile is a framework of approaches and behaviors that encourage just-in-timeproduction
that enables customers to receive quality software sooner.
Tell me one big advantage of using scrum?
The major advantage which I feel is Early feedback and producing the Minimal Viable Product (MVP)
to the stakeholders.
What is the advantage of doing Scrum?
The advantage of doing scrum is that while performing the test
It minimizes the risk in response to changes made to the system
It increases ROI (Return of Investment)
It improves the process continuously
It repeatedly and rapidly looks into actual working software
Anyone can see real working software product and continue their enhancement for another
iteration
List out the dis-advantages of Scrum?
It makes all dysfunction visible & It requires significant change
It will be a tricky job for a scrum master to plan, organize and structure a project that lacks a clear
goal
Daily scrum meeting requires frequent reviews and substantial resources
A successful project relies on the maturity and dedication of all the team members
Uncertainty regarding the product, frequent changes and frequent product delivery remains
during the scrum cycle
Where you found the disadvantage of using scrum?
The problems mainly arise when the scrum team do not either understand the values and principles of
scrum or are not flexible enough to change.
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Do you think scrum can be implemented in all the software development process?
Scrum is used mainly for
complex kind of project
Projects which have early and strict deadlines.
When we are developing any software from scratch.
Where does automation fit into scrum?
Automation plays a vital role in Scrum. In order to have continuous feedback and ensure a quality
deliverable we should try to implement TDD, BDD and ATDD approach during our development.
Automation in scrum is not only related to testing but it is for all aspect of software development.
As I said before introducing TDD, BDD and ATDD will speed up our development process along with
maintaining the quality standards; automating the build and deployment process will also speed up the
feature availability in different environment QA to production. As far as testing is concerned,
regression testing should be the one that will have most attention. With progress of every sprint, the
regression suit keeps on increasing and it becomes practically very challenging to execute the
regression suit manually for every sprint. Because we have the sprint duration of 2 4 weeks,
automating it would be imperial.
Can you give an example of where scrum cannot be implemented? In that case what do you
suggest?
Scrum can be implemented in all kinds of projects. It is not only applicable to software but is also
implemented successfully in mechanical and engineering projects.
What are the most important components of Agile?
The key feature of agile are:
Daily stand-up meetings.
CRC (Class Responsibilities and Collaborators) cards
timeboxed task boards.
TDD (Test Driven Development), Continuous Integration, regular code reviews, pair
programming, automated builds, continuous deployment and delivery, etc.
You have iteration planning meetings and carry out iterative development.
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Explain what is Scrum of Scrum? How will you work with Large Scrum Team?
Scrum of scrum is used to refer the meeting after the daily scrum. The responsible person from each
team attends the meeting and discuss their work and answer the questions like
Since the last meeting, what is the progress of the team?
What your team is expected to do or should accomplish, before the next meeting?
What are the obstacles your team faced while completing the task?
Were you going to allot any of your work to the following team?
Four questions are answered:
- What has your team done since we last met?
- What will your team do before our next meeting?
- Are there any roadblocks in your team’s way?
- Will your team put anything in another team’s way?
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1.2 The Scrum Team
Who are all involved in the Scrum Team?
The Scrum Team consists of a Product Owner, the Development Team, and a Scrum Master. Scrum
Teams are self-organizing and cross-functional. Self-organizing teams choose how best to accomplish
their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team. Cross-functional teams have all
competencies needed to accomplish the work without depending on others not part of the team. The
team model in Scrum is designed to optimize flexibility, creativity, and productivity.
Scrum Teams deliver products iteratively and incrementally, maximizing opportunities for feedback.
Incremental deliveries of “Done” product ensure a potentially useful version of working product is
always available.
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What are the responsibilities of The Product Owner?
The Product Owner is responsible for maximizing the value of the product and the work of the
Development Team. How this is done may vary widely across organizations, Scrum Teams, and
individuals.
The Product Owner is the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog. Product
Backlog management includes: -
Clearly expressing Product Backlog items;
Ordering the items in the Product Backlog to best achieve goals and missions;
Optimizing the value of the work the Development Team performs;
Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the
Scrum Team will work on next; and,
Ensuring the Development Team understands items in the Product Backlog to the level needed.
The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the Product
Owner remains accountable. The Product Owner is one person, not a committee. The Product Owner
may represent the desires of a committee in the Product Backlog, but those wanting to change a
Product Backlog item’s priority must address the Product Owner.
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For the Product Owner to succeed, the entire organization must respect his or her decisions. The
Product Owner’s decisions are visible in the content and ordering of the Product Backlog. No one is
allowed to tell the Development Team to work from a different set of requirements, and the
Development Team isn’t allowed to act on what anyone else says.
Product Owner’s responsibility to Stakeholders
Product owner collaborates with stakeholders of the product to understand their vision and market
conditions and regularly update them on the progress of the product development. Product Owner
Creates the Product vision if it does not exist
Creates and manages Product Backlog to fulfil the Product vision
Reviews the product with stakeholders in Sprint Review meetings to solicit feedback
Updates stakeholders about progress of the product development typically every sprint
Represents single voice of customers
Prioritizes product backlog items based on business needs with the consensus of all stakeholders
Orders the product backlog items to maximize the delivery value
Product Owner responsibility to the team
Establishes the shared vision between stakeholders and the team
Details out the product backlog items as appropriate. Make sure that high value items are
ready for implementation in upcoming sprints
Helps team estimate by clarifying any questions
Available to the team to answer any questions regarding the product domain during the sprint
Optimizes the value of the work the development team performs
keeps the product backlog transparent, clear and visible to all
Attend Scrum Meetings
o Sprint Planning: Helps the team plan to sprint
o Sprint Review: Reviews the product increment with stakeholders
o Sprint Retrospective: Contributes to come up with improvement ideas
Other responsibilities of a Product Owner
Responsible for deciding whether to release the product increment at the end of the sprint
Creates and manages the release plans
Tracks the release progress
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Product Owner: Summary
Defines the feature of the product
Decide on release date and content
Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI)
Prioritize features according to the market value
Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed
Accept or reject work results. Accepted Sprints only considered for velocity.
Maintains and grooms the Product Backlog
An effective product owner is Committed, Responsible, Authorized, Collaborative, and
Knowledgeable (CRACK)
The Product Owner to be effective, will be available to the team 24/7, is accountable for the product,
empowered to make decisions and has knowledge in the product domain preferably
What are the responsibilities of The Development team?
The Development Team consists of professionals who do the work of delivering a potentially releasable
Increment of “Doneproduct at the end of each Sprint. Only members of the Development Team create
the Increment.
Development Teams are structured and empowered by the organization to organize and manage their
own work. The resulting synergy optimizes the Development Team’s overall efficiency and
effectiveness.
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Development Teams have the following characteristics: -
They are self-organizing. No one (not even the Scrum Master) tells the Development Team how to
turn Product Backlog into Increments of potentially releasable functionality;
Development Teams are cross-functional, with all of the skills as a team necessary to create a
product Increment;
Scrum recognizes no titles for Development Team members other than Developer, regardless of
the work being performed by the person; there are no exceptions to this rule;
Scrum recognizes no sub-teams in the Development Team, regardless of particular domains that
need to be addressed like testing or business analysis; there are no exceptions to this rule; and,
Team has common goal. Individual Development Team members may have specialized skills and
areas of focus, but accountability belongs to the Development Team as a whole.
Development Team Size: Optimum Team Size 4 -9, Members excluding Scrum Master & PO
Team’s responsibilities include but not limited to:
Quality of the product increment
Create the product increment
Participate in all scrum meetings
Implement good engineering practices like Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery,
Automation, Collective Ownership, Clean code, Simple design & effectively run the Test-Driven
Development & Behavior Driven Development
Create and manage the product backlog
Identify and eliminate the “Technical Debt”
Track progress of the sprint
Helps the product owner in backlog management by explaining technical constraints
Estimates Product Backlog items
Development Team: Summary
Typically, 4 9 people. Ideally 7+/- 2 (Note: Scrum Master & Product Owner Excluded)
Cross functional Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.,
Members should be full-time May be exceptions for DBA’s
Teams are self-organizing (No titles)
Membership should change only between sprints
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What are the responsibilities of Scrum Master? How Scrum Master services to PO, DT &
Organization?
The Scrum Master is the process champion and responsible for ensuring Scrum is understood and
enacted. Scrum Masters do this by ensuring that the Scrum Team adheres to Scrum theory, practices,
and rules.
The Scrum Master is a servant-leader for the Scrum Team. The Scrum Master helps those outside the
Scrum Team understand which of their interactions with the Scrum Team are helpful and which aren’t.
The Scrum Master helps everyone change these interactions to maximize the value created by the
Scrum Team.
General Responsibilities of Scrum Master
Teaches Scrum to the team and the rest of the organization
Ensures that scrum is understood and enacted
Facilitate all scrum meetings as needed and requested. Makes sure that meetings are happening
the scrum team. Coaches the team on how to complete the tasks on time within the timebox for
that meeting
Responsible for building the product fast by eliminating the waste
A Servant Leader for the Scrum Team
Act as a change agent that increases the productivity of the Scrum team
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Scrum Master Service to the Product Owner
The Scrum Master serves the Product Owner in several ways, including: -
Helps Product Owner to prioritize the work. Teaches PO and Stakeholders value based
prioritization
Finding techniques for effective Product Backlog management;
Helping the Scrum Team understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog items;
Understanding product planning in an empirical environment;
Ensuring the Product Owner knows how to arrange the Product Backlog to maximize value;
Understanding and practicing agility; and,
Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed.
Scrum Master Service to the Development Team
The Scrum Master serves the Development Team in several ways, including: -
Identifies the impediments those are blocking the team to progress and help resolve them as
quickly as possible. Scrum Master goal is to make sure the team is highly productive
Coaching the Development Team in self-organization and cross-functionality;
Helping the Development Team to create high-value products;
Removing impediments to the Development Team’s progress;
Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed; and,
Coaching the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully
adopted and understood.
Scrum Master Service to the Organization
The Scrum Master serves the organization in several ways, including: -
Assess the readiness of the organization to implement the team
Leading and coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption;
Planning Scrum implementations within the organization;
Helping employees and stakeholders understand and enact Scrum and empirical product
development;
Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team; and,
Working with other Scrum Masters to increase the effectiveness of the application of Scrum in the
organization.
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Scrum Master: Summary
Represents management to the project
Responsible for enacting Scrum rules, values and practices and censure team members and
stakeholders not adhering to these rules ad norms
Removes impediments
Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
Enable close co-operation across all roles and functions
Shield the team from external interferences
Practices “Servant Leadership Facilitator and enabler rather than a Manager
What are the qualities of an effective Scrum Master?
The Scrum Master to be effective, there various important skills to acquire. Here some of those skills
are: - Facilitation | Coaching | Servant Leadership
I Facilitation
Facilitation is the process of designing and conducting a successful meeting or event that has a
particular objective. Facilitation serves the needs of any group, who are meeting with a common
purpose. The person who facilitates the meeting is called a “Facilitator”
Characteristics of Facilitator
Facilitator does not stand in front of the group and lecture
Facilitator is an active unbiased member of the learning process
Facilitator has to skilfully assist the group to understand their common objectives, and to help
them to achieve these objectives without taking sides in any arguments
Facilitator guides and helps to achieve consensus
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Basic Skills of a Facilitator
Follows a good meeting practice
Time keeping
Run the meeting on agenda
Assisting the group to brainstorm and problem solve
Ability to intervene in a way that adds creativity to a discussion rather than leading the
discussion
Ability to understand the group dynamics include:
- Who is dominating the group? How to stop him/her
- Who is withdrawn? How to involve him/her
- Who looks bored? How to get their attention
Good Facilitation techniques should
Help the participants to be comfortable with each other
Create a fun and interesting learning development
Boost the energy levels of workshop participants
Organize interesting and productive group work activities
Use participatory activities which enable dynamic reviews of what has been learnt?
Increase group activity so that workshop participants can expand on the new
II Coaching
According to Tim Gallwey Coaching is unlocking a person’s potential to maximize their own
performance. It’s helping them to learn rather than teaching them”
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Coaching is a useful way of developing people’s skills and abilities, and of boosting performance. It
can also help deal with issues and challenges before they become major problems.
A coaching session will typically take place as a conversation between the coach and coachee (person
being coached), and it focusses on helping the coachee discover answers for themselves
Occasionally, coaching may mean an informal relationship between two people, of whom one has more
experience and expertise than the other and offers advice and guidance as latter learns
Qualities of a Coach
Coaches help to find solutions
Coaching helps the organizations to change for the better
Coaching is long term and sustainable results
Coaching give progressive elaboration
Coaching helps you to review and refine your own solution to make it work
III Servant Leadership
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. You are the change agent for your organization.
According to Robert K Greenleaf. The Servant-leader is servant first… it begins with the natural feeling
that one wants to serve, to serve first. The conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person
is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual
power drive or to acquire material possessions. The leader-first and servant-first are two extreme
types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature.
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On character and Servant Leadership
Listening
Empathy
Healing
Awareness
Persuasion
Conceptualization
Foresight
Stewardship
Commitment to the growth of people
Building community
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Do you know the Three Amigos in Scrum?
The three Amigos are The product Owner, The Scrum Master and the Development Team.
What do you think should be the ideal size of a Scrum team?
The ideal size is 7 to9 with +/- 2
How long does a scrum cycle last? Who are involved in Scrum cycle?
Scrum cycle depends on the type of project the team is working on, usually, it ranges about 2-4
weeks to about a month. In scrum cycle, it includes a
Scrum master
Product owner
Team
What are the roles in Scrum?
Scrum prescribes only three roles: The Product Owner, Scrum Master, and the Delivery Team.
These roles should ideally be cross-functional and not shared among other projects. Many
Scrum Masters have not had the opportunity to work with a team that was cross -functional or
dedicated due to the organization’s resistance or inability to allow for what some refer to as a
luxury.This question may lead the interviewer to ask how you would handle working with a
team that did not have a designer or tester within the team or how you would handle a team
that was not dedicated. Other roles such as PM, Architect, BA, UI Designer, DBA, Sysadmin.
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What are the roles of a Scrum Master and Product owner?
Scrum Master Acts as a servant Leader for the scrum team. He presides over all the scrum
ceremonies and coaches the team to understand and implement scrum values and principals.
Product Owner Is the Point of contact for a scrum team. He/she is the one who work closest to the
business. The main responsibility of a product owner is to identify and refine the product backlog
items.
Explain what is “Sashimi” and “Impediments”?
Sashimi: This term is analogous to done”, it is used to define the specific task when it is
completed. The term used by different team to refer their completed task status may differ, but
should remain same within one team.
Impediments: Any obstacle that prevent the team members from performing their work is referred
as impediments
Mention in brief, what is the role of scrum master in Scrum?
Removes any obstacles that the team faces during the pursuit of its sprint goals
Maximizing the productivity of the team
Making sure that the scripting language used for system testing and unit testing is written in the
same language
Guides the team and product owner to improve the effectiveness of their practices
Makes sure that all standard scrum practices are followed
So, in scrum which entity is responsible for deliverable? Scrum master or Product owner?
Neither the scrum master, nor the product owner. It’s the responsibility of the team who owns the
deliverable.
Describe a time when your Delivery team members didn’t seem to be getting along. How did
you handle this?
A little bit of conflict is always good, but your interviewer is looking for your ability to be an
effective leader. Reflect on a time where you had a few team members that just never seems
to able to work things out. How did you encourage those team members to work together?
Was it a team building exercise? Did you make sure that they had a common goal? State the
problem you had, how you addressed it, and the outcome.
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How many Scrum teams have you managed at one time?
This is a popular question. Dont offer that Scrum guidelines state only one Scrum Master per
team as your answer! In this new role, you may be required to lead more than one team. Notic e
the use of the word managed versus led. Scrum Masters do not manage, they lead
teamsso be sure to use this word in your response. Your interviewer is likely to be listening
very closely! Ideally Scrum Master can manage two teams with maximum of 10 members in
each team, because he has to handle the daily status and reports. Agile Coach can manage 2-
4 teams.
Is it okay if someone wants to change a requirement?
Yes. Agile encourages frequent feedback from customers and stakeholders so that the
product can be improved. We need to be able to embrace change. Approach Product Owner
for suggesting some changes. Based on the Product needs it will be considered.
How much time should a person expect to spend on Scrum Master activities?
A Scrum Master should make this role their top priority to focus on benefits of the overall team. Their
load will vary from sprint to sprint depending on what impediments and issues the team is dealing
with. Newly formed teams typically take more Scrum Master time; 50%-100%, while experienced
Scrum Masters with established well-functioning teams might spend 50% or less time on the Scrum
Master role
What qualities should a good Agile tester have?
1. Agile tester should be able to understand the requirements quickly.
2. They should know Agile concepts and principals.
3. As requirements keep changing, testers should understand the risk involved in it.
4. Agile tester should be able to prioritize the work based on the requirements.
5. Communication is must for an agile tester as it requires constant communication with
developers and business associates.
How QA can add value to an agile team?
QA can provide value addition by thinking differently about the various scenarios to test a
story. They can provide quick feedback to the developers whether new functionality is
working fine or not.
QA is not a separate silo but is part of a cross-functional project team. It is included in the
project from the beginning, and the whole team works together on user stories using the
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same tracking tools. The Director of the QA team works closely with the executive
management team to identify technology and staffing needs in relation to project pipelines.
Quality Assurance is empowered to support projects and add value in whatever way the
situation requires. Examples include: design reviews, requirements assessments, browser
and device support, process, tools, risk assessments, and helping to determine “Definition of
Ready” and “Definition of Done.
QA sits with the project team whenever possible, allowing for increased conversation and
problem solving in real time. The QA team attends and contributes to all relevant planning
meetings and sprint ceremonies and also work directly with clients on quality and testing
processes.
Members of QA teams always learn as individuals, as project team members, and as
representatives of a skilled discipline within the organization. Our process and approach to
testing evolves to keep up with advances in technology and the changing needs of clients.
What works for one client or project might differ radically from another. Flexibility is the key.
Explain when Scrum cannot be useful?
Ideally scrum is useful to monitor work with 5 to 10 people, who are committed to achieving the sprint
goal. It does not go well with huge groups or team having more responsibilities. For larger team,
scrum can be applied by splitting the team into small groups and practice scrum.
Would you recommend automated testing for your project?
Scrum encourages the use of automated performance or regression testing so that you can
continuously deliver software as quickly as possible. Offer examples of any automated testing
tools that your team may have used.
How does agile testing (development) methodology differ from other testing (development)
methodologies?
The testers (developers) ensure that the whole process of testing (development) is broken into small
steps as possible, and just a small unit of code is tested (developed) in each of these steps. The team
of testers (developers) consistently communicates the results of their work, and changes the short-
term strategy and even the development plan on the go, based on the results of agile testing. Agile
methodology encourages flexible and rapid response to change, which should lead to better end
results.
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Tell me the Scrum Ownership responsibilities?
Item
Development Team
Product Owner
Scrum Master
Estimates
DT
Backlog Priorities
PO
Agile Coaching
SM
Velocity Predictions
DT
Definition of Done | Sprint Planning
DT
PO
SM
Process Adherence
SM
Technical Decision
DT
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1.3 Product Vision
What is Product vision?
Product vision statement is few sentences that talks about the motivation behind the product. Since
the product owner is responsible for success of the product, he/she leads the creation of Product
Vision.
For Creating the Product Vision
Describe the Motivation behind the Product
Look beyond the Product
Distinguish between Vision and Product Strategy
Employ a Shared Vision
Choose an Inspiring Vision
Think Big
Keep your Vision Short and Sweet
Use the Vision to Guide your Decisions
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Who is responsible for creating the Product Vision?
Product owner is responsible for creating the Product Vision.
How will you distinguish between Product Vision & Product Strategy?
The strategy is a plan, the tactics are how the plan will be executed and the Vision is the end-result.
To overcome the product vision if fails,
1. Set realistic goals
2. Stop overanalysing
3. Accept blame
4. Embrace learnings
How to create a Product Vision with help of customer support?
If you are working on something exciting that you really care about, you don’t have to be pushed. The
vision pulls you. Steve Jobs
Our vision is to be earth’s most customer centric company; to build a place where people can come to
find and discover anything they might want to buy online Amazon.com
What is Product Roadmap?
The visualization of product features
The product roadmap equates to the product division as a whole
This is done and owned by the product owner
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1.4 Scrum Artifacts
What is Scrum Artifacts?
Scrum’s artifacts represent work or value to provide transparency and opportunities for inspection
and adaptation. Artifacts defined by Scrum are specifically designed to maximize transparency of key
information so that everybody has the same understanding of the artifact.
List out Scrum Artifacts
Product Backlog
Sprint Backlog
What is Product Backlog?
The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the product and is the
single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product. The Product Owner is
responsible for the Product Backlog, including its content, availability, and ordering. Items in the
product backlog are called “Product Backlog Items”.
Each product backlog item would have:
Description Details of the item
Value What business value this item would provide
Estimate Effort estimate to build this item
Order The order in which the items should be worked in
Product Backlog contains all items required to accomplish the product vision.
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A Product Backlog is never complete. The earliest development of it only lays out the initially known
and best-understood requirements. The Product Backlog evolves as the product and the environment
in which it will be used evolves. The Product Backlog is dynamic; it constantly changes to identify what
the product needs to be appropriate, competitive, and useful. As long as a product exists, its Product
Backlog also exists.
The Product Backlog lists all features, functions, requirements, enhancements, and fixes that
constitute the changes to be made to the product in future releases. Product Backlog items have the
attributes of a description, order, estimate and value.
As a product is used and gains value, and the marketplace provides feedback, the Product Backlog
becomes a larger and more exhaustive list. Requirements never stop changing, so a Product Backlog
is a living artifact. Changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology may cause
changes in the Product Backlog.
Multiple Scrum Teams often work together on the same product. One Product Backlog is used to
describe the upcoming work on the product. A Product Backlog attribute that groups items may then
be employed.
Product Backlog refinement is the act of adding detail, estimates, and order to items in the Product
Backlog. This is an ongoing process in which the Product Owner and the Development Team
collaborate on the details of Product Backlog items. During Product Backlog refinement, items are
reviewed and revised. The Scrum Team decides how and when refinement is done. Refinement usually
consumes no more than 10% of the capacity of the Development Team. However, Product Backlog
items can be updated at any time by the Product Owner or at the Product Owner’s discretion.
Higher ordered Product Backlog items are usually clearer and more detailed than lower ordered ones.
More precise estimates are made based on the greater clarity and increased detail; the lower the
order, the less detail. Product Backlog items that will occupy the Development Team for the upcoming
Sprint are refined so that any one item can reasonably be “Done” within the Sprint time-box. Product
Backlog items that can be “Done” by the Development Team within one Sprint are deemed “Ready” for
selection in a Sprint Planning. Product Backlog items usually acquire this degree of transparency
through the above described refining activities.
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The Development Team is responsible for all estimates. The Product Owner may influence the
Development Team by helping it understand and select trade-offs, but the people who will perform the
work make the final estimate.
How would we say the Product Backlog is DEEP?
A Product Backlog is best described as DEEP
Detailed Appropriately: Higher order items are more detailed and well understood compared to lower
order items
Estimated: Product backlog items are estimated i relative size by the development team. Product
owner orders the items based on the value and the cost
Emergent: Product Backlog is a living artifact. It is always updated for details, estimates and order.
The life of the product backlog is same as life of the product itself
Prioritized: Product backlog items are ordered based on the priority. The order is force ranking
(1,2,3) so that there are no completing priorities
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How do we determine the priority?
Customer value prioritization is concerned with working on the items that yield the highest value to
the customer as soon as possible.
MoSCoW is a technique used to prioritize stories into four distinct categories:
M MUST have this
Requirements that are fundamental to the system; without which system will not work and
have no value and have to be included in the current delivery time box
S SHOULD have this
Requirements that is important for project success; Important as MUST have but not as time-
critical or have a work around’s. In other words, not necessary for delivery in the current
delivery time box
C COULD have this
Requirements not necessary; can include if it increases customer satisfaction for little
development cost
W WON’T have this time, but WOULD like in the future
Alternatively WANT No to this release
How do we Monitoring Progress Toward a Goal?
At any point in time, the total work remaining to reach a goal can be summed. The Product Owner
tracks this total work remaining at least every Sprint Review. The Product Owner compares this
amount with work remaining at previous Sprint Reviews to assess progress toward completing
projected work by the desired time for the goal. This information is made transparent to all
stakeholders.
Various projective practices upon trending have been used to forecast progress, like burn-downs,
burn-ups, or cumulative flows. These have proven useful. However, these do not replace the
importance of empiricism. In complex environments, what will happen is unknown. Only what has
happened may be used for forward-looking decision-making.
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Product Backlog: Summary
List of things that needs to be done to make the product come into existence
The product backlog is the source for all product requirements
The product owner sorts and prioritizes the backlog items
The development team always works on the most important items based on the prioritized items
in the product backlog
The backlog is always prioritized before the current sprint
Backlog refinement is done by both the product owner and the development team working in
harmony
The team estimates their capacity to attack the items in the product backlog
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What is Product Backlog Refinement?
Product backlog refinement is the process through which product backlog items are reviewed by the
Scrum team and revised, providing more detail and ensuring that there is greater clarity in the
requirements for that item.
When product backlog is initially created it would have items of various sizes, clarity and value. But a
scrum team needs clarity on few most important to get started. Backlog could be depicted as the
following picture. Items at the top are important right now and should be smaller in size and more
details so that team could start implementing them in upcoming sprints. As you go lower the product
backlog, the items are less important ad less detailed. Product owner elaborates them as they become
important.
Scrum has an activity called “Product Backlog Refinement” to progressively elaborate the product
backlog
Primary goal of product backlog refinement is to get ready with few items for upcoming one or
two sprints
Product Backlog items that are refined are deemed “Ready” for selection in a Sprint Planning
Product Backlog Refinement is the act of adding detail, estimates and order to items in the
Product Backlog
Product Backlog Refinement is an ongoing activity throughout a Scrum project
Team and PO decide the frequency and duration of backlog refinement meeting. However, it is time
boxed at 10% of total available time.
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What is Sprint Backlog?
The Sprint Backlog is the set of Product Backlog items selected for the Sprint, plus a plan for delivering
the product Increment and realizing the Sprint Goal. The Sprint Backlog is a forecast by the
Development Team about what functionality will be in the next Increment and the work needed to
deliver that functionality into a “Done” Increment. The Sprint Backlog makes visible all of the work that
the Development Team identifies as necessary to meet the Sprint Goal.
The Sprint Backlog is a plan with enough detail that changes in progress can be understood in the Daily
Scrum. The Development Team modifies the Sprint Backlog throughout the Sprint, and the Sprint
Backlog emerges during the Sprint. This emergence occurs as the Development Team works through
the plan and learns more about the work needed to achieve the Sprint Goal.
As new work is required, the Development Team adds it to the Sprint Backlog. As work is performed
or completed, the estimated remaining work is updated. When elements of the plan are deemed
unnecessary, they are removed. Only the Development Team can change its Sprint Backlog during a
Sprint. The Sprint Backlog is a highly visible, real-time picture of the work that the Development Team
plans to accomplish during the Sprint, and it belongs solely to the Development Team.
Sprint backlog should be transparent and visible to all the stakeholders. Many teams use physical task
boards which are very visible all the time. However, distributed teams use some kind of electronic tool
to share the sprint backlog. However, it is preferable to have a physical task board over electronic tool
for the better information radiation.
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Sprint Backlog: Summary
Highest priority items take into the sprint for implementation and the plan to deliver those items is sprint
backlog
Sprint backlog is created during sprint planning
Helps team see the total work involved in achieving the sprint goal
Development team creates and manages the sprint backlog, this includes updating the time left of each
task, create any forgotten tasks, update the status of each task etc.
Team should keep the status of the items up to date so that the sprint progress is transparent
All items should be updated at least once a day
Team uses Daily SCRUM meeting to inspect and adapt the Sprint backlog
Visual Management of Sprint Backlog
How do we Monitoring Sprint Progress?
At any point in time in a Sprint, the total work remaining in the Sprint Backlog can be summed. The
Development Team tracks this total work remaining at least for every Daily Scrum to project the
likelihood of achieving the Sprint Goal. By tracking the remaining work throughout the Sprint, the
Development Team can manage its progress.
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How do we conclude the Increment is Done?
The Increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog items completed during a Sprint and the value of
the increments of all previous Sprints. At the end of a Sprint, the new Increment must be “Done,” which
means it must be in useable condition and meet the Scrum Team’s definition of “Done.” It must be in
useable condition regardless of whether the Product Owner decides to actually release it.
How will you track the Progress in Sprint?
Task boards are great information radiators. It is preferred to have a physical board over an
electronic tool. Task boards give better feel for the progress of the sprint.
Explain Sprint Burn down Chart?
Primary method of tracking progress
A Burn down chart shows how much work is left as of a date
Scrum Master encourages team to use the Burn down chart as guidance in managing the
sprint work
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What are the different Artifacts in scrum?
There are two Artifacts maintained in Scrum:
Product Backlog Containing the prioritized list of business requirements
Sprint Backlog Contains the user stories to be done by the scrum team for a sprint.
What is MVP in scrum?
A Minimum Viable Product is a product which has just the bare minimum required feature which can
be demonstrated to the stakeholders and is eligible to be shipped to production.
Explain what is a product backlog in Scrum?
Before the scrum sprint initiates, product owner reviews the list of all new features, change requests,
enhancements and bug reports and determines the priority. If the project is new, it includes new
features that the new system must provide- this list of items is referred as Product Backlog. The
items that are kept on sprint are referred as Sprint Backlog.
Explain what is Scrum Sprint?
Scrum project is developed in a series of “sprint”. It is a repeatable and regular work cycle in scrum
methodology during which work is accomplished and kept ready for review.
What is Scrum Sprint?
A Scrum Sprint is a regular, repeated work cycle in scrum methodology during which work is
completed and made ready for review. Scrum sprints are basic units of development in the scrum
methodology. Generally, scrum sprints are less than 30 days long.
Sprints contain and consist of the Sprint Planning, Daily Scrums, the development work, the Sprint
Review, and the Sprint Retrospective.
During the Sprint:
No changes are made that would endanger the Sprint Goal
Quality goals do not decrease, and
Scope may be clarified and re-negotiated between the Product Owner and Development
Team as more is learned.
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What are the Artifacts of Scrum process?
Scrum process Artifacts include
Sprint backlog The Sprint Backlog is the set of Product Backlog items selected for the Sprint,
plus a plan for delivering the product Increment and realizing the Sprint Goal. The Sprint
Backlog is a forecast by the Development Team about what functionality will be in the next
Increment and the work needed to deliver that functionality into a “Done” Increment.
Product backlog The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that might be needed
in the product and is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the
product. The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog, including its content,
availability, and ordering.
Velocity chart- A velocity chart shows the sum of estimates of the work delivered across all
iterations. Typically, velocity will stabilize through the life of a project unless the project team
make-up varies widely or the length of the iteration changes.
Burn-down chart It is a chart that shows how quickly you and your team are burning through
your customer’s user stories. It shows the total effort against the amount of work we deliver on
each iteration.
Explain what is a product backlog in Scrum?
Before the scrum sprint initiates, product owner reviews the list of all new features, change requests,
enhancements and bug reports and determines which ones are of high priorities. If the project is new
it includes new features that the new system must provide, this list of items is referred as Product
Backlog. The items that are kept on sprint are referred as Sprint Backlog.
Explain the term “Increment”?
The term “Increment” is used to refer the total number of the product backlog items completed during
the sprint and all previous sprints. At the end of the sprint, increment should be in done status; also, it
must be in re-useable condition regardless of whether the product owner is willing to actually release
a product or not.
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1.5 User Stories Estimation
What is User Story?
User stories are well suited as product backlog items. User story is not a concept from Scrum but
commonly used in Scrum projects to manage requirements. User Story is
As any user, I want to create my account
Token for the feature
Usually written on a small index card
Captures intent of the failure
Captures conditions of satisfaction or acceptance test criteria
User story is written in which format?
As a <who> I want to <what> So that < why>
Who: User of the product
What: Activity user wants to perform using the feature
Why: Purpose the feature is going to serve.
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What 3C’s of User story?
Acceptance Criteria of User Story?
Acceptance Criteria is the criteria if the product satisfies the user story is considered done.
Acceptance Criteria is basis for high level test cases.
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How to write good user stories
It is essential to write user stories, which are small and independent enough to be worked on in each
sprint. For a good product backlog, the team should INVEST in good user stories:
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Explain what is user stories in Scrum?
In scrum, user stories are short, one sentence definitions of a feature or functionality.
How requirements are defined in a scrum?
Requirements are termed as “User Stories” in Scrum.
How do you define a user story? What type of requirements did you use for your teams?
Requirements in Scrum are written as user stories using a standard
The user stories are defined in the format of
As a <User / type of user> I want to <action / feature to implement> So that < objective>
As a Scrum Master, you dont necessarily write user stories, but you would assist the Product
Owner to ensure that user stories are written, prioritized, and ready for the sprint.
How do you measure the complexity or effort in a sprint? Is there a way to determine and
represent it?
Complexity and effort is measured through “Story Points”.
In scrum it’s recommended to use Fibonacci series to represent it.
How do you calculate a story point?
A Story point is calculated by taking into the consideration the development effort+ testing effort +
resolving dependencies and other factors that would require to complete a story.
Is it possible that you come across different story point for development and testing efforts?
In that case how do you resolve this conflict?
Yes, this is a very common scenario. There may be a chance that the story point given by the
development team is, say 3 but the tester gives it 5. In that case both the developer and tester have to
justify their story point, have discussion in the meeting and collaborate to conclude a common story
point.
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You are in the middle of a sprint and suddenly the product owner comes with a new
requirement, what will you do?
In ideal case, the requirement becomes a story and moves to the backlog. Then based on the priority,
team can take it up in the next sprint. But if the priority of the requirement is really high, then the team
will have to accommodate it in the sprint but it has to very well communicated to the stakeholder that
incorporating a story in the middle of the sprint may result in spilling over few stories to the next sprint.
In case you receive a story at the last day of the sprint to test and you find there are defects, what will
you do? Will you mark the story to done?
A story is done only when it is development complete + QA complete + acceptance criteria is met + it
is eligible to be shipped into production. In this case if there are defects, the story is partially done and
not completely done, so I will spill it over to next sprint.
What are Epics?
Epics are equivocal user stories or we can say these are the user stories which are not defined and
are kept for future sprints
What is difference between Epic, User stories & Tasks?
Epic is a group of related user stories.
User Stories define the actual business requirement. Generally created by the business owner.
Tasks is to accomplish the business requirements; development team create tasks.
Explain what is scrum poker or Planning Poker?
Scrum poker or planning poker is a technique to estimate the relative size of development goals in
software development. It is a way to determine sprint item durations by playing number cards face
down the table, instead of speaking them aloud.
Explain what is a Story Point in Scrum?
Each feature in scrum is Story. Story point is an arbitrary measure used by Scrum teams, and it is a
metric used by agile teams to determine the difficulty of implementing a given story.
How long were your sprints?
An ideal sprint length is between 1 and 4 four weeks, with a 2-week sprint being the most
widely used.
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1.6 Definition of Done
What is Definition of Done (DoD)?
When a Product Backlog item or an Increment is described as
Done”, everyone must understand what
“Done
means. Although this varies significantly per Scrum Team, members must have a shared
understanding of what it means for work to be complete, to ensure transparency. This is the definition
of “Done” for the Scrum Team and is used to assess when work is complete on the product Increment.
The same definition guides the Development Team in knowing how many Product Backlog items it can
select during a Sprint Planning. The purpose of each Sprint is to deliver Increments of potentially
releasable functionality that adhere to the Scrum Team’s current definition of “Done.
Development Teams deliver an Increment of product functionality every Sprint. This Increment is
useable, so a Product Owner may choose to immediately release it. If the definition of "done" for an
increment is part of the conventions, standards or guidelines of the development organization, all
Scrum Teams must follow it as a minimum. If "done" for an increment is not a convention of the
development organization, the Development Team of the Scrum Team must define a definition of
“done” appropriate for the product. If there are multiple Scrum Teams working on the system or
product release, the development teams on all of the Scrum Teams must mutually define the definition
of “Done.”
Each Increment is additive to all prior Increments and thoroughly tested, ensuring that all Increments
work together.
As Scrum Teams mature, it is expected that their definitions of “Done” will expand to include more
stringent criteria for higher quality. Any one product or system should have a definition of “Done” that
is a standard for any work done on it.
Definition of Done is a list of attractive activities agreed by the Product Owner and the
Development Team to call a backlog item is done
Definition of Done consist of activities needed for functional and quality requirements
Team comes up with the DOD and adheres to it while creating the product increment
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Different teams may have different DOD but all teams should follow minimal DOD that includes
all critical activities required
If there are standards at organizational level, a common DOD can capture those and the teams
should have separate DOD in addition to one at the organizational level
A Stronger DOD leads to higher quality product: -
o Code Complete
o Unit tests Written
o Code Review
o Manual Functional Testing
o Automation
o Updated Documents
o User Acceptance Testing
o Successful Deployment
Suppose if the DOD is missing essential activities, it is called a Weak DOD. For E.g. Load testing
may not be done for every sprint and is deferred to later time.
A weak DOD causes unfinished work in every sprint. The unfinished work is added back to
product backlog. This increased the risk. If a major bug is found during the load testing, that
could risk the release
Weak DOD also increases the Technical Debt. This might include the automation or code
reviews
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What is DoD? How is this achieved?
DoD stands for Definition of done. It is achieved when
The story is development complete,
QA is complete,
The story meets and satisfy the acceptance criteria
Regression around the story is complete
Then feature is eligible to be shipped / deployed in production
Explain DOD in detail for senior management?
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User Story Clarity
User stories selected for the sprint are complete with respect to product theme, understood by the
team, and have been validated by the detailed acceptance criteria.
Tasks Identified
Tasks for selected user stories have been identified and estimated by the team.
These first two topics are typically covered in the sprint planning meeting but are mentioned as done
criteria for the sake of verification.
Build and package changes
Build and package changes have been communicated to the build master. These changes have been
implemented, tested and documented to ensure that they cover the features of the sprint.
Product owner approval
Each finished user story has been passed through UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and signed off as
meeting requirements
Updating Product Backlog
All features not done during the sprint are added back to the product backlog. All incidents/defects
not handled during the sprint are added to the product backlog.
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Environment ready
Development environment is ready with all third-party tools configured.
Staging environment is ready.
Continuous integration framework is in place. The build engine is configured to schedule hourly,
nightly, and release builds.
Desired build automation is in place. Why "desired"? Because there is no end to build automation
Test data for the selected features has been created
Design complete
Design analysis is complete as per the user story or theme. UML diagrams are either created or
updated for the feature under development.
You might need to prototype various components to ensure that they work together. Wireframes and
prototype have been created and approved by the respective stakeholders.
Unit test cases written
Unit test cases have been written for the features to be developed.
Documentation Ready
Documentation (Just enough or whatever the team agrees to) to support the sprint demo is ready
Pre-Release builds
Pre-release builds (hourly/nightly) have been happening and nightly build reports have been
published on regular basis. The following could/should be part of pre-release builds:
Compile and execute unit test cases (mandatory)
Creation of cross reference of source code
Execution of automated code reviews for verification of coding rules
Code coverage reports are generated
Detection of duplicate source code
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Dependency analysis and generation of design quality matrix (static analysis, cyclomatic
complexity)
Auto deployment in staging environment
It comes down to build automation; there is no end to what can be achieved from automated hourly,
nightly builds. The team along with the product owner needs to decide on how much build automation
is required.
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Code Complete
Source code changes are done for all the features in the “to do” list.” Source code has been
commented appropriately.
Unit testing is done
Unit test cases have been executed and are working successfully
Code Refactoring
Source code has been refactored to make it comprehensive, maintainable and, amenable to change.
A common mistake is to not keep refactoring in the definition of done. If not taken seriously,
refactoring normally spills out to next sprint or, worse, is completely ignored.
Code check-in
Source code is checked in the code library with appropriate comments added.
If project is using tools which help in maintaining traceability between user stories and the respective
source code, proper check-in guidelines are followed.
Code merging and tagging
Finalized source code has been merged with the main branch and tagged appropriately (merging and
tagging guidelines are to be used)
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Automated Code reviews
Automated code review has been completed using the supported tools/technologies. Violations have
been shared with the team and the team has resolved all discrepancies to adhere to the coding
standard. (Automated code reviews should be hooked up with CI builds.)
Peer reviews
Peer reviews are done. If pair programming is used, a separate peer review session might not be
required.
Code coverage is achieved
Code coverage records for each package are available and whatever the team has decided as the
minimum benchmark is achieved.
Project metrics are ready
Burndown chart has been updated regularly and is up to date.
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Release Build
Build and packaging
A Build (successful) is done using continuous integration framework. Change log report has been
generated from Code Library and Release notes have been created. Deliverables have been
moved to release area.
Build deployment in staging environment
Build deliverables are deployed in staging environment. If it is easy, this step should be
automated.
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Functional testing done
Automated testing
All types of automated test cases have been executed and a test report has been generated. All
incidents/defects are reported.
Manual testing
Quality assurance team has reviewed the reports generated from automation testing and
conducted necessary manual test cases to ensure that tests are passing. All incidents/defects
are reported.
Build issues
If any integration or build issues are found, the necessary steps are repeated and respective
“Done” points are adhered to.
Regression testing done
Regression testing is done to ensure that defects have not been introduced in the unchanged area of
the software.
Performance testing done
A common mistake is to not keep performance testing in the definition of done. This is an important
aspect. Most performance issues are design issues and are hard to fix at a later stage.
Acceptance testing done
Each finished user story has been passed through UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and signed off as
meeting.
Closure
All finished user stories/tasks are marked complete/resolved. Remaining hours for task set to zero
before closing the task.
Other necessary/optional activities
Anything which is very specific to the project environment
These might include:
- Security audit sign off
- Deployable on multiple platforms such as Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X
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1.7 Product Increment
What is Product Increment?
Every sprint produces a product increment, the most important scrum artifact. A product increment is
the “goal line” for each sprint and, at the end of the sprint, it must: -
Be of high enough quality to be given to users
Meet the scrum team’s current definition of done
Be acceptable to the product owner with properly tested, completed in full shape and ready to
use
At the end of each sprint, the team must produce a potentially shippable product increment with the
following features
High Quality
Tested
Completed
Ready to Use
As per Definition of Done
Should the team always release the Product Increment?
It depends. If the product increment that is produced is usable and adds the value to the
business, product owner may choose to release it right away.
Though the product increment is working, it may not be the feature complete and product
owner may not want to release it
Some business doesn’t want to surprise their customers too often by frequent release
Whether the product increment is shipped or not, building working software every sprint
eliminates the technical uncertainty
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If Product Increment gets failed What to do in Scrum?
The following are the reasons of Product Increment gets failed,
If the team doesn’t complete all the forecasted Product Backlog Items for the Sprint?
If the team does not reach the Sprint Goal?
Different option?
Now its Product Owner call to reiterate the Sprint since Product Increment fails. Even though
Product Owner address and clarifies the requirements at early stage, Till team fails due to technical
debts.
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1.8 Scrum Events
What are the Scrum Events?
Prescribed events are used in Scrum to create regularity and to minimize the need for meetings not
defined in Scrum. All events are time-boxed events, such that every event has a maximum duration.
Once a Sprint begins, its duration is fixed and cannot be shortened or lengthened. The remaining
events may end whenever the purpose of the event is achieved, ensuring an appropriate amount of
time is spent without allowing waste in the process.
Other than the Sprint itself, which is a container for all other events, each event in Scrum is a formal
opportunity to inspect and adapt something. These events are specifically designed to enable critical
transparency and inspection. Failure to include any of these events results in reduced transparency
and is a lost opportunity to inspect and adapt.
List out scrum events
Sprint Planning
Daily Scrum
Sprint Review
Sprint Retrospective
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What do you mean by the Sprint?
The heart of Scrum is a Sprint, a time-box of one month or less during which a “Done”, useable, and
potentially releasable product Increment is created. Sprints best have consistent durations
throughout a development effort. A new Sprint starts immediately after the conclusion of the previous
Sprint. Ideally Sprint is 2 weeks.
Sprints contain and consist of the Sprint Planning, Daily Scrums, the development work, the Sprint
Review, and the Sprint Retrospective.
What are the activities of Sprint? | How Sprint is protected?
No changes are made that would endanger the Sprint Goal;
Quality goals do not decrease; and,
Scope may be clarified and re-negotiated between the Product Owner and Development Team
as more is learned.
Each Sprint may be considered a project with no more than a one-month horizon. Like projects,
Sprints are used to accomplish something. Each Sprint has a definition of what is to be built, a design
and flexible plan that will guide building it, the work, and the resultant product.
Sprints are limited to one calendar month. When a Sprint’s horizon is too long the definition of what is
being built may change, complexity may rise, and risk may increase. Sprints enable predictability by
ensuring inspection and adaptation of progress toward a Sprint Goal at least every calendar month.
Sprints also limit risk to one calendar month of cost.
When to cancel a Sprint?
A Sprint can be cancelled before the Sprint time-box is over. Only the Product Owner has the
authority to cancel the Sprint, although he or she may do so under influence from the stakeholders,
the Development Team, or the Scrum Master.
A Sprint would be cancelled if the Sprint Goal becomes obsolete. This might occur if the company
changes direction or if market or technology conditions change. In general, a Sprint should be
cancelled if it no longer makes sense given the circumstances. But, due to the short duration of
Sprints, cancellation rarely makes sense.
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When a Sprint is cancelled, any completed and “Done” Product Backlog items are reviewed. If part of
the work is potentially releasable, the Product Owner typically accepts it. All incomplete Product
Backlog Items are re-estimated and put back on the Product Backlog. The work done on them
depreciates quickly and must be frequently re-estimated.
Sprint cancellations consume resources, since everyone has to regroup in another Sprint Planning to
start another Sprint. Sprint cancellations are often traumatic to the Scrum Team, and are very
uncommon.
What are the activities while performing using Sprint Planning?
The work to be performed in the Sprint is planned at the Sprint Planning. This plan is created by the
collaborative work of the entire Scrum Team.
Input: Refined Product Backlog | Latest Product Increment | Team Capacity
Outcome: Sprint Goal | Sprint Backlog
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Sprint Planning is time-boxed to a maximum of eight hours for a one-month Sprint. For shorter Sprints,
the event is usually shorter. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants
understand its purpose. The Scrum Master teaches the Scrum Team to keep it within the time-box.
Sprint Planning answers the following:
What can be delivered in the Increment resulting from the upcoming Sprint?
How will the work needed to deliver the Increment be achieved?
Discussion: What can be done this Sprint?
The Development Team works to forecast the functionality that will be developed during the Sprint.
The Product Owner discusses the objective that the Sprint should achieve and the Product Backlog
items that, if completed in the Sprint, would achieve the Sprint Goal. The entire Scrum Team
collaborates on understanding the work of the Sprint.
The input to this meeting is the Product Backlog, the latest product Increment, projected capacity of
the Development Team during the Sprint, and past performance of the Development Team. The
number of items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint is solely up to the Development
Team. Only the Development Team can assess what it can accomplish over the upcoming Sprint.
After the Development Team forecasts the Product Backlog items it will deliver in the Sprint, the
Scrum Team crafts a Sprint Goal. The Sprint Goal is an objective that will be met within the Sprint
through the implementation of the Product Backlog, and it provides guidance to the Development
Team on why it is building the Increment.
Discussion: How will the chosen work get done?
Having set the Sprint Goal and selected the Product Backlog items for the Sprint, the Development
Team decides how it will build this functionality into a “Done” product Increment during the Sprint.
The Product Backlog items selected for this Sprint plus the plan for delivering them is called the
Sprint Backlog.
The Development Team usually starts by designing the system and the work needed to convert the
Product Backlog into a working product Increment. Work may be of varying size, or estimated effort.
However, enough work is planned during Sprint Planning for the Development Team to forecast what
it believes it can do in the upcoming Sprint. Work planned for the first days of the Sprint by the
Development Team is decomposed by the end of this meeting, often to units of one day or less. The
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Development Team self-organizes to undertake the work in the Sprint Backlog, both during Sprint
Planning and as needed throughout the Sprint.
The Product Owner can help to clarify the selected Product Backlog items and make trade-offs. If the
Development Team determines it has too much or too little work, it may renegotiate the selected
Product Backlog items with the Product Owner. The Development Team may also invite other people
to attend in order to provide technical or domain advice.
By the end of the Sprint Planning, the Development Team should be able to explain to the Product
Owner and Scrum Master how it intends to work as a self-organizing team to accomplish the Sprint
Goal and create the anticipated Increment.
Sprint Goal
A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint.
The Sprint Goal is an objective set for the Sprint that can be met through the implementation of Product
Backlog. It provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment. It is
created during the Sprint Planning meeting.
The Sprint Goal gives the Development Team some flexibility regarding the functionality implemented
within the Sprint. The selected Product Backlog items deliver one coherent function, which can be the
Sprint Goal. The Sprint Goal can be any other coherence that causes the Development Team to work
together rather than on separate initiatives.
As the Development Team works, it keeps the Sprint Goal in mind. In order to satisfy the Sprint Goal, it
implements the functionality and technology. If the work turns out to be different than the Development
Team expected, they collaborate with the Product Owner to negotiate the scope of Sprint Backlog
within the Sprint.
Sprint Planning Summary
Product Owner and Project team needs to discuss the goals of the upcoming sprint
Product Owner and team negotiates stories to select in current sprint from prioritized product
backlog for the upcoming sprint
Selected stories are estimated with agreed acceptance criteria
Team identifies and estimates Task, discusses how the work will be accomplished
Scrum Master, Product Owner and team can attend the meeting
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Product Backlog has to be groomed by PO prior to sprint planning meeting, Product owner
reviews with the team items in the updated backlog
Self-organized Development team defines how the work will be done in the goals of the sprint
will be achieved
Normally split into 2 sets of 4 hours each Timebox: Max 8 hours per sprint
First half for choosing the product backlog items with PO
Second half for splitting into tasks and assignment (Product Owner is optional for the
second half)
Artifacts Sprint Goal, Sprint Backlog (Output of Sprint Planning)
Daily Scrum
The Daily Scrum is a 15-minute time-boxed event for the Development Team to synchronize activities
and create a plan for the next 24 hours. This is done by inspecting the work since the last Daily Scrum
and forecasting the work that could be done before the next one.
Input: Sprint Backlog
Outcome: Updated Sprint Backlog
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The Daily Scrum is held at the same time and place each day to reduce complexity. During the
meeting, the Development Team members explain:
What did I do yesterday that helped the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal?
What will I do today to help the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal?
Do I see any impediment that prevents me or the Development Team from meeting the Sprint
Goal?
The Development Team uses the Daily Scrum to inspect progress toward the Sprint Goal and to
inspect how progress is trending toward completing the work in the Sprint Backlog. The Daily Scrum
optimizes the probability that the Development Team will meet the Sprint Goal. Every day, the
Development Team should understand how it intends to work together as a self-organizing team to
accomplish the Sprint Goal and create the anticipated Increment by the end of the Sprint. The
Development Team or team members often meet immediately after the Daily Scrum for detailed
discussions, or to adapt, or re-plan, the rest of the Sprint’s work.
The Scrum Master ensures that the Development Team has the meeting, but the Development Team
is responsible for conducting the Daily Scrum. The Scrum Master teaches the Development Team to
keep the Daily Scrum within the 15-minute time-box.
The Scrum Master enforces the rule that only Development Team members participate in the Daily
Scrum. Daily Scrums improve communications, eliminate other meetings, identify impediments to
development for removal, highlight and promote quick decision-making, and improve the
Development Team’s level of knowledge. This is a key inspect and adapt meeting.
Daily Scrum Summary
The daily scrum is also known as a stand-up meeting, typically first activity of the day
This is a 15-minute timeboxed meeting
The daily scrum is held every day at the same time and location
The whole world is invited
The daily scrum is for the development team only, facilitated by Scrum Master, Product Owner
optional
This is not problem-solving meeting. Pigs can talk, Chickens observe
Scrum Master to intervene to bring in discipline after due attempts at self-correction
Daily Scrum Meeting Questions for the team members
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o What have I done since the last daily scrum?
o What do I plan to do today?
o Are there any impediments to my progress?
Sprint Review
A Sprint Review is held at the end of the Sprint to inspect the Increment and adapt the Product Backlog
if needed.
During the Sprint Review, the Scrum Team and stakeholders collaborate about what was done in the
Sprint. Based on that and any changes to the Product Backlog during the Sprint, attendees collaborate
on the next things that could be done to optimize value. This is an informal meeting, not a status
meeting, and the presentation of the Increment is intended to elicit feedback and foster collaboration.
This is a four-hour time-boxed meeting for one-month Sprints. For shorter Sprints, the event is usually
shorter. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its
purpose. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box.
Input: Product Increment
Outcome: Product Backlog (Revised)
The Sprint Review includes the following elements:
Attendees include the Scrum Team and key stakeholders invited by the Product Owner;
The Product Owner explains what Product Backlog items have been “Done” and what has not
been “Done”;
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The Development Team discusses what went well during the Sprint, what problems it ran into,
and how those problems were solved;
The Development Team demonstrates the work that it has “Done” and answers questions
about the Increment;
The Product Owner discusses the Product Backlog as it stands. He or she projects likely
completion dates based on progress to date (if needed);
The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides valuable
input to subsequent Sprint Planning;
Review of how the marketplace or potential use of the product might have changed what is the
most valuable thing to do next; and,
Review of the timeline, budget, potential capabilities, and marketplace for the next anticipated
release of the product.
The result of the Sprint Review is a revised Product Backlog that defines the probable Product
Backlog items for the next Sprint. The Product Backlog may also be adjusted overall to meet new
opportunities.
Sprint Review Summary
Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint, typically takes the form of a demo of
new features or underlying architecture. Done from QA server (Close to Prod)
Hosted at the end of every sprint Timebox: Max 4 hours per sprint
Attendees will be the development team, the product owner, scrum master, and sometimes
other project stakeholders
The development team will demo the work created in the increment
The group will decide if “Done” has been achieved
Stakeholders can provide comments which go in to the product backlog
The development team and the product owner will discuss the sprint and the remaining items
in the product backlog further procced with
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Sprint Retrospective
The Sprint Retrospective is an opportunity for the Scrum Team to inspect itself and create a plan for
improvements to be enacted during the next Sprint.
Input: Feedback | Experience of team members
Outcome: List of improvements
The Sprint Retrospective occurs after the Sprint Review and prior to the next Sprint Planning. This is
a three-hour time-boxed meeting for one-month Sprints. For shorter Sprints, the event is usually
shorter. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its
purpose. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box. The Scrum Master participates
as a peer team member in the meeting from the accountability over the Scrum process.
The purpose of the Sprint Retrospective is to:
Inspect how the last Sprint went with regards to people, relationships, process, and tools;
Identify and order the major items that went well and potential improvements; and,
Create a plan for implementing improvements to the way the Scrum Team does its work.
The Scrum Master encourages the Scrum Team to improve, within the Scrum process framework, its
development process and practices to make it more effective and enjoyable for the next Sprint.
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During each Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Team plans ways to increase product quality by
adapting the definition of “Done” as appropriate.
By the end of the Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Team should have identified improvements that it
will implement in the next Sprint. Implementing these improvements in the next Sprint is the
adaptation to the inspection of the Scrum Team itself. Although improvements may be implemented
at any time, the Sprint Retrospective provides a formal opportunity to focus on inspection and
adaptation.
Sprint Retrospective Summary
The development team meeting posted after the sprint review, but before the next sprint
planning meeting
Periodically take a look at what is and is not working
This is a meeting to inspect an adapt Timebox: Max 4 hours per sprint
Lessons learned and opportunities for improvement
Review of the product owner’s feedback about the last iteration
An opportunity to improve on their approach based on the retrospective and the last sprint
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What are the ceremonies you perform in scrum?
There are 3 major ceremonies performed in Scrum: -
1. Planning Meeting Where the entire scrum teams along with the scrum master and product
owner meets and discuss each item from the product backlog that they can work on the sprint.
When the story is estimated and is well understood by the team, the story then moves into the
Sprint Backlog.
2. Review Meeting Where the scrum team demonstrates their work done to the stake holders
3. Retrospective meeting Where the scrum teams along with the scrum master and product
owner meets and retrospect the last sprint they worked on. They majorly discuss about 3
things:
What went well?
What could be done better?
Action Items
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Apart from these three ceremonies, we have one more called “Backlog grooming” meeting. In this
meeting, the scrum team along with the scrum master and product owner. The product owner put
forward the business requirements as per the priority and the team discussed over it, identifies the
complexity, dependencies and efforts. The team may also do the story pointing at this stage.
What do you discuss in Daily stand up meeting? What do daily stand up meetings entail?
Each day, at same time and same place (in front of the task board), the team meets to give updates
about their tasks and tickets resolved for the day. This meeting addresses SCRUM’s three questions
listed below.
What have you completed since the last meeting?
What do you plan to complete by the next meeting?
Any impediments / roadblock
What is the “time Boxing” of a scrum process called?
It’s called “Sprint”
What should be an ideal duration of a sprint?
It is recommended to have 2 4 weeks of sprint cycle.
Mention what is the difference between Sprint and Iteration in Scrum?
Iteration: It is a terminology used to define single development cycle in general agile methods. It is a
common term used in the iterative and Incremental development process.
Sprint: It is used to define one development cycle or iterative step in a specialized agile method
referred as Scrum. Sprint is scrum specific, and not all forms of iterations are Sprints.
What do you do in a sprint review and retrospective?
During Sprint review we walkthrough and demonstrate the feature or story implemented by the
scrum team to the stake holders.
During retrospective, we try to identify in a collaborative way what went well, what could be done
better and action items to have continuous improvement.
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During review, suppose the product owner or stakeholder does not agree to the feature you
implemented what would you do?
First thing we will not mark the story as done.
We will first confirm the actual requirement from the stakeholder and update the user story and put it
into backlog. Based on the priority, we would be pulling the story in next sprint.
In case, the scrum master is not available, would you still conduct the daily stand up
meeting?
Yes, we can very well go ahead and do our daily stand up meeting. Either available Scrum Coach |
Alternate Scrum Master can handle the meeting
Apart from planning, review and retrospective, do you know any other ceremony in scrum?
We have the Product backlog refinement meeting (backlog grooming meeting) where the team,
scrum master and product owner meets to understand the business requirements, splits it into user
stories, and estimating it.
What is a retrospective?
A retrospective is a meeting to inspect and adapt the process. This Agile methodology
interview question is looking for the many ways to conduct a retrospective so be ready to
explain one or two formats.
How story Board can be defined in agile?
A Story Board is a visual representation of a software project’s progress. There are generally four
columns ‘To do’, In Progress’, ‘Test’, and ‘Done’. Different coloured post, its notes are placed in each
column indicating the progress of individual development items. A story board is typically used in
agile development.
Explain what the ideal duration is for Sprint, and how it affects the workflow?
Sprint in Scrum usually lasts for 30 days or two weeks. The two-week sprint is preferred for various
reason, first it makes easier for the team to estimate, plan and complete the work in two weeks.
Secondly, it gives enough time to the product owner to change the priorities more often and allows
the team to adapt quickly to the market pressures.
During Scrum meeting what all things are done?
During scrum meeting
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Team analyze how much time they got to complete task during the Sprint
From product backlog, team takes the first item and breaks into tasks
Team estimates how long a task will take
If there is any time left during the sprint, they will move on to the next item on the product backlog
Decide the features which have clarity and estimates how many to be scoped for sprint
Mention what is the objective behind holding a Sprint retrospective meeting?
The objective behind Sprint retrospective meeting is to let team members know how things went
during the sprint and discuss possible ways for further improvements for future sprints.
What is the Daily Stand-Up?
One of the interview questions on Agile is sure to be about the Daily Stand -Up. The answer?
Every day, preferably in the morning, the team meets for no more than 15 minutes to answer
three questions:
- What did you do yesterday?
- What do you plan on doing today?
- Are there any blocks or impediments that keep you from doing your work?
This Scrum ceremony is not meant to be a status meeting for stakeholders, but a way to
energize the team and get them to set focus for the day.
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Describe what happens in the Sprint planning meeting?
In Sprint planning, the Product Owner presents the goal of the sprint and discusses the high
priority product backlog items. The Delivery team then chooses the amount of work for the
next sprint.
What is the role of the Scrum Master?
Here’s how to handle a Scrum Master interview question like this: The Scrum Master serves
the team and shields them from any distractions that could prevent them from completing a
sprint goal. They also remove blocks, teach the team to become self-organized and serve as a
coach who teaches Agile and Scrum values and principles.
Is there a difference between Agile and Scrum?
Yes! Agile is the broader umbrella which Scrum falls under. Agile has four main values and
twelve principles. Scrum has its own set of values and principles and provides a lightweight
framework to help teams become Agile.
What are the problems of sprint retrospective?
Problems that sometimes occur are:
- the retrospective is planned on the last day of the sprint. Sometimes we are still busy finishing our
development activities. Worst case the retrospective got cancelled, or when it does take place the
team members aren't really participating actively.
- I use a timebox of 2 hours in a 2-week sprint. This should be enough for a good retrospective.
However, despite of a focused/lean schedule, the timebox is passed before you realize it. We've
discussed most of the issues that happened during the sprint, but we didn't get to the root cause.
Therefore, problems keep existing.
I have done some research on how to improve the retrospective. So I think I know how to fix the
problems I've described.
Still I am curious what problems you encounter with the retrospective. Just to be sure that my
problems are not unique .
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What if sprint fails?
A "failed" Sprint is one where the Goal has not been achieved. The most important consideration is
how failure is controlled.
If the Goal becomes obsolete, and the Sprint is cancelled, then a "fail early fail fast" model has been
applied. Control of the situation, including the minimization of wasted effort, can thereby be
evidenced.
On the other hand, if the Sprint Goal is not achieved and this problem only becomes apparent at the
end of the Sprint timebox, then a greater level of waste has been incurred, and there is less evidence
of control.
Which ceremony the Inspect and Adapt works?
Daily scrum is the ceremony where Inspect and Adapt works.
Which Artifacts follows more transparency to the teams?
Product backlog and Sprint backlog Artifacts follows more transparency to the teams.
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1.9 Release Planning
What is Release Planning? What are its inputs and outputs?
The release planning is a tentative plan for the whole release that covers several sprints.
A long-term plan has to be derived for the following questions
What could be delivered before the end of the year | each quarter?
How many people do we need to deliver this project?
When are you going to be done with critical features?
When are you going to be done with minimum viable features?
The Input for release plans are
Release strategy, Priority
Estimated Product backlog that gives the total size of the release
Velocity of the team which represents the productivity
Assumptions, constraints and risks
The output for release plans are
Release scope/date
Prioritized backlog
Ordered estimated in size and forecasted in sprint, Release burnt chart
How would you estimate the total size of the backlog?
The Total size of the backlog depends on
Development team estimates items in the backlog. Since all items won’t be clear. the team
makes their best guess.
Any estimation technique like planning poker or affinity estimation could be used
Team can iterate over estimates until they feel that the overall estimate is roughly accurate
What is Velocity?
A velocity can be defined as
A long-term measure that indicates how much work is “done” per sprint
Velocity is number of point completed per sprint
Partially finished stories don’t count
Velocity varies in every sprint
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How do we know the team’s velocity?
If the team is in place for some time, look at the history of the team’s velocity
If the team is new, run couple of sprints to establish the initial velocity
Use the average velocity over several sprints to predict the completion date
How do you plan your release?
Planning a release based on the following calculation
Let’s say the release backlog of size 100 points.
Step 1 - First run 4 sprints
The team ran 4 sprints and had velocities of 8, 11, 9, 10
Average velocity for 4 sprints: 38/4 = 9.5
Best Velocity:11 | Worst Velocity: 8
Step 2 Run remaining sprints
Remaining points after 4 sprints: 62
Required sprints to complete 62 points (Round up value)
@ Average velocity: 62/9.5 = 7 sprints
@Best Velocity: 62/11 = 6 sprints
@ Worst Velocity: 62/8 = 8 sprints
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How do you measure the work done in a Sprint?
It’s measured by Velocity.
What is Velocity?
Velocity is a metric that is calculated by addition of all efforts estimates associated with user stories
completed in one iteration. It predicts how much work Agile can complete in a sprint and how much
time will it require to complete a project.
How do you track your progress in a sprint?
The progress is tracked by a “burn-down chart”. A burn-down chart displays the amount of work a
team has burned throughsuch as hours during the Sprint.
How do you create the burn-down chart?
Burn down chart is a graph which shows the estimated v/s actual effort of the scrum tasks.
It is a tracking mechanism by which for a particular sprint; day to day tasks are tracked to check
whether the stories are progressing towards the completion of the committed story points or not. Here
we should remember that the efforts are measured in terms of user stories and not hours.
What type of metrics or reports have you used?
Sprint, release burn-down, and burn-up charts are standard reports. Most companies also want
to understand how many stories were committed versus completed per sprint and the number
of defects identified post-release to production.
What is a Release candidate?
A Release candidate is a build or version of software that can be released to production. Further,
testing such as UAT may be performed on this version of the product.
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What project management tools are used in agile?
Agile has a new breed of PM tools including Rally Software, Version One and Xplanner, Easybacklog,
Icescrum, Agilefant, Agilo. These tools bear no resemblance to the waterfall PM tools like MS-Project
or Clarity
How the velocity of sprint is measured?
If capacity is measured as a percentage of 40 hours weeks then completed
= story points * team capacity
If capacity is measured in man hours then completed story points / team capacity.
What does a scrum burn down chart comprise?
A scrum burn-down chart should consist of
X-axis that displays working days
Y-axis that displays remaining effort
Ideal effort as guideline
Real progress of effort
Does maximum velocity mean maximum productivity?
No, in an attempt to maximize velocity, a team may in fact achieve the opposite. If asked to maximize
velocity, a team may skimp on unit or acceptance testing, reduce customer collaboration, skip fixing
bugs, minimize re-factoring. While potentially offering short-term improvement (if you can call it that),
there will be a negative long-term impact. The goal is not to maximize velocity instead the optimal
velocity over time, which takes into account many factors including quality of the end product.
How to measure velocity if our iteration lengths change?
You can’t measure it easily. Velocity’s value comes from its inherent consistency. A fixed iteration
length helps drive the reliable rhythm of a project. Without this rhythm, you are constantly revising, re-
estimating, and reconciling, and the ability to predict out in the future is minimized due to inconsistent
results.
If, on the other hand, almost everyone is going to be out a week for the holidays or a couple days for
company-wide meetings then by all means adapt iteration dates or velocity accordingly. Like most
agile practices, these are guidelines, not strict rules.
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Explain what does the burn down charts show?
Burn down charts is used to track sprint status, they act as an early warning indicator; they can be
useful in highlighting the “lack of progress”. Also, they will highlight the area where they see
redundancy.
Explain what velocity in scrum is and how it is measured?
Velocity in a scrum is a measurement of how much the team gets work done in an iterations or sprint.
It is measured by
V= Number of total story points / One iteration
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Lesson 2 Agile Coach Discussions
Tell me about your introduction before proceed with?
Worked as an Agile coach in MNC with 16 years of IT experience out of which 8 Years have been
dedicated to Agile, Scrum & SAFe practices at enterprise level
My Agile Certifications are - ICAgile Certified Professional in Agile Coaching (ICP-ACC) & SAFe
Program Consultant (SPC 4), Certified Scrum Professional (CSP)
I am expertise in Agile transformations, Coaching, training and mentoring & Lead a proposal with a
big win to generate more business value, trained more than 1000+ Professionals on Agile Principles
& Practices, XP, Scrum, Kanban, Scaled Agile framework by making the organization as an Agile
Organization, build agile culture across 3 continents as an agile coach for distributed team
Review how teams are conducting Sprint Planning, Scrum Daily calls, Sprint Review and Sprint
Retrospective ceremonies and provide feedback., track team velocity for teams after each sprints
and plan to Increase it each quarter using Graphs like CFD (Cumulative Frequency Diagram)
Perform Project Management duties like Client Interaction, Estimations, Resource Handling and
delivering on time.
My agile websites and books are released by Syntel CEO & President -Rakesh Khanna & Temenos
CEO - Susan Gibson. I have published my agile books in amazon such as Handy Agile, Agile A Key
of Success, Scrum Alliance Professional, Agile Coaching, SAFe Q&A and FAQ’S
Having good experience in technology such as Java, Big data, SharePoint & .Net projects to
support the development team
What is your achievement in Agile Coaching Journey?
Trained more than 1000+ Professionals on Agile Principles & Practices, XP, Scrum, Kanban, Scaled
Agile framework by making the organization as an Agile Organization.
Lead a proposal with a big win to generate more business value across 3 continents as an agile
coach for distributed teams.
Agile Coach Sample Resume
Agile Coach.docx
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How Coaching starts for the project from the day 1? (or) You have been appointed as a coach
in an organization. What would be your starting point?
o Evaluate the current status of the team, identify whether the project is new or existing project or
transformation from waterfall to agile project.
o Develop short term plan for 1-3 months for agile coaching. Engage the coachee in the coaching
process.
o Based on the coaching agreement, I will coach the team | enterprise and maintain the confidentiality
of each team to grow as a high productive team
o For the existing projects, start coaching them from the current status and guide them through
ceremonies, ensures that team is delivering consistent throughput.
o For new projects guide the team in Agile planning to develop the important things for the project
such as Project Plan, Release Plan, Iteration Plan, Test Plan, User Stories, Product Backlog &
Sprint Backlog.
Start Sprint 0 to be conducted at the start for every release. Mandate to proceed further.
o Validate the core and extended team members
o Identify all dependent group sign off needs
o Identify the development and test environment
o Identify dependencies on other projects, teams & resources that may influence the release
schedule
o Identify the deliverables and sign off needed
o Identify number of iterations for the release using the team velocity
o Identify the schedule for release testing and release iterations, as a guideline, have release
iteration (Release Testing) after every three-time boxed development iterations
o Identify any assumptions made
o Risk involved in the project
o Identify the project with release schedules
o Create a release plan
Start from Sprint 1, guide the team to pull the user stories from the product backlog items to start the
sprint in a meaningful way to complete without any dependencies along with the commitment from the
development team to complete within the sprint. Start coaching them through ceremonies, ensures
that team is delivering the consistent throughput. High risk |value items are to be considered for the
first set of sprints.
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Review how teams are conducting Sprint Planning, Scrum Daily calls, Sprint Review and Sprint
Retrospective ceremonies and provide feedback. Track Team Velocity for Teams after each sprint and
guide them to Increase it each quarter using Graphs like CFD (Cumulative Frequency Diagram).
Adopt Agile Life Cycle Management (ALM) tools like Rally, JIRA &Agile AGM to track Epics, Features
and User Stories and to capture metrics like Velocity and Burn down Chart, KPI, delivery-commitment
index, resource-resource burndown, quality-bugs classification and goals against it
Provide feedback to the team with respective stage to grow further and produce high performance
team in the organization. Likewise execute the remaining sprint | iterations as per plan.
What is Coaching? How do you coach the team?
Coaching is partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to
maximize their personal and Professional Potential. Coaching helps them to learn rather than teaching
them. The art of Agile Coaching is understanding the situation, the values underlying Agile software
development, and how the two can combine. Do the experiments to hit on the right approach, work
with the teams, come up with great solutions and learn from every team we work with gives the great
experience in coaching.
The key motivations of Coaching presence are to build rapport with the coachee, engage coachee in
the coaching process & Keep the coachee in ‘towards’ state. Apply different techniques they need
training, mentoring & coaching based on their roles to help the team. Create an adaptive approach for
the current status of the team based on their coaching needs. Coach the Product Owner, Scrum Master
& Development Team on key agile practices & day to day activities involved in their project.
During project execution, Coaching through ceremonies: -
o Coach the team on how to estimate work using Planning Poker. Prepare required outcome for the
planning session.
o Sprint planning: Plan team sprints, with the outcome being the sprint backlog, sprint goals, and a
team commitment.
o Release Planning: Facilitate a conversation about the stories with the scrum team.
o Daily Scrum: Coach the teams to self-organize around the work in the current sprint asking the
three stand-up questions.
o Backlog refinement: Facilitate regular meetings with the scrum team to discuss the stories for next
sprint.
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o Sprint Review Prep: Prepare for the Sprint demo with team, work through the story DoD, how to
demo the stories, etc.
o Sprint Retrospective: Conduct sprint retrospectives. Use decided-on team metrics. Make items
actionable for continuous self-improvement (Kaizen).
o Collaboration and Coordination: Work closely with the PO and Architects as needed, helping write
stories and to prioritize the backlog.
o Coaching and Mentoring: Help coach the team in the proper application of agile and mentor new
team members who have not worked in an agile model in the past.
o Help define and promote the company's Agile vision, methodology, practices and tooling.
o Worked with the Scrum Framework model while working closely with product owners, architects,
and other scrum masters to deliver the overall project functionality.
o Coordinate dependencies across the various Scrum teams' work tasks.
How will you coach the Product Owner? How will you support the Product owner to handle the
product backlog?
Educate the Product Owner (PO) how to maintain and groom the deep product backlog and guide them
how product backlog items are prioritized Using MoSCoW technique and how many iterations &
respective sprints to be executed for the project. Ensures that product backlog item has more focus
on business-value-driven. Ensures that effective Product Owner should be Committed, Responsible,
Authorized, Collaborative & Knowledgeable (CRACK).
What are the key tasks in coaching the Product Owner? How will you support PO?
The key tasks in coaching the Product Owner has to understand their priorities: -
o Be the vision keeper in sync with sponsor
o Move from schedule-driven to business-value-driven planning
o Cultivate Business value driven thinking in all interactions
o Maintain a DEEP product backlog
o Match demand with capability
o Learn to trust the team
o Avoid micro-management
o Hold the team for their commitments
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How will you coach the Scrum Master?
Educate the Scrum Master (SM) to take-care of the agile process. Guide them to facilitate the
scrum ceremonies and help the team to act as a bulldozer for impediments. Be a Servant
leader, to lead by serving others and progress tracker towards the goal and ensures the
guardian for quality of work to be performed.
What are the key tasks in coaching the Scrum Master? How will you support SM?
The key tasks in Coaching Scrum Master has to understand their priorities: -
o Facilitator, not decision maker, Keep sustainable pace of development
o Grow Self-managing teams -> Planning work, pulling work, tracking work & getting work done
How will you coach the Development Team?
Educate the Development Team (DT) with key agile practices and frameworks. Motivate the team to
grow cross-functional & self-organizing. Guide them to work together as a Collective ownership to
make them in Continuous improvement. Walk through ceremonies and provide feedback to grow at
higher productive team to generate high productive and quality output.
Team having Too Strong Product owner, Scrum Master is weak enough and Development
Team is also not performing up to the expectation. How will you handle the situation as an agile
coach?
In this situation, understand the product owner expectations, coach the Scrum master and
development team with the agile mind-set, project activities and motivate them continuously for the
gap fulfilment and establish smooth flow across the team to meet the product owner expectations. If
unforeseen(provokes, Prolongs) situation occurs again, by replacing with the efficient person.
How to ensure team is currently doing progress correctly?
To verify whether how the development team is doing progress based on: -
o By sharing the metrics to reflect current state (NOW) & productivity of the team
o How the team meetings & daily Stand-ups are progressing as per the expectation of client
o How the team is adapting flow, process & technical approaches
o How the team is taking situational decisions
o How the team is delivering frequently as per DOD
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Technical Lead is facing the technical issue, how would you resolve it?
Understand the technical issue faced by the technical lead and help them in: -
o Team Brain storming
o Sit with the team, explore the ideas and resolve it
How will you coach during sprint planning?
During the sprint planning: -
o Verify the planning objective
o What can be delivered in the increment resulting from the upcoming sprint?
o How much work needed to deliver the increment can be achieved?
o Plan team sprints, with the outcome being the sprint backlog, sprint goals, and a team commitment.
o Verify the stories selected in the current sprint from the prioritized product backlog, selected
stories are estimated with agreed acceptance criteria and how the team identifies and estimates
task using planning poker method
o Share the current velocity, and guide them to grow in a consistent velocity or higher. The accepted
stories / sprint only considered for the velocity consideration
Note: Before Sprint Planning, feasibility study has to be conducted the team has enough capacity to
proceed with, whether the product backlog is groomed properly, met the business requirements with
respect to current market conditions, current product developed status & technology to be
considered. Without proper planning, execution of the sprint is not effective.
How will you guide the team to split the user Stories?
A Planning poker is used for user stories estimation. For splitting or decomposing a user story ensure
every story address all the architecture layers such as Presentation layer, Validation layer, Business
layer, Database layer. The best way to slice vertically through the layers.
There are some user stories pending at the end of the sprint. How will you handle?
At the end of the sprint, unexpectedly some user stories are pending it may be due to the requirement
not clear with technical feasibility, insufficient time to execute the stories based on the resource skills
& availability. Understand the ground reality the incomplete tasks are moved to product backlog,
executed in upcoming sprint planning based on the priority. The unforeseen situation occurs some
time, but this can be overcome with efficient planning.
Ref: https://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/blog/handling-work-left-at-the-end-of-a-sprint
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Team is doing at the end of the day during the sprint, not working properly during the sprint?
How would you handle this situation?
Stories have to be delivered in specified intervals, not at the end of the sprint. Daily Scrum ensures that
stories are executed on day to day basis without any impediments. In case of any impediment there,
resolve asap. So, motivate the team consistently to get the things done as per schedule and don’t
encourage them to do in a last day, last minute. The factors to be considered during the sprint such as
Velocity, requirements stability and capacity maturity, efficiently to work with the product.
Getting buy-in from Leadership team and Senior Executive? How about Controversies?
The Main Reasons for buy-in leadership team and senior executives in agile arena are: -
o Managing optimized backlogs of work with constantly changing business priorities
o Sincerity in engagement and collaboration between various departments including business
customers
o Effective planning and estimating for larger initiatives
o Faster time to market, no wait cycles to get work completed
o Eliminated Errors, no rework and no miscommunication on expectations
In Controversy, some of the organization facing difficulties in buy-in from leadership team and senior
executives in agile arena are: -
Managing large backlogs of work with constantly changing business priorities
Lack of engagement and collaboration between various departments including business customers
Ineffective planning and estimating for larger initiatives
Slow time to market, long wait cycles to get work completed
Errors, rework and miscommunication on expectations
How would you measure the team maturity? How did you track Agile Maturity level of various
teams?
To measure the team’s maturity: -
o How the team is adapting flow, process & technical approaches
o How the team is matured enough in executing ceremonies. For example, in sprint planning, the
matured teams will conduct Pre-Sprint Planning, user stories estimation has to be completed
o How the team is adapting the agile principles, practices and values (in the range of 0-5)
o How the team is taking situational decisions
o How the team is delivering frequently as per DOD
o Whether The team is delivering in consistent team velocity and it has been increased in each sprint
or not
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o Whether the team is deliver in consistent throughput or not
What Agile ALM tool set did you recommend and implement?
Adopt Tools like Rally, JIRA and Agile AGM to track Epics, Features and User Stories and to capture
metrics like Velocity and Burn Down Chart, KPI, delivery-commitment index, resource-resource
burndown, quality-bugs classification and goals against it. Note: Planning Poker is an activity the
development team uses to estimate the relative size of the product backlog items.
What aspects of the mindset do you have to change and how do you as an agile coach go about
doing it? Also, give the example of what you have done in this regard?
o As an Agile Coach with clear mindset, I have to Create an adaptive approach for the current status
of the team based on their coaching needs. Apply different techniques they need training,
mentoring & coaching based on their roles to help the team. Coach the Product Owner, Scrum
Master & Development Team on key agile practices & day to day activities involved in their project
based on the agile mindset.
o Exhibit “RI” stage like Doing Agile & Being Agile. Before sharing to the team, internally feel how we
can adapt successfully and then share to the team. (Shu - Learn exactly what they taught by master,
Ha - Experimental Stage RI - Doing Agile and Being Agile). “You have to believe in yourself and you
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should be the change agent, trust the change begins from you. So, you need to give has to give the
confidence to the team that you will be there to assist and support them”
o To change the team mindset and adapt the key agile practices to become a high-performance team.
o To cultivate the agile mindset with a team, the team has to focus on a common goal, collective
ownership, failure acceptance, positive attitude and continuous learning, quality conscious and
team empowerment.
o In my experience with one of the client, where team has not efficient to do their daily routines and
many slippages happens after I have given mentoring program by adapting agile principles,
practices and project based coaching, they have grown and achieved a high-performance level
over a period of time.
o In my career, I have trained 1000+ peoples in Agile practices for embracing the agile mindset.
What parts of being an Agile Coach you struggle the most with (from a personal & professional
point of view) and how do you handle them?
As an experienced agile coach, I am feeling very happy to help the team without any struggle.
I handled from a personal point of view by
o Holding people accountable
o Maintaining neutrality and confidentiality
o Challenging the status quo
o Personal bias
o Difficult to stay out of politics
I handled from a professional point of view by
o To handle the team, move into the agile
o Based on Agile Mind-set and Culture
o Team Maturity
What are the most useful tools in your coach toolbox (give an example of using them
successfully in the past)?
The most useful tools in my experience is Rally, JIRA & Agile Manager used to track Epics, Features
and User Stories and to capture metrics like Velocity and Burn Down Chart, KPI, delivery-commitment
index, resource-resource burndown, quality-bugs classification and goals against it.
From the agile coach goals, which one do you find the most challenging and why? Also, which
one you are more comfortable with?
From the agile coach job goals, the most challenging goal are:
o Onshore & Offshore collaboration sync is difficult while handling multiple vendors in multiple time
zones.
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o Enhancing the Lean-Agile mindset & behaviours, Grow the team experience in Agile related
practices & tools.
o Increase cohesion within a distributed & multi-cultural organization contribute and rollout our ever-
evolving agility operational model with specific skill | experience.
o With my professional experience, I handle efficiently without any challenges.
From the agile coach goal, the most comfortable are:
o Handling either Onshore or Offshore with multiple vendors in comfortable in execution. Not in a
mix.
o Matured Team members adapting the agile practices and embracing with the lean agile mindset
and delivering with high value
o Matured Team accustom with distributed, collaborate & multi-cultural environment to execute
ceremonies
(Scenario) An Admin, HR, Finance & Quality has not yet heard about the word Agile and they
need your help to reduce the lead time in the daily hiring routine process. How would you go
about helping the team?
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In my experience, I have created the Agile awareness and provide the Agile key practices and tools to
handle the job efficiently by reducing surface delays this makes a good success for other departments
associated with IT.
(Scenario) Your manager holds a meeting of 3h every week that you strongly believe adds no
value to the team (10 people, all direct-reports) How would you go about addressing the
potential issue?
I request the manager to follow the agenda, not to deviate from the focus and execute the ceremonies
as per plan
In my experience to address the potential issue, First I will ensure the team to follow first adapt GROW
model that helps in better achievements such as G- Goal, R-Reading, O-Options, W-Will (What | When)
Second updating the team growth status by
o Facilitate Learning goals Mastery and Competence
o Metrics reflect current state (NOW) Measuring potential or productivity is a lower priority
o Focus on positive emotion Performance and Enjoyment Decrease negative emotion
(Scenario) A Scrum Master is running out of