A Comprehensive Guide To World History

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A Comprehensive Outline of World History
(Organized by Region)
By:
Jack E. Maxfield
A Comprehensive Outline of World History
(Organized by Region)
By:
Jack E. Maxfield
Online:
<http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2/ >
CONNEXIONS
Rice University, Houston, Texas
This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Jack E. Maxfield. It is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution 2.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).
Collection structure revised: November 23, 2009
PDF generated: October 26, 2012
For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see p. 694.
Foreword ..............................................................................................1
Introduction ........................................................................ ...................3
The Mechanics of and Some Problems of the Presentation ................................................5
1 Africa
1.1 GeographicalPresentationofAfrica .............................................................7
1.2 Africa: Beginningto8000B.C. ................................................... ..............9
1.3 Africa: 8000to5000B.C. ...................................................................... 9
1.4 Africa: 5000to3000B.C. .....................................................................10
1.5 Africa: 3000to1500B.C. .....................................................................11
1.6 Africa: 1500to1000B.C. .....................................................................14
1.7 Africa: 1000to700B.C. ......................................................... .............16
1.8 Africa: 700to601B.C. .......................................................... .............17
1.9 Africa: 600to501B.C. .......................................................... .............18
1.10 Africa: 500to401B.C. ......................................................... .............19
1.11 Africa: 400to301B.C. ......................................................... .............21
1.12 Africa: 300to201B.C. ......................................................... .............22
1.13 Africa: 200to101B.C. ......................................................... .............24
1.14 Africa: 100B.C.to0 .........................................................................26
1.15 Africa: 0toA.D.100 ........................................................... .............27
1.16 Africa: A.D.101to200 ......................................................................28
1.17 Africa: A.D.201to300 ......................................................................29
1.18 Africa: A.D.301to400 ......................................................................30
1.19 Africa: A.D.401to500 ......................................................................31
1.20 Africa: A.D.501to600 ......................................................................33
1.21 Africa: A.D.601to700 ......................................................................33
1.22 Africa: A.D.701to800 ......................................................................34
1.23 Africa: A.D.801to900 ......................................................................36
1.24 Africa: A.D.901to1000 .....................................................................37
1.25 Africa: A.D.1001to1100 ....................................................................38
1.26 Africa: A.D.1101to1200 ....................................................................39
1.27 Africa: A.D.1201to1300 ....................................................................40
1.28 Africa: A.D.1301to1400 ....................................................................43
1.29 Africa: A.D.1401to1500 ....................................................................45
1.30 Africa: A.D.1501to1600 ....................................................................47
1.31 Africa: A.D.1601to1700 ....................................................................49
1.32 Africa: A.D.1701to1800 ....................................................................51
1.33 Africa: A.D.1801to1900 ....................................................................52
2 America
2.1 GeographicalPresentationofAmerica ..........................................................61
2.2 America: Beginningto8000B.C. ..............................................................65
2.3 America: 8000to5000B.C. ...................................................................68
2.4 America: 5000to3000B.C. ...................................................................70
2.5 America: 3000to1500B.C. ...................................................................72
2.6 America: 1500to1000B.C. ...................................................................74
2.7 America: 1000to700B.C. ....................................................................78
2.8 America: 700to601B.C. ........................................................ .............80
2.9 America: 600to501B.C. ........................................................ .............82
2.10 America: 500to401B.C. ....................................................................83
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2.11 America: 400to301B.C. ....................................................................85
2.12 America: 300to201B.C. ....................................................................87
2.13 America: 200to101B.C. ....................................................................89
2.14 America: 100B.C.to0 .......................................................................91
2.15 America: 0to100A.D. ......................................................... .............93
2.16 America: A.D.101to200 ....................................................................96
2.17 America: A.D.201to300 ....................................................................97
2.18 America: A.D.301to400 ....................................................................99
2.19 America: A.D.401to500 ...................................................................101
2.20 America: A.D.501to600 ...................................................................103
2.21 America: A.D.601to700 ...................................................................105
2.22 America: A.D.701to800 ...................................................................107
2.23 America: A.D.801to900 ...................................................................109
2.24 America: A.D.901to1000 ..................................................................112
2.25 America: A.D.1001to1100 .................................................................115
2.26 America: A.D.1101to1200 .................................................................118
2.27 America: A.D.1201to1300 .................................................................120
2.28 America: A.D.1301to1400 .................................................................122
2.29 America: A.D.1401to1500 .................................................................125
2.30 America: A.D.1501to1600 .................................................................132
2.31 America: A.D.1601to1700 .................................................................141
2.32 America: A.D.1701to1800 .................................................................155
2.33 America: A.D.1801to1900 .................................................................171
3 Central and Northern Asia
3.1 Geographical Presentation of Central and Northern Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.2 Central and Northern Asia: Beginning to 8000 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
3.3 CentralandNorthernAsia: 8000to5000B.C. ..................................................199
3.4 CentralandNorthernAsia: 5000to3000B.C. ..................................................200
3.5 CentralandNorthernAsia: 3000to1500B.C. ..................................................200
3.6 CentralandNorthernAsia: 1500to1000B.C. ..................................................200
3.7 CentralandNorthernAsia: 1000to700B.C. ...................................................201
3.8 CentralandNorthernAsia: 700to601B.C. ....................................................201
3.9 CentralandNorthernAsia: 600to501B.C. ....................................................202
3.10 CentralandNorthernAsia: 500to401B.C. ...................................................202
3.11 CentralandNorthernAsia: 400to301B.C. ...................................................202
3.12 CentralandNorthernAsia: 300to201B.C. ...................................................203
3.13 CentralandNorthernAsia: 200to101B.C. ...................................................204
3.14 CentralandNorthernAsia: 100B.C.to0 .....................................................205
3.15 CentralandNorthernAsia: 0toA.D.100 .....................................................205
3.16 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.101to200 ...................................................206
3.17 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.201to300 ...................................................207
3.18 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.301to400 ...................................................207
3.19 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.401to500 ...................................................208
3.20 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.501to600 ...................................................209
3.21 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.601to700 ...................................................209
3.22 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.701to800 ...................................................210
3.23 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.801to900 ...................................................210
3.24 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.901to1000 ..................................................211
3.25 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1001to1100 .................................................211
3.26 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1101to1200 .................................................212
3.27 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1201to1300 .................................................212
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3.28 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1301to1400 .................................................216
3.29 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1401to1500 .................................................217
3.30 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1501to1600 .................................................218
3.31 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1601to1700 .................................................219
3.32 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1701to1800 .................................................219
3.33 CentralandNorthernAsia: A.D.1801to1900 .................................................221
4 Europe
4.1 GeographicalPresentationofEurope ..........................................................223
4.2 Europe: Beginningto8000B.C. ..............................................................226
4.3 Europe: 8000to5000B.C. ....................................................... ............227
4.4 Europe: 5000to3000B.C. ....................................................... ............230
4.5 Europe: 3000to1500B.C. ....................................................... ............233
4.6 Europe: 1500to1000B.C. ....................................................... ............238
4.7 Europe: 1000to700B.C. .....................................................................242
4.8 Europe: 700to601B.C. ......................................................................246
4.9 Europe: 600to501B.C. ......................................................................249
4.10 Europe: 500to401B.C. .....................................................................253
4.11 Europe: 400to301B.C. .....................................................................257
4.12 Europe: 300to201B.C. .....................................................................262
4.13 Europe: 200to101B.C. .....................................................................265
4.14 Europe: 100B.C.to0 .......................................................................268
4.15 Europe: 0toA.D.100 .......................................................................273
4.16 Europe: A.D.101to200 ....................................................................278
4.17 Europe: A.D.201to300 ....................................................................282
4.18 Europe: A.D.301to400 ....................................................................284
4.19 Europe: A.D.401to500 ....................................................................289
4.20 Europe: A.D.501to600 ....................................................................296
4.21 Europe: A.D.601to700 ....................................................................302
4.22 Europe: A.D.701to800 ....................................................................307
4.23 Europe: A.D.801to900 ....................................................................312
4.24 Europe: A.D.901to1000 ...................................................................321
4.25 Europe: A.D.1001to1100 ..................................................................328
4.26 Europe: A.D.1101to1200 ..................................................................339
4.27 Europe: A.D.1201to1300 ..................................................................347
4.28 Europe: A.D.1301to1400 ..................................................................359
4.29 Europe: A.D.1401to1500 ..................................................................370
4.30 Europe: A.D.1501to1600 ..................................................................383
4.31 Europe: A.D.1601to1700 ..................................................................407
4.32 Europe: A.D.1701to1800 ..................................................................431
4.33 Europe: A.D.1801to1900 ..................................................................454
5 The Indian Subcontinent
5.1 Geographical Presentation of The Indian Subcontinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
5.2 The Indian Subcontinent: Beginning to 8,000 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
5.3 TheIndianSubcontinent: 8000to5000B.C. ...................................................479
5.4 TheIndianSubcontinent: 5000to3000B.C. ...................................................479
5.5 TheIndianSubcontinent: 3000to1500B.C. ...................................................480
5.6 TheIndianSubcontinent: 1500to1000B.C. ...................................................481
5.7 TheIndianSubcontinent: 1000to700B.C. .....................................................482
5.8 TheIndianSubcontinent: 700to601B.C. ......................................................482
5.9 TheIndianSubcontinent: 600to501B.C. ......................................................483
5.10 TheIndianSubcontinent: 500to401B.C. .....................................................483
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5.11 TheIndianSubcontinent: 400to301B.C. .....................................................484
5.12 TheIndianSubcontinent: 300to201B.C. .....................................................485
5.13 TheIndianSubcontinent: 200to101B.C. .....................................................485
5.14 TheIndianSubcontinent: 100B.C.to0 .......................................................486
5.15 TheIndianSubcontinent: 0toA.D.100 .......................................................487
5.16 TheIndianSubcontinent: 101A.D.to200 ....................................................488
5.17 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.201to300 ....................................................489
5.18 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.301to400 ....................................................490
5.19 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.401to500 ....................................................491
5.20 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.501to600 ....................................................491
5.21 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.601to700 ....................................................492
5.22 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.701to800 ....................................................492
5.23 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.801to900 ....................................................493
5.24 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.901to1000 ...................................................493
5.25 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1001to1100 ..................................................494
5.26 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1101to1200 ..................................................494
5.27 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1201to1300 ..................................................495
5.28 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1301to1400 ..................................................495
5.29 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1401to1500 ..................................................496
5.30 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1501to1600 ..................................................496
5.31 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1601to1700 ..................................................498
5.32 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1701to1800 ..................................................500
5.33 TheIndianSubcontinent: A.D.1801to1900 ..................................................501
6 The Far East
6.1 GeographicalPresentationofTheFarEast .....................................................505
6.2 TheFarEast: Beginningto8000B.C. ............................................. ............507
6.3 TheFarEast: 8000to5000B.C. ..............................................................508
6.4 TheFarEast: 5000to3000B.C. ..............................................................509
6.5 TheFarEast: 3000to1500B.C. ..............................................................510
6.6 TheFarEast: 1500to1000B.C. ..............................................................512
6.7 TheFarEast: 1000to700B.C. ................................................................513
6.8 TheFarEast: 700to601B.C. .................................................................514
6.9 TheFarEast: 600to501B.C. .................................................................515
6.10 TheFarEast: 500to401B.C. ................................................................517
6.11 TheFarEast: 400to301B.C. ................................................................518
6.12 TheFarEast: 300to201B.C. ................................................................519
6.13 TheFarEast: 200to101B.C. ................................................................522
6.14 TheFarEast: 100B.C.to0 ..................................................................523
6.15 TheFarEast: 0toA.D.100 ..................................................................525
6.16 TheFarEast: A.D.101to200 ...............................................................527
6.17 TheFarEast: A.D.201to300 ...............................................................528
6.18 TheFarEast: A.D.301to400 ...............................................................530
6.19 TheFarEast: A.D.401to500 ...............................................................531
6.20 TheFarEast: A.D.501to600 ...............................................................533
6.21 TheFarEast: A.D.601to700 ...............................................................534
6.22 TheFarEast: A.D.701to800 ...............................................................537
6.23 TheFarEast: A.D.801to900 ...............................................................539
6.24 TheFarEast: A.D.901to1000 ..............................................................541
6.25 TheFarEast: A.D.1001to1100 .............................................................543
6.26 TheFarEast: A.D.1101to1200 .............................................................546
6.27 TheFarEast: A.D.1201to1300 .............................................................547
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6.28 TheFarEast: A.D.1301to1400 .............................................................551
6.29 TheFarEast: A.D.1401to1500 .............................................................552
6.30 TheFarEast: A.D.1501to1600 .............................................................555
6.31 TheFarEast: A.D.1601to1700 .............................................................558
6.32 TheFarEast: A.D.1701to1800 .............................................................562
6.33 TheFarEast: A.D.1801to1900 .............................................................565
7 The Near East
7.1 GeographicalPresentationofTheNearEast ....................................................571
7.2 TheNearEast: Beginningto8000B.C. ........................................................573
7.3 TheNearEast: 8000to5000B.C. .............................................................574
7.4 TheNearEast: 5000to3000B.C. .............................................................575
7.5 TheNearEast: 3000to1500B.C. .............................................................578
7.6 TheNearEast: 1500to1000B.C. .............................................................583
7.7 TheNearEast: 1000to700B.C. ..............................................................586
7.8 TheNearEast: 700to601B.C. ...............................................................590
7.9 TheNearEast: 600to501B.C. ...............................................................592
7.10 TheNearEast: 500to401B.C. ..............................................................594
7.11 TheNearEast: 400to301B.C. ..............................................................596
7.12 TheNearEast: 300to201B.C. ..............................................................597
7.13 TheNearEast: 200to101B.C. ..............................................................599
7.14 TheNearEast: 100B.C.to0 ................................................................601
7.15 TheNearEast: 0toA.D.100 ................................................................603
7.16 TheNearEast: A.D.101to200 ..............................................................604
7.17 TheNearEast: A.D.201to300 ..............................................................606
7.18 TheNearEast: A.D.301to400 ..............................................................608
7.19 TheNearEast: A.D.401to500 ..............................................................611
7.20 TheNearEast: A.D.501to600 ..............................................................613
7.21 TheNearEast: A.D.601to700 ..............................................................615
7.22 TheNearEast: A.D.701to800 ..............................................................618
7.23 TheNearEast: A.D.801to900 ..............................................................619
7.24 TheNearEast: A.D.901to1000 .............................................................621
7.25 TheNearEast: A.D.1001to1100 ............................................................623
7.26 TheNearEast: A.D.1101to1200 ............................................................625
7.27 TheNearEast: A.D.1201to1300 ............................................................626
7.28 TheNearEast: A.D.1301to1400 ............................................................629
7.29 TheNearEast: A.D.1401to1500 ............................................................631
7.30 TheNearEast: A.D.1501to1600 ............................................................633
7.31 TheNearEast: A.D.1601to1700 ............................................................635
7.32 TheNearEast: A.D.1701to1800 ............................................................637
7.33 TheNearEast: A.D.1801to1900 ............................................................639
8 The Pacific
8.1 GeographicalPresentationofThePacic .......................................................643
8.2 ThePacic: Beginningto8000B.C. ...........................................................644
8.3 ThePacic: 8000to5000B.C. ................................................................645
8.4 ThePacic: 5000to3000B.C. ................................................................645
8.5 ThePacic: 3000to1500B.C. ................................................................646
8.6 ThePacic: 1500to1000B.C. ................................................................646
8.7 ThePacic: 1000to700B.C. .................................................................647
8.8 ThePacic: 700to601B.C. ..................................................................648
8.9 ThePacic: 600to501B.C. ..................................................................649
8.10 ThePacic: 500to401B.C. .................................................................650
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8.11 ThePacic: 400to301B.C. .................................................................650
8.12 ThePacic: 300to201B.C. .................................................................651
8.13 ThePacic: 200to101B.C. .................................................................651
8.14 ThePacic: 100B.C.to0 ...................................................................652
8.15 ThePacic: 0toA.D.100 ...................................................................653
8.16 ThePacic: A.D.101to200 .................................................................653
8.17 ThePacic: A.D.201to300 .................................................................654
8.18 ThePacic: A.D.301to400 .................................................................654
8.19 ThePacic: A.D.401to500 .................................................................656
8.20 ThePacic: A.D.501to600 .................................................................656
8.21 ThePacic: A.D.601to700 .................................................................657
8.22 ThePacic: A.D.701to800 .................................................................657
8.23 ThePacic: A.D.801to900 .................................................................658
8.24 ThePacic: A.D.901to1000 ...............................................................659
8.25 ThePacic: A.D.1001to1100 ..............................................................659
8.26 ThePacic: A.D.1101to1200 ..............................................................660
8.27 ThePacic: A.D.1201to1300 ..............................................................661
8.28 ThePacic: A.D.1301to1400 ..............................................................661
8.29 ThePacic: A.D.1401to1500 ..............................................................662
8.30 ThePacic: A.D.1501to1600 ..............................................................662
8.31 ThePacic: A.D.1601to1700 ..............................................................664
8.32 ThePacic: A.D.1701to1800 ..............................................................664
8.33 ThePacic: A.D.1801to1900 ..............................................................667
9 Special Sections ................................................................... .................673
10 Bibliography ......................................................................................675
Bibliography .........................................................................................676
Index ................................................................................................690
Attributions ..........................................................................................694
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Foreword1
A Comprehensive Outline of World History” was written and self-published by Dr. Jack E. Maxfield.
The structure of the work is innovative. Each chapter covers a period of historical time (e.g. a century). Sections within
chapters describe what was going on in every geographical region of the world; each section provides a reference for
that region in the subsequent chapter, i.e. in the next time period. The reader can thus get a snapshot of the entire world
at a point in time by reading one chapter, or can follow the history of a region through time by linking to sections in
successive chapters.
This modular, linked structure is ideally suited to web-based online implementation, especially to the Connexions
platform. I am pleased to make this content available on Connexions for the enjoyment and enlightenment of everyone
with an interest in the history of our world.
Robert Maxfield
October 2008
More Details on the Origin of this Material
My father, Dr. Jack Eldred Maxfield, was an orthopedic surgeon with a deep interest in history. He self-published
three editions of “A Comprehensive Outline of World History. The 1959 first edition consisted of 200 pages with 8
references in the bibliography, and included a unique time-line, hand-drawn and hand-colored by him, showing the
rise and fall of civilizations. An original and six carbon copies were typed from his hand-written manuscript. He put
these copies into binders and presented them to me and my friends as high-school graduation gifts.
The second, hardbound edition, published about 1975, was a single volume of 474 pages, 47 bibliographical references,
and numerous hand-drawn, hand-colored maps. I do not know how many copies were printed.
The third edition, typed by my father on an electronic typewriter and published in 1984, consisted of three hardbound
volumes totaling 1303 pages and 322 bibliographic references. Well over one hundred copies, in batches of 20, were
eventually published as demand grew. The following letter was included with each set he gave away:
Dear friends:
These three volumes are in no way to be considered a formal publication. They simply represent the end
result of some 25 years of reading, writing and re-writing historical material arranged in a chronological
way to suit my own fancy and for the use of my family if they so desired. I am happy now to include a
few friends who have expressed an interest.
1This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17880/1.4/>.
Available for free at Connexions <http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2>
1
2
Before using this manuscript for reference or even for casual reading, I would suggest that you first peruse
the pages numbered with Roman numerals in Volume I. They give the general plan of the outline and
suggest its purposes as well as defining some of its limitations. Please excuse any remaining typographical
and/or spelling errors and I am sure there are many.
Best regards,
Jack E. Maxfield
Jack Maxfield died on September 14, 2006, at age 93. The original 1984 typed manuscript of “A Comprehensive
Outline of World History” was found on a shelf in his closet. In 2007, a special print edition was published for
his grandchildren, future generations of our family, and for special friends. Thanks to the World Wide Web and
Connexions it is now available to everyone.
Available for free at Connexions <http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2>
Introduction2
Back to The Foreword (Section )
My friends ask why I should undertake to write a World History. Aren’t there already enough such books in the English
language? Of course. There are dozens, perhaps scores of them, each with a particular purpose, or scope, or bias and
each with some limitations. The very excellent The Outline of History by H.G. Wells was published some sixty plus
years ago and lacks much of the information gained from recent archeology and other sciences. It devotes only about
two pages to the Aztec and Inca empires and only an occasional sentence about Central and South America, otherwise.
Sub-Saharan Africa is scarcely mentioned except in regard to the slave trade. The Durants’ multi-volume work, The
Story of Civilization is a beautifully written narrative which, however, gets bogged down in its later volumes with
tiring details of long ago politics, royal genealogies and religious and philosophical dialogues. Unfortunately, as
with other texts, it also has some inaccuracies. The more scholarly A Study of History is a somewhat mystical
interpretation of Arnold Toynbee’s personal ideas of history, not in any sense a chronological narration of happenings.
If the reader is not already well versed in the essential landmarks of the world’s factual history, understanding is of ten
difficult. The same might be said of the more recent Hugh Thomas’ A History of the World, which has no suggestion
of continuity from the standpoint of dates, but discusses one facet of man’s endeavors at a time, jumping freely from
1,000 B.C. to A.D. 1,800 and back again, assuming that the reader already knows the prosaic historical f acts to
appreciate these rapid changes of scenes. Again, inaccuracies are present, some of which are mentioned later in the
text. While the usual high school history books have been cut of most of the gore, tragedy and even obscenities of the
old world, some of the college and adult texts such as The Columbia History of the World and William McNeill’s
several texts are excellent, but they still do not reach the far corners of the earth in some of the centuries. The An
Encyclopedia of World History, compiled and edited by William L. Langer, is an excellent documentation of world
history - ancient, medieval and modern, chronologically arranged and this has been referred to many times during the
writing of this manuscript, particularly for confirmation of dates, dynasties, clarification of names, etc. It is not a book
for leisurely reading and enjoyment, however, and is essentially a list of year dates with short, concise material after
each, purely for reference. Similar, but less useful, is James Trager’s very recent The Peoples Chronology, a series of
completely unrelated and miscellaneous "facts" (some are gross errors) listed by years. It is difficult to see the value
of this except perhaps as a parlor game of "What things happened in the world at large in some specific year?" This
manuscript has one purpose only - to give a panoramic picture of the entire globe from the arctic to deepest Africa
and the south Pacific in specific time-frames. The emphasis is to give the overall view of the world and its peoples,
without dwelling in too much depth on those features that are easily available in every school and municipal library
and in many homes. I refer to such subjects as the details of classical Greece and Rome, the American Colonies and
the various wars and specific battles. For example, in this text less space may be given the American Revolutionary
and Civil wars than the pre-Inca civilizations of South America or the life of the Mongol soldiers in central Asia.
Information on the former subjects is available everywhere, while that on the latter two subjects is limited.
Forward to:
1. The Mechanics of and Some Problems of the Presentation (Section )
2. Introduction to the Method of Geographical Presentation3
2This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17889/1.3/>.
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Available for free at Connexions <http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2>
3
4
3. Intro to Era4
4. Africa (Section 1.2)
5. America (Section 2.2)
6. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.2)
7. Europe (Section 4.2)
8. The Far East (Section 6.2)
9. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.2)
10. The Near East (Section 7.2)
11. Pacific (Section 8.2)
12. Some Thoughts5
13. Special Sections (Chapter 9)
14. Bibliography (Chapter 10)
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The Mechanics of and Some Problems of the
Presentation6
Material is arranged in one sense chronologically and in another sense geographically so that the reader may review
historical situations either in a "satellite" cross-sectional view of the entire world in one time-frame, or may follow
events in any one geographical area through the many centuries in more or less brief narrative form by following the
simple (Continued on page so and so) after each section. An attempt has been made to give a brief resume of the
political status, important philosophies, scientific developments and religious trends while devoting proportionately
more time to a description of the status of the common people of an area at any given moment. Hopefully most of the
world’s outstanding personalities in all fields have been given some space, but it is admitted that many aspects of art,
literature, music and architecture may, in some opinions, be slighted, as these are not the major fields of the author’s
interests.
The textual data is presented in multiple chapters, each representing a definite period of time. The earlier chapters
span several millennia each, but beginning with the 7th century B.C. each chapter contains the events of one century
only. Within each chapter or time-frame in addition to some general remarks pertinent to the period as a whole, the
world situation will discussed under eight main headings or sections, representing eight great areas of the globe. These
areas and their subdivisions have been somewhat arbitrarily chosen, but seem to lend themselves satisfactorily to an
orderly consideration of the various societies and civilizations. One cannot prevent certain over-lappings and certain
difficulties with such a plan due to the changing political boundary lines from century to century. As one example it
will be remembered that the Great Wall of China ended at Jiayuguan in the west, marking the border of traditional
China, and beyond this on westward lies Central Asia. Yet today much of this land to the west belongs to the present
Chinese Peoples Republic, even though the inhabitants are still chiefly Turkish and Mongolian peoples. So, in spite
of the political shift certain areas currently under the domain of China, such as Sinkiang-Uighur (present spelling
Xinjiang Uygur) and Tibet, will be considered in this manuscript under the heading of CENTRAL AND NORTHERN
ASIA. Manchuria is considered an entity in itself, as part of the Far East complex.
Another matter which may annoy or confuse the reader as he progresses through the text is the spelling variations. One
must realize that language is a spoken phenomenon and that what we call "written language" is really only a notation
system that attempts to recall the spoken words to the observer. Thus when anyone attempts to write down a notation
that seems to him to record a spoken foreign word his rendition will depend on his own language background and
phonetics. The result may be only a rough approximation at best, and the spelling will vary greatly with the nationality
of the translator. One of the most fascinating examples of this would be in the spelling variations for the great Mongol
leader whose name has been variously written as "Jenghis Khan", "Chingis Khan", "Genghis Khan", "Chinggis Khan"
and perhaps others. The Mongols as a group have been named "Khalkas", "Tatars", "Tartars", "Cumans", "Kipchaks",
or "Poloritse" depending on the writer, his nationality and the location of the particular Mongol tribe at the moment.
It is well known that the English of ten use a "k" where Americans use "c" as in such words as "Keltic"-"Celtic" and
"Khosru-"Chosroes", etc. Although this author has attempted to be as consistent as possible there are probably many
exceptions for which apology is asked.
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6
There is still another source of confusion concerning names. When the first names of the monarchs of medieval
and later Europe are all Anglicized we get an amazing succession of Charles, Henrys, Johns, Williams, etc. In one
world history index I counted about sixty-five rulers named Charles. In this manuscript in so far as possible the
monarchs’ names will be given in their own language so that differentiation may be aided. Thus in the Scandinavian
and Germanic countries Charles will be Karl and William will be Wilhelm. Similarly the French Henrys will be Henris
and the Portugese John will be the native Joao while Peter will be rendered as Pedro. Other examples will be apparent.
But that is not all! The Chinese emperors present special problems in nomenclature, as all Chinese have traditionally
had several kinds of personal names, and special names were of ten added according to interests or achievements.
Posthumous names were often given prominent individuals also to further complicate the situation. The old rulers
of China were seldom ref erred to by their personal names but rather by the epithets of ancestral temple ceremonies,
including the terms "tsu" (grandfather), "tsung" (clansman or ancestor) or "ti" (emperor). Founders of dynasties are
commonly designated "Kao-tsu" (exalted grandfather) or "T’ai-tsu" (grand progenitor). In addition the emperors of
the Ming and Ch’ing dynasties commonly coined era names indicating what they hoped the future would bring and
subsequently they might be called by their era-name. One trouble is that some changed era-names several times during
their reigns. Hucker gives the example: "Ming T’ai-tsu began his reign in traditional fashion with the era-name Hung-
wu (swelling military power) – ’the Hung-wu’ emperor is a technically correct alternative way of referring to Ming
T’ai-tsu."7But one does not correctly say that his name was Hung-wu"!
One last warning. As this edition is being written almost all the Chinese cities and places are being spelled anew, in
an attempt to come closer to the true phonetic rendition of the Chinese words. Since at the moment this only seems to
add to the confusion and since it will be some years before most maps and texts will change to the new format, the old
system of spelling will be followed in this manuscript. Peking will still be "Peking" and not "Beijing".
This text will occasionally also have special sections on selected subjects or appropriate summaries of certain eras.
Terminology with reference to dates will be the traditional "B.C." referring to either years or centuries before the birth
of Christ, and "A.D." for a specific year after Christ. The latter abbreviation, of course, is for Anno Domini, meaning
"in the year of our Lord" and is therefore not properly used to refer to a century.
Thus, for those centuries after the birth of Christ we shall use the designation "C.E.", indicating the "Christian Era".
Footnotes will be indicated by number on each page, as demonstrated on this one. References to the bibliography will
be by number in the form (Ref. 34 ([54]), 102 ([147])) and usually will be grouped at the end of paragraphs or sections
to minimize confusion during the reading of the text. Some "additional notes" will be found at the end of the text,
beginning on page 1181. Triple asterisks - *** - in the text proper indicate that these additional notes are appropriate
to that paragraph. In some instances the page number is listed with the asterisks, but otherwise the notes are easily
found under the proper time-frame and then the geographical division, just as in the main outline.
7Hucker (Ref. 101 ([146])), page 288n
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Chapter 1
Africa
1.1 Geographical Presentation of Africa1
Africa is a tremendous continent, measuring nearly 5,000 miles from north to south and the same from the western
edge at 20north latitude to the eastern "horn". It comprises over 20% of the earth’s land surface. Throughout the
manuscript we shall discuss Africa under the subdivisions listed below.
1.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
This area includes present day Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has about 2,000,000 square miles and is a
region where Hamitic and Semitic Caucasoids have met and merged with Negroid stock. Many of the Negroids seem
different than other black Africans and some authorities believe them to be a separate race, as for example – the Masai.
(Ref. 83 ([123])). In ancient times part of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) was known as Axum, while portions of the Sudan have
been known as Kush and Nubia. The Nile River runs through all of these countries with the exception of Somalia.
1.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST
This area includes present day Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and a large part of the Sahara Desert. Overall there are
nearly 3,000,000 square miles and the majority of the present population is descendant from the original inhabitants, as
no invader ever brought many individuals to the area. Even the great Arab waves of the 7th and 8th centuries probably
involved less than 200,000 people. The Berbers are a Caucasoid type, but with much physical variation from tribe to
tribe. They inhabit most of the coastal region, much of the mountainous country and the oases. The basic population
of the Sahara proper, particularly its more southern portions, was and is today basically Negroid, some native and
some descended from slaves. (Ref. 83 ([123])).
1.1.3 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
This area extends from far west Africa across the Sudanic plain as far east as the Lake Chad environs, then down to
the equatorial district as well as central, east and south Africa and the major islands. This very large spread of land
has many and varied peoples and cultures, but historical material is still relatively meager for most of it and from the
standpoint of manuscript space, it seems best to consider it under one section.
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8CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Figure 1.1: Africa
Choose Different Region
1. America (Section 2.1)
2. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.1)
3. Europe (Section 4.1)
4. The Far East (Section 6.1)
5. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.1)
6. The Near East (Section 7.1)
7. Pacific (Section 8.1)
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9
1.2 Africa: Beginning to 8000 B.C.2
1.2.1 AFRICA
Before the Ice Age, in the Pliocene Era, there were ape-like hominoids using weapons to kill prey in Africa. It is in the
anthropological digs in Tanganyika’s Olduvai Gorge that one finds the possible origin of man a million or more years
ago. Some cutting tools there are dated at 3,000,000 B.C. Human habitation in Egypt goes back at least 200,000 years
and there are stone tools in Zambia dating to 700,000 to 500,000 B.C. About 110,000 years ago there was a major
change in world climate (probably from eccentricity in the earth’s orbit) which gave rise to the Ice Age in northern
latitudes and to marked precipitation changes, both of distribution and amount, on the African continent. Homo erectus
disappeared and Homo sapiens, with middle Stone Age tool technology, appeared. Those men in Africa were similar
or identical to Neanderthal man in Europe and Asia.
About 20,000 B.C. during the Magdalenian period, there was a hunting culture in North Africa similar to that of
Spain and France, and the people left remarkable rock engravings of wild, large animals in some areas. Later post-ice
age (Mesolithic) paintings had lost the naturalism of earlier ones and may have been chiefly remembered symbolism
within the tribes, after the large animals had disappeared. Ateriaan bow and arrow makers in Maighreb and Stillbay in
Magosian settlements in south and east Africa are dated to 185000 B.C. At that time there was a land bridge from near
the horn of Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. The large game animals - mastodons and mammoths began to disappear
from Africa some 50,000 to 40,000 years ago and the number of human hunters probably decreased secondarily. Rock
art has been found dating back to 25,000 B.C. in Nambia; to 11,000 B.C. in southern Morocco; and to 7,000 B.C.
in Cape Province, South Africa. The first known Negro skeleton comes from Iwo Ileru in Nigeria and dates to about
9,000 B.C.
Stone artifacts show the same radio-carbon dating. Flint blades, adapted from ancient weapons, were used near the
Nile for reaping wild wheat by 12,000 B.C. (Ref. 18 ([31]), 28 ([48]), 140 ([190]), 66 ([97]), 45 ([66]), 130 ([180]),
226 ([302]), 88 ([131]), 83 ([123]), 213 ([288])) Additional Notes
NOTE: Wild camels were present in northwestern Africa from the middle Pleistocene down to the early Post-
glacial period. (Ref. 313 ([249])) Emmanuel Anati (Ref. 299 ([5])) dates the Namibia rock art to about the
same period as given in the text (26,000 to 28,000 years Before Present) and describes polychrome painted
slabs with animal figurines
Forward to Africa: 8000 to 5000 B.C. (Section 1.3)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era3
2. America (Section 2.2)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.2)
4. Europe (Section 4.2)
5. The Far East (Section 6.2)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.2)
7. The Near East (Section 7.2)
8. Pacific (Section 8.2)
1.3 Africa: 8000 to 5000 B.C.4
1.3.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: Beginning to 8000 B.C. (Section 1.2)
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10 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
About 7,000 B.C. a two-man plough was used in Egypt, one man ahead pulling on a rope and the other pressing down
the point. (Ref. 213 ([288])) It is assumed that hunters and pastoral peoples lived in great parts of Africa, particularly
the north and east at this time, but there is little or no evidence of their culture except in the Sahara, itself. Some of
the Tassili pastoral rock paintings of that area may date back to 6,000 B.C. During the climatic optimum from about
7,000 to 3,000 B.C. the Sahara was bush country, well stocked with game. It well could have been a zone of human
interbreeding of races, in that today there are a number of Saharan and Sudanese tribes which appear to be intermediate
between Caucasoids and African Negroes. Mediterranean dark-white Hamitic Caucasoids appear to have come from
Asia, bringing Cushitic languages about 8,000 B.C. and spreading south along the Rift Valley of Africa to settle by
the lakes in Kenya. They were fishermen, using stone instruments and making pottery. (Ref. 83 ([123])) But to return
to the area of the Sahara, certainly before 6,000 B.C. this was a region of lush valleys, wooded hills and fertile rolling
plains, and the rock drawings of this early period suggest that the people were like the present day Bushmen, now
found only in the South African desert. But with the disappearance of the big game, particularly the buffalo, these
people were apparently replaced by herdsmen from the east, perhaps the ancestors of the present day nomadic Fulani
peoples (Ref. 215 ([290]), 176 ([242])) Elsewhere in Africa from about 6,000 B.C. on, some groups living near lakes
or rivers adopted a more settled way of life, using bone harpoons for fishing. Remains of these have been found near
Lake Chad, Lake Edward and Khartoum on the Nile. (Ref. 88 ([131]))
Forward to Africa: 5000 to 3000 B.C. (Section 1.4)
1.4 Africa: 5000 to 3000 B.C.5
1.4.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Back to Africa: 8000 to 5000 B.C. (Section 1.3)
In this period there were Cushitic speaking Hamitic people along the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden on the coastline of
the horn of Africa. In Egypt, sometime between 4,500 and 3,100 B.C. the Badarian Culture existed, with agriculture,
irrigation, clearing of jungles and swamps and pictographic writing, which may have been imported from Sumeria.
These Badarians may have come from south of Egypt via the Red Sea and Wadi Hammarat, but it is possible that
immigrants from Jericho also arrived, bringing food-producing techniques. The overall population of the lower Nile
was probably less than 20,000 at 5,000 B.C. (Ref. 83 ([123])) The climate was cold and damp and the people wore
kilts or long skirts made of linen or skins with the fur inward. They lived in some type of tents or perishable wall
homes.
Hippopotami and crocodiles were in evidence, and in the area of el Badari there are bodies of dogs, sheep and oxen
wrapped in matting or linen. This suggests possible reverence for these animals. Lower Egypt had domestic grazing
animals from the Levant by about 4,500 B.C., but the Badarians lived primarily in middle Egypt and their pottery
dates to the second half of the 5th millennium by thermoluminescence. That they had outside contacts is evidenced
by ivory spoons, shells from the Red Sea and turquoise beads from the Sinai. Recent finds of a vast number of reed
ships, many with masts and sails have been made in the long dried-up wadi between the Nile and the Red Sea which
may well date back to this period. The Egyptians are basically Hamitic, but may well have added mixtures of Nubian,
Ethiopian and Libyan natives, coming from the Sahara as it slowly dried, along with immigrant Semitic or Armenoid
tribes. Cattle were used as beasts of burden perhaps by 4,000 B.C. The sail was used from about 3,500 B.C. on, and
pottery dating to 3,100 bears paintings of sickle-shaped sailing vessels, apparently built with reeds and complete with
cabins and centerboards. Egypt was first united as the "Old Kingdom" under Menes6, who, as king of Upper Egypt,
subdued Lower Egypt and united the two with a new capital established at what was later called Memphis. Although
Egypt had no copper or tin, it did have gold and there were fabulous goldsmiths in Memphis (actually a clan of dwarfs)
from the early days of the United Kingdom. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 94 ([141]), 95 ([140]), 45 ([66]), 213 ([288]))
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6Menes is now considered to be one and the same with the legendary King Narmer of Hieraconopolis, so eulogized by Professor Toynbee. (Ref.
221 ([295]), 68 ([106])) Additional Notes (p. 11)
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1.4.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
A Neolithic Hamitic culture was present in Algeria and Morocco with agricultural settlements and pottery by 5,000
B.C. The Sahara was quite wet from 7,000 to 2,000 B.C. and the many lakes reached their maximum extent about 3,500
B.C. when Lake Chad covered some 200,000 square miles. It is now the only remaining lake with 15,000 square miles
of water. The rivers of the Sahara ran inland so that alluvial material gradually filled up the inland basins, blocking and
slowing the streams. In the fierce sun that followed the changing climate, the water evaporated and the marshes dried
out. Salt deposits are still worked at such places as Amadror, Teghaza and Taoudenni which are simply old inland
basins. The people of the wet Sahara were Negroid and they raised domesticated cattle and left beautiful works of art
on rocks with some figures as high as twenty-six feet. Elephants, antelope, water animals and fish were abundant. The
Negroid people of this era were not the Bushmanoid, round-headed people pictured on the rock drawings before 6,000
B.C. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 176 ([242]))
1.4.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
At 4,000 B.C. there were two languages of the western Sudan family - Yoruba and Idoma - but they were already
very different and had apparently been diverging for several thousand years. (Ref. 83 ([123])) In tropical Africa there
were probably scattered bands of peoples whose descendants are the pygmies of the Zaire forests and Bushmen of
the Kalahari Desert. The first true Negroes probably lived as fishermen along the Nile and the Niger rivers and the
savannah north and west of the forest about 4,000 B.C. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
NOTE: Archeologist M.A. Hoffman of the University of South Carolina (Ref. 316 ([142])) writes of the
factors allowing the development of the "first nation", under Narmer (Menes). At Hierakonopolis, in Upper
Egypt, about 3800 B.C., there was slight seasonal rainfall, wooded grasslands, fertile flood plains and easy
access to the Nile. There were two settlements in the area with mud-brick and wattle-and-daub houses
spread over a 100 acre area and having perhaps as many as 10,000 people. This is called the Amratian
period (also Naqada I) and excavations have produced maceheads, as symbols of central authority. A huge
pottery industry was present, making Red Ware pottery which was traded up and down the Nile. Some
was used in the elaborate burials which were part of the Egyptians’ religious beliefs. Just after 3500 B.C.,
however, with the area becoming more arid, potteries were abandoned and the Amratian period came to
an end, as people moved into more thickly settled villages along the wetter Nile flood plain, initiating the
Gerzean or Naqada II period, which lasted until 3100 B.C. An elite class in the new villages built temples,
palaces, larger tombs and possibly an irrigation system, rendering the flood plain able to produce bigger
and more reliable harvests. But the water management and excess grain storage problems demanded more
central control. Various kings fought for dominance and finally it was Narmer, who succeeded in political
unification of the entire Egyptian Nile valley
Forward to Africa: 3000 to 1500 B.C. (Section 1.5)
1.5 Africa: 3000 to 1500 B.C.7
1.5.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Back to Africa: 5000 to 3000 B.C. (Section 1.4)
Out on the horn of Africa, men in Somalia were producing frank incense and myrrh for sale to Egypt as early as
3,000 B.C. The Cushitic-speaking people continued expansion south of Egypt and into Nubia. Due to the change in
the Sahara climate, more Negro and Sudanic people settled just west of the Cushites (also Kushites), increasing the
population there (Ref. 8 ([14])) Additional Notes (p. 14)
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12 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
A map of Egypt of this period may be found in the early pages of the next chapter. The exact dating of the various
dynasties and eras of ancient Egypt continue to be debated.
NOTE: Insert Map taken from Reference 97 (page 61)
The dates used in this manuscript are those given by Professor Easton in The Heritage of the Past (Ref. 57 ([82])) and
these are fairly well coordinated with those used in The Columbia History of the World (Ref. 68 ([106])) and other
recent publications. The first stone constructed sepulchre of pyramidal design was built at Saqqara, near Memphis,
during the reign of Zoser (also Djoser), an early king of the 3rd dynasty, between 2,700 and 2,630 B.C. This was
called the "Step Pyramid" and was actually the creation of Imhotep, chief minister of the king, a man who was later
deified. Recent desert studies would suggest that this step pyramid and the larger ones to follow were actually shaped
after nature’s own desert, wind-swept dunes of the western desert. Sand-stone and solid rock mountains and dunes all
seem to have naturally assumed a conical shape, as the winds spiral about them to exhaust their energy at the pointed
top. It is very possible that the man-made structures were modeled after these natural ones, and it is said that a rocky
knoll of unknown size underlies the Great Pyramid and that there is a natural stone out-cropping at the tomb of Queen
Khent-Kawes. It is thus suggested that the ancients not only simply enlarged and refined already existing natural
conical structures, but that the very nature of these shapes have allowed them to withstand the winds and sand storms
of all the ages since they were built8. Still more intriguing is the finding in the desert of forms very much like the
sphinx, indicating that where constantly directed winds hit certain geological formations an unusual shape somewhat
like that of a reclining dog with raised head, is formed.
Can the sphinx simply be a dressed-up natural formation of this type? Similar shapes have been found in the desert
as far back as 1909 (Ref. 59 ([87]), 243 ([88])) and there are suggestions of the same phenomenon in parts of Utah
today. Copper mines were developed in the Sinai by Pharaoh Snefu, a successor of Zoser. He also used large ships to
increase sea trade (Ref. 222 ([296])).
Bronze was in use in Egypt by 3,000 B.C. and the great pyramids were started about 2,600 B.C. in the time of Cheops
of the 4th dynasty9. Because of the fertility of the Nile flood basins in this 3rd millennium, the average peasant
produced three times as much food as his family needed and thus he was capable of feeding the flood control workers
and the builders of public buildings and Pharaoh’s tombs. The first wooden boats were made in exact imitation of the
old reed boats. An entire such vessel of Cheops’, dating to 2,700 B.C., has recently been excavated from his pyramid.
It has a length of 143 feet and appears more graceful than a later Viking ship, but could only have been used for
ceremonies on the smooth Nile, as it had no internal ribs and could not have survived ocean sailing. Only the papyrus
ships from which it was copied could withstand the ocean waves.
All subsequent rulers of the Old Kingdom built great pyramids such as that of Cheops and these edifices had great
religious significance. There is no doubt that great numbers of slaves were used in their construction, and they were
obtained chiefly from Nubia and some of these were even exported on to Iraq. Toynbee (Ref. 220 ([294])) feels that
the 4th dynasty (2,600 to 2,500 B.C.) represents the height of Egyptian Society culture and growth. The population
at that time was probably about three million, or more (Ref. 83). Disintegration of the society or "time of troubles",
according to Toynbee, began in the 6th dynasty (2,300 to 2,200 B.C.) and for four centuries there was no central
control but only small feudal states ruled by provincial governors, the "nomarcha", who levied taxes and kept small
armies. Kings did exist, but in name only. About 2,000 B.C. Amenemhet I, a Thebian nomarch, marched down the
Nile and established the 12th dynasty as a central ruling government, beginning the "Middle Kingdom" of Egyptian
history. Toynbee considers this the "Universal State" of the degenerating Egyptian Society, in which the sins of the
pyramid builders were visited on their successors, but Professor Cheilik (Ref. 28 ([48])) describes this as a period of
increasing trade and contacts with other countries, in spite of some political deterioration. When a mummy of Wah, an
official of this Thebes Dynasty, was unwrapped at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York they estimated that
about 365 square meters of linen had been used. This craft of mummification had been developed over a long period
8The conical shapes of primitive shelters from the American Indian tepees to African and Arabian Desert tents and Mongolian and Kazak yurts
in central Asia may all resist the winds in the same way (Ref. 59 ([87]))
9Thomas (Ref. 213 ([288]), page 32) dates the Great Pyramid at 2,900 B.C. and comments on its exactly squared base, the 50 degree slope of
all surfaces and the fact that the stones are so well fitted together that a blade cannot be inserted between them
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13
and all the technique is still not known. Certainly the first step was removal of the internal organs of the deceased,
sometimes by an abdominal incision, sometimes by a corrosive agent introduced in an enema. The second step was
dessication with the use of natron, either dry or in solution. Finally the body was anointed with balms and ointments
and the extensive bandaging began. All of this was simply to preserve the body as an eternal repository for the soul.
(Ref. 246 ([23]))
The port of Byblos on the Phoenician coast was a large emporium for Egyptian products and Egyptian wares were
wanted in Crete and Mesopotamia. With the conquest of Nubia a large supply of gold was obtained and a high point of
prosperity was reached under Senusert (also Sesostris) III (1,878-1,840 B.C.). Egypt had a population at that time of
seven to eight million (Ref. 176 ([242]), 95 ([140]), 57 ([82]), 68 ([106]), 8 ([14]), 220 ([294]), 28 ([48]), 213 ([288])).
The Middle Kingdom ended with about two hundred years of turmoil and disputes for the throne, until 1,680 B.C.
when the nomad Semitics called "Hyksos" (probably Canaanites) invaded from the Arabian area. These invaders
brought the domesticated horse with chariot warfare and men using composite bows and were thus invincible at that
time. They made their capital in the Nile delta at Avaris and their overlords called themselves "pharaohs". Previous
to the advent of the Hyksos’ horses the Egyptians had used only the donkey as a beast of burden but the invaders
did not penetrate the country far from the Nile delta, and the Egyptians considered themselves a distinct and separate
people and did not easily accept strangers or new ideas so they refused to adopt either the horse-drawn chariot or the
composite bow. The population as a whole was thus not greatly influenced (Ref. 246 ([23]))
About 1,567 B.C. another Thebian king, Kamose, started a war of liberation from upper Egypt and recovered most of
the territory from the invader Semites. The job was completed by his brother, Amosis I, a few years later. The Hyksos
movement probably presented the final upheaval in the Amorite series of expansions that will be discussed under the
section on the NEAR EAST, below. It was probably at the time of this Semitic domination that the Biblical Joseph
moved into Egypt (Ref. 231 ([308]), 122 ([170]), 8 ([14]), 136 ([187]))
The bow-drill was used in Egypt from 2,500 B.C. on and rules of measurement, the plumb-line, construction of a right
angle and the shaping of stones with a mason’s square were all features of this society. Ahmes calculated the area of a
circle about 1,600 B.C. and Ptah-Hotep was a great philosopher of the 3rd millennium B.C. The Middle Kingdom was
also a period of fine craftsmanship. A beer called haq was commonly drunk and was made from red barley of the Nile
valley. Bread was supposedly also first made here in the dynastic period because of the development of a new kind of
wheat which could be threshed without the application of heat. The ass, of African origin, was first used for regular
trade between Egypt and Iraq sometime after 2,000 B.C.
Our knowledge of Egyptian medicine (except for commentaries from Greek and Roman writers) comes from seven
medical papyruses discovered in the last century. The oldest of these, the fragmentary Kahun Papyrus, deals with
veterinary medicine and women’s diseases. The next, dating to about the 17th century B.C., is concerned with surgical
matters beginning at the top of the head and working down to the mid-chest. The longest of the papers, the George
Ebers Papyrus, dates to about the 16th century B.C. and is an extensive therapeutic text written a millennium before
Hippocrates and containing prescriptions dating back to 3,700 B.C. It was probably a copy of older documents. This
papyrus, twelve inches wide, unwinds to a length of sixty-six feet. Egyptians rather routinely removed all internal
organs after death, saving them in special containers as the body proper was mummified, but they knew very little
about the functions of these organs. Although they paid much attention to cleanliness, having almost a national
fetish of keeping the gastro-intestinal tract clean with multiple purges, emetics and enemas of every conceivable kind,
disease was still rampant. Mummies show evidence of tuberculosis of the spine with accompanying spinal deformities
and cold abscesses, club foot, polio and measles, not to mention the undoubted parasitic infestations they must have
obtained, and still do, from the Nile. Eye diseases, particularly trachoma, leading to blindness, were and are still
common in Egypt. It responds some to copper preparations and it is interesting that Egyptian women wore green
eye make-up, probably made from copper salts. In general, treatment was a mixture of religio-magical gestures and
the use of an extensive pharmacopoeia and some limited surgical procedures such as cauterization, circumcision and
occasional trepanning of the skull, if indeed, this was actually a medical procedure. Dentistry was advanced with
prosthesis construction as early as 2,600 B.C. Egyptian physicians had good reputations throughout the ancient world
and at home. There was apparently a definite medical hierarchy, beginning at the top with the Pharaoh’s physician.
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14 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Special training schools for physicians were attached to temples (Ref. 211 ([284]), 125 ([173]), 15 ([26]), 213 ([288])).
Additional Notes (p. 14)
1.5.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
The Hamitic Berbers had a well established Neolithic Culture in a large area along the coast of North Africa, but they
had no copper. They were probably descendants of the ancient Mediterranean peoples and related to the Iberians and
Basques. There were two major subgroups:
The nomadic Tauregs of the desert who maintained strict hereditary classes, with an ancient alphabet and using
artistic trappings on their camels and jewelry on themselves, and
The Kabyles, particularly of Algeria, living as a settled tribe, long famous for pottery made without the use of
the wheel. (Ref. 46 ([76]), 19 ([32]))
Dessication of the Sahara set in about 3,000 to 2,500 B.C., causing some pastoralists to move into the jungles of the
Nile Valley and others to move south with the rains. This shift to arid conditions in the Sahara may have stimulated the
emergence of civilization in Egypt. By 2,000 B.C., as reflected in the Sahara rock drawings, rhinoceroses, hippopota-
muses and giraffes had already vanished from this area. Southward expansion of cereal-growing occurred during the
2nd millennium B.C. as millet and sorghum were domesticated as tropical crops (Ref. 215 ([290]), 176 ([242]), 8
([14]))
1.5.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
The southern shift of the cereal-growing belt, due to the change in the Sahara climate, resulted in an increase of the
Negro populations. (Ref. 8 ([14]))
NOTE: Kerma, 1,500 kilometers north of modern Khartoum, was the capital of Kush. Egypt of the Middle
Kingdom had to deal with these Nubians and did so with forts at Senna, some 270 kilometers north of
Kerma. The city itself was an extensive urban development, particularly after 2000 B.C. The large tombs of
"royalty" contained animal sacrifices and some of them even had up to 400 human sacrificed retainers. The
Nubian culture spread over central and northern Sudan. This particular culture of Kerma almost completely
disappeared after colonization of the area by the pharaohs of the XVIII Dynasty of Egypt. (Ref. 303 ([25]))
After 1,520 the New Kingdom of Egypt used Nubian gold to hire charioteers as a professional force. (Ref.
279 ([191]))
Forward to Africa: 1500 to 1000 B.C. (Section 1.6)
1.6 Africa: 1500 to 1000 B.C.10
1.6.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Back to Africa: 3000 to 1500 B.C. (Section 1.5)
The story of Northeast Africa in this period is essentially that of Egypt with little change occurring in the adjacent
regions, except for Cush or (Kush). After the overthrow of the foreign Hyksos rulers local control was resumed within
the establishment of the New Kingdom of the Egyptian Empire, with the great pharaoh, Thutmose III, taking over part
of the coast of the Near East and bringing Egypt in contact with other cultures. He even took an interest in Asiatic
flora and fauna and brought specimens home. Extensive commercial ties resulted in imports of Cretan wares, Syrian
amphorae and African gold, ebony, ivory, hides and exotic animals. At about 1,500 B.C. the Egyptians had pushed
south to become the masters of Kush, "to protect their security" and incidentally to obtain gold. The Kushites, who
may have descended from C-group Caucasoids, became increasingly Egyptianized. (Ref. 83 ([123])) The greatest
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15
geographical expansion, however, was reached under Amenhotep III, about 1,390 B.C. This ruler had his likeness
constructed in two colossal statues across the Nile from Luxor, by transporting huge pieces of quartzite11 some four
hundred miles from a quarry down stream on the Nile. Recent scientific research, identifying the rock, would indicate
that the transport had to have been accomplished on a specially built lighter drawn upstream by oars and gangs of
draggers on the banks. About a century earlier such a great barge was engraved on the walls of the temple of Queen
Hatshepsut at Deir-el-Bahri. (Ref. 231 ([308]), 90 ([134]))
NOTE: Insert Illustration (page 103)
Amenhotep IV allowed some political decline, but, changing his name to Akhnaton (or Ikhnaton) he attempted to force
a new, strictly monotheistic religion on the Egyptian people, but the new faith did not last long. Tutenkhamon ruled in
1,355 and Rameses II, who exhausted his resources in wars against the Hittites and then married an Hittite princess,
ruled about 1,250 B.C. He built the first Suez Canal, a task not too difficult then, as the sea was higher than at present.
A victory inscription of Pharaoh Merneptah (about 1,224-1,214 B.C.) mentions the Hebrews, and this may have been
when Moses led the Hebrews back to Palestine. After 1,165 Egypt lost all territory beyond the Nile valley itself. In
the early part of this period under the Ramessid kings of the XX dynasty, the dominant religion had returned to the
worship of the Sun God Re and Amon, but gradually the Osirian church began to take over among the majority of the
people. This involved the worship of the God Osiris and his sister-wife, the nature Goddess Isis and their infant son,
Horus. The mysteries of this religion, including the death and resurrection of Osiris and the interpretation of Isis as
the "Mother of God" spread throughout the Near East in the next many centuries, and eventually served at one time as
both a model and a rival for Christianity, persisting well up to the 6th century C.E. However, at about 1,100 B.C. the
high priest of Amon took over the throne and the empire became a stagnant theocracy. Even Kush was able to regain
its independence. Invasions of "Sea peoples" - mixed armies of Cretans and Luvians, perhaps - probably contributed
to Egyptian decline. Ref. (28 ([48]), 46 ([76]), 38 ([59]), 8 ([14]), 224 ([299]))
The glory of Egyptian science was medicine. Public sanitation was promoted and all were circumcised and taught to
use enemas as cleansing procedures. They used glass, linen, paper and ink, the calendar and waterclock, geometry
and an alphabet. The empire had a peaceful, internal government with a regular census and post, both primary and
secondary education for some and technical training schools for administrators. Wheeled vehicles were common, and
they utilized bronze and such tools as blacksmith bellows. The Nile valley lacked iron ores so the Egyptians were
limited in the use of the new military technology that appeared in adjacent regions late in this period. In dynastic
Egypt the basic diet of the peasant consisted of bread, beer and onions, the first being a flat bread called "ta", but
nobles and priests could choose from some forty types of breads and pastries.
Chickens were available and later the Nile marshes supplied eel, mullet, carp and perch, and some of these fishes,
dried and salted, were exported to Syria and Palestine. (Ref. 136 ([187]), 211 ([284]))
1.6.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Neolithic Berbers continued to live in North Africa. The population of Libya was added to by Anatolian Sea People,
perhaps Cretans and/or Luvians, who attacked Egypt about 1,400 B.C. and then colonized Libya. Many of these
invaders were later employed in the Egyptian navy. Herodotus, Pliny and other ancient writers, described a people
called "Garamantes" who lived in present day Fezzan (375 miles northeast of Timbuktu) and who traveled in two-
wheeled chariots drawn by horses. Rock engravings in this area have confirmed this. Were they part of the Sea
Peoples? Some say the Tauregs are their descendants. Definitely among the Sea People were Shardana (or Sherden)
who carried round shields, broad swords and who wore feathered war-bonnets. Phoenician immigrants settled in
Morocco about 1,100 B.C. and these areas later became part of the Carthaginian Empire.
This was confirmed by the Greek historian, Procopius, who wrote that this Phoenician migration came at the time of
King David’s Hebrew wars. (Ref. 65 ([96]), 176 ([242]), 66 ([97]), 175 ([241]))
11The pedestal blocks with each statue made a total weight of 720 metric tons each (Ref. 90 ([134]))
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16 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
The Canary Islands in the Atlantic just off the coast of northwest Africa were inhabited before the known arrival
of Europeans by the Guanche, who were a mixed Caucasoid and Negroid people, varying somewhat from island to
island, with blond and bearded men living next to dark-skinned, clearly Negroid individuals. This has been confirmed
both by early descriptions and by mummies found on the islands. The "Canary Current" is a strong, westward flowing
Atlantic ocean current going straight from these Canary Islands to the Caribbean Sea and the base of the Yucatan
peninsula. It is of great interest that the Olmecs, living at the western end of this Canary current in America at this era,
were identical physically with those Guanche of the Canaries. The distance from these islands to Middle America is
equal to that from Asia Minor to the islands, but the former trip is infinitely faster and simpler on anything, such as a
reed-boat or even a raft. (Ref. 95 ([140]))
1.6.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Negro farmers inhabited the Sudanic belt and their population continued to increase as fruits, vegetables and cereals
were cultivated in the forest zone. Ghana, in west Africa, had domestic cattle and goats by 1,500 B.C. There was
also pottery, stone axes, shale arm-rings and fine stone points, whose use is unknown. In southern Mauretania, on the
southern fringe of the Sahara, excavations at Dar Tichitt have revealed the so-called Naghes phase, dated from 1,200
to 1,000 B.C. and showing circular compounds with evidence of cattle and goat herding, fishing and some hunting.
The people had stone axes, arrowheads, gouges, and pottery. In central and southern Africa nomadic black Bushmen
lived in the Stone Age. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 45 ([66]))
By 1,000 B.C. additional Caucasoid groups called "Azanians" brought cattle and cereals to join the previously settled
dark whites in the Kenya highland and adjoining northern Tanzania. They left stone burial chambers, hut circles,
terraced fields, roads and traces of irrigation. By tradition the Azanians were tall, bearded and red-skinned. In later
centuries these people were absorbed by the Nilo-Hamites and the Bantu Negroids. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
Forward to Africa: 1000 to 700 B.C. (Section 1.7)
1.7 Africa: 1000 to 700 B.C.12
1.7.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 1500 to 1000 B.C. (Section 1.6)
1.7.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
At the beginning of the last millennium B.C. Kush (or Nubia) was an area of fertile grassland, although now it is desert.
Prosperity then in the area depended on exports of ivory, ebony, gum, hides, ostrich plumes and slaves. The northern
Nubians were dark-skinned but probably of Asian origin, while farther south around present day Khartoum, there were
Negroes. Ethiopia began to be colonized by Semites from Sheba in Yemen in the 10th century B.C. Ethiopian legend
says that their country was founded by Menelik, eldest son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. In the 8th century
B.C. Kush was strong enough to conquer Egypt, perhaps with the help of those Ethiopians, and they established the
XXV dynasty in 725 B.C. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
In Egypt the post-empire period of the New Kingdom lasted from 1,090 intermittently until 525 B.C. The internal
decay of the theocracy was soon followed, as is common in history, by invasion and dominance by foreign powers.
About 950 B.C. Shishonq, chief of the Shardana tribe of the Sea People who had faded into the Libyan desert some
two centuries earlier, revolted against the Egyptian monarch and installed himself as pharaoh in the city of Bubastis,
establishing the Libyan Dynasty, ruling both Egypt and Libya. Egypt then became a maritime power, exporting
alabaster vases with various seals to Spain. The name "Shishonq" has also been found on some American inscriptions,
although the relationship is not clear at this time. As mentioned above, the Libyans were followed in 722 B.C. by
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the Kushites (and perhaps some Ethiopians) coming from the south. No cultural advance occurred in Egypt in those
troubled times. (Ref. 46 ([76]), 175 ([241]), 66 ([97])).
1.7.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
While the Libyans were in control of Egypt their influence and language spread far and wide, even to the Indo-Pacific
region where the Egyptians had long mined gold (particularly Sumatra). Fell (Ref. 122 ([170])) says the Libyan
language spread with Greek influences into Melanesia. In the Mediterranean after 813 B.C. there were coastline
colonies of Phoenicia, notably the growing Carthage, located in the Bay of Tunis near the modern city of Tunis.
Archaeologists, however, have found nothing at Carthage that can be dated before 735 B.C. Like the parent Phoenicia,
Carthage also manufactured a purple cloth by a secret dyeing process utilizing the pigment from a sea snail, called
"Murex", and the Greeks named the traders who sold this, "Phoinikoi" or "The Purple People". The Romans then
called them "Punici" and later the word "Punic" came to refer exclusively to the Carthaginians.
In Mauretania this period saw a decrease in rainfall and fishing was no longer possible, but millet was cultivated in the
fields. This was the Chebka phase of the Dar Tichitt Culture. By 1,000 B.C. a new, Hamitic speaking people from the
north, ancestors of present day Berbers, had established themselves in the Sahara region, with chariots, horses, goats
and cattle. (Ref. 65 ([96]), 84 ([124]), 66 ([97]), 45 ([66]))
1.7.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Most of southern Africa remained much as in the previous centuries. Sometime in this 1st millennium B.C. a break in
the forest belt in the east allowed Stone Age farmers, herdsmen and perhaps cereal growers to spread down the Rift
valley from Ethiopia into central Kenya and northern Tanganyika. (Ref. 8 ([14]))
Forward to Africa: 700 to 601 B.C. (Section 1.8)
1.8 Africa: 700 to 601 B.C.13
1.8.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 1000 to 700 B.C. (Section 1.7)
1.8.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Overpopulation in Yemen, on the Arabian Peninsula, forced bands of Arabs to cross the Red Sea and settle on the
northeastern edge of the Ethiopian plateau. They were good farmers and irrigators and got along well with the local
Cushitic speaking people who had a similar degree of culture. (Ref. 83 ([123])) There is some evidence that Phoeni-
cians, with the Egyptian pharaoh’s support, were making sailing trips south out of the Red Sea at this time, and perhaps
they even circumnavigated Africa.
Early in the century, the Assyrians under General Esarhaddon, then at the height of his power, swept down and
subjected priest-ridden Egypt to tribute and restricted the kings of the 25th (Kushite) dynasty to the country upriver
from Thebes. Esarhaddon put Necho, local prince of Sais, in control of the delta region, but subsequently Necho’s
son, Psammeticus I broke away from the Assyrians and re-established an independent Egyptian kingdom again (26th
dynasty-655 B.C.) and even pushed the Nubians and Kushites out of upper Egypt. The chief contribution of the
Assyrians to this region was the introduction of iron, which soon spread up the Nile, as the Kushites, retiring back to
their capital at Napata, took the knowledge of iron for weapons and tools with them. (Ref. 136 ([187]), 83 ([123]), 28
([48]), 175 ([241]), 213)
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18 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
In mid-century there were many Greek immigrants to Egypt, including mercenaries, colonists and traders. New crops
were introduced such as figs from Turkey, vines from Greece, sheep from Arabia and pigs from Sicily. Currency
replaced barter and caravan routes were developed. Slave labor was used in mines and quarries. After 609 B.C.
Pharaoh Necho (also Niku II) attempted to run a wide canal from the Nile to the Red Sea and expended the lives of
some 120,000 men in the process, but it was never completed. Necho also had an army conquer Palestine, but the
Babylonians ran them out after about four years. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
1.8.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Cyrene, Libya, was the site of an important Spartan Greek colony by about 630 B.C. Carthage had contined to de-
velop and had iron-working in its various settlements, a skill which then crossed the desert through trans-Saharan
trade routes. It was at this period that the Assyrians were attacking the Phoenician homeland, and Carthage became
increasingly more important as a center for that civilization. Gradually the Carthaginian or Punic dialect and alphabet
came to differ from that of the Lebanese Phoenicians. By the end of the century Carthage was receiving Etruscan
metals and pottery. Some of the latter was of truly Italian origin and some imitations of Corinthian ceramics. (Ref. 8
([14]), 66 ([97]), 75 ([115]))
1.8.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
On the west side of Africa there was further climatic deterioration after 700 B.C. The spread of people down the Rift
Valley into east Africa continued and both cattle and sheep were kept. The central and southern regions had little
change from the situation described in the last chapter.
Forward to Africa: 600 to 501 B.C. (Section 1.9)
1.9 Africa: 600 to 501 B.C.14
1.9.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 700 to 601 B.C. (Section 1.8)
1.9.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
As the century opened Egypt was again attempting expansion into Asia under native rulers and a punitive expedition
was sent south to sack the Kushite Napota (591 B.C.) forcing the movement of this Kushite capital south to Meroe.
Another view, however, is that the Kushite rulers simply elected to move their capital 300 miles south because wood
for smelting iron ore was becoming scarcer and the land was being overgrazed. At any rate, Meroe then became a
major iron center. Kush had a mixed Caucasian and Negro population and thereafter remained independent of the
various Egyptian rulers. The nation owed its prosperity to trade in ivory, ebony, gum, hides, ostrich plumes, iron and
slaves, all of which were carried either down the Nile to Egypt or across the Red Sea to Arabia and Mesopotamia.
They also had great herds of cattle and adequate agriculture15.
Egypt maintained close commercial relations with both the Greeks and Lydians. In the latter part of the century, the
Egyptians were pushed back out of the Asiatic mainland again by the rampaging Persians, and by 525 B.C. half of
Egypt itself had been conquered by the Persian Cambyses, son of Cyrus. After Cambyses committed suicide in 521
B.C., Darius continued to rule most of this area. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 8 ([14]), 68 ([106]), 28 ([48]))
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15Today this area of ancient Kush is almost completely desert. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
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1.9.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
By this time Carthage had developed an empire of its own, with settlements in western Sicily and Sardinia and with
contacts in Spain and along the African coast. In 520 B.C. Admiral Hanno landed 30,000 settlers from 60 vessels at
the mouth of the Rio de Oro in what is now Western Sahara. The colony lasted about fifty years. (Ref. 222 ([296]))
Herodotus says that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa in 600 B.C., starting in the Red Sea and going clockwise.
Himilco, sailing from Carthage, touched the shore of Ireland and found it a fertile land. All of this exploration and
expansion brought some troubles closer to home. Although they had previously been trading partners, the competition
between the Etruscan Caere and Carthage now became so acute that conflict became inevitable. Malchus, of Carthage,
consolidated the Punic position in western Sicily and then tried to do the same in Sardinia, although the native Sar-
dinian states fought back viciously and they were soon helped by the maritime Phocaean Greeks. Caere threw in its lot
with Carthage on this occasion. Herodotus, writing in the next century, said that the Phocaeans16 won but in so doing
lost forty ships and had another twenty severely damaged. They returned to Alalia, got their women and children and
resettled in Rhegum in south Italy, leaving Corsica also to the Carthaginians and Caeritans. In 509 B.C. Carthage
signed a treaty with the rising Rome, defining respective spheres of influence. (Ref. 84 ([124]))
Barry Fell (Ref. 65 ([96])) infers that after the Persian conquest of Egypt and the rise of the Greek and Roman
empires, the eastern Mediterranean was closed to Carthaginian shipping, so Carthage retaliated by closing the straits
of Gibralter to all European vessels. Then under the guise of supposed Spanish and north African trade, they exploited
North American silver, copper, hides and furs, bringing them back for the manufacture of bronze and the marketing of
the furs. He feels that this secrecy is the reason Roman annals have no mention of the trans-Atlantic voyages. To date
no one has come forth with any direct confirmation of this hypothesis.
1.9.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
That part of Africa south of the Sahara and the Abyssinian massif was one of the five great remaining reservoirs of
savage or barbarian life. The other four areas were the monsoon forests of Southeast Asia with the islands of Indonesia,
the steppe and forest zones of northern Eurasia, Australia and finally the Americas. (Ref. 139 ([192]))
Forward to Africa: 500 to 401 B.C. (Section 1.10)
1.10 Africa: 500 to 401 B.C.17
1.10.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 600 to 501 B.C. (Section 1.9)
1.10.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Perhaps as early as this century the art of iron smelting was imported into Sudan from Egypt via Kush, which had
become an immensely rich country. The early inhabitants of Axum on the Ethiopian plateau south of Kush were
probably of mixed Asian and Negro origin, and they were joined about 500 B.C. by settlers from southern Arabia,
some of whom were apparently Jews. An Ethiopian-Jewish community, as well as a later Christian one, has existed
in Ethiopia18 up to the present time. From those contacts arose the legend that the Queen of Sheba bore a son by
Solomon, who became emperor of Ethiopia and founded the Solomaic Dynasty. (The Queen of Sheba, of course, lived
in the 10th century B.C.)
Egypt continued to be ruled by the Persians, with no advance in their own civilization except that their economic
isolation was eliminated and they did complete the Nile-Red Sea canal which had been begun by Necho. Apparently
the original Egyptian cotton was a poor product and linen from flax dominated Egyptian clothing. (Ref. 213 ([288]))
16Herodotus described the Phocaeans as plunderers and looters. (Ref. 92 ([136]), Book 1, pp. 89, 90)
17This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17737/1.2/>.
18The word "Ethiopia" is Greek for "burnt-face". Actually this region was usually called "Abyssinia" until 1923. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 240 ([319]))
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20 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
The Egyptian science of previous centuries began to be picked up by Greeks who had colonies at Naucrates on the
Nile delta, with others along the coast towards Libya. All of this was further developed in the subsequent Hellenic
Culture. (Ref. 136 ([187]), 28 ([48]), 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
1.10.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
In addition to the Greek settlements along the Libyan coast there were Phoenician colonies all along the western half
of the North African shore from Leptis (east of Carthage) to the Pillars of Hercules. Carthage was rapidly developing
an empire of its own, controlling the old Tartessus area of Spain by 480 B.C. and later gaining all of the western half
of the African Mediterranean shore line. It was mentioned in the last chapter that at the end of that century Hanno, of
Carthage, had established a large colony down the Atlantic coast of Africa. Other writers have dated this colony, some
2,600 miles down the Atlantic, at 490 B.C., but in any event, archeologists have shown that Hanno was not the first, as
there were already ruins of a large megalithic city of Lixus, far south of Gibralter, just where the ocean current sweeps
past to go directly to the Gulf of Mexico. The Romans later called this ancient city the "Eternal City" or by a still
older name, "Sun City", as it was apparently built by sun-worshippers who included astronomers, architects, masons,
scribes and expert potters. The Sumerians, Assyrians, Hittites, Phoenicians, Egyptians and the Lixus people were all
fanatic sun-worshippers, just as were the Olmecs and the Mochica in Mexico and Peru, respectively. The Carthaginian
Himilco also continued his trips up to the northern shores of Europe to obtain tin for bronze . In his effort to find the
ultimate source of that metal, and avoid the Celtic middle men of France, Himilco finally found the channel islands
and then the coast of Britain, either at Cornwall or Devon, eventually to discover the tin mines of Cornwall. (Ref. 28
([48]), 136 ([187]), 95 ([140]), 66 ([97])) The Carthaginian position in the Mediterranean was weakened in 480 B.C.
when a large Carthaginian force suffered an humiliating defeat at the hands of Greek Syracusans in northern Sicily.
Carthage then seemed to also lose its former Etruscan ally, the city-state of Caere. Perhaps this occurred because Caere
had tried to establish a colony on the Atlantic island of Madeira as a means of interrupting the Carthaginian merchant
marine’s monopoly of the tin supply from Gaul and Cornwall. (Ref. 75 ([115]))
In addition to the civilized centers of Egypt, Kush and Carthage, the 4th century center of Cyrene, in present day east
Libya, must be mentioned. This was a Greek city, settled in the previous- century but which now dominated an entire
community area which was prosperous and cultured. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
1.10.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
The climate continued to deteriorate in the Sahara and life in the Akan jeir Culture of the Tichit Valley of southern
Mauretania was becoming progressively more difficult. In this century the areas of Ghana and Kanem began develop-
ment, probably with the help of Berbers from the north, and with the economic foundation of the export of gold and
slaves. Excavations south of Lake Chad give evidence of people, stone and bone implements and cattle-raising at the
beginning of this century. (Ref. 83 ([123])) In Nigeria an iron industry developed on the Jos Plateau, and sculptured
heads and figurines in terracotta dating to 500 B.C. have been found near Nok, in that country. About the same time,
the Negroes, starting northwest of the rain forests, migrated down through the forest along the great rivers to the cen-
tral part of the southern savannas and then spread out in all directions to the eastern part of the continent and toward
the south. They spoke the Bantu language, which is the ancestor of most African languages today. These men took
knowledge of mining and iron with them. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 8 ([14]), 175 ([241])) Hottentots and Bushmen still lived in
the far south.
Forward to Africa: 400 to 301 B.C. (Section 1.11)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era19
2. America (Section 2.10)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.10)
4. Europe (Section 4.10)
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5. The Far East (Section 6.10)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.10)
7. The Near East (Section 7.10)
8. Pacific (Section 8.10)
1.11 Africa: 400 to 301 B.C.20
1.11.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 500 to 401 B.C. (Section 1.10)
1.11.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Kush continued its prosperity with extensive trade routes. The ruins of both Napata and Meroe still stand today and
there are the remains of pyramids like those of Egypt but also Hellenistic pillars, Arabian arches and even hieroglyphs
with Hindu-like symbols, all suggesting a cosmopolitan atmosphere. Axum continued to exist still farther south. (Ref.
175 ([241]))
The Egyptians revolted successfully against the Persians under the 28th, 29th and 30th dynasties, but late in the century,
as we shall see, the Macedonian-Greek Alexander took over the old Persian territories, including Egypt. The city of
Alexandria was founded just before Alexander’s death in about 323 B.C. and there was soon accumulated there a great
research library containing perhaps 400,000 manuscripts in literature, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Later,
as Alexander’s empire was divided, the Macedonian general, Ptolemy, took over Egypt and helped make it into a great
commercial nation.
1.11.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
A portion of what is now Libya went with Egypt as part of the Persian Empire and then later Alexander’s. Otherwise
the chief point of interest was Carthage which in- creased in population and power and participated in intermittent
wars with Sicily. Between 310 and 306 B.C. the navies of Carthage and the Sicilian Greeks were in a terrible conflict
with the Carthaginians gathering a great invasion force of about 1,500 vessels. In so doing, however, they had to
leave the gates of Hercules unguarded, thus making it possible for the first time in some years for the ships of other
Mediterranean nations to reach the Atlantic. (See WESTERN EUROPE, this chapter). To pay their soldiers, after
conquering Sicily, the Carthaginians engaged the finest Sicilian Greek artists to make dies for casting new Sicilian-
Carthaginian coins, and these were soon circulating wherever the north Africans had business dealings.
In the post-Alexander period at the end of the century the Libyan Greeks of Cyrene became the major source of learned
men at the court of the Ptolemies in Alexandria. Cyrene exported chiefly horses and silphium, an herb used in Roman
cooking. (Ref. 66 ([97]), 211 ([284]))
1.11.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
By 300 B.C. permanent settlement in the Tichit Valley in the southwest Sahara had ended because of desiccation. The
Sudanese Negroes, stretching across the continent just south of the Sahara now had iron technology and with greater
population, better agricultural methods and possibly greater social cohesion, they were able to expand southward
throughout Africa at the expense of indigenous inhabitants whom they conquered, absorbed or displaced. In the early
centuries they confined themselves to the drier regions where their cereals could grow. These were the people known
in the east and south as "Bantu", although actually the name refers to their language, rather than to any particular tribe.
(Ref. 68, 45)
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22 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Forward to Africa: 300 to 201 B.C. (Section 1.12)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era21
2. America (Section 2.11)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.11)
4. Europe (Section 4.11)
5. The Far East (Section 6.11)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.11)
7. The Near East (Section 7.11)
8. Pacific (Section 8.11)
1.12 Africa: 300 to 201 B.C.22
1.12.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 400 to 301 B.C. (Section 1.11)
1.12.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
One thousand miles south of the Mediterranean (in what is now the Republic of Sudan) the Kingdom of Meroe
flourished through this period. At first the culture was Egyptian but later it developed a unique African character with
its main industry being iron working. It also had gold. This society was a successor to Kush, simply with a new capital
at Meroe. Still farther south was the Semitic Habashat Kingdom, established by migrating Yemenites, with a capital
at Axum. The local Cushites soon began to accept the language and customs of these Semites and the country began
to prosper, exporting ivory, tortoise shell, rhinoceros horn and finally gold, through the Red Sea. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The real story of this corner of Africa, however, remained in Egypt. In spite of the Greek conquest of the previous
century most of Egypt remained Egyptian and there was a return to Egyptian political ideas. Ptolemy II (Philadel-
phus), reigning from 309 to 246 B.C. took the title of Pharaoh, the God-King, although personally he was a modest
man, intelligent and creative. Under him there was continued expansion along the Phoenician and Asia Minor coasts.
Ptolemy III (283 - 221) followed. An interesting aspect of Ptolemaic Egypt is its extensive experiment in state social-
ism. Although royal ownership of the land had long been a custom, the king now supervised all economic activity.
The government decided which fields were to be planted and with what, where crops were to be sold and for how
much. It regulated transportation, processing, manufacturing, trade and banking, sold abandoned babies and taxed
everything. From about 275 to 215 B.C. this system made the Ptolemies the richest Hellenistic rulers. This wealth
was lavished on the city of Alexandria which became the greatest trade center in the world and acted as a fusion center
for people of many religions, including a great number of Jews. The Alexandria Museum was actually a university,
engaged in research and records and a certain amount of teaching. During its active phase it helped to produce Euclid,
Eratosthenes, Apollinus, Hipparchus, Hero and Archimedes.
At this time the center of Greek medicine also shifted to Alexandria, with Herophilus, anatomist, and Erasistratus,
regarded by some as the founder of physiology. He distinguished between motor and sensory nerves, gave names to
the heart valves and studied arteries, veins and lymphatic ducts. Actually a number of different sects of medicine such
as Dogmatism, Empiricism, Methodism, Pneumatism and Eclecticism developed or radiated out from Alexandria.
One of the Dogmatists, Herophilos, was responsible for a number of human anatomical descriptions including various
parts of the brain, the intestinal tract, lymphatics, liver, genital organs, eye and the vascular system. The Museum
functioned at a high level for only a century, however, and after Ptolemy II it was swallowed up by the Egyptian
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priestcraft. Attic-Greek was the language of education and administration. (Ref. 47 ([71]), 125 ([173]), 15 ([26]), 224
([299]))
The Alexandria library was more permanent. Included in the tremendous collection of some 700,000 volumes23 was
the "corpus Hippocratum" made up of some genuine Hippocratic writings but also treatises and notes of his pupils and
even some material from a rival medical school at Cnidus. Eratosthenes became librarian in 235 B.C. and became the
founder of the science of geography by making maps and conceiving the idea of projections. In 239 B.C. he calculated
the circumference of the earth at 28,000 miles, an error of only 13%. This means that a degree of latitude was thought
to be 60 miles, rather than the true 69 miles, an error not great enough to forestall ocean crossings with a fair degree
of certain landing. He based his calculations on the proposition that the earth was a sphere and that the sun’s rays for
practical purposes may be considered to be parallel. Longitude was calculated by dead reckoning. Eratosthenes also
reported that papyrus ships, with sails and rigging as on the Nile, sailed as far as the mouth of the Ganges and Ceylon,
taking perhaps twenty days to go from the former to the latter, thus averaging about 75 miles per day, a speed of more
than three knots an hour. (Ref. 15 ([26]), 65 ([96]), 66 ([97]), 95 ([140]))
Toward the end of the century radical decay set in, with bureaucratic corruption and slackness. As the century ended the
aggressive Syrian king, Antiochus III, defeated the child Ptolemy V and took the Mediterranean coastal possessions of
Palestine, Phoenicia and Asia Minor away from the Egyptian Dynasty. There is some indication that bubonic plague,
or something very similar, made its first appearance in Egypt and adjacent Libya in this century and then disappeared
again for another 800 years. (Ref. 140 ([190]))
1.12.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Carthage was now the richest of the Mediterranean cities, trading in slaves, Egyptian linen, ivory, animal skins, Greek
pottery and wine, iron from Elba, copper from Cyprus, silver from Spain, tin from Britain and incense from Arabia.
Some Carthaginian planters occupying fertile land in Libya may have had as many as 20,000 slaves. (Ref. 222 ([296]))
In 261 B.C. Carthage supposedly had 1,500 ships with approximately 150,000 crewmen. This is to be compared with
the famous Spanish Armada of A.D. 1588 when Spain had 120 ships and 27,000 crew-men, Carthage soon reduced
Numidia to a series of vassal states and became the capital of a Semitic empire which spread all along north Africa as
well as in the islands of the Mediterranean and in Spain. Although the level of civilization was high in most respects,
some of their customs were barbaric, such as sacrificing living children to certain male and female gods. The details of
Carthage’s great struggles with Rome will be given in later sections under ITALY and SPAIN. It will suffice to say at
this time that at the end of the First Punic War a local revolution broke out in Carthage which raged for forty months.
And still Carthage bounced back to fight the greater Second Punic War with Rome. At the end of this second conflict,
when Hannibal was defeated by Scipio at the gates of the city, it was the beginning of the end of this great city-state,
although it struggled on until the middle of the next century. (Ref. 48 ([72]), 66 ([97]))
It is somewhat difficult for us today to grasp the magnitude of the Punic Wars. The First was marked by some of the
greatest sea battles in history. Consider the following, as collected from ancient historians by Fell (Ref. 66 ([97])):
Date Name Roman Ships Carthage Ships Carthage Losses
260 B.C. Battle of Mylae 150 ships 150 ships 50 ships
256 B.C. Battle of Economus 230 ships 230 ships 84 ships
255 B.C. Battle pf Hermaean Cape 200 ships 200 ships 100 ships
242 B.C. Battle of Aegates Island 200 ships 100 ships 100 ships
Total ships lost 334 ships
Table 1.1
23Equal to 50,000 modern books. (Ref. 15 ([26]))
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24 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Each Carthaginian ship had a crew of at least 250 rowers, with 120 more officers and marines. The losses of men in
these great sea battles must have been staggering.
Another interesting fact about Carthage at this period is that their coins changed from silver to gold, but with just
a small amount of gold - the amalgam called "electrum" - at about 300 B.C. The design also changed to depict the
native Carthaginian goddess, Tanith, spouse of Bel. Based on findings since 1976 of alleged Carthaginian coins of this
period found in various north American sites, Fell (Ref. 66 ([97])) believes that the source of the Carthaginian gold
was America, obtained from Amerindians in bartering with bronze manufactures of the Cypriot Phoenicians. Such
bronze works are now held in storage rooms in Cuenca, Brazil, collected by Professor Paul Cheeseman. This region
was a former Inca northern capital, noted for burial hoards and underground valuables. Fell also believes that these
same North African mariners traded with North American Algonquin tribes for timber which they used for ships. After
the terrible naval defeats by Rome and the absence of a navy, trade with America was no longer profitable or even
possible.
1.12.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In northern Nigeria the so-called Nok Culture has been identified with terra-cotta figurines, and evidence of iron slag
and tin-mining, dated by radio-carbon technique to about 300 B.C. Along the high cliffs of Bandiagara on the edge
of the Hombori Mountains near the bend of the Niger River in Mali, the Toloy people built granaries of mud coils
and stored them in giant caves in the cliffs, while their villages were probably on the plains below. (Ref. 251 ([17]))
Along the Congo River there were Stone Age gathers and fishermen about 270 B.C. In the east and south there was
a continued take-over by the Sudanese Negroes who were now called Bantu, after their language. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 8
([14]))
Forward to Africa: 200 to 101 B.C. (Section 1.13)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era24
2. America (Section 2.12)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.12)
4. Europe (Section 4.12)
5. The Far East (Section 6.12)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.12)
7. The Near East (Section 7.12)
8. Pacific (Section 8.12)
1.13 Africa: 200 to 101 B.C.25
1.13.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 300 to 201 B.C. (Section 1.12)
1.13.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In the southern part of this area Kush as well as Axum continued to flourish. About 200 B.C. Egypt lost all its acquisi-
tions outside of continental Africa as the Ptolemaic armies were defeated by the Seleucids at Panion. The Macedonian
dynasty continued to reign, however, and their administrations promoted continued intellectual and commercial activ-
ity, particularly at Alexandria. The welding of Egypt and Syria onto the rejuvenated Ionic Greek world created a high
economic unit and allowed cities of the magnitude of ninety to one hundred and fifty thousand people to develop, the
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first of these being, of course, Alexandria. By the end of the century the Egyptians were chafing under the Hellenic
Ptolemy ruling class, however, and eventually the Egyptian priesthood swallowed up the Ptolemies as they also de-
stroyed the Aristotelian mentality of the Museum, and scientific energy was extinguished. (Ref. 46 ([76]), 28 ([48]),
206 ([83]))
1.13.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War and regained considerable prosperity although it was subjected to
frequent raids from neighbors such as King Massinissa of the Numidians, who were the ancestors of the Berbers. In
151 B.C. Carthage finally declared war on Numidia (now primarily Algeria) and a year later Rome joined the battle,
initiating the Third Punic War. For three years Carthage valiantly withstood the Roman siege engineered by Scipio
Aemilianus, but the city finally fell and in 146 B.C. the Romans brutally plundered and burned it, possibly to prevent
its falling into the hands of the Numidians. (Ref. 83 ([123])) This pretty well terminated the old Phoenician Empire,
but the Punic cisterns remained and street plans were preserved and later used as patterns for Roman reconstruction.
After this last Punic War Massinissa’s son, Micipsa, ruled Numidia and remained an ally of Rome. Misipsa’s heirs
included a nephew, Jugurtha, along with his own two sons. By 116 B.C. Jugurtha had one of the sons assassinated
and had run off the other and taken his own case for control of Numidia before the Roman Senate. The latter gave
most of Numidia to Jugurtha except for the city of Cirta which was granted to the remaining son of Misipsa, Adherbal.
Jagurtha promptly set siege to Cirt, killing off all the inhabitants including some Roman business men, thus incensing
Rome and particularly the Equestrian business community. Armies were sent to North Africa once again, this time
against Numidia, but Jugurtha was not defeated until his father-in-law, Bocchus, King of Mauretania, was persuaded
by Lucius Cornelius Sulla to betray him. The African struggle ended in 105 B.C. with Jugurtha a prisoner and strangled
in Rome. The Romans then spread west from Carthage, also controlling Morocco. (Ref. 53 ([79]), 28 ([48]), 175
([241]))
Polybius, the Roman historian, regarded the North African Greeks as a people considerably different from those of
Greece, itself. They were olive-skinned and represented a fusion of Greek and North African natives. These were the
Libyans and they were devoted to the sea, living all along the North African coast from Cyrene next to Egypt, west to
Mauretania on the Atlantic. The area included not only what we now call Libya but also Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.
A long chain of ruined, once great, beautiful, marble and limestone cities now mark the places where these seafarers
once lived. When Libyan kings ruled Egypt their ships sailed to the Atlantic ports of Spain and Fell (Ref. 66 ([97]))
says to the Americas across the Atlantic and to the Pacific via the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Strait. The ancient
Libyans living west of Cyrene spoke a dialect of pre-classical Arabic containing many Berber loan words. According
to Fell’s hypotheses this may be the origin of the Arabic found in some American locations.
1.13.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Radio-carbon datings from the walls and potsherds of the mud buildings in the Mali region caves of the Toloy people
indicate that they were still there in this century, but not subsequently. (Ref. 251 ([17])) This was an era of continued
Negro migrations down the entire continent. This gradual occupation of almost the whole of the arable soil of Africa
in the west by Negroes and of the east and south by the Bantu-speaking groups, overall took about 1,500 years, during
which time sub-Saharan Africa was largely cut off from the rest of the world.
Forward to Africa: 100 B.C. to 0 (Section 1.14)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era26
2. America (Section 2.13)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.13)
4. Europe (Section 4.13)
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26 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
5. The Far East (Section 6.13)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.13)
7. The Near East (Section 7.13)
8. Pacific (Section 8.13)
1.14 Africa: 100 B.C. to 027
1.14.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 200 to 101 B.C. (Section 1.13)
1.14.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Meroe, now the Republic of Sudan, continued to flourish one thousand miles south of the Mediterranean and Axum
continued with some prosperity in the area of northern Abyssinia, now Ethiopia.
In the first part of this century Egypt remained under the Macedonian Ptolemy Dynasty but Caesar marched into the
country and took control between 48 and 47 B.C., making the famous alliance with Cleopatra, Egyptian queen. Upon
his death Cleopatra made a similar alliance and dalliance with Marc Antony and such was her apparent charm that in
37 B.C. Antony gave up all interest in his government and settled with the queen in Alexandria to a life of pleasure.
Stripped of his office by the Roman Senate and defeated at sea by Octavian, he committed suicide in 30 B.C. along
with Cleopatra. Egypt was then formally annexed to the Roman Empire under the Emperor Octavian, although the life
of the average Egyptian was probably little affected by these administrative changes. At the end of this century there
were about 8,000,000 people in this country.
1.14.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Numidia, now Algeria, joined Carthage to become Roman during this century. The thick belt of megalithic tombs
which have been found across north Africa date to this and the next century and thus have no chronological relationship
to the similar but much more ancient ones of Europe. No explanation has been offered. The Roman historian, Sallust,
of this century, writes that the Libyans were descended from a people who came from Asia Minor and were allied to
the Phoenicians through their language. Arab historians have recorded similar beliefs. (Ref. 215 ([290]), 176 ([242]),
66 ([97])) Cyrene, with its large Greek component, became a province of Rome in 74 B.C. (Ref. 222 ([296])) In the
Sahara, itself, water holes had essentially disappeared and there was now truly desert. The great dunes called "ergs"
had formed and the rains had become most irregular.
1.14.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
There was no great change in the southern two-thirds of the continent. Iron working continued to spread at a slow pace
in the Niger Basin. The camel was introduced into the Sahara from Asia about 100 B.C. The Bantu speakers continued
their slow migration down the eastern lands. (Ref. 8 ([14])) One theory, based on archaeological and skeletal remains,
suggests that at about the end of the century a few of the Caucasoid pastoralists descended from the eastern highlands
into South Africa. From them some Bushmen acquired cattle and evolved into the culture of the Hottentots. (Ref. 83
([123]))
Forward to Africa: 0 to A.D. 100 (Section 1.15)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era28
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2. America (Section 2.14)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.14)
4. Europe (Section 4.14)
5. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.14)
6. The Near East (Section 7.14)
7. Pacific (Section 8.14)
1.15 Africa: 0 to A.D. 10029
1.15.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 100 B.C to 0 (Section 1.14)
1.15.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In the south of this region the kingdom of Meroe continued its iron-making and gold production, unmolested. The
kingdom of Axum in north Ethiopia and southwestern Arabia now became a strong empire, with a capital city of the
same name and Adulis (now Massawa) as the Red Sea port and with a wealth founded on ivory. Axum was a pagan
city of palaces and temples which now had many Jew30 and Greek immigrants. The country had many Greek insignias
and a Greek educated king. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
Egypt continued under Roman rule. In Alexandria the Jewish population increased reaching perhaps to 40% of the
total of the city. Among those was the Jewish philosopher and theologian, Philo, who developed the Logos ideas of the
Greek Stoics into a concept which has come straight down through the centuries in the Christian theology. "God, in
Philo’s writings, is the essential being of the world, incorporeal, eternal, indescribable; reason can know his existence,
but can ascribe no quality to him–."31 In order to create the world and establish relations with man, Philo felt that
God used a group of intermediary beings. While these had been called diamones by some Greeks and Ideas by Plato,
they were called angels by the Jews. Although popularly conceived as persons, Philo thought they existed only in the
Divine Minds as the thoughts and powers of God, such powers as the Stoics called Logos, which created and then
guided the world. "Philo sometimes thinks of the Logos as a person. In a poetic moment he called the Logos ’The
first-begotten of God’, son of God by the virgin Wisdom, and says that through the Logos God has revealed himself
to man. Since the soul is part of God, it can through reason rise to a mystic vision, not quite of God, but of Logos32.
Durant (Ref. 48 ([72])) felt that Philo’s Logos was one of the most influential ideas in the history of thought, although
its antecedents in Heracleitus, Plato and the Stoics are obvious. "Philo was a contemporary of Christ, but he apparently
never heard of him although he shared unknowingly in forming Christian theology. Philo tried to mediate between
Hellenism and Judaism. From the Judaic point of view he failed; from the historical point of view he succeeded, and
the result was the first chapter of the Gospel of John”.33
During the period of the Roman administration of Egypt the irrigation systems were raised to great efficiency. While
the government remained Roman, the people remained Egyptian (and Jewish in the cities). Additional Notes (p. 28)
1.15.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Roman Carthage was the capital of proconsular Africa and second only to Rome, itself, in the western Mediterranean.
It became a center for education and soon a strong- hold for early Christianity. Plutarch, living in this century, allegedly
described voyages of the Carthaginians to North America (Epeiros, in his language) via Iceland (Ogygia) and a return
route following the anti-trade winds around latitude 40 degrees north, back to Spain and Carthage. Diodorus of Sicily
29This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17731/1.2/>.
30The Falasha of today are the descendants of these Jews (Ref. 83 ([123]))
31As quoted from Durant (Ref. 48 ([72])), page 501
32The translations of these ancient writing are those of Fell (Ref. 86 ([129])), page 54, and to my knowledge not otherwise confirmed
33Quotation taken from Durant (Ref. 48 ([72])), page 502
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28 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
described a southern route when he spoke of the discovery of an island by Carthaginians which may have been Cuba.
(Ref. 84 ([124]), 66 ([97]))
The ruler of Mauretania (northern Morocco and western Algeria), another Ptolemy, was murdered in A.D. 40 on the
order of the Roman Caligula, but it did not destroy the Berber spirit of independence and they never completely gave
up to the Romans. The dromedary, one-hump camels first were brought to the Sahara in this century but they were not
used to any great extent for another seven hundred years with the Arab invasion. (Ref. 260 ([29]))
1.15.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In West Africa on the inland delta of the great Niger River there existed at this time, and probably it had existed for over
two hundred years, the village of Jenne-jeno, which has just recently been excavated. Situated only about 300 miles
up river from Timbuktu it is probable that even in this early time there were beginning trade relationships by water.
Pottery in use through this period was of a design seen several centuries earlier in the southern Sahara, indicating that
the original population may have originated there. We shall hear much more about this community which did not
reach its peak of development until about A.D. 100. (Ref. 268 ([189]))
Madagascar had probably been unknown to men until about the time of Christ, when Indonesians arrived with out-
rigger canoes and eventually sails. Beginning in this century these sea-farers brought "wet-zone" crops like the Asian
and Coco yams and banana to Madagascar and thus to East Africa34. Madagascar had probably been unknown to men
until about the time of Christ, when the Indonesians arrived with out-rigger canoes and eventually sails. With their new
crops the Negroes found it possible to start moving into the humid forests and low-lying river valleys, thus beginning
the settlement of more central Africa. The Bantu-speaking people continued their slow migration down the east coast
of Africa. There was iron smelting in Kenya by A.D. 100. (Ref. 222 ([296]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200 (Section 1.16)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era35
2. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.15)
3. Europe (Section 4.15)
4. The Far East (Section 6.15)
5. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.15)
6. The Near East (Section 7.15)
7. Pacific (Section 8.15)
NOTE: From this century on until the 19th century first the Aksumite and then the Christian Amhara were
expansionist, seizing land and incorporating people. (Ref. 311 ([40]))
1.16 Africa: A.D. 101 to 20036
1.16.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: 0 to A.D. 100 (Section 1.15)
34Hallett (Ref. 83 ([123])) puts this at the 4th century C.E.
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1.16.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The kingdoms of Meroe and Axum continued to develop. (See page 292) Egypt was under the rule of the Roman
emperor, but beyond the mouth of the Nile, the country was actually little touched by Romanization. The royal custom
of brother-sister marriage had been copied by the lower classes, and it has been estimated that by this century two-
thirds of the citizens of Arsinoe were off spring of sibling unions. Alexandria was now a great trade center containing
some 500,000 people, receiving goods from Red Sea ports and exporting its own manufactured products such as linen,
processed Arabian drugs, Indian perfumes, papyrus, glass-ware and Egyptian grain. This city which originally was
one of the greatest of the Greek cities, gradually became more and more oriental. Strife between Greeks and Jews
resulted in massacres; soldiers mutinied and taxes soared.
Ptolemy, or Claudius Ptolemaeus37, was a great scientist concerned with the Alexandrian library in this century. In-
spired by Hipparchus, who appeared to have provided one of the links between Babylonian and Greek science, Ptolemy
wrote a mathematical treatise which became known as the Almagest. The 360 degree circle of the Babylonians was
used, trigonometry was promoted and astronomy advanced, although with some errors. With 1,002 stars catalogued
the heaven was considered spherical and as rotating around the immobile earth sphere. This concept made Ptolemy’s
theories very acceptable to the theologians of the later Middle Ages. He did have a system showing relationships
of stars and planets which was effective from the practical standpoint. He also wrote a Geographical Treatise which
included the geography of Marinus of Tyre. (Ref. 48 ([72]))
1.16.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
North Africa remained the granary of Rome, with the Moors as the dominant people of the area now developing con-
siderable sea-power and prestige. The Moors were of Berber origin (later with an Arab mixture) and came originally
from south of Morocco in the country of present Mauretania, on the great Atlantic bulge of Africa. In about A.D. 125
a locust invasion destroyed large areas of cropland and this was followed by a plague which killed perhaps 500,000 in
Numidia and possibly 150,000 more on the coast. (Ref. 222 ([296]))
1.16.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
The changes in central, eastern and southern Africa were very slow. As noted in the last chapter, the introduction of
wet zone crops like the yam and banana allowed better penetration of the Bantu-speaking blacks into the forest and
low-lying river valleys and coastal plains. They also continued to drift south along the Indian Ocean coast. (Ref. 68
([106]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 201 to 300 (Section 1.17)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era38
2. America (Section 2.16)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.16)
4. Europe (Section 4.16)
5. The Far East (Section 6.16)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.16)
7. The Near East (Section 7.16)
8. Pacific (Section 8.16)
37Not to be confused with the pharoahs of the B.C. centuries
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30 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
1.17 Africa: A.D. 201 to 30039
1.17.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200 (Section 1.16)
1.17.1.1 NORTHEASTERN AFRICA
The kingdom of Kush fell prey to desert nomads but in Ethiopia Axum continued as a powerful, well developed entity.
Coins were minted and much of the Sudan to the west was conquered. Ivory, rhinoceros horn, hippopotamus hides
and slaves were all exported through the Red Sea harbor of Adulis. Unfortunately even at this early period excessive
rains with flooding, along with forest clearing and cultivation of hilltops and slopes had started soil erosion that was
to eventually be part of the downfall of this unusual kingdom. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 270 ([36]))
Egyptian prestige40 began to decline under destructive factionalism, a massacre of all adult males capable of bearing
arms (by Emperor Caracalla) to prevent revolt, high taxes, listless forced labor and Rome’s annual exaction of grain.
Sea trade from the Mediterranean went principally up the Nile to Thebes, then over to the Red Sea and on by boat. The
refurbished Nile-Red Sea canal was a disappointment to the Romans (as it had been to the Ptolemies and the Persians)
because winds in the northern Red Sea were unreliable and merchants did better with the Nile to Thebes route. At the
last of the century (266 to 272), Queen Zenobia’s conquering of Egypt and siege of Alexandria resulted in the death of
half the population and helped Egypt’s decline. (See IRAQ AND SYRIA, below) In A.D. 272 Egypt was reconquered
by Rome. (Ref. 136 ([187]))
1.17.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWESTERN AFRICA
Rome continued to dominate the coast line of north Africa, but in the far northwest Moorish (chiefly Berber) culture
and activity increased with expansion of the territory they controlled. The cities of the Sahara had a flourishing
commerce with coastal cities, probably sending precious stones, slaves and ivory for trade. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
1.17.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
At this time there was the beginning of the development of the Empire of Ghana at the northern curve of the Niger
River. The village of Jenne-jeno, which we have previously mentioned, may have been a part of this process. On the
east the iron and cattle cultures spread almost completely to the southern tip of Africa. Blackburn was established
in A.D. 105 and the use of iron spread from the Funa River (off the Congo) to Katanga and the Lakes region. In
the southwest, the Khoikoi peoples, speaking the Khoisan language, only slowly gave way to the aggressive Bantu-
speakers. Indonesian traders appeared in increasing numbers along the east coast in this and the following centuries.
Forward to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400 (Section 1.18)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era41
2. America (Section 2.17)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.17)
4. Europe (Section 4.17)
5. The Far East (Section 6.17)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.17)
7. The Near East (Section 7.17)
8. Pacific (Section 8.17)
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40Diophantus, a Greek of Alexandria, wrote a treatise of algebra, solving determinant quadratic and indeterminate equations up to the 6th degree,
in about A.D. 250.
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1.18 Africa: A.D. 301 to 40042
1.18.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 201 to 300 (Section 1.17)
1.18.1.1 NORTHEASTERN AFRICA
In the region of Sudan the old Kushite Kingdom had been replaced by the Kingdom of Meroi, although the basic popu-
lation remained a Kush people. The new kingdom had a unique African character but it did not thrive long, apparently
conquered sometime between 320 and the end of the century by neighboring Axum of northern Ethiopia. The name
"Kush" now disappeared, to be replaced by "Nubia". The Nobatae, coming from Kordofan and the Blemmyes (Bela)
coming from the Nile Valley to the east, blended with the old Kushites to form the population of medieval Nubia.
Before Christianity came to this area there are indications that this was, in modern terminology, a "swinging place".
Remnants of a large tavern constructed in the middle of the century at Ibrim indicate that the wine flowed freely up
to about A.D. 500. (Ref. 271 ([7]), 83 ([123])) The populous Axum had adopted the Monophysite Christian faith and
this new religion was the foundation of the kingdom which was soon to be called Abyssinia. By 362 this kingdom
also included a portion of the southern Arabian area. A distinguishing feature of Axum was the use of stone-masonry
without mortar. There is still standing a 23 meter high obelisk, simulating a nine-story palace, constructed in this 4th
century when this state was considered one of the four world powers. (Ref. 270 ([36])) The Axum emperor, King
Ezana, had been converted to Monophysitism by the Syrian Frumentius who had originally been shipwrecked on the
Red Sea coast.
The resulting Ethiopian Orthodox Church, actually a branch of the Egyptian Coptic, spread over the highland of north
Ethiopia. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 175 ([241]))
In Egypt there was political and cultural decline. Christianity made many converts along the coast but of the Mono-
physite variety. This sect believed that there was only one nature in God and Jesus, with a complete denial of the
Trinity. This faith survives today in some eastern areas and, as suggested above, particularly in Ethiopia. Arianism,
another great "heresy" which was mentioned above, also originated in Alexandria. In contrast to the dogma of the
Monophysites, Arius preached that Christ was not one with God but rather the Logos (See Philo, page 297), the first
and highest of all created beings. The Son was neither coeternal with nor consubstantial with the Father. Politically,
Egypt remained nominally under the Roman Empire, even as it began to collapse. A popular literature in the Coptic
language appeared in this century. (Ref. 48 ([72]), 127 ([176]))
1.18.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
The coast line of North Africa remained subject to Roman control as the Christian faith spread across the area. As
in the last century, in the west the Berber-Moors became more and more prolific and independent. Although camels
had been present in Africa previously they now came into extensive use by the Berbers, a feature which helped them
to become formidable opponents to all foreigners along the coast. In the 370s Firmus, a Moorish chieftain, rebelled
against the Roman Valentian I and was stopped only after a series of massacres. (Ref. 127 ([176]), 83 ([123]))
1.18.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
There was very little significant change from the last century. In the west the Empire of Ghana continued its develop-
ment, while all along the east coast the Bantu-speakers expanded and more Indonesian traders appeared bringing the
Asian yam and taro from Southeast Asia. The latest estimate of the time of the establishment of Great Zimbabwe by
Bantu-speaking blacks is A.D. 320 (150 years). These were the Gokomere people and they may either have lived there
or simply used it as a camp. There is some evidence that they had iron. (Ref. 176 ([242]), 8 ([14]), 83 ([123]), 222
([296]))
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32 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Forward to Africa: A.D. 401 to 500 (Section 1.19)
1.19 Africa: A.D. 401 to 50043
1.19.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400 (Section 1.18)
1.19.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Ethiopia continued to be a Christian area in communication with southern Arabia and Egypt. Axum expansion in the
first half of the century was followed by a period of stagnation in the last half although Byzantine missionaries and
traders continued to visit the region. Nominally under Axumite control, Nubia apparently was not really Christianized
in this century. The religious and political confusion of this period is apparent in four papyri recently discovered
at Qasr Ibrim. Three were written in Sahidic Coptic and the fourth in provincial Greek. The Coptic ones were all
addressed to Tantani, Governor of Nubia and apparently Christian. The Greek document is from a pagan king of the
Blemmyes to the king of Noubades and refers to a former supreme king of Nubia, called Silco. (Ref. 270 ([36]), 271
([7]))
Nominally still under control of Rome, Egyptic Society, according to Toynbee (Ref. 220 ([294])), became extinct in
this century leaving no "off-spring" in any subsequent society, to date. The little intellectual activity that remained in
the remnants of the Roman Empire was now centered in Byzantium, but considerable religious maneuvering continued
in Alexandria. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, and later one of the two or three St. Cyrils, led a great struggle against
Nestorianism which finally culminated in the Council of Ephesus in 431. Cyril presided and had the support of Pope
Celestine 1. His doctrines, although considered orthodox at the time, were actually in part those of Monophysitism
and after him this became the national faith of Egypt - eventually the Coptic Church. (Ref. 220 ([294]), 48 ([72]))
1.19.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
In contrast to Egypt this part of Africa was a very busy place. In the far west Morocco was invaded and conquered
by Berbers coming from the southwest, and then they even attacked the Roman holdings, using newly domesticated
camels. In 427 Bonifatius, Roman military commander in north Africa, was about to be cut out of command by
enemies in the emperor’s court in Ravenna, so he rebelled and called upon the Vandals of Spain to come to his aid. In
the following year, Asding Vandals from Spain did go to north Africa, sailing with a large fleet under King Gaiseric
who proceeded to conquer most of north Africa, eventually even Carthage (A.D. 455) and then Sardinia, Corsica and
the western part of Sicily. The total number of Vandals leaving Spain was probably not over 80,000 but they had the
advantage of local social unrest and the cooperation of Bonifatius and thus met little local resistance. Many Berbers
and the Donatist heretic group of Christians with about one-half of their bishops also helped the invaders against the
Romans. The Donatists were the followers of the once Bishop of Carthage, Donatus, who denied the efficacy of
sacraments administered by priests who were themselves in a state of sin, and the Church, willing to risk so much on
the virtues of the clergy, repudiated the idea.
As a result of their persecution the Donatists became bands of revolutionists, at once both Christian and communist,
condemning poverty and slavery and ending in fanaticism, happy to help the Vandals, who were Arian Christians.
Once Gaiseric had obtained Carthage he used the facilities there to greatly augment his navy and subsequently was
able to actually sack Rome, itself. Barry Fell (Ref. 66 ([97])) believes that some orthodox Christians actually sailed to
North America at this time to escape the Vandals. According to Herodotus, the Garamantes of Fezzan in the desert had
horse-drawn chariots, probably obtained from Egypt. (Ref. 206 ([83]), 8 ([14]), 127 ([176]), 137 ([188]), 83 ([123]))
Among the more orthodox Christians of North Africa was St. Augustine, who had become converted from paganism
and sin as a youth and who later wrote extensive theological dissertations rationalizing the religion and establishing
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33
many Catholic doctrines, as he introduced some element of Greek philosophy into Christianity. It was mentioned in
the last chapter that Thomas (Ref. 213 ([288])) considers him one of the four great "fathers" of the Catholic church.
He was killed during one of the Vandals’ sieges.
1.19.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In the Sudan, the roots of the great African Kingdom of Ghana may date back to A.D. 400. Certainly the town of
Jenne-Jeno was prospering at the inland delta of the Niger. The eroded foundation of a house has been excavated
along with pottery and urns for burial and remains of a wall about three meters wide and four or more meters high
that girded the city. All of these things have been dated to this or the next century or two. In central Africa there was
continued proliferation of the black people, particularly the Bantu-speakers. (Ref. 268 ([189]), 154 ([212]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 501 to 600 (Section 1.20)
1.20 Africa: A.D. 501 to 60044
1.20.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 401 to 500 (Section 1.19)
1.20.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
There were three separate Christian kingdoms in the region of Nubia in the middle Nile. At Ibrim an old temple, which
was originally built probably during the Ethiopian Dynasty of Egypt in the 7th century B.C. and then modified later
with typical Meriotic graffiti and votive inscriptions, was now made into the earliest of Ibrim Christian churches. A
defensive wall around the church is now partially covered by Lake Nasser. (Ref. 271 ([7]))
Early Abyssinians were active militarily, invading the Yemeni kingdoms on the Arabian Peninsula. In the middle of
the century Axum was at the height of its power with a splendid court boasting royal elephants and gold. The capital
city funneled materials from inner Africa to a maritime network reaching as far as Spain and even China. Axum
covered an area of 75 hectares and contained many multistory stone buildings with 10,000 to 20,000 inhabitants and a
fringe of suburban, elite villages. (Ref. 270 ([36])) But the downfall of this country started when the Persians expelled
the Axumites from south Arabia as a part of the Byzantine-Persian Wars. This was followed by raids by pagan Bela
on the farmlands, so that gradually the people moved deeper into the highlands, merging with the pagan and Judaized
people there and becoming the Abyssinians proper, the nucleus of later Ethiopia. (Ref. 82 ([121]), 83 ([123]))
Egypt continued to decay, politically and intellectually. Part of this was promoted by the decline in the incense trade
which had previously come from the south, in part through Egypt. The country remained nominally under the control
of the Byzantine Empire.
1.20.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
The Vandal kingdom of North Africa was reconquered for the Byzantine Empire by Justinian’s General Belisarius in
533. Otherwise North Africa remained much as in the last century. (Ref. 8 ([14]))
1.20.1.2.1 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In the tropical regions the availability of iron after A.D. 500 led to the development of kingdoms whose chief weapons
were iron spears. A few Negroid Bantu-speakers filtered into the Bushman and Hottentot domains in South Africa.
(Ref. 213 ([288]), 83 ([123]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 601 to 700 (Section 1.21)
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34 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
1.21 Africa: A.D. 601 to 70045
1.21.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 501 to 600 (Section 1.20)
1.21.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The Ethopian upland soils had been largely destroyed, exposing underlying rocks. In the middle of the century,
threatened by Muslim neighbors, Axum lost its Red Sea ports and had its gold supply cut off so its Christians retreated
to the highlands, where they remained in isolation until the 15th century. Abandoned buildings deteriorated and
contributed to the soil destruction. Land abandonment can be as destructive as over-use and there can be little doubt
that all this exacerbated Axumite economic decline. (Ref. 270 ([36]))
To the west in Nubia, Coptic Christians thrived. After an Egyptian attack in 651-652 relations between Christian Nubia
and Moslem Egypt were formalized by treaty which included an agreement that Nubians would return all runaway
slaves to Egypt. A cathedral was built about A.D. 700 in Qasr Ibrim and there were plans to make this a pilgrimage
center. Nubia hereafter remained Christian for about 700 years. Just north of the present-day Aswan Dam, the survival
of paganism into this 7th century on the island of Philae had been a notable scandal stimulating Byzantine missions
into the area. (Ref. 271 ([7]))
Egypt fell to the Persians temporarily in 616 but fell again to the Arabs later in the century, with Alexandria con-
quered by the latter in 660. The Monophysite Christians of Egypt actually helped the Moslems overthrow the existing
administration. After the conquest, Amr ruled for the Arabs and did so well. (Ref. 206 ([83]), 137 ([188]))
1.21.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
In the last third of the century the raiding Moslems easily took Tripolitania but on their original drive westward they
were repulsed from Tunisia by Roman Empire troops. Subsequently, however, conversion of the indigenous Berbers46
to Islam in 696 gave Islam a new push and the Byzantine forces in Tunisia were then overrun and Carthage was
destroyed again. Soon Morocco also fell to the Islamic onslaught. Shortly thereafter trade routes for slaves, ivory and
gold opened up between Morocco-Algeria and the western Sudan. The Murabits (also Almoravids) of Morocco turned
south, shattering the Negro Empire of Ghana.
The Berbers were of an entirely different race from the Arabs, having roundish heads contrasting with the Arabs’ long
heads. Even when some were initially converted to Islam, allowing the Moslem advance, most of the Berbers retreated
to the naked mountains dividing Tunisia’s coastal plains from the desert. Even so, the Muslims made a greater impact
on these people than Rome or Christianity had previously done. (Ref. 137 ([188]), 175 ([241]), 58 ([86]), 83 ([123]),
222 ([296]))
1.21.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
From 500 to 1,200 ancient Ghana, in what is now Mali, monopolized the gold trade from west Africa to Europe. It sat
at the southern end of the trans-Saharan caravan routes and thus acted as the hub. Kumbi Saleh was a city of 15,000
people. The excavated ruins of the ancient city of Jenne-Jeno had a formidable three meter-wide wall surrounding
it which was constructed sometime between 400 and 800. Delicately constructed gold jewelry has been found under
this city wall, indicating that this was a trade center over a long period of time. The nearest gold mines were 800
kilometers south of this developing city. (Ref. 268 ([189])) The Moslem invasion of Ghana from the north caused
some disruption in administration certainly, but did not destroy the fundamental culture or the developing cities.
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35
In the far southeast of Africa the Leopard’s Kopje people, a Bantu-speaking group, were in control of Great Zimbabwe
from about A.D. 600 to 850. (Ref. 45 ([66])) Elsewhere the great bulk of Africa remained as in previous centuries.
Forward to Africa: A.D. 701 to 800 (Section 1.22)
1.22 Africa: A.D. 701 to 80047
1.22.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 601 to 700 (Section 1.21)
1.22.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In the last chapter we told of the collapse of Axum. Apparently as a last gasp. the Axumites made an unsuccessful
attack on Mecca in A.D. 702 which was followed by Arab retaliation and Butzer (Ref. 270 ([36])) says that it was
at that time that the port of Adulis was destroyed and many Red Sea islands seized. At the same time the Christian
monarchy had to withstand ravaging attacks by pagan Beja. (Ref. 83 ([123])) After 765 Axum was almost completely
abandoned.
The horn of Africa was not affected by the Bedouin Arabs, but the people there still retained close ties with Arabia.
Of the three kingdoms of the middle Nile which had originated in the 6th century, the two northern ones now merged
to form the Kingdom of Nubia, with a capital at Dongola, exerting its influence from the 1st to the 4th cataract of the
Nile and west to Darfur. The country was Christian, prosperous and used a highly decorative pottery and developed a
lucrative slave trade to Egypt. There was a gradual peaceful infiltration of Moslem Arabs into the area. Farther south
at the confluence of the Nile was the Kingdom of Alwa, with its capital at Soba. It resisted the Moslem faith a little
longer. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 271 ([7]))
Egypt was entirely under Moslem Arab control with supervision direct from the caliph in Damascus and later Baghdad.
1.22.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
This entire region was now under Moslem control, subject to the caliph in the Middle East. As mentioned in the last
chapter, the Berbers of Tunisia and Morocco adopted Islam as they had previously adopted Christianity: with neither
was it a total embracement and they, in addition, clung also to older tribal beliefs. Although called "Berbers" by the
Arabs they called themselves "Imazighen", "Men of the Land", and their tongue, totally unlike the official Arabic, was
Tamazight, still spoken today. (Ref. 104) The great Roman ports all over the Mediterranean were allowed to decline.
Although they could sail the Indian Ocean, the Arabs ignored Mediterranean shipping routes and went overland with
of central Tunisia, was the administrative center for the Arab Empire in the Maghrib. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
Although the Omayyad Dynasty controlled the entire Moslem world in the first half of the century, as was intimated
above, the Abbasids took over in A.D. 750 with Caliph Harun al Rashid establishing a capital at Baghdad. By A.D.
788 Morocco had declared its independence from Baghdad and Tunisia followed just after the turn of the new century.
The new Moroccon Empire was to last over a millennium. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 222 ([296]))
1.22.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
About A.D. 700 people from the upper Nile moved into Chad, just east of Nigeria, and established a string of cities.
At about the same time traders were becoming ever more daring in crossing the Sahara to obtain gold and slaves. The
increasing use of camels greatly facilitated this traffic and the traffic, in turn, seemed to monopolize the supply of gold
and slaves and thus developed more systematic and larger operations. Ghana seems to have come under the control of
a new dynasty in this century and this may have been the transfer of authority from Berber to Negro rulers.
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36 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
Merchants of south Arabia, the Persian Gulf and northwestern India had long traded along the east African coast for
palm oil, ivory, tortoise shell, rhinoceros horn and slaves. Finally some of the Asians settled in east Africa and they
were soon joined by religious refugees from Oman and Shirax on the Persian Gulf . These Asians were responsible
for the beginning of a chain of independent settlements all along the coast. They became city-states and because Arab
shipping soon supplanted earlier traffic, all soon became Moslem. Excavations on the shore of Lake Kisale in northern
Katanga (between Angola and the Great Lakes) indicate that in this 8th century there was a dense population using
fine pottery and elaborate copper jewelry. This may be the original home of the Luba people (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The population on Madagascar now included Indonesians, Arabs and Negroes, the later probably originally slaves or
concubines. The Negroes multiplied more rapidly, probably because of greater resistance to malaria, but there was
much intermarriage and soon a unique "Malagasy" people emerged. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The central rain forest of Africa and the semi-arid south remained untouched by civilized men, although the Bantu-
speaking tribesmen continued to spread their settlements through the forest of the Congo basin and still farther south.
The Leopard’s Kopje people were still in control of Zimbabwe. (Ref. 139 ([192]), 176 ([242]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 801 to 900 (Section 1.23)
1.23 Africa: A.D. 801 to 90048
1.23.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 701 to 800 (Section 1.22)
1.23.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The old Axum monarchy established a new residence deep in the interior of Ethiopia around Lake Hayq sometime
before A.D. 870. This was actually a Christian monastery with some 300 clerics. The old Axumite area was given up
entirely to invading sheep herders. (Ref. 270 ([36])) Nubia remained essentially as in the last century.
Egypt was a Moslem state but independently ruled by the Tulunid Dynasty. These men were Turkish in origin, having
been brought into Islam as professional soldiers. One of them, Ahmad ibn Tulun (869-884) conquered Syria to add
to his realm. Egypt, as the ancient granary for southern Europe, no long robbed of its products by foreign masters,
entered upon a minor renaissance, with new learning and art, palaces, public baths, a hospital and a great mosque
honoring Tulun.
1.23.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
All of the original Moslem provinces in north Africa were now more or less independent with separate rulers. After
800 Tunisia was ruled by the Aghlabid Dynasty until the end of the century when they were overthrown by the Kotama,
a Berber tribe from Kabylia. Morocco, under the Idrisids, had founded a Shi’ite caliphate in 789 which had carried
on into this century. Still farther west, just on the Mediterranean side of the Straits of Gibralter, were the Rostemids.
(Ref. 137 ([188]), 8 ([14])) (Please see map in connection with CENTRAL EUROPE, this chapter.)
There were three major trade routes across the Sahara at this time. One went from Fezzan to Kanem, running north
of Lake Chad; a second went from Gao, on the Niger bend, to central Maghrib; and the third ran from the western
Maghrib to Ghana. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
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1.23.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Commerce across the Sahara brought gold and slaves to the Mediterranean and stimulated the early Negro states of the
sub-Saharan regions. Ghana had few natural resources of its own and its wealth was derived from levies imposed on
this trade across the desert. We have seen in previous chapters how Jenne-jeno developed as a trade center on the Niger.
By 800 it had perhaps 10,000 people and an extensive riverine trade with the Timbuktu region. (Ref. 268 ([189])) To
the Arabs, the ruler of Ghana was reputed to be the richest and most powerful monarch in all the Biladas-Sudan (Land
of Blacks). Around
Lake Chad the empire of Kanem-Bornu developed about the beginning of this 9th century and survived for a millenium.
This kingdom, founded by Zaghawa nomads, was originally only one of the seven Hausa city-states, each protected
by strong city walls and excelling as manufacturers and long distance merchants. (Ref. 68 ([106]), 175 ([241]))
On the east coast of Africa a great wave of trading activity swept the countries bordering the Indian Ocean, resulting
in a string of city-states along that coast, most of them founded by Muslims from the Persian Gulf and some from
southern Arabia. Bantu-speaking Negroes soon joined them to produce a distinct culture and language (Swahili).
Farther south in Zimbabwe, the Shona and particularly the Karangas sub-group, continued in this century to develop
agriculture, stock raising, gold and copper trading and the building of large stone edifices. They probably originally
came from iron-rich Katanga and had an advanced knowledge of iron mining and metallurgy. They soon became the
overlords of the indigenous Gokomere and Leopard’s Kopje people as the Rhodesian plateau became a beehive of
gold, copper and iron production. The products went to the Arab merchants on the coast. The Shona civilization lasted
until A.D. 1500. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 176 ([242]), 45 ([66]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 901 to 1000 (Section 1.24)
1.24 Africa: A.D. 901 to 100049
1.24.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 801 to 900 (Section 1.23)
1.24.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The off-shore islands of Ethiopia thrived on the export of Abyssinian slaves. Some apparently escaped to settle in
Danakil and Somali, there to intermarry and become converted to Islam. Inland royal power was assumed in the
mountain region of Lasta sometime after A.D. 940 by a non-Semitic Zagwe Dynasty. While these people became
Christianized, Semitic farmers expanded southward along the forested spine of Ethiopia to modern Addis Ababa. At
the same time Sidama tribesmen invaded from south and east. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 270 ([36]))
In 905 the Turkish Tulunid Dynasty of Egypt gave way to the Ikhshidids who, in turn, were again subject to the
Abbasid caliphate of Damascus although this domination was short lived as the empire began to split. At the end
of the century the Fatimids moved in from northwestern Africa to take control of Egypt. They were a branch of the
Isma’ilites, claiming descent from Mohammed’s daughter, Fatima. Sugar cane was now grown in Egypt, with the
sugar produced by an advanced process. (Ref. 137 ([188]), 260 ([29]))
1.24.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
We noted in the last chapter that the Aghlabid Dynasty had fallen to the Berbers. In this century these victors welcomed
Ubaid Allah, a Shi’ite "Mahdi" 50 from Syria, who used the Berber armies to establish a new north African, Fatimid
Dynasty. They destroyed Tahert and dominated Fez, eventually establishing their capital in Cairo as they assumed
control in Egypt. (Ref. 83 ([123])) The Moroccan Idrisids resisted for some time, but with the Spanish Omayyids
49This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17755/1.2/>.
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38 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
attacking also from the north, the Moroccans finally fell to the Fatimids. (Ref. 137 ([188])) As the Berbers expanded
northward in Morocco and the Arabs came westward along the coast, there was a shift in the balance between the
sedentary cultivators and the nomadic pastoralists. Nevertheless, Morocco, Algiers and Tunisia had a renewed pros-
perity with the establishment of great trade routes across the Sahara and increased commerce with Spain. In the desert,
itself, however, cruel famines were suffered by small towns and warfare contributed further to their demise. (Ref. 8
([14]), 176 ([242]))
1.24.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
By the end of this century most of Africa was out of the Stone Age. (Ref. 83 ([123])) It was the time of the apogee
of the Kingdom of Ghana with its capital at Kumbi and extending from near the Atlantic coast almost to Timbuktu.
It was essentially Negro, consisting of a group of federated tribes with a fairly well developed culture. Writing of
the wealth and wisdom of this African kingdom, the Moslem Ibn Hawqal said that Ghana boasted that its people had
hoards of gold and "the wealthiest of all kings on the face of the earth"51. The recently excavated city of Jenne-jeno
reached the height of its development and by the end of the century may have had close to 20,000 people. This and
satellite communities had penetrated the marketplace of North Africa. Goods, produce and gold flowed north via river
and caravan while Saharan salt and Mediterranean glass beads came south. (Ref. 268 ([189]))
Pressure from the Berbers now forced the city-states of Chad to unite into a kingdom called Kanem-Bornu, or the
Kanuri Empire, founded by a desert people and having the longest surviving dynasty in history, not being overthrown
until the 19th century. A trans-Saharan slave trade running from west Africa east to the Arabs began in this century
and lasted for hundreds of years. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 8 ([14]), 213 ([288])) The Arabs began to colonize the east coast
as far south as Zanzibar but never reached or knew of Madagascar, in this century. (Ref. 137 ([188])) Ancestors of
present day Kikuyu tribes migrated into Kenya from the south. They were Bantu-speakers who were in the process of
spreading out from the Congo in the transition period from Stone Age hunting to the Iron Age and agriculture. (Ref.
175 ([241]), 8 ([14])) Zimbabwe continued to be occupied by the Shona people who traded in copper and gold.
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1001 to 1100 (Section 1.25)
1.25 Africa: A.D. 1001 to 110052
1.25.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 901 to 1000 (Section 1.24)
1.25.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In Ethiopia there was a revival of power under the Cushitic-speaking Zagwe Dynasty. Old documents link King
Yimrha-Kristos to the Egyptian Coptic patriarchs Cyril II (1,077-1,092) and Michael (1,092-1102). Meanwhile the
Semitic component of the country spread westward from Addis Ababa to include Lake Tana by 1,100. (Ref. 270
([36])) Nubia, in the region between the 1st and 4th cataracts of the Nile, continued to have two separate kingdoms,
one the Kingdom of Nubia and the other, farther south, the Kingdom of Alwa. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
Egypt remained an Arab, Moslem state under the Fatimid Dynasty throughout this century. As noted in the last chapter,
these Shi’ite rulers had invaded from the west, having first had a base in Tunisia and an army of Berber tribesmen.
They developed Cairo as their capital.
51Quotation from historical map of the National Geographic Society, (Ref. 154 ([212]))
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1.25.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWESTERN AFRICA
Morocco and Tunisia had a continuing change of emirates and the situation was complicated by the return of hordes
of Spanish Moors, who were being run out of Spain. When the Berber Zirid Dynasty tried to become independent
of Cairo, the Fatimids sent armies of Bedouin Arabs against them and they succeeded in devastating the region and
its economy. At about that same time, on an island just off the Moroccan coast, Ibn Yasin, with some Sahara desert
followers, formed a dedicated band and with thousands of camel men, launched a "jihad"53, driving eastward, over-
running all western, north Africa (the Mahgrib), some of Ghana and even part of Spain, establishing the Almoravid
Dynasty54. A concept of Moroccan unity was born and Marakesh was developed as the capital of this new ruling
group in 1062.
1.25.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
The acme of the Ghana Empire may have occurred in the first half of this century. The inhabitants were the Negroid
Soninke (Sarakole) branch of Mande-speakers. They dominated well over 100,000 square miles of territory with an
efficient administration and an army of 200,000, including 40,000 bowmen. Their horses had gold trappings and their
guard dogs had gold collars. Al Bakri, writing in 1067, said that the houses were of two stories, with warehouses on the
ground floor and living quarters above. The Soninke had their own pagan religion, but they allowed Muslims in their
territory. In the second half of the century drought, famine and pillage of the capital city by the Almoravids (1076)
started the empire into decline. The invading Moslems were helped by non-Moslem Berbers who needed the salt
mines of Ankar. It is probable that the city of Jennejeno, whose development we have followed in previous chapters,
participated in this decline as it known that its population decreased, despite new commerce with North Africa. (Ref.
268 ([189])) As Ghana fell, successor states included Diara, Soso, two Mossi states and Manding, or Mali, formed
by the Malinke Mande. The ruler of the latter was a Moslem living in the rapidly growing city of Timbuktu. Subject
to Mali was an adjacent empire in the middle Niger called Songhoy and at about this same time a people called the
"Telem" took over the old abandoned granaries in the caves of the Bandiagara cliff in Mali and used this as a burial
place for their dead. (See page 234, volume 1). One cave alone has been found to have 3,000 skeletons. (Ref. 251
([17]))
By this time most of the desert nomads had been converted to Islam, which had spread south from the Maghrib into
the states of the Sudan with Muslim merchants as they crossed the Sahara. This dangerous trans-Sahara trade carried
luxury goods, eventually fire-arms and salt, a vital element in the diet of tropical countries. On the reverse, north
trek went gold, leather work and slaves. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 45 ([66]), 211 ([284]), 83 ([123])) This was the era when the
one-humped camel (dromedary) really became of greatest importance in the desert. These hot, dry-country animals
could carry 700 to 800 "light pounds". A caravan of 6,000 camels could carry 2,400 to 3,000 tons or the load of 4 to 6
medium sized sailing ships of that period. (Ref. 260 ([29]))
Farther east there was the country of Kanem, which had no gold but did a brisk business of exporting slaves. In this
century Kanem accepted Islam and under Mai Dunama I, the borders of the state were extended northward across the
desert to Fezzan and westward into Hausaland. Dunama is said to have had 30,000 horsemen, cultural and commercial
links with the Middle East and to have maintained a rest house in Cairo for pilgrims going from Kanem to Mecca.
(Ref. 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
In the dense rain forest of central Africa, Pygmoid and Bushmanoid hunters continued to be present and the Bantu-
speaking Negroids had already been migrating down the rivers from the Sudanic belt to that area and were gradually
spreading east and south. The Luba people may have been well established in the Lake Kisale region of northern
Katanga for three centuries. The Kenya highlands and adjoining northern Tanzania were also already well populated.
The original inhabitants, as previously noted, were Caucasoids called "Azanians" and by tradition were tall, bearded
and red-skinned. Gradually through the centuries, however, these had been gradually absorbed by the Nilo-Hamites
and the Bantu-speaking Negroids. The latter were also filtering into the south into the territory of the Bushmen. Some
53This means a "holy war"
54In a newer terminology this is called the Murabit Dynasty. (Ref. 137 ([188]))
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40 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
buildings were erected at Zimbabwe in this century, beginning the development of another great empire which would
flower some centuries hence. (Ref. 83, 175 ([241]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1101 to 1200 (Section 1.26)
1.26 Africa: A.D. 1101 to 120055
1.26.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1001 to 1100 (Section 1.25)
1.26.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
This was a period of building in the Lasta Kingdom of Ethiopia, with imported Egyptian artisans and materials for
church construction. One of the greatest of the Lasta Zagwe kings was Lalibela, who came to power in 1195. Ethiopian
records of this era were not kept indefinitely because later dominant dynasties considered the Zagwe an "usurping"
one. (Ref. 270 ([36])) The cathedral built about A.D. 700 in Qasr Ibrim, Nubia, was originally dedicated to the Virgin
Mary, but after a raid in 1172-1173 by Shams ed-Dowla, brother of Saladin, it was converted into a mosque. Its ruins
remain today as a small island in Lake Nasser. (Ref. 271 ([7]))
The death throes of the Fatimid caliphate came about not by Christian Crusaders but by the expansion of Nureddin
and his Zangid Sultanate from Syria. Nureddin continued to live at Mosul and let Egypt be ruled by a Kurdish general,
Saladin, who then proceeded to set up his own Ayyubid Dynasty in 1174. Islam glorified in the integrity and justice of
his rule and even Christendom acknowledged him as a gentleman and scholar, even though a foe. At his death in 1193
his realm again became divided. (Ref. 137 ([188]), 83 ([123]))
1.26.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
The Norman, Roger of Sicily, annexed the Zirid Emirate of Tunisia about 1153, but as Saladin took over Egypt,
a Shi’ite empire was created farther west by a Berber tribe led by another supposed "Mahdi" and this Almohade
Dynasty56 replaced the Almoravids and gave Barbary its finest hour. They defeated the remaining Zirids and finally
even ran the Normans from Tunisia. (Ref. 137 ([188]), 83 ([123]))
1.26.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
The Tellem people continued to flourish in Mali. Men wore robes made of cotton strips sewn together, with waistbands
or leather aprons and cotton caps. The women wore short fiber aprons, occasionally with the front pulled back between
the legs to fasten to a waistband behind. They had leather sandals decorated with incised geometric designs, leather
bags and knife sheaths. Personal ornamentation included beads, iron, wood or bronze pendants, iron and leather
bracelets and cylindrical quartz plugs worn in noses or ears of both sexes.
Ife, a kingdom south of Nok (Nigeria), flourished from 1100 to 1500 and produced the greatest artistic creations of
tropical Africa. Ife bronzes were cast by the "lost wax" process which is still in use for some purposes today. (Ref.
175 ([241])) Timbuktu was a trade center of this century, servicing the empires of Manding and Songhoy. Great stone
buildings were erected in Great Zimbabwe as the Shona people made it the capital of their powerful state. (Ref. 8
([14]), 35 ([56])) (Please also see the 15th century C.E. where there is a summary of several centuries of activity in
this part of Africa).
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1201 to 1300 (Section 1.27)
Choose Different Region
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41
1. Intro to Era57
2. America (Section 2.26)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.26)
4. Europe (Section 4.26)
5. The Far East (Section 6.26)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.26)
7. The Near East (Section 7.26)
8. Pacific (Section 8.26)
1.27 Africa: A.D. 1201 to 130058
1.27.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1101 to 1200 (Section 1.26)
1.27.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In the highlands of Ethiopia there were several Muslim sultanates. In Lasta, King Labibela, who gave his name to
the capital city, is credited with 11 monumental rock-cut churches. Egyptian Coptic refugees were allegedly welcome
here, as Labibela attempted to establish a "new Jerusalem". Juniper trees were planted (in place of cedars), a local
stream was named the "Jordan River" and a grove of olives became the "Mount of Olives". (Ref. 270 ([36])) Nearer
the coast this rejuvenated dynasty line from the old Axumite kings gave way in 1270 to a new family claiming to be
a restoration of the old Solomon line, calling themselves the Solomonid Dynasty. These Amharic-speaking people
developed a true Ethiopian culture and came in conflict with the Muslim coastal states on the Horn of Africa, notably
Adal. The Solomonid ruler became known as the "King of Kings" and had many vassal kings under him. Christianity
in this area then began to absorb many Judaic and pagan practices from the mixed peoples living there. (Ref. 43 ([64]),
8 ([14]), 83 ([123]))
Nubia was invaded by Sultan Baibars of Egypt in the middle of the century and a puppet ruler was set up and tribute
paid to the Mamluks.
The descendant of the Kurd, Saladin, ruled Egypt in the first third of this century and one of the greatest achievements
of the time was the building of the Mansur Hospital in Cairo, a very large institution which had separate wards for
different diseases such as fevers, eye problems, female disorders, etc. Ruling the country in about 1238, Sultan al-
Salih, to augment his Turkoman army, purchased white slaves from the Mongols as they crossed southern Russia.
These slaves were mixtures of Cumans, Circassians and Alans and they became the most powerful cavalry unit in the
Egyptian army and were known as mamluks from the Arabic verb "to own". The practice of taking such men as royal
bodyguards had been started by the caliphs of Baghdad, who could not trust even their own relatives. The last Egyptian
sultan of the Kurd Ayyubin line died in 1249 and after a few murders, one of the white slave Mamluks named Aybak
married Queen Shajar al-Durr, founded the Burji Dynasty and became the first Mamluk sultan of Egypt. After seven
years Aybak made the mistake of trying to add a new wife, the daughter of the ruler of Mosul, Iraq. Queen Shajar
al-Durr murdered him in his bath, but she, in turn, received the same type of death three days later from Aybak’s loyal
concubines. (Ref. 125 ([173]), 5 ([10]))
The Mamluk General Baibars (also Baybars) led an army through Palestine, thwarting the last of the Crusaders, and
then went on to defeat his former captors in a great battle at Ain Jalut in 1260 and the Mongol advance was stopped.
As a result of these victories Baibars was elevated to be sultan and he proceeded to be one of the most cruel, ambitious
and yet able of the Mamluks. He traded ambassadors with the Mongol Berke in Russia and persuaded him to wage
war against fellow Mongol Hulegu in the Middle East, thus pinching the latter’s forces between them. He brought
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42 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
the last Abbasid caliph to Cairo from the destroyed Baghdad, set him up as a puppet and then proceeded to form a
strong administration, reconstruct fortresses, roads, bridges and canals, although late in the century the old Necho
canal from the Nile to Red Sea was filled in. He had a regular postal service between Egypt and his domains in Syria.
At the height of his career, in 1277, he was poisoned. With the subsequent reign of Qalawun (1279-1290) the Bahri59
Mamluk Empire reached its height and the prosperity continued with his family successors until the middle of the
next century. It was a period of a full treasury and resulting commissioning of great works of art, both secular and
religious, including great palaces and mosques, manuscripts, glass vessels inlaid with gold and other treasures. (Ref.
137 ([188]), 5 ([10]))
1.27.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
All of north Africa had changes of regimes during this century. When the Baghdad Caliphate was destroyed by the
Mongols, the Hafsid Dynasty took the title of calph in Africa in A.D. 1259 and assumed control of Tunisia and some of
Morocco. In the latter area the Almohades were in collapse because of their losses in Spain to the Christians, and they
were displaced by the Marinid Sultan of Fez in 1269. Both Fez and Marraqesh were great Moroccon cities, exceeded
in population by very few European cities of that time.
Algeria was taken over by still another dynasty, the Zujanids. All of these north African states contributed to trans-
Saharan trade and the crossing of the great desert by these medieval Arab merchants was a tremendous undertaking.
Caravans could cover 200 miles in a week but were subject to black-veiled Taureg pirates and if wells and oases failed,
men and beasts alike could perish. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 137 ([188]), 83 ([123]))
The area was not devoid of intellectual activity. Hasan published tables of sines for each degree and Nasir ud Din
wrote a treatise on trigonometry. In addition the whole science of botany was revised by these Arab-Berbers.
1.27.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In western Africa in the great bend of the Niger River, several states vied for supremacy. At the beginning of the
century, Sumanguru, greatest of the rulers of Soso, next to the Mossi states, plundered the old capital of Ghana,
Kumbi, and in 1224 conquered and annexed Manding. This situation was reversed 11 years later, however, when the
Mandingos defeated the ruler of Soso and re-established independence, in a decisive battle of Kirina. This cleared
the way for the creation of Mali as a successor state to Ghana and it became the second great empire of the western
Sudan, extending from the Lower Gambia and Senegal rivers to the Niger-Benue junction. In contrast to the Ghana
homeland, which was in a semi-arid sahil, the Mali center was in a fertile agricultural land a little to the south and
they even had better access to gold. Sundiata was the warrior hero of these conquering Malinke Mandingos. Exactly
where the recently excavated city of Jennejeno fits into this new empire is not clear, but it is known that this ancient
city was already starting to decline in this century. The Tellem territory near the Bandigara cliff at the bend of the
Niger apparently was never governed politically by the Mali and evidently offered refuge.
In Ife, Nigeria, superb sculptured heads reached a peak production in this and the next century. It was the holy city of
the Yoruba tribe and home of its priest-king, the Oni. Some of the sculptures are believed to represent former Onis.
(Ref. 45 ([66]), 175 ([241]), 119 ([166]), 83 ([123]))
In the region of the southern Congo was the Lunda-Luba Empire. The trading states on the east coast were in a golden
age with the Indian Ocean becoming a vast Muslim lake. From Somalia in the north to Mozambique in the south,
dozens of coastal states flourished with between 30 and 40 medieval city-states, many on islands adjacent to the coast.
Kilwa, on the coast of southern Tanzania, was the greatest medieval east African city, with caravans arriving there with
ivory from around Lake Malawi and dhows coming up the coast from the south with gold, much of which came from
Zimbabwe. From Kilwa great oceangoing ships took off for Arabia, India and China on the monsoon winds. (Ref.
175 ([241])) Although the ruling dynasties of those eastern states were Muslim, the populations were mixed Arabs,
Persians, and indigenous Bantu. This resulted, in time, in the distinctive east African Swahili Culture. The political
59"Bahri" means the "sea" and was the name given to the Mamluks who were stationed on the Island of Roda in the Nile by the last Kurd Sultan,
Najm al-Din Ayyub. (Ref. 5 ([10]))
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43
control extended only a few miles inland and the interior peoples, themselves, brought the wealth of east and central
Africa to the shores of the Indian Ocean. Slaves with tusks on their heads plodded for hundreds of miles to the coast
and then were sold with the ivory. (Ref. 68 ([106]))
Slightly inland and going from north to south, we should mention the rise of the Bantu kingdoms, especially Bunyoro,
the largest at that time, in the area of present day Uganda. (Ref. 175 ([241])) Farther south, in the Great Lakes area the
cattle herding Cwezi kings held sway. (Please see also the summary after the section on AFRICA, in the 15th century
chapter). Continuing south, the leading state of central Africa was governed by Mwana Mtapa and covered a 700 mile
stretch of the Zambesi Valley.
Mtapa was also the heir to an even older Shona Dynasty which had built the fortress of Zimbabwe, the ruins of which
still stand today. The Shonas formed loose federations to control gold mining regions and trade routes to the coast.
There is some evidence, however, of a burning of the original Great Zimbabwe dwellings in this century. (Ref. 35
([56]), 8 ([14]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1301 to 1400 (Section 1.28)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era60
2. America (Section 2.27)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.27)
4. Europe (Section 4.27)
5. The Far East (Section 6.27)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.27)
7. The Near East (Section 7.27)
8. Pacific (Section 8.27)
1.28 Africa: A.D. 1301 to 140061
1.28.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1201 to 1300 (Section 1.27)
1.28.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The Somali have been documented as being in the Horn of Africa in this 14th century but they may have actually
arrived much earlier. Although commentary and archaeological material is meagre, it is probable that the homeland
of these Somali, as well as the Galla, Danakil and Sidama lies in the Rift Valley of southern Ethiopia. They were
all speakers of eastern Cushitic languages and for all life was hard, with frequent bloody feuds adding to their trou-
bles. The Solomonids from Shoa continued their civilization in Ethiopia, with Emperor Amda Siyon (A.D. 1314-44)
expanding toward the south and then defeating the Muslims of eastern Ethiopia in A.D. 1332. A reformed monastic
movement evangelized frontier districts and churches were built on mountain tops. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 270 ([36]))
The real power in northeast Africa, of course, was Egypt, where the Mamluk Dynasty continued to reign with relative
stability and with increased aggressiveness as they even conquered Armenia in 1375. Cairo was the greatest city and
its minor art, enameled glass and pottery work was exceptionally fine. One of the greatest Bahri Mamluk patrons
of the arts was Sultan Hasan (1347-51 and 1354-61), who is remembered for his school and mausoleum which was
decorated with carved stone and stucco, marble revetments, inlaid metal doors and gilded glass lamps. His successor,
Shaban II, commissioned fabulously illuminated Korans, some in blocks three feet high. Each Mamluk sultan was
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44 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
always surrounded by a group of Amirs, also former slave Mamluks, and these in turn, also always had a new group
of slave Mamluk bodyguards. The latter could earn their freedom and when they did, they were sent as governors
and commanders to various provinces and given land for themselves. (Ref. 5 ([10])) Cannons were in use in Cairo
and Alexandria in the latter half of the century. Ibn Batuta, travelling to Cairo, described 12,000 water carriers and
thousands of camel drivers plying for hire62.
In this 14th century the majority of Egyptians, for the first time, were Arab-speaking Muslims and this must have
resulted from many intermarriages with Bedouin Arabs. It is possible that the Black Death among the original native
population may also have-been a factor in this ethnic shift, as about 1/3 of the inhabitants died in the first attack of that
plague between 1347 and 1349. (Ref. 140 ([190]))
In 1381 Malik al-Nasir Barquq, an amir of the Burji Mamluks, overthrew the east Bahri sultan and started a new
dynasty, the Burji, dedicated to luxury and intrigue and violence, which soon led to social decay. This administration
debased the coinage, taxed necessities and laid such heavy duty on India-European trade that Europe had to find a new
route to India in the next century.
1.28.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
A creditable civilization remained in North Africa, although between the Marinids of Morocco and the Hafsids of
Tunisia there was endless strife, particularly as to who should receive the homage of the intervening Ziyanids of Al-
geria. In 1360 the latter became independent and the Hafsid dominion divided into the Hafsid Emirate of Constantine
and the plain Hafsid Caliphate, running to the east along the coast as far as Egypt. The Marinids of Morocco flourished
as much from piracy as through commerce. (Ref. 137 ([188]), 119 ([166]))
At Timbuktu, far south across the great desert, there was a library of some 1,600 volumes, a famous university and
beautiful mosques. The geographer Muhammad abu Abdullah ibn Batuta, after traveling about 75,000 miles, wrote a
book about this area and Abd-er-Rahman of Tunis, perhaps the greatest historian of all time, wrote many treatises on
the rise and fall of civilizations in general, anticipating and stimulating Arnold Toynbee in many respects. At the end
of this 14th century repeated nomad conquerors from the fringes of the Sahara began raids into North Africa, starting
a period of decadence.
1.28.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
While Europe suffered the Black Death and the Hundred Years War, black kingdoms of the Sudan were flourishing
with great wealth and brilliant artistic accomplishments. Competing with the one at Timbuktu, a university at Jenne
attracted students from far and wide. (Ref. 8 ([14])) The Muslims of Mali had "-a greater abhorrence of injustice than
any other people", said Ibn Battuta63 The Mali emperor, Musa I, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, taking with him a great
train of servants, courtiers, slaves and 3,800 kilograms of gold, sufficient to depress the price of that metal on the Cairo
exchange. But about 1350, the expanding Empire of Songhai began to take over Mali territory, continuing to support
their city of Timbuktu, but creating a new capital at nearby Gao. Between Songhai and Kanem-Bornu were the Hausa
city-states. Of these, Kano and Katsina particularly were rich and industrious, with a specialty production of leather
goods which was called "Moroccan" leather in England. If continued in the present region of Nigeria. On the Gulf
of Guinea several kingdoms arose in the area now known as Ghana. The Yoruba people, who settled the tropical rain
forest of the Niger Basin, built up powerful kingdoms of Benin and Oyo. (Ref. 175 ([241]))
Many wealthy city-states appeared on the east coast of Africa in this and the next century. The city of Zimbabwe has
been mentioned previously and this remained a very important religious, political and trading center of the Shona, a
Bantu-speaking people among which building and pottery styles reached a peak in this and the 15th centuries. Stone
walling was improved, the old burned out stone buildings were rebuilt and an attractive edifice 800 feet long and 32
feet high was constructed for some unknown purpose. (Ref. 88 ([131])) The Shona are still today the majority people
of that country.
62As noted by Braudel (Ref. 260 ([29])), page 481
63As quoted in Reference 154 ([212]) by the National Geographic Society, Cartographic Division
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45
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1401 to 1500 (Section 1.29)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era64
2. America (Section 2.28)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.28)
4. Europe (Section 4.28)
5. The Far East (Section 6.28)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.28)
7. The Near East (Section 7.28)
8. Pacific (Section 8.28)
1.29 Africa: A.D. 1401 to 150065
1.29.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1301 to 1400 (Section 1.28)
1.29.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
This part of the world experienced no great change from the previous century. The Solomonid Dynasty in Ethiopia was
at the height of its power and Amhara colonists continued to invade southern Shoa, Gojam and the base of the Semien
Mountains. The Moslems controlled all the Red Sea coast, however, and confined the Christians to the Ethiopian
highlands. Even Nubia became Moslem. The Caucasoid Azanians in the northeastern interior felt the impact of
migrating Bantu speakers and the arrival of Nilo Hamites with their Cushitic languages, such as Galla, influenced the
region. These Nilo-Hamites appear to have been a mixture from three origins, - Nilotic Negroids of the upper Nile,
Cushitic Sidama of Ethiopia and a third of origin unknown. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The Mamluk Dynasty continued in Egypt, but with declining power and influence.
It must be recalled that this ruling group were originally warriors from the Caucasus region and this communication
with Black Sea ports allowed recurrent epidemic disasters in Egypt. Disease, helped probably by oppression and bad
government, resulted in depopulation and impoverishment. The last great Mamluk sultan was Qaitbay (1468-96), an
avid builder, who restored some of the greatness of the old Bahri period of the 13th century, but the decline of the
empire was only temporarily halted. (Ref. 140 ([190]), 5 ([10]))
1.29.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
The coast still had a high cultural level and now acted as a refuge for the Moors fleeing from the persecutions in Spain.
With the decline of the Moroccan Marinids and after the Portuguese seized Ceuta, opposite from Gibralter in 1415, the
Hafsids gained at least titular supremacy over all of western North Africa for while. By 1478 the Wattasid Sultanate
developed in the far west and the Ziyanid Emir existed between the Wattasid and the slipping Hafsids. (Ref. 137
([188]), 83 ([123])) By the end of the century, the Arabs had established sugar cane in the Moroccan Sousse and from
there it soon spread on into the Atlantic to Madeira, the Canaries and the Azores.
1.29.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Just southwest of the Sahara it was the heyday of the Songhai, who had great mosques at Timbuktu and Jenne and
were famous for their piety and scholarship. Relationships of this particular empire with Morocco were not cordial
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46 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
because of competition for the trans-Saharan trade and the valuable salt mine of Taghaxa in the northern desert. This
Songhai Empire came into its zenith about 1464, when a warrior king, the Sonni Ali, came to the throne of Gao in
the middle Niger and by his death had extended his rule over the whole western Sudan. He had cavalry, levies of foot
soldiers and flotillas of war canoes, which patrolled the 1,000 miles of the navigable Niger. It was he who ended the
Mali Empire of Ghana. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
In the forest area of west Africa were the Edo, who developed great bronze sculpture in the Kingdom of Benin, near
the coast of Nigeria. Benin was a walled city, 25 miles around, with wide, straight streets and spacious houses of
wood. In Ife, in southwest Nigeria, one of these bronze heads was definitely made by the lost wax technique. Seven
Hausa city-states, including Kano, Zaria, Gobir and Katsina had become flourishing commercial centers in the Sudan.
Agriculture was the basis of society, with trade routes through the Sahara. Guinea, existing out on the southwest
corner of the bulge of west Africa, would, at first glance, appear to be a site early exploited by Europeans, but actually
it remained isolated for a long time because European ships could not return from there directly up the west African
coast. Because of the Atlantic currents and wind, they had to go straight out to the middle Atlantic before they could
turn and go north again. The people of Guinea were modest farmers and fishermen, with some local trade involving
salt and dried fish. Deeper inland, they had some contact with the Sudan. This small country has a rain forest, but it is
not deep and is traversed by the magnificent waterway, the Niger. Near the end of the century the Portugese did arrive
to establish a trading post. A little to the east, the foundations had been laid for the famous forest states of Oyo and
Akan, as well as Benin, which we have described above. (Ref. 206 ([83]), 17 ([30]), 83 ([123]), 8 ([14])) The Sudan
had gold mines, ruled by village chiefs and the workers approached the condition of slavery. (Ref. 292 ([28]))
In central Africa gold was plentiful and the king of the Congo maintained such opulence in his capital that visiting
Portuguese were amazed and made haste to make an alliance, not a conquest. About 1441 they brought Christianity
to western, central Africa, going even 200 miles up the Congo to convert the Congo king. Incidentally, they brought
back gold. (Ref. 175 ([241])) Living in the great bend of the Congo, in the plateau north of Stanley Pool, were the
Teke people in a number of chiefdoms collectively known as Mongo. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
Farther east in the lake country between Tanzania and Zaire there appeared in this 15th century the Batutsi, a tall,
warrior people, perhaps originally from Ethiopia. They invaded and subjugated the native Bahutu in Burundi. In
Kenya, the nomadic Masai entered from the north, joining the Kikuyu already there and then some Luo entered from
the west. The Kikuyu were Bantu-speakers and related groups established themselves in parts of the Transvaal and
Natal as well as the lower Congo and Zambezi by about A.D. 1500. Kitari was an Hamitic kingdom north of Lake
Victoria. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
In the meantime Muslim Swahili66 city-states had been established all down the eastern coast of Africa and there
was special interest in the gold of the Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) region. The Bantu-speakers had migrated southward
along the spine of east Africa with a new war-like ethos and a pastoral life, dominating other tribes and reaching the
Zambesi River by the end of the century. Arab trade inland actually declined, because these Bantu were less amenable
to exploitation than their predecessors, chiefly Bushmen. By 1440 King Mutota of the Rozur clan in the Katanga
nation assembled an army which completely dominated the Rhodesian plateau within 10 years. This period has been
described by Charles Colt, Jr. (Ref. 35 ([56])) as a splitting of the Shona state into two rival kingdoms. At any rate, as
ruler of an empire, Mutota than took the title of Mwene Mutapa67. The Portuguese wrote this as Monomotapa, which
soon became the name of the empire, itself. The stone birds, which have been found in the ruins of old Zimbabwe,
were probably important in the religious ritual of that theocratic empire. The realm was soon subject to revolution and
succession wars and this resulted in many "ups and downs" in its history and in its buildings. From the beginning in
1440 on for 400 years, however, there was a progressive evolution of artistic and technical skills in that society. The
Monomatapa ruler was considered divine and his subjects would hear him but not look at him and had to approach
him on their stomachs. He lived amid great pomp, but when he became seriously ill or very old he was obliged to
take poison. At the end of the 15th century the entire nation moved hundreds of miles north, apparently because the
local salt supplies of Great Zimbabwe had been exhausted. Their extensive stone buildings, which still exist, were
66"Swahili" implies "Arab and Negro". (Ref. 83 ([123]))
67In the Shona language, "Mwene Mutapa" means "Master Pillager". (Ref. 176 ([242]))
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abandoned at that time. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 83 ([123]), 35 ([56]), 176 ([242]), 211 ([284]), 45 ([66]))
Explorer Diogo Cao claimed Angola for Portugal in 1483 and the slave trade was opened up in earnest. In the next
four centuries, some 3,000,000 slaves were sent to Brazil by the Portuguese. At the very tip of South Africa the
people seen when the Europeans first explored the area were the Bushmen, who were hunters and gatherers, and the
Hottentots (Khoikhoi), who herded sheep and cattle along the coastal regions. As noted previously, these were not
Bantu-speaking people. (Ref. 175 ([241]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1501 to 1600 (Section 1.30)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era68
2. America (Section 2.29)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.29)
4. Europe (Section 4.29)
5. The Far East (Section 6.29)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.29)
7. The Near East (Section 7.29)
8. Pacific (Section 8.29)
1.30 Africa: A.D. 1501 to 160069
1.30.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1401 to 1500 (Section 1.29)
1.30.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
The horn of Africa now became the site of bitter conflict, originally a trading rivalry, but soon a long religious and
political fight between Christians of Ethiopia and the Muslim coastal states. The sultan of Adal (now between Somalia
and Ethiopia), Ahmad Gran, attacked into the heartland of Ethiopia in the 1520s with the help of Danakill and So-
mali nomads. The Christian Amhara nation dominated the Ethiopian plateau at that time and sustained a flourishing
ecclesiastical art. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 270 ([36])) The pope sent Portuguese soldiers, led by Christopher da Gama (Vasco’s
son), to help against this Muslim conquest in a 20 year long war. As a result of that help by Portuguese, Ethiopia came
under Catholic influence for the first time, as their own Coptic Church had been declared heretical some 1,100 years
previously. The Jesuits with the Portuguese tried to convert the Ethiopians, apparently without too much success, as
all Catholic missions were expelled by the next century. But the old Christian empire was so exhausted by the warfare
that the pagan Galla, from the south and east then invaded and settled in the country, with general anarchy resulting.
(Ref. 175 ([241]), 8 ([14]), 83 ([123])) Additional Notes (p. 49)
In what is now the country of Sudan, the Funj people appeared early in this century, defeated the Arabs and established
a powerful kingdom around the capital Sennar, on the Blue Nile. The people, known as the "Black Sultans" of eastern
Sudan eventually adopted Islam. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
In Egypt the last Mamluk sultan was Qansuh al-Ghuri, a scholarly man coming to the throne late in life. Decadence,
rivalry and corruption continued in his regime. To add to the Mamluk troubles, their trading ports were now by-passed
by the Portuguese trade- routes around the Cape of Good Hope and the Egyptian treasury was soon empty. The stage
was set for the advance of the Ottoman Turk, Selim I, who defeated the Mamluk army in Syria and advanced to rule
Egypt and Hejaz (Saudi Arabia). (Ref. 5 ([10]))
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1.30.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Estimates of the population of North Africa in this century vary from 2,000,000 to 3,500,000. (Ref. 260 ([29])) After
da Gama’s voyage around Africa at the end of the preceding century, the economic ascendancy of North Africa ended.
Science and philosophy lost out to both Christianity and Islam and the area began to decline to the status we know
today. In the early century, both Spain and Portugal gained control of some Moroccan ports, but in a great battle of
Alcazarquivir in 1578, King Sebastian of Portugal was killed and the Moroccans preserved their independence for
another half century, usually ruled by factions of the Sharifian Dynasty. (Ref. 175 ([241])) That country, alone of
the north African states, remained independent of the Ottomans. At the height of its power, in about 1590, Morocco
invaded the Songhai Empire and set up a client state in the sudan, disrupting the economy of that entire region. (Ref.
8 ([14])) Throughout the century local fairs were set up in connection with local saints and pilgrimages. One of the
largest was among the Gouzzoula, south of the Anti-Atlas, looking out over the desert. It survived for hundreds of
years. (Ref. 292 ([28]))
East of Morocco in the Oran-Algiers-Tripoli area a band of pirates roved until captured by Spanish forces using
artillery in 1509 and 1510. Then in 1,516 a colorful buccaneer entered the picture - one Khair ed-Kin Khizr, called
"Barbarossa" because of his red hair. Actually he was a Greek, who had joined the pirates, conquering Tripoli, Tunisia
and Algeria and he then offered the Ottoman, Selim I, sovereignty over the area in return for the use of a Turkish
army. With the latter he became the hero of western Islam, by ferrying 70,000 Moors from Spain to Africa, raiding
Sicily and Italy, landing at Naples and then, with the French fleet, taking Nice and Villefranche from the Holy Roman
Emperor. After all this, he died in bed at age 80 years. The Algiers and Oran area continued to be the haunt of the
Barbary pirates until the end of the 18th century. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 260 ([29]))
In the meantime, however, Charles I of Spain (later Emperor Charles V) had re-captured Tunis as part of his war with
Turkey, and had installed a puppet ruler. But the Ottomans, with Barbarossa’s help, continued to creep across north
Africa and gradually once again took over the entire area, with the exception of a few Spanish ports and the Sultanates
of Fez and Morocco. In 1,571 the Turkish sea power was broken in a great sea battle off Lepanto, by a combined
Spanish-Venetian navy. (Ref. 8 ([14]))
1.30.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
Horses have never been used much in Africa. For one thing the animals do not thrive in the tropics and secondly, they
remained exceptionally expensive. In this 16th century horses cost three times as much as slaves in central Africa,
although in the sudan the great Moroccan horses were sometimes worth 12 slaves each. (Ref. 260 ([29])) The huge
Songhai Empire, which had been built up by Sunni Ali in the last century, was led early in this century by an even
greater man, Askia Muhammad, the Great (1493-1528). There were a number of large commercial cities, such as the
old Mali capital of Timbuktu, a town of 6,000 houses with a splendid royal court. The city was multi-racial, with
Songhai, Taureg, Moor, Malenki and Fulani, a fact which led to hostility and succession problems in the empire. The
predominantly Negro inhabitants were described as superior in wit, civility and industry. Other cities were Jenne and
Gao, the latter full of rich merchants. But each century the Sahara was becoming more and more desiccated and life
a little harder. To further complicate matters, in 1590 the Sultan of Morocco sent an army of 3,000 men, including
Spanish and Portuguese renegades straight south across the desert to wipe out Songhai. Their cannons and muskets
won the towns quickly, but in the south where the terrain did not favor open warfare, they could not win, although the
war went on for a decade, devastating the country-side and bringing down the empire. Learning, culture and prosperity
all disappeared from the region. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 154 ([212]), 222 ([296]), 83 ([123])) Apparently isolated from the
rest of Mali, a people called "Dogon” arrived in the Bondagara cliff region to gradually replace the Tellem, who had
lived in the area since the 11th century. The latter had been decreasing in nu mber since the 13th century, however,
perhaps because of pressure from the Mali and later the Songhai empires. The Dogon lived in this isolated region,
more or less unknown to the western world until about 1907. (Ref. 251 ([17]))
Farther south in Nigeria, the Bini tribe of Benin made magnificent bronzes, using the "lost wax" method and did
beautiful ivory carvings for the royal palaces. Ife remained, related to Benin. About Lake Chad it was the apogee of
the Empire of Kanem, or Bornu, under Idres III. In the Great Lakes region, Lwo invaders from the north overthrew the
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49
Cwezi kings and established the states of Bunyoro and Buganda.. In Uganda the Kingdom of Buchwezi continued.
The Watutsi, probably originating in Ethiopia, migrated in the late 16th century to the Lake Kiva region, establishing
the Rwanda and Burundi kingdoms. The Kikuya reached Kenya from the south, cut down the forest and started to
cultivate the land. (Ref. 83 ([123])) Farther south, in what later was to become Rhodesia and is now again Zimbabwe,
the king of Monomatapa left the original Zimbabwe region to establish a new capital on the northern edge of the
Rhodesian plateau. A new dynasty, the Rosvis, soon revived the original area and some of the largest Zimbabwe
buildings were then constructed. (Ref. 19 ([32]), 38 ([59]), 175 ([241])) As the Bantu speakers pushed southward,
four main linguistic groups developed. The Nguni group took on many "clicks" of the Khoisan tongue of the Bushmen,
as the latter were pushed westward and toward the cape. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The Portuguese were the first European power to make some inroad into Subsaharan Africa. After having taken Sofala
and Kil-wa and founding Mozambique between 1505 and 1507 they ascended the Zambesi River in 1513. And they
were not hesitant about taking slaves from the Atlantic side of the continent. In the Congo in about 1526 the Christian
King Affonso deplored the depopulation of his country by slavers who were chiefly Portuguese. Inadvertently, these
Europeans did Africa another great disfavor by bringing maize from America. That maize grew so rapidly that it led
to a great population increase in some areas, so that slave ships never sailed empty. A terrible side effect, however,
was the appearance of the nutritional disease, pellagra, which resulted from the exclusive diet of maize, when not
supplemented with other foods or prepared with lime water. In the Central and South American homelands of that
vegetable, people not only converted the corn to hominy with lime water, but ate tomatoes, capsicum, peppers and fish,
which supplied the vitamins necessary to prevent pellagra. (Ref. 154 ([212]), 211 ([284]))
Sir John Hawkins initiated the British slave trade and the Dutch established their first colony on the Guinea coast in
1595. To evaluate the early effect of the slave trade one must realize that in the early years African monarchs profited
from the trade, obtaining weapons, cloth, metal and spirits, which increased their wealth. The loss of population of
about 40,000 a year was generally economically acceptable and in this respect only, the less populous Angola and East
Africa suffered. The larger kingdoms of Ashanti and Dahomey might owe their rise to power to the fire-arms acquired
in the slave trade. (Ref. 213 ([288]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1601 to 1700 (Section 1.31)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era70
2. America (Section 2.30)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.30)
4. Europe (Section 4.30)
5. The Far East (Section 6.30)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.30)
7. The Near East (Section 7.30)
8. Pacific (Section 8.30)
NOTE: The southern farmlands of Ethiopia, in the region of Bale, was occupied by Oromos, most of whom
were Moslems
1.31 Africa: A.D. 1601 to 170071
1.31.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1501 to 1600 (Section 1.30)
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50 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
1.31.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
In the early century, Ethiopian emperors began to reconsolidate their power among the plains and lush hillsides of
Begemder and developed a permanent royal residence at Gondar, after 1636. Emperor Fasilida expelled all Jesuits
by 1633, put down the Moslems of Adal, and closed the country to foreigners. Later local wars against both the
neighboring Muslims and the Galla, farming people of central and south Ethiopia, resumed and was to last almost two
centuries. Galla groups continued to move in Somali, some intermarrying with Arabs and developing a passionate
devotion to Islam. Cubes of salt served as both money and food for these people. In Egypt, Turkish control continued.
(Ref. 83 ([123]), 260 ([29]))
1.31.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
This area continued to decline economically and intellectually, Ali Bey made himself hereditary Bey of Tunis, while
Algiers and Tripoli became virtually independent states. Politics was violent, with riots, plots, counter-plots, and
massacres. 30,000 of Algiers’ 130,000 people were Christian slaves of the dominant Moslems. The Barbary pirates
continued to work the Algiers and Oran areas throughout this century, using renegade Europeans from Calabria or
Sicily, as captains. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
1.31.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In the western bulge of Africa the state of Ashanti was formed and rapidly expanded to absorb some 30 independent
neighboring kingdoms in the area that is now part of western Ghana. It was the Ashanti who teamed up with the
European slavers for the greatest exports of men. Between the Ashanti and the Niger delta the states of Dahomey and
Oyo were also established in this century and the entire region was sometimes called “the slave coast”. Later some of
it was called “the gold coast”. The Portuguese had refused to sell firearms to any of these people, but in the middle of
the century the Dutch did. On the upper Niger, the black Bambara Kingdom defeated and replaced the old Manding
empire about 1670. Brought from America, maize gradually came to be the primary food plant north of the Congo in
Benin and among the Yoruba. (Ref. 58 ([86]), 83 ([123]), 260 ([29]))
Bornu continued as the most powerful state of the central Sudan, but interstate wars continued in this and the next
century. Kuba was a group of chiefdoms at the south edge of the rain forest which developed a relatively high standard
of living and rapid population increase as they received new American crops and techniques, both brought by the
Portuguese. The Buchwezi Kingdom in Uganda was succeeded by the Buganda and this had become the most powerful
of the Bantu-speaking kingdoms by 1700. Those people carved wooden sculptures and had very artistic palaces,
shrines, and houses. Large drums, some 12 feet across, were used as ritual objects, supposedly to communicate with
ancestors. (Ref. 175 ([241]))
Portuguese domination of Swahili cities of the east coast was eliminated by the Arabs of Oman, who had considerable
maritime power at that time. A 1690 revolt in Mozambique, led by Changamire, to protest against harsh Portuguese
treatment, resulted in the elimination of Europeans there, but they still bought slaves through other ports. (Ref. 83
([123]))
In parts of southern Africa, Bushmen still made rock-paintings and engravings of polychrome animals which could
compare favorably with any stone-age art of the Sahara or even of western Europe. The best paintings of this and
the next two centuries are in the Drakenburg Mountains. (Ref. 88 ([131])) In 1652 the Dutch East India Company
established a rest station near the cape at the tip of Africa, en route to the Spice Islands (Indonesia). Soon slaves
were imported for local labor and the local Hottentots supplied beef. Several hundred French Huguenots arrived as
settlers also by 1700 so that by the time there was a mixture of about 1000 Dutchmen with some French and the
native Hottentots and Bushmen. Neither of the latter are correctly considered to be truly of the Negro race and the
Bantu-speaking, true Negroes were still in the process of migrating slowly down the eastern coast of the continent,
although the Nguni were beginning to settle over most of Natal. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
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Although the Europeans were establishing trading posts along the coast of Africa, the mainland of the continent
remained self-contained and there were no true European colonies until the end of the next century. Probably the chief
reason for the slow penetration up the rivers by Caucasians is that most of tropical Africa’s rivers are blocked by huge
waterfalls only a short distance from the rivers’ mouths. There was some traveling up the Senegal and the Gambiae. As
the sugar, cotton, and tobacco plantations developed in the New World, the slave trade from Africa reached substantial
proportions. Initially handled by the Portuguese, the trade was progressively taken over by British, Dutch, and French.
In 4 ½centuries some 10 million slaves were brought to the Americas and this slave trade inhibited political, economic,
and social development and culled out the sound and healthy population already debilitated by endemic disease. (ref.
68) Early on the Portuguese had a trading station in Angola, but for a while the Dutch took this away, depriving the
Portuguese for slaves for the Brazilian plantations. By 1640, then independent of Spain, Portugal recovered Angola
and some 14 years later even drove the Dutch out of Brazil as well. The French started some settlements on Madagascar
in 1626 and intermarried with various primitive tribes and the Hovas, who had arrived from across the Indian Ocean
about 1000 A.D. They were the most advanced of several peoples of Malay and Melanesian stocks, all speaking one
language, but with many dialects.
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1701 to 1800 (Section 1.32)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era72
2. America (Section 2.31)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.31)
4. Europe (Section 4.31)
5. The Far East (Section 6.31)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.31)
7. The Near East (Section 7.31)
8. Pacific (Section 8.31)
1.32 Africa: A.D. 1701 to 180073
1.32.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1601 to 1700 (Section 1.31)
1.32.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Local war continued in Ethiopia. James Bruce, exploring that country as he traveled from Massawa to Gondar and
thence to the Blue Nile, reported that the Ethiopian Empire was in decline, restricted to the area north of the Blue Nile
and was wracked by rebellion. Galla tribesmen had penetrated the countryside and looted at will. (Ref. 270 ([36]))
Egypt was simply a part of the Ottoman Empire until the very end of the century, when Napoleon penetrated it as a
gateway to the east (1798). The population had shrunk from about 8,000,000 in the 1st century C.E. to 2,000,000 at
this time. (Ref. 68 ([106])) Additional Notes (p. 52)
1.32.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
Hussein ibn Ali founded the Husseinite Dynasty in Tunis and threw off Turkish authority in 1705 and shortly thereafter
Ahmed Bey made himself ruler of Tripoli, founding the Karamanil Dynasty, which was to last more than a century.
The Spaniards were expelled from Oran for awhile, but they resumed control in 1732. From 1757 to 1789 Morocco
was ruled by Sidi Mohammed, who established a regime of law and order and abolished Christian slavery. By 1800
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52 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
those north African areas still subject to Ottoman Sultans were the most powerful communities controlled by outsiders
on the continent. (Ref. 119 ([166]), 83 ([123]))
Copper bracelets, gold dust and horses were all used as currency in that part of Africa. Magnificient horses of the
Moors were sold for 15 slaves each. In more southern areas a sheet of paper would obtain a fat, tender chicken. (Ref.
260 ([29]))
1.32.1.3 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA
In western Africa, local wars in Ghana finally allowed that state to be taken over by Ashanti warriors, whose king and
major chief s wore regalia made of local gold and imported silver. This forest Akan Empire became supreme in the
interior of that part of Africa, trading gold for European fire-arms. They used minature brass sculptures to measure
their gold dust. (Ref. 19 ([32]), 175 ([241])) The west coast of Africa was also the source of slaves for the British
slave trade to the Spanish colonies in America. Britain had obtained this right as part of the treaty ending the Spanish
War of Succession. The Ibo, in Guinea, supplied a greater number of slaves than any other e-thnic group, but their
internal state was very little disturbed. Late in the century (1787) Sierra Leone, on the west coast, was acquired by the
British for the settlement of freed slaves and it was made a separate colony in 1799, the same year as the founding of
the British Church Missionary Society. Also late in this period, at about 1776, there was a rise of the Tukulor power
in west Africa on the upper Niger, pushing the French out of their Senegal possessions on the river of the same name.
The French recovered these in 1778.
Farther east the Hausa continued as a power about Lake Chad. Oyo, south of the Hausa states, got horses from the
latter and built up a large cavalry. They may have had as many as 6,000 towns and villages, with almost all of the
population speaking the Yoruba tongue. Still farther east, about the Great Lakes, the lake kingdoms of Uganda and
Buganda made contact with the outside world, particularly through the Arab and Swahili merchants on the east coast.
The Arabs had settled the coastal area of Kenya and came under control of the Sultan of Zanzibar from 1740 on. (Ref.
83 ([123]), 175 ([241]))
In the equatorial area, 600 miles northeast of the Kuba Kingdom, were several states of warrior Zande stock and east
of them were the Mangbetu who, although cannibals, had advanced metal work displayed in lavish treasure chambers.
The origin of these people is unknown. On the southern savannahs the Bakuba of Zaire commemorated their king
with many fine portrait statues and in the more isolated regions, the Bushmen continued rock paintings. In the Cape
Colony, the Dutch gradually pushed inland as cattle raiders and farmers, reaching the Orange River in 1760 and the
Great Fish River in 1776. In 1795 the British fleet, acting under mandate from the exiled Prince of Orange, captured
the Dutch garrison, primarily to prevent the Cape Colony from falling into the hands of the French. We should note,
in passing, that the end of the century marked the birth of Shaka, a great Bantu-speaking king who would eventually
fuse the Zulu nations into a great war machine. The Bushmen of the Cape were essentially destroyed by the European
impact. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 119 ([166]), 154 ([212]))
Forward to Africa: A.D. 1801 to 1900 (Section 1.33)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era74
2. America (Section 2.32)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.32)
4. Europe (Section 4.32)
5. The Far East (Section 6.32)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.32)
7. The Near East (Section 7.32)
8. Pacific (Section 8.32)
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NOTE: Eritrea was colonized by the Italians in 1890, but otherwise Ethiopia remained independent through-
out the century. The Oromos in the south, which were the largest group in the country, were subjugated in
late century by Menelik II and the land was divided up among the royal family, the church, soldiers of the
conquering army and other friends of the crown. The farmers became mere landless tenants
1.33 Africa: A.D. 1801 to 190075
1.33.1 AFRICA
Back to Africa: A.D. 1701 to 1800 (Section 1.32)
1.33.1.1 NORTHEAST AFRICA
Ethiopia, a land of priests and monasteries, was the only Christian state in this area. It had an emperor without power
as the country was - rent by rivalries among the provincial warlords and was subjected to repeated attacks by Galla
nomads from the south. Actually, the latter, along with Amhara warlords, wielded the real power. In 1855 an ex-bandit,
Ras Kassa, seized power making himself Emperor Theodorus and soon became a tyrant. In 1864 he imprisoned three
members of a British mission and they were rescued only three years later by a British military expedition coming in
from the Red Sea. Theodorus killed himself and civil war followed. A powerful, local leader, Menelik, supported by
Italy finally won out, becoming Menelik II. He soon broke with Italy, however, and captured some 3,000 Italians in a
battle at Aduwa in 1896. He did build railways and schools and a new capital at Addis Ababa. (Ref. 68 ([106]), 175
([241]), 83 ([123]))
The horn of Africa came under the control of the Sultan of Oman and Zanzibar in the 1820s. Throughout most of the
century the Sudan was controlled by British-Egyptian administrations, but there were many changes from decade to
decade. Some of these are discussed in the paragraphs about Egypt, to follow. In 1885 Major General Charles George
"Chinese" Gordon was killed in Khartoum by Mahdi followers, ending Egyptian suzerainty. The religious leader
Mahdi then established the f irst Sudanese government in Omdurman. Some 13 years later, however, Lord Kitchener
defeated the Sudanese forces (1898) and started the era of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, which ruled Sudan for
over 50 years. Just at the end of the century a highly developed Zandes military empire of the Congo basin swept up
into the Sudan, under King Gbudwe, but were repulsed. (Ref. 254 ([41]))
Napoleon Bonaparte had penetrated Egypt in 1798, but the British navy helped the Turks to drive the French out in
1801, allowing Muhammad (also Mehemet) Ali, an Albanian Turk with Albanian soldiers, to invade. In 1803 the
Ottoman Sultan appointed him Pasha (viceroy) of Egypt. There was still a Mamluk garrison present, but in 1811
Muhammad massacred every man in it and emerged as absolute ruler of the country. He then Europeanized the army,
reformed the administration and built up the commercial economy, employing many Europeans, especially Frenchmen.
The cultivation of cotton helped to awaken the somewhat somnolent Islam and Ali was able to extend his control to
Sennar, Arabia, Sudan, Crete and Greece (1825-28) Europeans were considerably upset about all this and a combined
British, French and Russian naval force took Greece away from Ali, ensuring the success of a Greek revolution, which
had been in progress. Later the Europeans made Ali relinquish a portion of Syria that he had annexed and forced him to
settle for hereditary rule over Egypt and the Sudan, only. As a side light of this Near Eastern crisis of 1839-41, a British
squadron compelled the French Navy to withdraw support from Ali and this stimulated the French admiralty to find
new technological means to challenge the British at sea. In turn, this resulted in the development of steam-powered
ships of war. (Ref. 279 ([191]))
Egypt was independent in all but name. Some gold was found in the southern part and the ivory trade enjoyed a boom.
Some 20,000 slaves were imported each year. When Mohammed Ali died in 1849 he left his successors the strongest
government, most efficient army and most prosperous economy in Africa. At that time no part of northeast Africa was
under any European sovereignty. (Ref. 83 ([123])) Muhammad Ali’s grandson, Ismail, educated in France, ascended
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54 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
to power with the title of king, while still paying tribute to Constantinople. 30,000 Egyptian soldiers kept northern
Sudan under Turco-Egyptian rule, although there were still tribal chiefs. In south Sudan there was a Shilluk Kingdom
of Nilotic people, although under Turkish suzerainty and a large independent tribal group called "Nuers". (Ref. 83
([123]))
A cholera epidemic of 1831 caused the death of 13% of the population of Cairo.
The first Egyptian railway was constructed in 1854 and others in the Near East followed soon after. By 1875 Egypt was
the only African country with more than 1,000 miles of railroad track, but wheeled vehicles were otherwise nowhere
of use. Long staple cotton had been discovered and put into production in the 1820s and 30s, with new land under
cultivation. Cash crops for export from Egypt included that cotton and tobacco and it should be noted that during the
American Civil War the demand for Egyptian cotton in- creased greatly so that it became worth ten times as much
money as previously. Its worth almost trebled again in the next 45 years. (Ref. 140 ([190]), 83 ([123]))
French interests constructed the Suez Canal in 1869, but the English gained a share of it by purchase from Egypt in
1875 because the canal saved 41% of the mileage from London to Bombay and 29% of that to Singapore. After the
French and English had established a joint control over Egypt in 1880, a native revolt against the British was led by
Arabi Pasha in 1881-82, but the British countered with a military expedition two years later which resulted in actual
British control of the country, although theoretically it was still under Turkish jurisdiction. The French had withdrawn.
In the south the British were repeatedly under attack in the 1880s and 1890s by Muslims led by the Mahdi and his
successor, the Khalifa. (Ref. 139 ([192]), 8 ([14]), 175 ([241]), 83 ([123]))
At the end of the century the British and French again came to blows over the eastern Sudan. The French backed down
and, as mentioned earlier, the Sudan became an Anglo- Egyptian condominium in 1898. Indian immigrants to British
East Africa eventually surpassed whites in number, however, and currently the migration of a great many of these dark,
British citizens to England is giving the administration much trouble. (Ref. 68 ([106]), 154 ([212]), 8 ([14]))
1.33.1.2 NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHWEST AFRICA
This was a period when the North African coast was divided among the imperialistic European powers, chiefly France
and England. As the latter took over Egypt, France became interested in the more western areas, in spite of some
Spanish footholds. Starting about 1830 hundreds of thousands of southern Europeans settled in North Africa, con-
trolling practically all trade, industry and finance, but they did not fuse with the natives racially and they remained a
distant and distinct group, arousing increasing local animosity. In the mountains the Berber Montagnards governed
themselves in cantons or village republics and often some of these grouped loosely together for mutual protection. In
the vast area of the central Sahara the Tauregs, of Berber stock, were arranged in 5 groups or confederations of tribes,
named from the massifs that made up the core of their respective territories. Raiding was the profession of the nobles
and most had large numbers of Negro slaves. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
The bay of Algeria was constantly bickering with the French government over coral fishing concessions and finally in
1830 the French intervened with 37,000 soldiers in 103 ships and launched the largest and most destructive military
campaign in the story of European imperialism in Africa. They had pushed the Ottoman Turks out completely by
1841, but they made the mistake of using Jews, who were despised by the Muslims, for support.
Abd al-Kadir, at the head of a religious group in western Algeria, set up a Muslim theocratic state, which was only
subdued in 1847 by 108,000 French troops. (Ref. 83 ([123])) By that time there were 100,000 European settlers in
Algeria, with the French in control. Further insult to that country occurred in 1867-68 with the worst drought of its
history, along with locusts and cholera. Some 300,000 people died out of a population of 2 1/2 million. The French
also occupied Tunis in 1881, provoking a large scale Islamic uprising, followed by sporadic warfare in the south, in
the next century. Phosphates from Tunis were used as fertilizer in France. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 176 ([242]), 213 ([288]))
Morocco kept foreigners pretty much at bay until 1850, when the French waged a victorious war to become, in essence,
the owner of that country. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
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In the meantime, the Ottoman Turks had obtained a firm hold on Tripoli, the Fezzan and Cyrenica by 1835. In the
oasis of Jaghbut in the latter country, the Muslim teacher, Sayyid Muhammad al-Sanusi (Grad Sanusi) established a
religious center, which was continued after his death in 1859 by his son, Muhammed al-Mahdi. Missionaries were
sent from the center out along the caravan routes. (Ref. 83 ([123]))
We must not leave this section on North Africa without mentioning its troubles with the new United States of America
at the beginning of this century. Throughout the Napoleonic Wars the United States had attempted to remain neutral
in foreign struggles and had paid almost $2,000,000 or 1/5 of its national income to the Moslem states of Morocco,
Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli for ransom or tolls. When President Jefferson cut out some of the tolls in 1801 the bashaw
of Tripoli declared war on the new nation. In 1804 Commodore Preble attacked Tripoli with the U.S.S. Constitution
and the f rigate Philadelphia, was taken prisoner, but then rescued by the night-time heroics of Lt. Stephen Decature,
in the captured schooner Intrepid. This, coupled with a heroic desert march by William Eaton across Libya, resulted
in a final favorable treaty with Tripoli, which was later repudiated.
1.33.1.3 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
At the beginning of the century the interior of Af rica was almost wholly isolated from the rest of the world. The only
resident Europeans lived precariously along the coasts where the slave forts and trading posts existed. Most of Africa
lagged 100 years behind in economic development, a feature which led to many of the African problems of the 20th
century. It will be convenient to discuss the history of Sub-Saharan Africa in the first half of the century separately
from that of the second half, and in each instance five main areas will be listed. For the first half of the 19th century,
then:
1.33.1.3.1 SUDANIC STATES (Immediately sub-saharan and western forest belt)
In the west there were the theocracies of Futa Toro and Futa Jellon, formed after fierce holy wars conducted by Al-hajj
Umar. At the southwest corner of the great western bulge of Africa some 2,500 former United States slaves formed the
country of Liberia in 1820, introducing American democratic institutions. (Ref. 217 ([68])) In the Niger River bend
the great empires of medieval times had given way to numerous states, chief of which were Segu, Ka’arta and Masina.
Farther east the whole of Hausaland, including the Kingdom of Bornu about Lake Chad, was overrun and destroyed by
the Fulani, under a Tukulor chief, Usman (or Uthman) dan Fodio, in a " jihad" or holy war. The Fulani, of mixed Negro
and Berber origin, had a formidable army of horsemen and from Hausaland they struck east and southwest, forming
a Muslim Empire of Sokoto under the Kanemi Dynasty. By 1850 this was the most extensive political structure in
Africa, comprising 20 provinces in an area of 150,000 square miles between the Sahara and the forest belt. It was
through this empire that Islam penetrated into the southern forest states. Between Lake Chad and the Nile were the
sultanates of Wadai and Darf ut and on the Nile was the Funj Sultan ate of Sennar. All of these communities had
extensive trade across the Sahara, bartering slaves, leather, kola nuts, etc., in exchange for weapons, horses and holy
books. All of the Sudanic states except Segu and Ka’arta had Muslim rulers. (Ref. 211 ([284]), 8 ([14]), 175 ([241]),
68 ([106]))
Ashanti (modern Ghana), Dahomey, Oyo and Benin (modern Nigeria) all had active, relatively progressive kingdoms,
as in the last century. Italian made coins in the form of milled, coral cylinders, perforated in the center and called
"olivette" remained in common usage throughout the 19th century and even to the present day in Nigeria, Sierra Leone
and Liberia. The Africans carry them on a string on their belts. (Ref. 260 ([29]))
(Continue on page 1055) Continue to Sudanic States (Section 1.33.1.3.6: SUDANIC STATES)
1.33.1.3.2 EQUATORIAL AFRICA
This portion of Africa was still an unexplored area and the course of the Congo was unknown to Europeans. Slave
trade to Cuba and Brazil flourished up until 1840, when it was officially banned. The people of the interior Congo
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56 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
basin were now chiefly of Negroid stock, speaking Bantu languages, having replaced most of the original pygmoid76
and bushmanoid hunters. (Ref. 83 ([123])) (Continue on page 1056)
1.33.1.3.3 EAST AFRICA AND THE GREAT LAKES AREA
In this part of Africa there were a cluster of strong kingdoms - Bunyoroo, Buganda, Ankole, Karagwe, Rwanda and
Burundi. To the east the hostile Masai terrorized central Kenya and Tanzania as they repeatedly raided for cattle. Arabs
on the east coast grew rich from the sale of ivory from elephant tusks and in the slave trade, which they continued
well past the half century mark. The eastern Bantu-speaking Negroes have lighter skin than others, perhaps from
considerable intermarriage with people of Caucasoid stock. (Ref. 83 ([123])) (Continue on page 1056)
1.33.1.3.4 SAVANNAH SOUTH OF THE CONGO BASIN
Luba-Lunda was ruled by Mwata Yamvo and Mwata Kazemk. The ancient kingdom of Mwene Mtapa in the region
of modern Zimbabwe was rivalled by the Rozwi state of the Changamires. The last people to inhabit the city of
Zimbabwe, which was already somewhat decadent, were apparently driven out about 1830 during the Zulu wars,
which will be discussed in the next paragraph. Into the vacuum so created, the Ndebeles tribe swept in from the
original Zulu area in the south. On the west side of the continent the Portuguese had coastal settlements in what is now
Angola, but after the abolition of the slave trade in 1840, the colonies collapsed and the number of white men there
dropped from 3,000 to less than 1000 by A.D. 1850. (Ref. 175 ([241]), 176 ([242]), 8 ([14]), 35 ([56]), 83 ([123]))
(Continue on page 1057)
1.33.1.3.5 THE CAPE AREA
An expedition along the Orange River in 1801 revealed a city of 10,000 people in the territory now called Botswana,
which is surrounded by desert. Although millet and some legumes were used, the people relied chiefly on cattle, using
the milk in a curdled state.
Both Dutch and British had started settlements near the Cape at the end of the 18th century and in the early years of the
19th they came in contact with a great southward migration of the Bantu-speaking blacks from central Africa. These
included multiple tribes such as Swazi, Zulu, Pondo, Tembu, Xhosa, Sotho and Tswana. There was cattle raiding along
the line of the Fish River and fighting between the Dutch and the natives had broken out in 1779 to last over a hundred
years. After the British officially came into power at Cape Colony by treaty with the Batavian Republic in 1814, they
decided to secure the line of the Fish River by colonization. Between 1820 and 1821 some 5,000 people were brought
there from Great Britain. English began to replace Dutch as the official language, the judicial system was remodel ed
on the English pattern and Dutch currency was replaced by English. But Anglicisation was not completely successful
as the Dutch clung tenaciously to their own culture and institutions so that the only result of the new policy was to
harden those differences of opinion, especially on the native question.
When the English missionaries got slavery abolished in 1833, the settlers were indignant.
The first crisis came in 1834 when hordes of blacks swept over the Fish River frontier, laying waste the country and
destroying the farms. The governor, Sir Benjamin D’Urban, drove them back and annexed the territory to try to prevent
future trouble, but the missionaries forced abandonment of that plan and prevented any compensation for the damaged
farms. Thus was provoked the Great Trek, in which about 5,000 Boers (Dutch), with women, children and cattle, set
out into the unknown, some going as far as 1,000 miles inland, to get away from the British. Many were attacked by
Matabele and the Zulus and all endured thirst and famine.
At about that same time, the empire of the Zulus, under Chaka and his successor Dingaan, began a war of blacks against
blacks, crushing all other tribes in the area and leaving a trail of devastation, rotting corpses and burned villages. Most
of modern Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natal were denuded of population. The massacres of thousands of natives
76As late as 1890, however, Stanley reported that he had found Mbuti pygmies living in symbiosis with neighboring Negroes in the Ituri forest.
(Ref. 83 ([123]))
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thus gave the Boers room to move, although in great peril. They, themselves, finally crushed the Zulus in a great battle
at Blood River in 1838 and then established the Republic of Natal in the region east of the Drakenburg range, with
Andries Pretorius as its first president
They then discovered that there was already a garrison of British troops at Port Natal (later Deurbar) and by 1843 the
area was made into a British colony. Most of the Dutch then went back over the range to the region of the Orange and
Vaal rivers to establish the independent Boer state of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and two years later the
Orange Free State. (Ref. 211 ([284]), 154 ([212]), 83 ([123])) (Continue on page 1057)
The last half of the 19th century showed some great changes in those portions of Africa under European control,
but even as late as 1875 those areas were primarily Algeria, Senegal and South Africa, although the pressure was
gradually increasing overall. Although the European slave trade was supposedly banned early in the century, by 1850
some 25,000,000 blacks, supplied by local Africans, had been sent away from the continent by European, American,
and Arab slavers. But Christian missionary activity increased and the hinterlands began to be explored with gun-boats
behind them. As the Europeans gradually increased their coastal influence, the Age of Imperialism in Africa was
initiated. This was about 1860 and we shall now re-examine the five sections of sub-saharan Africa as they received
the impact of the 2nd half of the 19th century:
1.33.1.3.6 SUDANIC STATES
The Ashanti Kingdom comprised most of what is modern Ghana and in 1850 had 3,000,000 to 5,000,000 people in its
125,000 square miles. There was great opulence in the royal court at the capital, Kumasi. In an unusual arrangement,
a new ruler was chosen by the Queen Mother, assisted by senior chiefs. Trade was active in gold, slaves, livestock
and food-stuffs. In neighboring Dahomey there was a royal core of women warriors consisting of some 5,000 women
backed up by 7,000 men. It was their custom to have an annual killing of several score criminals and war captives.
The French began to penetrate along the Senegal River to obtain a profitable gum trade and the British began to occupy
Sierra Leone and to take over the Niger basin.
A crown colony was established at Lago in Nigeria in 1861 and by the 1870s there were 14 British steamers on the
Niger River. On the upper Niger, however, the Tukolors, under their leader al-Haji Umar, were active and expanded to
come up against the French on the Senegal.
1.33.1.3.7 EQUATORIAL AFRICA
White explorers penetrated central Africa in this time period, going chiefly from east to west. Prominent among those
was Sir Henry Morton Stanley77 who explored the Congo for King Leopold of Belgium and then sold the southern
bank area to Belgium. France signed treaties with the Bateke Kingdom for the north bank of the Congo, through
the explorer Savorgnan de Brazza. All of this European penetration would have been impossible without quinine for
control of the endemic malaria. The Dutch had originally obtained that drug from Java.
The scramble for land in Africa by European powers became so intense that in November, 1884 Otto von Bismarck
and the French premier called a Berlin Conference in which 14 nations took part. In addition to agreeing to work for
the further suppression of slavery, the nations agreed to complete liberty of commerce in the Congo basin and adjacent
coasts and the Congo and Niger rivers were to have free navigation.
Deep in the rain forest, however, pygmies and negroids still ruled unmolested by whites. In Katanga, Msiri, with Yeke
followers, established himself as chief and initiated a reign of terror. Fortress grounds were littered with skulls of
people he had tortured and murdered. That empire disappeared by the 1880s. (Ref. 83 ([123]), 8 ([14]), 140 ([190]))
77Stanley, born in Wales as John Rowlands, took the name of his adoptive father in New Orleans, fought on both sides of the American Civil War,
found David Livingston on Lake Tanganyika in 1817 on commission by the New York Herald and finally sold his services for African exploration
to Belgium. (Ref. 53 ([79]))
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58 CHAPTER 1. AFRICA
1.33.1.3.8 EAST AFRICA AND GREAT LAKE AREA
In 1850, through the genius of Sultan Sayyid Said of Oman, Zanzibar was made into an influential center, with a small
army and navy. By 1860, however, it was under some British influence and by 1873 the British navy had stopped the
sultan from trading in slaves. (Ref. 213 ([288])) Buganda, now a province of modern Uganda, launched great raids
under Mutesa I between 1854 and 1883 to obtain slaves, cattle and ivory. For this purpose Mutesa had a large army
and a navy of canoes for use on Lake Victoria. That country also fell under British protection in the 1890s.
In Kenya the basic Kikuyu people had no chiefs and were ruled by a senior elders’ council. They were repeatedly
terrorized by- the Masai, who dominated an area of 80,000 square miles and who had two passions in life - war and
cattle. Because of these warriors, when white explorers such as Burton, Speke, Grant, and Stanley went in to central
Africa they went from the south over dry bush country infested with many tropical diseases.
Even the Masai, themselves, were decimated in the 1880s, but that was from small-pox. The great days of the Masai
ended in the 1890s as the British occupied the Kenya highlands. Many of the large game animals were already
becoming limited and a few, such as the quagga78, were already extinct.
1.33.1.3.9 SAVANNAH SOUTH OF THE CONGO BASIN
It has been noted previously that Portugal had an early lead in Angola and then she took Mozambique. Actually there
were very few whites in those two areas, including only about a dozen priests. The white men did intermarry with
the natives and kept some measure of control in that way. Germany, not to be outdone, wedged into areas on the
Indian Ocean coast north of Mozambique and Cameroun and in Togo (German Southwest Africa) in the west. In the
second phase of European partition of Africa, after 1895, there was increasing bitter, local African resistance. The
colonial governments had turned to raising money by direct local taxation and corvee, or forced labor systems, had
become widespread. This, along with the expropriation of land, led to more destructive, bitter and longer wars, with
the superior weaponry of the invading Europeans winning in all areas79. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 83 ([123]))
1.33.1.3.10 THE CAPE AREA
One region where war occurred with white against white, rather than against black, was in South Africa. By 1856 the
Cape population was roughly 267,000, including 119,000 Europeans with a Dutch majority. Natal had about 6,500
people, chiefly English; the Orange Free State had 12,000 Europeans and the Transvaal some 18,000. Both of those
were soon free of English control. By 1857 there were 8 separate governments in South Africa - 5 Boer republics and
3 British colonies. Intermittent fighting continued and when the Boers of Transvaal attacked blacks led by Khama the
Great, in Boswana, the British protected the latter.
Map taken from Reference 97
Two great mineral discoveries began to effect tremendous changes in the area. First, diamonds were discovered in
an old volcano chimney along the Vaal River and at the site of present day Kimberly, bordering English and Boer
states. Within 10 years $100,000,000 worth of diamonds had been mined. The British, who negotiated themselves
into annexing this Kimberly region into the Cape Colony about 1870 and two Englishmen, Cecil John Rhodes and
Barney Barnato, gained most from the diamonds. Secondly, gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand in 1886 and by
1900 some 100,000 men were employed in the gold fields. The gold rush made the original mining camp into the city
of Johannesburg, which then had 237,000 people by 1911 and more than 1,000,000 at this writing. The gold was deep
in the earth, requiring costly machinery and capital to recover it. Rhodes, with a dream to make all Africa British, got
involved only politically in the gold industry as the British attempted to take this over. Conflicts inevitably followed
with eventually a full-scale war. Many British at home were actually pro-Boer, including Lloyd George, but most
of the people were staunchly imperialist. Paul Kruger, who had taken part in the Great Trek, headed the recalcitrant
78Similar to a zebra
79Except, as we have seen, in Ethiopia, where the Italians met defeat
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Dutch, who were unwilling to make common cause with the British. They opposed any advance of industry, although
ready to feed on its profits.
In spite of long drawn out negotiation, actual war started October 9, 1899 when Boer groups moved over the border.
The latter started with 35,000 men and artillery derived from German sources. Almost all were mounted. The German
presence in the region was actually the main factor which had activated Britain to move north again. Suddenly in 1883
the Germans had run up their flag in Luederitz Bay on the Atlantic and proclaimed the whole of southwest Africa as a
protectorate and began to survey a route for a railroad to the east, linking up with Paul Kruger in the Transvaal and then
on to the east coast. The danger to Britain’s holdings was obvious and so they moved, annexing Pondoland, Zululand
and Tongaland, cutting off the only possible outlet of the Transvaal to the sea and then they took part of Bechuanaland.
The countryside and world opinion was with the Dutch, but the British poured in men and arms and by autumn of
1900 both Boer capitals had been occupied and it seemed that the war was over. But the rebels fought on and were
only finally subdued sufficiently to sue for peace in March 1902 after thousands of men, women and children had been
swept into concentration camps. The total cost in money to the United Kingdom of the Boer War was reckoned at over
220,000,000 pounds. The British lost five times as many men from disease as from battle and left a legacy of mistrust
and bitterness. (Ref. 8 ([14]), 160 ([219]), 175 ([241]), 322 ([104]), 140 ([190]))
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era80
2. America (Section 2.33)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.33)
4. Europe (Section 4.33)
5. The Far East (Section 6.33)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.33)
7. The Near East (Section 7.33)
8. Pacific (Section 8.33)
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Chapter 2
America
2.1 Geographical Presentation of America1
Back to Introduction to the Method of Geographical Presentation2
The last geographical area which will be discussed under each time-frame will be the whole of the New World,
America. Since this consists of two major continents with an intermediate connecting region, the area will be divided
into three subdivisions.
2.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
This geographical area is shown on the map-diagram opposite. In the text the historical material will often be further
divided into [1] The Far North and Canada and [2] The United States. Since we are interested in a geographical
area, not necessarily political boundaries, the first category of "The Far North and Canada", will include Alaska and
Greenland, even though the former, of course, is a part of the United States and the latter belongs to Denmark. The
second portion will actually be limited to the continental United States. It will be of interest to compare latitudes on
this diagram with those of Europe and the Far East. For example, we will be reminded that the British Isles lie at about
the same parallel as the southern part of Hudson Bay in Canada and that the center of the United States is on the same
latitude as north China and the Tarim Basin in Central Asia. The Bering Strait, the middle of Hudson Bay and the
southern tip of Greenland are all on approximately the same latitude as Leningrad in Russia.
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62 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
Figure 2.1: North America (This map was obtained from http://english.freemap.jp/index.html3and is used with
permission under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license4.)
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2.1.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The map-diagram showing this and the next subdivision is on the second- page ahead. Mexico is shown in violet color,
while Central America and the Caribbean islands are in yellow. The Canary and southern equatorial currents, which
have been important in the discovery of the New World, are shown. The present political lines in Central America
are shown, marking Guatemala, Belize, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, going from
northwest to southeast.
2.1.3 SOUTH AMERICA
On the South American map the rough course of the main rivers and the general extent and location of the cordillera
are shown. No attempt has been made to outline the current borders between the various countries, but the general
areas of the most important are indicated. In the main body of the manuscript in some time-frames this continent is
divided into [1] Western and Northern Coastal Areas and [2] Eastern and Central Areas.
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64 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
Figure 2.2: Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America (This map was obtained from
http://english.freemap.jp/index.html5and is used with permission under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 li-
cense6.)
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65
Choose Different Region
1. Africa (Section 1.1)
2. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.1)
3. Europe (Section 4.1)
4. The Far East (Section 6.1)
5. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.1)
6. The Near East (Section 7.1)
7. Pacific (Section 8.1)
2.2 America: Beginning to 8000 B.C.7
2.2.1 NORTH AMERICA
At sometime between 40,000 and 10,000 B.C. human hunting groups occupied all the main land masses of earth except
Antarctica. Men reached America about 20,000 B.C. (perhaps earlier) from Asia over a land bridge between Asia and
Alaska, varying from three hundred to one thousand miles wide and apparently including the Aleutian Islands where
blades and burins, perhaps dating back to 10,000 B.C. have been found. Otherwise the earliest known cultures of the
American far north have not been well dated8. The so-called British Mountain Culture near the Yukon Arctic coast is
probably the oldest, with artifacts of eastern Siberia, including crude instruments and shaping tools. There, in the Old
Crow Basin, the first known occupation site in the New World has been tentatively carbon-dated to 25,000 B.C. The
inhabitants were skilled users of bone, using mammoth and horse bone, the latter animals ranging in size from ponies
to Percherons. Jaws of domesticated dogs appear to be 30,000 years old. At any rate, the people who came over the
land bridge apparently simply followed their prey animals and were of a basic, general Mongoloid stock with skulls
not much different from Caucasians and their descendants became the American Indians. The tools and skills spread
from Asia to America with them and included the stone adze, spoons, combs of bone or horn, the toggle harpoon and
eventually the bow and arrow. Marshack (Ref. 130 ([180])) says the American Indians came in waves from Asia over
a period of perhaps 20,000 years with some as late as 2,000 B.C. The latter figure is not further explained. We know
that the land bridge was present off and on over several millennia, but never as late as 2,000 B.C. It is interesting that
as late as 1962 this theory of the Asiatic origin of the American aborigines was not universally accepted. Greeman
(Ref. 78 ([118])) was committed to diffusion across the north Atlantic in skin-covered boats in the Upper Paleolithic
times. He felt that Sandia Culture material in America was the same as the Solutrean of the Montaut site in southwest
France. Blood typing studies beginning with Boyd (Ref. 17 ([30])) in 1963 probably laid this theory to rest.
The great bulk of the people coming over the Bering land bridge may not have been able to migrate down into the
region of the United States and farther south until about 12,000 years ago when the ice that had previously almost
covered Canada finally melted enough to open a corridor east of the Rockies, at which time the Mongoloid hunters
poured through to the gamelands of the American plains. Dr. Knut Fladmark (as quoted by Canby [Ref. 22 ([38])]) of
British Columbia argues that some men could have come south when the corridor was closed by leapfrogging down
the coast where there were many ice-free pockets, by boat. Furthermore, recent work shows positively that much of
the coast line and island archipelago off the coast of southern Alaska was never covered by glaciers at any time. (Ref.
239 ([320]))
A slightly different view is given by Swanson et al (Ref. 209 ([282])) who states that the first crossing of the Bering
Strait occurred from 26,000 to 28,000 years ago and that these people became the American Indians with blood types
chiefly O, with some A and no B. Then a second migration took place between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago which
perhaps included the Eskimos who have AB and 0 blood types. They may have come by kayak from one shore to
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8Trager (Ref. 222 ([296])) even states that racemization tests on bone suggest that Neanderthal man may have been on the west coast of the
western hemisphere at 50,000 B.C., but we have not seen confirmation from any other author and Trager does not reveal his source material.
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66 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
another as Eskimos today still live on both sides of the Bering Strait. By 10,000 B.C. prehistoric hunters were in
all parts of the New World, even at Tierra del Fuego. Some fishing and gathering populations were very large. The
highest average population density north of Mexico was in California where there were the acorn gatherers, a group
which was so successful that they were not apt to experiment with new techniques. The most recent glaciation period
in North America reached its maximum between 18,000 and 22,000 years ago and extended down to New York State
and central Ohio, covering Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and parts of Kansas and Missouri. After 12,000 B.C.
this retreated rapidly, sometimes several miles in a single year.
At 9,000 B.C. the American plains still teemed with giant bison, camels, stagmoose, musk-oxen, large cats, mastodons
and three kinds of mammoths. Most of these were gone within 1,000 years of man’s arrival. The dating of the flint
spearheads of the Sandia Culture which have been found in Oregon, Ontario and New Mexico have been variously
dated from 23,000 to 6,000 B.C. At any rate it was along the retreating ice edge, where the spruce forest and pines
migrated north and west from the Appalachians and the oak moved north from the Gulf, that the increased parkland
and grass allowed the human population, now with a radical new stone technology, to greatly increase. This was the
time of the Great Hunting Culture, associated with the Clovis points of the Sandia Culture mentioned above. These
Clovis points (so named because first identified near Clovis, New Mexico) were large, heavy flint points designed for
hunting large animals, and butchered elephants have been excavated dating to the period 9,500 to 9,000 B.C. In some
areas this culture, also sometimes called Llano, has been dated from 11,000 to 15,000 years ago. The Folsom spear
points which developed from the Clovis were smaller and more delicately made, for effective use by the bison hunters.
As temperatures rose and the cloud cover diminished, there was an increased evaporation rate, the plant cover thinned
and the great herds declined rapidly. Some feel that prior to the temperature rise the north-south corridor opened up
in the glaciers allowing arctic winds to descend on the plains, and the sudden drop in temperature was a factor in the
dying off of the giant bison and mastodons. The Desert Tradition of western North America, dating from about 9,000
B.C. was centered in the Great Basin of Nevada between the two great mountain chains and occupying portions of
six present states - Nevada, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon and California. Baskets and milling stones were made and the
subsistence base included small seeds, berries, bulrush rhizomes and nuts.
In eastern United States, some forty miles south of Pittsburg is the Meadowcroft rock shelter where remains of Ice
Age man includes a bifacial projectile point which may be ancestral to the Clovis point. The carbon-14 dating of the
hearth is 14,000 B.C. but some doubt if this date is correct. (Ref. 211 ([284]), 209 ([282]), 210 ([283]), 8 ([14]), 22
([38]), 64 ([94]), 224 ([299]), 45 ([66]), 21 ([34]))
Concerning blood types, most North American Indians are exclusively type O but a few, such as the Sioux, Chippewa
and Pueblo have 10 to 15% Group A while the rest are O. These may represent separate and later migration groups
over the Bering land bridge, or, as shall be discussed later, possibly mixtures with Europeans or later Asiatics. (Ref.
21 ([34]), 155 ([214]))
Additional Notes (p. 67)
2.2.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
The National Geographic Society (Ref. 155 ([214])) says that artefacts suggest man’s presence at Puebla, Mexico
by 20,000 B.C. although such early dates are not universally accepted. The rock shelters near Tehuacan have been
continuously occupied since 10,000 B.C. In Central America gourd and squash date to prehistory along with various
wild forms of beans, lentils and chickpeas. (Ref. 211 ([284]))
2.2.3 SOUTH AMERICA
The tools of Pleistocene men who hunted camelids, sloths and perhaps horses have been unearthed at the bottom of
a rock shelter on the western slope of the Andes cordillera. The presence of humans has been attested 13,000 years
ago in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru. During the last phase of the Ice Age (the Wisconsin in North America) the
Andean glaciers were as low as 11,000 feet and their melting later may account for the rarity of human sites during
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67
that chaotic period of terrific gorge flooding. After that, however, the Andes were certainly inhabited by numerous
bands corresponding to the archaic societies of North America. In central Peru, at Chilca, where at 12,000 to 13,000
feet altitude only eight inches of rain fall in a year, caves with as many as fourteen archeological strata have been
excavated. Perfectly preserved corpses of several people have been found indicating a stout but tall physique, varying
from 65.2 to 69.2 inches in height according to sex, with long heads, protuberant jaws and strong bones. They had
clothes made of cactus plant fibers or of reeds. Some had cloaks of vicuna skin, painted and sewn with the help of
cactus spines. Weapons were slings and spear throwers with javelin points made from obsidian, basalt or quartz. Hand
axes and scrapers were very similar to the European Mousterians’, although separated in time by some 20,000 years.
At about 13,000 B.C. the waters of the Pacific were some three hundred feet below present level, and at times since
then they have been sixteen feet above the present level and have oscillated through the ages. This may have greatly
disturbed the lives of the early dwellers by virtue of changes in the fresh water levels of the beaches of arid, western
Peru.
Human living sites along with bones of sloths, horses, camelids and mastodons have also been found in the sierra
region (the Atlantic Andes) of Columbia and Venezuela. Men may have reached the extreme tip of South America at
Falls’ Cave by 9,000 B.C. or shortly thereafter, but there may be some disagreement as to their origin. In this area
Patagonian caves were inhabited during the high Holocene and immigrants from Australia or Southeast Asia may
have entered the continent via Antarctica and the island of Tierra del Fuego. Still later other settlers came from the
eastern Andes. On Tierra del Fuego the chief people were Onas - big, handsome men dressed in vicuna skins. They
had domesticated dogs and poison arrows and removed their body hair with shells used as pincers.
The Lagoa Santa caves in Brazil show charcoal dating to between 18,000 and 20,000 B.C. and tools along with
mastodon bones dating to 9,400 B.C. have been found in central Chile. El Ingo is a pre-ceramic site at an altitude of
9,100 feet in Ecuador, dating back to about 10,000 B.C. showing an obsidian workshop and hunting camp site. The
tools show similarity to Folsom and Clovis points of North America. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 22 ([38]), 62 ([91])) Additional
Notes (p. 67)
It has been the belief of authorities in the past that all Central and South American Indians had the blood type 0
exclusively. Very recent ABO blood-group antigen and HL-A white cell studies indicate that this was not true of
Peruvian and Chilean coastal peoples even at 3,000 B.C. Both A and B were found in mummies of Paracas, Huari and
Ica while AB was found in these areas plus those of the Huacho and Nazca. Only the Inca mummies were 100% 0
and only five of these were studied. Of only four Chile Atacamenas mummies typed, all were type A. We do not know
what this means, but it is possible that these studies are compatible with ideas of pre-Columbian diffusion from Europe
or Asia, a feature we shall discuss later. (Ref. 3 ([4])) Professor Frederic Andre Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) who has spent
most of his adult life as an archeologist in South America re-emphasizes that although one must accept an Asiatic
foundation, evidences of strong foreign influences appear almost everywhere in the Americas, even in pre-Columbian
times.
NOTE: Paleo-Indian skeletons have been found near Waco. Texas radio-carbon dated to 10,000 years ago.
Artifacts buried with them indicate trade, with sea shell pendants, red flints from the Texas Panhandle,
projectile points from the plains and some tools. Some burial objects indicate a death ritual, perhaps related
to a religion. Bones of cooked rabbits, turtles, raccoons and snakes were present. (Ref. 298 ([128]))
NOTE: Rock art has been found in Brazil dated to 17,000 B.C. and at the tip of South America dating to
10,000 B.C. (Ref. 260 ([29]))
Forward to America: 8000 to 5000 B.C. (Section 2.3)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era9
2. Africa (Section 1.2)
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68 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.2)
4. Europe (Section 4.2)
5. The Far East (Section 6.2)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.2)
7. The Near East (Section 7.2)
8. Pacific (Section 8.2)
2.3 America: 8000 to 5000 B.C.10
2.3.1 NORTH AMERICA
Back to America: Beginning to 8000 B.C. (Section 2.2)
The land bridge from Siberia to Alaska became inundated about 8,000 B.C. and, as mentioned previously, the later
arriving Eskimos and Aleuts came by boat and represented the later, classical Mongolian race, as contrasted to the
earlier original Mongolian stock who came over about 20,000 B.C. Possibly still later came the Athapascans, who
slowly moved inland where many still live today in central, northern Canada. Some of these Athapascans eventually
migrated down to the southwest United States where they became the Apaches and Navajos. Additional Notes (p. 69)
In the United States area big game hunting continued throughout this period but with a gradual decrease in the number
of animals available. By 8,000 B.C. North American Indian culture was already divided into three great patterns:
Eastern Woodlands, which will later be called "Archaic"
Desert, possibly related to Eastern Woodland
Western Paleo-Indian
Although the Eastern Woodlands actually existed from 8,000 B.C. to about 1,000 B.C., during this 8,000 to 5,000 B.C.
period under discussion it was called "Early Archaic" and was characterized by big game hunting with fishing and
shell and plant gathering. Burial mounds were being built in eastern Canada by 5,000 B.C. (Ref. 213 ([288])) In the
mid-west there was a related sub-culture called "Modoc", with evidence of mano and metate (stone mortar and pestle)
existing about 7,200 B.C. Another variation existed in the Ozarks, Oklahoma and Mississippi. Additional Notes (p.
70)
The Western Paleo-Indian Culture was originally a big game hunting tradition congregated in the Great Basin lying
between the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon and the Rockies of Idaho and running south through Nevada,
western Utah and the eastern part of California. The "Old Cordilleran Tradition" is a name given to the culture of
Indians in the Oregon and Washington areas dating from 7,800 to 5,700 B.C. who used characteristic flaked stone
points known as "Cascade points". Around 7,000 B.C. some of the hunters from the Great Basin area migrated south
into the mountains and tablelands of the southwest- i.e. southern Colorado and Utah, along with Arizona, New Mexico
and the Mexican states of Sonoro and Chihuahua. This migration was probably precipitated by weather changes which
were making semi-arid deserts of the previous great savannahs of the Basin, and the consequent disappearance of the
game. One large branch of these ancient immigrants to the southwest has been given the name recently of "Cochise"
(from a county in Arizona). The so-called Sulfur Springs Phase of this culture ran from 7,000 to 5,000 B.C. and was
a society dependent on hunting ancient horses, mammoths, antelope and bison with flaked projectile points. The Lake
Mojave area of southern California has yielded kite-shaped points, choppers, drills and scrapers, some of which have
been dated back to 9,000 B.C. At 6,000 B.C. the climate changed with a marked rise in temperature associated with
drought. The great herds died out including the mastodons and camels. Many areas were denuded and there was a
shifting of Indian population and a change in their living patterns. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 209 ([282]), 210 ([283]))
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2.3.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
By 7,000 B.C. in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico there were people living in rock shelters and using stone cooking
pots which were left in the center of the hearth. Maize was used in the same valley between 6,000 and 5,000 B.C.
and at some point the turkey was domesticated. Before the development of pottery some peoples may have used
animal stomachs as liquid containers to hang over fires. In the same valley there is evidence of the use of six food
resources–the maguey plant, cactus fruits (prickly pear), tree legumes like the mesquite, wild grasses, deer and rabbits.
Cultivated plants probably made up only 5% of the diet, as opposed to 54% from hunting and 41% from collecting
wild plants. The common bean and maize were introduced into the valley about 5,000 B.C. Maize apparently went
under considerable genetic change with cultivation, but since it lacks an important amino acid, it was fortunate for the
Indians that it was eaten in connection with beans, which supplied the deficit. (See also Africa in the 16th century C.E.
(Section 1.30)). There was squash in the Mexican highlands before 5,000 B.C. (Ref. 211 ([284]), 209 ([282]))
2.3.3 SOUTH AMERICA
As early as 8,000 B.C. the need for artistic expression apparently existed in the high Andes. We mentioned in the last
chapter that prehistoric people had painted clothing, but now we can add necklaces, bracelets, carved pendants and
geometrically marked bones, painted green. These people ate prickly pear cactus, alder seeds, tomatoes and plants
with rhizomes and tubers such as jiquimas, potatoes, ullucu and possibly manioc and sweet potatoes. There is also
refuse of many land mammals such as bucks and roe deer, vixcahas, camelids and rodents, as well as the remains of
fish. Although the caves were sixty miles from the ocean, marine mollusks have been found, suggesting that these
men migrated at times to the seashore, probably living in the condensed fog oases called lomas, as the beach land
otherwise is completely arid. By 7,000 B.C. there were all sorts of projectile points in Venezuela, Chile, Bolivia and
Peru. Long-headed human skeletons along with both extinct and modern animals have been found in Brazil dated to
the same time.
Natives of both Americas are of extremely varied types. In South America there are people with Caucasian appearance
but dark brown skin, along with Mongolian types with African faces, but of pale or sallow complexion. Big, straight
non-aquiline noses are seen frequently near Cuzco in the high Andes, where non-Mongolian characteristics mix with
true Asiatic ones. Many scholars such as Julian Steward, Paul Rivet, Miguel Covarrubias and Heine Gildern, as well as
Heyerdahl and Fell, who will be mentioned often in this manuscript, are all coming to the conclusion that transoceanic
voyages from southern Asia, Polynesia, even Australia or Africa, have helped people the New World since the Bering
Strait migration. The early men of 8,000 to 4,000 B.C. unearthed in the excavations of Professor Engel (Ref. 62 ([91]))
were all dolichocephals, prognathous, big-boned and tall, whereas the 16th century people found by the Spaniards were
of only mediocre height, meso or brachycephalic with short limbs and slender frames.
By 6,000 B.C. some Andean populations were already advanced to the stage of comparable groups in the Near East,
not yet true farmers or herders, but living a sedentary type of life, occupying well defined territories. On a south
Peruvian plain between mountain spurs, inland from the coast at about the 16th parallel, there were hundreds of
inhabitants using water from now dry wadis. Seashore villages of the same millennium have also been found and
because of the complete surface dessication, humans have been uncovered by simply brushing off the sand. They
still have their clothes, skin and eyes after 7,000 to 9,000 years. Milling stones have been found in every hut and in
graves, particularly in the Santa Valley of Peru and the eastern Andes. It is possible that llamas and alpacas began to
be domesticated on the eastern slopes at about 6,000 B.C.
In the Columbia and Venezuela areas between 7,000 and 3,000 B.C. Meso-Indians lived, eating seafood, berries, seeds,
roots and tubers. Remnant now can be identified by the large mounds of shells, ashes and food debris. These northern
South Americans were also navigators, for traces of the same people are found on all adjacent islands. Documentation
regarding humid Chile and Argentina is lacking in this early period, although groups of pre-agriculturalists certainly
occupied the western slope of the Chilean Andes at times about 8,000 B.C. although perhaps not continuously. It is
possible that some fifty valleys in central Peru and arid Chile were inhabited by groups of up to 2,000 people before
agriculture appeared on the coast. (Ref. 209 ([282]), 45 ([66]), 62 ([91]))
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70 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
NOTE: Excavations at Anangula Island in the Aleutian chain show evidence of settlement there around 7,000
B.C. Mummies on neighboring islands are wrapped in furs and woven grasses. (Ref. 310 ([204]))
NOTE: Paleo-Indian skeletons, a man and boy with heads resting on turtle shells, found at Round Rock,
Texas, have been dated at about 7000 B.C. (Ref. 298 ([128]))
Forward to America: 5000 to 3000 B.C. (Section 2.4)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era11
2. Africa (Section 1.3)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.3)
4. Europe (Section 4.3)
5. The Far East (Section 6.3)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.3)
7. The Near East (Section 7.3)
8. Pacific (Section 8.3)
2.4 America: 5000 to 3000 B.C.12
2.4.1 NORTH AMERICA
Back to America: 8000 to 5000 B.C. (Section 2.3)
2.4.1.1 1. FAR NORTH AND CANADA
In the far north there was a micro-blade tradition called "Little Arm" with evidence of caribou and elk hunting dated
from 5,500 to 4,000 B.C. In Canada by 4,000 B.C. the Maritime Provinces were settled by hunters, fishers, and
gatherers. The Columbia plateau folks, previously mentioned, were hunting elk and deer in the forests of Douglas fir
and western yellow pine, and fishing for salmon in the Columbia by 9,000 B.C. (Ref. 209 ([282]), 45 ([66]))
2.4.1.2 2. THE UNITED STATES
Between 5,000 and 3,800 B.C. the temperature lowered again and precipitation increased so that some game returned
as the climate approached what it is today. Even so the hunting cultures gradually gave way to a type in which the
people were not specialized in a single skill but were versatile enough to attempt other things.
In the Eastern Woodlands there was now a "Middle Period" with great variation from area to area. Some used antlers
and bones for fish-hooks, spears and harpoons, some learned to use copper for tools and ornaments. In the latter
respect, a distinctive culture of the Great Lakes and upper Mississippi Valley, beginning about 4,500 B.C., was the
"Old Copper Culture" in which the metal was worked either in the cold or hot state, but it was never melted or cast.
Knives, barbed harpoon points and atlatl weights (throwing sticks) were made in this way. There was no big game
present and most of the inhabitants of the eastern societies used steatite vessels. The earliest of the Archaic Cultures is
sometimes called the southern "Indian Knoll Society", with a later northern Lauretain Culture about the Great Lakes
and on eastward where along the Labrador coast it eventually came face to face with Eskimos. (Ref. 64 ([94]), 45
([66]), 209 ([282]))
The western Desert Culture was oriented toward plants, collecting of small seeds and roots for food. Plant fibers were
used for baskets, footwear and nets for snares.
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71
In the southwest, the Chircahua Phase of the Cochise Culture made its appearance about 5,000 B.C. and was to last
about 3,000 years. It was there that maize first appeared in the United States, sometime between 3,000 and 2,000
B.C., apparently brought up from Mexico where it had been cultivated long before. The Cochise could grow the corn
because they had the soil, the right growing season and the necessary skills and tools. They could already weave
baskets in which to store it and had long used grinding tools to pulverize seeds and nuts. This early desert society later
gave way to the Pueblo and Mexican empires. In California the San Diego County Archeological Society recently
brought suit against a land development firm, alleging that it intentionally marred a site thought to have been occupied
by La Jolla Indians 3,000 to 7,000 years ago13 . Excavations on Catalina Island just off the California coast, show that
man gorged himself on abalone in the 4th millennium B.C., almost wiping out the colonies (Ref. 106 ([152]), 211
([284]), 45 ([66]), 210 ([283]))
2.4.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Santa Luisa, in the Veracruz area was occupied before 4,000 B.C. and became major trade center with an extensive
irrigation system . The people were successful hunters and gatherers as well as early farmers. By 3,500 Mexican cave
inhabitants relied heavily on agriculture. One third of their food came from domesticated plants, including maize,
beans and others. Maize was destined to play the same role here that wheat and barley did in the Near East. In the
Tamaulipas Mountains they had begun to domesticate summer squash and chili pepper, and the bottle gourd (as a water
container). Early man also ate grasshoppers, ants and termites.
We speculated at the beginning of this chapter that the time of about 3,100 B.C. might have been a milestone in history
when some fantastic upheaval occurred in the Atlantic, with far-reaching secondary effects in the development of
early civilizations in Egypt and the Near East. It is amazing then, to find the zero date in the incredibly accurate Maya
Calendar, which will be described later, to be "4 Ahau Cumhu", which converts to our calendar as August 12, 3,113
B.C.! No satisfactory explanation of that date has ever been given, but Maya written and oral texts and those of their
descendant civilizations claim descent from a civilized people who sailed in from the east! (Ref. 236 ([314]), 211
([284]), 95 ([140]))
2.4.3 SOUTH AMERICA
Dating to probably about 5,000 B.C., in those last centuries before real agriculture, is the partially excavated village on
a loma at Paloma on the dry Peruvian coast. The village extends over 1,900 feet in length at an altitude of 660 to 825
feet. Engle (Ref. 62 ([91])) excavated only 2 trenches, removing 35,000 cubic feet of ruble, using only trowels and
brushes. Some 90 graves and 45 huts were thus exposed and from that he estimated, by extrapolation, that complete
uncovering of the entire village areas would involve 7,000,000 cubic feet of debris to be removed to reveal 9,000
graves in and around some 4,000 to 5,000 houses. Obviously this was not done.
Radio-carbon datings indicate that cotton and beans were present in the upper inter-Andean valleys about 6,000 B.C.
but in the coastal villages they were not present until 5,000 B.C. or shortly thereafter. At Chilca, about 45 miles south
of Lima, portions of another village have been excavated, showing multiple archeological layers, indicating multiple
re-occupations. Carbon 14 dating indicates the earliest habitation at 3,500 B.C. Large mollusks were present but are
no longer to be found, so the shore line may then have been much farther east and the retreat of the ocean-line and
consequently the mollusks, may have led to the abandonment of the site. Only a few sites have been uncovered, since
a cubic yard of kitchen midden weighs about 2,600 pounds and so sifting a village of 7 1/2 acres that forms a mound
1 yard thick means the "—sifting some 36,000 tons of debris, the equivalent of a train 1,000 cars long"14.
13Complaints have been made that other construction projects have destroyed hundreds of prehistoric Indian sites in California. Estimates give
more than 600 Yokuts villages, campsites and burial grounds in Merced and Stanislaus counties. Logging operations in the Sierra Nevada range
have churned up innumerable similar sites. Along the south coast there were Chumash, Gabrielinos, Fernandenos and some others, depending upon
a fishing and food gathering existence. These people were apparently free of intertribal wars and did not have the cyclical famines suffered by
groups dependent upon farm crops. They lived in large villages, used plank canoes and traded with villages on the Channel Islands, often bartering
the coastal basketry for effigies carved from the steatite rock of Catalina (Ref. 106 ([152])).
14From Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])), page 98.
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72 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
Maize was brought down from Mexico, but potatoes and manioc were developed from local plants. The earliest dated
pottery in the New World is from Colombia, from 3,090 B.C., sand-tempered with wide-lined incising. Cotton has
been used for at least 4,000 to 6,000 years in the Andes, replacing other plants that could be used for spinning and
making cloth.
We have written something of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego in the last chapter. The islands of the western archipelago
off the tip of South America were still blocked by ice until about 5,000 B.C. and the Alacaluf arrived after that time.
They were a little people with the men ranging from 61 to 62.5 inches and the women 56.9 to 57.7 inches, with a truly
Asiatic appearance, including thick black hair, Mongoloid spots and very little body hair. They lived entirely from the
ocean, diving off boats made of boards sewed together. Later these people were sold as slaves by the Chonos to the
north. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 62 ([91]))
Forward to America: 3000 to 1500 B.C. (Section 2.5)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era15
2. Africa (Section 1.4)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.4)
4. Europe (Section 4.4)
5. The Far East (Section 6.4)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.4)
7. The Near East (Section 7.4)
8. Pacific (Section 8.4)
2.5 America: 3000 to 1500 B.C.16
2.5.1 FAR NORTH AND CANADA
Back to America: 5000 to 3000 B.C. (Section 2.4)
There were always more people on the Aleutian Islands than on the mainland, because of a milder climate. Never-
theless, from 4,000 to 1,000 B.C. an Arctic Small Tool tradition existed in Alaska, spreading across the arctic part of
Canada to Greenland, given its name from the miniature blades lashed to handles of bone or walrus ivory used for
cutting and scraping skins. The blades were chipped from a core of chert, a rock of micro-crystalline quartz. These
Asiatic people even migrated to Ellesmere Island in northeastern Canada, less than 800 miles from the North Pole,
about 2,300 B.C., crossing over the mountains in a great notch, today known as Sverdrup Pass, to the upper end of
Baffin Bay, which usually has open water at least in the summer. Canadian archeologists have excavated some of these
pre-historic sites, where the earliest are now thirty to thirty-five meters above the present sea level, although they were
originally on the beach. As in other northern areas of the globe, the earth’s crust has risen slowly over the centuries
after the lifting of the great weight of the glacial ice. From Ellesmere Island progress into northern Greenland over
winter ice was no problem. By about 1,500 B.C. in British Columbia (and Washington state) people were settled in
villages and fished for salmon, although they did not practice cultivation. (Ref. 209 ([282]), 45 ([66]), 189 ([259]))
This is the era of the so-called Red Paint Culture, with native Amerindian Stone Age traditions derived from old
northeastern Asia. The Red Paint or Moorehead Culture originally described from prehistoric graveyards in Maine
- the graves containing red ochre has now been identified as part of a larger maritime Archaic tradition extending
from northern Labrador at the 60th parallel to southern Maine between about 2,000 and 1,500 B.C. This area was
deglaciated about 7,000 B.C. with tundra then present until about 3,000 when spruce forests finally appeared. The
settlement pattern and life styles of these Red Paint people seems to have been different from both the Eskimos and
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the Montagnais-Naskopi Indians of inland Labrador and Quebec. Hunting, fishing, trading tools and raw materials and
burying their dead were definable activities. The roots of this culture may have extended back several thousand years
to the Paleo-Indian hunters of the now submerged continental shelf. (Ref. 69 ([107]))
2.5.2 THE UNITED STATES
The reader is advised to review the preceding two paragraphs concerning Maine and Washington State. In the east
the eastern Archaic Culture was changing about 2,000 B.C. in that there was the manufacture of some crude pottery
and there was an increased attention to burial observances. Some call this the beginning of the Woodland Culture and
others call it simply the Late Period of the Archaic of the Eastern Woodland. At the same time, in the southwestern
states, specialized desert cultures continued to develop from the Archaic. As recorded in the last chapter, the Cochise
began cultivating corn sometime from 3,000 to 2,000 B.C., providing them extra nourishment for their uncertain diet.
Squash now was also brought up from Mexico and tiny gardens of both have been found all over the Cochise wandering
area. Santa Catalina Island, twenty miles off the California coast, as previously noted, was inhabited and some forty
Indian town sites have been identified. It is obvious that coastal Indians had facilities for ocean travel. (Ref. 45 ([66]),
64 ([94]), 210 ([283]), 187 ([256]))
2.5.3 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The "Pre-Classic Age" of Middle America traditionally began about 2,000 B.C. with Mayan ancestors being simple
village farmers, although the earliest Maya carbon dating on the Caribbean side of Yucatan goes back to between 2,750
and 2,450 B.C. It is entirely possible the Maya beginnings may go back to Ecuador at 3,000 B.C. while the Olmec
civilization began separately on the Gulf coast much later. In 1977 Norman Hammond (Ref. 85 ([126])) published
results of archeological excavations in Belize (formerly British Honduras) which seem to confirm the origins of the
Maya back at about 2,600-2,500 B.C. He describes a lowland pottery called "Swash", found in burial sites with
human skeletons. The adults among the latter showed advanced tooth wear, suggesting abrasives in their diet. The
Maya steeped corn in slaked lime before boiling, to soften it (and incidentally it released certain amino-acids not
otherwise absorbable) and this lime, along with grit derived in the grinding process probably accounted for the tooth
wear. These individuals also constructed raised earth platforms in swamps by digging out drainage channels and
throwing the mud up to make platforms on which various crops were grown. The presence of jade, not naturally
present within 350 kilometers, indicates a trade network. Their Swasey ceramics - colorful, decorative and mature -
are different from that of Mexico and the southern United States of 2,500 B.C., but are similar to Ecuadorian pottery
of this period. Throughout Central America maize-farming had become the basis of life by 1,500 B.C. and the farmers
lived in permanent villages. By the same date in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, there was complex village life,
pottery, elaborated religious rituals and intricate social organization. Corn and pottery have been dated to 2,000 B.C.
in Panama. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 95 ([140]), 85 ([126]), 64 ([94]), 62 ([91]))
2.5.4 SOUTH AMERICA
Valdiva, as a coastal society in Ecuador, like Panama, had corn and pottery by about 2,000 B.C.17. Evans and Meggers,
of the Smithsonian Museum, are impressed with the similarities between Valdivian pottery and the Jomon pottery
of Japan, believing Ecuador may have been the landing place of a Japanese immigration, thus bringing one more
possibility of Asian diffusion to the Americas. We shall examine other ideas in other chapters. Potatoes were cultivated
in the Andes by 3,000 B.C., manioc was grown on the tropical lowlands and there were domesticated animals in South
America shortly after 2,000 B.C. Ceremonial centers found along the desert coast of Peru date to about the same
time as did evidence of metal working. The Ancon Yacht site on the coast of Peru, dated 2,500 to 2,000 B.C. showed
chipped leaf points, string, turned cloth and baskets, wooden tools, shell fishhooks and cultivated plants which included
gourds, cotton and chili peppers.
17Thomas (Ref. 213 ([288])) says the Ecuadorians had pottery even earlier, at 3,200 B.C.
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74 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
The Peruvians used the potato by 3,000 and soon domesticated the guinea pig for food. Coastal Peruvians gathered
protein-rich shell fish off the beaches by 2,800 and by 2,500 B.C., when the villages were large, far out ocean fishing
for larger fish was common. (Ref. 62 ([91]), 45 ([66]), 209 ([282]), 211 ([284]), 222 ([296]))
Early farmers were probably well established on the Ecuadorian sea coast and river plains by 3,000 B.C. Contact with
Mesoamerica was certainly possible by water, but otherwise there was a 2,000 mile jungle stretch between them. What
Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) calls the "bean planters society" came into being in the lower central Andes, along with cotton
clothes and underwear at about 2,000 B.C. The bones of sea-lions are mixed with those of these early agriculturalists.
Excavations in Venezuela, like adjacent areas, show evidence of manioc and sweet potato cultivation from between
3,000 and 2,700 B.C. Both of these are root crops, but manioc required special preparation to be made palatable. (Ref.
95 ([140]), 62 ([91]), 209 ([282]))
Forward to America: 1500 to 1000 B.C. (Section 2.6)
2.6 America: 1500 to 1000 B.C.18
2.6.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 3000 to 1500 B.C. (Section 2.5)
2.6.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
2.6.1.1.1 THE FAR NORTH AND CANADA
The Arctic Small Tool tradition continued across northern Canada to Greenland and the Pacific coast Indians continued
their salmon fishing, without attempting cultivation. By 1,000 B.C. they were building villages along the Snake,
Columbia and Fraser rivers south of the Snake, there were large oval dwellings with floors and a timber frame, usually
about twenty-five by thirty feet. (Ref. 209 ([282]))
2.6.1.1.2 THE UNITED STATES
The Indians of North America originally had lived by hunting game and gathering wild foods, but about 3,000 years
ago they began making clay vessels, an innovation that accompanied the appearance of agriculture in many areas. The
pottery found in various excavation sites in the United States has a distinctive gritty temper and is often decorated with
fabric or cord impressions. One village, called the Baumer site, in southern Illinois, covered more than ten acres and
was made up of houses about sixteen feet square. The use of local strains of corn, beans and squash after 1,500 B.C.
gave people the surplus of food and time needed to engage in some communal activities. The first signs of mound
building appeared in the middle west about 1,000 B.C. as some villages began to bury their dead under low earth
mounds. In the southwest the Cochise continued their gradual transition from hunter-gatherers to true farmers. (Ref.
215 ([290]), 210 ([283]))
2.6.1.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Village life in Mexico continued to show more advanced societies. In the Oaxaca Valley there were villages with
agriculture dominant by 1,300 B.C. Each village contained ten to twenty houses which were single family units made
of wattle and daub, all opening into a common plaza. By 1,200 in San Jose Mogote in the same valley, the people began
to build large platforms with limed walls and floors. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 209 ([282])) Recent excavations at Dzibilchaltun
in northern Yucatan indicate that this site, which contained one of the largest of the Mayan cities of the late post-classic
period of A.D.600 or later, had been continuously occupied since 1,500 B.C., so that in all probability pre-Mayan or
Mayan people lived there with an ever increasing level of civilization for over 2,000 years.
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The big story of this period, however, is that of the Olmecs who had developed a civilization in the humid, low-lying,
forest region of southern Veracruz and western Tabasco by 1,200 B.C. Most authorities agree (with a few dissenters)
that this remarkable society appeared suddenly, without known antecedents. They were the first Meso-Americans
to handle large masses of stone in monumental sculptures and they may have been responsible for extending the
growth of maize in that area, chiefly by example or leadership, as they were not the basic inhabitants of the region.
The latter were ethnically Huastec while the Olmecs were apparently an hereditary ruling class who promoted efficient
farming techniques, long distance trade net-works, large temples and public buildings, fine art, an official state religion
and social stratification. The question of pre-Columbian contacts with America has been brought up time and again,
particularly regarding this advanced, suddenly appearing Olmec civilization, but the nature and method of such contact
and whether or not it occurred at all, continues to be debated.
Like the Egyptians, the Olmecs (and later Mayas) wrote in hieroglyphs, developed a calendar and predicted the move-
ments of planets. These Central Americans built flat-topped pyramids similar to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia and
decorated those with bas-reliefs showing priests with Semitic facies and long beards. There is even some botanical
evidence of European contact in that the Olmec successors wore garments from a strain of cotton that seemed to be a
cross between a local, wild type and the long-staple Egyptian cotton. The latter has thirteen large chromosomes and the
native central and South American cotton, which was short stapled, had thirteen small chromosomes per cell, but the
cotton used for cloth later in Central America was a hybrid of the two above and contained twenty-six chromosomes,
thirteen small and thirteen large. One has to wonder if it is just coincidence that these Olmecs developed writing,
calendar systems, pyramids etc. directly at the terminus of the strong Atlantic Canary Current, flowing from the bulge
of Africa through the Canary Islands to the Gulf of Mexico at the base of the Yucatan peninsula. The swampy, unfa-
vorable jungle coast in which this civilization developed would suggest that it must have arrived almost in full bloom,
from the sea. The Egyptians and Phoenicians knew more about astronomy, the key to ocean navigation, than the later
European contemporaries of Columbus and Pizarro, and it is definitely known that the Phoenicians had settlements all
the way down the Atlantic coast of Morocco by 1,000 B.C. (Ref. 176 ([242]), 209 ([282]), 95 ([140]))
There is also the possibility of still other peoples being the source of early foreign diffusion to the New World.
Heyerdahl (Ref. 95 ([140])) lists fifty-two examples of common characteristics seen in the early civilizations of Asia
Minor (Hittite), Cyprus and Crete and the early societies of Central America and Peru. These include priest-king
dynasties in sun-worshipping administrations, brother-sister royal marriages, fully developed script writing19, paper
manufacture from vegetable fibers, stone masonry of amazing accuracy without the use of mortar and with methods
of long range transportation of gigantic stone blocks, colossal stone statues, repetitive representations of a bearded
man (all true Amerindians of Siberian origin should be beardless) fighting a giant snake standing on its tail, a bird-man
standing on a plumed serpent (See Hittites, this chapter), construction of ziggurat types of pyramids, mummification of
deceased royalty, trepanning of skulls, circumcision as a religious ritual, cities of adobe houses separated by streets and
with water and sewer systems, large scale terrace agriculture with irrigation and fertilizers, similar cotton looms and
garments, identical leather and rope sandals (although the latter were useless in the tropical swamps), feather crowns
used by nobles, similar organization of standing armies and weaponry, similar tools and utensils, use of red dyes from
mollusks, identical stages of metallurgy with outstanding gold work, ceramic, polychrome funeral ware, clay models
of daily life, as well as a universal female goddess, stamped seals, curved wooden figurines, understanding of the
"zero" concept, belief in their own origin in the first century of the 3rd millennium B.C., remarkably high standard of
calendar system and finally the same ocean-going reed ships with canvas sail hoisted on a double-legged mast. We
should also note that the date of the blooming of the Olmec civilization at 1,200 (+200) B.C. is the same time often
given for the Thera upheaval in the Mediterranean, with the subsequent possible displacement of the Sea People who
roved the Mediterranean and possibly the Atlantic! Self portraits of the Olmecs on colossal monoliths have shown two
contrasting types - one with Negroid physiognomy and the other with typical Semitic features with long flowing beard
- all this in the swampland exactly at the end of the Canary Current. (Ref. 95 ([140]))
It is difficult to be certain of the exact physical type of the original Central and South American Indians, since the
populations that came back to life after the territories became independent of Spain, are now so cross-bred with
Europeans, Chinese and Africans that identification is impossible. The Chinese factor brings up still another diffusion
19Not in South America.
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76 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
theory that has been advanced as late as 1975 by Betty Meggers (Ref. 141 ([194])) of the Smithsonian Institute,
who believes that the invaders were Chinese from the Shang Dynasty! As others have, she points out that in Meso-
America20 as late as 2,000 B.C. there was only one village per kilometer in the estuary systems along the Chiapas-
Guatemala coast, but about 1,200 B.C. something unusual occurred - the sudden appearance of the Olmec civilization
in full flower - and she relates that this event was felt almost simultaneously over almost all of Mesoamerica. This
corresponds in time to the end of the Shang Dynasty, in China. Meggers feels that one of the most striking aspects
of this new society was the extent of traffic in raw materials such as obsidian, basalt, magnetite, ilmenite, himatite,
serpentine and jadeite, along with the transportation of the heavy, basalt boulders over long distances. She points out
a great number of shared cultural features of the Shang and the Olmec societies including:
1. writing, stating that a few, often repeated Olmec symbols resemble Shang characters, and later Maya glyphs
were read top to bottom in Shang fashion (characters of Minoan Linear A of Crete were read similarly)
2. jade, a primary commodity of long distance trade in both societies
3. batons as a symbol of rank, some with bifurcated tops
4. feline deity, the Shang tiger and the Olmec jaguar both associated with the earth god and both often drawn
lacking a lower jaw
5. worship of mountains
6. cranial deformation, apparently artificially produced in the center of the head of rulers
7. large groups of scattered villages with central service Centers
8. the construction of rectangular platforms with a north-south orientation.
When asked why the Mesoamericans did not use the wheel, which was certainly used by the Shang, she replied, as
others have, that the Americans had no use for the wheel in the absence of roads and draft animals, the ruggedness of
the terrain and the ability of a man to carry more than his weight in fragile cargo.
As might be expected, refutations of Meggers’ theory soon appeared. David Grove (Ref. 80 ([122])) of the University
of Illinois says that the society which we have mentioned as being in the Oaxaca Valley between 1,500 and 1,400 B.C.
was a complex culture and perhaps preceded those of the Gulf coast, and would more apt to be the Olmec ancestor
than the Shang. Furthermore, he says that the jade carving may not even have been Olmec and that the feline deity
idea came up from South America. He also makes the point that excavations by Coe at San Lorenze on the Gulf
coast since 1970 have revealed significant Olmec cultural levels which predate those at La Venta, but also pre-Olmec
levels, suggesting that the Olmec culture appeared gradually rather than suddenly. Meggers immediately replied to
this in a publication in 1976 (Ref. 142 ([195])) stating that twenty-three of the references she had consulted for her
previous publication had been written between 1970 and 1974 and that she was still convinced that Shang refugees
were involved in Central America. The concept of the sudden appearance of the Olmec society seems to be given
another boost by the 1977 publication, The Encyclopedia of Archeology (Ref. 45 ([66])) which discusses recent
investigations at San Lorenzo by Yale University, describing that center as having the longest stratigraphic history of
any known Olmec center and that it was constructed on an artificially raised mass of land, built by the Olmecs to
support a number of earthern pyramid constructions, plazas and mounds, all laid out along a north-south axis. The
writer indicated that the Olmec Culture was emerging at this site just in 1,250 B.C. and that most of the pure Olmec
monuments and structures actually date from 1,150 B.C. onwards.
Whether or not the Olmec civilization was imported or local in origin, there is no doubt but what this was the mother
of all later true civilizations in Central America, including the Mayan. Probable extensions of the Olmec into more
central Mexico are indicated by recent excavations at Chalcatzingo in the state of Morelos, about 85 miles southeast
of Mexico City. Radio-carbon datings are from 1,170 B.C. on, and the findings include bas-relief carvings, platform
complexes, etc., all typical of the Olmec style. It has been postulated that it was a center for controlling the trade
of highland raw materials (obsidian, jade, iron ore and possibly cotton) and channeling these on to the Gulf coast
centers. Contacts with nearby Oaxaca seem to have stimulated cultural growth there, as well (or was it vice-versa,
as suggested by Grove?). At any rate, within a few centuries, Oaxaca, with its vastly greater resources and richer
agricultural possibilities, with irrigation, actually began to be the dominant partner. (Ref. 81 ([120]), 45 ([66]))
20Strictly speaking the term "Mesoamerica" includes Guatemala, Belize, Western Honduras, El Salvador and only southern Mexico, including
Yucatan.
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Still another, separate culture is suggested by fairly recent excavations at La Victoria, Guatemala, where Micheal Coe
(Ref. 36 ([57])) has uncovered iridescent ceramic pottery as a unique technological feature dating from 1,500 to 800
B.C. This same unusual pottery has been found also in Peru, and it seems possible that the technology may have gone
from Guatemala to Peru where the earliest dating by radio-carbon is 714 B.C. (+ 200 years). If this diffusion did occur,
it was probably by boat for that is only a 1,300 mile sea trip and has been shown possible by Heyerdahl’s raft voyage
and the presence of ancient sherds on Galapagos Islands, which lie 650 miles off the Ecuador coast. Other pottery
of Middle America was highly developed but had no local ancestry and Coe suggests that it possibly migrated down
from the Woodland Culture of North America.
2.6.1.3 SOUTH AMERICA
Several of the immediately preceding paragraphs, particularly those concerning the possible cultural derivations from
pre-Columbian European migration were applicable to parts of South America as well. We should now make some
observations peculiar to the latter, however. For one thing, the South Americans did not have writing and why this did
not arrive with other Mid-American cultural features, if there was indeed early contact, remains an enigma. As far as
the illiteracy is concerned, however, we shall discover later in this text that illiteracy did not hamper the Scandinavian
Vikings or the Mongol Khans. The most spectacular excavation, abandoned between 1,500 and 1,400 B.C. according
to carbon-dating, is El Paraiso, near Lima, just three miles east of the ocean on the Chillon River valley. This consists of
seven architectural units, of which one has been pretty well restored. The units were enormous buildings made of two
rows of heavy quarried and roughly-shaped stone blocks cemented with unfired clay and the gaps filled with rubble.
The buildings were of various sizes and shapes, some a thousand feet long; some almost square 165 by 132 feet. There
were wide stair cases and various halls and rooms, some of which must have been for storage while others were for
festivities and still others living quarters. A single building would reach thirty feet high. A similar building complex
has also been found higher up in the valley, thirty-six miles from Lima. Trepanation and deliberate deformation of
skulls (see also Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean (p. 75)) was practiced frequently in this period. In the
last chapter we discussed the "bean planters" of Peru. Archeology indicates that El Paraiso and all the bean planters’
villages were abandoned at about the same time, apparently around 1,500 to 1,400 B.C.. No explanation has been
found for this rather sudden and complete disappearance of this society, and furthermore it appears that the Peruvian
coast probably remained deserted for one to three centuries thereafter. Skeletons supplied to physical anthropologists
by Frederic Engel from the vicinity of the last of these pre-ceramic, bean eaters show the presence of a different ethnic
group with cross-breeding, as evidenced by the presence of brachycephalic and mesocephalic skulls in addition to
the older dolichocephalic. One can image that foreign ethnic groups may have brought a plague that killed the bean
planters, but one cannot rule out severe climatic change as the cause.
Corn growing had appeared in the central Andes, both in the cordillera and on the coast by 1,500 B.C. Although
previously used on the Caribbean coast, pottery does not seem to have been introduced in western Peru until about
1,300 B.C. Engle (Ref. 62 ([91])) had found some in the central Peruvian lower Andes carbon-dated in the 3,300
to 3,500 B.C. range, so perhaps both corn and pottery were brought over from the eastern slopes of the mountains.
Near Lake Titicaca and in the Cordillera de la Viuda, northeast of Lima, early types of pottery have been found dating
between 1,500 and 1,300 B.C. and this pottery has subsequently been found everywhere in caves and rock shelters in
the upper Andes. The corn raisers and pottery makers were apparently a new, migrating people, and did not represent
merely a change in culture of the bean planters. Basically by 1,320 B.C. Americans ate corn as the Europeans ate
wheat and the Asians rice. Seafood, especially shellfish, however, always played an important part of the Andes
peoples’ diets, supplying protein that they lacked in the absence of meat. A deep refuse midden on the coast of Peru
has revealed a cultivated gourd, used for various artifacts in a fishing culture. These were only later found in Polynesia.
By 1,000 B.C. Peruvians had hallucinogens and alcohol and were smoking cigars, although the leaf was not tobacco.
(Ref. 62 ([91]), 95 ([140]))
Forward to America: 1000 to 700 B.C. (Section 2.7)
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78 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
1. Intro to Era21
2. Africa (Section 1.6)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.6)
4. Europe (Section 4.6)
5. The Far East (Section 6.6)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.6)
7. The Near East (Section 7.6)
8. Pacific (Section 8.6)
2.7 America: 1000 to 700 B.C.22
2.7.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 1500 to 1000 B.C. (Section 2.6)
2.7.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
2.7.1.1.1 THE FAR NORTH AND CANADA
The Arctic Small Tool tradition continued in the far north. Centered at the Fraser River delta about 1,000 B.C. and
extending from southern Alaska down to northern California, was the Northwest Coast Tradition. Eskimo and Old
Cordilleran traditions may have contributed to this society which included hunting and gathering of multiple river
and marine foods - mollusks, salmon, halibut, whale, seal and sea otter. Out of wood the people made canoes, plank
houses, carved household items and wooden slat armor that may have been derived directly from Asia. (Ref. 45 ([66]))
2.7.1.1.2 THE UNITED STATES
In the United States area, the Burial Mound I period of the Woodland tradition was typified by the Adena Culture
of Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Similar areas could be found, however, from Canada
through Minnesota and down to the Louisiana-Texas border. The characteristic traits were woodland pottery, burial
mounds, some as high as 66 feet, and the beginnings of agriculture. Indians lived in small, scattered villages with
round houses, using wattle for walls and thatch for roofs. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 215 ([290])) In southeast United States an
Archaic type of culture extended throughout the period under review. Studies of remains have been made in the St.
John River of Florida and the Savannah River culture of the river valley by the same name. The major weapon was
a short heavy spear propelled by a throwing stick while bone fish-hooks, stone net weights and stone axes have been
found. Fiber tempered pottery had been in use in this area for a long time. (Ref. 258 ([264]))
And now we must mention the recent and very controversial work of one Barry Fell. Professor Fell is a teacher
of marine biology at Harvard University, but he also claims an extensive education in ancient Celtic languages at
Edinburgh University and thus professes to be one of the few who can read ancient scripts in Celtic and other ancient
tongues, including Egyptian, Phoenician and Libyan. It is his assertion that in various parts of the United States he
has found stone inscriptions in those ancient tongues, seeming to prove that those people visited or even colonized
parts of America in this early period. Of special note, in the time bracket of this chapter, is his claim of Phoenician
inscriptions, written in the Celtic alphabet, at a site called Mystery Hill, New Hampshire, dated to 800 to 600 B.C.
He feels that Goedelic Celts from Spain and Portugal explored and settled multiple areas in New England during the
first millennium B.C. and that the Punic phase just mentioned undoubtedly followed an original Celtic occupation. In
addition, he has allegedly translated the so-called Pontotoc stele of Oklahoma as an extract from the "Hymn to Aton",
a chant of the pharaoh Akhnaton, dating from the 13th century B.C., although Fell says the Oklahoma version can
scarcely be older than about 800 B.C., believing it was the work of an early Iberian colonist writing in the script from
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the Cachao-da-Rapa region of northern Portugal. Similarly he writes that the Davenport stele of Iowa has three separate
scripts,- Egyptian hieroglyphics alongside Iberian and Libyan scripts. Previously these stelae had been considered as
fakes. Fell’s interesting hypotheses have not yet been generally accepted and seem to have been more or less ignored
by the professional archeologists. (Ref. 122 ([170]))
In the Cochise area of southwest United States a new and more vigorous strain of corn was imported from Mexico
about 1,000 B.C. A new plant, the red kidney bean, also appeared as the Cochise began to build simple pit-houses and
group themselves together in small villages. As agricultural activities made easier living, they had time to develop
early pottery forms and soon figurines of people and animals. Findings in the refuse of the Ventana Cave, some 100
miles from Tucson, have revealed these gradual changes from hunter to farmer. (Ref. 210 ([283]))
2.7.1.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
In previous chapters we have mentioned the early cultures in both Oaxaca and Tehuacan which are adjacent areas in
southern Mexico. At Tehuacan the Ajalpan cultural phase ran from 1,500 to 850 B.C. and excavations have revealed
that about 40% of their diet came from agricultural products, 31% from wild plants and 29% from meat. Various
settlements were scattered along the waterways, with caves for summer occupation to escape the heat. Population
increased rapidly, as agriculture was improved. The next phase, beginning in 850 B.C., was the Santa Maria, which
saw the rise of templed villages, a figurine cult, and some irrigation. (Ref. 259 ([174])) The Zapotecs of Monte Alban
(Oaxaca) developed true civilizations with populations in the tens of thousands, a hierarchy of social classes, a civil
service, priesthoods and specialists in commerce, administration and government.
The Olmecs at the base of the Yucatan peninsula had similar progress and a distinctive culture dominated by a powerful
religion with sky or rain deities in the form of jaguar people with drooping or snarling feline mouths and deformed
heads. They originated the bar and dot calendar which traditionally has been credited to the later Mayas and they had
fine jade carvings. As their population increased they continued to live in villages scattered throughout the forest, but
at intervals they built impressive centers for ceremonial, civic and perhaps commercial use. Each center was the focal
point for the life and culture of some 10,000 people.
Four types of exotic maize found in Guatemala were entirely confined to the western coast area and all are of South
American origin, giving further suggestion of maritime contact between Ecuador-Peru and Guatemala. Coe (Ref. 36
([57])) has shown that boats, even without the special Peruvian guaras (a system of center-boards acting as adjustable
keels) could sail along the South American - Middle American coasts, going one direction at certain times of the year
and reversing direction at other seasons, similar to the monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean. (Ref. 45 ([66]), 155
([214]), 19 ([32]), 36 ([57])) Additional Notes (p. 80)
2.7.1.3 SOUTH AMERICA
About 800 B.C. one of the Peruvian states, the Chavin, underwent an expansion much like the Olmecs did in Central
America. This civilization, with social classes, bureaucracies, and priests, soon spread throughout the northern half of
Peru. Heyerdahl (Ref. 95 ([140])) writes that this civilization appears to be a direct extension down the coast from the
Olmec be- cause there were multiple closely related jungle civilizations in a narrow coastal line, apparently in contact
one with the other by sea, while outside this narrow civilized strip there was nothing but barbarian jungle tribes of
Amerindians throughout Venezuela, Guiana and all of Brazil. And yet there were many differences between the
Chavin and the Olmec’ Mesoamerica had writing, South America did not; Peru had metallurgy by 300 B.C., Mexico
not until about A.D. 1000. Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) does not relate the South American culture to the Olmecs, but does
agree that it apparently developed rapidly, perhaps in a single generation and occupied most of the area of present
day Peru. Beneath the Chavin layer (archaeological speaking), occasionally complete "pre-ceramic" villages can be
found. The Chavin traits included low-relief ornaments made on hammered gold leaf, cigars (but not from tobacco),
carved and polished stone vessels and tools including notched axes and cylindrical maces - some of the stone pieces so
perfect that they seem to be replicas of objects previously made in metal. The Chavins also used anthracite mirrors and
constructed very large architectural units, some several hundred yards long. The decorative themes almost all derived
from five basic subjects, as follows:
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80 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
1. African style mouth with thick lips. (See Heyerdahl’s ideas under Central America (p. 74))
2. Snake-like bodies protruding from demoniacal or human figures.Some are reminiscent of a crocodile snout,
considered sacred in Africa
3. Fangs, shaped like curved swords
4. Crenellations, staircases or geometric forms recalling models of buildings or fortresses
5. Vessels representing human or demonic heads, animals and plants
The center of the Chavin society was the village of Chavin de Huantar, probably a temple at 10,000 feet altitude
consisting of a massive building 500 feet long in an inter- Andean valley on the west bank of the Mosna River. Engel
thinks that Chavin art may well be the product of foreign immigration, but from where? Some have said South Asia,
some China and Meggers (Ref. 141 ([194])) says the Jomon Culture of Japan. Engel is impressed with the resemblance
to Oaxaca and Vera Cruz. Las Haldas became another great Chavin complex, measuring 1,220 feet long by 260 feet
wide and covering 7 1/2 acres, with a platform overhanging the sea at a height of 130 feet. Chavin influence reached
as far south as the Mantaro basin in central Peru, as indicated by pottery found there. (Ref. 255 ([9]))
Some would date the beginning of the Tiahuanaco Society to 800 B.C. (Ref. 255 ([9])) but since this date remains very
debatable and since the full development of this society was reached only later, we shall defer discussion of it until the
5th century B.C.
In the 2nd millennium and this part of the 1st millennium B.C. a drier climate reduced the Amazonian forests to
scattered refuges and during this period migration of various tribes may have been relatively easy. The resulting
spread may help to explain the multiplicity of languages spoken there since then. (Ref. 256 ([151]))
NOTE: Habitation began at Colha in Belize about 900 B.C. This was later to become a great tool production
center because of adjacent deposits of chert nodules, as described in the Additional Notes of the 1st century
C.E. (Ref. 304 ([138]))
Forward to America: 700 to 601 B.C. (Section 2.8)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era23
2. Africa (Section 1.7)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.7)
4. Europe (Section 4.7)
5. The Far East (Section 6.7)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.7)
7. The Near East (Section 7.7)
8. Pacific (Section 8.7)
2.8 America: 700 to 601 B.C.24
2.8.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 1000 to 700 B.C. (Section 2.7)
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2.8.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
2.8.1.1.1 THE FAR NORTH AND CANADA
The Arctic Small tradition continued in the far north as previously described.
Indian life throughout Canada was essentially as recorded in the last chapter.
2.8.1.1.2 THE UNITED STATES
Here again, as in the last chapter, we run into the controversial theories of Barry Fell (Ref. 65 ([96])). Various rock
inscriptions of New England, some originally found years ago25 and others just recently, as at Union, New Hampshire,
and on Monhegan Island off the coast of Maine, have now been interpreted by Fell as being Tartessian Punic, recording
arrivals of Phoenician ships from Spain. It is his hypothesis that these voyagers, dated from 700 to 600 B.C. were
probably not explorers but merchants, trading with already settled New England Celts’
In the midwest, the Burial Mound I period of the Adena variation of the Woodland tradition continued. Here again
Barry Fell introduces new controversy when he states that excavation of some of the mounds have revealed copper and
bronze tablets, pottery, figurines, etc. showing unmistakable similarities to ancient Phoenician constructions. He says
these are located in West Virginia, lowa and Ohio, along major rivers. Other students of the Adena Culture mention
only stone ornaments and engraved slabs in these mounds, although the later Hopewell mounds (see 3rd century B.C.)
certainly had various metals, but of local origin. In the southwest United States the San Pedro phase of the Cochise
Culture continued as a desert society, with increasing population and improvements in farming and other skills. (Ref.
65 ([96]), 215 ([290]), 45 ([66]))
2.8.1.1.3 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
The Olmec civilization, now some 600 years old, reached the height of its development with a center at La Venta,
Mexico. Every village was linked in an elaborate network of trade up and down the valleys and between the highlands
and the coasts. Salt, maize, obsidian, oyster shells, stingray spines, sharks’ teeth, conch and turtle shells were all traded
widely. The Olmecs were not only great sculptors but also carvers of jade, from which they made statuettes, jewellery
and axes. To judge from their art, the Olmecs had two contrasting ethnic types, one remarkably Negroid, with thick
lips, broad noses and round faces and the other strikingly Semitic with sharp profiles, hooked noses, narrow faces and
lips and pronounced beards, usually shown as either square or pointed goatees. Neither of these types would seem to
have come across the Bering Strait. (Please also see pages 124 to 127 and the chart which follows the next section
in this chapter). The Mayan calendar indicates activity in Central America by 613 B.C. but little actual knowledge of
those people is available for another century or two. (Ref. 95 ([140]))
2.8.1.2 SOUTH AMERICA
The Chavin civilization continued in northern Peru and perhaps the Tiahuanaco existed in the highlands on the Bolivian
border, but we shall omit discussion of this group until the 5th century B.C. As in Central America, there are many
equivocal findings suggesting the possibility of multiple origins of South American peoples, rather than a single
ancestral strain from Bering Strait migrants. Some of the features which contribute to this confusion are now listed.
NOTE: Insert SPECIAL SECTION, UNEXPLAINED FEATURES OF NATIVE AMERICANS
Forward to America: 600 to 501 B.C. (Section 2.9)
25One such inscription was described and recorded from Mount Hope Bay, Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1,780 by Ezra Stiles, later president of Yale
College
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82 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
2.9 America: 600 to 501 B.C.26
2.9.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 700 to 601 B.C. (Section 2.8)
2.9.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
2.9.1.1.1 THE FAR NORTH AND CANADA
There was no real change in the human condition in North America at this time. The Arctic Small Tool tradition is
usually divided into two stages with what has been called the Dorset Stage emerging at about 600 B.C. This was an
harpoon based hunting culture extending all across the far north.
2.9.1.1.2 THE UNITED STATES
The Adena Woodlland Culture thrived in the east and the middle west of the United States and the influence of the
Adena burial customs, religion and art can be identified over a large area, including Chesapeake Bay and New York
state. In the 1880s Professor Cyrus Thomas surveyed over 2,000 mound sites and collected over 4,000 specimens of
this and the later Hopewell Culture. The San Pedro phase of the Cochise Culture continued in the southwest. (Ref.
189 ([259]), 215 ([290]))
2.9.1.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
In the Olmec center at La Venta a clay pyramid 103 feet high was erected and surrounded by four colossal stone heads.
At Monte Alban, Mexico, one can still see rows of carvings with Olmec features. At Tikal, Quatemala, pottery has
been found dating to 600 B.C. similar to south American pottery of the same date, suggesting that trade existed between
the two areas. About 500 B.C., however, the Olmec people seem to have collapsed and disappeared, perhaps passing
on their knowledge to the Mayas who began to occupy some of the same territory. Archeological finds establish a
human presence in Vera Cruz as early as 5,600 B.C. and this may have been from ancient times a thorough-fare for
migration of Huastec and Olmecs along the coastal plain. (Ref. 176 ([242]), 155 ([214]), 236 ([314]))
The zero point of the Mayan calendar corresponds to our 3,113 B.C. and brings up the interesting questions as to the
ultimate origin of those peoples and how they were able to triumph over the jungle to establish a type of civilization.
The most likely hypothesis is that they were agriculturalists originally and that they moved in from adjacent river-
estuarine lowlands. The bulk of archaeological data points to an original incursion of the lowlands during the first half
of this 1st millennium B.C., but the earliest ceramics from Tikal and UJaxactun date to about 600 B.C. There may
have been two stages in the development of the Maya society, with the first stage characterized by the dissemination
of riverine settlements from the tropical Lowlands of the Pacific and Gulf Coasts in the general area of the Isthmus of
Tehuantepec and the second stage occurring when Pre-classic groups abandoned the rivers and moved into the interior.
This later stage appears to be linked to the beginnings of Mayan civilization. The change to the interior habitat involved
many problems not the least of which was the obtaining of drinking water. The solution to this problem was apparently
found in the construction of artificial reservoirs in impermeable clays. Fed by artificially constructed drainage systems
they allowed for the storage of millions of gallons of water. For carbohydrates, the relatively small crops of maize
that could be raised with the slash and burn method, was supplemented by the ramon, a tree of the fig family which
produces dense carbohydrate seeds in tremendously large quantities. Storage places for these seeds have also been
found. Now shut off from river proteins, deer hunting was of importance, a fact confirmed from the examination of
hidden contents from Tikal. As the Pulestons (Ref. 261 ([237])) have pointed out, the necessity of organizing labor to
construct the large public reservoirs may well have been a catalyst for the development of social stratification and the
developing concept of a state; and the utilization of the ramon would have allowed stable settlements with the release
of much male labor for use in various other channels.
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2.9.1.3 SOUTH AMERICA
The Chavin civilization continued in Peru throughout this century but then about 500 B.C. their cities were rather
suddenly abandoned27. Some writers say that Paracas developed its own individual type of pottery in the south at this
time, but Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) does not date Paracas I until another 300 years. Marvin Allison (Ref. 3 ([4])) has found
multiple mummies from various Peruvian and Chilean coastal burials, some dating to 600 B.C., with tuberculosis,
especially of the bones and joints and he believes this must have been a common disease of the western coast. The
first known densely populated centers on the north coast of South America date from 600 B.C. to 150 B.C. and have
been called the "Salinar phase" by archaeologists. (Ref. 255 ([9]))
In the light of Barry Fells ’s hypotheses concerning possible European and Middle East voyagers to the new world
in ancient times, it is of interest that a stone inscription in Phoenician script was allegedly discovered in Parahyba
Province, Brazil, in 1886 and a translation published in 1939 indicated that it had been written by Canaanites of Sidon
who had left the Red Sea area in 536 B.C. (the 19th year of the reign of Hiram) with ten ships, sailing along the coast
of Africa for two years, under the orders of Necho, pharoah of Egypt. The writers note that they became separated
from their flagship and were carried far away and landed on this unknown (Brazilian) coast. When first put forth this
finding and translation was declared a forgery, but more recently it has been accepted as genuine by many authorities.
(Ref. 176 ([242])) The south Atlantic ocean currents coming from the African Cape could easily result in this drift.
Ornate ceramics decorated with animal and bird figures were characteristic of the Brazilian Barrancoid tradition of
this and many adjacent centuries (Ref. 255 ([9]))
Forward to America: 500 to 401 B.C. (Section 2.10)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era28
2. Africa (Section 1.9)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.9)
4. Europe (Section 4.9)
5. The Far East (Section 6.9)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.9)
7. The Near East (Section 7.9)
8. Pacific (Section 8.9)
2.10 America: 500 to 401 B.C.29
2.10.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 600 to 501 B.C.
2.10.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
The far northern Eskimo Culture, the midwestern Woodland Adena Cultures and the southwestern Cochise traditions
continued as before. In southern Utah’s Barrier Canyon (now Horseshoe Canyon) on the Colorado River just before it
goes into Arizona, rock paintings and figurines dating back at least to 500 B.C. have been found. They may date much
earlier. Barry Fell (Ref. 65 ([96])) has further astounding hypotheses dating to this century.
For example, he has identified a stone temple at South Woodstock, Vermont, to be of Celtic construction, dated after
433 B.C. and like others, oriented with its long axis at compass bearing 123 degrees, which is the horizon azimuth
of the rising sun on the December 22 winter solstice, important in the Celtic religion. He says that many monoliths
27The National Geographic Society (Ref. 255 ([9])) reported in 1982 that this society lasted until 300 B.C.
28"600 to 501 B.C." <http://cnx.org/content/m17702/latest/>
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84 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
characteristic of any Celtic landscape are found in New England. And still more - Fell states that the Zuni tongue in
Arizona is basically Libyan, taken from the limited, racy and colloquial vocabulary of Libyan navy men sailing in this
century from ships of Tarshish or Carthage. He insists that the basic Zuni language of today is similar to Coptic, with
borrowed elements from Spanish and English. One of the problems involved in accepting this is that most authorities
do not think the Zuni existed as a definite people at this early time, and that they developed from the Mogollon Culture
much later. (Ref. 195 ([268]), 65 ([96]))
2.10.1.2 MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA
The middle America "ball-game", a curious, violent cross between soccer, volley-ball and pelota seemed to have some
religious significance and appears to have been developed by the Olmecs, although it became popular all over middle
America by 400 B.C. 30 As noted in the previous chapter the Maya probably started their differentiation from other
primitive peoples in the scrub-covered lowlands of northern Yucatan and Guatemala’s Peten about 2,500 B.C.31, slowly
struggling against the invading forest. Clearing land was difficult and was done chiefly by burning. Their staple food
was maize, of ten with several varieties grown in the same field. Although their land was relatively infertile, except
along the river flood plains, it was rich in building materials - limestone rock, sandstone and volcanic rock as well as
hard stones. Up until 300 B.C. is known as the formative period of Mayan history, and there is no doubt but what
much of their advanced culture was transferred from the preceding Olmec Society. (Ref. 176 ([242]), 263 ([127]))
Costa Rica, on the narrow isthmus leading to Panama and South America has a long prehistory, but available artifacts
date chiefly from 500 B.C. onwards. In a new chronology for Central America proposed by a seminar in 1980, the time
from 1,000 B.C. to A.D. 500 in the Costa Rican story would be Period IV. At about 500 B.C. the Guanacaste-Nicoya
and some of the Central Highlands-Watershed region were influenced by Mesoamerican culture, with production of
the same red-on-buff pottery and a tendency for all settlements to prefer level, fertile land suitable for agriculture.
(Ref. 265 ([270]))
2.10.1.3 SOUTH AMERICA
The complete disappearance of the Chavin society of Peru in this century was so sudden that a cataclysm is suggested.
It may have resulted from a climatic crisis in that it is known that the sea level oscillated as much as 23 feet in this
time period. Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) states that in the north central part of Peru there were two new societies after about
500 B.C., the Mochica and the Gallinazo, both in an area no more than about 240 miles long. South of there from the
Huarmey Valley to the Lurin, south of Lima, with an area of almost 1,200 square miles there appears an archeological
gap of about 1,000 years.
Still farther south the Paracas Society appeared at the end of the Chavin time or after a short gap and the very far south
has not really been studied.
The exact time of origin of the Mochican society is disputed and even radio-carbon dates are somewhat confusing.
Engel feels that it existed from this 5th century B.C. until at least A.D. 100 and was contemporary with the Gallinazos
with whom the Mochicans fought. The chief phenonemon of Mochica is a classical pottery, handsome, of various
shapes, decorated and some of it pink-fired. On some pottery the paintings show circumcised prisoners shackled
together, but none of the Mochicas are shown nude. Since circumcision was essentially unknown in early South
America, from whence did the prisoners come?
Ceramic portrait paintings of many classes of men are found, including warriors, farmers, priests, etc.. The warriors
may have arrived later, representing a new, conquering group. Some of the Mochican sites contained metal objects
but the sites had been looted long before any professional archeologists arrived. (Please also see South America in the
2nd century B.C. (Section 2.13.1.3: SOUTH AMERICA) for Barry Fell’s thoughts).
30See this same section in the 10th century C.E. (Section 2.24)
31Recent excavations indicate a Maya presence at Cuello, Belize at 2,400 B.C. (Ref. 263 ([127]))
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85
In nearby Viru Valley lived the Gallinazo, named after a vulture, with a great building society superimposed on an age
old strata of previous peoples. One ziggurat, 82 feet high, obviously had religious significance. Most sites have been
looted centuries ago, as they contained gold objects, and finally the valley seems to have been conquered anyway by
the Mochicans.
On a treeless, barren plain 12,500 feet above sea level in central Peru, there existed perhaps at this time, the Tiahuanaco
civilization32, similar in every way to the Olmec except in the drastic differences in climate and geology. The similar-
ities of this society at Lake Titicaca and the Olmecs with the Old World cultures are many, including a domesticated,
small dog, with no wild progenitor in America, the use of hybrid long staple cotton and many other botanical features.
Building materials were treated differently than in any other part of the Andes, with monolithic blocks weighing a
hundred tons cut with geometric precision. The blocks show mortised joints and recesses in which metal hinges could
have been placed to swing monumental doors. Multiple temples were built and at least one building 500 feet in length
was included.
Forward to America: 400 to 301 B.C. (Section 2.11)
Choose Different Region
1. Intro to Era33
2. Africa (Section 1.10)
3. Central and Northern Asia (Section 3.10)
4. Europe (Section 4.10)
5. The Far East (Section 6.10)
6. The Indian Subcontinent (Section 5.10)
7. The Near East (Section 7.10)
8. Pacific (Section 8.10)
2.11 America: 400 to 301 B.C.34
2.11.1 AMERICA
Back to America: 500 to 401 B.C. (Section 2.10)
2.11.1.1 NORTH AMERICA
The Dorset Arctic, the Adena variety of the Woodlands and the southwest Cochise traditions continued as described
in the preceding two chapters.
2.11.1.2 MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN
In the Central American tropical forests of Guatemala and Honduras the Mayan Culture continued to develop with an
increasing complexity indicated by the construction of mound platforms for temples and palaces. Recent excavations
at Cuello, a ceremonial center of northern Belize which may have had its origins as far back as 2,400 B.C., have
revealed evidence of what was probably a barbaric religious ritual of about 400 B.C. Twenty skeletons were found,
some complete but others with detached skulls lying beside lopped-off limbs. These were lying in the center of a
massive, raised platform some 200 feet square and standing 12 feet high. (Ref. 263 ([127])) Another city on the
32It has been very difficult for archeologists to accurately date the Tiahuanaco Society for many reasons. Most of the great areas have been
looted extensively over the centuries and at present all excavation is restricted by the Bolivian government. Engel (Ref. 62 ([91])) has obtained a
carbon-dating of the deepest strata of the city proper of about 2,000 years ago, but pottery fragments at that level already were decorated in high
classical Tiahuanaco style, suggesting that this was late in the history of the people. We are empirically starting the discussion of Tiahuanaco in this
century although it may have originated either earlier or later by several hundred years.
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86 CHAPTER 2. AMERICA
Mayan trade route along the eastern coast of the Yucatan peninsula in modern Belize was Cerros. This community has
been remarkable well preserved although it was abandoned many centuries ago. For three hundred years, beginning
in about 350 B.C. it existed as a modest fishing and trading village. In the beginning the inhabitants lived on or close
to the current ground level or on low clay platforms. In later centuries marked changes occurred in the manner of
living and we shall refer to these in subsequent chapters. (Ref. 264 ([105])) The mound platforms of the early Central