Acronym Dicitonary And Glossary ACS Universal Remote WG

User Manual: ACS Universal Remote WG

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Acronym Dictionary and Glossary
CSR Acronym Definitions A-D
CSR Acronym Defintions E-H
CSR Acronym Definitions I-M
CSR Acronym Definitions N-R

Acronym Definitions last updated November 26, 2001. If you have changes or corrections, please e-mail
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Date Updated: 10/20/93

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AFRL Acronym Dictionary

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AFRL Acronym Dictionary


1-1SDoC One Standard-One Test, Supplier¹s Declaration of Conformity
2B1Q 2 Binary 1 Quaternary
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project (ETSI)
3WC Three Way Call
-AA/D Analog to Digital
A&T Architecture & Transport (DSL Forum Committee, formerly ATM)
A/TT Analog Tie Trunk (TIA-646-B)
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
AAC Advanced Audio Coding
AACCH Auxiliary Analog Control Channel
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
AAL(D) Analog PSTN Access Line (Analog PBX Interface, TIA-646-B)
AAL5-CU ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Composite User
AAP Alternative Approval Procedures
AASO Advanced Audio Server Override (package)
AASS Advanced Audio Server Set (package)
AAU Advanced Audio Package
AAV Authentication Algorithm Version
ABAC Aggregate Bearer Admission Control
AbC Approval by Correspondence
ABM Aggregate Bearer Measurement
ABNF Augmented Backus-Naur Form
ABR Average Bit Rate
ABT Adaptive Block Transform
AC Advisory Circular
AC Alternating Current
AC Authentication Center
AC Auto Configuration (DSL Forum)
AC Automatic Callback
ACA Adaptive Channel Allocation
ACBO Automatic Cross Band Operation
ACC Analog Control Channel
ACCH Associated Control Channel
ACD Automatic Call Distribution
ACE Advanced Coding Efficiency
ACF Authentication Control Function
ACG Automatic Code Gapping
ACIL Association of Independent Scientific, Engineering and Testing Firms
ACK Acknowledgment
ACKS Acknowledgments
ACM Address Complete Message
ACOS IEC Advisory Committee on Safety
ACR Absolute Category Rating
ACR Alternate Carrier Routing
ACR Anonymous Call Rejection
ACRE Authorization and Call Routing Equipment
ACS Automatic Configuration Service

ACSB Amplitude Companded Single Side Band
ACSE Association Control Service Element
ACT Activation
ACTA Administrative Council for Terminal Attachment (T1 and TIA)
ACTE Approvals Committee for Terminal Equipment
ACTS Advanced Communications Technology Satellite
AD Administrative Domain
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
ADAAG ADA Accessibility Guidelines
AD-BES Administrative Back-End Services
ADC Analog to Digital Converter
ADDS Application Data Delivery Service
ADHAG Ad Hoc Authentication Group (TR-45.2)
ADI Analog Devices Inc.
ADL ADSL without underlying POTS or ISDN
ADL All Digital Loop
ADL Automatic Determination of Location
ADLC Asynchronous Data Link Control
ADLG Automatic Determination of Location and Guidance
ADLNB Association of Designated Laboratories and Notified Bodies (European)
ADP Answer Detection Pattern
ADPCM Adaptive Differential PCM
ADS Asynchronous Data
ADSI Analog Display Services Interface (Bellcore)
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop (Line)
ADSL-R Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop (Remote)
ADT Asynchronous Data Teleservice
AEC Acoustic Echo Controller
AECE Acoustic Echo Control Equipment
AES Advanced Encryption Standard-Rijndael
AFE Analog Front End
AFNOR Association francaise de normalisation (French Standardization)
AG Access Grant
AGC Audiographics Conferencing
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AGCH Access Grant Channel
AGNI Advisory Group for Network Issues
AHAG Ad Hoc Authentication Group (TR-45)
AHES Ad Hoc Emergency Services (TR-45.2)
AHG Ad Hoc Group
aHIT! TIPIA merger into IMTC
AHMMG Ad Hoc Microcell/Microsystems Guidelines
AHPAI Ad Hoc PCS Air Interface Joint Group
AHSOG Ad Hoc on Self Organization Group
AHWG Ad Hoc Working Group
AI Air Interface
AI Answer Indicator (V.8)
AIC Advanced Intra Coding
AIG Administrators Interest Group
AIG Authentication Implementation Guide
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network
AINI ATM Inter Network Interface

AIS Alarm Indication Signal
AIV Alternative Inter VLC
a.k.a. Also Known As
AL Answer List
AL1 H.223 Adaption Layer 1
AL-PDU Answer List - Protocol Data Unit
AL-SDU Answer List - Service Data Unit
ALC Automatic Level Control
ALCE Automatic Level Control Equipment
ALE Automatic Link Establishment Radios
ALF Application Level Framing
ALI Automatic Location Identification
ALIT Automatic Line Insulation Test
ALT Automatic Link Transfer
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AM Amplitude Modulation
AM Assignment Message
AMA Adaptive Motion Accuracy
AMA/CDR Automatic Message Accounting/Call Detail Recording
AMD Amendment
AMF Authentication Management Function
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service
AMR Adaptive MultiRate
AMR-WB Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband
AN Access Network
AN Access Node
AN Advisory Note
ANAI Access Network Architecture and Interfaces
ANATEL Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes (Brazil)
ANF Additional Network Feature
ANF-CMN Common Information Additional Network Feature (H.450.12)
ANFP Access Network Frequency Plan
ANI Automatic Number Identification
ANOVA Analysis of Variance Procedure
ANS Answer Tone
ANSam Answer Tone, amplitude modulated (V.8)
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ANT Access Network Transport (Q1/15)
AOC Advice of Change
AOC Advice of Charge
AOC ADSL Overhead Channel
AOC-D Advice Of Charge during a call
AOC-E Advice Of Charge at the End of a call
AOD Audio on Demand
AP Advanced Prediction
AP Application Protocols
APCM Analog PCM Modem
APCO Associated Public Safety Communications Officers, Inc.
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit
APE Application Protocols Entities
APEC Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation
API Application Programming Interface
APIC APCO Project 25 Interface Committee
APLAC Asian Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation

APP Application Marker
APS Asynchronous Protocol Specification
AR Adaptive Reception Control
AR Auto-Regressive
AR Automatic Recall
ARC Adaptive Reception Control
ARC Alarm Reporting Control
ARCH Access Response Channel
ARDB Administrative Reference DataBase
ARF Audio Resource Function
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (accredited standards setting body in Japan)
ARJ Admission Reject
ARLP Acoustic Reference Level Plan
ARM Application Resource Manager
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ASAP As Soon As Possible
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASE Applications Service Element
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASID Access, Searching and Indexing of Directories
ASL Active Speech Level
ASN Abstract Symbol Notation
ASO Arbitrary Slice Ordering
ASOG Access Service Ordering Guidelines
ASP Application Service Provider
ASR Automatic Speech Recognition
ASTM formerly American Society of Testing and Measurement
AT Access and Terminals (ETSI TC)
AT Asynchronous Terminal
ATA Analog Terminal and Access Project
ATa Analog Working Group (ETSI TC AT)
AT-A ETSI Access and Terminals Analog Working Group
ATAAB Analog Technical Ad hoc Advisory Board
ATAc ATA's Conventional Technology WG
ATAe ATA's Enhanced Technology WG
ATBCB Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board
ATC Analog Traffic Channel
AT-D ETSI Access and Terminals Digital Working Group
ATd Digital Working Group (TC AT)
ATf Features Working Group (TC AT)
ATF Administrative Task Force
AT-F ETSI Access and Terminals Features Working Group
ATG Access Transport Group (DSL Forum)
ATIA Australian Telecommunications Industry Association
ATIS Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATMOVE Adaptive-Template Movement
ATM-Utopia Universal Test and Operations Physical Layer Interface for ATM
ATO Analog Tandem Office (TIA-646-B)
ATS Abstract Test Suite
ATS Assigned Time Slot

ATV Advanced Television
AuF Authentication Function
AV AudioVisual
AVC Audio Visual Coding
AVC Audiovisual Conferencing
AVD Alternating Voice Data
AVI Interactive Audiovisual Services
AVIS Audio Visual Information Systems
AVMMS AudioVisual and MultiMedia Services
AVT Audio/Visual Transport
AWG American Wire Gauge
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
AWI Alert With Info
-BB Bi-directionally predicted
B2B Business-to-Business
B2C Business-to-Consumer
B2G Business-to-Government
B&G Bits&Gains (Q4/15)
B&W Black and White
BA Basic Access (ISDN)
BAM Biconic Connector
BAPT Bundesamt fur Post und Telekommunikation
BARAS ETSI SAGE standard encryption algorithm for audiovisual services
BAS Bit rate Allocation Signal
BAU Base Audio Package
BB Bandwidth Broker
BBN Bulk Billing Number
BBS Bulletin Board System
BC Basic Call
BC Bearer Channel
BCC Basic Control Channel
BCCA Board Committee on Conformity Assessment
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCDF Broadband Content Delivery Forum
BCF Backward Control Field
BCF Bearer Control Function
BCH Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquengham
BCM Back Channel Message
BCTP Basic Call Transfer Protocol (SG11)
BD-PSNR Bjøntegaard delta PSNR
BDS Blank Detail Specification
BE Border Element
BEM Big Emerging Markets
BER Bit Error Rate
BERT Bit Error Rate Test
BES Back-End Services
BEST Back-End Service Transaction
(B)FER Burst Frame Error Rate
BF Bearer Function
BFI Bad Frame Indicator
BFOC Bayonet Fiber Optic Connector

BFT Binary File Transfer
BGN Background Noise Conditions
B-HLI Broadband High Layer Information
BICC Bearer Independent Call Control
BICSI Building Industry Consulting Services International
BID Billing ID Numbers
BINTERMS Basic Interoperability for Terminals for Telematic Services
B-ISDN Broadband ISDN
B-ISUP Broadband ISDN User Part
BITB Boulder Industry Test Bed
BLER Block Error Rates
BLERf Error Free Block Rate
BLES Broadband Loop Emulation Service
B-LLI Broadband Lower Layer Information
BME Block based Motion Estimation
BMI Base Station, Mobile Switching Center, and Interworking Function
BMSC Base Station Manufacturer Code
BNC ID Backbone Network Connection Identifier
BNF Backus-Naur Form
B-NT Broadband Network Termination
BNT Binary File Transfer
BNTF Bi-National Task Force
BNTG Bi-National Task Group
BNWG Bi-National Working Group
BO Business Office
BOF Birds of a Feather
BoD Board of Directors
BOMA Building Owners & Managers Association
BONDING Bandwidth On Demand Interest Group (TR-41)
BOS Business Object Summit
BPI+ Baseline Privacy Interface Plus
B-PISN Broadband PISN
BPON Broadband Passive Optical Network
BPTC Block-Product-Turbo-Codes
B-QSIG Broadband QSIG
BRA Basic Rate Access
BRAN Broadband Radio Access Networks (ETSI TC)
BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server
BRI Basic Rate Interface
BRKACK Break Acknowledge frame (V.42)
BRM Bit Repetition Message
BRQ Bandwidth Request
BS Base Station
BSC Base Station Controller
BSC Binary Symmetric Channels
BSMAP Base Station Management Application Part
BSMC Base Station Manufacturer Code
BSMI Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection
B-SMS Broadcasts Short Message Service
BSN Broadband Service Node (Nortel)
BSR Board of Standards Review (ANSI)
BSS Base Station System
BSS Broadcasting-Satellite Service
BST Broadcast SMS Teleservice

BT British Telecom (United Kingdom PTT)
BTA Basic Trading Area
BTC Business Telecommunications Committee (ETSI)
BTM Basic Transfer Mode
BTS Base Transceiver System
B-UNI Broadband User Network Interface
B-VOP Bidirectional Video Object Planes
B/W Black and White
BWC Bandwidth Control
BWS Building Wiring Standard
-CC&I Commands and Indications
C&S Control and Signaling (ATM Forum Working Group)
CA Channel Aggregation
CA Communication Application (T.611)
CA Conformity Assessment
CAB Conformity Assessment Body
CABA North America's Home and Building Automation Association
CABAC Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding
CAC Carrier Access Code
CAC Connection Admission Control
CAD Computer Aided Design
CAGJES Canadian Advisory Group on Joint Electrical Safety Committee
CAI Common Air Interface
CAL Common Application Language
CALEA Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
CAMA Centralized Automatic Message Accounting
CANACINTRA Camara Nacional de la Industria de Transformacion (Mexico)
CANIECE Camara Nacional de la Industria Electronica Y de Communicaciones Electricas (Mexico)
CAP Carrier-less Amplitude modulation Phase modulation
CAPCS Cellular Auxiliary Personal Communications Service
CARE Carrier Access Records Exchange
CAS Channel Associated Signaling
CAS Customer Alert Signal
CASCO Committee on Conformity Assessment (ISO)
CASE Conformity Assessment System Evaluation (NIST)
CASS Common Air Satellite Structure
CAT Cellular Action Team (ECSP committee)
CATS Consortium for Audiographics Teleconferencing Standards
CATV Cable Television
CAVE Cellular Authentication and Voice Encryption Algorithm
CAWG Conformity Assessment Working Group (Trilateral)
CB Call Barring (TIA TR-34)
CB Certification Body
CB Citizen Band
CBC Call Bearer Control
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBEMA Computing Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (see ITI)
CBP Coded Block Pattern (H.261)
CBPCM Coded Block Pattern - Chrominance
CBPC Coded Block Pattern for Chrominance
CBPY Coded Block Pattern for Luminance

CBR Constant Bit Rate
CC Call Control
CC Common Carrier
CC Communication Capability field
CC Conference Call
CC Continuity Check (Rec. I.610)
CC Control Channel
CCA Common Cryptographic Algorithm
CCB Common Carrier Bureau
CCBS Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers
CCIR Comite consultatif international des radiocommunications
CCITT Comite consultatif international telegraphique et telephonique
CCM Call Connection Management
CCR Call Connect Reliability
CCR Comparison Category Rating
CCS Common Channel Signaling
CCSN Common Channel Signaling Network
CCSRL Control Channel Segmentation and Reassembly Layer
CCT Channel Check Test
CCT Consultative Committee - Telecommunications (Trilateral)
CD Committee Draft
CD Communication Device
CD-ROM Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
CDCP Call Detail Collect Point
CDG CDMA Development Group
CDGP Call Detail Generation Point
CDH Cooperative Document Handling
CDIS Call Detail Information Source
CDL Coded Digital control channel Locator
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDN Content Distribution Network
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CDR Call Detail Recording
CDRP Call Detail Rating Point
CDS Caller Display Signaling
CDTAC FCC Consumer/Disability Telecommunications Advisory Committee
CDV Committee Draft for Vote, IEC
CE Capabilities Exchange
CE Core Experiment
CEASD Common ETSI Approach to Standards Development
CeBIT Trade show in Hannover, Germany
CEBus Consumer Electronics Bus
CEC Canadian Electric Code
CEC European Committee for Standardization
CED Called Station Identification (T.30)
CEG Card Expert Group (ETSI)
CEG Integrated Circuit Card Expert Group
CELP Code Excited Linear Prediction
CEN Commission Europeenne de Normalisation (European Standards Committee)
CENELEC Commission Europeenne de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Electrotechnical
Standards Committee)
CEOC Clear Embedded Operations Channel
CEPT Conference of European PTTs
CER Cell Error Ratio

CEXT Central Office End Crosstalk
CESID Caller Emergency Station Identification
CF Call Forwarding
CF Center Frequencies
CF Communication Functions
CFA Carrier Failure Alarms (s)
CFBL Call Forward Busy Line/ Don't Answer
CFI Calling Feature Indicator
CFP Computer Fax Protocol
CFP Cypher Feedback
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CFR Confirmation to Receive
CFU Call Forwarding - Unconditional
CG Correspondence Group
CGI Control Grid Interpolation
CH Compare HDLC
CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHASE A class of algorithms for decoding block codes, after D. Chase
CHS Candidate Harmonized Standard
CI Call Indicator (V.8)
CI Calling Identity
CI Characteristic Impedance
CI Count Indicator
CI Customer Installation
CI Customer Interface
C/I Carrier to Interference Ratio
CIA Calling subscriber Internet Address
CIAJ Communications Industry Association of Japan
CIB Configuration Information Base
CIC Circuit Identifier Code
CICES Canadian Interference Causing Equipment Standard
CID Caller Identification
CIDCW Calling Identity Delivery on Call Waiting
CIELAB a device-independent color space
CIF Common Intermediate Format
CIG Calling Subscriber Identification
CILC Canadian Interconnection Liaison Committee
CIM Common Information Model
CIP Component-Independent Palette
CIR Carrier to Interference Ratio
CISC CRTC Interconnection Steering Committee
CISPR International Special Committee on Radio Interference
CISPR/I Subcommittee of CISPR dealing with EMC of information technology, multimedia
equipment, and receivers
CIT Charge-Rate Indication Teleservice
CITEL Comision Internanericana de Telecomunicaciones
CJ CM terminator
CL Capabilities Select (see CR)
CLAD Cell Assembly/Disassembly
CLASS Bellcore service mark for signaling features such as Caller ID
CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carriers
CLEI Common Language Equipment Identifiaction
CLI Calling Line Identification
CLID Calling Line Identity

CLIP Calling Line Identification Presentation
CLIP Calling Line ID Parameter
CLLI Common Language Location Identifier (Telcordia)
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
CLR Capabilities List Request
CLR Cell Loss Ratio
CLR Circuit Layout Record
CM Cable Modem
CM Call Manager
CM Call Menu
CM Channel Management
CM Common Mode
CM Connection Management
CMB CRC Message Block (TIA-464-C)
CMC Common Mail Call
CMC Common Messaging Call
CME Circuit Multiplication Equipment
CME Communications Management Entity
CMI Controlled Mode Idle
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMIS Common Management Information Services
CMISE Common Management Information Service Element
CMMR Common Mode Rejection
CMMRD Cellular Microcell/Microsystem Requirements Document
CMN Common information
CMODES Confidentiality Modes
CMOS Comparison Mean Opinion Score
CMOS Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMRS Commercial Mobile Radio Services (U.S.)
CMS Call Management Server
CMS Call Management Signaling
CMS Circuit Multiplication System
CMT Cellular Messaging Teleservice
CMTSD Cellular Mobile Telephone Service Descriptions
CMY Cyan, Magenta, Yellow
CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black
CN Corporate Network
CNAD Calling Name Delivery
CNAP Calling Name Presentation
CNAR Calling Name Restriction
CNG Calling Tone (T.30)
CNG Comfort Noise Generator
CNI Calling Number Identification
CNI Comfort Noise Insertion
CNID Calling Number Identification
CNIP Calling Number Identification Presentation
CNIP Calling Name Identity Presentation
CNIR Calling Number Identification Restriction
CNP Connection Negotiation Protocol
CNR Carrier to Noise Ratio
CNRP Common Name Resolution Protocol
CO Central Office
COFETEL Comision Federal de Telecomunicaciones de Mexico
CoIP Conferencing over IP (IMTC Activity Group)

COMM comm.drv for Microsoft Windows
CONNEG Content Negotiations (IETF)
COO Cell of Origin
COPEE Council on Office Products Energy Efficiency
COPS Common Open Policy Service
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CORD Cibernet On-line Roaming Database
COS Corporation for Open Systems
COS-OST Corporation for Open Systems Executive Industry Group
COSP Customer Owned Outside Plant
COST Co-Operation in the field of Science and Technology research
COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CP Communications Protocol
CP Continuous Presence (H.243)
CP Customer Premises
CP Cyclical Prefix
CPA Combined Paging/Access
CPAN Customer Premises Area Network
CPAP Customer Premises Access Profile
CPCS Common Part Convergence Sublayer
CPE Customer Premise Equipment
CPEV City Pair Polyethylene PVC
CPF Compatible Protocol Field
CPH Call Party Handling
CP-IWF Customer Premises - InterWorking Function (ATM Forum)
CPL Call Processing Language
CPM Continuous Presence Multipoint
CPN Calling Party Number
CPN Customer Premise Network
CPS Common Part Sublayer (ATMF)
CPSII Communications Protocol Stack Independent Interface
CPT Cellular Paging Teleservice
CPU Central Processing Unit
CQ CAS Signal
CQ Communication Quality
CQPSK Compatible Differential Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (Digital Modulation)
CR Capabilities Request (see CL)
CRe Capabilities Request sent by autoanswering station at call initiation
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Code
CRFP Cordless Radio Fixed Parts
CR-LDP Constraint-based Routed Label Distribution Protocol (a protocol within MPLS)
CRP Command Repeat
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRT Chinese Remainder Theorem
CRTC Canadian Radio and Television Commission
CRTS Cellular Radio Telecommunications Service
CRV Call Reference Value
CS Canadian Standard
CS Circuit Switched
CS1 BICC Capability Set 1
CS2 BICC Capability Set 2
CS-ACELP Conjugate Structure ACELP
CS-PDU Convergence Sublayer - Protocol Data Unit
CSA Called Subscriber Internet Address

CSA Canadian Standards Association
CSA Carrier Serving Area
CSC Call Signalling Channel
CSCI Computer Software Configuration Item
CSD Coordinated Standards Document
CSDN Circuit Switched Data Network
CSD-P Circuit Switched Data, Point-to-Point Service
CSE Communication Service Equipment
CSF Signaling Control Function
CSI Construction Specification Institute
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
CSN Circuit-Switched Network
CSO Curvature of the Second Order
CSPP Computer System Policy Project
CSR Communications Standards Review
CSS Communications Standards Summary
CSS Composite Source Signal
CSS Convolutional Spectral Shaping
CSTA Computer Supported Telecommunications Applications
CSU Customer Service Unit
CT Call Trace
CT2 Cordless Telephone 2 (ETSI)
CTA Council For Terminal Attachment
CTB Composite Triple Beat
CTE Connected Telecommunications Equipment
CTIA Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
CTE Connected Telecommunications Equipment
CTE Connected Terminal Equipment
CTF Consumer Telephone Forum (Telcordia)
CTIA Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
CTI Computer Telephony Integration
CTM Cordless Terminal Mobility
CTN Corporate Telecommunication Networks
CTO Chief Technical Officers
CTP Common Transport Protocol
CTR Common Technical Requirements
CTRMP Cordless Telephone Range Measurement Performance
CTX Centrex
CU Composite User
CuT codec under test
CV Code Violation
CVoADSL Channnelized Voice over ADSL
CVoDSL Channnelized Voice over DSL
CVoSDSL Channnelized Voice over SDSL
CVSD Continuous Variable Slope Detection
CW Call Waiting
CW Continuous Wave
CWD Call Waiting Deluxe
CWID Call Waiting ID
CWP Cost Work Program
CYL Complex stutter dial report

D/A Digital to Analog
D/S Downstream
D/TT Digital Tie Trunk
DA Delegated Authority
DAA Data Access Arrangement
DAC D/A Converter
DAL Digital Access Line
DAM Diagnostic Acceptability Measurement
DANS Directory and Name Service
DANS Distributed Access Node System
DAP Document Application Profile
DAS Door Answering System
DAT Digital Audio Tape
DAVIC Digital Audio-Visual Council
DAWS Digital Advanced Wireless Service
DB Data Base
DBA Dynamic Bandwith Assignment
DBM Dual Bitmap
DBMS Data Base Management System
DBS Direct Broadcast Satellite
DC Data Compression
DC Direct Current
DC Directionality Classification
DCA Dynamic Capacity Allocation
DCC Data Country Code
DCC Digital Control Channel
DCCH Digital Control Channel
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Circuit terminating Equipment
DCE Digital Cellular Equipment
DCF Disengage ConFirmation
DCME Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment
DCMS Digital Circuit Multiplication Systems
DCN Disconnect (T.30 )
DCP Digital Connectivity Probing
DCOR Draft technical Corrigendum (ISO/IEC)
DCR Degradation Category Rating
DCS Digital Cellular System
DCS Digital Command Signal (T.30)
DCT Data Calling Tone
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
DCT-U Digital Cordless Telephone - U.S.
DDI Direct Dialing In
DDoS Distributed Denial of Service
DDR Document Discrepancy Report
DDS Digital Data Service
DEC Digital Extended Command (proposed T.30 extended negotiations)
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (ETSI)
DEG Draft ETSI Guide
DEN Directory Enabled Networks
DEO Digital End Office
DER Digital Extended Request (proposed T.30 extended negotiations)
DES Data Encryption Standard (U.S.)
DES Digital Extend Signal (T.30)

DES Draft European Standard
DF Data Compression Format (T.class2)
DF Deblocking Filter
DFD Displaced Frame Difference
DFE Decision Feedback Equalizer
DFP Distributed Functional Plane
DFPA Defense Fire Protection Association
DG Drafting Group
DGN Director General de Normas (SECOFI, Mexican Standards Organization)
DGS Digital Station
DH Diffie-Hellman protocol
DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol (RFC 2131)
DHE Document Handling Equipment
DI Digital Interface
DI Distribution Interface
DIAMETER IETF protocol used for authentication, authorization and accounting
DIC Delay Interval Compensation
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DIG ISDN compatible Digital Station and tie trunk (TIA-646-B)
DIL Digital Impairment Learning
DIMRS Digital Integrated Mobile Radio System
DIN Deutsche Institut fur Normung (German Standardization Institute)
DIS Digital Identification Signal
DIS Draft International Standard (ISO)
DISA Defense Information Systems Agency
DISXML Extended Markup Language
DJGPP MSDOS port of gcc
DKTS Digital Key Telephone Station
DLC Digital Loop Carrier
DLC Dynamic Load Control
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLP Data Protocol (H.DLP)
DM Differential Mode
DMA Direct Memory Access
DMH Data Message Handler
DMI Desktop Management Interface
DMI Draft Miscellaneous Work Item (ETSI)
DMIF DSM-CC Multimedia Integration Framework
DMOS Degradation MOS
DMP Downlink Measurement Protocol
DMT Discrete MultiTone
DMT Discrete Multi-tone Carrier
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DMV Differential Motion Vector
DN Directory Number
DND Do Not Disturb
DNI Digital Negotiation Information Signal
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNK Digital Not acKnowledge
DNS Domain Name Server
DoC Declaration of Conformity
DOC Department of Commerce
DOC Department of Communications (Canada)

DOCSIS Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
DoD Department of Defense (U.S.)
DOE Department of Energy (U.S.)
DOL Data Off-Loading
DoS Denial of Service
DOS Department of State (U.S.)
DP Data Privacy
DP Data Pump
DP Dial Pulse
DPA Data Privacy Algorithm
DPA Document Printing Application
DPBX Digital PBX
DPCM Digital PCM Modem
DPI Dots Per Inch
DPL Digital Power Line (Q1/15)
DPS Data Partitioned Slice
DPS Dynamic Power Save
DPNSS Digital Private Network Signaling System
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPT Distribution-Preserving Tomlinson
DQoS Dynamic Quality of Service
DQUANT Field for modified quantization mode (H.263+)
DR Discrepancy Report
DRA Dynamic Rate Adaptation
DRC Dynamic Rate Change
DRM Digital Rights Management
DRQ Disengage Request
DRP ear Drum Reference Point
DRR Dynamic Rate Repartitioning
DRT Diagnostic Rhyme Test
DRUMS Detailed Revision/Update of Message
DS0 64 kbit/s Channel
DS1 1.544 Mbit/s T1 Interface
DS3 44.736 Mbit/s T3 Interface
DSA Directory System Authentication
DSAA DECT Standard Authentication Algorithm
DSAP Data Services Access Profile
DSAT Digital Supervisory Audio Tone
DSC DECT Standard Cipher
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DSI Digital Speech Interpolation
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSL Document SeLection
DSLAM DSL Access Multiplexer
DSM-CC Digital Storage Media - Command and Control
DSMCC Digital System Multimedia Communication Control
DSN Delivery Status Notification
DSN Disposition Service Notification
DSP Digital Signal Processing
DSR Data Set Ready
DSR Distributed Speech Recognition
DSR Dynamic Symbol Reordering
DSREQ Data Service Request

DSS1 Digital Subscriber Signaling 1
DSU Data Service Unit
DSV Distributed Speaker Verification
DSVD Digital SVD
DSX Digital Signal Cross-Connect
DT Dual Tone
DTA Digital Terminal and Access Project (ETSI)
DTAAB DECT Technical Advisory Ad hoc Board
DTAM Document Transfer Access Method
DTAP Direct Transfer Application Part
DTC Digital Traffic Channel
DTC Digital Transmit Command
DTD Document Type Definition
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
DTG Digital TV Group (UK)
DTIF Disabilities Issues Task Force
DTL Designated Transit List
DTM Dynamic synchronousTransfer Mode
DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency
DTR Data Terminal Ready
DTR Draft Technical Report (ETSI)
DTS Definitive Telefax Standard
DTS Draft Technical Standard (ETSI)
DTV Digital TV
DTX Discontinuous Transmission
DUT Device Under Test
DV Digital Video
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
DVB-T DVB Terrestrial
DVCC Digital Verification Color Code
DVD Digital Versatile Disk (also Digital Video Disk)
DVEM Differential Vector Error Magnitude
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
-EE 20 bit sequence
E&M Ear and Mouth: Separate signaling lines
E2E End to End
EA European Accreditation
EBNF Extended Backus-Naur Form
EBU European Broadcasting Union
ebXML electronic business XML Consortium
EC Echo Canceled
EC Echo Canceler
EC Echo Control
EC Error Control (TR-29)
EC Error Correction
EC European Commission
EC Exchange Carriers
ECB Electronic Codebook
ECC Expanded Control Channel
ECCA European Cable Communications Association
ECDC Error Correction / Data Compression
ECE Echo Cancellation Equipment

ECIC Electronic Communications Implementation Committee
ECM Error Correction Mode
ECMA European Communications Manufacturers Association
ECN Encoding Control Notation (ASN.1)
ECS Emergency Calling Service
ECSD Enhancement of High Speed Circuit Switched Data
ECSP Electronic Communications Service Provider
ECSQ Entropy Constrained Scalar Quantization
ECT Explicit Call Transfer
ECTA European Competitive Telecommunications Association
ECTEL European Telecommunications and Professional Electronics Industry
ECTF Enhanced Communication and Transport Service
ECTF Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum
ECTRA European Commission of Telecommunications Regulatory Authorities
EC-VBR Embedded Coding Variable Bit Rate
ECVQ Entropy Constrained Vector Quantization
EDACS Enhanced Digital Access Communications System
EDC Electronic Document Coordinator
EDD Electronic Document Distribution
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EDH Electronic Document Handling
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EDSL Emerging DSL (DSL Forum Study Group)
EDSLSG Emerging DSL Study Group (DSL Forum)
EDT European Deaf Telephone
EE Equipment Engineering (ETSI Technical Committee)
EEA European Economic Area
EEC European Economic Community
EEMAC Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association of Canada
EEP Equal Error Protection
EES Escrow Encryption Standard
EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument Systems
EFM Ethernet in the First Mile
EFR Enhanced Full Rate
EFRC Enhanced Full Rate Codec
EFT Electrical Fast Transient
EFTA European Free Trade Area
EG Expert Group
EG AN ETSI Guide Access Network
EGDIR Expert Group DIRectory system (EWOS)
EGMHS Expert Group Message Handling System (EWOS)
EGPRS Enhanced General Packet Radio System
EHS European Home Standards
EI Enhancement Intra (pictures, H.263)
EI Error Indicator
EIA Electronic Industry Association
EIC Equipment Installer's Code
EICTA European Information and Communications Technology Industry Association
EICAS Engine Indicating and Condition Advisory System
EID Equipment Identifier
EID Error Insertion Device
eifax extended internet fax

EII European Information Infrastructure
EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
ELAWG EMC Laboratories Accreditation Working Group
ELCP Emulated Loop Control Protocol (ATMF, ETSI)
ELFEXT Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk
EM Electromagnetic
EMA Electronic Messaging Association
EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMC Equipment Manufacturer's Code
EMCS ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Society
EME Electromagnetic Emissions
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
EMI Exchange Message Interface (Bellcore standard for data transmission between RBOC/LEC
and the IC/IXC/IEC)
EMS Element Management System
EMS Emergency Services
EMT Electrical Metal Tubing
E-MTA Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter
EN Enterprise Network
EN European Norm
ENP Extended Negotiation Procedure
ENUM tElephone NUmbering Mapping (IETF)
EOB End of Block
EOC Embedded Operations Channel
EOI End of Image
EOL End of Line (T.4)
EOM End of Message (T.30)
EOR/ERR End of Retransmission/ Response for End of Retransmission
EOS End of Selection
EOS End of Sequence
EOSBS End of Sub-Bitstream
EOS-PPS End of Selection for selective polling applications
EOT End of Transmission
E-OTD Enhanced Observed Time Difference
EP Enhancement Predicted (pictures, H.263)
EP Error Pattern
EP ETSI Project
EP Extended Protocol
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EP-CN ETSI Project Corporate Network
EP-DTA ETSI Project Digital Terminal Access
EP-EASI ETSI Project-European ATM Services Interoperability
EPHOS European Procurement Handbook for Open Systems
EPIIC European Program on Information Infrastructure Committee
EPIISG European Project on Information Infrastructure Starter Group
EPL Echo Path Loss
EPM Enter Parameter Mode
EPP ETSI Partnership Projects
EPT Echo Protect Time
ERC European Radio Committees
EREC Error Resilient Entropy Code/Error Robust Entropy Code
ERF Emergency Related Forwarding
ERL Echo Return Loss
ERM ETSI committee on EMC and Radio spectrum Matters

ERP Ear Reference Point
ERP Effective Radiated Power
ERP EOC Register Protocol
ERPS Enhanced Reference Picture Selection
ES Echo Suppressor
ES Elementary Stream
ES Emergency Services
ES Errored Seconds
ES Escape Sequence
ES Escape Signal
ES ETSI Standard
ES Express Swapping
ESD Echo Suppressor Devices
ESD ElectroStatic Discharge
ESF Extended SuperFrame
ESI Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures
ESI Emergency Services Interface
ESLR Equivalent SLR
ES/MS Escape Signal/Mode Select
ESMR Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio
ESMTP Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
ESN Electronic Serial Number
ESNX Expanded Electronic Serial Number
ESPM Extended System Parameters Message
ESRD Emergency Services Routing Digits
ESS Enhanced Signaling Systems
eSTL evolving STL
ET (FCC) Office of Engineering and Technology
E-TDMA Extended Time Division Multiple Access
ETIB European Telecoms Intelligence Bulletin
ETNO European Telecom. Network Organization
ETNS European Telephony Numbering Space
ETO European Telecommunications Office
ETP European Telecommunications Platform
ETR ETSI Technical Report
ETS European Telecommunications Standard (ETSI)
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EU European Union
EU MRA European Union Mutual Recognition Agreements
EURESCOM European Institute for Research and Strategic Studies in Telecommunications
EUROBIT European Association of Manufacturers of Business Machines and Information Technology
EUT Equipment Under Test
EV Embedded VBR
EVRC Enhanced Variable Rate Codec
EWOS European Workshop on Open Systems
EXOR Exclusive OR
EXP Equal Erasure Protection
EZW Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet (coding)
-FFA Flexible Alerting
FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.)
FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel
FAMOUS Future Advanced Mobile Universal System

FAQ Frequently Asked Question
FAR Federal Aviation Regulations (U.S.)
FAS Facility Associated Signaling
FAS Frame Alignment Signal
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation (U.S.)
FBM FEXT Bit Map mode (G.992.1, Annex C)
FC Feature Code
FC Type of commercial fiber optic connector (Threaded)
FC-PH Fibre Channel Physical and Signaling Interface (ANSI X3)
FCA Fixed Channel Allocation
FCAPS Faults, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security (ISO)
FCC Federal Communications Commission (U.S.)
FCD Fast Track Committee Draft (ISO)
FCF Facsimile Control Field (T.30)
FCF Forward Control Field
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FDA Food and Drug Administration (U.S.)
FDAM Final Draft AMendment
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDIS Final Draft International Standard (ISO)
FDM File Diagnostic Messages
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDX Full Duplex
FE Facilities Exchange
FE Functional Entities
FEAL Fast Encryption Algorithm
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEC Frame Erasure Concealment
FECC Far End Camera Control
FE-EC Far End - Echo Canceller
FEF Flat Equalized FEXT
FEI Federation of Electronic Industries (UK)
FEQ Frequency Domain Equalizer
FER Frame Error Rate
FEXT Far End Cross Talk
FF Feed Forward
FFPIM Full-mode Facsimile Profile of Internet Mail
FFS For Further Study
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FG Focus Group
FGS Fine Granularity Scalability
FHWA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.)
FI Format Identifier
FIF File Interchange Format
FIFO First In First Out
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FL Facilities List
FLC Fixed Length Codeword
FLMTS Future Land Mobile Telephony Systems
FM Fault Management
FM Frequency Modulation

FMS Flight Management Systems
FMT Filtered MultiTone
FNA Functional Network Architecture
FNE Fixed Network Equipment
FNV Field Not Valid
FNV Frame Not Valid
FO Fiber Optic (TIA)
FO Foreign Office
FOC Fiber Optic Connector
FOCIS Fiber Optic Connector Intermateability Standard
FoIP Fax over Internet Protocol
FOM Figure of Merit
FOREG Forced Registration Flag
FOTAG Fiber Optic TAG
FOTP Fiber Optic Test Procedure
FP Fixed Part
FPDAM Final Proposed Draft Amendment
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FPH Freephone
FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile Telephone Systems
FPP Frames Per Packet
FPS Frames Per Second
fps frames per second
FR Federal Regulation (US)
FR Frame Relay
FRAPI-A An ISDN Architecture in use in Japan
FRC Full Rate Codec
FRF Frame Relay Forum
FRS Florida Relay Service
FS Fixed Satellite
FS Frame Size
FS Full Service
FSA Framework Study Areas
FSAN Full Service Access Networks
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
FSM Finite State Machine (H.323 Gatekeeper)
FSRA Fast Seamless Rate Adaptation
FSS Fixed Satellite Service
FS VDSL Full Service VDSL (FSAN Committee)
FT Fixed Terminals
FT Fixed radio Terminal
FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management
FTBP File Transfer Body Part
FTH Class 1 command HDLC transmit
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FTP Foiled Twisted Pair
FTRI Florida Telecommunications Relay, Inc. (
FTT Failure To Train
FTTB Fiber To The Building
FTTC Fiber To The Curb
FTTCab Fiber To The Cabinet
FTTEx Fiber To The Exchange
FTTH Fiber To The Home

FTTO Fiber to the Office
FUNI Frame Based UNI
FVC Forward Voice Channel
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
FWI Flash With Info
FWUF Federal Wireless Users Forum (U.S.)
Fx Crossover Frequency
FX Foreign eXchange
FXS Foreign Exchange Station
FYI For Your Information
-GG3FT G3 FX Teleservice
G3G Global Third Generation
GA General Assembly (ETSI)
GAL Graphics Adapter Language
GAP Generic Access Profile
GASP Gatekeeper Synchronization Protocol
GAT Generic Application Template
GATT General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
GBSC Group of Blocks Start Code
GCAC Generic CAC
GCC Generic Conference Control
GDMO Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects
GDMO Generic Definition of Managed Objects
GDR Global Desired Receive (PSD)
GEF Generic Extensibility Framework
GETS Government Emergency Telecommunications Service
GF Generic Functional Procedures
GFID GOB frame identification
GFR Guaranteed Frame Rate (ATM Forum)
gi gains information
GI Graded Index
GIDS Global IP Directory Service
GIDS Global IP telephony Database Service
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GISN Global IP-Telephony Subscriber Number
GIT Generic Identifier Transport
GK GateKeeper
GLP Geographic Location Profile
GMC Global Motion Compensation
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GMII Gigabit Media Independent Interface
GMM Global Multimedia Mobility
GMR Geostationary Mobile Radio
GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GMVC Global Motion Vector Coding
GN GOB Number (H.263)
GNATT Generic Enhanced Teleservice Transport
GOB Group of Blocks (H.261, H.263)
GOF Glass Optical Fiber
GONOW ETSI NA Task Force, Managed by European Projuction Information Infrastructure
Coordination (EPIC)
GOP Group of Pictures

GoS Grade of Service
GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
GOSS Guide to Open Systems Specification
G-PAD Generalized polling protocol - Packet Assembly/Disaaembly
GPCAS Global Product Conformity Assessment System
GPM General Page Message
GPS Global Positioning System
GRJ Gatekeeper Reject
GRP Good Regulatory Practices
GRQ Gatekeeper Discovery Request
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSA General Services Administration
GSC GOB Start Code
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSN Global Subscriber Number
GSO Geostationary Satellite Orbit
GSS Generalized Spectral Shaping
GSS Generic Security Application Programming Interface
GSS Generic Security Service
GSS Generic Supplementary Services
GSTN General Switched Telephone Network (i.e., PSTN)
GT Global Title
GTA Global Title Address
GTAAB GSM Technical Advisory Ad hoc Board
GTAI Global Title Address Information
GTT Global Title Translation
GUI Graphical User Interface
GUP Gatekeeper Update Protocol
GW GateWay
GWC GateWay Controller
GWLOC Gateway Location protocol
-HH/W Hardware
HAC Hearing Aid Compatible
HAM Amateur Radio
HAN Home ATM Network
HATIS Hearing Aid Telephone Interconnect System
HATS Head and Torso Simulator
HC Header Counter
HDLC High level Data Link Control
HDLU High speed Dynamic Link Unit
HDML Handheld Device Markup Language, a forerunner of WML
HDSL High-rate Digital Subscriber Line
HDTV High Definition Television
HDX Half Duplex
HE High End
HE-LPC Harmonic Excitator Linear Predictive Coder
HEMP High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses
HES Home Electronic System
HF High Frequency
HF Human Factors
HFC Hybrid Fiber Coax
HFCI The H.323 Firewall Control Interface

HFR Hybrid Fibre Radio
HFT Hands Free Telephone
HFTP Hybrid-Fiber Twisted Pair
HFX Hawthorne Facsimile Cipher
HHR Half-Horizontal Resolution (352 by 480 or 576)
HI High Impedance
HIA Hearing Industries Association
HINE Heterogeneous In-house Networking Environment
HIPERLAN High Performance Radio Local Area Network
HIPPI High-Performance Parallel Interface
HKM Hawthorne Key Management
HLC Higher Layer Compatibility
HLF Home Location Function
HLI High Layer Information
HLR Home Location Register
HLTF High Level Task Force
HLTG High Level Task Group
HMAC Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication
H-MLP High Speed Multi Layer Protocol
HNI Home Network Identity
HNS Hughes Network Systems
HNOS Home NetWork Operating System
HNW Home NetWork (VESA)
HO Hand Off
HomePNA Home Phoneline Networking Alliance
HPC High Probability of Completion
HPCI Harmonized Programmable Communications Interface
HPF High Pass Filter
HPL Home-Phone LAN
HPLI Higher Layer Protocol Identifiers
HPNA Home Phoneline Network Alliance
HPUX Unix in HP workstations
HRC Half Rate Codec
HRD Hypothetical Reference Decoder
HRDJ1 Hardwired Jack
HS Harmonized Standards
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data
HSD High Speed Data Channel
HSM High Speed Modem
HSP Host Signal Processing
HSSG High Speed Study Group (IEEE)
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HSTU-C High Speed Transceiver Unit - Central
HSTU-R High Speed Transceiver Unit - Remote
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol
HTU-C Handshake Transceiver Unit - Central Office End
HTU-R Handshake Transceiver Unit - Remote Terminal End
HW Hardware
HWCI Hardware Configuration Item
-II Intra (Q6/16, VCEG)
I&I Interworking and Interoperability

I/G Implementors Guide
I/O Input/Output
IA Implementation Agreement
IA Interoperability Agreements
IAA I Am Alive (emergency system)
IA5 International Alphabet No. 5, now called International Reference Alphabet (IRA)
IAC Industry Advisory Committee/Council
IACM Industry Advisory Committee Meeting (UL)
IAD Integrated Access Device
IAEI Israel Association of Electronics Industries
IAF Internet Aware Fax (T.38)
IAM Initial Address Message
IANA Internet Assigned Number Authority
IAP Intercept Access Point
IAS Industrial Applications Society (IEEE)
IAT Internet access time
IB Indicator Bits
IBS Intelligent Building Systems
IC Impairment Combination
IC Industry Canada
IC Interexchange Carrier
ICA Information Communication Architecture
I-CAN Integrated Customer Access Network
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICC International Coordination Committee (ISO)
ICCID Integrated Circuit Card ID
ICCF Industry Carriers Compatibility Forum
ICD International Code Designator
ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association
ICF InfoConfirm
ICFA International Computer Facsimile Association
ICG Intersector Coordination Group
ICI Inter Carrier Interference
ICO Intermediate Earth Orbit
ICS Digital line interface to ISDN Compatible Station meeting requirements of TIA/EIA-579
ICS Incoming Call Screening
ICS Implementation Conformance Statement
ICS Interoperability Compliance Statement (DSL Forum)
ICT Information and Communication Technology (ETSI)
ICT Integer Cosine Transforms
I-CTR Interim Common Technical Requirements
ICTSB Information and Communication Technology Standards Board
ICV Integrity Check Value
ICWWG Interagency Cellular and Wireless Working Group
ID delay impairment value
ID Identification
IDB J2366 ITS Data Bus
IDCT Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm (Proprietary, from Ascom Tech. AG)
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IDL Interface Design Language
IDLC Integrated Digital Loop Carrier
IDRA Integrated Dispatch Radio System
IDS Integrated Directory Service

IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
IE protocol discriminator Information Element
IEB Industrial Electronic Bulletin
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IECEE Compliance with IEC for Electrical Equipment
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IEMS International Emergency Multimedia Services
IEPS International Emergency Preference Scheme (ITU-T E.106 [2000])
IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
I-ETS Interim ETS (ETSI Standard)
IF Intermediate Frequency
IF Isolation Filters
IF Isolation Function
IFA Informal FTP Area
IFAST International Forum on AMPS Standards Technology (CTIA)
IFAX Internet Facsimile
IFBCA Internet Fax and Business Communications Association
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IFP Internet Facsimile Protocol
IFTP Informal FTP area
IG Implementer's Guide
IG Interoperability Group
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
IIF Interworking Interoperability Function
IIP Itinerant Internet Protocol
IIR Institute for International Research
IIS Inteface Implementation Specifications (Telemanagement Forum)
IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force
ILC Identifier Length Content
ILD Insertion Loss Deviation
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers
ILMI Integrated Local Management Interface (ATMForum)
IM Instant Messaging
IM Inter-modulation
IM Internet Multimedia (3GPP)
IMA Interactive Multimedia Association
IMA Inverse Multiplexing for ATM
IMBE Improved MultiBand Excitation
IMC Internet Mail Consortium
IMD Inter Modulation Distortion
IME ILMI Management Entity
IME Interface Management Entity
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identifier
I-mode Idle mode
IMP Internet Modem Protocol
IMPP Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol (IETF)
IMRS Interactive Multimedia Retrieval Services
IMS Interactive Multimedia Services
IMSF IS-41 Message Security Forum
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMT International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT-2000)
IMTC International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium
IN Intelligent Networking

INAA Integrated Network Access Arrangement
INAP Intelligent Network Application Profile
IN/B Intelligent Network/Broadband
INC International Carrier
INF IN Forum
INMD In-service Non-intrusive Measurement Device
INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacion e Qualidad Industrial (Brazil)
iNOW interoperability NOW!
INTAP Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing (Japan)
INTSERV Integrated Services
IOL InterOperability Laboratory (University of New Hampshire)
IOS Inter-Operability Specifications
IP Intellectual Property
IP Intelligent Peripheral
IP Internet Protocol
IPAD Internet Packet Assembler Disassember
IPAT Internet Protocol Access Terminal
IPB Improved PB
IP BCP Internet Protocol Basic Call Processing (SG11)
IPBCP IP Bearer Control Protocol
IPBX Internet PBX
IP-CME Circuit Multiplication Equipment optimized for IP-based Networks
IPCP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (RFC1332)
IPDC IP Device Control
IPDR IP Detail Record (Consortium)
I-PDU Information PDU
IPFN IP Federating Network (SPAN14 and TIPHON project)
IPN Intelligent Packet Network
IPNS ISDN PBX Network Specification
IPP Internet Printing Protocol
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IPSEC IP Security (IETF)
IPT Internet Protocol Telephony
IPTD IP Packet Transfer Delay
iptel Internet Protocol Telephony (IETF Working Group)
IPUI International Portable User Identity
IPUI R International Portable User Identity for public/GSM
IRA International Reference Alphabet
IRA Internet Routing Address
IRDA Infrared Interface Committee
IREG ITU-T Recommendation Experiment Group
IRM International Roaming MIN
IRQ Interworking Service Request identifier
IRR Information Request Response
IRS Intermediate Reference System
IS Interim Standard (U.S.)
IS International Standard (ISO)
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISC International Softswitch Consortium
ISC International Switching Center
ISCI Inter-Symbol and Channel Interference
ISCRI International Special Committee on Radio Interface
ISD Independent Segment Decoding
ISD Integrated Services Digital (TIA-646-B)

ISD International Standards Development
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN-BA ISDN Basic Access
ISDN BRA ISDN Basic Rate Access
ISDN-PA ISDN Primary Access
ISD/TT Integrated Services Digital/Tie Trunk
ISI Inter Symbol Interference
ISIS Information Society Initiatives in Standardization
ISLP Intersystem Link Protocol
ISM Industrial, Scientific, Medical
ISN Interface Service Node
ISN Interface Serving Node (SG11)
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISOC Internet Society
ISOL Integrated Services Over Low speed serial inks
ISP International Standardized Profile
ISP Internet Selective Polling
ISP Internet Service Provider
ISPBX Integrated Services Private Branch Exchange
ISPT Italian PTT
ISRF Internet Screenphone Forum
ISS Inter-Satellite Service
ISSG Internet Services Study Group (MSAF)
ISSLL Integrated Services over Specific Links
ISSLOW Integrated Services System for Low Bitrate Environments
IST Integrated Services Trunk
IST ISDN tie trunks
ISTO Industry Standards and Technology Organization
ISTP IPCablecom Signaling Transport Protocol
IST/TT IST and other Tie Trunk
ISWG Interoperability Sub-Working Group (ADSL Forum)
IT Information Technology
IT Intermediate Trunk
ITAAB ISDN Technical Advisory Ad hoc Board
ITAAG ISDN Technical Advisory Ad hoc Group
ITAC Information Technology Association of Canada
ITAC ITU-T Advisory Committee
ITAD Integrated Telephone Answering Device
ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations
ITD Interface Telecom Domotique
ITE Information Technology Equipment
ITI Information Technology Industry Council (formerly CBEMA)
ITIC Information Technology Industry Council
ITL Independent Testing Labs
ITM Informative Test Methods
ITOC Independent Telephone Operating Company
ITS Institute for Telecommunications Sciences
ITS Intelligent Transport System
ITSB Image Technology Standards Board
ITSI Individual TETRA Subscriber Identity
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-R ITU Radiocommunications Sector
ITU-T ITU Telecommunications Sector

ITU-TSB ITU Telecommunications Standardization Board
ITUDOCS Electronic Document Service of ITU
ITV Interactive Television
IUT Implementation Under Test
I-V Current - Voltage
IV Initialization Vector
IVCD Initial Voice Channel Designation
IVN Intervening Networks
IVP Integrated Voice Protocol
IVPC Integrated Voice Protocol and Commands
IVR Interactive Voice Response
IVS Integrated Video Services
IWF Inter-Working Function
IWU Interworking Unit
JBIG Joint Binary Image Group
JC Joint Capabilities
JCCR Joint Committee on Cellular Roaming
JCG Joint Coordination Group
JDC Japan Digital Cellular
JEEC Joint ETSI/ECMA Committee
JEM Joint Experts Meeting
JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
JITC Joint Interoperability Test Center
JM Joint Menu
JPC Joint Project Committee
JPT Joint Project Team
JPEG Joint Photographics Expert Group
JPG Joint Presidents Group (CEN/CENELEC/ETSI)
JQG Joint Question Group
JRG Joint Rapporteurs Group
JSC Joint Sectoral Committee
JSD Joint Standards Documents
JTACS Japanese TACS System
JTC Joint Technical Committee
JURA JPEG Utilities Registration Authority
JUSTINTAC Joint User Supplier TIA ICEA NEMA Technical Advisory Committee
JWG Joint Working Group
-KKLT Karhunen-Loeve Transform
KTA Key Technical Areas
KTS Key Telephone System
KY totally protected key systems (FCC Part 68 Form 730)
-LL2TP Tunneling Protocol, standardized encapsulation capable of carrying multiple PPP sessions
l2tpext Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Extensions (IETF)
LA Local Application (T.611)
LA Look Ahead
LAC L2TP Access Concentrator

LAC Link Access Control
LADC Local Area Data Channels
LAES Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance
LAIC Lawfully Authorized Intercept Capability
LAN Local Area Network
LANE LAN Emulation
LAP Link Access Protocol
LAPB Link Access Protocol B (ISDN-B Channel)
LAPD Link Access Protocol D (ISDN-D Channel)
LAPF Link Access Protocol - Frame
LAPM Link Access Protocol for Modems (V.42)
LAPV Link Access Protocol - Video Telephone
LAR Log Area Ratio
LATA Local Access Transport Area
LB Letter Ballot
LB Loop Back (Rec. I.610)
LBC Low Bit rate Coder
LBO Line Build Out
LBS Location Based Service
LC Last Call (ITU, IETF)
LC Logic Channel
LCAP Large Cell Access Profile
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LCD Loss of Cell Delineation
LCF Location Confirm
LCFO Line Current Feed Open
LCF-PMD Low Cost Fiber-Physical Medium Dependent
LCL Longitudinal Conversion Loss
LCN Logical Channel Number
LCP Link Control Protocol
LCTL Longitudinal Conversion Loss Transfer
LD Long Distance
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LDDS Limited Distance Data Service
LDLL Limited Degradation of the Long Loop
LDM Limited Distance Modem (CS-03)
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LDPA Light Document Printing Architecture
LDPC Low Density Parity Check
LE Local Exchange
LEC Local Exchange Carrier
LEO Low Earth Orbit
LES Loop Emulation Service
LHS Left Hand Side
LI Lawful Interception
LISN Line Impedance Stabilization Network
LL Leased Line
LLC Logical Link Control
LLI Lower Layer Information
LLID Loopback Location Identifier (Rec. I.610)
LMCO Lockheed Martin Corporation and Ericsson
LMCS Local Multipoint Communications System
LMDS Local Multi-point Distribution Service

LMF Location Management Function
LMR Land Mobile Radio
LMS Land Mobile Service
LMS Loop Management System
LMSI Local Mobile Station Identity
LNP Local Number Portability
LNS L2TP Network Server
LO Local Oscillator
LOI Letter of Intent
LON Local Operating Networks
LOO Likelihood of Occurrence
LOS Loss of Signal
LOSQ Listening Only Speech Quality
LPC Linear Predictive Coding
LPF Low Pass Filter
LPIC Primary / Presubscribed Interexchange/IntraLATA Carrier
LR Loudness Rating
LRCC Last Registration Control Channel
LRE Low bit Rate Encoding
LRF Location Registration Function
LRFD Load and Resistance Factor Design
LRJ LocationReject
LRN Location routing number for LNP
LRQ Location Request
LS Lossless and near Lossless
LSAS Line-Side Answer Supervision
LSB Least Significant Bit
LSD Low Speed Data channel
LSO Loopback Service Options (cdma2000)
LSOG Local Service Ordering Guidelines
LSP Line Spectral Pair
LSP Local Service Provider
LSSGR LATA Switching Systems Generic Requirements (Bellcore)
LSTR Listener Sidetone Rating
LT Line Termination
LTP Long Term Prediction
LTU Line Terminating Unit
LU Logical Unit
LUS Location Update Service
LVD Low Voltage Directive
LVDS Low Voltage Differential Signaling
LW Long Wave
LZJH Lempel-Ziv-Jeff.Heath
LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm
-MMA Moving Average
MA Mobile Service
MAC Management Ad Hoc Committee (TR-41)
MAC Media Access Control
MACA Mobile Assisted Channel Allocation
MAH Mobile Access Hunting
MAHO Mobile Assisted Handoff
MAP Media Access Procedure

MAP Mobile Application Part
MAPI Messaging API
MAPI Microsoft API
MASA Multimedia Services Affiliate Forum
MATV Master Antenna Television
MAWG Message Attachment Work Group
MB Macro Block
MBA Macroblock Address (H.263)
MBE Multi-Byte Extension
MBFT Multipoint Binary File Transfer
MBMP Modem Bank Management Protocol
MBN Multiservice Broadband Networks
MC Message Center
MC Multipoint Controller (H.323)
MCBPC Macroblock type & Coded Block Pattern for Chrominance
MCC Mobile Country Code
MCC Modem Control Channel
MCCC Multiple Concatenated Convolutional Codes
MCD Mobile Communications Division
MCF Message Confirmation (T.30)
MCID Multi-line Caller Identification
MCM Multi-Carrier Modulation
MCP Motion Compensated Prediction
MCPE Motion Compensated Prediction Error
MCNS Multimedia Cable Network System
Mcps Megachips per second
MCS Multi-point Control Services (T.122)
MCU Multi-point Control Unit
MCV Multipoint Command Visualization
MD-IS Mobile Data Intermediate System
MD Manufacturer Defined
MDBS Mobile Data Base Station
MDC Manufacturer Declaration of Conformity
MDC Multiple Description Coding
MDCP Media Device Control Protocol
MDCR Minimum Desired Cell Rate
MDELFEXT Multiple-Disturber Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk
MDF Mux Data Frame
MDI Medium Dependent Interface
MDLP Mobile Data Link Protocol
MDN Message Disposition Notification
MDN Mobile Directory Number
MDTP Multi-network Datagram Transmission Protocol
MDU Multi-Dwelling Unit
ME Mobile Equipment
ME Motion Estimation
MED Multiplexer Entry Descriptor
Megaco MEdia GAteway Control Protocol (IETF)
Megacop MEdia GAteway COntrol Protocol
MEI Multiple Extension Interworking
MEI Multiple Extension In use (TIA/EIA-777-A)
MELP Mixed Excitation Linear Prediction
MER Message Error Rate
MERS Minimal Essential Requirements

M-ES Mobile End System
MES Mobile Earth Station
MF fully protected hybrid systems (FCC Part 68 Form 730)
MF Multi-tone Frequency
MFJ Modified Final Judgment
MFP Multi-Function Peripheral
MFPA Multi-Function Peripheral Association
MFPI Multi-Function Peripheral Interface
MFPL Multi-Function Peripheral Language
MFPP Multi-Function Packet Protocol
MG Management Group
MG Media Gateway
MGC Media Gateway Controller
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGT Mobile Global Title
MH MultiHypothesis motion pictures (H.26L)
MHEG Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group
MHP Multimedia Home Platform
MHS Message Handling System X.400
MI Miscellaneous Work Item (ETSI)
MI Mode Indicator
MIB Management Information Base
MIGG MRA Implementation Guide Group
MIF Management Information File
MII Ministry of Industry Information (China)
MIM Man in the Middle
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
MIMO Multi-Input-Multi-Output
M-IN Multimedia Intelligent Networking
MIN Mobile Identification Number
MIN Mobile Intelligent Network
MIP Mobile Internet Protocol
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
M-IRS Modified IRS
MIRS Multimedia Information Retrieval Services
MIV Multipoint Indication Visualization
ML Maximum Likelihood
MLC Multiple Logical Channel
MLP Multi-Layer Protocol
MLPP Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption
MLT Modulated Lapped Transform
MLTS Multi-Line Telecommunications Systems
M-LVDS Multipoint Low Voltage Differential Signaling
MLWW Multi Layered Winding Wire
MM Mass Media (FCC)
MM Mobility Management
MM MultiMedia
MM Multimode
MMAP Mobility Management Application Protocol (T1S1)
MMBAN Multi Media Broadband Access Nodes
MMC Multiple Modulus Conversion
MMCF Multimedia Communications Forum
MMCOI Multimedia Communications Community of Interest
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service

MMF Multi Mode Optical Fiber
MMG Multimedia Management Group (ETSI)
MMH-MAC Multilinear Modular Hash - Message Authentication Code
MMI Man-Machine Interface (TTT Services)
MMI Modem Management Interface
MMITS Modular Multifunction Information Transfer System
mml mobile multilink
MMO Modem Managed Objects
MMoMBN Multimedia over MBN
MMR Modified Modified Read
MMRA Model Mutual Recognition Agreement
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
MMUSE Multiparty Multimedia Session Control
MMUSIC Multiparty Multimedia Session Control (WG)
MNA Management Network Architecture
MNC Mobile Network Codes
MNE Mobile Network Entity
MNLP Mobile Network Location Protocol (IS-732-501)
MNP4 Microcom Networking Protocol
MNRP Mobile Network Registration Protocol
MNRU Modulated Noise Reference Unit
MO Mobile Originated
MOCS Managed Objects Conformance Statements
MODB Macroblock mode for B-blocks
MoDSL Modems over DSL
MOH Modem on Hold
MoIP Modems over Internet Protocol
MOPS Million Operations Per Second
MOS Mean Opinion Score
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MP Modulation Parameter
MP Multipoint Processor (H.323)
MPC Mobile Position Center
MPCI Mobile Protocol Capability Indicator
MPD Mode Power Distribution
MPE Maximum Permissive Exposure
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group
MPI Minimum Picture Interval
MPh Half Duplex Modulation Parameters in the V.34 negotiation
MPL Multiplex Payload Length field
MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching
MP-MLQ Multi-Pulse - Maximum Likelihood Quantizer
MPOP Main Point of Penetration (where phone lines enter the residence)
MPPC Microsoft Point to Point Compression
MPS Minimum Performance Specification
MPU Multiple Port Unit
MQ Modified Quantization
MQLVS Multi-Quality Layered Video Service
MR Mode Request
MR Modified Read
MR MultiRate
MRA Mutual Recognition Agreements
MRC Mixed Raster Content

MRD Market Requirements Document
MRM Meeting Room Management
MRP Markov Renewal Process
MRPC Multipoint Remote Procedure Call
MRU Maximum Receive Unit
MS Management Services
MS Mobile Station
MS Mode Select
MSAF Multimedia Services Affiliate Forum
MSB Manufacturer Specified Blocks
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSBN MultiService Broadband Network
MSC Message Sequence Chart
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSC-BC Mobile Switching Center - Base Center
MSCID Mobile Switching Center Identification
MSCIN Mobile Switching Center Identification Number
MSC-VBR Multi-mode Source Controlled Variable Bit-Rate
MSD Master Slave Determination
MSD Minimum Significant Difference
MSDL MPEG-4 Syntactic Description Language
MSDN Multi-Service Data Network
MSE Mean Squared Error
MSF Multiservice Switching Forum
MSI Manufacturer Specific Information
MSI Maximum Symbol Inversion
MSID Mobile Station Identity
MSIN Mobile Station INput (GSM)
MSIN Mobile Subscriber Identification Number
MSISDN Mobile Station ISDN
MSJ Multiple Selective Reject
MSLT Minimum Scan Line Time
MSN Microsoft Network
MSN multiple subscriber numbering
MSO Markov Service Option (cdma2000)
MSR Multi-Selective Reject
MSR Market Service Requirement
MSS Mobile Satellite Services
MSSF Multi Service Switching Forum
MSWG Mobile Services Working Group (NAFTA/CCT)
MT Mobile Terminal
MT Mobile Terminated
MT Mode Toggle
MT Type of commercial fiber optic connector
MT2 Cellular User's Mobile Termination
MTA Major Trading Area
MTA Multimedia Terminal Adapter (SG9)
MTA Multimedia Terminal and Applications
MTH Module Telecom Home
MTIE Maximum Time Interval Error
MTM Mobile Test Model
MTP Message Transfer Part
MTP Message Transfer Point

MTP Multicast Transport Protocol
MTP/SO Multiple Transport Protocol/Self Organizing
MTS Methodology of Test Suites
MTS Methods for Testing and Specification (ETSI TC)
MTSO Mobile Telephone Switching Office
MTTCM Multi-tone Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation
MTU Maintenance Terminating Unit
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit
MTU Multiple Terminal Unit (DSL Forum)
MUB Multi-Use Bearer Service
MUT Modem Under Test
MUTOA Multi-User Telecommunications Outlet Assemblies
MUX Multiplexer
MV Membership Vote (ETSI)
MV Motion Vector
MVA Multipoint Visualization Achieved
MVC Mobile Video Coder
MVC Multipoint Visualization Capability
MVD Motion Vector Data
MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator
MVPD Multi-channel Video Programming Distributor
MVR Multipoint Visualization Refused/Revoked
MVV Multirate/VAD VBR
MW Mid Wave
MWC Multi-Way Calling
MWI Message Waiting Indication
MWIF Mobile Wireless Internet Forum
MWN Message Waiting Notification
-NN Newtons
NA Network Aspects (ETSI TC)
NA North America
NAB National Association Of Broadcasters
NACK Negative Acknowledgment
NACLA National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
NAG Network Architecture Group (DSL Forum)
NAG Network Reference Models, Acronyms and Definitions, and Guide to Standards Ad Hoc
(TIA TR-45)
NAI Network Access Identifier (RFC 2468)
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NAK-NS Negative Acknowledgment - Not Supported
NAK-NU Negative Acknowledgment - Not Understood
NAL Network Adaptation Layer
NALAG Network Adaptation Layer Ad hoc Group
NAM Number Assignment Module
NAMPS Narrowband AMPS
NANC North American Numbering Council
NANP North American Numbering Plan
NANPA North American Numbering Plan Administrator
NAP Network Access Provider
NAPT Network Address Port Translation
NAPTR Naming Authority Pointer

NAR Numbering, Addressing and Routing Committee of ETSI NA2
NASNA National Association of State 9-1-1 Administrators
NAS Network Access Servers
NASRNG Network Access Server Requirements
NAT Network Address Translation
NATA North American Telephone Association
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVDEC Network Access Server and Voice on IP Device Control
NA/WCPE North American WCPE
NB Narrow Band
NBC Non-backward Compatible
NBDG New Business Development Group
NBS Net Broadcast Service
NBS Network Based Solution
NBSP NarrowBand Signal Power
NC Network Codes
NCA Non-Call Associated
NCAG Network Commonality Ad Hoc Group
NCG Number Consulting Group (Bellcore)
NCaps Capabilities with No sub-fields
NCAS Non-Call Associated Signaling
NCITS National Committee for Information Technology Standards
NCP Network Connection Point
NCRP National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement
NCS Network-based Call Signaling
NCS Nurse Call System
NCTA National Cable Television Association
NCTE Network Circuit Terminating Equipment
ND NSF Message data Indication
NDA Non-Disclosure Agreement
NDB Networked DataBase Service
NDC National Destination Code (ITU)
NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification
NDSS Network Directed System Selection
NE Network Element
NE Network Entity
NEBS Network Equipment Building System, a Bellcore environmental requirements specification
NEC National Electric Code (U.S.)
NECA National Electrical Contractors Association
NECQ National Electronic Components Quality Assessment System
NE-EC Near End - Echo Canceller
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NENA National Emergency Number Association
NESC National Electric Safety Code
NET Norme Europeenne de Telecommunication
NEXT Near End Cross Talk
NFPA National Fire Protection Agency
ng Next Generation
NGDLC Next Generation Digital Loop Carrier
NGN Next Generation Network
NGN SG Next Generation Network Starter Group
NGOF Next Generation Optical Fiber
NGOSS New Generation Operations Support Systems (TM Forum)

NGSO Non-Geostationary Satellite Orbit
NHRP Next Hop Resolution Protocol
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NI National ISDN
NI Network Interface
NIA Network Indicate Address (H.230)
NIBS National Institute for Building Standards
NIC Network Interface Card
NID Network Identification
NID Network Interface Device
NID Network Interface or Demarcation
NIDAB Narrow Band Digital Broadcasting
NII National Information Infrastructure
NIO Network Input Output
NIP Number Identification Presentation
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
N-ISDN Narrowband ISDN
N-ISUP Narrowband ISDN User Part
NIU Network Interface Unit
NIUF North American ISDN Users Forum
NLD Non-Linear Distortion
N-LLC Narrowband Logical Link Control
NLP Non-Linear Processor
nm Nanometer
NM Network Management
NMAG Network Management Ad hoc Group
NMC Network Management Center
NMC Network Model Coverage
NMDS Narrowband Multi-service Delivery System
NMF Network Management Forum
NMS Network Management System
NMSI National Mobile Station Identification
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephony
NMX Normas Mexicanas (non-mandatory Mexican standard)
NNI Network to Network Interface
NOF Network Operations Forum
NOI Notice of Inquiry
NOM Mexican National Standards
NO PROBLEM NOn PROprietary reliaBLe Electronic Mail
NP Network Provider
NP Non-Public
NP Number Portability
NPA Network Provider Access
NPA Numbering Plan Area
NPI Numbering Plan Indicator
NPID Network Provider Identification
NPR Noise Power Ratio
NPRM Notice of Proposed Rule Making (FCC)
NPRP Number Portability Routing Protocol (ETSI TIPHON Project)
NR Noise Reduction
NR Nordstrom-Robinson (FEC)
NRA National Regulatory Authority
NRC Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

NRC Network Reliability Council
NRIC National Reliability and Interoperability Commission
NRM Network Reference Model
NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory
NRZ Non-Return to Zero
NRZI Non-Return to Zero on Ones
NS-cap Non-Standard capability
NS/EP National Security and Emergency Preparedness
NSA National Security Agency (U.S.)
NSAP Network Service Access Point
NSB National Standardization Body
NSC Non-Standard Facilities Command
NS/EP National Security/Emergency Preparedness
NSF Network-Specific Facilities
NSF Non-Standard Facilities
NSIE Network Security Information Exchange
NSMA National Spectrum Managers Association
NSO National Standard Organization
NSP Network Service Provider
NSRA Normal Seamless Rate Adaptation
NSRP Numbered SRP response frames
NSS Non-Standard Setup
NSTAC National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee
NT Network Termination
NTCA National Telephone Cooperative Association
NTE Network Terminating Equipment
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NTP Network Termination Point
NTP Network Time Protocol
NTQ Near Toll Quality
NTR Network Timing Reference
NTR Network Timing Reference marker
NTRAC New Technical Regulations Approval Committee (former TRAC), ETSI
NTSC National Television System Committee
NTU Network Terminating Unit
NVCASE National Voluntary Conformity Assessment System Evaluation
NVLAP National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program
NVOD Near Video on Demand
NVRAM Non-Volatile RAM
NWK Network, Layer 3 of the WCPE protocol stack
NYCE Certification Body accredited by SECOFI (Mexico)
-OO&M Operations and Maintenance
O&NM Operations and Network Management working group (DSL Forum)
O&P Ordering & Provisioning Committee (ATIS)
OA&M Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
OAA On Air Activation
OAM Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
OAM&P Operations, Administration, Maintenance & Provisioning
OAN Optical Access Network
OAP One step Approval Procedure (ETSI)
OAS Organization of American States
OATS Over-the-Air Activation TeleService

OBMC Overlapped Block Motion Compensation
OBF Ordering and Billing Forum
OBP On-Board Processing
OC Operation Channel
OCCS Overall Construction Classification System
OCD Out of Cell Delineation (UNI 3.0)
OCDMA Orthogonal CDMA
OCG Operational Coordination Group (ETSI)
OCG Overall Coordination Group
OCI Open Circuit Interval
OCR Optical Character Recognition
ODA Open Document Architecture
ODBC Open DataBase Connectivity
ODL Object Definition Language
ODP Open Distributed Processing
ODP Originator Detection Pattern (V.42)
ODTC Office of Defense Trade Controls (US)
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OET Office of Engineering and Technology (FCC)
OFB Output Feedback
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFS Operational Fixed Service (Microwave)
OFSTP Optical Fiber Systems Test Procedure
Oftel British Office of Telecommunications
OGM Out-Going Message
OHG Operator Harmonization Group
OI Outline of Investigation
OID Object Identifiers
OIW Open Systems Implementers Workshop
OJ Official Journal
OJEC Official Journal of the European Communities
OLC Open Logical Channel
OLR On-Line Reconfiguration
OLR Overall Loudness Rating
OLT Optical Line Termination
OM Object Model
OM Optical fiber Multimode category
OMCI Operation, Management and Control Interfaces
OMG Object Management Group
OMT Overhead Message Train
ONE Other Network Entities (Omega Networks)
ONP Open Network Provision
ONS On Premise Station
ONT Optical Network Termination
ONU Optical Network Unit
OOB Out of Band
OOF Out of Frame
OPASTCO Organization for the Promotoion and Advancement of Small Telecommunications Companies
OpenVoB Voice over Broadband
OPS Off Premise Station
OPTIS Overlapped PAM Transmission with Interlocking Spectra
OPTS Over-the-Air Programming Teleservice
O-QAM Orthogonally multiplexed QAM
ORDQ Order Qualification

ORREQ Origination Request
OS Operating System
OS Optical fiber Singlemode category
OSH Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S.)
OSI Open Switching Interval
OSI Open System Interconnection
OSN One Stop Notification
OSP Open Settlement Protocol
OSP OutSide Plant
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSS Operations Support Systems
OTA Over-the-Air Activation
OTAFG OTA Focus Group
OTAPA Over-the-Air Parameter Administration
OTAR Over-the-Air Rekeying (APCO Project 25)
OTASP OTA Service Provisioning
OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTFI One Time Feature Indicator
OTI Open Telecom Infrastructure
-PP Predicted (Q6/16, VCEG)
P&A Privacy and Authentication
PA Partial Agreement
PA Pass Along (Operation code)
PABX Private Automatic Branch eXchange
PAC Program Advisory Committee
PACA Priority Access and Channel Assignment
PACA-E Enhanced Priority Access and Channel Assignment Supplement Service
PACC Partition, Aggregation and Conditional Coding
PACS Personal Access Communications System, Licensed Band
PAC-U Personal Access Communications System, Unlicensed Band
PAD Packet Assembler Disassembler
PAG Practical Application Guidelines
PAGODA Profile Alignment Group on ODA
PAL Phase Alteration Line
PAM Pulse Amplitude Modulation
PAMS Perceptual Analysis/Measurement System
PAR Peak to Average Ratio
PAR Pixel Aspect Ratio
PAS Publicly Available Specification
PASC PCS Access Service for Radio Controllers
PB Personal Base
PB Predicted and Bi-directional
PBNM Policy Based Network Management
PBO Power Back Off
PBS Personal Base Station
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer
PC_SSN Point Code Sub-System Number
PCA Password Call Acceptance
PCA Policy Group proposal on CA
PCB Power Cut Back

PCC Per Call Control
PCC Pre-activation Communications Channel
PCC Private Control Channel
PCC 1 Permanent Consultative Committee (CITEL)
PCCA PCMCIA Communication Card Association
PCCA Portable Computer Communications Association
PCCC Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Codes
PCF Personal Call Forwarding
PCF Picture Clock Frequency
PCH Paging Channel
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCI Programmable Communications Interface
PCI Protocol Capability Indicator
PCIC Petroleum and Chemical Technical Conference (IEEE IAS)
PCI SIG Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group
PCIA Personal Communications Industry Association
PCL Power Line Communication
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCME Packet Circuit Multiplication Equipment
PCN Personal Communications Network
PCR Program Clock Reference
PCS Personal Communication Services
PCSAP PCS Application
PCSC Personal Communications Switching Center
PCSD Personal Communications Services Description
PCT Pairwise Correlating Transform
PD Plugfest Document
PD Powered Device
PD Proposed Draft
PDAM Proposed Draft Amendment
PDC Personal Digital Cellular
PDD Post Dial Delay
PDE Position Determining Entity
PDE Primary Designated Engineer (UL)
PDF Portable Document Format
pdf probability distribution function
PDH Plesiocronous Digital Hierachy
PDH Primary Digital Hierachy
PDL Polarization Dependent Loss
PDN Packet Data Network
PDS Phase Dithering Sequence
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PDTR Proposed Draft Technical Report
PDU-MUX Protocol Data Unit Multiplexer
PDV Packet Delay Variation
PE Policy Enforcement element
PE Poly Ethylene
PE Public Inquiry (ETSI)
PEAQ Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (ITU-R rec. BS.1387)
PED Portable Electronic Device
PEF Proxy Element Function
PER Packed Encoding Rules
PER Parameter Error Rate

PESQ Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality
PEX ETSI Help Desk for Conformance
PEXT Premises End Crosstalk
PF Presence Function
PFD Power-flux Density
PHB Per-Hop forwarding Behavior
PHCF Hard Polymer Clad Fiber
PHP Personal Handy Phone
PHS Personal Handyphone System
PHY Physical Layer
PIB Personal Information Base
PIC Primary / Presubscribed Interexchange Carrier
PICS Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
PID Protocol ID
PIN Personal Identification Number
PIN T.30 procedural interupt negative
PINS Project Initiation Notification System (TIA)
PINT PSTN Interworking (IETF)
PINX Private Integrated Network Exchange
PIP T.30 procedural interupt positive
PISN Private Integrated Services Network
PIXIT Profile Initialization for Test Cases
PKCS Public Key Cryptography Standards
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PL Physical Layer
PL Preferred Language
PL Program Lock
PLAR Private Line Auto Ring
PLC Power Line Communication
PLI Power Line Interference
PLL Phase Locked Loop
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PLMTS Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System
PLOAM Physical Layer Operations, Administrations and Maintenance
PLS Physical Layer Specification
PLT PowerLine Telecommunications
PM Phase Modulation
PM Performance Management
PM Processable Mode
PMC Packet Mode Channel
PMC Project Management Committee (ETSI)
PMCC Packet Mode Channel Connect
PMCE Packet Mode Channel Element
PMCH Packet Mode Channel Call Control
PMCH Packet Mode Channel Handler
PMD Physical Media Dependent layer
PMD Polarization Mode Dispersion
PMM Protocol Management Module
PMMS Power Measurement Modulation Session
PMP Point to MultiPoint
PMR Peak-to-Mean Ratio
PMS Physical Media Specific
PMS-TC Physical Media Specific - Transmission Convergence
PMT Program Management Team

PN Project Number (TIA)
PNE Production of Norms in Europe
PNNI Private Network to Network Interface
P-n-P Plug and Play
PNT Phone-line Network Transceiver
POC Points of Contact (LBC)
POC Postal Operations Council
POC Proof-of concept
POC Public Operator's Code
POCSAG Post Office Code Standardization Advisory Group (UK)
PoD Packet transport over DSL
PoDSL Packet over DSL
POF Plastic Optical Fiber
POF Private Operating Frequencies
PON Passive Optical Network
POPs Points of Presence
POS Packet-over-SONET
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
PoV Packet over VDSL
PoV-TC Packet over VDSL - Transmission Convergence Layer
PoW Poor or Worse
PP Portable Part
PPD Proposal Package Description
PPDN Public Packet Data Network
PPI PCS to PCS Interference
PPM Parts Per Million
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPPoE Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet
pps pulses per second
PQ Priority Queuing
PR Public Relations
PR&A Project Request and Authorization
PRA Primary Rate Access
PRBS Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence
PRC Premium Rate Charging
PRC Private Channel
PRD Pseudo-Random Downstream Sequence
PRI Primary Rate Interface (ISDN)
PRM Performance Report Messages
PRNS Pseudo Random Noise Sequence
PRO Planning and Reporting Officer
PROM Programmable ROM
PS Product Safety
PSA Polled SubAddress
PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
PSC Picture Start Code
PSD Power Spectral Density
PSDN Public Switched Data Network
PSDS Public Switched Digital Service
PSE Power Source Element
PSE Power Sourcing Equipment
PSELFEXT Power Sum Equal Level Far-end Crosstalk

PSI-CELP Pitch Synchronous Innovation CELP
PSID Private System ID
PSIDS Private System ID Service
PSK Phase Shift Key
PSN Private Switched Network
PSNEXT Power Sum Near-end Crosstalk
PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
PSP Public Service Profiles
PSPDN Packet Switched Public Data Network
PSQM Perceptual Speech Quality Measure (ITU Rec. P.861)
PSS1 Private Network Signaling System 1, defined by ISO
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PSWG Product Safety Working Group (Trilateral)
PT Portable radio Terminal
PT Project Team (ETSI)
PTC PictureTel Transform Coder
PTCC Pex & Testing Competence Center (ETSI)
PTM Packet Transfer Mode
PTN Public Telecommunications Network (TIPHON)
PTN Private Telecommunications Organizations
PTNO Public Telecommunications Network Operator (TIPHON)
PTO Private Telecommunications Organizations
PTPCP Peer-To-Peer Control Protocols
PTS Pay Terminals and System
PTS Payphone Terminals and System
PTS Pay Terminal System
PTSP PNNI Topology State Packet
PTT Public Telephone and Telegraph
PTT Push to Talk
PUA Personal User Agent
PUC Public Utilities Commission
PUM Personal User Mobility
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit
PVC Poly Vinyl Chloride
PWA Password Access
PWD Password (T.30)
PWG Printer Work Group
PWT Personal Wireless Telecommunications
PWT-E Personal Wireless Telecommunications - Enhanced Interoperability Standard
-QQ&A Question and Answer
QADM Quadrature Audio Data Modulation (VoiceSpan [TM])
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QBD QoS Bearer Descriptor
QC Quick Connect
QCA Quick Connect Acknowledge
QCELP Qualcomm's proprietary version of CELP
QCIF Quarter CIF
Q-Mode Quiescent Mode (Q4/15)
QoS Quality of Service (also QOS)
QoSM Quality of Service Manager
QP Quantization Parameter (H.262)
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

QS Quality Scalability
QSDG Quality of Service Development Group
QSIG The signaling protocol used at the Q-interface between two switches in a private network.
ECMA/ISO have defined a set of QSIG standards.
QUANT Quantization parameter
QUEST Quality Excellence for Suppliers of Telecommunications
-RR&O Report and Order
R&TTE Radio and TTE (Telecommunications Terminal Equipment) Directive
RAB Registrar Accreditation Board
RACF Radio Access Control Function
RACH Random Access Channel
RADIUS Remote Access Dial-In User Server
RADSL Rate-Adapting ADSL
RAI Remote Alarm Indication
RAL Restricted Access Location
RAM Random Access Memory
RAM Remote Access Multiplexer (DSL Forum)
RAMA Resource Auction Multiple Access
RAN Radio Access Network
RAND Random Challenge Memory
RAS Registration, Administration, and Status
RAS Remote Access Server
RASC Radio Access System Controller
RAST Receive And Send Terminal
RATERQ Rate Request
RB Radiocommunications Bureau (ITU-R)
RBAF Radio Bearer Adaptation Function
RBB Residential BroadBand
RBER Residual Bit Error Rate
RBTESC Routing, Bridging, and Transfer of Emergency Service Calls
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
RBS Robbed-bit signaling
RBW Resolution BandWidth
RCC Return Channel for Cable
RCDD Registered Communications Distribution Designer
RCF Radio Control Function (T1P1)
RCF RegistrationConfirm
RCF Registration Control Field
RCF Remote Call Forwarding
RCH Random Access Channel
RCP Radio Control Protocol
RCPC Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional
RD or R-D Rate Distortion
RDC Remote Device Control
RDI Remote Detect Indication (VC-RDI)
RDQ Rate-Distortion constrained Quantization
RDS Requirements Definition Study
REA Rural Electrification Association
REC RECeive alarm
REJ Reject

RELP Residual Excited Linear Prediction
REN Ringer Equivalence Number
REQ-MP Request Mode Proposal
REQ-MR Request Mode Request
RES Radio Equipment Systems
RESNA Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America
RESCAP Resource Capabilities discovery
REVAL Procedure for Evaluation of Radio Technologies for FPLMTS
RF Radio Frequency
RF Resolution Function (TIPHON)
RFC Designation for an IETF Standard
RFC Remote Feature Control
RFC Request for Comments (IETF)
RFDB Resolution Function Data Base (TIPHON)
RFER Residual Frame Error Rate
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RFI Request for Information
RFO Remote Foreign Office
RFP Radio Fixed Parts
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Quotation
RFT Remote Feeding Telecommunication (circuits)
RFT-C Remote power Feeding Telecom - Current limited
RFT-V Remote power Feeding Telecom - Voltage limited
RG Residential Gateway
RGB Red Green Blue
RGIP Residential Gateway Internal Protocol
RH Multiple HDLC Receive
RIP Request In Process
RIPE Regional Internet Registry for Europe
RJ Registered Jack
RL Return Loss
RLAN Radio Local Area Network
RLP Radio Link Protocols
RLR Receive Loudness Rating
RM Simple Facsimile Receive
RMI Remote Method Invocation
RMMIE Remote Modem Management Information Exchange
RMOA Realtime Multimedia Over ATM (ATM Forum)
RM-ODP Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing
RMP Reliable Multicast Protocol
RMS Root Mean Square
RNR Receiver Not Ready
ROAMOPS Roaming Operations Task Force
ROC Report on Comments
ROLR Receive Objective Loudness Rating
ROM Read Only Memory
ROP Report On Proposals
ROSE Remote Operations Service Element (X.219 and X.229)
ROT Receive Only Terminal
RP Radio Ports
RP Reference Points
RP-AS Ringing, Pulse-Alerting Signal
RPC Remote Procedure Call

RPCU Radio Port Control Unit
RPE Regular Pulse Excitation
RPF Remote Power Feed
RPP Reverse-Pair Positioning
RPR Reference Picture Resampling
RPS Reference Picture Selection
RPWM Rules of Procedure and Working Methods
RQV Running Quality Value
RR Resource Record (TIPHON)
RR Registration Reject
RRJ Registration Reject
RRQ Registration Request
RRU Reduced Resolution Update
RS Radio System
RS Radiocommunications Sector - ITU- (CCIR)
RS Reed-Solomon (code)
RS Rectangular Slice
RS Resolution Services (TIPHON)
RSA Public Key Cryptosystem invented by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman
RSA Rural Service Area
RSDN Regional Switched Digital Network
RSF Residential Standards Forum
RSGCP Reliable Signaling Gatway Control Protocol
RSGP Reliable Signaling Gateway Protocol
RSID Residential System Identification
RSL Reference System Lab
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication
RSVP Resource Reservation Setup Protocol (IETF)
RT Remote Terminal
RT Round Trip
RTC Return to Control (T.4)
RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTCP Real-time Transport Control Protocol
RTD Round Trip Delay
RTE Remote Terminal Equipment
RTF Radio Terminal Function
RTLM Real Time Link Management
RTP Real Time Transport Protocol (IETF)
RTR Revised Technical Report (ETSI)
RTS Request to Send
RTS Revised Technical Specification (ETSI)
RTS-CTS Request to Send - Clear to Send
RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol
RTT Radio Transmission Technologies
RTTE Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment
RTU Right to Use
RTX Request Retransmission
RTYPE Rounding Type
RUFP Reflected Unique Findable Pattern
RVLC Reversible Variable Length Codes
RX Receive
RZ-SSB Return to Zero SSB

-SS&R Segmentation and Re-assembly
S/ATT Satellite Analog Tie Trunk (TIA-646-B)
S/DTT Satellite Digital Tie Trunk (TIA-646-B)
S/N Signal-to-Noise
S/T Logical interface between xTU-R and user terminal equipment
SA1 Systems Aspects - Services (3GPP Committee)
SAA-AMS Service Aspects and Applications - Audio/Visual Multimedia Services
SAAC Syntax-Based Adaptive Arithmetic Coding
SABM Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
SABME Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended
SAC Service Access Code
SAC Subscriber Access Control
SAC Syntax-based Arithmetic Coding
SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel
SAD Sum of Absolute Differences
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SAFE SeAmless, Fixed-overhead Efficient (framing)
SAFER Secure and Fast Encryption Routine
SAGE Security Algorithms Group of Experts
SAID Serving Area ID
SAM Synchronous Access Mode (V.80)
SAMPS System Assisted Mobile Positioning through Satellite (TDMA Third Generation Wireless)
SANC Signaling Area Network Code
SAP Segmentation Application Part
SAP Service Access Point
SAP System Application Procedure
SAPI Service Access Point Identifier
SAR Segmentation And Re-assembly
SAR Specific Absorption Rate
SAS Smart Antenna Savvy
SAS Subscriber Alerting Signal
SASET Secure Audio SET
SAT Satellite
SAT Satellite ATM
SAVD Simultaneous or Alternating Voice Data
SBC Southern Building Code
S-BCCH Short Message Service Broadcast Control Channel
SBE Single Byte Extension
SBI Sub-Bitstream Indicators
SBID Stuff Bit ID
SBM Single Bitmap
SBSD Supplementary and Bearer Service Description (T1S1)
SC Steering Committee
SC Service Capability
SC Subscriber Confidentiality
SC Type of commercial fiber optic connector (Push-Pull)
SCA Selective Call Acceptance
SCaps Capabilities with Sub-fields
SCC Standards Coordinating Committee (IEEE)
SCC Standards Council of Canada
SCCC Serial Concatenated Convolutional Code
SCCH Single Cell Control Channel
SCCP Signaling Connection Control Part (SS7)

SCD Service Capability Definition
SCELP Spike Code Excited Linear Prediction
SCF Service Control Function
SCF Shared Control with Feedback
SCF Supervisory and Control Function
SCF Synchronization and Convergence Function
SCF System Communication Function
SCM Single-Carrier Modulation
SCM Station Class Mark
SCM Sub-Carrier Multiplexing
SCN Switched Circuit Network
SCOT Steering Committee on Telecommunications
SCP Service Control Point
SCR Selective Call Rejection
SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture
SCSC SubCommittee on Standards and Conformance (APEC)
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SCT Strathclyde Compression Transform
SCT Simple Control Transmission Protocol
SCT Mexican Ministry of Communications and Transports
SCTE Society of Cable Television Engineers
ScTP Screened Twisted Pair
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SCV Specialized Codec VBR
SD Spectral Data
SD Super Domain
SDB Switched Digital Broadcast
SDC Supplier's Declaration of Conformity (also SDOC)
SDCC Supplementary Digital Color Code
SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel
SDD Stutter Dialing Device
SDF System Directory Function
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDL Structure Description Language
SDMT Synchronized DMT
SDO Standards Development Organization
SDoC Suppliers Declaration of Conformity (also SDC)
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDPng SDP Next Generation
SDR Sequence Determined Redundancy
SDSAF Switched Digital Services Applications Forum
SDSL Simultaneous DSL
SDSL Symmetrical high bit rate Digital Subscriber Line
SDSS Server Display And Script Services
SDT Stutter Dial Tone
SDU Service Data Unit
SE Synchronous Editing
SEAD Software Encryption Algorithm for Data Services
SEBCH Systematic Extended Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquengham
SEC ETSI Security Technical Committee
SECOFI Mexican Ministry of Commerce and Industrial Development
SEI Supplemental Enhancement Information
SELV Low Voltage associated with digital circuits (IEC 950)
SEP Selective Polling (T.30)

SERVNOT Service Notification
SES Severely Errored Second
SES Standards Engineering Society
SET Simple Endpoint Types
SF Single Frequency
SF Superframe
SF Synchronization Flag
SfDLy Superframe reconfiguration Delay number (Q4/15)
SFF Small Form Factor
SFlgSf Synch Flag Superframe number (Q4/15)
SFR Special Function Registers
SG Signaling Gateway
SG Study Group (ITU)
SGCI Simple Gateway Control Interface
SGCP Simple Gateway Control Protocol
SGFS Special Group for Functional Standards
SGMM MultiMedia Study Group
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SHDSL Single-line High Speed DSL
SHO Soft Handoff
SI Signaling Intelligence
SI Still Image
SIA Security Industry Association
SIA Semiconductor Industry Association
SID Send Identifier
SID Silence Insertion Descriptor
SID System Identification
SIF Standard Interchange Format
SIG Special Interest Group
SIGTRAN Signaling transport (IETF)
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SIMD Single-Instruction, Multiple Data
SIN System Identification Network
SIO Scientific or Industrial Organization (ITU member)
SIP Session Initiation Protocol (IETF)
SIPTEL Session Initiation Profile for Internet Telephony, an IETF BoF group, which was a precurser
to the IETF Working Group iptel (IP Telephony)
SIR Signal to Interference Ratio
SIRD Service Independent Requirements Definition
SIT Special Information Tone
SIU Subscriber Interface Unit
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLB Sequential Link Bring-up (V.MoIP)
SLC Subscriber Loop Carrier
SLC Start of Layer Data
SLD Second Level Domain
SLE Screen List Editing
SLER Signal to Listener Echo Ratio
SLIC Subscriber Line Integrated Circuit
SLIM Simple Legislation for the Single Market
SLP Service Location Protocol
SLR Send Loudness Rating
SM Service Management
SM Single Mode

SM Spectrum Management
SMALL Short Multiplexed AAL
SMATV Satellite Master Antenna Television
SMD Short Message Delivery
SMDB Short Message Delivery Broadcast
SMDBACK Short Message Delivery Backward
SMDFWD Short Message Delivery Forward
SMDM Short Message Delivery Multipoint Bearer Service
SMDPP Short Message Delivery Point-to-Point Bearer Service
SMDS Switched Multi-megabit Data Service
SME Short Message Entity
SME Signaling Message Encryption
SME Small-to-Medium sized Enterprises
SME Subject Matter Expert
SMEKEY Short Message Encryption Key
SMG Special Mobile Group
SMI Structure of Management Information
SMM Spectrum Management Methodology
SMMI Single Man Machine Interface
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
SMR Specialized Mobile Radio
SMS Service Management System
SMS Short Message Service
SMSA Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
SM-SC Short Message Service Center
SMSC Short Message Service Center
SMSREQ Short Message Service Request
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMV Selectable Mode Vocoder
SN Scaling Number
SN Service Node
SNA Synchronous Network Architecture
SNDCP Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNHC Synthetic-Natural Hybrid Coding
SNI Service Node Interface
SNI SMS Notification Indicator
SNI Standard Network Interface
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (IETF)
SNR-LP SNR scalable coding with Leaky Prediction
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
SOA Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
SOC System Operator Code
SOHO Small Office Home Office
SOI Start of Image
SOM Self-Organizing Multicast
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SOP Standard Operating Procedure
SOS Speech Option Selection
SOT Send Only Terminal
SOVA Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm
SP Service Provider
SP Standards Proposal (TIA Industry Ballot)
SP Study Point (ETSI)

SP Switchable-P [frames]
SPA Service Provider Access
SPACH Short Message Service, Paging Channel and Access Response Channel
SPAI Service Provider Access Interfaces
SPAN Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks (ETSI TC)
SPAR Service Provider Access Requirements (ETSI SPAN)
S-PCN Satellite Personal Communications Network
S-PDU Supervisory PDU
SPH Service Profile at the Home location
spi spots per inch
SPI Standard Programmatic Interface
SPIFF Still Picture Interchange File Format
SPINA Subscriber Personal Identification Number Access
SPINI Subscriber Personal Identification Number Intercept
SPC Single Parity Check
SPC System Programming Code
SPIRITS Service in the PSTN/IN Requesting InTernet Service (IETF)
SPL Sound Pressure Level
SPNE Signal Processing Network Equipment
S-PRBS Single cycle - Pseudo Random Bit Sequence
SPRT Simple Packet Relay Transport
SPS Signaling Protocols and Switching
SPS Signaling Protocol And System Technical Committee (ETSI)
SPS5 SPC Signaling, Protocols and Switching Stored Program Controller (ETSI)
SPTT Signal Processing Transmission Terminals
SPV Service Profile at the Visited location
SPVC Switched Permanent Virtual Circuit
SPWG Service Provider-focused Working Group (Trilateral)
SQ Scalar Quantization
SQEG Speech Quality Expert Group
SQL Structured Query Language
S/R Suspend/Resume
SR Special Report (Telcordia)
SRA Seamless Rate Adaptation
SRC Strategic Review Committee (ETSI)
SRD Standards Requirements Document
SRDB Selective Routing Data Base
SREJ Selective Reject
SRF Service Resource Function
SRGB Standard RGB (Red Green Blue)
SRL Secure Radio Link
SRL Software Release Letter
SRL Structural Return Loss
SRM Standards Related Matters
SRP Scalable Resource reservation Protocol
SRP Server Requester Protocol
SRTS Synchronous Residual Time Stamp
SRU Signal Regenerator Unit
SRU-R Signal Regenerator Unit - Remote
SS Slice Structured
SS Steady State
SS Supplementary Services
SS#5 Signaling System 5

SS#7, SS7 Signaling System 7
SS-CD Supplementary Services Call Deflection
SS-CFB Supplementary Services Call Forwarding Busy
SS-CFNR Supplementary Services Call Forwarding No Reply
SS-CFU Supplementary Services Call Forwarding Unconditional
SS-CI Supplementary Service - Call Intrusion
SSCOP Service Specific Connecction Oriented Protocol
SSCQE Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation
SSCS Service Specific Convergence Sublayer
SSD Shared Secret Data
SSDSL Synchronized Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
SSE Sum of Squared Error
SSF Service Switching Function
SSFP Service Specific Face Plate
SSG Special Study Group (ITU)
SSI Signal Strength Indicator
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SS-MCM Supplementary Services - Message Center Monitoring
SS-MID Supplementary Services - Mailbox Identification
SSN Sub-System Number
SSO Speech Service Option
SSOVP Solid State Primary Protectors
SSP Service Switching Point
SSPR System Selection for Preferred Roaming
ST Type of commercial fiber optic connector (Bayonet)
STANAG NATO Standardization Agreement
STAG Security Techniques Advisory Group
STB Set Top Box
STC Sub-Technical Committee (ETSI)
STD Simplified Trellis Decoder
STDT Stutter Dial Tone
STE Secure Terminal Equipment
STF Specialist Task Force (ETSI)
STG Special Task Group
STG Special Topic Group
STI Service Transport Interface
STIT IEEE Subcommittee on Telephone Instrument Testing
STL Software Tool Library
STM Synchronous Transmission Mode
STMR Sidetone Masking Rating
STN Switched Telephone Network
STP Set of Transmission Parameters (TM6)
STP Shielded Twisted Pair
STP Signaling Transfer Point
STP Standards Technical Panel
STQ Speech Transmission Quality
STRE Side-Tone Reference Equipment
STU Secure Terminal Unit
STU SHDSL Transceiver Unit
STU-C SHDSL Transceiver Unit - Central office end
STU-R SHDSL Transceiver Unit - Remote Terminal End
STU-III Secure Terminal Unit - III
STS Short Term Stationary
SU Subscriber Units

SUB Sub-address (T.30)
SUD Single Use Device
SUR Survivability
SVB Switched Video Broadcast
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
SVD Simultaneous Voice Data
SVF Simultaneous Voice and Facsimile
SW Software
SWELP Switched Excited Linear Predictive
SWG Sub-Working Group
-TT&E Technical & Engineering Committee (Telocator)
T&I Testing & Interoperability (DSL Forum Working Group)
T&IWG Testing & Interoperability Working Group (ADSL Forum)
T&R Tip and Ring
TA Technical Assembly
TA Terminal Adapter
TA Transmit Additional information
TAAB Technical Ad hoc Advisory Board
TAAC Telecommunications Advisory Committee
TAB Tone above Band
TABD Trans-Atlantic Business Dialog
TAC Terminal-Aggregator Communication
TAC Terminal Attachment Council
TACS Total Access Communications Systems
TAF Terminal Adoption Function
TAG Technical Advisory Group
TAP Traditional Approval Process (ITU, via Resolution 1)
TAP Two-step Approval Process (ETSI)
TAPAC Terminal Attachment Program Advisory Committee
TAPI Telephony API
TASA Telecommunications Access System Act
TAWG Terminal Attachment Working Group
TB Technical Body (ETSI)
TB Turbo Block
TBB Telecommunications Bonding Backbone
TBCD Telephony Binary Coded Decimal
TBD To be Determined
TBG Technical Basis for Globalization
TBH Technical Basis for Harmonized conformance
TBI Ten Bit Interface
TBR Technical Basis for Regulation (ETSI)
TBRL Terminal balance return loss
TC Technical Committee
TC Telecommunications Closet
TC Test Case
TC Transaction Capabilities
TC Trellis Coded
TC Turbo Convolutional
TCAM Telecommunication Conformity Assessment and Market Surveillance Committee (ETSI)
TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Part
TC AT Technical Committee Access and Terminals (ETSI)
TCB Telecommunications Certification Bodies

TCBC Telecommunications Certification Bodies Council
TCC Technical Correlating Committee (NEC)
TCC Borland Turbo C++ Compiler
TC-ERM ETSI Technical Committee on EMC and Radio spectrum Matters
TCF Training Check (T.30)
TCH Transparent Circuit Handling
TC HF Technical Committee Human Factor (ETSI)
TCIF Telecommunications Industry Forum (ATIS)
TCL Transverse Conversion Loss
TCLw Terminal Coupling Loss weighted
TCM Time Compression Multiplex
TCM Trellis Coded Modulation
TCM-ISDN Time Compression Multiplexed ISDN
TC-NA ETSI Technical Committee on Network Aspects
TCOEF Transform Coefficient
TCON Telenor Research's error concealment decoder
T-CONT Traffic Container (G.983.dba)
TCP Terminal Connection Point
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TCPA Telephone Consumer Protection Act (1991)
TC-PAM Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TC SP Technical Committee Speech Processing
TC-SPS ETSI Technical Committee on Signaling Protocol and System
TC-TM Technical Committees on Transmission and Multiplexing
TCR-TR Technical Committee Report-Technical Report
TCTL Tranverse Conversion Transfer Loss
TD Temporary Document (ITU et al)
TDD Task Data Descriptions (T.611 e-mail)
TDD Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf
TDD Time Division Duplexing
TDF Transportable Document Format
TDM Time Division Multiplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDOA Time Difference of Arrival
TDSO Test Data Service Option (cdma2000)
TE Terminal Equipment (ETSI TC)
TE Traffic Engineering
TE2 Cellular User's Terminal Equipment
TEC-LA Telecommunications and Electronic Consortium for Latin America
TEDPA Telecommunications Equipment Distribution Program Association (
TEL Telephony (APEC WG)
TELR Talker Echo Loudness Rating
TEM TE Management Meeting
TEM Transverse Electro Magnetic
TEN Trans-European Networks
TEN-Telecom Trans-European Telecommunications Networks
TEP Talk Echo Protection
TEQ Time Domain Equalizer
TES Telecommunication Equipment Safety
TETRA Trans European Trunked RAdio
TFIG Task Force Implementation Group
TFO Tandem Free Operation
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol (RFC 1350)

TG Task Group
TGB Telecommunications Grounding Busbar
TGCP Trunking Gateway Control Protocol
TH Tomlinson-Harashima
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
THL TransHybrid Loss
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TICS Transport Information and Control Systems
TIES Telecom Information Exchange Services (ITU)
TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIFF-F Tagged Image File Format-Fax
TIFF-FX Tagged Image File Format-Fax (RFC 2301)
TIGIN Transport Network Equipment for Interconnecting GSTN and IP Networks
TILU Telecommunications Industry Liaison Unit (FBI)
TIMS Transmission Impairment Measurement System
TINA Telecommunications Information Networking Architecture
TIP Transport and Internetworking Package
TIPIA TIPHON IP telephony Implementation Agreement
TIPHON Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (ETSI TC)
TIWG Testing & Interoperability Working Group
TLA Three Letter Acronym
TLC Test Loop Combination
TLD Third Level Domain
TLDN Temporary Local Directory Number
TLP Test Level Point
TLS Transport Layer Security
TLV Type Length Value
TM TeleManagement (Forum)
TM Transmission and Multiplexing (ETSI TC)
TMCC TM Chairman's Coordination committee
TMF TeleManagement Forum
TMGB Telecommunications Main Grounding Busbar
tML telecommunications Markup Language
TML Test Model
TMN Telecommunication Management Network
TMN1 Temporal Reference Model for the Near Term 1
TMN8 Video Codec Test Model, Near-Term, Version
TMSI Temporary Mobile Station Identity
TNR Transmit Not Ready
TNS Transit Network Selection
TNV Telephone Network Voltage (IEC 950)
TO Telecommunications Outlet
TOA Time of Arrival
ToC Table of Contents
TOC Terminated Open Circuit
TOLR Transmit Objective Loudness Rating
TOM Telecom Operations Map (TeleManagement Forum)
TON Type of Number
ToR Terms of Reference
TOSCA Text and Office Systems Content Architecture
TOSQA Telecommunication Objective Speech Assessment, algorithm of T-Nova Berkom
TP Test Protocol
TP Test Purposes

TPDU Transport Protocol Data Unit (X.224)
TPS Transport Protocol Specific
TPS-TC Transport Protocol Specific-Transmission Convergence
TPKT Transport Packet (T.123)
TPUI Temporary Portable User Identity
T/R Tip/Ring
TR Technical Report
TR Technical Requirements (TIA committee)
TR Telecommunications Room
TR Temporal Reference
TR Transmit Ready
TR2TF Technical (TR- Committee) Regulatory Reform Task Force
TRAC Technical Recommendations Application Committee (ETSI)
TRC TIPHON Resolution Capability
TREG Telecommunications Regulatory Email Grapevine
TRIC TIA Regulatory Issues Committee
TRIO TIPHON Remote InterOp
TRIP Telephony Routing Information Protocol
TRL Transmit Loudness Rating
TRMMDS Technical Requirements MultiMedia Distribution Systems
TRP Temporal Reference for Prediction
TRRTF Technical (TR- Committee) Regulatory Task Force
TRWNT Technical Requirements Wireline Terminals
TRWST Technical Requirements Wireless Terminals
TS Technical Specification
TS Time Slot (Q6/15)
TS PCR Transport Stream Program Clock Reference
TSA Transmitting Subscriber internet Address
TSACC Telecommunication Standards Advisory Council of Canada
TSAG Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group (ITU)
TSAPI Telephony Server API
TSB Telecommunications Standardization Board (ITU)
TSB Telecommunications Systems Bulletin (TIA)
TSG Technical Specification Group
TSI Transmitting Subscriber Identification
TSP Telephony Service Provider
TSS ITU-Telecommunications Standardization Sector (CCITT)
TSS Test Suite Specification
TSSC Technical Standards Subcommittee (TIA)
TSSS Temporal, SNR, and Spatial Scalability
TSV Transport Area (IETF)
TSWG Transport Sub Working Group (DSL Forum)
TT ANSI Translation Type
TTC Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan)
TTC TIA Technical Committee
TTCM Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation
TTCN Tree and Tabular Combined Notation
TTE Telecommunications Terminal Equipment
TTF Technical Task Force
TTIB Transparent tone in band
TTL Time To Live
TTP Trusted Third Party
TTT Trans-European Network Telecom (TIPHON)
TTY Teletype

TU-C Transceiver Unit - Central Office End
TUP Telephony User Part
TV Television
TWA Time Weighted Average
TWAIN Scanner Interface API: Technology Without An Interesting Name (MFPI work)
TWP Technical Working Procedures (ETSI)
TX Transmit
-UU/S Upstream
UA User Agent
UAP Unified Accelerated Procedure
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UAS Unavailable Seconds (Rec. G.997.1)
UAWG Universal ADSL Working Group
UB Unlicensed Band
UBC Uniform Building Code
UBC University of British Columbia
UBIC Unbilled Itemized Calls
UBR Unspecified Bit Rate
UBS User-Based Solution
UC-PAM Ungerboeck Coded PAM
UCAN User Circuit mode Access to Network (T1S1)
UCF Unregistration Confirm
UCI Universal Communications Identifier
UCS Universal Character Set
UCS Universal multiple octet coded Character Set
UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (industry initiative)
UDI Unrestricted Digital Information
UDLC Universal Digital Loop Carrier
UDP User Datagram Protocol (IETF)
UEP Unequal Error Protection
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDPTL Facsimile UDP Transport Layer protocol
UGST User's Group on Software Tools
UHF Ultra High Frequency
UI Unit Interval
UI User Interface
UI Unnumbered Information transfer format
UIH Unnumbered Information with Header check
UIM User Identity Module
UL Underwriters Laboratories
ULM Unified Management Framework
ULP Uneven Level Protection
Um Radio (Air) Interface between Mobile and Base Station
UME UNI Management Entity
UML Unified Modeling Language
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UMV Unrestricted Motion Vector (H.263)
U-N User-Network
UNAA Universal Network Access Arrangement
UN/ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNERM Unacknowledged Non-Error Recovery Mode
UNH University of New Hampshire

UNI User-Network Interface
UP User Part
UPBO Upstream Power Back-Off
UPC Usage Parameter Control
U-PCS, UPCS Unlicensed PCS
UPED User Premises Equipment Division
uPnP Universal Plug and Play Forum
UPR Users Performance Requirements
UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply
UPT Universal Personal Telecommunications (ITU)
UPTSP Universal Personal Telecommunications Service Providers
UPU Universal Postal Union
UQ Utility Quality
URI Unified Resource Identifier
URI User Premises Equipment Regulatory Issues
URL Uniform Resource Locator
URQ Unregistration Request
US Under Study
US1 TDMA Wireless Speech Coder
USAG United States Advisory Group
USB Universal Serial Bus
USCEL United States Council of EMC Laboratories
USH University of Sherbrooke
USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module (3GPP Working Group T3)
uSMS universal Short Message Service
USNC United States National Committee
USOC Uniform Service Order Codes
USTA United States Telecom Association
USTR US Trade Representative
UT Upper Tester (TIPHON)
UTAM Unlicensed Transition and Management
UTC Universal Time Code
UTF UCS (Universal Character Set) Transformation Format
UTL Utility
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
UTRAN UMTS Radio Access Network
UU, U-U User to User
UUI User-User Interface
UUIE User-to-User Information Element
UUT Unit Under Test
UVG Universal Voice Grade
UVLC Universal Variable Length Codeword
UWCC Universal Wireless Communications Consortium
UXP Unequal Erasure Protection
-VV&M Voice and Multimedia WG (ATM Forum)
V&V Validate and Verify
VA Viterbi Algorithm
VAD Voice Activity Detector
VADSL Very high speed ADSL
VAF Voice Activity Factor
VAME Voice on ATM Multiplication Equipment
VAR Value Added Resellers

VBD Voice Band Data
VBRnrt Variable Bit Rate non-real time
VBRrt Variable Bit Rate real time
VBSMC Variable Block-Size Motion Compensation
VBV Video Buffer Verification
VC-RDI Virtual Circuit-Remote Detect Indicator
VC Video Control
VC Virtual Channel
VC Virtual Circuit (Rec. I.610)
VC Virtual Connection
VC Virtual Container
VC Volume Control
VCC Virtual Channel Connection
VCEG Video Coding Experts Group (Q6/16)
VCELS Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
VCOM vcom.drv for Microsoft Chicago
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier
VCL Video Coding Layer
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VCS Voice Controlled Services
VDC Volts DC
VDI Verification and Demonstration Implementation
VDI Verification, Design and Implementation
VDMA German Telefax Association, Verband Deutscher Maschinen und Anlagenbau
VDSL Very high speed DSL
VDTI Voiceband Data Transmission Interface
VED Voice Enhancement Devices
VEMMI Versatile MultiMedia Interface (ETSI)
VEMMI Videotex Enhanced Man Machine Interface Service
VERA Video Error Resilience Algorithm
VESA Video Electronic Standard Association
VHE Virtual Home Environment
VHF Very High Frequency
VHN VESA's Home Networking
V-I Voltage - Current
VIA Vendors ISDN Association
VICS Vehicle Information and Communications System Service (Japan)
VIM Vendor Independent Messaging
VIMP Virtual Interoperability Meeting Place
VISIONng Voice over IP Service IntroductiON - new generation
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VLBR Very Low Bit Rate
VLBVT Very Low Bit rate Video Telephony
VLC Variable Length Coding
VLCD Variable Length Coding and Decoding
VLD Variable Length Decoding
VLDB Very Large Database
VLF Visitor Location Function
VLR Visitor Location Register
VLRIN Visitor Location Register Identification Number
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VM Verification Model
VMAC Voice Mobile Attenuation Code
VMLA Virtual Mobile Location Area

VMM Virtual Meeting Management
VMOA Voice and Multimedia over ATM (ATM Forum WG)
VMS IBM operating system
VMS Voice Mail System
VMWI VoiceMail Waiting Indication
VoADSL Voice over ADSL
VoATM Voice over ATM
VoB Voice over Broadband
VOC VDSL Operations Channel
VOD Video on Demand
VoDSL Voice over DSL
VoI Voice over Internet
VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol
VoMBN Voice over Multi-Service Broadband Networks
VoMPLS Voice over MPLS
VoMSDN Voice over Multi-Service Data Networks
VON Voice on Network Coalition
VON Voice On the Net
VOP Video Object Planes
VOP Voice over Packet (Network)
VoSTM Voice over Synchronous Transfer Mode
VOX Voice Operated Transmission
VP Virtual Packet
VP Virtual Path (ATM Forum)
VPF Virtual Private Facility
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VPIM Voice Profile for Internet Mail
VPM Voice Privacy Mask
VPMASK Voice Privacy Mask
VPN Virtual Private Network
VQ Vector Quantization
VQEG Video Quality Experts Group
VQmon ETSI TS101 329-5 Annex E, Method for Determining an Equipment Impairment Factor
using Passive Monitoring
VR Vertical Resolution
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal satellite services
VSB Vestigial Side Band
VSC Vertical Service Codes
VSELP Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive Coding
VTOA Voice and Telephony Over ATM
VTQME Voice Transmission Quality Mouth to Ear (ETSI)
VTR Video Tape Recorder
VTS Voice Tone Support
VTU VDSL Transceiver Unit
VTU-C VDSL Transceiver Unit - Central
VTU-O VDSL Transeiver Unit at the Optical network unit
VTU-R VDSL Transceiver Unit - Remote Terminal
V-UNI Virtual UNI
VWC Vector Wavelet Coding
-WW3C World Wide Web Consortium
WACS Wireless Access Communication Systems
WAN Wide Area Network

WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WARC World Administrative Radio Conference
WB Wide Band
WBS Wireless Business System
WCAT Wireless Cellular Action Team
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WCPE Wireless CPE
WCS Wireless Communications System
WD Wireless communications Devices
WD Working Document
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WDS Wireless Data Service
WEB-CAM Web Camera
WER Word Error Rate
WFOM Wait for Overhead Message
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
WG Working Group
WI Waveform Interpolation
WI Work Item
WIDE Widely Integrated Distributed Environment
WIMS Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services
WIN Wireless Intelligent Network
WINS BT's Wideband Impulsive Noise Survey
WLAN Wireless LAN
WLL Wireless Access Local Loop
WLNP Wireless Local Number Portability
WML Wireless Markup Language (used in WAP)
WOSA Windows Open Services Architecture
WOT World Ordering Team (TeleManagement Forum)
WP Working Party (ITU)
WPA Working Party A
W-PBX Wireless PBX
WPT Wireless Personal Terminal
WRC World Radiocommunication Conference
WRE Wireless Residential Extension
WSC World Standardization Conference
WT Working Text (DSL Forum)
WTLR Wireless Terminal Location Registration
WTPF World Telecommunication Policy Forum (ITU)
WTSA World Telecommuncations Standardization Assembly (ITU)
WTSC World Telecommunication Standardization Conference (ITU)
WUPE Wireless User Premises Equipment (TR-41.6)
WWW World Wide Web (Internet)
-XXAPI eXtensive Application Programming Interface
XAPIA X.400 API Association
xDSL All the different Digital Subscriber Line technologies
xGCP Gateway Control Protocol including MGCP, SGCP and IPDC
XID eXchange IDentification
XIWT Cross-Industry Working Team
XML eXtended Markup Language
XNI Customer Network Interface

xoIP FoIP, MoIP, VoIP
XOR eXclusive OR
XRS Message not understood
XTI X-open Transport Interface
xTAAB Advisory Board on Other Access Technologies
xTU-C All the different Transceiver Units - Central
xTU-R All the different Transceiver Units - Remote
-Y & ZZHP Z = input impedance of the ADSL transceiver; HP = high pass (ETSI RTS_TM-06006)
ZLP Zero Loss Plan


SSEC Acronyms List

Acronyms, Abbreviations, Terms

A 3 RI—Antarctic Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Institute
AAAS—American Association for the Advancement of Science
AAS—American Astronomical Society
ABBA—Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm
ABI—Advanced Baseline Imager
ABLE—Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment
ABOM—Australian Bureau of Meteorology
ABS—Advanced Baseline Sounder
ac or AC—alternating current
ACARS—Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Communication and Recording System
ACC—Atlantic Climate Change
ACIS—ACademic Information Services (IBM)
ACRIM—Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (EOS)
ACS—Asynchronous Communications Server
ADA—Americans with Disabilities Act
ADC—Astronomical Data Center
ADC—Atlantic Data Coverage (Meteosat)
ADDE—Abstract Distributive Data Environment
ADEOS—ADvanced Earth Observing Satellite (Japan)
ADOM—Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model
ADP—Administrative Data Processing (UW-Madison)
ADR—Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator
AERI—Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer
AES—Atmospheric Environment Service (Canada)
AFB—Air Force Base
AFGL—Air Force Geophysics Laboratory
AFOS—Automation of Field Operations and Services (NWS)
AFOSR—Air Force Office of Scientific Research
AFWEX—Atmospheric Radiation Measurement First ISCCP Regional field Experiment Water Vapor Experiment (Nov.-Dec.
AGCM—Atmospheric General Circulation Model
AGCM—Australian General Circulation Model
AGFS—Aviation Gridded Forecast System
AGL—Above Ground Level
AGU—American Geophysical Union
AI—Artificial Intelligence
AIAA—American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIRS—Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (EOS)
AISC—Assessment and Information Services Center
AIX—Advanced Interactive eXecutive (IBM’s UNIX)
AJ—Astronomical Journal
a.k.a.—also known as
ALERT—Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time
ALPEX—ALPine EXperiment
ALSPP—Atmospheric and Land Surface Processes Project
AMANDA—Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array

AMRC—Antarctic Meteorological Research Center
AMRIR—Advanced Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer
AMS—American Meteorological Society
AMSAS—AOA Meteorological Satellite Analysis System
AMSU—Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit (EOS)
ANL—Argonne National Laboratory
ANSI—American National Standards Institute
AO—Announcement of Opportunity
AOA—Airborne Optical Adjunct
AO&SS—Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences (building)
AOS—(Department of) Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
AOT—Aerosol Optical Thickness
AP—Anomalous Propagation
AP—Associated Press
API—Application Program Interface
Ap.J—Astrophysical Journal
APT—Automatic Picture Transmission
APU—Auxiliary Power Unit
ARA—Appletalk Remote Access
ARC—Ames Research Center (NASA)
ARC—Arctic Radiation and Chemistry experiment
ARM—Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE)
ARM—Australian Region McIDAS
ARPA—Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD, formerly DARPA)
ARPS—Advanced Regional Prediction System
ARSLOE—Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment
ASA—Academic Staff Assembly
ASA—Antarctic Support Associates
ASADA—Automated Smoke/Aerosol Detection Algorithm
ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASDAR—Aircraft to Satellite DAta Relay
ASEAN—Association of SouthEast Asian Nations
ASHOE—Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment
ASIS—American Society for Information Science
ASOS—Automated Surface Observing System (NWS)
ASPT—Advanced Satellite Products Team (NOAA/ORA)
ASPRO—Academic Staff Public Representation Organization
ASR—Airport Surveillance Radar
ASTER—Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (EOS)
ASTEX—Atlantic STratus EXperiment
AT&T—American Telephone & Telegraph
ATBD—Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (EOS)
ATC—Air Traffic Control
ATM—Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATM—Division of ATMospheric Sciences (NSF)
ATMES—ATmospheric Model Evaluation Study
ATOVS—Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder
ATS—Applications Technology Satellite
AU—Astronomical Unit
AURA—Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy
AUTONAV—AUTOmatic NAVigation
AVE-SESAME—Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale
Experiment (1970s)

AVHRR—Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
AVIRIS—Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (JPL)
AWC—Aviation Weather Center (form. NSSFC; NWS Center)
AWIPS—Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (NWS)
AWS—Air Weather Service (USAF)
AWS—Automatic Weather Stations
BAHC—Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle
BAMS—Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
BAPMoN—Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (WMO)
BASE-A—Biomass burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment-Amazonia
baud—one bit per second
BBS—Bulletin Board System
BBXRT—Broad Band X-Ray Telescope
BCS—Broadband Cable System (UW)
bit—binary digit
BITNET—Because It’s Time NETwork
BLCMD—BiLevel CoMmanD (DXS)
BLIS—Boundary Layer Instrumentation System
BMEE—Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering
BMO—British Meteorological Office
BMRC—Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia)
BOM—Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
BOREAS—Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BAHC/GEWEX)
bpi—bits per inch
bps or BPS—bits per second
BSEE—Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
BTW—By The Way (e-mail)
BUFR—Binary Universal FoRm
BUV—Backscattered UltraViolet
CAC—Climate Analysis Center
CACGP—Commission of Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAP)
CAD—Computer Aided Design
CAMEX—Convection and Moisture Experiment
CAMS—Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner
CaPE—Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (STORM)
CAPE—Convective Available Potential Energy
CAPPI—Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator
CAPS—Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms
CART—Cloud And Radiation Testbed (DOE/ARM)
CAS—Calibrated Air Speed
CCD—Charge-Coupled Device
CCFF—Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility
CCM—Community Climate Model
CCN—Cloud Condensation Nucleus (or Nuclei)
CCR—Center for Climatic Research (IES)
CCT—Computer Compatible Tape
CDDF—Central Data Distribution Facility
CDDIS—Crustal Dynamics Data Information System
CDE—Common Desktop Environment
CDF—Common Data Format (NASA/SSDC)
CDF—Communications Data Field
CD-ROM—Compact Disc-Read Only Memory

CEES—Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (U.S.)
CEOS—Committee for Earth Observation Satellites
CEPEX—Central Equatorial Pacific EXperiment
CERES—Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (EOS)
CERN—Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (European Laboratory for Particle Physics; Geneva, Switzerland)
CFTC—Commodity Futures Trading Commission
CG—Center of Gravity (DXS)
CGC—Climate and Global Change
CGCP—Climate & Global Change Program
CGI—Common Gateway Interface (Internet)
CGM—Computer Graphics Metafile
CGSE—Customer electrical Ground Support Equipment (DXS)
CH 4 —methane
CHAMEX—Cloud Height And Motion EXperiment
CHAMMP—Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics
CICA—Center for Innovative Computer Applications
CICS—Cooperative Institute for Climate Studies (U.Maryland)
CIESIN—Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (U.S.)
CIMMS—Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (OK)
CIMSS—Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies
CIRA—Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CSU)
CIRES—Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CO)
CIRRUS—Cloud InfraRed Radiometer for UnESS
CISE—Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (NSF)
CIT—Convection-Induced Turbulence
CITA—Center for IT Accommodation (GSA)
CITE—Cargo Integration and Test Equipment (DXS)
CITE —Chemical Instrument Test and Evaluation (NASA GTE)
CLASS—Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System
CLS—Cloud Lidar System
CMA—China Meteorological Administration
CMS—Conversational Monitoring System
CNES—Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales
CNN—Cable News Network
CNRS—Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique
CO 2 —Carbon dioxide
COADS—Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Dataset
COARE—Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Research Experiment (TOGA)
CODAR—COrrelation Detection And Ranging
COHMEX—COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment
COMET—Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology Education and Training (NOAA and UCAR)
COMSAT—COMmunications SATellite
CONUS—CONtinental (or CONterminus) United States
COSPAR—Committee On SPAce Research
COSTAR—Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement
COTS—Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CPA—Certified Public Accountant
CPC—Climate Prediction Center (NWS Center)
cpi—characters per inch
CPR—CardioPulmonary Resuscitation
CPSC—Consumer Product Safety Commission
CPU—Central Processing Unit

CRAS—CIMSS Regional Assimilation System
CrO 2 —Chromium Oxide
CRT—Cathode Ray Tube
CS—Computer Science
CS&S—Computer Sciences and Statistics (UW-MSN)
CSC—Computer Sciences Corporation
CSI—Coastal Studies Institute (LSU)
CSIRO—Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
CSIS—Centralized Storm Information System
CSM—Comprehensive System Model
CSMP—Climate System Modeling Project
CST—Central Standard Time
CST—Convective-Stratiform Technique
CSU—Colorado State University (Ft. Collins)
CTS—Committee on Teaching of Science
CU—University of Colorado
CVS—Concurrent Versions System
CWB—Central Weather Bureau (Taiwan)
CZCS—Coastal Zone Color Scanner
DAAC—Distributed Active Archive Center
DARPA—Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DASD—Direct Access Storage Device
DAT—Digital Audio Tape
DC—Detector Controller (DXS)
dc—direct current
DCS—Data Collection System (NOAA polar orbiting satellites)
DDE—Distributive Data Environment (McIDAS)
DDS—Domestic Data Service (NWS)
DE—Detector Electronics (DXS)
DEC—Digital Equipment Corporation
DFAD—Digital Feature Analysis Data
DFRC—Dryden Flight Research Center
DGVM—Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (GAIM)
DIFAX—DIgital FAcsimile map
DILHR—Department of Industry, Labor & Human Relations
DIS—Data and Information System
disc—optical media (CDs)
DISEL—Diseno e Ingenieria de Systemas Electronicos
disk—magnetic media (floppies)
DIU—Detector Interface Unit (DXS)
DLL (or .dll)—Dynamic Link Libraries
DMA—Defense Mapping Agency
DMAP—Digital MAPping, charting and geodesy analysis program (USN)
DMIC—Deputy Meteorologist-In-Charge (NWS)
DMSP—Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (USAF)
DNAG—Decade of North American Geology
DNR—Department of Natural Resources
DNS—Domain Name System
DOA—Department of Administration (U.S.)
DOC—Department of Commerce (U.S.)
DOD—Department of Defense (U.S.)
DODS—Distributed Ocean Data System

DOE—Department of Energy (U.S.)
DOI—Department of the Interior (U.S.)
DoIT—Department of Information Technology (UW-MSN)
DOJ—Department of Justice (U.S.)
DOL—Department of Labor (U.S.)
DORIS—Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (EOS)
DOS—Department of State (U.S.)
DOS—Disk Operating System
DOT—Department of Transportation (U.S.)
DPS—Detector Power Supply
DPS—Division of Planetary Science
DPSS—Data Processing Services Subsystem
DRIBU—DRIfting BUoy data
DS2—Second Dark Spot (Neptune)
DSDP—Deep Sea Drilling Project
DSP—Digital Signal Processing
DST—Data Systems Test
DTE—Data Terminal Equipment
DTED—Digital Terrain Elevation Data
DXS—Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer
E&CE—Electrical and Computer Engineering
EADS—Engineering and Data Analysis System
EarthKAM—Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle-schoolers
EBCDIC—Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code
ECB—Educational Communications Board
ECMWF—European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts
ECOSOC—ECOnomic and SOcial Council (UN)
ED—Department of Education (U.S.)
EDC—EROS Data Center
EGA—Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EGSE—Electrical Ground Support Equipment
EIA—Electronic Industries Association
e-mail or email—electronic mail
EMC—ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMC—Environmental Modeling Center (NWS Center)
EMI—ElectroMagnetic Interference
EMT—Emergency Medical Technician
ENSO—El Niño/Southern Oscillation
EOS—Earth Observing System
EOSDIS—Earth Observing System Data and Information System
EOSP—Earth Observing Scanner Polarimeter
EPA—Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)
EPS—European Polar Satellite
ER-2—Earth Resources (plane), #2 (NASA)
ERA—Employee Reimbursement Account
ERBE—Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
ERBS—Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
ERICA—Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic
ERL—Environmental Research Laboratory (NOAA)
EROS—Earth Resources Observing System
ERS—ESA Remote Sensing satellite
ERSAF—Environment Remote Sensing Analysis Facility
ERSC—Environmental Remote Sensing Center (IES)

ESA—European Space Agency
ESDD—Earth Science Data Directory
ESE—Earth Science Enterprise (NASA)
ESMR—Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer
ESOC—European Satellite Operations Center
ESSA—Environmental Science Services Administration (preceded NOAA)
ESSP—Earth System Science Pathfinder Mission (ESSP)
ESTEC—European Space TEchnical Center
ETAC—Environmental Technical Applications Center (USAF)
EUMETSAT—EUropean organization for the exploitation of METeorological SATellites
EVA—Extra Vehicular Activity
FAA—Federal Aviation Administration
FAM—Flight Assurance Manager (DXS)
FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization (UN)
FAQ—Frequently Asked Questions (Internet)
FCCC—Framework Convention on Climate Change
FD—Flight Day (NASA)
FDA—Food and Drug Administration (U.S.)
FDIC—Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (U.S.)
FedEx—Federal Express (colloquial till mid-1994, then new name)
FEMA—Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.)
FFA—Future Farmers of America
FFT—Fast Fourier Transform
FGGE—First GARP Global Experiment
FIFE—First ISLSCP Field Experiment
FIFO—First In, First Out
FIRE—First ISCCP Regional Field Experiment
FLOP—FLoating point OPeration
FLOWS—FAA-Lincoln Operational Weather Study
FOB—Federal Office Building
FOC—Faint Object Camera (HST)
FOS—Family Of Services (NWS)
FOV—Field Of View
FPDT—Forecast Products Development Team (NOAA/ORA)
FPO—Field Project Office
FRB—Federal Reserve Board (U.S.)
FSL—Forecast Systems Laboratory (a NOAA ERL)
FTC—Federal Trade Commission (U.S.)
FTE—Full-Time Equivalent
FTP—File Transfer Protocol (TCP/IP)
FTS—Fourier Transform Spectrometer (HIS, AERI, etc.)
FY—Fiscal Year
FYI—For Your Information
GAC—Global Area Coverage
GAIM—Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modeling (IGBP)
GALE—Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment
GAO—General Accounting Office (U.S.)
GAPEX—Ground-based Atmospheric Profiling EXperiment
GARP—Global Atmospheric Research Program
GARS—GOES Archive and Retrieval System
GATE—GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment
GAW—Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)

GB or Gb—Gigabyte
GB-HIS—Ground-Based HIS
GCIP—GEWEX Continental-scale International Project
GCM—General Circulation Model
GCOS—Global Climate Observing System
GCRP—Global Change Research Program
GCTE—Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (IGBP)
GDAS—Global Data Assimilation System
GDEM—Generalized Digital Environmental Model
GDS—Great Dark Spot (Neptune)
GEMPAK—GEneral Meteorological PAcKage (NASA/GSFC)
GEODAS—GEOphysical DAta System
GEOS—GEodetic Orbiting Satellite
GEOS—Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite
GEOSAT—GEOdetic SATellite
GEWEX—Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (WCRP)
GFDL—Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA)
GGI—Global positioning system Geoscience Instrument
GIF—Graphics Interchange Format
GIFTS—Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer
GIFTS-IOMI—GIFTS-Indian Ocean METOC Imager(U.S.Navy)
GIMPAP—GOES I/M Product Assurance Plan
GINI—GOES Ingest & NOAAport Interface
GIS—Geographic Information System
GISP—Greenland Ice Sheet Project (PAGES)
GISS—Goddard Institute for Space Studies
GLAS—Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences
GLIS—Global Land Information System (USGS)
GLOBE—Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment
GLRS—Geoscience Laser Ranging System
GMS—Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GMT—Greenwich Mean Time (repl. by UTC)
GOES—Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GOEZS—Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (IGBP)
GO3OS—Global Ozone Observing System (WMO)
GORF—Goddard Optical Research Facility
GOS—Geomagnetic Observing System
GOWON—Gulf Offshore Weather Observing Network
GPCI—General Purpose Channel Interface
GPHIS—GeoPlatform High-resolution Interferometer Sounder
GPS—Global Positioning System
GRASP—GRaphic Animation System for Professionals
GRIB—GRIdded Binary
GSA—General Services Administration (U.S.)
GSAS—Geostationary Satellite Archive System
GSE—Ground Support Equipment
GSFC—Goddard Space Flight Center
GSOS—GPS Surface Observing System
GTE—Global Tropospheric Experiment (NASA)
GTM—Global Transport Model
GTS—Global Telecommunication System (WMO)
GUFMEX—GUlF of Mexico EXperiment
GUI—Graphical User Interface

GWE—Global Weather Experiment (a.k.a. FGGE)
H 2 O—water (vapor)
HAASC—Hughes/Aerojet/Aerospace/Space Command
HAWC—High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera
HDF—Hierarchical Data Format
HDS—High-resolution Data Stream (NWS)
HEAB—High Energy Astrophysics Branch (NASA)
HF—High Frequency
HHS—Department of Health and Human Services (U.S.)
HIMSS—HIgh-resolution Microwave Spectrometer Sounder
HIRDLS—HIgh-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (EOS)
HIRES—HIgh RESolution
HIRIS—HIgh-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS)
HIRS—High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder
HIS—High-resolution Interferometer Sounder
HITC—Hughes Information Technology Company
HLA—Human Leukocyte Antigen
HMO—Health Maintenance Organization
HPC—Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (NWS Center)
HPCC—High Performance Computing and Communications
HPD—Hourly Precipitation Data
HPGL—Hewlett Packard Graphics Language
HRIR—High Resolution Infrared Radiometer
HRPT—High Resolution Picture Transmission
HRS—High-Resolution data Service (NWS)
HSP—High Speed Photometer
HSRL—High Spectral Resolution Lidar
HST—Hubble Space Telescope
HTML—HyperText Markup Language
HTTP—HyperText Transfer Protocol (World Wide Web)
HUD—Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.)
HVPS—High Voltage Power Supply
IAF—International Astronautical Federation
IAMAP—International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
IAP—Institute for Atmospheric Physics (PRC)
IAPP—International ATOVS Processing Package
IASI—Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (Europe)
IBL—Internal Boundary Layer
IBM—International Business Machines
ICDS—Ice Coring and Drilling Services
ICSU—International Council of Scientific Unions
IDD—Internet Data Distribution (Unidata)
IDL—Interactive Data Language
IDS—International Data Service (NWS)
IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IES—Institute for Environmental Studies
IG—Inspector General
IGAC—International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGBP)
IGBP—International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (ICSU)
IGFA—International Group of Funding Agencies (IGBP)

IIPS—(International Conference on) Interactive Information and Processing Systems (for Meteorology,
Oceanography, and Hydrology-AMS)
IMAP—Internet Message Access Protocol
IMAPP—International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package
IMAX—MAXimum Image
IMD—India Meteorology Department
IMDC—Instructional Media Development Center (UW)
IMG—Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases
INM—Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (Spain)
INO—Institute for Naval Oceanography
INPE—Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais
INTERNET—INTERconnected computer NETwork
IOMI—Indian Ocean METOC Imager Navy
IOP—Intensive Observing Period
IP—Internet Protocol
IPCC—Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO/UNEP)
IPEI—Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument
IPL—Initial Program Load
IRIS—Infrared Radiation Interferometer Spectrometer (1960s)
IRS—Internal Revenue Service (U.S.)
ISCCP—International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (WCRP)
ISDN—Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI—Information Services International
ISI—Institute for Scientific Information
ISLSCP—International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (WCRP)
ISO—International Standards Organization
ISP—Internet Service Provider
ISS—International Space Station
ISY—International Space Year (1992)
ITCZ—InterTropical Convergence Zone
ITOS—Improved Television and infrared Observation Satellite (1970s)
ITPP—International TOVS Processing Package
ITS—Interferometer Thermal Sounder (HIS)
ITSC—International TOVS Study Conference
ITT—International Telephone and Telegraph
IUGG—International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
IWG—Implementation Working Group
IWGDMGC—Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change
JASIN—Joint Air-Sea INteraction
JCL—Job Control Language
JGOFS—Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (IGBP)
JGR—Journal of Geophysical Research
JMA—Japanese Meteorological Agency
JOI—Joint Oceanographic Institutions
JOSS—Joint Office for Science Support (UCAR)
JPEG—Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL—Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JSC—Johnson Space Center (NASA, Houston)
K—Kilo, thousand
Kb/s—kilobits per second
KSC—Kennedy Space Center

LAC—Local Area Coverage
LAFM—Limited-Area Fine Mesh
Lake-ICE—Lake-Induced Convection Experiment
LAMBADA—Large scale Atmospheric Moisture Balance of Amazonia using Data Assimilation
LAMPS—Limited-Area Mesoscale Prediction System
LAN—Local Area Network
LAPS—Local Analysis and Prediction System
LaRC—Langley Research Center (NASA)
laser—Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LAWS—Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (EOS)
LBA—Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere
LDA—Local Data Acquisition
LDM—Local Data Manager (Unidata)
LDW—Loran DropWindsonde
LED—Light Emitting Diode
LES—Large Eddy Simulation
LFM—Limited-area Fine Mesh (NMC)
LI—Lifted Index
LIDAR—LIght Detection And Ranging
LIMS—Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere
LIS—Lightning Imaging Sensor
LMD—Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (France)
LOC—Library of Congress
LOICZ—Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP)
LORAN—LOng RAnge Navigation
LPN—Licensed Practical Nurse
LSU—Louisiana State University
LTE—Limited Term Employee
M—million (finance)
MACC—Madison Academic Computing Center
MAGICS—Meteorological Applications Graphics Integrated Colour System
MAMS—Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor
MAPS—Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (NOAA/FSL)
MAS—MODIS Airborne Simulator
Mb or MB—Megabytes (or megabits)
MBA—Master of Business Administration
Mbps—Megabytes per second
Mb/s—Megabytes per second
MBT—Mechanical BathyThermograph
McIDAS—Man computer Interactive Data Access System
McIDAS-MVS—McIDAS on Multiple Virtual Storage
McIDAS-OS2—PC-McIDAS on Operating System/2
McIDAS-X—McIDAS running a UNIX-based operating system
McIDAS-XCD—McIDAS running UNIX for Conventional Data
McIDAS-XSD—McIDAS running UNIX for Satellite Data
MCS—Mesoscale Convective System
MD—Meteorological Data (McIDAS)
MDR—Manually Digitized Radar
MECCA—Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment (UCAR)
MELV—Minimum Local Emissivity Variance
MERLIN—Multisource EnviRonmental data dispLay for INternet archives

MET—Mission Elapsed Time (from time of launch)
METAR—METeorological Aviation Report
Meteosat—METEOrological SATellite (European)
METOC—METeorology and OCeanography
METOC—METeorological and OCeanographic
MIDAS—Meteorological Interactive Data Access System
MIDDS—Meteorological Interactive Data Display System
MIEC—Meteorological Information Extraction Center
MIMR—Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer
MISR—Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (EOS)
MIST—MIcroburst and Severe Thunderstorm program
MIT—Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MLEV—Minimum Local Emissivity Variance
MLS—Master of Library Science
MLS—Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS)
MODIS—MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS)
MODIS-N—MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Nadir (EOS)
MONEX—MONsoon EXperiment
MOODS—Master Ocean Observation Data Set
MOPITT—Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (EOS)
MOS—Model Output Statistics
MOU—Memorandum Of Understanding
MPC—Marine Prediction Center (NWS Center)
MPEG—Motion Pictures Experts Group
MPP—Massively Parallel Processing
MRF—Medium Range Forecast (NCEP)
MS-DOS—MicroSoft Disk Operating System
MSFC—Marshall Space Flight Center
MSG—Meteosat Second Generation
MSL—Mean Sea Level
MSLP—MSL Pressure
MSS—Mass Storage System
MSS—Multi-Spectral Scanner
MSU—Microwave Sounding Unit
MTDC—Modified Total Direct Costs
MUG—McIDAS Users’ Group
MURI—Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (U.S. Navy)
MVS—Multiple Virtual Storage
NAAPS—Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System
NAIF—Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (JPL)
NAPAP—National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
NAS—National Academy of Sciences
NASA—National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDA—National Space Development Agency (Japan)
NAST-I—NPOES Atmospheric Sounder Testbed-Interferometer
NCAR—National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCDC—National Climatic Data Center
NCDS—NASA Climate Data System
NCEP—National Centers for Environmental Prediction (form. NMC; NWS Center)
NCSA—National Center for Supercomputing Applications (UI-Urbana/Champaign)
NCUA—National Credit Union Administration

NDBC—National Data Buoy Center
NDBO—Non-Directional Beacon Observation
NDVI—Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NEA—National Endowment for the Arts
NEDRES—National Environmental Data Referral Service
NEDT—Noise Equivalent Delta Temperature
NEH—National Endowment for the Humanities
NEPRF—Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility
NESDIS—National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NOAA)
netCDF—Network Common Data Form (UNIDATA)
NETWX—NETwork Weather
NEXRAD—NEXt generation RADar
NFRE—Net Flux Radiometer Experiment
NFS—Network File System
NGDC—National Geophysical Data Center
NGM—Nested Grid Model (NCEP)
NGS—National Geodetic Survey
NHC—National Hurricane Center (1996 colocated with TPC; NWS Center)
NIC—National Ice Center
NIC—Network Interface Card
NIDS—NEXRAD Information Dissemination Service
NIDS—NEXRAD Information Display System
NIH—National Institute of Health
NII—National Information Infrastructure
NIMH—National Institute of Mental Health
NIMS—Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (Galileo)
NIST—National Institute for Standards and Technology
NLDN—National Lightning Detection Network
NLS—Network Library System
nm—usually, nautical miles (unless specified as nanometers)
NMC—National Meteorological Center (old. NCEP, 1996; NWS Center)
NML—National Media Lab
NOAA—National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOAAport—satellite broadcast service that provides access to NOAA data and products
NOAASIS—NOAA Satellite Information System
NOAO—National Optical Astronomy Observatories
NOARL—Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory
NODC—National Oceanic Data Center
NOGAPS—Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System
NOMHICE—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (IGAC)
NOO—Naval Oceanographic Office
NORDA—Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity
NORPEX—North Pacific Experiment
NOS—Network Operating System
NPOESS—National Polar Orbiter Environmental Satellite System
NPR—National Public Radio
NPS—Numerical Products Service
NRAO—National Radio Astronomy Observatory
NRC—National Research Council
NRL—Naval Research Laboratory
N-ROSS—Navy-Remote Ocean Sensing System
NSA—National Security Agency
NSCAT—NASA wind SCATterometer
NSF—National Science Foundation

NSFnet—NSF network
NSIDC—National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSSDC—National Space Science Data Center
NSSFC—National Severe Storms Forecast Center (old. 1996 AWC)
NSSL—National Severe Storms Laboratory (NWS Center)
NTIS—National Technical Information Service (DOC)
NTSB—National Transportation Safety Board
NTSC—National Television Standards Committee
NWP—Numerical Weather Prediction
NWS—National Weather Service (NOAA)
NWSFO—NWS Forecast Office
OAO—Orbiting Astronomical Observatory
OACT—Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (NASA/HEAB)
OAR—Office of Atmospheric Research (NOAA)
OCEANIC—OCEAn Network Information Center
OCLC—On-line Computer Library Center
ODT—Objective Dvorak Technique
OGP—Office of Global Programs
OIES—Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies (UCAR)
OIT—Office of Information Technology
OLS—Optical Line Scanner
OM—Operational Measurement
OMB—Office of Management and Budget
ONR—Office of Naval Research
OPSAT—OPerational SATellite
ORA—Office of Research & Applications
ORNL—Oak Ridge National Lab
OS/2—Operating System, Version 2
OSO—Orbiting Solar Observatory
OSS—Office of Space Science (NASA)
OSSE—Office of Space Science Education (SSEC)
OSTP—Office of Science and Technology Policy (U.S.)
OSU—Oklahoma State University
OWL—On-line Weather Looper
PAAP—Planetary Astronomy & Atmospheres Programs
PAC—Processor Augmentation Card
PAGES—Past Global ChanGES
PATHFINDER—Probing ATmospHeric/AsTropHysical Flows in an INtegrated and Distributed
PBS—Public Broadcasting Service
PbSt—Lead Stearate
PC-McIDAS—Personal Computer-based McIDAS
PDRC—Professional Development and Recognition Committee (UW-Madison)
PDUS—Primary Data Utilization Site
PE—Processor Element
PEOPLE—Pre-college Enrichment Opportunity Program for Learning Excellence (UW-Madison)
Perl—Practical extraction and report language
PGU—Plant Growth Unit
Ph.D.—Doctor of Philosophy
PHIGS—Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System
PHOXA—PHotochemical OXidant and Acid deposition (Europe)
PI—Principal Investigator
PIFTS—Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

PLDS—Pilot Land Data System
PM—Program Manager
PMT—PhotoMultiplier Tube
POCC—Payload Operations Control Center (NASA)
POES—Polar Operational Environmental Satellite
POP—Post Office Protocol
PORSEC—Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference
POSIX—Portable Operating System Interface-UNIX
PPI scan—Plan Position Indicator (lidar)
ppm—part per million
PPP—Point to Point Protocol
PPS—Public Products Service (NWS)
P.R.—Public Relations
PRC—People’s Republic of China
PRC, Inc.—Planning Research Corporation
PROFS—Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (NOAA/ERL/FSL)
PROM—Programmable Read-Only Memory
PS/2—Personal System/2
PSL—Physical Sciences Lab
PWV—Precipitable Water Vapor
QC—Quality Control
RADM—Regional Acid Deposition Model
RAID—Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAM—Random Access Memory
RAMS—Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU)
RAOB—RAdiosonde OBservation
RASS—Radar Altimeter Speedometer Sounder
RASS—Radio Acoustic Sounding System
RESAC—Regional Earth Science Applications Center (NASA)
RF—Radio Frequency
RFI—Radio Frequency Interference
RFP—Request for Proposals
RGL—ReGionaL forecast Model
RHI scan—Range-Height Indicator (lidar)
RISC—Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RME—Relay Mirror Experiment
rms or RMS—root mean square
RMSD—Root Mean Square Difference
RMSE—Root Mean Square Error
ROM—Read-Only Memory
SAA—South Atlantic Anomaly
SAB—Satellite Applications Branch (old. NESDIS)
SAC—Scientific Advisory Council (of IGBP)
SAFARI—Southern African Regional Science Initiative
SAFIRE—Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far InfraRed Emission
SAG—Systems Administration Group
SAGE—center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (UW-Madison IES)
SAGE—Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (EOS)
SAIC—Science Applications International Corporation
SAIDAS—Sistema de Adquisicion e Integracion de DAtos de Satelite (Satellite data integration and acquisition system,
SAL—Space Astronomy Laboratory

SAM—Signal Analyzing Monitor
SAO—Surface Aviation Observation
SAR—Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAs—Stratospheric Aerosols
SATEM—SAtellite TEMperature
SATOB—SATellite OBservation
SBN—Satellite Broadcast Network (NOAA)
SBRC—Santa Barbara Research Center
SBUV—Solar Backscatter UltraViolet radiometer (EOS)
SCAR—Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (ICSU)
SCOPE—Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (ICSU)
SCOR—Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (ICSU)
SCUBA—Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
SDA—SSEC Display Adapter
SDAB—Systems Design and Applications Branch (old. NESDIS)
SDHS—Satellite Data Handling System
SDI—SSEC Desktop Ingestor
SDM—Scientific Data Management (UNIDATA)
SDS—Satellite Data Services
SDSD—Satellite Data Services Division
SEC—Space Environment Center (NWS Center)
SECC—State Employees’ Combined Campaign
SERON—South-Eastern Regional Oxidant Network (DOE, HIS)
SEVIRI—Spinning Environmental Visible and InfraRed Instrument (Europe)
SFY—State Fiscal Year
SGI—Silicon Graphics Incorporated
SGML—Standard Generalized Markup Language
SHARP—Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (NASA)
SHEAL—Shuttle High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory (NASA, old)
SHEBA—Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
S-HIS—Scanning High resolution Interferometer Sounder
SI—International Standard
SIGGRAPH—Special Interest Group on computer GRAPHics
SIRS—Satellite Infrared Radiation Spectrometer (1960s)
SLIP—Serial Line Internet Protocol
SLP—Sea-Level Pressure
SMA—State Meteorological Agency (PRC)
SMEX—SMall EXplorer
SMMR—Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
SMOKE—Satellite Monitoring of Oil Fires in Kuwait Expedition (Limaye)
SMoKE—Satellite Measurements of Kuwait’s Effluent (Limaye)
SMS—Synchronous Meteorological Satellite
SMTP—Simple Mail Transport Protocol (Internet)
SN—Serial Number
SNR—Signal to Noise Ratio
SNR—Super Nova Remnant
SO 2 —sulfur dioxide
SOCC—Satellite Operations Control Center
SOHFI—Skin-layer Ocean Heat Flux Instrument
SOLSTICE—SOLar/STellar Irradiance interComparison Experiment
SONIC—SPAN: Ocean Network Information Center
SOP—Special Observing Period
SOTER—SOil TERrain project

SPACE—Satellite Precipitation And Cloud Experiment
SPACE—Standards Performance Achievement & Curriculum Enhancement-WISE
SPAN—Space Physics Analysis Network (NASA)
SPC—Storm Prediction Center (NSSL; NWS Center)
SPECTRE—SPECTral Radiance Experiment (DOE)
SPECTRUM—SPecial Experiment Concerning Typhoon Recurvature and Unusual Movement
SPF—South Polar Feature (Neptune)
SPIE—Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
SPIU—Sensor Processor Interface Unit
SPOC—Shuttle Payload of Opportunity Carrier
SPOT—Systeme Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre satellite
SRI—Stanford Research Institute
SSA—Social Security Administration
SSC—Suspended Sediment Concentration
SSDC—Space Science Data Center
SSEC—Space Science and Engineering Center
SSF—Specialized Service Facility (UW)
SSI—Space Studies Institute
SS/L—Space Systems/Loral, Inc. (formerly Ford Aerospace Corporation)
SSM/I—Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
SSM/T—Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature
SST—Sea Surface Temperature
SSU—Stratospheric Sounding Unit (TOVS)
ST—Space Telescope
START—SysTem for Analysis, Research and Training (IGBP)
STEP—Satellite Technology Education Program (WSGC)
STIB—Stratosphere-Troposphere Interactions and the Biosphere
STORM—Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology
STORM-FEST—STORM-Fronts Experiment Systems Test
STS—Space Transportation System
STScI—Space Telescope Science Institute
STUC—Space Telescope User’s Committee
SUCCESS—SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (NASA/Ames)
SUNY—State University of New York
SURE— Summer Undergraduate Research Experience
SVAT—Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer
SW—Short Wave
SWAMP—Science Working Group for the AM Platform (EOS)
SWIRLS—Stratospheric Wind InfraRed Limb Sounder
SYNOP—SYNoptic OPeration
Synop—synoptic (surface) observation
SYSOP—SYStem OPerator
TASC—The Analytic Sciences Corporation
TBD—To Be Determined
TC—Technical Computing
TCIPO—TOGA COARE International Project Office
TCM—Tropical Cyclone Motion
TCP—Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP—Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDRSS—Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

TES—Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (EOS)
TIP—TIROS Information Processor (POES)
TIROS—Television InfraRed Observation Satellite
TLA—Three-Letter Acronym
TMR—TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (EOS)
TN—Technical Note
TOGA—Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (WCRP)
TOMS—Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
TOPEX—TOPographic EXperiment
TOS—TIROS Operational Satellite
TOVS—TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder
TPC—Tropical Prediction Center (incl. NHC; NWS Center)
TPW—Total Precipitable Water
TRAGEX—TRAce Gas EXchange: Mid-latitude terrestrial ecosystems & atmosphere (IGAC)
TRMM—Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
TSR—Terminate and Stay Resident program
TSR—Thermal and Solar Radiometer
TWERLE—Tropical Wind, Energy conversion and Reference Level Experiment
UA—Upper Air observation
UARS—Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UART—Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UAV—Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle
UCAR—University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
udres—Unidata resource library (not cap.)
UFO—Unidentified Flying Object
UHF—Ultra High Frequency
UI—University of Illinois
UIR—University/Industry Research (UW-Madison))
UIUC—University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
UK—United Kingdom
ULTRIX—Berkeley UNIX 4.2 (DEC)
UN—United Nations
UNAVCO—University NAVstar COnsortium
UNCED—UN Conference on Environment and Development
UNEP—United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO—United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UnESS—University-class Earth System Science (NASA)
UNIX—not an acronym, a play on MULTIX (TM, AT&T)
UPC—Unidata Program Center
UPI—United Press International
UPS—Uninterruptible Power Supply
URL—Universal Resource Locator (Internet)
USAF—United States Air Force
USAKA—United States Army Kwajalein Atoll
USDA—U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS—U.S. Geological Survey
USPS—U.S. Postal Service
USRA—Universities Space Research Association
USSR—Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (up to September 1991)
USSR—Union of Sovereign Socialist Republics (after September 1991)
UTC—Universal Coordinated Time (replaces GMT)
UTH—Upper Tropospheric relative Humidity

VAB—Vehicle Assembly Building (KSC)
VAC—Volts Alternating Current
VAFB—Vandenberg Air Force Base
VAS—VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (launch, 9-9-80)
VAX—Virtual Address eXtension
VCP—Venus Composition Probe
VCR—Video Cassette Recorder
VDT—Video Display Terminal
VDUC—VAS Data Utilization Center
VEEGA—Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (Galileo)
VGA—Video Graphics Array (IBM)
VHF—Very High Frequency
VIL—Volume Imaging Lidar
VIPS—VDUC Interactive Processing System
Vis5D—Visualization of Five-Dimensional data
VisAD—Visualization for Algorithm Development
VISIT—Virtual Institute for Satellite Integration Training (NWS)
VISSR—Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer
VLBI—Very Long Baseline Interferometry
VLF—Very Low Frequency
VM—Virtual Machine
VMS—Virtual Memory Systems
VOC—Volatile Organic Compound
VOCAR—Variation of Coastal Atmospheric Refractivity (Navy)
VORTEX—Verification Of Tornadoes EXperiment
VRML—Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VTPR—Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (ITOS)
VTR—VideoTape Recorder
WARF—Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
WCP—World Climate Programme
WCRP—World Climate Research Program (WMO/ICSU)
WCSAR—Wisconsin Center for Space Automation & Robotics (UW-MSN, Coll.Eng.)
WFF—Wallops Flight Facility (NASA)
WFO—Weather Forecast Office (NWS)
WFPC—Wide Field and Planetary Camera (HST)
WG—Working Group
WHOI—Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
WIMO—WMO International Meteorological Organization
WINCE—WINter Cloud Experiment
Windii—Wind Doppler Imaging Interferometer (UARS)
WISC-T2000—Wisconsin Snow Ice-Terra 2000
WISE—Wisconsin Initiative for Space Education WISP—Wide-field Imaging Survey Polarimeter (SAL)
WISP—Winter Icing and Storms Project
WIYN—Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO consortium
w/m2—watt per meter squared
WME—Wisconsin Model Engine
WMO—World Meteorological Organization (UN)
WOCE—World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WCRP)
WPOP—Winds Product Oversight Panel (NESDIS)
WPR—Wisconsin Public Radio
WPS—Wisconsin Physicians Service

WRF—Weather Research Forecast model
WSGC—Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium
WSI—Weather Services International
WSMC—Western Space and Missile Center
WUPPE—Wisconsin Ultraviolet PhotoPolarimeter Experiment
WVIOP—Water Vapor Intensive Observing Period
WWII—World War II
WWW—WIDE WORD Workstation (TM, DataRam)
WWW—World Weather Watch
WWW—World Wide Web
WXP—Weather Processor (Unidata/Purdue University)
XBSS—X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer
XBT—eXpendable BathyThermograph
XGKS—X-window Graphics Kernel System (Unidata)
XIE—X-ray Imaging Experiment
XRAP—X-windows Radar Analysis Processing
X-Term—X-windows Terminal
Ynot—software from MacDonald Dettwiler (Unidata)
Y2K—Year 2000




Acronym Dictionary

American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrator
American Association Of Preferred Provider Organizations
Automated Broker Interface
Annual Contractor Evaluation Report
Automated Clearing House
Agency-Company Organization for Research and Development
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education
Advanced Claims Processing System
American College of Radiology
ACR/National Electrical Manufacturers Association
American College of Surgeons
American Dental Association
Administration Management Domain
Automated Data Processing
Alternate Dispute Resolution
Automated Eligibility Verification Claims Submission
Association for Electronic Health Care Transactions
Automated Funds Transfer
American Group Practice Association
American Guild of Patient Account Managers
American Hospital Association
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
American Health Information Management Association
Accountable Health Plan

Automobile Industry Action Group
Auto Insurance Plans Service Office
Auto Insurance Services Group
American Medical Association
Association for Managed Care Review
American Managed Care and Review Association
Automated Medical Payment
American Medical Records Association
Article Numbering Association
American National Standards Institute
American Osteopathic Association
Ambulatory Patient Groups
Applications Program Interface
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Audio Response Unit
American Society for Automation in Pharmacy also, Analytic
Systems Automated Purchasing
Accredited Standards Committees also, Ambulatory Surgical
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
American Society for Hospital Materials Managers
Advanced Shipment Notice
American Society of Testing Materials
Airline Transportation Association
Alignment Task Group
Asynchronous Transfer Mode also, Automated Teller Machine


Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association
Bits Per Second
Brokers and Reinsurance Markets Association
Binary Synchronous Communications
Board of Standards Review also, Basic Semantic Repository


Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics System
Certified Aftermarket Parts Association
Catastrophic Claims
Common Business Communications Protocol
Cash Concentration and Disbursement
Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Clearinghouse Enforceability Services
Code of Federal Regulations
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
Clearing House Automated Payments System
Clearing House Interbank Payments System
Community Health Management Information Systems
Community Health Information Network
Community Health Purchasing Alliance
Cooperative Healthcare Networks
Construction Industry Action Group
Chemical Industry Data Exchange
Collision Industry Electronic Commerce Association

Center for Informatization of Industry
Convention on the International Sale of Goods
Claims Investigative Unit
Claims Acquisition and Submission System
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment
Cash Management Association
Comprehensive Medical Plans
Coordination of Benefits
Corporation for Open Systems
Canadian Payments Association also Canadian Petroleum Association
Computer-based Patient Record also, Comparative Performance
Computer-based Patient Records Institute, Inc.
Characters Per Second
Current Procedural Terminology
Carrier Quality Assurance System
Change Request
Commercially Reasonable Security
Canadian Standards Association
Customer Satisfaction Index
Corporate Trade Payment
Corporate Trade Exchange
Credit Union Interchange Group
Code Value
Common Working File
Document Control Number
Data Device Integration
Data Element

Drug Enforcement Agency
Data Encryption standard
Direct Exchange UCS
Depository Financial Institution
Data Interchange Standards Association, Inc.
Data Interchange for Shipping
Delegate Liaison Task Group
Data Maintenance
Durable Medical Equipment Regional Carriers
Desktop Management Task Force
Department of Motor Vehicles
Date of Birth
Department of Defense
Direct Order Entry
Distribution Requirements Planning also, Direct Repair Program
Direct Store Delivery
Draft Standard for Trial Use
Draft Transaction for Trial Use
Drug Use/Utilization Reviews
Data Validation Reviews


Essential Access Community Hospital
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Electronic Commerce also, European Community
Economic Commission of Europe

Extended Care Facility
Efficient Consumer Response
UN/EDIFACT Composite Data Elements Directory
UN/EDIFACT Data Elements Directory
Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic Data Interchange Association
Electronic Data Interchange Council of Australia
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transportation
Electronic Data Interchange Forum for Companies Interested in Computing and Electronics
Electronic Data Interchange Message
Electronics Industry Data Exchange
Electronic Document Management
UN/EDIFACT Standard Message Types Directory
UN/EDIFACT Standard Data Segments Directory
Electronic Data Processing Auditors Foundation
Electronic Data Systems
Electronic Data Exchange
European Economic Community
Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronic Healthcare Network Accreditation Commission
Electronic Industry Association of Japan
Electronic Industry Data Exchange
Employer Identification Number
Executive Information System
Electronic Mail
Electronic Media Claims

Explanation of Benefits
Economic Order Quantity
Environmental Protection Agency
EDEFACT Project Proposal
Early Periodic Screening Diagnostic Testing
Electronic Remittance Advise
Employee Retirement Security Income Act
Electronic Record Management
Evaluated Receipts Settlement
Environmental Safety Data Exchange
EDIFACT Steering Group
End Stage Renal Dialysis


Functional Acknowledgment
Final Administrative Cost Proposal
Federation of American Health System
Federal Acquisition Regulations
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Fiber Distribution Data Interface
Free Determining Official
Federal Information Processing Standard
Federal Maritime Commission
Forward Notification
Freedom of Information Act

Federally Qualified Health Center
File Transfer, Access and Management
File Transfer Protocol
Federal Telecommunications System


Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards
General Accounting Office
Group Health Association of America
Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
General Services Administration
Geographic Underwriting System


Health Care Administrators
Health Care Financing Administration
Healthcare Information Network
HCFA Common Procedure Coding System
Health Care Provider Records
Hospital Cost Report Information System
Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 1988 - 1994
HCFA Data Center
Health Electronic Data Interchange Corporation
Health Plan and Employer Data and Information Set
Healthcare Electronic Data Interchange Trading Partner

Healthcare Financial Management Association
Department of Health and Human Services
Health Insurance Association of America
Health Industry Business Communications Council
Health Industry Distributors Association
Health Insurance Enrollment
Health Industry Manufacturers Association
Health Insurance Master Record
Health Information and Management Systems Society
Health Industry Number
Health Insurance Purchasing Cooperative
Hospital Information System
Health Informatics System Planning Panel
Health Level 7
Health Maintenance Organization
Healthcare Professional Shortage Area


Interchange Agreement
Industry Action Group
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
International Airline Transport Association
international Chamber of Commerce
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
Index of Co-Existent Disease

Intermediate Care Facility
Internal Control Number
Industry Committee for Office Products Standard
International Data Exchange Association
Insurance Data Management Association
International Electrotechnical Committee
International Electronic Data Interchange
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Inter-Enterprise System Clearing House
Internet Engineering Task Force
International Forwarding and Transport Framework
Individual Group Practice
Interactive Health Care Eligibility Benefits Inquiry
Interactive Health Care Eligibility Benefits Response
Insurance Information Institute
International Medical Graduates
International Network Services
Internet Protocol
Interpersonal Messaging Services
International Project Team
International Record Carrier
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Standards Organization
Information Systems Standards Board
Independent Software Vendors
Inter-Plan Teleprocessing System
Initialization Vector

Insurance Value Added Network Service
Independent X-Ray Dealers Association


Joint Application Development
Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Organizations
Joint Electronic Data Interchange
Just In Time
Joint Rapporteur Team
Joint Technical Committee I
Joint Technical Committee for EDI


Local Area Network
Local Area and Transport Area
London Insurance Market Network
Life Insurance Marketing and Research Association
Letter of Intent
Longitudinal Redundancy Check



Maximum Allowable Actual Charge
Message Authentication Code also, Maximum Allowable Cost
Medical Assisted Facility
Mortgage Bankers Association
Managed Care Organization
Maximum Daily Dose
Message Design Guidelines Group
Managed Data Networks
Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements
Medical Group Management Association
Message Handling System
Materials Management Information System
Microcom Network Protocol
Message-Oriented Middleware Association
Memo of Understanding
Medicare Provider Identifier
Medicare Physician Identification and Eligibility System
Message Stores
Materials Safety Data Sheets also, Message Standards
Development Subcommittee
Message Transfer Agent
Medicare Transaction System


National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
National Automated Clearing House Association
National Association of Credit Managers

North American EDIFACT Board
National Auto Glass Specifications, Inc,
National Association of Health Data Organizations
National Association of Insurance Commissioners
National Association of Independent insurers
Negative Acknowledgement
National Association of Medical Equipment Suppliers
National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies
National Archives and Records Administration
National Auto Theft, Bureau (now called NICB)
National Bureau of Standards
National Council of Compensation Insurance
National Center for Health Statistics
National Conference of Insurance Log4lators
Network Control Program
National Council for Prescription Drug Programs
National Committee for Quality Assurance
National Computer Standards Laboratory
National Committee for Vital & Health Statistics
Network Data Mover
National Electronic Information Corporation
Network Exchange UCS
National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association
National Insurance Crime Bureau
National Institute for Standards of Technology


New Message Request

National Motor Vehicle Title Information System
Negative Notification
National Office Products Association
National Provider File
National Provider Identifier
National Security Agency
National Supplier Clearinghouse
National Standard Format
National Task Force on Healthcare Reform
National Uniform Billing Committee
National Workers Compensation Reinsurance Pool
National Wholesale Druggists Association


Organization and Procedures
Omnibus Budger Reconciliation Act
Open Collaborative Environment
Office of Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed
Optical Character Recognition
Organization for Data Exchange Through Teletransmission
ODETTE File Transfer Protocol
Office of Inspector General
On-Line Transaction Processing
Outcome Measurement
Office of Management and Budget
Office of Managed Care

Object Management Group
Organization and Procedure Manual
Office of Provider Operations and Procedures
Online Survey and Certification and Reporting System
Open Systems Interconnection
Originating Trading Partner
Property and Casualty
Packet Assembler/Dissembler
Pan American EDIFACT Board
Pharmacy Benefit Managers
Property Claims Services
Physical Delivery Access Unit
Provider Electronic Billing
Protocol for EDI
Petroleum Industry Data Exchange
Personal Identification Number
Personal Injury Protection also, Periodic Interim Payment
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
Practice Management System
Positive Notification
Point of Sale also, Point of Service
Project Proposal
Preferred Provider Organization
Public Packet Switched Network
Procedures Review Board
Provider Statistics and Reporting System
Public Switched Telephone Network

Post Telephone Telegraph Administration


Quality Assurance Program
Quick Response


Remittance Advice
Reinsurance Association of America
Resource Based Relative Value Scale
Regional Data Exchange System
Regional Home Health Intermediary
Reconsideration Information System
Reinsurance and Insurance Network
Regional Office Manual also, Read-Only Memory
Rural Primary Care Hospital
Rural Referral Center
Rapporteur's Advisory and Support Team
Receiving Trading Partner
Resource Utilization Group


Standards Council of Canada Joint Technical Committee on EDI
Shipping Container Marking

Syntax Development Group
Synchronous Data Link Communication
Standards Developing Organization
Switched Digital Service.
Systeme Internationale Transport Aeronautique
Special Investigative Unit
Service Level Agreement
State Medicaid Agencies
Switched Multimegabit Data Services
System Network Architecture
SNA Network Interconnect
System Network Architecture Distribution Service
Simple Network Management Protocol
Synchronous Optical Network
Society of Professional Benefit Administrators
Standard Prescriber Identification Number
Special Task Group
Special Work Group
Social Security Number
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications


Transaction Processing Protocol for Point of Sale
Technical Assessment
Technical Advisory Group also, Technical Assessment Groups
Telecommunication Industry Forum

Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - File Transfer
Trusted Computer System
Transportation Data Coordinating Committee
Transborder Data Flow
Trade Data Interchange Also, Trading Data Interchange
Trade Data Interchange - Applications Protocol
Trade Electronic Data Interchange Systems
Task Group
Draft Interactive Composite Data Elements Directory for
Draft Interactive Messages Directory for UN/EDIFACT
Tax Identification Number
Trading Partner
Third Party Administrators also, Trading Partner Agreement
Third Party Service Provider
Technical Report
Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons
UN/EDIFACT Trade Data Element Directory
Transaction Set
Transaction Switching and Transport Service


User Agent
Uniform Code Council
Uniform Claim Form Task Force

Usual, Customary, and Reasonable
Uniform Communications Standard
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Electronic Data Interchange for Administration,
Commerce, and Trade
UN/EDIFACT Guidelines for Trade Data Interchange
United Nations International Standards Organization
Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission
Unique National Identifier
United Nations Joint Electronic Data Interchange
UNEFACT Standard Interactive Message
United Nations Standard Message
United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory
United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory
Uniform Product Code
Unique Physician Identification Number
Uniform Product Code
Uninterruptable Power Supply
Utilization Review Accreditation Commission
Utilization Review Organization
United States National Committee


Value Added Bank
Value Added Distributor
Value Added Network

Value Added Reseller
Voluntary Industry Communications Standard
Vendor Independent Messaging Interface


World Wide Web
Work Group for Electronic Data Interchange
Work Group
Warehouse Information Network Standard


Communications and Controls
Product Data
Materials Management
Technical Assessment
Industry Standards Transition
Distribution and Warehousing


Acronym Dictionary -

American Association of Healthcare Administrative Management
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrator
American Association Of Preferred Provider Organizations
Automated Broker Interface
Annual Contractor Evaluation Report
Automated Clearing House
Agency-Company Organization for Research and Development
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education
Advanced Claims Processing System
American College of Radiology
ACR/National Electrical Manufacturers Association
American College of Surgeons
American Dental Association
Administration Management Domain
Automated Data Processing
Alternate Dispute Resolution
Automated Eligibility Verification Claims Submission
Association for Electronic Health Care Transactions
Automated Funds Transfer
American Group Practice Association
American Guild of Patient Account Managers
American Hospital Association
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
American Health Information Management Association
Accountable Health Plan

Automobile Industry Action Group
Auto Insurance Plans Service Office
Auto Insurance Services Group
American Medical Association
Association for Managed Care Review
American Managed Care and Review Association
Automated Medical Payment
American Medical Records Association
Article Numbering Association
American National Standards Institute
American Osteopathic Association
Ambulatory Patient Groups
Applications Program Interface
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Audio Response Unit
American Society for Automation in Pharmacy also, Analytic Systems Automated Purchasing
Accredited Standards Committees also, Ambulatory Surgical Center
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
American Society for Hospital Materials Managers
Advanced Shipment Notice
American Society of Testing Materials
Airline Transportation Association
Alignment Task Group
Asynchronous Transfer Mode also, Automated Teller Machine


Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association
Bits Per Second

Brokers and Reinsurance Markets Association
Binary Synchronous Communications
Board of Standards Review also, Basic Semantic Repository


Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics System
Certified Aftermarket Parts Association
Catastrophic Claims
Common Business Communications Protocol
Cash Concentration and Disbursement
Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone
Clearinghouse Enforceability Services
Code of Federal Regulations
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
Clearing House Automated Payments System
Clearing House Interbank Payments System
Community Health Management Information Systems
Community Health Information Network
Community Health Purchasing Alliance
Cooperative Healthcare Networks
Construction Industry Action Group
Chemical Industry Data Exchange
Collision Industry Electronic Commerce Association
Center for Informatization of Industry
Convention on the International Sale of Goods
Claims Investigative Unit
Claims Acquisition and Submission System
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment

Cash Management Association
Comprehensive Medical Plans
Coordination of Benefits
Corporation for Open Systems
Canadian Payments Association also Canadian Petroleum Association
Computer-based Patient Record also, Comparative Performance Reports
Computer-based Patient Records Institute, Inc.
Characters Per Second
Current Procedural Terminology
Carrier Quality Assurance System
Change Request
Commercially Reasonable Security
Canadian Standards Association
Customer Satisfaction Index
Corporate Trade Payment
Corporate Trade Exchange
Credit Union Interchange Group
Code Value
Common Working File


Document Control Number
Data Device Integration
Data Element
Drug Enforcement Agency
Data Encryption standard
Direct Exchange UCS
Depository Financial Institution

Data Interchange Standards Association, Inc.
Data Interchange for Shipping
Delegate Liaison Task Group
Data Maintenance
Durable Medical Equipment Regional Carriers
Desktop Management Task Force
Department of Motor Vehicles
Date of Birth
Department of Defense
Direct Order Entry
Distribution Requirements Planning also, Direct Repair Program
Direct Store Delivery
Draft Standard for Trial Use
Draft Transaction for Trial Use
Drug Use/Utilization Reviews
Data Validation Reviews


Essential Access Community Hospital
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Electronic Commerce also, European Community
Economic Commission of Europe
Extended Care Facility
Efficient Consumer Response
UN/EDIFACT Composite Data Elements Directory
UN/EDIFACT Data Elements Directory
Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic Data Interchange Association
Electronic Data Interchange Council of Australia
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transportation
Electronic Data Interchange Forum for Companies Interested in Computing and
Electronic Data Interchange Message
Electronics Industry Data Exchange
Electronic Document Management
UN/EDIFACT Standard Message Types Directory
UN/EDIFACT Standard Data Segments Directory
Electronic Data Processing Auditors Foundation
Electronic Data Systems
Electronic Data Exchange
European Economic Community
Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronic Healthcare Network Accreditation Commission
Electronic Industry Association of Japan
Electronic Industry Data Exchange
Employer Identification Number
Executive Information System
Electronic Mail
Electronic Media Claims
Explanation of Benefits
Economic Order Quantity
Environmental Protection Agency
EDEFACT Project Proposal
Early Periodic Screening Diagnostic Testing
Electronic Remittance Advise

Employee Retirement Security Income Act
Electronic Record Management
Evaluated Receipts Settlement
Environmental Safety Data Exchange
EDIFACT Steering Group
End Stage Renal Dialysis


Functional Acknowledgment
Final Administrative Cost Proposal
Federation of American Health System
Federal Acquisition Regulations
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Fiber Distribution Data Interface
Free Determining Official
Federal Information Processing Standard
Federal Maritime Commission
Forward Notification
Freedom of Information Act
Federally Qualified Health Center
File Transfer, Access and Management
File Transfer Protocol
Federal Telecommunications System

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards

General Accounting Office
Group Health Association of America
Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
General Services Administration
Geographic Underwriting System


Health Care Administrators
Health Care Financing Administration
Healthcare Information Network
HCFA Common Procedure Coding System
Health Care Provider Records
Hospital Cost Report Information System
Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 1988 - 1994
HCFA Data Center
Health Electronic Data Interchange Corporation
Health Plan and Employer Data and Information Set
Healthcare Electronic Data Interchange Trading Partner
Healthcare Financial Management Association
Department of Health and Human Services
Health Insurance Association of America
Health Industry Business Communications Council
Health Industry Distributors Association
Health Insurance Enrollment
Health Industry Manufacturers Association
Health Insurance Master Record
Health Information and Management Systems Society
Health Industry Number

Health Insurance Purchasing Cooperative
Hospital Information System
Health Informatics System Planning Panel
Health Level 7
Health Maintenance Organization
Healthcare Professional Shortage Area


Interchange Agreement
Industry Action Group
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions
International Airline Transport Association
international Chamber of Commerce
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
Index of Co-Existent Disease
Intermediate Care Facility
Internal Control Number
Industry Committee for Office Products Standard
International Data Exchange Association
Insurance Data Management Association
International Electrotechnical Committee
International Electronic Data Interchange
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Inter-Enterprise System Clearing House
Internet Engineering Task Force
International Forwarding and Transport Framework
Individual Group Practice
Interactive Health Care Eligibility Benefits Inquiry

Interactive Health Care Eligibility Benefits Response
Insurance Information Institute
International Medical Graduates
International Network Services
Internet Protocol
Interpersonal Messaging Services
International Project Team
International Record Carrier
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Standards Organization
Information Systems Standards Board
Independent Software Vendors
Inter-Plan Teleprocessing System
Initialization Vector
Insurance Value Added Network Service
Independent X-Ray Dealers Association


Joint Application Development
Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Organizations
Joint Electronic Data Interchange
Just In Time
Joint Rapporteur Team
Joint Technical Committee I
Joint Technical Committee for EDI


Local Area Network

Local Area and Transport Area
London Insurance Market Network
Life Insurance Marketing and Research Association
Letter of Intent
Longitudinal Redundancy Check


Maximum Allowable Actual Charge
Message Authentication Code also, Maximum Allowable Cost
Medical Assisted Facility
Mortgage Bankers Association
Managed Care Organization
Maximum Daily Dose
Message Design Guidelines Group
Managed Data Networks
Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements
Medical Group Management Association
Message Handling System
Materials Management Information System
Microcom Network Protocol
Message-Oriented Middleware Association
Memo of Understanding
Medicare Provider Identifier
Medicare Physician Identification and Eligibility System
Message Stores
Materials Safety Data Sheets also, Message Standards Development
Message Transfer Agent

Medicare Transaction System


National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
National Automated Clearing House Association
National Association of Credit Managers
North American EDIFACT Board
National Auto Glass Specifications, Inc,
National Association of Health Data Organizations
National Association of Insurance Commissioners
National Association of Independent insurers
Negative Acknowledgement
National Association of Medical Equipment Suppliers
National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies
National Archives and Records Administration
National Auto Theft, Bureau (now called NICB)
National Bureau of Standards
National Council of Compensation Insurance
National Center for Health Statistics
National Conference of Insurance Log4lators
Network Control Program
National Council for Prescription Drug Programs
National Committee for Quality Assurance
National Computer Standards Laboratory
National Committee for Vital & Health Statistics
Network Data Mover
National Electronic Information Corporation
Network Exchange UCS

National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association
National Insurance Crime Bureau
National Institute for Standards of Technology
New Message Request
National Motor Vehicle Title Information System
Negative Notification
National Office Products Association
National Provider File
National Provider Identifier
National Security Agency
National Supplier Clearinghouse
National Standard Format
National Task Force on Healthcare Reform
National Uniform Billing Committee
National Workers Compensation Reinsurance Pool
National Wholesale Druggists Association


Organization and Procedures
Omnibus Budger Reconciliation Act
Open Collaborative Environment
Office of Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
Optical Character Recognition
Organization for Data Exchange Through Teletransmission
ODETTE File Transfer Protocol
Office of Inspector General
On-Line Transaction Processing
Outcome Measurement

Office of Management and Budget
Office of Managed Care
Object Management Group
Organization and Procedure Manual
Office of Provider Operations and Procedures
Online Survey and Certification and Reporting System
Open Systems Interconnection
Originating Trading Partner


Property and Casualty
Packet Assembler/Dissembler
Pan American EDIFACT Board
Pharmacy Benefit Managers
Property Claims Services
Physical Delivery Access Unit
Provider Electronic Billing
Protocol for EDI
Petroleum Industry Data Exchange
Personal Identification Number
Personal Injury Protection also, Periodic Interim Payment
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
Practice Management System
Positive Notification
Point of Sale also, Point of Service
Project Proposal
Preferred Provider Organization

Public Packet Switched Network
Procedures Review Board
Provider Statistics and Reporting System
Public Switched Telephone Network
Post Telephone Telegraph Administration


Quality Assurance Program
Quick Response


Remittance Advice
Reinsurance Association of America
Resource Based Relative Value Scale
Regional Data Exchange System
Regional Home Health Intermediary
Reconsideration Information System
Reinsurance and Insurance Network
Regional Office Manual also, Read-Only Memory
Rural Primary Care Hospital
Rural Referral Center
Rapporteur's Advisory and Support Team
Receiving Trading Partner
Resource Utilization Group


Standards Council of Canada Joint Technical Committee on EDI
Shipping Container Marking
Syntax Development Group
Synchronous Data Link Communication

Standards Developing Organization
Switched Digital Service.
Systeme Internationale Transport Aeronautique
Special Investigative Unit
Service Level Agreement
State Medicaid Agencies
Switched Multimegabit Data Services
System Network Architecture
SNA Network Interconnect
System Network Architecture Distribution Service
Simple Network Management Protocol
Synchronous Optical Network
Society of Professional Benefit Administrators
Standard Prescriber Identification Number
Special Task Group
Special Work Group
Social Security Number
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications


Transaction Processing Protocol for Point of Sale
Technical Assessment
Technical Advisory Group also, Technical Assessment Groups
Telecommunication Industry Forum
Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - File Transfer Protocol
Trusted Computer System
Transportation Data Coordinating Committee

Transborder Data Flow
Trade Data Interchange Also, Trading Data Interchange
Trade Data Interchange - Applications Protocol
Trade Electronic Data Interchange Systems
Task Group
Draft Interactive Composite Data Elements Directory for UN/EDIFACT
Draft Interactive Messages Directory for UN/EDIFACT
Tax Identification Number
Trading Partner
Third Party Administrators also, Trading Partner Agreement
Third Party Service Provider
Technical Report
Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons
UN/EDIFACT Trade Data Element Directory
Transaction Set
Transaction Switching and Transport Service


User Agent
Uniform Code Council
Uniform Claim Form Task Force
Usual, Customary, and Reasonable
Uniform Communications Standard
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and
UN/EDIFACT Guidelines for Trade Data Interchange
United Nations International Standards Organization

Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission
Unique National Identifier
United Nations Joint Electronic Data Interchange
UNEFACT Standard Interactive Message
United Nations Standard Message
United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory
United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory
Uniform Product Code
Unique Physician Identification Number
Uniform Product Code
Uninterruptable Power Supply
Utilization Review Accreditation Commission
Utilization Review Organization
United States National Committee


Value Added Bank
Value Added Distributor
Value Added Network
Value Added Reseller
Voluntary Industry Communications Standard
Vendor Independent Messaging Interface


World Wide Web
Work Group for Electronic Data Interchange
Work Group
Warehouse Information Network Standard



Communications and Controls
Product Data
Materials Management
Technical Assessment
Industry Standards Transition
Distribution and Warehousing


Dictionary Xcellweb
A List of Xcellweb Features plus a collection of Internet expressions

Anonymous FTP A system of computers and databases tracking information of FTP servers
throughout the world.
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A 7-bit character
code that can represent 128 characters, some of which are control
characters used for communications control and are not printable.
Arabic Indexing Allows Xcellweb clients to have searchable web pages in Arabic language.
(Active Server Page) supporting the standard Microsoft ASP components
such as the AdRotator, and Content Linker. XcellWeb has standardized on
ServerObjects' components because of their high level of stability and
functionality. XcellWeb is committed to hosting any components
developers wish to use for their applications as long as the component(s)
meet standards for stability and security.
Attribute A property of an HTML element; specified in the start tag of the element.
Audio Streaming The ability to play audio as it is being received as opposed to downloading
an entire audio file and launching an audio player.
Authentication Verification of a person's identity or a processes validity.
Authoring Used in the context as creating World Wide Web documents.
(Infobots) An automatic response to an e-mail inquiry generated by the
mail server that is programmed to acknowledge receipt of an e-mail
request. This can be used to send additional information about a specific
product or service.
Avatar A graphic or pictorial representation of a user in a 3-D chat area. Usually
chosen by each user, the avatar can be an animal or caricature.
AVI (Audio Video interleaved) A Microsoft multimedia file format.
AVR Automatic Voice Recognition
Backbone A high speed centralized network connecting smaller independent
Backdoor Refers to the "private entrance" around the security in a program or
network used by programmers or technicians to perform maintenance or
gain entry.
Bandwidth The range of frequencies (data) a transmission line can carry and defined
in bit\s (BPS). The larger the bandwidth, the greater the information
capacity of a channel.
Banner An online advertising graphic.
Baud A unit of transmission/receiving speed, expressed in terms of the number
of different signal events per second. It is the same as bit/s, when it is used
to transmit a single bit of data.
bcc Blind Carbon Copy. To send an e-mail where the addressee does not see
that the letter was also sent to a third party.
Binary file Any file that is not plain, ASCII text. For example: executable files,
graphic files and compressed (ZIP) files.
Bit (contraction of binary digit) A single unit of information that has two
values, 0 or 1.
BITNet "Because It's Time" Network. An academic computer network that
provides interactive electronic mail and file transfer services, using a
store-and-forward protocol. BITNet hosts are not on the Internet per se,
but are reachable by email through BITNet to Internet gateways.
Bounce The return of a piece of mail because of an error in the delivery process.

Mail can be bounced for various reasons. "Bounce" can also refer to the
message indicating the error (informal usage).
Bookmark Marking the location OF an Internet address for quick reference.
bps Bits per second. Measurement of digital information transmission rates.
Broadband Any network (or frequency) that multiplexes different independent
network carriers into a single cable or channel.
Broadcast The simultaneous transmission of like data from one to many destinations,
one to all.
Brochureware A slang term for websites where companies have done little more than
scan their companies brochures and mounted them on their web pages.
This is the first step many businesses take while learning to market on the
Browser A software program for observing the World Wide Web; synonym for a
Web client.
BTW An abbreviation for "By The Way".
Bulletin Board System (BBS) A computer, and associated hardware, which typically provides
electronic messaging services, archives of files and any other services or
activities of interest to the bulletin board system's operator. Many BBS's
are currently operated by government, educational and research
Although BBS's have traditionally been the domain of hobbyists, an
increasing number of BBS's are connected to the Internet. The majority,
however, are still reachable only via a direct modem-to-modem connection
over a phone line.
Bulk E-mail E-mail sent to multiple addresses in one huge mailing. Usually referring to
a UCE bombing or SPAM.
Byte Eight bits forming a unit of data. Typically, each byte stores one character
(letter or number).
C (and/or C+, C++) The name of a programming language so called because many features
derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its
parent, BCPL. Before Bjarne Stroustrup settled the question by designing
C++, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be
named `D' or `P'. C is now the dominant language in systems and
microcomputer applications programming.
Careware Shareware for which either the author suggests that some payment be
made to a nominated charity or a levy directed to charity is included on top
of the distribution charge.
Cache A temporary storage bin in memory and on your hard drive. Browsers
stash the contents from pages that have been downloaded in the event they
are called upon to be displayed again.
CCI (Common Client Interface) Allows Web clients to communicate with
external viewers or other applications.
CERN Centre Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire. The European laboratory
for particle physics, where the Web originated in 1989. (See
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) A standard for programs to interface with
Web servers.
CGI-BIN (bin - short for binary) The name of a directory on a web server in which
CGI programs are usually stored.
Channel The basic unit of discussion on IRC. Once one joins a channel, others read
everything one types on that channel. Channels can either be named with
numbers or with strings that begin with a `#' sign and can have topic
descriptions (which are generally irrelevant to the actual subject of

Clickable Map Another name for an imagemap.
Client A software program that requests information or services from another
software application, a server, and displays this information in a form
required by its hardware platform.
Client/server A front-end client and a back end server allows multiple workstations
(client) to access the same server at the same time over the LAN. The
Internet is a global client/server network. The goal of such a design is to
off-load as much processing as possible to the desktop leaving the shared
information at the server.
Clipboard A temporary staging area for copied information stored in memory. The
clipboard stores information until you copy another or you exit Windows.
Cold Fusion XcellWeb Servers support Cold Fusion tags. See also
Confidence factor The factor by which a search engine rates the relevance or results of a
keyword query.
Connectivity The access method through which one is connected to the Internet.
Connectivity choices are increasing rapidly.
Cookie A handle or transaction identifier, or other token of agreement between
cooperating programs. Cookies were introduced by Netscape to preserve
state information on the browser. This permits a site to recognize you on
subsequent visits. Shopping cart programs can record each item you have
collect as you navigate through a site. When done shopping, the web page
can use all of your accumulated cookies to calculate the charge. Some
people believe that any site you connect to can read all the cookies on your
disk. However, only the site that issued the cookie can read it.
Corel Draw A very popular suite of graphics programs.
CPM Advertising term meaning cost per one thousand sightings or impressions.
Cracker A cracker is an individual who attempts to access computer systems
without authorization. These people are often malicious, as opposed to
hackers, and have many means at their disposal for breaking into a system.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) a World Wide Web Consortium specification for
designing layout and style elements of a web page. It permits you to
control the appearance of fonts, colors, sizes, etc. throughout the entire site
by referencing one master page. FrontPage 98 does this by assisting you
with the "Themes" option.
CTR (Click Through Rate) Advertising term indicating the percentage of
viewers who click on a banner advertisement and follow the link.
Ctrl C - (Control C) The keyboard command to copy text or graphics selected (highlighted) by
the cursor to the computers temporary RAM memory.
Ctrl V - (Control V) The keyboard command to paste an object stored in RAM memory into an
open application such as a paint program or word processor.
Cybercitizens Citizens of the Internet, Net heads, Netizens.
Cybermall An online shopping mall .
Cyberspace A term coined by William Gibson in his SF novel Neuromancer (1984) to
describe the interconnected "world" of computers and the society that
gathers around them. Today, cyberspace is the Internet and the tens of
thousands of computers and networks that make up the Net. - D Daemon [from the mythological meaning, later rationalized as the acronym `Disk
And Execution MONitor'] A program that is not invoked explicitly, but
lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. The idea is that the
perpetrator of the condition need not be aware that a daemon is lurking
(though often a program will commit an action only because it knows that
it will implicitly invoke a daemon).
Data Transfer Per Month Cumulative total of data that is transferred over the web site each month.

Dial-up Account Account with an Internet Service Provider that utilizes a telephone call to a
modem (rather than a dedicated data line).
DARPA The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (now the Defense
Information Systems Agency) initiated the DARPA Internet program in
1969. This network which was called an "CATENET" was the precursor to
the modern Internet.
Dialer A program that establishes and maintains your connection to the Internet,
as well as provides Winsock support. Popular dialers include Trumpet
Winsock and the Windows '95 Dial up Networking.
Dialup A temporary connection between machines established with modems over
a standard phone line.
Digital Cash Electronic cash or bank account. Automatic payroll deposits in your bank
are examples of digital cash.
Disk Storage Amount of disk space available for programming.
Discussion Forum A place on your web site where visitors can exchange their views on a
certain subject.
DNS (Domain Name Service) The Internet's distributed database system used to
map names with the appropriate IP address. The DNS is a general-purpose
distributed, replicated, data query service. The principal use is the lookup
of host IP addresses based on host names. The style of host names now
used in the Internet is called "domain name", because they are the style of
names used to look up anything in the DNS. Some important domains are
.COM (commercial), .NET (network), .EDU (educational), .GOV
(government) and .MIL (military). Most countries also have a domain. For
example, .US (United States), .UK (United Kingdom) and .AU (Australia).
Domain Name The alphabetic name for a computer host; this name is mapped to the
computer's numeric Internet Protocol (lP) address.
Download Copying files from another computer to your own computer over a
communications link.
DPI (Dots Per Inch) The spatial resolution of a graphics image, how many dots
per inch in a graphic image determine the quality of output. A high-end
printer can produce 600 - 1200+ DPI while a computer monitor is only 72
DTD (Document Type Definition) A specification for a mark-up language.
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The exchange of information through the
use of an electronic (and usually secure) messaging system.
EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation - is a non-profit civil
liberties organization working in the public interest to protect privacy, free
expression, and access to public resources and information online, as well
as to promote responsibility in new media. Founded in July of 1990, the
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is dedicated to finding ways to
resolve these and other conflicts while ensuring that essential civil liberties
are protected.
Element A unit of structure in an HTML document; many elements have start and
stop tags; some have just a single tag; some elements can contain other
E-mail Electronic Mail. The exchange of messages via networked computers to an
e-mail address. E-mail allows attaching and sending of other files.
Email Address The domain-based address that is used to send electronic mail to a
specified destination. For example, "" is the email
address for the user support of the domain.
E-mail Forwarding Automated forwarding of E-mail messages delivered to an established
e-mail address.

E-mail Autoresponding Automated e-mail response to messages received at a specified e-mail
E-mall An electronic shopping mall.
Emoticon E-mail emotions, or faces that you insert to express moods. Examples:
Smiley face :-) or unhappy face :-(
Ethernet The most common LAN transmission network.
Explorer (Internet Explorer) Microsoft's web browser
Exposures The number of times a viewer sees an advertising banner.
Extranet A close relative of an Intranet with the difference being that remote
company offices not confined to the corporate location can utilize the
Intranet via the Internet.
FAQ An acronym for Frequently Asked Questions.
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) A fiber-based token-passing LAN
technology standardized by ANSI, with dual counter-rotating rings. Each
ring carries information at the rate of 100 Mbits.
Filtering An automatic method of screening e-mail messages as they are
downloaded from the Internet. An e-mail client can be instructed to
deposit (file or trash) qualifying e-mail messages in various folders as they
are received. A filter can look at keywords, addresses, domains, subject
matter, size, etc.
Finger An Internet tool used to locate people on other Internet sites.
Firewall A gateway between two networks that screens and buffers information
passing between the networks.
Flame To post an email message intended to insult and provoke.
Flame Bait A posting intended to trigger a flame war, or one that invites flames in
Form HTML element that allows users to fill in information and submit it for
Frames An HTML programming option that permits a web page to be subdivided
into smaller sections of varying size. The "windows" can have no
relevance to each other or, they can be hyper-linked to each other.
Frame relay A communications interface that provides high-speed packet transmission
with minimum delay and efficient use of bandwidth. It assumes that all
connections are reliable and does not have error detection or control which
helps to speed up the protocol.
Freeware Software that is free but still copyright protected.
Front Page 98 extensions XcellWeb servers support sites made with Microsoft's Front Page 98 and
its new extensions. see also
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) A means to exchange files across a network.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) A storage format for images; can be used as
an inline image in an HTML document.
Gopher A protocol for disseminating information on the Internet using a system of
menus; items in the menus can be links to other documents, searches, or
links to other information services.
Graphical Browser A Web client that displays inline images and fonts and that usually offers
mouse-based point-and-click operation.
GUI (Graphical User Interface) Pronounced "gooey", a navigational command or menu interface designed to be selfexplanatory and easy to use by pointing and clicking on text selections and icons. The Windows GUI interface, although
originally pioneered in the 1970s by Xerox, is now the de-facto standard for American business.
Hacker A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal
workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular.
Hardware Type of server acting as a host server.
HDML (Handheld Device Markup Language) A developing programming
language for a new class of cellular (wireless) communications.

Header Information that appears across the top of e-mail messages, and newsgroup
articles. The header usually contains data about the sender, date message
was created, the computer path the message traveled through and other
information used for managing the message.
Hex Code The binary code name for the color used in html.
Hit A request from a browser for a single item from a web server. An overused
term when discussing traffic on a website, e.g. "We get 500,000 hits per
month." Calling one page from a server could result in dozens of "hits"
because each graphic is interpreted as a hit. In reality, counting only the
"index.htm" page or "default.htm" page would be a more accurate gauge of
Home Page A place on the web for any person or organization on the Internet to
display information to anyone else who wants to see it. A company, for
example, could put the entire contents of their brochure, or annual
statement, or technical support manual on the Web as a home page.
Host Any computer on the Internet is referred to as a host.
HotJava A Web browser capable of executing applets written in the Java
programming language.
Hotspot The region of displayed hypertext that, when selected, links the user to
another point in the hypertext or another resource.
HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language) The mechanism used to create Web pages;
Web browsers display these pages according to a browser-defined
rendering scheme.
HTML Tag Indicates document structure, elements, formatting and links to other
documents. HTML Tags also allow use of other media within a document
Example -  area affected 
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) The native protocol of the Web, used to
transfer hypertext documents.
Hypermedia Hypertext that may include multimedia: text, graphics, images, sound, and
Hyperlink A means of "jumping" from one information site to another on the same or
a different network server.
Hypertext Text that is not constrained to a single sequence for observation;
Web-based hypertext is not constrained to a single server for creating
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force - A
large open international community of network designers, operators,
vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet
architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any
interested individual. To learn more about this group, what they do and
how you may want to become involved, read "A Guide for New Attendees
of the Internet Engineering Task Force" at:
iHTML support a server-side scripting platform, which will be a boon to dynamic site
creators. iHTML Pro allows you to add programmatic logic, conditional
statements, file manipulation, math functions, ODBC connectivity and
more to your site all from within your HTML documents (no additional
files required) with an easy-to-learn HTML tag-like syntax. see also
Image Map A graphic inline image on an HTML page that potentially connects each
pixel or region of an image to a Web resource; users click on the image to
retrieve the resources.
Infobot (See autoresponder and mailbot) an automatic response to an e-mail or
web inquiry used to provide additional information about a product or

Interlaced Graphics GIF files that are interlaced permit the graphic to load gradually in the
browser window, progressively increasing the clarity.
Internet The cooperatively run, globally distributed collection of computer
networks that exchange information via the TCP/IP protocol suite.
Internet Address An IP address that uniquely identifies a node on the Internet. Internet
Protocol - (IP) The network layer for the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. It is a
connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol.
Internet Society, The Is a non-governmental International organization for global cooperation
and coordination for the Internet and its internetworking technologies and
applications. The Society's individual and organizational members are
bound by a common stake in maintaining the viability and global scaling
of the Internet. They comprise the companies, government agencies, and
foundations that have created the Internet and its technologies as well as
innovative new entrepreneurial organizations contributing to maintain that
dynamic. Visit their home pages at: to see how Internet
innovators are creatively using the network.
InterNIC is a cooperative activity between the National Science Foundation,
Network Solutions, Inc. and AT&T. Network Solutions sponsors
Registration Services, Support Services, and Net Scout Services. Click
here to visit the InterNIC on the Web.
Interpreneurs A new breed of entrepreneur who develops Internet/Intranet businesses or
Intranet is a private, internal network that operates within the walls of a company
(similar to a LAN) and is usually insulated from the outside world via an
electronic or hardware impedance called a firewall.
IP Address This is a four-part number, which everyone else on the Internet uses to
uniquely identify your network.
IPng Internet Protocol Next Generation is a working group of the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) that is responsible for solving the IP
address shortage due to occur after the millenium.
IRC (Internet Relay Chat) A worldwide "party line" network that allows one to
converse with others in real time. IRC is structured as a network of
Internet servers, each of which accepts connections from client programs,
one per user.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Switched digital networking that
handles a range of digital voice and digital image transmission. It provides
end-to-end, simultaneous handling of voice and data on the same digital
links via integrated switches.
ISO (International Standards Organization) An international organization that
sets standards for many things, including, for example, the ISO Latin-1
character set. (See
ISP (Internet Service
Provider) A Company or Entity that provides Internet access to the public.
Java An object-oriented programming language for creating distributed,
executable applications.
Java Script A non-compiled command language used in HTML applications where the
instructions are managed by the browser.
Java Servlet Xcellweb servers support using fast server-side Java . Included class
library makes building complex server-side applications in Java a breeze.
JDK (Java Development Kit) The development kit from Sun Microsystems that
provides the basic tools needed to write, test and debug Java.
JEPI (Joint Electronic Payment Initiative) developed by the World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) to help facilitate electronic commerce.
J-mail Electronic junk mail.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group) A graphic compression and
decompression standard.
Kbps Kilobits per second. A measure of digital information transmission rates.
(1 kilobit = 1,000 bits)
Kermit A popular file transfer protocol developed by Columbia University.
Because Kermit runs in most operating environments, it provides an easy
method of file transfer. Kermit is not the same as FTP.
Keyword(s) The descriptive text included in HTML programming which is indexed by
search engines. E.g. keywords such as motor, engine, tires, etc. would be
included in a site geared to automobiles.
LAN A local area network.
Lexis-Nexis Although fee-based, this database consisting
of extensive news and general interest subjects is one of the most powerful
research sites in the world.
Link A connection between one hypertext document and another.
Listservers (Listserv) A software program used to manage e-mail discussion groups.
Log Files Files that record and store raw data of web site traffic.
Lurk To hang around a Newsgroup without participating. A person who is lurking is just listening to the discussion. Lurking
is encouraged for beginning users who wish to become acquainted with a particular discussion before joining in.
Lynx A nongraphical Web browser, developed by the University of Kansas.
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification for multimedia
document formats.
Mailbot (see Infobot or Autoresponder) A program that automatically responds to
incoming e-mail requests.
Mail Server A software program that distributes files or information in response to requests sent via e-mail. Internet
examples include Almanac and netlib. Mail servers have also been used in BITNet to provide FTP-like services.
Mailing list An e-mail address which expands to multiple e-mail addresses. Usually
they are confined to specific topics of information.
MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface) Is Microsoft's standard
for the interface to e-mail.
Matrix The set of all networks that can exchange electronic mail either directly or
through gateways. This includes the Internet, BITNET, FidoNet, UUCP,
and commercial services such as America Online, CompuServe, Delphi,
Prodigy, as well as other networks. This term was coined by John S.
Quarterman in his book, The Matrix (Digital Press, 1990).
mbps Megabits per second. A measure of digital information transmission rates.
(1 megabit = 1,000 kilobits)
Megabit Approximately one million bits of data.
Megabyte Approximately one million bytes of data.
Merchant Bank A banking company that handles corporate transactions. A merchant bank
enables a business to receive and clear credit card transactions on line. A
merchant bank is the one who actually transfers money from a buyer's
account to a seller's account as a result of goods or services being sold.
META tags Commands in HTML that instruct the browser or search engines to
perform specific tasks, identify keywords, site definitions, page authors,
plug-in requirements, etc. that are invisible to the user.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) a protocol that permits sounds from
musical instruments to be converted to a program and read by a computer.
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification in multimedia
Modem A hardware device that connects to the phone lines that permits computers
to exchange information. Modems convert binary data into analog for the
purpose of passing that data over copper phone lines.
Moderator A person, or small group of people, who manage moderated mailing lists

and Usenet newsgroups. Moderators are responsible for determining which
e-mail submissions are passed onto a list.
Moderated Newsgroup A newsgroup whose articles are sent via e-mail to the group's moderator,
who checks material before they are posted.
Monthly Price Monthly hosting fee associated with each level of web hosting service.
Mosaic A graphical Web browser originally developed by the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); now includes a number of
commercially licensed products.
MS SQL Server Supports the installation and operation of a MS SQL database on the web
MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) Adventures, role-playing games or simulations
played on the Internet. Devotees call them "text-based virtual reality
adventures". Players interact in real time and can modify the "world" in
which the game is played. Most MUDs are based on the Telnet protocol.
Multi-tasking The simultaneous execution of two or more assignments by one program
or the coordinated use of one program that performs many functions at the
same time.
Narrowcasting A term that describes the distribution of information (or TV programs)
designed for minority interests rather than the mass appeal targeted by
Navigating The act of observing the content of the Web for some purpose.
NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) At the University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; developers and distributors of NCSA
The Net An informal term for the Internet or a subset (or a superset) of the Matrix
in context. For example, a computerized conference via e-mail may take
place on a BITNET host that has an Internet gateway, thus making the
conference available to anyone on either of these networks.
Netscape A web browser (Navigator) and by default, the name of the authoring
company. The Netscape( browser was based on the Mosaic program
developed at NCSA.
Netiquette ("network etiquette") The conventions of politeness (Miss Manners
etiquette of the Internet) recognized on USENET, such as avoidance of
cross-posting to inappropriate groups and refraining from "commercial
pluggery" outside the biz (business) newsgroups.
Newbie A new Internet user.
Network Connectivity Speed of connection attached to the host server.
Newsgroup A collection of articles (postings) sent to a specific place on the Internet
regarding a specific theme.
NIC (Network Information Center) A NIC provides information, assistance and
services to network users. The Internet Network Information Center
(InterNIC) is a project administered by AT&T and Network Solutions, Inc.
(NSI). AT&T provides directory and database services for registered
Internet hosts, while NSI administers the registration process.
Nickname A name that you select when you connect to an IRC server. Many users
choose descriptive nicknames that have no relevance to their real identity.
NOC Network Operations Center
NOS Network Operating System
Node A device on a network that requests or provides services. A node is also
used to describe a network workstation.
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) A protocol for the distribution,
retrieval and posting of Usenet articles through high-speed links available
on the Internet.

NSFNET The National Science Foundation started the Supercomputer Centers
program in 1986. NSF's idea was to construct five supercomputer centers
around the country and build a network that would link them with users.
This would be the core of the U.S. Internet, until its privatization and
retirement in 1995.
NSI Network Solutions Inc. was awarded the InterNIC contract worth $5.9
million a year by NSF. NSI began registering domains at the rate of
approximately 400 per month.
NT (New Technology) Windows NT is Microsoft's 32-bit version of
Windows. It is a standalone operating system (OS) that is also a "network
ready" system.
OCR (Optical Character Recognition) Software that converts scanned images of
text documents into files, which can then be imported into a word
ODBC support Xcellweb hosting clients can host their ODBC compliant databases for
access from their web sites.
OFX (Open Financial Exchange) Messaging specifications created by Microsoft,
Intuit and Checkfree.
Merchant Store Front Database Package Hosting clients may request the installation a merchat
store front enabling them to sell products and take orders over the internet.
The store front include an advanced shopping cart system as well as
automatic shipping fees calculation.They can build their own store online
through a web browser, no need for programming knowledge. A storefront
example can be found here.
Operating System Operating system installed on host server.
OS (Operating System) DOS, Windows 3.1, Win95, UNIX, OS2, etc. are basic
operating systems for computers.
Packet A set of data handled as a unit in data transmission.
Packet Switching A method of transferring data in a network where individual packets are
accepted by the network and delivered to the prescribed destination.
Packets can be distributed in any order because the control data sent at the
beginning of the transmission ensures they are interpreted in the correct
sequence once received. Because each packet carries its own instructions,
it can use any route to reach its destination.
Page A single file of hypertext mark-up language.
Path Name The list of directories you pass through to get to embedded directories.
Pathnames begin with a slash (/) and directory names are separated by a
PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) Handheld computing and communication
PDF A file format exclusive to the Adobe Acrobat Reader that can be
downloaded and viewed off-line.
PEP (Protocol Extension Protocol) is an extension to HTTP.
Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) A scripting language
written by Larry Wall used for text manipulation and popular for writing
gateway applications.
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) encrypts and decrypts files and messages using
some of the strongest encryption technology available to U. S. civilians.
Ping The TCP/IP service that lets you check to verify that you can reach another
network node from your local host. Ping is usually a quick test to ensure
that your connection is valid. The command will return the time in
milliseconds that a packet takes to make the round trip from your local
host to the remote host.
Plug-ins An application that allows you to view different information formats in

your browser window.
POP Point-of-Presence. A linked group of modems, routers and other
equipment, located in a particular city or metropolitan area, allowing local
subscribers to access the Internet through a local telephone call.
POP 2/3 (Post Office Protocol) A protocol designed to allow single user hosts to
read e-mail from a server. There are three versions: POP, POP2 and POP3.
Later versions are not compatible with earlier versions.
POP E-mail Post Office Protocol Electronic mail address at your domain name.
Example: POP E-mail is the standard for the
exchange of messages via networked computers to an e-mail address.
Posting The method of sending e-mail message to a Newsgroup or electronic
bulletin board.
Postmaster The email contact and maintenance person at a site connected to the
Internet. Often, but not always, the same as the admin.
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) Copper phone wires or twisted pair, the
same wiring that connects to your home or office.
PPP Point to Point Protocol. A communications protocol that allows dial-up
access to Internet over telephone lines.
Promotion A service by Xcellweb to promote the client's web site in the top 15 search
Protocol message formats (rules) that two or more machines must observe to
exchange information. To print a document on a network printer, strict
protocols must be adhered to or the operation can not proceed.
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) The old-fashioned telephone
system with which we all grew up. See POTS.
PUSH (As opposed to "PULL" technology) Information is delivered to a desktop
or other receiving device in real time as new information becomes
available. This is as a result of a user defining areas of interest, industries,
and keywords via a personal profile with the PUSH service provider.
QuickTime (QT) A format developed by Apple Computer for working with data files,
such as sounds and video. A QuickTime file is indicated by a ".mov"
(movie) filename.
Radio Button A round selection (check box) field in software programs and web forms
that when checked, looks like a knob from an old radio.
RAM Random Access Memory is temporary memory that your computer uses to
store information. Text copied to the "clipboard" is stored in RAM until it
is replaced by new information or the computer is turned off.
Real Audio™ A browser plug-in used to listen to live or on-demand music in real-time
across the Internet at 14.4K baud or higher.
RFC (Request for Comments) A series of documents that describes standards or
proposes new standards for Internet protocols and technologies.
RNA Ring No Answer. This is the symptom used to describe a modem at a local
POP that rings, but does not pick up the incoming call.
Robot A term for software programs that automatically explore the Web for a
variety of purposes; robots that collect resources for later database queries
by users are sometimes called spiders.
Routing the process used on the Internet to deliver data packets to their intended
destination. A router processes the data packet and reads the destination
address included in the IP header then determines the next (router) stop
that will take the packet closer to its destination. The process is repeated
until the packet arrives at its final target.
RTFM An acronym for "Read The Freaking Manual". Advice given to Newbies
who ask questions before looking for the answers in the appropriate

Screen Capture A method of "capturing" a snapshot of your computer screen. Pressing the
"Print Scrn" key on your keyboard will place an image of your computer
screen in memory. Pasting (Ctrl V) that image into any graphics program
will permit you to crop and edit that scene.
Search Engines Resources that are used to locate information on the Internet.
Site indexing Enabling web pages to be indexed for search.
Server A software application that provides information or services based on
requests from client programs.
SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) a new Internet standard from MasterCard
and VISA.
Set up One time set up fee associated with each level of web hosting service.
SGML Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language; a standard for defining mark-up
languages; HTML is an instance of SGML. (See
Shareware Software that you try out for a certain period of time and then pay for it if
you wish to keep using it.
Shelfware Software purchased on a whim (by an individual user) or in accordance
with policy (by a corporation or government agency), but not actually
required for any particular use. Therefore, it often ends up on some shelf.
Shell The user interface to an operating environment. Unix has several,
including the Bourne shell (sh), the C shell (csh), and the Korn shell (ksh).
Shockwave™ A browser plug-in from Macromedia that permits you to view animated
multimedia presentations on the web.
Signature Text that can be automatically added to the bottom of e-mail messages or
newsgroups articles.
Site A file section of a computer on which Web documents (or other
documents served in another protocol) reside; for example, a Web site, a
Gopher site, an FTP site.
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol. A communications protocol that allows
direct, dial-up access to the Internet over phone lines.
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Set of rules that the Internet uses for
moving e-mail messages.
SPAM Causing a newsgroup to be flooded with irrelevant or inappropriate
messages. SPAMing is considered one of the worst examples of bad
Snail Mail The traditional mail service offered by the U.S. Postal Service.
Spider A software program that traverses the Web to collect information about
resources for later queries by users seeking to find resources; major
species of active spiders include Lycos and WebCrawler.
SQL (Structured Query Language) A standardized query language used for
querying databases in client/server applications.
Subject Line The line in e-mail messages where you insert the subject being discussed.
This is an important place to add "spin" to a marketing message.
Surfing The act of navigating the Web, typically using techniques for rapidly
processing information in order to find subjectively valuable resources.
SysOp The person responsible for maintenance of a given computer system. Short
for "System Operator".
Thawte Secure Certificate Allows XcellWeb clients to purchase their own secure certificate from
Thawte. see also
T-1 Data communications line capable of transmitting at speeds of 1.54 Mbps.
T-3 Data communications line capable of transmitting at speeds of 45 Mbps.
Tag The format code used to make up part of an HTML element; for example,
the TITLE element has a start tag, and an end tag.
TCP/IP The protocol used to connect two computers, and it is the foundation of
the Internet. The Internet is TCP/IP, and usually it is implemented on top

of UNIX, except at the final desktop destination, where it might be on a
Windows PC, a DOS PC, or a Mac.
Telnet A protocol for sharing information across networks using a technique for
terminal emulation; appears as if user is "logged in" to remote computer.
Terabyte 1000 gigabytes.
Themes In Microsoft FrontPage 98, Themes provide a consistent look throughout a
website. More than 50 professionally designed thematic templates include
backgrounds, fonts, page headers, and navigation buttons.
Threads In a discussion group or mailing list, a message thread is a series of e-mail
responses to a particular subject strung together as in "following the
TIA (The Internet Adapter) A product that emulates a SLIP or PPP connection
over a serial line, allowing shell users to run a SLIP/PPP session through a
Unix dialup account. "TIA" is also used informally as an abbreviation for
"Thanks in advance".
Transaction processing Taking orders (usually via a secure procedure) and processing credit card
Trojan Horse A computer program which carries within itself a means to allow the
program's creator access to the system using it.
Troll A term used to define a public message (either on a USENET newsgroup
or other public message board on an online service) that is posted for the
sole purpose of offending people and/or generating an enormous flood of
non-topic replies. TTFN - Ta-Ta For Now
UCE Unsolicited Commercial E-mail, or another term for SPAM
Upload Copying files from your own computer onto another computer over a
communications link.
UPP (Universal Payment Preamble) Internet payment negotiation protocol that
is an extension to HTTP.
Urban Legend A story, which may have started with a grain of truth, that has been
embroidered and retold until it has passed into the realm of myth. Is an
interesting phenomenon that these stories become spread so far, so fast and
so often. Examples of Urban Legends relating to the Internet include "The
Infamous Modem Tax", "Craig Shergold/Brain Tumor Get Well Cards",
and "The Good Times Virus".
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) The scheme for addressing on the Web; a
URL identifies a resource on the Web.
Usenet A system for disseminating asynchronous text discussion among
cooperating computer hosts; the Usenet discussion space is divided into
newsgroups, each on a particular topic or subtopic.
userID A compression of "user identification"; the userID always proceeds the @
sign in an email address.
Username A username consists of 1 to 8 characters, and only uses numbers 0 through
9 and the 26 alphabet letters. Usernames do not have spaces. usernames
are the first part of an e-mail address: You must
have a username and a services password to log in to a mailbox.
UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX Command Protocol) This was initially a program run
under the Unix operating system that allowed one Unix system to send
files to another Unix system via dialup phone lines. Today, the term is
more commonly used to describe the large international network, which
uses the UUCP protocol to pass news and electronic mail.
UUdecoding The restoration of uuencoded data to its original form.
UUencode (Unix to Unix Encoding) A process used to convert binary files (graphics)
to ASCII (text) so that they can be transmitted across the Internet via an
e-mail attachment.

Veronica A service that maintains an index of titles of items on gopher servers, and
provides keyword searches of those titles.
Domain name Enabling clients to have their own domain name in the form of (Xcellweb registers the new domain on behalf of
the client).
Virtual LAN A logical vs. a physical (wired) LAN made up of workgroups and
individuals brought together for a particular project with most member's
location being apart from the others.
Virus A program that when loaded infects, alters or destroys other programs.
Some virus programs cause major trouble and some are nothing more than
annoying pranks.
VR (Virtual Reality) A place or event that exists only in cyberspace but is
programmed to have the appearance of a real experience.
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) A specification for three-dimensional
rendering used in conjunction with Web browsers.
Xcellweb Secure Key Allows Customers to transmit creitical data such as credit card information
securely over the Internet using Xcellweb SSL Certificate Key
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium - An international
industry consortium committed to developing public protocols for the
World Wide Web. Currently, the W3C is contemplating HTML 4.0 specs
including XML, digital signatures and they are the developers of the Joint
Electronic Payment Initiative (JEPI)
WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) A distributed information service which
offers simple natural language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval
and a "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial
searches to influence future searches. Public domain implementations are
available. See also: Archie, Gopher, Veronica.
WAN Wide Area Network. A communications network which connects
geographically dispersed users.
Weaving The act of creating and linking Web pages.
Web Trends Report A detailed report with graphical statistics on your site visitors generated
buy the famous package WebTrends . See also
WAV Pronounced "wave", an audio file used extensively on the Internet and in
computer software programs. (i.e.: filename.wav)
Web A set of hypertext pages that is considered a single work; typically, a
single web is created by cooperating authors or an author and deployed on
a single server with links to other servers; a subset of the Web.
Web (World Wide Web) A hypertext information and communication system
popularly used on the Internet computer network with data
communications operating according to a client/server model. Web clients
(browsers) can access multi-protocol and hypermedia information (where
appropriate multimedia helper applications are available for the browser)
using an addressing scheme.
Web server Software that provides the services to web clients.
WebBots See robots.
Website A collection of web pages or a domain on the World Wide Web
Webutize A new slang term, putting a business on the Web.
Whois An Internet program which allows users to query a database of people and
other Internet entities, such as domains, networks and hosts.
Windows A computer operating system developed by Microsoft providing graphical
user interface and multitasking capabilities.
Windows CE A new operating system for PDAs and handheld devices which is basically
a scaled down version of Win95.
Winsock Industry standard specifying how TCP/IP-based network applications

should communicate with TCP/IP protocol software.
Wizards Software "question and answer applications" that perform a function after
presenting the user with selectable options. A set-up wizard may ask, "Do
you want white or black text" or "Do you want fries with your order".
Worm A computer program, which replicates itself and is self-propagating.
Worms, as opposed to viruses, are meant to spawn in network
environments. Network worms were first defined by Shoch and Hupp of
Xerox in ACM Communications (March 1982). The Internet worm of
November 1988 is perhaps the most famous; it successfully propagated
itself on over 6,000 systems across the Internet. See also: Trojan Horse,
WS-FTP A file transfer program that is used to upload/download files and text to
your Web Site. Designed for non-programmers but sophisticated enough
for power users, WS_FTP Pro is widely recognized as the fastest, most
powerful Windows file transfer client application available.
WWW The World Wide Web. The WWW is a global network of HTML based
documents that allow visual and interactive communication to take place.
A Home Page or a Web Page is part of this World Wide Web.
WYSIWYG An acronym for What You See is What You Get. Pronounced
Xanadu under development since the1960s, Xanadu is the original hypertext and
interactive multimedia program.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) like HTML, is an outgrowth of SGML that
permits developers to control and display data in the same way they
control text and graphics today. XML is not a replacement for HTML.
X Window System A windowing system supporting graphical user interfaces to applications.
YAHOO An acronym for Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle, and Yahoo was one of the first
and remains as one of the best Internet search engines.
YP (Yellow Pages) A service used by Unix administrators to manage
databases distributed across a network. Now known as NIS (Network Information Services).
Zine As in magazine, a (usually) free Internet publication.
Zip A type of file compression used most often on the Internet. The file extension for a zipped file is .ZIP.


The MIPS Project - MAD
AOT Astronomical Observation Template
BOA Beginning Of Activity
BOT Beginning Of Track
CCSDS Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
CDR Central Data Recorder (Records the downlink data at TMOD.)
CDR Critical Design Review
CIDS Critical Item Development Specification
CLCW Command Link Control Word
CMLB Ceramic Multi-Layer Board
CTA Cryogenic Telescope Assembly (SIRTF without instruments and spacecraft.)
CTIA Capacitive Feedback Transimpedance Amplifier
DB Database
DCE Data Collection Event
DQE Detective Quantum Efficiency
EOA End Of Activity
EOT End Of Track
EOT Engineering Observation Template (Communicate engineering data to S/C.)
ERT Earth Relative Time
ESD Electrostatic Discharge
ESDS Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive
FPA Focal Plane Array
FPM Focal Plane Module
FRR Facility Requirements Review
FSW Flight Software
GTO Guaranteed Time Observer (A big cheese that does nor need a proposal. )
HK Housekeeping
HST Hubble Space Telescope (Lot of money in the sky.)
ICD Interface Control Document
IOC In-Orbit Checkout
IRAC Infrared Array Camera (One of three instruments on SIRTF.)
IRAS Infrared Astronomy Satellite (The granddad of SIRTF.)
IRD Interface Requirement Document
IRS Infrared Spectrograph (One of three instruments on SIRTF.)
IRS Internal Revenue Service (Not really part of SIRTF, we hope.)
ISO Infrared Space Observatory (A poor man's SIRTF. On the other hand it is in space and not on paper.)
IT Instrument Team (MIPS, IRS, IRAC)
IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer (Almost dead now.)
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
MDIRD Mission Data Interface Requirements Document (Who talks to whom?)
MDS Mission Data System
MIPS Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF (The best of SIRTF)
MIPS Multimission Image Processing System (Not related to SIRTF!!!)

MOC Mission Operations Center
MOS Mission Operations System
MRR Mission Requirements Request
MTF Modulation Transfer Function
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ORR Observatory Requirements Review
PCS Pointing Control System (What are we looking at? and When?)
PDR Preliminary Design Review
PI Principal Investigator
PMDSRR Preliminary Mission Data System Requirements Review
QA Quality Assurance
S/C (SIRTF without instruments and CTA)
SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
SBRC Santa Barbara Research Center
SCET Spacecraft Event Time
SCLK Spacecraft Clock
SDT SIRTF Design Team
SIRTF Space Infrared Telescope Facility
SOC Science Operations Center (IPAC)
SOS Science Operations System
SOWG Science Operations Working Group
TBA To Be Announced
TBD To Be Determined, Delivered, Designed, Developed, ... (We don't know this yet.)
TBR To Be Resolved
TMOD Telecommunication and Mission Operations Directorate (The antennae.)
TXR Transmitter
UC University of California
UC User Community
UTCS Universal Time Coordinate System


Leviton Manuf. - Newton’s Telecom Dictionary
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode. ATM is a high band-width,
low delay, packet-like switching and multiplexing tech-nique.
Usable capacity is segmented into fixed-size cells,
consisting of header and information fields.
Attenuation The decrease in the power of a signal, light
beam, or light wave. Measured in decibels. Opposite of gain.
AWG American Wire Gauge. Standard measuring gauge for
non-ferrous conductors (i.e., non-iron and non-steel). Gauge is
a measure of the diameter of the conductor (the thickness of the

Backbone Wiring The physical/electrical interconnections
between telecommunications closets and equipment rooms.
Cross-connect hardware and cabling in the Main and Interme-diate
Cross-Connects are considered part of the backbone
Bandwidth The difference between the highest and the
lowest frequencies of a transmission channel (path for infor-mation
transmission). Identifies the amount of data that can be
sent through a given channel. Measured in Hertz (Hz); higher
bandwidth numbers mean higher data capacity.
BICSI (Building Industry Consulting Service International)
Bicsi is a non-profit industry association, concerned with
promoting correct methods for all aspects of the installation of
communications wiring.
Bus A network topology in which nodes are connected to a
single cable with terminations at each end.

Channel The end-to-end transmission path between two
points at which application-specific equipment is connected.
CO Central Office. Telephone company facility where sub-scribers’
lines are joined to switching equipment for connection
to each other, locally and long distance. Sometimes the same
as the overseas term “public exchange”.
Coaxial Cable A cable composed of an insulated central
conducting wire wrapped in another cylindrical conductor (the
shield). The whole thing is usually wrapped in another insulat-ing
layer and an outer protective layer. A coaxial cable has
great capacity to carry vast quantities of information. It is
typically used in high-speed data and CATV applications.
Compliance A wiring device that meets all characteristics of
a standard is said to be in compliance with that standard.
Example: a data jack meeting all of the physical, electrical &
transmission standards for TIA-568A Category 5 is compliant
with that standard. See also Device and Performance.
Conductor Any substance, usually a wire or cable, that can
carry (i.e., offer a relatively small opposition to the passage of)
an electrical current.
Connecting Block Also called a terminal block, a punch-down
block, a quick-connect block, a crossconnect block. A
plastic block containing metal wiring terminals to establish
connections from one group of wires to another. Usually each
wire can be connected to several other wires in a bus or
common arrangement. There are several types of connecting
blocks: 66 clip, BIX, Krone, 110, etc. A connecting block has
insulation displacement connections (IDCs), which means you
don’t have to remove insulation from around the wire conductor
before you “punch it down” (terminate it).

Connector A device that connects wires or fibers in cable to
equipment or other wires or fibers. Wire and optical connectors
most often join transmission media to equipment or cross
connects. A connector at the end of a telephone cable or wire
is used to join that cable to another cable with a mating
connector or to some other telecommunications device.
Crossconnect Distribution system equipment used to ter-minate
and administer communication circuits. In a wire
crossconnect, jumper wires or patch cords are used to make
circuit connections. In an optical crossconnect, fiber patch
cords are used. The crossconnect is located in an equipment
room, riser closet, or satellite closet.
Crosstalk See Near-End Crosstalk.

Daisy Chain In telecommunications, a wiring method where
each telephone jack in a building is wired in series from the
previous jack. Daisy chain is NOT the preferred wiring method,
since a break in the wiring would disable all jacks "downstream"
from the break. See also Home Run.
dB (Decibel). A dB is a unit of measure of signal strength,
usually the relation between a transmitted signal and a stan-dard
signal source. Every 3 dB = 50% of signal strength, so
therefore a 6 dB loss = a loss of 75% of total signal strength.
Demarcation Point The point of interconnection between
telephone company facilities and your building wiring. The
demarcation point ("demarc") shall be located on the subscriber’s
side of the telephone company’s protector, or the equivalent
thereof in cases where a protector is not required.
Device As distinguished from equipment. In telecommuni-cations,
a “device” is the physical interconnection outlet. Equip-ment
(a computer, phone, fax machine, etc.) then plugs into the
device. See also Equipment and Plug.
Distribution Device A facility located within the dwelling
unit for interconnection or cross connection.

Drop Wire Outside wire pair(s) from the telco plant (cable),
to a house or building for connection to a protector.
DTMF Acronym for Dual Tone, Multi-Frequency. See Tone Dial.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) The interference in
signal transmission or reception caused by the radiation of
electrical and magnetic fields.
Equipment As distinguished from Device. Telecommunica-tions
equipment (computers, phones, faxes, etc.) plug into the
telecommunications outlet or device. See also Device.
Ethernet A local area network used for connecting comput-ers,
printers, workstations, terminals, etc. within the same build-ing.
Ethernet operates over twisted pair wire and over coaxial
cable at speeds up to 10 Mbps. Ethernet LANs are being
promoted by DEC, Intel and Xerox. Compare with Token Ring.

FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface. FDDI is a 100 Mbps
fiber optic LAN. It is an ANSI standard. It uses a “counter-rotated”
Token ring topology. An FDDI LAN is typically known
as a “backbone” LAN. It is used for joining file servers together
and for joining other LANs together.


Gain The increase in signaling power that occurs as the
signal is boosted by an electronic device. Measured in
decibels (dB).

Headroom (also called Overhead or Margin) The number
of decibels by which a system exceeds the minimum defined
requirements. The benefit of headroom is that it reduces the
bit-error rate (BER), and provides a performance 'safety net'
to help ensure that current and future high speed applications
will run at peak accuracy, efficiency and throughput.
Home Run Phone system wiring where the individual cables
run from each phone directly back to the central switching
equipment. Home run cabling can be thought of as “star”
cabling. Every cable radiates out from the central equipment.
All PBXs and virtually all key systems work on home run cabling.
Some local area networks work on home run wiring. See also
Star Wiring, Daisy Chain.
Hub The point on a network where a bunch of circuits are
connected. Also, a switching node. In Local Area Networks, a
hub is the core of a star as in ARCNET, StarLAN, Ethernet, and
Token Ring. Hub hardware can be either active or passive.
Wiring hubs are useful for their centralized management capa-bilities
and for their ability to isolate nodes from disruption.
Hybrid Connector A connector containing both optical fiber
and electrical conductors.

Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC) A type of wire


termination in which the wire is “punched down” into a metal
holder which cuts into the insulation wire and makes contact
with the conductor, thus causing the electrical connection to be
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame. A metal rack designed
to connect cables and located in an equipment room or closet.
Consists of components that provide the connection between
inter-building cabling and the intra-building cabling, i.e. be-tween
the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) and individual phone
wiring. There’s usually a permanent, large cable running be-tween
the MDF and IDF. The changes in wiring are done at the
IDF. This saves confusion in wiring.
IEEE 802.3 IEEE stands for the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers, a publishing and standards-making body
responsible for many standards used in LANs, including the
802 series. Ethernet and StarLan both follow the 802.3 stan-dard.
Typically they transmit at 10 megabits per second. This
is the most common local area network specification.
Impedance The total opposition (i.e. resistance and reac-tance)
a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current. It is
measured in ohms, and the lower the ohmic value, the better the
quality of the conductor.
Interconnect 1. A circuit administration point, other than a
crossconnect or an information outlet, that provides capability for
routing and rerouting circuits. It does not use patch cords or
jumper wires, and typically is a jack-and-plug device used in
smaller distribution arrangements or that connects circuits in
large cables to those in smaller cables. 2. An Interconnect
Company is one which sells, installs, and maintains telephone
systems for end users, typically businesses.
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. According to AT&T,
today’s public switched phone network has many limitations;
ISDN’s vision is to overcome these deficiencies.

Jack A receptacle used in conjunction with a plug to make
electrical contact between communication circuits. Jacks and
their associated plugs are used in a variety for connecting
hardware applications including cross connects, interconnects,
information outlets, and equipment connections. Jacks are used
to connect cords or lines to telephone systems. A jack is the
female component of a plug/jack connector system, and may be
standard, modified, or keyed. See also Plug and RJ.

LAN Local Area Network. A short distance network (typically
within a building or campus) used to link together computers
and peripheral devices (such as printers) under some form of
standard control.
Link A transmission path between two points, not including
terminal equipment, work area cables and equipment cables.
Loop 1. Typically a complete electrical circuit. 2. The loop is
also the pair of wires that winds its way from the central office
to the telephone set or system at the customer’s office, home or
factory (i.e., 'premises' in telephony terms)..

Mbps MegaBits Per Second. One million bits per second.
MDF Main Distribution Frame. A wiring arrangement which
connects the telephone lines coming from outside on one side
and the internal lines on the other. A main distribution frame may
also carry protective devices as well as function as a central
testing point.
MHz MegaHertz. A unit of frequency denoting one million
Hertz (i.e., 1,000,000 cycles per second).
MMJ Modified Modular Jack. A six-wire modular jack with
the locking tab shifted off to the right hand side. Used in the DEC
wiring system.
Modular Equipment is said to be modular when it is made of
“plug-in units” which can be added together to make the
system larger, improve the capabilities, or expand its size.
Multimedia Applications that communicate information by
more than one means.

Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT) Electrical noise coupled from
one pair of wires to another within a multi-pair cable.
Network A network ties things together. Computer networks
connect all types of computers and computer- related things—
terminals, printers, modems, door entry sensors, temperature
monitors, etc. The networks we’re most familiar with are long
distance ones, like phones and trains. Local Area Networks
(LANs) connect computer equipment within a building or campus.

Off-Hook When the handset is lifted from its cradle, it’s off-hook.
The term originated when the early handsets were
actually suspended from a metal hook on the phone. In modern
phones, when the handset is removed from its hook or cradle,
it completes the electrical loop, thus signaling the central office
to provide dial tone.
On-Hook When the phone handset is resting in its cradle. The
phone is not connected to any particular line. Only the bell is
active—i.e., it will ring if a call comes in. Opposite of Off-Hook.
Open (Fault) Means that the circuit is not complete or the

cable/fiber is broken.
Outlet A telecommunications outlet is a single-piece cable
termination assembly (typically on the floor or in the wall),
containing one or more modular telecom jacks. Such jacks
might be RJs, coaxial terminators, fiber optic couplers, etc. See
also Device and Equipment.

Part 68 Requirements Specifications established by the
FCC as the minimum acceptable protection communications
equipment must provide the telephone network.
Patching A means of connecting circuits via cords and
connectors that can be easily disconnected and reconnected
at another point. May be accomplished by using modular cords
connected between jack fields or by patch cord assemblies
that plug onto connecting blocks.
PBX Private Branch Exchange. A small, privately-owned
version of the phone company’s larger telephone central
switching office.
Performance Compare with Compliance. A device can
exhibit performance characteristics without being compliant to
an industry standard.
Plug A male component of a plug/jack connector system. In
premises wiring, a plug provides the means for a user to
connect communications equipment to the communications
Polarity Which side of an electrical circuit is the posi-tive?
Which is the negative? Polarity is the term describing
which is which.
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service. The basic service
supplying standard single line telephones, telephone lines
and access to the public switched network. Just receive and
place calls. No added features like Call Waiting or Call
Power Sum A test method for four pair cable whereby the
mathematical sum of pair-to-pair crosstalk from three pairs
to one pair is measured.
Premises Telephony term for the space occupied by a
customer or authorized/joint user in a building(s) on continu-ous
or contiguous property (except railroad rights of way,
etc.) not separated by a public road or highway.
Premises Wiring System The entire wiring system on the
user’s premises, especially the supporting wiring that con-nects
the communications outlets to the network interface jack.

RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company. Seven RBOCs
exist, each of which owns two or more Bell Operating Com-panies
(BOCs). The RBOCs were carved out of the old AT&T/
Bell System during the divestiture of the Bell operating
companies from AT&T in 1984.
RCDD The RCDD (Registered Communications Distri-bution
Designer) title is a professional rating granted by
BICSI (the Building Industry Consulting Service Interna-tional).
RCDDs have demonstrated a superior level of knowl-edge
of the telecommunications wiring industry and asso-ciated
Return Loss A measure of the similarity of the impedance
of a transmission line and the impedance at its terminations.
It is a ratio, expressed in decibels, of the power of the
outgoing signal to the power of the signal reflected back.
Ring As in Tip and Ring. One of the two wires needed to set
up a telephone connection. See Tip.
RJ Registered Jack. RJs are telephone and data jacks/
applications registered with the FCC. Numbers, like RJ-11,
RJ-45, etc. are widely misused in the telecommunications

industry. A much more precise way to identify a jack is to
specify the number of positions (width of opening) and
number of conductors. Example: "8-position, 8-conductor

jack" or "6-position, 4-conductor jack"..



Series Wiring See Daisy Chain.
Service Loop When a device is terminated to the wire in
the communications outlet, a fair amount of “slack” should
be left on the wire and wound in the box to accommodate
future trimming when devices are changed out.
Splice The joining of two or more cables together by
connecting the conductors pair-to-pair.
Standards Agreed principles of protocol. Standards
are set by committees working under various trade and
international organizations.
Star Wiring See Home Run.

T1 A standard for digital transmission in North
America. A digital transmission link with a capacity of
1.544 Mbps (1,544,000 bits per second.) T1 lines are used
for connecting networks across remote distances. Bridges
and routers are used to connect LANs over T1 networks.
Talk Battery The DC voltage supplied by the central
office to the subscriber’s loop so as to allow you to have a
voice conversation.
Telco An Americanism for TELephone COmpany.
Ten Base-T See10Base-T at end of Glossary.
Terminate To connect a wire conductor to something,
typically a piece of equipment.
Tip 1.Ê The first wire in a pair of wires. (The second wire is
called the “ring” wire.) 2.Ê A conductor in a telephone cable
pair which is usually connected to positive side of a battery
at the telco. It is the phone industry’s equivalent of Ground
in a normal electrical circuit. See Ring.
Tone Dial A push-button telephone dial that makes a
different sound (in fact, a combination of two tones) for
each number pushed. The technically correct name for
tone dial is Dual Tone Multi Frequency, or DTMF.
Token Ring A ring topology for a local area network
(LAN) in which a supervisory frame, or token, must be
received by an attached terminal or workstation before that
terminal or workstation can start transmitting. The worksta-tion
with the token then transmits and uses the entire
bandwidth of whatever communications media the token
ring network is using.
A token ring can be wired as a circle or a star, with the
workstations wired to a central wiring center, or to multiple
wiring centers. The most common wiring scheme is called
a star-wired ring. Whatever the wiring, a token ring LAN
always works logically as a circle, with the token passing
around the circle from one workstation to another.
The advantage of token ring LANs is that media faults
(broken cable) can be fixed easily, since it’s easy to isolate
the faults. Token rings are typically installed in centralized
closets, with loops snaking to served workstations.
Topology As in network topology. The geometric physical
or electrical configuration describing a local communication
network; the shape or arrangement of a system. The most
common topologies are the bus, ring and star.
TP-PMD Twisted Pair - Physical Media Dependent.
Technology under review by the ANSI X3T9.5 working group
that allows 100 Mbps transmission over twisted-pair cable.
Twisted Pair Two insulated copper wires twisted around

each other to reduce induction (thus interference) from one
wire to the other. The twists, or lays, are varied in length to
reduce the potential for signal interference between pairs.
Several sets of twisted pair wires may be enclosed in a single
cable. In cables greater than 25 pairs, the twisted pairs are
grouped and bound together.

UL Underwriters Laboratories, a privately owned company
that tests to make sure that products meet safety standards.
UL also administers a program for the certification of Cat-egoryRated Cable.
USOC Universal Service Order Code. An old Bell system
term identifying a particular service or equipment offered
under tariff.
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair. See Twisted Pair.

Workstation The working area in a building required by
one telecommunications user. Industry standards call for one
voice drop and one data drop for each workstation. The voice
drop is one 4-pair unshielded twisted pair (UTP). The data
drop may be 10 4-pair UTP, 15 2-pair shielded twisted
pair (STP), or optical fiber.

An IEEE standard for operating Ethernet local area networks
(LANs) on twisted-pair cabling using the homerun method of
wiring (exactly the same as a phone system does), and a
wiring hub which will contain electronics performing similar
functions to a telephone switch.
The full name for the standard is IEEE 802.3 10Base-T. It
defines the requirement for sending information at 10 million
bits per second on ordinary unshielded twisted-pair cabling
and defines various aspects of running Ethernet on this
cabling, such as:
• Connector types (typically eight-pin RJ-45)
• Pin connections (1 and 2 for transmit, 3 and 6 for receive.
100BASE-T Provides one gigabit per second ethernet over
4 pair Category 5 cabling up to 100 meters.
1000BASE-T Provides 100 mbps per second ethernet over
2 pairs of Category 5 cabling up to 100 meters.


Though not an actual application, Category 5 is a structured wiring system standard which many other applications and
emerging standards require for proper operation.
The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) established standards for building cabling with the publication of the TIA/
EIA 568 Commercial Building Wiring Standard. Subsequently, the TIA issued TSB-36 and TSB-40 (Technical Service Bulletins)
which defined the category rating system as it applies to UTP cabling and connectors. Category 5 extended the characteriza-tion
of the wiring system to 100 MHz. The TIA has developed a revision of TIA/EIA-568 which incorporated the TSBs into the
main body of the standard, now called TIA/EIA-568A. Leviton QuickPort ® and InfoTap ® Category 5 products fully meet the
requirements of TIA/EIA-568A for category compliance.
Note: For a fully TIA/ EIA-568A Category 5 compliant network system, all components must be rated Category 5 and be correctly
installed to either the T568A or T568B wiring scheme with all pairs terminated.


IEEE 802.3 defines the standard for 10Base-T (Ethernet) communications over unshielded twisted pair (UTP) for local area
networks as both a physical link and a data link protocol. A minimum Category 3 cabling system must be installed to insure the
proper operation of 10Base-T networks: most users now choose to upgrade their cabling infrastructure to higher levels of
performance. The physical connection described in IEEE 802.3 for network connection is an 8-position modular jack (see
diagram page C-1). Note that any system fully wired to either T568A or T568B wiring schemes will support
10Base-T applications.


IEEE 802.5 defines the Token Ring topology as a baseband network where a supervisory frame or token passes from PC to PC,
allowing each PC in turn to transmit over the entire bandwidth of the network. The most common cabling scheme is a "star-wired
ring" where each PC is connected in a star fashion to a centrally located MAU (Multistation Access Unit) which automati-cally
"heals" the ring if one PC is turned off or its cable is broken. Operating at either 4 or 16 Mbps, it is common to use
Category 3 UTP at a minimum (for 4 Mbps Token Ring); UTP rated at least Category 4 is required for 16 Mbps Token Ring, with
most owners opting to upgrade to Category 5.


ATM is a high-bandwidth, "high-speed" packet-like switching and multiplexing technique, initially proposed for data rates up to
155 Mbps and higher. Data encoding methods allow higher data bit rates at lower frequencies (e.g. 155 Mbps can run over
100Mhz rated cable.) The proposed cabling media are Category 3, Category 5 and multimode fiber. Category 5 cabling
systems are recommended as they will meet all UTP-based proposals emerging from the ATM Forum. (The ATM proposals are
being developed by a forum of over 120 application/hardware suppliers.)

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
ASTM (American Society of Test Measurement)
• PUB 48007, Technical Reference, Inside Wiring
Cable (3 to 125 Pair Sizes)

BICSI (Building Industry Consulting Services
8610 Hidden River Parkway
Tampa, FL 33637-1000
(800) 242-7405
(813) 971-4311 (FAX)

CEDIA (Custom Electronic Design &
Installation Association)
(800) 669-5329

ECSA (Exchange Carriers Standards

• Report No.5, A Technical Report on Carrier to
Customer Installation Interface Connector Wiring
Configuration Catalog

EIA/CEMA (Electronic Industries Association)
HAA (Home Automation Association)
• GA27-3773-1, IBM Cabling System Technical

Interface Specification ICEA (Insulated Cable Engineers
• ICEA S-80-576, ICEA Standard for Communications
Wire and Cable for Wiring of Premises

ISO/IEC (International Organization for
Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission)
• ISO 8877, Information Processing Systems, Interface
Connector and Contact Assignments for ISDN Basic
Access Interface Located at Reference Points S and T

ITU/CCITT (International Telecommunications
Union/ International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee)
• Blue Book

American National Standards Institute
Sales Department
American National Standards Institute
11 West 42nd St 13th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Web Site:
(212) 642-4900
(212) 302-1286 (FAX)

American Society of Test Measurement (ASTM)

1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103-1187
(215) 299-5585
(215) 977-9679 (FAX)


Bellcore Customer Service
8 Corporate Place
Piscataway, NJ 08854-4196
Web Site:
(800) 521-CORE (2673)
(732) 336-2559 (FAX)

Canadian Standards Association
Standards Sales
Canadian Standards Association
178 Rexdale Blvd.
Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario
Canada M9W 1R3
Web Site:
(416) 747-4044
(416) 747-2475 (FAX)

Department of Communications (Canada)
See Canadian Standards Association


For technical information, call 1 (800) 722-2082 • For product information, call 1 (800) 922-6229 • website: • e-mail:

Exchange Carriers Standards Association
Exchange Carriers Standards Association
5430 Grosvenor Lane
Bethesda, MD 20814

Federal Communications Commission
U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Mail Stop SSOP
Washington, DC 20402-9328
Web Site:
(888) 225-5322
(202) 418-0232 (FAX)

Global Engineering

(800) 854-7179 / (800) 624-3974
Web Site:
Global Engineering
18201B Mc Durmott West
Irvine, CA 92714
(714) 474-3933
(714) 474-4066 (FAX)
Global Engineering
15 Inverness Way East
Englewood, CO 80112
(303) 393-2573
(303) 397-2740 (FAX)
Global Engineering
7730 Carondelet Avenue
Clayton, MO 63105
(314) 726-0444
(314) 726-6418 (FAX)
Global Engineering
1990 M Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 429-2860
(202) 331-0960 (FAX)


IBM Publications
P.O. Box 9046
Boulder, CO 80301-9191
(800) 879-2755
(800) 284-4727 (FAX)

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IEEE Service Center
445 Hoes Lane
PO Box 1331
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
Web Site:
(800) 678-4333
(732) 981-0027 (FAX)

Insulated Cable Engineers Association, Inc.
PO Box 440
South Yarmouth, MA 02664
Web Site:
(508) 394-4424
(508) 394-1194 (FAX)

International Organization for
Electrotechnical Commission

See Global Engineering or Phillips Business Info.

International Telecommunications Union/
International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee

See Global Engineering or Phillips Business Info.

National Fire Protection Agency
National Fire Protection Agency
Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02269
Web Site:

Phillips Business Info.

(Formerly Omnicom)
1201 Seven Locks Road, Ste 300
Potomac, MD 20854
Web Site:
(301) 424-3338
(800) 777-5006
(301) 309-3847 (FAX)

Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
See Global Engineering

Underwriters Laboratories
Corporate Progress
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
Web Site:
(847) 272-8800
(847) 272-8129 (FAX)

InterNIC Information Services Hotline: 800-444-4345
General Atomics (GA) Email:
P.O. Box #85608 Phone: 619-455-4600
San Diego, CA 92186-9784 FAX: 619-455-4640



Date Updated: 10/20/93 Version 93C
AA Auto Answer
AAP Applications Access Point [DEC]
AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package
AAT Average Access Time
ABC * Atanasoff-Berry Computer (First digital calculating
machine that used vacuum tubes)
ABEND Abnormal End
ABI Application Binary Interface
ABS Absolute
ABT Abort
AC Automatic Computer + Alternating Current
ACC Accumulator
ACD Automated Call Distribution
ACE Advanced Computing Environment [SCO] +
Adverse Channel Enhancements [Microcom] +
* Automatic Computing Engine
ACF Access Control Field + Advanced Communications Function
ACIAS Automated Calibration Internal Analysis System
ACIS American Committee for Interoperable Systems
ACK Acknowledgment
ACL Access Control List
ACM Association for Computing Machinery
ACMS Application Control Management System
ACP Ancillary Control Program + Auxillary Control Process
ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System
ACS Access + Access Control Set + Access Control System +
Asynchronous Communication Server
ACU Automatic Calling Unit
A/D Analog to Digital
ADA Automatic Data Acquisitions +
(Programming Language named after Agusta Ada Lovelace)
ADC Adaptive Data Compression (protocol) [Hayes] +
Add with Carry + Analog to Digital Converter
ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures
ADF Automatic Document Feed
.ADF Adapter Description File (file name extension) [IBM]
ADI AutoCad Device Interface (driver)
ADL Address Data Latch
ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter
ADMD Administrative Management Domain [X.400]
.ADN Add In Utility (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
ADP Automatic Data Processing
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ADR Address
ADS Application Development Solutions [AT&T] +
Application Development System +
Automatic Distribution System
ADSC Address Status Changed
ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release
ADT Application Data Types
ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
AE Above or Equal
AEB Analog Expansion Bus [Dialogic]
AF Auxilary carry Flag
AFC Automatic Font Change
AFD Automatic File Distribution
AFII Association for Font Information Interchange
.AFM Adobe Font Metrics (file name extension) [Adobe Systems]

AGC Automatic Gain Control
AI Analog Input + Artificial Intelligence
AIA Applications Integration Architecture [DEC]
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus
AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive [IBM]
ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuits + Automatic Level Control
ALE Address Latch Enable
ALGOL Algorithmic Oriented Language (see IAL)
ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc.
ALT Alternate (mode)
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMD Active Matrix Display + Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture [Everex Systems]
AMANDDA Automated Messaging and Directory Assistance
ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance
ANI Automatic Number Identification
ANOVA Analysis Of Variance
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AO Analog Output
AOE Application Operating Environment [AT&T]
AOS Add Or Subtract
AP Adjunct Processor + Application Processor
A/P Accounts Payable
APA Adaptive Packet Assembly +
All Points Addressable +
Arithmetic Processing Accelerator
APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report [IBM]
APAREN Address Parity Enable [IBM]
APCUG Association of PC User Groups
API Application Program Interface +
Application Programming Interface
APL A Programming Language (Mathematics)
APM Advanced Power Management [IBM OS2]
.APP Application (file name extension) [R:Base]
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program
Communication (protocol) [IBM]
APPI Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking [IBM]
APS Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APSE ADA Programming Support Environment
APT Address Pass Through +
Automatically Programmed Tools
A/R Accounts Receivable
.ARC Archive (file name extension)
ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture
ARCnet Attached Resource Computer Network
ARL Adjusted Ring Length
ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited
ARM Asynchronous Response Mode
ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators
ARP Address Resolution Protocol [Novell]
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level
ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Copressor [IBM]
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ARU Audio Response Unit
ASAP As Soon As Possible +
Automatic Switching And Processing
AS3AP ANSI SQL Standard Scalable and Portable
.ASC ASCII text (file name extension)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology

ASL Adaptive Speed Levelling
.ASM Assembler Source Language (file name extension)
ASP Association of Shareware Professionals
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface [Adaptec]
ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System
ASR Automatic Send-Receive + Automatic Speech Recognition
AST AST Research, Inc. (named from first initials of the
founders: Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey, Thomas Yuen)
ASYNC Asynchronous
AT Advanced Technology + Attention
ATA AT Bus Attachment
ATDP Attention Dial Pulse
ATDT Attention Dial Tone
ATE Automated Test Equipment
ATG Advanced Technology Group
ATH Attention Hang-Up
ATM Adobe Typeface Manager + Asynchronous Transfer Mode +
Automated Teller Machine
ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition
ATS Administrative Terminal System +
Apple Terminal Services
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATTN Attention
ATTRIB Attribute (also ATR)
AUDIT Automated Data Input Terminal
AUI Attached Unit Interface
AUP Appropriate Use Policies [Internet]
AUTO Automatic
AUX Auxiliary + (First Serial Port)
AVA Audio Visual Authoring [IBM]
AVC Audio Visual Connection [IBM]
AVG Average
AVI Audio Visual Interleaved [Microsoft]
AWG American Wire Gage
AX Architecture Extended + Automatic Transmission
BAK Binary Adaption Kit [Microsoft]
.BAK Backup (file name extension)
BAL Basic Assembly Language
BAM Boyan Action Module
BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing
.BAS Basic Language (file name extension)
BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BASM Built-In Assembler
.BAT Batch Processing (file name extension)
BBS Bulletin Board System
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCL Batch Command Language
BCP Bulk Copy Program
BCPL Basic Computer Programming Language
BCR Byte Count Register
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BE Below or Equal
BEL Bell
BELLCORE Bell Communications Research
BERT Bit Error Rate Test/Tester
BF Bad Flag
B/F Background/Foreground
BFT Binary File Transfer
BGE Branch if Greater or Equal
.BGI Borland Graphic Interface (file name extension)
BGT Branch if Greater Than
BHI Branch if Higher
BHIS Branch if Higher or Same
BI Binary Input
.BIB Bibliography (file name extension)

BIM Beginning of Information Marker
.BIN Binary (file name extension)
BINAC * Binary Automatic Computer
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
BIS Business Information System
BIT Binary Digit
BITNET Because It's Time Network
BIU Bus Interface Unit
BIX Byte Information Exchange (BBS)
.BK! Backup (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
BKSP Backspace
BL Backlit
BLAST Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (protocol)
[Communications Research Group]
.BLD BASIC Bload Graphics (file name extension)
BLE Branch if Less or Equal
BLK Block
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOB Binary Large Object
BLOS Branch if Lower Or Same
BMI Branch if Minus
BMIC BusMaster Interface Controller [Intel]
BMP Batch Message Processing Program
.BMP Bitmap Graphics (file name extension) [Windows] [OS/2]
BNE Branch if Not Equal
BO Binary Output
BoB Break-out Box
BOM Beginning Of Message
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol [Internet]
BORPQU Borland Pro Quattro
BORQU Borland Quattro
BOS Basic Operating System
BOT Beginning Of Table + Beginning of Tape
BP Base Pointer
BPB BIOS Parameter Block
BPI Bits Per Inch
BPL Branch if Plus
BPS Bits Per Second + Bytes Per Second
BR Bad Register
BRI Basic Rate Interface + Brain Response Interface
BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSC Binary Synchronous Communication
.BSC Boyan Script (file name extension) [Boyan Communications]
BSCS Bachelor of Science (Degree) in Computer Science
BSD Berkely Standard Distribution
BSF Bit Scan Forward
BSI British Standards Institute
BSR Bit Scan Reverse
BSV BASIC Bsave Graphics (file name extension)
BSY Busy
BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (protocol)
BT Bit Test
BTAM Basic Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
BTB Branch Target Buffer
BTC Bit Test and Complement
BTP Batch Transfer Program
BTR Bit Test and Reset
BTS Bit Test and Set
BUF Buffer
BWM Block-Write Mode
B2X Binary To Hexadecimal [REXX]
BYTE Binary Element String
C C Programming Language
.C C source code (file name extension) [C]

CA Collision Avoidance
CAD Computer Aided Design
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting
CAE Common Applications Environment +
Computer Aided Engineering
CAG Column Address Generator
CAI Computer Aided Instruction
CAL Calendar + Computer Aided Learning
CAM Common Access Method + Computer Aided Manufacturing +
Contents Addressable Memory
CAN Cancel
CAP Central Arbitration Point +
Communication Application Platform +
Computer Aided Publishing
CAPD Computing To Assist Persons With Disabilities [Johns
Hopkins University]
CAPS Capitals (Upper Case Letters) +
Cassette Programming System
CAS Column Address Select +
Communicating Applications Specification +
Computer Aided Styling
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language [DCA]
CASS Computer Assisted Search Service
CASSIS Classified and Search Support Information System
CAT Computer Aided Testing + Computer Aided Tomography +
Computer Aided Transcription + Concatenate
.CAT Catalog (file name extension)
CATS Computer Assisted Training System
CATV Community Antenna Television
CAV Constant Angular Velocity
CBCR Channel Byte Count Register
CBL Computer Based Learning
.CBL COBOL source code (file name extension)
CBT Computer Based Training
CBW Convert Byte to Word
CBX Computer-Controlled Branch Exchange
CC Cluster Controller
CCD Charged-Coupled Device
CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCITT Consultative Committee for International
Telegraph and Telephone
CCP Console Command Processor
CCS Common Communications Support +
Continuous Composite Servo
CD Carrier Detect + Change Directory +
Collision Detection + Color Display + Compact Disk
C/D Control Data
C2D Character To Decimal [REXX]
CDA Compound Document Architecture [DEC]
CDC Control Data Corporation
CD_CHRDY Card Channel Ready [IBM]
CDDI Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDE Complex Data Entry
.CDF Comma Delimited Format (file name extension)
CD-I Compact Disk - Interactive
CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System
CDL Computer Design Language
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CD-RDx Compact Disk - Read Only Memory Data Exchange Standard
CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CDR Call Detail Record + Call Detail Recording
CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CD-RTOS Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System
CDS Current Directory Structure

CD-V Compact Disk - Video
.CDX Compound Index (file name extension) [Fox Pro]
CE Cache Enable + Chip Enable + Collision Elimination +
Convert Enable
CEG Continuous Edge Graphics
CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference
.CFG Configuration (file name extension)
CFV Call For Votes [Bitnet]
CGA Color Graphics Adapter
CGI Computer Generated Images +
Computer Graphics Interface
.CGM Computer Graphics Metafile (file name extension) +
Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
CHAP Challenge Authentication Protocol (protocol)
CHAR Character
CHCK Channel Check
CHCP Change Code Page [OS/2]
CHGRP Change Group
.CHK CHKDSK (file name extension)
CHKDSK Check Disk
CHMOD Change Mode
CHOWN Change Owner
CHP Chapter
CHR Character
CICS/VS Customer Information Control System/
Virtual Storage [IBM]
CIM CompuServe Information Manager +
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System
CIP Command Interface Port
CIRC Circular Reference
CIS CompuServe Information Service +
Computer Information Systems
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing
CIX Compulink Information Exchange
CKD Count Key Data (device)
CLAR Channel Local Address Register
CLC Clear Carry Flag
CLD Clear Direction Flag
CLI Call-Level Interface + Clear Interrupt Flag +
Command Line Interface
CLIST Command List
CLK Clock
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
.CLP Clipboard (file name extension) [Windows]
CLS Clear Screen
CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag
CLV Constant Linear Velocity
CM Centimeter + Control Mark + Corrective Maintenance
CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture
CMC Communication Mangement Configuration +
Complement Carry Flag
.CMD Command (file name extension)
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMIS Common Management Information System
CML Current Mode Logic
CMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit [Motorola]
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CMP Compare + Computer
CMPS Compare word String
CMS Code Management System + Compiler Monitor System +
Conversation Monitor System
CMY Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (color model)
CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (color model)
CNC Computerized Numerical Control

.CNF Configuration (file name extension)
CNG Calling (tone)
CNSS Core Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
CNV Conventional (pertaining to Memory)
CNVT Convert
CO Central Office + Command Output + Convert Out
.COB COBAL source code (file name extension)
COBOL Common Business-oriented Language (See HLL)
.COD Code List (file name extension)
CODASYL * Conference on Data System Languages (Group that
designed COBOL)
COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
COGO Coordinate Geometry (Programming Language)
COL Collision + Computer Oriented Language
.COM Command (file name extension)
COMDEX Computer Dealers Exposition
COM1 First serial Port (asynchronous port)
COM2 Second serial Port
COM3 Third serial Port
COM4 Fourth serial Port
COMP Compare + Communications
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
CON Console (includes Keyboard and Screen)
CONFIG Configuration
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CoREN Corporation for Research and Enterprise Network
COS Compatible Operating System
COSE Common Open Software Environment
COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations
CP Copy Protected
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPE Central Processing Element +
Customer Premise Equipment +
Customer Provided Equipment
CPG Clock Pulse Generator
CPI Characters Per Inch + Clock Per Instruction +
Common Programming Interface [IBM]
.CPI Code Page Information (file name extension) [MS-DOS]
CPI-C Common Programming Interface for Communications [IBM]
CPL Current Privilege Level
CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers
CPS Characters Per Second + Cycles Per Second
CPT Command Pass Through
CPU Central Processing Unit
CR Carriage Return
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
.CRD Cardfile (file name extension)
CREN Computer Research Education Network +
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking
CRF Cross Reference File
CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed
CROM Control Read Only Memory
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC CRT Controller
CS Chip Select + Clear to Send + Code Segment
CSAR Channel System Address Register
CSD Corrective Service Diskette [IBM]
CSG Constructive Solid Geometry +
Consulting Services Group [Lotus]
CSL Computer Sensitive Language
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Detection
CSNET Computer Science Network
CSS * Continuous System Simulator (Language)
CSP Commercial Subroutine Package +
CompuCom Speed Protocol [CompuCom]

CSTA Computer-Supported Telephony Applications
CSU Channel Service Unit
CSV Comma-Separated Variables
C&T Chips and Technologies
CTOS Computerized Tomography Operating System
CTPA Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter
CTRL Control
CTS Clear To Send
CTSS * Compatible Time Sharing System
CUA Common User Access [IBM]
CUB Cursor Backward
CUD Cursor Down
CUE Custom Updates and Extras (card) [Egghead Software]
CUF Cursor Forward
CUI Common User Interface [IBM]
CUP Cursor Position
CUPID Completely Universal Processor I/O Design [AST]
.CUR Cursor (file name extension)
CUTE Clarkston University Terminal Emulator
CUU Cursor Up
CVF Compressed Volume File [Microsoft]
CVGA Color Video Gaphics Array
CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association
CVW CodeView for Windows
CWD Convert Word to Double Word
CWIS Campus Wind Information Systems [Internet]
C2X Character To Hexadecimal [REXX]
CYL Cylinder
CYMK Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black (color model)
D/A Digital to Analog
DAA Data Access Arrangement +
Decimal Adjust for Addition
DAC Data Acquisition and Control +
Digital to Analog Converter
DAL Data Access Language [Apple Computer] +
Disk Access Lockout
DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring
DAP Data Access Protocol [DEC]
DARI Database Application Remote Interface [IBM]
DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction
DASD Direct Access Storage Device
DAT Digital Audio Tape + Disk Array Technology
.DAT Data (file name extension)
DATACOM Data Communications
dB Decibel
DB Data Base + Data Buffer
dBA Adjusted Decibel
DBCS Double-Byte Character Set
.DBF Database (file name extension)
DBM Data Base Manager
DBMS Data Base Management System
DBS Data Base Server
DB2 Database 2
DC Data Collection + Data Communication + Data Control +
Device Control + Direct Current
D2C Decimal To Character [REXX]
DCA Digital Communications Associates +
Document Content Architecture
DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility [IBM]
DCB Disk Coprocessor Board [Novell]
DCC Digital Compact Cassette + Display Combination Code
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Communications Equipment +
Distributed Computing Environment [OSF] +
Distributed Computing Equipment

DCF Data Communication Facility [IBM] +
Data Compression Facility +
Data Count Field [IBM] +
Driver Configuration File [Lotus]
DCL Declaration + DEC Command Language [DEC] +
Device Clear + Digital Control Logic +
Digital Command Language [Digital]
DCS Data Collection System + Data Control System +
Desktop Color Separation
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
.DCT Dictionary (file name extension)
DD Day + Digital Display + Double Density
DDB Device Dependent Bitmap
DDCMP Digital Data Communications Message Protocol [DEC]
DDD Direct Distance Dialing
DDE Direct Data Entry + Dynamic Data Exchange [Microsoft]
DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library [Microsoft]
DDK Device Driver Kit [Microsoft Windows]
DDL Data Definition Language + Data Description Language
DDM Distributed Data Management
DDS Dataphone Digital Service [AT&T] +
Design Data Sheet + Digital Data Storage
DEC Decrement + Device Clear +
Digital Equipment Corporation
.DEF Definitions + Defaults (file name extensions)
DEL Delete
DELSTR Delete String [REXX]
.DEM Demonstration (file name extension)
DES Data Encryption Standard + Data Entry Sheet
.DES Description (file name extension)
DET Device Execute Trigger
DEV Device
DF Data Field + Destination Field + Device Flag +
Double Flag
DFC Data Flow Control
DFS Distributed File System
DFT Diagnostic Funtion Test + Discrete Fourier Transform +
Distributed Function Terminal
DFU Data File Utility
DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard
.DHP Dr. Halo PIC (file name extension)
DI Data In + Destination Index
DIA Document Interchange Architecture [IBM]
DIB Device Independent Bitmap
DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language
.DIC Dictionary (file name extension)
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DIF Data Interchange Format
DIFFSENS Differential Sense
DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German equivalent of EIA)
DIO Data Input-Output
DIP Dual In-line Package + Dual In-line Pin
DIR Directory (file)
DIS Dynamic Impedance Stabilization [CompuCom]
DISP Displacement (offset)
DIV Divide
DIW D-Inside Wire [AT&T]
DL Download
DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 [IBM]
DLC Data Link Control (protocol) [IBM]
DLE Data Link Escape
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLM Dynamic Link Module
DLR DOS LAN Requester

DMA Direct Memory Access/Addressing
DMAC DMA Controller
DME Distributed Management Environment
DMI Desktop Mangement Interface
DML Data Manipulation Language
DMM Digital Multimeter
DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System
DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMP Dot Matrix Printer
DMQS Display Mode Query and Set [IBM]
DMS Data Management Software + Data Management System
DMSD Digital Multistandard Decoding
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DMY Day Month Year
DN Down
DNC Direct Numerical Control
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNS Domain Naming System
DO Data Out
.DOC Document + Documentation (file name extensions)
DOS Disk Operating System
DOSEM DOS Emulation
DOW Day Of Week
DP Data Processing
DPA Demand Protocol Architecture [3Com]
DPAREN Data Parity Enable [IBM]
DPB Drive Parameter Block
DPC Direct Program Control
DPI Dots Per Inch
DPL Descriptor Privilege Level
DPM Digital Panel Meter
DPMA Data Processing Management Association
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface [Microsoft]
DPO Data Phase Optimization
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPtoTP Display Coordinates to Tablet Coordinates
DQL DataEase Query Language [DataEase International]
DR Data Received
D/R Direct or Reverse
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRAW Direct Read After Write
DRDA Distributed Relational Data Architecture [IBM]
DRDW Direct Read During Write
DRI Digital Research Incorporated
DRO Data Request Output + Destructive Read-Out
.DRS WordPerfect Driver Resource (file name extension)
DRV Drive
.DRV Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DVR)
.DRW Draw + Drawing (file name extensions)
DS Data Segment + Data Send + Data Server + Double Sided
DSDD Double Sided, Double Density (diskette)
DSE Data Storage Equipment
DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter
DSECT Dummy Control Section
DSHD Double Sided, High Density (diskette)
DSIS Distributed Support Information Standard
DSL Dynamic Simulation Language
DSP Digital Signal Processing +
Digital Signal Processor
DSQD Double Sided, Quad Density (diskette)
DSR Data Set Ready + Device Status Register +
Device Status Report
DSS Decision Support System
DSTN Double Supertwisted Nematic

DSU Digital Service Unit
DSW Data Status Word + Device Status Word
D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (printing)
DTA Disk Transfer Area
.DTA Data (file name extension)
DTD Document Type Definition
DTE Data Terminal Equipment + Dumb Terminal Emulator
DTL Diode-Transistor Logic
DTMF Data Tone Multiple Frequency + Dual Tone Multifrequency
DTP Desktop Publishing
DTR Data Terminal Ready + Data Transfer Rate
DU Disk Usage
DUAT Direct User Access Terminal
.DV DESQview Script (file name extension)
DVI Digital Video Interactive
.DVR Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DRV)
DWG Drawing
D2X Decimal To Hexadecimal [REXX]
.DXB Drawing Interchange Binary (file name extension)
DXC Data Exchange Control
DXF Drawing Interchange Format
EA Extended Attribute [OS/2]
EARN European Academic Research Network
EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services
EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment
EBC EISA Bus Controller
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code [IBM]
EBI Equivalent Background Input +
Extended Background Investigation
EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer
ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn
ECC Error Check Code + Error Checking and Correction +
Error Correction Code
ECD Enhanced Color Display
ECL Emitter Coupled Logic
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECP Enhanced Capabilities Port [Microsoft]
ECTL Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe
ED Erase Display
EDA Embedded Document Architecture [Go Corporation]
EDC Enhanced Data Correction +
Error Detection and Correction
EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable
EDI Electronic Data Interchange +
Electronic Document Interchange [DEC]
EDIFACT EDI for Administration Commerce and Transport
EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control
EDLIN Editor (Line Text)
EDOS Enhanced DOS for Windows
EDP Electronic Data Processing
EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine
EDSAC * Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer
EDSI Enhanced Small Device Interface
EDVAC * Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
(First stored-program digital computer)
EEC Extended Error Correction
EEG Electroencephalogram
EEM Extended Memory Management
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EFA Extended File Attribute
EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation
EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference +

Electronics For Imaging
EFL Emitter Follower Logic
EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EIA Electronic Industries Association
EIS Executive Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EL Electroluminescent (display) + Erase Line
ELF Extremely Low Frequency
ELS Entry Level System
EM Electronic Mail + Expanded Memory
EMA Enterprise Management Architecture
E-MAIL Electronic Mail
EMB Extended Memory Block [LIM/AST]
EMBARC Electronic Mail Broadcast to a Roaming Computer [Motorola]
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility + Extended Math Coprocessor
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
.EML Electronic Mail (file name extension)
EMM Expanded Memory Manager
EMR Electro-Magnetic Radiation
EMS Electronic Mail System + Electronic Message Service +
Expanded Memory Specification [LIM]
.ENC Encoded (file name extension)
ENDS Ends Segment
ENIAC * Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
(First fully electronic digital computer)
ENQ Enquiry
ENSS Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
EOA End of Address
EOB End of Block
EOC End of Conversion
EOF End of File
EOI End or Identify
EOJ End of Job
EOL End of Line + End of List
EOM End of Message
EOR Exclusive OR (Also XOR)
EOS End of String
EOT End Of Table + End of Tape (marker) + End of Text +
End of Transmission
EPL Effective Privilege Level
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPM Enhanced Editor for Presentation Manager [IBM]
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROM Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory +
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
.EPS Encapsulated PostScript (file name extension)
EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Files
ERAS Electronic Routing and Approval System [Hughes Aircraft]
ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
EROM Erasable Read Only Memory
ERR Error
ES Extra Segment
ESA European Space Agency
ESC Escape
ESCON Enterprise System Connection (Architecture) [IBM]
ESD Electronic Software Distribution +
Electrostatic Discharge
ESDI Enhanced Small Device Interface
ESI Enhanced Serial Interface (specification) [Hayes]
ESP Emulation Sensing Processor +
Enhanced Serial Port [Hayes]
ESS Electronic Switching System
ESU Electro-Static Unit
ETANN Electrically Trainable Analog Neural

Network (chip) [Intel]
ETB End of Transmission Block
ETPL Endorsed Tempest Products List
ETS Econometric Time Series
ETX End of Text
EU Execution Unit
EVE Extensible VAX Editor
EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array +
Extended Video Graphics Adapter
EWS Employee Written Software [IBM]
.EXE Executable (file name extension)
EXE2BIN Program used to convert an (.EXE) file to binary
format (.COM) file
EXP Exponent
EXT External
EXTRN External Reference
FAB Computer-Chip Fabrication Plant
FAC File Access Code
FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS
FAP File Access Protocol
FAQ Frequently Asked Question
FAT File Allocation Table
FAX Facsimile
.FAX Fax (file name extension)
FCB File Control Block
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCI Flux Changes per Inch
FD Floppy Disk + Full Duplex
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDDI Fiber Digital Device Interface +
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDISK Fixed Disk
FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing
FDX Full Duplex
FEFO First-Ended, First-Out
FEP Front End Processor
FESDK Far East Software Development Kit [Microsoft]
FET Field Effect Transistor
FF Flip-Flop + Form Feed
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FIF Fractal Image Format
FIFO First-In, First-Out
FILO First-In, Last-Out
FIP File Processor Buffering
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FLC Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal
FLD Field
FLL FoxPro Link Library [Microsoft Fox Pro]
FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second
FMS Forms Management System
FMT Format
FNT Font
FOCUS Forum of Control Data Users
FOG First Osborne Group
FOIRL Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link [IEEE]
.FON Font + Phone + Phone Directory (all file name
.FOR FORTRAN source code (file name extension)
FORTH (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FORTRAN Formula Translator (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FOSE Federal Office Systems Exposition
FOSSIL Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer
FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array
FPLA Field Programmable Logic-Array
FPP Fixed Path Protocol + Floating Point Processor

FPS Frames Per Second
FPU Floating Point Processor Unit
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name [Internet]
FRAG Fragment + Fragmentation
FRAM Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory
FRED Frame Editor
FRPI Flux Reversals Per Inch
.FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
FSD File System Driver [OS/2]
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
F/T Full Time
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management +
File Transfer and Access Method
FTP File Transfer Protocol [Internet]
FTS Federal Telecommunication System
FUI File Update Information
FUNC Function
FVT Full Video Translation
GA General Availability
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GAL Generic Array Logic
Gb Gigabit (1,000 megabits) +
(One Billion Bits of Information)
GB Gigabyte (1,000 megabytes) +
(One Billion Characters of Information)
GCR Group Code Recording
GDA Global Data Area
GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager
GDI Graphics Device Interface
GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing +
Global Descriptor Table
GEM Graphics Environment Manager (DRI Program)
GENIE General Electric Network for
Information Exchange
GEOS Graphic Environment Operating System [Geoworks]
GET Get Execute Trigger
GHZ Gigahertz
.GIF Graphic Interchange Format (file name extension)
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out
GIS Geographical Information System
GIX Global Internet Exchange [Internet]
GKS Graphical Kernal System
G/L General Ledger
GLM General Linear Models
.GLY Glossary (file name extension) [Microsoft Word]
GMS Global Messaging Service [Novell]
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GND System Ground
GNU Gnu's Not Unix (operating system)
GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
GP Gas Plasma + General Purpose
GPF General Protection Fault
GPI Graphics Programming Interface
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus
GPS Global Positioning System
GPSS * General Purpose Systems Simulator (language)
GRE Graphics Engine
.GRF Graph (file name extension)
.GRP Group (file name extension)
GUI Graphical User Interface
.H Header (file name extension) [C]
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing [IBM]
HAL Hard Array Logic + House Programmed Array Logic
HAL * Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic (computer)

[from 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey"]
HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Priority (System)
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HD Hard Disk + High Density
HDA Head Disk Assembly
HDCD High Definition Compatible Digital
HDI Head to Disk Interference
HDLC High-Level Data Link Control
HDR Header
HDSC High Density Signal Carrier [DEC]
HDSL High-rate Digital Subscriber Link
HDTV High Definition Television
HDW Hardware
HDX Half Duplex
HERC Hercules
HEX Hexadecimal
HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter
HGCP Hercules Graphics Card Plus
HH Hour
HIFD High-Density Floppy Disk
HIL Human Interface Link [HP]
HLCO High Low Close Open
HLL High Level Language
HLLAPI High Level Language Application Programming Interface
.HLP Help (file name extension)
HLQ High Level Qualifier
HLS Hue, Luminance, Saturation (color model)
HLT Halt
HMA High Memory Area [Microsoft] +
Hub Management Architecture
HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor +
High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HP Hewlett-Packard (Company)
HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications
HPDJ Hewlett-Packard Desk Jet
HPFS High-Performance File System
HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPLJ Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet
HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HRIS Human Resource Information System
HRG High Resolution Graphics
HRMS Human Resource Management System
HS High Speed
HSC High Speed Channel
HSP High Speed Printer
HST High Speed Technology [U.S. Robotics]
.HST History + Host (file name extensions)
HSV Hue Saturation Value
HUT Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
H/V Horizontal/Vertical
HVP Horizontal & Vertical Position
H/W Hardware
HWCP Hardware Code Page
HWD Height-Width-Depth
.HYP Hyphenation (file name extension)
Hz Hertz
IAB Internet Activities Board [Internet]
IAL * International Algebraic Language
(ALGOL was first called IAL)
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [Internet]
IAT Import Address Table
IBC Instrument Bus Computer

IBM International Business Machines (Corporation)
IBM-GL IBM Graphics Language
IC Input Circuit + Integrated Circuit + Interrupt Controller
ICA Intra-application Communications Area
ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications
ICCP Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals
ICE In-Circuit Emulator [Intel]
ICL Interface Clear
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol [Novell]
.ICO Icon (file name extension)
iCOMP Intel Comparative Microprocessor (index) [Intel]
ICP Integrated Channel Processor
ICR Intelligent Character Recognition
ICS Intuitive Command Structure
ID Identification + Identifier
IDA Integrated Digital Access + Intelligent Disk Array +
Intelligent Drive Array
IDAPI Integrated Database Application Programming Interface
IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics +
Integrated Development Environment [Borlund] +
Integrated Drive Electronics +
Intelligent Drive Electronics +
Interactive Design and Engineering +
Interface Design Enhancement
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame
IDIV Integer Divide
IDMS Integrated Data Base Management System
IDP Integrated Data Processing
IDT Interrupt Descriptor Table
.IDX Index (file name extension)
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEF Information Engineering Facility
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
I/F Interface
IFD Image File Directory
IFG Incoming Fax Gateway
IFS Installable File System [OS/2]
IGA Integrated Graphics Array
IGC Integrated Graphics Controller
IIF Immediate IF
IIR Immediate Impulse Response
IMDS Image Data Stream (format) [IBM]
IMG Image
IMP Interface Message Processor
IMPA Intelligent Multi-Port Adapter [DCA]
IMS Information Management System +
Intermediate Maintenance Standards
IMUL Integer Multiply
IN Input
INC Increment
.INF Information (file name extension)
.INI Initialize (file name extension)
INIT Initialize
INM Integrated Network Management
INS Input String
INT Integer + Internal + Interrupt
INTA Interrupt Acknowledge
INTO Interrupt if Overflow occurs
I/O Input/Output
IOCS Input/Output Control System
IOCTL Input/Output Control
IOPL Input/Output Priviledge Level
IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array
IP Instruction Pointer + Internet Protocol
IPC Instructions Per Clock + Interprocess Communication

IPF Information Presentation Facility
IPL Initial Program Load + Initial Program Loader
IPL * Information Programming Language
IPM Interpersonal Message
IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange [Novell]
IQL Interactive Query Language
IRC Internet Relay Chat [Internet]
IRET Interrupt Return
IRL Interactive Reader Language + Inter-Repeater Link
IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode
IRM Information Resource Management
IRQ Interrupt Request
IRX Information Retrieval Experiment
IS Information System + Interrupt Status
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Management/Method
ISC Instruction Set Computer
ISD Image Section Descriptor +
Instructional Systems Design
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI Internally Specified Index
ISIS Integrated Systems and Information Services
ISL Interactive System Language
ISO/OSI International Standards Organization/Open Systems
Interconnection (model)
ISP Internet Service Provider [Internet] +
Interrupt Stack Pointer + Interrupt Status Port
ISPF Interactive System Programming Facility
ISR Information Storage and Retrieval +
Interrupt Service Routine
ISV Independent Software Vendor
ITB Information Technology Branch + Intermediate Text Block
ITC International Typeface Corporation
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITUG International Telecommunications User Group
ITV Interactive Television
ITX Intermediate Text Block
IVIS Interactive Video Information System
IVR Interactive Voice Response
IVS Interactive Videodisk System
IVT Interrupt Vector Table
IV&V Independent Verification & Validation
JA Jump Address + Jump if Above
JAD Joint Application Design
JAE Jump if Above or Equal
JANET Joint Academic Network
JBE Jump if Below or Equal
JC Jump if Carry set
JCL Job Control Language
JE Jump if Equal
JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association
JES Job Entry System
JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor
JG Jump if Greater
JGE Jump if Greater or Equal
JL Jump if Less
JLE Jump if Less than or Equal to
JMP Jump
JNA Jump if Not Above
JNAE Jump if Not Above or Equal
JNB Jump if Not Below
JNBE Jump if Not Below or Equal
JNG Jump if Not Greater

JNGE Jump if Not Greater or Equal
.JNK Junk (file name extension)
JNLE Jump if Not Less or Equal
JNO Jump if No Overflow
JNP Jump if No Parity
JNS Jump if No Sign
JPE Jump if Parity Even
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPO Jump if Parity Odd
JS Jump if Sign
JZ Jump if Zero
JNZ Jump if Not Zero
KB Keyboard + Kilobyte (1,024 bytes)
KBD Keyboard (also KEYB)
KBD$ Keyboard [OS/2]
Kbit Kilobit
KBPS Kilo-Bytes Per Second
KDT Key Definition Table
KEYBBE Foreign language KEYBoard program - Belgium
KEYBBR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Brazil
KEYBCF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Canadian-French
KEYBCZ Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBDF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Denmark
KEYBFR Foreign language KEYBoard program - France
KEYBGR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Germany
KEYBHU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Hungary
KEYBIT Foreign language KEYBoard program - Italy
KEYBLA Foreign language KEYBoard program - Latin America
KEYBNL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Netherlands
KEYBNO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Norway
KEYBPL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Poland
KEYBPO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Portugal
KEYBSF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-French
KEYBSG Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-German
KEYBSL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBSP Foreign language KEYBoard program - Spain
KEYBSU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Finland
KEYBSV Foreign language KEYBoard program - Sweden
KEYBUK Foreign language KEYBoard program - United Kingdom
KEYBUS Foreign language KEYBoard program - United States
KEYBYU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Yugoslavia
kHz Kilohertz
KSR Keyboard Send Receive
KRS Knowledge Retrieval System
LADDR Layered Device Driver Architecture [Microsoft]
LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length
LAN Local Area Network
LAPB Link Access Procedure Balanced (protocol)
LAPD Link Access Procedure Direct (protocol)
LAPM Link Access Procedure for Modems
LAR Load Access Rights
LASTport Local Area Storage Transport (protocol) [DEC]
LAT Local Area Transport [DEC]
LAWN Local Area Wireless Network
LB Left Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
LBL Label
LBR Librarian
.LBR Library (file name extension)
LBT Listen Before Talk
LCC Leadless Chip Carrier
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LCK Library Construction Kit [Mircrosoft FoxPro]

LCP Link Control Protocol (protocol)
LCU Last Cluster Used
LDA Logical Device Address
LDC Lotus Development Corporation
LDM Long Distance Modem
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LE Less or Equal
LEA Load Effective Address
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEM Language Extension Module
LEN Low Entry Networking
.LET Letter (file name extension)
LEX Lexicon
LF Line Feed
LFI Last File Indicator
LFU Least Frequently Used
LGDT Load Global Descriptor Table
.LIB Library (file name extension)
LICS Lotus International Character Set [LDC]
LIDT Load Interrupt Descriptor Table
LIEP Large Internet Exchange Packet [Novell]
LIF Low Insertion Force
LIFO Last In, First Out
LILO Last In, Last Out
LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
LIMA Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST
LIMS Library Information Management System
LIPS Logical Inferences Per Second
LISP List Processing (Language)(See HLL)
LLC Logical Link Control
LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table
LMBCS Lotus Multibyte Character Set [Lotus]
LMI Local Management Interface
LMSW Load Machine Status Word
LM/X LAN Manager for Unix
LN Logarithm (Natural)
LNDI Lotus Notes:Document Imaging
LOC Loop On-Line Control
LOCIS Library of Congress Information System
LODSB Load String Byte
LOG Logarithm (Base 10)
LOGO (Programming Language)(See HLL)
LOOPE Loop while Equal
LOOPNE Loop while Not Equal
LOOPNZ Loop while Not Zero
LOOPZ Loop while Zero
LORE Line Oriented Editor
LPD Line Printer Daemon (protocol) [Berkley]
LPI Lines Per Inch
LPL Lotus Programming Language [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
LPM Lines Per Minute
LPN Logical Page Number
LPS Low-Power Schottky
LPT Line Printer
LPT1 First Parallel Printer Port
LPT2 Second Parallel Printer Port
LPT3 Third Parallel Printer Port
LQ Letter Quality
LQM Link Quality Monitoring (protocol)
LRC Local Register Cache +
Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRI Least Recently Loaded
LRS Language Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
LRU Least Recently Used
LSA Line Sharing Adapter

LSB Least Significant Bit
LSC Least Significant Character
LSD Least Significant Digit
LSI Large Scale Integration
LSL Load Segment Limit
LST List
LST List (file name extension)
LTR Letter + Load Task Register
LU Logical Unit (Also LUN)
LUT Lookup Table
LZ Lazy Write
LZW Lempel-Ziv-Walsh (algorithm)
mA Milliampere
MAC Media/Medium Access Control
MAC MacPaint (file name extension) +
Macro (file name extension)
MACH Multilayer Actuator Head [Epson]
mAh Milliampere-Hour
.MAI Mail (file name extension)
MAN Manual + Metropolitan Area Network
MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedures +
Manufacturing Automation Protocol +
Memory Allocation Map
.MAP Linker Map (file name extension)
MAPI Mail/Messaging Applications Programming
Interface [Microsoft]
MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production
Information Control System [IBM]
MASM Macro Assembler [Microsoft]
MASS Maximum Availability and Support
Subsystem [Parallan]
MAU Media Access Unit + Multistation Access Unit
MAVDM Multiple Application VDM
MAX Maximum
MB Megabyte (1,000 kilobytes) +
Middle Button (of 3 button Mouse)
MBASIC Microsoft BASIC [Microsoft]
MBPS Megabytes Per Second
MBR Master Boot Record
MBX Mailbox
MCA Micro Channel Architecture [IBM]
MCB Memory Control Block
MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array
MCI Media Control Interface [Microsoft]
MCL Microsoft Compatibility Labs [Microsoft]
MCU Multi-Chip Unit [DEC]
MD Make Directory + Monochrome Display
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter
MDF Menu Definition File (file name extension)
MDI Multiple Document Interface
MDIC Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip [AT&T]
MDK Multimedia Developers Kit [Microsoft]
MDR Minimum Design Requirement
MDY Month Day Year
ME Opening Information (file name extension) (As in READ.ME)
MEB Memory Expansion Board
MEG Megabyte
MEN Menu (file name extension)
MESI Modified Exclusive Shared and Invalid (protocol)
MFFS Microsoft Flash File System [Microsoft]
MFLOPS Million Floating Point Operations Per Second
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFP Multifunction Peripheral
MFS Magnetic Tape Field Search +
Modified Filing System [Revelation Technologies]

MFT Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks
MGA Monochrome Graphics Adapter
MGE Modular GIS Environment
MGR Manager
MHS Message Handling Service + Message Handling System
MHz Megahertz
MIB Management Information Base
MICS Macro Interpretive Commands
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIF Management Information Format
MII Microsoft/IBM/Intel
MIL Machine Interface Layer [Go Corporation]
MIM Metal-Insulator-Metal (screen)
MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension [Internet]
MIN Minimum
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIS Management Information System
MISC Miscellaneous
MIX Member Information Exchange
MKDIR Make Directory
ML Machine Language
MM Minutes + Month
MMA Microcomputer Managers Association
MMC Matched Memory Cycle + Microcomputer Marketing Council
MMIS Materials Manager Information System
MMPM Multi Media Presentation Manager
MMU Memory Management Unit
MNOS Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol [Microcom]
.MNU Menu (fine name extension)
MO Magneto-Optical (disk drive)
MODEM Modulator Demodulator
MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor + Move
MOVS Move String
MOD Modem + Modulus
MOP Maintenance Operations Protocol
MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOV Move
MOVS Move String
MP Multiple Processors
MPC Multimedia Personal Computer
MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station (Software)
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPP Massively Parallel Processing +
Message Processing Program
MPR Multipart Repeater
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MR Modem Ready
MRCF Microsoft Realtime Compression Format
MRCI Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRO Multi-Region Operation
MRP Materials Requirement Planning
MRPL Main Ring Path Length
MRT Mean Repair Time
MS Memory System + Message Store + Microsecond +
Microsoft Corporation + Millisecond
MSAV Microsoft Anti Virus
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSCDEX Microsoft CD Extensions [Microsoft]
MSD Mass Storage Device + Most Significant Digit
MS-DOS Microsoft-Disk Operating System [Microsoft]

MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request
MSDS Microsoft Developer Support [Microsoft]
MSG Message
.MSG Program Message (file name extension)
MSI Medium Scale Integration
MSL Map Specification Library
.MSP Microsoft Paint (file name extension) [Microsoft]
MSW Machine Status Word
MTA Message Transfer Agent + Multiple Terminal Access
MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns
MTBF Mean Time Before Failure + Mean Time Between Failures
MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams
MTS Message Transfer Service/System +
Multichannel Television Sound
MTTF Mean Time To Failure
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MUL Multiply
MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility
Multi-Programming System (Programming Language)
MUX Multiplexer
mV Millivolt
MVB Multimedia Viewer Book
MVC Multimedia Viewer Compiler
MVDM Multiple Virtual DOS Machines
MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage
MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
MX Mail Exchanger [Internet]
NACD National Association of Computer Dealers
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NAE Not Above or Equal
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol
Syntax (graphics)
NAS Network Application Support [DEC]
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface [Novell]
NAU Network Addressable Unit
NBE Not Below or Equal
NBI Nothing But Initials
NBS National Bureau of Standards
NC No Carry + Numerical Control
NCA Network Communications Adapter
NCC Network Control Center
NCGA National Computer Graphics Association
NCIC National Crime Information Center
NCMT * Numerical Control for Machine Tools
NCP NetWare Core Protocol + Network Control Processor +
Network Control Program + Not Copy Protected
NCR National Cash Register (Company)
NCSI Network Communications Services Interface [Novell]
NDEF Not to be Defined
NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification
NDP Numeric Data Processor
NDRO Non-Destructive Read Out
.NDX Index (file name extension)
NEC Nippon Electric Company
NEG Negative + Negate
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System [IBM]
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface [IBM]
.NEW New Information (file name extension)
NEWS NetWare Early Warning System [Frye Computer]
NEXT Near-End Crosstalk
NFF No Fault Found
NFS Network File System

NG No Good
NGE Not Greater or Equal
NHC National Hurricane Center
NIC Network Information Center [Internet] +
Network Interface Card +
Numeric Intensive Computing
NICAD Nickel Cadmium
NID New Interactive Display [NEC] + Next ID
NIMH Nickel-Metal Hydride
NIPS Network I/Os Per Second
NISO National Information Standards Organization
NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology
NITC National Information Technology Center
NJE Network Job Entry (protocol) [IBM]
NL New Line
NLE Not Less or Equal
NLM NetWare Loadable Module [Netware]
NLQ Near Letter Quality
NLS National Language Support [OS/2]
NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMM NetWare Management Map [NetWare]
NMOS Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NMS Network Management System [Novell]
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol [Internet]
NOC Network Operations Center
NOP No Operation
NOR Not Or
NOS Network Operating System
NPA Network Printer Alliance
NPI Network Printer Interface
NPL Nonprocedural Language
NPU Natural Processing Unit
NPX Numeric Processor Extension
NREN National Research and Education Network
NRZ Not Return to Zero
NRZI Non Return to Zero Inverted
NS Nanosecond + Network Supervisor + Non Stop
NSA POLY National Security Agency Polygraph
NSF National Science Foundation
NSTL National Software Testing Labs
NT New Technology [Microsoft]
NTF No Trouble Found
NTFS New Technology File System [Microsoft]
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
NUI Network User Identification +
Network User Interface +
Notebook User Interface [Go Corporation]
NUL Dummy Device + No Device
NV No Overflow
NVM Non-Volatile Memory
NVP Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
OAG Official Airline Guide + Online Air Guide
OAI Open Applications Interface
OBJ Object
OCE Open Collaborative Environment [Apple]
OCL Operation Control Language + Operator Control Language
OCR Optical Character Recognition
ODA Office Document Architecture
ODAPI Open Database Application Programming Interface [Borlund]
ODBC Open Database Connectivity (driver) [Microsoft]
ODBMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also see OODMS)
ODI Open Datalink Interface [Novell] +
Open Device Interconnect [NetWare]
ODS Open Data Services [Microsoft]

OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OF Overflow Flag
OFMT Output Format for Numbers
OFS Output Field Separator
OH Off Hook
OIS Office Information Systems
.OLD Old version (file name extension)
OLE Object Linking and Embedding [Microsoft]
OLI Optical Phone Line Interface [AT&T]
OLMC Output Logic Macrocell
OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing
OMF Object Module Format [Microsoft]
OMG Object Management Group
OMI Open Messaging Interface [Lotus]
OMNS Open Network Management System
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
ONC Open Network Computing [Sun]
OODB Object-Oriented Database
OODMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also see ODBMS)
OOL Object-Oriented Language
OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language
OOPS Object Oriented Programming and Systems
OOS Object-Oriented Systems +
Off-line Operating Simulator
OP Operation + Optical + Output
OPAC Online Public Access Catlog [Internet]
OPC Optical Photoconductor
OP CODE Operational Code
OPD Operand
OPI Open Prepress Interface
OPM Operations Per Minute
OPS Operations
OPT Open Protocol Technology
.OPT Options (file name extension)
OPUS Octal Program Updating System
ORACLE On-Line Inquiry and Report Generator (UNIX DB program)
.ORI Original (file name extension)
ORS Output Record Separator
OS Operating System
OS/2 Operating System/2 [IBM]
OSA Open System Architecture
OS/E Operating System/Environment
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSM Off-Screen Model
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSQL Object Structured Query Language
OT Object Technology
OTF Open Token Foundation
OTP One-Time Programmable
.OUT Outlines (file name extension)
OUTS Output String
OV Overflow
OVL Program Overlay (file name extension)
OVR Program Overlay (file name extension)
OWL Object Windows Library +
Open Windows Library [Borland]
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PADS Pen Application Development System [Slate Corporation]
PAK Packed (file name extension)
PAL Paradox Applications Language [Borlund] +
Phase Alternate Line + Programmed Array Logic +
Programming Assembly Language
PALC Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal (display)

PALS Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System
PAP Passwork Authentication Protocol (protocol)
PAR Parallel
PARA Paragraph
PARC Palo Alto Research Center [XEROX]
PAS PASCAL source code (file name extension)
PASCAL (Programming Language named for Blaise Pascal)
PAT Patch (file name extension)
PBE Prompt By Example
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer + Printed Circuit + Program Counter
PCB Printed Circuit Board + Program Control Block
PC-DOS Personal Computer - Disk Operating System
(IBM version of MSDOS)
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect [Intel]
PC-I/O Program Controlled I/O
PCL Printer Command Language [HP] + Process Control Language
PCM Personal Computer Manufacturer + Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCMIA PC Memory-Card International Association
PCNFS Personal Computer Network File System
PCS Patchable Control Store +
Personal Communication Services +
Planning Control Sheet + Print Contrast Signal +
Process Control Systems + Program Counter Store +
Programmable Drive Table + Project Control System
PCT Picture (file name extension)
PCX Picture Image (file name extension)
PD Public Domain
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDD Physical Device Driver
PDF Portable Document Format +
Processor Defined Function +
Program Development Facility
PDF Printer Description (file name extension)[Borlund,Lotus]
PDIAL Public Dialup Internet Access List [Internet]
PDL Page Description Language + Program Description Language
+ Program Design Language
PDN Public Data Network
PDP Progammable Data Processor +
(DEC Computer System Designation, i.e. PDP-8, PDP-11)
PDS Packet Driver Specification + Partitioned Data Set
PDSS Post Development and Software Support
PDT Programmable Drive Table
.PDX Paradox files (file name extension) [Borlund]
PE Parity Even + Protect Enable
PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter
PEL Picture Element [IBM]
PEN SDK Pen Computing Software Development Kit
PEP Packetized Ensemble Protocol [Telebit]
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PES Positioning Error Signal + Processor Enhancement Socket
Processor Upgrade Socket
PET Print Enhancement Technology [Compaq]
PFM Printer Font Metrics (file name extension) [Windows]
PFR Power-Fail Restart
PGA Pin Grid Array + Professional Graphics Adapter [IBM]
PGDN Page Down
.PGL Graphics (file name extension) [Hewlett-Packard]
PGM Program
.PGP ProGram Parameter (file name extension) [AutoCAD]
PGUP Page Up
PHIGS Programmers' Hierarchial Interactive Graphics Standards
PHO Phone List (file name extension)
PI Program Interruption

PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIC Priority Interrupt Controller +
Program Interrupt Controller
PIC Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
PID Process Identification Number
PIF Program Information File
PILOT Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PIM Personal Information Manager
PIN Personal Identification Number
PIO Parallel Input/Output + Processor Input/Output +
Programmed Input/Output
PIP Picture In Picture + Programmable Interconnect Point
PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out
PIT Programmable Interval Timer
PIXEL Picture Element
PL Plus
PLA Programmable Logic-Array
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLL Phase Locked Loop
PLL Prelinked Library (file name extension) [Clipper]
PL/M Programming Language for Micros
PLV Production Level Video
PL/1 * Programming Language One
PM Presentation Manager [IBM] + Preventative Maintenance
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
PMOS Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PO Parity Odd
POL Problem Oriented Language
POP Point Of Presence [MCI] + Pop from Stack +
Post Office Protocol
POPA Pop All Registers
POPF Pop Flags
POS Point Of Sale + Positive + Programmable Object Select
POSIX Portable Oprating System Environment Standard [IEEE]
POST Power-On Self Test
POSTNET Postal Numeric Encoding Technique
PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream [IBM]
PPM Pages Per Minute
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol [Internet]
PRD Printer Driver (file name extension) [Word]
PRF Preferences (file name extension) [Grammatik IV]
PRG Program (file name extension)
PRMD Private Mangement Domain [X.400}
PRO Profile (file name extension)
PROC Procedure
PROFS Professional Office System [IBM]
PROG Program + Programmer
PROLOG Programming In Logic (Programming Language)(See HLL)
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
PRN Printer
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
.PRS Printer (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
PRTSC Print Screen
PS Proportional Spacing
.PS PostScript (file name extension)
PS/2 Programming System 2 [IBM]
PSC Product Service Center
PSF Permanent Swap File
PSP Program Segment Prefix
P-SRAM Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory
PSW Program Status Word
PT Page Table

P/T Part Time
PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive
PUB Publication + Publish
.PUB Publication (file name extension) [Ventura]
PUS Processor Upgrade Socket
PUSHA Push All Registers
PUSHF Push Flags
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
PVM Pass-through Virtual Machine (protocol) [IBM]
PWB Printed Wire Board +
Programmer's Workbench [Microsoft]
PWR Power
.PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox]
QA Quality Assurance
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QBE Query By Example
QBF Query by Form
QC Quality Control
QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System
.QDI Dictionary (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QDT Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QFA Quick File Access
QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time [Hewlett-Packard] +
Quarter-Inch Cartridge
.QIF Quicken Interchange Format (file name extension)
.QMT Memorized List (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QNX Indexes to Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RA Return Authorization
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RAG Row Address Generator
RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks +
Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives +
Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM Random Access Memory
RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog
Converter [Sierra]
RAND Random
RAP Rapid Application Prototyping
RAS Random Access Storage +
Reliability, Availability and Serviceability +
Row Address Select
RB Right Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System
RCL Rotate Carry Left
RCP Restore Cursor Position
RCR Rotate Carry Right
RCS Records Communications Switching System
RD Receive Data + Remove Directory
R&D Research and Development
RDA Remote Database Access
RDB Receive Data Buffer + Relational Database
RDBMS Relational Database Mangement System
RDCLK Received Timing Clock
RDSR Receiver Data Service Request
.REC Recorder (file name extension)
.REF Reference (file name extension)
REG Register
REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate
RELSECT Relative Sector
REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor
REN Rename
REP Repeat
REPE Repeat while Equal

REPNE Repeat while Not Equal
REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero
REPZ Repeat while Zero
REQ Request
RES Remote Execution Service + Reset + Resolution
RES Resource (file name extension)
RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] +
REX Relocatable Executable
REXX Restructured Extended Executor (language) [IBM]
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request For Comments [Internet]
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RFP Request for Proposal
RFS Remote File System
RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format
RFU Reserved For Future Use
RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model)
RI Referential Integrity
RIFF Resource Interschange File Format [Microsoft]
RIM Remote Installation and Maintenance [Microsoft]
RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange
RIP Raster Image Processor +
Remote Image Protocol +
Routing Information Protocol [Novell]
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RJE Remote Job Entry
RLE Run Length Encoded
RLL Run Length Limited
RLN Remote LAN Node [DCA]
RLSD Received Line Signal Detected
RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration
RM Reset Mode
RMA Return Material Authorization +
Return to Manufacturer Authorization
RMDIR Remove Directory
RMON Remote Monitor/Monitoring
RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square
RND Random
R-O Read Only
ROL Rotate Left
ROM Read Only Memory
ROR Rotate Right
RPC Real Procedure Call + Remote Procedure Call
RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language)
RPL Resident Programming Language +
Requested Privilege Level
RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM
RPT Repeat
RPQ Request for Price Quotation
RQBE Relational Query By Example [Fox Pro]
RR Real Reality
RS Radio Shack + Request to Send +
Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA]
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications System
RSL Request-and-Status Link
RSP Required Space Character
RST Reset + Restart
RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital]
RSX Real Time Resource Sharing Executive
RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time
R/T Receive/Transmit
RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method
RTC Real-Time Clock
RTF Rich Text Format

RTL Register Transfer Language +
Resistor Transistor Logic + Run Time Library
RTM Response Time Monitor
RTOS Real-Time Operating System
RTS Request To Send
RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications)
RTV Real Time Video
R/W Read/Write
RWM Read-Write Memory
RX Receiver
RXD Received Data
SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM]
SADL Synchronous Data Link Control [Racal-Vadic]
SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator
SAL Shift Arithmetic Left
SAM Serial Access Memory +
Sequential Access Method
SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access Point [DEC]
SAP * Symbolic Assembly Program
SAR Shift Arithmetic Right +
Successive Approximation Register
SAS Sales Accounting System + Single Audio System
.SAV Saved (file name extension)
SAVDM Single Application VDM
SB Sound Board
SBB Subtract With Borrow
SBC Single-Board Computer
SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
SCAS Scan String
SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM]
SCC Serial Communications Controllers +
Serial Controller Chip +
Synchronous Channel Check [IBM]
SCD Standard Color Display
SCF System Control Facility
SCM Software Configuration Management
SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company)
SCOPE Simple Communications Programming Enironment
SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port +
System Control Program
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
.SCR Script (file name extension)
SCRN Screen (video display)
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SD Send Data
SDA Software Disk Array + Source Data Automation +
System Display Architecture [Digital]
SDF Space Delimited File + Space Delimited Format
.SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension)
SDK Software Developer's Kit [Microsoft]
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (protocol)
SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T]
SDNS Secure Data Network Service
SDR Streaming Data Request
SDS Sysops Distribution System
SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM]
SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2]
SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built
by Standard Eastern Automating Computing
SEC Single Error Correction
SECAM Sequential Color And Memory
SED Stream Editor
SEG Segment
SEL Select

SEM Scanning Electron Microscope +
Standard Electronic Module
SER Serial
SET Softwave Engineering Technology
.SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] +
Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox]
SEU Smallest Executable Unit
SF Sign Flag
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SFT System Fault Tolerance
SFX Sound Effect(s)
SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator
SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table
SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGR Set Graphics Rendition
S/H Sample and Hold
SHAR Shell Archive
SHL Shift Logical Left
SHR Shift Logical Right
SI Source Index + System Information
SID Station Identification [AT&T] +
Symbolic Interactive Debugger
SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table
SIG Special Interest Group
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications
and Technology
SIM Simulator
SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
SIMM Single In-line Memory Module
SIMULA Simulation (language)
SIO Serial Input/Output (communications driver)
SIP Single In-line Package
SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out
SIPP Single In-line Pin Package
SIT Special Information Tones
SISO Serial In, Serial Out
SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol
SLMR Silly Little Modem Reader
SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane (program)
SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration
SM Set Mode
SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII]
SMD Surface Mounted Device
SMDS Switched Multi-Megabit Data Service
SMF System Manager Facility [Compaq]
SMI System Management Interrupts [Intel]
SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface
SMIT System Management Interface Tool [IBM]
SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft]
SMM System Mangement Mode
SMP Symbolic Manipulation Program +
Symmetrical Multiprocessor (machine)
SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply
SMRAM System Management Random Access Memory
SMSW Store Machine Status Word
SMT Surface-Mount Technology
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMU System Management Utility
SN Serial Number
S/N Signal-to-Noise (Ratio)
SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM]
SND Sound
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Progamming Language)

SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology]
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SOC System On a Chip
SOE Standard Operating Environment
SOH Start of Heading
SOL Simulation Oriented Language
SOM Start of Message + System Object Model [IBM]
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Standards and Open Systems
SOTA State Of The Art
SOX Sound Exchange
SP Service Pack [IBM] + Stack Pointer + System Product
SPA Software Publishers Association
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture
SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process Control
SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation
SPF Shortest Path First + System Programming Facility
SPI Service Provider Interface
SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based
Environment [STScI]
SPL Spooler
.SPL Spell Checker (file name extension)
SPOOL Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line
SPS Standby Power System
SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPT Sectors Per Track
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell]
SQ Squeezed (files)
SQL Structured Query Language
SQRT Square Root
SR Shift Register
SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory +
Static Random Access Memory
SRD Screen Reader System
SRO Sharable and Read Only
SRQ Service Request
SRR Serially Reusable Resource
SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds
SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM]
SSGA System Suppport Gate Array
SSI Small Scale Integration
SST Spread-Spectrum Technology
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm
STB Strobe
STC Set Carry Flag
STD Set Direction Flag + Standard
STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan]
STDAUX Standard Auxillary
STDERR Standard Error
STDIN Standard Input
STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C]
STDOUT Standard Output
STDPRN Standard Printer
.STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus Agenda]
STI Set Interrupt Flag
STN Supertwist Nematic
STOS Store String
STP Shielded Twisted Pair (cable) + Signal Transfer Point
STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter Receiver
STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming
STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language)
STScI Space Telescope Science Institute
STX Start of Text
.STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word, WordPerfect]

SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract
.SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension)
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
S/W Software
.SWP Swap (file name extension)
SYLK Symbolic Link
.SYM Symbols (file name extension)
.SYN Synonym (file name extension)
SYNC Synchronous
SYS System
.SYS System Configuration (file name extension) +
System Device Driver (file name extension)
SYSGEN System Generator
SYSLOG System Log
SYSMOD System Modification
SYSOP System Operator
SYSREQ System Request
TAD Telephone Answering Device
TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe
Information Service
TAR Tape Archive
TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland]
TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Tranceiver Interface
TB Terabyte (1,000 gigabytes)
T/B Top and Bottom
TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS)
.TBK Toolbook (file name extension)
TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TD Transmit Data
TDtoDP Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates
TDE Terminal Display Editor
.TDF Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2] +
Typeface Definition File (file name extension)
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDMS Terminal Display Management System
TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request
TDR Time Domain Reflectometry
TE/2 Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]
TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation
TED Tiny Editor
TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borlund]
TER Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]
TERMPWR Terminator Power
TFDD Text File Device Driver
TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent
.TFM Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)
TFT Thin-Film Transistor (screens)
.THD Thread (file name extension)
THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording
.THS Thesaurus (file name extension)
TI Texas Instruments, Inc.
TID Target ID
TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence
.TIF Tagged Image File (filename extension)
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding
and Referencing
TIP Terminal Interface Processor
TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer
TLI Transport Layer Interface

TLU Table Lookup
.TLX Telex (file name extension)
TM Trademark
TMP Temporary
TN Twisted Nematic
TNC Terminal Node Controller
TOP Technical and Office Protocol
TPC Transaction Processing Performance Council
TPI Tracks Per Inch
TPL Table Producing Language
TPM Transactions Per Minute
TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]
TPS Transactions Per Second +
Transaction Processing System
TPW Turbo Pascal for Windows
TQM Total Quality Management
TR Terminal Ready
T/R Transmit/Receive
TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer
(Name of first computer to be entirely
.TRM Terminal (file name extension)
TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus
TS Top Secret
TSA Technical Support Alliance
TSB Termination Status Block
TSO Time Sharing Option
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident
TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System
TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information
.TST Test (file name extension)
TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic
.TTF TrueType Font (file name extension)
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTS Transaction Tracking System
TTY Teletype
TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]
.TUT Tutorial (file name extension)
TVI Television Interference
TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service
TXD Transmitted Data
TXT Text
TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]
UA User Agent + User Area
UAE Unrecoverable Application Error
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UCL Universal Communications Language
UDC User Defined Commands
UDF User Defined Functions
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UG User Group
UI Unix International + User Interface
UID User Identifier
UL Underwriters Laboratories + Upload
ULA Uncommitted Logic Array
ULN Universal Link Negotiation
ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration
UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]
UNC Universal Naming Convention
UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language
UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System)
UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)
UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture

UPC Universal Product Code
UPL User Program Language
UPM User Profile Management [IBM]
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply +
Uninterruptible Power System
UREP Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)
USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter
USERID User Identification
USQ Unsqueezed (files)
USR US Robotics (corporation)
USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USSA User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom)
UT User Terminal
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
UTI Universal Text Interchange
UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)
UU Uuencode/Uudecode
UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy Program
UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T]
UV Ultraviolet
VA Virtual Address
VAD Value Added Dealer
VADD Value Added Disk Driver
VAL Value + Voice Application Language
.VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]
VAM Virtual Access Method
VAN Value Added Network
VAP Value Added Processes
VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable
VAX/VMS Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System [DEC]
VB Variable Block
.VBX Visual Basic (file name extension)
VCD Virtual Communications Driver
VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VDD Virtual Device Driver
VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager
VDE Video Display Editor
VDISK Virtual Disk
VDM Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]
VDS Virtual DMA Services
VDT Video Display Terminal
VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit
VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]
VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager
VER Verify
VERR Verify Read Access
VERW Verify Write Access
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VGA Video Graphics Array
VGC Video Graphics Controller
VHS Very High Speed + Virtual Host Storage
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VIM Vendor Independent Messaging (interface)
VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output
VINES Virtual Network Operating System [Banyan]
VIP Variable Information Processing
VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for
Enhanced Reliability
VIS Video Information System [Tandy] +
Voice Information System
VL-BUS Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLIW Very Long Instruction Word (machine)

VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis
VLT Variable List Table
VM Virtual Machine
VMA Virtual Memory Address
VMB Virtual Machine Boot
VMM Virtual Memory Manager
VMOS Vertical MOS
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
VMT Virtual Memory Technique
VOL Volume
VOM Volt Ohm Meter
VOS Verbal Operating System
VPD Virtual Printer Device
VPDS Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]
VR Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulator
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented
Memory Manager [Borlund]
.VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
VRU Voice Response Unit
VS Virtual Storage
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSE Virtual Storage Extended
VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency
VSLI Very Large Scale Integration
VSM Virtual Storage Management
VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System
VSYNC Vertical Sync
VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
VUI Video User Interface
VUP VAX Unit of Performance
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
W/ With
WAIS Wide Area Information Server/Service
WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System
WAN Wide Area Network
WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service
.WAV Waveform Audio (file name extension)
WC Word Count
WELL Whole Earth Lectronic Link (BBS)
WFW Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]
WGS Work Group System
WINForum Wireless Information Networks Forum
WINWORD Word For Windows [Microsoft]
WISE WordPerfect Information System Environment
.WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WMF Windows Metafile (file name extension) [Microsoft]
WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor
WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module
W/O Without
WORM Write Once, Read Many
WOSA Windows Open Services Architecture [Microsoft]
WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected
.WPG Graphics (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPHD Write-Protect Hard Disk
.WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPM Words Per Minute
.WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

WPS Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +
Workplace Shell [OS2]
.WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
.WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
WS WordStar + Workstation
WT Write Through
WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get
XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute
XAPIA X.400 Application Program Interface Association
X2B Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]
X2C Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]
XCHG Exchange
XCMD External Command
XCOPY Extended Copy
X2D Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]
XDR External Data Representation
XFCN External Function
XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM]
XID Exchange Identifier
XIOS Extended Input/Output System
XLAT Translate
XLM Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]
XMIT Transmit
XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]
XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]
XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]
XOFF Transmitter Off
XON Transmitter On
XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR)
XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)
XTAL Crystal
XTCLK External Transmit Clock
YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]
ZBR Zone Bit Recording
Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity
ZDS Zenith Data Systems
ZIF Zero-Insertion Force (socket)
ZIP Zigzag In-Line Package +
Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)
.ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]
.ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]
ZSL Zero Slot LAN
.$$$ Temporary File (file name extension)
In electronic mail, some of the following "smiley faces" rather than words, are used to express the writer's feelings.
Turn your head to the side to read them.
Smile :-D Laughing
Smile :-} Grin
Smirk :-( Frown
Wink :-X Close-mouthed
Wide-eyed :-O Open-mouthed
:-|) I wear a :-Q But I don't inhale moustache
Oh, no!
Also used:  Grin

Wide Grin

Very wide grin


CSGNetwork's Online Computer, Telephony &
Electronics Reference
Computer Support Group & CSGNetwork.Com Online

Computer, Telephony & Electronics Industry Glossary

It is used to denote the original Intel Pentium line of processors. See FSB.
It is used to denote the Intel Pentium II line of processors.
See FSB.
This is an abbreviation for peer-to-peer, a particular type
of networking protocol.
1. P3 is AOL's data transfer protocol. It is comparable to
ZMODEM. The same technology is used by other ISP s
2. It is also often used to denote the Intel Pentium III line
of processors. See FSB.
P4 is used to denote the new Intel Pentium IV line of
processors, due for November 2000 release . See FSB .
An acronym for Private Automatic Branch eXchange;
telephony jargon. A phone system used to switch
telephones between extensions and to outside lines. For
incoming and outgoing (dial 9) calls. Sometimes just called
PBX though a PBX system does not have to be automatic
or may not even have the capability for total automation.
A unit of data sent across a network. When a large block of
data is to be sent over a network, it is broken up into
several packets, sent, and the reassembled at the other end.
Packets often include checksum codes to detect
transmission errors. The exact layout of an individual
packet is determined by the protocol and network
architecture being used. In many cases, it could be also
called a sub-unit of a data stream; a grouping of
information that includes a header (containing information
like address destination) and, in most cases, user data. This
is not to be confused with "Pack It!", a term many arrogant
programmers have heard from many supervisors over the
packet reflection
This error message is received when a packet of data could
not be transmitted properly and was sent back (reflected) to
the origin. This is a network based error.
packet sniffing
The intentional and usually illegal act of intercepting
packets of data being transmitted over the Internet and
searching them for information. This can be done without

the sender's or recipient's knowledge. It is the equivalent of
packet switched network or PSN
A network sub-architecture that does not establish a
dedicated path through the network for the duration of a
session, opting instead to transmit data in units called
packets in a connectionless manner; data streams are
broken into packets at the front end of a transmission, sent
over the best available network connection of possibly
many, and then reassembled in their original order at the
destination endpoint.
packet switching
A switching system that uses a physical communications
connection only long enough to transit a data message; data
messages are disassembled into packets and reassembled at
the receiving end of the communication link; packets may
travel over many diverse communications links to get to
the common endpoint. This is most often contrasted with
circuit switching in data communications, where all data
messages transmitted during a session are transmitted over
the same path for the duration of the session.
1. A specially surfaced material to allow the users of mice,
a place to optimize operation.
2. A graphics tablet for data input into programs such as
CAD/CAM . They are often mouse-like in function but
stationary with a pointer that moves over them
stationary with a pointer that moves over them.
3. An acronym for Packet Assembler/Disassembler. The
hardware device used to connect simple devices (like
character mode terminals) that do not support the full
functionality of a particular protocol to a network. PADs
buffer data and assemble and disassemble packets sent to
such end devices.
4. A digitizer.
5. A place where many nerdy type programmers lived in
the '60s.
pad character
1. A character used to fill empty space. (In some cases, it
could be considered "education"...) Many applications
have fields that must be a particular length. For example, in
a database application, you may have a field that is ten
characters in length. If you use only four of the allotted
characters, the program itself must fill in the remaining six
characters with pad characters. Some applications allow
you to choose the character to be used as padding. Most
padding by default is done with a space character, as issued
by the space bar.
2. A "home body" from the 1960's.
The process, in most word processors, of calculating the
properties of a page in order to assign page breaks.
Excite's online instant message service. Get it at

See others like PAL here.
Palmtops are a class of portable personal computers
(generally with PDA software) that fit in the palm of your
hand. One of the most well-known palmtops is the Pilot,
developed by PalmOS and marketed originally by US
Robotics, now 3COM.
A leading manufacturer and supplier in all commercial
electronics industries worldwide. They have several
International manufacturing and operations locations. See
Paper Mail
Some E-Mail services offer this service so that you can
send Internet E-Mail to people who don't even own
computers. A form of snail-mail. A loose reference to the
US Mail service. See mail.
1. A form of data transfer and communications, most often
used with printers. It is the opposite of and an alternative to
serial communications. Printers and other devices are said
to be either parallel or serial. Parallel means the device is
capable of receiving more than one bit at a time (that is, it
receives several bits in parallel). Most modern printers are
parallel or USB.
2. A type of bus connection, transferring data in a similar
means as a parallel printer connection.
3. In electronics, two components can be connected
together in two different ways, series and parallel. Each
component has two different ends or poles. They can be
positive and negative but may not be. For identification,
they are known as Alpha and Beta. While the nomenclature
is not exactly original, it serves the purpose. If similar
components, such as a resistor and another resistor, or a
capacitor and another capacitor, are in parallel in a circuit,
the alpha pole of one is connected to the alpha pole of the
other, directly, while the beta pole and other beta pole also
connect directly. See our Parallel Resistance Calculator
and our Parallel Capacitance Calculator to resolve
values for either resistance or capacitance.
A guideline or limitation of software or process functions.
In the case of search software, parameters are Boolean
factors, the words or letters you are trying to find, where
you want the search to include in the looking process and
the like.
Parental Control
Parental Control is an ISP feature that allows a parent to
restrict a child's access to certain areas of ISP provided
services and the Ineternet . Such control is also available
in most modern browsers and is available as a separate
application . While it is not foolproof, it is a good thing.
There are also some standards being set on the web. See

Net Nanny , Safe For Kids , CyberAngels , SafeSurf or
Recreational Software Advisory Council for more
information. These are certainly not all involved but a
representative group. This site CSGNETWORK.COM, is
rated for users of all age groups and is devoted to keeping
unfit material off the Internet, at least filtering it.
A method of data integrity checking that adds a single bit
to each byte of data. The parity bit is responsible for
checking for errors in the other 8 bits (or less, depending
on the arrangement). Parity is logic that detects the
presence of an error in memory. Generally, a single parity
bit is used for each byte (8 bits) of data. The most
commonly used forms of parity are even parity odd parity
commonly used forms of parity are even parity, odd parity,
and checksums.
To search through a stream of text and either break it up
into useful chunks of information or reformat it in some
other manner.
1. A portion or a segment of memory or storage memory,
such as a hard disk. Most commonly used as a section of a
hard drive. Hence the name partition. When you format a
hard drive, you can assign the number of partitions you
want on a physical hard disk. The computer will recognize
each partition as a separate drive, and they will show up as
different drives under most operating systems; a logical
2. The act of creating a logical drive.
3. To break into smaller sections, such as a hard drive.
Most often, smaller but multiple partitions can improve the
efficiency of your hard drive. On larger drives, the cluster,
or block sizes (the minimum amount of space a file can
take up), are also very large, which can result in a waste of
disk space. So multiple partitions can actually give you
more space.
4. Partitioning can also be used to allow multiple operating
systems on the same drive of a given computer. Most of the
32bit file structures do not allow that but earlier OS
software, such as Windows 85, 98 (original), OS2, DOS
and early NT did.
5. A form of computer office and work area segregation so
that hardware people can be isolated from software people.
An acronym for Portable Applications Standards
Committee; a group within the IEEE. PASC is the group
that has and continues to develop the POSIX family of
standards. See them at HTTP://WWW.PASC.ORG .
Your password is like a key to your home. It is one of the
primary forms of online security. It is needed for you to get
online, and to change your billing information. A different
password is often needed for applications that are online.

Most ISP's staff will NEVER ask you for your password. If
someone does ask for that password, challenge them as to
who they really are.
password surfing
Like any large community, all ISP services have their share
of undesirable characters. On most services, they make
themselves known by masquerading as ISP employees
Frequently they will send a new member an instant
message or E-Mail claiming that the system has lost their
information, or offering them free service for a year. This is
called password surfing. These people are NOT ISP
employees, and they are trying to steal from you. To
protect yourself, NEVER give your password or billing
information to anyone. Most ISP employees will never ask
you for your password or billing information.
The hierarchical description of where a directory, folder, or
file is located on your computer or on a network.
A telephony term that describes the portion of a frame or
cell that carries user traffic. It is effectively what remains in
the frame or cell if you take out all headers or trailers.
1. A telephony acronym denoting Private Branch
Exchange, a physical private telephone network.
2. A small telephone switching system (exchange) usually
on a customer's premises that also connects to the public
switched telephone network. See PABX.
See personal computer.
In roughly the middle of 1998, Intel introduced the BX
chip set to their motherboard designs. One element in this
new architecture included an increase in the PC main
memory bus speed (Host bus) from 66 to 100 MHz, called
PC100. To match the 100MHz bus speed, 100MHz
SDRAM modules are used. These modules are often
referred to as PC100 compliant. See personal computer
An acronym for Partial Constant Angular Velocity. See
(CAV) and (CLV).
A further extension of the PC100 specification, the PC133
specification details the requirements for SDRAM used on
133MHz FSB motherboards. PC133 SDRAM can be used
on 100MHz FSB motherboards but will not yield a
performance advantage over PC100 memory at 100MHz.
See personal computer.
A component made up of layers of copper and fiberglass;
the surface of a PCB features a pattern of copper lines, or
"traces," that provide electrical connections for chips and

other components that mount on the surface of the PCB. A
term used in the electronics industry to denote a RAW
(non-populated) Printed Circuit Board. Once components
are populated on it, the board is sometimes called a card.
See motherboard, systemboard or mainboard .
PC Card
The current and newest name for PCMCIA.
The sometimes used name for PCOS.
Acronym for Peripheral Component Interconnect, a local
bus computer standard developed by Intel Corporation.
Most modern PCs include a bus that is only PCI capable;
early PCI designs incorporated the PCI bus in addition to a
more general ISA expansion bus. Those are now called
Legacy capable motherboards. Many analysts, however,
believe that PCI will eventually supplant ISA entirely; it
appears that non ISA systems are now the norm rather than
the exception in the year 2000. PCI is also used on newer
versions of the Macintosh computer. PCI is a 64-bit bus,
though it is usually implemented as a 32-bit bus. It can run
at clock speeds of 33 or 66 MHz. At 32 bits and 33 MHz, it
yields a throughput rate of 133 MBps. Board pin density is
also greater and for confusion avoidance, boards will not
interchange in ISA and PCI slots. Although it was
developed by Intel, PCI is not tied to any particular family
of microprocessors.
The acronym for Printer Control Language, a product of
HP. This was originally designed by HP for the LaserJet+.
It is now the base, in revision 5, of all of the printers in the
HP line. It is an interpreted language, similar to but more
intelligent than PostScript.
A telephony term describing a particular type of
modulation, Pulse Code Modulation.
An acronym meaning Personal Computer Memory Card
Industry Association. A standard that allows
interchangeability of various computing components on the
same connector. The PCMCIA standard is designed to
support input/output (I/O) devices, including memory,
Fax/modem, SCSI, and networking products. Many laptop
computers use these devices as modems or network
interfaces. It is an organization consisting of some 500
companies that has developed a standard for small, credit
card-sized devices, called PC Cards. Originally designed
for adding memory to portable computers, the somewhat
loose PCMCIA standard has been expanded several times
and is now suitable for many types of devices. There are in
fact three types of PCMCIA cards. All three have the same
rectangular size (85.6 by 54 millimeters), but different
Type I cards can be up to 3.3 mm thick, and are used

primarily for adding additional ROM or RAM to a
Type II cards can be up to 5.5 mm thick. These cards are
often used for NIC, modem and fax modem cards.
Type III cards can be up to 10.5 mm thick, which is
sufficiently large for portable disk drives.
As with the cards, PCMCIA slots also come in three sizes:
A Type I slot can hold one Type I card
A Type II slot can hold one Type II card or two Type I
A Type III slot can hold one Type III card or a Type I and
Type II card.
A full house beats three of a kind! So much for the details.
In general, though there are always exceptions, you can
exchange PCMCIA Cards on the fly, without rebooting
your computer. For example, you can slip in a Fax modem
card when you want to send a fax and then, when you're
done, replace the Fax modem card with a memory card.
You can also fit (and use) smaller cards into larger slots
but not the reverse. They are currently (as of mid-1999)
just known as PC Cards.
See microcode.
Personal Computer (IBM PC) Operating System, a coined
shorthand name for the DOS only software from several
companies running a low level platform on compatibles.
This was originally the name, though also known as
PCDOS, given to IBM's version of the first IBM produced
operating for PCs. They soon gave way to Microsoft
produced DOS. They have made several other efforts at PC
operating systems but have not been able to produce one
that was competitive to Microsoft.
A telephony term describing wireless communications
technology that operates at 1900 MHz. A loosely defined
future ubiquitous telecommunication service that will
allow "anytime, anywhere" voice and data communication
with personal communication with personal
communications devices.
1. An acronym for Personal Digital Assistant. A small,
totally portable device that combines computing,
telephone/fax, and networking features. A typical PDA can
function as a cellular phone, Fax sender, and personal
organizer. Unlike portable computers, most PDAs use a
pen-like stylus rather than a keyboard for input. This means
that they also feature handwriting recognition. Some PDAs
also make use of voice recognition technologies. Apple
Computer pioneered the field of PDA by introducing the
Newton MessagePad in 1993. Shortly thereafter, several
other manufacturers offered similar products. To date,
PDAs have had only modest success in the marketplace,
due to their high price tags and limited applications.

However, many experts believe that PDAs will eventually
become common gadgets.
2. PDA is a term for any small mobile hand-held device
that provides computing and information storage and
retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for
keeping schedule calendars and address book information
handy. Most PDAs have a small keyboard. Some PDAs
have an electronically sensitive pad on which handwriting
can be received. Some PDAs offer a variation of the
Microsoft Windows operating system called Windows CE.
Other products have their own or another operating system.
pdf files
Adobe's Portable Document Format (pdf) is a translation
format used primarily for distributing files, such as
documentation, across a network, or on a web site. This is
an inexpensive way for CD distributors to include
documentation with a CD based program or suite of
programs. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in
another application and then translated into .pdf files so
they can be viewed by anyone, regardless of platform. The
Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader software is necessary to view
these files, and can be obtained free at many sites, provided
by Adobe, or get it here, Acrobat PDF Reader central .
Adobe can be accessed through HTTP://WWW.ADOBE.COM.
A simple, small type of network in which each
workstation has the ability for equivalent capabilities and
responsibilities. Each station can be a server and each can
be a client at the same time. This differs from client/server
architectures, in which some computers are dedicated to
serving the others. Peer-to-peer networks are generally
simpler and less expensive, but they usually do not offer
the same performance under heavy loads. In fact, they are a
compromise at best in either way they are used. But they
are efficient with high enough horsepower hardware and
with a good network integrated operating system. A major
player in the early LAN days, offering this type technology,
was Artisoft's LANtastic. Currently, all Windows operating
systems of 95 and up offer this technology built in. It is just
referred to as the Microsoft network.
Peer Web Services
See PWS.
One of Intel's family of microprocessors; introduced in
1993. A class of microprocessor made by Intel. The series
has come from the early Pentium 60 Mhz, bus speeds of 66
Mhz and a 64kb cache, to the Pentium II (1997) series
which began at 233 Mhz to 450 Mhz with bus speeds of
100 Mhz and a L2 chache of 512kb with full speed
capability, to the current Pentium III series (1999), from
450 Mhz well into the Ghz speed, 133 Mhz bus with a
512kb to 2mb L2 cache with full speed capability. (As of
August 2000, a 1.5 Ghz Pentium IV has been announced
for November release. Early chips have been problematic.)

There has also been a Pentium Pro (1995) with speeds in
the 166 Mhz to 266 Mhz range, and Pentium XEON
(1998) to add to the group; a revised XEON version was
made in 1999 in Pentium III configuration with speeds in
the 800+ Mhz range. There have been low power versions
for laptops. In 1999, a lower performance version was
released, called the Celeron; it was designed to lower the
overall cost of computers that did not need ultra high
performance. The Celeron has a slower bus, smaller cache
and less efficient (slower) decision making path. The
Pentium series CPUs were designed to run Windows but
will obviously run other OS software as well. See FSB.
people connection
The People Connection, or similar name, is most ISP 's
main chatting forum. There are always hundreds or
thousands of people chatting about something.
A programming language whose acronym stands for
"Practical Extraction and Report Language". Perl is a
powerful, yet unstructured language that is especially good
for writing quick and dirty programs that process text files.
Because of these abilities, Perl is a common choice of
programmers for writing CGI scripts to automate input and
output from web pages. Perl was invented in 1986 by Larry
Wall and is available to anyone at no charge. The library is
now Perl5.
Here is the Perl version of "Hello World!":
print "Hello World\n";
permanent virtual circuit or PVC
1. A PVC is a permanent channel connection between two
ATM devices. PVC’s allow network transmissions to be
started without having to first establish a connection with
the end point ATM device. When a PVC is constructed, the
end points of the connection will agree upon a path in
which data will travel, and therefore agree upon the route
that data will travel to reach its destination.
2. A type of conduit pipe made of plastic used to tunnel or
route network and phone cables in some installations.
personal computer - PC
The original personal computer model introduced by IBM
in 1981. Because IBM was late to enter the desktop
computer field, it created the PC with an "open
architecture" so that it could compete with the then popular
Apple II computers. This open architecture meant that any
computer manufacturer could legally manufacture
PC-compatible machines that could run the same software
as IBM's PC. Since IBM purchased its CPU chips from
Intel and its operating system (DOS) from Microsoft,
makers of PC-compatibles (called clones at the time) were
able to utilize the same chips and OS as IBM. As a result,
PCs became the most popular home computer, IBM's
fortunes dropped, and Microsoft and Intel became the
multi-million dollar companies that they are today. Current
popular usage of the term PC refers to both IBM produced

personal computers and PC-compatible computers
produced by other manufacturers.
Personal Preferences
Personal choices and preferences is your ISP 's online
preference utility. All services have some such device.
With it you can change your multimedia preferences or
change your screen names, as well as other things. What
you select is what you get!
Personal Filing Cabinet or PFC
Your ISP's file organization tool, through your browser or
Personal Finance & Management
A channel of most ISP online services that is dedicated to
your money, helping you to keep it and making it grow.
Personal Web Server
See PWS.
A number that is the literal equivalent of 2 to the 50th
power (1,125,899,906,842,624) bytes; it is a quadrillion in
the American system. A petabyte is equal to 1,024
terabytes. It is a noun and not an action (it has nothing to
do with pets that bite). Don't know your KB from your
MB? Try our memory and storage converter. (Also see
powers of ten , kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, exabyte,
zettabyte and yottabyte.)
See Pretty Good Privacy.
A leading manufacturer and supplier in all commercial
electronics industries worldwide. They have several
International manufacturing and operations locations. See
Trying to illegally obtain someone's password by false
representations. Frequently, "phishers" will send instant
messages or E-Mail to new members claiming that they are
ISP employees and need the password because of a system
EVER ASK FOR YOU PASSWORD. If you are asked for
your password, the person asking you is not an ISP staff
member, and they should be reported or ignored.
The industry name for Phoenix Technologies, an industry
pioneer and giant in the BIOS business for computers,
hand held devices and phones. See them at
Personal Home Page is a server-side ( SSI ), HTML
embedded scripting language used to create dynamic Web
pages. In an HTML document, PHP script (similar syntax
to that off Perl or C ) is enclosed within special PHP tags.
Because PHP is embedded within tags, the author can jump
between HTML and PHP (similar to ASP and Cold Fusion)
instead of having to rely on heavy amounts of code to

output HTML. And, because PHP is executed on the
server, the client cannot view the PHP code. PHP can
perform any task any CGI program can do, but its strength
lies in its compatibility with many types of databases. Also,
PHP can talk across networks using IMAP, SNMP, NNTP,
POP3, or HTTP. PHP was created sometime in 1994 by
Rasmus Lerdorf. During mid 1997, PHP development
entered the hands of other contributers. Two of them, Zeev
Suraski and Andi Gutmans, rewrote the parser from scratch
to create PHP version 3 (PHP3). Today, PHP is shipped
standard with a number of Web servers, including RedHat
physical layer
Layer 1 of the OSI reference model. The physical layer
defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and
functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and
deactivating the physical link between end systems.
Corresponds with the physical control layer in the SNA
A metric prefix that denotes the equivalent of one
trillionth, 10 to the -12th power, in the American system.
See the inverse represented by terabyte.
A measurement of time . There are 1,000,000,000,000 (a
trillion) picoseconds in a second. For more information on
both common and uncommon timely tidbits, see our
displays of time and time zone conversions on our listing
of various converters and calculators.
Picture Studio
Picture Studio is a place where you can learn about chat
events, search for pictures of your favorite chat partners, or
catch up on the latest hot community news. Most ISP
services provide such a service under various names.
Acronym for Program for Internet News and E-Mail, a
character-based E-Mail client for UNIX systems.
Developed at the University of Washington, PINE replaces
an older E-Mail program called elm. They were somewhat
similar but not exactly the same. Both are somewhat
antiquated now.
1. Abbreviation for Packet InterNet Groper. A connection
testing program that sends a self-returning packet to a host
and times how long it takes to return.
2. Great golf clubs.
1. Acronym for Programmed Input/Output, a method of
transferring data between two devices that uses the
computer's main processor as part of the data path. ATA
uses PIO and defines the speed of the data transfer in terms
of the PIO mode implemented, as shown in the information
PIO Mode, Data Transfer Rate (MBps), Standard

0 3.3 ATA
1 5.2 ATA
2 8.3 ATA
3 11.1 ATA-2
4 16.6 ATA-2
ATA-3, ATA/33 and ATA/66 do not have a PIO mode
assignment as of yet, although ATA-3 is often used in
PIO4 since it is really a correction to ATA-2.
In DRAMs and SRAMs, a method for increasing the
performance using multistage circuitry to stack or save data
while new data is being accessed. The depth of a pipeline
varies from product to product. For example, in an EDO
DRAM, one bit of data appears on the output while the
next bit is being accessed. In some SRAMs, pipelines may
contain bits of data or more.
A pixel is the smallest unit of space on a computer screen.
Each little dot is a pixel. Resolution is a measure of how
many pixels you can fit on your screen. The greater the
resolution, the smaller the images but the more you see on
the screen at one time. The greater the resolution, the
longer the screen refresh time and the slower the overall
operation. 640x480, 800x600 and 1024x768 are the most
common. Resolution and numbers of colors available are
determine by your computer's video card capability. More
often than not, the larger the number of colors, the slower
the operation. Most Internet operations are limited to 256
colors; numbers set for greater than that do not usually
help. Older equipment may only support 16 colors.
PKUnzip is a standard DOS decompression utility used to
extract files from .ZIP archives. There are also Windows
versions of this architecture; not all are from the original
PK company. PKZip is the compression utility. The
resulting files are called .ZIP files.
The initials PK are from the company and architecture
founder, Phil Katz. Phil was a friend of mine and a
business associate. We often discussed the viability of the
compression technology in the early 1980s. He felt is
would be big; I didn't but we still were close in sharing
technology. Phil passed away in April of 2000. He is
missed already, especially by me. The PK company is at
PKZip is a standard DOS compression utility used to creat
.ZIP archives. There are also Windows versions of this
architecture; not all are from the original PK company.
PKUnzip is the decompression utility. The resulting files
are called .ZIP files. The PK company is at
An acronym for Programmable Logic Array, a chip (IC)
based programmed logical program. PLAs are members of

a broad category of chips called PLDs.
1. A platform is a version of interface software meant for a
specific computer. Examples of such software are for the
DOS, Windows, Windows95, AS400, Data General, Unix,
DEC, Magic Link, Casio Zoomer, and Macintosh
platforms. there are many more. Many ISPs only support
two or three platforms; some only one.
2. Something that short programmers put chairs on so that
they can reach the keyboard on top of the desk.
An acronym for Programmable Logic Device. While often
just called a logic chip, it is an integrated circuit (IC) that
can be programmed, with proper equipment, to perform
complex functions. A PLD consists of arrays of internal
AND and OR gates (see Boolean ). A system designer
implements a logic design with a device programmer that
blows fuses on the PLD to control gate operation. The
logic is based on which gates are open and which gates are
closed. System designers generally use development
software that converts basic code into programmatic
instructions a device programmer needs to create a design
and put it into operation. PLD types can classified into
three groups, PROMs, PALs or GALs and PLAs, and two
classifications, Simple PLDs (SPLD) and Complex PLDs,
plug-and-play or PnP
Plug and Play is at best a hopeful name. Long time industry
people renamed the term to Plug and Pray. (it seems there
were many clergy involved in the original development.)
PnP is the acronym (there is always an acronym...) that also
has a counterpart, TnT, indicating how unstable the early
PnP cards really were. Since R2 of W95, things have been
better. W2000 is supposed to really have a grip of sorts on
PnP with an entire section of System devoted to it. The
theory is that OS and card, working together, have the
ability within a computer system to automatically configure
expansion boards and other devices. You should be able to
plug in a device and play with it, without worrying about
setting DIP switches, jumpers, and other configuration
elements. Since the introduction of the NuBus, the Apple
Macintosh has been a plug-and-play computer. The players
involved and the varied options are limited by Apple's
resistance to sharing technology. The Plug and Play (PnP)
specification has made PCs more plug-and-play, although
it doesn't always work as advertised.
Plug-ins are software programs that extend the usability of
a program you are using, most often browsers. There are
plug-ins for playing real time audio clips, video clips,
animation, and more. Internet plug-ins work with your ISP
service or with your browser. Here is a source of them
from Browser Watch.

See plug-and-play.
Point of Presence - POP
A site that has a collection of telecommunications
equipment, usually refers to ISP or telephone company
sites. This is not to be confused with POP3, a particular
mail server technology supporting Post Office Protocol.
Point To Point Connection
A data network circuit with one control and one tributary.
Also see PPP.
Point to Point Protocol
See PPP.
PONS is an acronym for Passive Optical Network. This is a
high bandwidth point to multipoint optical fiber network
based on the asynchronous transfer mode protocol, (ATM).
PONs generally consist of an OLT (Optical Line
Termination), which is connected to ONUs (Optical
Network Units), more commonly known as subscriber
terminals, using only fiber cables, optical splitters and
other passive components (do not transmit signals using
electricity). At present, a maximum 32 ONUs can be
connected to any one OLT but OLTs can be cascaded. The
OLT is located at a local exchange (CO), and the ONU is
located either on the street, in a building, or even in a user's
home. PONs rely on lightwaves instead of copper wire for
data transfer. In a PON, signals are routed over the local
link with all signals along that link going to all interim
transfer points. Optical splitters route signals through the
network; optical receivers at intermediate points and
subscriber terminals tuned for specific wavelengths of light
direct signals intended for their groups of subscribers. At
the final destination, a specific residence or business can
detect its own and only its own, specified signal. PONs are
capable of delivering high volumes of upstream and
downstream bandwidth (up to 622 Mbps downstream and
155 Mbps upstream), which can be changed "on-the-fly"
depending on an individual user's needs. This type of
tuning of the bandwidth is a technology that will be very
popular in the near future.
See Point of Presence . Also a protocol used for E-Mail
functions, now in the 2nd revision, POP3. Most E-Mail
applications (sometimes called an E-Mail client) use the
POP protocol, although some can use the newer IMAP
(Internet Message Access Protocol). There are two versions
of POP. The first, called POP2 (why did it start with a 2?
Why ask why?), became a standard in the mid-80's and
requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version,
POP3, can be used with or without SMTP. Most ISPs still
use SMTP for transmission and only a few do NOT use
1. A physical address on a computer or computer device.
This may often be associated with a mapped mapped

memory location to allow certain types of connections or
may also be associated with a physical connecting device.
This is often used in conjunction with Input/Output
2. A location we all look for in a storm; any will do!
3. A programming beverage for sophisticated
programmers, usually enjoyed with cheese and crackers;
most veteran (real!) programmers drink Pepsi and have
moon pies.
1. A term used to describe hardware that is small and
lightweight, and can be battery powered for at least an
hour. A portable computer is a computer small enough to
carry. Portable computers include, ranging from largest to
smallest, laptops, notebook and subnotebook computers,
hand-held computers, palmtops, and PDAs.
2. An ambiguous term used to describe software has the
ability to run on a variety of computers. Portable and
machine independent mean the same thing; the software
does not depend on a particular type of hardware. Java is a
language that creates such software although there are
other languages that do the same thing. The software may
require compiling for a platform but the native code is the
A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources
and services, most of which, but not all, are on-line, such
as e-mail, forums, search engines, and on-line shopping
malls. The first Web portals were online services, such as
AOL and Compuserve, that provided access to the Web,
but by now most of the traditional search engines have
transformed themselves into Web portals to attract and
keep a larger audience. Typically, this sort of service also
yields the user a central place to find what he needs. See
Portfolios are an ISP feature that allows you to keep track
of your stocks.
An acronym for Point Of Sale. POS is both the time and
place in which a transaction is made and it describes a
special terminal used in computerized accounting systems.
POS computer systems include cash registers, optical
scanners, BAR code equipment, special printers, magnetic
card readers, and special monitors or terminals. Reading
merchandise tags, updating inventory, checking credit and
directly or indirectly interfacing with an accounting system
are some of the operations performed by the point of sale
An acronym for Portable Operating System Interface for
UNIX, a group of IEEE and ISO standards that more or
less define an interface between programs and hypothetical
operating systems. (This has nothing to do with portable

devices.) By designing their programs to conform to
POSIX standards and requirements, software developers
have some degree of assurance that their software can be
easily ported to POSIX compliant operating systems, now
and in the future. At present, this includes most flavors and
offerings of UNIX as well as Windows NT. The standard is
loose at the moment but will be more stringent in the
future. The POSIX standards are now maintained by a
division of the IEEE called the Portable Applications
Standards Committee ( PASC). Considering the impact of
portability of operating systems, this may well be an
important factor in the future of computing.
1. To send a message to a public area like a BBS or
newsgroup where it can be read by many others.
2. A programmer's work area; Man your post!
Post Master
The name given to the person in charge of dealing with
E-Mail for a particular site. In the case of mail, it is
postmaster (all one word, lower case). According to
convention, mail sent to should be
read by a real live person, if you have one.
Post Office
The ISP post office is an area that helps new members
acclimate themselves to the world of E-Mail . There are
many forms of E-Mail and the exact protocol is different
from one ISP to another.
Short for plain old telephone service, which refers to the
standard telephone service that most homes use. In
contrast, telephone services based on high-speed, digital
communications lines, such as ISDN and FDDI, are not
POTS. The main distinctions between POTS and
non-POTS services are speed and bandwidth . POTS is
generally restricted to about 52 Kbps (52,000 bits per
second). The POTS network is also called the public
switched telephone network (PSTN).
POTS splitter
A frequency splitting device used on standard POTS lines
to invoke operations involved with others services, such as
DSL operations. In the case of ADSL, the splitter divides
the total bandwidth of the line into three channels, one for
fairly high speed downloading, one for medium speed
uploading and one for standard voice. All can take place on
the same standard dialup line at the same time. Each uses a
different frequency.
power newbie
An enthusiastic newbie (network newcomer) who takes
advantage of educational resources in an effort to become a
knowbie. Power newbies share their knowledge with other
newbies both face-to-face and in bulletin boards and chat
rooms. See also newbie and knowbie.
powers of ten
We offer a wonderful page we found at Cal Tech as an

understandable source of information on the powers of ten
as related to data. See it here! . (Also see kilobyte ,
megabyte , gigabyte , terabyte , exabyte , petabyte ,
zettaabyte and yottabyte.)
PowerQuest Corporation, by self-definition, is a leading
software developer and technology pioneer, providing
solutions to simplify complex storage management issues.
We think that is modest. We define them as producing
some of the best software available to do things with disk
drives that DOS, Windows, Novell and Linux can probably
do, but take much longer, in many more steps and have far
less acceptable results. We have found that our business
cannot get along without them. See them at
power supply
1. The component that supplies power to a computer or
other electrical device. Most personal computers can be
plugged into standard electrical outlets. The power supply
then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts
the AC current to DC current. It also regulates the voltage
to eliminate voltage or current spikes and surges common
in most electrical systems. Not all power supplies,
however, do an adequate voltage-regulation job, so a
computer is always susceptible to large voltage
fluctuations. Power supplies are rated in terms of the
number of watts they generate. The more powerful the
computer, the more watts it can provide to components. In
general, 200 watts should be sufficient. See UPS .
2. The term given to an electrical generator, used where
power is not available always or at all.
Point to Point Protocol, one of two standard methods of
connecting to the Internet. With a PPP account, you can
connect to some generally direct connect services over the
Internet . As the name implies, it is a protocol .
An acronym for Point to Point Tunneling Protocol, a new
technology for creating Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) ,
developed jointly by Microsoft Corporation, U.S. Robotics
(now 3COM), and several remote access vendor
companies, known collectively as the PPTP Forum. A
VPN is a private network of computers that uses the public
Internet to connect some nodes. Because the Internet is
essentially an open network, the Point to Point Tunneling
Protocol (PPTP) is used to ensure that messages
transmitted from one VPN node to another are secure.
With PPTP, users can dial in to their corporate network via
the Internet. Although PPTP has been submitted to the
IETF for standardization, it is currently available only on
networks served by a Windows NT 4.0 server and Linux.
See L2F and L2TP , two competing but similar

An acronym for Priority Queuing. It is the assignment of
order of operation.
1. On a DRAM, the amount of time required between a
control signal's (such as RAS) transition to an inactive state
and its next transition to an active state.
2. With your children, it is a time before you allow them to
use your credit cards. The skill of charging is usually
taught by the wife in the family.
An ISP software feature that allows you to customize such
features as sound and text size. A group of options
controlled by you.
presentation layer
Layer 6 of the OSI reference model. This layer ensures that
information sent by the application layer of one system will
be readable by the application layer of another. The
presentation layer is also concerned with the data structures
used by programs and therefore negotiates data transfer
syntax for the application layer. Corresponds roughly with
the presentation services layer of the SNA model. See also
application layer, LLC, MAC, network layer, physical
layer , PQ , session layer , and transport layer .
Pretty Good Privacy - PGP
A program, developed by Phil Zimmerman, that uses
cryptography to protect files and electronic mail from being
read by others. PGP also includes a feature which allows
users to digitally "sign" a document or message, in order to
provide non-forgeable proof of authorship. New
technology is under consideration by the government to
allow such actions to be legal and binding.
An acronym for Primary Rate Interface, an ISDN service
providing users with 23 64 kbps bearer (or B) channels for
message information and 1 64 kbps data (or D) channel for
signaling and control over an existing telephone line. This
service has been antiquated with the advent of DSL
primary memory
See RAM and secondary memory.
1. If you have a printer connected to your computer, you
can use the PRINT option under the FILE menu to print
text and some pictures.
2. The fine stuff you didn't bother to read when you signed
up for 50 years of Internet service at $50 a month because
you thought it was a great deal!
A commercial online ISP and Internet service.
A series of instructions that tell a computer what to do.
Also, as a verb, to create or revise a program. See

1. An individual who creates or revises a program on any
sort of device that responds to structured instructions as the
control for operations. 2. A device that places instructions
into a PROM , ROMROM or other chip for use in a
computerized device.
programming language
A computer language that programmers utilize to create
programs. C, Perl, Java, BASIC, and COBOL are examples
of programming languages. In essence, programming
languages are translators that take words and symbols and
convert them to binary codes that the CPU can understand.
See also Ada, APL, AppleScript, assembly language, awk,
C++, CODASYL, cxml, Delphi, Eiffel, FORTRAN,
JScript, LISP, machine language, P-Code, microcode,
Modula-2, K-Man, MUMPS, Pascal, Prolog, pseudocode,
Python, QBASIC, VBASIC, query language, RPG,
Smalltalk, Turtle, BasicA, SQL, Tcl, UML, VBScript,
Visual Basic and Visual C++.
progressive rendering
Progressive rendering is a download method where the file
begins to display itself before the download is completed.
Downloading a graphic with some ISP's latest software and
most current browsers use this technique. It is also called
Smart Art, streamers, quick grafix and similar "catchy"
A set of rules that governs how information is to be
exchanged between computer systems. See TCP/IP, SLIP
or PPP as an example of a protocol used to connect to the
Internet . Also used in certain structured chat rooms to
refer to the order in which people may speak.
1. An acronym for Programmable Read-Only Memory. A
type of read-only memory ( ROM) that allows data to be
written into the device with hardware called a PROM
programmer , often termed a burner. After a PROM has
been programmed, it is dedicated to that data, and it cannot
be reprogrammed. PROMs are part of the PLD family of
2. A wonderful social event of the 50's, 60's and 70's.
A server (actual hardware and software) that sits between a
client application, such as a Web browser, and a real
server. It intercepts all or designated requests to the real
server, local or distant, to see if it can fulfill the requests
itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.
Proxy servers have two main purposes:
1. Improve Performance: Proxy servers can dramatically
improve performance for groups of users. This is because it
saves the results of all requests for a certain amount of
time, in memory buffers of its own. Consider the case
where both user X and user Y access the World Wide Web
through a proxy server. First user X requests a certain Web

page, which we'll call Page 1. Sometime later, user Y
requests the same page. Instead of forwarding the request
to the Web server where Page 1 resides, which can be a
time-consuming operation, the proxy server simply returns
the Page 1 that it already fetched for user X. Since the
proxy server is often on the same network as the user, this
is a much faster operation than pulling the same
information more than once. Real proxy servers support
hundreds or thousands of users. The major online services
such as Compuserve and America Online, for example,
employ an array of proxy servers.
2. Filter Requests: Proxy servers can also be used to filter
requests, usually for security. For example, a company
might use a proxy server to prevent its employees from
accessing a specific set of Web sites. Those types of
applications are often used with FIREWALL functions to
give company LANs and servers protection both ways on
the Web. See ANALOGX.
Short for Public Switched Telephone Network, which
refers to the international telephone system based on
copper wires carrying analog voice data. This is in contrast
to newer telephone networks base on digital technologies,
such as ISDN and FDDI. Telephone service carried by the
PSTN is often called plain old telephone service (POTS).
Most telephone companies are trying to filter data and
streaming services into one network and leave the PSTN
for mostly voice usage. See ISDL.
Another phrase for being disconnected during your online
session. (i.e. - I was punted offline last night - probably for good reason!)
purge the cache
The effort to delete the files the web browser has stored
(cached) on your disk. These files were stored on your disk
so they could be retrieved quickly if you returned to the
same web sites. Sometimes when purging the cache,
cookies are also deleted. This usually requires that you
again fill out certain information at key sites you have
previously visited and have authorization to visit regularly.
This is not to be confused with "purge the cash", a term
often used and associated with the need to upgrade .
See permanent virtual circuit.
PWS is an abbreviation for one of the many Microsoft
products directed at making the distance from your desktop
to the Internet seem smaller, Personal Web Server. It is
also the acronym for Peer Web Services which is more or
less the same thing only based on NT. PWS is the baby
brother of IIS, Internet Information Server. Both products
are hybrid compilations and substitutes for an Internet
capable web server. PWS runs on the local operating
system, on the local hard disk, simulating a separate
computer to psuedo-serve pages to an Intranet or LAN, or

possibly the Internet under the most controlled of
conditions. PWS has virtually no security and is an
invitation to trouble if used in the "real world". PWS is a
simple HTML server used in a local office peer-to-peer
network that does support Microsoft's Front Page activities
and extensions. It was originally introduced for W95, later
migrated to NT4 and works with upward compatible
products from Microsoft. There is also a MAC version.
You can look at what Microsoft has to say about PWS and
also how to set up either flavor of PWS. The product has
never been terribly popular, probably because it is far more
efficient (and probably far less trouble) to set up a regular
server. Only a couple of pages on Microsoft's vast array of
servers are designated for information about the PWS
feebie as far as making it available to you. Roughly 340
pages are dedicated to troubleshooting it. Is there a clue



AFRL Acronym Dictionary

Acronyms - A

Acronym Definition

A/C Aircraft
AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery
AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
AAM Air to Air Missile
AAR Air to Air Refueling
AAVP Advanced Aircrew Vision Protection
ABDR Aircraft Battle Damage Repair
ABL Airborne Laser
ABLE ACE Airborne Laser Extended Atmospheric Characterization
ABLEX Airborne Laser Experiment
ABO Annular Beam Oscillator
ABR Aero-Ballistic Rocket
ACC Air Combat Command
ACCINTNET ACC Intelligence Network
AceTR Air core enhanced Turbo Rocket
ACM Air Combat Maneuvering
ACS Aerospace Medicine Consultation Service
ACTD Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
ACTIVE Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles
ADC Analog to Digital Converter
ADM Advanced Development Model
ADONIS AMOS Daytime Optical Near-Infrared Imaging System
ADS Advanced Distributed Simulation
ADT Active Denial Technology
AEDC Arnold Engineering Development Center
AEF Aerospace Engineering Facility
AEOS Advanced Electro-Optical System
AETC Air Education and Training Command
AFAE Air Force Acquisition Executive
AFCEE Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence
AFCS Automatic Flight Control System
AFEWES Air Force Electronic Warfare Effectiveness Simulator
AFGIHS Air Force Geographic Information Handling System
AFIT Air Force Institute of Technology
AFMC Air Force Materiel Command
AFMSS Air Force Mission Support System
AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research
AFRES Air Force Reserves
AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory
AFSAA Air Force Studies and Analysis Agency
AFSFC Air Force Space Forcasting Center
AFSOC Air Force Special Operations Command
AFSPC Air Force Space Command
AFTAC Air Force Technical Applications Center
AFV Alterante Fuel Vehicle
AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development
AGC Automatic Gain Control

AGE Aerospace Ground Equipment
AGL Above Ground Level
AGL Air to Ground Laser
AGM Air to Ground Missile
AGRF Advanced Guidance Research Facility
AHDL Analog Hardware Descriptive Language
AI Artificial Intelligence
AIA Air Intelligence Agency
AIM Air Intercept Missile
AIRST Advanced Infrared Search and Track
AIT Active Imaging Testbed
AJ Anti-Jam
AL Armstrong Lab
ALARM Air-Launched Anti-Radiation Missile
ALC Air Logistics Center
ALCM Air Launched Cruise Missile
ALG Autonomous Landing Guidance
ALH Advanced Liquid Hydrogen
AMC Air Mobility Command
AMDRFM Advanced Monolithic Digital Radio Frequency Memory
AMFABS Advanced Maintenance Free Aircraft Battery System
AMLCD Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display
AMOS Air Force Maui Optical Station
AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile
ANG Air National Guard
AOA Analysis of Alternatives (formerly: COEA)
AOA Angle of Attack
AOARD Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development
AOIB All-Optical Imaging Brassboard
APSI Aircraft Propulsion Subsystem Integration (JTDE & JETEC)
APT Advanced Personnel Testing
APU Auxiliary Power Unit
ARGOS Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite
ARM Anti-radiation Missile
ARSFSS Advanced Reduced Scale Fuel System Simulator
ASAN Assessment System for Aircraft Noise
ASAS Advanced Solid Axial Stage
ASAT Antisatellite
ASC Advanced Structural Components
ASC Aeronautical Systems Center
ASIP Airframe Structural Integrity Program
ASP Aircraft Self-Protection
ASRAAM Advanced Short-Range Air to Air Missile
ASSET Aerothermodynamics/Elastic Strucural Systems Environmental
ASTAT Affordable Sensor Technology for Aerial Targeting
ASTREX Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment
ATAF Allied Tactical Air Forces
ATAGS Advanced Technology Anti-G Suit
ATARR Advanced Turbine Aerothermal Research Rig
ATD Advanced Technology Demonstration
ATEGG Advanced Turbine Engine Gas Generator
ATF Advanced Tactical Fighter
ATIRCM Advanced Threat Infrared Countermeasures

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATR Air Turbo Rocket
ATR Automatic Target Recognition
ATRI Advanced Thermionics Research Initiative
ATS Automatic Test System
ATTD Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration
AVBATTS Aviation Battery Standardization
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System


Acronyms - B

Acronym Definition

BA Budget Authority
BAA Broad Agency Announcement
BAC Budget Activity Code
BAe British Aerospace
BAI Battle Area Interdiction
BDA Bomb Damage Assessment
BDU Bomb, Dummy Unit
BEA Budget Estimate Agreement
BES Budget Estimate Submission
BiFET Bipolar Field Effect Transistor
BIPS Billion Instruction Per Second
BIST Built-in-Self-Test
BIT Built in Test
BLADE-GT Blade Life Analysis and Design Evaluation for Gas Turbines
BLING Bladed ring
BLISK Bladed disk
BLU Bomb, Live Unit
BMC3I Battle Management C3I
BMC4ISR Battle Mangement C4I Surveillance and Reconnaissance
BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
BMT Ballistic Missile Technology
BPAC Budget Program Activity Code
BPR Bypass Ratio
BVR Beyond Visual Range


Acronyms - C

Acronym Definition

C2 Command and Control
C2W Command and Control Warfare
C3 Command, Control, and Communications
C3I Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
C4 Command, Control, Communication, and Computers
CA Cooperative Agreement
CA Counter Air
CAD Computer Aided Design
CAE Computer Aided Engineering
CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAMIS Computer Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery
CAP Combat Air Patrol
CARL Compressor Aero Research Laboratory
CAS Close Air Support
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering

CATT Computer Assisted Technolgy Transfer
CCD Charged Couple Device
CCIP Continuously-Computed Impact Point
CCM Counter-Countermeasure
CCRP Continuosly-Computed Release Point
CCS Charge Control System
CCW Command and Control Warfare
CDFS Core Driven Fan Stage
CDMA Code Division Muliple Access
CEP Circular Error Probable
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFIPT Customer Focused Integrated Product Team
CFIT Controlled Flight into Terrain
C-HFET Complementary Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor
CICA Competition in Contracting Act
CI/LI Corrosion Inhibitor/Lubricity Improver (MIL-I-25017)
CINC Combined Intelligence Center
CIO Corporate Information Office(r)
CM Countermeasure
CMAWS Common Missile Approach Warning System
CMC Ceramic Matrix Composite
CMWS Common Missile Warning System
CNI Communications, Navigation, and Identification
COBRA Complete Oil Breakdown Rate Analyzer
CoDE Coherent Digital Exciter
COEA Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis
COIL Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser
COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf
CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
CRF Compressor Research Facility
CRRES Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CSAR Combat Search and Rescue
CSAT Crew System Associate Technology
CTAPS Contingency Tactical Air Combat System Automated Planning
CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
CTC Center Technology Council
CW Continuous Wave


Acronyms - D

Acronym Definition

D2 Degrade and Destroy
D3 Degrade, Disrupt, Deny
D4 Degrade, Disrupt, Deny, Destroy
DAD Distributed Architecture Decoy
DAFECS Digital Authority Full Engine Control System
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DARTS Dynamic Avionics Real-Time Scheduling
DAWS Defense Automated Warning System
DC Differential Correction
DC-X Delta Clipper Experimental

DDR&E Director, Defense Research and Engineering
DEA Data Exchange Agreement
DEECS Digital Electonic Engine Control System
DEM/VAL Demonstration and Validation
DEW Directed Energy Weapon
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DIAL Differential Absorption Lidar
DICE Data Integration and Collection Environment
DIRCM Directed Infrared Countermeasures
DIS Distributed Interactive Simulation
DJ Deceptive Jamming
DLA Defense Logistics Agency
DMA Defense Mapping Agency
DMD Digital Micromirror Device
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
DMR Dual-Mode Ramjet
DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DNA Defense Nuclear Agency
DoD Department of Defense
DoDIIS Department of Defense Intelligence Information System
DP Development Prototype
DPG Defense Planning Guidance
DPL Diode-Pumped Laser
DRFM Digital Radio Frequency Memory
DSB Defense Science Board
DSCS Defense Satellite Communication System
DSN Defense Switched Network
DSO Defensive System Operator
DSS Decision Support System
DT&E Development, Test, and Evaluation
DTAP Defense Technolgy Area Plan
DTM Data Transfer Module
DUSD Deputy Undersecretary of Defense


Acronyms - E

Acronym Definition

EA Electronic Attack
ECCM Electronic Counter-Countermeasures
ECM Electronic Countermeasures
ECM Engine Condition Monitoring
EELV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle
EFS-M Enhanced Flight Screening-Medical
EHF Extremely High Frequency
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
ELINT Electronic Intelligence
ELMC Electrical Load Management Centers
ELO Extremely Low Observable
ELV Expendable Launch Vehicle
EM Electromagnetic
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMD Electromagnetic Manufacturing Development
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

EO Electro-Optical
EOB Electonic Order of Battle
EO/IR Electro-optical/Infrared
EP Electronic Protection
EPAD Electrically Powered Actuation Device
EPU Emergency Power Unit
ERASER Enhanced Recognition and Sensing Radar
ERINT Extended Range Interceptor
ESAD Electronic Safe and Arm Device
ESAI Expanded Situational Awareness Insertion
ESC Electronic Systems Center
ESEX Electric Propulsion Space Experiment
ESM Electronic Support Measures
EWO Electronic Warfare Officer (backseater)
EXLITE Extended Life Tire


Acronyms - F

Acronym Definition

FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAC Forward Air Controller
FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FATE Female Acceleration Tolerance Enhancement
FATE Future Aircraft Technology Enhancement
FBL Fly by Light
FBW Fly by Wire
FCS Flight Control System
FCT Foreign Comparative Test
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FEA Finite Element Analysis
FFRDC Federally Funded Research and Development Center
FISTA Flying Infrared Signatures Technology Aircraft
FLASER Forward Looking Infrared Laser Radar
FLC Federal Laboratory Consortium
FLEX Force Level Execution
FLIR Forward Looking Infrared
FOC Full Operational Capability
FOD Foreign Object Damage
FOG Fiber Optic Gyro
FoV Field of View
FPA Focal Plane Array
FPGA Field Programmable Gated Array
FSII Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (MIL-I-27686)
FTS Fourier Transform Spectrometer
FWV Fixed Wing Vehicle
FY Fiscal Year


Acronyms - G

Acronym Definition

GaAs Gallium Arsenide
GBL Ground-Based Laser
Gbps Giga bits per second
GBU Guided Bomb Unit
GDIP General Defense Intelligence Program

GEO Geosynchronous Orbit
GHz Gigahertz
GLOB Ground Loving Old Bastard (KC-135)
G-LOC G-Induced Loss of Consciousness
GPR Ground Penetrating Radar
GPS Global Positioning System
GRFL Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory


Acronyms - H

Acronym Definition

HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
HAE High Altitude, long-Endurance (UAV)
HAN Hydroxylammonium Nitrate
HARM High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile
HBCU/MI Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions
HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
HCF High Cycle Fatigue
HEDM High Energy Density Matter
HEL High Energy Laser
HELSTF High Energy Laser Test Facility
HEML High Energy Microwave Laboratory
HEMT High Electron Mobility Transistor
HF High Frequency
HiMAT Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology
HiMaTE High Mach Turbine Engine
HIPRA High Speed Digital Processor Architecture
HIRF High Intensity Radiation Fields
HLPS Hot Liquid Process Simulator
HMT/D Helmet-Mounted Tracker and Display
HOBA High Off-Boresight Angle
HOTAS Hands On Throttle and Stick
HPC High Pressure Compressor
HPM High Power Microwave
HP-MSOGS High Performance-Molecular Sieve Oxygen Generation System
HPT High Pressure Turbine
HPSLT High Power Semiconductor Laser Technology
HPT High Pressure Turbine
HQ Headquarters
HSAL High Speed Algebraic Logic
HSC Human Systems Center
HSI Hyperspectral Imaging
HSR High Speed Research
HTS High Temperature Superconductivity
HUD Heads Up Display
HySTP Hypersonic Systems Technology Program
HyTech Hypersonic Technology
Hz Hertz


Acronyms - I

Acronym Definition

IADS Integrated Air Defense System
IC Integrated Circuit
ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

ICNIS Integrated Communication, Navigation, and Identification System
ICOT Isothermal Corrosion Oxidation Test
ICTP Information Collection, Transfer, and Processing
ID Identification
IDAL Integrated Defense Avionics Laboratory
IDASS Intelligence Data Analysis System for Spacecraft
IDHS Intelligence Data Handling System
IEEE Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IESS Integrated Electromagnetic System Simulator
IETM Interactive Electronic Technical Manual
IFSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
IHPRPT Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology
IHPTET Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology
IIR Imaging Infrared
IIS/G Internal Integral Starter/Generator
ILS Instrument Landing System
IMDSPO Integrated Maintenance Data SPO
IMIS Integrated Maintenance Information System
IMU Inertial Measurement Unit
INFOSEC Information Security
InP Indium Phosphide
INS Inertial Navigation System
IPT Integrated Product Team
IPU Integrated Power Unit
IR Infrared
IRAD Independent Research and Development
IRADS Infrared Attack & Designation System (F-117)
IRCM Infrared Countermeasures
IRI Ionospheric Research Instrument
IRMA Infrared Modeling and Analysis
IRR Integral Rocket Engine
IRST Infrared Search and Track
ISA Instrumentation Society of America
Isp Specific Impulse
ISS Integrated Sensor System
ISTD Integrated Space Technology Demonstration
ISTF Integrated Space Technology Flights
ITB Integrated Test Bed
ITS Intelligent Tutoring System


Acronyms - J

Acronym Definition

JASSM Joint Air to Surface Stand-off Missile
JAST Joint Advance Strike Technology (now JSF)
JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition
JDL Joint Directors of Laboratories
JETEC Joint Expendable Turbine Engine Concepts
JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander
JFTOT Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester
J/IST JSF/Integrated Subsystem Technology
JITMT U.S.-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training
J-MASS Joint Modeling and Simulation System
JMSP Joint Multispectral Sensor Program

JP-5 Jet Propellant 5 (standard high flash point Navy fuel,
JP-7 Jet Propellant 7 (high temperature, low volatility jet fuel,
JP-8 Jet Propellant 8 (standard AF kerosene jet fuel, MIL-T-83133)
JP-10 Jet Propellant 10 (standard missile fuel, MIL-P-87107)
JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training System
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPTS Jet Propellant Thermally Stable (high thermal stability, high
altitude fuel, MIL-T-25524)
JR Jam Resistance
JSEP Joint Service Electronics Program
JSF Joint Strike Fighter
JSIMS Joint Simulation System
JSOW Joint Standoff Weapon
JSTARS Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Reconnaissance System
JTAGG Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator
JTDE Joint Technology Demonstrator Engine
JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System
JWARS Joint Warfare Simulation
JWICA Joint Warfighter Capabilities Assessment
JWID Joint Warfighter Interoperability Demonstration


Acronyms - K

Acronym Definition

KEAS Knots Equivalent Airspeed
KEFH 1,000 Engine Flgiht Hours
KEW Kinetic Energy Weapon
kHz Kilohertz
KKV Kinetic Kill Vehicle
KMOR Keep Missile on the Rail


Acronyms - L

Acronym Definition

LADAR Light Amplification for Detection and Ranging
LADD Llow-Angle Drogue Delivery
LAN Local Area Network
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
LANTIRN Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night
LaRC Langley Research Center
LASE Large Aperture Speckle Experiment
LASRE Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment
LBD Laser Beam Detector
LBO Lean BlowOut
LCC Lifecycle Cost
LEAP Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEO Low Earth Orbit
LFD Linear Finite-Difference
LGB Laser Guided Bomb
LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging
LIFE Laser Infrared Flyout Experiment
LIME Laser Induced Microwave Emissions

LLLTV Low Light Level Television
LO Low Observable
LOCAAS Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition
LOCAAS Low Cost Autonomous Attack (formerly Anti-Armor)
LORAN Long-Range Radio Aid to Navigation
LOROPS Long-Range Oblique Optical System
LPD Low Probablitiy of Detection
LPI Low Probability of Intercept
LPT Low Pressure Turbine
LRU Line Replaceable Unit
LWIR Long Wavelength Infrared


Acronyms - M

Acronym Definition

M&S Modeling and Simulation
MAA Mission Area Assessment
MACET Modular Algorithm Concept Evaluation Tool
MAD Mutually Assured Destruction
MADMEL (Power) Management And Distribution System for the More
Electric aircraft
MAFET Microwave and Analog Front-End Technology Program
MAGIC Multimission Advanced Ground Intelligent Control
MAJCOM Major Command
MANS Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System
ManTech Manufacturing Technology
MAP Mission Area Plan
MATV Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring
MAWS Missile Approach Warning System
MBE Molecular Beam Epitaxy
MBV Model Based Vision
MCA Multichip Assembly
MCD Minimum Cost Design
MCM Multichip Module
MCT Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Controlled Transistor
MDA Metal De-Activator
MEA More Electric Aircraft
MELA Munition Export License Application
MEMS Microelectromechanical System
MFD Multifunction Display
MILO Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator
MILSATCOM Military Satellite Communications
MILSTAR Military Strategic and Tectical Relay Satellite
MIMIC Microwave/Millimeter Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit
MIR Microwave Imaging Radiometer
MIRFS Multifunction Integrated Radio Frequency System (JAST)
MLV Medium Launch Vehicle
MMC Metal Matrix Composite
MMC Modular Mission Computer
MMIC Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
MMTD Miniaturized Munition Technology Demonstration
MMW Millimeter Wave
MNS Mission Needs Statement
MOA Memorandum of Agreement

MOOTW Military Operations Other Than War
MOTIF Maui Optical Tracking and Identification Facility
MPM Microwave Power Module
MPP Modernization Planning Process
MRMMS Millimeter Wave Reflectivity Measurement System
MSI Multispectral Imager
MSO Mission Support Officer
MSTAR Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition
MSTRS Miniture Satellite Threat Reporting System
MSX Midcourse Space Experiment
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
MTD Missile Technology Demonstration
MTI Moving Target Indicator
MTV More Electric Test Vehicle
MW Microwave


Acronyms - N

Acronym Definition

NAIC National Air Intelligence Center
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA DFRC NASA Dryden Flight Research Center
NASIP Navy Airframe Structural Integrity Program
NASM National Air and Space (Warfare) Model
NASM National Air and Space Museum
NASP National Aerospace Plane
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVAIRSYSCOM Naval Air Systems Command
NavTEL Navigational Test and Evaluation Laboratory
NAWC Naval Air Warfare Center
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NDE Non-Destructive Evaluation
NDI/E Non-Destructive Inspection/Evaluation
NGP Next Generation (Fire Suppression) Plan
NIFTR Near Isothermal Flowing Test Rig
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NLO Non-Linear Optics
NORAD Northern Region Air Defense
NOx Nitrous Oxide
NRC National Research Council
NRL Naval Reseach Laboratory
NSA National Security Agency
NVG Night Vision Goggles


Acronyms - O

Acronym Definition

O&M Operations and Maintenance
OBOGS On-Board Oxygen Generation System
OBIGGS On-Board Inert Gas Generating System
ODM Oil Debris Monitoring
OFP Operational Flight Program
ONR Office of Naval Research
OPO Optical Parametric Oscillator
ORTA Office of Research and Technology Applications

OSA Optical Society of America
OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense
OSD(C) Office of the Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
OSINT Open Source Intelligence
OSO Offensive System Operator
OT&E Operational Test and Evaluation
OTH Over The Horizon
OTH-B Over-the-Horizon Radar Backscatter


Acronyms - P

Acronym Definition

P3I Pre-Planned Product Improvement
P4A Programmable Powdered Preform Process for Aerospace
PA&E Program Assessment and Evaluation
PACAF Pacific Air Force
PACE Point-Ahead Compensation Experiment
PASP Plus Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics
PAVE Precision Avionics Vectoring Equipment
PAWS Parallel Assessment Window System
PBD Program Budget Directive
PC Personal Computer
PC Photoconductive
PCCADS Panoramic Cockpit Control and Display System
PCD Polycrystalline Diamond
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PD Pulse Doppler (Radar)
PDE Pulse Detonation Engine
PDF Precision Direction Finder
PDM Program Decision Memorandum
PDRE Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine
PE Program Element
PEBB Power Electronic Building Block
PerFECT Peroxide in Fuel Estimation and Concentration Test
PF-1 Priming Fluid 1 (MIL-P-87173)
PGM Precision Guided Munitions
PILOT Phased Integrated Laser Optics Technology
PIM Parameterized Ionosphere Model
PIO Pilot Induced Oscillation
PIP Product Improvement Plan
PiSi Platinum Silicide
Pk Kill Probability
PL Phillips Laboratory
PLAID Precision Location and Identification
PMAD Power Management and Distribution
PMD Program Management Directive
PMMW Passive Millimeter Wave
POL Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants
POM Program Objective Memorandum
PPBS Planning, Program, and Budgeting System
PPLN Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
PRFECT Prediction RF Effects Coupling Tool
PRG Program Review Group
PRK Photorefractive Keratectomy

PROTEC Programmable Ordnance Technology
PSIDS Prototype Secondary Information Dissemination System
PVC Pneumatic Vortex Control
PVI Pilot/Vehicle Interface


Acronyms - Q

Acronym Definition

QML Qualified Manufacturers List
QPL Qualified Products List
QWIP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector


Acronyms - R

Acronym Definition

R&D Research and Development
R&D GTDS R&D Goddard Trajectory Determination System
R&M Reliability and Maintainability
RAAP Rapid Application of Air Power
RAILE Retro-Assisted Imaging Laser Experiment
RAM Radar Absorbing Material
RAMTIP Reliability and Maintainability Technology Insertion Program
RASER Research and Seeker Emulation Radar
RCS Radar Cross Section
RDT&E Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation
RF Radio Frequency
RFCM Radio Frequency Countermeasure
RFP Request for Proposal
RK Radial Keratectomy
RL Rome Lab
RLG Ring Laser Gyro
RM&S Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability
RP-1 Rocket Propellant 1 (standard kerosene rocket fuel,
RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle
RSLP Rocket System Launch Program
RTIC Real-Time Information in the Cockpit
RTOC Real-Time Information out of the Cockpit
RTSMP Real-Time Symmetric Multiprocessor
RULER Remaining Useful Life Evaluation Routine (lubricants)
RWR Radar Warning Receiver
Rx Receive


Acronyms - S

Acronym Definition

S&T Science and Technology
SAB Scientific Advisory Board
SADARM Search and Destroy Armor Munition
SAL Semi-Active Laser
SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
SAM Surface to Air Missile
SAR Search and Rescue
SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar

SAR Special Access Required
SATCOM Satellite Communications
SAVI Space Active Vibration Isolation
SAWS Silent Attack Warning System
SBIR Small Business Innovative Research
SBIRS Space Based Infrared System
SBL Space Based Laser
SCATS Suspense Control and Automated Tracking System
SCI Scalable Coherent Interface
SCIF Special Compartmented Information Facility
SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defense
SEDFB Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback
SERE Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape
SFC Specific Fuel Consumption
SFW Sensor Fuzed Weapon
SHF Super High Frequency
SIDAT Subsystems Integrated Design Assessment Technology
SIE Satellite Imaging Experiment
SIGINT Signals Intelligence
SIIRCM Suite of Integrated Infrared Countermeasures (Army)
SIRFC Suite of Integrated Radar Frequency Countermeasures (Army)
SLAR Sideways-Looking Airborne Radar
SLBD Sea-Lite Beam Director
SLCS Software Lifecycle Support
SLEP Service Life Extension Program
SMC Space and Missile Systems Center
SNL Sandia National Laboratory
SO Spatial Orientation
SOAP Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program
SOC Special Operations Command
SOF Special Operations Forces
SOI Space Object Identification
SOI Silicon on Insulator
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SOR Starfire Optical Range
SPACECOM Space Command
SPAWAR Space & Naval Warfare Systems Command
SPC Specific Fuel Consumption
SPICE Space Integrated Control Experiment
SPIE Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
SPIRITS-AC 2 Spectral and In-Band Radiometric Imaging of Targets and
SPO System Program Office
SRM Solid Rocket Motor
SSB Small Smart Bomb
SSIES Special Sensor for Ions, Electrons, and Scintillations
SSM/T-2 Special Sensor Microwave
SSN Space Surveillance Network
SSTT Small Satellite Thermal Technologies
STAG Smart Tactical Autonomous Guidance
STEP Space Test Experiment Platform
STIG Space Technology Interdependence Group
S/TODS Strategic/Tactical Optical Disk System
STOL/MTD Short Take-Off and Landing/Maneuvering Technology

STOVL Short TakeOff and Vertical Landing (fighter/attack aircraft)
STOW Synthetic Theater of War
STRAMST S&T Reliance Assessment for Modeling & Simulation
STRATCOM Strategic Command
STTR Small Business Technology Transfer Program
S/V/L Survivability/Vulnerability/Lethality
S/W Software
SWC Space Warfare Center
SWIM Solar Wind Interplanetary Measurements


Acronyms - T

Acronym Definition

T&E Test and Evaluation
TACAN Tactical Air Navigation
TACC Tactical Air Control Center
TADIX Tectical Date Information Exchange System
TAFT Today's Aircraft Flying Tomorrow
TALD Tactical Air Launched Decoy
TAOS Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability
TAOS Technology for Autonomous Satellite Operations
TAP Technology Area Plan
TAS Timeline Analysis System
TASE Thrust Assessment Support Environment
TAV Transatmospheric Vehicle
TBC Thermal Barrier Coating
TBM Theater Ballistic Missile
TBM Theater Battle Management
TCC Technology Coordination Committee
TCE Tricholoroethylene
TCT Time Critical Target
TDA Technology Development Approach
TDC Theater Deployable Communications
TDP Time-Space-Position-Information Data Processor
TDPA Tactical Deception Planning Aid
TEFF Turbine Engine Fatigue Facility
TEL Transporter/Erector/Launcher (Scuds)
TENCAP Tactical Exploitation of National Space Capabilities (Army)
TENet Theater Extension Network
TEO Technology Executive Officer
TERC Turbine Engine Research Center
TestPAES Test Planning, Analysis and Evaluation System
THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense
TIP Technology Investment Plan
TIP Technology Insertion Program
TIPP Test Instrument Planning and Programming
TIRR Technology Investment Recommendation Report
TM Telemetry
TMD Theater Missile Defense
TMP Technology Master Planning
TMT Theater Missile Tracker
TOA Total Obligation Authority
TPIPT Technology Planning Integrated Product Team

T/R Transmit/Receive
TRAMP Testing, Reporting, and Maintenance Program
TRANSEC Transmission Security
TRF Turbine Research Facility
TriTAC Tri-Service Tactical Communications
TRP Technology Reinvestment Program
TSPI Time-Space-Position-Information
TSRP Time Stress Measurement Device
TTO Technology Transition Office
TV Trapped Vortex
TVC Trapped Vortex Combustor
T/W Thrust to Weight Ratio
TW/AR Threat Warning/Attack Reporting
TWT Travelling Wave Tube
Tx Transmit


Acronyms - U

Acronym Definition

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle
UCAV Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle
UHF Ultra High Frequency
UHR Ultra High Resolution (Radar)
ULPI Unit Level Prototype Implementaion
URI University Research Initiative
URRP University Resident Research Program
USAF United States Air Force
USAFA United States Air Force Academy
USAFE United States Air Forces in Europe
USMA United States Military Academy
USNA United States Naval Academy
USSOCOM United States Special Operation Command
USSPACECOM United States Space Command
UV Ultraviolet


Acronyms - V

Acronym Definition

VC Vortex Combustor
VCATS Visually Coupled Acquisition and Targeting System
VCE Variable Cycle Engine
VE Virtual Environment
VEL Visual Electrodiagnostic Laboratory
VFDR Variable Flow Ducted Rocket
VFR Visual Flight Rules
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Design Language
VHF Very High Frequency
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VISTA Variable-Stability In-Flight Simulator Test Aircraft
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
V/STOL Very Short Takeoff and Landing (transport aircraft)
VT Ventricular Tachycardia

VTB Vestibular Test Battery


Acronyms - W

Acronym Definition

WAM Workload Assessment Monitor
WAN Wide Area Network
WASP Weasel Attack Signal Processor
WAVES Waveform and Vector Exchange Specifications
WBMOD Wide-Band Scintillation Model
WIDA Weather Impact Division Aids
WL Wright Laboratory
WPN Weapon
WSMR White Sands Missile Range
WSO Weapon Systems Officer
WTN Wright Technology Network
WVR Within Visual Range


Acronym Definition

XIDB eXtended Integrated Data Base
XST eXperimental Stealth Tactical (Have Blue)


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Title                           : Acronym Dicitonary and Glossary
Modify Date                     : 2002:01:21 20:12:13Z
Subject                         : Taken from the Internet
Author                          : Collected by
Page Count                      : 226
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