Spot On Encryption Suite: Democratization Of Multiple & Exponential Encryption. Manual

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Communicating like dolphins with

Encryption Suite:
Democratization of Multiple & Exponential Encryption.
Handbook and User Manual
as practical software guide
with introductions into Cryptography,
Cryptographic Calling and Cryptographic Discovery,
P2P Networking, Graph-Theory, NTRU, McEliece,
the Echo Protocol and the Spot-On Software.

Scott Edwards & Project (Eds.)

More about the project:

Communicating like dolphins with

Encryption Suite:
Democratization of Multiple & Exponential Encryption.
Handbook and User Manual
as practical software guide
with introductions into Cryptography,
Cryptographic Calling and Cryptographic Discovery,
P2P Networking, Graph-Theory, NTRU, McEliece,
the Echo Protocol and the Spot-On Software.

Scott Edwards & Project (Eds.)

Bibliographic Information:
Detailed bibliographic data can be found in the Internet under:

Edwards, Scott / Project (Eds.): Communicating like
Democratization of Multiple & Exponential Encryption;
Handbook and User Manual as practical software guide
with introductions into Cryptography, Cryptographic
Calling and Cryptographic Discovery, P2P Networking,
Graph-Theory, NTRU, McEliece, the Echo Protocol and
the Spot-On Software,
ISBN 9783749435067, BOD, Norderstedt 2019.

1. Printed Release.
Scott Edwards, Mele Gasakis, Michael Weber, et al.
Publisher: BOD, Norderstedt, 2019
ISBN: 9783749435067
Book-Layout-Template with references to Johann-Christian Hanke.
Recommendations also to Wikipedia, in which a lot of cryptographic
terms can be looked up in greater depth.

Freidank, Bescheidenheit, 1229
diu bant mac nieman vinden,
diu mîne gedanke binden.
man vâhet wîp unde man,
gedanke niemen gevâhen kann.

Georg Friedrich Benecke; Wilhelm Müller; Friedrich Zarncke: Mittelhochdeutsches
Wörterbuch. Leipzig 1854–1866, hier Bd. 1, Sp. 354b-357a, Artikel: gedanc, II, 5.

5 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Content .................................................................................................... 6
1 What is Spot-On? ................................................................................13
1.1 Main Functions in Spot-On Encryption Suite ......................................13
1.2 Why is it important for Internet users to encrypt their
communication? ................................................................................. 17
2 Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU &
McEliece Encryption Suite ..................................................................21
2.1 A-symmetric encryption with PKI: RSA, Elgamal and especially
NTRU and McEliece in comparison .....................................................23
2.2 Another method, another layer: Symmetric Encryption with AES .....30
2.3 Superencipherment: Hybrid & Multi Encryption ................................33
2.4 Further Examples of state-of-the-art encryption & process
implementations .................................................................................35
3 What is the Echo Protocol? ................................................................. 37
3.1 Full Echo ..............................................................................................43
3.2 Half Echo .............................................................................................48
3.3 Echo Accounts .....................................................................................48
3.4 The Echo Grid ...................................................................................... 51
3.4.1 Examples of key exchanges by Alice, Bob, Ed & Maria ....................... 53


Adaptive Echo (AE) and its AE tokens .................................................55
3.5.1 Hansel and Gretel - An example of the Adaptive Echo mode ............. 57

4 Cryptographic Discovery .....................................................................59
5 First Set-up of the software Spot-On ...................................................67
5.1 Set up a first installation – e.g. with the wizard .................................. 67
5.2 Passphrase creation within the Wizard: Two login methods & a
virtual keyboard .................................................................................. 70
5.3 Generation of 12 Keys for Encryption .................................................75
5.3.1 A posteriori Key (re-)generation: Switching from RSA
provided by the Wizard to McEliece and other .................................. 76



Activation of the kernel....................................................................... 78
Connect a neighbor with the IP address .............................................81
Key Exchange ......................................................................................83



GoldBug: Alternative Graphical User Interface (GUI) ......................... 83

6 The chat function with Cryptographic Calling ..................................... 87
6.1 Adding a friend by swapping and inserting the keys ......................... 88
6.1.1 Special feature: REPLEO – Encrypting the public key ......................... 91


Starting a first secure chat ..................................................................92
Cryptographic Calling - additional security feature invented by
Spot-On .............................................................................................. 95


Asymmetric Calling............................................................................. 97
Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS)............................................... 97
Symmetric Calling............................................................................... 98
Two-way Calling ................................................................................. 98

Additional security feature: Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP) .... 102
6.4.1 SMP-Calling ...................................................................................... 107


Cryptographic Calling with Secret Streams .......................................107
Additional security feature: Forward Secrecy (a-symmetric)........... 109
6.6.1 Forward Secrecy Calling ................................................................... 110
6.6.2 Fiasco Forwarding & Fiasco Calling .................................................. 111


Overview of the different Calling types............................................ 111
Emoticons aka Smileys ..................................................................... 114
File transfer in the chat pop-up window.......................................... 114

7 Group chat in IRC style ..................................................................... 117
8 Smoke Mobile Chat Client ................................................................ 121
8.1 Smoke Android Client....................................................................... 121
8.2 Fire chat to Buzz chat ....................................................................... 121
9 The e-mail function .......................................................................... 123
9.1 POP3................................................................................................. 125
9.2 IMAP................................................................................................. 125
9.3 P2P E-Mail: without data retention ................................................. 128
9.4 Setting up C/O: e-mail postboxes at a friend ................................... 130
9.4.1 Care-Of method (C/O) ...................................................................... 131
9.4.2 Virtual E-Mail Institution (“VEMI”) method ..................................... 133
9.4.3 Ozone Postbox ................................................................................. 135


Additional Encryption: Put a “Goldbug” on an e-mail ..................... 136
Forward Secrecy for e-mail ...............................................................137
Secret Streams for e-mail ................................................................. 142
Further research perspectives ......................................................... 143

7 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

10 POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing POP3 &
IMAP Servers .................................................................................... 145
10.1 Chat over POPTASTIC ........................................................................146
10.2 E-mail over POPTASTIC...................................................................... 147
10.3 Setting up POPTASTIC .......................................................................148
10.4 Further development of the POPTASTIC protocol ............................149
11 File-Sharing: with StarBeam ............................................................. 152
11.1 Creating StarBeam Magnets with cryptographic values ...................154

Option “NOVA”: Encrypt the file before transferring the file! .......... 156
Using a one-time Magnet ................................................................. 158
Overview of Magnet-URI standards for cryptographic values .......... 160
Rewind function ............................................................................... 161
Comparison with Turtle-Hopping ..................................................... 161

11.2 StarBeam upload: transferring a file .................................................162
11.3 StarBeam downloads ........................................................................164
11.3.1 Tool: StarBeam Analyzer ................................................................... 165
11.3.2 Outlook for Cryptographic Torrents .................................................. 167

12 Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database ......... 168
12.1 URL Database Setup ..........................................................................171
12.1.1 SQLite ............................................................................................... 172
12.1.2 PostgreSQL ....................................................................................... 173


URL-Filter .......................................................................................... 173
URL-Community: Open Source URL-Database .................................. 175
Pandamonium Webcrawler .............................................................. 176
RSS reader and URL import ............................................................... 178

13 Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail .......................... 181
13.1 Set up the chat / e-mail server via a listener ....................................181



Server broadcast ............................................................................... 182
Security options................................................................................ 184
Proxy and firewall annotations ......................................................... 185
Spot-On as LAN Messenger .............................................................. 187

Server / Listener Creation at home behind a router / Nat................ 187
Use of Spot-On in the Tor network ...................................................188
Spot-On Kernel Server.......................................................................189
Spot-On Lite Server as Deamon ........................................................190
SmokeStack Server on Android .........................................................190
Spot-On Bluetooth Server .................................................................191



Spot-On UDP Server ......................................................................... 191
Spot-On DTLS Server ........................................................................ 192
Spot-On SCTP Server ........................................................................ 192
Spot-On Ncat connection ................................................................. 193

14 Integrated Encryption Tools .............................................................. 195
14.1 Tool: Encryption of files with Spot-On FileEncryptor ....................... 195
14.2 Tool: The Rosetta CryptoPad for text conversion in Spot-On ........... 196
14.3 Tool: Echo Public Key Share (EPKS) & AutoCrypt ............................. 198
14.4 Pass-Through functionality (“Patch-Points”) .................................... 199
14.5 Statistics & Analyzing Tools .............................................................. 200
15 BIG SEVEN STUDY: Crypto-Messenger-Audit ..................................... 204
16 Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of
Exponential Encryption .................................................................... 209
16.1 Multiplication towards Exponential ................................................. 209
16.2 Four Arms within the Era of Exponential Encryption ....................... 212
16.3 Implications ...................................................................................... 213
16.4 Outlook ............................................................................................ 214
17 Digital Encryption of Private Communication in the Context of … ..... 216
17.1 Principles of the protection of private speech, communication
and life: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (Art. 12) ..... 216
17.2 International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights, 1966 (Art. 17) ... 216
17.3 European Convention on Human Rights, 1950 (Art. 8) .................... 217
17.4 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000
(Art. 7, 8) .......................................................................................... 217
17.5 Basic Law e.g. for the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949 (Art. 2
Abs. 1 i. V. m. Art. 1 Abs. 1) .............................................................. 218
17.6 Privacy of correspondence, posts and telecommunications (Art.
10) .................................................................................................... 218
17.7 Verletzung des Post- oder Fernmeldegeheimnisses (§ 206) ............ 219
17.8 United States Constitution: Search and Seizure (Expectation of
Privacy, US Supreme Court) ............................................................. 220
18 History of Program Publications ....................................................... 221
19 Website............................................................................................ 221
20 Open source code & Compilation ..................................................... 222
20.1 Compile Information ........................................................................ 222

9 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

21 Bibliography ..................................................................................... 226
22 Index of Figures ................................................................................ 241
23 Glossary ........................................................................................... 245
24 Keywords ......................................................................................... 295


For all those, who have (or are)
a real virtual friend, have family
far away and regard privacy
and alternative and expressed opinions
as a basic and constitutional element
for human rights and democracy
and try to foster these beliefs
within their communities:
Freedom is the respect
to the other’s cipher text!



What is Spot-On?

1 What is Spot-On?
Spot-On Encryption Suite is a
 secure instant chat messenger and
 encrypting e-mail client
that also includes additional features such as
 group chat,
 file transfer, and a
 URL search based on an implemented URL database, which can be peer-to-peer connected to other nodes.
A dolphin is the
symbol of the SpotOn Encryption Suite
using the Echo Protocol to communiIt can be spoken from Spot-On as of an encryption suite. It cate like dolphins
might be regarded as the most elaborated, up-to-date and within the sea.
diversificated encryption software currently.
Thus, the three basic functions frequently used by a regular
Internet user in the Internet - communication (chat / email), web search and file transfer - are represented in an
encrypted environment safely and comprehensively.

The three S: Speaking (by text), Searching and Sending - are
now secure over the Internet within one software suite.
Open source for everyone.


Main Functions in Spot-On Encryption Suite

In addition, Spot-On has also implemented a number of
useful tools, such as encrypted chat server functionality,
proxy-enabled pass-through, text and cipher text conversion pads (and vice versa), a feed-reader and a web-crawler,
or dash-boards for the friends of statistics and analysis, and
much more.
Furthermore, the application also offers next to

(chat / e-mail),
web search and
file transfer
are represented
in an encrypted

13 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual


The three S:
Speaking (by text),
Searching and also
Sending are now
secure over the Internet.





chat messaging as well
decentralized public group chat in IRC style,
decentralized and encrypted e-mail: The e-mail
can be IMAP, POP3 and thirdly, p2p e-mail. SpotOn is thus a fully functional e-mail client. As soon
as encrypted e-mails are sent, it is necessary that
the friend also uses this (or any other Echo) client. This has the advantage that the encryption
key is only to be exchanged once, but then no
longer has to be applied to every single e-mail.
This function of transferring the key encrypted
back in a direct way is called in Spot-On “REPLEO” based on the Echo-Public-Key-Sharing Protocol (EPKS) and later on this was also taken over
in other projects under the name Autocrypt or
KeySync (within an automatic process).
As in any messaging program, files can be shared
and sent. The transfer is always encrypted per
As said, there is also the function to implement a
URL web search in a decentralized database repository: Users can store URLs and the content
of a website - as we do it so far with bookmark
URLs in the browser and its cache - in a comfortable searchable database in Spot-On. A thematic
RSS feeds can import these URLs into the encrypted database, which is based either on SQL
or PostGres and is also p2p network able.
With the tools “Rosetta CryptoPad” and the
“File-Encryptor” the user can encrypt text
and/or files additionally or convert them back.
This adds one more encryption layer to the cipher text or file and turns encryption into multiencryption. These encryption tools can therefore
also be used for other transmission paths (such
as an unencrypted path outside of Spot-On like
uploading a file into a cloud box, sending a message over another messenger or email service or
posting ciphertext to any board).

What is Spot-On?

With the use of Spot-On the user can therefore be relatively
sure - because of the modern and elaborated encryption
techniques and processes - that no unwanted third party
can eavesdrop on the conversations or read e-mails or look
into file transfers. The URL search also happens on the local
machine, so that search queries are protected and secured.
The user-to-user communication via the Internet should
remain in private, protected space with this application.
Spot-On uses for this purpose strong and hybrid encryption,
also called multi-encryption, with different levels of modern
encryption technology based on established encryption
libraries - such as libgcrypt (known from OpenPGP or
GnuPG and OpenSSL) and other.
For example, it creates separate and different public /
private keys for encryption and signatures for each function
- based on the encryption algorithms RSA, or alternatively
Elgamal and NTRU. In addition to NTRU, the encryption algorithm McEliece is open source implemented. These latter
two algorithms are considered to be particularly secure
against attacks that are known from Quantum Computing
and are becoming increasingly relevant in the future because of fast quantum computers.
Spot-On is thus one of the first communication suites
worldwide to implement these two algorithms, thus initiating the renunciation of - or alternatives to - the RSA algorithm that has been officially considered as broken since
2016 (see NIST cited in Adams/Maier 2016).

The RSA algorithm
has been officially
considered as
broken since 2016.

Figure 1: The tabs in Spot-On Encryption Suite application

15 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The tabs in the Spot-On software are sorted by default on
top (in the north) and provide these functions:







Buzz Tab: Here the group chat in IRC style is found.
Chat Tab: Here the private 1:1 chat messaging takes
E-mail Tab: Within the e-mail tab the user can send
and receive e-mails. This refers to (1) IMAP/POP3 emails which are encrypted (over the POPTASTIC key),
(2) POPTASTIC-messages which provide chat over email servers (also with the POPTASTIC key) and third
p2p e-mails over the Echo Network connections based
on either the C/O function or the VEMI institutions
function which provide a postbox in the peer-to-peer
network. (3) Also regular @-e-mail is possible, if the receiver uses another e-mail-client (not based on any key
as identifier; instead the @-e-mail-address is used).
Listeners Tab: With the term “listener” a chat server
software function is described. Within Spot-On it is also
possible to operate an own chat and communication
server. Several protocols are supported.
Neighbors Tab: The neighbors tab creates the connection to other nodes, friends and chat servers.
Search Tab: This tab provides the search in the local
Settings Tab: The interface of Spot-On requires an active and running kernel. The settings tab is regularly
used to start and stop the kernel of Spot-On. Also, the
key generation is steered within this tab.
StarBeam Tab: If a user wants to send a file this is possible within the chat pop-up window – Additionally,
very detailed information about the sent or received
file is provided in this StarBeam tab.
URLs Filter Tab: Here the filters and distillers for the
URL exchange with other nodes are defined. This function allows to filter URLs, e.g. from one domain, in case
a user wants URLs just from e.g.
Login Tab: The last tab is the login page to unlock the
application with a password.

What is Spot-On?

Main Menu: Above the tabs the main menu is found,
where options (e.g. chosen icon set), key import and
export and also the further encryption tools are provided like Rosetta Crypto Pad (for conversion of text:
from plain text to cipher text and vice versa) or the
FileEncryptor (to convert files from a plain file to an
encrypted file).


With all its equipment, Spot-On is therefore a so-called
“Communication Suite” - a program with numerous functions for secure communication, which realizes the transmission of the encrypted packets mainly with the so-called
Echo Protocol (or in addition the later explained POPTASTIC
Protocol or EPKS Protocol). The Echo Protocol is particularly
secure, as it will be explained in the upcoming chapters.


Why is it important for Internet users to encrypt their communication?

Today almost all wireless Internet accesses are password
protected. (So-called “”-activities are currently
trying to reverse this over-regulation through passwordfree and account-free wireless Internet access). In a few
decades plain text messages or e-mails to friends* via the
Internet should be encrypted as well. In order to consolidate this change, sometimes c-mail (for crypto-mail) rather
than e-mail is or should be used as a new term.
Encryption is not a question of having something to hide
or not, it is the paradigm of whether we, ourselves control
our communication - or whether it is controlled by others,
third parties and their communication servers. Users need
to have the right to choose an alternative communication
server or even create their own with less effort.
Controlling communication is ultimately also a question
of attacking free thinking and a question of deleting the

multiple, and even
Encryption within a
network based on
the Echo Protocol.

The change
from plain text to
cipher text
e-mail to c-mail.

In this book all terms always apply to all sex and genders: female,
divers and male.

17 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Spot-On is the
initial welcome for
multiple and

presumption of innocence (“In doubt for the accused” - if
every citizen in the Internet ever belongs to a dock!).
Democracy requires thinking and discussing alternatives
in private as well as in public.
The communication and data transmission over the Internet should be protected as parents would also protect
their loved ones or a mother bird would protect their young
against the unknown: Everyone should protect her or his
privacy and human rights with modern cryptographic functions.
Strong multi-encryption (also so-called “hybrid encryption”) thus ultimately secures the declarations of human
rights in their broadly constituted consensus and is a digital
self-defense that everyone should learn and use - to ultimately contribute to democracy and support this processes.
Why it is necessary to encrypt and learn about encryption:

Privacy by default
requires e-mail and
chat messaging
software for users
encrypting by default. Communication software without encryption is
outdated and obsolete today.


 Economy is based on encryption. Securing the data at the
heart of our modern economy: Encryption helps businesses to stay compliant as well as to protect the valuable data
of their customers.
 Law and regulations require encryption: Healthcare providers are required e.g. by the Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to implement security features that protect patients’ sensitive health information.
Institutions of higher learning must take similar steps under e.g. the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
(FERPA), while retailers must contend with the Fair Credit
Practices Act (FCPA) and similar laws. In Europe
GPDR/DSGVO requires the protection of sensitive data.
 Guaranteeing data security: Providers of data services —
storing, managing or transmitting personal or business data — must guarantee to use the best available technology
to thwart attacks against that data or the entities and individuals who depend on those services.

What is Spot-On?

 Old Internet protocols provide only plain text: It is simply
clear that every sent e-mail has to be regarded as a post
card everyone can read.
 Consistent privacy by default: Individuals have a right to
be secure in their public, private and commercial lives and
interactions. Encryption by default protects privacy by
turning personal information into “always encrypted”
messages. Everyone should make sure that e-mails are only being sent over an end-to-end encrypted connection.
That means that users are encrypting each message with a
shared password or with a public key of the receiver of the
message. For the Spot-On software the messages are always encrypted once a key exchange has been done. Privacy by default requires e-mail and chat messaging software for users encrypting by default. Communication
software without encryption must be regarded as outdated and obsolete today.
 Protecting government information: National, state and
local agencies should ensure that the data they hold is secure against threats of domestic and foreign intrusion. All
the rest belongs to open data government.
 Encouraging innovation: Developers and providers of innovation need digital security. Copy-cats are only kept out
with encryption.
 Defending critical infrastructure: Providers of essential
services, such as banking, health, electricity, water, Internet and other critical infrastructure providers, are to be
empowered to provide the best available encryption and
security technologies.
 Hacking and collecting user data is big business: Hackers
aren’t just bored kids in a basement anymore. They’re big
 The Snowden papers (2013) demonstrate that all internet
traffic is saved as big data for possible analyses. Do not
send any plaintext since mid-thirteen anymore!

Law and

Encryption is a
precondition for
human rights and

The Spot-On Encryption Suite tries to be an elaborated and
strong tool for this responsibility. Similar to the development of safety in automobiles, the e-mail & chat and file
19 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Learning about encryption within the
Internet is required
latest since midthirteen.
Spot-On is a practical software suite
to learn encryption
in a school class
with friends.


encryption will also develop: if we initially drove without a
seatbelt in the car, today we drive with obligatory safety
belts (e.g. since 1968 in the U.S.) and additional airbags or
thirdly additional electronic security information systems.
Spot-On is an easy-to-use application, but to some extent
also a program, which needs to be learned; it requires - as
with the car driver’s license - the knowledge of the various
controls and options. Similar to a cockpit of an aircraft,
there are some control buttons available in this original
user interface. As we describe later, there is another interface available, in which these options are reduced a bit.
Also, another minimal view is offered for beginners in this
software for cryptographic processes. In this respect: We
have to learn what is still unknown and - to note that - it is
already a reduced scope to applied encryption in software.
This handbook and user manual can help readers to understand the individual functions. And users who first read and
then try out have - as always - clearly an advantage. :-) Otherwise it might be the inspiration of teachers to provide this
reference and knowledge to young learners, if they don’t
find out by themselves what the needful things and actions
The unencrypted plain text e-mail or chat message should
therefore have actually become obsolete after the Snowden Papers revealed in 2013 that private plain text e-mails
are widely intercepted and systematically collected and
evaluated by many interested parties worldwide. 2013 was
also the year in which Spot-On and the complementary
GoldBug User Interface have been released after several
years of research. Today, we have to send out cipher text
messages only. As one algorithm for encryption might be
broken, just use two or several: Spot-On is the initial welcome of multiple and even exponential encryption, as it will
be referenced in more detail as well in the further sections
of this handbook.

Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

2 Alternatives to RSA encryption:
Spot-On as the first NTRU &
McEliece Encryption Suite
There are basically two methods of encryption:
First, the symmetric encryption: Both users use the
same password, e.g. a so-called AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard) with 32 characters, which will be explained in
more detail below. And on the other hand, there is the asymmetric encryption.
Second, in a-symmetric encryption: each user has two
keys: a private and a public key. Each user exchanges the
public key with the friend and can then encrypt data using
the private key in combination with the public key.
Figure 2: How asymmetric encryption with Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) works

After transmission, the other party is also able to decipher
the message with the own keys in combination with the

21 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Further research is
needed on e.g. a
SSL/TLS connection
based on alternative algorithms like
e.g. McEliece.


cipher text and the known public key of the friend. This is,
mathematically speaking, based on the prime factorization,
which requires today years of computational effort. Encryption is only as good as the mathematical calculations cannot
be calculated by the automation of computers at lightning
speed. The a-symmetric method is also called PKI: Pubic Key
Infrastructure, which can be built on different algorithms
for key generation, e.g. like RSA.
However, encryption - be it via AES or PKI - is not unbreakable, and the procedures and libraries must also be
well-used to be secure. RSA is considered “today as an essential, widely studied and not yet breakable encryption
standard - although the further development of fast computers might bring a different future”, - it was still 2014 in
this (first only online hosted) manual noted. In 2016, the
official NIST Institute announced that the algorithm RSA is
considered broken in the age of Quantum Computing (see
The media has barely picked up this announcement, as
everyone will probably agree that you cannot buy a quantum computer in the nearest supermarket, so the problem
might be not relevant.
It has the charm of children who hold their hand in front
of their eyes and thus do not let the problem or risk endanger their perception of reality. Nevertheless, it is officially
confirmed that RSA can be broken - with special means. The
security is gone. This also has an impact on our Internet
economy and online banking, because so far, the so called
“secure” economic connections are relying on RSA. And a
SSL/TLS protocol to secure the connection to online banking or shopping portals based on more secure algorithms
like McEliece or NTRU is not yet developed.

Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite


A-symmetric encryption with PKI: RSA, Elgamal and especially NTRU and McEliece in

Therefore, Spot-On encryption suite has already introduced additional alternatives to RSA at an early stage - if
this RSA encryption algorithm standard would ever be insecure: RSA with a correspondingly large size of the key (at
least 3072 bytes) might still (or just) be regarded as a time
hurdle for non-specialized technical administrative staff.
In addition to RSA Spot-On has implemented the encryption
algorithms Elgamal and also NTRU and McEliece. The latter
two are both considered to be particularly more resistant to
the attacks known from Quantum Computing.
Figure 3: McEliece’s algorithm for advanced protection
against attacks from Quantum Computing in the Settings Tab

A mix of symmetric
encryption (based
on passwords) and
a-symmetric encryption (based on
public/private keys
– also called PKI)
provides hybrid and
even multiencryption.

Spot-On uses the libgcrypt, libntru, and McEliece libraries
to create persistent private and public key pairs. Currently,
the application generates key pairs for each of the six functions during initialization. Key generation is optional. As a
result, Spot-On does not require public key infrastructure.
23 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Of course, the desired algorithms can be selected, and keys
can be generated.
Spot-On is regarded
as one – if not the –
first open source
encryption suite
worldwide which
has implemented
the McEliece encryption algorithm.

Figure 4: RSA and its alternatives in Spot-On

McEliece cryptosystem
The McEliece cryptosystem is an a-symmetric encryption
algorithm. It was presented in 1978 by cryptographer and
founder Robert J. McEliece. Even with the use of quantum
computers, there is no known efficient method by which
the McEliece cryptosystem can be broken. This makes it a
promising algorithm for post-quantum cryptography.

NTRU Algorithm
NTRU is an a-symmetric encryption technique developed in
1996 by mathematicians Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher and Joseph Silverman. It is loosely based on lattice problems that
are considered unbreakable even with quantum computers.
However, NTRUEncrypt has not been extensively studied so
far as more common methods (e.g. RSA). Ntruencrypt is by
IEEE P1363.1 standardized (see Ntruencrypt).

Elgamal Algorithm
The Elgamal encryption method or Elgamal cryptosystem is
a public-key encryption method developed in 1985 by the
cryptographer Taher Elgamal, based on the idea of a DiffieHellman key exchange. The Elgamal encryption method, like
the Diffie-Hellman Protocol, relies on operations in a finiteorder cyclic group. The Diffie–Hellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each
other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subse-


Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

quent communications using a symmetric key cipher. The
Elgamal encryption method is provably IND-CPA-safe, assuming that the Decisional-Diffie-Hellman problem is not
trivial in the underlying group. Related to the encryption
method described here (but not identical with it) is the Elgamal signature method (the Elgamal signature method is
not yet implemented in Spot-On). Elgamal is not subject to a

RSA Algorithm
RSA (after the people Rivest, Shamir and Adleman) is an asymmetric cryptographic procedure that can be used for
both encryption and digital signature since 1978. It uses a
key pair consisting of a private key used to decrypt or sign
data and a public key to encrypt or verify signatures. The
private key is kept secret and can only be calculated from
the public key with extremely high expenditure. Clifford
Cocks, an English mathematician working for the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), had developed an equivalent system already in
1973, but this was not declassified until 1997.

Spot-On’s encryption is designed so that any user can communicate with any user, no matter what encryption algorithm a user has chosen. Communication between users
with different key types is thus well defined when the
nodes share common versions of the libgcrypt and libntru
libraries: anyone who has chosen a RSA key can also chat
and e-mail encrypted with an user who has chosen an Elgamal key. Try it also for a McEliece Key. This is because
everyone supports each algorithm and the library supports
it. If you want to test the program with a friend, it is best
for both to use the latest version of Spot-On.

Chatting from a
RSA-Key user to a
McEliece Key user
should be tested in
practice over the
integrated open
source McEliece
algorithm library.

Well defined and
established libraries
are the basis for the
cryptographic routines in the application Spot-On.

25 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 5: Individual Crypto-DNA: Customizable cryptography,
e.g. based on key size and further values

Spot-On democratizes the choice of
individual Cryptographic DNA for
encryption and signatures by its open
source code.

Of course, every user in Spot-On can set an own
 “cipher”,
 the individual „key size“– e.g. 3072 bit or higher for
 the “hashtype”,
 furthermore “iteration count”,
 and the “cryptographic salt length”
.. which are often typical parameters for key creation and
The advantage is that every user can define this individually
and manually according to the own gusto. Other applications - even open source applications - hardly provide for
the user this choice, to determine these key values for the
encryption process itself. With Spot-On now every user is
able to set up an own definition of the, so to say, “Cryptographic DNA” – for the encryption algorithms as well as for
the authenticating signatures.
Using a signature means: that the generated encryption key
is re-signed with a key to prove that a message is coming
from a particular subscriber and nobody else. Signatures


Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

provide some authentication. There is also a comprehensive choice of encryption methods available for such signatures: DSA, ECDSA, EdDSA, Elgamal, and RSA.
 RSA signature: To verify the origin of a message, RSA
can also be used to sign a message: Suppose Alice uses
Bob's public key to send him an encrypted message. In
the message, she can claim to be Alice but Bob has no
way of verifying that the message was actually from
Alice since anyone can use Bob's public key to send
him encrypted messages. Suppose Alice wishes to
send a signed message to Bob. She can use her own
private key to do so. She produces a hash value of the
message, raises it to the power of d (modulo n) (as she
does when decrypting a message), and attaches it as a
"signature" to the message. When Bob receives the
signed message, he uses the same hash algorithm in
conjunction with Alice's public key. He raises the signature to the power of e (modulo n) (as he does when
encrypting a message) and compares the resulting
hash value with the message's actual hash value. If the
two agree, he knows that the author of the message
was in possession of Alice's private key, and that the
message has not been tampered with since. In SpotOn the OAEP and PSS schemes are used with the RSA
encryption and RSA signature respectively.
 DSA signature: The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
is another Standard for digital signatures, based on the
mathematical concept of modular exponentiations
and the discrete logarithm problem. Since 1994 the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
adopted DSA for use in their Digital Signature Standard
(DSS). DSA is covered by U.S. Patent 5,231,668, filed
July 26, 1991 and attributed to David W. Kravitz, a
former NSA employee. And NIST has made this patent
available worldwide royalty-free. DSA is a variant of
the ElGamal signature scheme and works in the
framework of public-key cryptosystems. Messages are
27 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

signed by the signer's private key and the signatures
are verified by the signer's corresponding public key.
The digital signature provides message authentication,
integrity and non-repudiation.
 ECDSA signature: The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (ECDSA) offers a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which uses elliptic curve cryptography. As with elliptic-curve cryptography in general,
the bit size of the public key believed to be needed for
ECDSA is about twice the size of the security level, in
bits. For example, at a security level of 80 bits (meaning an attacker requires a maximum of about 2^80 operations to find the private key) the size of an ECDSA
public key would be 160 bits, whereas the size of a
DSA public key is at least 1024 bits. On the other hand,
the signature size is the same for both DSA and ECDSA:
approximately 4t bits, where t is the security level
measured in bits, that is, about 320 bits for a security
level of 80 bits.
 EdDSA signature: The Edwards-curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a
variant of Schnorr signature based on Twisted Edwards
curves. It is designed to be faster than existing digital
signature schemes without sacrificing security. It was
developed by a team including Daniel J. Bernstein,
Niels Duif, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe, and Bo-Yin
Yang. The reference implementation is public domain
 Elgamal signature: The Elgamal signature scheme is a
digital signature scheme which is based on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms. It was described
by Taher Elgamal in 1984. A variant developed at the
NSA and known as the Digital Signature Algorithm is
much more widely used. The Elgamal signature
scheme must not be confused with Elgamal encryption
which was also invented by Taher Elgamal. The Elgamal

Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

signature scheme allows a third-party to confirm the
authenticity of a message.
Spot-On is regarded as one – if not the – first open source
encryption suite which has implemented the McEliece Encryption for a communication application. It is regarded as
more secure against the attacks knowing from Quantum
Quantum Computers
breaking the security of public key cryptographic systems
Most of the popular public key ciphers are based on the difficulty of factoring integers - if they are the product of few
prime numbers - or the discrete logarithm problem, both of
which can be solved by Shor's algorithm. Informally, it solves
the following problem: Given an integer N, find its prime
By comparison, a Quantum Computer could efficiently solve
this problem using Shor's algorithm to find its factors and
break the security of public key cryptographic systems: In
particular, the RSA, Diffie–Hellman, and elliptic curve Diffie–
Hellman algorithms could be broken. These are used to protect secure Web pages, encrypted email, and many other
types of data.
However, other cryptographic algorithms do not appear to
be broken by those algorithms: Some public-key algorithms
are based on problems other than the integer factorization
and discrete logarithm problems to which Shor's algorithm
applies, like the McEliece cryptosystem based on a problem
in coding theory. Lattice-based cryptosystems are also not
known to be broken by Quantum Computers. Large-scale
Quantum Computers would theoretically be able to solve
certain problems much more quickly than any classical

Quantum Computers could break the
PKI of certain algorithms.
McEliece and NTRU
are today more
secure algorithms
in this regard.

29 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Let’s go into more detail about symmetric encryption with
an AES password string, which can complement PKI encryption as follows.


What an AES can
do: Encrypting the
cipher text once
more to cipher text
- or defining the
next used secure
(e.g. initiated by

Another method, another layer: Symmetric
Encryption with AES

Symmetric encryption uses often AES - a 32-character
password string generated by processes including random.
Since all characters are used in the generation, the set of
options is also sufficiently large that even fast machines can
not try out all variants within a short time. While asymmetric encryption uses a public and private key pair, in
symmetric encryption it is a secret passphrase that both
subscribers need to know (hence called symmetric) (- or for
Spot-On: in the later discussed Gemini function it is also
called “Gemini” (from the Greek term for “twin” derived):
Both sides have to exchange and know the secret passphrase).
Figure 6: Example of an AES Password string
5847 088B 15B6 1CBA 59D4 E2E8 CD39 DFCE

Spot-On thus uses both standards as described above: asymmetric keys and/or symmetrically encrypted messages
are sent through SSL/TLS (i.e. a-symmetric) encrypted connections, and the a-symmetrically encrypted message can
possibly also be secured with symmetric encryption (e.g.
AES). That means Spot-On could use three levels of encryption like this example of encapsulation shows (simplified, as
shown without HASH/MAC or signature):
Figure 7: Example of Encapsulation with three levels of encryption
RSA-SSL/TLS (AES (Elgamal (Message)))


Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

Translation of this formula: First, the text message is encrypted with the public (a-symmetric) key of the friend via
the Elgamal algorithm, then the encrypted text is encrypted
again with an AES algorithm (symmetric password) (a second time) (and secured) and this capsule is then sent to the
friend through the existing SSL/TLS encrypted (asymmetric) connection (using RSA). This is though a simplified structure as it does not show the hashes and signatures.
This specific structure to apply different methods of encryption is defining the protocol used in the encryption suite
Spot-On: It is called the Echo Protocol, which is just a pure
HTTP/S-Transfer and can be seen in a regular browser.
Figure 8: Discovering Spot-On’s sent cipher text to a localhost
HTTP-Listener in a browser

Spot-On uses pure
HTTP/S for the
transfer of cipher
text in the so called
Echo Protocol.

If a HTTP (not HTTPS) listener is set up and the encrypted
message capsule is not sent via HTTPS - over the third encryption layer, via a SSL/TLS connection - the cipher text
(layer 2) of the message capsule can also be viewed in the
browser. It turns out that even with two encryption layers

31 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

refers to hybrid and
multi encryption.

only cipher test is sent (see figure from the practice demo
of Adams / Maier 2016).
It is also possible to exchange the symmetric passphrase
(the AES) with the remote friend using an established asymmetric (SSL/TLS) encryption. The passphrase can be
automatically generated or manually defined.
This symmetric encryption now can be applied to either to
convert plain text or even already converted text, that is
cipher text, another time to cipher text (as shown in the
message format above) - or the symmetric password can be
used to define a new end-to-end encrypted channel (a fast
change of the layer 2 credentials in the message example
A (symmetric) end-to-end encryption is thus to differentiate
from the point-to-point encryption. Therefore, the word
“continuous” end-to-end encryption is also added (better
still: continuous symmetric end-to-end encryption) - because it’s about that only the participant Alice and the participant Bob know the secret passphrase. Point-to-point
encryption would be when Alice connects to the server and
then the server connects to Bob. This may mean that the
server can read the message, so it unpacks and repackages
the message, especially if there is an a-symmetric key between the participants and the server located in the middle.
Instead, Spot-On offers continuous symmetric end-to-end
encryption that can not only be manually defined, but can
also be instantaneously renewed with automation. This
defines the function of “Cryptographic Calling” - a way to
instantly renew the end to end encrypting (e.g. symmetric)
credentials e.g. within the session (see the Chat Section for
a deeper explanation how Cryptographic Calling is defined).
There are hardly any other - also open source - applications
that include an end-to-end (e2e) encryption from one participant to the other participant, in which the user can
manually and individually define the passphrase (e.g. an
AES string).


Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

What now if we mix and serialize symmetric and asymmetric encryption? We end at hybrid and multi encryption, also so called: superencipherment.


Superencipherment: Hybrid & Multi Encryption

Spot-On implements a hybrid encryption system, including
authenticity and confidentiality. Hybrid means first of all:
“both variants are available” and can be combined with
each other. Thus, a message can first be a-symmetrically
encrypted with PKI shown above and then symmetrically
with an AES again. Or the other way around, there is also
another variant conceivable: The PKI transmission path
transmits with permanent keys again only temporarily used
keys, with which then the further communication takes
place over this temporary channel. The temporary channel
can then again transmit a symmetric encryption with an
Thus, not only in the method change from PKI to AES respective from a-symmetric encryption to symmetric encryption exists one option to build a hybrid system, but also
in the switch from permanent PKI keys to temporary PKI
Encrypting often and switching between these methods
or using time-limited keys is a strong competence of SpotOn in this hybrid and multiple encryption.

Ephemeral Keys
temporary Keys.

Multiple encryption is the process of encrypting an already
encrypted message one or more times, either using the
same or a different algorithm. It is also known as cascade
encryption, cascade ciphering, multiple encryption, and superencipherment. Superencryption refers to the outer-level
encryption of a multiple encryption. Cipher text is converted
to cipher text to cipher text and to cipher text…

33 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Spot-On holds even more extensive security especially with
multiple encryptions: Here cipher text is either converted
another time to cipher text or sent through an SSL/TLS
With these possibilities one can now play and apply it in
various ways. Is the permanent or the temporary key applied first, or once again the symmetric and then the asymmetrical as the second level of encryption? or vice versa? Hybrid and multi encryption have many potentials and
offer various research perspectives.
One part of the system in Spot-On generates the key for
authentication and encryption per message. These two keys
are used to authenticate and encapsulate data (that is, the
message). The two keys (for authentication and encryption)
are then encapsulated across the public-key part of the system. The application also provides a mechanism for distributing session keys for this data encapsulation (or encryption
of the message) as described above, the temporary key.
Again, the keys are encapsulated and transmitted via the
public key system: an additional mechanism allows the distribution of the session keys over the predetermined keys.
Encryption algorithms for the cipher text, signature algorithms and hash values create an encapsulation of the information. As a first example, this format may serve the
mentioned message encryption:
Figure 9: Message Encryption Format of the Echo Protocol
(Encryption Key || Hash Key)
|| EEncryption Key (Data)
|| HHash Key (EEncryption Key (Data)).

For those who are dealing with encryption for the first time,
the above example of encapsulation is a first example to
further study and understand the methods; - In any case,
one can see how the encryption key is supplemented by the


Alternatives to RSA encryption: Spot-On as the first NTRU & McEliece Encryption Suite

hash key (see MAC) and also the data is embedded in different encryption levels.
Next to the modern algorithms also the process innovations
are to be mentioned with further examples as follows:


Further Examples of state-of-the-art encryption & process implementations

Spot-On has not only standardized, forward-looking algorithms or numerous details (such as the switch from AES128 to AES-256 or the use of very high, because necessary
key sizes), but also implemented the professional integration of established and new encryption processes.
Spot-On uses CBC with CTS to provide confidentiality. The
file encryption mechanism supports the Galois/Counter
Mode (GCM) algorithm without the authenticity property
provided by the algorithm. To provide authenticity, the application uses the methodical approach of “Encrypt-thenMAC” (ETM). MAC stands for Message Authentication Code
- and means that the order is determined: first encrypt, and
then authenticate the message with a code.
Non-NTRU private keys are evaluated for correctness by
the gcry_pk_testkey () function. The public key must also
meet some basic criteria, such as the inclusion of the public
key identifier.
The authentication of the private key and the encryption
mechanism is identical to the method as further discussed
in the documentation of the source code in the section on
the encrypted and authenticated container. (The documentation for the source code for the section of encrypted and
authenticated containers contains further technical details.)
Another example for innovation is the implementation of
the ThreeFish hash, which was available as an alternative to
SHA-3 when it was realized that SHA-1 was no longer able
to cope with future requirements. Threefish is a block encryption developed as part of the design of the cryptographic hash function Skein, which participated in the NIST
selection process for SHA-3. Threefish does not use S-boxes

Code: Encrypt-thenMAC.

35 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

or other lookup tables to complicate time-side attacks
(computing time attacks).
Figure 10: Threefish implementation

Many more examples can be found, which show that the
encryption processes in Spot-On are very state-of-the-art.
Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Discuss the most important function of Spot-On from
your point of view and give some reasons.
What is PKI? And how is an AES differentiating from it.
Find literature about multi-encryption and summarize
Why is McEliece more resistant against attacks?
Describe why it is important to encrypt in the Internet
and how to foster the use of encryption.

What is the Echo Protocol?

3 What is the Echo Protocol?
This special way of mixing a-symmetric PKI and symmetric
AES, multiplying permanent and ephemeral temp-keys, tying keys from last session to the current one as it is a characteristic for multiple encryption on the way to exponential
encryption within a node network, as well as having for the
cipher text a transfer via a SSL/TLS tunnel connection in
place are referring characteristics of the Echo Protocol,
which is to be deepened in this section.
Next to multiple encryption the Echo Protocol contains two
further characteristics: one is given by sending messages to
the network, the other by unpacking the encrypted capsule
and matching its content. So, what exactly are the full specific properties of the Echo Protocol?
With the Echo Protocol is meant - simply spoken – that
 first, every message transmission is encrypted…
Figure 11: Example of message encryption within the Echo

SSL (AES (RSA* (message)))
*) instead of RSA one can also use Elgamal or NTRU or McEliece.


… and second, in the Echo Network, each node
sends each message to each connected neighbor.
Full Stop. That’s how easy the world is. Underlying is the so-called “small-world phenomenon”:
Anyone can reach anyone somehow over seven
corners in a peer-to-peer or friend-to-friend
network - or simply distribute the message over
a shared Echo-chat server in the circle of friends.

37 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The Echo Match
compares two
Hashes: One of
the original plain
text message and
one of the converted text message by one key.


A third criterion for the Echo Protocol can be
added, that is a special feature when unpacking
the encrypted capsule: The capsules have neither a receiver nor sender information included and here they are different from TCP packets.
The message is identified by the hash of the unencrypted message (compared to the conversion
text of all known keys in the node) as to whether
the message should be displayed and readable
to the recipient in the user interface or not. For
this so-called “Echo Match” see even more detailed below.

Figure 12: Graphical depiction of a message within the Echo


What is the Echo Protocol?

The graphical figure shows from inside to outside the process of how the encrypted capsule is formed in the context
of the Echo Protocol:
First level of encryption: The message is encrypted and the
cipher text of the message is hashed and then the asymmetric key (e.g. with the RSA algorithm) can also be
used to encrypt the symmetric keys. In an intermediate
step, the encrypted text and the hash digest of the message
are bundled into a capsule and packed together. It follows
the paradigm: Encrypt-then-MAC. To prove to the recipient
that the cipher text has not been corrupted, the hash digest
is first formed before the cipher text is decrypted.
Third level of encryption: Then this capsule can be transmitted via a secure SSL/TLS connection to the communication partner.
Second level of encryption: Optionally, there is also the
option of symmetrically encrypting the first-level capsule
with an AES-256, which is comparable to a shared, 32character password. Hybrid encryption is then added to
multiple encryptions (see Adams / Maier 2016:46).
The “Half Echo” mode sends a message only one hop, i.e.
from Bob to Alice. Alice then stops sending the message (as
is the default with the Full Echo).
Thirdly, in addition to Full Echo and Half Echo, there is the
Adaptive Echo (AE). Here, the message is only sent to
neighbors or friends, if they know an encryption token,
they have previously stored. So if the user does not know
the token, the message will not be forwarded to this user.
After all, the Echo still knows Echo Accounts. A kind of
firewall. This ensures that only friends who know the account access can connect. So a web-of-trust can be created,
which is a network exclusively among friends. It is not
based on the encryption key but is independent of it. This
means that the user does not have to associate his public
key with his IP address or even announce it in the network.
39 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Basically, in the Echo, each node sends a message to each
connected node: If a user should then receive a message a
second time, it is compared in a temporary cache (based on
the hash value for that message) and, if applicable, when
the hash is upcoming again, the message is discarded and
thus not forwarded. This approach is called “congestion
control” and balances the number of messages in the network from multiple nodes or servers.

Assembling Surprise Eggs - An analogy: The cryptography
of the Echo Protocol can be compared with the giving and
taking of so called “surprise eggs”, a capsule with a to assemble mini-toy in the famous chocolate egg. Bob gives
Alice a surprise egg, Alice opens it and consumes the chocolate and bumps inside into the plastic capsule of the surprise egg, trying to open it and assemble the pieces into a
toy, a smurf. However, she fails in the assembly, the Smurf
cannot be formed and therefore she packs the items back
into the plastic capsule, pours new chocolate around and
passes the egg to her neighbor, who also tries to assemble
some of the pieces. Alice does not know who can assemble
the surprise egg or build the smurf successfully, so she continues to copy it (- what a miracle, Alice has a surprise-egg
copying machine -) and gives each of her friends a copy.
(Unpacking, crafting, evaluating, packing, giving away and
unpacking, crafting, evaluating, wrapping, giving away, and
so on ...).
From the point of view of the entities represented in the
network (kernels), the network would have become a surprise-egg circulation network in this analogy, if the crafting
processes were not reduced again with Congestion Control.
Once known, assembling parts are not built a second time
together. Alice tinkers many packets until she recognizes a
smurf with a red cap, she has received the figure of the Papa smurf intended for her (or as her message).


What is the Echo Protocol?

To exclude time and frequency analyzes in the Internet or
Echo Network, there are other functions in Spot-On which
increase encryption or make cryptographic analysis more
For example: with the Spot-On application the user can also
send a kind of a “fake” message (from the simulacra function) and also “simulated” communication messages (“impersonated messages”). On the one hand, encryption is
here not encryption in the sense of cipher text, but it is a
block of pure random characters that are emitted from time
to time, and the other is a simulated human conversation,
which is also based only on scrambled random characters:
Figure 13: Simulacra, Impersonator, Super-Echo
The Simulacra feature sends a “simulated” chat message to
the Echo Network when the checkbox is activated. This
“fake” message consists of pure random numbers, making it
harder for analysts to distinguish encrypted messages with
real and random content appearance like cipher text. Simulacrum is a term that is not unknown from both the movie
“Matrix” ( and
Baudrillard’s philosophy (Neo uses this name for the repository for software in his home. And the book ‘‘Simulacres et
Simulation’’ by the French media philosopher Jean
Baudrillard explores the relationship between reality, symbols and society). Several years after the publication of the
Echo Protocol, donors to the Tor network have developed a
similar software called Matrix Dot Org, which sends encrypted capsules to the network comparable to the Echo
Protocol and also addresses a messaging function; an analysis is pending where the Echo over the plagiarism-like architecture offers differences and benefits or offered further
open source suggestions.

41 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

In addition to random fake messages, the Spot-On program
can also simulate a chat with the Impersonator function as if
a real person chats from time to time and sends out replies.
Also, these messages are filled with pure random data, but
they vary – a simulation of a real chat conversation. Thus,
analysis of messages can be made more difficult if thirdparty recorders should temporarily store and record all user
communication, which may be assumed. But even more:
even the absence of meta-data (see data retention) gives no
reason to suspect that a message was for the user. Anyone
who has been able to successfully unpack a message normally does not send it back to the Echo Network. A record
of metadata could have increased interest in the un-resubmitted messages, assuming that this message could then
have been successfully decoded by the user. For this case
there is also the option of the SuperEcho:

The feature of Super-Echo also redirects successfully decoded and readable messages back to all friends. A lack of retransmitting a message may then no longer indicate - because of the Super-Echo - that the message may have been
successfully decoded.

Super-Echo, Simulacra and Impersonation are three options
of the Spot-On program, which should make it harder for
attackers to understand the messages that are of interest to
the user (and apparently others) in the multitude of messages.
Now let’s take a closer look at the individual Echo modes of


What is the Echo Protocol?


Full Echo

The “Full Echo” modus underlies an assumption, as it is also
in the so-called “small world phenomenon” given: with
hopping over a few friends everyone can send a message to
each of them. Somehow, everyone knows everyone about a
maximum of seven corners. This is also applicable in a peerto-peer or friend-to-friend network. Therefore, a user can
reach anyone if each node sends each message to all other
known nodes.
Small World Phenomenon
The small-world experiment comprised several experiments
conducted by Stanley Milgram and other researchers examining the average path length for social networks of people.
The research was groundbreaking in that it suggested that
human society is a small-world-type network characterized
by short path-lengths. The experiments are often associated
with the phrase "six degrees of connectedness", although
Milgram did not use this term himself.
Guglielmo Marconi's conjectures based on his radio work in
the early 20th century, which were articulated in his 1909
Nobel Prize address, may have inspired Hungarian author
Frigyes Karinthy to write a challenge to find another person
to whom he could not be connected through at most five
people. This is perhaps the earliest reference to the concept
of six degrees of separation, and the search for an answer to
the small world problem.
Mathematician Manfred Kochen and political scientist Ithiel
de Sola Pool wrote a mathematical manuscript, "Contacts
and Influences", while working at the University of Paris in
the early 1950s, during a time when Milgram visited and
collaborated in their research. Their unpublished manuscript circulated among academics for over 20 years before
publication in 1978. It formally articulated the mechanics of
social networks and explored the mathematical consequences of these (including the degree of connectedness).

43 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The manuscript left many significant questions about networks unresolved, and one of these was the number of degrees of connectedness in actual social networks.
Milgram took up the challenge on his return from Paris, and
his Psychology Today article generated enormous publicity
for the experiments, which are well known today, long after
much of the formative work has been forgotten. The smallworld question is still a popular research topic (also for network and graph theory) today, with many experiments still
being conducted.
In computer science, the small-world phenomenon (although it is not typically called that) is used in the development of secure peer-to-peer protocols, new routing algorithms for the Internet and ad hoc wireless networks, and
search algorithms for communication networks of all kinds.

Alternatively, a user can support this decentralized approach or abbreviate the message paths by installing an
own chat server based on the Echo Kernel for friends, so
that all encrypted messages can be sent to the participants
and the server can serve as an e-mail-postbox or intermediate chat server.


What is the Echo Protocol?

The mapping describes sending the message from a starting
point to all network nodes across all connected network
Figure 14: Echo Simulation: Each node sends to each connected

So basically, in the Echo, each node sends each message to
each node. This sounds simple: The Echo Protocol is a very
simple Protocol, but also has wider implications, that is:
There are no routing information within the Echo given and
even metadata can hardly be recorded from the individual
node or even network. The nodes also do not forward the
message. The term “forwarding” is incorrect, because each
node actively resends the message to the (its) connected
friends, respective neighbors.
This may result in receiving a message (from multiple
connected nodes) multiple times - however, in order to
avoid this happening and being efficient, the message hash
is cached, and the message may be rejected for retransmission if it is identified as a doublet. This is called as already
indicated above: “Congestion Control”.
The message is in a capsule, so to speak, similar to a ZIP
file. This capsule is created by a-symmetric encryption with
the public key. Added is the hash of the plain text message.
45 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The Echo-Match
can be regarded as
one sustainable
innovation and
invention in network theory and
routing with a direct perspective to
Cryptographic Discovery.


When another node (receiver) tries to decode the cipher
text, a new text comes out depending on the used and
available key - which can either be decoded correctly or
incorrectly, that is to say, it is human-readable - or, if the
decoding key was incorrect, out of random characters (the
cipher text) became only random characters (wrong decoded text, not readable plain text). This resulting text after the
decoding attempt is thus again hashed.
Now, if the hash of the decoded message is identical to
the hash of the original message that the sender already
attached (readable) to the capsule, it is clear that the deciphering node has used the correct key and this message in
plain text is for him: hence, the message is readable and
displayed in the user interface. This can be called an “Echo
Match”. Unsuccessful decoding attempts, in which the hash
value between the original message and the message text
of the decoding attempt do not match, are not displayed in
the user interface, but remain in the kernel of the program
for further transmission to the connected neighbors.
The node must therefore try with all the keys of his
friends to unpack the message and compare the hash values. If the hash value is not identical, the node packs the
ingredients back together in one capsule and sends it to
each of the connected friends, who then try the same.
The hash value of a message is not invertible, therefore
the encryption cannot be broken with the (enclosed) hash
of the original message, it still requires the correct key.
A message that has been successfully unpacked will no
longer be sent, unless the user uses the “Super Echo” option, which also retransmits the successfully unpacked messages. Thus, no one who records the Internet packets along
the line can identify messages that are not sent again.
Finally, as described above, it is also possible from time
to time to send out false messages (“simulacra fake messages”) and also “simulated impersonated messages”, so
that it is difficult for network traffic collectors to find out
the message capsule, which has been of interest for the
user’s own readability. Because it is to be noted that it may
be assumed today that all communication data of an Inter-

What is the Echo Protocol?

net user is somewhere stored and recorded on the Internet
and in the case of interest also automated and manually
Then: This encrypted capsule is again sent over an encrypted SSL/TLS channel that is established between the
nodes. This is a decentralized, self-signed p2p connection, a
“two-pass mutual authentication Protocol”, so the term.
The implementation is precisely defined according to
SSL/TLS, but it can also be switched off: The network nodes
thus communicate via HTTPS or even only HTTP.
Figure 15: Example and Process Description of the Echo-Match
Practical Example and Process Description
of the Echo-Match
Sender A hashed his original text to a hash 123456789, encrypts the text and packs the crypto-text and hash of the
original message into the capsule (before he adds an AESPassword and sends it out via a TLS/SSL connection). Recipient 1 converts the received encoded text of the capsule to a
(supposed) plain text, but this has the hash 987654321 and
is therefore not identical to the supplied original text hash
of 123456789. This is repeated with all available keys of all
friends of the recipient 1. Since all hash comparisons, however, were unsuccessful, he re-packs the message again and
sends it on. The message is obviously not for him or one of
his friends. Recipient 2 now also converts the received, encrypted text to a (supposed) plain text, this has the hash
123456789 and is thus identical to the supplied original text
hash of 123456789, the decoding was apparently successful
with one of the existing keys of his friends and therefore the
message is displayed on the screen of this receiver (and if
Super-Echo is selected, also re-packed again and sent-out

However, of course, the transfer becomes more susceptible
if one does not use the multiple encryption. Therefore, one
should always establish a HTTPS connection to his or her
47 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

friends and send over this encrypted channel his encrypted
capsules in which the message waits, to be kissed awake
from the right key (using the “Echo Match” method based
on the hash comparison) and to be converted in readable
plain text.
No one on the net can see which message a user successfully unpacked, because everything happens on the user’s
local machine.


Half Echo

The Half Echo mode sends the user’s message only one hop
to the next node, e.g. from Bob to Alice. Alice then does not
send the message down the path of her connected friends
(as it is customary for the Full Echo). This Echo mode is
technically defined by the connection to another listener:
Bob’s Node, when connecting to the node of Alice, notifies
that Alice should stop sending the message to her friends.
Thus, two friends or nodes can exclude via a direct connection that the message is carried into the wider network via
the other, further connection(s) that each node has.


Echo Accounts

And in addition: The Echo also knows Echo Accounts. An
account is a kind of firewall. It can be used to ensure that
only friends connect who know the credentials to the account. Thus, a so-called Web-of-Trust, a network based on
trust, is formed. It is not based on the encryption key like in
other applications, it is independent of it. This has the advantage that the encryption public key does not need to be
associated with the IP address (as it is the case with RetroShare, for example); or that the user must announce the
own IP address in the network of friends, for example in a
DHT where users can search for it. The Echo Accounts provide a peer-to-peer-(P2P)-connection to a friend-to-friend(F2F)-network or allow both types of connection. This
makes Spot-On suitable for both paradigms.


What is the Echo Protocol?

Figure 16: Account Firewall of Spot-On

The Echo Accounts work as follows:
Binding endpoints are responsible for defining the account information. During the creation process for an account, this can be defined for one-time use (one-time account or one-time use). Account name and also the passphrase for the account require at least 32 bytes of characters. So, a long password is required.
After a network connection has been established, the
binding endpoint informs the requesting node with a request for authentication. The binding endpoint will drop
the connection if the peer has not identified within a fifteen
second time window.
After the request for authentication has been received,
the peer responds to the binding endpoint. The peer then
transmits the following information: HHash Key (Salt /
Time) // Salt, where the hash key is a concise summary of
the account name and also the account password.
Currently, the SHA-512 hash algorithm is used to generate this hash result. The time variable has a resolution of a
few minutes. The peer retains the value for the cryptographic salt.

49 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The binding endpoint receives the information of the
peer. Consequently, this then processes HHash Key (Salt //
Time) for all accounts he has set up. If the endpoint cannot
identify an account, it will wait one minute and perform
another search. If an account matching this hash key was
found, the binding endpoint creates a message similar to
the one the peer created in the previous step and sends the
information to the peer. The authenticated information is
stored. After a period of about 120 seconds, the information is deleted again.
The peer receives the information of the binding endpoint and performs a similar validation process, this time
including the analysis of the cryptographic salt value of the
binding endpoint. The two salt values must then be clearly
consistent. The peer will drop the connection if the endpoint has not identified itself within a fifteen-second time
It should be noted, by the way, that the account system
can be further developed by including a key for encryption.
The additional key then allows even more precise time
windows to be defined.
If SSL/TLS is not available during this negotiation, the Protocol may become vulnerable as follows: An intermediate
station may record the values from the third step and consequently send to the binding endpoint. Then, the binding
endpoint could also grant access to the account to an unknown connection. The recording device could then grab
the response of the binding endpoint, that is, the values of
the fourth step, and forward the information to the peer. If
the account information or password is then accurately
maintained, the peer would then accept the response from
this new binding endpoint. That’s why, as always, it’s about
protecting passwords and to use HTTPS connections.
In Spot-On, therefore, a server account - if it is specified
to be dedicated - therefore requires a password equal to
the length of an AES-256: this is a passphrase of 32 characters.


What is the Echo Protocol?


The Echo Grid

When students talk, or be taught (or teach themselves)
about the Echo Protocol, they can simply draw an Echo Grid
with the letters E_C_H_O. The nodes from E1 to O4 are
numbered and connect the letters with a connecting line on
the ground (see figure).
Figure 17: The Echo Grid Template

For example, then the connection E1-E2 denotes an IP connection to a neighbor.
If the individual nodes now exchange keys, connections
are created that arise as a new level at the level of the IP
connections of the P2P / F2F network.
With the architecture underlying in Spot-On not only the
cryptographic routing/discovery in a kernel program was
invented and elaborated, also - as stated above - the term
“cryptographic routing” was paradoxically removed from
the routing with the Echo Protocol. It is therefore necessary
to speak in more detail of the “Cryptographic Echo” instead
of “Cryptographic Routing”. One further item to differentiate the Protocols is the Protocol of the “Cryptographic Discovery” which will be discussed below in an extra section.
Echo is thus “beyond routing” (Gasakis/Schmidt 2018):
Firstly, the message packets do not contain routing information (addressees) and the nodes also do not use “for-

The Echo-Grid
to discuss
Graph Theory.

51 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The Echo node
as a sovereign.


warding” in the original sense, because they simply send
everything to all connections. And secondly: Even the cryptographic key that tries to decode the message is not an
address (which would even be attached to the message
package), but only a polarizing glass: it lets us see texts differently and possibly understand. The Echo Protocol therefore also uses the term “traveling” rather than the term
“routing”. Or just in short: “Cryptographic Echo Discovery”.
From a legal point of view, a different evaluation is then
also to be made here, since a node does not forward in the
name of an addressee as a middleman, but informs the
neighbors independently (see, for example, the forwarding
in other routing models such as AntsP2P with its ant algorithm, Mute, AllianceP2P, RetroShare, Onion-Routing or
As well as spreading an established reputation or news in
the neighborhood, the message also spreads in the Echo otherwise the echoing protocol allows any cryptographic
“stuff” to “float” away (by being not decoded or being unreadable).
It seems to be a reminiscence to the Star Trek Borg collective paradigm: everyone has access to all the neighbors’
messages (unless half or Adaptive Echo is used and if the
message text can be understood (decoded) at all).
In the Echo, the node is more of a “sovereign” for “giving
and receiving (non-directional) information”; in other networks, a node could be more referred to as a “postman”,
“dealer”, “forwarder” or “intermediary”. Yes, in the Echo
the node is a sovereign!
The Echo Grid as a simple network representation is not
only used for the analysis of “routing” (or “travel”-ways) to
represent Echo modes and encryption stati, but can also be
found in graph theory considerations: which path takes a
message? depending on the structure of the network? And
it also can be used to evaluate the use of Echo Accounts,
Half or Full Echo and the Adaptive Echo, as the following
examples of the graphs between Alice, Bob, Ed and Maria

What is the Echo Protocol?


Examples of key exchanges by Alice, Bob, Ed &

Figure 18: Alice, Bob, Ed and Mary in the Echo Grid - An example of Echo paths and for Graph Theory

The following examples of the figure can be further discussed (a few vocabulary and processes of functions of the
Spot-On client are used, so that in the program inexperienced readers can also skip this section and refer back once
the basic functions (installation, chat, e-mail, File transfer
or URL search) have been explained – so that these technical examples are understood better at a later stage):
 Alice (IP = E1) and Bob (IP = C3) have exchanged their
public key and are connected via the following IP
neighbors: E1-E3-E5-E6-C3.
 Bob (C3) and Maria (O4) are also friends, they’ve also swapped their public keys for encryption: and use
their neighbors’ IP connections: C3-C4-H5-H3-H4-H6O3-O4.
 Finally: Maria (O4) is a friend of Ed (H1). They either
communicate via the path: O4-O3-H6-H4-H3-H1 or
53 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual






they use the path of: O4-O2-O1-O3-H6-H4-H3-H1.
Since, in the Echo Protocol, every IP neighbor sends
every message to every connected IP neighbor, the
path that delivers the message fastest will succeed.
(The second incoming message is then filtered out by
Congestion Control).
Direct IP connections from neighbors such as E1-E3
can be further secured by the creation of a so-called
“Echo Account”: No other IP address than E1 can
then connect to the so-called “listener” of the
neighbor E3. This method can be used to create a
web-of-trust - without relying on keys for encryption
- nor does it require a friend as a neighbor to exchange their chat or e-mail key.
So-called “Turtle-Hopping“ becomes much more efficient in the Echo Network: when Ed and Alice start a
file transfer (via the StarBeam function and using a
Magnetic URI link), the Echo Protocol transports the
packets via the path H1-H3- H5-C4-C3-E6-E5-E3-E1.
Maria is not in the route, but she will also receive the
packets over the Full Echo if she knows the StarBeam
Magnet. The advantage is that the hopping is not
done over the keys, but over the IP connections (e.g.
the Web-of-Trust). Basically, everything is always encrypted, so why not take the shortest route on the
A so-called “Buzz” or “Echo’ed IRC Channel” (therefore also short: e’IRC) room can be created or “hosted” by the node O2, for example. Since only the user
Ed knows the buzz room name (which is tied into the
Magnet), all other neighbors and friends are left out.
Advantage: The user can talk to unknown friends in a
room without having exchanged a public e.g. RSA key
with them. Instead, a one-time Magnet is simply
used for this “buzz” / “e’IRC” room.
Maria is a mutual friend of Ed and Bob and she activates the C/O (care of) feature for e-mails: this allows Ed to send e-mails to Bob, even though he’s of-

What is the Echo Protocol?

fline, because: Maria saves the e-mails in her instance, until Bob comes online.
 Furthermore: Alice created a so-called virtual “e-mail
institution”. This is not comparable to a POP3 or
IMAP server because the emails are only cached: Ed
sends his public e-mail key to Alice - and Ed adds the
Magnet of Alice’s “E-Mail Institution” to the program. Now, e-mails from Bob and Ed are also cached
within Alice (at the so-called e-mail institution), even
if Maria should be offline.
It is helpful to follow the examples on the above graphic or
to come back to this at the end of the manual after further
explanations of the functions.


Adaptive Echo (AE) and its AE tokens

In addition to the Full and Half Echo, there is the third:
Adaptive Echo (AE). Here, as it will be described below, the
message is sent to connected neighbors or friends only if
the node knows a particular cryptographic token - similar to
a secret passphrase.
Of course, this passphrase must first be defined, shared
and stored in the respective nodes. Thus, defined ways of a
message in a network configuration can be used. For example, if all nodes in a country use a common Adaptive Echo
passphrase, the message will never appear in other nations’
nodes if they do not know the passphrase. Thus, a routing
can be defined that is not located within the message, but
in the nodes. If you do not know the passphrase, one does
not get the message forwarded respective further sent out!
Adaptive Echo turns messages that cannot be opened into
messages that are not known or even exist.
For the explanation of the “Adaptive Echo” another EchoGrid with the connected letters A and E can be drawn (see
following figure).

The Echo is a natural evolvement. An
Echo Server is just a
reflector of messages.
First in - First out.
Probably Amazon`s
Echo (2015) has
been derived from
the Echo Protocol
released since 2013
and earlier. Coincidence?

55 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 19: Adaptive Echo (AE): The “Hansel and Gretel” Example of the Adaptive Echo

If a user, his or her chat friend, and a configured third node
as a chat server insert the same AE token (“Adaptive Echo
Token”) into the program, then the chat server will only
send the user’s message to his friend, and not to all other
connected neighbors (or users), as it would normally be the
case in the Full Echo (server) mode.
The AE token consists, like a passphrase, of at least 96
characters. In the case of Adaptive Echo, the information
from the sending node of the encrypted capsule is attached
- and all other nodes learn that one is only forwarding


What is the Echo Protocol?

(sending) the message to nodes or connection partners,
who also know this AE token.
With an AE token, no other node that does not know the
passphrase will be able to receive or view the user’s message. Thus, potential “recorders” can be excluded: these are
possible neighbors, which presumptive record all the message traffic and then try to break the multiple encryption to
get to the message core of the capsule.
In order to be able to determine the graph, the travel
route for the Adaptive Echo, several nodes must agree with
each other and note the passphrase on the way path without any gaps. In the case of the Adaptive Echo it can be
spoken of a routing.

Hansel and Gretel - An example of the Adaptive Echo mode

To illustrate the Adaptive Echo, a classic example is the tale
of Hansel and Gretel.
In the AE grid explained above, the characters Hansel,
Gretel and the evil witch are drawn as nodes. Now Hansel
and Gretel think about how they can communicate with
each other without the evil witch noticing this. According to
the fairy tale, they are in the woods with the witch and
want to find out again of this forest and mark the way with
bread crumbs and white pebbles.
These fairy tale contents can now also illustrate the
Adaptive Echo in the above grid pattern and show at which
points of the grid or the communication graph a cryptographic token called “white pebbles” can be used:
If nodes A2, E5 and E2 use the same AE token, then node
E6 will not receive a message that node A2 (Hansel) and
node E2 (Gretel) will exchange. Because the node E5 learns
about the known token “white pebbles”, it does not send
the messages to the node E6, the “Wicked Witch”. It is a
learning, adaptive network.
An “Adaptive Echo” network reveals no target information (compare again above: “Ants Routing” et. al.). Because - as a reminder: The mode of “Half Echo” sends only
57 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

one hop to the connected neighbor and the “Full Echo”
sends the encrypted message to all connected nodes over
an unspecified hop number. While “Echo Accounts” encourage or hinder other users as a kind of firewall or authorization concept when connecting, “AE tokens” provide
graph or path exclusivity - for messages that are sent via
connected nodes that know the AE token.
Chat Server Administrators can exchange their tokens
with other server administrators if they trust each other
(so-called “Ultra-Peering for Trust”) and define a Web-ofTrust. In network labs or at home with three or four computers, the Adaptive Echo is easy to test and to document
the results:
For an Adaptive Echo test, simply use a network with
three or more computers (or “SPOTON_HOME” as the (suffix-less) file in the binary directory to launch and connect
multiple program instances on a single machine) and then
implement this example flow:
How to test Adaptive Echo

Create a node as a chat server.
Create two nodes as a client.
Connect the two clients to the chat server.
Exchange keys between the clients.
Test the normal communication skills of both clients.
Put an AE token on the server.
Test the normal communication skills of both clients.
Now set the same AE token in a client as well.

Note the result: The server node no longer sends the message to other nodes that do not have or know the AE token.

This example should be easy to replicate.


Cryptographic Discovery

4 Cryptographic Discovery
Cryptographic Discovery describes the method of an Echoing Protocol to find nodes in an Echo Network. The Echoing
Protocol is supplemented with another useful method, if
not even more important, than the Echo itself: Cryptographic Discovery is available in existing clients such as the
Spot-On compatible chat server for the Android operating
system, SmokeStack, and implemented within the code
base. The source code and its documentation define the
method accordingly. For example, Cryptographic Discovery
can replace a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) to find a friend
on the network.
On the mobile device, on the other hand, it makes more
sense for reasons of efficiency and battery protection to
receive and decode only the messages, which are intended
for the own use as a participant.
This initial question: how the number of encrypted message packets can be reduced, especially for mobile devices was the goal of further development of the Echo Protocol.
A response offers the in the meantime developed, and
the Echo Protocol supplementing protocol "Cryptographic
Echo Discovery" (CRED).
Cryptographic Echo Discovery can be described as follows
and can, as we shall see, replace the concept of a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) with its disadvantages.
If a user sends a message to a regular Echo server, it does
not know where to send it to and so it sends it to everyone.
One of those everyones is the correct one. The correct one
will then send the message to the other user. The alternative is to have the peer knowing my peer in a virtual cryptographic software structure. These peers are separate processes. Then the peer of the user could send the message
to peer A and peer Z instead of peers: A through Z. Peers
would be aware of other peers based on a cryptographic
discovery with cryptographic identities. Complex stuff - but

59 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

already coded in into the mobile client of Spot-On: Smoke
Messenger and its Server Smoke Stack.
In its brief form, Cryptographic Echo Discovery is a simple
protocol where clients share presence information with
nearby and connected servers. Nearby servers, if acting as
clients, share their information with nearby servers, and so
on. Presence information is shared whenever necessary.
In the following, we look closer at several examples in a
detailed explanation. Lets assume, we have a graph as following:
C1 => S1 => S2 <= S3 <= C2.
Client C1 connects to Server S1 and shares some semiprivate key material. When S1 connects as a Client to S2, it
shares its pool of semi-private material. C2 connects to S3
and performs a similar task as C1. S3, similarly.
In the end, S2 knows both, C1 and C2 through the nearest-neighbor Sprinkling Effect (SE) (see also further below
for a further description of the so called Sprinkling Effect):
S1 knows about C1. S3 knows about C2. Also S2 and S3
know each other. And so, C1 can address the message to C2
and these messages can be limited and defined to certain
If knowledge is not known, the Echo controls the data
Let's explain the “Cryptographic Echo Discovery” (CRED)
with the “Sprinkling Effect” (SE) over the Echo Protocol with
another simple example from the development source:


Cryptographic Discovery

Figure 20: SECRED – Sprinkling Effect (SE) & Cryptographic
Echo Discovery (CRED) via the Echo Protocol

Sprinkling Effect (SE) &
Cryptographic Echo Discovery (CRED)
via the Echo Protocol

Source: Description of the sprinkling effect based on the Spot-On Project Documentation 07/2016

In the above diagram, the Cs represent clients whereas the
Ss represent servers. Servers may behave as clients (see
directions of arrows in the diagram). Let C4 and S0 establish
a network connection. The connection need not support
SSL / TLS. Assuming that a correct connection has been established, C4 will optionally share some non-private discovery details with S0.
The client tells the server any hint: any kind of information. This information may include, e.g., digests of Buzz
magnets for a group chat room, digests of StarBeam magnets, digests of personal (not private) public keys, etc..
Some of this information may also be shared later.
That means, the server of the user knows of a means of
delivering something to the user.
61 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

If the server of the user has other servers, it tells them
the hint of the user. If the server does not know another
server, the hints end there.
So, such hints are needed to get the message from A to Z.
Also, let’s suppose that C1 performs a similar task. As the
network contracts and expands, entities such as S0 get informed of some of the virtual materials of C0, C1, C4, and
• Notice that S0 is aware of neither C6 nor S3 within a
direct connection, because the paths to S3 are inward within the network.
• Also notice that S0 may become aware of Node C3
and Node C5 courtesy of S2.
So, what's the purpose of Cryptographic Echo Discovery?
CRED's primary purpose is to place the performance of data
inspection on certain servers. Servers will be able to direct
traffic by inspecting packets and delivering them to their
correct clients.
Let's assume that the above network is static for the remaining portion of the exercise.
Also it is assumed that the discovery process has established sufficient knowledge with each of the servers in the
given chain, a steady state.
Now, suppose C4 wishes to communicate with C3. C4 will
deliver a message to S0. S0, having a delicate knowledge
database, will deliver the message to S2. Likewise, S2 will
deliver the message to C3.
It is therefore clear: Without Cryptographic Echo Discovery, C4's message would spread through the entire network
over the Echo Protocol.
The decisive factor is not only the protocol inherent data
inspection, but also the pre-existing process of the division
of clients representing presence information (for example,
one of the above-mentioned hash digest options).


Cryptographic Discovery

Figure 21: Definition of SECRED
Process of the Sprinkling Effect
via Cryptographic Echo Discovery
The sprinkling effect (SE) can be understood as a watering
that can feed and nourish a flower. The collected information is passed on by a node to the neighbors. Each
neighbor participating in the Cryptographic Echo Discovery
distributes this complementary CRED information to the
other neighbors. So, every neighbor is sprinkled.
is an acronym for the term = Sprinkling Effect via
CRyptographic Echo Discovery.

The Echo Protocol then regulates the rest to the respective
graph. Clients, e.g. mobile devices, then receive over the
SECRED exchange only those messages which are intended
for them.
One doesn’t always own the server. One also cannot possibly configure it. So, one has to teach it, how to give someone the messages. And the server teaches. Or not.

SECRED is the
beginning of
teaching machines
by Cryptographic
Discovery and the
Sprinkling Effect.

That is quite simpler than a search for a friend in a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) or the distribution of sender and
receiver information.
A Distributed Hash Table (DHT) is a data structure that
can be used, for example, to store the location of a file or
the precision information in a p2p system: is my friend
online and if so, which current IP and which port does the
referring friend use?
Thanks to the SECRED and Echo Protocol, a user need not
to care what happens up-stream, after the message has
been sent on its journey.
That is a big advantage of SECRED even compared to the
Adaptive Echo (A.E.): A.E. requires configurations - a token

63 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

that is based on the user’s definition. SECRED does not
need a token manually inserted in an intermediate server.
Hence, SECRED is an elegant way to organize, that people, who know the user, can derive messages for the user.
And, when the user address others, they can be given the
data properly: here is this data for user X.
The criterion for this hint is, that the data is identifying
something about the to-be-addressed person in a graph
chain. The server sees and knows things from neighbors.
Data is free. Sometimes there are lots of data, sometimes
not. So, there will be localized networks. And servers learning and teaching, because one can be a client, a server, or
both - and based on own roles, one can learn and/or teach.
If a node doesn't know where to send to, it sends it
wherever it can.
Perfection is not required. Nor is completeness required,
because the Echo is redundant.
The method of SECRED removes now some of the messages from the network flow, so that mobile devices can be
easily addressed and save battery and CPU-capacity.
The default implementation of the “hint” in the “Sprinkling Effect” of the “Cryptographic Echo Discovery” is based
on keys. E.g. a cryptographic digest hash is the secret a user
tells the server.
And messages to the user will be signed by that digest.
Because friends know the keys of the friend, they can address this specific user over the SECRED Protocol.
The message is not signed in the sense of a digital signature. The hint for the user is just added to the message in
this format: D (Public Key) = XYZ. Hash (Message, D).
The Hash () is the product (signature) and the server can
compute it.
And then the server knows, that this specific user/neighbor should get it: Message || H(Message, D).
The server computes H(Message, D) and knows this user
is D. So, it hands it to this user.
If it doesn't know D, it hands it to everyone.


Cryptographic Discovery

As an example in other words: Mary assigns the word “Popocatépetl” to your presence. And Mary can write you using “Popocatépetl”. And if there are two “Popocatépetl”s,
both get the message. So, a semi-private construct, while
the Hash Digest offers great variety to be unique within
your environment.
H(Message, D) is visible to all. D is the hash of the key. D
is also a digest of something that the friends know about
Need the hash to be shared? Well, users have their public
keys. So, a user can compute an ID based on those. A user
has the friend’s public keys, so this user can process it too. I
tell the server that I am so-and-so. I address my message to
The server doesn't know so-and-so, so it echoes it. The
server knows only that something from me is being sent to
a recipient. The server doesn't know I wrote. In general: the
server knows that something from somewhere is sent to
another node.
This describes also the programmable functions of the
sprinkling effect via the Cryptographic Echo Discovery
The more stable the network is, the more qualitative the
mapping will work. Decisive for the stability is not only the
online and offline status of friends, or the continuous availability of a chat server, but also the basic (stable) structure
of the friends, one wants to address with a mobile chat
Here it is an advantage that the friend structures are usually relatively stable.
That is, also with the context of a "steady state" the relationship in the SECRED protocol can be compared:
Some communication applications try to find the friend
in a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) to obtain updated port
and IP information as well as status information about the

65 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

However, the mixture of peers and servers in the network
means that the SECRED protocol has the advantage that
presence information (as in a DHT) is no longer required, as
intermediate entities keep the messages ready for the retrieval.
Likewise, binding nodes with stable addresses for the
mobile end devices are relieving and fostering security as
they do not have to connect to numerous foreign nodes in
the DHT for presence and IP or port queries.
SECRED is also a more secure alternative to DHTs (Distributed Hash Tables).
The implementation of a SECRED or DHT is thus not only
dependent on the requirement of the battery and the
hardware capacity of a possibly mobile device, but also on
consideration of efficiency and also demands on the privacy
of the data in the network at other nodes.
Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Describe the encryption layers of the Echo Protocol.
Explain Half and Full Echo within an Echo Grid.
Explain Adaptive Echo within a graph.
What is the Echo-Match? Give a Process Description.
What’s the idea of SECRED & Cryptographic Discovery?
Describe the Sprinkling Effect in comparison of a DHT.
Set up in your class a network with several computers
and test the Adaptive Echo.

First Set-up of the software Spot-On

5 First Set-up of the software
In this chapter the first setup of the software Spot-On is
described before the main functions of the software will be
explain each in an own chapter.


Set up a first installation – e.g. with the wizard

The first initial setup of the software is very simple done in
a few steps:
1 - Downloading & Installing the Software

The user unpacks the program from the Zip (for Windows)
and starts (under Windows) the Spot-On.exe from the path
to which the program was unpacked,
 e.g. C: /Spot-On/Spot-On.exe
 or C: /Programs/Spot-On/Spot-On.exe.
For Linux users a .deb installer file is provided and for MacOS users a .dmg file.
Download the software under:
or from Github under:
2 - Key Generation with the Wizard

After starting the binary the user interface and a wizard
appear, with which the settings can be implemented step
by step. Alternatively, the user can close the wizard and
create the settings manually in the tab for the settings re67 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

spective the tab-section for kernel activation. It is recommended to use the wizard.
Figure 22: Initial Wizard of Spot-On

In the wizard, the necessary cryptographic keys are then
generated with the user name and a passphrase to be entered twice.
The wizard has the following sub-pages:
Initial Welcome,


First Set-up of the software Spot-On


Setting the passphrase for the login: Choosing between passphrase and question-and-answer method,
Confirmation of creating (default) RSA keys,
Launch Kernel upon completion of the wizard,
Enable URL-Distribution and set-up a SQLite Database
for it: Here the user must confirm the check boxes,
Button Initialize: The setup will be prepared.
3 - Activating the Spot-On Kernel

After completing the wizard, the kernel must still be activated. That means, the Spot-On Encryption suite has a user
interface (also called Graphical User Interface (GUI)) and a
kernel. Both are given as a binary file (in Windows called
Spot-On.exe and Spot-On-Kernel.exe).
Hence, the user must activate the kernel via the “Activate” button in the tab for settings (section for kernel activation) after each start of Spot-On.exe, which then coordinates the connections to friends or to a chat server. So the
kernel file Spot-on-Kernel.exe will be turned on or off from
Spot-On’s program user interface.
4 - Connecting a Neighbor/Server IP

If the kernel is running, the user connects to a neighbor or
server with the appropriate IP and Port in the neighbors
5 - Key Exchange with a Friend

Then the user exchanges the key with a friend and the encrypted communication via chat or e-mail can begin… if
both have entered the key(s) of the friend.

69 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

6 – Starting a Chat from the Chat Tab

If the key has been added, the friend appears in the chat
tab, and if a neighbor is connected, kernel running, and the
network set up, both friends should be able to chat and
Let´s close the application after the wizard has been completed and let’s start again with this process – not with the
wizard, but with the login into the application after the wizard has been completed successfully: and look more into
the details and options within this above described process
to start a first chat. So let’s start again to go through this
above briefly proposed process in more detail:


Passphrase creation within the Wizard: Two
login methods & a virtual keyboard

If the user starts Spot-On for the first time, the user enters
a nickname in the corresponding box and defines a passphrase for the login into the application (see figure widget
box “passphrase” – as explained for the wizard).
The password must be at least 16 characters long. If this
is too long, the user can repeat a shorter password three
times, such as “password_password_password”, but then
the password is not as secure as one with a random string.


First Set-up of the software Spot-On

Figure 23: Set Passphrase - if not the Wizard is used, it is found
in the settings Tab for kernel activation - here shown within the
GoldBug GUI

There are two methods to define this: the passphrase
method or the question-and-answer method. They can be
differentiated as follows:
Passphrase method: When the password is created, it is
not stored locally, just the hash of the input. The hash is
supplemented by a supplementary string, the so-called
cryptographic salt. This complements the hash and makes it
71 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

safer. The “Salted Hash” is thus defined as follows: hash
(passphrase + salt). To achieve that the password is also
trained for the user and typing errors are excluded, it must
be entered a second time.
Question / Answer Method: This method does not enter a
password twice but defines a string as a question and a
string as the answer. Both strings will not be checked a second time. Technically, this login method is implemented via
a HMAC: Hash (Question, Answer), indicates that an
“HMAC” (Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code) is
used. And: neither the question nor the answer is stored on
the user’s machine and no cryptographic salt is randomly
generated by the machine. Instead of the question, the user
can of course also enter two passwords without a question
mark. It should be noted that here the question and the
answer must be entered in subsequent logins exactly as
they were defined and here at the first definition no second
input check (“confirmation”) regarding typing errors is given
as in the password method.
Please note, that in Spot-On no password or question and
answer is stored on the encrypted hard disc container. Also
not via the ciphertext of it.
Figure 24: Authentication: Login to the application Spot-On
with a passphrase

Since the hash generated from the login passphrase unlocks
the encrypted containers that also store the private key for
encryption, it is especially important to protect the login
process and login password. Therefore, the above two


First Set-up of the software Spot-On

methods have been taken into account to make it more
difficult for attackers: they do not know a) which method a
user has chosen and b) the question-answer method is safer, as described above, because neither the question, nor
the answer can be stored somewhere and a HMAC may be
more complex than a password as a “just” salted hash. Only
the user knows question and additionally the answer and
only the match of both can open the container.
Virtual keyboard: In order not to reveal information to
keypad loggers, there is the possibility to use a virtual keyboard when logging in (see image). The user starts this by
double-clicking on the input line for the password. At best,
only mouse clicks can be recorded here, but no keystrokes.
In principle, it is important that the private key is kept encrypted in a sufficiently secured container. It is reasonable
to suppose that, in particular, access by providers to mobile
operating systems would otherwise make it easy to fetch
the private key.
This is especially critical for web mail offers to provide
the encryption in the browser or with keys that are deposited at and with the mail provider online. Encryption should
always take place on the user’s machine and for this login
procedure purpose. An open source client and no online
web application in the browser should be used for encrypting chat and e-mail.

73 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 25: Virtual Keyboard of the Spot-On application

The risk of seizing the possibly insufficiently encrypted private key is far too great. Program audits should also pay
attention to capturing passwords for the encrypted container in which the private key is located, as well as to remote accessing the private key over the operating system
supplier or Trojan applications.
Even the few open source messengers with encryption
that can be counted on one hand for the desktop as well as
for mobile devices that have undergone a security audit are
hardly sufficient with regard to the security of the encrypted storage of private keys and their processes to access


First Set-up of the software Spot-On


Generation of 12 Keys for Encryption

When the user launches the Spot-On application for the
first time, the wizard asks if the user wants to generate the
encryption keys. For key creation the user should choose a
key of at least 3072 bits (default for RSA) or larger. The user
can also choose other options such as algorithm, hashtype,
cipher, salt-length or iteration count, for example, if he regenerates the key. The first setup has a presetting based on
RSA ready: So if the user wants to test out NTRU or
McEliece as an algorithm, then after the first setup the user
has to generate again new keys with one of the then selectable algorithms.
The generated keys are stored in the sub-path “/.spoton”. If the user wants to set up a new login with new keys
and all user data should be deleted, then this path can
simply be deleted and the Spot-On.exe has to be restarted.
For Linux and the other operating systems the adequate
path specifications apply accordingly. The same can be
done in the main menu with “!!! Total_Database Erase !!! “.
Asymmetric keys are generated for the following functions (a key for the encryption as well as a key for the (optional) signature):
 Chat Key: This is about the 1: 1 chat,
 E-mail Key: This is about e-mail to other users of
Spot-On or any other Echo client like GoldBug or
 POPTASTIC Key: This is about the chat via e-mail
 URL Key: This involves searching for URLs in the
URL database (web search),
 Public Library Key: This is a pair of keys reserved for
further implementation of sharing public files
out of a library,
 Rosetta Key: With the Rosetta encryption pad, text
with a-symmetric keys can be converted back
and forth from plain text to cipher text and vice
versa before the texts are sent. This is recommended when other insecure messengers or e75 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

mail applications are used or the cipher text
should be posted anywhere on the web - or the
plain text, before it is sent in Spot-On, should
again receive an additional encryption level!
That each function uses its own key pair is again a security
feature. If the (permanent or temporary) chat key were
compromised, the e-mail encryption will not be affected.
Furthermore, the user can only pass friends his chat key
and not the e-mail key. Thus, the user can decide whom he
allows to chat with or just to e-mail or possibly also to exchange URLs for the function of p2p web search in the integrated URL database.
Also a minimal view on the user interface is possible: Via
the main menu one can choose between “full view” or
“minimal view”. If the user is not familiar with computers,
one should choose the minimal view because it fades out
the possibly unnecessary variety of options. Keep it simple:
The GoldBug Echo client is fully compatible with Spot-On
and provides an even simpler interface than the minimal
view of the Spot-On client.
Qt developers, and those who are looking for an exercise
project for their own Qt development or a university project, may even minimize the user interface within their own
Echo Client (and are invited to “fork” the Spot-On client).


A posteriori Key (re-)generation: Switching
from RSA provided by the Wizard to McEliece
and other

During the first setup over the wizard, the option of the
maximum view is not available; it will only be shown and
set-able at the further logins. The possibility of looking at
even more details in the user interface should therefore be
addressed briefly here, since many details also refer to the
last-mentioned point of the cryptographic values for key
generation, which is also contained in the settings tabulator
for the kernel activation and generation of encryption keys:

First Set-up of the software Spot-On

Key-Generation e.g. with the McEliece algorithm is here to
be found.
The algorithm and values can be set individually for a
new key generation (after and without the wizard). However, if the user is using the client for the first time, the typical
setting values are in the wizard automatically available, i.e.
the key has a (predefined) size of 3072 bits of the RSA algorithm.
In case of a non-minimal view, for example, the tab “Activate Kernel” shows the following elements in the user interface:
 Path to kernel: Here the user can enter the path to the
kernel. If the kernel with the “spot-on-kernel.exe” in
the path specified correctly, then the path is highlighted in green. Otherwise, the user has to look at the executable file of the kernel or copy it to the executable
file of the GUI (Spot-On.exe) or adjust the path accordingly.
 PID: The PID number identifies the process ID that
identifies the executable file in Windows. The user also finds the process IDs in the Windows Task Manager.
 “Key regeneration” function: With the “regeneration” function, the user can also generate individual keys - with new values and options. For this the
check box has to be activated, the values have to be
set and the respective keys have to be re-generated.
This is the way to get e.g. keys of the McEliece or
NTRU algorithm. Then the user has to put his new key
back to his friends, because the key is a kind of communication ID for the cryptographic Echo-Matching.
Another variety of options can also be found under the
main menu / options in a pop-up window, which will be
explained later (for example to choose another icon set
(e.g. Nuvola instead of Nueve icon set).

77 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 26: Options for Display: e.g. change icon set

For now, it is more important to start the kernel after the
first key generation via the wizard has taken place.


Activation of the kernel

When the user launches the Spot-On application for the
first time, a pop-up window at the end of the wizard asks if
the kernel should be activated. Otherwise, the “Activate
Kernel” button in the settings tab should be pressed on all
subsequent starts after the login. Without a running kernel
no communication process is possible.
When the user closes the program interface, a pop-up
window also asks if the kernel should continue running. So
it’s a good idea to first deactivate the kernel and then close
the GUI of Spot-On if the user wants to completely close
the program.


First Set-up of the software Spot-On

Otherwise, the user runs the kernel without a GUI, which is
sometimes desired on a web server, so that nobody can
manipulate within the open user interface. (In addition to
the Spot-on kernel, there is also the Spot-on-Lite kernel for
this daemon web server purpose, which can be found in
the repository of the source code as a standalone repository.)
Figure 27: Lock of the user interface in the status bar

If the user wants to leave the GUI in place, but no one
should be able to enter or change anything during the absence, it is also possible to click the “Lock” button on the
left in the lower status line: the user interface will close and
return to the login tab for the input of the password back,
so that the running processes and inputs of other tabs are
not visible. To unlock the interface, the user presses the
lock button again in the status bar and enters then the
passphrase(s) in a pop-up window.

79 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 28: Activation of the kernel in the Settings Tab

The user can also enable/disable the kernel by pressing the
first LED in the status line at the bottom left. If it is green,
the kernel is active; if it is red, the kernel is off. The middle
LED indicates whether the user has set up a listener / chat
server and the third LED indicates whether the user has an
active and successful connection to a neighbor / server.
Figure 29: Encryption between kernel and GUI and three LEDs.

The connection of the user interface (Spot-On.exe) to the
kernel (Spot-On-Kernel.exe) is also encrypted, although
both run on the same machine of the user. A tool-tip with
the mouse-over action over the first LED indicates the encryption.

First Set-up of the software Spot-On


Connect a neighbor with the IP address

Upon initial activation, the IP address of the project chat
server (or a localhost) is automatically added as a neighbor.
This serves as a temporary chat server through which the
user can chat with his friend’s test-wise until a separate
connection node has been created on a web server or at
home (or two users connect directly to each other). The
test server will not last forever, so far, users will need to first
set up a server themselves before they can connect two
clients (see chapter server setup).
Up to now, the user has been connected to a chat server
directly after activation of the kernel by the provided test
server. If the user would like to add another, the tab “Connect neighbor” must be used. Here is an input field for the
IP address of the neighbor respective the web server, on
which a Spot-On Kernel is running, or a friend also uses a
Spot-On instance with an accessible listener/server.
Figure 30: Creating a connection to a neighbor/server

In the field, enter the IP address of the neighbor node. The
points are each separated by three digits of the IP address
(according to IP-V4). If a block only contains two digits, e.g., then the 37 can be placed arbitrarily in the
first block or entered as 37 in the first two positions. Then
the user presses the “Connect” / “Add” button. The IP ad81 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

dress is then stored on the default port 4710 and appears
as a link in the neighbors table.
Figure 31: Connected neighbors/ servers

If an error message appears, then this IP address has already been entered. In order to delete all neighbors, the
button “Delete all neighbors” can be pressed (via the context menu button or via the right mouse button in the table
in which the neighbor appears) and the IP address can be
entered again. Optionally, the user can also delete the file
“neighbors.db” in the installation path “./spot-on” on the
hard disk. It rebuilds immediately and is then empty.
When the kernel is activated (left, first LED in the status
bar is green) and the neighbor or server is connected (middle LED is green) everything is successfully installed and
online. Entering an IP address and pressing the connect
button should be quite easy.
If the user wants to connect directly to another user
without a server, one of them must create a so-called listener in the tab chat server (and release the firewall for the
port and, if necessary, forward the port in the router to the


First Set-up of the software Spot-On

own machine, see below in the create server section in
more detail).
Or: if both users are on the same Windows network, the
existing neighbor “” can be activated, then
the Spot-On Messenger is converted into a LAN messenger
and finds all other Spot-On participants in the local LAN
automatically and connects these as a neighbor. If the users
then exchange the keys, the communication can start.
By default, Spot-On uses the port 4710. Furthermore, the
program can also be operated via IPv6, as well as to a listener/server which is linked via the dynamic DNS-URL. Then
DNS is no number sequence for the IP, but a domain name
to be added in a textfield. Please choose then the DNS radio
button. Further security options can also be defined, e.g.
the connection to the server can be addressed via a proxy
(e.g. if the user wants to use Spot-On via the Tor network or
behind a firewall).


Key Exchange

How to copy the own key, how to exchange the key with a
friend and to paste the friend’s key into the application is
described with an example for the chat key within the next
chapter for starting a chat, which follows immediately. Let’s
just pint out the option to use an even more simpler interface for the Spot-On-Kernel, which is called: GoldBug.


GoldBug: Alternative Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Spot-On is a very detailed, customizable and for some
probably also a complex software. It requites some learning
about all the buttons and functions, like a pilot in an aircraft
also has many options and things to learn.
After the first setup has been done and before all the
functions of Spot-On are described at this point the hint,
that there is a second Graphical User Interface for the SpotOn kernel, which has a reduced overview. This allows beginners in practical encryption to start with a simplified in83 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

terface: called GoldBug. GoldBug is an own software compilation based on the Spot-On GUI und code, with the difference, that it provides a simplified interface and the tabs are
in right east and not default on the top north like in SpotOn. Thus, users who want to test a simpler graphical user
interface (GUI), can also try out the GoldBug client as a further Echo application. GoldBug is quite popular in the web
and at download portals and can be found in the source of
the Spot-On source tree at and at the dedicated
website of

Website of the
GoldBug software,
which has a more
simplified Graphical
User Interface for
the Spot-On kernel
than the Spot-On
application itself.


The name GoldBug derives from a historical situation: The
Gold Bug is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe: The plot is
about William LeGrand, who recently encountered a goldcolored ladybug.
His buddy, Jupiter, now expects LeGrand to evolve in his
quest for insight, wealth, and wisdom after being in contact
with the Golden Bug - and thus goes on to another friend of
LeGrand, a narrator not further mentioned by name, who
thinks it would be a good idea to visit his old friend again.
After LeGrand then encountered a secret message and was
able to decrypt it successfully, the three start an adventure
as a team.
The Gold Bug - as one of the few pieces in the literature integrates cipher text as an element of the short story. Poe
was thus far ahead of the popularity of cipher texts of his
time when he wrote “The Gold Bug” in 1843, in which the
success of history turned to such a cryptogram and metaphorically to the search for the knowledge of the philosopher’s stone.
The Gold Bug was a much-read story, extremely popular
and by the literati the most studied work by Poe during his
lifetime. His ideas also helped to promote the writing of
encrypted texts and so-called cryptograms.
Over 170 years later, encryption in the Internet age has
more weight than ever. Encryption should be a standard
when we send communications over the insecure internet -

First Set-up of the software Spot-On

reason enough to use this name for this application and
therefore to remember the origins of the encrypted writing.
The GoldBug GUI is thus a historical tribute, which possibly requires an adaptation to the term, because “bug” is
often understood in the IT context as an error correction.
Depending on the person, the idea of valuing a golden ladybug as much as another cuddly toy may require a strong
cognitive reorganization of a so far dominated worldview or
the routinized expansion of the appreciation of bug-finds as
interesting research finds.
Those who like exploring new things, openly approaching
what is found, will be able to learn and deepen many things
in cryptographic processes with this software application, if
so far no access to this “new territory” has been made possible. For teachers, the software is therefore an interesting
teaching tool that can introduce and test encryption in
practical implementation and exercises with playful testing,
reminiscent of the beginnings of popular cryptography at
the time.
Incidentally: The logo of the GoldBug logo is written in the
font “Neuland” (which means translated: new territory) - a
font that was developed in 1923 by the typographer Rudolf
Interestingly enough, the logo has been an allusion to the
German ‘‘sentence of the year’’ 2013, when German Chancellor Angela Merkel - in connection with the surveillance
and espionage affair in 2013 and the Listening to her personal mobile phone - in a conversation with American President Barack Obama coined the phrase: “The Internet is a
new territory for us all.” ..
.. - How long encryption for the subsequent student generations will remain a new territory (or ‘’Neuland‘’) or literally ‘secret science’ - or a kind of “seat belt”, which will also
convert e-mails to c-mails, decide the learners, teachers
and the media and technicians - but in any case everyone
(e.g. the reader of this manual) with the own friends with
whom this (or other) encryption software is used.

85 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 32: Logo of the GoldBug Crypto Chat Application

Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Set up the application without the Wizard and write a
description about the process.
Use Spot-On as a LAN Messenger and try to find other
nodes automatically.
Regenerate Keys with the McEliece algorithm.

The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

6 The chat function with Cryptographic Calling
Now that the infrastructure is set up, that means: if loginpassword is defined, key generated, kernel enabled and a
neighbor-server connected - so in the status bar two LEDlights are green - then the user can exchange the own key
with a friend and the communication for a defined participant can start. Personal 1:1-chat takes place in the chat tab
or in the pop-up window (see figure, opened by a doubleclick on the friend in the chat tab).
Figure 33: 1:1 chat in the pop-up window

1:1 personal chat
has a share button
to send files
encrypted to a
dedicated friend.

87 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

But step after step: if the software is running and serverconnected, the key exchange is still the pre-condition to
start a secure chat. The key exchange is done over:
 the “Copy public keys” button in the neighbors tab,
 and pasting the key(s) into the pop-up-window for
“adding participants” - found under: MainMenu/Tools/Add-Participant.


Adding a friend by swapping and inserting
the keys

Spot-On uses a public/private key infrastructure, as it is
well-known in the case of encryption: The public key(s) can
be exchanged with friends and the private key(s) remain(s)
on the user’s hard disk in an encrypted container that is
opened (mounted) by the login password – and used for the
application runtime.
The user and the partner, both friends, must first exchange their public key, i.e. copy it out, transfer it and then
insert the friend’s key: Add participant and confirm (see
figure). The friend can send the key via e-mail or another
messenger. The user then copies the key into this window
and presses the “Add” button at the bottom.
The user finds the own public key in the neighbors tab.
The large button (“Copy Public Keys”) allows the user to
copy all own (or selected) keys to the clipboard. The user
copies the full text here and sends it to the friend. Likewise,
the friend does the same and the user inserts the friend’s
key in the “Add Participant”-textbox.
The main menu also provides a menu item to export and
import keys.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

Figure 34: Add Friend/Key

The own chat key
consists of
ciphertext like data
and begins with the
letter K or R.

Optionally only as a note – IP transfer of the keys: it is also
possible to share a key over the direct IP connection (to a
friend or to a server). Then it may be necessary to confirm a
new friend as friend with the right mouse button in the
context menu of the friends list in the chat tab (make-friend
function). If a friend uses the Spot-On client and builds a
direct IP connection to another user with a Spot-On client,
then it is possible to transfer the key via a direct IP connection instead of copy/paste. The friend appears with his nick

89 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

name in the chat tab (or e-mail tab) (with a different icon)
and can be confirmed as a friend with the right mouse button from the context menu: Make Friend.
This is a further development of the REPLEO function,
which is the function of encrypting the own key with the
friend’s public key (upon receipt) before the return transmission starts. The key exchange over IP is thus automated:
a synchronization process follows. The user must agree that
the key will be displayed after synchronization via the
neighbor connection in their own client respective their
own friend list.
Echo Public
Key Sharing,
later also known as


Further option - only as a note - Sharing via Echo Public
Key Sharing (EPKS) function: In addition to send the key
online via e-mail, another messenger, as a REPLEO or over
the direct IP-connection to a friend, the Echo Public Key
Sharing (EPKS) protocol, function and tool can also be used
(as also further described below). This is used if the friend is
not connected to a direct IP-connection (e.g. both partners
use a shared chat server or a node is in the middle). Both
partners then enter a common password secret in EPKS and
send their public keys to the Echo Network via this password protected EPKS channel. See the more detailed information in the section of this tool, which may be a good alternative to the often uncomfortable and insecure usual
key servers known from a PGP key exchange.
This innovation by a REPLEO, and the synchronization of
the keys via the so-called Echo Public Key Share function
(EPKS), or via an existing IP-connection, has later also been
taken up (copied) by other projects under the name AutoCrypt or KeySync. These functions are therefore based on
the REPLEO, EPKS and the key exchange via IP-connection
of Echo nodes. Autocrypt has been invented within the
Spot-On Project and been overtaken several years later by
other projects under the name AutoCrypt, e.g. using the
IMAP protocol for the key exchange.
However, the key sharing problems over PGP-key servers
have been avoided and differentiated with some alternatives: The key(s) can be shared by copy/paste, can be ex-

The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

ported, copied by menu and buttons, resent by a REPLEO,
and shared via EPKS and also shared via a direct IPconnection or an IP-broadcast.
Furthermore, there is an even simpler way to share keys –
over the Group Chat function: two people create a Group
Chat Room within Spot-On, which is just based on the same
group room name. The Group Chat Room is provided in the
first tab, called Buzz, and will be explained in the next chapter. The room name is quasi semi-anonymous, if only the
two users agree upon a secret room name. In this secret
room two users can share their public keys in privacy. As
EPKS channels and BUZZ rooms (which work on the same
principle of symmetric encryption) will be explained later
on, let’s have a short explanation of the REPLEO function in
more detail first.

Special feature: REPLEO – Encrypting the
public key

If the user has already received a key from the friend (e.g.
the chat key) and inserted it into the own client, but now
does not want to disclose the own public (chat) key to the
public, does not want to transfer and store it in an e-mail
program (although the public key may actually be public),
then the user can also encrypt the own public key with the
received key of the friend. This is called REPLEO. Hence, the
key is transmitted encrypted as soon as a user has already
received a public key of the other party.
This process then has to be carried out for each function
or key, i.e. the user can in each case send back the chat REPLEO, the e-mail REPLEO and the URL REPLEO etc.. The
friend can also insert a REPLEO in the window for “Add Participant/Key”. In older versions, above the insert-box, the
user just defines the radio-select-button: whether it’s a Key
(K), a REPLEO (R), or an e-mail address (E) the user would
like to add. Meanwhile, the K and R radio buttons in SpotOn have disappeared because the client automatically de-

91 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

tects if it’s a (K)ey or a (R)EPLEO. The current versions have
an automated recognition of keys and REPLEOs:
The text of a key always starts with a letter “K” or “k” and a
REPLEO starts with a “R” or “r”. The user still can recognize
it if the key or REPLEO is copied out. So the user has in the
Add Participant window today the option to add a key or an
e-mail address (which is used within the e-mail functionality, explained further below).


Starting a first secure chat

A user finds the chat friend in the “Chat” tab after a successful key exchange. For getting the chat to work, both
parties should ideally use the same and most up-to-date
version of the program, generate and exchange their keys,
and connect to a network node or chat server (neighbor)
on the web. When the first two LEDs in the status line at
the bottom are highlighted green and the friend’s name
appears in the chat tab, it looks excellent.
If the friend’s online status turns blue (absent), red
(busy), or green (ready to talk), the chat can start. Either
the user marks the friend in the table and chats out of the
tab, or the user double-clicks on the friend and a pop-up
chat window opens for that friend.
The advantage of chatting in the chat tab is that the user
can mark multiple friends so that the message reaches all
friends. If the user uses the pop-up chat (see figure), then
the user no longer needs to look at the marker to select a
friend from the friends-list in the chat tab.
And: In pop-up chat modus, the user has the button
“Share StarBeam”, with which the user can select a file
from the hard drive, so that it is then encrypted and securely transferred to the friend (see also the section below
about StarBeam-File-Sharing). This feature, which sends a
chat friend a file simply by a mouse-click, provides a fully
encrypted end-to-end transport. That is not included in
many closed or even open source applications. Encrypted
transmission e.g. of a ZIP with vacation pictures to own sib-


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

lings becomes thus quite simple and is possible without the
use of a hosting or cloud platform in the Web.
Figure 35: Chat Tab

In the status line at the top of the pop-up window, the user
can see the nickname and online status and, for example,
launch the Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP) to authenticate a friend and test whether the friend knows a common
secret and enters it correctly, as it will be described below.
Both users will be authentic if they enter the same password within this SMP process.
But before we explain the Socialist Millionaire Protocol
(SMP) for authentication - that means if the real friend is in

93 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

front of his or her machine and not a theft, who has stolen
the machine - let’s first have a look how to secure the endto-end encryption with Cryptographic Calling.
Cryptographic Calling sends out - over an already existing
secured connection - another temporary key, so that this
encryption layer is (solely) used (or additionally used). The
temporary key can be a-symmetric (PKI) or symmetric (a
password string also known as a passphrase).
Figure 36: Chat in the pop-up window with the SMP authentication option

The figure shows a
lock-symbol for a
successful SMPprocess for authentication.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling


Cryptographic Calling - additional security
feature invented by Spot-On

In the early development, Cryptographic Calling started
with one button. It was called MELODICA and described the
Calling over a long distance with multi-encrypted layers of
encryption. The MELODICA button performs the Cryptographic Calling function.
Figure 37: The MELODICA Button since 2013
MELODICA stands for “Multi-Encrypted LOng DIstance CAlling” – that means: “Multiple-Encrypted Calls over a Long
Distance”. The MELODICA symbol is therefore a piano keyboard as musical instrument and was first implemented in
GoldBug’s User Interface of Spot-On.

The Cryptographic Calling has been developed by the SpotOn kernel project and secures the connection via an immediately renewed end-to-end encryption by transmitting the
password via the a-symmetric connection of the Echo Protocol. Cryptographic Calling with the MELODICA button
means calling a friend like with a phone - only that it creates a secure end-to-end encryption.
The end-to-end passphrase - also known as Gemini
(Greek word for twin) - is mapped through an AES string
and should be kept secret between both parties. Therefore,
it is important to secure the electronic transmission always
very secure with further encryption levels (as here in the
Echo Protocol with the a-symmetric chat key and the
TLS/SSL connection), as the transmission can potentially be

Spot-On invented
the Cryptographic

95 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

In the meantime, Cryptographic Calling has been elaborated in a great way and further methods have been added, so
that the term Cryptographic Calling (besides the historical
MELODICA button) has established and is used in Spot-On.
Other projects even overtook some years later the term,
which had been brought up by the Spot-On development
many years before, as it is proved by the code commits.
Cryptographic Calling

Cryptographic Calling transfers over a
secure connection
new credentials for
a switch to a new
secure connection
with new credentials. These can be
symmetric as well
as a-symmetric credentials.


Cryptographic Calling is the immediate transfer of end-toend encrypting credentials to secure a communication
channel. Cryptographic Calling has been invented and introduced by the Software Project Spot-On. It refers to sending
new end-to-end encryption credentials to the other participant through an existing secured online channel.
That means, a “Call” transfers over a public/private key encrypted environment e.g. a symmetric key (e.g. AES). It is a
password for the session talk, only the two participants
know. With one click a user can instantly renew the end-toend encrypting password for the messaging. It is also possible to manually define the end-to-end encrypted password
(manually or self-defined Calling in the sense of Customer
Supplied Encryption Keys: #CSEK). There are some further
different ways to call: Asymmetric Calling, Forward Secrecy
Calling, Symmetric Calling, SMP-Calling and 2-Way-Calling,
which will be explained later below.
The Calling with a-symmetric credentials refers to ephemeral a-symmetric keys, which are used for the time of the call.
This could be one session or even a shorter part of time of
the session. It depends on whenever a communication
partner starts to initiate a call. The asymmetric ephemeral
credentials for the call should be transferred over a secure
connection, which is either a symmetric key, over a asymmetric key (PKI) or over an already existent callconnection, in this case an ephemeral asymmetric key.
“Cryptographic Calling” can even replace an a-symmetric
channel with a symmetric channel.

The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

The following modes of Calling can be differentiated:

Asymmetric Calling

Spot-On has solved the end-to-end password transfer question by encrypting the Gemini (the to be formed string for
symmetric encryption, e.g. the AES) a-symmetrically (using
the key for chat) and then encrypting again (a-symmetric)
the SSL/TLS channel, over which it is transmitted.
As said: Gemini is the Greek term for twin, meaning it refers to both participants who should then know the passphrase.
This function thus generates a “Cryptographic Call”, a call
in which the password is transmitted, which then later
forms the end-to-end encryption. Strictly speaking, the
Gemini consists of two keys or components, because the
Gemini is authenticated by another process: This further
component is also called MAC-Hash, as explained above.
The “Cryptographic Calling” as an executable Protocol
with the MELODICA button respective Call menu thus extends the old paradigm of Forward Secrecy as follows:

Perfect Forward

Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS)

The user can now renew the (symmetric) encryption or the
Gemini at any time. This means that the paradigm of “perfect forward secrecy” has been extended by two components: on the one hand, one can manually or automatically
define the end-to-end passphrase (the Gemini) and, on the
other hand, renew it immediately, i.e. “instant” at any time.
Therefore, we speak of “Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy”
By comparison, many other applications offer only one
key per online session and the user cannot manually and
individually edit the symmetric end-to-end encryption
The Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS) here in SpotOn uses a-symmetric encryption (of the chat key), whereby

97 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

the temporary key could be a symmetric key (the Gemini,
an AES string).

Symmetric Calling

Another option is Spot-On’s innovative ability to send a new
Gemini through the channel of an existing Gemini: Here,
the end-to-end key (that is, the symmetrically-encrypting
Gemini) is sent through another existing end-to-end Gemini
connection (i.e. channel of a symmetric key). The symmetric encryption phrase (the Gemini or the AES password) is
therefore not encrypted with a-symmetric encryption (the
chat key) (e.g. with RSA, Elgamal, McEliece or NTRU) and
then sent over a secure channel (SSL/TLS) from point-topoint, but it is itself encrypted with the existing (symmetric)
Gemini and then sent by the described Echo method (again
via SSL/TLS).
Compare the double-rachet method of the SignalProtocol, in which the key of the following message is in the
encrypted content of the previous packet: it may have been
ajar or derived from Symmetric Calling.
Thus, an A-symmetrical Call and a Symmetric Call can be
fundamentally differentiated. Symmetric Calls use an existing Gemini. Asymmetric Calls send the Gemini over the asymmetrically encrypted connection (namely the permanent chat key) to the friend. Even when Calling over an existing Gemini, the sent Gemini can be instantaneously renewed at any time.
In sum: Secure end-to-end multi-encryption arises in the
Echo when an encrypting messenger encodes a manuallydefined symmetric key with an existing symmetric key and
then encrypts it with an a-symmetric key. And then this
package is sent through a secure connection. What’s a preferred hybrid concept?

Two-way Calling

Finally, in the context menu (right mouse-click on a friend
in the friend list), a third method for a so-called “Crypto98

The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

graphic Call” is added: Two-way Calling. Here, the user
sends an AES-256 as a passphrase for the future end-to-end
encryption to the friend, and the friend also sends an own
generated AES-256 to the first user in response. Now the
first half of the AES of the first user and the second half of Make it Fifty-Fifty!
the AES of the second user are taken, respectively, and assembled into a common AES-256. It refers to the method of
2-way safety.
Figure 38: Definition of Two-way Cryptographic Calling
Fifty-Fifty: Two-way Cryptographic Calling
Spot-On implements a plain two-pass key-distribution system. The protocol is defined as follows:
A peer generates 128-bit AES and 256-bit SHA-512
keys via the system's cryptographic random number
Using the destination's public key, the peer encapsulates the two keys via the hybrid cryptographic system.
The destination peer receives the data, records it, and
generates separate keys as in step 1.
The destination peer transmits the encapsulated keys
to the originating peer as in step 2.
Once the protocol is executed, the two peers shall possess
identical authentication and encryption keys. Please note
that duplicate half-keys are allowed.

This ensures that no third party - if someone succeeds in
compromising the friend’s machine - sends a Gemini (or an
old Gemini) in the friends name from a third, foreign machine (which is not really possible, since it would mean the
unnoticed acquisition of a machine or breaking the existing
TLS and RSA (or NTRU or Elgamal) encryption). The pingpong game of two participants in Two-way Calling ensures
that both participants are currently doing their part to
agree on a secure end-to-end password: Both define it Fifty-Fifty.

99 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 39: Two-Way Calling in the context menu from the

The possibility for the Gemini password
 first, to be edited manually,
 second, to be able to be renewed every second or within each call,
 third, to send the password through an existing
end-to-end encryption,
 and finally, being able to generate the end-toend encrypting passphrase in a two-way process
makes it very difficult for attackers to break the endto-end encryption of the Spot-On Cryptographic Calling feature.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

Additionally (see below) the SMP-Calling authenticates the
sender for the Call.
“Perfect Forward Secrecy” (PFS) has become not only “Instant Perfect Forward Secrey” (IPFS), but (in this feature)
even a “2-Way Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy”: 2WIPFS.
This feature has significantly advanced PFS and the important element of instant end-to-end encryption with this
process implementation. The encryption itself is not new,
instead the process is sophisticatedly implemented to provide more security by Cryptographic Calling.

101 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual


Additional security feature: Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP)

While Spot-On encrypts the messages three times  on the one hand the message is indeed sent in a
secure TLS/SSL channel,
 second, every message is encrypted a-symmetric
(e.g. with RSA-, NTRU-, McEliece- or Elgamal-PKI,
i.e. with the chat key),
 and third, yes, it is possible to use the “Cryptographic Calling” function to send a Gemini to set a
symmetric end-to-end encryption passphrase (as
seen with different methods to perform the “Call”),
 Fourth, there is an additional security enhancement mechanism: it is the “SMP” Protocol: Socialist
Millionaire Protocol (a method also described here
The idea behind this is to ask a friend a question like: “What
is the name of the city we visited together last year?”; Or,
to ask a question like: “What is the name of the restaurant,
in which we met for the first time?” etc. (see figure).
Both participants usually sign the messages with a RSA
(or other) algorithm to verify that the key used is from the
original sender. But for the (possibly unlikely) case that a
machine would be hacked or stolen, or if the encryption
algorithm were broken, the Socialist Millionaire Protocol
(SMP) process can simply identify a friend by entering the
same password on both sides. It is important to ensure that
the password is not to be sent through the chat, instead
both friends should describe a situation that leads to the
same password. If the SMP process is tested for the first
time, the users can just enter the password “test” on both
sides (in lower case and without the quotes).


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

Figure 40: SMP Protocol in the pop-up chat window

It is practically applied as follows: The user opens a personal pop-up chat window to use SMP and clicks the question
mark icon next to the user name on top of the chat window. Then a password is defined with the menu. Then the
chat friend is asked to enter the same password. Third, the
first user then finally clicks on the Verify button.
If both participants have set the same password - respective the same hash value has been generated from the
same password - then the question mark icon changes to a
“lock” symbol. The chat friend has now been authenticated
and the chat remains safe – in the sense of authenticated.
Please note, that the hash or password is not transmitted
over the secure connection! The process is based on a socalled Zero-Knowledge-Proof.
SMP is thus another ideal way to authenticate the chat
friend with a shared secret in the live process, so it is not
additional encryption!
An example illustrates the calculation process of this Protocol as follows: Spot-On describes this so-called “ZeroKnowledge-Proof” during SMP’s various data exchange pro-

103 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

cesses. Spot-On also uses the SHA-512 of the entered secret
passphrase as the x and y components. Let’s assume in an
example that Alice begins the exchange:






Picks random exponents a2 and a3
Sends Bob g2a = g1a2 and g3a = g1a3
Picks random exponents b2 and b3
Computes g2b = g1b2 and g3b = g1b3
Computes g2 = g2ab2 and g3 = g3ab3
Picks random exponent r
Computes Pb = g3r and Qb = g1r g2y
Sends Alice g2b, g3b, Pb and Qb
Computes g2 = g2ba2 and g3 = g3ba3
Picks random exponent s
Computes Pa = g3s and Qa = g1s g2x
Computes Ra = (Qa / Qb) a3
Sends Bob Pa, Qa and Ra
Computes Rb = (Qa / Qb) b3
Computes Rab = Rab3
Checks whether Rab == (Pa / Pb)
Sends Alice Rb
Computes Rab = Rba3
Checks whether Rab == (Pa / Pb)

If everything is done correctly, then Rab should hold the
value of (Pa / Pb) times (g2a3b3)(x - y), which means that
the test at the end of the protocol will only succeed if x
== y. Further, since g2a3b3 is a random number not
known to any party, if x is not equal to y, no other information is revealed.
(See also the formulas in the documentation of the source

The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

A zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a
method by which one party (the prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that they know a value x, without
conveying any information apart from the fact that they
know the value x. The essence of zero-knowledge proofs is
that it is trivial to prove that one possesses knowledge of
certain information by simply revealing it; the challenge is to
prove such possession without revealing the information itself or any additional information.
If proving a statement requires that the prover possess
some secret information, then the verifier will not be able
to prove the statement to anyone else without possessing
the secret information. The statement being proved must
include the assertion that the prover has such knowledge,
but not the knowledge itself. Otherwise, the statement
would not be proved in zero-knowledge because it provides
the verifier with additional information about the statement
by the end of the protocol. A zero-knowledge proof of
knowledge is a special case when the statement consists only of the fact that the prover possesses the secret information.
Interactive zero-knowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their
knowledge and the individual validating the proof.
Research in zero-knowledge proofs has been motivated by
authentication systems where one party wants to prove its
identity to a second party via some secret information (such
as a password) but doesn't want the second party to learn
anything about this secret. This is called a "zero-knowledge
proof of knowledge". However, a password shouldn’t typically be too small or insufficiently random is used in many
schemes for zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge. A zeroknowledge password proof is a special kind of zeroknowledge proof of knowledge that addresses the limited
size of passwords.

105 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 41: Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP) in the chat window to authenticate the chat partner

SMP therefore requires sharing a common secret with the
communication partner. This is described by SMPCryptographic-Calling.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling



Above, we explained the Call function of how to generate
and transfer a Gemini. A user can not only define the Gemini manually or through the AES function, but it can also be
derived from the password used in the SMP process as outlined above. Thus, the password input from the SMP process is used (not the SMP process itself). It is another way
of “Cryptographic Calling” and thus securely transmits to its
counterpart an end-to-end password that does not! originate from an AES generator this time - if someone doubts
the randomness of a machine number generator. Once the
basic functions of encryption in Spot-On are explained in
detail, the user can see, for example, the interconnectedness of the individual processes in this architecture and
encryption suite, here: how the SMP process is used to create a secure end-to-end encryption. A zero-knowledge
proof to derive end-to-end encrypting credentials does not
transfer any key over the internet. That is the queen method of Cryptographic Calling. It can be multiplied within so
called Secret Streams.


A zero-knowledge
proof to derive endto-end encrypting
credentials does not
transfer any key
over the internet.
That is the queen
method of Cryptographic Calling. It
can be multiplied
within so called
Secret Streams.

Cryptographic Calling with Secret Streams

Figure 42: Definition of Secret Streams
Secret Streams
Secret Streams are a dedicated function within the Spot-On
Encryption Suite to provide a bunch of passphrases for endto-end encryption, which are not deriving from an AES
based on a random number generator but are built on a zero-knowledge proof provided by the same password entered of two participants within the Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP) process. This not only authenticates both users,
but also provides derived passphrases on both ends, which
are not transferred over the web. The Secret Streams generate a stream of bytes via the secret within the SMP process and the selected friend. The key sharing problem has

107 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

been solved with Spot-On’s invention of Secret Streams
based on a zero-knowledge proof method. This way, a random number generator of the machine (which could be
manipulated) is avoided, and also a possibly taped connection or keyboard cannot record any end-to-end encrypting

Hence, if the SMP password is present, it can also be used
as a basis for other and more elaborated functions: The
Secret Streams function - relevant for Forward Secrecy not
only in chat, but also in e-mail - can be also derived from
this SMP process. Secret Streams - a bunch of verified zero
knowledge proofs generated by the SMP process - can also
be built on the successfully verified SMP password.
Figure 43: Secret Streams based on SMP Protocol


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling


Additional security feature: Forward Secrecy

Spot-On is also supporting Perfect Forward Secrecy within
the function as an e-mail client, making it the first e-mail
client to offer Forward Secrecy for e-mail, with both, symmetric and a-symmetric Forward Secrecy.
While Cryptographic Calling with a Gemini for the chat
function has the “Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy” (IPFS)
and refers to a symmetric key (just the Gemini or the AES
string), the Perfect Forward Secrecy is for e-mail with temporary, a-symmetric keys defined.
This variant of the use of temporary a-symmetric keys
can of course also be transferred to the chat function. And
this has been done since the release in 2015.

Forward Secrecy
means a compromised key cannot
reveal the user, as it
is a temp-key.

Figure 44: Definition of Forward Secrecy
Perfect Forward Secrecy
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is a feature of specific key
agreement protocols that gives assurances your session keys
will not be compromised even if the private key is compromised. Forward Secrecy protects past sessions against future compromises of secret keys or passwords. By generating a unique session key for every session, a user initiates,
even the compromise of a single session key will not affect
any data other than that exchanged in the specific session
protected by that particular key.

While chat with the permanent chat key is always (asymmetric) encrypted, a temporary a-symmetric key is now
used with this new layer of end-to-end encryption. This
temporary a-symmetric key is called an ephemeral key. This
key is created by the forward secrecy function in the chat,
which is displayed via the context menu (right mouse click)
or via the menu button.
A tooltip on the screen (in the systray) indicates when the
chat partner in chat has created a forward secrecy with
temporary (ephemeral) a-symmetric keys, so that the user
109 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

can confirm this in his client in a pop-up window. The user
looks at the bottom of the status line for the newly appearing icon, clicks on it and can then confirm the forwardsecrecy process in the appearing pop-up window. Then, the
(temporary) chat key is no longer used, but the new, temporary a-symmetric keys. The permanent chat key is thus
complemented by the temporary chat key.
Only few software applications understand end-to-end encryption as a-symmetric and build forward secrecy via asymmetric encryption.

Forward Secrecy Calling

Thus, the Cryptographic Calling can be extended again: The
symmetric Gemini is sent in the Forward Secrecy Calling
(FSC) not as described above by the permanent (asymmetric) chat key or by an existing (symmetric) Gemini,
but by the new ephemeral, temporary and a-symmetric
chat key.
While sending a Gemini over an existing Gemini defines a
‘‘symmetric’’ “instant perfect forward secrecy”, sending a
Gemini over the ephemeral keys of the initiated “forward
secrecy” in the chat function may be considered an “asymmetric” one of “Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy”.
(While sending a Gemini via the permanent chat keys is
also called an a-symmetric “Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy”).
While “Forward Secrecy Calling” and “Call by a Gemini”
already have a “Forward Secrecy” and then define the renewability of the end-to-end key at any time (Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy), the other Calling Types are not with
Forward Secrecy given in advance. Instant Perfect Forward
Secrecy is generated here only by a call as a result of the
The continuation of Forward Secrecy is called – to abstract a bit more from MELODICA and Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS) - Forward Secrecy Calling.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling


Fiasco Forwarding & Fiasco Calling

Fiasco Forwarding should be mentioned here only brief:
Forward Secrecy has been developed to Instant Perfect
Forward Secrecy (IPFS, or even 2WIPFS) and this paradigm
has already been extended by Fiasco Forwarding (FF) within
the mobile Echo Client: Smoke. Here Fiasco Calling – as a
another further development of Cryptographic Calling - has
been introduced, which sends a bunch of keys to the friend
with one Call.
Then the recipient must try out over a dozen keys which
are sorted and tried out from newest to oldest.
This Fiasco Forwarding has not been yet implemented in
Spot-On Echo Client, as it was developed for the Smoke
Echo Client. It should be mentioned here in this context,
that even another Calling Feature could be established
structurally and is already coded into the Smoke Client,
which is also compatible with the Listeners/Servers from
This is especially of interest to be compared with the Signal Protocol, which is more schematic and determines the
(one) key for the message in the last message sent out before and is not able to be steered by a manual action of the
user to send out a new ephemeral key or even a bunch of
these. A Fiasco for old-fashioned protocols? Multiplied potential Keys for a Message.


Cryptographic Calling with Fiasco
Forwarding has
been implemented
in the Mobile Echo
Client of Smoke and
the referring Crypto
Chat Server SmokeStack.

Overview of the different Calling types

End-to-end encryption in Spot-On is as simple as making a
phone call - simply by pressing a button: just pick up or
hang up the phone. At any time, the communication remains a-symmetric encrypted and the symmetric end-toend encryption can be easily added - and also renewed by
a-symmetric or symmetric encryption (within a TLS/SSL
channel). This is a new architectural implementation standard established by these methods of Cryptographic Calling,
invented through the development of the software application Spot-On.
111 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

From the methods described to transfer an end-to-end
key to the friend, the following overview can be created,
which highlights the different methods with their respective
specific characteristics (see figure).
The call information - that is the end-to-end encrypting
passphrase (if not ephemeral PKI is used) - can of course
also be transmitted manually, e.g. verbally or by telephone.
If one adds the above-mentioned existing call types, it concludes then in total in seven different ways to be able to
implement a call. For the first time, the Spot-On architecture has spoken in the cryptographic discipline of “Cryptographic Calling” in regard of the transmission of end-to-end
passwords. Later concepts have borrowed this term.
Figure 45: Overview of the different types of Cryptographic
Calling with respective criteria
Asymmetric Calling



SMP Calling












Permanent asymmetric Chat/E-Mail Key
Symmetric AES as
Half AES + Half AES



















































Secret SMP Password
Chat/E-Mail PKI-Key
Forward Secrecy as
Instant Perfect
Forward Secrecy as
Several keys as a

Please note the following explanations:
Each of the presented methods results in Instant
Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS).
Only Symmetric and A-symmetric Calling requires
no action on the part of the other party.
Forward Secrecy Calling and Symmetric Calling require an existing status of Forward Secrecy.
‘Symmetric Calling’ and ‘Forward Secrecy Calling’
have triple encryption layers (TLS/SSL, Permanent


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling



Chat Key, as well as a temporary symmetric or asymmetric key through which the new Gemini will
then be sent).
‘SMP Calling’ and ‘2-Way-Calling’ break AES generation by replacing parts of the AES phrase and creating a new password string.
Secret Streams and Fiasco Forwarding provide a
bunch of potential temporary future keys.

The message formats with the encryption levels then look
simplified - since signatures, HMACs and hashes are not
included - as follows:
Asymmetric Calling: (TLS/SSL (Permanent Chat Key
e.g. RSA (message is an AES string)))
Forward Secrecy Calling : (TLS/SSL (Permanent Chat
Key e.g. RSA (ephemeral keys RSA (message is an
AES string))))
Symmetric Calling: (TLS/SSL (AES (Permanent Chat
Key e.g. RSA (message is an AES string)))
SMP Calling : (TLS/SSL (permanent chat key e.g.
RSA (message is a string formed from the SMP)))
Two-way-calling: (TLS/SSL (Permanent chat key e.g.
RSA (message is an AES string that is 50% modified
with friend’s AES)))
From this variety of options in securing end-to-end encryption or even defining and manually entering the end-to-end
encryption passphrase, the slogan, claim or headline has
emerged: “Your Instant Definition in Decentralized Crypto”
(as provided in the GoldBug GUI). The encryption is thus
not only a user-specific, which can be renewed (instant) at
any time, but also a decentralized at the user’s place and
machine - defined and designed by him- or herself.
A simple litmus test compared to other software applications is the simple question of whether the user can enter
the end-to-end encrypting password himself; or, if the user
can send a bunch of keys; or, if the user can use a zeroknowledge-proof to create security besides the random of
113 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

the number generator of the machine. With Spot-On the
user can do all this (as well as with the mobile version of
Spot-On: Smoke Chat currently for Android).


Emoticons aka Smileys

Spot-On offers a variety of different emoticons - also called
smileys - for chatting (see figure).
Figure 46: Emoticon list in Spot-On Encryption Suite

To use the emoticons, the user clicks twice on a friend, so a
pop-up chat window opens for private chat. If the user now
moves the mouse over the Send button, the smileys are
displayed in a tooltip that appears. By entering the ASCI
code, the emoticons are then displayed in the chat.
In settings, the options also allow the user to turn off the
graphical display of smileys in general.


File transfer in the chat pop-up window

The Qt menu allows to remove individual menu parts from
the regular user interface and to create a pop-up window
for certain settings.


The chat function with Cryptographic Calling

Figure 47: Tear-off / hook-up of controls

Likewise, the file-sharing function in particular is integrated
in a pop-up menu: In the 1:1 chat window. So if a user
wants to send a file to a specific friend, the user can simply
click the button “share” within the pop-up chat window for
that friend.
The shared file as well as the text is transmitted securely
and encrypted to the friend. The file transfer feature is
called StarBeam and also has its own tab but is already built
into the 1:1-chat-window for easy and direct usability. Just
another little hook-up menu.

115 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 48: File transfer in the pop-up chat window

File Sharing in an
encrypting messenger is based on
(web of trust) connections. No one
can investigate the
file, which is sent to
a friend. That’s encryption.

In general, the chat is easy to use with several ways for
Cryptographic Calling and end-to-end security of the connection. The user can be authenticated with SMP and a file
can easily be shared over the secure connection within the
chat. In which other application can a file be sent over instantly renewable end-to-end-secured connections over an
own encryption handling chat server?
Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Describe one method for Cryptographic Calling.
What`s the difference between Secret Streams and Fiasco Forwarding?
Describe the zero-knowledge proof in the SMP process.
What’s the advantage of IPFS?

Group chat in IRC style

7 Group chat in IRC style
In addition to chat and e-mail and transferring files to the
communication partners, Spot-On Encryption Suite also has
also a group chat feature. This works like an IRC chat. The
transmission of the messages to all group participants is
again fully encrypted via the Echo Protocol. The encryption
is symmetric, similar to a password string. Finally, in the
p2p network or via the chat server, all subscribers can read
a group chat who know the particular symmetric end-toend key that defines the chat room. The group chat is also
based on the Echo Protocol.
Figure 49: The e’IRC group chat

117 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Buzz Group Chat is
based on symmetric
encryption: The
room name is the


It is therefore spoken of Echo’ed IRC (or in short e’IRC). That
opens new options for the IRC chat, since the transport
routes of the e’IRC chat are also encrypted.
As normal POP3 or IMAP e-mails today also have at least
one transport encryption, e.g. with TLS 1.3, IRC can also be
understood as an encrypted group chat. Also, the traditional IRC chat can therefore learn from such security models
and improve: The e’IRC chat can represent a model of a
new group chat generation. Echo introduced and provides a
kind of transport encryption for IRC group chat.
The encryption details of the group chat are again defined via a Magnet URI link (see below) (defined in the link
with extension &URN=buzz). Buzz is the technical name in
the source code for the e’IRC group chat.
To start the Spot-On group chat, open the as preset given
community chat room, which can serve as an example.
Here, the user can ask the other present users questions
about the program or just use this channel with a friend
(e.g. to exchange their public keys).
To join an own channel, the user simply enters a room or
channel name or uses the Magnet link method above. The
Magnet link has embedded additional values for encryption
in addition to the room name, such as key, hash or cipher
for the encryption type.
If the user enters only the room name and does not use a
Magnet URI, the additional encryption details are set to the
value 0000 and the encryption of the room is based on the
room name only. If the user has entered all the values or
the room name (or pasted the Magnet link), then the “Join”
button is just to be pressed.
If the user has inserted a Magnet as link, then in the pulldown menu the command “de-Magnetize” should be used
first. The Magnet is then broken down into its individual
components and the room is created and entered based on
the encryption values embedded in the Magnet link.
If the room is open, the user can also save the room as a
bookmark or copy the corresponding Magnet-URI at any
time from this chat room as a bookmark and send it to
friends to invite them to the room.

Group chat in IRC style

Figure 50: IRC-style group chat within the e’IRC buzz channel

In order to send a message, the user then enters a text in
the chat room and presses the send button.
The Buzz or e’IRC chat room can be public or private, depending on how much the user announces the Magnet or
the individual encryption values. As a public e’IRC chat
room, the user can post or link the Magnet-URI on the own
website and everyone knows how to get into that chat
room: with “de-Magnetize”.
Ultimately, it works for these news channels like an IRC
chat, only with the difference that the Internet provider
and other rooting servers cannot look into the communica-

119 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

A One-Time
Magnet is a link to
a chat room (or to a
file), which is randomly composed
and used only once.

tion, since it is encrypted - as a connection in online banking too.
So it does not make any difference whether a user is talking to friends or to the online bank advisor.
If the user wants to use the chat room as a private room,
the user can secretly share the Magnet-URI only with the
own friends and they stay on their own privacy. This is a
convenient feature of the Spot-On program: the user can
simply chat encrypted without first exchanging a-symmetric
(PKI) keys. The user simply tells his friend verbally that he
should come in Spot-On on a certain server in the room
“Amber Room” and both participants can very easily and
securely chat encrypted using a common chat server.
Tip: The user can create a one-time Magnet for a room.
This is used to protect his public chat key when exchanging
the key with the communication partner through the (selfdefined) IRC channel. It requires that the Magnet-URI is
only known to the friend.
With the REPLEO, with EPKS and the key exchange via an
one-time Magnet (OTM) for a private e’IRC group chat
room, Spot-On offers several methods for a secure key
transfer. Thus, public keys no longer have to be public!
(compare: Kerckhoffs's principle, Shannon's maxim). Let’s
foster and re-define or re-define and foster!
Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Define a Magnet for the Group Chat and let a friend demagnetize it.
Program a bridge in Qt, so that in Spot-On also regular
plaintext IRC channels can be read.
Try to bring a group chat window into the browser with
a Spot-On-Kernel connected to Python, Apache and further tools like PHP or JavaScript.

Smoke Mobile Chat Client

8 Smoke Mobile Chat Client
While Spot-On is a desktop client that is compiled and deployed on numerous operating systems as well as platforms
such as Raspberry Pi, the mobile client of the Echo Protocol
is called “Smoke Chat” and developed in Java.


Smoke Android Client

Smoke offers a direct 1:1 chat to a friend as well as a group
chat. The group chat in Smoke is called FireChat and it is
similar and compatible to the Buzz/e’IRC group chat in
The 1:1 chat of Smoke on the mobile device does not use
the phone number of the participants as an identifier, but a
short string, a so-called SIP hash, is used as an identifier.
Smoke users connect to a common server - this can be a
Spot-On, GoldBug, Spot-On-Lite, and SmokeStack server
listener - and then swap their public key over the SIP hash
connection, which is used for symmetric encryption of this
channel. SmokeStack is a chat server for Android and can
serve around 500 users on an Android device - ideal for a
workshop group, family or within school.


Spot On is coded in
C++ wit Qt and
used on Desktops.

The Android mobile
version is called
Smoke and uses

Fire chat to Buzz chat

Since Java and C++ programming do not know common key
formats from the crypto libraries, it is usually not possible
to use an open source Java client to chat encrypted to a C
++ client.
Smoke, however, has innovated and implemented a way
to do so: the so-called FireChat in Smoke can also be used
to reach a user in Spot-On and vice versa. This is based on a
symmetric encrypted chat (like a symmetric Crypto Call).

Group chat from
both clients is possible over FireChat
(of Smoke) and
(of Spot-On).

121 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Other applications mostly use the Java Script Crypto libraries for the browser or connect to a central server, but
these methods are generally considered to be less secure.
So if a user wants to use a mobile version of Spot-On for
the chat, this can be found in Smoke Chat and under the
concept description MOMEDO (both at Github:
Offline Messaging in Smoke uses so-called OzonePostboxes on the SmokeStack Server for Android. These
offline messaging postboxes will be also described in the
next chapter about e-mail and p2p e-mail postboxes.
Figure 51: Mobile Smoke Messenger with left-right chat layout

Essential for mobile
encrypted Messaging is not the GUI of
the client, but the
option to set up an
own server.
Smoke uses the App
SmokeStack as
Server on Android
or a Spot-OnListener.

Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Define a Group Chat from FireChat of Smoke to a Group
Chat of Spot-On.

The e-mail function

9 The e-mail function
Spot-On is a fully functional e-mail client.
Not fully - like e-mail applications that have existed for
decades - here it still needs further programming from the
community, but fully functional in the sense of a fully usable e-mail client. The advantage: the reading and writing of
e-mails is shown very efficiently in the user interface on
one page respective in one tab (see figure). And: the emails
to other Spot-On users are always encrypted.
Spot-On uses technically the library CURL and supports
POP3, SMTP and IMAP. Finally, Spot-On’s special feature is
that it also supports p2p e-mail and p2p hosted mailboxes:
Here the e-mail is stored in the distributed network of the
participants and not at a central provider. With Spot-On,
users can very easily provide an e-mail server and communicate with it. The infrastructure is not only easy to install but can also be created by the user.
From a future perspective, this is also the (necessary)
progress, that users of the Internet organize the Internet
again more on their own and use cryptography within their
own encrypted mailboxes that are not deposited at central
hosters, but on their own network of participants.

123 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 52: E-Mail - read view (shown here in the GoldBug GUI)

After all, centralization is always followed by decentralization, even though only the users, who recognize and value
this freedom, will pay attention to decentralization necessities and such remaining opportunities in the future.
Here’s how to set up the three ways to load own emails:


The e-mail function



The Post Office Protocol POP3 is a transmission Protocol
that enables a client to pick up e-mails from an e-mail server. POP3 allows you to list, retrieve and delete emails on
the e-mail server. For sending e-mails, additionally the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is usually implemented in
clients and servers as a complement to POP3.
The POP3 Protocol is thus integrated in all popular e-mail
programs, including Spot-On. How it is set up next to IMAP
is explained below and also further below in the description
of the window of POPTASTIC (see the following pages).



The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) on the other
hand was designed in the 1980s with the emergence of
personal computers to resolve the e-mail storage on individual client computers in the mail communication.
That is, the (PC) clients instead access the information
online on the servers and, if necessary, receive copies of it.
While a user of POP3 has lost all e-mails after losing his
or her PC (if e-mails on the server are not kept), a mail client at IMAP only copies the requests to the server for the
information currently required.
For example, if a user wants to see the content of the inbox folder, the client will get an up-to-date copy of the
message list from the server. If the content of an e-mail is
to be displayed, it is loaded as a copy from the server. As all
data remains on the central server, a ‘‘local storage of the
data’’ is unnecessary and extended possibilities such as the
search of mails are also performed only on the server side.
This also makes a local taking-over of the data - by taking
it away from the server - mostly impossible, as the configuration of IMAP by default is not geared to it. At the same
time, the issue of confidentiality and security of data that is
outsourced to IMAP servers comes to the fore in the case of
unencrypted e-mail. The question arises as to whether the
125 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Still it is better to
store even encrypted e-mails in the
local repository on
the own machine,
in case the algorithm can be compromised. Don’t
leave e-mail copies
on central servers,
even if they are
encrypted, if you
want to have exclusive ownership or
privacy of it.

recipient of an e-mail has jurisdiction over the confidentiality and storage of the e-mail itself, e.g. has the right not to
show it to anyone or to delete it in secret, or if the recipient
only has one copy, gets a “right of view” of the own mail.
However, and however the central delete of POP3 or
IMAP e-mails on a central server is defined, with regard to
the findings from 2013 – to better encrypt emails fundamentally - IMAP is to be judged particularly critically in this
light: The storage of emails is not made at IMAP as in POP3
in the mail client on the machine of the user, but the personal data remains mostly still unencrypted on the server
of the provider. With IMAP the cloud, which is widely used
today, was invented in the field of e-mail in the 1980s.
POP3 is more likely to enable on-premises handling of email storage on the local machine.
Spot-On supports both standards and makes it possible
to receive and send plain text messages via IMAP and
POP3. If data is encrypted in IMAP or POP3 postboxes, it
does not matter, which of both is used. Here’s how to enter
the settings for an e-mail account in Spot-On.
Detailed description of POP3 / IMAP setup options:
Via the main menu “View” of the Spot-On Encryption Suite
the own e-mail address and the POP-3 or IMAP server details are stored. These are the same details that are also
entered, for example, in the Thunderbird e-mail client or
Outlook, for example:
 ’’Incomming Server Server:‘’ Port: 995
TLS Username: Password:
** **
 ’’Outgoing Server Server:‘’ Port: 587
TLS Username: Password:
** **
The user can press the test button to check the functionality of the server input. With the “OK” button then the inputs are stored.
(If the value “Disabled” is used in the selection menu instead of POP3 or IMAP, the program no longer sends emails: the mail function is completely switched off.)


The e-mail function

Users who want to use the chat function described below
via the POP3/IMAP e-mail server (that is the POPTASTIC
protocol, see below) should therefore not deactivate the email information.
Figure 53: POPTASTIC: chat via e-mail server

According to the above security considerations, a user
should always load own e-mails right from the server onto
the own machine and delete the e-mails on the server, if
they are not encrypted. So, there seems to be much to talk

127 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

about using POP3 instead of IMAP, as IMAP is more focused
on keeping emails on the server. A central repositorium.
In general, e-mails in this light do not belong to a remote
server, not into the cloud, not into a browser-based web
service - they are stored on the user’s own machine - or
they are in any case to be encrypted for such a temporary
postbox cache.
But the trend today is exactly the opposite: Central servers that store the messages, without encryption, without
own infrastructure in the hands of users define the mainstream. This will last, until the trend reverses again, and
users will rediscover their own sovereignty. Spot-On offers
for this transition encryption for the old-fashioned e-mailpost box caches (of IMAP and POP3) and also several methods to store e-mails in modern encrypted postbox caches
based on the peer-to-peer network.
To e-mail a friend,
use the e-mail key,
or the @-e-mail



P2P E-Mail: without data retention

Third, in addition to IMAP and POP3, there is the option of
using p2p e-mail in Spot-On. This means that the e-mails
are not stored or cached in a central server, but in the client
of a friend.
Regarding encryption, it has already been shown that the
e-mail function uses a different encryption key than the
chat function. So the user can add a friend to the chat, but
refuse the e-mail or vice versa. It makes sense, however, to
copy all the keys as a whole, then the user has his friend
present in all functions (so e.g. in addition the URL key, the
POPTASTIC key and the Rosetta key - several functions that
will be described in the upcoming chapters).
Of course, with the key transfer for the e-mail function,
the security of a REPLEO can be used again, if a user does
not want to reveal the own public e-mail key to the public.
No matter which e-mail method a user chooses, whether
POP3, IMAP or P2P, outgoing e-mails to cryptographic keys
in Spot-On are always encrypted, there is only one exception, that is if the user in the Add Participant Window does
not adds a Key (or a REPLEO), but chooses the selection:

The e-mail function

Add E-Mail-Address. Then the e-mail program of Spot-On
sends unencrypted text from @ -mail to @ -mail.
Note: Anyone entering a POPTASTIC key will also see the
@E-Mail address in the contact list for e-mail, but it is colorcoded and also has a padlock icon, which means it will be a
POPTASTIC e-mail address (a key) – just used for encrypted
emailed - and also chat. After all, a key is inserted for POPTASTIC (and not an @-e-mail address). Only e-mails sent to
@-e-mail addresses that do not have a lock symbol remain
To clarify again:
The user can use the following ways by e-mail
 The e-mail key: This can send e-mails via POP3, IMAP
and P2P.
 The POPTASTIC KEY: This can send chat via POP3 and
 The @mail address: This can send unencrypted emails
from regular @mail addresses via POP3 and IMAP to
@mail addresses (not to keys).
Therefore, two Spot-On users can exchange encrypted emails with normal @Mail, e.g. via the major e-mail providers such as Ymail, Gmail, GMX, Outlook etc. without any
further technical knowledge: either unencrypted via @-mail
addresses or encrypted as chat over the POPTASTIC key,
which will be explained later. And thirdly, the user can always use the e-mail key to send encrypted e-mails, including p2p.
This is very comfortable in that it is enough to exchange
the keys once. So, it is not every single e-mail that the user
writes, to encrypt each time again individually (as previously practiced in other software procedures). Each @-mail
provider can now be exempted from viewing the user’s emails by simply pushing encrypted cipher text over the central server to the communication partner. What is needed is
the agreement with the friend that the friend also uses
Spot-On or one of the other Echo clients as an e-mail client
to exchange the keys only once.
129 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

E-Mail attachments can also be attached to an e-mail as a
file and are automatically encrypted regardless of which
encryption e-mail method is chosen. This is also possible
with several attachments.
In addition to the discussion for the encryption of emails, the meta-data is still stored in many countries, i.e.
when and how often a user retrieves the messages from
the own mailbox. Here is the alternative method of p2p emails interesting: Spot-On also makes it possible to store emails on the subscriber network (or on its own server) and
decentralize the corresponding e-mail inboxes, which also
exclusively and automatically handle the standard of encrypted e-mails.
The e-mail client thus also contains a peer-to-peer-based
component, i.e. the e-mails are sent over the network of
the encrypted connections and buffered in the nodes of
friends. This network is provided by the integrated architecture of the Spot-on kernel. The advantage of p2p e-mail is
3 ways to store emails in the p2p net- that the e-mail inbox does not reside with a central host
and public e-mail provider but can be set up in the decenwork:
tralized network of the user’s own friends.
 C/O-function,
With Spot-On everyone can easily set up an e-mail inbox
 VEMI Institutions,
 OZONE Postboxes. for own friends. Nobody can then log when and how often
a user retrieves own e-mails. The Echo Protocol also helps
to minimize metadata that reveals who has read which email and who is storing an e-mail for whom (since the
opening of the encrypted messages occurs exclusively on
the user’s machine and each node - according to the Echo
Protocol - sends each message to everyone).
How to set up a mailbox for friends is shown in the following section:


Setting up C/O: e-mail postboxes at a friend

The interesting thing about the Spot-On e-mail feature and here it may differ from other p2p e-mail implementations - is that it’s also possible to send e-mail to friends who
are offline.
There are three different methods for doing this:

The e-mail function


Care-Of method (C/O)

One method is to use a third, common friend to temporarily store the e-mails there with this dedicated friend. So, if
Alice and Bob set up a common chat server on the web on
their web infrastructure, and all three of them have
swapped their keys, the web server (as common friend)
acts like an e-mail inbox, as we know it from POP3 or IMAP.
Figure 54: P2P e-mail from the postbox to a friend: C/O function (shown in the GoldBug Interface)

131 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Basically, the e-mails do not need central servers; it can also
be a third friend or a small Raspberry Pi computer at home,
which remains online. It therefore makes sense to have
more than one friend in the own list and to network friends
with other friends who can act for a caching. Since all emails are encrypted, the friends who provide a cache function cannot read the user’s e-mail either.
Also, the e-mails are stored in encrypted databases. The
figure shows that even cipher text is displayed even when
viewing the structure of the database file.
Figure 55: Database encryption – file email.db

In order to activate this Care-Of (C/O) caching function, the
check-box “Care-Of” must be activated in the sub-tab “EMail Settings”. If two friends are then connected to each
other and to the third friend and want to enable the caching of e-mails in their own clients, then all have just to insert the other two friends in the own e-mail contact list.


The e-mail function

The Spot-On user can also choose to have the e-mails
sent authenticated or unauthenticated in the p2p e-mail
network, so they can simply be sent encrypted without evidence that the key belongs to a particular user.
The Care-Of P2P e-mail feature is one of the simplest in
the software landscape for P2P e-mail at all. If three users
share a common Echo server and have added each other as
a friend, only the C/O feature needs to be activated, and
the e-mails are stored in the friends of friend’s cache, in
case they are offline. Nothing is simpler than this architecture: The user only needs a few friends who want to participate in this process for internal communication within a
The second method is the establishment of a virtual email institution. This is great for people who like to equip
an entire community of friends with an e-mail inbox. It requires a bit administration but the VEMI method for postboxes could replace IMAP postboxes in the future, as it
handles only encrypted e-mails.

Virtual E-Mail Institution (“VEMI”) method

For this it is also necessary to activate the C/O function with
the check box as described above.
Then the user can create a so-called “Virtual E-Mail Institution” (VEMI).
For the text and definition fields “Name” and “Address”
of the institution, the user can freely get creative and
choose any name. Then the public e-mail keys of the
friends who want to save e-mails in this institution are still
to be copied into this node.
Finally, the user can then copy out the created MagnetURI-link and make it available to friends who then temporarily store in that mailbox. (For the Magnet-URI standard
and what that is, see also below in the file transfer section
with “StarBeam”). In addition, please remember: the node
that sets up the e-mail institution must always also add the
public e-mail key of the user for which it is to save the emails.
133 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The advantage over the first method is that the public email key of the node setting up the institution need not be
disclosed to anyone. With the C/O method, however, the
public e-mail key must be exchanged. Therefore, one can
easily say that in the small friends network a common node
with the C/O function is ideal and the VEMI method of setting up Virtual E-Mail Institutions tends to focus on vendors
who want to set up mailboxes for a larger number of subscribers.
Settings example:
Here is an example of how the C/O function and the VEMI
function, i.e. the creation of a virtual e-mail institution, are
implemented step by step:
 The user activates the C/O function in the e-mail settings tab.
 The user creates an institution and chooses a name
and address for the institution.
 Example: Institution-Name = “p2p mailbox” and address = “Dotcom”
 The user inserts the e-mail key of a friend into the
own client. The user then copies the available e-mail
Magnet from the own e-mail institution and has the
friends to paste it into their program.
The user recognizes an e-mail Magnet at his ending: URN =
institution. Then you know that the Magnet is not a buzzgroup chat Magnet nor a StarBeam Magnet for file sharing they would have the suffix “URN = buzz” or “URN = starbeam”. The Magnet for an institution will look like this one:
Figure 56: URN = Institution (VEMI Method)
URN = Institution
Magnet: in = p2p mailbox & ct = aes256 & pa = Dotcom &
ht = sha512 & xt = urn: institution


The e-mail function

So, after adding the Magnet-Link for an Institution the referring node will cache the e-mails of the friends in the established institution - if necessary especially for participants, which appear to be offline.
The user (as creator of an e-mail institution) does not
need to exchange his own e-mail key with the friends or
“subscribers” of this institution. The creator of an e-mail
institution can also exchange the e-mail keys of the friends
in a group chat room via e’IRC/Buzz. The exchange process
of key & e-mail Magnet does not have to impart any further

Ozone Postbox

Ozone Postbox is a method, which should be just mentioned here, as it is implemented in the application Smoke
and Smokestack Server, the first Echo applications for Android. SmokeStack provides a Postbox for all users of this
mobile Echo Messenger, which is also compatible with the
Servers/Listeners of Spot-On. Currently Smoke is workable
with a Spot-On Listener/Server, but Spot-On has currently
no Ozone Postboxes, as they are only provided for the
Smoke Messenger Client in relation to the mobile SmokeStack Server.
It will be up to further research based on customer and case
needs to compare the three messaging methods to offline
users: C/O, Institutions (VEMI) and Ozone Postboxes in their
optimal functionality and probably also add the IMAP/POP3
postbox method for the POPTASTIC Protocol (which might
have probably a bit of a delay in comparison to presence
messaging servers and their postboxes for offline appearing

Individual, customer-oriented
further research is
needed for the best
method to reach
other offline users
over own communication servers in a
p2p federate-able

Next to IMAP and POP3 Postboxes now also further methods exist like C/O, Institutions and Ozone-Postboxes, which
are more related to encryption than the old storage options.

135 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual


Additional Encryption: Put a “Goldbug” on an

If you like it, put a Regardless of which transmission and cache method a user
Goldbug on It.
chooses, whether POP3, IMAP or p2p, the e-mails are always encrypted using the public (a-symmetric) e-mail (or
POPTASTIC) key and the Echo Protocol for transmission.
This is also the case if e-mails are cached in an intermediate station such as a provider mailbox or a virtual institution or an intermediate node of a friend. Transport encryption and end-to-end encryption is consistent throughout.
As additional security for the e-mail function there is similar to the so-called “Gemini” for Cryptographic Calling
in chat-, now for e-mails the option to set a password on
the e-mail: Not only the alternative GUI for the Spot-On
Kernel is called GoldBug, but also the function in the e-mail
client to set an additional password on the e-mail is called
“Goldbug” (please note the different writing).
E-mails that have a “Goldbug” password set (see below
the description of the file transfer function “StarBeam”,
here the additional password is “NOVA”) can only be read
by the recipient if they have the appropriate “Goldbug“ - so
the user needs to know the golden key as a password. The
 Gemini for chat,
user should therefore inform the friends about the pass Goldbug for eword to be entered if the user sends them e-mails that still
require an additional password in order to be opened.
 Nova for file
This can be, for example, in the e-mails to the own wife,
that the user always encrypts the e-mails with the name of
the city in which the wedding or the wedding holiday took
Again, as with the chat with the Gemini, and as we will
still see with file-sharing with the NOVA, the Goldbug Password is an important feature of symmetric and end-to-end
encryption for e-mail that the user can individually and
manually create for an end-to-end encrypting password.
In addition to the reminiscence of the short story by Edgar Allen Poe about a cryptogram and his work for cryptography in the early years of the beginning of industrialization
- the Goldbug on an e-mail is a new idea, next to automati136

The e-mail function

cally encrypted e-mail created by the key exchange. It is asymmetric encrypted e-mail, but also with a symmetric encryption: the Goldbug on an e-mail. It is another, hybrid
and multi-encrypting layer per single e-mail, as this process,
to touch each individual e-mail, is so far the standard
(elsewhere by PGP, but here additionally symmetric).
This process is done without additional encryption software, which elsewhere must be additionally installed e.g. as
a plugin. Here, integrated within the e-mail client.


Forward Secrecy for e-mail

Using the included architecture of the Spot-on kernel, SpotOn is one of the first e-mail programs in the world to offer
Forward Secrecy encryption, which can be both, asymmetric and symmetric for e-mail – so both methods
within one e-mail Program are supported.
Forward Secrecy means – just to remember - that temporary keys are used to transmit the end-to-end encrypting
password, so that if later an analysis should be made in regard of the communication and the encryption, not the
regular (permanent) key for the communication is affected.
The user now sends the e-mail partner a session-based,
symmetric (forward secrecy) key via the usual asymmetrical encryption of the e-mail key (see figure).

Spot-On is one of
the first e-mail programs to offer FS
Encryption with
both encryption

137 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 57: E-mail with forward secrecy

If the partner confirms the request and returns his temporary key, then both parties can use session-based asymmetric keys to further secure the e-mail communication. Incidentally, this method of a-symmetrical end-to-end
backup was not only integrated for e-mail, but also for the
chat function (see above: Forward Secrecy (FS) Calling).
The permanent public key is then used only to transport
the session-based keys - not to transport the message (or:
the previous message becomes the new key to the following message). That is, the ephemeral (temporary) key is
shared with the partner via the permanent public e-mail
key. Then, if the ephemeral public key was correctly accepted by a recipient, said recipient also generates an ephemeral session key (symmetric), which is then sent back to the
user via the user’s public key as well.
The initiator then deletes its a-symmetric ephemeral keys
as soon as the temporary session has ended.


The e-mail function

So, when a user writes an e-mail, Spot-On has four forwardsecrecy modes available to encrypt the e-mail:




Normal encrypted: The e-mail is sent as usual within
the encrypted system (Echo or POPTASTIC), that is,
the regular permanent symmetric e-mail key is used
to encrypt the message.
Forward Secrecy Encrypted: Regular encryption uses
session-based forward secrecy keys - that is, the user
sends session-based keys over the permanent e-mail
key channel and then encrypts his message with the
temporary keys. So, this adds to the message another a-symmetrically encrypted level to the already existing e-mail encryption.
Pure Forward Secrecy Encrypted (“Pure FS”): The
message is encrypted and sent only through the user’s session-based (ephemeral) e-mail key. The permanent e-mail key is thus not used in the “Pure FS”:
This can therefore also be called the “instant” option
within the e-mail process, that means it is immediate
(in the sense of volatile) and a kind of one-time email. This generates quasi mail-addresses and mailboxes in the sense of encrypted data packets - which
can be deleted after the session. This creates onetime e-mail accounts thanks to Pure Forward Secrecy.
Goldbug encrypted: A Spot-On node sets as described above a Goldbug password on the e-mail
(e.g. with an AES, symmetric encryption) and the user must inform the e-mail partner about the password, ideally verbally. Just another layer: The thus
symmetrically encrypted message is then also sent
via the a-symmetric e-mail encryption (permanent email key).

If the user selects the checkbox option “plain” next to the
e-mail text, the e-mail is not written in HTML rich text
mode, but in plain text mode. Word plain text has nothing
to do here in terms of an antonym to cipher text.
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Again, with the following attention to understanding:
through the permanent (a-symmetric) key (for e-mail (or so
in chat) ephemeral keys (as a-symmetrical keys) are exchanged, which are then the basis for the use of end-to-end
encryption. That means, the ephemeral keys can be deleted
at any time after use and the communication is not tied to
the identities in the sense of permanent keys.
One should not be confused here, because even the endto-end encrypting symmetric passphrases are ephemeral
keys. But it becomes more apparent if only the a-symmetric
temporary keys which are pushed through the permanent
a-symmetric e-mail keys are initially referred to as ephemeral keys (so that this is not confusing to those who are
dealing with the forward-secrecy process or the word
“ephemeral key” for the first time).
The encryption levels in Forward Secrecy in the Spot-On
e-mail program can be described simplified as follows:
External encryption level: SSL/TSL connection,
Possible, additional encryption level: permanent
a-symmetric e-mail key (not with “Pure FS” - otherwise: first-ephemeral-then-permanent),
Further level, which may later be deleted:
Ephemeral, temporary a-symmetric key (used only to transfer symmetric keys),
First encryption level via Forward Secrecy: Symmetric key,
Alternative first encryption level via a Goldbug
Password on an e-mail: Symmetric key via a manually defined Goldbug on the e-mail. The message format is thus: (TLS/SSL (AES-Goldbug (email message)).) According to Encrypt-then-Mac,
this can be called “Goldbug-then-Permanent.”
The Goldbug on an e-mail encrypts the text in the
Temporary keys are not derived from permanent keys and
have no relation to them in the generation. Session periods
are defined manually by the user. This means that unlike
other programs, the session is automatically defined by the
online coming and going back offline, but the user himself

The e-mail function

determines when he wants to use new session-based keys.
Again, this can be anytime and “instant” (see above: IPFS).
The process or Protocol for forward secrecy within e-mail
can be described as follows with this example:


I send you my postal address. This is public.
You also send me your postal address. This is public.
Our addresses are permanent. These addresses
change only when we move.
 Days later I make a unique envelope, an ephemeral envelope.
I send you, and only you, my unique envelope. Of
course, I use your postal address to send you this. We
assume, only you can read the written sentences. I
could also sign the draft with my signature.

 On the same day You will receive my unique envelope and you will also
verify it by my signature, if you like.
7. You create a special letter.
8. You bundle the special letter into the unique envelope
I sent you.
9. Once you have sealed it, only I can open it.
10. You send the unique envelope back to my postal address. Optionally you can of course also sign the created bundle again.


 Still the same day 11. I receive your bundle. In this bundle is my unique envelope.
12. In my unique envelope that only I can open is your
special letter.
13. We use the special letter as often as we want … Once,
twice. Etc.
A set of session-based keys is sent back via the ephemeral
key. The first bundle is transported via the permanent keys.
141 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Permanent bowls do not have to be, but they do exist (because the SSL/TLS connection is still there). That is, the user
sends the ephemeral key (one way) over the permanent
key, and the partner returns the set of session-based (symmetric keys) via the ephemeral key.
At the end - after the log is completed - the ephemeral
keys are deleted and only the set of session-based keys remains.


Secret Streams for e-mail

It has already been described as innovative in an e-mail
client, offering both a-symmetric and symmetric forward
secrecy. The new and so far uniquely implemented function
of the Secret Streams can be further appreciated as even
more innovative: Secret Streams are, so to speak, a list of
temporary keys generated by the password in the SMP auMathematically
thentication of the Socialist Millionaire Protocol. The SMP
process has been extensively described above in the chat
section and can also be used for Cryptographic Calling.
Streams as a bunch
And now, this breathtaking new feature of the Secret
of keys based on a
Streams has not seen the world like this yet, is satisfying
users and getting used to companions within the market - if
process and therethat phrase is allowed - because it solves the key transfer
fore not transferred
problem fundamentally: both users receive a password
over the internet known only to them in the SMP process through reciprocal
but derived within
contextual clues or just on commonly known secrets. Once
the elaborated SMP
this authentication has taken place, this password can also
be used to derive numerous temporary, ephemeral keys
that are the same in both clients, without them having to
be transmitted - because SMP authentication is the responsibility of a so-called zero-knowledge process, we already
The purpose of the SMP filter is to generate key streams
from a secret. The secret is mathematically negotiated
through the SMP process without it being transmitted as
such. Thus, the keys of the Secret Stream function are derived from a zero-knowledge proof!


The e-mail function

The function of the Secret Streams is available for chat, email and also POPTASTIC: Temporary keys, which do not
have to be transmitted anymore! Secret Streams should
represent a small revolution in cryptography, because the
password transmission problem would be partially solved.
Only the SMP secret - that was previously used for authentication, not yet for encryption - is required.
Figure 58: Implementation of Secret Streams here for e-mail


Further research perspectives

It should be remembered that the permanent (or additional) keys are transformed into transport keys, if temp-keys
should be used. If these are compromised, the encryption
143 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

becomes recognizable with still the other encryption layers.
This concept creates a creative research area within the
Echo Protocol environment. Here are some concept suggestions that could be further incorporated:
Participants could consistently generate ephemeral (asymmetric) key pairs and exchange session-based (symmetric) keys over the ephemeral keys. Participants would be
notified if there were not enough keys left. Replacement
(from ephemeral keys to permanent key or session-based
(symmetric)keys to (session-based) ephemeral (asymmetric) keys would then be automatically regulated …
similar to exchanging status messages via online status in
chat exchanged only over session-based keys in the Echo or
POPTASTIC Protocol. This is what Echo Client Spot-On established with Secret Streams and the Echo Client Smoke established with Fiasco Forwarding:
Instead of exchanging one set of private session keys,
multiple sets of private session bowls could be exchanged
for supplies. Retaining data differently for a variety of anonymous e-mail addresses with session-based keys.
The OTR concept (so far for chat) could be applied within
the permanent keys and also for e-mail. POPTASTIC in a
different way, if chat goes via e-mail, then the chat key with
OTR can also be sent via e-mail. Now keys or a bunch of
keys mix functions.
By using unique keys, information transfers in a session
can be ideally protected - even if there are attempts to
compromise it. That means, forward secrecy offers a substantial improvement in the protection of encrypted transmissions for little effort and no cost.
After describing e-mail and its numerous options for improved and innovated encryption, we come to the already
announced term POPTASTIC - the function of chat over email servers. As e-mail and chat is possible with this POPTASTIC key, temp-keys can here also be shared for chat and
for e-mail.


POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing POP3 & IMAP Servers

10 POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing
POP3 & IMAP Servers
POPTASTIC is an innovation in messaging: encrypted chat
over e-mail servers.
With the POPTASTIC function all e-mail accounts, e.g.
from Gmail, Outlook or Yahoo!-Mail can be encrypted asymmetric end-to-end with Spot-On - and additionally hybrid symmetric. The clou: every POP3 or IMAP server can
now also be used for encrypted chat. And that also through
firewalls when e-mail is given and going out.
Figure 59: POPTASTIC Protocol Graphic

145 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Let’s take a closer look at the POPTASTIC protocol here at
the desktop client of Spot-On.

10.1 Chat over POPTASTIC
So why should a user still use a dedicated chat server or a
secure chat protocol with plug-ins for encryption, if the user can just use the own e-mail address for e-mail and also
for chat at the same time? The multi-decade old POP3 or
IMAP Protocol and numerous e-mail servers can now be
used for encrypted chat with Spot-On. The e-mail server is
simply converted to a chat server. That’s an invention by
the Spot-On development.
For this, the chat message is converted into an encrypted
e-mail, sent via POP3 or IMAP, and the recipient is converting it back into a chat message. Since the Spot-On Messenger is also an e-mail client at the same time, the encrypted
message exchange also works via e-mail. The program will
automatically detect if it is an e-mail via POP3 or a chat
message via POP3 (or IMAP).
Chat and e-mail through POPTASTIC are proxy enabled
and can therefore be operated from work, the university or
behind a firewall, even through the Tor network. If the users logs in to the own e-mail account with a web browser,
one can see what the encrypted chat message looks like
among all other e-mails.
The additional symmetric end-to-end encryption via
POP3 can - as with the Echo Protocol - not only be used as
forward secrecy, but can also be renewed “instantaneously” every second. Therefore, here too (as above) of Instant
Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS) is spoken, which is now possible via POP3 and IMAP for the POPTASTIC chat! Finally,
there is also the option in POPTASTIC of making a call for
the transmission of a Gemini using the methods differentiated above.
This option variety of the chat encryption with POPTASTIC is not given so far also with the architectural derivatives for mobile devices.


POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing POP3 & IMAP Servers

However, for users surely an interesting and easy way to
chat encrypted via this special e-mail POPTASTIC Protocol.

10.2 E-mail over POPTASTIC
Just as there is e-mail utilizing the e-mail key and as to chat
over the POPTASTIC key, it is also possible to e-mail via
POPTASTIC. Since POPTASTIC is a key which the friend is
adding to the own client (via the Add-Participant-window),
the POPTASTIC contact or the e-mail address is provided
with a lock symbol and additionally marked with a background color to indicate that the message exchange here
always happens only encrypted.
If the user adds an e-mail address in the Add-Participant
window, that contact will also be added to the contact list
in the e-mail tab - but without the locked icon and background color. This indicates that the e-mail messages are
unencrypted with this contact (as it is @-e-mail). This is the
case if someone does not use the Spot-On client. Then the
mail program will send the e-mail unencrypted to the
@mail address (from the own @-mail-address – as long as
AutoCrypt is not applied).
The program knows: if the users mails from the POPTASTIC key to a POPTASITC key, then this is always encrypted and can also be chat. And if the user mails from the own
@-mail-address without the POPTASTIC key to an @mail
address, then the message is unencrypted. This is the only
and rare case that the client leaves the message unencrypted, since it does not use the Echo Protocol, but the regular
e-mail Protocol SMTP!
In any case: if the contact also uses Spot-On, both can
permanently e-mail encrypted when the POPTASTIC key is
entered in the Add-Participant window.
E-Mail via POPTASTIC is then a simple permanent encrypted e-mailing, by simply swapping once the POPTASTIC
key at the beginning.

encrypts data
over the
unencrypted SMTP

147 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

10.3 Setting up POPTASTIC
A detailed description of the configuration options of the email server can be found above in the section on POP3 and
IMAP (see also figure).
Figure 60: POPTASTIC Settings: Encrypted Chat and Encrypted
E-Mail over POP3 and IMAP

Short Note for setting e.g. Gmail up for POPTASTIC
Note: In Gmail the user should set the option on the Web
that retrieved POP3 messages are deleted from the INBOX.
To connect, it’s also a good idea to set the security setting in
Gmail so that the user can connect to all local e-mail clients
(Gmail should allow unknown clients):
Settings / Forward and POP & IMAP / POP Download: Enable POP for all Mail
Settings / Accounts & Import / Change Account Settings:
Other Settings / [New window] / Security / Access for less
secure / unknown Apps: Enabled.
It may be advisable to set up an extra e-mail account for a
first test and further use: It may be important to note that
new e-mail accounts, e.g. for Gmail, may be limited to the


POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing POP3 & IMAP Servers

first 30 days for the sending of e-mails (e.g. Gmail for max.
500 chat messages or e-mails per day). This should be sufficient for a test or normal need if necessary.

Otherwise the user can set up an own e-mail server with
Spot-On and the user is no longer dependent on the @Mail
accounts of the major providers, if it is a small internal user
groups that use the Echo mail - represented here with its
own server need.

10.4 Further development of the POPTASTIC protocol
This idea of the POPTASTIC architecture has been developed by the Spot-On development team, published and
described also in the study “Big 7” by the auditors of the
program (op. cit 2016). Then this idea has been taken over
by the mobile application Lettera-Chat, though the encryption there also should runs soon via PGP and exclusively
only via IMAP server. Also, the Delta-Chat project has taken
it over. Commits show, that these projects have started
years later than the POPTSASTIC idea was published in the
Spot-on and GoldBug Software. The original commits and
publication data show the historical origins to these references, and credits could be made in order not to seek the
proximity of any meaning of plagiarizing the POPTASTIC
architecture of this encrypted communication by following
However, a fork and a progression of the POPTASTIC protocol idea (encrypted chat over e-mail servers) that is to be
welcomed (and referenced) if it’s in a mobile chat client
with an appealing user interface.

(See the release of POPTASTIC in 2014 and further publication in mid-2016
and its derivatives with first commits a few years later:
2016), (2014), Lettera
and (2016)).

149 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 61: MOMEDO Analysis Report
The MOMEDO Analysis report:
Comparing Lettera E-mail & Chat Client
The MOMEDO Analysis Report (2018) has analyzed the benefits of Lettera, Spot-On and Delta Chat in regard of their architecture. While Lettera is pure Java development on Android and uses the Java e-mail-lib by Oracle, Delta-Chat is
not only relying on many different libraries, which have to
be compiled, it also exists of one core and a GUI, which differentiate with Java and C/C++. So, for developing it is more
difficult to choose such a complex application, in case it
should be forked. Lettera offers here a cleaner coding and
library use and will provide chat as well. The MOMEDO report analyses the need to find a successor of WhatsApp in
consideration of the European Law of GPDR / DSGVO and
recommends several criteria to compare the first new mobile applications based on the POPTASTIC protocol for chat
over e-mail servers.
Found at:

Further development of the POPTASTIC protocol could be in
adding file sharing over it: As the e-mail friends in the client
found a friend-to-friend network (a kind of web-of-trust)
there is no malicious peer which can interfere. As the connections are always encrypted, the idea is near the concept
of a mobile
If Lettera would implement a kind of Turtle hopping
known from RetroShare over the POPTASTIC Protocol and
would send files over encrypted postboxes on e-mail servers from friends to friends of friends, then this results in a
secure way to revive a f2f Gnutella over e-mail servers. As
this is addressing the mobile world in the future, let’s focus
first on file-sharing within messaging on desktop clients,
using the Echo Protocol with Echo server and listener beside e-mail servers.

POPTASTIC Protocol - Encrypted chat (and e-mail) utilizing POP3 & IMAP Servers

Figure 62: GUI Screenshot of the Lettera Application (Android)
with also intended chat over e-mail servers


Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Set up Spot-On as e-mail client and send an e-mail to
either the e-mail key, and the POPTASTIC key of a friend.
Look up an encrypted POPTASTIC chat message in the
regular e-mail client or web interface.
Test and develop the chat of two Lettera clients.
Investigate how file sharing in Lettera can be designed
and realized. Make a concept for a file sharing protocol
based on Turtle Hopping over POPTASTIC.
Discuss pro and cons of C/O, VEMI, Ozone Postboxes in
comparison and compare it also to IMAP/POP3.
Describe the concept of Secret Streams.
Encrypt an e-mail attachment with File-Encryptor.

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11 File-Sharing: with StarBeam
As in any messenger, a file transfer in Spot-On is also possible and in general this file-sharing function is always encrypted between two defined friends or even multiple people. This happens in the tab “StarBeam”. The term StarBeam (SB) implies that File-Sharing should be as simple as
the light of the stars projected or “beamed” through the
While traditional file-sharing programs such as EMule or
BitTorrent have initially relied on specific links such as the
ed2k link or the torrent link, file transfers today have to do
with the linking of files using the Magnet-URI standard,
which is known from both, torrents and nearly all of the
more advanced Gnutella clients, even for the Edonkey network it is established in the Shareaza client.
The elaboration of Spot-On and the Spot-On-kernel has
developed the architecture of this Magnet-URI standard
further and added cryptographic values to the Magnet-URI.
If the user now wants to download a file via Spot-On
from others, the user has to copy a Magnet URI link into the
program. And accordingly: If the user wants to prepare an
upload of a file, a Magnet-URI has to be created for this file.
This process includes encryption and is considered as
simple as possible: If the user is chatting with a friend in a
pop-up chat window (see images in the chat section), there
is a button “Share StarBeam”. The user can simply click this,
then select the file to be sent from the hard disk and it is
already securely encrypted transmitted over the Echo connection to the friend.


File-Sharing: with StarBeam

Figure 63: Spot-On 1:1-chat pop-up window with file transfer

With this integration the user can easily and securely transfer a ZIP with confidential contract documents to family
members or business partners via the chat window or the
StarBeam tab.
To send a file to an entire group, the user can also post
the Magnet-link into the group chat. This will then be automatically added to the downloads (see checkbox in the
menu options: Buzz / e’IRC-Chat: accept Magnets).
Because of the Echo Protocol, the individual packages are
also “swarmed”, i.e. the encrypted packets that pass by the
user, are even shared with friends and neighbors. They can
unpack and read it successfully if they have the right key.
The file-sharing StarBeam tab consists of three sub-tabs:
one for uploading, one for downloading, and one for creating or adding StarBeam Magnets.

153 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 64: StarBeam with its three sub-tabs

11.1 Creating StarBeam Magnets with cryptographic values
A Magnet-URI is a standard known from many file-sharing
programs (many in the Gnutella network) or for torrent
links and also corresponds to eDonkey / Emule ed2k links
(e.g., as given in the Shareaza client).
The further development of the Magnet-URI standard by
the Spot-On Encryption Suite lies in the design of the Magnet-URI with cryptographic values. Magnets are used to
create or hold together a bundle of cryptographic information.
Between the nodes in the Echo Network is thus created
an end-to-end encrypted channel through which a file can
then be sent. However, any further file can be sent as well.
The Magnet is thus not associated with a particular file. The
StarBeam-Magnet is like a channel through which an instance can continuously and permanently send files - or
there is a one-time Magnet created, which is deleted immediately after the single use.
This architecture does not allow a Magnet to be associated with a single file or IP address. Also, a filename does not
appear in the StarBeam-Magnet (as it is the case even with
the also more advanced links, for example, from OFFSystem
or RetroShare compared to Gnutella, Emule, and Torrent
links). Thus, it becomes clear that no specific file is exchanged in StarBeam, but only encrypted channels are ex154

File-Sharing: with StarBeam

changed. A “wormhole”, so to speak, to stick to the popular
concept of the “Star Trek” movie. And this channel is defined by a Magnet-URI link and its cryptographic values.
Figure 65: Magnet-URI standard with cryptographic values for
file transfer

While many opinions see the linking of Gnutella, Edonkey,
and Torrent links on the Web as critical, there is no reason
to scrutinize those values in a collection of encryption values. A homepage or independent portal with StarBeam and
Magnet-URI links present an advanced concept. In addition
155 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

to the conceptual choices of selecting a link standard, the
usage aspect is also about the security of the file transfer
between two private users.
In summary: To send a file, an encrypted channel must be
created. This works with the creation of a Magnet, marked
at the end by the suffix “URN=StarBeam”. Then the file is
transmitted encrypted - packet by packet - over this channel using the HTTPS Echo Protocol (which can be based on
TCP, UDP, DTLS and also SCTP or even Bluetooth connections). It is therefore an interesting question for a practical
test, whether a transfer of a large, encrypted file via StarBeam via the Echo Protocol based on SCTP, TCP or UDP
connections is ceteris paribus transmitted error-free and
For the process of private file transfer from friend to friend
some more notes:
11.1.1 Option “NOVA”: Encrypt the file before transferring the file!
Before the user sends a file, the user can consider whether
he simply attaches it to an e-mail within the Spot-On e-mail
function. This is the variant of choice if the file is smaller
than 10 MB. Larger files should only be transferred to a
friend via the StarBeam feature or in the 1:1-chat window.
Before transferring, the user may also consider encrypting the file on the hard disk (further encryption layer). To
do this, the Spot-On Software provides a tool for file encryption, found in the main menu under tools (see the section below: Spot-On-File-Encryptor). A double passphrase
encodes the file in it.
Of course, this tool, the Spot-On-File-Encryptor can also
be used if the user wants to upload a file somewhere to an
online-hoster within the cloud or transfer it via another
path, another messenger or any e-mail.
However, as these online hosting sites like Dropbox may
control files and mark encrypted files with a question mark,
even though it should be an exclamation mark, it makes
sense to transfer the encrypted file from point to point,

File-Sharing: with StarBeam

from friend to friend, directly via Spot-On and to use no
external or foreign intermediate caches as a host.
Some pack the files in a zip and encrypt it before sending
or uploading. However, zip encryption is very easy to crack
with 96 bits, so the user should use a key recommended for
RSA - today for RSA with at least 3072 bits, better even
more bits. And the user can also use the McEliece algorithm
instead of RSA, which is regarded more secure despite the
attacks known from fast Quantum Computing.
No matter how the user prepares and transfers the file:
(1) as a plain binary file, or (2) encrypted with the Spot-On
File-Encryptor tool via StarBeam or (3) as a file with an additional NOVA password (see below) as a protection method in the Star Beam process - in any case, it will in turn be
encrypted several times using the Echo Protocol. However,
this architecture provides an optimum of encryption and a
variety of options, which cover numerous requirements.
Just like a user can put an additional password on an e-mail
(see above, called “Goldbug” in the e-mail function), the
user can also set another password on the file - respective
on the used Magnet-URI for the file transfer: This is called
Figure 66: NOVA Password on file transfers
The NOVA Password on file transfers
Optional: A NOVA password for the additional encryption of
the file: Finally, the user can still decide whether he wants
to put on the transfer an additional password - as described
above: a “NOVA”. The friend can open the file only if he enters the NOVA password. It is an additional symmetric encryption to secure a file transfer.
Then the user presses the “Transmit” button.
(Tech Note: Since the Echo is transmitted as HTTPS Post or HTTPS
Get, the transfer is the same as a web page. The chunk size can be
left as predefined, as it is in the minimum view Spot-On interface
hidden. In case the pulse size is made larger, the web page being
transferred becomes longer, so to speak.)

157 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Even if the file transfer is successful or even a third unknown party could crack the previous multiple encryption
(which is not to be assumed), the NOVA password introduces end-to-end encryption, which is secure as long as the
shared password is exclusive to both partners.
Because, if the transmission of the StarBeam-Magnet
should be intercepted - the user somehow has to transfer
the Magnet online to his friend - then anyone who knows
the Magnet can also receive the file as well. Therefore, it
makes sense to protect the file with a “NOVA” - a password
that both friends have exchanged, possibly orally, in the
past or via a second channel.
The NOVA is also built on the end-to-end encryption
standard AES (that means the password string is generated
by the computer, if the user does not think up his own
As mentioned, the ability to create an own end-to-end
encrypting password yourself and manually enter it – is
known in the science as “Customer Supplied Encryption
Keys” (#CEKS) – it is so far implemented only in a very few
applications such as Spot-On Encryption Suite or Smoke
Mobile Crypto Chat.
And please note: The NOVA must have been deposited in
the node of the recipient - before - the file transfer begins!
11.1.2 Using a one-time Magnet
Ideally, the user has his own Magnet-URI for each file. That
would then be a one-time-Magnet (OTM), a Magnet that is
used only once for a file. (OTM is the same as the idea of an
OTP - a one-time pad: a string that is used only once.) OTP
is often considered essential in cryptographic processes to
provide security.)
The user can also use a Magnet permanently, then it is
like a subscribed video channel in which, for example, a
new file is sent every Monday.
This also opens completely new possibilities for torrent
portals, for example: there does not even have to be a web
portal in which thousands of links are linked! The portal

File-Sharing: with StarBeam

itself needs only a single Magnet in a decentralized network, then consecutively, one by one, it is possible to send
one file after the other through the wormhole. (It would be
even possible to send a magnet (in a text file) through the
channel of a file-transfer magnet. This would add forward
secrecy to file sharing.)
As soon as the user has transferred a file via the Magnet,
the user can delete or retain the Magnet-URI. If the user
creates the Magnet as an OTM and activates the checkbox
for OTM, it deletes itself after file transfer. This is similar to
the movie Mission Impossible or apps for pictures where
messages and pictures destroy itself - The Magnet is, so to
speak, a StarBeam wormhole that closes again after a single

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11.1.3 Overview of Magnet-URI standards for cryptographic values
The following overview explains the usual cryptographic
values in the Magnet-URI standard.
Figure 67: Cryptographic values for the Magnet-URI standard






Exact Frequency
Exact Salt
Cipher Type
Hash Key
Hash Type
Magnet for IRC Chat
Magnet for filetransfer
Magnet for the virtual EMail-Postbox

This standard is used to exchange symmetric keys for group
chat or e-mail institutions or even file transfers with StarBeam.
Figure 68: Example of a Magnet-URI with cryptographic values
(here for a group chat channel)
Magnet-URI with cryptographical values


File-Sharing: with StarBeam

The Magnet-URI standard has been further developed into
a format to pass on encryption values similar to a blood
count sheet. Encryption with very individual DNA-values
provide the highest possible security. They are bundled in
the Magnet-URI.
11.1.4 Rewind function
If a recipient has received a file packet, a chunk (or in the
Spot-On kernel also called “link”), the user is able to upload
it again - even in other Magnet-URI channels. - Or the file
can be sent again into the same URI channel. This is similar
to a rewind function: the file is simply played again via the
Echo Network - like on a cassette recorder or MP3 player.
The file can also be sent many hours or days later. Anyone
who has received a copy via the Magnet-URI channel becomes a satellite, and can re-import the data into the defined channel, or better, via a StarBeam Magnet.
11.1.5 Comparison with Turtle-Hopping

The bottleneck
in a Turtle Hopping
Turtle-Hopping (see Glossary and: Popescu et al. 2004, chain is a user with
Matejka 2004, as implemented in RetroShare) will pass the low bandwidth.
file packages from friends to friends until they reach a defined destination. It is a transformation of a peer-to-peer
(P2P) network into a friend-to-friend (F2F) network. However, it might have the consideration that friends with little
upload speed to the next friend in the chain form a bottleneck and slow down the transport:
The Turtle-Hopping Protocol is first connected only to
nodes that have been defined as friends and here in this
chain of friends can be a friend, which performs only with a
small bandwidth. This then could act as a bottleneck and
senders and recipients of the file must necessarily send
through this bottleneck.
The transmission of a file in the StarBeam function via
the Echo Protocol is therefore probably (to be practical
measured) also more effective than using a Protocol similar
to “Turtle-Hopping” (currently only implemented in the
161 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

RetroShare program), because here, depending on the design of the Echo Network (Full Echo, Half Echo, Adaptive
Echo) the nodes with low bandwidth do not have to act as a
bottleneck, they optimize the desired download speed via
other Echo paths.
When sending files via the Echo Protocol, therefore, other nodes such as peers or paths via other graph-options can
be included in the hopping over intermediate stations if
there is a faster route somewhere:
The Echo Protocol automatically creates the flow in the
network of nodes (simply by allowing each node to send
encrypted file packets to each linked node) and therefore
also chooses the fastest path of all possible graphs to the
desired node. A practical measurement must be defined
and tested though.

11.2 StarBeam upload: transferring a file
As described above, sending a file from the chat window to
a single friend is very simple: with the Share-StarBeam button the user just have to choose one file and it will be
transferred to the referring friend.
In the following, we now look at the upload process with its
technical details in the sub-tabulator “Uploads” of the StarBeam tab.
If the user has defined and generated a Magnet-URI, it
will appear not only in the sub-tab for the Magnets, but
also in the table in the sub tab for the upload/seed.
Hence, from here the upload of a file can be started. To
do this, the user selects with the check box a Magnet in this
sub-tab for the upload. Likewise, the file is selected.


File-Sharing: with StarBeam

Figure 69: Starbeam file transfer: uploading files

Finally, the user copies the Magnet-URI and sends it to his
friend. The user can copy the Magnet URI via the context
menu button.
If the other friend has pasted the Magnet into the own
instance, the user can start the transfer by deactivating the
pause function (check box “Pause” in the table).
Then the file is transferred to the friend.

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11.3 StarBeam downloads
As written above - it’s the other way around from the perspective of the receiver of a file: To load a file with StarBeam, the user needs the StarBeam Magnet of the file. The
user receives this from the friend, who wants to send a file.
The user then simply copies the Magnetic URI into the
sub-tab for the Magnetic URIs. Before that, the user should
activate the checkbox “Receiving” in the download sub-tab.
This is deactivated in advance by default, so that no unwanted files are received.
The user then tells the friend that he has inserted the Magnet URI and then the friend can start the transmission. The
download starts as soon as a transmitter sends the file via
the Echo and through the cryptographic channel of the
With the additional settings on this tab for the upload,
the user can still define the size and the path for the download area.
Successfully downloaded parts are called “Mosaic”s within StarBeam and stored in the same path of the installation
on the hard disk. Similar to a puzzle, the mosaic pieces are
assembled into a full mosaic, the resulting file.
The still-to-be-transferred file parts are called “links” in
StarBeam (see also the term “chunks” in the old EDonkey
network or the term “blocks” in the Gnutella network,
which was coined by the use of the then there used Tiger–


File-Sharing: with StarBeam

Figure 70: StarBeam File Transfer - Incoming Files

11.3.1 Tool: StarBeam Analyzer
If a file was not successfully transferred 100%, it can be
checked with the StarBeam Analyzer tool. This determines
if all mosaic parts are present or if any links / chunks /
blocks or packages still to be transferred are missing. If any
165 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

links are missing, the SB Analyzer will create a Magnet URI
that the friend can re-enter in his upload tab. Then only the
missing links or mosaics are sent again.
Figure 71: File transfer using StarBeam: Analysis tool for the

The file would also complete if the sender sends it three
times a day over the Echo with the “Rewind” function.
It should be noted that a Magnet is a channel, and existing files in the local mosaic path will then be renewed if no
One-Time-Magnet is used and they are sent again in the
same channel. A renewed shipment of the file by the uploader will thus overwrite the file received by the user
again - if the user has not set a lock option in the transfer
table. The checkbox “Lock” then would not allow to delete
the file that the user received.


File-Sharing: with StarBeam

11.3.2 Outlook for Cryptographic Torrents
Because of encryption, nobody can see what file a user is
downloading, because nobody knows if the user was able
to successfully decrypt the package - and even if, nobody
knows if the user created or saved the file in total from it.
The upload is similar. The upload is only visible from a
neighbor IP, if this neighbor knows the Magnet of the file.
In this case, if the user wants to load public StarBeam Magnets, it is best to connect only to neighbors or chat servers
that the user trusts or has define as friend through account
Also, the above-mentioned variant of setting a NOVA
password on the file and the distribution of the physical
blocks in time before granting the access rights to the NOVA
password in a second process can offer new perspectives in
technical, procedural or even legal considerations.
This means e.g. that the transfer of the file takes place in
the past and the transfer of the decryption option with the
NOVA password takes place in a future, separate and downstream process.
Then, using the Echo Protocol, StarBeam Magnet-URIs
can play a role in new ways of thinking about developing
and using “crypto-torrents” discussed in the file-sharing
Encryption basically means that unauthorized persons do
not know what is in the encrypted packet and that the
owner of the key decides himself when to perform the decryption. That is, encryption has been logically applied to
the file transfer and the sovereignty of the user.

Torrents are based
on the Magnet-URIScheme with

Questions and further Research & Development Fields

Test the speed of a file transfer over TCP versus SCTP.
Transfer a file with a one-time Magnet.
Compare Cryptographic Torrents to regular trackerbased Torrents.

167 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

12 Open Source web search engine
with encrypted URL database

Spot-On Websearch
is not only open
source for the
search engine code,
the sorting algorithm, but also the


With the integrated function of a web search Spot-On is
also an open source p2p web search engine due to its used
architecture of the kernel.
Spot-On is the only (and so far) one of the few handiest
p2p distributed search engines like YaCy, or
Grub (which was once known by Wikia-Search), which is
able to handle the transfer of the URLs over encrypted connections into a distributed F2F or P2P network.
The idea of the web search function in Spot-On is not only to offer an open source programming of the search engine or the sorting algorithm, but also to handle the repository of URLs open source, so that each participant can
download the entire URL-Database. Third, finally, transfers
and database storage take place in an encrypted environment. An innovative and exemplary model for search in
encrypted databases (that means within cipher text).
Website titles, keywords and the URL itself are stored encrypted in a SQLite or PostgreSQL database and linked together via the Echo Protocol (or via the PostgreSQL networking and cluster function).
A user can use a crawler or RSS feed to store own web
pages and URLs in a searchable database repository and
share them with other nodes.

Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

Figure 72: Web search with Spot-On in the URL database

The user can now design an own search engine: for example, with 15 GB of URLs in the database on the own machine, the user can certainly achieve interesting search results for new websites that a friend finds interesting and
has received via the p2p network.

169 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Search in encrypted
databases with cipher text is a young
research field.


But also, as a local database for own bookmarks or an
own crawl of a dedicated domain, the URL database can be
The web search in the URL repository remains anonymous, because the Spot-On URL search generates in other
nodes no announcement of the search words, so-called
“query hits”.
Spot-On converts the search words into a hash and
searches the local databases to see if it contains this hash.
Then there is also the hash of the URLs that contain this
keyword. The URL database is then searched for the hash of
the URL.
The databases are also encrypted, so that after the
search process also a decryption process is connected. Finally, the search results are generated and shown to the
user. The UI currently sorts the results for one or more
search words for simplicity, such that the most recent URLs
are displayed first at the top.
If the user wants to create an open source search algorithm for sorting URL results, Spot-On will provide the open
source code base for this function in order not only to develop an own algorithm model, but also to subject it to a
practical test.
The distribution of website URLs does not happen via
central servers, but is organized via the encrypted Echo Protocol decentralized between the participants: Two or more
users exchange their URL keys and then take part in the p2p
exchange of website URLs, such as own bookmarks, with all
friends. The online exchanged URLs are first collected in
main memory and then written to the local database every
10 seconds.
There is also the option of manually importing new URLs
into your own local database. This requires the web browser The first icon in the URL line of the browser allows storing a single URL in an intermediate database:
Shared.db. This is then imported by Spot-On with just one
click. The Shared.db must be in the installation path of
Spot-On and both programs, Spot-On and Dooble, must
define in the settings the path of this file.

Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

In order to import an URL of the web page that a user is
currently reading from the Web Browser Dooble into SpotOn’s own URL database, the user simply has to click on the
first icon in the URL line of the browser to start the URL to
be stored in the URL-DB: Shared.db. Then, in Spot-On, the
user clicks on the tab “Import” in the tab of the web search.
However, the newer version of the browser Dooble
(Dooble 2.0) no longer supports this import function of a
single URL in Spot-On. Because the new version of the
browser Dooble represents a complete reprogramming.
which became necessary due to the change in Qt regarding
the Webkit module.
In the still available source code of the old Dooble
Browser, however, this option can be reactivated with an
own compilation. This option should only be mentioned
here for a short sentence since other developers may also
want to import an URL from a (or any) browser into an encrypted bookmark database and look at this model.
The idea of making bookmarks shared with friends
searchable and locally storable for own history thus remains current.
More efficient, however, are the other methods to import numerous URLs using a crawler (Pandamonium Crawler) or the RSS feed in Spot-On.
But first let’s look how to setup the URL database in SpotOn.

12.1 URL Database Setup
The URLs can optionally be stored in a SQLite or PostgreSQL
database. SQLite is the automatically configured database
that is also recommended for users with less experience in
setting up databases. More advanced users can also contact
a PostgreSQL database facility. This has advantages in the
network access, the administration of user rights and the
handling of large URL data stocks. Spot-On is therefore suitable for creating an own web search, even for teaching
purposes, in case those learners are interested in setting up
171 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The URLs are stored in 26x26 or 36x36 databases (2 (16 ^
2) = 512 tables), which are encrypted. This means that the
search takes place in an encrypted database (URLs.db).
Searching in encrypted databases is a field of research that
has so far received little attention.
12.1.1 SQLite
SQLite is a program library that contains a relational database system. The entire database is in a single file. A clientserver architecture is therefore not available.
Figure 73: Installing the URL database for the URL/Web search

The SQLite library can be directly integrated into appropriate applications so that no additional server software is
required. This is also the ultimate difference from other
database systems. Integrating the library extends the application with database functionality without relying on external software packages.
SQLite has some special features over other databases:
The library is only a few hundred kilobytes in size. A SQLite

Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

database consists of a single file that contains all tables,
indexes, views, triggers, and so on. This simplifies the exchange between different systems.
12.1.2 PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL - also known as Postgres - is a free, objectrelational database management system (ORDBMS). Its
development originated in the 1980s from a database development of the University of California at Berkeley, since
1997, the software is developed by an open source community.
PostgreSQL is largely compliant with the ANSI SQL 2008
SQL standard. PostgreSQL is fully ACID compliant, and supports extensible data types, operators, functions, and aggregates.
Most Linux distributions contain PostgreSQL - Windows
and Mac OS X are also supported. Since the setup process
of the PostgreSQL database is more extensive, it should also
be referred to the manuals of this database also regarding
its own p2p capability outside the p2p Echo Network.

12.2 URL-Filter
If the user now participates in the p2p process of URL exchange with friends and peers, the user gets all the URLs
that others have added to the system. To exclude malicious
URLs, the user can also delete URLs in the web search with
a single click - or else the user uses the URL filter right from
the beginning, which can be found in its own tab.
URL filters - so-called distillers - can filter incoming, outgoing and imported data with a blacklist or whitelist. For
example, the user can define that only URLs from the domain are allowed or that uploads of
URLs to friends only take place from the domain of his university. Also, the user can specify that he does not want to
receive URLs of a particular country domain.

173 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

In case the user does not want to receive URLs, he just sets
the distiller filter to “http: //” with the value “Deny” for the
downloads, then these URLs will not be accepted.
Figure 74: URL Options: Import and Export Filters: URL Distiller


Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

Very important: To have the filter active, the filter should
be set to “Active” with the check box at the top.

12.3 URL-Community: Open Source URL-Database
To be able to exchange URLs and letting the own database
grow for web search, the user can either manually paste
the URL key at the tab “URL Filter” into the participant table; or, the second option is to send the own URL key to a
If the user’s friend is also online, and the user uses the
“EPKS” tool - Echo Public Key Share - to send his URL key to
the “Spot-On URL Community” defined there, his friend
receives the URL key of the User automatically transferred
This transfer is encrypted using the Echo Protocol and uses the name of the URL community as symmetric encryption. It is similar to a group chat room (e’IRC/Buzz function)
where the URL keys are then sent out and automatically
integrated (see as already described AutoCrypt as a derivation from this invention). How EPKS works is described in
more detail below in the tools section.

EPKS offers automatic key sharing.
Hence it is

Figure 75: Echo Public Key Sharing (EPKS)

175 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

12.4 Pandamonium Webcrawler
Another import option for URLs is to use the crawler “Pandamonium”.
The Christmas release 2015 of Spot-On was the “Pandamonium Web crawler release” and referred to the web
crawler named Pandamonium, which has been added as a
tool to the URL database feature.
The web crawler scans a domain for all linked URLs and
can then index new URLs on the discovered websites and
add these to the crawl or index. Pandamonium works (as
well as the import from the Dooble Web Browser) via an
intermediate Shared.db. The web crawler Pandamonium is
also open source and can be downloaded from this URL:
It is also pre-compiled for Windows in the GoldBug Zip for
Windows under
Figure 76: Pandamonium Web Crawler

The URLs added in this way are then also shared with the
friends via encrypted connections or stored encrypted in
the own local database as well.


Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

For example, the Pandamonium crawler offers the possibility of importing large amounts of web pages of desired
domains for a web search in the client Spot-On.
In addition to the URL, Pandamonium also stores the
website as rich text (that means without images) in the database and these database entries can also be shared with
friends. Web browsing in Spot-On enables the user to
browse web pages locally without having to contact the
Internet or the domain to reveal own IP information.
It is almost a new kind and advanced idea of the anonymization network Tor: No longer the website is contacted
live via a p2p proxy network, but the URL is searched in a
p2p web search or database and the same website can be
loaded as rich text, browsed and read locally, such as from a
browser cache or proxy.
Java scripts, images and referral URLs as well as IP information are not included. The user is thus protected from
the disclosure of own data and can still read the desired
web page of an URL if it is present in the shared data. While
web pages can also call additional links or leave traces on
the anonymization tool Tor - due to Javascript, it is preferable for the web crawler Pandamonium to avoid such security risks and provide only rich text in ascii.
Various revisions of web pages at different call times of
the website (Memento) are also supported – for both, in
the crawler as well as in the web search of the Spot-On client. The page viewer of the web search in Spot-On displays
various revisions of the web page, if they exist. That is like
having a kind of GIT added to a new kind of Tor.
The setup of the SQLite database for importing the URLs
from the Pandamonium Web crawler via the shared.db is
done in a few steps:
The user creates a SQLite database in the Spot-On program under Web Search / Settings.
The user now enters a password for “Common Credentials”. This is a password feature in case third or further applications provide URLs for import.
Then the user verifies all inputs and starts the import
from shared.db, into which the user has previously stored
177 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

the URLs collected by the Pandamonium Webcraler: The
import process retrieves the URLs from this file and adds
the URLs to the URL database in the Spot-On client
Any imported URLs may be shared with the user’s friends
online peer-to-peer. To do this, the friend’s URL Key has to
be entered by the user in the Add Participant window (subset from main menu), or the user should use the URL sharing community as described above to swap the URL key.

12.5 RSS reader and URL import

Spot-On is a RSSFeed-Reader which
has a search engine
for all received and
read URLs.
Even more: The
Website respective
full message can be
read from the database cache.


The RSS function extends the Spot-On client to a RSS reader.
RSS 2.0 feeds are supported. News-URLs are displayed in a
timeline so that the most recent message is always on top.
In addition, the news-URLs are indexed, i.e. prepared for
local web search in Spot-On. The import of the encrypted
RSS database into the encrypted URL database can be done
automatically periodically, or even via a manual import button only on action of the user.
The RSS feature not only makes it easy to read selected
news portals on a news page, but also manually or automatically import the new URLs into an own local URL database.
As far as known, Spot-On is the only News-Feed-Reader
with an encrypted database, which enables the user to
search in own News-Feeds and provides also a searchable
index for the full news website even with revisions.
The indexing of the website uses the 50 longest words of
the website-text (or even more according the user’s setting)
to prepare these words for the search index of the URL database during import.
For the timeline, the titles of the RSS-messages are provided with a hyperlink only when indexing has taken place.
The status line shows statistics on how many RSS feeds are
subscribed, how many URLs are already indexed, how many
URLs from the RSS database were imported into the web
search URL database - as well as the total readable messages or URLs in the RSS window.

Open Source web search engine with encrypted URL database

Figure 77: RSS feed reader for importing URLs into the URL
database/web search

The messages are read in a Page Viewer, which does not
display the messages in a browser, but for reasons of safety
only in text form. As already indicated: Java scripts, images
and advertising are removed from the pages, it will be displayed only the ASCII characters of the website and the hyperlinks to other websites. With the context menu, URLs
and hyperlinks can be manually copied out for a view into
the (external) browser.
The RSS reader is proxy-capable and can therefore also
preserve the content of the websites behind restrictive environments and then make them available for storage and
searching in Spot-On.
A feature that today certainly is also offered by some
browsers: to look up or offer the URL history and web pages
searchable from the cache of the user. Spot-On provides
this in an encrypted and p2p environment for local storage
in a dedicated URL repository.
As a simple use case a user can be described, who wants to
crawl all websites with the key word e.g. “Falun Gong“ (a
kind of meditation practice, which has been censored later

179 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

on by the Chinese regime). If the user wants to have an
own saving and indexing of all these websites, then Spot-On
is the right instrument to create such a database containing
public websites, and an URL- and keyword-index for it with
a p2p sharing option for this database to friends over encrypted connections.
Questions and further Research & Development Fields





Define RSS feeds into the feedreader of Spot-On.
Share URL-Key with your friends over EPKS.
Provide a URL.db based on SQLite with Wikipedia URLs
and pages.
Try to measure the speed of an URLs transfer over an
Echo Connection compared to a PostgreSQL direct connection to another instance.
Test the revision function of webpages included in the
database based on Wikipedia page entries, which have
been updated.
Crawl a website of a school or university with Pandamonium Webcrawler.
Describe pro and cons for the use of SQLite and PostgreSQL
Compare Spot-On websearch with YaCy in regard of encryption and Queryhits
Program an import / export from YaCy to Spot-On or
vice versa or program a query of Spot-On in the YaCy
Network with saved results in the Spot-On database.
Create a web interface to URLs.db - using Python,
Apache, Javascript, PHP etc. and set up a website for it.
Develop an algorithm to sort and display Spot-On URL

Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

13 Setting-up an own server – for
chat and p2p e-mail
Secure Chat is not about the Client and its GUI, it is about
an easy to install open source chat server in own hands.
Setting up a chat server or Spot-On kernel means setting
up a so-called “listener”, according to this technical term.
If the user is in the minimal view of the user interface, a
chat & e-mail server or listener is set up as quickly as the
tab further above shown establishes an IP connection to a
server or neighbor.
The user does not need advanced server administration
skills to run a Spot-On node on the own web server, to set
up a chat server, or even to set up an e-mail inbox for
friends and own purposes.
In Spot-On only a so-called listener at a defined port must
be defined. And that’s possible with just a few clicks. Probably the simplest chat server administration ever compared
to other server setups.

Comparing Chat
Apps is partly nonsense.
Open Source Server
Software for encrypted chat must
be compared.

13.1 Set up the chat / e-mail server via a listener
As a reminder, on the Connect tab, the user connects the
own Spot-On to another node or neighbor, and with the
chat server listener tab, the user creates a server or listener
so that others can connect to it. No matter which method,
messages can always be sent if the second or third LED in
the status line is green and a neighbor is connected: Either
to the other user as a server/listener or, the user as a client
to the neighbor which offers a listener.
The right (third) LED in the status bar thus indicates that
the user has set up an own chat server on the own computer.
To do this, the user must enter the local IP address of the
own machine in the “Chat Server” tab. This is not the (external) IP address of the router, but the local network IP
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address of the device where Spot-On is installed. Again, the
user gets over the pull-down menu a selection, the IP is
displayed directly, and the user can then select the local IP.
The port 4710 is then automatically defined again.
Then the user presses the button “Set” and the entry of
the listener was successful when the third LED of the status
bar is green. Just make it reachable over your router by port
forwarding and probably DynDNS.
13.1.1 Server broadcast
If the user has a client connected to his listener, or the user
in the “connect-neighbor” tab is connected to another chat
server or friend on his own, then the user can also rightclick the command in the table “Publish information”.
Thus, this chat server address is communicated over the
existing connections to the friends and neighbors as well as
friends of friends. “Publish server” means “Broadcast IP +
Port” of the own chat server to its (connected) friends and
neighbors. Then the friends can also automatically connect
to this chat server. In this case, the user no longer must
communicate an IP address or needs to let the friends enter
the dedicated IP address manually. Everything runs automatically, and the user’s server is available as a peer to the
friends and their friends. It’s that easy to create a chat
server and communicate it to others on the network.
The listener or chat server is set up by default for the TCP
Protocol, furthermore Spot-On is also equipped to set up a
listener via the UDP, DTLS or even the SCTP Protocol. Both
latter Protocols are ideal for VOIP or streams. Further, a
chat server/listener via Bluetooth is possible, see the sections below.
Therefore, the connection options can also be used to
define whether the user’s client should connect to the TCP
neighbor or another server via UDP, SCTP or Bluetooth.
The neighbor or listener of the server can do without SSL
connections, then the transmission is regulated not over
HTTPS, but only over HTTP.


Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

Figure 78: Setting up a chat server

This means that an encrypted layer is not required, the encrypted Echo capsule is not sent through the HTTPS tunnel,
but via HTTP - and still remains encrypted because the Echo
capsule itself is already encrypted.

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13.1.2 Security options
For sure, there are further setting options:
For example, a listener may set the security option to
generate a permanent SSL certificate. Thus, the DiffieHellman key exchange or negotiation process existing in SSL
is not renegotiated in every session, but an attacker would
already have to know a negotiation process in the past to
intervene here.
However, it may be that the server or listener renews its
SSL certificate, so it may make sense to allow exceptions if
the user wants to make a connection easier and does not
want to perfect that extra level of security.
Likewise, one can define the key size for the SSL connection and determine that connections below a certain SSL
key size are not established at all. One time it is defined,
what the neighbor should offer in regard of the SSL key size,
and the other time is defined, which key size the user expects from a server or neighbor.
Finally, there is the option that the client determines if it
connects to the neighbor with Full Echo or Half Echo. At
Half Echo, the message packet is - as known - only sent to
the neighbor one hop over the direct connection. Assuming
the user’s friend has the web server set up and sitting in
front of it and the user does not want the own Echo packets
to go to third parties and their friends, then the user can
define with the Half Echo that own packets received by the
server are not be distributed further. In practice: The two
users chat via a direct IP connection. Both participants see
the IP address of the friend and of the chat partner at Half
Echo. In the Full Echo, the chat friend does not have to be
an administrator of the node but can connect multiple clients like a central chat server.
Further security options allow the user to define the SSL
key size when creating a chat server/listener, as well as
maintaining a permanent SSL certificate.
Also, the user – if there is a permanent, stable IP address
– can integrate this into the SSL certificate.


Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

These three measures make it harder for attackers to exchange or “fake” the SSL certificate - because it would be
immediately recognized if a different certificate was to be
used as the original one: for example, the client would expect not be a new, but the old permanent certificate. Or the
IP address is missing or inconsistent within the SSL certificate. The SSL key size also defines additional security.
13.1.3 Proxy and firewall annotations
If the user wants to run Spot-On as a client via a proxy in
the company, behind a firewall or a proxy of the university
or via the anonymization network Tor, the user can insert
the proxy details for the neighbor.
As a client, the user can connect to any IT environment
thanks to the HTTP Protocol if the user is able to surf in that
environment with a browser.
That’s the advantage of the Spot-On program, which
means that wherever users can surf with their browsers,
they can also e-mail and chat with Spot-On Encryption Suite
because of the HTTPS or POPTASTIC Protocol they use.
Many other programs cannot do this, depending on the
firewall settings – e.g. from the workplace or in the student
If the user wants to use or test out a proxy e.g. in the
company or university with the Spot-On Encryption Suite,
then this is uncritical, because a SSL/TLS or HTTPS connection is established - which is hardly different for the proxy
administrators like any other SSL/HTTPS connection to an
HTTPS website when doing banking or logging into a web email provider.
It is just essential to address a listening node in the web
with the own Spot-On, which may not be limited by the
port through a firewall or the proxy. If so, the user may ask
the friend to set up the Spot-On chat server on port 80 or
port 443 instead of 4710 and provide it with login information for an Echo Account, if available and deliverable.
Encrypted traffic remains encrypted traffic, and any SpotOn friend or chat server can be reached on the web
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through ports 443 or 80 or ports, which are regularly
opened in the firewall.
Since the Echo Protocol only requires a simple HTTP connection to a neighbor (and not necessarily a Stun server or
a DHT etc.), and thus ideally can be mapped through a
proxy, through a firewall or over the Tor network, it’s a very
simple architecture to operate chat securely through a
proxy or a proxy network.
If the user wants to define an additional feature, a further
often-used function is that of the Echo Account.
To do this, the user in the table marks the listener that
was created and then enters the account credentials, i.e.
the name and password. The user then tells the friend what
the account name and password are, and when the friend
establishes the neighbor contact, the friend will be asked
via a pop-up window to enter these credentials. In case not
everyone should be able to address to the Echo Server (e.g.
behind Tor), then the Echo Account can authenticate a dedicated user.
Furthermore, the user can also choose between IPV4 and
IPV6 if he wants to create a listener/chat server. Also, multiple chat servers can be created by choosing a different
port. The user can create different listeners with port 4710
or 80 or 443 and decide whether he wants to define these
listeners for friends with an Echo Account (friend mode), or
for easier to build connections that runs in peer mode
without account login.
Echo Accounts thus define whether the user builds an
F2F network or a P2P network, because with the account
credentials the user creates a web-of-trust with which only
his trusted friends can connect with the defined login password. (A SmokeStack server on Android by the way also
provides the feature of a private server for defined friends).


Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

13.1.4 Spot-On as LAN Messenger
If the user operates a peer, for example, at a LAN party of a
closed network with the IP broadcast function, he can inform all participants that his node has opened a listener for
the guests. Thanks to the UDP Protocol, however, the SpotOn Messenger also works directly like a LAN messenger
within a closed user group of the LAN.
For this, the LAN listener is already defined as a neighbor
in the neighbor table (defined IP: This has
just to be activated and other Spot-On installations in the
same Windows network are then automatically found for a
connection. Besides the many options the original Spot-On
client offers, it is a nice Qt-Exercise for a university task to
code an own simple LAN messenger with this architecture
and a compact GUI as own client for the university or students home LAN.

13.2 Server / Listener Creation at home behind a
router / Nat
If the user does not have his own server on the web or does
not find a general neighbor with a listener on the web, it is
also recommended to set up an own chat server at home
behind the own router and to forward the port in the router. The friends then can connect directly to this defined
listener as a client.
However, one of the friends has to create a listener if
both friends sit behind a firewall or do not use a chat server
on the web. So, if the user wants to create a server behind
his router/Nat at home, as mentioned the local IP address
of the machine for the listener is to take, e.g. Then the user must also forward the port in
his router, i.e. port 4710 must be forwarded by the router
to 4710. Furthermore, the kernel - Spot-onKernel.exe - as well as the Spot-On.exe should be allowed as
an exception in the (Windows) Firewall. If the user has forwarded everything correctly, the friend can connect to the
187 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

client’s (external) IP address (see, for example, and port 4710.
It is only important that the router of the user forwards
the contact attempt from the Internet at the defined port
to the own local machine. This is a common and secure
procedure and does not open any access to a computer, but
over the port and the application is defined (as with many
other programs that only packages in this sense are allowed).
The user can and must define this by himself and Spot-On
does not contain any code that automatically forwards
ports in the router or opens or even automatically sets up a
Thus, in Spot-On it is more secure, as there are more options to be decided by the user than in other applications,
which configure itself in the interest of user-friendliness
and reduce the effort and provision of background automation. – Convenience appears as a security risk for those users, who know the technical details of port forwarding within the own router and for the creation of a listener, and
need no automatic definition, opening and forwarding of
ports. Once known and done, the own listening server at
home is quickly administered.

13.3 Use of Spot-On in the Tor network
If the user wants to operate the own Spot-On chat through
the Tor network, this will also be worth a test. The Tor exit
node should only see the cipher text of the communication.
Here, the chat server is again in the normal web outside the
Tor network.
So far, Tor cannot establish HTTPS connections at the exit
node of the Tor network, but a pass-through of encrypted
packets from two Spot-On instances should be possible:
Spot-On -> Tor -> Internet -> Tor -> Spot-On. A HTTP listener
can also be set up for the TOR network. This is an ideal test
environment of both applications. So far no one has published about Echo over Tor (while Tor is being the overlay


Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

network for it). Also, other networks can be tested, e.g. like
Figure 79: Testing Proxy and Pass-Through capabilities
Testing Proxy & Pass-Through capabilities
Messaging through a Proxy
Spot-On => Proxy (Entry) => Internet [=> Proxy (Entry)] Spot-On
Messaging over Tor
Spot-On => Tor (Entry) => Internet => Tor (Exit) => Spot-On
Echo through the Echo
GoldBug => Spot-On => Tor (Entry) => Internet => Tor (Exit) =>
Spot-On => GoldBug
Gopher passing through the Echo
Gopher => Spot-On (Pass-through) => Internet => Spot-On (Passthrough) => Gopher
Gopher over is untested and assumed to fail
Gopher => Matrix (Entry) => Internet => Matrix (Exit) => Gopher

Next to a proxy it is also possible to use the pass-through
functionality of Spot-On, here Spot-On is not connected to a
proxy, but is becoming a proxy on localhost, to which other
applications can be tied. That means one can send from a
Gopher App to Spot-On and to the network and then from
Spot-On at the other end back to Gopher. This is possible as
the function is not tied to a special protocol or library
(compare a test with Tor or the Matrix network, which require special protocol/library implementations).

13.4 Spot-On Kernel Server
As currently described, the software to set up a chat server
is currently described according to the application Spot-On.
As an alternative User Interface to Spot-On, there is also the
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GoldBug interface and server software. A chat server listener can be set up with both applications referring to the
Spot-On Kernel. But there are even some more ways, applications and methods to set up a server for communication:

13.5 Spot-On Lite Server as Deamon
If the user wants to administer a chat server without a user
interface, thus using the chat server as a kernel daemon on
a web server, one can view at the other Lite server software
for Echo clients at:
Figure 80: Bluetooth chat server architecture model

13.6 SmokeStack Server on Android
The simplest option at home in the LAN or even with port
forwarding in the router to set up a chat server is to install

Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

the App SmokeStack on an Android device. This Android
server can also forward the Echo packages of Spot-On Echo
clients. Available at:

13.7 Spot-On Bluetooth Server
Finally, a chat server/listener via Bluetooth is also possible
(depending on Qt currently only for Linux). With Bluetooth,
it is possible, for example, to connect the devices BTwirelessly via the Echo Protocol at a LAN party. This option
can be very crucial if there is no Internet or infrastructure

SmokeStack is an
Chat Server for
encrypted chat for
the Android
operating system.

13.8 Spot-On UDP Server
The User Datagram Protocol, UDP for short, is a minimal,
connectionless network Protocol that belongs to the
transport layer of the Internet Protocol family.
The development of UDP began when a simpler Protocol
was required for the transmission of speech than the previous connection-oriented TCP. A Protocol was needed that
was only addressing, without securing the data transmission, as this would cause delays in voice transmission.
A three-way handshake, such as TCP (the Transmission
Control Protocol) for establishing the connection, would
create unnecessary overhead in this case.
UDP is therefore a connectionless, non-reliable and unsecured as well as unprotected transmission Protocol. That is,
there is no guarantee that a packet once sent will also arrive, that packets arrive in the same order in which they
were sent, or that a packet arrives only once at the receiver.
An application that uses UDP, therefore, must be insensitive
to lost and unsorted packages or even provide appropriate
corrective measures and, if necessary, safeguards.
For the Echo Protocol an interesting basis, since the
packets are indeed rather undirected in the flow of the
network and lost UDP packets are then not lost because of
the multiplication and redundancy within each node.

191 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

13.9 Spot-On DTLS Server
A DTLS Server is also possible: Datagram Transport Layer
Security (DTLS) is a communications protocol that provides
security for datagram-based applications by allowing them
to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. The DTLS protocol is based on the stream-oriented Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and is intended to provide similar security
guarantees. The DTLS protocol datagram preserves the semantics of the underlying transport—the application does
not suffer from the delays associated with stream protocols, but because it uses UDP, the application has to deal
with packet reordering, loss of datagram and data larger
than the size of a datagram network packet. As DTLS can be
used also for audio streaming, this is a basis for encrypted
voice and audio over Spot-On (e.g. Spot-On-Sender (Analog
Audio) => Amazon Echo => Internet => Amazon Echo =>
(Analog Audio) Spot-On-Receiver).

13.10 Spot-On SCTP Server
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a reliable, connection-oriented network Protocol. As a transport
Protocol, SCTP is at the same level of the TCP / IP reference
model as TCP and UDP.
SCTP realizes the concept of an association: Here, a connection is set up in which several message data streams are
transported in order-preserving (with each other but potentially non-order-preserving). In addition, individual, for example, urgent, datagrams may be sent separately and out
of line, possibly “overhauling” the in-order data streams.
Also, to use this Protocol for the transmission of Echo
packets is very interesting for the research, since the rather
undirected Echo packets may experience a more secure
transmission with this Protocol compared to UDP.
This Protocol can also be used to set up a chat server
within Spot-On.

Setting-up an own server – for chat and p2p e-mail

13.11 Spot-On Ncat connection
While other applications always require a server that may
be difficult to replicate, install or manage, Spot-On also can
do without any dedicated server software. For this purpose,
Ncat can be used as follows:
In one exercise, two devices are connected to Spot-On
through a RaspberryPi running Debian using NCat. It requires a working network, a RaspberryPi and two devices
each with Spot-On.
(1) First, ncat will be installed on the Pi:
sudo aptitude install nmap
(2) Then some SSL material is generated:
openssl req -new -x509 -keyout server-key.pem -out servercert.pem
(3) Then ncat is called:
ncat -broker -ssl -ssl-cert server-cert.pem -ssl-key serverkey.pem -k -l 4710
(4) Now the user visits the neighbor / server tab in Spot-On
and defines the remote server at
If the neighboring devices have been activated and the kernels are turned on, the connection already exists.
A nice exercise to test a network and Ncat for encrypted

193 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Setup an own Spot-On-Listener at home with DynDNS.
Connect a Spot-On client with a SmokeStack server on
Define a Half Echo Listener for Spot-On.
Use the Debian Installer for Spot-On on a RaspberryPi as
a server.
Setup the SmokeStack server on an Android TV-Box
from Ebay.
Test a Bluetooth Server with Spot-On under Linux.
Compare a Spot-On Listener or Echo Server creation
with the setup of a Matrix or XMPP or Signal Server. Describe both processes in detail and compare.

Integrated Encryption Tools

14 Integrated Encryption Tools
In addition to the regular functions, Spot-On Encryption
Suite also has several tools that offer further useful features. These include, in particular, the functions of file encryption (File Encryptor), another tool for converting normal text and cipher text (Rosetta-CryptoPad), and the EPKS
tool, with which the public keys for encryption are transmitted online in a secure channel to a friend or to a community. Furthermore, the pass-through functionality as well as
the tools for statistics and analyzes should be mentioned.

14.1 Tool: Encryption of files with Spot-On FileEncryptor
Spot-On has additional encryption tools. In the main menu
under tools the user finds the tool for encrypting files on
the own hard disk (“File Encryption Tool”).
Figure 81: File Encryptor - file encryption tool

This allows the user to specify a file from the hard drive,
then specify the same path and choose any extension or
change of file name - then enter password and pin (both of
course again with at least 16 characters) and define with
the radio select buttons, whether the file should be encrypted or decrypted.

195 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Cipher and hash-type are also definable as well as that a
signature in the encryption can optionally be installed to
ensure that the encryption was made only by the defined
user (and nobody else).
The file encryption tool is an offer to replace potentially
insecure Truecrypt containers, or to encrypt or to back up
individual files before the user transfers the files - whether
as an e-mail in Spot-On, via StarBeam file transfer in SpotOn or over conventional, insecure ways - or simply to encrypt the files on the hard disk or when stored in online
cloud stores like Dropbox or other.

14.2 Tool: The Rosetta CryptoPad for text conversion in Spot-On
The tool Rosetta CryptoPad takes its name from the “Stone
of Rosette”, which stands in the museum in London. It is
considered a translation tool for Egyptian hieroglyphs in
other languages.
The Rosetta CryptoPad included in Spot-On has its own
key - as well as chat and e-mail and all other functions have
their own keys like this.
The user also exchanges the Rosetta key with a friend,
then enters text into the CryptoPad, selects the friend and,
whether it is encryption or decryption, - and press the
“Convert” button.
Then the bottom of the window of the output is displayed as cipher text. The user can easily copy it with the
copy function and sends it via conventional online communication channels such as @-e-mail or another chat. Web
boards or paste bins can also be used by the user as a place
for encrypted communication.
It is, so to speak, “slow chat” by a manually clicked encryption of the chat text (although the encryption is faster
than the copy/paste-process into other instances).
The Rosetta CryptoPad is an alternative to other solutions, as it is based on a-symmetric encryption (PKI).


Integrated Encryption Tools

Figure 82: Encryption of text with the Rosetta Crypto Pad

Rosetta CryptoPad
derives its name
from the “Stone of
Rosette” in the
Museum of London.

This method of slow chat also shows that applications that
rely on encrypting each individual e-mail are an inconvenient method. Who wants to select the recipient for every email and chat message, encrypt the message, decide
whether the signature key should still be added or not before the message is sent?
Spot-On has the general advantage of exchanging the key
just once with the friend during set up and then everything
is encrypted at all times and the entire communication is
transferred within the chosen encryption, with temporary
keys and end-to-end passphrases can be renewed instanta-

197 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

neously at any time (e.g. with the Cryptographic Calling

14.3 Tool: Echo Public Key Share (EPKS) & AutoCrypt
When it comes to encryption, there is always the central
question of how to safely transport the key to the friend.
Some architectures use key servers in which the user can
store their public keys. This seems logical, after all it is a
public key. Nevertheless, the key servers also have massive
disadvantages, so we do not know if one has found the
right key in it or if this is even up to date.
Instead, the Echo Public Key Share (EPKS) function makes
it very easy to transfer keys in the Spot-On Encryption Suite.
Figure 83: EPKS - Echo Public Key Sharing

For this purpose, a symmetric key is defined with a community name in the p2p network of the Echo Protocol,
through which all participants - who know the community
name - can exchange the public keys.


Integrated Encryption Tools

The tool is linked via the main menu and opens a new
pop-up window.
An example of a community is already there by default
for the exchange of URL keys. The user sends the own URL
key to this community and all other subscribers who are
currently online in the p2p network receive this key.
It is a key exchange over a symmetric encrypted channel,
where the password for end-to-end encryption is the name
of the community. All users who know the name of the
community will be able to receive and add the keys that
users put into the secure channel to their Spot-On program.

14.4 Pass-Through functionality (“Patch-Points”)
If two Spot-On clients have an existing connection over the
Internet, this connection can be used as a tunnel to pass
the data of another application through this tunnel. It has
been mentioned a bit already above.
For this, a kind of proxy function of Spot-On is addressed
with this pass-through functionality.
This is an interesting feature to protect two clients of another program without encryption over the Internet with
the encrypted connection via Spot-On.
Originally a pass-through was also named in the developer forum as a “Patch-Point”.

Patch Points
describe a

Application => Spot-On => Spot-On-Server => Spot-On =>
For another application, so to speak, a VPN tunnel is set up,
which can even be equipped even with the McEliece algorithm or one of the other encryption algorithms. As long as
no VPN provider offers McEliece encryption from start to
end, the pass-through functionality is the right choice for a
test. Spot-On represents here a kind of VPN tool. So far, no
further tunnel software is known which applies McEliece.
The application to be connected should be tolerant to the
order of the sent packets. It is an interesting research field

199 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

that can be conducted with several possible applications
and tests.
Figure 84: Spot-On as proxy: pass-through

14.5 Statistics & Analyzing Tools
In addition to statistics overviews also analysis tools are
included in Spot-On, such as the above-mentioned StarBeam Analyzer. The listener and server tables also contain a
lot of data information about sent packets, as well as statistics for the URL database.


Integrated Encryption Tools

Figure 85: Display of statistics

In addition to the usual user interface, Spot-On can also be
installed in console form e.g. on a RasperryPi and retrieve
the statistics overview with a corresponding command.

201 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Figure 86: Statistics console on a Raspberry Pi

The Pandamonium URL Web crawler also has corresponding statistics.
The Encryption Suite Spot-On is ideal for tests and learnings
with this provided insight for different functions.
Questions and further Research & Development Fields


Test the speed and measure the time to encrypt a movie
file with FileEncryptor.
Test the pass-through function with Gopher.
Test a pass-through with any other network, e.g. Tor, I2P
or Matrix.
Test the pass-through function to send Echo packets
through the Echo.
Test the Rosetta CryptoPad for generating ciphertext.
Define a Key Sharing Community in EPKS.

Integrated Encryption Tools

Figure 87: Pandamonium Web Crawler Stats

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15 BIG SEVEN STUDY: CryptoMessenger-Audit

Study provides not
only a security audit of the Spot-On
Source code, but
derives also 10
Trends in Cryptographic Messaging
from several analyzed Messengers.

In the Study BIG SEVEN Crypto Messengers (2016) for Desktop Computers by David Adams and Ann-Kathrin Spot-On,
respective the GoldBug Messenger GUI, was considered
among seven open source Messengers. This international
IT-audit-oriented evaluation regarded the software “more
than audit-compliant” in more than 20 dimensions and
“overall trustworthy”. Also, the numerous code reviews
gave hints in regard of an excellent programming.
The ‘‘10 Trends in Crypto-Messaging’’ have been identified by all seven messengers core competencies – and
found all very elaborated within the research software of
GoldBug and the underlaying Spot-On-Kernel architecture.
The following ten items to be considered in cryptographic
programming have been pointed out:




Consolidation of chat and e-mail encryption: Messaging consolidates between chat and e-mail, the POPTASTIC protocol is an ideal example, where e-mail
servers are utilized for chat.
Storage of Data on the Hard Disc only encrypted: All
data containers in the Spot-On architecture are fully
encrypted as known from a truecrypt/veracrypt container.
SMP with zero-knowledge-proof processes for authentication: While the Socialist-Millionaire-Protocol is
used to authenticate a friend, Secret Streams within
the Spot-On architecture show how a bunch of
ephemeral keys derived from the SMP process can secure end-to-end encryption without transferring the
keys over the Internet.

BIG SEVEN STUDY: Crypto-Messenger-Audit


Multi-Encryption: Several layers of encryption are provided e.g. with the Echo Protocol or with individual
functions e.g. like a Nova-password on files.
5. Easy and decentral server setup: A listener for the
Spot-On Server setup is created within a few clicks.
6. IPFS with Cryptographic Calling: Instant Perfect Forwarding Secrecy has been elaborated with several
methods of Cryptographic Calling and even for Fiasco
Forwarding a full bunch of keys will be transferred and
7. Individual Crypto-DNA: Magnet-URI links contain many
cryptographic values, which are bundled in the link of
the Magnet-URI standard.
8. Manual definition of end-to-end encryption keys:
#CSEK – Customer Supplied Encryption Keys – The user
is requested to manually and individually define the
passphrase for an end to end encryption key.
9. Avoiding of Metadata: With the graph theory within
the Echo Network packets flood in every direction, so
that meta data is hard to record.
10. Alternatives to RSA: e.g. McEliece Algorithm – As RSA
is regarded officially as broken by NIST (2016) software
needs to start to use alternative Algorithms, like NTRU
or McEliece.
Spot-On covers these trends identified by the comparison
of seven well known crypto messenger very elaborated. The
procedures of the software are in each field still advanced
of not leading. Research needs to (1) analyze further comparisons of applications and (2) implementations and
standards, software development with cryptographic procedures needs to reach.
The ten fields with “Trends in Encrypting Processes” need
to be further deepened also for other encrypting software
besides messaging.

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Figure 88: Big Seven Crypto Study: Trends in Crypto (2016)


BIG SEVEN STUDY: Crypto-Messenger-Audit

Next to the auditing of the source code 2016, the architecture and processes of encryption as well as the functions in
Spot-On, there are numerous other topics on which future
research can orientate itself. As an example, the following
questions should be mentioned for further evaluations and
research needs, which may play a role in comparison with
other processes and applications:
Criterion /









Is the application open source?
Is it a tiered application: kernel and user interface processes?
Are there proxy capabilities?
Is it possible to send E-Mail messages to offline friends?
Is it possible to send E-Mail with encrypted attachments?
Are there different keys for different functions in place like
Chat, E-Mail, CryptoPad, Filetransfer etc.?
Is the key stuck to the IP Address of the user?
How is mutual access authentication defined?
Are there alternatives to RSA, like McEliece or NTRU? Can a
NTRU-user chat to a RSA-user? With which library is McEliece
Are there selectable SSL ciphers?
Are there selectable hash algorithms?
Is just connectivity needed, i.e. no key exchange is needed, are
keys optional?
Is trust needed, or can it be added as the user defines it?
What about technical simplicity?
Is it possible to determine, who is reading which message? Can
a sent message be deleted?
Local databases store all information in encrypted .db’s?
Is the authentication of messages optional?
Can the user communicate without public keys, e.g. using Magnets?
Support for TCP and UDP and SCTP communications?
Support of multi-layers of encryption?
Are multiple listeners possible?
Is a multi-threaded kernel given?

207 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual


Are there IRC-like group chat channels?
What about simple IP-based firewalls?
Do scramblers send out fake messages?
Is it possible to store messages in friends?
Is there the option to use an individually defined and manually
inserted end-to-end key for communication?
Is there the option to renew the end-to-end key each time a user wants (not only session based)?
Encrypted file transfer Protocol - Using a onetime Magnet
(OTM) for a crypto channel?
Having IPv6 support?
Having Qt 5 and up deployed? Also a Java client in place?
Sending a message to a friend to his dedicated connection and
not to all or central connections?
Hiding the key exchange online over encrypted solutions (e.g.
REPLEO or EPKS channel)?
Using different encryption keys for one file transfer?
Adding a passphrase to a to be transferred file?

Questions and further Research & Development Fields



Lookup the 20 audit criteria for the evaluation of IT
Software according the Big 7 Study (2016).
Go through the code of the latest Spot-On and note
your findings.
Choose one Trend-Dimension and analyze two applications in comparison in this regard.
As it is not about the Application to compare, but the
open source chat server to compare, please compare
the two open source server applications for encrypted
Create a concept for a Crypto-Party evening to set up an
own server. Note the questions of the guests and work
out a procedure with recommendations for the server
set up.

Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of Exponential Encryption

16 Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of
Exponential Encryption
The term "Era of Exponential Encryption" has been coined
by Mele Gasakis and Max Schmidt in their book "Beyond
Cryptographic Routing". Herein they describe the development within cryptography to multiply several methods, values and constants. Based on the therein provided analyzes
and recent innovations in cryptography they provide a vision that can demonstrate an increasing multiplication of
options for encryption and decryption processes: Also referred to their analysis of the Echo Protocol, especially if it
is regarded in the context of Graph-Theory.

The Era of

Similar to a grain of rice that doubles exponentially in every
field of a chessboard, more and more newer concepts and
programming in the area of cryptography like the Echo Protocol increase these manifolds: both, encryption and decryption, require more session-related and multiple keys, so
that numerous options exist for configuring encryption:
with different keys and algorithms, symmetric and asymmetrical methods, or even modern multiple encryption,
with that cipher text is converted again and again to cipher
text. It is also analyzed how a handful of newer applications
and open source software programming implements these
encryption mechanisms.

16.1 Multiplication towards Exponential
Next to hybrid-encryption, which means to apply both,
symmetric and a-symmetric encryption or vice versa, also
multi-encryption is mentioned, in which a cipher text is encrypted to cipher text and, again, several times to cipher
text - possibly and intended with different methods or algo-

209 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

The Echo Protocol is
Cryptographic Routing.


rithms. Further is mentioned the turn back from session
keys, so called ephemeral keys, towards a renewal of the
session key by instant options for the user: to renew the
key several times within the dedicated session. That has
forwarded the term of "Perfect Forward Secrecy" to "Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy" (IPFS) – as we already know
by end of this Handbook and User Manual.
But even more, if in advance a bunch of keys is sent, a
decoding of a message has to consider not only one present
session key, but also over dozens of keys sent prior before
the message arrives. The new paradigm of IPFS has already
turned into the newer concept of these Fiasco Keys. Fiasco
Keys are keys, which provide over a dozen possible ephemeral keys within one session and define Fiasco Forwarding,
the approach, which complements and follows IPFS.
Fiasco Keys have been coded into several applications like
Smoke (Client) and SmokeStack (Chatserver). They provide
in contrast to other more static and schematic Protocols
like the Signal Protocol a vision into a more volatile world of
And further, adding routing- and graph theory to the encryption process, which is a constant part of the also in this
Handbook in detail described Echo Protocol, an encrypted
packet might take different graphs and routes within the
network. This and the sum off all the mentioned innovations and development features described within the book
"Beyond Cryptographic Routing" multiply also the options
an invader against a defined encryption has to consider and shifts the current status to a new age: The Era of Exponential Encryption, so the vision and description of the authors.
That means: If cipher text is now sent over the Internet,
there exist also the manifold options in the networks of the
analyzed applications that messages take undefined routes
or even routes defined with cryptographic tokens. If the
routing- and graph-theory is paired with encryption, the
network theory of computer science gets quite new dimensions:

Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of Exponential Encryption

Based on the development of various proxy- or mixnetworks, such as the well-known Tor-network (and further
analyzed in their book), a development from so-called "Onion Routing" to "Echo Discovery" is described: That means
the route of a packet to be sent can no longer be defined,
as each node in the network independently decides the
next hop.
On the other hand: The special case of a "sprinkling network" describes the learning of servers and nodes based on
these cryptographic tokens. This Adaptive Echo offers advantages and disadvantages compared to the previous mix
It is therefore not spoken in these flooding networks
from the concept of "routing", as we know it from the wellknown TCP Protocol, but of "discovery": If the cryptographic token is matching, the message belongs to me. The Echo
Protocol is an example of the change from Onion Routing to
Cryptographic Discovery.
Is it also a new option for new, better encryption in the
network? If routing does not require destination information but is replaced by cryptographic insights, then it is
"beyond cryptographic routing". Will servers within the
network learn in the future through cryptographic tokens,
which route a packet takes within the Internet and to which
recipient it should be delivered and which recipient it
should not be forwarded to? Well-known alternatives to
popular messengers have announced that they will replace
the sender with a cryptographic token, and thereby approach this property of the Echo that has existed for many
years. Servers will learn now based on Cryptographic Discovery: The Artificial Intelligence – the learning of computers – will be steered in the future by Cryptographic Discovery? It can be spoken of Cryptographic Artificial Intelligence, in short: CAI.
At the same time, some are also analyzing and realizing a
new way of thinking and working in the time after the
Snowden Papers, - especially within the open source community - which differs from industrial development work
for encryption programs to community-oriented open

Spot-On as Initial
Welcome in the Era
of Exponential
Encryption (EEE)

Will servers within
a network learn
soon by cryptographic tokens?

Protocol of the
Sprinkling Effect is
one element of

211 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Intelligence (CAI)
is defined by
Discovery and
Machine Learning.

source developments. These in particular have, can and will
arise innovations in cryptography (probably detached from
the known insider circles of experts).
A prominent example of such an innovation is such of
Cryptographic Calling: In this process, numerous keys for
end-to-end encryption are promptly and several times
within one push of a button individually defined and renewed after a user request. Only a few programs can do
this so far.
The Echo Protocol, which is applied in a handful of software applications, is in this regard an initial welcome within
the Era of Exponential Encryption. Encryption and GraphTheory have been brought together. According to this, every message is encrypted several times and each network
node sends a packet to all known neighbors. This compares
and transforms classic mix networks like Tor or I2P and other to a new kind of flooding networks. A complex chaos is

16.2 Four Arms within the Era of Exponential Encryption
Four Arms:
 MultiEncryption
 Avoiding MetaData
 ValueDiversification
 New Algorithms


There are four arms to be identified within the "Era of Exponential Encryption", which refer to (1) multi-encryption:
the conversion from cipher text to cipher text to cipher
text, (2) meta-data resistance, and (3) third, the increasing
diversification of cryptographic parameters: Key variables or
applied algorithms, as well as (4) the trend towards new
algorithms such as NTRU and McEliece, which are so far
considered to be particularly more secure against the attacks of the fast Quantum Computing:
 Multi-Encryption as a result of numerous disruptive
innovations in cryptography: Multi-Encryption is the
conversion of cipher text to cipher text, if both asymmetric and symmetric methods are used, hybrid
multi-encryption can be defined.
 Avoiding Meta-data & Resistance to Meta-data Analysis: Big user data has become a gray fog or noise fac-

Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of Exponential Encryption

tor, which makes it difficult to decipher and in which a
user may also hide with secret messages.
 Diversification of the user-defined cryptographic parameters: Users can use numerous algorithms, the individual cryptographic-DNA has been highly individualized.
 Switching from RSA Algorithm to NTRU and McEliece
as a strengthening of Resistance to Quantum Computing: Since 2016, RSA has been officially insecure.
Short, but fact. Switching to NTRU and McEliece plays
a central role.
These research results and assumptions in the concept proposal of the NEW EEE-ERA is strengthening the ten crypto
trends found proposed by Adams/Maier in 2016.

16.3 Implications
From these developments, social, legal, political and economic recommendations are derived, which are to be discussed more intensely, especially in educational processes:
Our schools need more teaching and learning processes
that understand and convey the beginning of the increasingly exponential cryptography.

Social, legal,
political and

Social implications:
"'The liberty of the other begins with the acceptance of his
or her cipher text' - if the known quotation from Rosa Luxemburg (1918) may be applied to the next century in this
wording. If it is difficult to accept the limits of the readable
opinion of the other, how easily should one fall to accept
the limits of the unreadable opinion of the other?", has to
be asked. Combined with a suggestion, that multipliers
within social groups help others to get a common understanding for cryptographic processes in society and for private people.
Legal implications:
The new status in the Era of Exponential Encryption shows
that the legal requirements to judge cases are becoming
213 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

more complex: e.g. if non-license-free material is forwarded
in an encrypted packet or if only "non-routed" communication content has to be decoded in a legal case – or if an Internet Service Provider should be able to decrypt at all? The authors suggest to provide professional education already at high school for all law concerned professions.
Political implications:
Here the question is raised, how much competence development in a particular nation should this nation request?
and how can political processes steer this? The authors
suggest that encryption must be a well accepted science
and practical process in politics and by politicians. A nation
needs own research results in cryptography.
Economic implications:
Encryption is the basic process of the digital economy. The
authors suggest that an initiative should equal the open
source software with proprietary encryption solutions.

16.4 Outlook
A pleading for the compulsory subject computer-science
already in school? - In any case, the so-called "digital immigrants" as well as members of the "Generation Y", who
have grown up with the mobile phones, continue to develop the content of the cryptography in the curricula of
schools and discuss the described innovations and questions towards the "Era of Exponential Encryption ".
It is necessary to develop teaching concepts that lead
non-MIT and non-math students to cryptology & cryptography and, secondly, to address also the other group of
non-students: technically interested people who have never
seen a university from inside but are interested in technical
development and its social discussion of the consequences
of technology and/or not learning and applying of new
Here, in the area of encryption, every reader and user is
asked to consider how to learn, how to deepen the existing

Outlook with Graph-Theory: Initial Welcome in the New Era of Exponential Encryption

knowledge and to be learned content as well as practical
application of the know-how of encryption.
The context content appeals to interested persons of
computer science, math, and cryptography as well as to
students who want to discuss new cryptographic innovations in tutorials and crypto-parties.
Questions and further Research & Development Fields





Why are multi-encryption and individual Cryptographic
DNA values influencing the multiplication of options?
How is graph theory and networking within the Echo
Protocol related to multiplied and exponential Encryption?
What are the four arms of the New Era of Exponential
Which implications derive from the New Era of Exponential Encryption for the next Crypto-Party of students?
Provide an action plan to update educational processes
for one educational class curriculum, school or university based on 10 chapters of this handbook.
Discuss Life-Cycle-Management for a RSA application
and provide a start-up business-plan for a McEliece application. How has Chance Management to be steered
of companies offering both software products?
How can developers paid by government and working
for public domain provide an open source alternative
for WhatsApp based on open source chat server software everyone can install and use?

215 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

17 Digital Encryption of Private
Communication in the Context
of …
This user manual is not only intended to technically describe the handling of encryption, its processes or the use
of the individual tabs and buttons, but also to illustrate the
meaning of the encryption as it stands in the light of various
basic laws for the protection of private freedom and communication. The following basic laws should therefore be
pointed out, which refer to them in their original texts.

17.1 Principles of the protection of private
speech, communication and life: Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (Art. 12)
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his
privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks
upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to
the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

17.2 International Covenant on Civil & Political
Rights, 1966 (Art. 17)
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful
interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the
law against such interference or attacks.


Digital Encryption of Private Communication in the Context of …
CCPR.aspx International Covenant on Civil and Political

17.3 European Convention on Human Rights,
1950 (Art. 8)
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private
and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority
with the exercise of this right except such as is in
accordance with the law and is necessary in a
democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of
the country, for the prevention of disorder or
crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for
the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
m / European Convention on Human Rights.

17.4 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000 (Art. 7, 8)
Article 7 - Respect for private and family life: Everyone has
the right to respect for his or her private and family life,
home and communications.
Article 8. Protection of personal data: 1. Everyone has the
right to the protection of personal data concerning him or
her. 2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law.
Everyone has the right of access to data which has been
collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it
rectified. 3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to
control by an independent authority. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union - Charter of Fundamental
Rights of the European Union (Wikisource) Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
217 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

17.5 Basic Law e.g. for the Federal Republic of
Germany, 1949 (Art. 2 Abs. 1 i. V. m. Art. 1
Abs. 1)
Article 2 - Personal freedoms: (1) Every person shall have
the right to free development of his personality insofar as
he does not violate the rights of others or offend against
the constitutional order or the moral law. Article 1 [Human
dignity – Human rights – Legally binding force of basic
rights] (1) Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and
protect it shall be the duty of all state authority. Basic
Law for the Federal Republic of Germany.
Further: Article 1 and Article 10:
Art. 1 Human dignity – Human rights: Legally binding
force of basic rights (1) Human dignity shall be inviolable. To
respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority. (2) The German people therefore acknowledge inviolable and inalienable human rights as the basis of every
community, of peace and of justice in the world. (3) The
following basic rights shall bind the legislature, the executive and the judiciary as directly applicable law

17.6 Privacy of correspondence, posts and telecommunications (Art. 10)
Secrecy of correspondence - Fernmeldegeheimnis (Art. 10
Abs. 1 Grundgesetz)
§ 88 Abs. 1 Fernmeldegeheimnis - Telekommunikationsgesetz: (1) Dem Fernmeldegeheimnis unterliegen der Inhalt
der Telekommunikation und ihre näheren Umstände, insbesondere die Tatsache, ob jemand an einem Telekommunikationsvorgang beteiligt ist oder war. Das Fernmeldegeheimnis erstreckt sich auch auf die näheren Umstände erfolgloser Verbindungsversuche. (2) Zur Wahrung des Fernmeldegeheimnisses ist jeder Diensteanbieter verpflichtet. Die
Pflicht zur Geheimhaltung besteht auch nach dem Ende der
Tätigkeit fort, durch die sie begründet worden ist. (3) Den
nach Absatz 2 Verpflichteten ist es untersagt, sich oder an218

Digital Encryption of Private Communication in the Context of …

deren über das für die geschäftsmäßige Erbringung der Telekommunikationsdienste einschließlich des Schutzes ihrer
technischen Systeme erforderliche Maß hinaus Kenntnis
vom Inhalt oder den näheren Umständen der Telekommunikation zu verschaffen. Sie dürfen Kenntnisse über Tatsachen, die dem Fernmeldegeheimnis unterliegen, nur für
den in Satz 1 genannten Zweck verwenden. Eine Verwendung dieser Kenntnisse für andere Zwecke, insbesondere
die Weitergabe an andere, ist nur zulässig, soweit dieses
Gesetz oder eine andere gesetzliche Vorschrift dies vorsieht
und sich dabei ausdrücklich auf Telekommunikationsvorgänge bezieht. Die Anzeigepflicht nach § 138 des Strafgesetzbuches hat Vorrang. (4) Befindet sich die Telekommunikationsanlage an Bord eines Wasser- oder Luftfahrzeugs, so
besteht die Pflicht zur Wahrung des Geheimnisses nicht
gegenüber der Person, die das Fahrzeug führt oder gegenüber ihrer Stellvertretung.

17.7 Verletzung des Post- oder Fernmeldegeheimnisses (§ 206)
(1) Wer unbefugt einer anderen Person eine Mitteilung
über Tatsachen macht, die dem Post- oder Fernmeldegeheimnis unterliegen und die ihm als Inhaber oder Beschäftigtem eines Unternehmens bekanntgeworden sind, das
geschäftsmäßig Post- oder Telekommunikationsdienste erbringt, wird mit Freiheitsstrafe bis zu fünf Jahren oder mit
Geldstrafe bestraft. (2) Ebenso wird bestraft, wer als Inhaber oder Beschäftigter eines in Absatz 1 bezeichneten Unternehmens unbefugt 1. eine Sendung, die einem solchen
Unternehmen zur Übermittlung anvertraut worden und
verschlossen ist, öffnet oder sich von ihrem Inhalt ohne
Öffnung des Verschlusses unter Anwendung technischer
Mittel Kenntnis verschafft, 2. eine einem solchen Unternehmen zur Übermittlung anvertraute Sendung unterdrückt oder 3. eine der in Absatz 1 oder in Nummer 1 oder
2 bezeichneten Handlungen gestattet oder fördert. (3) Die
Absätze 1 und 2 gelten auch für Personen, die 1. Aufgaben
der Aufsicht über ein in Absatz 1 bezeichnetes Unterneh219 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

men wahrnehmen, 2. von einem solchen Unternehmen
oder mit dessen Ermächtigung mit dem Erbringen von Postoder Telekommunikationsdiensten betraut sind oder 3. mit
der Herstellung einer dem Betrieb eines solchen Unternehmens dienenden Anlage oder mit Arbeiten daran betraut sind. (4) Wer unbefugt einer anderen Person eine Mitteilung über Tatsachen macht, die ihm als außerhalb des
Post- oder Telekommunikationsbereichs tätigem Amtsträger
auf Grund eines befugten oder unbefugten Eingriffs in das
Post- oder Fernmeldegeheimnis bekanntgeworden sind,
wird mit Freiheitsstrafe bis zu zwei Jahren oder mit Geldstrafe bestraft. (5) Dem Postgeheimnis unterliegen die näheren Umstände des Postverkehrs bestimmter Personen
sowie der Inhalt von Postsendungen. Dem Fernmeldegeheimnis unterliegen der Inhalt der Telekommunikation und
ihre näheren Umstände, insbesondere die Tatsache, ob jemand an einem Telekommunikationsvorgang beteiligt ist
oder war. Das Fernmeldegeheimnis erstreckt sich auch auf
die näheren Umstände erfolgloser Verbindungsversuche.
Secrecy of correspondence – Briefgeheimnis (Fernmeldegeheimnis) - Postgeheimnis

17.8 United States Constitution: Search and Seizure (Expectation of Privacy, US Supreme
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and
seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue,
but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation,
and particularly describing the place to be searched, and


History of Program Publications

18 History of Program Publications
The list of publications shows continuous updates and releases of the application over several years. The first publication dates back to 2013, and before that, another project
also involved several years of research work. The release
dates of the versions show on average almost monthly or at
least quarterly a release. The notes makes it clear which
feature has been added, improved, or published.
The history of the publications since 2013 and earlier can
be found with approx. 40 Program releases in the wiki of
the project page of the GoldBug release history, for Spot-On
the release history is to be analysed in detail by the release
notes, which moved from Sourceforge to Github and have
been arrived there too:

19 Website
Further information can be found on the website:

221 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

20 Open source code & Compilation
The open source code and further compile information can
be found at the repository at Github:
 The GoldBug GUI source code is also to be found in
the Spot-On repository at Github.

20.1 Compile Information
Anyone who looks on the website of Spot-On, finds here
the current release, especially for Windows. If the user has
advanced computer skills, would like to compile the program from the source code or wants to learn from this example, this developer will find here more hints on how to
proceed for the operating systems, e.g. Windows.
The compilation from the source code allows the developer to see how the source code forms into a binary file
(.exe) and which program libraries are to be supplemented
so that the executable file can run.
First, it is to download the Qt tool kit. Choose the offline
(or online) installation of Qt with MingGW: e.g. Qt 5.X for
Windows 32-bit (MinGW 4.9.2, 1.0 GB) at the URL: open-source / # section-2
Then the source code has to be downloaded. For Windows all required dependencies and libraries are already
integrated in the path of the source text. The Spot-On GUI
and the Spot-On Kernel can be found at GitHub at the mentioned URL above:
To download the source code, the developer can download
the master tree on the website as a zip in the browser or
use a GIT client.
For Linux, all these libraries should be installed:
 Qt 5.1.x or higher,

Open source code & Compilation

 libGeoIP 1.5.1,
 libcrypto 0.9.8 or later,
 libgcrypt 1.5.x, and
 libssl 0.9.8 or later.
 libsqlite3-dev
 libgcrypt11-dev
 libssl-dev
 libgeoip-dev
 libpq-dev,
 libeay,
 libgpg-error,
 libsshgcrypt-dev,
 libssh-gcrypt-dev,
 libgcrypt-dev,
 libgcrypt11-dev,
 libgl1-mesa-dev,
 libcurlpp-dev,
 libcurl4openssl-dev,
 libsctp-dev,
 libtool,
 libtool-dev,
 libntl.
The libGeoIP program library is optional and can be bypassed if the selected Qt-PRO project file is configured accordingly. It has to be checked, whether for Linux all mentioned, or more recent versions of these program libraries
are installed on the machine. For Windows, the necessary
program libraries are already attached to the source code
(DLL files, even if not customary). Further compiling information can be found within the source code itself.
After the developer has installed Qt, the user starts the
program Qt-Creator from the Qt directory.
Then the developer selects the relevant .pro file from the
unpacked source code path and compiles the GUI and the
kernel with Qt Creator. For the compilation of Spot-On the
user installs Qt5 and then select the .pro file “”. This file opens both, kernel and GUI subpro files.
223 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

Then in QT-Creator the developer simply clicks on the
green forward arrow and starts the compiling. At the end of
the compilation process from the Qt Creator Spot-On.exe
should then be bootable. If the developer wants to put the
exe.file in a separate path on the own hard-disk, the developer has to add all needed DLL files (from the selected Qt
version and from all current libraries) as well as the subpaths e.g. for the sound or Qt files, as they already exist in
the default installation zip for Spot-On Windows. The library DLL files for Window are also stored in the source
code of the respective library paths for convenient and easy
The developer can of course compile with the Qt terminal window Spot-On also with manual DOS commands,
without using Qt-Creator.
 Windows: qmake -o Makefile
 make or mingw32-make
 or choose in Qt-Creator:
Spot-On does not provide checksums for the binary downloads as the source is given for those who want to build on
their own. Please notice: Spot-On has a build date in the
GUI so the sums might differ for each compile!
FURTHER INFO for other .pro files:
If header (h) or interface (ui) files have changed, please perform a distclean before building the application.
 Absolute cleaning: make distclean or mingw32make distclean
 FreeBSD: qmake -o Makefile
 Linux:
 OS X: qmake -spec macx-g++ -o Makefile


Open source code & Compilation

 Windows: qmake -o Makefile
make or mingw32-make

225 Encryption Suite - Handbook and User Manual

21 Bibliography
Adams, David / Maier, Ann-Kathrin: BIG SEVEN Study, open source
crypto-messengers to be compared - or: Comprehensive Confidentiality Review & Audit of GoldBug, Encrypting E-MailClient & Secure Instant Messenger, Descriptions, tests and
analysis reviews of 20 functions of the application GoldBug
based on the essential fields and methods of evaluation of the
8 major international audit manuals for IT security investigations including 38 figures and 87 tables., URL: - English / German Language, Version 1.1, 305 pages, June 2016.
Akhoondi, Masoud; Yu, Curtis; Madhyastha, Harsha V. (May 2012).
LASTor: A Low-Latency AS-Aware Tor Client (PDF). IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Oakland, USA. Retrieved 28
April 2014.
Anand, M. Vijay / Jayakumar C.: Secured Routing Using Quantum
Cryptography, in: Krishna, P. Venkata / Babu, M. Rajasekhara /
Ariwa, Ezendu (Ed.): Global Trends in Computing and Communication Systems, Volume 269 of the series Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 714-725, Vellore, TN, India, 2011.
Arbeitskreis Vorratsdatenspeicherung (AKV), Bündnis gegen Überwachung et al.: List of Secure Instant Messengers, URL:
nt_Messengers, Mai 2014.
Banerjee, Sanchari: EFYTIMES News Network: 25 Best Open Source
Projects Of 2014: EFYTIMES ranked GoldBug Messenger # 4
on the overall Top 25 Best Open Source Projects Of 2014, URL:,
Bangeman, Eric: "Security researcher Dan Egerstad stumbles across
embassy E-Mail log-ins,, 2007.



Baran, Paul: Digital Simulation of Hot-Potato Routing in a Broadband
URL:, 1964.
Baran, Paul: On Distributed Communications Networks, RAND Corporation
URL:, 1962.
Baran, Paul: Reliable Digital Communications Systems Using Unreliable Network Repeater Nodes, RAND Corporation papers, document
P1995.pdf, 1960.
Black, Michael: When I first heard of GoldBug - Review of GoldBug
Secure Instant Messenger, URL:,
29 Oct 2013
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Index of Figures

22 Index of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:
Figure 9:
Figure 10:
Figure 11:
Figure 12:
Figure 13:
Figure 14:
Figure 15:
Figure 16:
Figure 17:
Figure 18:

The tabs in Spot-On Encryption Suite
application ........................................................ 15
How asymmetric encryption with Public
Key Infrastructure (PKI) works .......................... 21
McEliece’s algorithm for advanced
protection against attacks from Quantum
Computing in the Settings Tab .......................... 23
RSA and its alternatives in Spot-On .................. 24
cryptography, e.g. based on key size and
further values ................................................... 26
Example of an AES Password string .................. 30
Example of Encapsulation with three levels
of encryption .................................................... 30
Discovering Spot-On’s sent cipher text to a
localhost HTTP-Listener in a browser ............... 31
Message Encryption Format of the Echo
Protocol ............................................................ 34
Threefish implementation ................................ 36
Example of message encryption within the
Echo .................................................................. 37
Graphical depiction of a message within
the Echo Protocol ............................................. 38
Simulacra, Impersonator, Super-Echo............... 41
Echo Simulation: Each node sends to each
connected node ................................................ 45
Example and Process Description of the
Echo-Match....................................................... 47
Account Firewall of Spot-On ............................. 49
The Echo Grid Template .................................... 51
Alice, Bob, Ed and Mary in the Echo Grid An example of Echo paths and for Graph
Theory............................................................... 53

241 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

Figure 19:
Figure 20:
Figure 21:
Figure 22:
Figure 23:

Figure 24:
Figure 25:
Figure 26:
Figure 27:
Figure 28:
Figure 29:
Figure 30:
Figure 31:
Figure 32:
Figure 33:
Figure 34:
Figure 35:
Figure 36:
Figure 37:
Figure 38:
Figure 39:
Figure 40:
Figure 41:
Figure 42:

Adaptive Echo (AE): The “Hansel and
Gretel” Example of the Adaptive Echo ............. 56
SECRED – Sprinkling Effect (SE) &
Cryptographic Echo Discovery (CRED) via
the Echo Protocol ............................................. 61
Definition of SECRED ........................................ 63
Initial Wizard of Spot-On .................................. 68
Set Passphrase - if not the Wizard is used,
it is found in the settings Tab for kernel
activation - here shown within the
GoldBug GUI ..................................................... 71
Authentication: Login to the application
Spot-On with a passphrase ............................... 72
Virtual Keyboard of the Spot-On
application ........................................................ 74
Options for Display: e.g. change icon set.......... 78
Lock of the user interface in the status bar ...... 79
Activation of the kernel in the Settings Tab ...... 80
Encryption between kernel and GUI and
three LEDs......................................................... 80
Creating a connection to a neighbor/server..... 81
Connected neighbors/ servers.......................... 82
Logo of the GoldBug Crypto Chat
Application........................................................ 86
1:1 chat in the pop-up window ........................ 87
Add Friend/Key ................................................. 89
Chat Tab ............................................................ 93
Chat in the pop-up window with the SMP
authentication option ....................................... 94
The MELODICA Button since 2013.................... 95
Definition of Two-way Cryptographic
Calling ............................................................... 99
Two-Way Calling in the context menu from
the friends-list .................................................. 100
SMP Protocol in the pop-up chat window ........ 103
Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP) in the
chat window to authenticate the chat
partner .............................................................. 106
Definition of Secret Streams ............................. 107

Index of Figures

Figure 43:
Figure 44:
Figure 45:
Figure 46:
Figure 47:
Figure 48:
Figure 49:
Figure 50:
Figure 51:
Figure 52:
Figure 53:
Figure 54:
Figure 55:
Figure 56:
Figure 57:
Figure 58:
Figure 59:
Figure 60:
Figure 61:
Figure 62:
Figure 63:
Figure 64:
Figure 65:
Figure 66:
Figure 67:

Secret Streams based on SMP Protocol ............ 108
Definition of Forward Secrecy .......................... 109
Overview of the different types of
Cryptographic Calling with respective
criteria .............................................................. 112
Emoticon list in Spot-On Encryption Suite ........ 114
Tear-off / hook-up of controls ........................... 115
File transfer in the pop-up chat window .......... 116
The e’IRC group chat......................................... 117
IRC-style group chat within the e’IRC buzz
channel ............................................................. 119
Mobile Smoke Messenger with left-right
chat layout ........................................................ 122
E-Mail - read view (shown here in the
GoldBug GUI) .................................................... 124
POPTASTIC: chat via e-mail server .................... 127
P2P e-mail from the postbox to a friend:
C/O function (shown in the GoldBug
Interface) .......................................................... 131
Database encryption – file email.db ................. 132
URN = Institution (VEMI Method) .................... 134
E-mail with forward secrecy ............................. 138
Implementation of Secret Streams here for
e-mail ................................................................ 143
POPTASTIC Protocol Graphic ............................. 145
POPTASTIC Settings: Encrypted Chat and
Encrypted E-Mail over POP3 and IMAP ............ 148
MOMEDO Analysis Report ................................ 150
GUI Screenshot of the Lettera Application
(Android) with also intended chat over email servers ...................................................... 151
Spot-On 1:1-chat pop-up window with file
transfer ............................................................. 153
StarBeam with its three sub-tabs ..................... 154
Magnet-URI standard with cryptographic
values for file transfer ....................................... 155
NOVA Password on file transfers ...................... 157
Cryptographic values for the Magnet-URI
standard ............................................................ 160
243 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

Figure 68:
Figure 69:
Figure 70:
Figure 71:
Figure 72:
Figure 73:
Figure 74:
Figure 75:
Figure 76:
Figure 77:
Figure 79:
Figure 80:
Figure 81:
Figure 82:
Figure 83:
Figure 84:
Figure 85:
Figure 86:
Figure 87:
Figure 88:
Figure 89:


cryptographic values (here for a group chat
channel) ............................................................ 160
Starbeam file transfer: uploading files ............. 163
StarBeam File Transfer - Incoming Files ........... 165
File transfer using StarBeam: Analysis tool
for the chunks ................................................... 166
Web search with Spot-On in the URL
database ........................................................... 169
Installing the URL database for the
URL/Web search ............................................... 172
URL Options: Import and Export Filters:
URL Distiller ...................................................... 174
Echo Public Key Sharing (EPKS) ......................... 175
Pandamonium Web Crawler ............................. 176
RSS feed reader for importing URLs into
the URL database/web search .......................... 179
Setting up a chat server .................................... 183
Testing Proxy and Pass-Through capabilities .... 189
Bluetooth chat server architecture model ....... 190
File Encryptor - file encryption tool.................. 195
Encryption of text with the Rosetta Crypto
Pad .................................................................... 197
EPKS - Echo Public Key Sharing ......................... 198
Spot-On as proxy: pass-through ....................... 200
Display of statistics ........................................... 201
Statistics console on a Raspberry Pi ................. 202
Pandamonium Web Crawler Stats .................... 203
Big Seven Crypto Study: Trends in Crypto ........ 206


23 Glossary
 2WIPFS: See: Two-way instant perfect forward secrecy.
 4710: Port for the applications Spot-On and other Echo
 Access Controls: means to ensure that access to assets is
authorized and restricted based on business and security
requirements. Related to authorization of users, and assessment of rights.
 Adaptive Echo (AE): The Adaptive Echo does not send in
terms of the normal Echo a message-packet to each connected node, instead, for the over giving of a message a
cryptographic token is needed. The Echo-Protocol is
equipped for the Adaptive Echo Modus with a routing information. Only nodes, which have a certain cryptographic
token available, get the message forwarded.
 AES: The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known
as Rijndael (its original name), is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001. AES is
based on the Rijndael cipher developed by two Belgian
cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, who
submitted a proposal to NIST during the AES selection process.
 AE-Token: The AE-Token is a cryptographic token used to
deploy the Adaptive Echo (AE) modus. It is a kind of password or string, which is entered the node, to avoid messages to be sent to nodes, without the AE-Token. AE-Tokens
can help to create a self-learning, adaptive network. The
token must contain at least thirtv-six characters.
 Algorithm: In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to
be performed. Algorithms exist that perform calculation,
data processing, and automated reasoning.

245 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Android: Android is a mobile operating system which allows to deploy mobile devices similar as an Raspberry Pi
with server software, e.g. like the encrypting chat server
SmokeStack for Android.
 Answer Method: The Answer Method is a procedure for
the login into an application. It is applied in the software
Spot-On and GoldBug. Here the login into the application
can be done over a password, or, the password is replaced
by two entry text fields. One string covers the question,
and the other string covers the referring answer to the
question. Both values are hashed and processes in a cryptographic way. The right answers are not stored on the
hard disk in plain text, so that the process provides a different method and offers more security. An attacker does
not know, if a user has used the password or the question/answer login method.
 Asymmetric Calling: Cryptographic Calling is the immediate
transfer of end-to-end encrypting encryption credentials to
secure a communication channel. Cryptographic calling has
been invented by the Software Project Spot-On. Asymmetric Calling is some modus for Cryptographic Calling, which
sends temporary asymmetric keys for end-to-end encryption. It refers to send one asymmetric key (pair) through
one secured channel. The Call with asymmetric credentials
refers to ephemeral asymmetric keys, which are used for
the time of the call. This could be one session or even a
shorter part of time of the session. It depends whenever a
communication partner starts to initiate a call. The asymmetric ephemeral credentials for the call should be transferred over a secure connection, which is either a symmetric key, over a a-symmetric key (PKI) or over an already existent call-connection, in this case an ephemeral asymmetric temp-key.
 Asymmetric Encryption: In cryptography, encryption is the
process of encoding messages or information in such a way
that only authorized parties can read it. In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages. However, only the re-







ceiving party has access to the decryption key that enables
messages to be read. Public-key encryption was first described in a secret document in 1973; before then all encryption schemes were symmetric-key (also called privatekey).
Attack: attempt to destroy, expose, alter, disable, steal or
gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of
an asset.
Audit: systematic, independent and documented process
for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to
determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled. An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an
external audit (second party or third party), and it can be a
combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).
Auditing and Logging: Related to auditing of actions, or
logging of problems.
Authentication: provision of assurance that a claimed
characteristic of an entity is correct. Related to the identification of users.
Autocrypt: AutoCrypt is an automatic key exchange. This
has originally been invented by the Spot-on Project and refers to the protocol definitions of a REPLEO and the EPKS
protocol. A REPLEO is the method to encrypt the own Public Key with the received Public Key of a friend. That hides
the own public key from public by using encryption method. The EPKS Protocol is the Echo Public Key Sharing Protocol, which allows to send the own key over an existing encrypted connection to one or several friends. The EPKS
protocol has been invented in the Spot-On project and
GoldBug Project and has been overtaken by other projects
in an automated way for an e-mail reply. That means two
users of the same e-Mail client exchange the public encryption key and are from that point of time secured for all further communication. The EPKS Protocol provides this many
years before the Term AutoCrypt went public. Other project also copied this invention under the Name KeySync.
The new process is, that the key is not stored and searched
on a Key server, but sent from node to node in a secure
247 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






channel, either by manual sent-out or an automated exchange of two nodes, e.g. e-mail-clients or Spot-On Clients
over the EPKS protocol.
Availability: property of being accessible and usable upon
demand by an authorized entity.
Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for
exchanging data over short distances (using shortwavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to
2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices and building personal area networks (PANs).
Broadcast: Broadcast is as term widely known. In Cryptography it is known from the Spot-On application to send the
public encryption key over an IP-network connection, so
that all connected nodes can pick-up the sent key. A cryptographic Broadcast is a wider form of AutoCrypt and includes as well the EPKS channel. It is also possible to send
the Cryptographic Broadcast over a not encrypted connection, while a broadcast over the Echo Network or the Echo
Public Key Sharing function of the Spot-On Client would
provide always an encrypted connection, e.g. based on the
symmetric key, which allows only people who know the key
to have access.
Button: A button is the most discussed element in an application, respective GUI development.
Buzz: Buzz is the name of the libspoton to provide Echoed
IRC(e*IRC). So Buzz is another word for IRC, respective
e*IRC, used by the library.
C/O (Care-of)-Function: “Care of”, used to address a letter
when the letter must pass through an intermediary (also
written C/O). Neighbors are often asked to care of your
postal letters, in case you live with them in one house or
have a relationship to them. As well parcel stations, letter
boxes or just persons e.g. at your home or in the neighborhood provide a local delay of your envelopes and parcels,
in case you are at work and want to receive the parcel or
letter in the evening. The included Email Function of SpotOn provides such a feature.


 Calling: A “Call” transfers over a public/private key encrypted environment a symmetric key (e.g. AES). It is a
password for the session talk, only the two participants
know. With one click you can instantly renew the end-toend encryption password for your talk. It is also possible to
manually define the end-to-end encrypted password
(manually defined Calling). There are five further different
ways to call: Asymmetric Calling, Forward Secrecy Calling,
Symmetric Calling, SMP-Calling and 2-Way-Calling. The
term of a “Call” in Cryptography has been introduced by
Spot-on, the integrated library and kernel of the Spot-On
Application, and refers to sending a new end-to-end encryption password to the other participant.
 CBC: Cipher Block Chaining – Ehrsam, Meyer, Smith and
Tuchman invented the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode
of operation in 1976. In CBC mode, each block of plaintext
is XORed with the previous ciphertext block before being
encrypted. This way, each ciphertext block depends on all
plaintext blocks processed up to that point.
 Cipher text: Cipher text is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Cipher text is also known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plain text
that is unreadable by a human or computer without the
proper cipher to decrypt it. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable
plaintext. Cipher text is not to be confused with code-text
because the latter is a result of a code, not a cipher.
 Cipher: In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined
steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative,
less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode
is to convert information into cipher or code. In common
parlance, ‘cipher’ is synonymous with ‘code’. Codes generally substitute different length strings of characters in the
output, while ciphers generally substitute the same number of characters as are input.

249 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Clientside Encryption: Client-side encryption is the cryptographic technique of encrypting data before it is transmitted to a server in a computer network. Usually, encryption
is performed with a key that is not known to the server.
Consequently, the service provider is unable to decrypt the
hosted data. In order to access the data, it must always be
decrypted by the client. Client-side encryption allows for
the creation of zero knowledge applications whose providers cannot access the data its users have stored, thus offering a high level of privacy.
 C-mail: C-mail as a term describing e-mail, that is encrypted. This term was introduced due to the awareness, that
each e-mail is distributed over Internet servers readable
like a postcard to any admin.
 Confidentiality: property that information is not made
available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities,
or processes.
 Configuration: Related to security configurations of servers, devices, or software.
 Congestion Control: Congestion control concerns controlling traffic entry into a telecommunications network, so as
to avoid congestive collapse by attempting to avoid oversubscription of any of the processing or link capabilities of
the intermediate nodes and networks and taking resource
reducing steps, such as reducing the rate of sending packets.
 Continuous improvement: recurring activity to enhance
 Corrective action: action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity and to prevent recurrence.
 Crawler: A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider or spiderbot and often shortened to crawler, is an Internet bot
that systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically
for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering). Web
search engines and some other sites use Web crawling or
spidering software to update their web content or indices
of others sites' web content. Web crawlers copy pages for








processing by a search engine which indexes the downloaded pages so users can search more efficiently.
Cryptogramm: Verbal arithmetic, also known as alphametics, cryptarithmetic, crypt-arithmetic, cryptarithm,
mprovemen or word addition, is a type of mathematical
game consisting of a mathematical equation among unknown numbers, whose digits are represented by letters.
The goal is to identify the value of each letter. The name
can be extended to puzzles that use non-alphabetic symbols instead of letters.
Cryptographic Calling: Cryptographic Calling is a way to
provide end-to-end credentials over a secure connection.
The temporary key can be a-symmetric (PKI) or symmetric
(a password string also known as a passphrase). The idea is
to make end-to-end encryption as easy as calling a partner
over a phone, just taking the phone, call, and if the session
has to end, to change the temporary keys again and quit
the call.
Cryptographic Discovery: Cryptographic Discovery describes the method of an Echo-ing Protocol to find nodes in
an Echo Network. Peers are aware of other peers and their
cryptographic identities based on a cryptographic discovery
within the network. Nodes inform other nodes about their
neighbors, so that they can be addressed.
Cryptographic Routing: Cryptographic Routing is a term,
which has been used as an antagonism for describing the
Echo Protocol, as this is beyond Routing. Echo means forwarding a message, which is address-less. So no routing is
given within Echo. A Cryptographic Routing would be given, if a node would have a certain cryptographic token as
identifier. This is the case within Adaptive Echo (AE). Here
in partial one can speak of cryptographic routing, as a target address might be given.
Cryptographic Torrents: Cryptographic Torrents are defined
by a bunch of cryptographic values, listed in a link to generate a download of a file. Similar to Torrent Links the
download is started packet by packet, just with the differ-

251 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






ence that all packets are encrypted, and the link contains
an assortment of cryptographic values.
Cryptographic-DNA: Cryptographic DNA is derived as term
– in allusion to the DNA term taken from biology - from
Magnet-URI-Links containing an assortment of specific
cryptographic values. These values describe key size, algorithm, hash, iteration count etc. As each link can be different, the term DNA describes the specific uniqueness or
footprint of such a bundle.
Cryptography: Related to mathematical protections for
CryptoPad: A Cryptopad is a tool, to convert plain text to
cipher text. A first suite integrated pad has been developed
by the Spot-On application under the name Rosetta Crypto
Pad. The name derives from the Stone of Rosette in the
Museum of London, which is an index to read hieroglyphs.
The Rosetta CryptoPad uses asymmetric keys, so it is based
on PKI and both participants need to share (and enter) the
public key. It is not based on symmetric key, so that the
other user just has to enter a passphrase-string like some
PDF files are often encrypted.
Crypto-Parties: A Crypto-Party is a grassroots global endeavour to introduce the basics of practical cryptography
such as the Tor anonymity network, key signing parties,
disk encryption and virtual private networks to the general
public. The project primarily consists of a series of free
public workshops. Marcin de Kaminski, founding member
of Piratbyrån which in turn founded The Pirate Bay, regards
CryptoParty as the most important civic project in cryptography today, and Cory Doctorow has characterized a CryptoParty as being "like a Tupperware party for learning crypto." Der Spiegel in December 2014 mentioned "crypto parties" in the wake of the Edward Snowden leaks in an article
about the NSA.
CSEK: CSEK is the short abbreviation of Customer Supplied
Encryption Keys. This refers to services, Internet offers and
software architecture, which provides the option, that the
user brings in his own keys, either symmetric or asymmet-





ric. This is especially important for applications providing
end to end encryption that users can insert or define their
own password and use other channels to exchange the
Customer Supplied Encryption Keys (#CECS): Customer
Supplied Encryption Keys have been introduced as term by
google to provide customers to use own keys for the encryption of data within the google cloud.
Data Exposure: Related to unintended exposure of sensitive information.
Data Validation: Related to improper reliance on the structure or values of data.
Decentralized computing: Decentralized computing is the
allocation of resources, both hardware and software, to
each individual workstation, or office location. Decentral
means, there is no central server nor a web-interface, you
can lof into a service. A client needs to be installed and adjusted locally on your device. Another term is: Distributed
computing. Distributed computing is a field of computer
science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a software system in which components located on
networked computers communicate and coordinate their
actions by passing messages. Based on a “grid model” a
peer-to-peer system, or P2P system, is a collection of applications run on several local computers, which connect remotely to each other to complete a function or a task.
There is no main operating system to which satellite systems are subordinate. This approach to software development (and distribution) affords developers great savings, as
they don’t have to create a central control point. An example application is LAN messaging which allows users to
communicate without a central server.
Distributed Hash Table: A Distributed Hash Table (DHT) is a
class of a decentralized distributed system that provides a
lookup service similar to a hash table: (key, value) pairs are
stored in a DHT, and any participating node can efficiently
retrieve the value associated with a given key. Keys are
unique identifiers which map to particular values, which in
253 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






turn can be anything from addresses, to documents, to arbitrary data.
DNS: The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical and
decentralized naming system for computers, services, or
other resources connected to the Internet or a private
network. It associates various information with domain
names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most
prominently, it translates more readily memorized domain
names to the numerical IP addresses needed for locating
and identifying computer services and devices with the
underlying network protocols. By providing a worldwide,
distributed directory service, the Domain Name System has
been an essential component of the functionality of the Internet since 1985.
Documented information: information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization and the medium
on which it is contained. Note: Documented information
can be in any format and media and from any source.
Dooble: Dooble is a free and open source Web browser.
Dooble was created to improve privacy. Currently, Dooble
is available for FreeBSD, Linux, OS X, OS/2, and Windows.
Dooble uses Qt for its user interface and abstraction from
the operating system and processor architecture. As a result, Dooble should be portable to any system that supports OpenSSL, POSIX threads, Qt, SQLite, and other libraries.
DTLS: Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is a communications protocol that provides security for datagrambased applications by allowing them to communicate in a
way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering,
or message forgery. The DTLS protocol is based on the
stream-oriented Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol
and is intended to provide similar security guarantees. The
DTLS protocol datagram preserves the semantics of the
underlying transport—the application does not suffer from
the delays associated with stream protocols, but because it
uses UDP, the application has to deal with packet reordering, loss of datagram and data larger than the size of a






datagram network packet. Because DTLS uses UDP rather
than TCP, it avoids the "TCP meltdown problem", when being used to create a VPN tunnel.
Echo Accounts: Echo Accounts define an authorization
scheme for the access to neighbour-nodes respective to
the listener of a server. At the same time, they can form a
Web-of-Trust. One-Time-Accounts regulate the assignment
of an access, which can be used on time.
Echo Match: The Echo Match is a specific cryptographic
process to check the provided hash of the original plain
text message with the hash of the conversion of the ciphertext with a specific key. If both hashes are the same, the
right key has been chosen. Because the hash function cannot be inverted, the provided hash of the original plain text
message does not provide any information about this message. Only if both hashes are the same, the conversion
from cipher text to plain text has been successful and the
right user with the right key can read the message. This requires that each given key must be tried out and if the
message cannot be converted successfully, that the message has to be provided to all known network connections
and nodes to be tried out there: the message cannot be
read by this node with given keys.
Echo Network: The Echo Network is a network based on
Echo Nodes communicating over the Echo Protocol (and
HTTPS). Often the letters E_C_H_O are used to provide a
template for such a network within graph theory. The Echo
network consists of servers and clients, within the Spot-On
clients the server software is already included, so that
nodes can be in a hybrid position, to be a server connected
to a server, a server connected to a node or a node connected to a server. The Echo Network is speaking of Neighbors for another node.
Echo: Spot-On introduced the Echo. The Echo is a malleable
concept. That is, an implementation does not require rigid
details. Each model may adhere to their own peculiar obligations. The Echo functions on the elementary persuasion
that information is dispersed over multiple or singular pas-

255 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

sages and channel endpoints evaluate the suitability of the
received data. Because data may become intolerable, SpotOn implements its own congestion control algorithm. Received messages that meet some basic criteria are labeled
and duplicates are discarded. Advanced models may define
more sophisticated congestion-avoidance algorithms based
upon their interpretations of the Echo. The Echo combines
encryption and graph theory: With the Echo Protocol is
meant - simply put – that first, every message transmission
is encrypted and second, in the Echo Network, each connection node sends each message to each connected
neighbor. As third criterion for the Echo Protocol can be
added, that there is a special feature when unpacking the
encrypted capsule: The capsules have neither a receiver
nor sender information included - and here they are different from TCP packets. The message is identified by the
hash of the unencrypted message (compared to the conversion text of all known keys in the node) as to whether
the message should be displayed and readable to the recipient in the user interface or not. For this so-called “Echo
Match” see even more detailed at referring keyword. SpotOn provides two modes of operation for the general Echo,
Full Echo and Half Echo. The Full Echo permits absolute data flow. The Half Echo defines an agreement between two
endpoints. Within this agreement, information from other
endpoints is prohibited from traveling along the private
 Echo-Grid: The Echo-Grid is a graphical representation of a
template for the Echo-protocol, do be able to illustrate different nodes and communicational relations in a graphic
and within graph-theory. For that the letters for the word
ECHO, respective the both characters AE are drawn and
connected on a base-line. All angle corners of each letter
further represent potential nodes in communicational
networks, which can be per letter be consecutively numbered, example: E1 … E1 for the six nodes of the letter E.
Then it is possible to talk about the communicational paths
of drawn users from E to O.



 Echo-Protocol: The Echo protocol means from an operational view: you send only encrypted messages, but you
send your to-be-send-message to all of your connected
friends. They do the same. You maintain your own network, everyone has every message and you try to decrypt
every message. In case you can read and unwrap it, it is a
message for you. Otherwise you share the message with all
your friends and the message remains encrypted. Echo is
very simple, and the principle is over 30 years old – nothing
new. As Echo uses HTTP as a protocol, there is no forwarding or routing of messages: no IPs are forwarded, e.g. like it
is if you send your message e.g. from your home laptop to
your webserver. The process starts at each destination new
– as you define it. The Echo protocol provided by spot-on
has nothing to do with RFC 862. A new Echo protocol RFC
has to be written or re-newed and extended – with or
without that RFC-Number it refers to a p2p network.
 Edgar Allan Poe: Edgar Allan Poe (1809 – 1849) was an
American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best
known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales
of mystery and the macabre. He is widely regarded as a
central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of
American literature as a whole, and he was one of the
country's earliest practitioners of the short story. One very
popular short story was the story of “GoldBug”. Hence, the
software application also named GoldBug as an alternative
GUI for the Spot-On kernel is a reminiscence to this writer.
Poe is generally considered the inventor of the detective
fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to
the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first wellknown American writer to earn a living through writing
alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe
was born in Boston and his works influenced literature
around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography. He was a popular writer of cryptograms and interested in bringing the knowledge of cryptographic thinking to the population.

257 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 ElGamal: In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system
is an asymmetric key encryption algorithmfor public-key
cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange. It was described by Taher ElGamal in 1985. ElGamal encryption is used in the free GNU Privacy Guard
software, recent versions of PGP, and other cryptosystems.
 E-Mail Institution: An E-Mail-institution describes an EMail-Postbox within the p2p network of the Echo protocol.
Per definition of an address-like Description for the institution, E-Mails of users within the p2p network can temporarily be stored within one other node. As well it is possible, to send E-Mail to friends, which are currently offline.
Institutions describe a standard, how to configure an EMail-Postbox within a p2p network – like today POP3 and
IMAP allow to provide a Mailbox. The Mailbox of the EMail-Institution is inserted by a Magnet-URI-Link within the
client, which want to use the Postbox. At the E-MailInstitution only the public E-Mail-Encryption-Key of the
postbox-users has to be entered.
 Encapsulation: The capsule (like a zip) within the Echo describes a bundle of message elements, like the cipher text
of the original message, the hash for the plain text of the
message and also further elements like signature keys etc.
In case an Echo Match was not successful, the elements of
the capsule are encapsulated again and sent to further
 Encrypt-then-MAC(ETM): The plaintext is first encrypted,
then a MAC is produced based on the resulting ciphertext.
The ciphertext and its MAC are sent together. Used in, e.g.,
Ipsec. The standard method according to ISO/IEC
19772:2009. This is the only method which can reach the
highest definition of security in authenticated encryption,
but this can only be achieved when the MAC used is
“Strongly Unforgeable”. In November 2014, TLS and DTLS
extension for EtM has been published as RFC 7366.
 End-to-End: The end-to-end principle is a classic design
principle of computer networking, first explicitly articulated
in a 1981 conference paper by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark. The



end-to-end principle states that application-specific functions ought to reside in the end hosts of a network rather
than in intermediary nodes – provided they can be implemented “completely and correctly” in the end hosts. In debates about network neutrality, a common interpretation
of the end-to-end principle is that it implies a neutral or
“dumb” network. End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is an uninterrupted protection of the confidentiality and integrity of
transmitted data by encoding it at its starting point and decoding it at its destination. It involves encrypting clear (red)
data at source with knowledge of the intended recipient,
allowing the encrypted (black) data to travel safely through
vulnerable channels (e.g. public networks) to its recipient
where it can be decrypted (assuming the destination
shares the necessary key-variables and algorithms). An
end-to-end encryption is often reached by providing an encryption with the AES Passphrase.
 Ephemeral Keys: Ephemeral Keys are temporarily used
keys for encryption, often used for end-to-end encryption
and/or to provide Forward Secrecy: Temporary keys are
more deniable than permanent keys.
 EPKS (Echo Public Key Share): Echo Public Key Share (EPKS)
is a function implemented in Spot-On to share public encryption keys over the Echo Network. This allows a group
to share keys over secure channels so that a classical key
server it not needed. It is a way of key exchange to a group
or one individual user. The key exchange (also known as
“key establishment”) is any method in cryptography by
which cryptographic keys are exchanged between users, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm. If sender and receiver wish to exchange encrypted messages, each must be
equipped to encrypt messages to be sent and decrypt messages received. The nature of the equipping they require
depends on the encryption technique they might use. If
they use a code, both will require a copy of the same
codebook. If they use a cipher, they will need appropriate
keys. If the cipher is a symmetric key cipher, both will need
a copy of the same key. If an asymmetric key cipher with

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the public/private key property, both will need the other’s
public key. The key exchange problem is how to exchange
whatever keys or other information are needed so that no
one else can obtain a copy. Historically, this required trusted couriers, diplomatic bags, or some other secure channel. With the advent of public key / private key cipher algorithms, the encrypting key (aka public key) could be made
public, since (at least for high quality algorithms) no one
without the decrypting key (aka, the private key) could decrypt the message. Diffie–Hellman key exchange: In 1976,
Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published a cryptographic protocol, (Diffie–Hellman key exchange), which allows users to establish ‘secure channels’ on which to exchange keys, even if an Opponent is monitoring that communication channel. However, D–H key exchange did not
address the problem of being sure of the actual identity of
the person (or ‘entity’).
 Exponential Encryption: Exponential Encryption is a term
coined by the analysts and authors Meke Gasakis and Max
Schmidt in their book about „The New Era of Exponential
Encryption“, in which they analyze based on the Echo Protocol the trends and their vision to provide exponential options for encryption and decryption processes in combination with graph-theory within Echo networks. Here each
node sends each message to each known neighbor, which
multiplicities the options like a rice corn – according to a
popular story - doubling at each field of a chess board.
 Fiasco Keys: Fiasco Keys are temporary keys, which were
first introduced within the Smoke Mobile Echo Client.
These keys are a bunch of temporary keys provided in a
cache for end to end encryption. Starting from the newest,
all keys in that cache for Fiasco Forwarding have to be tried
out. This is a more volatile construction than schematic key
transmission known form other protocols.
 File Encryption Tool: The File Encryption Tool of Spot-On
has the function to encrypt and decrypt files on the hard
disk. Here as well many values for the encryption details
can be set individually. The tool is useful, in case files have








to be sent - either over encrypted or unencrypted connections. As well for the storage of files, either on your local
hard disc or as well remote in the cloud, this tool is very
helpful, to secure own data.
File-Encryptor: File-Encryptor is a tool within the Spot-On
Encryption Suite to encrypt files before they are sent out
over encrypted or unencrypted connection or are stored
within a cloud or foreign storage option.
File-Sharing: File sharing is the practice of distributing or
providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents
or electronic books. File sharing may be achieved in a
number of ways. Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, (de-)centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents,
and the use of (mobile) distributed peer-to-peer networking.
FireChat: FireChat is an IRC-like group chat within the
Smoke Mobile Echo Client and compatible to the BUZZChat in the
Forward Secrecy (FS): In cryptography, forward secrecy (FS;
also known as perfect forward secrecy) is a property of secure communication protocols: a secure communication
protocol is said to have forward secrecy if compromise of
long-term keys does not compromise past session keys.[2]
FS protects past sessions against future compromises of secret keys or passwords. If forward secrecy is utilized, encrypted communications recorded in the past cannot be retrieved and decrypted should long-term secret keys or
passwords be compromised in the future.
Forward-Secrecy-Calling: Forward-Secrecy-Calling is some
modus for Cryptographic Calling, which sends temporary
asymmetric keys for end-to-end encryption and is referred
to asymmetric calling. It refers to send several asymmetric
key (pairs) through one secured channel. The symmetric
end-to-end encryption key is sent in the Forward Secrecy
Calling (FSC) not over the permanent (a-symmetric) e.g.
261 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






chat key or over the channel of an existing (symmetric)
end-to-end encryption key, but by the new ephemeral,
temporary and a-symmetric (e.g. chat) key. While sending
an end-to-end encryption key over an existing end-to-end
symmetric encrypted channel defines a "symmetric" “instant perfect forward secrecy”, sending an end-to-end encrypting key over the ephemeral keys of the initiated “forward secrecy” (in e.g. the chat function) may be considered
an “a-symmetric” one of “Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy”.
Forward Secrecy: Forward Secrecy (FS), also known as perfect forward secrecy (PFS), is a feature of specific key
agreement protocols that gives assurances your session
keys will not be compromised even if the private key of the
server is compromised. Forward secrecy protects past sessions against future compromises of secret keys or passwords. By generating a unique session key for every session
a user initiates, even the compromise of a single session
key will not affect any data other than that exchanged in
the specific session protected by that particular key.
Friend-to-Friend (F2F): A friend-to-friend (or F2F) computer network is a type of peer-to-peer network in which users only make direct connections with people they know.
Passwords or digital signatures can be used for authentication. Unlike other kinds of private P2P, users in a friend-tofriend network cannot find out who else is participating
beyond their own circle of friends, so F2F networks can
grow in size without compromising their users’ anonymity.
Full Echo: See Echo.
Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)-Algorithm: Galois/Counter
Mode (GCM) is a mode of operation for symmetric key
cryptographic block ciphers that has been widely adopted
because of its efficiency and performance. GCM throughput rates for state of the art, high speed communication
channels can be achieved with reasonable hardware resources.
Gemini: The Gemini is a feature in Spot-On Secure Instant
Messenger to add another security layer to the chatroom
with an AES Key for end-to-end


 GnuPG: GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG), a freesoftware replacement for Symantec's PGP cryptographic
software suite, complies with RFC 4880, the IETF standards-track specification of OpenPGP. Modern versions of
PGP are interoperable with GnuPG and other OpenPGPcompliant systems. GnuPG is a hybrid-encryption software
program because it uses a combination of conventional
symmetric-key cryptography for speed, and public-key
cryptography for ease of secure key exchange, typically by
using the recipient's public key to encrypt a session key
which is only used once. GnuPG encrypts messages using
asymmetric key pairs individually generated by GnuPG users. The resulting public keys may be exchanged with other
users in a variety of ways. GnuPG also supports symmetric
encryption algorithms. By default, GnuPG uses the CAST5
symmetrical algorithm.
 Gnutella: Gnutella is a large peer-to-peer network. It was
the first decentralized peer-to-peer network of its kind,
leading to other, later networks adopting the model.
 GoldBug (Application): The GoldBug Messenger and EMail-Client is a user interface, which offers for the kernel
and the application Spot-On an alternative to the originally
offered user interface of Spot-on, which contains many options. The GoldBug Graphical User Interface (GUI) therefore
has the approach, to have a more simplified user interface
designed, which is useable not only on the desktop, but also can be deployed for mobile devices.
 GoldBug (E-Mail Password): The GoldBug-feature is used
in the integrated email client to add here as well an end-toend AES Encryption layer – the GoldBug, or: just a password, both users use to encrypt their emails once more. So
with the GoldBug, you need a kind of password (e.g. AESstring) to open the email of a friend or to be able to chat
with him.
 Graph-Theory: In mathematics, and more specifically in
graph theory, a graph is a representation of a set of objects
where some pairs of objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical ab-

263 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

stractions called vertices (also called nodes or points), and
the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called
edges (also called arcs or lines). Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices,
joined by lines or curves for the edges. Graphs are one of
the objects of study in discrete mathematics.
 Group chat: The term group chat, or group chat room, is
primarily used to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing.
The term can thus mean any technology ranging from realtime online chat and online interaction with strangers (e.g.,
online rooms) to fully immersive graphical social environments. The primary use of a group chat room is to share information via text with a group of other users. Generally
speaking, the ability to converse with multiple people in
the same conversation differentiates group chat rooms
from instant messaging programs, which are more typically
designed for one-to-one communication - though two users also can define a group for private conversations.
 GUI: In computer science, a graphical user interface or GUI
is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators
such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
 Half Echo: Spot-On provides two modes of operation for
the general Echo, Full Echo and Half Echo. The Full Echo
permits absolute data flow. The Half Echo defines an
agreement between two endpoints. Within this agreement, information from other endpoints is prohibited from
traveling along the private channel. If you use the modus
“half Echo”, then your message is not shared with other,
third participants (Model: A -> B -> C). Only direct connections are used (Model A -> B). It requires only one direct
connection to one friend. With the modus “Full Echo” your
message is forwarded from friend to friend and so on, until
the recipient could decrypt the envelope and read the



 Hash: A hash function is any function that can be used to
map data of arbitrary size to data of fixed size. The values
returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash
codes, hash sums, or simply hashes. A cryptographic hash
function is a hash function which is considered practically
impossible to invert, that is, to recreate the input data
from its hash value alone. These one-way hash functions
have been called “the workhorses of modern cryptography”. The input data is often called the message, and the
hash value is often called the message digest or simply the
 HMAC: HMAC (sometimes expanded as either keyed-hash
message authentication code or hash-based message authentication code) is a specific type of message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function
and a secret cryptographic key. It may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authentication of a message, as with any MAC. Any cryptographic
hash function, such as SHA-256 or SHA-3, may be used in
the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is
termed HMAC-X, where X is the hash function used (e.g.
HMAC-SHA256 or HMAC-SHA3). The cryptographic
strength of the HMAC depends upon the cryptographic
strength of the underlying hash function, the size of its
hash output, and the size and quality of the key. HMAC uses two passes of hash computation. The secret key is first
used to derive two keys – inner and outer. The first pass of
the algorithm produces an internal hash derived from the
message and the inner key. The second pass produces the
final HMAC code derived from the inner hash result and
the outer key. Thus, the algorithm provides better immunity against length extension attacks. An iterative hash function breaks up a message into blocks of a fixed size and iterates over them with a compression function. For example, SHA-256 operates on 512-bit blocks. The size of the
output of HMAC is the same as that of the underlying hash
function (e.g., 256 and 1600 bits in the case of SHA-256
and SHA-3, respectively), although it can be truncated if

265 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






desired. HMAC does not encrypt the message. Instead, the
message (encrypted or not) must be sent alongside the
HMAC hash. Parties with the secret key will hash the message again themselves, and if it is authentic, the received
and computed hashes will match. The definition and analysis of the HMAC construction was first published in 1996 in
a paper by Mihir Bellare, Ran Canetti, and Hugo Krawczyk,
and they also wrote RFC 2104 in 1997.
HTTPS: HTTPS (also called HTTP over TLS, HTTP over SSL,
and HTTP Secure) is a protocol for secure communication
over a computer network which is widely used on the Internet. HTTPS consists of communication over Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) within a connection encrypted by
Transport Layer Security or its predecessor, Secure Sockets
Layer. The main motivation for HTTPS is authentication of
the visited website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data.
Human Rights: Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled". Examples of rights
and freedoms which are often thought of as human rights
include civil and political rights, such as the right to life,
liberty, and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of
happiness and equality before the law; and social, cultural
and economic rights, including the right to participate in
science and culture, the right to work, and the right to education and the right of privacy.
Hybrid Encryption: See also Multi-Encryption. Hybrid Encryption points especially out that symmetric and asymmetric encryption has been applied either in one application or to a plain text.
IMAP: In computing, the Internet Message Access Protocol
(IMAP) is an Internet standard protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail messages from a mail server over a
TCP/IP connection. IMAP is defined by RFC 3501. IMAP was
designed with the goal of permitting complete management of an email box by multiple email clients, Therefore,
clients generally leave messages on the server.


 Impersonator: Impersonator is a function, which sends
from the Spot-On Client a message from time to time into
the network, which contains only random characters. With
this method it is made more difficult for attackers to conduct time analysis of communications. Also, real cipher
text messages should be harder to recognize and harder to
differ from such messages with random characters.
 Information security: information security preservation of
confidentiality, integrity and availability of information
 Innovation: Innovation in its modern meaning is a "new
idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in form of device
or method". Innovation is often also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. Such innovation
takes place through the provision of more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models
that are made available to markets, governments and society. An innovation is something original and more effective
and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market
or society. Innovation is related to, but not the same as, invention, as innovation is more apt to involve the practical
implementation of an invention (i.e. new/improved ability)
to make a meaningful impact in the market or society, and
not all innovations require an invention.
 Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS): While Perfect Forward Secrecy, often also called only Forward Secrecy, describes within many applications and as well from a conceptional approach the transmission of ephemeral– this
means temporary - keys, it is implicit connected, that this is
proceeded one time per online session. With Spot-On and
the underlying architecture of the Spot-On Kernel a new
paradigm has been implemented. Forward Secrecy or Perfect Forward Secrecy, has developed further to Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS). While Forward Secrecy means
to be able to neglect to have used a certain key in the past
if one further key is compromised, this concept addresses
to end-to-end encryption. With Instant Perfect Forward
Secrecy the Cryptographic Calling comes into the frame: A

267 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual





user is able to renew the end-to-end encrypting credentials
like in a call: Instantly and several times within a session
the user should be able to renew temporary keys for endto-end encryption. An even further development of this
concept has been taken place by the development of Fiasco Forwarding, which sends a full bundle of keys within
one session or with a(n automated) call action for future
sessions.The end-to-end-encryption with temporary keys
can be changed at any time, this means also per any second. This describes the term of Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy (IPFS). Via a so-called “Call” the end-to-endencryption can be renewed. Instantly. Also, the term of a
“call” for the transmission of a to-be-created or to-berenewed end-to-end-encryption has been introduced by
Spot-on into cryptography.
Institution: An Institution in Cryptography is an e-mail
postbox to save messages for offline participants within a
peer-to-peer Echo Network. The institution is based on
cryptographic credentials, so that in one node subscribed
participant with their public encryption key can deposit,
save and retrieve messages. The advantage despite other
methods e.g. storing the data within a common friend) is
that the providing node of an Institution need not to give
out the own public encryption key.
Integer factorization: In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a
product of smaller integers. If these integers are further restricted to prime numbers, the process is called prime factorization. When the numbers are very large, no efficient,
non-quantum integer factorization algorithm is known; an
effort by several researchers concluded in 2009, factoring a
232-digit number (RSA-768), utilizing hundreds of machines took two years and the researchers estimated that a
1024-bit RSA modulus would take about a thousand times
as long.
Integrity: property of accuracy and completeness.
IPFS: IPFS is the abbreviation of Instant Perfect Forward


 IRC: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The
chat process works on a client/server networking model.
IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on
their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server. These clients
communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to
other clients. IRC is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows
one-on-one communication via private messages as well as
chat and data transfer, including file sharing.
 Iteration Function: In mathematics, an iterated function is
a function X? X (that is, a function from some set X to itself) which is obtained by composing another function f :
X ? X with itself a certain number of times. The process of
repeatedly applying the same function is called iteration.
Iterated functions are objects of study in computer science,
fractals, dynamical systems, mathematics and renormalization group physics.
 Java: Java is a general-purpose computer-programming
language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented,
and specifically designed to have as few implementation
dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application
developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning
that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.
 Kerckhoffs's principle: Kerckhoffs's principle was stated by
Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the
19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public
knowledge. Kerckhoffs's principle was reformulated (or
possibly independently formulated) by American mathematician Claude Shannon as "the enemy knows the system", i.e., "one ought to design systems under the assumption that the enemy will immediately gain full familiarity
with them". In that form, it is called Shannon's maxim.
Kerckhoffs's principle (Shannon's maxim) is widely embraced by cryptographers.

269 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Kernel: In computing, the kernel is a computer program
that manages input/output requests from software and
translates them into data processing instructions for the
central processing unit and other electronic components of
a computer. The kernel is a fundamental part of a modern
computer’s operating system or of applications.
 Keyboard: In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons
or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
Keyboard keys (buttons) typically have characters engraved
or printed on them, and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. Virtual keyboards in
software with encryption prevent that key-loggers record
the typing - as mouse clicks do not indicate, which symbol
has been klicked.
 Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC): In
cryptography, a keyed-hash message authentication code
(HMAC) is a specific construction for calculating a message
authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash
function in combination with a secret cryptographic key. As
with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify
both the data integrity and the authentication of a message. Any cryptographic hash function, such as MD5 or
SHA-1, may be used in the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is termed HMAC-MD5 or HMACSHA1 accordingly. The cryptographic strength of the HMAC
depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying
hash function, the size of its hash output, and on the size
and quality of the key.
 KeySync: KeySyc is a term deriving from the context of the
term AutoCrypt, which are both a follow up of the idea of a
REPLEO, respective a key exchange over the EPKS – Echo
Public Key Sharing – Protocol. Here two participants share
over a channel the public keys and integrate the received
keys into the own nodes.
 Libcurl: cURL is a computer software project providing a
library and command-line tool for transferring data using
various protocols. The cURL project produces two prod-








ucts, libcurl and cURL. It was first released in 1997. The
name originally stood for “see URL”.
Listener: A listener is a software design pattern in which an
object maintains a list of its dependents and notifies them
automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of
their methods. It is mainly used to implement distributed
event handling systems. It is often used for creating or
opening a port on which the service or chat-server then is
“listening” for incoming data connections.
Login: In computer security, logging in (or logging on or
signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and
authenticating themselves. The user credentials are typically some form of "username" and a matching "password",
and these credentials themselves are sometimes referred
to as a login, (or a logon or a sign-in or a sign-on).
MAC (Message Authentication Code): In cryptography, a
message authentication code (often MAC) is a short piece
of information used to authenticate a message and to provide integrity and authenticity assurances on the message.
Integrity assurances detect accidental and intentional message changes, while authenticity assurances affirm the
message’s origin. A MAC algorithm, sometimes called a
keyed (cryptographic) hash function (however, cryptographic hash function is only one of the possible ways to
generate MACs), accepts as input a secret key and an arbitrary-length message to be authenticated, and outputs a
MAC (sometimes known as a tag). The MAC value protects
both a message’s data integrity as well as its authenticity,
by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to
detect any changes to the message content.
Magnet-URI: The Magnet-URI scheme, defines the format
of Magnet-links, a de facto standard for identifying files by
their content, via cryptographic hash value) rather than by
their location.
McEliece: In cryptography, the McEliece cryptosystem is an
asymmetric encryption algorithm developed in 1978 by
Robert McEliece. It was the first such scheme to use ran271 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






domization in the encryption process. The algorithm has
currently not gained much acceptance in the cryptographic
community but is a candidate for “post-quantum cryptography”, as it is immune to attacks using Shor’s algorithm
and — more generally — measuring cost states using Fourier sampling. The recommended parameter sizes for the
used Goppa code - which maximizes the adversary’s work
factor - appears to be n = 1024, t = 38, and k = 644.
Measurement: process to determine a value.
MELODICA: With the MELODICA feature in Spot-On Secure
Messenger you call your friend and send him a new Gemini (AES-256-Key). The Key is sent over your asymmetric encryption of the RSA key. This is a secure way, as all other
plaintext transfers like: email, spoken over phone or in
other messengers, have to be regarded as unsafe and recorded. MELODICA stands for: Multi Encrypted Long Distance Calling. You call your friend even over a long distance
of the Echo protocol and exchange over secure asymmetric
encryption a Gemini (AES-256 key) to establish an end-toend encrypted channel.
Meta-data: Metadata is data [information] that provides
information about other data. Many distinct types of
metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference
metadata and statistical metadata. In the Internet meta data often refers to the recording of when how many data
has been accessed or transferred by whom to whom.
Monitoring: determining the status of a system, a process
or an activity.
Mosaic: A mosaic is the name for a file splitted into smaller
parts. These smaller parts are commonly called “blocks”,
“parts” or “chunks”, here in the Spot-On application they
are called: “links”. All links build the mosaic, which can be
assembled to the file, which has been transferred.
Multi-Encryption: Multiple encryption is the process of
encrypting an already encrypted message one or more
times, either using the same or a different algorithm. It is


also known as cascade encryption, cascade ciphering, multiple encryption, and superencipherment. Superencryption
refers to the outer-level encryption of a multiple encryption. A hybrid cryptosystem is one which combines the
convenience of a public-key cryptosystem with the efficiency of a symmetric-key cryptosystem. A hybrid cryptosystem can be constructed using any two separate cryptosystems: first, a key encapsulation scheme, which is a
public-key cryptosystem, and second a data encapsulation
scheme, which is a symmetric-key cryptosystem. Perhaps
the most commonly used hybrid cryptosystems are the
OpenPGP (RFC 4880) file format and the PKCS #7 (RFC
2315) file format, both used by many different systems.
Multiple encryption is the process of encrypting an already
encrypted message one or more times, either using the
same or a different algorithm. Multiple encryption (Cascade Ciphers) reduces the consequences in the case that
our favorite cipher is already broken and is continuously
exposing our data without our knowledge. When a cipher
is broken (something we will not know), the use of other
ciphers may represent the only security in the system.
Since we cannot scientifically prove that any particular cipher is strong, the question is not whether subsequent ciphers are strong, but instead, what would make us believe
that any particular cipher is so strong as to need no added
protection. Folk Theorem: A cascade of ciphers is at least as
at least as difficult to break as any of its component ciphers. When a cipher is broken (something we will not
know), the use of other ciphers may represent the only security in the system. Since we cannot scientifically prove
that any particular cipher is strong, the question is not
whether subsequent ciphers are strong, but instead, what
would make us believe that any particular cipher is so
strong as to need no added protection.
 Ncat: Netcat (often abbreviated to nc or Ncat) is a computer networking utility for reading from and writing to network connections using TCP or UDP. Netcat is designed to
be a dependable back-end that can be used directly or
easily driven by other programs and scripts.
273 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Neighbor: In graph theory, a neighbor of a vertex is another vertex that is connected to it by an edge.
 Neuland: Neuland is a German term within the context of
the Internet and non-IT-savvy people, deriving as satirical
designation in reference to the sentence of the year 2013
by German chancellor Angela Merkel.
 NIST: The National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) is a physical sciences laboratory, and a nonregulatory agency of the United States Department of
Commerce. Its mission is to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into
laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and
technology, engineering, information technology, neutron
research, material measurement, and physical measurement.
 NOVA: NOVA describes a password on the to-betransferred file. It is a symmetric encryption of the file
scheduled for the transfer. It can be compared with the
term of a GoldBug-Password on an E-Mail. Both are technically created with an AES-256 (or a user-defined password).
 NTRU: NTRU is a patented and open source public-key
cryptosystem that uses lattice-based cryptography to encrypt and decrypt data. It consists of two algorithms:
NTRUEncrypt, which is used for encryption, and NTRUSign,
which is used for digital signatures. Unlike other popular
public-key cryptosystems, it is resistant to attacks using
Shor’s algorithm (i.e. by “Quantum Computing”) and its
performance has been shown to be significantly better.
 Objective: result to be achieved.
 Off-the-record (OTR): Off-the-Record Messaging (OTR) is a
cryptographic protocol that provides encryption for instant
messaging conversations. OTR uses a combination of AES
symmetric-key algorithm with 128 bits key length, the Diffie–Hellman key exchange with 1536 bits group size, and
the SHA-1 hash function. In addition to authentication and
encryption, OTR provides forward secrecy and malleable



 One-Time-Magnet (OTM): A One-Time-Magnet (OTM) is a
Magnet, which is deployed for the File-Transfer within the
StarBeam-Function. After sending the File using the cryptographic values included in the Magnet-Link, the Magnet
is deleted within the Spot-On. Other Magnets for the StarBeam-Function can be used several times – this means,
several and different files can be transferred to the receiver
through the symmetric Channel (including all users, knowing the specific Magnet).
 One-Time-Pad (OTP): In cryptography, the one-time pad
(OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked if
used correctly. In this technique, a plaintext is paired with a
random secret key (also referred to as a one-time pad).
Then, each bit or character of the plaintext is encrypted by
combining it with the corresponding bit or character from
the pad using modular addition. If the key is truly random,
is at least as long as the plaintext, is never reused in whole
or in part, and is kept completely secret, then the resulting
ciphertext will be impossible to decrypt or break.
 Open source: Open source is a term denoting that a product includes permission to use its source code, design documents, or content. It most commonly refers to the opensource model, in which open-source software or other
products are released under an open-source license as part
of the open-source-software movement. Use of the term
originated with software but has expanded beyond the
software sector to cover other open content and forms of
open collaboration. In Cryptography only open source
software allows everyone to proof that the code has no
backdoors implemented.
 OpenPGP: The OpenPGP standard (also Pretty Good Privacy) is a data encryption and decryption computer program
that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for
data communication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting texts, e-mails, files, directories,
and whole disk partitions and to increase the security of email communications. It was created by Phil Zimmermann

275 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






in 1991.PGP and similar software follow the OpenPGP
standard (RFC 4880) for encrypting and decrypting data.
OpenSSL: In computer networking, OpenSSL is a software
library to be used in applications that need to secure communications against eavesdropping or need to ascertain
the identity of the party at the other end. It has found wide
use in internet web servers, serving a majority of all web
sites. OpenSSL contains an open source implementation of
the SSL and TLS protocols. Transport Layer Security (TLS)
and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), both of
which are frequently referred to as ‘SSL’, are cryptographic
protocols designed to provide communications security
over a computer network.
OTM: See One-Time-Magnet.
OTR: See Off-the-record.
Ozone Postbox: The Ozone Postbox is a way to reach offline friends within the Smoke Mobile Crypto Client respective the SmokeStack Communication Server for Android.
The Ozone Postbox serves as a cache for friends, which are
not online. The Ozone is just a passphrase string, which
must be applied in both, the client Smoke and the Server
SmokeStack. The rest is done by the cryptographic keys.
The Ozone can be initialized within the client by using the
dyndns or IP name, port and TCP, e.g.: If the server administrator of SmokeStack applies this string also as one ozone within the server, the clients will automatically add the string as the ozone
when entering the IP respective dyndns-string of the server.
P2P: see Peer-to-Peer.
Pandamonium: Pandamonium is a Web-Crawler, with
which URLs of a Domain can be indexed for Spot-On. The
Pandamonium Web Crawler can allocate for the URLSearch function within the Spot-On Encryption Suite a
bunch of URLs over the Import-function.
Passphrase: A passphrase is a sequence of words or other
text used to control access to a computer system, program


or data. A passphrase is similar to a password in usage but
is generally longer for added security. Passphrases are often used to control both access to, and operation of, cryptographic programs and systems. Passphrases are particularly applicable to systems that use the passphrase as an
encryption key. The origin of the term is by analogy with
password. The passphrase in Spot-On must be at least 16
characters long, this is used to create a cryptographic hash,
which is longer and stronger.
 Pass-through: The Pass-through method within the application Spot-On describes a function for a network path
from an application, e.g. a Gopher client, over two Spot-On
instances to another Gopher Client: Gopher -> Spot-On ->
Internet -> Spot-On – Gopher. This function works similar
as a VPN tunnel or a proxy for the external application. As
the connection from a Spot-On node over the Internet to
another Spot-On node is encrypted, also e.g. with the
McEliece algorithm, even old applications with no encryption can communicate now secure over the Internet. The
application to tie in must only meet some tolerance for
chaotic transmission, a Gopher client can be ideal used for
such tests.
 Password: A password is a word or string of characters
used for user authentication to prove identity or access
approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access
code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from
those not allowed access. In modern times, user names
and passwords are commonly used by people during a log
in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs), etc.
 Patch-Points: Patch-Points describe the entry- and endnodes of the pass-through functionality. This functionality
of has been discussed in the Spot-On Developer Forum
originally as Patch-Points, has then be named within the
application as pass-through function. At Patch-Points two
older applications without encryption can communicate
over the secure connection of two Spot-On nodes.

277 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Peer-to-Peer (P2P): Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are equally privileged,
equipotent participants in the application. They are said to
form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.
 Performance: measurable result. Note: Performance can
relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.
 PKI: A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute,
use, store & revoke digital certificates and manage publickey encryption. The purpose of a PKI is to facilitate the secure electronic transfer of information for a range of network activities such as e-commerce, internet banking and
confidential email. It is required for activities where simple
passwords are an inadequate authentication method and
more rigorous proof is required to confirm the identity of
the parties involved in the communication and to validate
the information being transferred. In cryptography, a PKI is
an arrangement that binds public keys with respective
identities of entities (like people and organizations). The
binding is established through a process of registration and
issuance of certificates at and by a certificate authority
(CA). Depending on the assurance level of the binding, this
may be carried out by an automated process or under human supervision.
 Plain text: In computing, plain text is a loose term for data
(e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other
objects (floating-point numbers, images, etc.). It may also
include a limited number of characters that control simple
arrangement of text, such as spaces, line breaks, or tabulation characters (although tab characters can "mean" many
different things, so are hardly "plain"). In cryptography,
plain text is the opposite of cipher text.



 Point-to-Point:
In telecommunications,
a point-topoint connection refers to a communications connection
between two communication endpoints or nodes. An example is a telephone call, in which one telephone is connected with one other, and what is said by one caller can
only be heard by the other. This is contrasted with a pointto-multipoint or broadcast connection, in which many
nodes can receive information transmitted by one node.
 Policy: intentions and direction of a formal entity as formally expressed by its management.
 POP3: In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an
application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local
e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over
a TCP/IP connection. POP has been developed through
several versions, with version 3 (POP3) being the last
standard in common use.
 POPTASTIC: POPTASTIC is a function, which enables encrypted chat and encrypted E-Mail over the regular
POP3and IMAP-Postboxes of a user. The Spot-On Encryption Suite recognizes automatically, if the message has to
be regarded as a Chat-Message or an E-Mail-Message. For
that, the POPTASTIC encryption key is used. Once with a
friend exchanged, this key is sending all E-mails between to
E-Mail-Partner only as encrypted E-Mail. Third, POPTASTIC
enables – respective the insertion of the POP3 / IMAP account information into the settings enables – also an oldfashioned and unencrypted E-Mail-Communication to @-EMail-Addresses. Spot-On extends the Instant Messaging
with this function to a regular E-Mail-Client and also to an
always encrypting E-Mail-Client over the POPTASTIC Key.
The E-Mail-Addresses for encrypted E-Mails are indicated
with a lock icon. Encrypted Chat is enabled over the free
ports for E-Mail also behind more restrictive Hardware environments at any time.
 PostgreSQL: PostgreSQL, often simply Postgres, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS)
with an emphasis on extensibility and standardscompliance. As a database server, its primary function is to

279 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

store data securely, supporting best practices, and to allow
for retrieval at the request of other software applications.
It can handle workloads ranging from small single-machine
applications to large Internet-facing applications with many
concurrent users. PostgreSQL implements the majority of
the SQL:2011 standard.
 Privacy: Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to
seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and
thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries
and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals but share common themes. When
something is private to a person, it usually means that
something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The
domain of privacy partially overlaps with security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate
use, as well as protection of information. Privacy may also
take the form of bodily integrity. The right not to be subjected to unsanctioned invasions of privacy by the government, corporations or individuals is part of many countries'
privacy laws, and in some cases, constitutions. All countries
have laws which in some way limit privacy. An example of
this would be law concerning taxation, which normally requires the sharing of information about personal income or
earnings. In some countries individual privacy may conflict
with freedom of speech laws and some laws may require
public disclosure of information which would be considered private in other countries and cultures. The right to
privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain
governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy
of individuals. Over 150 national constitutions mention the
right to privacy. Since the global surveillance disclosures of
2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the
inalienable human right to privacy has been a subject of international debate. Internet privacy involves the right or
mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via the Internet. Internet
privacy is a subset of data privacy. Privacy concerns have






been articulated from the beginnings of large-scale computer sharing.
Private Key: Public-key cryptography refers to a set of cryptographic algorithms that are based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution. The
strength lies in the “impossibility” (computational impracticality) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Thus the public
key may be published without compromising security.
Security depends only on keeping the private key private.
Process: set of interrelated or interacting activities which
transforms inputs into outputs
Public Key: Public-key cryptography refers to a set of cryptographic algorithms that are based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution – particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete
logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. It is computationally easy for a user to generate a public and private keypair and to use it for encryption and decryption. The
strength lies in the “impossibility” (computational impracticality) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Thus the public
key may be published without compromising security.
Security dependes especially on keeping the private key
Pure Forward Secrecy (PURE FS): Pure Forward Secrecy
refers to a communication in the E-Mail function of SpotOn, within which the information is not sent over asymmetrical keys, but over temporary, ephemeral keys, which
generate a symmetric encryption. The ephemeral keys for
Pure Forward Secrecy are exchanged over asymmetric keys,
but then the message is sent exclusively over the temporary symmetric key. Compare in a different approach of Instant Perfect Forward Secrecy, that the messages is encrypted and transferred with both, a symmetric key and also with a asymmetric key within the format of the Echoprotocol.

281 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

 Qt: Qt is a cross-platform application framework that is
widely used for developing application software that can
be run on various software and hardware platforms with
little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still
being a native application with the capabilities and speed
thereof. Qt is currently being developed both by the Qt
Company, a subsidiary of Digia, and the Qt Project under
open source governance, involving individual developers
and firms working to advance Qt.
 Quantum Computing: Quantum computing is the use of
quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition
and entanglement to perform computation. A quantum
computer is used to perform such computation, which can
be implemented theoretically or physically. The field of
Quantum Computing is actually a sub-field of quantum information science, which includes quantum cryptography
and quantum communication. Quantum Computing was
started in the early 1980s when Richard Feynman and Yuri
Manin expressed the idea that a quantum computer had
the potential to simulate things that a classical computer
could not. In 1994, Peter Shor shocked the world with an
algorithm that had the potential to decrypt all secured
 Random: Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or
steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable.
 Raspberry Pi: The Raspberry Pi is a series of small singleboard computers developed in the United Kingdom by the
Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote teaching of basic
computer science in schools and in developing countries.
The original model became far more popular than anticipated.
 REPLEO: With a REPLEO the own public key is encrypted
with the already received public key of a friend, so that the
own public key can be transferred to the friend in a protected way.



 Requirement: Need or expectation that is stated, generally
implied or obligatory; Note: “Generally implied” means
that it is custom or common practice for the organization
and interested parties that the need or expectation under
consideration is implied. A specified requirement is one
that is stated, for example in documented information.
 RetroShare: RetroShare is a chat and file sharing application based on a Friend-to-Friend Network building a web of
trust. Peers have been replaced in this network by trusted
friends. It is in complementary the old-fashioned way to
connect to a friend in regard to Echo-Accounts, which are
not tied to the public key of a friend.
 Review: activity undertaken to determine the suitability,
adequacy and effectiveness of the subject matter to
achieve established objectives
 Rewind: Rewind describes a function within the StarBeamFile-Transfer. With this the Send-out of a file is started for a
second time. It is comparable with a new play from start of
a music file. In case the file has not been completely transferred, the transmission can be started new or even scheduled for a later point of time. In case only some missing
block of the file should be transferred again to the receiver,
the further tool StarBeam-Analyzer is able to generate a
Magnet-URI-Link, which the receiver can send to the sender, so that is will send out only the missing blocks again.
 Rosetta CryptoPad: The Rosetta-CryptoPad uses an own
Key for the encryption – as also an own key exists for EMail, Chat, URLs or POPTASTIC. With the RosettaCryptoPad a text can be converted into cipher text. It is
used, to encrypt own texts before sending the text out to
the internet or before you Post it somewhere into the Web.
Similar to the File-Encryption-Tool for Files, Rosetta also
converts plaintext into cipher text. Then the text can be
transferred – either over one again secured and encrypted
channel or even unencrypted as Chat or E-mail. Further
messages can be posted to an Internet-Board or a PasteBin-Service as chipper text.

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 RSA: RSA is one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In
such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and differs from the decryption key which is kept secret. In RSA,
this asymmetry is based on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers, the factoring
problem. RSA is made of the initial letters of the surnames
of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who first
publicly described the algorithmin 1977.
 Salt, cryptographic: In cryptography, a saltis random data
that is used as an additional input to a one-way function
that hashes a password or passphrase. The primary function of salts is to defend against dictionary attacks versus a
list of password hashes and against pre-computed rainbow
table attacks.
 SCTP: In computer networking, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a transport-layer protocol (protocol number 132), serving in a similar role to the popular
protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User
Datagram Protocol (UDP). It provides some of the same
service features of both: it is message-oriented like UDP
and ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of messages
with congestion control like TCP. RFC 4960 defines the protocol. RFC 3286 provides an introduction.
 Secret Streams: Secret Streams are a function within the
Spot-On client and describe a pool of keys, which are provided by a function deriving ephemeral keys created by the
SMP – Socialist Millionaire Protocol – Process for authentication of two users. With this zero-knowledge proof at
both user sides keys are generated, which need not to be
transferred over the internet. This invention by the Spot-On
development solved the key transmission problem over the
 Security: Security is freedom from, or resilience against,
potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change)
caused by others. Beneficiaries (technically referents) of
security may be of persons and social groups, objects and
institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenome-



non vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment.
Security mostly refers to protection from hostile forces, but
it has a wide range of other senses: for example, as the absence of harm (e.g. freedom from want); as the presence
of an essential good (e.g. food security); as resilience
against potential damage or harm (e.g. secure foundations); as secrecy (e.g. a secure telephone line); as containment (e.g. a secure room or cell); and as a state of
mind (e.g. emotional security).
 Server: In computing, a server is a computer program or a
device that provides functionality for other programs or
devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can
provide various functionalities, often called "services", such
as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve
multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may
connect over a network to a server on a different device.
Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
 Session Management: Related to the identification of authenticated users
 SHA-3: SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015. Although part of the
same series of standards, SHA-3 is internally different from
the MD5-like structure of SHA-1 and SHA-2. SHA-3 is a subset of the broader cryptographic primitive family Keccak.
Keccak's authors have proposed additional uses for the
function, including a stream cipher, an authenticated encryption system, a "tree" hashing scheme for faster hashing
on certain architectures, and AEAD ciphers Keyak and Ketje. Keccak is based on a novel approach called sponge construction. Sponge construction is based on a wide random
function or random permutation and allows inputting ("ab-

285 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






sorbing" in sponge terminology) any amount of data, and
outputting ("squeezing") any amount of data, while acting
as a pseudorandom function with regard to all previous inputs. This leads to great flexibility.
Signature: A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for
demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or
documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known
sender, that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation), and that the
message was not altered in transit (integrity).
Simulacra: The Simulacra function is a similar function
compared to the Impersonator While Impersonator is simulating a chat of two participants with messages, Simulacra
is just sending out a Fake-Message from time to time. Simulacra-Messages contain only random characters and have
not the style or goal, to imitate a process of a conversation.
SIP-Hash: SipHash is an add–rotate–xor (ARX) based family
of pseudorandom functions. Although designed for use as
a hash function in the computer science sense, SipHash is
fundamentally different from cryptographic hash functions
like SHA in that it is only suitable as a message authentication code: a keyed hash function like HMAC. That is, SHA is
designed so that it is difficult for an attacker to find two
messages X and Y such that SHA(X) = SHA(Y), even though
anyone may compute SHA(X). SipHash instead guarantees
that, having seen Xi and SipHash(Xi, k), an attacker who
does not know the key k cannot find (any information
about) k or SipHash(Y, k) for any message Y ∉ {Xi} which
they have not seen before.
Small world phenomenon: Small world phenomenon refers to a a hypothesis, according to which every human being (social actor) is connected to the world with each other
over a surprisingly short chain of acquaintance relationships. The phenomenon is often referred to as Six Degrees
of Separation. Guglielmo Marconi’s conjectures based on
his radio work in the early 20th century, which were articulated in his 1909 Nobel Prize address, may have inspired






Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthy to write a challenge to
find another person to whom he could not be connected
through at most five people. This is perhaps the earliest
reference to the concept of six degrees of separation, and
the search for an answer to the small world problem. The
small-world experiment comprised several experiments
conducted by Stanley Milgram and other researchers examining the average path length for social networks of
people in the United States. The research was groundbreaking in that it suggested that human society is a smallworld-type network characterized by short path-lengths.
Smoke Crypto Chat App: Smoke Crypto Chat is a mobile
Software Echo Client Application currently for Android,
which is open source, and provides with SmokeStack an
easy to configure and open source server software. The user ID is not based on phone numbers and no friends list is
uploaded to any server. As it provides the secure algorithm
McEliece, Smoke is regarded as worldwide the first mobile
McEliece Messenger.
SmokeStack: SmokeStack is the name of the server software for encryption communication over the Smoke Crypto
Chat App. It functions also as a key server and a Postbox for
offline user via the Ozone function. The server is provided
for the operating system Android for mobile devices.
SMP: See Socialist Millionaire Protocol.
SMP-Calling: SMP-Calling is some modus for Cryptographic
Calling, which sends temporary symmetric keys for end-toend encryption, which are derived from the SocialistMillionaire Protocol for Authentication. SMP-Calling is the
basis for constantly generated temporary keys called Secret
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) is an Internet
standard for electronic mail (email) transmission. First defined by RFC 821 in 1982, it was last updated in 2008 with
the Extended SMTP additions by RFC 5321—which is the
protocol in widespread use today. SMTP by default uses
TCP port 25. The protocol for mail submission is the same,

287 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






but uses port 587. SMTP connections secured by SSL,
known as SMTPS, default to port 465.
Socialist Millionaire Protocol (SMP): In cryptography, the
socialist millionaire problem is one in which two millionaires want to determine if their wealth is equal without
disclosing any information about their riches to each other.
It is a variant of the Millionaire’s Problem whereby two millionaires wish to compare their riches to determine who
has the most wealth without disclosing any information
about their riches to each other. It is often used as a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties to verify the
identity of the remote party through the use of a shared
secret, avoiding a man-in-the-middle attack without the inconvenience of manually comparing public key fingerprints
through an outside channel. In effect, a relatively weak
password/passphrase in natural language can be used.
Spot-On: Spot-On is a very elaborated Encryption Software
Suite with modern encryption functions. It is based on the
Echo Protocol, which sends the encrypted packets addressand target less.
SQLite: SQLite is a relational database management system
contained in a C programming library. In contrast to many
other database management systems, SQLite is not a client–serverdatabase engine. Rather, it is embedded into the
end program.
StarBeam: StarBeam is the function to share a file over two
Echo Clients. All packets are sent encrypted.
StarBeam-Analyser: The StarBeam-Analyzer is a tool, to
analyze a transferred file over the StarBeam-function in
that regard, if all partially blocks of the file have been received completely. The tool investigates – in case needed –
the missing blocks of a file and creates a respective Magnet-URI-Link with this information. The receiver of the file
can generate the Magnet and send it over to the sender of
the file, who is then able to schedule a new send-out just
of the missing blocks (also named as links or chunks). Over
this procedure not the complete files has to be sent or replayed new to complete the original first transfer.


 Super-Echo: The Echo protocol consists within these remembered characteristics (if we summarize it short), that
each node tries to encrypt each message capsule – if this
succeeds in terms of the hash-comparison, this message is
for the own reading, and will be not again repacked and
transferred further to all other connected online neighbors.
As an online attacker could recognize this, when an incoming message is not sent out again, and thus could assume,
that that it is a message for the receiver at this node. With
Super-Echo the message will be – even if it has been decrypted successfully for the own node – sent out again to
the connected nodes and for traveling on further paths.
Just in regard, as this message would not have been determined for the own readings.
 Symmetric Calling: Symmetric Calling is some modus for
Cryptographic Calling, which sends temporary symmetric
keys for end-to-end encryption. It refers to send one symmetric key (pair) through one secured channel.
 Symmetric Encryption: Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic
keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext. The keys may be identical or there may be a simple transformation to go between the two keys. The keys,
in practice, represent a shared secret between two or more
parties that can be used to maintain a private information
link. This requirement that both parties have access to the
secret key is one of the main drawbacks of symmetric key
encryption, in comparison to public-key encryption (asymmetric encryption).
 Symmetric Key: These keys are used with symmetric key
algorithms to apply confidentiality protection to information.
 TCP: The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a core protocol of the Internet protocol suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the
Internet Protocol (IP). Applications that do not require reliable data stream service may use the User Datagram Pro-

289 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual






tocol (UDP), which provides a connectionless datagram
service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability.
ThreeFish: Threefish is a symmetric-key tweakable block
cipher designed as part of the Skein hash function, an entry
in the NIST hash function competition. Threefish uses no Sboxes or other table lookups in order to avoid cache timing
attacks; its nonlinearity comes from alternating additions
with exclusive ORs. In that respect, it is similar to Salsa20,
TEA, and the SHA-3 candidates CubeHash and BLAKE.
Timing: Related to the race conditions, locking, or order of
TLS: Transport Layer Security (TLS), and its now-deprecated
predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic
protocols designed to provide communications security
over a computer network. Several versions of the protocols
find widespread use in applications such as web browsing,
email, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites can use TLS to secure all communications between
their servers and web browsers. The TLS protocol aims
primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between
two or more communicating computer applications.
Token: A security token is a physical device used to gain
access to an electronically restricted resource. The token is
used in addition to or in place of a password. It acts like an
electronic key to access something. Examples include a
wireless keycard opening a locked door, or in the case of a
customer trying to access their bank account online, the
use of a bank-provided token can prove that the customer
is who they claim to be. Some tokens may store cryptographic keys, such as a digital signature, or biometric data,
such as fingerprint details. Some may also store passwords.
Tor: Tor is free and open-source software for enabling
anonymous communication. The name is derived from an
acronym for the original software project name "The Onion
Router". Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network consisting of more than
seven thousand relays to conceal a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic






analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet
activity of the user.
Turtle-Hopping: Turtle was a free anonymous peer-to-peer
network project being developed at the Vrije Universiteit in
Amsterdam, involving professor Andrew Tanenbaum. Like
other anonymous P2P software, it allows users to share
files and otherwise communicate without fear of legal
sanctions or censorship. Turtle’s claims of anonymity are
backed by two research papers. Technically, Turtle is a
friend-to-friend (F2F) network. The RetroShare File Sharing
application is based on a F2f and implemented a “TurtleHopping” feature which was inspired by Turtle.
Two-way-Calling: Two-Way-Calling is some modus for
Cryptographic Calling, which creates temporary symmetric
keys for end-to-end encryption, which are defined 50:50 by
each of the end-users. In a Two-way Call the user sends an
AES-256 as a passphrase for the future end-to-end encryption to the friend, and the friend also sends an own generated AES-256 to the first user in response. Now the first
half of the AES of the first user and the second half of the
AES of the second user are taken, respectively, and assembled into a common AES-256. It refers to the method of 2way safety.
UDP: The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core
members of the Internet protocol suite. The protocol was
designed by David P. Reed in 1980 and formally defined
in RFC 768. UDP uses a simple connectionless transmission
model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. It has no
handshaking dialogues, and thus exposes the user’s program to any unreliability of the underlying network protocol. There is no guarantee of delivery, ordering, or duplicate protection. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP
because dropping packets is preferable to waiting for delayed packets, which may not be an option in a real-time
URL: A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially
termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource
that specifies its location on a computer network and a

291 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual





mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use
the two terms interchangeably. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (https) but are also used for file
transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and
many other applications.
URL-Distiller: URL-Distillers are filter rules, with which the
downloaded, uploaded or imported URLS will be filtered.
For example, one can configure his URL-Distillers in such a
way, that all URLs are loaded into the own Database, but
only specific URLS from one defined Domain, e.g. Wikipedia, are uploaded. Also e.g. a university can distribute only
URLs out of the own database to its connected students,
which refer to the own web-domain. URLs and URIs of
Magnets, ED2K-Links and Torrent-URLs are currently not
supported in the own URL-Database respective filter rules.
The distillers refer to Web-URLs and also to FTP and Gopher.
URN: A Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that uses the urn scheme. URNs
were originally conceived to be part of a three-part information architecture for the Internet, along with Uniform
Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs), a metadata framework. URNs were distinguished from URLs, which identify resources by specifying
their locations in the context of a particular access protocol, such as HTTP or FTP. In contrast, URNs were conceived
as persistent, location-independent identifiers assigned
within defined namespaces, so that they are globally
unique and persistent over long periods of time, even after
the resource which they identify ceases to exist or becomes unavailable.
VEMI: VEMI stands for Virtual E-Mail Institution. See Institution.
Web-of-Trust: In cryptography, a Web-of-Trust is a concept
used in PGP, GnuPG, and other OpenPGP-compatible systems to establish the authenticity of the binding between a
public key and its owner. Its decentralized trust model is an


alternative to the centralized trust model of a public key infrastructure (PKI), which relies exclusively on a certificate
authority (or a hierarchy of such). As with computer networks, there are many independent webs of trust, and any
user (through their identity certificate) can be a part of,
and a link between, multiple webs.
 Wide Lanes: One of the many obligations of a Spot-OnKernel process is to receive, process, and forward data to
one or more nodes. The mechanism that performs this task
is similar to both a network hub and a network switch.
Wide Lanes allow node operators to assign listener lane
widths. Let's consider a basic example, a listener having a
lane width of 20,000 bytes. The kernel, if necessary, will
forward packets via the listener's clients if the sizes of the
forwarded packets do not exceed 20,000 bytes. Optionally,
clients may negotiate different lane widths with their
peers. All network communications beyond the interface
and the kernel must and will adhere to the configured limits.
 YaCy: YaCy (pronounced "ya see") is a free distributed
search engine, built on principles of peer-to-peer (P2P)
networks. Its core is a computer program written in Java
distributed on several hundred computers, as of September 2006, so-called YaCy-peers. Each YaCy-peer independently crawls through the Internet, analyzes and indexes found web pages, and stores indexing results in a common database (so called index) which is shared with other
YaCy-peers using principles of P2P networks. It is a free
search engine that everyone can use to build a search portal for their intranet and to help search the public internet
 Zero-knowledge-proof: A zero-knowledge proof or zeroknowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the
prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that they
know a value x, without conveying any information apart
from the fact that they know the value x. The essence of
zero-knowledge proofs is that it is trivial to prove that one
possesses knowledge of certain information by simply re-

293 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

vealing it; the challenge is to prove such possession without revealing the information itself or any additional information. If proving a statement requires that the prover
possess some secret information, then the verifier will not
be able to prove the statement to anyone else without
possessing the secret information. The statement being
proved must include the assertion that the prover has such
knowledge, but not the knowledge itself. Otherwise, the
statement would not be proved in zero-knowledge because
it provides the verifier with additional information about
the statement by the end of the protocol. Interactive zeroknowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their knowledge and the
individual validating the proof.



24 Keywords
#CEKS ............................ 158
2WIPFS ......................... 101
82, 83, 182, 185, 186,
187, 193
Adaptive Echo .....................
39, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 67,
162, 211
21, 22, 30, 31, 32, 33,
35, 37, 39, 47, 50, 95, 98,
99, 107, 109, 113, 139,
140, 158
15, 23, 24, 25, 31, 35,
39, 49, 52, 75, 77, 102,
168, 170
Android ...............................
. 114, 121, 190, 191, 239
Answer Method ..................
.............................72, 73
Artificial Intelligence ...........
................................ 211
A-symmetric .......................
21, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32,
33, 39, 45, 75, 95, 97,
98, 109, 110, 111, 113,
120, 136, 137, 138, 139,
140, 142, 144, 209, 212
Asymmetric Calling .............
...........................97, 113
Audit ..............204, 226, 238
Authenticate .......................
...............34, 35, 93, 103

Authenticity .............. 33, 35
Autocrypt........................ 14
Basic Law ...................... 218
Bluetooth ............................
.........156, 182, 190, 191
Broadcast .............. 182, 187
Browser ..............................
14, 31, 73, 122, 128,
146, 170, 171, 177, 179,
185, 222
Button .................................
69, 78, 79, 81, 82, 88,
89, 91, 92, 95, 97, 103,
109, 111, 114, 115, 118,
119, 126, 152, 162, 163,
178, 182, 196, 212
Buzz ....................................
16, 54, 118, 121, 135,
153, 175
C/O ..........16, 131, 132, 134
C++........................ 121, 235
Care-Of ................. 131, 132
Chaos ............................ 212
Charter of Fundamental
Rights of the European
Union ...................... 217
Chat ....................................
13, 19, 20, 25, 37, 41, 42,
44, 53, 54, 56, 58, 69,
75, 76, 80, 81, 82, 87, 90,
91, 92, 95, 97, 98, 102,
103, 109, 110, 113, 114,
115, 117, 118, 119, 120,
121, 122, 127, 128, 129,

295 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

131, 136, 138, 140, 142,
143, 144, 145, 146, 147,
149, 152, 153, 156, 162,
167, 181, 182, 183, 184,
185, 186, 187, 188, 190,
191, 192, 196, 197, 207
Cipher text ..........................
13, 14, 20, 31, 39, 46,
75, 84, 129, 132, 139,
195, 196, 209, 210, 212,
C-mail ........................ 17, 85
Congestion Control .............
...................... 40, 45, 54
Crawler ................................
13, 168, 171, 176, 177,
20, 25, 26, 35, 49, 50,
51, 52, 55, 57, 68, 72, 76,
142, 152, 210, 211, 212,
213, 215
Cryptographic Calling ..........
32, 95, 96, 97, 107, 109,
111, 112
Cryptographic Discovery .....
.................... 51, 59, 211
Cryptographic Routing ... 51,
Cryptographic Torrents . 167
Cryptographic-DNA ....... 213
CryptoPad ....... 14, 195, 196
Crypto-parties ............... 215
Encryption Keys ....... 158
Democracy ...................... 18
Diffie-Hellmann ............... 29
DNS ................. 83, 237, 240
Dooble........................... 170

Echo ................................ 17
Echo Accounts ..... 39, 48, 54
Echo Grid ................... 51, 55
Echo Match ..................... 38
Echo Network......................
16, 37, 41, 42, 54, 90,
154, 159, 161, 162, 173
Edgar Allan Poe ............... 84
15, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30,
31, 37, 98, 99, 102, 207
Elliptic Curve ................... 29
E-mail ..................................
13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 25,
44, 53, 54, 55, 69, 75, 76,
88, 91, 109, 117, 123,
125, 126, 127, 128, 129,
130, 131, 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 137, 138, 139,
140, 142, 143, 144, 145,
146, 147, 148, 149, 156,
157, 160, 181, 185, 196,
Emoticons ..................... 114
Encapsulation ............ 30, 34
Encryption ...........................
13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
39, 41, 45, 46, 48, 50,
52, 53, 54, 72, 73, 74, 75,
76, 80, 85, 88, 95, 97, 98,
99, 100, 101, 102, 103,
107, 109, 110, 111, 112,
113, 117, 118, 119, 128,
130, 135, 136, 137, 139,
140, 143, 144, 146, 149,
154, 155, 156, 157, 158,
161, 162, 167, 175, 188,


195, 196, 197, 198, 199,
207, 208, 209, 210, 211,
212, 214, 216
Encrypt-then-MAC ..............
............................ 35, 39
32, 92, 95, 97, 98, 99,
100, 101, 102, 107, 109,
110, 111, 112, 113, 117,
136, 137, 138, 140, 145,
146, 154, 158, 197, 199,
208, 212
Ephemeral ..........................
109, 110, 113, 138, 139,
140, 141, 142, 144, 210
EPKS ....................................
14, 17, 90, 120, 175,
195, 198
209, 210, 212, 213, 214,
European Convention on
Human Rights.......... 217
Exponential Encryption ......
.................................. 20
File transfer ........................
13, 54, 115, 133, 136,
152, 156, 157, 158, 159,
163, 167, 208
File-Encryptor ......... 14, 156
File-Sharing......92, 152, 153
FireChat ........................ 121
Forward Secrecy .................
97, 101, 108, 109, 110,
112, 137, 138, 139, 140,
141, 142, 144, 146, 210,

Forward Secrecy Calling110,
Friend-to-Friend .................
.....................37, 43, 161
FSC ................................ 110
Full Echo ......39, 48, 56, 184
Gemini ................................
30, 95, 97, 98, 99, 102,
107, 109, 110, 113, 136,
GnuPG ............................ 15
Gnutella ..............................
. 152, 154, 155, 164, 238
GoldBug ..............................
83, 84, 85, 226, 227,
229, 230, 231, 232, 233,
234, 236, 237, 238, 239,
Graph ..................................
....... 52, 57, 58, 162, 210
Group chat ..........................
13, 14, 117, 118, 121,
134, 135, 153, 160, 175,
Half Echo............39, 55, 184
Hashtype................... 26, 75
HMAC ........................72, 73
HTTPS .................................
31, 47, 156, 182, 185,
Human rights .......... 18, 218
Hybrid .................................
15, 18, 33, 145, 209, 212
IMAP ...................................
14, 16, 55, 118, 123,
125, 126, 127, 128, 129,
131, 135, 136, 145, 146,
148, 149
Impersonator ............ 41, 42
297 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

innovation ...........................
19, 35, 90, 145, 212, 228
Instant Perfect Forward
Secrecy .............. 97, 110
Institution ...........................
55, 133, 134, 135, 136,
International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights
........................ 216, 217
IPFS .....................................
97, 101, 112, 141, 146,
IRC ......................................
14, 16, 54, 117, 118,
119, 120, 121, 135, 153,
160, 175, 208
Iteration .................... 26, 75
Java ....... 121, 122, 177, 179
Kerckhoffs's principle .... 120
Key ......................................
14, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26,
30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 39,
45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 52,
53, 54, 55, 69, 72, 73, 74,
75, 76, 77, 78, 87, 88, 90,
91, 92, 95, 97, 98, 102,
109, 110, 112, 113, 117,
118, 120, 121, 128, 129,
133, 134, 135, 136, 137,
138, 139, 140, 141, 142,
144, 147, 157, 167, 175,
178, 184, 185, 193, 196,
197, 198, 199, 207, 208,
Keyboard ................... 73, 95
KeySync ..................... 14, 90
LAN ......... 83, 187, 190, 191
LED ...... 80, 82, 87, 181, 182

Listener ...............................
31, 48, 54, 80, 82, 83,
121, 181, 182, 184, 186,
187, 188, 190, 191, 200
16, 70, 72, 75, 78, 79, 87,
88, 185, 186
Magnet ................................
54, 55, 118, 119, 120,
134, 135, 152, 153, 154,
157, 158, 159, 160, 161,
163, 164, 166, 208
Magnet-URI .........................
118, 119, 120, 133, 152,
154, 155, 158, 159, 160,
161, 162, 163
McEliece ..............................
15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 37,
75, 77, 98, 102, 157,
199, 207, 212, 213
MELODICA ................. 95, 97
Meta-data ....... 42, 130, 212
Mosaic ........................... 164
Multi-encryption .................
14, 15, 18, 33, 34, 39,
47, 57, 98, 158, 207, 209,
210, 212
Ncat ............................... 193
Neighbor .............................
37, 40, 51, 54, 58, 69, 80,
81, 82, 83, 87, 90, 92,
167, 181, 182, 184, 185,
186, 187, 193
Neuland........................... 85
NIST ..................... 15, 22, 35
NOVA ...................................
. 136, 156, 157, 158, 167
NTRU ...................................
15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 35,


37, 75, 77, 98, 99, 102,
105, 207, 212, 213
One-Time-Magnet ........ 166
Open source .......................
15, 26, 32, 41, 73, 74,
121, 168, 170, 173, 176,
204, 207, 209, 212, 214,
222, 226, 238
OpenPGP ........................ 15
OpenSSL.......................... 15
OTM .......120, 158, 159, 208
OTR ....................... 102, 144
Ozone Postbox .............. 135
14, 47, 76, 117, 123,
128, 129, 130, 133, 168,
169, 170, 173, 177, 178,
179, 198, 199
Pandamonium ....................
176, 177, 178, 202, 203,
Passphrase ..........................
30, 32, 49, 50, 55, 56, 57,
68, 70, 71, 72, 79, 95, 97,
99, 102, 104, 112, 113,
156, 158, 208
Passphrase method ........ 71
.................188, 195, 199
Password ............................
16, 17, 21, 30, 31, 39,
49, 50, 70, 71, 72, 73,
79, 87, 88, 90, 93, 95, 97,
98, 99, 100, 102, 103,
107, 108, 113, 117, 136,
137, 139, 142, 143, 157,
158, 167, 177, 186, 195,
Patch-Points .................. 199

Peer-to-Peer .......................
. 13, 37, 43, 48, 130, 161
PKI ........... 22, 23, 30, 33, 37
Plain text .............................
17, 20, 45, 46, 47, 48, 75,
126, 139
Point-to-Point ........... 32, 98
POP3 ...................................
14, 16, 55, 118, 123,
125, 126, 127, 128, 129,
131, 135, 136, 145, 146,
148, 234
POPTASTIC ..........................
17, 75, 125, 127, 128,
129, 135, 139, 143, 144,
145, 146, 147, 148, 149,
PostgreSQL14, 168, 171,
Privacy .................... 18, 216
Qt ......................................
76, 114, 171, 191, 208,
222, 223, 224, 237
Quantum Computing15, 22,
23, 212, 213
Random ......... 41, 42, 46, 70
Raspberry Pi ......... 121, 132
REPLEO ...............................
. 14, 90, 91, 92, 120, 128
RetroShare ..........................
..... 48, 52, 154, 162, 233
Rewind function ........... 161
14, 75, 128, 195, 196,
RSA .....................................
15, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27,
29, 30, 31, 33, 37, 39,

299 Encryption Suite – Handbook and User Manual

54, 75, 77, 96, 98, 99,
102, 113, 157, 207, 213
RSS .. 14, 168, 171, 178, 179
Salt .... 26, 49, 50, 71, 72, 75
Salted hash ................ 72, 73
SCTP ...... 156, 182, 192, 207
Search .................................
13, 14, 15, 48, 50, 53,
75, 76, 125, 168, 169,
170, 171, 172, 173, 175,
177, 178
Secret Streams ....................
................ 108, 142, 143
Security ...............................
20, 22, 34, 74, 76, 83, 95,
101, 102, 109, 118, 125,
127, 128, 136, 148, 156,
158, 161, 177, 184, 217
Server ..................................
13, 16, 17, 32, 37, 44, 50,
55, 56, 58, 69, 75, 79,
80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 90, 92,
117, 119, 120, 121, 122,
123, 125, 126, 127, 128,
129, 130, 131, 133, 145,
146, 148, 149, 172, 181,
182, 184, 185, 186, 187,
188, 190, 191, 192, 193,
SHA-3 .............................. 35
Shor's algorithm .............. 29
Protocol ................... 125
Simulacra .................. 41, 42
SIP hash ......................... 121
Small world phenomenon...
.................................. 43


Smoke .................................
114, 121, 122, 135, 158,
210, 231, 239
SmokeStack .........................
121, 135, 190, 191, 210,
SMP .....................................
93, 102, 103, 106, 107,
108, 113, 142, 143
SMP-Calling ................... 113
SMTP ............. 123, 125, 147
Snowden ................. 20, 211
Socialist Millionaire Protocol
................... 93, 102, 142
Spot-On ...............................
13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20,
21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30,
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 41,
42, 48, 50, 51, 53, 67,
69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80,
81, 83, 88, 91, 95, 96,
97, 98, 100, 102, 103,
107, 109, 111, 114, 117,
118, 120, 121, 122, 123,
125, 126, 128, 129, 130,
133, 135, 136, 137, 139,
140, 145, 146, 147, 149,
152, 154, 156, 157, 158,
160, 168, 170, 171, 175,
176, 177, 178, 179, 181,
182, 185, 187, 188, 189,
190, 191, 192, 193, 195,
196, 197, 198, 199, 200,
201, 207, 221, 222, 223,
SQL .......................... 14, 173
SQLite .... 168, 171, 172, 177
16, 54, 92, 115, 133,


134, 136, 152, 153, 154,
155, 156, 157, 159, 160,
161, 162, 164, 165, 167,
196, 200
StarBeam Analyzer ....... 165
Statistics .............................
13, 178, 195, 200, 201,
Super-Echo .........................
42, 43, 47, 63, 95, 99,
107, 109, 157, 160, 189
Symmetric ..........................
21, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,
39, 97, 98, 102, 109,
110, 111, 112, 113, 117,
121, 136, 137, 138, 139,
140, 142, 144, 160, 175,
198, 209, 212
Symmetric Calling ...............
...................98, 112, 113
38, 156, 182, 191, 192,
207, 211
ThreeFish ........................ 35
TLS ......................................
22, 30, 31, 32, 37, 39, 47,
50, 95, 97, 98, 99, 102,
112, 113, 118, 126, 140,
142, 185

Token ..................................
... 39, 55, 56, 57, 58, 211
Tor ......................................
41, 83, 146, 177, 185,
186, 188, 211, 212, 226,
228, 230, 231, 232, 233,
234, 235, 236, 237, 239,
Turtle-Hopping ....... 54, 161
Two-way-calling ...... 99, 113
156, 182, 187, 191, 192,
Universal Declaration of
Human Rights.......... 216
URL .....................................
13, 14, 15, 53, 75, 76,
91, 128, 168, 170, 171,
172, 173, 174, 175, 176,
177, 178, 179, 199, 200,
202, 222
URN ...............118, 134, 156
VEMI ........16, 133, 134, 135
......... 39, 48, 54, 58, 186
Wizard ................................
..... 67, 68, 69, 75, 77, 78
YaCy ...................... 168, 236
Zero-knowledge proof ........
....................... 103, 142.


Spot-On Encryption Suite is a secure instant chat messenger
and encrypting e-mail client that also includes additional
features such as group chat, file transfer, and a URL search
based on an implemented URL data-base, which can be peer-topeer connected to other nodes. Also, further tools for file
encryption or text conversion to ciphertext etc. are included.
The Spot-On program might currently be regarded as a very
elaborated, up-to-date and diversificated open source
encryption software for Multi-Encryption and Cryptographic
Calling: As it also includes the McEliece algorithm it is thus
described as the first McEliece Encryption Suite worldwide – to
be especially secure against attacks known from Quantum
Thus, the three basic functions frequently used by a regular
Internet user in the Internet - communication (chat / e-mail),
web search and file transfer - are now secure over the Internet
within one software suite: Open source for everyone.
This handbook and user manual of Spot-On is a practical
software guide with introductions not only to this application
and its innovative and invented processes, but also into
Encryption, Cryptography, Cryptographic Calling and
Cryptographic Discovery, Graph-Theory, p2p Networking,
NTRU, McEliece, the Echo Protocol and the Democratization of
Multiple and Exponential Encryption also in the regard of the
context of Privacy and Human Rights.
The book covers more than 15 chapters and more than 80
figures with content for presentations within educational
tutorials or for self-learning opportunities about these topics.


Source Exif Data:
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File Type Extension             : pdf
MIME Type                       : application/pdf
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Linearized                      : No
Author                          : Edwards
Create Date                     : 2019:03:13 18:40:22+01:00
Keywords                        : Cryptography;, Cryptographic, Calling;, Cryptographic, Discovery;, P2P, Networking;, Graph-Theory;, NTRU;, McEliece;, Echo, Protocol;, Spot-On
Modify Date                     : 2019:03:13 20:21:29+01:00
Has XFA                         : No
XMP Toolkit                     : Adobe XMP Core 4.2.1-c041 52.342996, 2008/05/07-20:48:00
Producer                        : GPL Ghostscript 9.25
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Metadata Date                   : 2019:03:13 20:21:29+01:00
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Instance ID                     : uuid:a61993b0-a4ab-4bc0-b27b-bc52634c1296
Format                          : application/pdf
Title                           : Spot-On Encryption Suite: Democratization of Multiple & Exponential Encryption.
Creator                         : Edwards, Scott & Project (Eds.)
Description                     : Handbook and User Manual as practical software guide with introductions into Cryptography, Cryptographic Calling and Cryptographic Discovery, P2P Networking, Graph-Theory, NTRU, McEliece, the Echo Protocol and the Spot-On Software.
Subject                         : Cryptography, Cryptographic Calling, Cryptographic Discovery, P2P Networking, Graph-Theory, NTRU, McEliece, Echo Protocol, Spot-On
Page Count                      : 304
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