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Apple
Developer.
Services

Product
Information

Apple
Developer
Services

Product
Information

September,

1989

Dear Apple Developer:
We're pleased to present you with the first update of The Infonnation F.xcha.nge:

Technical Guidebook. To update your existing Technical Guidebook, remove the
entire paper contents, NOT the Apple Product Data Sheets or the tabs, and replace
them with this package. If you haven't received your Technical Guidebook binder,
you will when you recertify into the Apple Partners program.
We've included two new main tabs in this update-an index tab and a price list tab.
The index and index tab should be placed in the back of your guidebook; the price
list tab is being provided so that you can keep your price lists in one central location.
This update of the Technical Guidebook does not include Apple Product Data Sheets,
because we now send data sheets as they become available in the Developer
Programs monthly mailings. Check the Developer Service bulletin board on the
AppleLink network [path: Developer Programs: Technical Guidebook Program/
Updates: Apple Product Data Sheets] for a list of data sheets you should currently
have in your Technical Guidebook. If you need a particular data sheet, send an
AppleLink message to DEVSERVICES, and we'll send it to you. Please understand
that we can furnish only one copy of each data sheet per developer.
In addition to the updated information, this edition of the Technical Guidebook
contains new and exciting information, including the following documents:
•

Object-oriented programming and MacApp

•

MacWorkStation

•

The Script Manager and Script Systems for international development

•

LocalTalk cable connections

•

Checklist for Apple's Human Interface Guidelines

We've also included a quick-reference chart and, as mentioned above, an index to
help you navigate through all of the information. For a brief overview of the infor­
mation included in the guidebook, see "Using the Guidebook" in the Introduction
section.

Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MS:51-W
Cupertino, California 95014-9968
(408) 996-1010

As

you've heard many times from us, your feedback is very important. To let us
know what you want included in future editions of the Technical Guidebook,
complete and return the Business Reply Card in your guideboo k as soon as possible.
Your response to the first edition of the guidebook was excellent, and very valuable,
and in return, we've tried to incorporate many of your requests in this update. Let us
know if we're on the right track.
Once again, thanks for your hard work and support of Apple Computer, Inc. As
always, we look forward to working with you and value your partnership.
Good luck and much success in developing excellent Apple-compatible products .

Eileen Devlin
Program Manager, Technical Guidebook
AppleLink: DEVLIN.E

Acknowledgements
The Technical Guidebook is managed by Developer Programs, however, it could not have been
possible without the help of a lot of dedicated people both at and outside of Apple Computer, Inc.
Many people spent numerous hours in research, writing, and producing this publication. We wish to
express our sincere thanks to all of the people who helped create this and previous versions of the

Technical Guidebook .
Program Manager: Eileen Devlin
Program Assistant/Production Coordinator: Peggy Jensen
Copy Editors: The Marcom Editing Team, John Faulkner/l.asselle Ramsey
Page Layout: Kathy King

Contributors:
William Alexander
Eileen Blair
Rick Blair
Steve Burbeck
Tom Chavez
laura Clark
Carol Clettenberg
Wayne Corriea
Merry Dykes
Peter Edberg

Jim Floyd
Jeff Harnois
Kathy Haranzo
Eileen Hart
Michael Hinkson
Scott Jenson
Mark Johnson
Lori Kaplan
Norman Kline
Gary Little

Previous Contributors:
Harvey Alcabes
Debi Lorenc
Tore Bonanno
Jordon Mattson
Brenda Buchwitz
Kris Newby
Beth Christofferson
Dave Radcliffe
Thierry Doyen
Lisa Raleigh
Glen Fiance
Peggy Redpath
Sharon Fleschute
Rilla Reynolds
Ed Forman
Anne Kaplan-Neher
Ron Lichty

Jim Luther
Liz Lynott
Anthony Meadow
Robin Morris
Roberta O'Neill
Tyler Peppel
Brian Prentice
Jim Reekes
Andrew Shebanow
Curtis Snow

Wayne Surdam
Wendy Tajima
Patty Taylor
Ann Thomas
Bruce Tognazzini
Jessa Vartanian
Anne Weber
Dave Wilson
Ron Wong

ti,.)

Apple Developer Group

Table of Contents
Technical Guidebook

Introduction

1-1

Using the Technical Guidebook
Apple Organization

2-1
2-4
2-6

Quick Reference Chart
APDA
Software Licensing
Development Platforms

3-1
3-4
3-8
3-1 1
3-16
3-22
3-27
3-33
3-35
3-39
3-41
3-50
3-53
3-58
3-62
3-67
3-74
3-83
3-89
3-93
3-97
3-99
3-102
3-106

Apple II
Apple Il/IIGS Development
Apple Il/IIGS Development Tools
Macintosh
Macintosh Development
Macintosh Development Tools
Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist
Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp
A/UX
A/UX Development
Transferring Macintosh Applications to A/UX
A/UX Q&A
Multimedia
Multimedia Overview
CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive
HyperCard Development
HyperCard Resources
Macintosh and Sound Directions
Networking & Connectivity
Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview
The AppleTalk Network System
Apple/Digital Development
CVl
MacTCP
MacWorkStation
Configurations
Apple Cable Compatibility
Apple SCSI Cable System
LocalTalk Cable Connections
Hardware Configurations for Apple IIGS and Macintosh Development Tools

Table of Contents Technical Guideboo k

Developer Technical Support

4-1
4-6
4-9
4-1 1
4-13
4-1 5
4-16
4-18
4-1 9

How to Work with Developer Technical Support
About AppleLlnk
About Sample Code
About Technical Notes
The Question & Answer HyperCard Stack
Bug Reporting Procedures
Product Compatibility Testing Tips
Sample Compatibility Script Checklist
Sample Software and Hardware Matrix
International Development Support

5-1
5-4
5-6
5-8
5-1 2
5-1 5

International Software Development
Localiz.ability Checklist
Script Manager Overview
The Basics of Script Systems
The Arabic Script System
The Kanji Script System
Training Resources

6-1 Apple Developer University
6-2 A/UX System Administration Courses
Other Resources

7-1
7-3
7-5
7-7
7-9

Developer Associations
MacApp Developers' Association
NuGroup Association
OOPSTAD Association
Software Entrepreneurs' Forum
TechAlliance
Apple Product Data Sheets
Apple II

Macintosh
A/UX
Keyboards
Memory and Expansion
Monitor and Stands
Multimedia
Networking and Connectivity
Printers
Storage Devices
Other Products
Developer Price List

8-1

Index

Index

Table of Contents Technical Guidebook

n

r
I

_/

ti,_

Apple Developer Group

Using the Technical Guidebook

1he Information Exchange:

Technical Guidebook has been designed for the person
in your company that needs Apple product and development information. It is not
necessarily a "how-to manual" but rather a reference tool to help you better under­
stand Apple® products and platforms. Additionally, this guidebook contains informa­
tion that will help you to determine the most effective ways to work with Apple
throughout your development process.
How TWs Guidebook Is
Organized

You will find that the Technical Guidebook is divided into the following major
sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction
Apple Organization
Development Platforms
Developer Technical Support
International Development Support
Training Resources
Other Resources
Apple Product Data Sheets
Index

Some of the sections are broken down into subsections for easier and faster
access to infonnation. Within each section or subsection, you will find information
encompassing a wide range of subject matter. This information ranges from general
organiz.ational information to detailed product development information.
The following is a brief description of each main section:
Apple Organi7.ation

The Apple Organization section provides infonnation on groups within Apple that
can assist you with your development efforts. Please review this section carefully, so
that you know who to reach out to at Apple for infonnation and assistance. You will
find important contact names, phone numbers, and AppleLink®addresses here.

Development Platforms

The Development Platforms section provides infonnation on Apple's development
platforms. There is a wealth of information here, including documents detailing
A/UX®, CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC'', CU1™ MacApp and Object-Oriented pro­
gramming, DEC™ connectivity, LocalTalk cable connections, and much more.
Included is an overview of each development platform, recommended hardware
configurations and documentation, Q & A's and more.

Developer Technical Support

The Developer Technical Support section provides information on how to work with
Apple's Developer Technical Support (DTS) group. The DTS group provides many
resources to help you with your development efforts, such as Technical Notes,
sample code, a Q&A HyperCard Stack compiled from the most frequently posed
questions to DTS, and bug reporting procedures. Refer to this section to determine
the most effective method of accessing technical support.

Introduction

Using the Technical Guidebook

1-1

International Development
Support

The International Development Support section addresses "localizing," or "interna­
tionalizing," your product at the very early stages of product development. This
section references support tools and support programs to assist you in making your
product available for international markets. There's also information on the Script
Manager and Script Systems here. Localizing your product for international distribu­
tion may prove to be an excellent business decision.

Training Resources

The Training Resources section provides information on courses offered by Apple's
Developer University. Developer University provides expert instruction for begin­
ning and advanced Macintosh® programmers. You will also find information­
descriptions, locations, and fees-on the A/UX Administration courses offered by
Apple's Regional Training Centers. The most current information about training
courses can be found on the AppleLink®network [path: Developer Services: Devel­
oper University].

Other Resources

The Other Resources section contains information on developer associations. These
associations can put you in touch with people who share your interests, goals, and
occupation, and who can help by providing you with important industry information
or pointing you in the right direction to find the information you need.

Apple Product Data Sheets

The Apple Product Data Sheets section consists of product data sheets on Apple II
and Macintosh CPUs, A/UX, networking and connectivity products, monitors,
keyboards, storage devices, and much more. These product data sheets consist of an
overview, features and benefits listing, and technical specifications for each product.
Data sheets are being distributed in the Developer Programs monthly mailings as
they become available, with instruction on where to place the data sheets in your
Technical Guidebook.

Updates

The Technical Guidebook is published every six months. Between updates, the
Developer Services bulletin board on the AppleLink network will offer the latest
information on products, development platforms, and programs [path: Developer
Programs: Technical Guidebook Program/Updates].

Introduction

Using the Technical Guidebook

1-2

Trademarks and Disclaimer

The Technical Guidebook is published by Apple Computer Inc. Developer Program;, part of Apple's

Developer Groop
AppleLink, AppleShare, AppleTalk,
A/UX, HyperCard, HyperTalk, lmageWriter, LaserWriter, Lisa, MacApp, Macintosh, ProDOS, SANE, and Stackware are reg is tered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCD SC, AppleColor, AppleFax, Apple Desktop Bus, APDA, APW, Aristotle, A/UX,
organil.ation. ©1989 Apple Computer, Inc., Apple, the Apple logo, Apple IIGS, AppleCan?,

Discipline, EtherTalk, Finder, GS/OS, KanjiTalk, Loca!Talk, MacAPPC, MacDFT, MacPAD, MacTCP, MacWorkStation, MaCX,

MacJC25, MPW, MultiFinder, QuickDraw, ResEdit, SADE, TokenTalk, and Unidisk are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
MacWorld is a registered servicemark of Apple Computer Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
PoslSaipt and TranScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Corporation. CVl is a trademark of Network Innovations, Inc.
MacPaint and MacWrite are registered trademarks of Caris Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft

Corporation. NFS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. Helvetica and Tunes

are registered trademarks of Linotype Co. DEC, DECnet, DECwindows, PDP-11, Rdb/VMS, ULTRIX, VAx, VAX/VTX, VMS, and
vr are registered trademarks of Digital F.quipment Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business
Machines. Allegro Common LISP, Foreign Function Interface mi Stand-Alone Application Generator are trademarks of Coral
Software, Joc.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY: Mention of Products in this publication is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither

an endorsement or recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, performance, or use of the

products listed in this publication. Apple makes no warranties with respect to the conlents of products listed in this publication,
or the completeness or accuracy of this publication. Apple specifically disdailm all warranties, express or implied, including

but not limited to, the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. All understandings, agreements, or
warranties take place directly between the vendors and prospective users.

Introdocdon

Using the Technical Guidebook

1-3

)

_}

ti�-

Apple Develo per Group
Quick Reference Chart

Group Name
APDA
from within the U.S.
from Canada
from outside the U.S.

Apple Organization

Phone/AppleLink/
When to Contact
Mail Stop

1-800-282-2732
1-800-637-0029
(408) 526-3910
APDA
MIS 75-6A

Contact APDA™ to order Apple
development tools and documenta­
tion, as well as many third-party
development products.

Apple II Developer
Technical Support

none
AIIDTS
MIS 75-3A

Provides you with the answers to your
specifc Apple® II development
questions. These include questions
and bug reports on Apple II ROMs,
development systems, system soft­
ware, and other programming issues.

AppleUnk Helpline

(408) 974-3309
COMMENTS
MIS 37R

Contact the Helpline if you have
questions concerning your
AppleLink® subscription.

Customer Relations

(408) 252-2775

Contact Customer Relations if you
have questions regarding Apple con­
sumer promotions, updates, and
upgrade programs.

Customer Service

1-800-5 38-9696

Call Customer Service to find a local
authorized Apple dealer. Dealers can
help you with questions about using,
repairing, or upgrading Apple
products. These include questions
about installing RAM, hardware/
software problems of all kinds, and
questions about Apple software
availability.

1-800-538-9696
ext. 100

Call Customer Service to find a local
A/UX® dealer.

1-800-538-9696
ext. 500

Call Customer Service to find a local
user group. User groups can provide
a wealth of information, from power­
user shortcuts to example code.

Quick Reference Chart

2-1

Developer Events

none
DEV.EVENTS
MIS 75-2E

Contact the Developer Events group
for information about upcoming
developer conferences and events.

Developer Hotline

(408) 974-4897
DEVSERVICES
MIS 75-2C

Contact the Developer Hotline for
general nontechnical support. This
includes information on Apple
mailings, address changes, requests
for order forms, and general questions
about the Partners and Associates
Programs. Checking the Developer
Services bulletin board on the
AppleLink network first can save you
a phone call. The developer price list,
developer order forms, technical and
product information, training
schedules, and a lot more are posted
here.

Developer University (408) 974-621 5
Registrar
DEVUNN
MIS 75-2B

Contact the Developer University
Registrar to obtain a course catalog
and registration forms for Apple's
developer technical training classes.

Macintosh Developer none
MACDTS
Technical Support
MIS 75-3A

Provides you with answers to your
specific Macintosh® development
technical questions. These include
questions and bug reports on Macintosh ROMs, development systems,
system software, and other programming issues.

Software licensing

(408) 974-4667
SW.LICENSE
MIS 381

Contact the Software Licensing
group for information about getting a
license for system software and other
Apple-proprietary software so that
you can legally distribute it with your
product. This group also licenses
some source code, for educational
purposes.

Support Centers
(Hardware Ordering)

Sunnyvale Support

(408) 734-9790

General number for the Sunnyvale
Support Center. Call the support
centers to check on the status of an
order and to check on product
availability.

Apple Organb:ation

Q uick Reference Chart

2- 2

Charlotte Support

Apple Organi7.ation

Quick Reference Chart

Janet O'Connor
(408) 744-6349
OCONNOR4
MIS 17B

Contact if you are located in one of
the following states: Arizona,
Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Hawaii,
Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, Minnesota,
Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma,
Texas, Utah, and Southern California
(CA area codes: 209, 213, 619, 714,
805, 818).

Janice Bronte
(408) 744-6265
BRONI'El
MIS 17B

Contact if you are located in the
following states: Alaska, Idaho,
Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota,
Oregon, South Dakota, Washington,
Wyoming, and Northern California
(CA area codes: 408, 415, 707, 916).

(704) 357-4500

General number for the
Charlotte Support Center.

Mary Jane Crouch
(704) 357-4559
CROUCH.MJ

Contact if you are located in one of
the following states: Alabama,
Connecticut, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois,
Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusettes, Michigan, Mississippi,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Rhode Island, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West
Virginia, Wisconsin.

2-3

ti"

Apple Developer Group

APDA

If you are a programmer or developer of software or hardware compatible with
Apple® products, and you need fast access to the latest Apple and third-party
technical information and development tools, APDA is for you.

APDA Overview

APDA is the source for Apple and selected third-party development tools, compilers,
and technical documentation essential for programming on Apple systems. APDA
provides fast and easy access to the widest available selection of Apple and third­
party technical information and development tools for the Apple® II, Apple IIGS� and
Macintosh® personal computers.
APDA provides one-stop shopping for hundreds of software products and
books made with the programmer or developer in mind. Its 25,000 customers
represent in-house corporate developers, university professors and students, value­
added resellers, and hobbyists, as well as commercial developers of hardware and
software for Apple systems. Apple's non-retail development products such as MPW
are available only to APDA customers.

Programs and Benefits

As an APDA customer, you are entitled to the following:
•

•

•

Wide product selection - Provides hundreds of titles from Apple and third
parties, offering the widest variety of Apple-compatible development products
available from one source. Products include the Macintosh Programmer's
Workshop (MPW), Apple IIGS Programmer's Workshop (APW), object­
oriented MacApp®, MacWorkStation"", and HyperCard®development tools, in
addition to technical documentation from the Apple Technical Llbrary published
by Addison-Wesley.
Quarterly APDAlog catalog and information source - Provides easy-to-read,
accurate product descriptions. Other features include product highlights, new
product previews, a readers' forum, and development-oriented articles .written
by Apple and industry development experts.
Customer Seroice - Offers multiple methods of ordering and payment, for
maximum customer convenience, and also discounts for high-volume purchases
on certain products.

Ordering and Membership
Information

Once you are certified as an Apple Partner or Apple Associate, you will automatically
receive an APDA membership as part of your Developer Services package. If you are
not an APDA member, you will become a member during Recertification. You may
also become an APDA member prior to Recertification, by contacting APDA at the
address or phone number listed below.
APDA will accept members from around the world, though from some
nations we require a letter of assurance. To facilitate order-taking and delivery, we
ask that payment be made in U.S. currency, either via credit card, wire transfers or
checks drawn from U.S. banks. We also suggest that the international order be made
via electronic mail or fax, after which we will contact you with the exact total charge
including shipping, handling and insurance .

Apple Organ.iution

APDA

2-4

To order product from APDA, you may contact APDA directly, or get an
order form via the AppleLlnk® network in the Developer Services bulletin board
[AppleLlnk path: APDA: How to order from APDA].
APDA
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, WS 75-6A
Cupertino, CA 95014
1-800-282-APDA or 1-800-282-2732
From Canada 1-800-63 7-00 29
From outside the U.S. (408) 562-3910
AppleLink: APDA
CompuServe: 76666 , 2045
MacNet: APDA
MCI: Postrom
GEnie: A.DEVELOPER3
TLX : 171-576
Fax: (408) 562-3971

Apple Organi7.ation

APDA

2- 5

9"

Apple's Software licensing
Program

When to Contact the Software
licensing Department

Special license Agreements

Software license Agreement
Packet

Apple Developer Group

Software Licensing

If your software or hardware product uses all or part of some Apple® software (for

example, an operating system, U.S. or international version), you will need to license
the use of that software from Apple Computer's Software licensing Department. This
applies to any Apple-compatible products that will be sold, used internally, or given
away. The Software licensing Department also handles some special license
agreements, which are mentioned below.
It is critical that you contact the Software licensing Department before producing
written materials associated with your product (such as manuals and disk labels),
because there are several legal requirements that you need to be aware of. For
example, Apple requires you to include a warranty disclaimer and other legal
information in your manual.
If your product will ship overseas, the warranty disclaimer and legal
requirements will differ depending on the individual country. For more information,
you should speak directly with the third party manager in each Apple subsidiary.
You will find the names, addresses, phone numbers and Applelink addresses for the
third party managers on the Applelink network [path: Developer Services: Whom
should I contact at Apple: International Contacts].
Some Apple products, such as AppleTalk®for VMS, and Apple Desktop Bus™
Specifications are available from Apple on ry upon the execution of a special license
agreement. If you want to use these Apple products for your own product develop­
ment, you must contact the Software licensing Department. Additionally, requests
for Apple source code are handled by the Software licensing Department and
require a written proposal.
The Software license Agreement Packet you receive from Apple's Software licensing
Department contains the following:
•

•

•

•

Two copies of the Software license Agreement, which describes your legal rights
and limitations when distributing Apple-copyrighted software
Two copies of the Hyper(;ard® License Agreement and Hyper(;ard Technical
Guidelines
A list of Apple software available for licensing for both U.S. and international
products-includes information on license fees, special license agreements,
source code agreements, and so on.
Third-party trademark guidelines for the United States

The license fees, which vary depending on the Apple software, authorizes
you to use the Apple software in your program. Apple does not receive royalties.

Apple Organil.atlon

Software Licensing

2 -6

Your Benefits as a licensed
Apple Developer

Questions

As a

properly licensed developer, you will have the right to use Apple-produced
software, which would be costly and time-consuming to develop yourself. In
addition, you will receive free updates to the software you are using in your pro­
gram, so you can always keep your product up-to-date.
If you have questions, or need to obtain the Software licensing Packet, please

contact Apple's Software Licensing Department at:

Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 3 8I
Cupertino, CA 95014
Attention: Software licensing Department
(408) 974-4667
AppleLink®: SW.LICENSE
MCI: 31 2-5360

Apple Organiutlon

Software Licensing

2-7

ti><,

Apple Developer Grou p
Apple 11/IIGs Development

The Apple IIGS® personal computer, with its high-performance graphics, sound, and
other hardware features, has been a top-selling low-cost computer since its
introduction in 1986. As an Apple IIGS developer, not only do you already have over
a half million owners looking forward to new products, but also a new operating
system (GS/OSj, a comprehensive set of system software tools, Apple IIGS native
development and Macintosh-to-IIGS cross-development systems, and other program­
ming aids to reduce your product development time.
As a new Apple developer, you should have received the Starter Kit
containing basic resources, such as services, tools, and publications, to assist you
with your development efforts on the Apple®II. These resources will make your
programming efforts easier and more productive.
The following sections detail the components of the Starter Kit, as well as
other helpful resources you may want to acquire to assist you with your development
efforts. For information on Apple II and Apple IIGS Development Tools, refer to the
Apple II Development Tools note in this section.
Basic Resources: Starter Kit
Contents

Subscriptio�The following are provided to new developers who sign up for
Apple's Developer Program:
•

Applelin� network subscription - Your communication line to Apple and other

•

developers gives you easy access to current technical, marketing, product, and
program information
APDA™ subscription - APDA provides up-to-date technical documentation,
example programs, development tools, utilities and development environments,
books, and more

Developer Library - The following collection is available in the Starter Kit or from

APDA:
•

Apple II and JIGS System Software - Latest Apple II and Apple IIGS system

software disks for testing your product
•

•

•

Development Platforms

Technical Introduction to the Apple JIGS - Overview of all aspects of the Apple
IIGS, including its design and features, development environments-, and the
Toolbox
Programmers Introduction to the Apple JIGS - Using a sample program as an
example, this boo k demonstrates event-driven programming, Toolbox calls,
effective segmentation, file handling, and other Apple IIGS programming
techniques; C, Pascal, and assembly-language versions of the sample program
are included on an accompanying disk
Apple IIGS Hardware Reference (a must for hardware developers) - Describes
system hardware components: CPU, custom ICs, memory, video, sound, Apple
Desktop Bus™, and built-in 1/0.

Apple Il/l!Gs Development

3-1

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Suggested Resources

•

Apple JIGS Firmware Reference - Extensive description of the internal operations
of the Apple llGS, including the system monitor, mini-assembler, disassembler,
interrupt-handler, Apple Desktop Bus, mouse, video, serial port, disk drive
firmware, and SmartPort (this is the best resource for the Apple II SmartPort
protocol). Finnware entry points, vectors, soft-switc hes , and the Apple IIGS
control panel are also detailed.
Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference, Volumes 1 (A-M) and 2 (N-Z) - Comprehensive
guide to the Apple IIGS Toolbox, describing syntax, data structures, error
handling and more than 800 ready-to-use routines

Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference Update- Documents new sound tools not de­

scribed in the Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference volumes and updates the Toolbox
Reference volumes with 65 new tool call descriptions and other corrections and
additions
GS/OS Reference, Volumes I and II - Volume I describes the high-level GS/OS
application calls for accessing files and modifying the operating environment,
and Volume II describes the low-level GS/OS-device interface and how to write
device drivers

Apple II Technical Notes- Detailed technical material, including file-type and
bug notes, written by the Apple II Developer Technical Support group to
expand upon and clarify Apple 11/IIGS technical manuals
Apple JIGS Source Code Sa.mp /er, Volume I - Source code for 13 Apple IIGS
sample applications, demonstrating animation techniques and how to use many
of the Apple IIGS tools; also included are C and assembly-language templates
that can be used as a basis for applications software
Software Developmentfor International Markets (APDA draft) - Guidelines,
tools, and techniques for localizing your software for international use
Apple Numerics Manual, Second Edition- Complete definition and coverage of
the Standard Apple Numeric Environment (SANE®)
Apple Human Interface Guidelines- Describes the Apple human-interface
principles and guidelines
AppleShare Programmer's Guide to Apple JIGS- Documents how to write Ap­
pleTalk® network-aware applications for the Apple II family.
Developer Services Bulletin Board- The Developer Technical Support group
maintains several read-only folders on the Applelink network dedicated
specifically to the Apple II development platfonn [Applelink path: Developer
Services:Developer Technical Support:Apple II). You will find Apple II Techni­
cal Notes, Ap ple II sample code, development tools, and other resources here.

The following documentation and tools are available from APDA:
•

•

Development Plati>rms

Apple Ile Technical Reference- latest version of this manual covers original,
enhanced, and extended-keyboard Apple Ile differences and details Apple Ile
hardware and firmware, including input/output (I/0) features, memory organi­
zation, and using the monitor firmware
Apple Ile Technical Reference, Second Edition - Describes all aspects of the
Apple Ile, including its physical characteristics, memory organization, I/0
interfaces, firmware entry points, and the system monitor

Apple II/Iles Development

3-2

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

ProDOS 8 Technical Reference Manual- Provides an overview of the ProDOS®
8 Apple II operating system and describes file use, ProDOS memory use,
Machine language Interface (MLl) calls, writing a ProDOS system program, and
file organization; ProDOS 8 Exerciser disk is included with the manual
GSBug and Debugging Tools Debugger disk that assists you in testing your
program. It includes three desk accessories for checking memory use and
documentation describing how to use these tools.
Apple JIGS Programmer's Workshop (APW'"J- Software-development environ­
ment and documentation for the Apple IIGS that includes a 65816 assembler,
command shell, linker, full-screen text editor, object-module disassembler, disk
initial utility, librarian, and other utilities.
Apple JIGS Programmer's Workshop C - Full Kernigham and Richie (K&R)
implementation of C for the Apple IIGS that runs under APW and includes
standard I/0 libraries and IIGS tool interfaces. C program segments can be
linked with assembly segments.
MPW JIGS Tools - Powerful cross-development system for the Apple IIGS that
runs in the Macintosh MPWTM development environment and includes a linker, an
object file list utility, and several file translators; requires a Macintosh®computer
with 2 megabytes of RAM and MPW 2.0.2 or later.
MPW JIGS Assembler- Two disks and a reference manual make up this full­
featured macro cross-assembler, which generates ccxle for five 65xxx family
processors, including the 65816, the 6502, and the 65C02.
MPW JIGS C- A cross-development system C compiler for the Apple IIGS that
runs under MPW IIGS on the Macintosh. Full K&R implementation with exten­
sions. Supports source-level segmentation of load files, as well as standard
C I/0 library and Apple IIGS tool interfaces. MPW IIGS Pascal, C, and/or assem­
bler program segments can be linked together.
MPW JIGS Pascal- This MPW IIGS cross-development system Pascal compiler is
a port of MPW Pascal with Apple IIGS Toolbox naming conventions; MPW IIGS
Pascal, C, and/or assembler program segments can be linked together.
Applesoft BASIC Programmer's Reference - Comprehensive reference manual for
the Apple II Applesoft BASIC programming language.
-

For more information about the wide range of Apple II and Apple IlGS
documentation available, check the APDA catalog, APDAlog.
Other Resources

•

•

•

Development PlatfOrms

Technical books- There are many gocxl third-party books on the Apple II and
the Apple IIGS. Your local technical bookstore may have some helpful publica­
tions, or you may also find something to meet your needs in the APDAlog.
Apple User Groups - User groups can provide a wealth of information, from
power-user shortcuts to sample code libraries. To get a list of user groups in
your area, call (800) 538-%%, ext. 500. Some user groups run bulletin board
services that are tailored to the needs of their members. Contact the user groups
directly for more information about the services they provide.
Bulletin board semces - Special interest groups on bulletin boards can provide a
wealth of programming information. For more information, contact them
directly. Examples of commercial bulletin board services with active Apple II
interest groups are AppleLlnk-Personal Edition, GEnie and CompuServe.

Apple Il/l!Gs Development

3·3

•I<
,

App le Develo p er Grou p

Apple 11/IIGS Development Tools

One of the most important choices you'll make when developing on an Apple® II
computer is which development system to use. Knowing more about some of the
key tools and technical references that are available will help make your develop­
ment process easier and more productive. The tools described below are available
from APDA,....

ProDOS 8 Environment

•

ProDOS 8 Assembly Tools
This product comes with four programming tool�ditor, assembler, debugger,
and relocating loader-that help programmers create, debug, and execute
assembly-language programs for any Apple II computer. Resulting applications
run in the ProDOS® 8 environment.

•

Apple II System Disk Version 3.1

This update describes the principal changes to ProDOS 8 since version 1 .1 . 1 . It
covers features visible to the user or of interest to the programmer. Features that
apply to Pro DOS 8 running on the Apple IIGS® computer are noted.

Apple II� Programmer's
Workshop (APW)

•

Apple JIGS Programmer's Workshop and Assembler
This is Apple's native development system for the Apple IIGS and includes a
command shell, linker, and utilities. It is the host for other APW,... language
products such as APW C and several third-party language products. It includes a
complete 65816 macroassembler. The command shell performs such functions
as file management, directory listing, 1/0 redirection, and pipelining. The full­
screen text editor copies, moves, and deletes blocks; searches and replaces; and
executes editor command macros.
The assembler produces 65816 programs that assemble to relocatable
object modules . Utility macros to aid programming are provided, as well as tool
interface macros; you may also create your own macros and library files. The
linker takes files created by the assembler, C, or other compatible languages and
generates load files, resolving external references and creating relocation
dictionaries.

•

Apple JIGS Programmer's Workshop C
This full Kernighan and Ritchie implementation of C generates APW object files.
It has extensions that include void types, enumerated types, and structure
passing. It supports source-level segmentation of load files and includes
standard C 1/0 library and Apple IIGS tool interfaces. Program segments written
in C can be linked with assembly segments.

Apple II� Tools

•

GSBug and Debugging Tools
A machine-level debugger that traces, or steps through, programs or inserts
breakpoints; it can display registers, memory locations, and the direct page and
stack, and lets you switch between the application's display screen and the de­
bugger's. It also includes the Memory Mangler, Loader Dumper, and Scrambler

Development Platforms

Apple 11/IIGS Development Tools

3-4

•

•

� IIGS Cross-Development

•

System

•

•

Development Platfbrms

desk accessories. The Memory Mangler and Loader Dumper let you peek at
Memory Manager and System Loader data structures during execution of a
program. The Scrambler rearranges memory after each Memory Manager call to
help you locate dereferenced handles that are unlocked. The GS/OS Exerciser,
provided both as an application and as a desk accessory, lets you "exercise" GS/
OS calls by providing parameters and executing the call.
Apple JIGS Source Code Sampler, Volume I
This product contains source code for Apple IIGS applications that use the
desktop interface. Assembly source-code samples include an empty shell appli­
cation, an animation demo, a custom control, custom windows, dialogs, window
caching, list handling, a sampled sound player, a Print Manager record spy,
custom menus, and a math function grapher that uses SANE®. C source-code
samples include an empty shell application and a program lister that can print to
the ImageWriter® and LaserWriter printers.
Icon /Jditor
The Apple IIGS Icon Editor is a tool for creating and modifying icons for display
by the Apple IIGS Finder™. Icons can be created for applications or for docu­
ments. Using the Icon Editor, a programmer can match application icons to
document icons, so that when a user opens a document from the Finder, the ap­
propriate application is launched.

MPW IIGS Tools
These are the tools you need to use the MPW™-to-Apple IIGS Cross-Development
System. The system allows programmers to use Macintosh speed and Macintosh
Programmer's Workshop power and functionality to develop programs that
execute on an Apple IIGS. This product includes a linker that can link object
files created by an assembler with object files written in high-level languages
such as C or Pascal, generating relocatable load files to run on the Apple IIGS.
Other tools enable you to transfer files via disks between Macintosh® and Apple
IIGS computers, display the contents of object fil�s, convert GS/OS™ load files
into ProDOS 8 binary files, and make Apple IIGS object files into libraries.
MPWIIGS C
The C compiler for the MPW-to-Apple IIGS Cross-Development System runs
under MPW on a Macintosh, and produces code that executes on an Apple IIGS.
It is source-code compatible with APW C, with minor exceptions. MPW IIGS C is
a full implementation of the C language described by Kernighan and Ritchie, and
additionally has extensions such as void types, enumerated types, and structure
passing. It supports source-level segmentation of load files.
MPW IIGS Assembler
The MPW IIGS Assembler is a full-featured macroassembler that runs in the MPW
environment. It generates code for five 65xxx family processors: the 65816, the
6502, the 65C02, the NCR 65CX02, and the Mitsubishi 740 microcontroller chips.
Object modules creatd by the MPW IIGS Assembler can be lined with MPW IIGS
C object modules.
The MPW IIGS Assembler is based on the MPW Assembler and uses a
similar syntax. Because the MPW IIGS Assembler syntax is significantly different
from APW Assembler syntax, a one-way translation utility is included to help
convert APW source.

Apple Il/IIGS Development Tools

3-5

•

MPW JIGS Pascal
The Pascal compiler for the MPW-to-IIGS Cross-Development System runs under
MPW on the Macintosh, and produces code that executes on the Apple IIGS. This
Pascal is a port of MPW Pascal for the Macintosh, but uses the Toolbox naming
conventions presented in Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference, Volumes 1 and 2.
Program segments created using this compiler can be linked with segments
created using MPW IIGS C and/or MPW IIGS Assembler.

Apple n� System Software

Documentation/Technical
Reference Guides

•

•

Apple JIGS System Disk 5. 0

This is the July 1989 version of the Apple IIGS system software. This developer
package contains release notes on this version of the system software .
There are several fine tools and languages for Apple II computers which
have been produced by third-party developers. For the Apple Ile and Ile, 6502
assembly language is a popular language and the popular assemblers are Merlin
8/16 from Roger Wagner Publishing (1050 Pioneer Way, Suite P, El Cajon,
California 92020) and ORCA/M from the The Byte Works (4700 Irving Boulevard
N.W., No. 207, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871 14). For the Apple IIGS, Pascal is
the most popular professional development environment. Pascal compilers are
available from the Byte Works and from TML Systems (8837-B Goodbys Execu­
tive Drive, Jacksonville, Florida 32217). The Byte Works also sells an assembler
and a C compiler for the Apple IIGS.

Apple II Technical Notes
These include detailed technical documentation written by the Apple II Devel­
oper Technical Support group to expand upon and clarify Apple technical docu­
mentation. The notes also document bugs in Apple software, hardware, and
documentation. Technical Notes address specific questions commonly asked by
developers. Currently, notes are issued bimonthly in the Developer mailings;
back issues are available through APDA in both hard-copy and disk form.

•

Apple Technical Library

Apple Computer has written a number of books that have been published by
Addison-Wesley as the Apple Technical Library. These publications can be
found at many technical bookstores. They are also available through APDA, as
well as directly from Addison-Wesley, 6 Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867.
The technical library includes the following publications related to the
Apple 11/IIGS. If you have recently signed up as an Apple Developer, many of
these publications were included in your starter kit.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Development Plati>rms

Technical Introduction to the Apple JIGS
Programmer's Introduction to the Apple JIGS
Apple JIGS Firmware Reference
Apple JIGS Hardware Reference
Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference, Volumes I and II
Apple JIGS ProDOS 16 Reference
BASIC Programming with ProDOS
Applesoft BASIC Programmer's Reference Manual
ProDOS 8 Technical Reference Manual

Apple 11/IIGS Development Tools

3-6

•
•
•

Other References

Other important reference manuals that are available in your starter kit or from APDA
only:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Development Platforms

Apple Ile Technical Reference Manual
Apple Ile Technical Reference Manual
Apple Numerics Manual

GS/OS Reference, Volume I
GS/OS Reference, Volume II
Apple JIGS Toolbox Reference Update
X-Ref: Apple II Cross-Reference
Apple JIGS Assembler Toolbox Quick Reference
Apple JIGS C Toolbox Quick Reference

Apple Il/l!Gs Development Tools

3-7

ti ,

Apple Developer Group

Macintosh Development

The Macintosh® personal computer is like nothing you've ever programmed. The
most innovative products for personal computers are developed for the Macintosh.
As a new Apple developer, you should have received the Starter Kit contain­
ing basic resources, such as tools and publications, to assist you with your develop­
ment efforts on the Macintosh. These resources should make your programming
efforts easier and more productive.
The following sections detail the components of the Starter Kit, as well as
other helpful resources you may want to acquire to assist you with your development
efforts. For information on Macintosh Development Tools, refer to the Macintosh
Development Tools note in this section.
Basic Resources: Starter Kit

Subscriptions-The following are automatically provided to new developers who

Contents

sign up for Apple's Developer Program:
•

Applelin� network subscription - Your communication line to Apple and other

•

developers gives you easy access to current technical, marketing, product, and
program information
APDA™ membership - APDA provides up-to-date technical documentation,
example programs, development tools, utilities and development environments,
books, and more

Developer Library- The following collection is available in your Starter Kit or from
APDA:
•

Inside Macintosh, Volumes I through V - The technical reference manual for
Macintosh personal computers

•

•

•

•

Inside Macintosh X Reference C omprehensive index and cross reference for
the five volumes of Inside Macintosh , plus the 1984 to 1987 Technical Notes,
Programmers Introduction to the Macintosh Family, Technical Introduction to
the Macintosh Family, and Designing Cards and Drivers
Technical Introduction to the Macintosh Family - One-stop source containing
-

-

an overview of the Macintosh hardware, its internal workings, and options it
makes available
Programmers Introduction to the Macintosh Family - The next level of detail for
a developer, this volume is a companion to Technical Introduction to the

Macintosh Family
Human Interface Guidelines - Describes the Apple human-interface principles
and guidelines

Development Platforms

•

Apple Numerics Manual - Complete definition and coverage of the Standard

•

Apple Numeric Environment (SANE®)
HyperCard Script La.nguage Guide - Pertinent to those interested in writing
Hypet'falk™ scripts or to those interested in developing HyperCard® applications

Macintosh Development

3-8

•

•

•

Suggested Resources

•

•

Other Resources

Macintosh Developer Support group to expand upon and clarify Apple technical
documentation
Software Developmentfor International Markets (APDA draft) - Technical refer­
ence manual for developers who plan to sell their product overseas that pro­
vides localizability guidelines, as well as a description of localization tools and
techniques
Macintosh System Software - The latest version of the Macintosh system software
with updates provided to the developer as they are released.

Developer Services Bulletin Board - The Developer Technical Support group
maintains several read-only folders on the AppleLink network dedicated
specifically to the Macintosh development platform [AppleLink path: Developer
Services:Developer Technical Support:Macintosh]. You will find all of the
Macintosh Technical Notes, international keyboard illustrations, sample code,
standard definition procedures, and the latest MPW™ interfaces, as well as some
development tools (such as MacsBug and ResEdit) here.
A Debugger - After you've become familiar with the Macintosh and how it
works, find a debugger. A good debugger can save an experienced Macintosh
programmer many frustrating hours of guesswork. To use a debugger, you
should have knowledge of both the 68000 assembler and the Macintosh. You
should be using a debugger by the time you're putting the finishing touches on
your product.

The following documentation and tools are available from APDA:
•

•

•

•

•

Development Platforms

Macintosh Technical Notes - Detailed technical documentation written by the

Script Manager Developer's Package - Provides information to help you better
develop international products . This publication includes information on the
Script Manager, which provides a set of routines to handle text in both Roman
and non-Roman Qapanese, Chinese, Arabic, or Hebrew) languages.
The Macintosh Family Hardware Reference manual, published by Addison­
Wesley - As a reference to Macintosh II, Macintosh SE, and Macintosh Plus
hardware, this manual is critical for hardware developers and educational for
software developers. Software developers, however, should not rely on the
detailed hardware information in this document. If they do, they may experi­
ence serious software compatibility problems in the future.
Designing Cards and Drivers for the Macintosh II and Macintosh SE manual contains information on developing NuBus™ cards and drivers for the Macintosh
II and Macintosh SE.
Software Applications in a Shared Environment - Document which details the
considerations involved in developing software that will function in a shared
environment (such as an AppleShare®volume), discusses proper treatment of
and open permissions for documents, byte range locking to allow concurrent
writers to the same document, and architecture needed to allow applications
sharing.
MacApp 2.X manual (interim version) - Essential guide for MacApp® program­
mers and useful introduction to those investigating object-oriented programming
and MacApp.

Macintosh Development

3-9

•

Sample code products may be helpful in learning to use Macintosh ROM
routines. These are generally not intended as examples of programming style,

but rather as "quick-and-dirty" examples of how to use the Macintosh Toolbox.
For more infonnation about the wide range of Macintosh documentation
available, check the APDAlog.

Supplementary Resources

•

Technical books - There are many good third-party books about Macintosh.
Your local technical boo kstore may have some helpful publications, or you may
also find something to meet your needs in the APDAlog. See the Macintosh
Development Tools note for infonnation on other technical books.

•

Apple User Groups - User groups can provide a wealth of infonnation, from
power-user shortcuts to example code libraries. To get a list of user groups in
your area, call (800) 538-9696, ext. 500. Some user groups run bulletin-board
services that are tailored to the needs of their members. For more information
about the services they provide, contact the user groups directly.

•

Bulletin board services - Special-interest groups on bulletin boards can provide a
wealth of programming information. For more information, contact them
directly. Examples of commercial bulletin board services with active Macintosh
interest groups are GEnie, Delphi, and CompuServe.

•

Developer Associations - Developer Associations can put you in touch with
people who share your interests, goals and occupation, and who can help by
providing you with important industry infonnation. Refer to the section "Other
Resources" in this guidebook for more information on Developer Associations .

Development Platforms

Macintosh Development

3- 10

•"
,

Apple Developer Group

Macintosh Development Tools

One of the most important choices you'll make when developing products for the
Apple® Macintosh® computer is which development system to use. Knowing more
about some of the key tools and technical references that are available will help make
your development process easier and more productive. This note describes some of
the most popular development tools used by professional developers. All of these
development tools and many other excellent development tools are available from
APDA"'.

Macintosh Programmer's
Workshop (MPW)

MPW"', Apple's premier development system, is a family of products that includes a
robust, full-function environment for professional-level software development, a
powerful macroassembler that supports all current members of the MC68000 proces­
sor line, and compatible C and Pascal compilers, each with complete Macintosh
interface libraries. Using MPW, a Macintosh application can be written in multiple
languages. Users can write integrated tools and script files and customize the MPW
interface by adding custom menu items. The power of MPW can be expanded by
adding MPW-compatible products from third-party software developers.
•

MPW Development Environment
The MPW Development Environment contains the MPW Shell, Macintosh
interface libraries, resource tools, a linker, Projector"', and other tools.
The MPW Shell is both a multiwindow text editor and a command
interpreter. It recognizes more than 80 built-in commands, and can launch a
special class of applications called integrated tools. MPW comes with roore than
30 of these tools. Any supplied command or integrated tool can optionally
display a dialog interface to assist the programmer in specifying any desired
parameters before execution. New integrated tools and scripts can be easily
created by the user, installed in a menu, and invoked by name or by menu item
selection. The Shell offers the capabilities of a regular Macintosh-style mouse­
based text editor, including such functions as cut and paste, undo, search and
replace, and markers .
Interface library files are included to provide complete Toolbox access
to all Macintosh computers, and interfaces for writing applications compatible
with the MultiFinder"' operating system. Interfaces are included so that programs
can be easily integrated with the MPW Shell. Language-specific include files and
sample programs and are provided with MPW Assembler, Pascal, and C.
Several tools are provided for creating and maintaining resource files;
tools exist to compile and decompile resources, compare resource files, and
check resource files for inconsistencies. The linker supports the object module
format shared by the MPW Assembler, MPW Pascal compiler, MPW C compiler,
and third-party language products.
The MPW Development Environment is most popular with developers
working together as part of a large team and to those developers who wish to
highly customize their development environment. It is also popular with

Development Platforms

Macintosh Development Tools

3-11

•

•

•

•

•

MacApp

Development Platforms

developers who need a flexible environment which provides them with exacting
control over their projects.
MPW Assembler
The macroassembler supports all the instructions and addressing modes of the
MC68000 , MC68010, MC68020, and MC68030 microprocessors and the MC6885 1,
MC6888 1 , and MC68882 coprocessors.
MPW C
The C compiler is an optimizing compiler that generates code for the MC68000
and optionally for th.e MC68020/030 and the MC6888 1 /882. MPW C 3.0 contains
ANSI C enhancements such as function prototypes and strong type checking,
and ANSI C additions to the Standard Library.
MPWPascal
The Pascal compiler is an optimizing compiler that generates code for the
MC68000 and optionally for the MC68020/030 and the MC6888 1 /882. MPW
Pascal supports the Object Pascal extensions required by MacApp®.
Projector
Projector is an easy-to-use built-in source code management system for control­
ling and accounting for all changes to software or documentation over the life of
a project. The source is stored in a revision file so that any version of the
software may be built on command. Projector controls access to the files so that
only one person is modifying a file at a time. Projector keeps track of who has
modified the files and why each modification was done. Projector is part of the
MPW Shell.
SADE (Symbolic Application Debugging Environment)
SADE,,. is a source-level symbolic debugging environment that can be used to
debug applications and MPW tools built using the MPW 3.0 C and Pascal
compilers and assemblers. SADE provides a multiwindow editor for source
display and debugger command input and output. It also provides a scripting
language for controlling and analyzing your program and for customizing the
debugging environment. SADE comes with a set of predefined menus that pro­
vide all of the basic debugging features.

MacApp is an object-oriented programming library that implements the standard
features common to most Macintosh applications programs. MacApp provides code
for a complete generic Macintosh application that can be expanded into a specific
application. MacApp applications can be written using MPW in Object Pascal (Pascal
with object-oriented extensions that are supported by the MPW Pascal compiler).
MacApp consists of more than 800K of source code. Most of this code is
written in Object Pascal, with the remainder written in Motorola 68000 Assembly
language. Complete source code is included on the MacApp disks. The disks also
contain MPW "Make" files that are set up for easy compilation of the MacApp source
code into object files. A MacApp user can create these object files once; then he or
she can incorporate them into an application by "using" them in the application's
Pascal source code and linking them with the application's object files, to create a
complete Macintosh application.

Macintosh Development Tools

3- 12

Macintosh Allegro
Common Usp

Macintosh® Allegro Common Llsp is an extended implementation of the Corrunon
Llsp standard, with additional programming and Macintosh interface tools. Corrunon
Llsp is widely used to develop artificial intelligence programs and other advanced
applications, and for rapid prototyping. Macintosh Allegro Conunon Llsp is a
powerful system for developing all types of stand-alone Macintosh applications.
Macintosh Allegro Common Lisp provides numerous extensions to the
Common Llsp language, including Object Llsp, which is a multiple-inheritance
object-oriented programming system, and a set of high-level tools for the construc­
tion of a Macintosh interface. Object Llsp is used to implement windows, menus,
dialogs, and streams. These predefined objects may be extended and customized by
the user.
The Macintosh Allegro Common Lisp compiler produces efficient native
680x0 code. File compilation and incremental compilation are both supported. An
evaluator is provided to support expression-by-expression execution of programs. A
snapshot facility allows saving complete Llsp environments for quick restarts.
Macintosh Allegro Common Lisp provides an integrated programming
environment that makes extensive use of the Macintosh graphic interface. A power­
ful integrated, programmable editor is provided, as well as a Llsp Listener, window­
based Inspector, Stepper, and Stack Backtrace facility.
Additional tools are provided to support the development of large, full­
function, Macintosh-style stand-alone applications. The Foreign Function Interface
module provides the capability to call external procedures, such as those written in
MPW™(Macintosh Programmer's Workshop) Pascal, C, or Assembler, from a Lisp
program. The Stand-Alone Application Generator turns Macintosh Allegro Common
Lisp programs into ready-to-run Macintosh applications that users can launch with a
double-click; the presence of the complete Lisp development environment is not
required.

Symantec's UghtspeedC

Symantec's LightspeedC is a powerful and easy-to-use C development environment,
which combines a compiler, linker, multiwindow text editor, and source-level
debugger in an integrated development environment. In addition, the integrated
environment includes a project manager that keeps track of related files and auto­
matically rebuilds your programs as needed.
Symantec's LightspeedC provides support for writing applications, desk
accessories, device drivers, and code resources. Also provided are interfaces to the
Macintosh Toolbox, as well as standard C libraries with full source code.
Symantec's LightspeedC is most popular with new Macintosh programmers,
those who desire the ease of use offered by the Symantec's LightspeedC develop­
ment environment, and programmers working alone or in small groups.

Symantec's Ughtspeed Pascal

Symantec's Lightspeed Pascal is a powerful and easy-to-use Pascal development
environment that combines a compiler, linker, multiwindow text editor, project
manager for automating building programs, and source-level debugger in an inte­
grated development environment.
Symantec's Lights peed Pascal provides support for writing applications,
desk accessories, device drivers, and code resources, along with full Macintosh
Toolbox interfaces.

Development Platforms

Macintosh Development Tools

3- 1 3

Symantec's Lightspeed Pascal is most popular with new Macintosh program­
mers, those who desire the ease of use offered by the Symantec's Lightspeed Pascal
development environment, and programmers that are working alone or in small
groups on small to medium size projects.
Debuggers and Supplemental
Tools

•

•

•

Documentation/Technical
Reference Guides

•

•

Development Platforms

MacsBug
MacsBug is Apple's machine-level debugger for the Macintosh Plus, Macintosh
SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh IICX. With
MacsBug, programmers can trace or step through programs, insert breakpoints,
check both system and application heaps for consistency, and display memory
and registers.
ResEdit
ResEditTMis Apple's Resource Editor. With ResEdit, users can create or edit
resources such as menus, dialogs, icons, alerts, and windows. ResEdit is an
indespensable tool for anyone trying to develop Macintosh software, and should
be a part of any developer's toolkit.
TMON
TMON, from ICOM Simulations, is a multiwindow, mouse-driven debugger that
supports full machine-level debugging of applications, desk accessories, drivers,
and code resources. It provides Toolbox trap checking via DisciplineTM and the
ability to customize via the Extended User Area.
Macintosh Technical Notes
These include detailed technical documentation written by the Macintosh
Developer Technical Support group to expand upon and clarify Macintosh
technical documentation. The notes also document bugs in Macintosh software,
hardware, and documentation. Technical Notes address specific questions
commonly asked by developers. Currently, notes are issued bimonthly in the
Developer mailings; back issues are available through APDA in both hard copy
and disk form.
Apple Technical Library
Apple Computer has written a number of books that have been published by
Addison-Wesley as the Apple Technical Library. These publications can be
found at many technical bookstores. They are also available through APDA, as
well as directly from Addison-Wesley, 6 Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867.
The technical library includes the following publications related to the
Macintosh. If you have recently signed up as an Apple Developer, many of
these publications were included in your starter kit.
- Technical Introduction to the Macintosh Family
- Programmers Introduction to the Macintosh Family
- Inside Macintosh, Volumes I-V
- Inside Macintosh X-Ref
- Macintosh Family Hardware Reference
- Designing Cards and Drivers for Macintosh II and Macintosh SE
- Human Interface Guidelines: The Apple Desktop Interface
- Apple Numerics Manual

Macintosh Development Tools

3- 14

•

Development Platforms

Other References
Other important references that are available in your starter kit or from APDA:
- Programmer's Guide to MultiFinder
- Macintosh Technical Notes
- Macintosh sample disks

Macintosh Development Tools

3-1 5

ti.,

Apple Developer Group
Human Interface Guidelines
Overview and Checklist

Apple's easy-to-use interface revolutionized the way people interact with computers.
By replacing the complexity of code memorization with the simplicity and consis­
tency of a functional, more human interface, users were given a machine that
conformed to the way they naturally think and work. To bring consistency across all
applications for the Macintosh® and Apple® II computers, the Human Interface
Design Guidelines were published. These guidelines are to assist developers in
designing interfaces for applications that conform to the "look and feel" of Apple's
interface.
This document contains resources that will help you during the develop­
ment of your product and a checklist to use when you are testing your interface for
adherence to Apple's Human Interface Guidelines.
Resources

Human Interface Design Guidelines, available from APDA
An essential resource for programmers, this document discusses user-interface
principles and provides information on how to use the windows, menus, dialog
boxes, and controls that make up the Apple desktop interface . It includes advice for
color and sound integration, as well as guidelines on designing for international
markets and handicapped users.
Technical Notes and Technical Support
Human Interface Update Technical Notes are published as needed, and will be
distributed with regular Technical Notes in the monthly developer mailings.
Apple Partners and Certified Developers can forward human interface
design questions that cannot be answered in the Human lnterface Design Guidelines
to the AppleLink address MACINTERFACE or MACDTS. Include as much visual
information as possible.
Softwa re Testing
The following software testing groups have the ability to test your program for
adherence to Apple's Human Interface Guidelines:
American Institutes for Research
Bedford Research and Technology Center
45 North Road
Bedford, MA 01730
(617) 275-0800

Attn: Robin Kinkeadz
LIST Services
1 5320 Wycliffe Drive, #28
Omaha, NE 681 54
(402) 334-4991

Attn: Beverly Student

Development Platforms

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3-16

Tee-Ed Technical Publications and Graphic Services
P.O. Box 2351
Palo Alto, CA 94308
(415) 493-1010
Attn: Stephanie Rosenbaum
National Software Testing I.ab., Inc.
One Winding Drive
Philadelphia, PA 19131
(215) 941-9600
Attn: Vicki Weiss

The Checklist

Once you've designed your interface according to Apple's Human Inteiface Design
Guidelines, use the checklist below to determine how well your interface measures
up to Apple's standards. This checklist is made up of questions regarding Apple's
interface. These questions, except those concerning selection, apply to specific sets
of standards. The selection standards of the guidelines are very detailed and are
explained in their own section, "Selecting," in Chapter 3 of the Human Interface
Design Guidelines. When examining your interface against the following checklist of
questions, you should be able to answer "yes" to each one.

General Considerations
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•

Development Platforms

Does the application have the "look" of the Apple desktop interface, including,
but not limited to, desktop, windows, and menus?
Does the application have the "feel" of the Apple desktop interface, including,
but not limited to, pointing, selecting, and keyboard input?
If a metaphor is being used, is it suitable for the application? Does the metaphor
have a "real" visual and behavioral representation, as with the desktop, so that
users do not have to carry a "map" in their heads?
Does the application always provide some indication that an activity is being
carried out in response to a command?
Does the user always have the option of finding an object or action on the
screen, as opposed to having to remember that object or action before inputting
data?
Are the operations consistent with the standard elements of the interface; that is,
if a user is familiar with applications such as MacPaint, MacDraw, and MacWrite,
will the application appear familiar to the user the first time?
Is a printout of the application WYSIWYG? (Is it a replica of what the user sees
on the screen?)
Is suitable feedback provided during task processing? Is the completion of a
processing task clearly indicated on the screen or with a sound? Is the duration
of the task indicated?
Is an explanation offered if a particular action cannot be carried out? Are alterna­
tives offered?
Are there warnings about risky actions? Are there different warnings for different
levels of risky actions? Are there enough warnings without being too many? Are
users allowed to back away gracefully from risky territory?

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3- 1 7

•

•

Is there a feeling of stability? Are there enough landmarks to remind users what
area of the application they are in?
Can the operation be interrupted with Command-period? Can Escape be used to
cancel an operation that has a Cancel button?

Graphic Design
•

•
•

Do the commands, features, and parameters of the application, as well as all of
the user's data, appear as graphic objects on the screen as often as possible?
Does the screen look "clean" and free from clutter?
Do users have control over the design of the workplace, allowing them to indi­
vidualize it?

Window Standards
•

•

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Does the standard state of the window seem appropriate on a 9-inch display?
On a larger display?
Does the preliminary user-selected state seem appropriate on a 9-inch display?
On a larger display?
Does the choice made to open in either the standard or the user-selected state
make sense?
Can sizable windows be expanded to the maximum document size of single
displays? Multiple displays?

Scrolling Standards
•

Does the window use either the standard scroll-bar mechanism or the hand
grabber for scrolling? If it uses the hand grabber, does the pointer either always
become a hand or appear highlighted in a tool palette?

•

Does clicking on a scroll arrow cause the document to "move" a distance of one
unit in the chosen direction? (The unit should be appropriate to the application.)
Does clicking on the scroll bar below the scroll box advance the document by a
windowful (height or width of a window, minus a one-unit overlap)? Does
clicking above the scroll box move the document back by a windowful?
Is the function of the arrow keys different from the function of the scroll bar?
(Note: All of these questions should be answerable with "yes"; arrow keys
should not be substituted for scroll arrows.)

•

•

Dialog Box Standards
A modal dialog box is one that the user must explicitly dismiss before doing anything
outside it. These boxes should be used sparingly.

Development Platforms

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3-1 8

•

•

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•
•

•

Is the question posed in a straightforward and positive way? For example, "Do
you want to erase everything on this disk?" rather than "Do you not want to alter
the contents of this disk?"
When appropriate, do buttons have descriptive labels, such as "Destroy Power
Supply" rather than "OK"?
Does pressing Escape indicate Cancel in a dialog box? (Pressing Escape should
never cause the user to lose infonnation.)
Do modal dialog boxes not lead to other modal dialog boxes?
Do modal dialog boxes that can be moved have a drag region (title bar) as well
as the 2-pixel-wide outline within the content region to signify that they are
modal dialog boxes?
Has room been left to allow the dialog box to grow during localization? (Most
languages require more characters than English to convey equivalent messages.)

Alert Standards
There are three classes of alerts-Note, Caution, and Stop; each represented by a
different icon.

Note
•
•

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Caution

Stop

Do the alert icon and message fit the situation?
Is a beep alert accompanied by a flash (rapid inverting) of the menu bar so that
people who can't hear don't miss the message?
Does the alert message not only tell the user what is wrong but offer suggestions
about corrective action?
Is this alert necessary? (Often, the user can simply be prevented from making an
error. Example: If the application cannot handle an 8()-character file name,
don't offer users an 80-character field in which to enter it.)

Menu Standards
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Development Platli:>rms

Does the menu bar contain only menu titles?
Are the standard menus-Apple, File, and Edit-present with at least the
standard items (these are needed for desk accessories, even when the applica­
tion doesn't use them)?
Has enough room been left on the right side of the menu bar for the additional
menus provided by some desk accessories? Is there also enough extra room to
allow for the expansion that almost always occurs during translation into other
languages?
Do the unique menus of the application have names that are appropriate? Are
the names sufficiently different from the standard menu names? Can the user
understand and remember their meaning?
Are frequently used menu items available at the top level rather than in a hierar­
chical menu or a dialog box? If not, can the user move them up?
When an item in a menu is currently disabled, is the menu title dimmed? Can the
user still pull down the menu and see the dimmed names of the operations?

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3-1 9

•

•

•

•

Are

the names of menu items appropriate? Can the user understand and
remember their meaning?
Are menu titles and items initially capitalized unless there is a compelling reason
to have a different style (such as "ALL CAPS" in a Style menu)?
Do menu items have an ellipsis ( . . .) if more information is required from the
user?
Do hierarchical titles in a menu have a right-pointing triangle? Are hierarchical
menus used only for lists of related items?

,.., A l i g n

Bold

Left

Un�e rline�

Align Middle
Align Right

,..,N o B a c k g ro u n d

mrnUDOlil@
'11bl!l(!)CiJ[!g

S o l i d B 11 c lc g ro u n d

Pntt e rn e d
,..,S olid TeHt

B n c lc g ro u n d

R e u e r s <� Te H t

P n t t t� r n t� d fr H t
•

•

Can the user see all the commands, items, and hierarchical titles in a menu
without scrolling? (Scrolling should be necessary only for menus that users have
added to or for menus that spill over because the user has selected a large
system font.)
Is the indication of a pop-up menu a drop-shadowed box around the current
value? While the menu is showing, is its title inverted, and is the current value
checked? If the menu must be scrolled, is this indicated by up- or down­
pointing triangles?

Position: I

N o rm a l

I

14.gm1.1.;

S u b s c ri p t
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Development Platforms

Do keyboard equivalents appear where appropriate? Are the keyboard equiva­
lents case independent? (The second rule does not apply if the product uses
both cases in the keyboard equivalents and enables the user to predict which
case to use.)
If the application is text oriented, can the user change the font and style by using
menu commands? (Usually, fonts and printing styles are in menus called Font
and Style, but there may be a good reason to put them in another menu.)
If a palette is present, is the selected symbol-icon, pattern, character, or
drawing-highlighted?
If a menu has been tom off and moved, can the user still access it from the menu
bar? When it is torn off a second time, does the first instance disappear?

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3-20

Mouse Standards
•

•

If the user initiates an action by pressing the mouse button, does the action take
place only when the button is released?
Are there ways other than double-clicking to perform a given action?

Programming Strategies
You may want to refresh your memory about the main programming issues,
especially event loop and modes. See the section, "A Strategy for Programming" in
Chapter 1 of the Human Inter/ace Design Guidelines.
•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Is there a clear visual indication of the current mode? Does the visual indication
of the mode appear near the object most affected by the mode? (For example,
the MacPaint pointer changes to a pencil in a draw mode and to a paint brush in
a paint mode.)
Is each mode absolutely necessary? Do the modes within the application
properly track the user's own modes? Do users consistently avoid the kind of
errors caused by the program being in a mode other than what the user wants or
expects? (Making a mode visually apparent is no guarantee that the user will
track it. Test the application on users, and find out what types of mistakes they
are making. If the errors are modal, eliminate the modes.)
Can users save a document or quit an application at any time, unless they are in
a modal dialog box?
Is the widest possible range of user activities available at any time? (The user
should spend most of his or her time in the event loop.)
Will a color-blind user be able to use the application? Will someone without a
color monitor be able to use it' (The information conveyed by color coding
should also be presented in another form, such as tes� position, highlighting,
gray-scale variations, or pattern. These questions do not apply to programs in
which the task to be carried out requires full-color vision on a color monitor.)
Will a user with a hearing disability be able to use the application? (Audible
messages should be supplemented with visual cues or should allow the user to
choose visible instead of audible messages. This question may not apply to
music programs.)
For those who cannot handle book-form manuals, is any part of the manual
available in electronic form.?

Documentation
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User Testing

Development Platforms

Does the manual include a glossary of potentially confusing terms that relate to
the application or to the application's topic?
If the manual refers the user to another document, is the reference more appro­
priate than having the information in the manual itself?

Although you may feel comfortable with your interface because you've been follow­
ing the Apple's Human Inteiface Design Guidelines, without testing, you may never
know the strengths and weaknesses of your program. The Human Interface team
offers this sound advice: Test early and often.

Human Interface Guidelines Overview and Checklist

3- 2 1

ti ")

Apple Developer Group
Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

Welcome to the world of object-oriented programming (OOP) and MacApp®, Apple's
object-oriented Macintosh® application framework. Long experience at Apple and
elsewhere has shown that OOP offers substantial advantages over traditional func­
tional-programming techniques, particularly for the kind of complex applications
today's users have come to expect. Because we believe that OOP will be the
programming model for future generations of computers, we will continue our long­
term commitment to OOP. We think that when you take a look at the future
direction of application development, you will recognize that OOP represents a
better choice than procedural programming.
The information in this document provides a brief introduction to OOP and
MacApp, and includes a description of the documentation and tools you'll need to
get started. We encourage you to take advantage of the opportunities OOP has
created.
Object-Oriented Programming
Versus Procedural
Programming

Compared with traditional procedural programming, object-oriented programming
speeds software development and makes programs easier to create, understand, and
maintain. Four concepts are key to the benefits of OOP : object, class, inheritance,
and polymorphism. Let's look at each one.

Object
Consider a familiar object; for example, a light bulb. It has fixed states (wattage
rating, mass, and bulb type), variable states (on or off), and behavior (heat and light
production, current flow). Behavior and state are inextricably intertwined in real­
world objects. Yet modern CPUs and traditional programming languages treat the
computer analogs of behavior and state-code and data-as inherently separate.
This separation complicates the design, debugging, and maintenance of software.
We are all familiar with apparently innocent modifications to a data structure that
break procedures throughout a program.
Object-oriented programming languages explicitly mimic the real world by
linking data and the procedures that manipulate that data into what are called objects.
A light-bulb object, for instance, would have variables for its state and procedures for
computing heat, current flow, and light output. This encapsulation of data and code
minimizes and localizes the procedures that rely upon detailed knowledge of an
object's data structures. Consequently, object-oriented programs are easier to
understand and to maintain.
Class
The object-oriented programmer describes different types of objects, including the
appropriate linkage of data and procedures, by defining classes. A class specifies the
structure of the data for all individual objects of the class, as does a Pascal RECORD
or C struct. Unlike records or structs, however, each class also specifies the proce­
dures unique to it. Although each individual object will normally have its own data,
all objects of a given class share the same set of procedures.
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Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

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Inheritance
The various types of real-world objects in an application domain become separate
classes in the program. These classes need to share behavior because the corre­
sponding types of real-world objects often share behavior. For instance, a taxi is a
kind of car, which is a kind of vehicle. Therefore a taxi shares most of the behavior
of any vehicle and almost all of the behavior of a car. Relationships such as these
can be expressed naturally in OOP by making the more specialized class a subclass
of the more general class. The sharing of behavior arises because a subclass inherits
all of the data and procedures of its superclass. So if taxi is a subclass of car, then,
with no further effort on the part of the programmer, taxi objects would already have
all the structure and behavior of car objects. The programmer of the taxi class
presumably would add new data items (two-way radios, fare meters, and so on) and
new procedures (computing fares , for example). Procedures already implemented
by cars may be modified or overridden (taxis may use special lanes at airports or
always have broken air conditioners) . But most of the structure and code of the car
superclass is effortlessly reused by the taxi subclass. This reuse of inherited code
simplifies maintenance.

Polymorphism
In traditional procedural programming, the code to be executed at every point in the
program is specified exactly by the order of procedure calls. When a procedural
language compiler encounters a procedure call, it knows precisely what code to
invoke. But in OOP, a subclass may override a procedure implemented by its
superclass. In that case, the method(or procedure) in the subclass and the super­
class have the same name. The actual code to be executed depends on the class of
the object on which it is supposed to act. This flexible binding of code with method
names is called polymorphism.
Pascal or C programmers routinely use a limited form of polymorphism:
Arithmetic operators such as the plus operator (+) invoke different code for integers
than for floats. But this primitive polymorphism is hard-coded in the compiler,
usually limited to a few mathematical operators, and cannot be extended by the
programmer. By giving the programmer control of polymorphism (hence the ability
to selectively override and enhance existing behavior in new subclasses), OOP
makes code reuse practical and adds to the flexibility and mutability of the program.

Object-Oriented Programming
Libraries and TooJs

Object-oriented programming requires a mature class library and specialized pro­
gramming tools, in addition to an OOP language.
Classes, inheritance, and polymorphism provide the opportunity for code
reuse. Object-oriented class libraries provide the code to reuse . Mature class
libraries turn the promise of OOP into successful practice. These libraries, however,
must be carefully designed and well tested. With wide reuse, every weak spot
(whether a boundary condition or careless assumption) will be tested. Designing
classes for maximum reusability also requires insight into how best to generalize the
classes. Good class hierarchies, like those of Smalltalk or MacApp, have grown by
natural selection over a period of years. Much of the advertised productivity gain of
OOP stems from the use of such libraries. Once the programmer learns a libraiy,
much of the functionality of each new program is borrowed or inherited from
existing library code. Rather than measuring programming productivity in lines-per-

Development Plati>rms

Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

3-23

day of new code, the experienced OOP programmer takes pride in how little new
code is needed.
Familiar development tools such as editors and debuggers have evolved to
meet the needs of traditional procedural programming. The special features of OOP
place additional demands on these development tools. The distribution of behavior
among classes and the sharing of code fostered by inheritance require a tool for
rapidly browsing code by class and method name. Typical editors are clumsy for
such browsing. The distribution of most data amongst a variety of objects requires an
object inspector tool for examining the state of active objects that "knows" the
structure of the objects and can display that data in a meaningful form. Traditional
tools for displaying individual memory locations in HEX are tedious at best, and an
object-oriented debugger must be aware of classes and method invocations as well as
the structure of objects. Class libraries that offer classes for construction of windows
and dialogs also require a graphical direct-manipulation layout tool for easy construc­
tion of those visual interfaces. MacApp offers all of these.

MacApp
MacApp version 2.0B9 is the latest beta release of Apple's second-generation
object-oriented Macintosh application framework. MacApp offers a mature object­
oriented class library that is ideal for programmers who wish to maximize their pro­
ductivity as they develop robust, user-friendly, commercial Macintosh applications .
MacApp helps you work more productively by allowing you to program in a
style well suited to Macintosh applications. Your application can inherit the behavior
of a standard Macintosh application directly from MacApp code; you can then
override the parts you wish to customize. With MacApp and less than a page of your
own code, you can have a complete Macintosh application that creates windows,
interprets mouse clicks, handles desk accessories, prints files, and supports every
other standard feature a Macintosh application is likely to have.
The applications you create with MacApp can run on any Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II computer. If the code you add follows Apple's com­
patibility guidelines, your applications will run on both the Macintosh and A/UX®
operating systems (including MultiFinder™ compatibility on the Macintosh OS).
MacApp is widely used for in-house development by firms such as GTE
Government Systems, Peat Marwick & Main, and Arthur Andersen. It has been used
by companies such as Odesta, Activision, and Olduvai to develop commercial
applications for networking and communications, accounting, report generation,
geographical data display, CAD, optical character recognition, knowledge engineer­
ing, and geology.
MacApp 2.0 Features and
Benefits

The standard Macintosh application does the following:
•
•
•
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Development PlatfOrms

Manages menus.
Supports Undo commands.
Provides extensive support for exception handling.
Supports multipage printing.
Supports desk accessories.
Supports scrolling, zooming, and opening and closing windows.

Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

3-2 4

Strict adherence to Apple compatibility guidelines:
•

Simplifies the task of creating applications that will be compatible with
future hardware and system software.

MultiFinder support:
•

Allows your MacApp applications to run in the background.

The new view architecture:
•
•

•

Offers a simpler, more powerful view class hierarchy.
Uses view resources that can be created and edited with the new
ViewEdit tool.
Includes optional 32-bit view coordinates to let you work with large views.

New TGridView view class:
•

Supports one-dimensional lists and two-dimensional grids of views (such as
spreadsheets).

Support tools include the following:
•

•
•
•

A new WYSIWYG graphical window and dialog-box design tool speeds
design of your views.
An integrated object-oriented debugger speeds debugging.
A new object inspector lets you examine objects.
An improved build tool makes building your program easier and faster.

Six sample programs:
•
•

Features Added to MacApp 2.0

•

•

•

•

Development Platfurms

Can be used as learning aids or as the foundation for actual programs.
Include complete source code.

Views: MacApp's designers have streamlined the classes that handle windows,
dialogs, and views. The MacApp 1 .1 window architecture based upon T F r ame
and T cat v i e w has been replaced by a simpler structure, all of which de­
scends from TVi ew. This new, more general architecture allows you to stack
views to get more complex screen displays.
Dialogs: MacApp no longer uses the built-in Dialog Manager, but instead
handles situations needing dialogs by using windows with nested views. This
approach simplifies the architecture and gives you an elegant way to deal with
both windows and dialogs.
Larger coordinate system: MacApp version 1 .1 was limited to a drawing area of
30,000 by 30,000 pixels (the built-in limitation of QuickDrawj. MacApp 2.0
allows you to use 32-bit addresses, giving you a coordinate space of more than 4
billion by 4 billion pixels. However, you must use MacApp procedures to
convert 32-bit coordinates to and from a set of "local" QuickDraw coordinates
before drawing can take place. This is only required if you opt to use these large
views.
TextEdit: Supports multiple fonts, sizes, and styles. There is still, however, a
practical limitation of a maximum of 32,000 characters and maximum heights
and widths of 32,000 pixels each.

Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

3-2 5

•

•

•

Development Tools,
Documentation, and Training

Inspector: During debugging, you can open one or more Inspector windows,
each of which lets you browse through the fields of any existing objects.
ViewEdit: This MacApp utility program lets you create view hierarchies (views
with multiple subviews) and edit view resources visually (similar to what
ResEdit™ does with resources).
Grids: A new class-TGr idVi ew-helps you display and manipulate one-or
two-dimensional grids of information.

Development Tools
The following development tools are available from APDA™:
•

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MacApp version 2.0, (includes the MacApp class library, sample programs,
debugger, inspector, MABuild, and ViewEdit)
MPW™version 3.0
MPW Pascal version 3.0
MacApp Browser

Documentation
The following documentation is available from APDA:
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Introduction to MacApp 2.0 and Object-Oriented Programming
MacApp 2. 0 Tutorial
MacApp 2. 0 Cookbook
Object-Oriented Programming/or the Macintosh
Inside Macintosh, Volumes I-V

Recommended reading
•

Object-Oriented Software Construction, Bertrand Meyer (1988);
available at your local bookstore

Apple equipment neededfor development
•

Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh Ilcx, with at least 2 megabytes of RAM and a hard disk

Developer Training
Apple's Developer University offers a course on MacApp and Object-Oriented
Programming. For information on this course, see the section, "Training Resources"
of this guidebook, or check the AppleLlnk® network (path: Developer Services:
Developer University).

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Object-Oriented Programming and MacApp

3-26

tl._K)

Introduction

A/UX Development Tools and
Documentation

Apple Developer Group

A/UX Development

Welcome to A/UX® and the A/UX Toolbox. This document explains the available
application-development environments, describes development opportunities, and
provides answers to commonly asked questions about A/UX. We hope the material
will enable you to take advantage of the opportunities A/UX has created.
A/UX increases the market opportunities for both UNIX and Macintosh®
developers. It provides Macintosh developers with additional markets for their
current Macintosh products, because Macintosh applications that conform to the
Inside Macintosh guidelines can run in A/UX without change. In other words, the
same product that a developer offers for the Macintosh operating system platform
can also be offered for the A/UX platform. For UNIX developers, A/UX provides a
standard UNIX environment for porting applications to A/UX. A/UX also provides
developers with an excellent platform for additional software development for
university, federal government, and commercial customers who are committed to a
standard UNIX environment.
If you're a Macintosh developer, try testing your existing Macintosh applica­
tions for compatibility with A/UX. You may already be able to offer your products to
A/UX customers. If your code does not conform to Inside Macintosh guidelines, you
are encouraged to start converting now; future release of the Macintosh operating
system will also require strict compatibility to Inside Macintosh.
If you're a UNIX developer, you have two choices: port your existing
applications to the A/UX platform, or develop new or enhanced A/DX-specific
applications using the A/UX Toolbox.
Whether you are Macintosh or UNIX oriented, Apple and A/UX provide you
with the tools and expertise to help you develop and market your applications for,
the emerging UNIX desktop market. Ultimately, it's your skills and imagination that
users are depending on for new and innovative A/UX applications.
To help you develop A/UX applications on the Macintosh II, Ilx, or Ilcx, the A/UX
system includes a C compiler and other development-tools. You will also need the
following documentation and development tools:

Apple Equipment
•

•
•

•
•
•

Development Plattorms

Macintosh II, Ilx, or IIcx computer with a minimum of 4 megabytes of RAM (and
a 688 5 1 PMMU chip for Macintosh II systems)
Macintosh-compatible monochrome or color monitor
A/UX on an 80-megabyte disk drive, disks, or tape (includes A/UX Accessory
Kit)
Apple®Tape Backup 40SC (optional)
Apple Etheffalk™ Interface Card (optional, but recommended)
Third-party communications card for LocalTalk™ printing from A/UX Toolbox
applications (optional)

A/UX Development

3-27

A/UX supports the Apple ImageWriter®II and laserWriter®printers, and the
Apple Hard Disk Drives 20SC, 40SC, 80SC, and 160SC.

Documentation
•

•

•

•

•

Introduction to A/UX

Standard UNIX Features

A/UX manuals (15-binder set), sold separately from A/UX software; available to
Apple partners through the Developer Price Llst; and to Apple associates from an
authorized Apple dealer
Inside Macintosh, Volumes I-V (included in the Developer Starter Kit); also
available from APDA
Macintosh Technical Note #1 17: Compatibility: Why and How, available from
APDATM
A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM Interface manual (included in the A/UX manual
set)
Macintosh Technical Note #21 2: Thejoy ofBeing 32-Bit Clean, available from
APDA

A/UX is an implementation of AT&Ts UNIX® System V, Release 2, Version 2 operat­
ing system for the Macintosh II personal computer family. It conforms to the pub­
lished System V Interface Definition (SVID) standard, POSIX 1003 . 1 Draft 1 2, and
Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) #151 . A/UX includes key features
from Berkeley's BSD 4.3, as well as support for TCP/IP, X Window System, and Sun
Microsystems' Network File System (NFS®).
A/UX serves as an alternative to the Macintosh operating system. It com­
bines the strengths of an industry-standard, multitasking operating system with the
enhancements of the Macintosh technology and human interface. A/UX also gives
the Macintosh the capability to share software and data in a multivendor or net­
worked environment.
AT&T System V is becoming widely used in business and government markets, while
BSD is becoming widely used in higher education and engineering markets. A/UX,
which combines the features of both, provides developers with a standard platform
for these four major workstation markets.

As a standard platform, A/UX offers the following:
•
•
•

Features Added by Apple

In addition to key features of the UNIX environment, A/UX includes special features
that allow A/UX applications to:
•
•
•

Development PlatfOnns

Application source-code compatibility with other UNIX System V systems
Smooth porting for BSD 4.3 applications
Many connectivity options based on Ethernet or serial networks with industry­
standard facilities such as Berkeley Networking Services, NFS, and X Window
System

Incorporate the Macintosh user interface
Increase system reliability
Reduce system administration requirements

AIUX Development

3-28

Macintosh Toolbox Support
With A/UX, developers can access the Macintosh Toolbox to control user-interface
options such as pull-down menus, multiple fonts, dialog boxes, and scroll bars;
programs written for A/UX can utilize the standard Macintosh interface.

Macintosh Binary Support
Existing Macintosh applications can be launched directly into the A/UX environment.
Consequently, Macintosh developers have an additional marketplace for their
existing products, and customers have access to an expanded library of software.

Simple Startup
Unlike other UNIX systems, typing in a string of commands is unnecessary-you can
start up A/UX by simply clicking on the A/UX icon.

Automatic Configuration
On startup, A/UX automatically reconfigures itself to access device drivers for cards
installed in the Macintosh II system's NuBusTM slots. The ports and slots of the
Macintosh II are polled for hardware changes. If a board has been removed, appro­
priate drivers are automatically removed from the kernel, requiring no operator inter­
vention.

Automatic SelfRepair
A/UX keeps redundant copies of crucial system files. In the event of a damaging
crash, it can automatically return the system to its operational state and repair lost or
damaged critical system files.

TranScript'Jfrom Adobe Systems, Inc.
A/UX includes the TranScript utility from Adobe Systems. Output from the UNIX
Documenter's Workbench document-processing system can be formatted for the
Apple laserWriter® printer, as well as for other printers that use Adobe's PostScript®
page-description language.
Toolbox-Related Components

of A/UX

Toolbox routines fall into two categories: user-interface Toolbox routines and
Macintosh operating-system routines. When an A/UX application places a call to one
of the Macintosh user-interface Toolbox routines, the A/UX Toolbox intercepts the
call and, if necessary, translates the parameters into a form usable by the ROMs.
After the A/UX Toolbox translates the call, it invokes the same ROM code that would
be used in the native Macintosh environment.
When an A/UX Toolbox application issues a call to one of the Macintosh
operating system routines, the A/UX Toolbox diverts the call to a substitute routine in
its own library. The A/UX Toolbox operating system routines make calls to the
standard A/UX libraries to perform A/UX equivalents of the Macintosh operating
system functions.
In both cases, the A/UX Toolbox incorporates a toolboxdaemon that runs in
the background and services A/UX Toolbox requests.

Contents of the Toolbox
•

Development Platforms

Source code for three sample programs (term, sample, and qdsamp) and the
associated makefiles that demonstrate how to compile and link a program;
executable code can be found in /usr/toolboxbin, while source code and
makefiles are in /user/lib/mac/examples

A/UX Development

3-2 9

•

•

•

•

Utilities for use when developing and running A/UX Toolbox applications;
executable code can be found in /usr/toolboxbin
A library of routines that handle communications between an A/UX C program
and the Macintosh ROM, in a file in /usr/lib/libmac.a
C interface files that define the constants, types, and functions used by the A/UX
Toolbox libraries, in /usr/lnclude/mac
Resource-declaration files that declare the Macintosh resource types, in /usr/lib/
mac/rlncludes

•

•

New Features of A/UX

The Macintosh file system, which contains resources required for operation of
the A/UX Toolbox, in /usr/lib/mac/system
A special initialization file that must be linked into all A/UX Toolbox applications
developed in A/UX, labeled /usr/lib/maccrtO.o

Release 1.1 of the A/UX Toolbox supports the following new features for developers
(see the A/UX 1 . 1 data sheet for additional features added in release 1 . 1):

Standard Printing
Applications can print to the AppleTalk® Protocol Stack using the standard Macintosh
printing calls. (Note: 1he AIUX AppleTalk implementation does not use the built-in

AppleTalk port. To use AppleTalk, you must install one ofseveral third-party cards.)
Custom Video Drivers

The A/UX Toolbox supports custom video drivers, including color video drivers.

Desk Accessories
The A/UX Toolbox supports desk accessories and other custom device drivers that
do not manipulate hardware. The standard software distribution contains the basic
Macintosh desk accessories, including the Chooser and the Control Panel.

String Formats and Point Passing
The ROM interface libraries include two versions of all routines that take or return
strings and points. One version uses Pascal string formats and point-passing
conventions. The second uses C string formats and point-passing conventions,
parallel to the change in MPW.... C, Version 3.0.

File Conversion Utility
A new utility, fcnvt, converts files in A/UX among the AppleSingle, AppleDouble,
and simple A/UX formats, replacing rcnvt.

Left-to-Right Compiler Evaluation
The A/UX C compiler evaluates multicharacter constants from left to right, as does
the MPW.... C Compiler.
Applications Development
Environments

You can develop applications in either the Macintosh operating system or A/UX.
Through the A/UX Toolbox, you can run applications and tools in one environment
that were developed in the Macintosh operating system.

Development Plati>rms

A/UX Development

3-3 0

Execution Environment
..
Cl
�

�..

El

-s:
Cl

i:ilil

..
Cl
�

Macintosh

.c:
Ill

Develop, debug, and run
programs with Macintosh tools .

B

i::

A/lJX
Develop and debug program with
Macintosh tools.
Transfer binary file to A/UX; then
launch with A/lJX Toolbox utility.

·c:;
"'

::E

El

Q.

.s
�
...
�

�

><

�

Develop and debug program
with A/UX tools . Use A/UX
Toolbox calls .

Develop, debug, and run program
with A/lJX tools .

Transfer source code to
Macintosh; then compile and link
to run in native Macintosh
environment.

Both Macintosh binary files transferred to A/UX and A/UX Toolbox programs
developed in A/UX must meet the A/UX Toolbox compatibility guidelines.

Porting a Macintosh
Application to A/UX

When you port a Macintosh application to A/UX, follow these three steps: (See the
attachment "Transferring Macintosh Applications to A/UX'' for additional information
on porting a Macintosh application to A/UX).
•

•

•

Development Platforms

Check the source codefor compatibility - compare the program against the
recommendations in Inside Macintosh, Volumes 1-V. If necessary, modify,
rebuild, and test the application in the Macintosh operating system before trans­
ferring the file to A/UX. Also, refer to Macintosh Technical Note #212: The joy of
Being 32-Bit Clean.
Transfer the binaryfile to A!UX - use the hfx utility to transfer the file from the

Macintosh operating system to A/UX; both utilities read Macintosh floppy disks
from within A/UX.
The hfx utility is an A/UX Toolbox application with a Macintosh-like
interface. It can read both Macintosh hierarchical file system (HFS) and Macin­
tosh flat file system (MFS) floppy disks. hfx always transfers a Macintosh file
into a pair of AppleDouble files.
If you intend to use a transferred file only from Macintosh applications,
we recommend that the file be transferred to A/UX in AppleSingle format. With
AppleSingle format, both data and resource infonnation is stored in a single file.
If you intend to use a transferred file from both Macintosh and UNIX applica­
tions and/or utilities, we recommend transferring to AppleDouble format.
AppleDouble format separates Macintosh information into two files, one for
resource information and one for data.
Run the application in A!UX - during the initial porting, the safest way to run an
application is through the hfx utility. hfx allows you to set a timer before
launching an application. If the application hangs, you can regain control of the
system without reboo ting when the timer runs out. Then, to fully test the
application in A/UX, you can run it with the launch utility.
If the ported application does not run in A/UX, use one of the A/UX
debuggers (adb or sdb) to identify the problem. Be aware that the Symbol
Table infonnation is not recognized by these debuggers. If your application is

AIUX Development

3- 3 1

written in C, you might be able to use the debuggers more effectively if you
transfer the source code to A/UX and compile it there. An A/UX version of
MacsBug will be available from APDA in the near future.
When an A/UX Toolbox application is running, keyboard input is
diverted to the Macintosh event queue. Input is not returned to the normal
character queue until the program exits. Therefore, if you are using one of the
A/UX debuggers on an A/UX Toolbox application from the Macintosh keyboard,
you are unable to communicate with the machine after the debugger reports an
error within the program. Because of this, you should always run the debugger

from a terminal attached to a serial port or communicating over the network.
Shared libraries

Because shared libraries are not implemented in Release 1 . 1 of A/UX, an A/UX
Toolbox application (that is, a UNIX application with Toolbox calls) that you build
now will contain the actual code for the current interface routine. The code is likely
to be unusable in future releases. You can support future compatibility by shipping
with your product the application's relocatable object code and makefile that link, or,
" . . . and the makefile that links . . " it to the appropriate libraries. Your customers can
then rebuild the application using the new libraries after installing future releases of

A/UX.

Development Platforms

AIUX Development

3- 3 2

ti"

Apple Developer Group

Transferring Macintosh Applications to A/UX

This note describes the basics for using the hfx utility. The note also presents
guidelines for what infonnation you need to include in a user's guide to accompany
your software application. The h f x utility comes as a part of the A/UX 1 . 1 distribu­
tion, and is a file-transfer tool with a Macintosh inte1face. The h f x utility works
similarly to the Font/DA mover, a Macintosh utility.
Any Macintosh application that is written according to the guidelines in
Inside Macintosh and that is 32-bit clean runs without change in the A/UX environ­
ment. You simply transfer the application to your A/UX file system using the file­
transfer tool h f x . You should test the application thoroughly under A/UX before
you publish that your application runs under A/UX.

Using the hfx utility

You need to start up A/UX and bring it to multiuser mode to use h f x . You can
invoke h f x from any location in the file system, except another A/UX Toolbox ap­
plication. The steps that follow outline the simple procedure a user completes to
transfer and launch a Macintosh application.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

Start up A/UX.
Bring A/UX to multiuser mode b y using the i n i t 2 command.
Invoke the h f x utility by entering the h f x command.
Mount the Macintosh volume containing the application you want to transfer by
Using the "Look for Disks" menu commands, or by inserting a 3.5-inch disk into
the internal disk drive and clicking Drive.
Select a directory (folder) where you want the application to reside in your A/UX
file system by opening directories or by using the volume-title menu to move up
the file system structure .
Select the application that you want to transfer by clicking on the filename in the
list that appears as the contents of the current Macintosh disk.
Click Copy.
Click OK.
Click Open.

The application should run just as it does in Macintosh OS. The first time
you start up a Macintosh application in A/UX, you should use the option "Set
background timer to 2 minutes." If the application runs successfully after two
minutes, you will return to the A/UX shell or the h f x utility. Then you can disable
the timer by deselecting the option and launch your application. If the application
crashes, after two minutes A/UX returns control of the system to the console device,
usually your Macintosh monitor.

Managing your application in
A/UX

You can always start up Macintosh applications from the h f x utility. You can also
use the l a un c h command from a shell to start up applications . At the shell
prompt, you enter the following command:
l a un c h

Development PlatfOrms

application_name

Transferring Macintosh Applications to A!UX

3-33

Replace the italics with the file name of the application. To open a document when
you start up the application, enter the following command.
launch

application_ name filename
,

If your application doesn t run, try using the flag options for the launch command.

the application won't launch, use this command:
launch

-i

If

application_name

If the screen freezes while the application is running, try this command:
launch

-

t

application_name

A/UX does not support low memory global variables. If your application
utilizes them, you can use the t option to initialize the system on start up.
To print a Macintosh document in A/UX, you follow standard Macintosh
procedures. You must have a printer that uses AppleTalk software and is connected
with LocalTalk compatible cables. The instructions for selling up a printer appear in
AIUX Local System Administration and AIUX Network System Administration.
-

Documentation notes

Several important factors affect Macintosh applications and A/UX. You may want to
include the following information as tips, warnings, and notes in your documenta­
tion.
•

•

•

•

Warning - You must bring the system to multiuser mode to use A/UX Toolbox
utilities. Use the i n i t 2 command to enter multiuser mode.
Important - You can only mount hard disks using the "Look for Disks" menu
commands. You cannot mount CD-ROM drives, tape backup devices, or other
SCSI devices using h f x . Do not use the All command unless you only have
hard disks connected to your A/UX system. Using this menu to mount other
SCSI devices causes the system to stop functioning.
Important ...:. A/UX 1 .1 does not support MultiFinder. You can only use one
Macintosh application or one A/UX Toolbox application at a time.
Important Don't select the "CR to NL" option when transferring an application.
This option translates the end-of-line character (hex ?) to a new line character
(hex A).
-

Tip: If you are copying several applications or files at one time, you can
skip the "Copy to" dialog box for each file by pressing the OPTION key when you
cl� �w.
.
You can change file attributes and assign the new values to all the files by
pressing the OPTION key when you click OK in the first "Copy to" dialog box .

Development Platfbrms

Transferring Macintosh Applications to AIUX

3-34

ti

Apple Developer Group

",

General Issues

A/UX Q&A

Q. How do Ifind an Al� dealer in my area?
A.

Call 1-800-538-9696, extension 100.

Q. Is there a software update service available for AIUX? A manual update service?
A.

Yes and yes. Subscriptions for A/UX software updates and A/UX manual
updates are available on the Developer Price Llst for purchase by Apple Partners
and Certified Developers. Apple Associates may purchase these update subscriptions from an authorized Apple dealer.
By subscribing to these update services, you will receive all software
and documentation updates released during a 1 2-month subscription period.

Q. What is the AIUX Hotline? How can I subscribe to it?
A.

Licensing Issues

The A/UX Hotline is a subscription-based telephone support service for A/UX
users. It is staffed by Apple support experts.
A subscription for A/UX Hotline support is available on the Developer
Price Llst for purchase by Apple Partners and Certified Developers. Apple
Associates can purchase a subscription for A/UX Hotline support from an
authorized Apple dealer.
Note: The recommended way for Apple Partners and Certified Developers to receive development support for A/UX is by contacting Developer
Technical Support via the AppleLlnk®network.

Q . What licensing options are availablefor AIUX?
A.

We offer great flexibility in the area of licensing. Some of the options include:
•
•
•

1- to 16-user binary license with all A/UX 1 . 1 purchases
Single right to copy
Reseller license for VARs

Q. What does a 1- to 16-user license mean?
A.

Each licensed A/UX 1 .1 system may have up to 16 users logged in, either locally
or remotely. Since A/UX is positioned for a single-user desktop computer, the
additional users would primarily be remotely connected.

Q. What licensing options are availablefor X Window System?
A.

All X Window System purchases

include a single-user license and a form that can

be used to apply, for a fee, for a site license.

Development Plati>rms

A/UX Q&A

3-35

A/UX 1.1 Development Issues

Q. What is the key benefit ofAIUX 1.1?
A.

A/UX is a very standard operating environment with the added value of
Macintosh® capabilities. You can now run 32-bit clean Macintosh applications
from our UNIX System "out of the box."

Q. What are the key additions to AIUX in version 1.1?
A.

A/UX 1 . 1
•
Runs HyperCard® l .2.2
•
Supports POSIX FIPS
•
Supports X Window System (sold separately)
•
Supports . color in Macintosh Toolbox and X Window System
•
Supports printing from Macintosh applications (via third party cards)
•
Supports Apple® Tape Backup 40SC and AppleCD SC... drive
•
Is available with 16-user license
•
Provides Increased Macintosh Toolbox support, allowing more Macintosh
applications to execute under A/UX

Q. What's in the AIUX Accessory Kit?
A.

The kit includes the following:
•

AIUX Installation Guide

•

Road Map to A/UX documentation
A/UX System Setup and Read Me disk
A/UX Data Encryption Standard (DES) Software disk
A/UX Standalone Shell disk
A/UX Sash and Utilities disk
A/UX Systems Checker disk
Tape Backup/HD SC Setup disk

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

AIUX version 1 . 1 Release Notes
AIUX Support brochure

Q. Which UMX standard does Apple support?
A. A/UX is a full AT&T version V.2.2 UNIX® system, and is compliant with the

System V Validation Suite. A/UX is also FIPs #151 and IEEE 1003.1 (Posix Draft
1 2) compliant, and thus meets the requirements for many federal government
bids.
We will also support additional standards, as defined by our end users,
as they emerge. (We're closely watching standards groups such as OSF, UNIX
International, and X/Open.)

Q. I'm developing some peripheral hardwarefor the UNIX environment. Is it

difficult to develop a device driverfor AIUX?

A.

Development Platforms

An Apple device driver kit is available through APDA.... The kit contains source
code for A/UX 1 .1 device drivers as well as documentation that explains how to
write a device driver, how to configure it into the kernel and relink the kernel,
and other important information.

A!UX Q &A

3-36

Q. What in terface does Apple recommendfor AIUX applications?
A.

We do not restrict developers to any user interface. You may choose to develop
using the Macintosh Toolbox, X Toolkit, or another method of your choice.
However, we feel that the Macintosh Toolbox interface has a strong advantage­
a consistent interface that is familiar to all Macintosh users. Although conversion
of current applications may present a difficult programming task, we believe that
it will pay off for developers in the long run. (As more Macintosh programs
become available, this interface will become more familiar to the UNIX commu­
nity and will become the standard for A/UX.)
If you're considering the use of a different interface because of the ease
of porting to other platforms, both the X Toolkit interface and the standard TTY
interface are available and fully supported under A/UX.

Q. What does it mean to be ''32-bit clean "?
A.

Earlier versions of the Macintosh hardware recognized only 24 of the bits in a 32bit address. Some Macintosh applications were therefore written as 24-bit
app lications, and play "tricks" with the remaining 8 bits of address fields (against
Inside Macintosh guidelines). These applications must, the refore, be "cleaned
up". The current Macintosh operating system (version 6) has assisted applica­
tions by masking the address in many instances. To allow larger programs to
run (either with greater physical memory or with virtual memory), an operating
system must use all 32 bits of the address. Since A/UX provides virtual memory,
it is the first of the Apple operating systems to require 32-bit clean applications.
The next version of the Macintosh operating system, vers ion 7.0 (announced at
the Spring Developers Conference), also requires 32-bit clean applications if
virtu al memory is to be used.

Q. Will AIUX continue to track newfeatures of the Macintosh Operating System? In

particular, will System 7. 0features be ported to AIUX?

A.

Apple's commitment to bring the Macintosh experience to the Unix world
focuses on two major goals:
•
•

providing customer-demanded standards
incorporating the functionality of the Macintosh operating system into A/UX

Apple has recently announced System 7.0 for release in 1990. Most
Macintosh System Software features will be incorpo rated into A/UX shortly after
the Macintosh operating system release. In the interim, A/UX will track toolbox
compatibility at the System 6.0.4 level and will continue to require 32-bit
cleanliness.
Since A/UX and System 7.0 both require 32-bit clean programming tech­
niques, Apple recommends that Developers build 32-bit clean binaries that can
run on System 6.0.x, A/UX 1 . 1 , and System 7.0. By programming to test for 32bit cleanliness, and testing for 7.0 features before using them, developers can
build single application binaries that run in all three environments: 7.0, 6.0.x,
and A/UX.

Development Plattorms

A/UX Q&A

3-37

Testing for the presence of System 7.0 features can be accommodated
by using Gestalt calls (System 7.0 environment status). By coding to discern the
operating environment with Gestalt first, and SysEnvirons second, developers
can easily ensure maximum compatibility without releasing additional versions
of their applications. Future releases of A/UX will support the Gestalt calls, and
current releases of A/UX and System 6.0.x support the SysEnvirons calls .
Refer to Technical Note #21 2: The]oy ofBeing 32-bit Clean and
Technical Note # 1 17: Compatibility: Why and How for further information.
X Window System

Q. Is the X Window System available?
A.

Yes. X Window System, version 1 1 , Release 3, is available on the Developer
Price List for purchase by Apple Partners and Certified Deve lope rs Apple
Associates may purchase the X Window System from an authorized Apple
dealer.
.

Q. Which toolkit is Apple shipping With the X Window System?
A.

We are shipping the standard X Toolkit, as released by MIT, on the standard
source tape. We will evaluate other toolkits for future release.

Q. Can I nm an X application on another UNIX system and display on A!UX?
A.

Yes. Apple's display server has been adapted to present a user interface appro­
priate for a Macintosh user.

Q. Can an X application on AIUX use more than one monitor?
A.

Development Plati>nns

Yes. Apple's X Window System for A/UX supports up to five monitors simulta­
neously.

AIUX Q &A

3-3 8

/

ti "'

Apple Developer Group
Multimedia Overview

Introduction

Multimedia is the integration of high-quality sound, live-action video, and animation
into the computing environment. Over the last two years, Apple has expanded and
improved its hardware platforms and software support in this area to encourage
third-party development. Apple has identified multimedia development as crucial to
its strategy for future success, and developers are urged to "think multimedia,"
regardless of the application.
This section discusses the new and enhanced sound features that will be
available with the release of System Software 7.0. Also included is an introduction to
CD-ROM and AppleCD SC™ drive technology. Because many audio and video
development toolkits use HyperCard® as a front end, the HyperCard section should
also be a valuable reference for audio and video development.

Fundamental Multimedia
Design Principles

There are three basic design principles that support Apple's plans to extend the
Macintosh® architecture:
•

•

•

Development Opportunities

Although a great impact is expected to be made in changes to existing applications,
there are also development opportunities for new applications specifically designed
to work with the following data types:
•
•
•

Development Platforms

Empowering the user as an information creator. Unlike today's media environ­
ment of television, radio, and magazines, multimedia is interactive and allows
users to participate in the creation of information. Extensions to the Macintosh
architecture are designed as platform tools that allow users to access informa­
tion, and also to create and distribute their original work.
Delivering quantity and quality. Through multimedia, large quantities of infor­
mation will be made available using the highest-quality interface. The burden of
"information overload" can be lifted with tools that allow users not only to
access, but also to manipulate information. As new data types come into the
Macintosh environment, development opportunities will open up for the
creation of new tools such as database applications for video and sound infor­
mation; video and sound editing and organizing tools; and applications to help
users navigate through environments that include sound and moving images.
Making it mainstream. Although the idea of multimedia may be technologically
advanced, these new capabilities should not belong to a specialized few but
should permeate all of Apple's products and third-party applications, providing
the same advantages to all customers. Today, sophisticated applications of
video, sound, and animation are associated with the entertainment and media
industries. An important challenge for developers will be to bring these high­
end capabilities out of the realm of specialists and into the hands of average
users.

Video-image processing
Video editing
Still-image sequencing with sound

Multimedia Overview

3-39

•
•
•
•

Animation applications
Sound synthesis and editing
Speech recognition and synthesis
Voice mail
An extremely important development area is electronic-information

products. As Macintosh platforms become better for sound, video, and animation,
Macintosh-compatible electronic-information products are expected to take their
place beside the traditional applications of today. These new products will include
news, music, current affairs, documentary video, "how-to" and reference data, and
sound tracks from speeches and events. This information will be viewed and heard
selectively and interactively; incorporated into original work; personally annotated
and indexed; and utilized within traditional applications, such as spreadsheet and
presentations programs. Developers are urged to be aware of partnerships that can
bring productivity and creativity applications together with electronic-information
resources from media technology.
Most important, because of Apple's focus on creating as well as accessing
information, users will need the tools to create their own electronic-information
products, whether they are for personal or business use, or commercial distribution.
Apple customers with special skills, knowledge, and original ideas will need more
powerful tools to transfer their insights to others. To make this happen, Apple will
work actively to bring information "providers" together with the Apple developer
community. Whether your business is making productivity applications, support
tools, creativity products, hardware enhancements, or products that don't, as yet,
have a category, we think multimedia offers you an exciting opportunity.

Development Platforms

Multimedia Overview

3 -40

ti ,

Apple Developer Group
CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

Introduction

Imagine four times the aroou nt of information found in the Encyclopedia Britannica
on your desktop, with full text indexing and Boolean searches. Welcome to the
world of CD-ROM technology. The phenomenal success of audio CDs has
contributed to the initial success of CD-ROM; customers already know about the
quality and reliability of the medium. CD-ROM is a reliable, easy, and relatively
inexpensive means to distribute enorroous amounts of data to computer users. The
more than 200 currently available titles address a large range of markets­
government, legal, financial, publishing, medical, education, libraries, research-and
are mainly MS-DOS, but the AppleCD SC"' drive can access their data if they are
formatted properly on ISO 9660/Hig h Sierra discs. It can also access other disc
formats, including audio CDs. The information in this document provides you with
an introduction to CD-ROM technology, the AppleCD SC"' drive, and the
opportunities in this area for the developer. Also included is infonnation on an
opportunity to press a test CD-ROM disc and 100 copies at a low cost.

Disk vs. Disc: What Is
CD-ROM?

Both CD-ROM and audio CD are explained in great detail in two companion
booklets- The Yellow Book and 1he Red Book, respectively-published by Sony &
Philips. These texts define the data organization on the disc and provide information
for additional error correction. CD-ROM is a close relative of the audio CD, and
because both are optical storage mediums, as opposed to magnetic, there is a
distinction in spelling: disc (optical) and disk (magnetic).
You can store roo re than 550 megabytes of infonnation on a CD-ROM disc.
CD-ROMs are also reliable; they have a plastic layer that protects the discs from most
scratches. Because the medium is read-only, users can't erase information by
mistake. And, as an optical medium, CD-ROMs are unaffected by magnets. CD­
ROMs are also reasonably fast: access time to any information stored on the disc is an
average of six tenths of a second.
CD-ROM discs are less expensive than other large-storage random-access
media. The following is a quick glance at some of the advantages and disadvantages
of each medium, including a cost comparison:
•

•

•

Development Platforms

WORM (Write-Once-Read-Many) disc - Though WORM discs' storage capacity is
similar to that of CD-ROM discs, the disc and drive are totally different. WORM
discs are excellent for storage of large amounts of infonnation on one or very
few copies; however, because of the cost and time required to duplicate the
discs, they are totally inadequate for mass duplication.
Videodiscs - Videodisc drives and discs are also a different technology from that
of CD-ROM. Laserdiscs store analog video and analog/digital sound; no digital
data standard exists for them. The only major advantage of laserdiscs over CD­
ROM discs is their full-motion video capability.
Erasable optical discs - Although erasable optical discs are now commercially
available, their cost is going to be relatively high for some time. Llke CD-ROM,
erasable optical discs offer very large storage capacity; however, unlike CD-

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-41

•

ROM, users can both read data from the disc and write to the disc. Erasable
discs will more likely be used for personal storage and customization of large
amounts of data, as opposed to CD-ROM, which is used to distribute large
amounts of information to large quantities of users.
Hard disks- As an information-distribution medium, hard disks are very
expensive, require a large amount of time for duplication, and, in most cases,
offer limited storage space. They are a read/write medium and with a transfer
rate approximately 10 times faster than that of CD-ROM discs. CD-ROM and
hard disk technologies, however, address two very different market needs: CD­
ROM is typically geared toward distribution of vast amounts of information to a
large number of users; hard disks are for the personal storage needs of the
individual user.
The following is a comparison, including cost per megabyte:
capacity
CD-ROM
656MB'
Hard Disk
80MB
Floppy Disk
800KB
WORM
800MB
Erasable
300MB
• 656MB in mode 1 ; 748MB in mode 2

Opportunities for the
Developer

Cost per MB
$0.003
$1 2.50
$2.50
$0.1 3
$0.33

CD-ROM's massive storage capacity-and its ability (with retrieval software) to
provide immediate access to this data-make it an excellent medium for information
distribution, and provide developers with many opportunities. Early uses of the
AppleCD SC in the Apple II and Macintosh® community are in such areas like
publishing and presentations, research and reference, sales training, topical
databases, courseware, and encyclopedias. CD-ROM will become a critical
component of Apple's effort to tap into emerging markets, in particular, government,
medical, and financial services. CD-ROM is a natural fit for all of these, because of
the amount of information professionals in these areas need to manage.
The federal government is quickly becoming an enormous market. For
example, as the largest publisher in the United States, the government needs CD­
ROM applications for massive projects such as mapplog or recording regulations­
not to mention the myriad possibilities within the government for scientific research
and data collection.
There are many other opportunites for software application developers.
Because of the enormous amount of space available on one disc, you could provide:
•

•

•
•
•

Development Platforms

Cost for media
$2.50
$1,000 . 00
$2.00
$100.00
$100.00

Your traditional software application-such as a page-layout, spreadsheet,
database, word processing progra�and all the files you currently have on
numerous disks in your package-help, sample files, thesauruses, glossaries,
special fonts or DAs, and so forth
An extensive tutorial with interactive animation capabilities even including
digital-quality sound
A self-running demonstration of the application
Several templates
Fully indexed documentation, coupled with a powerful search engine

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-42

•
•

Demonstration versions of other products you publish
Articles or audio comments of industry leaders or analysts about your company
and products

In all, by publishing your software application on a CD-ROM incorporating
these different add-ons, you will provide your end users with a product that offers
much more functionality, convenience, and ease of use.
To date, the majority of applications on the market are largely alphanumeric.
But developers should take advantage of the richness of the CD-ROM technology
when coupled with the Apple IIGS®or Macintosh computer. The end result could be
titles that incorporate graphics, sound, and animation. And such "hypermedia"
applications can take much of the tediousness out of learning and research.
Other product ideas you should consider include:
•

•
•

•

•

CD-ROM File Fonnats

Tools for CD-ROM development, such as indexing, retrieval, animation, and
simulation
Drivers for other manufacturers' CD-ROM drives
Titles to be published using CD-ROM as a distribution means, such as standard
reference works, libraries of publications, images, and clip art
Innovative multimedia projects, such as multimedia encyclopedias and
multimedia reference libraries or topical databases
Alternative way to sell software applications that provides the user with much
more functionality at a potentially lower price; interactive tutorials, full text
searching on the user manual, templates, animated demonstrations, and so forth
could be included on the disc

The choice of file system is dependent upon your target audience and disc content.
For instance, if all your information is stored in HyperCard®stacks, you should
format your disc in HFS format-in which case, only the Macintosh will be able to
read the data (HFS is the Macintosh system's native format). If you partition your
disc, you can use a combination of formats. For example, the Apple CD-ROM
Explorer disc, created by Apple for Apple II and Macintosh owners contains two
parts: one in HFS format for the Macintosh content, the other in ProDOS®format for
the Apple II content. Audio CD tracks were also stored on the disc.
The following is a comparison of the formats used to store data on a CD-ROM:
•

•

•

Development Pbti>rms

Native File Systems - HFS is the format for Macintosh, and Pro DOS is the format
for Apple II. Native file systems provide a good user interface, fair performance,
AppleShare®file-server compatibility, and ease of creation; however they don't
provide good data portability.
Block-level (or absolute) CD ROMs - This is a design-it-yourself block structure
and a retrieval engine to manipulate it. Block-level file systems provide good
performance, easy data portability, and, with the right software, ease of creation.
They do not provide a good user interface, and they provide no AppleShare
compatibility.
ISO 9660/High Sierra This is the international standard supported by many
companies, including Apple, Microsoft, and Digital. The ISO 9660/High Sierra
file system provides good user interface, good performance, AppleShare
compatibility, easy data protability, and, with the right software, ease of creation.
-

-

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-43

ISO 9660/High Sierra (more
information)

The ISO (International Standards Organization) adopted the ISO 9660 standard using
the High Sierra standard as a draft. However, people already had pressed CD-ROMs
using the proposed standard. Consequently, many discs now exist in the original
High Sierra standard. There are minor differences between High Sierra and ISO
9660 , and Apple supports them both on the Macintosh and the Apple IIGS. As with
HFS discs, the disc appears as an icon on the desktop. Developers pressing new
discs should only use the ISO 9660 format. This is the official international standard,
superseding the original High Sierra format. You can obtain the document
describing ISO 9660 by writing to:
NISO, National Bureau of Standards
Administration 101
Library E-106
Gaithersburg, MD 2089<)

The ISO 9660 standard defines a hierarchical file format optimized for CD­
ROM and enables a developer to target multiple computing platforms with a single
disc (provided that you have the appropriate software to retrieve and read the data).
It provides the following:
•

•

•
•

A boot block, which can enable a computer to boot from the CD-ROM disc (this
is not, however, currently available in the Apple implementation of the ISO 9660
standard)
Information laid out in files located in a series of directories (up to eight levels
are permitted)
A volume table that specifies the location of files on the disc
Parallel directory structures in different alphabets (to be supported in a future
Apple release)

All pointers within directory information are stored in both least-significant­
byte-first and most-significant-byte-first order. By this, one ISO 9660-formatted CD­
ROM disc is readable on operating systems from many companies including Apple,
Microsof� and Digital.
Because ISO 9660 does not provide for some of the specific file information
required by ProDOS and HFS, Apple has created a protocol that provides Apple
extensions to ISO 9660 , without corrupting the ISO 9660 structures. Discs created
using the protocol are valid ISO 9660 discs and should not behave differently on
non-Apple ISO 9660 compatible computers. The protocol provides support for HFS
file type, file creator, and icon resource, ProDOS file type, and auxiliary file type. It
also defines a mechanism for preserving file names across the ProDOS-ISO 9660ProDOS translation. The protocol is defined in the AppleCD SC Developer's Guide
and in the GS/OS'" Reference manual. (See the Getting Started section below.)
If you choose to format your CD-ROM disc in ISO 9660 , we recommend that
you also implement the Apple extensions to the standard, so that your Apple
customers get more value from your information. Here are some examples of CD­
ROM discs that you should publish using ISO 9660 formatting:
•

Development Platforms

dBASE III data files, so that they can be read by PC owners using dBASE III or by
Macintosh owners using FoxBASE+/Mac

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-44

•

•
•

•

Any ASCII text files, so that they can be read by virtually any word processor on
a PC, Macintosh, mainframe, UNIX system, or minicomputer
RTF files, so that they can be read by Microsoft Word on a PC or on a Macintosh
TIFF images, so that they can be retrieved by any graphics or page-layout
applications that support that format, independent of the computer running the
application
PageMaker documents, so that they can be opened using Aldus PageMaker on a
PC or on a Macintosh

Storing your shareable data files on an ISO 9660 CD-ROM disc will enable
you to reach many users while pressing only one master disc. And using the Apple
extensions to ISO 9660 will make accessing your information a more user-friendly
experience for Apple users.
The AppleCD SC

Apple's CD-ROM drive is the AppleCD SC. The drive has the same form factor as the
Apple Hard Disk 20SC and features an industry-standard protective front-loading
caddy with a 64K RAM buffer to improve data throughput. The AppleCD SC is an
SCSI peripheral device and can be used with both the Macintosh and the Apple II
(using the Rev C SCSI card) product lines. It also works in a shared environment
under AppleShare File Server 2.0 software, allowing CD-ROM access from multiple
workstations. With an AppleCD SC connected to a Macintosh or Apple II computer,
a user has access to more than 550 megabytes of text, audio, graphics, and images on
a single disc.
Because of the software drivers provided, the AppleCD SC is well integrated
in the computer's environment. Using a CD-ROM disc is largely identical to using a
hard disk. A CD-ROM icon appears on the desktop, it can be opened to a window
showing the files on it; applications or documents can be launched by double­
clicking on them.
With the AppleCD SC, you can also listen to audio CDs via the headphone
jack in the front or through amplified speakers attached to the RCA stereo phono
plugs in the back of the drive. The driver software for both the Macintosh and the
Apple II computers provides full access to audio tracks (whether on a CD-ROM or
audio CD disc). A desk accessory that allows you to control the playback of your
audio CDs, called CD Remote, comes with the drive on the Macintosh and Apple II
computers.
AppleCD SC features:
•

•

•
•
•
•
•
•

Development Platfurms

Access time: (first to last block) less than 600 milliseconds, average; less than 1 .2
seconds, maximum
Mode 1 , mode 2 (as specified in The Yellow Book), and audio recognition (mode
1 allows for more data capacity (748MB) than mode 2 (656MB), because it
provides for slightly lower data correction)
Data-streaming rate: 150K/second in mode 1 , and 171K/second in mode 2
Block rate: 75 blocks/second
SCSI bus transfer rate: approximately 800K/second
Rotational speed: approximately 230 to 530 rpm (variable)
Startup time: 5 seconds (media-dependent)
Spin-down time: 2 seconds

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3 -45

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

AppleCD SC Software: HFS and
ISO 9660/High Sierra

64K RAM buffer
Heavy random-access design
SCSI ports and controller
One recording surface
Data capacity: 656 megabytes in mode 1 , and 748 megabytes in mode 2
Data block: 2,048 bytes in mode 1 , and 2,336 bytes in mode 2
Blocks per disc: more than 270,000
Audio playback playing time: more than 1 hour
Audio frequency response: 20 to 20,000 hertz

Apple CD-ROM
Included with the AppleCD SC is a disk containing a Macintosh driver labeled "Apple
CD-ROM" to be installed in your System Folder. Installation of the driver provides
support of HFS on the Macintosh. It ���es the CD-ROM disc in the AppleCD SC to
appear as an icon on the desktop. You manipulate the disc in a manner similar to
other storage devices on the Macintosh, except, of course, that you cannot write to
the medium.
High Sierra File Access, ISO 9<560 File Access, Audio CD Access
The AppleCD SC software version 2.0. 1 or later supports the other file formats-ISO
9660 , High Sierra, and CD Audio-through use of an INIT called "Foreign File
Access."
ProDOS
CD-ROM discs can be formatted for Apple II ProOOS and used by all Apple II
computers as any other ProDOS disk would be. However, the ProDOS limitation of
32 megabytes per volume limits the usefulness of this technique. GS/OS (on Apple
IIGS System disk 4.0 and later) includes an ISO 9660/High Sierra PST (File System
Translator), so that any Apple IIGS application can access both High Sierra and ISO
9660 CD-ROM discs, transparent to the user.

AppleCD SC and HyperCard

Just as CD-ROM is an ideal method to distribute vast amounts of diverse data,
HyperCard®software provides an excellent way to organize and distribute this
information. HyperCard offers you the technology for navigating and presenting a
sea of information. HyperCard is included with all Macintosh computers. It has a
familiar interface and is available to a large customer base. (Note: Ifyou want to use
HyperCardfor your CD-ROMproject, you will need HyperCard 1.2 or later
(available from your dealer)}
Because HyperCard is flexible and extensible enough for a variety of uses,
CD-ROM developers are already involved with some very interesting projects using
this tool. For example, some developers with powerful retrieval engines in other
environments have turned their engines into HyperCard XCMDs (external
commands) and designed a HyperCard front end that hooks into them. Further
information regarding the HyperCard/CD-ROM relationship can be found in the
AppleCD SC Developer's Guide.

HyperCard CD Audio Toolkit
A new HyperCard Toolkit for use with The AppleCD SC drive and CD-ROM is
available from APDA. The HyperCard CD Audio Toolkit is a set of extensions
Development Platforms

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-46

designed to give HyperCard developers and users control, interaction, and random
access to audio tracks on any compact disc. Designed for use with the AppleCD SC
drive, the toolkit is a powerful set of external commands and functions to add CD
audio sound quality to applications created with HyperCard. Working in tandem
with HyperTalk (the advanced programming language built into HyperCard) the
XCMDs and XFCNs provide highly precise and simple to advanced control of audio
tracks on CDs at block level-1/75th of a second.
The HyperCard CD Audio Toolkit enables a new class of CD-ROM products
with applications in: business presentations, narrated courseware, training and online
help, language learning, music theory, composition and appreciation, CD sound
samplers, catalogs, and interactive notes and mixed media CD-ROMs.
The toolkit comes with an assortment of sample stacks; Example CD control
buttons, a sound "button builder," a catalog stack, a toolkit documentation stack, and
others. For example, the Controller and XCMD installer stack gives you direct control
of CD audio tracks from within HyperCard.
HyperSource Too/Kit

HyperSource ToolKit, which will be available in the near future, will bring new func­
tionality to in-house and commercial developers of graphic databases on CD-ROM.
This HyperCard stack automates the development of graphic databases. The stack
searches through a directory for graphic files. Each time a graphic file is found,
HyperSource:
•
•
•
•

creates a card in the HyperCard stack
creates a thumbnail sketch of the graphic
pastes the sketch onto the card
puts the graphic's into the appropriate fields

This stack is then associated with the original graphics-which can reside on
a local hard disk, file server or CD-ROM disc. With HyperSource, the different file
formats (MPNT, PICT, or EPSF) are handled transparently. This transparent access
means you can preview, open, copy, or print a graphic without needing the applica­
tion that created the file. When words have been assigned to a particular graphic,
HyperSource automatically creates indexes. With small extensions HyperSource also
can support additional file formats, such as TIFF.
HyperSource, in conjunction with graphic databases on CD-ROM, will make
cataloging, organizing, and accessing these databases much easier and more interest­
ing; and promises to become a popular standard within the CD-ROM world.
Getting Started

Documentation/Software for CD-ROM Development

You can order the following documents and disks from APDA™:
•
•
•
•
•
•

AppleCD SC Developer's Guide
HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) document
PICT2 document
Apple II SCSI Card Technical Reference manual
Macintosh Technical Notes
- #209: What's Wrong with My High Sierra Disc?
- #210: The Desktop File 's Outer Limits

Development Platforms

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-47

We also recommend that you read the following documents, which are available
from APDA or at your bookstore:
•
•
•

Human Inteiface Guidelines
Inside Macintosh
GS/OS Reference manual

You can obtain the following by calling the Apple Developer Programs Hotline at
(408) 974-4897, or sending an AppleLink®message to DEVSERVICES.
•

7he

CD-ROM Development Resource Guide, a directory of companies providing
various types of services to CD-ROM developers, such as audio, animation, and
authoring tools, data preparation, premastering, retrieval systems, and so forth

The Apple Starter

Offerfor CD-ROM Disc Mastering (until December 3 1 , 1989)
In order to encourage and stimulate CD-ROM developmen� Apple has arranged a
starter offer available to you to make your first test CD-ROM disc. We want to allow
developers to experiment with putting data on an HFS-formatted CD-ROM. We hope
that after completion of a successful test CD-ROM, you will progress to more
sophisticated methods of data preparation more suitable to a full 550-plus megabyte
disc of data.
To take advantage of the Apple Starter Offer for CD-ROM Disc Mastering,
arrange your data on a media form the mastering house will accept, such as a hard
disk, a back-up cartridge, a WORM cartridge, or floppy diskettes. You may send up
to 550-megabytes of data. Send the prepared data off to one of the mastering
facilities participating in this offer. For a maximum price of $1,500, in less than 10
days, you will receive 100 HFS-formatted CD-ROM discs that contain an exact copy
of your data.
To test the quality of their work, Apple has been pressing discs with the
mastering facilities that are part of this program, and we have been satisfied with the
quality of the services offered.
This is a unique opportunity for you to see how great CD-ROM technology
can be for you. By creating a test disc, you will:
•
•
•
•
•

Offer your technical staff an important experience
Test the performance and usability of your product
Create a demonstration for clients and colleagues
Be able to estimate the tjme and resources needed to complete the whole project
Gain an understanding the benefits CD-ROM offers as a medium of distribution
and interactive presentation of large amounts of information

Because of the promotional and experimental nature of the starter kit, we
are limiting this offer to one pressing per developer. If you want to conduct further
experiments, we suggest that you deal directly with the mastering facilities to
negotiate for services. This CD-ROM Starter Offer program will expire on December
31, 1989.

Development Platforms

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-4 8

Vendors honoring this special starter offer package are:
3M Optical Recording
Building 223-5S-01
3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
(61 2) 736-3274
Mark Arps/Dick Tendill
AppleLink: D2462
DADC
1800 North Fruitridge Avenue
Terre Haute, IN 47804
(81 2) 462-8100
Linda Watson
AppleLink: D2125
Discovery Systems
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, Ohio 43017
(614) 761-4287
Jack Ryan
AppleLink: Dl 191
Philips Dupont Optical
1409 Foulk Road, Suite 200
Wilmington, DE 19803
(800) 433-3475
Sue Stern
AppleLink: D2173
Note: Mention by Apple Computer, Inc. of the above mentioned companies is for informational
purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no
responsibility with regard to the selection of the listed vendors, performance of the resulting CD-ROM
master or CD-ROM disc, or use of these products. All understanding, agreements, or warranties, if
any, take place directly between the vendors and the prospective users.

Development Platforms

CD-ROM and the AppleCD SC Drive

3-49

ti

Apple Developer Group

_K,

HyperCard Development

Introduction

You've heard about HyperCard®. You even have an idea for a HyperCard applica­
tion. Before you decide to invest your valuable time developing applications for this
organizational tool you need to know some general information about what is it, and
what does it do? This document is designed to answer these questions (and some
others), and discuss the development opportunities HyperCard offers.

What Is HyperCard?

HyperCard is a personal software toolkit that gives you the power to manipulate
information stored in the form of text, graphics, video, or sound. HyperCard lets you
organize and access information in much the same way as you think-by association
and context, as well as hierarchy. With HyperCard, you can browse through large
bodies of information or search quickly for a specific fact. In addition, HyperCard
offers an easy-to-use English-based scripting language called HyperTalk™, which
allows you to create more complex HyperCard stacks or to customize more basic
ones.
HyperCard uses a simple metaphor: the index card. Cards, which are the
basic units of information, are organized into stacks. You can treat HyperCard cards
just as you would standard index cards; you can browse through a stack of cards, sort
or reorder the cards, or add information (text or graphics) to them. Stackware™ is the
term Apple has coined to describe the applications developed using HyperCard
technology.
But HyperCard cards offer significantly more flexibility than index cards. In
particular, they can be linked to other cards by adding buttons-one of the most
powerful features of HyperCard. Buttons let users create personalized links to
related cards in other stacks. They allow users to link facts, concepts, and images, as
well as to perform a variety of tasks, such as launching another Macintosh® applica­
tion, dialing the telephone, sorting a stack, or finding a videodisc sequence.

How HyperCard Works

HyperCard works on a variety of levels. At the simplest level, it functions as an
"information player," allowing users to browse through bodies of information. For
example, stacks containing quotations, clip art, and a list of area codes in the United
States and Canada come with HyperCard and can be browsed through easily.
At a higher level, users can add information to the desktop stacks that are
included in the package (an address file, datebook, and to-do lists). Users can also
customize stacks. For example, a field can be added to the address boo k or the
background pattern on a page can be changed.
In short, HyperCard is a development platform that facilitates the creation
and organization (remote or local) of bodies of information. It includes a powerful
.
scripting language and makes it easy for you to customize existing stacks or to create
your own, for personal or commercial use.

HyperCard Development
Opportunities

HyperCard provides an excellent alternative to standard publishing as a delivery
vehicle for information. Additionally, HyperTalk can be extended to control external
devices such as videodisc players or to access information from on-line information

Development PlatfOrms

Hyp erCard Develop ment

3-5 0

services through the use of XCMDs (External Corrunands). Hypeffalk also allows
you to control the way text, graphics, and video are integrated and organized.
For the education marke� you might develop curriculum or subject-matter
stacks, or stacks for interactive learning. For the business market, you might provide
directories, reference materials, or demographic data. Interactive learning stacks are
also appropriate for business and industry. Some industries welcome parts-catalog
stacks; for example, a catalog for mechanics might allow them to point to a diagram
of an engine and then point to specific buttons to display part numbers, prices, or
suppliers.
When to Use HyperCard

HyperCard is good for screen-based presentations, information publishing (refer­
ences, boo ks on disk, indexes), and data management. It is also good for multimedia
control (for example, providing an easy-to-use front end to videodiscs, enabling
interactive video authoring, or furnishing an index to the contents of a CD-ROM),
low to medium-performance telecommunications prototyping, and computer-based
interactive learning (on-line help, documentation, tutorials, dealer demos, or sales
tools).

When Not to Use HyperCard

As a general rule, don't use HyperCard as a substitute when a dedicated application
would serve you better, such as for sophisticated word processing, high-end data­
base needs, general-purpose terminal emulation, or structured vector graphics. In
addition, don't use it for redundant and very dense volumes of text or applications
requiring large or color screens.

Hypetfalk Programming

As previously mentioned, one of the HyperCard software's unique features is its
built-in programming language. Hypeffalk helps simplify programming in two
ways: first, while most programming languages require you to write entire programs,
Hypeffalk only requires that you write short scripts; second, Hypeffalk uses
corrunand lines that resemble simple English sentences, for example, "Go to card 1 of
this stack" and "Open 'Expenses' with Excel."
To learn more about scripts and stack guidelines, you can purchase the
HyperCard Script Language Guide, which is part of the HyperCard Technical
Reference Package referenced below. As with other Macintosh development,
human-interface design is a critical facet of HyperCard development. To help you
design stacks that adhere to the Macintosh human-interface standards, Apple
publishes the HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines, available from APDA.

Extending the Functionality of
HyperCard

XCMDs (External Corrunands) and XFCNs (External Functions) logically extend the
HyperCard interface. They are resources that contain executable machine language.
External commands have resource type "XCMD" and are invoked as commands from
Hypeffalk. External functions have resource type "XFCN" and are invoked as
functions from Hypeffalk. External commands and functions are collectively
referred to as "externals". Externals have been used for changing parts of the
interface, putting up new windows, adding index-driven search engines, serial
communications, drawing in color, and so forth. You may write your own XCMDs
or, in some cases, license those provided by Apple and third-party developers.

Development Platforms

HyperCard Development

3-5 1

HyperCard and AppleCD SC

Just as HyperCard is an excellent way to organize and distribute information, CD­
ROM is an ideal method to distribute vast amounts of diverse data. Together they
offer you the technology for navigating and presenting a sea of information.
Because it is flexible and extensible enough to suit a variety of users, CD­
ROM developers are already involved with some very interesting projects with
HyperCard. For example, some developers who have powerful retrieval engines in
other environments have turned their engines into XCMDs and designed a nice
HyperCard front end that hooks into them. Further information regarding the
HyperCard/CD-ROM relationship can be found in the AppleCD SC note in this
guidebook.
HyperCard is included with all Macintosh computers, has a familiar inter­
face, and is available to a large customer base. HyperCard, Version 1 . 2 or higher,
supports CD-ROM.

System Requirements

To use HyperCard, you will need a Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh
SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh IICX with a minimum of 1 megabyte
of RAM and two SOOK floppy disk drives (or one SOOK floppy disk drive and hard
disk drive). We strongly recommend a hard disk drive for HyperCard development
and at least 2 megabytes of RAM for use with the MultiFinder"' operating system.
Apple does not support HyperCard development on 512K Macintosh computers
because HyperCard requires a minimum of 700K of RAM .

How can I Get HyperCard?

HyperCard is included with all new Macintosh CPUs; Apple Partners may purchase it
through the Developer Purchase Program as a separate product; Apple Associates
may purchase HyperCard from an authorized Apple dealer. If you have an older
version of HyperCard, the latest update, version 1 .2.2, is available on the Applelink
network, [AppleLink path: Software Updates icon: Hypercard 1 .2 .2.l or from APDA.
You may also wish to participate in the HyperCard Update Program. For an
annual fee you will automatically receive all HyperCard updates, documentation, and
a license to duplicate HyperCard (one copy for each CPU). For more information,
call the Developer Programs Hotline at (40S) 974-4S97.

A Few Specifics About
HyperCard

Currently, the HyperCard file formats are proprietary, so we cannot make that
information available. Likewise, the HyperCard source code is not available for
licensing. You can, however, license HyperCard's binary code. Contact the Apple
Software Licensing group for an application and for information about fees and
usage.

How Can I Get in Touch with
Other HyperCard Developers?

A good place to start is the Apple HyperCard User Group (AHUG). It's purpose is to
facilitate the exchange of information among HyperCard users and developers, and
to offer a direct connection for HyperCard users to report suggestions for the further
development of Hypercard. AHUG offers activities for Macintosh and HyperCard
enthusiasts. Refer to the HyperCard Resources note in this section for more
information on AHUG .

HyperCard Documentation and
Tools

See the HyperCard Resources note in this section for information on HyperCard
resources, documentation, and tools.

Development Platforms

HyperCard Development

3-5 2

ti ,�

A pp le Developer Group

HyperCard Resources

Introduction

There are many outside resources that you can use to supplement your knowledge
of the HyperCard®software. We have listed some of them here for your
convenience. (Note: The listing of third-party publications in this document does
not imply Apple's endorsement of these products.)

The Apple HyperCard User
Group

The Apple HyperCard User Group (AHUG) has been created to provide users and
developers with educational, technical, and practical information about HyperCard.
It is also an excellent way for Apple to get feedback from its HyperCard users.
As a member of AHUG, you will receive three newsletters; Windoidwhich
has a technical focus; AHUGNews which has an informational focus; and HyperCard
Update which has a marketing focus. Access to STAK.Trak, a networking system that
includes the STAK.Track HyperCard Library Exchange, HyperCard Resource Listings,
and General News Listings, will also be provided. Local and national AHUG
meetings will be held as the organization evolves; HyperCard training will be offered
through those groups. Membership dues are $10 per year.
To become a member of the Apple HyperCard User Group, send a stamped,
self-addressed envelope for the membership form to the following address:
HyperCard User Group
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 27-AHUG
Cupertino, CA 95014

HyperCard Documentation and
Tools Available from APDA

•

•

•

•

Development Plattorms

HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines - A must for all developers, this book
describes Apple's guidelines for designing effective HyperCard stacks.
HyperCard Script Language Guide - This document is valuable if you are
interested in writing HyperTalk or developing stacks. (Also sold as a bound
book, published by Addison-Wesley)
HyperCard Videodisc Toolkit - A two-disk set that includes all the software you
need to start using and creating HyperCard videodisc applications. To use this
Toolkit, you'll need a Macintosh with a least 1 megabyte of RAM , Macintosh
system software, Version 4.2 or later, and HyperCard.
HyperCard AppleTalk Toolkit - Provides everything you need to use the
AppleTalk®Transaction Protocol and AppleTalk Name Binding Protocol from
HyperCard. It includes a set of XCMDs and XFCNs that extend HyperCard to
allow access to these facilities. It also includes the source code for the XCMDs
and XFCNs. This code will serve as an example if you want to write your own
XCMDs and as a starting point if you want to build more sophisticated AppleTalk
access. (Note: This version of the Toolkit does not support zones, so all
HyperCard stations must be in the same zone. Future versions of the Toolkit
may add zone support.)

HyperCard Resources

3-53

•

•

•

•

•

HyperCard CD Audio Toolkit- A set of extensions designed to give HyperCard
users random access to audio tracks on any CD. This toolkit comes with sample
stacks, example CD control buttons, sound button, and a toolkit documentation
stack. The controller and XCMD Installer stack gives you direct control of CD
audio tracks from within HypetCard.
HyperSource Toolkit - Contains a HypetCard stack that automates the creation of
graphic databases via HyperCard. With this toolkit you can preview, open copy
or print a graphic without needing the application that created the file.
HyperCard Serial Toolkit - Contains everything you need to access the serial
ports of your Macintosh computer from HyperCard. Besides the XCMDs and
XFCNs needed, the toolkit provides a complete set of documentation and full
source code for the XCMDs and XFCNs.
HyperCard Developer's Toolkit- Contains the HyperCard Stack Design Guide­
lines, a disk with documentation on writing XCMDs and XFCNs, interfaces for
XCMDs, sample XCMDs, examples of stacks that use XCMD resources, videodisc
drivers, and sound resources.
ResCopy- ResCopy is a HypetCard XCMD developed by Apple to move icons,
sounds, XCMDs, XFCNs, cursors and other Macintosh resources files. When
used manually it has an interface like the Font/DA mover, but it may also be
used transparently under HyperTalk script control.

If any of the source code from these toolkits is to be used in a product for
resale, a license must first be obtained from the Apple Software licensing Group.
Books on HyperCard

Compute's Quick and Easy Guide to HyperCard
By Steve Ansovin
Compute Publication
1 Chilton Way
Radnor, PA 19089
XCMDs for HyperCard
By Gary Bond
MIS Press
1 1 07 NW 14th Avenue
Portland, OR 97209
Applied HyperCard: Developing and Marketing Superior Stackwarrms

Macintosh and Sound Directions

3-5 8

Real-Time Event Sequencer

The Real-Time Event Sequencer addresses the needs of sophisticated developers and
the complexities of multimedia software. The event-sequencing routines allow easy
and precise monitoring and control of events in the computer and in any peripheral
device. They allow a developer to control all events whether or not they are audio.
An application can request services from the Event Sequencer by using the
supplied routines. Routines are available to initialize, start, pause, and continue
sequences of events, as well as to alter the key or tempo of sound-related events.
An application can add tracks to or delete them from an existing sequence. In all of
these cases, the timing specification can be based on either beats or milliseconds.
The Event Sequencer provides for synchronization of events in two slightly
diffe rent ways. If the events are all sound related, the Event Sequencer passes
conunands directly to the Sound Manager at the specified time. If an event is not
sound related, then the Event Sequencer passes a callback to the appropriate
application at the specified time. The application must then determine what action
to take. If a sequence includes both sound and nonsound events, then the Event
Sequencer notifies both the Sound Manager and the interested application or
applications.
The relationship between the Event Sequencer and the Sound Manager is
similar to a client-server relationship: Whenever the Event Sequencer receives
instructions to cue a sound-related event, it passes an appropriate request to the
Sound Manager, which is responsible for seeing that the event actually occurs. The
Event Sequencer obtains its timing information from the Time Manager, from an
external clock (such as might be provided by the MIDI Manager), or from an applica­
tion.
The audio events coordinated by the Event Sequencer can produce audio
output on the internal speaker of the Macintosh; on speakers connected to the audio
jack; or, in conjunction with the software-based MIDI Manager, on MIDI devices.
Nonsound events are keyed by the application's code, which may draw graphics on
the screen, control peripheral devices, or accomplish whatever else the application
requires.

Macintosh Audio Compression
and Expansion

More and more developers are using sound to enhance their applications. New
multimedia applications will contribute to this trend, and sound will continue to
become more important in Macintosh software; The space problem, however, is
particularly acute for multimedia applications: One minute of single-channel music
recorded with the fidelity you would expect from a commercial compact disc
occupies 5.3 megabytes of disk space. One minute of sound digitized by the current
lower-quality peripherals for the Macintosh occupies more than a megabyte of disk
space. Even one minute of telephone-quality speech takes up more than half a
megabyte on a disk. Since a large portion of the space occupied by a multimedia
application is likely to be taken up by sound data, the complexity and richness of the
application's sound component is limited.
Audio compression provides one way to minimize this problem, and
Macintosh audio compression and expansion features help to reduce the enormous
space required to store digitized audio data. These features are provided by a set of
tools in the Sound Manager that enables Macintosh developers to provide more
audio information in a given amount of memory space.

Development Plati>rms

Macintosh and Sound Directions

3-5 9

The new audio compression and expansion features are intended to provide
capabilities that will enhance the content of multimedia applications by allowing
developers to include more audio data. They should also relieve some distribution
problems by reducing the number of disks required for shipping an application that
relies heavily on sound. Macintosh Audio Compression and Expansion may make
some new kinds of applications feasible, such as talking dictionaries and language­
instruction software.

Compatibility

Macintosh Audio Compression and Expansion's functions are compatible with all
currently supported Macintosh computers; the new features will work with all
existing Macintosh sound hardware and will remain compatible with future versions
of the Macintosh. Existing applications that use the Sound Manager's SndPlay trap to
play digitized audio signals will be able to play compressed audio without modifica­
tion or recompilation.

How lt Works

The new features provide a software-only approach to audio compression . The
Sound Manager supports compression in ratios of either 3:1 or 6:1 on all Macintosh
CPUs. The principal audio compression and expansion functions of the Sound
Manager are as follows:
•

•

•

MIDI Manager

Compression - Compresses a buffer of digital audio data either in real time or for
storage in a separate buffer.
b:pansion playback - Expands the compressed audio data in a small internal
buffer and plays it back at the same time.
Buffered e:xpansion - Expands a specified buffer of compressed audio data and
stores the result in a separate buffer.

The MIDI Manager provides your Macintosh personal computer with a highly flexible
MIDI environment. Used with third-party compatible MIDI software, the tools
included with the MIDI Manager provide a standardized means of dealing with the
Apple MIDI interface and MIDI data.
The primary benefits of the MIDI Manager tool set include the following:
•

•
•

Existence of one standard MIDI driver from Apple and compatibility with future
versions of Apple hardware (developers no longer have to produce their own
driver for individual MIDI applications)
Ability to share MIDI data across multiple applications (MultiFinder™ compatible)
Seamless integration of MIDI data into the Macintosh operating system

The MIDI Manager includes the following:
•

•

•

Development Platfurms

MIDI Driver- Provides the first universal MIDI driver from Apple for assisting its
developers in transferring data between the CPU and an external MIDI device.
The MIDI Manager- Oversees interaction between the application software and
the MIDI driver, and reads and writes MIDI data from the serial port.
Patchbay- Interface that graphically portrays the connection of multiple serial
ports for the purpose of sharing MIDI data among multiple applications in a
MultiFinder environment.

Macintosh and Sound Directions

3 -60

The Macintosh Platform and
Hardware Configurations

The following hardware configurations allow users to produce printed pages,
overheads or 35mm slides, and live animation and sound-and eventually, video.
•
•
•
•

Sound Toolkits

The following tools for sound development are presently available as stand-alone
products from APDA:
•
•
•

Development Platforms

Apple Scanner/Macintosh SE/LaserWriter®IINT (black and white)
AppleCD SC™/Macintosh IIcx/LaserWriter IINT (color)
Apple Scanner/Macintosh Ilcx/Laserwriter IINT (black and white)
AppleCD SC or Color Scanner/Macintosh Ilx/LaserWriter IINTX (color)

MIDI Manager
Macintosh Audio Compression and Expansion Toolkits
HyperCard CD Audio Toolkit

Macintosh and Sound Directions

3-61

Apple De\Teloper Group

"

•

,,

•

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide
May 1989

•

•
Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

•

•

•

Apple Dcn.�lo p cr G roup

I

•

,,

Table of Contents
Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

•

•

•

1

CD-Audio Implementation

2

Data Preparation

5

Disc Mastering and Replication

7

Image Management

7

Indexing and Retrieval Systems

12

In-House CD-ROM Publishing

14

Large-Capacity Storage Devices

15

Macintosh-Compatible CD-ROM Drives

16

Premastering

19

Programming and Interface Design

20

Reference Materials and Publications

23

Service Bureaus

You may want to insert this guide behind the Multimedia sub-section in 1he Jnfonna­

tion F:xchange: Technical Guidebook.

Table of Contents Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

•

Apple Developer Group

,

• I<,

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

•
CD Audio Implementation

Denon America, Inc.
222 New Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054
(201) 575-7810
Fax: (201) 575-2532
Contact: Nob Tokutake
Technical Support: Ben Garcia
(404) 342-3032
Denon made the world's first commercial POM (Pulse Code Modulation) digital
audio recorder in 1 972 . The firm offers advanced digital audio technology, including
super linear digital-to-analog and digital-from-analog conversion, time alignmen�
and various levels of audio data compression. Virtually all commonly used analog
and digital audio tape formats can be processed into CD-ROM.
Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(614) 761-4196
Fax: (614) 761-4258
AppleLink: D1 191
CompuServe: 76164,1273
Contact: Jack Ryan

•

Discovery Systems offers a full-function 24-track digital recording studio at its CD­
ROM manufacturing facility. Complete audio recording capabilities, editing, premas­
tering, voice and musical talent services, and sound-effects libraries are available.
Nimbus Information Systems
SR 629 Guildford Farm
Ruckersville, VA 22968
(804) 985-1 100
Fax: (804) 985-4625
Contact: Larry Boden

•

Nimbus can transfer audio to the Philips/Sony standard from audiocassette, 1/4-inch
and 1/2-inch analog tape masters of any standard speed, DAT tape, Sony 1610/30,
andJVC 900 digital audio formats.

CD Audio Implementation

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

1

Philips and DuPont Optical Company
1409 Foulk Road, Suite 200
Wilmington, DE 19803-0469
1-800-433-3475
Applelink: D2173
Contact: Jill Jones
Philips and DuPont Optical Company provides conversion services for analog and
digital audio to PCM CD-quality audio. Other audio mastering services include a
check of lead-in and lead-out periods, start-access time of track number one, end­
access time of the last track, and PQ-data assessment. CD Assist is software that
consists of source code and examples of applications that take advantage of the
benefits of audio on compact discs; documentation is also provided.

Data Preparation

Aries Systems Corporation
One Dundee Park
Andover, MA 01810
(508) 475-7200
Contact: Lyndon Holmes
AppleLink® D1 539
CompuServe: 721 17,1302
MCI Mail: UIOLMES
Aries provides consultation, software support, and data preparation support service
as required for CD-ROM data preparation. Aries Systems is particularly interested in
working with other developers who want to integrate biomedical knowledge bases
into their products. Its Knowledge Host system is suitable for this purpose, and
allows other applications to have simple, yet powerful, access to large knowledge
bases such as MEDLlNE and CANCERLlT.

.

Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(614) 761-4196
Fax: (614) 761-4258
Applelink: Dl 191
CompuServe: 76164,1 273
Contact: Jack Ryan
Discovery Systems offers custom software development services, including image
scanning, modification, and video capture services, for all types of image-based CD­
ROM projects. The firm offers MS-DOS file conversion, audio digitization (both
Macintosh audio and Red Book CD-audio), and text indexing of HypetCard stacks.

Data Preparation

•

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide
2

Keva Systems, Inc.
550 S . Wadsworth Blvd., Suite 41 1
Lakewood, CO 80226
(303) 936-0076
Fax: (303) 936-8236
AppleLink: KEVA
MacNET: KEVA
Contact: Bruce R. Tizes
Keva's data-capture process consists of two phases-collecting the desired infonna­
tion from diverse sources and organizing the potentially dissimilar data in a coheren�
machine-readable format. There is no limit to the number of data formats. Data can
take the form of ASCII text, PostScript®illustrations, digitized photographs, Hyper­
Card®stacks, or analog sound. Data organization requires that the material be
organized into logical files that describe the disc layout. The indexing schemes and
application designs can be customized to provide consistency with your specific
information.
Nimbus Information Systems
SR 629, Guildford Farm
Ruckersville, VA 22968
(804) 985-1 1 00
Fax: (804) 985-4625
Contact: Larry Boden

•

Nimbus can import files in any standard format to create Apple-compatible data.
Data can be merged, edited, deduped, and verified from any machine-readable
input. Services include transferring data from a hard disk, building images in HFS
(Hierarchical File System) fonnat, and porting Apple®files in binary fonnat through
MS-DOS architecture to the ISO 9660 standard fonnat. Nimbus also works with
images in Apple's A/UX®fonnat.
Reference Technology, Inc.
5700 Flatiron Parkway
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 449-41 57
Fax: (303) 442-1816
Contact: Mike Befeler
Reference Technology's applications and data services allow you to apply CD-ROM
technology to meeting your information-distribution needs. Reference Technology
provides a comprehensive set of services to assist organizations by developing
applications, customizing software, receiving raw data in any form, completing any
necessary data capture, converting data from any unique fonnats, iridexing the data,
formatting the data for file-manager access, and producing quality-assured replicas .

•
Data Preparation

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

3

Reteaco, Inc.
716 Gordon Baker Road
Willowdale, Ontario
Canada, M2H 3B4
(416) 497-0579
Contact: Nathan Leslie
Reteaco provides full data preparation services, including data conversion, data
cleanup, data indexing, and sophisticated sort/merge techniques for correlation of
data from separate files. Data in any external format can be transformed-using a
standard conversion routine or, if required, a user-definable routine-into an
acceptable format for subsequent processing. The output of the conversion process
is generally a fixed-format record. Other acceptable record types include fielded
records and extensible records.
SilverPlatter Information, Inc.
37 Walnut Street
Wellesley Hills, MA 02181
(617) 239-0306
Fax: (617) 235-1715
SilverPlatter Information, Ltd.
10 Barley Mow Passage
Chiswick, London
W4 4PH, England
01-995-8242
Fax: 01-995-51 59

•

SilverPlatter Information has five years of experience working with more than 30 in­
formation providers in designing and developing databases for the CD-ROM environ­
ment. The firm offers services in the design and development of databases, software
development, customer support, and worldwide marketing to publishers.
Software Mart, Inc.
4131 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite I-3
Austin, TX 78759
(51 2) 346-7887
Fax: (51 2) 346-1393
Contact: Carolyn Kuhn
Software Mart specializes in the design and development of full-text, fielded data,
and multimedia CD-ROM programs for all Apple computer systems. The agency
offers such services as project management, design, programming, and data prepara­
tion, including image and audio production, data assembly, premastering, and
packa gi ng.

•

Data Preparation

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide
4

Disc Mastering and
Replication

•

3M Corporation
Building 223-5S-01
3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
(61 2) 736-3274
(61 2) 736-5399
Fax: (61 2) 736-0158
AppleLink: D2462
Contact: Mark Arps or Dick Pendill
The 3M Optical Recording Department is involved in mastering and replicating,
packaging, and distributing customer-supplied input on CD-ROM discs and vide­
odiscs. 3M accepts data input on data cartridges, rewritable optical media, WORM
(Wrote Once, Read Many) media, and standard nine-track data tape. The firm is
positioned to provide expertise in both the digital world of CD-ROM and the analog
world of interactive videodisc.
Denon America, Inc.
222 New Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054
(201) 575-7810
Fax: (201) 575-2532
Contact: Nob Tokutake
Technical Support: Ben Garcia
(404) 342-3032

•

Denon accepts customer data tapes for premastering and pressing. The CD-ROM
software staff can also advice you about applications and the organization of your
data-tape preparation before you begin the premastering process. Denon Digital
Industries, a subsidiary, was one of the first CD plants to open in the U.S., and started
CD-ROM disc replication in May 1988. The firm has experience in quality control in
silvering, surface levels, and ink surfacing.
Digital Audio Disc Corporation
1800 North Fruitridge Avenue
Terre Haute, IN 47804
(81 2) 466-6821
Fax: (81 2) 466-9125
AppleLink: D2125
Contact: Kozo Arai or Linda Watson, CD-ROM Marketing Division
Digital Audio Disc Corporation (DADC) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony
Corporation of America. This large CD manufacturer has the capacity to produce
more than 7 million compact discs each month, including audio, CD-ROM, and
audio-combined formats. DADC services offer the following features: increased data
capacity (to approximately 680 megabytes), 8-centimeter CD-ROM, acceptance of all
standard nine-track and tape formats, audio-combined CD-ROM capability, standard
Sony and Philips caddies, serialization, distribution, and no minimum required

•
Disc Mastering and Replication

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

5

replication quantity.
Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(614) 761-4196
Fax: (614) 761-4258
AppleLink: D1191
CompuServe: 76164,1 273
Contact: Jack Ryan
Discovery Systems is a service-oriented CD-ROM manufacturing facility that offers
five-day standard delivery with no minimum order size. Priority schedules are avail­
able, and no advance scheduling is required. Discovery Systems accepts data in any
format (hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic tape reel or cartridge, WORM cartridge, or
exabyte tape) with up to 680 megabytes supported. The firm supports HFS, ISO
9660, and High Sierra formats, as well as their own proprietary hybrid format that
combines Apple HFS and High Sierra formats on the same disc. Other services
include nonremoveable serialization, fulfillment, distribution, and complete artwork
and graphics design.

.I

Disctronics
1 1 20 Cosby Way
Anaheim, CA 92806
(714) 630-6700
Fax: (714) 630-1025
Contact: Wan Seegmiller

Disctronics is a large independent manufacturer of compact discs. With plants in
California, Alabama, Australia, and the U.K. , Disctronics offers volume CD-ROM
delivery in all the major markets. Disctronics' Anaheim, Califonia, plant is dedicated
to CD-ROM mastering and replication and to special projects involving optical discs,
supplying research and development services to many companies working in the
optical disc field. The company has a patented method of making a one only CD­
ROM disc, which is playable on a drive in the same manner as a replicated disc and
provides a good way to test a project for demonstration or development. The cost of
this service includes premastering.
Nimbus Information Systems
SR 629, Guildford Farm
Ruckersville, VA 22968
1-800-782-0778
Fax: (804) 985-4625
Contact: Larry Boden
Nimbus Information Systems offers complete replication facilities and has processed
Disc Mastering and Replication

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

6

more than 1 50 CD-ROM titles in the past year. Nimbus accepts data in any com­
monly used media. There is no minimum quantity required for pressing, and the
firm has a standard five-day turnaround, with faster service available .

•

Philips and DuPont Optical Company
1409 Foulk Road, Suite 200
Wilmington, DE 19803-0469
1-800-433-3475
AppleLink: D2173
Contact: Jill Jones
Philips and DuPont Optical Company (PDO) provides complete disc mastering and
replicating services. PDQ provides a written guarantee on all CD-ROMs produced, as
well as complete checks of compact discs, custom packaging, and direct shipping to
third-party customers.

Image Management

•

TMS, Inc.
1 1 0 West Third
P.O. Box 1358
Stillwater, OK 74076
(405) 377-0880
Fax: (405) 372-9288
Contact: Mark McClure
The TMSFAX producffamily is a set of software tools that offers versatile imaging
capabilities to microcomputer and workstation users. These capabilities include
decompression, compression, rotation, and scaling of bi-tonal images. TMSFAX
quickly decompresses and compresses images, has user-linkable libraries for fast
applications development, and costs only a fraction of what boards cost.
TMSFAX/Mac®II works within the Macintosh®environment and runs on both 68020
and 68030 processors. TMSFAX uses the CCITT Group 3 1-D, Group 3 2-D, and
Group 4 standards for image compression and decompression. Because TMSFAX
conforms to these well-known standards, users can share images with users in other
companies, send images via facsimile machines, and work with images created by
any of several other image compression systems on the market.

Indexing and Retrieval
Systems

•
Image Management

Aries Systems Corporation
One Dundee Park
Andove� MA 01810
(508) 475-7200
Contact: Lyndon Holmes
AppleLink: D1539
CompuServe: 721 17,1302
MCI Mail: LHOLMES

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

7

Aries Systems' Knowledge Finder, text search and retrieval system supports citation
and full-text retrieval. Aries provides tailored software solutions that match the
characteristics of the database to be published on CD-ROM. Ease and effectiveness
of end-user searching is emphasized. Knowledge Finder allows the searcher to
specify a search sentence containing any number of words or terms, without requiring Boolean logic specification. The program identifies the database documents that
best match the searcher's request, and presents the "hits" in order of likely relevance.
Knowledge Finder database structures provide for very fast retrieval-single word
search on CD-ROM is typically completed in under two seconds.

.J
..

Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(614) 761-4196
Fax: (61 4) 761-4258
AppleLink: D1 191
CompuServe: 761 64,1 273
Contact: Jack Ryan
Discovery Systems' HyperSearch is a full-text search engine for HyperCard databases.
HyperSearch, a set of XCMDs, provides high-performance Boolean search capabilities across multiple HyperCard stacks. A developer kit includes the search run-time
engine and the indexing engine. A run-time license for the search engine is available
for use on CD-ROM discs. The run-time license can be purchased per CD-ROM disc,
and a volume discount is also offered.
Fulcrum Technologies, Inc.
560 Rochester Street
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada KlS 5K2
(61 3) 238-1761
Fax: (61 3) 238-7695
Contact: David Dow
Fulcrum Ful/fext is a full-text retrieval software package suited to electronic publish­
ing, CD-ROM, and large document management applications. FuVfext is modular
and portable, and can be integrated into a variety of support environments, including
networks. It handles compound documents containing graphics or images, as well
as structured and unstructured text. It provides high performance and low overhead,
and features a formally defined application program interface (API). Products based
on Fulcrum FuVfext are installed in several thousand end-user sites and are available
in a number of foreign languages.
KnowledgeSet Corporation
888 Villa Street, Suite 500
Mountain View, CA 94041
Indexing and Retrieval Systems

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

8

.)
.

··

;

(41 5) 968-9888
Fax: (41 5) 968-9962
Contact: Gail Bower

•

HyperKRS and Hyperindexer from KnowledgeSet are retrieval systems that work
with HyperCard. These applications provide Macintosh users with the ability to
index data and build comprehensive search queries, retrieve specific information in
seconds instead of minutes, and index every word in a HyperCard stack. They can
be used with either magnetic or CD-ROM media.
Graphic Knowledge Retrieval System is a full-text and graphics retrieval system for
technical documentation stored on CD-ROM discs or other optical media. This
program handles vector and raster graphics, and provides a variety of search capa­
bilities, including AND, OR, BUT, NOT, exact order, proximity, field specific, and
right truncation. Extensive use is made of hypertext to provide links to references,
citations, and images. The hierarchical browsing system also uses hypertext to move
quickly through a database structure. Additional features include a dictionary, on­
screen help, boo kmarking, and a path-to-document feature. DeskTop DataPrep is an
indexing system for use with the Graphic Knowledge Retrieval System. It creates the
data structures for tables of contents, references, citations, tables, document outlines,
and hypertext links.
Other products include KRSAPI, an application program interface (API) that allows
developers to create custom retrieval software applications linked to the Knowledge
Retrieval System search engine module; and KRSFAX, a software -based utility that
provides fast decompression and display of CCITT Group 3 and Group 4, com­
pressed images retrieved from storage media.

•

Meridian Data, Inc.
4450 Capitola Road, Suite 101
Capitola, CA 95010
(408) 476-5858
Fax: (408) 476-8908
Contact: Chris Andrews
HP LaserRETRIEVE is a CD-ROM database development and user interface software
package. It provides CD-ROM publishers with the ability to create CD-ROM data­
bases that contain both text and graphics, and it provides end users with software for
CD-ROM database retrieval. Using this software, a CD-ROM publisher can deliver
many types of information to end users who can then quickly pinpoint the exact
information they need.
Online Computer Systems, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard
Germantown, MD 20874
(301) 428-3700
1-800-922-9204
Fax: (301) 428-2903

•
Indexing and Retrieval Systems

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

9

Contact: Bill Ford
OPTI-WARE search, retrieval, and indexing software runs under both the Macintosh
operating system and UNIX. The application supports features such as thesaurus
field, keyword access, numerical range searching, note pad multiple-disc databases,
multiple database access, hypertext links, and hierarchical access. It can also be
used for developing audio CD-ROM applications. OPTI-WARE retrieval and indexing
software was used to create Bowker's Books-in-Print Plus and Grolier's Electronic
Encyclopedia which are available for Macintosh systems.

Quantum Access, Inc.
1 700 W. Loop South, Suite 1460
Houston, TX 77027
(71 3) 622-321 1
Fax: (71 3) 871-1310
Contact: Fran Dodson
Quantum Leap is a development system for producing multiple CD-ROM applica­
tions. It has full hypertext capabilities, allowing free-form text and full Boolean
search. To use the system, just describe your data and retrieval requirements on
Quantum Leap's menu-driven screens; the system automatically modifies the index­
ing procedures and the retrieval software to fit your specifications. Context-sensitive
help files and developer-created guided tours maximize user efficiency and minimize
training and support requirements.

.:'C\

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'i'.'/

Quantum Leap indexes and retrieves full tex� graphics, image, and structured data
information in any combination on the same file; and the Quantum Leap toolki�
QTools, can be used to modify query and display screens, or to replace them
entirely, quickly, and inexpensively. The indexer operates on IBM PC or IBM PC­
compatible microcomputers, and produces retrieval and display software for both the
IBM PC and the Macintosh-the same CD can be accessed by either computer.
Quantum Leap also offers CD-ROM product developers a fully automatic and end­
user-transparent audit system for use during the beta testing phase of new CD-ROM
products.
Reteaco, Inc.
716 Gordon Baker Road
Willowdale, Ontario
Canada, M2H 3B4
(416) 497-0579
Contact: Nathan Leslie
FindIT is a search and retrieval software system developed by Reteaco, Inc. FindIT
works with Reteaco's indexing process and supports full-text, key field, phrase,
character ranging, and combined indexing. The system allows for easy full-text
searching. Where fields are used, there are no restrictions on their number or length.
The user can browse through multiple databases, fields, indexes, or individual
Indexing and Retrieval Systems

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

10

.11 1
..

·· ·

records. FindIT works equally well with numeric data, text, images and other forms
of information. You can even encrypt the database and specify different levels of
user access . A Macintosh version of FindIT will be available in the summer of 1989 .

•

i

""

SilverPlatter Information, Inc.
37 Walnut Street
Wellesley Hills, MA 02181
(617) 239-0306
Fax: (61 7) 235-1715
SilverPlatter Information, Ltd.
10 Barley Mow Passage
Chiswick, London
W4 4PH, England
01-995-8242
Fax: 01-995-51 59
MacSPIRS is SilverPlatter's search and retrieval software for the Macintosh computer.
Search features include full database indexing, Boolean operator searching, trunca­
tion, and lateral searching. With MacSPIRS you can view a list of every search term,
word, or phrase from within the index; combine concepts using Boolean operators
(AND, OR, NOT); or relate search terms using proximity operators (NEAR, WITII) .
MacSPIRS also offers an online help system and online guides with information about
the database being searched. The program can be used with any Macintosh com­
puter that has at least two BOOK floppy disk drives and 1 megabyte of memory.
SilverPlatter databases span many areas of interest including medicine, health and
safety, education, social sciences, agriculture, and business and technology. Update
frequency ranges from monthly to annual, and databases are available on a subscrip­
tion basis.

•

SoftCore Creative Technology
Waversesteenweg 1 045
B-1 1 60 Brussels, Belgium
Contact: Marc Jadoul
Applelink: BEL0038
HyperQl/CD, is a software toolkit for indexing large HyperCard stacks to be placed
on CD-ROM discs. The toolkit includes installation software with a read/write
indexing and retrieval XCMD. Also included is a script generator for automatic
indexing of existing stacks, a tool for transforming index files to optimized read-only
structures, and installation software for the read-only retrieval XCMD.
Software Mart, Inc.
4131 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite I-3
Austin, TX 78759
(51 2) 346-7887
Fax: (51 2) 346-1393
Contact: Carolyn Kuhn
Indexing and Retrieval Systems

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

11

Software Mart's Media-Mixer retrieval engine subroutine libraries and data preparation tools are source license tools that are used to create full-text and multimedia CD­
ROM applications. Licenses are available for internal use and commercial products
on a usage or source-code basis.

.J''

Virginia Systems, Inc.
5509 West Bay Court
Midlothian, VA 231 1 2
(804) 739-3200
AppleLink: Xl082
The Sonar Professional Text Retrieval System is capable of searching a large number
of documents at a rate of more than 250,000 pages per minute. Boolean, proximity,
and wildcard searching are supported. Sonar Professional can make an index and a
table of contents for a single document or an entire folder. Hypertext links connect­
ing related information can be created dynamically using Sonar Professional's
analysis capabilities.
Xiphias
13464 Washington Blvd.
Marina Del Rey, CA 90292
(213) 821-0074
Fax: (213) 301-8427
AppleLink: D1371
Contact: Peter Black
The XEARCH XCMD is an XCMD resource, intended for the HyperCard developer,
that utilizes an external index file for faster searching. In addition, the XEARCH
XCMD permits full Boolean searching, browsing by categories, wildcard searching,
and range retrieval. Because it uses an inverted index, most of the necessary proc­
essing is accomplished during data preparation. Tools included are XearchStack,
which is used to install the XEARCH XCMD and allows automatic keywording of the
fields, and XearchApp, which allows the developer to convert XearchStack into a
XEARCHable index.

In-House CD-ROM
Publishing

Meridian Data, Inc.
4450 Capitola Road, Suite 101
Capitola, CA 95010
(408) 476-5858
Fax: (408) 476-8908
Contact: Chris Andrews
Merdian Data's CD Publisher gives the in-house CD-ROM publisher the ability to
prepare a data base for CD-ROM mastering. CD Publisher enables you to simulate 6)')
the database as if it were a CD-ROM and test different variables to achieve maximum �/
performance before committing to a mastered disc. The system is designed with

In-House CD-ROM Publishing

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

12

Winchester disk drives and a nine-track tape subsystem. CD Publisher operates with
any Macintosh computer.

.

(

Meridain Data's CD Professional gives CD-ROM publishers the ability to develop,
tes� and print CD-ROM discs in-house. This application allows you to convert data,
print a CD-ROM disc in real time, and provide end-user access to the disc. In
conjunction with the Programmable Disc System (PDS), CD Master creates, in real
time, discs that are compatible with standard CD-ROM drives. The PDS utilizes a
compact laser recorder. Small-lot disc production is possible with this system, which
was built to satisfy low-volume storage needs.

'""

Reference Technology, Inc.
5700 Flatiron Parkway
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 449-41 57
Fax: (303) 442-1816
Contact: Mike Befeler
CD-Simulator is an in-house CD-ROM data preparation and development system. It
is a complete subsystem of magnetic tape and disk that will load, store, build, and
off-load data for CD-ROM production. You can complete the necessary steps in­
house to prepare a CD-ROM disc that conforms to the High Sierra/ISO logical file for­
mat standard. Your personal computer (the controller) is used to perform the High
Sierra/ISO build and to collect statistics during simulation. This controller is con­
nected to a "host" system during the simulation step so that the host can run the
application; the controller, in conjunction with the subsystem, simulates a CD-ROM
drive and collects the information to debug and fine-tune an application. CD­
Simulator can be configured with 300 megabytes to 2.4 gigabytes of magnetic disk
storage. The magnetic tape drive can read and write nine-track 1/2-inch magnetic
tapes at 1 ,600 or 6,250 bits per inch.

•

Reteaco, Inc.
716 Gordon Baker Road
Willowdale, Ontario
Canada, M2H 3B4
(416) 497-0579
Contact: Nathan Leslie
Reteaco's BuildIT is a complete CD-ROM publishing system that runs on the Macin­
tosh II computer. The system incorporates commercial CD-ROM production soft­
ware that has been used to publish more than 200 databases for a wide range of
private-sector and government clients in Canada and the United States. A 300
megabyte hard disk and a combination 1 ,600/6, 250-bits per-inch ANSI standard nine­
track tape drive are required .

•

The BuildIT software license includes a library of data preparation modules; software
for database inversion, indexing, and premastering; and FindIT search and retrieval
software for CD-ROM simulation and quality assurance testing on the Macintosh
In-House CD-ROM Publishing

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

13

before disc mastering. The package requires that the target system have an A/UX
software license. Available options include a BuildIT toolbox that allows customers
to develop their own preprocessors, a data compression package, and security
software with data encryption capabilities.

Large-Capacity Storage
Devices

.�.·\

IJ' 1

Meridian Data, Inc.
4450 Capitola Road, Suite 101
Capitola, CA 95010
(408) 476-5858
Fax: (408) 476-8908
Contact: Chris Andrews
Datamax from Meridian Data is a mass-storage subsystem for multiuser environments
and local area networks. It can be used with a wide range of microcomputers,
regardless of the operating system. By partitioning the storage to reflect the environ­
ment, Datamax is able to support the Macintosh computer. Expandable in 300megabyte increments to 2.4 gigabytes, the Datamax system consists of Winchester
disk drives, a sector-caching disk controller, and software. It is an SCSI-based
subsystem, so up to three Datamax units can be daisy-chained together.
Online Computer Systems, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard
Germantown, MD 20874
(301) 428-3700
1-800-922-9204
Fax: (301) 428-2903
Contact: Bill Ford
Online's Multimedia Data Storage device includes a combination of CD-ROM,
WORM, (write once, read many) and magnetic drives to meet large storage require­
ments. Online will also be offering four-drive CD-ROM units that are compatible
with Macintosh systems. The CD-ROM units will be available by the third quarter of
1989.
SoftCore Creative Technology
Waversesteenweg 1 045
B-1 1 60 Brussels, Belgium
Contact: Marc Jadoul
32 2 647-4000
Fax: 32 2 647-9382
AppleLink: BEL0038
ArchIS, the optical archival and information system from SoftCore Creative Technol­
ogy, combines the speed and capacity of a WORM device with the friendliness and
flexibility of the HyperCard user interface. ArchIS archives compacted images (imported from a scanner or a PICT file) and text (in a time-resistant PostScript format)
onto an unerasable optical disc. Stored information is managed from within Hyper-

Large-Capacity Storage Devices

•1lV)

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

14

Card using the HyperQL query language.

•
·./

i

Storage Dimensions
2145 Hamilton Avenue
San jose, CA 951 25
(408) 879-0300
Fax: (408) 879-9330
AppleLink: D1 546
Contact: Eric Herzog

�

Storage Dimensions offers internal and external storage devices with capacities
ranging from 45 megabytes to 650 megabytes. Internal disk drives include a mount­
ing bracke� data and power cables, and a software package that consists of driver,
drive diagnostics, partitioning, data encryption, data recovery, backup and restore,
and disk optimizer utilities. Storage Dimensions offers high-capacity external drives
ranging in size from 320 megabytes to 650 megabytes. Models 345 and 650 feature
14.5-millisecond and 16.5-millisecond access rates and a 1 5-megabit-per-second data
transfer rate . A WORM external drive provides 732 megabytes of permanent data
storage and a ten-year media archival lifetime on a removable optical cartridge.

Macintosh-Compatible
CD-ROM Drives

Denon America, Inc.
222 New Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054
(201) 575-7810
Fax: (201) 575-2532
Contact: Nob Tokutake
Technical Support: Ben Garcia
(404) 342-3032
Denon America's DRD-253 stand-alone CD-ROM drive has an industry-standard SCSI
interface. The integrated buffer of 32 kilobytes enables optimum transfer of large
amounts of data and allows for faster output and continuity in both text and graphics.
The CD-ROM drive features a front-loading system withan Apple compatible car­
tridge that has been designed to protect the data surface, and an SCSI interface that
supports arbitration, disconnect, and reconnect phases. Four drive units can be
daisy-chained through one SCSI controller. Overlapped seek of multiple drives is
also available to shorten the effective access time in an expanded system. Denon
CD-ROM drives are equipped with standard digital-to-analog converters for stereo
music reproduction. The stand-alone units are complete with main power supply
and connectors so they can be added to the existing systems.
Optical Media International
485 Alberto Way
Los Gatos, CA 95032
(408) 395-4332
Fax: (408) 395-6544
AppleLink: Dl 490

•
Macintosh-Compatible CD-ROM Drives

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

15

Contact: Craig Larrew
Optical Media International (OMI) offers a universal Macintosh CD-ROM device
driver that supports the AppleCD SC drive as well as Toshiba, Sony, JVC, Denon, and
Hitachi CD-ROM drives. The OMI Macintosh CD-ROM device driver allows multiple
HFS volumes to be placed on a single CD-ROM disc, and the driver supports interactive mounting and dismounting of up to 1 0 volumes per disc. Also available for
systems integration are half-height, internal-mounting CD-ROM drives with no power
supply, and external stand-alone CD-ROM drives with a power supply.

Premastering

•

3M Corporation
Building 223-5S-01
3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
(61 2) 736-3274
(61 2) 736-5399
Fax: (61 2) 736-01 58
AppleLink: D2462
Contact: Mark Arps or Dick Pendill
The 3M Optical Recording Department offers premastering services for Apple HFS,
High Sierra, ISO 9660 , and Digital UNIFILE formats. The company accepts many data
input formats, ranging from nine-track magnetic tape to rewritable optical discs. For
the first-time CD-ROM developer, 3M offers special packages that include premastering, mastering, replication, and data cartridge hardware for transferring the data to
the mastering facility.

•
,

Aries Systems Corporation
One Dundee Park
Andover, MA 01810
(508) 475-7200
Contact: Lyndon Holmes
AppleLink: D1539
CompuServe: 721 17,1302
MCI Mail: LHOLMES
Aries Systems provides premastering services for production of CD-ROM volumes
that can be formatted to the ISO 9660 standard.
Denon America, Inc.
222 New Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054
(201) 575-7810
Fax: (201) 575-2532
Contact: Nob Tokutake
Technical Contact: Ben Garcia
(404) 342-3032
Premastering

•
'

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

16

Denon accepts customer data tapes for premastering and pressing. The CD-ROM
software staff can advise you about applications and the organization of your data
tape preparation before you begin the premastering process.
Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(614) 761-4196
Contact: Jack Ryan
Discovery Systems offers premastering services for Apple HFS, High Sierra, and ISO
9660 formats. Data files may be submitted on magnetic tape, WORM cartridges, any
Apple SCSI hard disks, and floppy disks. A hybrid-format CD- ROM is available with
both Apple HFS and High Sierra/ISO 9660 data partitions on the same physical CD­
ROM disc.
Disctronics
1 1 20 Cosby Way
Anaheim, CA 92806
(714) 630-6700
Contact: Wan Seegmiller

(•
.
�

Disctronics premasters on both OMI TOPiX and Meridian Publisher. The company
accepts the following tape formats: nine-track 1 , 650, 3,250, or 6, 250 bits per inch,
and 3/4-inch Sony 1630 U-matic. Data can also be supplied on a hard disk or floppy
disk, although these media may involve extra charges for downloading. Nine-track
tapes may be ANSI-labeled or unlabeled. High Sierra, ISO 9660 , and HFS formats are
acceptable.
Keva Systems, Inc.
550 S . Wadsworth Blvd., Suite 41 1
Lakewood, CO 80226
(303) 936-0076
Fax: (303) 936-8236
AppleLink: KEVA
MacNET: KEVA
Contact: Bruce R. Tizes
Keva Systems offers an integrated premastering service that includes data capture,
interface design, and indexing. Logical formatted file structures are created from all
forms of data-text, graphics, and sound-and data is placed on a writable medium,
such as nine-track tape, 1/2-inch magnetic tape, or a hard disk drive. You have the
option of using a format readable by the target machine or picking a format that is
accepted universally: You may choose from the native Macintosh HFS, ISO 9660 , or
High Sierra standard. Premastering bolsters your data image with control codes for
Premastering

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

17

error detection, synchronization, and address/mode indication. These codes are
combined with your data into individual data sectors.

•

Meridian Data
4450 Capitola Road, Suite 101
Capitola, CA 95010
(408) 476-5858
Fax: (408) 476-8908
Contact: Chris Andrews

Meridian Data's CD Master integrates audio and data into multimedia CD-ROM
products, providing both development and mastering services. CD Master supports
nine-track tape and 3/4-inch Sony U-matic tape. As a resul� Meridian offers a tool
that can accept data from a computer, as well as audio from a studio environment.
The program prepares a multimedia disc for mastering, then sends the data directly
to the laser beam cutter. Any CD audio mastering facility can upgrade to CD-ROM
mastering through CD Master, which can produce up to 20 CD-ROM masters per day.
It was designed with a layered ECC Augmentor board that performs error detection
and correction coding. Future versions of CD Master will support emerging CD-ROM
technologies, such as CD-I, DV-I, and CD-ROM XA.
Nimbus Information Systems
SR 629 Guildford Farm
Ruckersville, VA 22968
1-800-782-0778
Fax: (804) 985-4625
Contact: Iarry Boden

•

Nimbus Information Systems offers premastering services for Apple HFS, High Sierra,
and ISO 9660 formats. Data may be submitted on nine-track ANSI tape, WORM
disks, hard disks, and floppy disks, as well as in Sony 1630 format.
Online Computer Systems, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard
Germantown, MD 20874
(301) 428-3700
1-800-922-9204
Fax: (301) 428-2903
Contact: Bill Ford
Online Computer Systems offers complete on-site premastering contract services.
The company can customize in-house premastering facilities for client-specific appli­
cations.
Optical Media International
485 Alberto Way
Los Gatos, CA 95032
(408) 395-4332
Premastering

•
'

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

18

Fax: (408) 395-6544
AppleLink: D1490
Contact: Craig Larrew
Optical Media International (OMI) transfers data to CD-ROM format using its TOPiX
CD-ROM Workstation. This process typically requires three to six hours of system
use, (the time depends largely on the amount of data, the number of audio segments,
and the aroount of data preparation required). OMI also offers the following serv­
ices: media conversion from floppy disk, hard disk, WORM cartridges containing
HFS disk images, or nine-track magnetic tape; ISO file origination, which converts
HFS data files into the ISO 9660 file structure; CD-ROM encoding; and 1 00 percent
bit-by-bit verification of input data against output master tape data.
Philips and DuPont Optical Company
1409 Foulk Road, Suite 200
Wilmington, DE 19803-0469

1-800-433-3475
AppleLink: D2173
Contact: Jill Jones
Philips and DuPont Optical Company offers file formatting in both High Sierra and
ISO 9660 formats. Specific services available to Apple developers include conversion
from nine-track tape, external hard disks, WORM disks, and other SCSI devices.

Programming and
Interface Design

Please note that this is not a complete list ofprogrammers and designers. A much
more comprehensive list will be available at a later time.
Aaron Marcus and Associates
1 1 96 Euclid Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94708

(41 5) 527-6224
Fax: (415) 527-1994
Contact: N. Gregory Galle
Aaron Marcus and Associates plans, designs, and implements the human-computer
user interface, as well as the content structure and organization of CD-ROM-based
material. This company provides strategic planning, product definition, human­
computer user interface design, including the design of icons, screen layouts,
metaphor and color, and information graphics .
Aries Systems Corporation
One Dundee Park
Andove� MA 01810

(508) 475-7200

(.•

Contact: Lyndon Holmes
AppleLink: D1 539
CompuServe: 721 17,1302
Programming and Interface Design

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

19

MCI Mail: lliOLMES

•

Aries Systems' Knowledge Finder databases are matched with a user interface that
reflects the characteristics of the database. Aries provides software design and
development facilities to create the appropriate user intetface. Knowledge Hos� for
use with the MultiFinder™operating system software, allows the customer to create a
unique user interface and to pass retrieval requests to Knowledge Hos� which
operates as a background task.
Online Computer Systems, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard
Germantown, MD 20874
(301) 428-3700
1-800-922-9204
Fax: (301) 428-2903
Contact: Bill Ford
Online Computer Systems provides full programming and intetface design services
for producing CD-ROM discs, and can assist you in all the steps-from the initial
concept and requirements to implementation and end-user support. Online's user
intetface can be customized for specific client applications. It features multiwindow
capability, retrieval of text and color or monochrome graphic images, data extraction,
RS-232 communications with remote systems, structured search menus, and multilan­
guage capability.

•

Software Mart, Inc.
4131 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite 1-3
Austin, TX 78759
(51 2) 346-7887
Fax: (51 2) 346-1393
Contact: Carolyn Kuhn
Software Mart specializes in design and development of full-text, fielded data, and
multimedia CD-ROM programs for all Apple Computer systems. The agency offers
such services as project management, design, programming, and data preparation,
including images and audio production, data assembly, premastering, and packag­
ing.

Reference Materials and
Publications

American National Standards Institute
Sales Department
1430 Broadway
New York, NY 1 0018
(21 2) 642-4900
You can obtain the Small Computer Systems Intetface (SCSI) official specifications
manual by writing to the American National Standards Institute. The reference
number for the manual is ANSI X3 .131-1986; the document was approved on June
23, 1986. Small Computer Systems Intetface 2 is a draft version of proposed changes

Reference Materials and Publications

.;:

App le CD-ROM Develop ment Resource Guide

20

to take place to the 1986 SCSI standard. The document is currently in its fifth revision
and is available from the following regional offices: Global Engineering Documents,
Western Region, 2805 McGaw Avenue, Irvine, CA 92714; Central Region, 7730
Carondelet Avenue, Suite 407, Clayton, MO 63105; Eastern Region, 1990 M Street,
NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, or call 1 -800-854-7179.

•

APDA
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 33G
Cupertino, CA 95014-6299
1-800-282-2732
Several useful references are available from APDA� AppleCD SC Developer's Guide
provides a description of the CD-ROM product design and creation process. This
guide discusses Apple's AppleCD SCTMdrive and the Macintosh user interface to the
High Sierra and ISO 9660 file systems. Guidelines for using HyperCard as a retrieval
engine for Macintosh CD-ROM products and an introduction to sound are also
included. Audio Interchange File Format v. 1 .2 is a supplemental tool that describes
Apple's standard format for storing sample sounds. PICTFile Format Notes and Disk
Set gives eight examples of PICT files using various graphics formats. Included is an
application called PICIView for viewing PICT files. These files aid developers in
testing applications with Parse version 2 pictures. Apple Technical Notes numbers
209 and 210, "Whaf s wrong with my High Sierra disc?" and "The Desktop file's outer
limits," are also recommended .

•

Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc.
18 Louisburg Square
Verona, NJ 07043
(201) 857-4300
Fax: (201) 746-3034
Contact: Betty Ann Van Benschoten
The Bureau of Electronic Publishing is a source for in-house CD-ROM drives and
titles. It carries Macintosh-compatible CD-ROM products, including a broad range of
CD-ROM drives and a comprehensive selection of Macintosh CD-ROM titles (data­
bases). If you call and identify yourself as as Apple Certified Developer, the bureau
will send, at no charge, the latest version of its detailed product guide. The bureau
sells to hundreds of dealers in the U.S. and abroad, and advertises in over 1 5 different
end-user publications. As a distribution channel, it can help you reach Apple dealers
and end users.
Discovery Systems
CD-ROM Services Group
7001 Discovery Blvd.
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-4287
(61 4) 761-4196
Contact: Jack Ryan

•
Reference Materials and Publications

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

21

The CD-ROM Forum on the CompuServe Information Service, with over 1 ,000
members, offers discussions on a wide variety of topics concerning CD-ROM.
Contact Discovery Systems for information about joining the forum.

•�:.;.
.

MacGuide Magazine, Inc.

.

550 South Wadsworth Blvd., Suite 550
Lakewood, CO 80226
(303) 935-8100
Fax: (303) 935-5040
AppleLink: DELTAGROUP
MacNET: MacGuide

MacGuide magazine keeps its readers up to date on the interesting and compelling
technology of CD-ROM. The MacGuide Report is issued every six months. This
comprehensive magazine lists over 4,000 released Macintosh products. MacGuide
USA issued every trimester, is a CD-ROM disc containing HyperGuide CD, a 4-

megabyte HyperCard stack that lists released products for the l\:facintosh. MacGuide
USA also contains demonstrations of commercial software, hardware, and accesso­
ries; a shareware collection, and comprehensive user group listings. MacGuide USA
with HyperGuide is also released on floppy disks .
NISO, National Bureau of Standards
Administration 101
Library E-106
Gaithersburg, MD 20899

•··.1
.

�t

You can get a copy of the ISO 9660 standards by writing to the National Bureau of
Standards at the address above.
Software Mart, Inc.
4131 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite I-3
Austin, TX 78759
(51 2) 346-7887
Fax: (51 2) 346-1393
Contact: Carolyn Kuhn
Software Mart's CD-ROM Developer's lab is an interactive production reference for
CD-ROM developers who are creating programs for Apple computers and other PCs.
It includes a full-text, searchable, "how to" database with specifications for audio,
images, data preparation, premastering, and mastering input formats. Samples of
multimedia CD-ROM applications and complete descriptions of the Media-Mixer data
preparation and retrieval engine subroutine libraries are included, as well as demo
tools and samples for sound production, editing, and imaging. Eighteen leading
software and CD-ROM producers have contributed to this collection.
Quantum Access, Inc.
1 700 W. Loop South, Suite 1460
Reference Materials and Publications

•,>
.... . F

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

22

Houston, TX 77027
(713) 622-321 1
Fax: (713) 871-1310
Contact: Fran Dodson

•

ClubMac from Quantum Acce§s is an organized collection of over 570 megabytes of
CD-ROM files with retrieval through HyperCard. Available by annual subscription or
on a single-copy basis, ClubMac provides users with an ongoing library of public
domain software, shareware, clip art, fonts, desk accessories, utilities, and HyperCard
stacks and databases. ClubMac provides the ability to search, copy, and launch
applications and documents directly from HyperCard.

Service Bureaus

Aaron Marcus and Associates
1 1 % Euclid Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94708
(41 5) 527-6224
Fax: (41 5) 527-1994
Contact: N. Gregory Galle
Aaron Marcus and Associates is a management consulting, training, and product de­
velopment firm that specializes in the design of user interfaces and electronic­
publishing documents, including information displays, clip art libraries, and tem­
plates for computer graphics systems. This firm can prepare text and imagery on
general and specific topics, write and edit documentation, research text material for
subjects, and design publications that accompany or explain CD-ROM-based
materials. Aaron Marcus & Associates plans, designs, and implements CD-ROM clip
art libraries, including the design of pictograms, illustrations, charts, maps, and
diagrams. Products are reviewed for legibility and readability, and marketing
interviews are conducted to determine product usability.

•

Online Computer Systems, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard
Germantown, MD 20874
(301) 428-3700
1-800-922-9204
Fax: (301) 428-2903
Contact: Bill Ford
Online provides a full range of CD-ROM development services-from data prepara­
tion to programming and interface design. The company has premastering services
_
and customized in-house premastering facilities for client-specific applications.
Online also offers document scanning services and optical character reading as re­
quired .

•

Optical Media International
485 Alberto Way
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Service Bureaus

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

23

(408) 395-4332
Fax: (408) 395-6544
AppleLink: Dl 490
Contact: Craig Larrew

•

OMI offers a wide range of CD-ROM services. The firm can process data input into
CD-ROM format on OMI's TOPiX CD-ROM Workstation. This process typically
requires three to six hours of system use, (the time depends largely on the amount of
data, the number of audio segments, and the amount of data preparation required).
OMI also offers the following services: media conversion from floppy disk, hard
disk, WORM cartridges containing HFS disk images, or nine-track magnetic tape; ISO
file origination, which converts HFS data files into the ISO 9660 file structure; CD­
ROM encoding, and 1 00 percent bit-by-bit verification of input data against output
master tape data. The company can make a compact disc containing your data for
prototyping and in-house testing before replication of your master. OMI can also
assist you with mastering, disc labeling, and packaging.
Nimbus Information Systems
SR 629 Guildford Farm
Ruckersville, VA 22968
(804) 985-1 1 00
Fax: (804) 985-4625
Contact: Larry Boden

•

Nimbus offers such services as market needs analysis, data entry or tech scanning,
and audio and/or video recording. The firm can assist in the creation of vector
artwork or graphic algorithms, and can complete data integrity checks, content
changes, or merge and verifications. Training is also offered.
Reteaco, Inc.
716 Gordon Baker Road
Willowdale, Ontario
Canada, M2H 3B4
(416) 497-0579
Contact: Nathan Leslie
Reteaco is a full-service supplier for organizations that need to distribute usable
information to many individuals. Reteaco combines its own copyrighted software
and database processing services with CD-ROM. Reteaco provides full database
preparation services, including user needs analysis, product definition and specifica­
tion, sophisticated database conversion, user interface design, custom report format­
ting, and coordination of mastering and replication of CD-ROM discs, including
postproduction work and disc formatting in ISO 9660 format.
Software Mart, Inc.
41 31 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite I-3
Austin, TX 78759
(51 2) 346-7887
Service Bureaus

•

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide
24

Fax: (51 2) 346-1393
Contact: Carolyn Kuhn

•

Software Mart specializes in design and development of full-text, fielded data, and
multimedia CD-ROM programs for all Apple Computer systems . The agency offers
such services as project management, design, programming, and data preparation,
including images and audio production, data assembly, premastering, and packag­
ing.

Disclaimer and Trade­

marks

·

Mention of Products in this directory is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an

endorsement or recommendation. All product specifications and descriptions were supplied by the

respective vendor or supplier. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, perform­
ance or use of the products listed in this directory. All understandings, agreements or warranties take
place directly between the vendors and prospective users.
Limitation of Liability

Apple makes no warranties with respect to the contents of products listed in this directory, or the

completeness or accuracy of this publication. Apple specifically disclaims all warranties, express or
implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a

particular purpose .
The Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide is published by Apple Computer Inc . Developer
Programs, part of Apple's Developer Group organization. ©1989 Apple Computer, Inc . , Apple, the

Apple logo, HyperCard, Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc . APDA and A/
llX are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. PostScript is a registered tradmark of Adobe Corpora­

•

tion. Knowledge Finder and Knowledge Host are trademarks of Aries Systems Corporation. IBM is a
registered trademark of International Business Machines. MacGuide is a registered trademark of
MacGuide Magizine. HP l.aserRETRIEVE is a trademark of Meridian Data, Inc. Quantum Leap,

QTools, and ClubMac are trademarks of Quantum Access, Inc . CD-Simulator is a trademark of

Reference Technology, Inc. MacSPIRS is a trademark of SilverPlatter Information, Inc . Media-Mixer
and CD-ROM Developer's lab are trademarkd of Software Mart, Inc .

Sonar is a tradmark of Virginia

Systems, Inc. Xearch is a trademark of Xiphias .

•
Service Bureaus

Apple CD-ROM Development Resource Guide

25

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•

•

•

•

•

•

;.

tl,K)

Apple Developer Group
Apple's Networking and Communications
Products Overview

Following is a brief description of Apple's networking and communications products
for multivendor environments, grouped by the environment in which they primarily
function. At the end of the document is a section describing available references for
networking and communications. Partners and certified developers may purchase
these products from the Developer Price Llst, APDA™, or Apple Software Llcensing;
Associates should contact an authorized Apple dealer, APDA, or Apple's Software
Llcensing Department.
For information about third-party networking products and solutions, refer
to the Apple Multivendor Network Solutions Guide mentioned at the end of this
document.
Products to extend the
capabilities of AppleTalk

AppleTalk Internet Router- available from the Developer Price List or an authorized
Apple dealer
Software installed in a nondedicated Macintosh computer that connects LocalTalk�
EtherTalk™, and TokenTalk™ networks. It maintains addressing information for each
network to efficiently route data between them. It can interconnect up to eight
networks into one internet. The AppleTalk®Internet Router software requires
Macintosh® system software version 6.0.3 or greater (included on installation disk).
AppleShare PC - availablefrom the Developer Price List or an authorized Apple
dealer
Software installed in MS-DOS or compatible personal computers that allows them to
connect to LocalTalk, EtherTalk, and TokenTalk networks. Requires a network card
such as Apple's LocalTalk PC Card or cards from third-party vendors. AppleShare®
PC requires MS-DOS or PC-DOS versions 3.1 or greater.
EtherTalk - available with the EtherTalk NB Cardfrom the Developer Price List or an
authorized Apple dealer
Software that allows a Macintosh computer running the Macintosh operating system
to access AppleTalk services on an Ethernet network. Requires an Ethernet interface
card, such as the EtherTalk NB Card for the Macintosh II family of computers.
Version 2.0 is an upgrade of the original EtherTalk software that provides for the
extended addressing capacity to support up to 16 million nodes per network, as well
as improved routing capabilities.
Apple EtherTalk NB Card- available from the Developer Price List or an authorized
Apple dealer
An interface card that enables the Macintosh II family of computers to connect to an
Ethernet network. It includes a built-in thin-wire Ethernet transceiver and connectors
for both standard and thin-wire Ethernet cabling. A selector on the card is used to
specify the type of cabling in use.

Development Platforms

Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview

3- 62

TokenTalk - available with the TokenTalk NB cardfrom the Developer Price List or
an authorized Apple dealer
Software that allows Macintosh users to transparently access AppleTalk services on a
Token Ring network. Requires a TokenTalk NB Card, enabling users to connect
Macintosh computers to a Token Ring network.
Products for connecting to
DEC environments

Apple Talkfor VMS- available from Apple 's Software Licensing Department
Software that provides AppleTalk protocols and a programming interface for VAX!
VMS systems, so that developers can create distributed applications for seamless
communication between the Macintosh and the VAX. The Macintosh must be
running the Macintosh operating system, version 6.0.3 or greater, and the VAX must
be running the VAX/VMS operating system, version 4.6 or greater. (See the Apple/
Digital Development document in this guidebook for more information.)

Products for connecting to IBM
environments

Token Ring products
Hardware and software that enables the Macintosh computer to communicate with
IBM personal computers and other MS-DOS-compatible personal computers, IBM
minicomputers and mainframes, and other peripheral devices over Token Ring
networks. Apple's hardware and software for Token Ring networks support APPC,
3270, PC network protocols, and AppleTalk protocols. These products include:
•

•

•

•

The TokenTalk NB card (packaged with TokenTalk software and SMB File
Transfer Utility), available from the Developer Price List or an authorized Apple
dealer- interface card that enables the Macintosh II family of computers to
connect to a Token Ring network.
Token Talk software - allows Macintosh users on a Token Ring network to access
AppleTalk services (such as printing to a laserWriter or sharing files via an
AppleShare file server).
SMB (Server Message Block) File Transfer Utility- allows users to transfer files
between a Macintosh computer and an SMB file server, such as an IBM PC LAN
program.
MacDFT™ and MacAPPc, described below.

MacDFT- availablefrom the Developer Price List or an authorized Apple dealer
A full-featured 3270 emulation program that emulates IBM's 327X Information
Display System terminals, allowing Macintosh users to access data from an IBM host.
MacDff software supports file transfer, as well as the copying and pasting of data
between the IBM host and the Macintosh computer. With MacDff, you must be
running the Macintosh operating system, version 6.0.3 or greater.
Apple 32 70 Application Programming Interface (AP!) - available from Apple
Software Licensing Department
A standardized application programming interface that provides a platform for
developers to create customized Macintosh applications that communicate with
3270-based applications and services such as mail and database programs. The API
is similar to the IBM 3270 PC High-Level Application Programming Interface .

Development Platli:>rms

Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview

3-6 3

Apple Coax!Twinax Card- available from the Developer Price List or an authorized
Apple dealer
A Macintosh II interface card that provides a coaxial connection to an SNA network
in support of 3270-based applications on IBM mainframes. The AppleCoax/fwinax
card plugs into one of the NuBus™ slots in the Macintosh II family of computers and
connects to an IBM host via a 3X74 cluster controller using standard coaxial cable.
The card supports MacDFf application software.

MacAPPC - availablefrom Apple's Software Licensing Department, a single-use
license is available from APDA
System software protocols and interfaces that provide a complete implementation of
SNA LU 6.2 and NT 2.1 protocols between Macintosh computers, IBM systems, and
other systems that support these protocols. The Macintosh with MacAPPC installed
can act as a server over an AppleTalk network. Developers can use a full range of
programming languages to create APPC applications. The MacAPPC software runs
on the TokenTalk NB Card and Serial NB Card. You must use MacAPPC version 1 . 1
and Macintosh operatipg system version 6.0.3 or later.

Apple Serial NB Card - availablefrom the Developer Price List or an authorized
Apple dealer
An intelligent communications card for the Macintosh II family of computers with
four high-speed serial connections that provide connections to many different
communications environments. The Serial NB Card supports MacAPPC and
MacX25™ software; other applications requiring a serial connection may also be able
to use the Serial NB Card.

Products for connecting to
TCP/IP environments

MacTCP - availablefrom Apple 's Software Licensing Department, a single-use
license is available from APDA
A set of software system drivers and programming libraries provided to application
developers so they can create Macintosh applications for TCP/IP environments.
MacTCPTM is coresident with AppleTalk protocols, so TCP/IP and AppleTalk can
operate concurrently. It also runs over both Ethernet and LocalTalk networks. (See
the MacTCP document in this guidebook for more information.)

MacX - will be available from the Developer Price List or an authorized Apple dealer
An X Window display server that runs under the Macintosh operating system. MacXTM
supports the X Window protocol, version 1 1 , release 3. MacX allows Macintosh
users to display their desktop applications that are executing on remote hosts. MacX
requires a minimum of 1 megabyte of memory, and will run over Ethernet and
LocalTalk networks.

Developer tools for multiple
environments

Development Platforms

CJ/1 - will be availablefrom APDA in the latter part of 1989
A connectivity language for developers that gives personal computer users high-level
access to information on host systems, independent of network technology, host
system architecture, and database management systems. CVl™ server software
provides access to databases on supported host systems and works cooperatively
with applications on Macintosh computers that support CVl clients. Servers can be
installed on VAX computers from Digital running VMS, or IBM mainframes running
MVS!fSO or VM/CMS. (See the Cl/1 document in this guidebook for more informa­
tion.)
Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview

3-64

Macintosh Communications Toolbox - will be available from APDA, and will
become standard system software when released as part of System 7.0
An extension to the Macintosh Toolbox that provides developers with standard
access mechanisms to communications services. Using the Toolbox, developers do
not have to write low-level communications mechanisms for their software, but have
the consistency of the communications interface across services .
Mac Work.station - availablefrom Apple 's Software Licensing Department, a single­
use license is available from APDA
A programmer's tool to develop a Macintosh front end for new or existing host-based
applications. MacWorkStationTMallows programmers not familiar with programming
the Macintosh to easily build Macintosh-style interfaces for their applications. You
must use the Macintosh operating system software, version 6.0.3 or later. In addition,
you'll need to use MPWTMversion 2.0 or later. (See the MacWorkStation document in
this guidebook for more information.)
X.25 connectivity

MacX25 - will be availablefrom APDA
Software included with MacX25:
•

•

•

MacX25 Seroer- software that connects a Macintosh computer to packet­
switched networks and acts as a server to distribute X.25 services to any Macin­
tosh on the AppleTalk network.
MacPAD - software running on a Macintosh that works in conjunction with the
MacX25 Server to provide packet assemble/disassembler (PAD) services to
application programs. Using a terminal emulation program and MacP ADTM, users
can access data and services over an X.25 wide area network.
MacX25 Programming Library - a tool kit, or collection of routines, that offers a
high-level program interface for applications. Routines are included for initiating
and terminating contact with the MacX25 server, establishing and closing down a
virtual circuit, and passing data across an established circuit, among other tasks.

Note: All X.25 products offered by Apple conform to the Consultative
Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephone (CCITT) recommendations-­
the internationally recognized standards for communication in packet-switched
networks.
Recommended Documentation

The following is a list of suggested resources and many of the technical books that
provide greater technical detail on networking and communications and the protocol
architecture of AppleTalk.
Available from APDA:
•

•

•

Development Platforms

Understanding Computer Networks, an introduction to networking and commu­
nications concepts and technologies
AppleTalk Network System OVeroiew, a description of the AppleTalk network
system and a variety of Apple network products
Inside AppleTalk, the definitive technical guide to the protocol architecture of the
AppleTalk network system

Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview

3-65

•

•

EtherTalk and Alternate AppleTalk Connections Referonce, a detailed description
of the Ethet'falk implementation and extensions for alternate AppleTalk connec­
tions
Software Applications in a Shared Environment, a description of considerations
necessary for all applications to function in a shared environment

General Resources:
•

•
•

•

Development Platforms

Apple Product Data Sheets, see section "Apple Product Data Sheets" in this
guidebook
user or reference manuals published by Apple Computer
A Guide to Apple Networking and Communications Products provides an
overview of networking and communications products for multivendor environ­
ments-available from an authorized Apple dealer
Apple Multivendor Network Solutions Guide, a collection of solutions that
provide information about integrating Macintosh computers into various com­
puting environments-available from an authorized Apple dealer

Apple's Networking and Communications Products Overview

3-66

ti ")

Introduction

The AppleTalk Network
System-Developer
Opportunities

Apple Developer Group
The AppleTalk Network System

Applications development opportunities for the AppleTalk:® Network System (ANS)
abound, and products that allow users to work effectively together-groupware
applications-are likely to be successful in the years to come. Products such as
single-user word processing applications integrate well with single-user spreadsheets
and page-layout programs, and the functionality of these solutions can be extended
to include multiuser support. Just a few examples of the new generation of products
enabled by the services provided in ANS include multiuser calendaring and schedul­
ing, and project management applications.
Developers who can maintain the unique Macintosh experience while
creating multiuser solutions are the ones who will develop the winning products in a
shared environment. Before we examine the specific details of developing applica­
tions for the ANS, we'd like to provide some general directions that should give de­
velopers the best opportunity to create products that will stand apart from the crowd.
While Apple concentrates on providing the standard mechanisms for ANS-protocols
and basic services-developers should concentrate on solutions that build upon the
network infrastructure. The AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) has been implemented
in a number of different environments to provide, for example, file-sharing solutions
based on several types of minicomputers and file-server platforms. While the
resulting product provides a basic service, it maintains the same functionality as the
original AppleShare®file server product and furthers the consistency of the user
interface and the end user's experience.
On the hardware side, concepts worth investigating include providing
AppleTalk: support over alternative media types, uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
support for AppleShare file servers, and network peripherals, such as plotters,
facsimile modems, and modem and serial device servers.
With the introduction of AppleTalk Phase 2, in June 1989, developers of

most AppleTalk-based services-multiuser databases, electronic-mail systems, and so
on-do not have to modify their applications at all in order to remain compatible.
The implementation of AppleTalk Phase 2 maintained the insulation of higher-level
services that utilize AppleTalk from the underlying protocol layers that has been a
hallmark of the AppleTalk: network system since its inception.
Development Information:
Once your product idea is clearly defined, you need to determine the minimum
Required System Configuration, configuration of Apple equipment, as well as any third-party equipment needed, on
Documentation, and Tools
which to develop and test your applications. We recommend that your products run
on the broadest possible range of machines.

Apple Equipment and Software
•

Development Platfbnns

One dedicated Macintosh® Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II,
Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh Ilcx computer to be used as an AppleShare®file
server. The file server must have one or more SCSI hard disks attached to it.

The AppleTalk Network System

3-67

•

•

•
•

Documentation and Tools

In addition to the most recent versions of the System and Finder"' files, you should
have the following documentation and tools, available from APDA"':
•
•
•

•
•
•
•
•

Q&A: Background Information

One Macintosh® Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh
Ilx, or Macintosh Ilcx computer or Apple® Ile or Apple IIGS® computer to act as
the development workstation. In the case of the Apple Ile, the Apple Ile Work­
station Card is required; an Apple IIGS requires IIGS®Workstation software.
For connection-oriented applications development on a Macintosh, the Ap­
pleTalk® Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) software is recommended, available from
the Apple Software Licensing Department.
AppleShare®File Server software, version 2.01 .
LocalTalk"' or Etheffalk"' network cables, connectors, and interface cards for
each workstation, server, and printer.

AppleTalk Filing Protocol, version 2.0 release notes
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol preliminary note
EtherTalk and Alternate AppleTalk Connections Reference manual. (A new
version of this document has been produced to reflect the changes necessary to
support AppleTalk Phase 2. This document should be available from APDA in
the third quarter of 1989.)
Foreground Applications Development for AppleShare manual
Inside Macintosh, Volumes IV and V, published by Addison-Wesley
Inside AppleTalk, published by Addison-Wesley
AppleTalk Network System Overoiew, published by Addison-Wesley
Software Applications in a Shared Environment manual

Apple's standard ADEV and Network CDEV are available for licensing for
third parties who plan to develop Etheffalk or other alternate AppleTalk network
adapters. Contact Apple's Software Licensing Department for more information.
The following are answers to commonly asked questions about Apple's networking
strategy as it relates to the ANS:

Q. Why does Apple refer to AppleTalk as a "network system "?

A.

Development Plattorm.s

The ANS is made up of a number of different components, including physical
network components, file- and print-sharing components, and network manage­
ment features, as well as support for connections to Digital VAX"' environments.
The ANS is unique in many respects. First, it is virtually self-configuring.
Each machine in an AppleTalk network "negotiates" with its peer machines for
assignment of its node identifier; the network manager does not have to config­
ure the network in terms of software address assignment. It is not necessary to
"halt" an AppleTalk network to add additional nodes.
Second, AppleTalk is independent of physical media and speed. Ap­
pleTalk has been implemented on Ethernet, Token Ring, shielded and unsh­
ielded twisted-pair cable, Northern Telecom's LANSTAR'IM (LANSTAR AppleTalk)
local area network, and fiber-optic cable (from Du Pont). Third parties are de­
veloping AppleTalk interfaces to DataPoint's ARCnet, as well.
Further, AppleTalk has built-in facilities for internetwork support that
make network management extremely flexible and configuration extremely

The AppleTalk Network System

3-68

easy. AppleTalk has built-in support for the assignment of logical groups of
systems into what are called AppleTalk zones. These zones may be subsets or
supersets of physical networks, and can be used by network administrators to
create workgroup arrangements of individuals or machines that may not be part
of the same contiguous physical network. The ANS has built-in support for
network printing, allowing Macintosh systems to select printers from a list of
available printers, and print to them regardless of their physical location;
therefore, expensive printing resources can be shared among larger groups of
users. Most AppleTalk services are selected through the use of Apple's Chooser
interface, which provides a simple, intuitive means for selecting printers, file
servers, print servers, and other network resources, either from the local zone or
from a zone in another building or city. Numerous other special characteristics
of AppleTalk are described in more detail in Inside AppleTalk, which is available
from APDA.
The latest development in the introduction of the AppleTalk Network
System is AppleTalk Phase 2. AppleTalk Phase 2 allows AppleTalk networks to
increase in size to support the requirements of very large organizations. A single
AppleTalk internet could contain 16 million AppleTalk nodes. All of the features
described earlier continue to work in AppleTalk Phase 2.
Q. Would you describe LocalTalk and EtherTalk?
A.

LocalTalk is a shielded twisted-pair cabling system that can connect to the Ap­
pleTalk hardware built into every Macintosh computer, LaserWriter® printer
(except for the LaserWriter Ilse), and Apple IIGS system. In addition, LocalTalk
cards are available for the Apple Ile computer, ImageWriter®II and ImageWriter
LQ printers, and even IBM PCs, PS/2s and compatibles.
More recently, Apple has introduced the EtherTalk Interface Card,
which allows Macintosh II computers to utilize AppleTalk services over Ethernet
media. In addition, cards available through third-party vendors allow the
Macintosh II family of computers and the Macintosh SE and the Macintosh SE/30
to take advantage of Ethernet. Third parties also offer.SCSI-to-Ethernet products
that link Macintosh Plus systems to EtherTalk; and network routers that link
LocalTalk networks and LaserWriter printers to EtherTalk networks.

Q. How can AppleTalk services operate over Ethernet media?
A.

Development Platforms

Apple has developed a set of enabling technologies that manage link access (the
LAP manager); address resolution between AppleTalk and Ethernet addressing
schemes; and provide a user interface for selecting the type of network that the
user wishes to utilize. This collection of facilities is described in the EtherTalk
and Alternate AppleTalk Connection Reference manual, which is available
through APDA. In order to develop an AppleTalk implementation on non­
LocalTalk media, developers must license the appropriate LAP manager compo­
nents from the Apple Software Licensing Department.

The AppleTalk Network System

3-69

Q. Why did Apple decide to produce "Apple Talk Phase 2"?
A.

Development Platforms

AppleTalk Phase 2 is Apple's response to a number of customer requirements:
larger AppleTalk networks, Token Ring support, support for MS-DOS PCs on
EtherTalk networks, EtherTalk support for the A/UX®operating system, and an
internet router from Apple Comp� ter, Inc.
In an AppleTalk Phase 2 network, the 254-nodes-per-network limitation
is eliminated. Networks of up to 16 million nodes can be built to serve the needs
of the largest organizations.
EtherTalk 2.0 changed Apple's AppleTalk-over-Ethernet media offering.
EtherTalk 2.0 is implemented to the IEEE 802.3 standard. This allows lower-level
media access bridges to support large EtherTalk networks. This update is an
example of the specific changes requested by Apple's customer base that were
implemented in AppleTalk Phase 2. EtherTalk 2.0 is supported by a number of
third parties, and is compatible with third-party routers and Apple's AppleTalk
Internet Router.
TokenTalk"' 2.0 allows NuBus-based Macintosh systems to utilize Ap­
pleTalk services over Token Ring media. TokenTalk 2.0 is compatible with Ap­
pleTalk Phase 2, and with the AppleTalk Internet Router. Like EtherTalk 2.0,
TokenTalk 2.0 is implemented to the IEEE specifications for Token Ring, and
uses the 802.2 Type 1 (connectionless) service for its packet format. TokenTalk
2.0 supports IBM source routing bridges, and includes the full 802.2 LLC implem­
entation of IBM's Token Ring.
AppleShare PC 2.0 features a full implementation of AppleTalk Phase 2
for MS-DOS PCs. It includes support for LocalTalk, EtherTalk 2.0, and Token­
Talk 2.0, and supports the OLI (Open Link Interface) that Apple and others
jointly developed with Novell. AppleShare PC 2.0 requires a third-party Ethernet
or Token Ring card with an appropriate OLI driver to connect PCs to EtherTalk
or TokenTalk networks.
EtherTalk 2.0 for A/UX brings the benefits of AppleTalk Phase 2 to
Macintosh systems running the A/UX operating system. EtherTalk 2.0 for A/UX
supports toolbox printing directly from applications. A LocalTalk card is no
longer required for A/UX systems to access AppleTalk.
One major area of the ANS that changes in AppleTalk Phase 2 is
network router implementation. AppleTalk Phase 2 contains a number of
performance enhancement features for routers, in addition to support for larger
networks.
The AppleTalk Internet Router is a software-based router that can run in
the background of a Macintosh. It is data-link independent; it can support
nonextended (LocalTalk) and extended (EtherTalk 2.0, TokenTalk 2.0) net­
works. The router supports up to eight ports simultaneously, and is admini­
stered through a desk accessory. The router administration screen displays
routing table and statistical information about the internet. Third parties that
plan to offer alternate data link support for Macintosh computers can build
drivers for the AppleTalk Internet Routers to internetwork the alternate links
with the three standard data links supported by the router.

The AppleTalk Network System

3-7 0

The AppleTalk Internet Router is not meant to replace third-party
routers. It is meant to provide a benchmark for router performance and reliabil­
ity. It serves as a springboard for future network management support.

Q. How do I upgrade to Apple Talk Phase 2?
A.

Apple has provided upgrade utilities and associated documentation for network

2. The first,
2 Upgrade Utility, " is an INIT resource that is installed in

administrators to use to upgrade their networks to AppleTalk Phase
the "AppleTalk P hase

AppleTalk Internet Routers .
router will translate Phase

If a Phase 1 router is detected at startup time, the

2 routing packets back to P hase 1 on that specific

network. This allows incremental upgrade of the routers on the internet.
However, some of the features specific to AppleTalk P hase

2, including network

ranges and zone lists, are not available on the internet until all routers are
upgraded to AppleTalk Phase
The "Phase

2 compatibility.

2 Node Identifier'' is another utility that assists the adminis­
2 nodes on a specified network. The

trator in identifying the Phase 1 and Phase

utility can be targeted to select nodes through selection of various criteria, and
the resulting list can be saved to disk or printed, in addition to display on the
Macintosh screen.
The Apple Talk Phase 2 Introduction and Upgrade

Guide documents the

benefits of AppleTalk Phase 2, and details the installation and use of the Ap­
pleTalk P hase

2 Upgrade Utility.

Q. Wha.t do you mean by "network sewers" in the ANS?
A.

Currently, two network servers are part of ANS. The first is the AppleShare File
Server (AFS); the second is the AppleShare Print Server (APS). AppleShare
provides a shared resource-a Macintosh running AppleShare software with one
to seven hard disk volumes attached-that can be shared by users in the
workgroup, or by other users in other groups, simply by selecting the desired
file server through the familiar Chooser interface .

If the user wished to use AFS

services, he or she would sign on to the file server with an authorized user code
and password and select the volume on that server that contains the desired
information. When the volume appeared on the user's desktop, it could be
accessed as though it were any ordinary disk file .
The AppleShare File Server contains additional features that make it an
ideal system for workgroups . For example, it allows the network administrator
to group individual users in one arrangement to represent their membership
within the organization and in another arrangement for a particular project or
task force. The network administrator may, for security' and privacy reasons,
limit the access to particular files and folders . One typical use of this facility is to
create a "drop box" folder, into which all users can insert files, but which can
only be opened by the owner of the folder. Most AppleShare administrative
tasks can be performed from the Macintosh acting as the file server while the file
server is operating.
AppleShare allows one other application, typically operating in the fore­
ground, to coexist on the same Macintosh.

[Note:

Apple does not recommend

the development of background applications for AppleShare at this time (see the
Development Platforms

The AppleTalk Network System

3-7 1

Documentation and Tools section of this note for documents that discuss
foreground operation in more detail).] This application is typically the Ap­
pleShare Print Server (APS). The APS provides print spooling and printer queue
management facilities for one to five LaserWriter or ImageWriter printers
(ImageWriter II and ImageWriter LQ printers must have the optional LocalTalk
card installed to be attached to the network) and supports color printing on the
Image Writer. Like the AppleShare File Server, APS is configured while spoo ling
is taking place, so changes can be made without halting the print-spoo ling
function.
Q. If only one foreground application can be coresident with AppleShare, what

opportunities are there for developing applications compatible with AppleShare?

A.

Customers are asking for applications that allow end users to share data easily
and, in many cases, simultaneously. AppleShare provides the enabling tech­
nologies and protocols to support these needs. AppleShare is based on the
AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP), Apple's standard for file service. AFP provides
facilities to support multilaunch applications. In addition, AFP provides byte­
range-locking facilities for multiuser applications such as database systems,
accounting packages, calendaring and scheduling packages, and any other
applications that allow multiple users to update the same file at the same time.

Q. Do MS-DOS PCs have a place in ANS?
A.

Apple provides AppleTalk services for MS-DOS PCs. The LocalTalk PC Card
allows these systems to connect to AppleTalk networks, and to print to network
LaserWriter and Image Writer printers. Apple also offers AppleShare PC 2.0,
which allows MS-DOS PCs equipped with the LocalTalk PC Card or third-party
cards with appropriate OLI drivers to utilize AppleShare file servers. The OU
standard was developed by Novell, Apple, and others to allow developers to
implement protocol stacks for network adapters (cards) in a standard, compat, ible fashion.
In addition to the normal benefits of AppleShare file service, many de­
velopers can take advantage of the fact that their applications share common file
formats between their MS-DOS and Macintosh versions. Where possible, Apple
has provided a facility that automatically maps the DOS file extension to the
Macintosh creator and type. The Macintosh user sees the DOS file on the
desktop as though it were an ordinary Macintosh file, complete with the file
icon; double- clicking the mouse on the icon launches the application and opens
the file on the Macintosh.

Q. What about networking and the Apple II?
A.

Development Platforms

Apple is committed to the education market and to the Apple II product line. As
a result, the company supports Apple Ile and Apple IIGS participation in the
ANS, including file and print service. Apple II systems can boot remotely from
the AppleShare server, eliminating the need for individual disks for each system,
and the AppleShare Print Server supports printing from Apple II systems. In
addition, Apple II users enjoy a special menu facility called Aristotle"', which

The AppleTalk Network System

3-7 2

allows educators to create special menus for networked classroom environ­
ments. As new features are introduced for AppleShare, the needs of Apple II
users and the education community will continue to be addressed.
Q. Is Apple encouraging third parties to enhance AppleTa/k and AppleShare?
A.

Development Platforms

Apple supports those developers who have introduced products that allow
AppleTalk network connectivity over alternate media, such as unshielded
telephone wiring or fiber-optic cabling. Apple also supports those developers
who are providing APP-based file services on minicomputers and mainframes.
However·, Apple considers products that do not adhere fully to the AFP standard
to be detrimental to the user's experience, as well as to the overall performance
of the network system. A key strength of the Macintosh has been its consistent
user interface and high-quality performance of compatible products.
Developers interested in developing products, such as network routers
(sometimes called bridges), network management products, network modems
and serial servers, and other peripherals that utilize the network depend on a
standard environment. Apple will keep those developers informed as AppleTalk
standards evolve so that the installed base of products and networks, now
approaching 3 million nodes, can migrate along with the standards. Apple
discourages developers from promoting alternatives that conflict with the Apple­
endorsed ANS standards.
Apple encourages developers to utilize the LAP manager and other
facilities of the ANS to bring AppleTalk into new environments. Specialized
media types, alternative transport systems such as infrared and packet-radio
transmission, AFP servers on minicomputers and mainframes, and very high­
performance network routers that interface to T-carrier facilities are a few
examples of developer opportunities that Apple endorses in the network
infrastructure arena.

The AppleTalk Network System

3-73

ti "'

Introduction

Apple Developer Group

Apple/Digital Development

The agreement between Apple Computer, Inc. and Digital Equipment Corp. has
expanded the Macintosh® applications development opportunities to include the
VAX.TM environmen� and thus, has expanded the horizons for you, the developer.
Because you've shown an interest in developing applications for this exciting new
platform, we'd like to provide you with some background information about this
agreement, give you an introduction to the development opportunities, and show
you the support for developers that is available from Apple and Digital.

The Apple/Digital Equipment
Corporation Agreement

In January 1988, Apple and Digital agreed to provide a jointly developed and
endorsed environment for common communications based on AppleTalk®and
DECnet™/OSI networking foundations. The development effort between the two
companies is designed to provide you with standard technologies for Macintosh and
VAX integration. Based on this consistent technical framework of industry standards
and open service interl'aces, you will be better equipped to plan for, implement, and
deliver a new generation of world-class networked end-user applications.
The August 1988 Apple/Digital Developer's Conference, held in Boston,
followed by the update session at the May 1989 Worldwide Developers' Conference
in Sanjose were steps toward the fulfillment of this agreement to integrate the
Macintosh and VAX computing worlds. This commitment to better integrate these
two technologies is a direct response to a mutual customer need: to share informa­
tion and to use computing resources more effectively.
Apple and Digital are providing the common communications foundations
and the core network services needed to support this goal. Developer opportunities
will abound for products ranging from high-performance distributed and cooperative
computing applications to network-intelligent productivity applications to friendly
multimedia front-end interfaces for standard VMS-based applications.
Customers will reap the benefits of a highly integrated environment featur­
ing the consistent, intuitive Macintosh user interface, AppleTalk network transpar­
ency and services, VAX computing power, and enterprisewide DECnet/OSI network­
ing connectivity.
Additionally, Digital and Apple have signed a service agreement whereby
Digital will provide service on Macintosh systems and related peripherals to Apple/
Digital customers. Apple and Digital are also focusing on support for related third­
party hardware and software products, more advanced network suppo� and
international customer support.
Because the joint development efforts are based on the same technology
foundations, customers' strategic investments in third-party connectivity products
and services based on the AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) will not be rendered
obsolete. The joint development program will not only offer the tools for the next
generation of AFP-based integration products, but will also provide conversion
utilities for the migration of existing AFP-based files and databases. The collabora­
tion will not make modifications to existing nonconnectivity-based Macintosh

Development Platfbrms

Apple/Digital Development

3-74

applications necessary. Apple and Digital plan to support the OSI standard in future
versions of the Apple/Digital network environment. A majority of the "deliverables"
mentioned in the following sections will be available in the early part of 1990.
Development Opportunities

Development Platforms

The Apple/Digital agreement increases opportunities for Macintosh and Digital
developers. It provides them with a suitable platform for distributed applications in
the areas of business, finance, engineering, desktop publishing, and Macintosh-to­
yAX connectivity products.
Third-party development opportunities for distributed Macintosh/VAX
applications exist in the following areas: CAD, CAM, MRP, simulation, host access,
network management, and vendor data access. There is also a market for network­
intelligent groupware applications in the areas of project management, word proc­
essing, spreadsheets, presentations, databases and calendars, as well as for front­
ends for VAX applications, including access to Macintosh applications and services,
graphic interface, and sound and video. Finally, developers should also look into
filling needs that Apple and Digital will not address, such as 3278 gateway integra­
tion, VAX Notes client, and VAX VIX client.
Distributed Macintosh/VAX applications utilize the Macintosh as an integral
portion of the application, where it performs the role of interfacing to the user and
calls on VAX resources as necessary. For instance, in an engineering computer-aided
design application, the Macintosh might be used to perform airflow analysis on
portions of an aircraft design, and to graphically display the results. But if an
engineer decided to perform an airflow analysis on the entire aircraft structure, the
application would realize that this would take far longer on the Macintosh than was
practical. Instead, the application would take advantage of the RPC mechanism and
data access facilities available for Macintosh/VAX connectivity and automatically
utilize the VAX systems to perform the computational analysis-without requiring
any change in the way the engineer issues commands.
Macintosh/VAX-based network-intelligent groupware applications are
actually a subset of a larger area involving Macintosh network-based applications in
general. AppleTalk, through the AFP facilities, offers a rich set of protection mecha­
nisms, such as byte-range locking, that allow developers to create true multiuser
applications. Many Macintosh applications were originally designed around a single­
user model and had multiuser features added later. But network-intelligent group­
ware applications are designed from the beginning with multiuser capabilities. The
VAX systems, by offering AFP support, can also take advantage of any network­
intelligent groupware applications that developers may create.
Finally, the user's acceptance of an existing VAX application may be
enhanced with the addition of a Macintosh front end. Rather than try to redo the
VAX application so that it becomes a distributed program between the Macintosh and
VAX, by adding either MacWorkStation or X Window code, the application can
utilize a Macintosh and its familiar, easy-to-use interface with only minimal
alterations.

Apple/Digital Development

3-75

Development Configurations
and Documentation

To develop Apple-to-Digital applications on the Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or
Macintosh Hex you will need the equipment, development tools, and documentation
listed below:

Apple Equipment and Software:
•

•

•
•
•
•

Development Tools

Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or Macintosh Hex computer with a minimum of 2
megabytes of RAM
1 2-inch monochrome monitor with 4-bit video card or 1 3-inch color monitor
with 8-bit video card
Apple 40-megabyte hard disk
Apple Tape Backup 40SC (optional)
Macintosh II EtherTalk Interface Card (optional)
EtherTalk , Version 1 .1 (optional)

Apple Products:
•

•
•

Macintosh Programmer's Workshop (MPWj and MacApp®(available from
APDA)
MacWorkStation (optional, available from the Apple Software Licensing group)
AppleTalk for VMS (available from the Apple Software Licensing group)

There are a number of third-party products that are fundamental to connec­
tivity in this area. For a list-and description of these products, refer to the APDA
catalog, APDAlog.
Documentation

The follo�ing publications are available from APDA:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Foundation of the Technology
Infrastructure

The technology infrastructure that supports this new developer environment is based
on:
•
•

•

•

Development PlatfOrms

Inside Macintosh, Volume 1-V
Inside AppleTalk
Human Interjace Guidelines
Applications Development in a Shared Environment
Ethernet and Alternate AppleTalk Reference
MacWorkStation: A Programmer's Guide
MacWorkStation: Programmer's Reference
AppleTalkfor VMS documentation set
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol preliminary note
AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) Engineering technical notes
AppleTalk Manager Update
EtherTalk preliminary note

Standardization of the connectivity hardware
Standardization, provision, and support of the connectivity software based on
AppleTalk for VMS
Provision and support of a core set of network services, callable by third-party
applications
Provision of a standard set of network interfaces and developer tools

Apple/Digital Development

3-76

Network Connectivity
Hardware

Many of these building blocks were in place prior to the agreement and have been
reinforced as a result of these joint efforts.
Core-supported connectivity hardware includes:
•

•

•

Network Connectivity Software

Both EtherTalk™(the higher-performance AppleTalk network) and DECnet,
which use Ethernet industry-standard 10 MB/sec LAN over thick, thin, or twisted­
pair media
LocalTalk™, Apple's broadly implemented low-cost network, which runs over
twisted-pair wiring
Routing between LocalTalk-to-Ethernet is accomplished with various routers
based on standard published AppleTalk routing protocols

AppleTalkfor VMS
The standard development platform for Macintosh and VAX integration is AppleTalk
for VMS. This software product is available through the Apple Software Licensing
group to network applications developers. AppleTalk for VMS implements the
AppleTalk protocol architecture on VAX/VMS systems, allowing them to be full
participants in the AppleTalk Network System (ANS). Developers can then build
VMS-based applications, such as AppleShare® file and print servers, that communi­
cate over ANS to Macintosh, Apple II, and MS-DOS personal computers.
The advantages for Macintosh users of AppleTalk protocol support on the
VAX include:
•

•
•

•

•

Preservation and extension of the "look and feel" of the Macintosh interface in
VAX communications
Preservation of the AppleTalk network's ease of use, installation, and setup
Access to powerful VAX-based file and print servers that retain the ease of use
and interface of AppleShare file and print servers
Leveraging of investment in Macintosh applications that already take advantage
of ANS
Interoperability with MS-DOS and Apple II personal computers and VAX
applications and relational databases

Deliverables include:
•
•

AppleTalk for VMS API (Applications Program Interface) specifications
Extended AppleTalk for VMS will provide:
- Enhanced performance
- Additional wide-area AppleTalk routing capabilities via DECnet/OSI
tunneling
- Gateway functionality, facilitating the development of distributed AppleTalk
and DECnet/OSI applications
- Facility to enable networked terminal access to VMS
- Support of Apple's network management protocols, for bidirectional
AppleTalk-to-DECnet/OSI management.

Apple and Digital plan to use these future versions of AppleTalk for VMS as
a platform for MacintoshNAX integration products.

Development Platforms

Apple/Digital Development

3-77

AppleTalk-DECnet Transport Gateway
In addition to AppleTalk for VMS, customers and developers will benefit from an
entirely new capability: bidirectional end-to-end links between any AppleTalk
computer system and any node in DECnet/OSI enterprisewide networks.
This new capability means that you can build applications capable of
performing transparent task-to-task communications between AppleTalk Data Stream
Protocol (ADSP) and DECnet NSP- (Network Services Protocol) based processes
located on any remote DECnet/OSI node (such as PDP-1 1 , VMS, or ULTRIX-based
systems). This facilitates adaptation of existing DECnet/OSI applications and allows
both computers to be programmed in their native communications environments. A
manufacturing applications designer, for example, could take an existing DECnet/
OSI-based process control application running on a PDP-1 1 and implement software
allowing the Macintosh to act as a front end to the application.
The AppleTalk-to-DECnet transport gateway is an important adjunct to
AppleTalk for VMS, because it allows Macintosh integration with VAX systems
elsewhere in the extended DECnet/OSI network, regardless of whether the destina­
tion VAX is running the AppleTalk for VMS software. Using the AppleTalk-to­
DECnet transport gateway, Macintosh users will be able to access DECnet/OSI
enterprisewide mail networks and remote VAX-based network applications, such as
VAX VIX and VAX Notes.
Digital will build and offer an AppleTalk-DECnet transport gateway to run
on VAX/VMS systems. This ADSP-to-NSP transport gateway will run concurrently
with AppleTalk for VMS, allowing any Macintosh in an AppleTalk network to access
any DECnet/OSI node, or vice versa. (ADSP and NSP are bidirectional, connection
oriented, end-to-end transport protocols available from Apple and Digital, respec­
tively.)
Deliverables include:
•
•
•

AppleTalk-to-DECnet transport gateway (will be provided by Digital)
NSP protocol specifications are currently available from Digital
Gateway access routines Macintosh API for release with the Toolkit (will be
provided by Apple); ADSP protocol specifications are currently available

Network Management
Future versions of AppleTalk for VMS will provide network management functions to
allow integrated management of combined AppleTalk and DECnet/OSI networks.
AppleTalk for VMS and the DECnet transport gateway will provide full support for
AppleTalk network management functions. Apple will provide capabilities that will
allow AppleTalk management stations to view the DECnet network. Digital will
provide capabilities that will allow a VMS manager to view an AppleTalk network.
These will work together to provide:
•

•

Development Platforms

Necessary information to AppleTalk administrative tools, such as Inter• Poll,.., for
viewing the network, determining device status and response time, and detect­
ing and locating faults
Control of the AppleTalk-for-VMS internet-router process

Apple/Digital Development

3-78

•

Information about DECnet/OSI needed for:
- Link status used by AppleTalk for the VMS router
- Link status used by DECnet transport gateway
- DECnet/OSI control functions for AppleTalk
Apple will develop, release, and support a version of AppleTalk for VMS
incorporating these network management capabilities; no third-party API is planned
at this time.
Building Distributed
Applications

Independent software developers now have a choice of several user-interface
technologies with which to provide access to VMS applications, including Vf
terminal emulation and use of MacWorkStation.... We are also broadening the
offering by supporting the X Window System.
VT Terminal Emulation

Networked terminal-emulation capabilities will be supported by inclusion of a
terminal driver as a standard part of AppleTalk for VMS. This will support direct
terminal sessions to VAX/VMS hosts via the network link from many terminal
emulators that emulate a Vf-class terminal.

Communications Toolbox
Apple will provide a new facility, the Communications Toolbox, which allows
developers to easily build special-purpose terminal emulators and to incorporate
terminal and file transfer capabilities into their applications. The Communications
Toolbox will feature ADSP support. The Communications Toolbox is scheduled to
ship in the latter part of 1989 or early part of 1990. It will be available from APDA
and will be included in Macintosh System Software 7 .0.
Deliverables include:
•
•

AppleTalk for VMS that will contain the necessary port driver for VMS systems
Communications Toolbox with a LAT"'(I..oc al Area Transport) terminal driver
interface for Macintosh developers

In addition to Apple's MacTerminal® product offering, several third-party
Vf-series terminal emulators are currently on the market.

X Window System Access
The X Window System is an industry standard for communicating with and
controlling bit-mapped display devices. Developed at MIT as part of Project Athena
(sponsored in part by Digital), it includes a standardized library of routines for
display-oriented functions in a networked environment where a program running on
one system can present information on another system's display. This insulates
applications developers from the intricacies of network communications transports
and minimizes the effort required to implement applications across different plat­
forms.
Apple supports the X Window System and will provide an Xl 1 server on the
Macintosh. X Window availability will be of particular interest to VMS developers of
graphics-intensive applications. An X Window to a VAX application will appear as
part of the Macintosh user's desktop, allowing cut, copy, and paste functionality
between the X Window application and other Macintosh applications. The

Development Platforms

Apple/Digital Development

3 79
..

Macintosh X-server also provides a mechanism to start remote VAX-based applica­
tions that support the X Window System from the Macintosh.

Mac Work.Station
MacWorkStation is a collection of high-level Toolbox routines that allow host
programs running over any supported communications protocol to utilize the
standard user-interface, file-management, and printing features of the Macintosh
personal computer. It offers VAX/VMS programmers full access to and control over
windows, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and other features of the Macintosh user
interface-without requiring them to learn the details of a traditional Macintosh
programming environment. MacWorkStation is an extremely efficient user-interface
programming model, allowing good performance to be delivered even over dial-up
connections. MacWorkStation is an Apple product available from the Apple Software
licensing group.
Deliverables include:
•

•

Distributed Data Access and
Information Sharing

Macintosh Xl 1-Server Toolkit which provides support for Digital's DEC Win­
dows program (will be provided by Apple)
MacWorkstation C programmer's library for VAX/VMS (will be provided by
Apple)

AppleTa/k Filing Protocol File Services
Customers have found that sharing of files and applications contributes to overall
productivity. Digital's VAX/VMS systems will provide AppleShare-compatible file
service to workstations on AppleTalk networks. In this environment, Macintosh files
are stored on the VAX as VMS files. They are available to other VAX-based applica­
tions and appear to the Macintosh user as Macintosh files. Digital's server will offer
full AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP), Version 2.0 compatibility, supporting Macin­
tosh, ProDOS®, and MS-DOS systems running AppleShare client software. Popular
high-quality AFP file servers for the VAX are available from third parties. Digital will
provide tools, where necessary, for migration from existing APP-compatible VMS file
servers to the new Digital file server.
This implementation of AFP servers on VAX/VMS systems allows multiple
users to make use of larger VAX disk resources and provides access to corporate­
level data. It also gives customers a smooth growth path from Macintosh-based
servers to higher-capacity servers based on VMS systems. The server will support
VMS security mechanisms and simplify backup procedures.
Deliverables include:
•
•

Implementation of AFP on VAX/VMS systems (will be provided by Digital)
Version 2.0 specifications, currently available from APDA

AFP ,

Document Interchange
Digital's Compound Document Architecture (CDA) is a set of definitions for standard
encoding of compound document components. In addition, the architecture
describes mechanisms for building translators, viewers, and applications that use this
standard encoding. Standardized encoding is important because the multivendor
environment of most enterprises leads to a multiplicity of data formats that are often
incompatible. CDA provides a scheme for applications-developer migration toward
Development Platforms

Apple/Digital Development

3 -80

a common language for communicating documents, data, and graphics. The Digital
Document Interchange Format (DDIF), a component of CDA, is a format for encod­
ing revisable-form text, graphics, and image data.
Apple will support Digital's DDIF document content standards for document
interchange between Macintosh and VMS systems by:
•

•

Providing a VAX-based translation tool that works with the VAX/VMS implemen­
tation of AFP to translate from DDIF to key Macintosh file formats, such as PICT,
MacWrite, and MacPaint
Providing a Macintosh API to this translation tool, allowing applications develop­
ers to incorporate DDIF format storage capability directly into their products
(This capability will greatly enhance our customers' abilities to exchange
documents between systems.)

Deliverables include:
•
•
•

Translator tool (will be provided by Digital)
API to the translator tool (will be provided by Apple)
VAX-based conversion tools to move to DDIF from other VAX document formats
(will be provided by Digital)

Print Sharing and Spooling
Further leveraging our customers' investments in high-quality printing resources,
Digital's VAX/VMS systems will offer LaserWriter® print-spooling services to
AppleTalk network-based workstations. These spoo ling services will allow
Macintosh computers to print to Digital LN03R and LPS40 printers, as well as to
AppleTalk-based LaserWriter printers. Additionally, Digital will provide the capabil­
ity for VMS users to print to LaserWriter printers on AppleTalk networks. Digital's
spooler will be compatible with Apple's AppleShare Print Server, Version 2.0.
Digital will also support wide-area access to networked printer queues via its
Distributed Queue Service. Third-parties currently offer popular high-quality print
servers for Macintosh and VAX integration.
Deliverables include:
•
•

AppleShare-compliant print services on VMS (will be provided by Digital)
Support for Digital's LN03R and LPS40 printers (will be provided by Digital)

Database Access
Remote database access over the network allows Macintosh applications access to
data stored on VAX/VMS systems as though it were locally available on the desktop.
This form of data access eliminates the need for snapshot database extractions,
common in batch modes, and ensures that timely, up-to-date data is provided on
demand and in the format needed for effective decision making.
Macintosh applications' access to VAX/VMS databases will be supported in
two ways. Apple and Digital will support database access via CVl™ from Network
Innovations for Macintosh-applications access to VAX system-based relational
databases and RMS files. The CUl specification will be released in driver form by
Apple. For access to Digital's RdbNMS relational database, Apple intends to support
Digital's SQL Services by offering a client driver consistent with other SQL Services'
clients being built by Digital.
Development Platforms

Apple/Digital Development

3- 81

Cl/1 provides access to several VAX/VMS-based SQL database products
while the Macintosh client for SQL services provides optimized, high-performance
access only to Digital's RdbNMS relational database.
Deliverables include:
•
•
•
•

•

Cl/1 specifications, currently available from Network Innovations
SQL Services specifications (will be provided by Digital)
SQL server for RdbNMS (will be provided by Digital)
Cl/1 and SQL Services APis and clients for Macintosh (will be provided by
Apple)
Cl/1 server for VMS (will be provided by Apple)

Distributed Processing with Remote Procedure Calls
Apple will provide support for Digital's forthcoming Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
mechanism. RPC is a high-level mechanism for distributing computing processes
between computers on a network. This technology has the unique advantage of not
requiring the programmer to have intimate knowledge of the underlying network. In
fact, RPC provides the ability to implement facilities and services that are transparent
not only to the end-user, but also to the programmer. Well-designed
implementations of applications can be transported from platform to platform with
little change. This RPC implementation will utilize the AppleTalk-to-DECnet gateway
for its basic transport mechanism.
Implementation of this feature is scheduled for Phase II of the joint develop­
ment project.

Business Communication
Services

Messaging Architecture
Apple intends to offer a messaging service that will allow access to Digital's Mailbus
architecture and X.400 mail systems, allowing developers to integrate store and
forward messaging capabilities into their applications. Apple and Digital will publish
specifications and implementations as they become available.

Electronic Conferencing
Electronic conferencing is an application that allows multiple users to exchange
information on topics of interest. Digital's VAX Notes has proved invaluable inside
Digital as a means of discussing important topics among project team members and
as a mechanism for communicating information to a mass audience. Apple will
provide Macintosh access to VAX Notes via terminal emulation in phase one of the
joint development. At a later date, Digital and Apple will release an API for
electronic conferencing to allow developers to take advantage of this capability.

Videotex
Videotex is a networked application for broadcasting or posting information, such as
on-line reference manuals, price changes, and personnel announcements for a mass
audience. VAX/VfX is Digital's implementation of videotext which has proved to
have be valuable both inside Digital and among its customers. Apple will provide
Macintosh access to VAX/VfX via terminal emulation in phase one of the joint
development. At a later date, Digital and Apple will release an API for Videotex to
allow developers to take advantage of this capability.

Development Platforms

Apple/Digital Development

3-82

ti "

Introduction

Apple Developer Group

CL/1

As a developer, a nything that will make your applications available to another part of
the business community is seen as a tremendous boo n to your business. Cl/l™gives
Macintosh® applications access to shared data on VMS"' systems while allowing
developers l ike yourse lf to deal with the Macintosh application, not with the network
and VMS programming. In an effort to make this new connectivity language

available to the people that can put it to work, we have created this document to
introduce you to its benefits, objectives, and programming requirements.
Orientation: What Is Cl/U

Benefits of Cl/1

Objectives of Cl/1

Cl/1 is a new connectivity language that gives Macintosh applications access to data
stored in native files and databases on a host computer system. The host system may
be a Digital VAX, running VAXNMS, or it may be an IBM mainframe, running MYS
or VM/CMS, or a minicomputer running UNIX. CVl was deve loped by Network
Innovations Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Apple® Computer, Inc. The
goal of Cl/1 is to provide an open, standard host data-access language that enables
plug-and-play connectivity between desktop applications and organizational data.
As a resul� an out-of-the-box desktop application using CVl should be able to
access data on a CVl-supported host system, and to make that information an
integral part of the data available to the desktop application user.
Using Cl/1 , a desktop application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor,
can request and update host data processing (DP) data in a uniform manner,
independent of variations in network technology, host system architecture, or
database systems. The role of Cl/1 is to insulate the desktop application from these
details and differences, allowing it to concentrate, instead, on providing better
interaction between personal processing on the desktop and organizational
computing on the host system.
Instead of separate facilities for each host database and network connection, Cl/1
lets the Macintosh developer implement a single host data-access facility. With Cl/1 ,
Macintosh developers can focus on integrating host data into the Macintosh
application, instead of on network and host programming. Macintosh applications
can thus become user-friendly front ends for accessing and manipulating shared data
on the host system.
Cl/1 is an enabling technology for applications developers. Its benefit to desktop
system users comes through the desktop applications that support it. The objectives
of Cl/1 are to:
•
•

•

Development Platforms

CUI

Provide a platform for high-level access to host DP data
Provide an interface that is uniform and consistent across underlying variations

in computer networks and desktop system, host system, and DBMS
manufacturers
Build on existing standards

3-83

•

•

•

•

•

•

Support "real world" DP data sources, such as sequential and ISAM files pro­
duced by COBOL and CVl programs and hierarchical and network databases, in
addition to relational databases
Offer an architecture that will support developments such as multitasking
desktop operating systems, network coprocessors, and IAN servers, without
changing the application program's interface
Meet the data-access needs of a broad range of desktop applications from
spreadsheets and databases to word processors and hypertext packages
Present an interface that is a natural extension of the desktop operating
environment, using local types, calling conventions, and so on
Provide an open facility that can be adopted by different desktop applications
developers and DBMS, desktop system, DP hardware, and network vendors
Be naturally extensible to support other forms of host system access in the future

Market Opportunities for
CIJl-aware Applications

Cl/1 gives an entirely new reason for Macintosh owners to purchase applications:
ease of integration of host information into personal computer documents,
spreadsheets, and other files. The burden on the MIS department to create special
extract files, download procedures, and other special-case facilities for personal
computers will be greatly reduced as Cl/1-capable applications utilize standard
facilities to interoperate with the host-processing environment. Cl/1 will help
change the paradigm of host access from simple terminal emulation to more
sophisticated integration between desktop and mainframe. As end users realize the
power that this change brings to them, applications that include Cl/1 will become
the preferred purchases of many corporations.
In the first half of 1990, the Cl/1 client interface will become fully integrated
into the Macintosh Toolbox, and as such, will become part of every Macintosh
system, allowing client access to Cl/1 services at no additional charge. The imbed­
ded Cl/1 client interface was discussed during the 1989 Spring Developers' Confer­
ence and is known as the Database Manager. The Cl/1 server will be sold by host
computer manufacturers, or the server API will be imbedded into host database
systems, in addition to direct sales of the Cl/1 server by Network Innovations and
Apple. Consequently, over time Cl/1 will become widely available from many
sources.
Cl/1 will become a standard mechanism for developers to utilize across
platforms to provide host data access. In addition to the Macintosh, CL/1 will be
available for MS-DOS, and OS/2 client environments. Host database systems that will
be supported by Cl/1 included DB2 and SQVDS on IBM systems, RDB and flat files
on Digital VAX/VMS systems, and Oracle, Ingres, Informix and Sybase database
servers. Clearly, this capability will provide applications developers with competitive
advantages, as well as new challenges, to maintain the Macintosh user interface in a
world where data can come from any host, anywhere.

How You Win: Cl)l
Development Opportunities

You win by providing Cl/1 access directly within your application. Immediately,
your program is transformed from a stand-alone application dependent on traditional
means for data entry and access to one that can proactively access data on host
computers and database systems with Cl/1 servers. The end user continues to use
the same familiar application, only in a new more powerful way.

Development Plati>rms

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3-84

This means that you can "free associate" your application design incorporat­
ing Cl/1 . Almost any category of business activity performed on personal computers
today can be enhanced through access to host computer data. What's more, though
the host data originates from the data center, users' interactions with and manipula­
tion of the data maintains the personal experience between users and their business
needs.
One of the best examples of a Cl/1 application would be a form of an
Executive Information System (EIS). Today, while EIS products exist for other
computers, they usually require an intermediate data-extraction process from the
corporate mainframe into a different database system before the volumes of data can
be processed into information that an executive can use. With Cl/1 , an EIS can
circumvent this time-consuming process, reduce the workload on the host computer
system, and make the data that an executive uses much more timely.
Apple wants developers of virtually all categories and types of applications
to consider CUl carefully in their development plans. In the latter part of 1989,
Apple and Network Innovations will provide Developer Technical Support, devel­
oper documentation, marketing support, and toolkits to those developers who
accept the challenge and opportunities that Cl/1 provides.
Required Development
Configurations, Tools, and
Documentation

To develop Cl/1-aware applications for the Macintosh, you will need the equipment
and documentation listed below:

Apple Equipment
•

•

Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or
Macintosh Ilcx computer with System File 6.0 or higher to act as the client
system.
Appropriate hardware and software for a network supported by CUl for the
client Macintosh system.
Access to a host computer with a Cl/1 server and with a database management
system and networking software supported by CUl . An alternative is to set up
your own host system by using a Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or Macintosh Ilcx
with the A/UX® operating system and appropriate networking hardware. A CL/1
server and sample database system for A/UX will be available from Network In­
novations.

1he

CI/1 Developer's Toolkitfor Macintosh (available late 1989)

•

•

One BOOK disk with CUl Developer's Toolkit for Macintosh software that
includes: CL/1 Device Driver and Installer; C and Pascal call libraries; interactive
CUl tester; sample application with source code; and Cl/1 for HyperCard®
XCMDs and XFCNs
CUl Connectivity Language Description
A royalty-free distribution license for CL/1 Driver and Driver Installer

1he

CI/1 Developer's Toolkitfor MS-DOS (available late 1989)

•

One 3.5-inch or two 5.25-inch disks with Cl/1 Developer's Toolkit for MS-DOS
software that includes: Cl/1 TSR program and TSR installer; Microsoft C call
library; interactive CL/1 tester; and sample application with source code

•

•

Development Platrorms

Cl/I

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•
•

CUl Connectivity Language description
A royalty-free distribution license for CUl TSR program and CUl TSR installer

Related Documentation and Software , available from APDA...
•

•

Macintosh Applications with
CUl

AppleTalk® Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) is available through the Apple
Software licensing group; if you want to review features and functionality before
licensing, a preliminary note for ADSP is available
EtherTa/k™ and Alternate Apple Talk Connection Reference

With CUl , Macintosh applications can:
•
•
•
•
•

Determine what databases are available on the host system
Determine the structure of the host database
Query databases to retrieve data from the host system
Insert, delete, and update data in the host database
Use database facilities for transaction commit and rollback

The network connection between the Macintosh and host systems can be a
direct or dial-up serial connection, over a network using ADSP. CUl insulates
Macintosh client applications from variations in networks, in host operating systems,
and in host database management systems.
Architecture

CUl is a distributed processing facility with a client/server architecture. The key
components of a complete CUl installation are as follows:
•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Client application - User of CUl services, such as a spreadsheet, word
processor, or user-written application.
CIJJ AP! CUl Applications Program Interface is the client application's point
of contact with CUl . The API receives CUl requests from the client application
and returns the results to the client application.
Client system - Computer system in which the client application executes CUl
will be available for the Macintosh, IBM PC, and UNIX workstations.
Network Physical connection and protocols that link the client system to the
host system. CUl is an applications-level (Layer 7) facility that can use a variety
of lower-level protocols, such as the ADSP, DECnet™, 3270 data stream, APPC,
TCP/IP, or named pipes.
Host system - Computer system containing the DP data to which the client
application desires access.
CIJJ Seroer - CUl software that executes on the host system on behalf of the
client application, carrying out its requests subject to host security and integrity
constraints.
Host DBMS - Host database management software that manages and stores the
data which is to be accessed by the client application. Cl/1 works through
existing DBMS, taking advantage of their data access techniques, facilities, and
performance.
-

-

Runtime Environment

CUl presents a coprocessing model of operation to its client application. The client
application "sees" a CVl runtime environment on the other side of the CUl API,
which acts as the applications connectivity agent. The application sends requests

Development Platforms

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across the API and receives back upon demand the results, if any, of those requests.
To the client application, the Cl/1 runtime environment appears to operate in
parallel, as if it had its own processor with its own access to various networks, host
systems, and host data sources. Control is immediately returned back to the client
application, which can proceed with other work.
The coprocessing model used by Cl/1 provides great flexibility in the
underlying implementation. On desktop systems with limited resources, the runtime
environment can be provided almost entirely by the Cl/1 server on the host system,
with the client system acting only as a means to forward and receive messages. In a
more powerful desktop environment, the Cl/1 runtime environment can be provided
locally, making requests of the host server only when host data is specifically
required. The model could also be implemented using an actual coprocessor to
provide the Cl/1 runtime environment, with the advantage of parallelism.
Basic Elements

Cl/1 has the same basic elements found in programming languages such as C or
Pascal. The structure of Cl/1 is strongly influenced by the statement orientation of
SQL, which forms the basis of its data manipulation facilities; indeed, all Cl/1
statements have an SQL style, with an initial verb, one or more English-like clauses,
and a statement terminator.

More Features

Cl/1 provides much more than just a mechanism to allow applications to connect to
database systems. It includes:

Automatic data translation
Cl/1 includes automatic data translation when transferring data between the client
(workstation) and server (host) systems. The language supports a set of standard
data types that are used to represent all data manipulated by Cl/1 programs. Data
from a host source is automatically mapped into these standard data types when data
is accessed. Descriptions of the host data source are also expressed in terms of the
standard Cl/1 types.
Unifonn error handling
Cl/1 provides uniform error handling for all supported host data sources. All errors
are mapped into a standard set of Cl/1 error codes, which are presented to the client
application by the CVl APL The runtime environment offers two styles of error
handHng: one requires the application to handle the situation-the Cl/1 program
aborts; the other continues execution of Cl/1-Cl/1 handles the error and any
required recovery (the client application actually may never know that an error took
place).
Unifonn models
Cl/1 presents the client application with a uniform model of the host access,
database organization, and database structure. The CUl server is responsible for
presenting each supported host DBMS, host system, and network in terms of this
model. The objects described below hostname, DBMS brand, database, tables,
rows, columns, and linkse�are manipulated by Cl/1 language statements to
perform the connectivity tasks specified by the client application.
Multiple hosts, identified by hostname, may exist in the network. If the
client has sufficient capacity, it may itself be a host system.
-

Development Platforms

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Together with the hosts, one or more host DBMS systems, identified as
DBMS brand, may be accessible. The DBMS brand may be an Oracle database, or it
may be a set of DP tools that together provide DBMS functionality (such as RMS,
CDD, and Datatrieve under VAX/VMS). For each DBMS brand on each host, zero or
more databases are available.
A database consists of one or more named tab/es which contain its data,
organized into rows and columm. Each row of a table has the same column structure
as the other rows. Each column of a table has a name and an associated data type.
Finally, a database may also contain one or more linksets, which specify
one-to-many directed relationships between pairs of tables. Llnksets represent the
implicit relationships that carry essential data in hierarchical databases, such as IBM's
IMS, and network (CODASYL) databases, such as VAX DBMS.

Security and integrity of host data
CVl maintains the security and integrity of host data by operating under the facilities
provided by the host operating system and DBMS software.
On the host system, the CVl server operates as a user-level process, subject
to the same security restrictions as other user-level host applications. CVl similarly
operates under the data-integrity constraints imposed by the host system and DBMS
software. If a CUl client application attempts to modify host data in a way that
would violate a database integrity constraint, the DBMS error caused by the attempt
is reported back to the client application by CVl , and the data is not modified. In
addition, the CUl ROLLBACK and COMMIT statements provide access to the
transaction-based integrity features provided by the host DBMS. Because CVl
operates under existing host and DBMS security and integrity schemes, it introduces
no new host security or integrity requirements.

Development PlatfOrms

Cl/1

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tJ,")

Introduction

Apple Developer Group

MacTCP

MacTCP.... is Apple's software-driver implementation of TCP/IP (fransmission Control
ProtocoVInternet Protocol) for the Macintosh® operating system. TCP/IP is a widely
used industry standard for connecting rnultivendor computers. MacTCP is intended
to be the standard for Macintosh developers of TCP/IP applications. With MacTCP
software, you can create Macintosh applications for network environments that use
TCP/IP protocols, enabling the Macintosh to communicate with such diverse systems
as IBM, Digital Equipment, Sun, and Apollo computers. MacTCP conforms to
Internet RFCs and MIL-S1Ds, offers manual, server, and dynamic addressing modes,
and has an Administrator Dialog (accessed from the Control Panel) to facilitate con­
figuration and management.
Although Apple is not in the TCP/IP applications business, the company
wants to make TCP/IP development possible, so that Macintosh computers can
operate with computers from other vendors. A very large installed base uses TCP/IP,
and MacTCP gives developers the opportunity to develop applications that will bring
the power and benefits of the Macintosh to these computer users.

Overview

TCP/IP development began when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) wanted more reliable communications protocols on the ARPANET, its
packet-switched wide area network. DARPA initiated a research project to define
and implement a suite of protocols, and its researchers developed TCP/IP. Eventu­
ally, TCP/IP became the standard protocol suite used on DARPA Internet, a collec­
tion of networks that includes the ARPANET, Mil.NET (Military Network), NSFnet
(National Science Foundation Network), and other networks at universities, research
institutions, and military installations. Since then, hundreds of vendors have devel­
oped products that support TCP/IP, and all kinds of networks use it.

Features

The MacTCP driver includes the following features:
•

•
•
•

•

C and assembly-language inte1faces that provide programmers with a familiar
development environment.
Coresidency with AppleTalk® protocols, preserving full access to them.
Address-configuration maintenance done by means of the Control Panel.
Speed-Throughput has been measured at 3.0 megabits per second memory to
memory on a Macintosh II over Ethernet.
A domain name resolver that maps domain names to internet addresses; the
domain name resolver is compatible with domain name server implementations
that comply with RFC (Internet Request for Comments) 1034 and 1035.

Development Opportunities

The primary focus for MacTCP and third-party TCP/IP applications is the engineer­
ing, government, and higher-education markets. By creating a TCP/IP software
driver for the Macintosh operating system, Apple has made available a standard, fully
supported platform for developers.

Development Platforms

MacTCP

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Third-party development opportunities using MacTCP exist in the following
areas: electronic mail, virtual terminal, file transfer, remote printing, and database
access. Many applications written for UNIX take advantage of network communica­
tions with TCP/IP. You can create a File Transfer Application (FTP) to transfer files
between a UNIX host "speaking" TCP/IP and an AppleShare® server "speaking"
AppleTalk. These applications might be useful in areas, such as calendar manage­
ment and electronic mail, or they might be developed for a specific industry, such as
commodities exchange. MacTCP lets you develop a Macintosh application that will
communicate with other systems that understand only TCP/IP .

Development TooJs and
Documentation

·

To develop applications using MacTCP, you will need the following equipment,
software, and documentation:

Apple Equipment and Software
MacTCP runs over both Ethernet and LocalTalk™ cabling systems and can be installed
on the following Apple equipment:
•

•

•

Macintosh 512K Enhanced, Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30,
Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh IIcx computer connected to a Local­
Talk network or Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30,Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh Ilcx computer with an EtherTalk,.,. Interface Card and EtherTalk
software installed andconnected to an Ethernet network.
MacTCP software, available with internal-use and commercial-use licenses from
Apple's Software licensing Department. An evaluation kit is available from
APDA™.
Macintosh system software version 6.0.3 or later for the MacintoshPlus, Macin­
tosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh Hex com­
puter. Macintosh system software version 3.4 for the Macintosh 512K Enhanced
computer.

Note: A HyperCard® MacTCP Toolkit will be available in the near future
with MacTCP XCMDs. Check your APDA!og.

Documentation
The following documentation is included with MacTCP software:
•

•

MacTCP Programmer's Guide - Discusses in detail the operation of the driver
and the application's program interface to the driver
MacTCP Administrator's Guide - Describes how to install and operate the
MacTCP driver on a range of machines, from the Macintosh 5 1 2K Enhanced to
the Macintosh II family of computers

The following documentation is available from APDA:
•
•

Inside AppleTa/k - a complete description of the AppleTalk Network System
EtherTa/k User's Guide - describes how to install software for an EtherTalk
Interface Card

Recommended reading
Internetworking with TCP/IP, Douglas Comer, 1988; available at your local bookstore
Development Platforms

MacTCP

3-90

MacTCP and TCP/IP Protocols

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol) are the best known of
the TCP/IP family of protocols-hence the name-however, a number of other
protocols are also in the family. MacTCP offers TCP/IP services (IP, UDP, TCP, and
domain name mapping) to applications. For example, a Telnet application for
remote terminal service over a TCP/IP network would call MacTCP.
TCP, IP, and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provide basic transmission
facilities that are augmented by application services in higher-level protocols such as
Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The
following is a brief description of each:
•

•

•

Internet Protocol (IP) - As the fundamental protocol of the family, IP handles
routing data in packets called datagrams based on destination address. IP
accepts segments of data from TCP or UDP, places the data in datagrams, and
determines the correct paths for the datagrams to take.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - As TCP provides reliable transmission of
data between processes, it ensures that data is delivered error free, without loss
or duplication, and in sequence.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - This protocol provides unreliable transmission
of data between processes because, unlike TCP, it does not provide error
checking; it does not acknowledge that data has been successfully received; and
it does not order incoming messages. The advantage of UDP is that the over­
head associated with establishing and maintaining an error-free TCP session is
avoided.

The following are application service protocols:
•

•

•

Telnet- a remote-access protocol that allows a terminal on one host to appear as
if it were directly connected to a remote host on an internet. Telnet also makes a
personal computer act like a terminal.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - used to transfer files across an internet. A host
can connect to a remote host on an internet and send or receive files, list
directories, and execute simple commands.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) - transfers electronic-mail messages from
one host to another, across an internet.

Network Environment

As mentioned above, MacTCP runs over both LocalTalk and Ethernet cabling
systems. MacTCP is coresident with AppleTalk protocols, so there can be concur­
rent TCP/IP and AppleTalk operation. For example, MacTCP can be run while a
print job goes out to an Apple® LaserWriter® printer over LocalTalk cabling. Ap­
pleTalk and MacTCP can run over the same medium, or one protocol can run over
one medium while the other protocol runs over a different media. This allows for
flexible workstation configurations.

DDP-IP Gateways

To connect Macintosh computers using LocalTalk to other computers using Ethernet,
a DDP-IP gateway must be used. This device takes a TCP/IP packet that is encapsu­
lated in DDP (an AppleTalk protocol) and converts it to Ethernet format. DDP-IP
gateways can also assign addresses to MacTCP nodes and handle routing to other
networks.

Development Platrorms

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3-9 1

The DDP-IP gateway should be located in the same AppleTalk zone as the
Macintosh computer running MacTCP. Alternatively, a single DDP-IP gateway can
support Macintosh computers in multiple AppleTalk zones; in this case, the zone
where the DDP-IP gateway resides must be selected by the user using the MacTCP
Control Panel.

Development Platforms

MacTCP

3-9 2

•�)

Apple Developer Group
MacWorkstation

Introduction

MacWorkStation™is a developer's tool that brings together the ease of use of the
Macintosh user interface and the power of host programs. Its ability to operate over
any supported communications protocol makes access to information truly transpar­
ent. For the user, this means access to windows, pull-down menus, dialog boxes,
and other Macintosh®user-interface features. Additionally, the introduction of
version 3.1 brought new tasks, including local filing, printing, editing, and managing
desk accessories (which is handled by the Macintosh), under control of the host
application.
All of this is possible without having to program a traditional Macintosh
appplication to create the standard user interface. Instead, MacWorkStation offers a
common set of routines that allows any host application to create a Macintosh user
interface.

MacWorkStation Overview

Providing the user interface, printing, and file services, MacWorkStation is a Macin­
tosh server application to remote or local network host (client) applications. Client
applications may reside on host computers, such as Digital Equipment VAX™systems
or IBM 370s, or on the same computer as MacWorkStation. The product provides
client applications full access to and control over windows, pull-down menus, dialog
boxes, and other features of the standard Macintosh user interface, by means of a
high-level APL MacWorkStation handles all local processing between the user, desk
accessories, Clipboard, and user-interface objects created by the host application.
This reduces the levels of host processing necessary to maintain a graphics-based
user interface and also reduces network-messaging traffic.
To use MacWorkStation, new or existing applications must send commands
to MacWorkStation running on the Macintosh. Depending upon the commands sent
by the host software, MacWorkStation will build and maintain menus, windows, lists,
and other objects. The MacWorkStation software running on the Macintosh will also
handle all local editing, printing, and filing. MacWorkStation's unique ability to
operate with a variety of communications protocols is due to the low-level communi­
cations services that are provided by Macintosh code segments, which are added to
MacWorkStation at run time.

Standard Features of
MacWorkStation

•

•

•

Development Platfurms

Graphics support
RGB color is supported in alerts, cursors, dialog boxes, dialog items, patterns,
pictures, text, and windows. The MacWorkStation version 3.1 graphics director
provides faster redrawing and scrolling of complex pictures.
HFS and AppleShare support
MacWorkStation version 3.1 fully supports Hierarchical File System calls. In
order to support AppleShare®file server directories and files, permission values
can be set and retrieved, and byte ranges in a file can be locked.
Improved list management
The list director has been extended to provide field-level editing in addition to
the record-level editing provided in older versions of MacWorkStation. The

MacWorkStation

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•

•

remote application can read only those records that have been modified. The
host program can specify that records be sorted in either ascending or descend­
ing order, based on any field or combination of fields. The sort can also be done
by a local menu command.
Improved error detection at the presentation level
MacWorkStation version 3.1 provides optional command and parameter syntax
checking. The host program can specify what action should be taken if any
errors are encountered in the command data stream.
Event locking and unlocking
The host can change a cursor to the watch symbol, indicating that data is being
processed. MacWorkStation will then go into an event lock state until the host
program sends another message.

How MacWorkStation Works

MacWorkStation relies on a set of elements called directors. Directors have the local
intelligence to maintain and support the local user interface without the need for the
host or host programmer to have Macintosh programming expertise. The window
director will build and maintain windows for the host application without the host
programrrx: r or application realizing how it's done. The window can be resized,
saved to disk, and moved without host interaction. Only when certain important
events happen to that object will an event message be sent back to the host.
The director messages have been designed to be compact, and easily
learned and implemented on any host platform. Even at 1 200 baud, a host applica­
tion can build a graphic interactive user interface that looks and feels like a local
application. By using the MultiFinder™ environment, it's even possible to cut and
paste data seamlessly between a local application and a remote application. Data
placed into text, list, and graphics windows can be saved to local files in standard
data formats. Director commands for all standard Macintosh objects include the
following: windows, dialogs, graphics, texts, lists, menus, and files. These directors
are grouped into categories called director suites, which are very easy to learn and
implement.

Designing Host Applications

MacWorkStation applications differ from traditional terminal-oriented programs,
which restrict the user to line-Oriented terminal interface. In a MacWorkStation
program, the user can choose a menu command or select a different window, which
may cause an entirely different menu bar to appear.
Developing a MacWorkStation application is much like developing a
· traditional terminal-oriented application. Each message is sent to MacWorkStation as
if it were a line to a terminal screen. The command is read by MacWorkStation
which builds, maintains, or deletes a local object. Events are sent back to the host
like data from a terminal. No new input/output procedures need to be learned by
the host programmer.
MacWorkStation uses a communications system that dynamically loads and
runs communications modules. As a developer, you can create special protocol
modules for your specific host-computer environment. These protocol modules can
then be placed in your MacWorkStation documents and called by the Communica­
tions Command Language (CCL) script.

Development Platforms

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You can create a transport protocol module by using the Macintosh
Programmer's Workshop (MPWj development environment. The steps usually
involved in this procedure include compilation of the module source, linking with
any support libraries, and then using ResEdit,,.(or a similar program) to place the
resulting transport-layer protocol module resource into your MacWorkStation
document.

Architecture

A variety of networks can be used with MacWorkStation, including serial, SNA,
AppleTalk� and Ethernet. This makes it possible to share computers, terminals, files,
printers, modems, software, and electronic mail, as well as other resources, among
network users. The communications modules are responsible for ensuring that
MacWorkStation never knows what type of communications network or host it is
receiving messages from.
Apple provides 1TY and AppleTalk communications modules. Source code
for communications modules is also provided for third parties to build additional
modules. Communication modules are easy to design and code using Pascal and can
be "plugged" into MacWorkStation using ResEdit.
The Communication Command language (CCL) provides a method of
accessing the host. The CCL script can be as simple as one line ("use the AppleTalk
communications module") or very long and complex; for example, accessing a host
over a public packet-switch network with passwords and access codes. Once the
host is accessed, control is passed over to a communications module that passes
director messages back and forth between the host and the main MacWorkStation
module.
Another important component in MacWorkStation is the external code
segment called Execs. An Exec is an object code segment that can be written in any
compilable 68000 language and dropped into a MacWorkStation document using
ResEdit,,. application. Execs have total access to the Toolbox Manager and may also
issue any of the director commands. Execs capture all communications from and to
the host and the MacWorkStation main program, thus allowing additional custom
protocols to be built. The Exec feature makes MacWorkStation highly flexible for a
wide variety of needs and increases the ability for the host application to offload
even additional processing to the local environment.

Equipment and
Documentation

Apple Equipment
•

•

Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilcx, Macintosh IIx, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, or
Macintosh Plus with a minimum of 1 megabyte of RAM
MacWorkStation version 3.1-single-user versions are available from APDA,,.;
organizationwide licenses are available from Apple's Software Llcensing Group

Documentation
The following documentation is available from APDA:

Development Platrorms

•

MacWorkStation version 3.1 Documentation Kit-includes the MacWorkStation
Programmer's Guide and the Mac WorkStation Programmers Reference

•

AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP); preliminary note

MacWorkStation

3-95

Development Tools
The following development tools are available from APDA:
•
•

Macintosh Programmer's Workshop (MPW)
ResEdit

Conclusion

The MacWorkStation product is a revolutionary technology that provides for true
distributed user-interface functionality. Any host program running on any computer
can now have the same look and feel on a Macintosh as local Macintosh applications.
This simple and elegant solution provides the additional benefits of reducing host­
CPU and network communications loads.

Development Platforms

MacWorkStation

3-9 6

S,")

Apple Developer Group

Apple Cable Compatibility

The following is a list of Apple cables, with product numbers and descriptions for
each. The purpose of this list is to assist you in configuring your Macintosh® and
Apple® II computers with the proper cable connections.

SCSI cables

LocalTalk cables

For further information on SCSI cables, see the note on the Apple SCSI Cable System
following this note.

Part No.
M0206

cable
SCSI System Cable

Description
Connects CPU to first SCSI device.

M0207

SCSI Peripheral Interface
Cable

Connects any two SCSI peripherals
together.

M0208

SCSI Cable Extender

1-meter extension for longer cable
connections between SCSI devices.

M0209

SCSI Cable Terminator

Filters noise on SCSI cabling. One
terminator is required between each
CPU and the first (and last) SCSI
peripheral.

LocalTalkTM cables and connectors allow you to connect your computer to other
computers and peripheral devices in an AppleTalk® network system. An AppleTalk
network system has three components: a cable system that links devices; software,
built into every Macintosh® and Apple®IIGS computer, that supports the network;
and optional services such as Apple's LaserWriter® printers and AppleShareTMfile
servers that network devices can share.
LocalTalk can support as many as 32 devices, including computers, printers,
and file servers. You can exchange information between devices at speeds up to
230,400 bits per second. This is almost 200 times faster than the data transfer rate
between devices using 1 200 baud modems.

Part No.
M2068

Development Platforms

cable
LocalTalkTM Locking
Connector Kit-DIN-8

Apple Cable Compatibility

Description
Includes one 2-meter LocalTalk connector
with minicircular-8 connector, and one
cable extender for Apple IIGs®, Macintosh
Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh 11, and the
LaserWriter®IINT and IINTX printers. (To
operate LaserWriter IINT or LaserWriter
IINTX with Apple IIGS, Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II, order
two of Part No. M2068. To operate
LaserWriter IINT or IINTX with Macintosh
51 2K, order Part No. M2065 and Part No.
M2068.)
3-97

Printer/Modem Cables

Development Platrorms

M2065

LocalTalk Locking Connector Includes one LocalTalk connector with
Kit-DB9
plug, one 2-meter LocalTalk cable, and
one cable extender for Macintosh 512K
and the LocalTalk PC Card.

M2066

LocalTalk Locking Cable
Kit-10 meter

Contains 10 meters of cable (approx. 40
ft.) and one cable extender.

M2069

LocalTalk Cable Kit-25
meter

Contains 25 meters of LocalTalk cable,
(approx. 85 ft.).

M2070

LocalTalk Custom Wiring Kit Contains 100 meters of LocalTalk cable,
20 preassembled plugs, 20 splice boxes,
and 4 cable extenders (approx. 400 ft.).

Part No.
A9C0314

Cable
Apple II Printer-8 Cable

Description
Connects an Image Writer® II printer to a
Super Serial Card on Apple Ile; or an
ImageWriter LQ to an Apple Ile. Will also
connect third party modems with 25-pin
RS-232 serial ports to the Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II.

A2C4313

Apple Ile Peripheral-8
Cable

Connects an ImageWriter II or LQ printer,
or an Apple Personal Modem to the Apple
Ile.

M0197

Apple System
Peripheral-8 Cable

Connects an Image Writer II or LQ printer
or Apple Personal Modem to the Apple
IIGS, Apple Ile Plus, (and AppleFax,,.
Modem), Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE,
or Macintosh II.

A9M0333 Apple IIGS Adapter

This adapter (circular-8 to DB-25) will
enable use of peripherals and cables that
require a DB-25 when connected to the
Apple IIGS built-in serial port.

M0196

Macintosh Peripheral-8
Cable

Connects the ImageWriter II printer or
Apple Personal Modem to the Macintosh
51 2K.

M0199

Macintosh Plus Peripheral
Adapter

This adapter (circular-8 to DB-9) will
enable use of peripherals and cables that
require a DB-9 when connected to a
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh II.

Apple Cable Compatibility

3-9 8

ti.")

Apple Developer Group

Apple SCSI Cable System

This document provides a description of the Apple SCSI cable System and includes
diagrams of its four components. This information will help you connect a SCSI
device to your Macintosh® or Apple® II computer with the correct SCSI cable configu­
rations.
What Is the Apple SCSI Cable
System?

Four Components of the SCSI
Cable System

The Apple SCSI Cable System gives you a fast, flexible, and expandable way to
connect SCSI peripherals to your Macintosh computer with a built-in SCSI port, or to
your Apple II equipped with an SCSI interface card.
SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface. Developed by engineers
from many companies working together through the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI), it is a recently adopted standard.
Its primary benefit is speed. With SCSI, you can send and retrieve data
roughly five times faster than you can with the serial interface that is generally used
for connecting printers and modems to your computer.
You get expandability, too. The Apple SCSI Cable System lets you attach as
many as seven SCSI peripherals to your Macintosh with a built-in SCSI port, or up to
four SCSI peripherals to your Apple II equipped with an SCSI card. You just "daisy
chain" the devices together, using cables to hook one to the next along the chain.
And thanks to the Cable Extender, you can make the links of your chain quite long­
up to a maximum of 21 feet, or roughly 7 meters.
•

Apple SCSI System Cable - Plugs into the built-in SCSI port on your Macintosh, or
into a SCSI card on your Apple II. Included with the cable is a manual that
explains how to install your cable system and connect your SCSI peripherals.

Apple II (equipped
with SCSI card) or

E3

System Cabie

SCSI Peripheral
Device

--

SCSI

Peripheral Interface
Cable

Peripheral
Device
Cable Extender -

Macintosh (with
built-in SCSI port)
SCSI

Development Platforms

Apple SCSI Cable System

Peripheral
Device

3-99

•

Apple SCSI Cable Terminator - Filters out unwanted signals or noise along your
SCSI cables. You'll need either one or two terminators, depending on the
configuration of your SCSI bus. You can have no more than two terminators in
the entire SCSI chain, however, because it might damage your computer. If
more than one of the non-Apple devices in the chain has a built-in terminator,
remove that terminator or have your authorized Apple dealer remove it. For
further explanation of proper terminator positioning, consult your manual.

The following information may help you determine how to position terminators
when configuring your Apple systemc;:
•

•

•

•

CPU with an internal hard disk connected to a single external Apple device­
Add a terminator between the SCSI cable and the SCSI connector on the external
Apple device.
CPU with no internal hard disk connected to a single external Apple device­
Add a terminator between the SCSI cable and the SCSI connector on the external
Apple device.
CPU with internal hard disk connected to multiple external Apple devices-Add
a terminator between the SCSI cable and the SCSI connector on the last device
in the chain.
CPU with no internal hard disk connected to multiple external Apple devices-­
Add a terminator between the SCSI cable and the SCSI connector on the first
external Apple devicein the chain; then add a terminator between the SCSI
cable and the SCSI connector on the last device in the chain.

Apple II (equipped
with SCSI car � Lockmg c.bl< Kft

(M2066)

Loca!Talk Locking Connector KitDIN-8 (M2o68)

i::i c

�Liii!iiiii! Ea
i

I
Loca!Talk Locking Connector KitDIN-8 (M2o68)

Necessary Cables:

Part Number
M2068

Cable
LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit-DIN-8

Description
One connector kit per device is
required; for example, for this
configuration, you should order two
connector kits. The connector kit
includes one 2-meter LocalTalk
Connector, and one cable extender.
Use this kit for the Apple IIGS�
Macintosh® Plus, the Macintosh SE,
the Macintosh SE/30, the Macintosh II
family of computers, the laserWriter®
IINT and the LaserWriter IINTX
printers, and the ImageWriter® II and
Image Writer LQ printers, with the
LocalTalk Option Card. The Laser­
Writer Plus will require a nine pin
connector (DB-9).

M2o66

LocalTalk Locking
Cable Kit-10 Meter

Additional cable for connecting
equipment that is not close together;
contains 10 meters of cable and one
cable extender.

Note: The LaserWriter Ilse is a single-user laser printer that does not have built-in
networking capabilties. To connect the LaserWriter Ilse to a Macintosh requires the
appropriate SCSI cable.
Development Platforms

LocalTalk Cable Connections

3- 102

Connecting More Than One
Macintosh to a LaserWriter
Printer

D

D

D

Loca!Talk Locking Connector Kits--DIN-8 (M2o68)
Loca!Talk Locking Connector Kit-DIN-8 (M2o68)
Loca!Talk Locking Connector Kits--DIN-8 (M2o68)

D

D

Loca!Talk Locking Connector Kit (M2066)

D

Necessary Cables:

Development Platforms

Part Number
M2068

cable
LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kits-DIN-8

Description
One connector kit per device is
required; for example, for this
configuration, you would need
to order seven connector kits.
(Most Macintosh computers and the
LaserWriter printers require an 8-pin
mini-circular plug.)

M2066

Loca!Talk Locking
Cable Kit-10 Meter

Additional cable for connecting
equipment that is not close together;
contains 10 meters of cable and one
cable extender.

LocalTalk Cable Connections

3-10 3

D

Connecting Macintosh
Computers and a PC­
Compatible Computer to a
Printer

LocalTalk Locking Connector Kit-DIN-8 (M2068)

Macintosh SE

l.oca!Talk Locking Cable Kit (M2066)

D

Macintosh Ilcx

D
--+ ImageWriter IVLQ LocalTalk Option (A9B0314)

I.oca!Talk PC and AppleShare PC bundle (B0040LVB)

,..

11111111111

I

LocalTalk Locking Connector Kit-DB-9 (M2065)

PC-Compatible

Necessary Cables:

Development Platforms

Part Number
M2068

cable
LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kits-DIN-8

Description
One connector kit per device is
required; for example, for this
configuration, you would need to
order five connector kits.

M2065

LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kits-DB-9

One connector kit is needed per
device; for example, for this configu­
ration, you would order one DB-9
connector kit. (The IBM or PC
compatible requires a 9-pin plug.)

LocalTalk Cable Connections

3-104

Development Platforms

Description (continued)
Additional cable for connecting
equipment that is not close together;
contains 10 meters of cable and one
cable extender.

Part Number
M2066

cable
LocalTalk Locking
Cable Kit-10 Meter

M2069

LocalTalk Locking
Cable Kit-25 Meter

Contains 25 rreters of cable and one
cable extender.

A9B0314

ImageWriter II LocalTalk
Option Card

A card that fits into a slot inside the
printer, providing the hardware and
firmware needed for the ImageWriter
printer to work on the AppleTalk
network.

B0040Ll/B

LocalTalk PC Card

A card that fits into the IBM or PC
compatible that lets you connect to
the AppleTalk network; it is bundled
with AppleShare® PC software.

Loca!Talk Cable Connections

3- 1 0 5

ti

Apple Developer Group

K)

Hardware Configurations for Apple IIGS
and Macintosh Development Tools

Below are the minimum requirements and recommended configurations for
development using Apple's Apple IIGS® and Macintosh® development tools .

Apple II� Development Tools

APW 1.0 Family
Including APW™ Development Environment, APW Assembler, and APW C.
•

•

Required hardware - Apple IIGS with at least 1 .25 megabytes of RAM, and two
3 .5-inch drives or one 3.5-inch drive and a hard disk.
Recommended hardware - Apple IIGS with at least 1 .75 megabytes of RAM , two
3.5-inch drives and a hard disk.

MPW JIGS Family

Including MPW™IIGS Tools 1 .0, MPW llGS Assembler 1 .0, MPW llGS C 1 .0.1 , and
MPW IIGS Pascal 1 .0Bl .
•
•

•

Macintosh Development Tools

Required software - MPW 2.0.2 or later. For MPW requirements, see below.
Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh Hex with a hard disk and at least 1 megabyte of
RAM. An Apple llGS computer for testing your software is also required.
Recommended hardware - Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh Hex with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of RAM; 4 megabytes of
RAM for development of large programs (since the Llnker is entirely RAM­
resident, more than 2 megabytes of RAM may be required by large programs).

MPW 3.0 Family
Including MPW Development Environment, MPW SADEn.: MPW Assembler, MPW
Pascal, and MPW C.
•

•

Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh !Ix, or Macintosh IICX with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of
RAM
Recommended hardware - Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh IICX with a hard disk and at least 4 megabytes of RAM.
.

MPW 2.0.2 Family
Including MPW Development Environment, MPW Assembler, MPW Pascal, and
MPW C.
•

•

Development Platforms

Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh !Ix, or Macintosh Hex with a hard disk and at least 1 megabyte of
RAM .
Recommended hardware - Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh IIcx with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of RAM.

Hardware Configurations For Apple !IGS and Macintosh Development Tools

3- 1 06

MacApp® 2. 0B5
•

•

•

Required software - MPW 2.0.2 and MPW Pascal 2.0.2, or later. For MPW re­
quirements, see previous page.
Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh Ilcx with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of

RAM
Recommended hardware - Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh Ilx, or
Macintosh Ilcx with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of RAM

MacApp 1 . 1 . 1
•

Required software - MPW 2.0.2 and MPW Pascal 2.0.2. For MPW requirements,

•

see above
Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh IIcx with a hard disk and at least 1 megabyte of

•

RAM
Recommended hardware Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or
.

-

Macintosh Ilcx with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of RAM.
Macintosh Allegro Common Lisp v. 1.2.2
Including the Foreign Function Interface and the Stand-Alone Application Generator.
•

•

Required hardware - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh
II, Macintosh Ilx, or Macintosh IIcx with a second BOOK disk drive and at least 1
megabyte of RAM .
Recommended hardware - Macintosh SE/30, Macintosh II, Macintosh IIx, or
Macintosh IIcx with a hard disk and at least 2 megabytes of RAM
.

How to Acquire Apple
Development Tools

Development Platforms

You can purchase Apple development tools from APDA™. Apple Partners and
Associates receive the APDA catalog, APDAlog, on a regular basis. APDA can be
reached at 1-800-282-2732.

Hardware Configurations For Apple !IGS and Macintosh Development Tools

3-1 07

'

\

S,_•)

Apple Developer Group

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

The Developer Technical Support (DTS) group exists to make third-party software
and hardware development easier and more straightforward. Third-party developers
face many challenges, so we provide a wide variety of technical services.

We write Technical Notes

Technical Notes are detailed technical documentation written by DTS to expand
upon and clarify Apple's technical documentation. They also document bugs in
Apple® software, hardware, and documentation. Thes� Notes address questions
commonly asked by developers, so reading them early may save you time and exas­
peration later. In addition to the standard Technical Notes, Apple®II DTS distributes
Apple II File Type Notes, which document registered file types and auxiliary file
types on the Apple II. Macintosh® DTS also produces the Macintosh®Technical
Notes HyperCard® Stack, which is meant to supplement the published Technical
Notes. With this stack and HyperCard software, you can now search the entire set of
Technical Notes electronically, as well as copy the code samples directly into your
programming environment.
Because Technical Notes are revised frequently, you should refer to the
Technical Note index before you look at any other Apple documentation. For the
same reason, make sure that you keep your Technical Notes up-to-date. If you have
questions about, or suggestions for, Technical Notes, don't hesitate to send them to
us at the address at the end of this document.
Technical Notes are posted on the AppleLink® network [path: Developer
Services: Developer Technical Support: Macintosh: Technical Notes or Apple II:
Technical Notes).

We produce the Question and
Answer HyperCard Stack

Macintosh DTS produces a Question & Answer HyperCard Stack to help you with the
most frequently asked development questions. The Q&A Stack addresses questions
commonly asked by developers, so referring to it first may save you time and money.
Questions and answers are cross-referenced to other relevant questions in the stack,
as well as to the Macintosh Technical Notes Stack. The two stacks are designed to
work together to put a broad base of up-to-date technical information at your
fingertips. You can search the Q&A Stack for specific topics or keywords, or just
browse through questions in a particular area of interest. In addition, you can copy
code samples directly into your programming environment. For further information
on the Q&A HyperCard Stack, see the "Q&A stack" document in this section.
The Q&A Stack is posted on the AppleLink network [path: Developer
Services: Developer Technical Support: Macintosh: Q&A).

We write sample programs

As you know, a well-documented sample is worth a thousand words. To save you
time and aid in your development efforts, Apple II and Macintosh DTS release and
distribute sample code. These groups make sure the code you receive is useful from
both an educational and a practical standpoint. The sample code releases do not
demonstrate all of the techniques necessary to program the Apple II or Macintosh

Developer Technical Support

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

4-1

computer, but they cover a wide range of topics, from simple event-loop program­
ming to the advanced techniques of each platfonn.
The Apple II Sample Code releases include both Apple Programmer's
Workshop (APWj and Macintosh Programmer's Workshop IIGS (MPW,.. IIGS) code
in 65816 assembly language, C, and Pascal. The Macintosh Sample Code releases
include Macintosh Programmer's Workshop (MPW) code in 68000 assembly lan­
guage, C, C++, Pascal, and Object Pascal.
Sample code is posted on the AppleLink network [path: Developer Services:
Developer Technical Support: Macintosh: sample code].
Technical Notes, sample code, and the Q&A Stack are intended to show you
how to write your program so that it is compatible with future, not just current,
hardware and system software. If you read a warning in the Q&A Stack, in a Techni­
cal Note, or in some sample code, beware! Warnings usually hint at impending
changes that we are not at liberty to discuss, but to which we can allude; if we say
something may not be compatible with a future release of the operating system, it
probably won't be. On the other hand, if we give no warning, DTS will work to
protect the techniques we've published in these three developer references.
We report and validate the
bu� you flnd

If you find a bug in an Apple product, you should use "Outside Bug Reporter'' to
report it to DTS. You can find "Outside Bug Reporter'' on the AppleLlnk network
[path: Developer Services: Developer Technical Support:Macintosh or Apple II:
Bugs/Fixes] . Once we receive your report, we'll try to reproduce your bug and let
you know what we find. If we think it may actually be a bug in your code, we'll
write back in approximately 48 hours asking for more information, or tell you what
we think you may have done wrong. If, however, it seems to be an Apple problem,
we'll send it on to the Bug Reporting Center (BRC) staff, and they will make sure that
it gets to the right engineers. For bug reporting procedures, refer to the "Bug Report­
ing Procedures" document in this section. We appreciate all your bug reports and
thank you for taking the time to help make Apple products even better.

We contact developers whose
applications will be
incompatible with future
products

Apple does not send prerelease hardware and software to every developer; however,
we do test many of your products on our unannounced products. When our testing
team finds incompatibilities between an unannounced Apple product and a released
version of your product, you will get a letter from DTS telling you that we know of a
change you should make to your hardware or software. These warnings may be
vague (if we're not at liberty to discuss the product yet), but they should be carefully
considered; ignoring a DTS warning virtually guarantees that your product will have
problems with an upcoming Apple release. If we do not hear back from you after
your company gets notified of an incompatibility, your product may show up on a
list of third-party products that do not work with our new hardware or software.
Please let us know if you need help in reproducing or fixing the problem; we can't
help unless you communicate with us.
Of course, Apple doesn't have the resources to test a/I third-party applica­
tions and hardware. Those of you who don't get letters either have products that
work fine on our future products, orproducts that are not currently being tested here
at Apple. Whether or not you receive a letter from DTS, you should read Technical
Notes and sample code very carefully for any warnings that they may contain.

Developer Technical Support

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

4- 2

We maintain the Developer
Technical Support portions of
AppleUnk

We want to make technical information as accessible as possible, so we place no
restrictions on copying information or using sample code officially released from
DTS, and we make these things accessible in as many places and forms as possible.
The sample code should not be pasted into your program until you fully understand
it, of course. Our portion of the Developer Services bulletin board on the Applelink
network contains all of the technical information you get in the monthly mailings
(such as Technical Notes, the Technical Notes Stack, the Q&A Stack, and sample
code), as well as some tools that are available from APDA"'.

We review Apple's technical
documentation for accuracy
and clarity

Because we realize how important accurate and clear documentation is to your
development process, we review every piece of technical documentation that comes
out of Apple. In addition to reviewing and improving Apple's "official" documenta­
tion before it goes out the door, we are working diligently to persuade our technical
documentation folks that updatable documentation is imperative, so they can fix it
even after it gets out.

We review APDA packages

APDA,,.is an important source of technical information. Working with APDA, we
review (and often initiate) packages that will directly benefit serious software
developers. Look to APDA for most of your information needs.

We test APDA packages

We use prerelease Apple software and hardware so that we can better understand
the possible pitfalls, and so that we can help to fix as many bugs as possible. With
adequate time and engineers, we hope to contribute to an eminently more support­
able future, with software and hardware that address developers' needs.

We register creators/file types

When you ship your Macintosh or Apple II application, you must register your
application's signature, and the types of any files your application creates, with DTS.
Apple reserves all signatures and file types containing only lowercase letters. We
also register NuBus"' board IDs.
Unlike the Macintosh, the Apple II has a much more limited range of file
types (256 on the Apple II, compared with a few million on the Macintosh). Apple
has extended the Apple II File Type model by creating broadly generic file types and
assigning individual auxiliary types to identify particular files. Those who do not
obtain file type and auxiliary type assignments from DTS run a strong risk of future
incompatibility.
The form to register your signature and file types is on the Applelink
network [path: Developer Services: Developer Technical Support: Macintosh or
Apple II]. This form is also mailed out to all developers once a year.

We answer development
questions

We use all of the methods above to try to answer your development questions even
before you know you have them. Sometimes, of course, you'll come up with a
question before we've published an answer. In these cases, you should write to DTS
via electronic mail.
(Remember, we'll help developers implement pop-up menus or track down
bugs in their applications, but if you're having trouble printing to an AppleTalk®
ImageWriter® printer from Excel, you should contact your dealer or Microsoft-DTS
supports development not applications use.)
The Developer Technical Support Applelink and MCI mail messages are
read daily. After all the messages are read, printed, copied, and distributed, we have

Developer Technical Support

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

4- 3

a meeting where the entire group discusses the best approach to each problem.
When more people are working on a problem, the solution is likely to be a synthesis
of ideas rather than an individual opinion. Many of the questions we're asked
involve difficult judgment calls-when the input of everyone in the group is crucial.
In this meeting, each question is assigned to an engineer, who is respon­
sible for responding to it before going home that night. Occasionally, our research
doesn't pan out and we have to continue working on your question the next day;
when this happens, we'll send you a message telling you so. We strive to provide
turnaround within one business day, but when the questions far outnumber the
available engineers, some questions will take longer than a day to answer.
Consider us your reference, not a replacement for the experimentation
phase of your product development. We encourage you to use a debugger and to
try things you aren't sure about. If the code does what you want it to do, but you're
not certain it will continue to work in the future, write to us. Tell us what you've
tried, what the results were, and voice your concern about whether it will continue
to work.
As always, make sure you have the latest versions of software and docu­
mentation. For example, if you write to us asking about MPW 3.0bl, we will not be
able to answer your question. Apple releases new versions of software and docu­
mentation because we realize that additional features are needed or that bugs need
to be squashed, so take advantage of the APDA auto-order mechanism and get these
updates as soon as they're released.
When asking for help from the Developer Technical Support group, please
make sure your request is as complete as possible. Please include:
•
•
•
•

•
•

A general idea of what you are trying to do
A detailed description of the problem
Information on your development environment (including version numbers)
Information on your system configuration-hardware and software (including
version numbers)
The possibilities you've already exhausted (and their results)
Name, company name, postal address, and phone number (in case we need to
send you something or call for clarification)

Of course, these are just guidelines; you know best whether this type of
information will help us to solve your problem
If you want to reference an earlier message to us (or one from us), you
should let us know what day it was sent. We keep a record of every message, who
responded to it, and when. We also keep track of our responses, so we always have
access to what we told you. (Our records are not sorted by AppleLlnk message
numbers, so numbers assigned by the system are not useful as reference points.)
We're here to help you, so if you've got suggestions, or questions, send
them in.

Developer Technical Support

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

4-4

You can contact us at the following addresses:
Apple II
Apple II Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, WS 75-3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
MCI: AIIDTS
AppleLink: AIIDTS

Macintosh
Macintosh Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, WS 75-3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
MCI: MACDTS
AppleLink: MACDTS

Developer Technical Support

How to Work with Developer Technical Support

4-5

ti

Apple Developer Group

"

What Is AppleUnk?

Bulletin Board Icons

About AppleLink

AppleLink® is Apple's information and communications network, which runs on both
Macintosh® and Apple® II personal computers. It is one of Apple's primary vehicles
for communicating with key customers and business partners, including developers
(both Partners and Associates), authorized Apple dealers, and user groups; as well as
customers in the K-1 2, higher education, special education, VAR, and national
account markets. Both domestic and international audiences are represented on the
AppleLink network.
The AppleLink network can be a very useful source of technical data during
your development process, providing information ranging from general specifica­
tions about Apple products to specific technical details. The following sections
discuss the information you'll find under the AppleLink icons.
Bulletin boards contain information about what's going on within the Apple commu­
nity. Read-only bulletin boards are indicated by the newspaper icon; two-way
bulletin boards, to which you can post items directly, are indicated by the bulletin
board icon.
•

The Developer Services bulletin board (a two-way board) is an important
source of technical information. Folders on this board include the following:

Developer Technical Support (read-only): Contains technical notes, sample
code, tools, system software, and international keyboard information for
Apple II and Macintosh products.
Developer Technical Publications: Contains an overview of the Developer
Technical Publications group, as well as instructions for giving us feedback
about our publications.
Development Tool Discussions. Provides a two-way forum for discussing
Apple development tools, such as APW™, MPW™, MacApp®, and Macintosh
Allegro Common LISP, with other developers and with Apple. Brief
descriptions of development tools are also listed.
Developer University: Provides the most current information about courses
offered by Apple's Developer University, including course descriptions,
schedules, locations, and registration forms.
Developers Ask Each Other: Provides a two-way forum for discussing
general technical questions with other developers. Discussion subfolders
divide discussion into specific areas (General Discussion, A/UX® Discus­
sions, International Development Discussion, HyperCard Discussion,
Networking & Connectivity Discussion, and Printing Discussion). This is the
place to post those "Does anyone out there know. . . ?" types of questions.

Developer Technical Support

About AppleLink

4-6

•

•

The Third-Party Connection bulletin board (a read-only board) is a compre­
hensive source of third-party information on Applelink. Folders on this board
include:
Product Compatibility Lists: When Apple releases new products, it publishes
listings of third-party products that pass Apple's compatibility testing.
Among the lists currently posted are those for the laserWriter® printer,
Macintosh II computer, Ether'falk.... network, and Macintosh System Soft­
ware.
Third-Party ProductyNew Features: Provides lists of third-party products
that take advantage of new features Apple equipment provides . The lists
are updated monthly.
Third-Party Technical Support via Applelink: Provides a listing of third­
party developers who have agreed to offer technical support via AppleLink
electronic mail to customers on the network. Company name, AppleLink
address, and turnaround times are listed for each participating developer.
Other AppleUnk bulletin boards that contain technical information include
the following:

DTC (Desktop Communications): Provides product listings and technical

•

information about Apple and third-party desktop communications products,
such as the AppleTalk® network system, Ether'falk, modems, and third-party
terminal emulators.
Software updates: Contains information about Apple's Software Update
Program, which, includes details about enhanced features and installation
instructions for the most recent software updates. International system
software is also posted here, as well as third-party software updates.
1MIC (Technical Markets Information Center): Designed specifically for
people who sell and support Apple technical solutions, the TMIC bulletin
board focuses on the engineering, scientific, and other technical markets.
The TMIC bulletin board contains read-only information such as product
reviews and articles, product data sheets, new product press releases,
technical market directories, and the Engineering/Scientific Solutions Guide.
In addition, this board has a two-way forum that allows you to discuss
current topics and exchange information with other Applelink users.
Reference libraries (indicated by the bookshelf icon) are another excellent
resource for information about Apple and third-party products. Unlike bulletin
boards, you can search reference libraries for specific topics.

Apple Products Library: Contains information about Apple products, includ­
ing features and benefits, part numbers, and Apple Care® information.
Technical Info Library: Contains technical product specifications, documen­
tation clarifications and errata sheets, and information about product com­
patibility, interfacing, and general hardware troubleshooting.
MENU/Software Library: Contains the MENU software database, which
enables you to obtain information about more than 15,000 third-party
software products for the Apple II and Macintosh personal computers, in­
cluding the product name, vendor name and address, system requirements,

Developer Technical Support

About Apple!.ink

4- 7

and price.

Special Ed Solutions Library: Contains information about software, hard­
ware, organizations, and publications that are specifically related to special
education and rehabilitation products.
Reference Library: Contains general information related to Apple products,
such as product packing lists, descriptions of Apple manuals, compatibility
guides, and current version numbers of Apple software.
K-12 Curriculum Library: The K-1 2 Curriculum Library is the on-line
version of the Apple K-12 Curriculum Software Guides and the Apple
Education Solutions Guides. These Guides provide listings of educational
software packages available for Apple computers in these subject areas: ABE
(Adult Basic Education), Business Education, ESL (English as a Second
Language), Foreign Languages, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and
Social Studies.

Questions Regarding
Applelink?

As an on-line, interactive medium, AppleLink often undergoes changes, including
modifications to and additions of folders and icons. For the most up-to-date informa­
tion, refer to the AppleLink Guide icon and the "Guide to the DSBB & Other Boards"
folder on the Developer Services bulletin board. If you have questions, or sugges­
tions about the type of information you would find useful for inclusion on Ap­
pleLink, contact:

Jessa Vartanian
Developer Programs
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 75-2C
Cupertino, CA 95014
AppleLink: JESSA

Developer Technical Support

About AppleLlnk

4- 8

tJ

App le Develo p er Grou p

")

About Sample Code

What Is Sample Code?

As you know, a well-documented sample is worth a thousand words. To save you
time and assist in your development efforts, the Apple®II and Macintosh® Developer
Technical Support (DTS) groups release and distribute Sample Code. These groups
make sure the code you receive is useful from both an educational and a practical
standpoint. The Sample Code releases do not demonstrate all of the techniques
necessary to program the Apple II or Macintosh computer, but they cover a wide
range of topics, from simple event-loop programming to the advanced techniques of
each platform.

Apple II

The Apple II Sample Code releases include both Apple Programmer's Workshop
(APW'j and Macintosh Programmer's Workshop IIGS (MPWTNIIGS) code in 65816
assembly language, C, and Pascal. Both the Shell and C.Shell programs in Volume 1
provide examples of a basic desktop application and serve as a foundation for other
Sample Code programs. We encourage you to use these Apple IIGS® examples as a
basis for your applications.

Macintosh

The Macintosh Sample Code releases include Macintosh Programmer's Workshop
(MPW) code in 68000 assembly language, C, C++, Pascal, and Object Pascal. The
Sample and TESample programs demonstrate basic Macintosh programming tech­
niques, and include an example of using TextEdit. Although the Macintosh Sample
Code releases provide examples of the form of a typical Macintosh program, they do
not demonstrate all of the techniques necessary to build a complete Macintosh
application (for example, sophisticated memory management, exception handling,
and Undo) and should not be used as templates fo r you r applicatio ns .

Distribution

Sample Code releases are available through the following channels:
•
•

•

•

•

Developer Technical Support

Developer Programs' monthly mailings.
Developer Group's Phil & Dave's F,xcellent Cir, available quarterly in the
Developer Programs' monthly mailing.
The DTS folder on the AppleLlnk®network. Apple II: [path: Developer Serv­
ices: Developer Technical Support : Apple II: Sample Code]. Macintosh: [path:
Developer Services: Developer Technical Sup port: Macintosh: Sample Code] .
Other public electronic networks, i ncluding AppleLlnk-Personal Edition, BIX,
CompuServe, GEnie, The Source, and Usenet.
APDATN customers may order Sample Code releases; refer to the APDAlog for
product numbers and information.

About Samp le Code

4-9

Further Questions

Sample Code is just a part of Developer Technical Support's efforts to effectively
support the needs of as many developers as possible. To help DTS achieve that end,
please send suggestions for future Sample Code topics or questions about existing
Sample Code releases to:
Apple II Sample Code or Macintosh Sample Code
Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 75-3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
AppleLink: AIIDTS or MacDTS
MCI Mail: AIIDTS (264-0103) or MacDTS (215-0798)

Developer Technical Support

About Sample Code

4-10

ti,".

Apple Developer Group

About Technical Notes

What Are Technical Notes?

Technical Notes are detailed technical documentation written by the Developer
Technical Support (DTS) group to expand upon and clarify Apple's technical
documentation. They also document bugs in Apple software, hardware, and
documentation. These notes address questions commonly asked by developers, so
reading them early may save you time and prevent later exasperation. Because
Technical Notes are revised frequently, you should refer to the Technical Note index
before you look at any other Apple documentation. For the same reason, make sure
that you keep your Technical Notes up-to-date. If you have questions about, or
suggestions for, Technical Notes, don't hesitate to send them to us at the address at
the end of this document.

Apple II

DTS distributes Apple® II Technical Notes six times per year, in January, March, May,
July, September, and November. There are currently more than 1 50 Apple II Techni­
cal Notes, in the following general subject areas: the Apple Ile, the Apple Ile, the
Apple IIGS®, Apple II miscellaneous, AppleTalk®, the GS/OS"' operating system, the
Image Writer® printer, the Memory Expansion Card, the mouse, Pascal, ProDOS® 8,
SmartPort, and the UniDisk"' 3.S drive. As the environment of the Apple II expands
and changes, so do the Technical Notes. In addition to the standard Technical Notes,
Apple II DTS distributes Apple II File Type Notes, which document registered file
types and auxiliary file types on the Apple II.

Macintosh

Macintosh® Technical Notes are also distributed six times per year, in February, April,
June, August, October, and December. There are currently more than 250 Macintosh
Technical Notes, in the following general subject areas: ADB, AppleShare®, Ap­
pleTalk® Manager, applications, CD-ROM, compatibility, Control Manager, Control
Panel, debugging, desk accessories, Device Manager, Dialog Manager, the Disk
Initialization Package, Event Manager, File Manager, Font Manager, hardware,
HyperCard®, International, MPW"', Memory Manager, Menu Manager, MultiFinder"',
Notification Manager, Palette Manager, programming tips and languages, Print
Manager, QuickDraw"', Resource Manager, Script Manager, SCSI Manager, Segment
Loader, Sound Driver, Standard File Package, system software, TextEdit, and Window
Manager.
DTS also produces the Macintosh Technical Notes HyperCard® Stack, which
is meant to supplement the published Technical Notes. With this stack and Hyper­
Card, you can now search the entire set of Technical Notes electronically, as well as
copy the code samples directly into your programming environment. The Technical
Notes Stack will help you get even more out of the information we publish in the
notes, and DTS will be updating it on a quarterly basis.

Developer Technical Support

About Technical Notes

4-11

Distribution

Apple II and Macintosh Technical Notes, Apple II File Type Notes, and the Macintosh
Technical Notes Stack are available through the following channels:
•
•

•

•

•

Further Questions

Developer Programs' roo nthly mailings.
Developer Group's Phil & Dave's .Excellent CIJ", available quarterly in the
Developer Programs' roo nthly mailing.
The DTS folder on the Applelink®network. Apple II: [path: Developer Serv­
ices: Developer Technical Support: Apple II: Technical Notes or File Type
Notes]. Macintosh: [path: Developer Services: Developer Technical Support:
Macintosh: Technical Notes].
Other public electronic networks, including AppleLink-Personal Edition, BIX,
CompuServe, GEnie, The Source, and Usenet.
APDA"'customers may order Technical Notes and the Macintosh Technical
Notes Stack. Notes are offered in either printed or disk format, and the Techni­
cal Notes Stack comes complete with a printed user's guide. Please refer to the
APDAlog for product numbers and information.

Technical Notes and the Macintosh Technical Notes Stack are just a part of Devel­
oper Technical Support's efforts to effectively support the needs of as many develop­
ers as possible. To help DTS achieve that end, please send suggestions for future
Technical Notes or questions about existing Technical Notes to:
Apple II Technical Notes or Macintosh Technical Notes
Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, WS 75--3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
AppleLink: AIIDTS or MacDTS
MCI Mail: AIIDTS (264-0103) or MacDTS (215-0798)

Developer Technical Support

About Technical Notes

4-12

Apple Developer Group

ti "

What is the Q&:A stack?

The Question & Answer HyperCard Stack

Macintosh® Developer Technical Support (DTS) produces a Question & Answer
HypetCard® Stack to help you with the roos t frequent development questions. The
Q&A Stack addresses questions commonly asked by developers, so referring to it first
may save you time and effort early in your development process. Questions and
answers are cross-referenced to other relevant questions in the stack, as well as to the
Macintosh Technical Notes Stack. The two stacks are designed to work together to
put a broad base of up-to-date technical information at your fingertips. You can
search the Q&A Stack for specific topics or keywords, or just browse through
questions in a particular area of interest. In addition, you can copy code samples
directly into your programming environment.
Since DTS updates the Q&A Stack frequently, the latest version will always
reflect the current "hot" development topics, so you should check it before writing to
DTS with your question. Although the stack may not contain the answer for which
you are looking (for example, How do I write to James Brown in jail?), it will, at a
minimum, refer you to the proper place to obtain that information, whether Techni­
cal Notes, sample code, Software Licensing, Developer Programs, Evangelism, or, of
course, DTS.

How is the stack organized?

The Q&A Stack is organized into general areas of interest with specific questions and
answers in those areas. Currently, the stack covers the following development areas:
A/UX®, AppleShare®, AppleTalk� file system, general, hardware, HyperCard, interna­
tional, MacApp®/OOP, MacWorkStation™, MPW™and SADE™, MultiFinder": printing,
programming, QuickDraw™ and color, scanner & AppleFax™, Sound, and XCMD/
XFCN.
The Q&A Stack is intended to put more useful information within your reach
and provide you with immediate answers to the most frequently posed Macintosh
development questions.

Distribution

The Q&A Stack is available through the following channels:
•
•

•

•

Developer Technical Support

Developer Programs' roonthly mailings (as the stack is updated).
The Developer Group's Phil & Dave's !Jxcellent Cir, available quarterly in the
Developer Programs' roonthly mailing
The DTS folder on the AppleLink®network [path: Developer Services: Developer
Technical Support: Macintosh: Q&Al .
Other public electronic networks, including AppleLink-Personal Edition, BIX,
CompuServe, GEnie, The Source, and Usenet.

The Question & Answer HyperCard Stack

4- 1 3

Further Questions

The Q&A Stack is just a part of Developer Technical Support's efforts to effectively
support the needs of as many developers as possible. To help DTS achieve that end,
please send suggestions for the Q&A Stack to:
Macintosh Q&A Stack
Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 75-3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
AppleLink: MacDTS
MCI Mail: MacDTS (215-0798)

Developer Technical Support

The Question & Answer HyperCard Stack

4-14

ti,";

Apple Developer Group

Bug Reporting Procedures

If you find bugs in Apple® software, hardware, or documentation, Developer
Technical Support (DTS) wants to hear about them. We'll take a look at your bug, try
to reproduce i� and if it's reproducible, we'll forward it to the Apple Bug Reporting
Center (BRC). If we can't reproduce i� we'll contact you for more information.

How to Report Bu�

•

•

•

Where to Send Bu�

AppleLink - Use Outside Bug Reporter, an application written by the Software
Quality Assurance (SQA) group at Apple. Outside Bug Reporter is available on
the AppleLink® network, [path: Developer services: Developer Technical
Support: Macintosh or Apple II: Bugs/Fixes] and will help to ensure that you give
us all the information we need to reproduce (and fix) the bugs you find. For
more information about the specifics of using Outside Bug Reporter, see the
documentation accompanying it on AppleLlnk.
MCI Mail (Macintosh bugs only) - Use Outside Bug Reporter, and send via
Desktop Kxpress, to the appropriate address listed below.
U.S. Mail - Send the disk version, not the paper version, of your bug report
to the appropriate Developer Technical Support address listed below.

Send your completed bug reports to Developer Technical Support.
Send Apple II bug reports to:
Apple II Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Ave., MIS 75-3A
Cupertino CA, 95014
AppleLink: AIIDTS
MCI: AIIDTS
Send Macintosh® bug reports to:
Macintosh Developer Technical Support
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Ave., M/S 75-3A
Cupertino, CA 95014
AppleLink: MacDTS
MCI Mail: MacDTS
Thanks again for helping to make Apple products better and more bug free!

Developer Technical Support

Bug Reportin g Procedures

4-1 5

S,K)

.

Apple Developer Grou p

Product Compatibility Testing Tips

This document provides an overview of compatibility testing and describes the
compatibility guidelines followed by Apple's Product Quality and Support (PQ&S)
group. A sample compatibility checklist and a sample software and hardware matrix,
which you may want to use during the testing phase of product development, are
provided at the end of this document.
What is Compatibility Testing?

Compatibility testing is the process of ensuring that a product is able to utilize
software and hardware that it supported before being modified. Compatibility
testing does not attempt to find defects in software, firmware, or hardware, but rather
documents the differences between the modified and the unmodified products or
system. The unmodified product is often called the benchmark, the modified
product is often called the target.

Types of Testing Methods

The following describes various types of testing methods that Apple's PQ&S group
uses when testing a product.
Compatibility vs. functional testing

As mentioned, compatibility testing does not attempt to find defects in the product,
but rather the differences between the modified and unmodified product. Functional
testing does look for defects in the product and therefore relies less on third-party
software and hardware. Preferably, the functional team tests the new pro duct first
and verifies its performance. Once the compatibility team receives the new product
for testing, any problems that occur should be the result of improvements to the
modified product that cause unexpected results to the current products, not actual
defects.
Stress testing

Testing a program to see how it handles heavy loads or stresses is called stress
testing. Stress testing subjects the program to a peak volume of data over a short
span of time. This is different from volume testing, which subjects the program to
enormous amounts of data with no time consideration.
Destructive testing

Testing a program beyond its capacities to see how it handles error conditions is
destructive testing. This is done by subjecting the program to heavy volumes of data
or by evoking error messages and testing how well the system recovers from input
errors, hardware errors, and data errors such as noise on a communications line.
Regression testing

Verifying that a defect was fixed and that the change has not caused problems with
other aspects of the program is regression testing. This is usually done by rerunning

at least a subset of the previous testing. Regression testing is an important step,
because changes and error corrections tend to be more error-prone than the original
program code.

Developer Technical Support

Product Compatibility Testing Tips

4-16

Testing for Compatibility

Test configurations
During compatibility testing, many different hardware and software configurations
are utilized. A configuration is defined as any one of many possible combinations of
computers and peripheral and network devices. A configuration might also include
software such as INITS, CDEVs, fonts, and memory. Within the time limits of the test
effort, programs should be tested with many different configurations, especially
"normal" configurations and fully loaded configurations (with every slot or port
used).

Compatibility Guidelines
The following guidelines can assist the testing engineer when doing compatibility
testing. Not all of this information will be relevant for every test.
•

•
•
•
•

•

•

•

•

Sample Checklist

Developer Technical Support

Test all the major product features. Go to every menu and screen in the pro­
gram; work through the tutorial or other documentation in an organized manner
to ensure completeness of the test.
Test any Apple product in 40-column and 80-column modes, if applicable.
Test products with all supported hardware as documented in the user manuals.
Check error conditions, by behaving as though you were a novice user.
After you have finished testing all the features, do as much destructive testing as
time permits.
As a rule, if all features of the newly developed product run properly on the
target system, you don't need to duplicate your tests on the benchmark system.
If a product exhibits any unusual behavior, test that product on the benchmark
system.
If you observe any bugs in the product on the benchmark system, determine
whether they also exist on the target system.
Test for various user levels and/or approaches:
Novice users: Test for stability of error checking (What happens if the user
does the wrong thing?) and ease of use.
Average users: Make sure that the standard features are robust.
Experienced users: Do stress testing.

Attached are sample checklists that Apple's PQ&S group has used in the past for
testing third-party applications. These checklists are being provided for informa­
tional purposes only and may not include all of Apple's products or possible test
criteria. One is for testing the application and the other is for tracking different con­
figurations used during testing.

Product Compatibility Testing Tips

4-17

ti)<)

Apple Developer Group

Sample Compatibility Script Checklist

Date
System Software.

CPU
Version

Tester's Name
Application Name

______

______

SF MF
Set Startup Tests
D D Set Startup to application
D D Set Startup to application and DAs
D D Set Startup to application's file
D D Select About the finder and verify application's
memory size allocation
Application Tests

D D Open as many applications as is possible
D D Switch layers via Apple menu, icon, and activating
windows
D D Create a new document
D D Save
D D Save As
D D Save in different fo rmats
D D Use any sample documents
D D Close
D D Quit
D D Open multiple documents
D D Copy, Cut, Paste
D D Undo
D D Use Keyboard command equivalents
D D Paste graphics from Scrapbook
D D Select About (Application) from the Apple menu
D D Select About MultiFinder from within the application
D D Open all Apple DAs and use briefly
D D Open several third-party DAs and use briefly
D D Play with windows : resize, move, drag offscreen
D D Open other applications and switch between layers
D D Use application's text editor to: change font, style,
size, and so on
D D Use the Arrow keys

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

SF MF
Alert Tests
D D Restart with unsaved document open to prompt alert
D D Save to a full disk
D D Save to a locked disk
Font Tests
D D Select & use at least two Macintosh fonts
D D Select & use at least two I.aserWriter fonts
D D Select & use at least two LQ fonts
D D Select & use at least two third-party downloadable fonts
D D Scale fonts
D D Use large fonts
Printing Tests

D D Print a document from the application
D D Print selected pages
D D Change Page Setup to: Landscape, Enlarged, Reduced,
and so on
D
D
D
D

D
D
D
D

Print in Background to LaserWriter
Print in Foreground to I.aserWriter
Print a document from the Finder
Print to all Apple Printers (see Printer Matrix)

Additional Tests
D D
D D -------­
D D
D D -------­
D D

-----­

-------­

•

SF Single Finder, MF MultiFinder
=

=

System Tests

D
D
D
D
D

D
D
D
D
D

Use Disk Init Package from within the application
Use Standard File to call Disk Init Package
Use Standard File to open a file
Test with RAM Cache On
Test with RAM Cache Off

Developer Technical Support

--

--

Sample Compatibility Script Checklist

4-18

ti "

Apple Developer Group

Sample Software and Hardware Matrix

NAME/CPU
CPU

Name

SYSTEM HARDWARE
RAM

8
5
4
2
1

Date

Appllcatlon/Verslon

Internal
Hard Disks

External
Hard Disks

Internal
Disk Drives

External
Disk Drives

20MB SCSI
40MB SCSI
BOMB SCSI
160MB SCSI

20MB SCSI
40MB SCSI
BOMB SCSI
160MB SCSI

SuperDrive
BOOK

BOOK

Monitor

Keyboard

Mouse

Standard
Color
Multiple
Two page
Full page

Standard
Extended

Standard
Low-Power

SYSTEM SOFIWARE
DAs
Alarm clock
Calculator
Chooser
Control Panel
Find File
Key Caps
Note Pad
Puzzle
Scrapbook

CDEVs

Printer Drivers

INITs

General
Color
Keyboad
Monitors
Mouse
Pyro
Sound
Startup Device

AppleShare WS
MacsBug 6.0
Responder
MacroMaker
Suitcase

AT ImageWriter
DC ImageWriter
laserWriter
laserWriter IISC
AT LQ ImageWriter
DC LQ Image Writer
PrintMonitor

Fonts
Macintosh
laserWriter Plus
LQ
Adobe
CassadyWare

System/Finder
System
Finder

PRINTERS
laserWriter
laserWriter Plus
laserWriter II NTX
laserWriter II NT
laserWriter II SC
Developer Technical Support

AT Image Writer II
AT Image Writer LQ

DC ImageWriter II
DC ImageWriter LQ
DC ImageWriter 1 8 in
DC ImageWriter 1 1 5in.

Circle options

used

AT AppleTalk
..

DC Direct Connect
=

Sample Software and Hardware Matrix

4-1 9

)

ti "

Apple Developer Group

International Software Development

This document provides a brief overview of the guidelines you should follow and the
tools you will need to adapt your products to international markets.
Developing for International
Markets

International markets may be viable ones for your product; therefore, it is important
that you understand what it means to develop a "localiz.able" product Creating a
localizable product is making sure that your product can be easily translated into
another language. It also means adhering to country specific standards such as time,
date, currency, and sorting sequences. During "localization" your application and its
accompanying documentation are translated and adapted to a country's culture and
standards (for example: right to-left or left-to-right text handling, commas versus
periods as decimal separators, and appropriate currency symbols) .
The ease with which a product can be localized will vary depending upon
the overall design of the product. Placing text in resources is one of the signs of a
well-designed product because it facilitates the localization process. Apple has
created the following tools to facilitate the design of localiz.able products and the
localization process.
.

-

-

Tools and Guidelines

•

•

The most important ru le is to follow the programming guidelines set forth in
Inside Macintosh, available from APDA� especially Volumes I and V, which
contain calls to the International Utilities (date, time, number formats, and so on)
and to the Script Manager for Roman text handling, such as French, Italian,
Spa nish , and non-Roman text handling, such as Japanese, Arabic, and Hebrew.
Also included is a section on the International Human Interface Guidelines.
Other guidelines can be found in the alpha draft of the Software Developmentfor
International Markets manual. This manual, also available from APDA, explains
the things that you need to consider during the design stage, as well as which
tools you should use during the deve lopment phase It also describes the
localization tools and how to use them
The Localizability Checklist, following this document, is a guideline for world­
wide product development. It should be used before, during, and after you
complete the development of your product to make sure you are addressing all
the localizability issues. For detailed information on each item or area, refer to
the Software Developmentfor International Markets manual, available from
APDA.
In addition to the documentation mentioned above, you should use the follow­
ing tools:
.

•

•

Script Manager Developer's Package
The Script Manager Developer's Package, available from APDATM, contains docu­
mentation and tools to aid you in writing and testing applications that are
compatible with the Script Manager. The Script Manager allows Macintosh
applications to handle Roman and non-Roman scripts correctly. It also supplies
a number of routines that aid in text handling in general. For more information
on Script Manager, see the Script Manager document in this section.
InternatJonal Development Support

International Software Development

5- 1

ResEdit
As Apple's resource editor, ResEdit allows you to create and edit resources such
as menus and menu items, strings, icons, windows, dialogue boxes, and alert
messages. It is used in the localization process to translate resources. ResEdit
is an indispensable tool for all developers, and it is also available from APDA™.

Localized System Software
To ensure that your product is fully localizable, you will need to test it with one
or more foreign-language versions of the system software. Apple has released
25 localized versions of the system software which are available from APDA™.
When you are ready to market your product overseas, contact Apple's Software
licensing Department to license your system software.

Glossaries
The foreign language glossaries provide the translations of the most commonly
used terms, such as menu, edit, and cut and paste. You will find the glossaries
on Phil and Dave's Excellent CD available quarterly in the Developer Programs'
monthly mailing or on the AppleLlnk network [path: Developer Technical
Supports Macintosh: Tools: Translate it!] The languages that are currently
available are Dutch, German, Finnish and Italian.

Technical Notes
Macintosh Technical Notes contain detailed information written by the Macin­
tosh Developer Technical Support Group. The notes expand and clarify
Apples documentation, including errors found in software, hardware and
manuals. They also contain commonly asked developer questions.
Of particular interest to worldwide product development are the
following international specific technical notes:
1 38
1 53
174
178
182

Using KanjiTalk with a non-Japanese Macintosh Plus
Changes in International Utilities and Resources
Accessing the Script Manager Print Action Routine
Modifying the Standard String Comparision
How to Construct Word-Break Tables

Technical Notes are available through the following channels:
•
•

•

Developer Programs' monthly mailings
The AppleLink network, Macintosh: [path: Developer Technical Support:
Macintosh: Technical Notes] Apple II: [path: Developer Technical Support:
Apple II: Technical Notes]
APDA

Support Programs

The Developer Programs and Developer Technical Support groups at Apple are
committed to supporting your efforts to create localizable products and to distribut­
ing your products overseas. So that you can benefit from our experience, we
recommend that you contact us during the design stage of your product. As you
approach the distribution, marketing, and localization stages, we will also make
sure that you receive the support and guidance you need from our international
subsidiaries.

International Development Support

International Software Development

5- 2

For more information on localizing your products, contact:
Developer Programs
Apple Computer
20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 75-2C
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 974-4897
AppleLink: DEVSERVICES

International Development Support

International Software Development

5-3

9,")

_

Apple Developer Group

Localizability Checklist

The following checklist is being provided as a guideline for worldwide product
development. It should be used before, during, and after the development of your
product to make sure you are addressing all of the localizability issues. For detailed
information on each item or area, refer to the Software Developmentfor International
Markets manual, available through APDA™.

Text contained in the application/DA/driver/and so on
The following should be in resources:
•
•
•
•
•
•

All text (including

special characters, delimiters, and so on)
Lengths of string and text resources
Menus and power keys
Character/word/phrase/text translators (tables)
Address formats, including "ZIP" codes and phone numbers
Text data compaction, encoding, and transmission must allow character codes
from $20 to $FF to be used.

When creating your resources, keep in mind:
•

•

•

Text needs room to grow (up, down, and sideways)
Translated text data is often 50 percent larger than the U.S. English text
data.
Diacritical marks, widely used outside the United States, extend up to the
ascent line.
Some system fonts contain characters that extend to both ascent and descent
lines.
Potential grammar problems (error messages, "natural" programming language
structures, and so on).
Text location within a window should be easy to change.

Text handling
Use the Script Manager for:
•
•

•

•

International Development Support

Word Boundaries (word wrap, selection, search, and cut and paste).
Character Boundaries (search, replace, sort, word wrap, backspace, delete, and
cut and paste).
Right-to-left and mixed-direction text (justification, cursor positioning, highlight­
ing).
Displaying font names in the proper font.

localizability Checklist

5-4

Remember:
•
•
•
•

•

Use TextEdit and Dialog Manager for all text handling (preferred).
Font #() is not always Chicago.
Use system and application fonts (0,1) when the user cannot select the font.
Avoid hard-coded font sizes (if you must, use a font size of O; otherwise, let the
user choose).
When using fonts to provide symbols, use proper font ID numbers as defined by
International System Software.

Formats and special symbols/words

Use the International Utilities for:
•
•
•

•

Searching
Sorting
Formats and separators for:
Numbers (decimal mark, and so on).
- Dates (short, long form, calendars-European, non-Gregorian).
- Time formats (12 hr, 24 hr, AM/PM and so on).
Units of measure (currency, metric vs. nonmetric).

Additional data that needs to be localizable
•
•

Keep in mind that some countries perform financial calculations differently.
Graphics and icons (mailboxes, champagne bottles, and so on) should be in
resources.

Additional issues

Use Script Manager for:
•
•

Properly changing the current script and the key script when needed.
Changing the case of text (lowercase or uppercase�use Transliterate.

Script Inte1face System-related issues:
•
•

International Development Support

Hiding the Menu Bar (script icon�save and restore MBarHeight.
Don't use  (and arrow keys) for Command-key equivalents.

I.ocalizability Checklist

5-5

S K;

About Script Manager

Apple Developer Group

Script Manager Overview

The Apple® Macintosh® computer has always presented one of the most flexible
architectures for producing international software. Software that supports non­
Roman character sets has a far larger potential market; however, this involves com­
plexities that create special needs above and beyond the needs of computer systems
based on Roman scripts. In order to handle these differences, the Macintosh Script
Management System, which consists of Script Manager and one or more script
systems, was developed.
Script Manager is low-level software that enables Macintosh applications to
work with various scripts. Script Manager and individual script systems patch the
Macintosh Toolbox to properly draw and measure text in QuickDraw"'software or to
edit unstyled text in TextEdit application. Script Manager also provides a set of
routines for more sophisticated text manipulation for use with purely domestic
applications and with applications intended for international distribution.
Note. TextEdit 3.0 will be available with System Software Release 7.0 and is
compatible with the Script Management System for both unstyled and styled text.
Script Manager provides the following features:
•
•
•
•

It allows different script systems to be installed.
It maintains global data structures.
It supports switching keyboards between different scripts.
It provides a central dispatch for programmatic access to script systems.

The central dispatch mechanism supports routines with a standard interface
that allows application programs to be written independently of the particular script
in use. Because the Roman system is always installed with Script Manager, you ca n
also use these routines with the Roman system for text manipulation.
Script Manager offers three main benefits:
•

•
•

How Script Manager Works
with a Script System

It provides standard, easy-to-use tools for the sophisticated manipulation of
ordinary text.
It makes it easy to translate an application into another writing system.
It works together with the International Utilities package to provide localizable
date, time, and number conversion.

The actual implementation of a given script is provided by a script system. All of the
following are examples of script systems: Kanji (KanjiTalkj, Arabic , Chinese
(Hanze), Taiwan, Korean (Hangul), Devanagari (Hindi, Marathi), Thai, Pakistani
(Urdu), Hebrew, and Greek. These systems determine the function of the script
components such as the character encoding, composition rules, and so on . Each
script system is responsible for providing a system for native users that

is complete,

configurable, and as compatible with as many applications as possible.

International Development Support

Script Manager Overview

5-6

Script Manager coordinates applications and script systems in the following ways:
•
•
•
•

It relieves applications from the burden of implementing script handling.
It allows text manipulation while maintaining independence from scripts.
It unifies the elements of any individual script system
It coordinates different script systems and allows for the addition of new scripts.

Script Manager includes utilities and initialii.ation code to create an environ­
ment in which scripts of all kinds can be handled. In order for an application to use a
particular scrip� a script system to support that script must also be present. On some
models, it may be in ROM. A script system typically provides the following:
•
•
•

•

�

Fonts for the target language
Keyboard-mapping tables
Special routines to perform character input, conversion, sorting, and text
manipulation
A utilities package to handle date, number, and time formats
A Control Panel feature (CDEV) or desk accessory utility for system maintenance
and control

Script Manager calls a script system to perform specific procedure calls for a
given script. The illustration below shows how a typical call (in this case,
Pixel2Char) is passed from an application through Script Manager to a script system
and back.
Application

+

Pixel2Char

•

Result

Script Manager

+

Pixel2Char

Roman
Interface System

•

l

Uses font script to detennine which
script interface system to call .

Result

Kanji
Interface System

Arabic
Interface System

Example ofa procedure caJJ

Script Manager implements several routines itself, but for many others, it
acts as a dispatcher to the appropriate script system For example, each script system
provides a Char'fype routine; when a program calls Char'fype, Script Manager uses
the current font script to dispatch the call to the correct script system.
In many cases, the versatility provided by script systems allows applications
to be localized for non-Roman languages with no change to their program code
(assuming they were written to permit localization to Roman script). Multiple script
systems can be installed at one time on the Macintosh, allowing an application to
switch back and forth between different scripts. When more than one script system
is installed, an icon symbolizing the current keyboard for the script in use appears at
the right side of the menu bar.

International Development Support

Script Manag er Overview

5-7

S(R)

Apple Developer Group

The Basics of Script Systems

Introduction

The Apple® Macintosh® computer provides script systems for Roman, Japanese,
Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Greek, Thai, Devanagari, Pakistani, and Korean. The
Roman, Thai, and Greek systems are relatively straightforward; these script systems
provide support for basic differences between languages, such as keyboards, text
collation, word breaks, and the formatting of dates, times, and numbers. The Roman
Script System includes the European languages covered by the standard Roman
character set (such as English or French) and is standard on all system software
numbered 4.1 and higher.
The other scripts represent some of the most complex modem writing
systems and go far beyond basic script support. Japanese, Chinese, and Korean have
extremely large character sets and must have comprehensive methods for character
input. These character sets are too large to represent with single bytes (the charac­
ters are generally 2 bytes in length) and require an independent font mechanism for
display and printing.
Arabic and Hebrew are right-to-left scripts, (text is generally flush right and
characters are entered from right to left). Arabic uses ligatures (two or more charac­
ters combined to create a new character) and a cursive font (letters connecting
together like handwriting).

What Script Systems Do

Each script system determines the components for the script: character encoding;
fonts; input methods; sorting; date, time, and number formats; and script-specific
access routines. For example, the composition rules must support all of the neces­
sary features of the script: direction, conjunct characters, accent placement, and so
forth. Moreover, all of this must be done without degrading the performance of the
Macintosh and maintaining as much compatibility with applications as possible.
Each script system also has a desk accessory (DA) or a Control Panel feature (CDEV)
that allows the user to configure the individual characteristics of the script at any
time.
The script systems supply much of the same capability for entering and
displaying text as dedicated word processors for different scripts, but they provide it
on a system level. Because the capabilities are built into the system, each developer
does not have to duplicate the code necessary to support the script (a process that
can be very complicated). Instead, the developer can devote those resources to the
primary function of the application program.
In this section, you will find information on the Kanji and Arabic script
systems, because they represent the toughest compatibility problems that developers
may encounter. Kanji is a multibyte script system (2-byte characters are needed
because of the size of the character set), and Arabic is a contextual (one character
depending on the position of another) and bidirectional (right-to-left or left-to-right
writing) script system.

International Development Support

The Basics of Script Systems

5-8

M ULTIBYTE
script systems

DI R ECT
script systems

Japanese

Roman

Chinese

Greek

Korean

Cyrillic

CONTEXTUAL
script systems

General Features of Script
Systems

A number of features are shared by all the script systems. These include methods for
changing scripts, for changing keyboards, and for choosing international date and
measurement formats.
Note. With System Software Release 7.0, a new International CDEV will
provide a way for users to control measurement units (date, time, currency, and
number formats), collation sequences, and so on. It will allow users limited editing
of the resources that specify these items.
Many of the features provided by script systems are independent of applica­
tions; many others must be supported by applications. Applications that support the
general features of script systems are called Script Manager compatible. Applications
may go further in offering features that are particular to given scripts (such as
furigana in Japanese) or in offering more control over languages and scripts. For
example, an application may allow users to mark text as belonging to a different
language, and search, sort, or spell-check the text based upon that language.
Script Manager-compatible software, including word-processing, database,
desktop publishing, and spreadsheet programs, is available through various third
parties.

Methods for changing scripts

Other than a different language in the menus, the first thing you will notice on a non­
Roman system disk is the script keyboard symbol in the upper right of the menu bar.
•
Script keyboard symbol

1

This symbol indicates which keyboard layout and keyboard script are
currently being used. For example, the Arabic keyboard is represented by a crescent
<... , Japanese by a rising sun e, Hebrew by a Star of David * , Chinese by a broken
coin C� , the default Roman (U.S.) keyboard by a diamond +, common European
keyboards by their national flags, and so forth.
To change the keyboard so that you can enter characters from a different
script, you can use two methods: click on the script icon in the corner of the menu
bar, or press Command-Space. Both of these actions will change from one keyboard
to another. (If there are more than two scripts installed, they will rotate through the
scripts.)
International Development Support

The Basics of Script Systems

5-9

Script Manager-compatible applications automatically synchronize the font
that you are using with the keyboard. In these applications, if you change fonts, the
keyboard will automatically change to the corresponding script; if you change
keyboards, the next time a character is typed, the font will also change accordingly.
Other applications require you to change the font explicitly by using the
menu commands. In these applications, you must take care that the font is always
set properly for the keyboard (or vice versa). If you fail to do this (for example,
having the Geneva font set for Japanese characters), you will see only a random
mixture of boxes, European characters, and odd symbols.

Arabic key caps

To see the effect of an individual script system on the keyboard, select the
Key Caps desk accessory. Select the appropriate font, and you will see the current
layout. Older versions of Key Caps do not synchronize the font with the keyboard,
so you will have to change them in tandem. (Note that the Korean system does not
support Key Caps, so Roman characters are displayed.) Each script can provide
many different keyboards. Japanese, for example, provides Katakana and Romaji
keyboards.

Methods for Changing
Keyboards

When your system has more than one keyboard installed, then you can choose
among the different keyboards. To do this, open the Control Panel, and click on the
Keyboard icon. The keyboard display shows the available keyboards for the given
keyboard script. To see keyboards for other scripts, change the keyboard script.
0

�

Key Repeal Rate

000@0

Slow

General

�

Fast

Delay Until Repeat

0 00@0

Off

Long

Short

il :tTllk

0

2 . 0 � 11!
11!!!!!111

BB
J1

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mu

. .. . .. . .. .
. . . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .
.
.
.
.

.

. ... ... ... ...
. ........
.. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.
.
. .
.
' . . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . . .
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . ..
.
. .
. .
. . .
. . .
. .

. . ... .

Kanji Keyboard CDEV
International Development Support

The Basics of Script Systems

5-1 0

Note that the list of keyboards only a ppears when there is more than one
keyboard ihstalled. There are we ll over two dozen keyboards for different language
systems. Although most systems are shipped with only one keyboard , many differ­
ent keyboards can be installed.

Controlling and Configuring a
Script System

Complex script systems include a desk accessory or some Control Panel devices
(CDEVs) that allow users to control and configure the system. Generally, a help
option can be used to find out more information about the system.
The Arabic script system, as previou sly noted , permits a choice among
several calendars.
Som: F.ast Asian script systems support multiple input methods and allow
you to choose among these input methods, configuring them as you wish.

0 7 :it :J l- 7 .., 7, ? � o - �·
181 M lcroFont � 1!Vfl

vJ 1 - 6 . 0 .2

MKI 1+1 ® J\
l;!:J

0 tJ]

Kanji Script System Configuration CDEV

International Development Support

The Basics of Scri pt Systems

5-11

ti,",'

Apple Developer Group

The Arabic Script System

Input for Arabic is very straightforward, simply using a standard keyboard character
table, The composition rules, however, are much more complex. Each character can
have up to four contextual forms, and the precise form depends upon a varying
number of characters that precede and follow it, as shown in the following diagram:
Independent

0

11

Final

A.

Medial

+

Initial

Jb

Contextualforms in Arabic

In addition, dozens of characters form ligatures (two or more distinct
characters, which, when combined, form a new character); in some cases, up to
three characters join together into a completely different form, though usually there
are only two characters.

Arabic ligatures

Any time a string of characters is drawn or measured, the Arabic text is
parsed, character forms are derived, ligatures are substituted, and the text is reversed.
When a given character is being located (as with a mouse-click on a character), then
these changes must essentially be reversed in order to derive the original character.
All of this is transparent to a program: it sets the font and draws the text as usual.
QuickDraw™ has been modified to perform these operations when an Arabic font is
used, and the pen still travels from left to right-even though the characters in the
text may be reversed.
Since it is common in Arabic to make text flush right (in English, we make
text flush left), the menus appear flush right, and the normal radio buttons and check
boxes are modified to have the boxes or buttons on the right. In addition, Arabic
numerals differ in shape from Western numerals. The system routines that perform
numeric conversions (between human-readable and internal format) are also
modified not only to accept both Western and Arabic numerals, but also to interpret
the Arabic digits in the reverse order. For example, 53 is written by pressing the

International Development Support

The Arabic Script System

5-1 2

three key ( r ) , then the .five key ( 0 ) , but since the text is reversed, it appears in
the order five-three ( o � ).
Sorting in Arabic is quite straightforward, with only one unusual feature:
Some characters are ignorable; for example, vowels and the extension bar (used to
lengthen the cursive connection between characters). Vowels in Arabic are also
diacritical marks, overlapping over or under the previous character to the right.

...-J � O
.:J,_. @
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Ht-sh.am .\bu El-A.ta
lb.....J.. I t-1 1 �

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AB1 -6.0.3,

Arabic Script System Configuration CDEV

The Configuration CDEV in the Arabic Script System supports a number of
configuration parameters. A separate Calendar CDEV offers the ability to choose
among three calendars. The Arabic Script System not only supports the standard
Gregorian calendar and an algorithmic (civil) Arabic lunar calendar, it also supports
an astronomical lunar calendar.
This calendar is truly lunar. Each month starts with the first visible new
moon after sunset. To compute the date correctly, the calendar routine not only
must calculate the orbits of the sun and moon, it also must also know and take into
account the exact latitude,. longitude, and time difference from Greenwich Mean
Time. Users can set these parameters with the Arabic Calendar CDEV, shown on the
following page. Due to the complex nature of this algorithm, date caching was in­
troduced. Each of the 1683 lunar months covered by the Macintosh® internal clock
(which covers the period from 1904 to 2042) has a cached value indicating an offset
from the civil lunar calendar. Whenever a date in a new month must be calculated,
that value is stored for later use.

International Development Support

The Arabic Script System

5- 13

�
uWI

�

!J.l-'11

:.l l ®

�II 0
� i1_M I O

.,r._,....i1 ,-u...i1

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AB l - 3 . 3 . 1

Arabic  System disk
liJI> System Tools disk
liJI> System Disk User's Guide
liJI> System Tools manual

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, Apple IIGS, and ProDOS are registered trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc. Finder and GS/OS are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
August 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
A2F01 58 ! OOK

Apple Iles System Software Version 5. 0

Server
Kind: Fi l e server
Size: 76,902K on disk
Created: Fri, Ju l 8, 1988,
Modified: Tue, Mar 14, 1989,
Fi l e S y s : A p p l e S h a r e

2:38 PM
5:36 PM
,. ....,,. -_.,,.....,
... C a l c u 1 at e

(

)

Overview
The Apple IIGs® System Software
Version 5.0 gives you all the ad­
vantages of the latest system
software for the Apple IIGS
personal computer. It features
GS/OS'; an operating system that
improves the startup time and
speeds up disk access, program
launching, and file copy and
transfer tasks.
GS/OS includes File System
Translators (FSTs) that enable
applications to directly access
files created using other file sys­
tems. For example, the ISO/High
Sierra FST allows you to run CD­
ROM applications that follow the
ISO/High Sierra standard, and the
AppleShare® FST gives you access
to files on AppleShare file servers.

The Apple IIGS System
Software Version 5.0 also offers
several features that significantly
improve the computer's func­
tionality and ease of use.
The Finder'" (a graphics-based
interface that allows you to mani­
pulate files on the desktop) is
now easier to use, faster, and
more informative than earlier
versions. It has also been revised
to allow access to the AppleTalk®
Network System, so you can
share programs and data located
on an AppleShare file server, as
well as networked printers, with
other AppleShare users.
Another important feature is
the new graphics-based Control
Panel, which you access from the

Finder via the Apple® menu. You
can use the Control Panel to set
the time and date, raise or lower
the sound volume, log on to
network servers, configure slot
assignments, and even change
screen borders or background
and text colors.
Version 5.0 includes the
Advanced Disk Utility, which
features an easy-to-use, graphics­
based interface and allows you to
initialize, erase, and partition hard
disks, as well as both 5.25- and
3. 5-inch floppy disks. You also
get the Installer utility, which lets
you update your startup disks
and customize their configuration
for your system and its attached
peripherals.

GS/OS operating system

Finder

AppleShare support

Features

Benefits

.,.. Improved disk access

.,.. Permits faster program loading and launching .

.,.. File System Translators

.,.. Allows applications to directly access files from
a wide variety of sources, including the ISO/High
Sierra file system (used on CD-ROM drives).
.,.. Provides access to file systems that support very
large files and storage media (up to 4 gigabytes) .

.,.. Compatible with ProDOS® 16
operating system

.,.. Allows existing ProDOS 16 programs to benefit
from the increased power of GS/OS.
.,.. Runs most ProDOS 16 applications .

.,.. Optimized for GS/OS

.,.. Written specifically for the GS/OS operating
system .
.,.. Provides better overall desktop performance .

.,.. Improved interface

.,.. Offers users more information, enabling them
to better manage their desktop environment.

.,.. ProDOS 8, ProDOS 16, and
GS/OS file system support

.,.. Runs a wide range of applications written for
Apple II systems.

.,.. Access to shared peripherals and
to files on an AppleShare file server
via the AppleTalk Network System

.,.. Allows for easy sharing of files among Apple II,
Macintosh� and MS-DOS computers without
special conversion programs .
.,.. Lets you maximize your investment
in peripherals .

.,.. Uses the LocalTalk'" cabling port built
into the Apple IIGS computer

.,.. Eliminates the need for additional interface
cards .

.,.. Compatible with the ProDOS 16
implementation of AppleShare

.,.. Protects your investment in existing ProDOS
16 applications.

Control Panel desk accessory

Advanced Disk Utility

Installer

Features

Bene.fits

..,.. Available from desktop applications
via the Apple menu

..,.. Provides easy access to system controls .

..,.. New graphics-based format

..,.. Provides an intuitive user interface, making it
easier to select system preferences .

..,.. Hard disk partitioning

..,.. Lets you have more than one file system on a
single hard disk.

..,.. Easy-to-use, graphics-based interface

..,.. Simplifies hard disk information management.

..,.. Installs new system software and
updates startup disks

..,.. Ensures system software integrity by updating
all components of the disk to match your partic­
ular system configuration .

..,.. Multiple update selection

..,.. Enables you to customize your startup disks to
match your particular system configuration in one
easy step.

Apple Iles System Software Version 5. 0
Product Details

The GS/OS operating system
was developed specifically for
the Apple IIGS personal com­
puter, so it takes full advantage
of the system's hardware to
provide performance improve­
ments in all standard file and
disk handling tasks. In particular,
in the area of file transfer, GS/OS
supports access to various file
systems via software modules
called File System Translators
(FSTs). This means that disks
using a wide range of file

systems may be accessed from
the desktop simultaneously, and
that an application need not
know what file system it is deal­
ing with when it accesses a file.
The Apple IIGS System
Software Version 5.0 is shipped
with AppleShare, ProDOS, ISO/
High Sierra, and Character FSTs.
... The AppleShare FST provides
access to files on AppleShare file
servers. In addition, you may
boot your Apple IIGS from an
AppleShare file server.

... The ProDOS FST lets you nm
programs written for the Apple
II ProDOS operating system.
... The ISO/High Sierra FST
allows you to nm CD-ROM
applications that follow the
ISO/High Sierra standard.
... The Character FST provides
improved access to character
devices such as printers.
Any number of additional
FSTs may be configured into
the system.

System Requirements

To use the Apple IIGS System
Software Version 5.0, you must
have an Apple IIGS computer
with at least 512K of random­
access memory (RAM) and ROM

Version 01 or a more recent
version, and at least one SOOK
3.5-inch disk drive.

To use your Apple IIGS
computer with an AppleShare
file server, you must have at
least 768K of RAM.

Ordering Information

Apple IIGS System Software
Version 5.0

With your order, you'll receive:
... System disk
... System Tools disk
... AppleShare Apple II
Setup disk

... System Software User's Guide
... AppleTalk Network User's
Guide

Order No. A0013LL/A

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Apple IIGS, Macintosh,
and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Finder, GS/OS, and LocalTalk are
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Printed in II.SA 4/89 l OOK A2F01 58/A

Apple II Workstation Card

•

®

Overview
The Apple® II Workstation Card
and the AppleShare® Ile Work­
station software included with it
give users at enhanced Apple Ile
computers access to AppleShare
file servers, network printers
(such as the Apple LaserWritefID
and lmageWritefID), and Apple­
Share print servers. The Apple II
Workstation Card, in conjunction
with an AppleShare file server
connected to an AppleTalk® net­
work, also allows Apple Ile users
to start up from the file server,
without using local disk drives.

Apple Ile users can print to net­
work printers and share informa­
tion stored on AppleShare file
servers. At the same time, other
Apple II, Macintosh� and MS­
DOS users have the ability to
access folders (directories),
documents, applications, and
storage space. And using an
AppleShare file server or network
printer is as easy as using a local
ProDOS® disk or serial printer.
The Apple II Workstation Card
connects your Apple Ile computer
to an AppleTalk network using
the LocalTalk'" Cabling System.

This card also includes a built-in
super serial port for direct con­
nection to serial devices such as
ImageWriter printers.
The Apple II Workstation Card
is ideally suited to the require­
ments of users in educational
environments who want to share
printers and reduce the amount
of time spent handling disks.

Features

Bene.fits

� Diskless startup from AppleShare
file server

� Eliminates the necessity for disk
drives at workstations.
.. Eliminates software management for
ProDOS 8 system software and network­
access software.

� AppleShare file-server access
from ProDOS 8

� Allows Apple Ile users to share data
with other Apple Ile, Apple IIGS�
Macintosh, and MS-DOS users.

� Menu-driven network software

� Makes it easy to access network
resources such as file servers and printers.

� Transparent ProDOS 8 support

� Enables ProDOS applications to be
stored on and run from server volumes.
� Supports standard ProDOS commands
and utilities.

� Transparent print software

� Allows users to directly access network
printers, including the Image Writer and
LaserWriter, and spoolers, such as the
AppleShare print server, from within
ProDOS applications.

� Board-resident AppleTalk protocols
and processor

� Minimizes motherboard RAM usage.
� Enhances network booting and overall
performance.
� Enables the Apple Ile to be connected
to an economical LocalTalk-based Apple­
Talk network.

� Super serial port on card

� Lets users directly connect to a local
printer, such as an ImageWriter, without
additional hardware.

Product Details

� AppleShare volumes
AppleShare volumes appear to
ProDOS 8 users as logical Pro­
DOS drives, accessed with Pro­
DOS pathnames and standard
system utilities. ProDOS applica­
tions and documents can be
stored and used from server
volumes.
� Access procedures
Accessing information is simple
and efficient using the file-server
and printer-access software
that's included with the work­
station card. Users need remem­
ber only one password; once
logged on, the server automatic­
ally manages all directory access.

� Information exchange
With an AppleShare file server,
ProDOS, Macintosh, and MS­
DOS users have common access
to stored documents. Apple File
Exchange for the Macintosh
provides document format con­
version where necessary.
� Privacy
AppleShare Ile workstation
software fully supports the
AppleShare server's powerful
privacy system with an easy-to­
use interface. File-server users
control information by selec­
tively granting access to the
directories they own on server
volumes. Access privileges al­
low the owner of a directory to
keep information private, share
it with a group, or make it

available to all server users, with
complete control over how the
information is used.
� Network printers
Network printers and spoolers,
such as the LaserWriter, Image­
Writer (with the LocalTalk
option), and AppleShare
print server, appear as locally
attached serial printers and can
be transparently accessed from
within ProDOS applications.

Apple II Workstation Card
System Requirements

Workstation Requirements:
� An enhanced Apple Ile com­
puter with 128K RAM , monitor,
and LocalTalk cabling
� If network doesn't include an
AppleShare file server, a 3.5-inch
disk drive

Network Requirements:
� To load workstation software
onto an AppleShare file server
initially, one 3. 5-inch disk drive
at a workstation

Recommended Equipment:
� One or more AppleShare file
servers (for diskless startup and
file-server access)
� One or more Apple Laser­
Writer, ImageWriter II, or
ImageWriter LQ printers
� Additional Apple Ile (with
Apple II Workstation Card) or
Apple IIGS computers for
additional users

Technical Specifications

Processor
� 65C02; two-megahertz clock
speed

Memory
� 16K RAM
� 64K ROM

Ports
� Two 8-pin minicircular
(RS-422) ports:
-One LocalTalk port
-One super serial port

Ordering Information

Apple II Workstation
Card
Order No. A2B2088

With your order, you'll receive:
� An Apple II Workstation Card
� One SOOK 3. 5-inch Apple­
Share Ile Workstation installer
disk
� Apple II Workstation Card
user's manual
� Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit
Order No. M2068

With your order, you'll receive:
� One LocalTalk connector
with 8-pin minicircular plug
� LocalTalk Cabling System
user's manual
� One 2-meter cable
� One cable extender

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171 -576

©1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Apple IIGS, ImageWriter,
LaserWriter, Macintosh, and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. LocalTalk is
a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsofi Corporation.
Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Printed in U.S.A. 6/88 85K A2F2018

••

Macintosh Plus

if

Macintosh Plus

Overview
The Macintosh'" Plus personal
computer gives you the most im­
portant benefits of the Macintosh
family-power, versatility, and
ease of use-in an affordable,
entry-level system.
Like others in the Macintosh
family, the Macintosh Plus is
simple to learn and use. It pro­
vides high-resolution text and
graphics, and features plug-in

compatibility with the AppleTalk®
network, the Apple® LaserWriter®
and LaserWriter Plus printers.
In addition, the Macintosh Plus
offers more memory, more storage
space, and more room to expand
than previous Macintosh systems.
That means faster execution of
most programs-no waiting for
parts of the program to be load­
ed from disk. More disk storage
space means less disk swapping
and faster loading of important
information. The ability to add

more peripherals means you can
expand your Macintosh system
with the accessories you need.
These features, together with
an improved operating system,
enhance system performance so
that the Macintosh Plus can oper­
ate as much as 50 percent faster
than its predecessors.

Macintosh Plus

Features

.,.. 1 megabyte of RAM expandable
to 4 megabytes
,

Bene.fits
Quickly executes applications, even
those requiring large amounts of memory.
""'° Provides room for memory-intensive
applications, large models and data bases .
.,.. Lets you expand memory easily,without
board swapping.
IJI>

"" SOOK built-in disk drive

IJI> Provides more storage capacity for
applications, documents, fonts, and desk
accessories.
> Means fewer disks to swap and manage.
IJI> Offers compatibility with single-sided
400K disks.

.,.. SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface) port

IJI> Transfers data at up to 265 kilobytes per
second, up to six times faster than serial or
external disk-drive ports.
IJI> Lets you expand your system with up to
seven peripherals, including high-perfor­
mance disk drives, tape backups, and
other products made by Apple and inde­
pendent Macintosh developers .

.,.. 1 2SK ROM includes:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for SOOK disk drive, Apple
Hard Disk 20SC drive, AppleTalk
network, and SCSI port
-Faster QuickDraw graphics
RAM caching support

IJI> Hierarchical File System creates organ­
ized storage for documents and allows
easy access to files.
IJI> Provides faster system performance
because of enhanced software in ROM.
.,.. Lets you start up directly from hard
disks, without a startup disk.
.,.. Results in faster printing and greater
screen-to-page fidelity when using the
LaserWriter or LaserWriter Plus printer.
IJI> RAM caching speeds operation by
automatically loading frequently-used data
from RAM rather than from disk.

IJI> Standard typewriter-style
keyboard with numeric keypad
and cursor keys

IJI> Numeric keypad speeds data entry for
number-intensive applications such as
spreadsheets and accounting packages.
.,.. Cursor keys let you control the on­
screen cursor without moving your hands
from the keyboard.

-

Features

Benefits

� High-resolution 9-inch,
bit-mapped graphic display

� Offers an economical, compact display

� Macintosh user interface:

� Lets you work quickly and naturally

mouse, icons, windows, and
pull-down menus

with the computer.
� Provides a consistent interface across
applications.

that's easily transported.
,... Makes it easy to create impressive,
professional documents that integrate text
and graphics.
� Lets you view documents on the screen
as they will appear when printed.

� On/Off Switch
� Power Input Unit
Cer11fled to comply with

FCC Rules. See mstruct!ons
itin1erlerence !o radfo
recepllon is suspe ted.
c!ass B llmi1s, Part15ot

� SCSI Port
� Disk Drive Port
� Mouse Port
� Audio jack

� Serial Port

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Macintosh Plus
Technical Specifications

Processor

Mouse

Clock/Calendar

MC68000; 32-bit internal
data bus; 7 .83-megahertz
clock speed

•

Mechanical tracking; optical
shaft encoding at 3.54 pulses
per mm (90 pulses per inch)
of travel

Ill>

•

1 megabyte RAM , expan­
dable to 4 megabytes in a
socketed SIMMs (Single Inline
Memory Module) configuration
Ill> 1 28K ROM standard

Memory

•

Disk storage

One built-in double-sided
drive: uses 3.5-inch hard-case
floppy disks either double­
sided,
800K capacity; or single­
sided, 400K capacity

Ill>

Ordering Information

Screen
9-inch (diagonal) screen;
5 1 2 by 342 pixel bit-mapped
display

•

Interfaces
Two RS-422 serial ports
(230.4-kilobaud data transfer
rate; up to 920 kilobaud if ex­
ternally clocked)
Ill> One SCSI parallel port (up to
265 kilobytes/second depending
upon the application)

Ill>

Keyboard

Sound generator

•

78 keys, including numeric
keypad and cursor keys;
detachable; software mapped

•

Macintosh Plus Package

Order No. M2503

CMOS custom chip with 4.5volt user-replaceable battery
backup (includes 256 bytes of
memory which remembers sys­
tem parameters even with the
machine turned off)

Electrical requirements
Line voltage: 105 to 125
volts AC
Ill> Frequency: 50 to 60 hertz
• Maximum power: 60 watts

Ill>

Size and weight

Height: 1 3 . 5 in. (34.3 mm)
Width: 9.7 in. (24.6 mm)
Ill> Depth: 10.9 in. (27.7 mm)
Ill> Weight: 16 lb. 7 oz. (7.6 kg)

Ill>

Ill>

Four-voice sound with 8-bit
digital/analog conversion using
22-kilohertz sampling rate

With your order, you'll receive:
Macintosh Plus personal
computer with built-in 9-inch
monitor and 800K disk drive
Ill> Mouse
Ill> Detachable keyboard
""' Owner's guide
Ill> System Tools disk and
backup
""' Software Sampler disk and
flyer
• Utilities disk and guide
Ill> Your Apple Tour of the
Macintosh Plus disk
• Limited warranty statement

Ill>

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, and LaserWriter are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh and Switcher are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
July 1987. Produa specifieations are subjea to change without notice.
M2225

Macintosh Classic

Overview
The Apple® Macintosh® Classic®
personal computer offers all of the
most valued advantages associated
with Macintosh computers­
including unsurpassed ease of use,
the ability to run thousands of appli­
cations that work well together,
built-in networking, and an easy
growth path-in the lowest-cost
Macintosh. It's an excellent choice
for first-time Macintosh buyers
who want the essential features of
a Macintosh in a complete, afford­
able system. And the integrated
design of the Macintosh Classic
makes it a good choice if you want
a system that's easy to set up and
move around.
An updated version of Apple's
most popular Macintosh design, the
Macintosh Classic offers high system

performance (up to 25 percent
faster than the Macintosh Plus) and
comes standard with the Apple
SuperDrive'; a 3. 5-inch disk drive
that can read from and write to
Macintosh disks as well as MS-DOS,
OS/2 , and ProDOS® disks. The
Macintosh Classic can be configured
with an internal hard disk drive,
which gives you plenty of room to
store applications and files.
Like every Macintosh system, the
Macintosh Classic offers numerous
built-in capabilities not always
found in other personal computers.
Because AppleTalk® networking
capabilities are built in, for example,
the Macintosh Classic can function
as an individual productivity system
or as a cost-effective member of a
network environment. Also, a SCSI
(Small Computer System Interface)

port lets you connect as many as
seven peripheral products-ranging
from CD-ROM drives, high-capacity
hard disk drives, and scanners to an
Apple LaserWriter® printer-to the
system. And built-in sound output
capabilities make the Macintosh
Classic ready for a new generation
of applications that incorporate
sound as well as text and graphics.
This combination of built-in capa­
bilities and external ports gives you
an easy, "plug-and-play" way to
expand the Macintosh Classic. And
because it can support the required
memory and an internal hard disk,
the Macintosh Classic has the capa­
bility to run the next generation
of innovative Macintosh applica­
tions-those based on Macintosh
system software version 7.0.

Features

Benefits

11> 6SOOO microprocessor,
running at 7.S336 megahertz

11> Offers up to 25 percent faster perfor­
mance and system responsiveness than
Macintosh Plus system.

11> Apple SuperDrive
(1.4-megabyte floppy disk drive)

11> Allows convenient transfer of data
files between Macintosh, OS/2, MS-DOS,
and Apple II systems.
11> Provides almost twice the storage
capacity of SOOK disk drives.
·

11> Six built-in ports:
-One SCSI port
-One Apple Desktop Bus"' (ADB) port
-One external 3.5-inch disk interface
-Two serial ports
-One sound port

11> Make it easy to expand your system
with additional peripheral devices.
11> Permit communication with the
keyboard, mouse, and other devices.
11> Accommodate a second SOOK or
1 .4-megabyte external 3.5-inch disk drive.
11> Provide access to Loca!Talk® cable­
based networks, which allow you to
connect Macintosh Classic systems to
other computers and to LaserWriter print­
ers through the AppleTalk network system.
11> Supply high-quality, four-voice digital
sound that is compatible with all applica­
tions that use Macintosh sound.

11> Optional 40-megabyte
internal hard disk drive

11> Handles a broad range of computing
needs by providing ample storage
capacity for files and applications.

11> 1 or 2 megabytes of RAM ,
expandable to 4 megabytes

11> Provides a simple growth path
as you need additional memory.
11> Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as large spreadsheets, scanned
images, and sound files.
11> Supports Macintosh system software
version 7.0 applications when available.

Features

Benefits

.,. 5 1 2K of ROM, including:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for Macintosh hard disks,
ADB, SCSI, and an AppleTalk network
-Macintosh Toolbox
-QuickDraw"'

.,. Organizes storage for documents and
allows easy access to files, with the
Hierarchical File System.
.,. Supports high-performance peripherals,
with the SCSI interface.
.,. Provides the consistent graphics inter­
face for applications, with QuickDraw .

.,. Macintosh user interface,
including mouse, icons, windows,
and pull-down menus

.,. Makes most applications intuitive
and easy to learn.
.,. Reduces training and support costs.
.,. Provides a consistent user interface
across applications .

.,. MultiFinder® operating system

.,. Allows multiple applications to be
opened concurrently .
.,. Lets you easily cut and paste parts
of documents from one application
to another.
.,. Allows background tasks to be run
while you interact with applications in
the foreground .

.,. Software compatibility

.,. Lets you run virtually all Macintosh
software.

Product Details

Apple Computer, Inc.
Cupenino, Ulifornia

Made in Singap&re
Model Number: M0420

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Modem
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Audio Out
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Product Details
System configurations
� Two configurations of the Macintosh
Classic are available.
-The Macintosh Classic comes with
1 megabyte of RAM (expandable to
2 megabytes), internal 1 .4-megabyte
Apple SuperDrive floppy disk drive,
ADB keyboard and mouse, system soft­
ware, and training disk.
-The Macintosh Classic 2/40 comes
with 2 megabytes of RAM (expandable to
4 megabytes), internal 40-megabyte hard
disk drive, internal 1 .4-megabyte Apple
SuperDrive floppy disk drive, ADB key­
board and mouse, system software, and
training disk.

Technical Specifications

RAM configurations
� The Macintosh Classic comes with
1 or 2 megabytes of RAM The Macintosh
Classic with 1 megabyte of RAM can be
expanded to 2 megabytes by adding
the Macintosh Classic Memory Expansion
Card. A 2-megabyte Macintosh Classic can
be expanded to 4 megabytes by installing
Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMMs).
.

SCSI
� SCSI (Small Computer System Inter­
face) is a high-performance interface
bus used to connect hard disks and
other SCSI-based devices, such as the
AppleCD SC® CD-ROM drive, the Apple
Scanner, and the Apple Personal Laser­
Writer to the Macintosh Classic. This sin­
gle interface can support up to seven
SCSI peripheral devices (six if you have
an internal hard disk) .

Microprocessor
� MC6SOOO, 32-bit architecture
� 7.S336-megahertz clock
speed
Memory
� 1 or 2 megabytes of RAM
expandable to 4 megabytes
� 5 1 2K of ROM
� 256 bytes of parameter
memory

,

Disk drives
� Built-in Apple SuperDrive
1 .4-megabyte floppy disk drive
(optional external 1 .4-mega­
byte or SOOK disk drive
available)
� Optional internal 40-mega­
byte Apple SCSI hard disk
drive
� Optional external Apple
SCSI hard disk (many capaci­
ties available)

Network support
� The Macintosh Classic provides full
ROM support for all AppleTalk protocols
and includes built-in serial ports for Local­
Talk network connections.
Operating system support
� Macintosh system software includes:
-System software version 6.0.6 or later
(the Macintosh Operating System) with
System Startup disk .
-System Additions disk (includes utilities
such as the Apple File Exchange, HD SC
Setup, CloseView, Disk First Aid',' and
Font/DA Mover).
� HyperCard® 2.0 Home, Addresses with
Audio, Appointments with Audio, Audio
Palette, and Audio Help stacks.

Monitor
� Built-in 9-inch diagonal,
high-resolution (512- by 342pixel) bit-mapped monochrome
display
Interfaces
� One Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port, supporting a key­
board, mouse, and other devices
daisy-chained through a low­
speed, synchronous serial bus
(a maximum of three chained
devices is recommended)
� Two serial (RS-232/RS-422)
ports, 230 kilobits per second
maximum (up to 0.920 megabits
per second if clocked externally)
� SCSI interface, using a 50-pin
internal connector and a DB-25
connector for the first external
device; all subsequent SCSI­
based peripherals use standard
SCSI-to-SCSI interface cables.
� 3 . 5-inch external floppy disk
drive (SOOK or 1 .4-megabyte)
interface
� Sound port for external
audio amplifier or headphones

Keyboard
� ADB keyboard with numeric
keypad
� Two-level tilt adjustment
Mouse
� Apple Desktop Bus Mouse;
mechanical tracking; optical
shaft or contact encoding; 100
± 10 pulses per in. (3.9 ± 0.39
pulses per mm) of travel
Sound generator
� Four-voice sound with S-bit
digital-analog conversion using
22-kilohertz sample rate­
capable of driving stereo head­
phones or other stereo equip­
ment through the sound jack
Clock/calendar
� CMOS custom chip with
long-life lithium battery
Fan
� 10 cu. ft./min. axial
� Positive pressure cooling

(continued)

Macintosh Classic
Technical Specifications

(continued)

Electrical requirements
"" Line voltage : 1 20 volts AC,
RMS (nominal)
"" Frequency: 47 to 63 hertz,
single phase
"" Power: 100 watts maximum
ADB power requirements
"" Maximum power drz.w for
all ADB devices: 500 milliamps
(a maximum of three ADB
devices, daisy-chained to the
port, is recommended)
"" Mouse draws 80 milliamps .
"" Keyboard draws 25
milliamps.

Ordering Information

Size and weight

Main unit:
"" Height: 1 3 . 2 in. (33.6 cm)
"" Width: 9.7 in. (24.6 cm)
"" Depth: 1 1 . 2 in. (28.5 cm)
"" Weight: 16 to 17. 1 lb. (7.3
to 7.8 kg)*
Mouse:
"" Height: 1 . 1 in. (2 .8 cm)
"" Width: 2 . 1 in. (5 . 3 cm)
"" Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
"" Weight: 6 oz. (. 17 kg)

' Weight will be greater with internal
hard disk .

Keyboard:
"" Height: 1 . 3 in. (3.3 cm)
"" Width: 16.0 in. (40.5 cm)
"" Depth: 5.9 in. (15 . 1 cm)
"" Weight: 1 .96 lb. (.89 kg)

Macintosh Classic
Order No. M0421LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
"" Macintosh Classic personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM and built-in 1 .4-megabyte
Apple SuperDrive
"" Keyboard
"" Mouse

"" Complete setup, learning,
and reference documentation
"" System software and
HyperCard software
"" Training disk
"" Limited warranty statement

Macintosh Classic 2/40
Order No. M0435LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
"" Macintosh Classic personal
computer with 2 megabytes of
RAM built-in 1 .4-megabyte
Apple SuperDrive , and internal
40-megabyte hard disk drive
"" Keyboard

"" Mouse
"" Complete setup, learning,
and reference documentation
"" System software and
HyperCard software
"" Training disk
"" Limited warranty statement

,

Apple Computer, Inc.

Operating environment
"" Operating temperature:
50° F to 104° F (10° C to 40° C)
"" Storage temperature: -40° F
to 1 16.6° F (-40° C to 47° C)
"" Relative humidity: 5% to 95%
noncondensing
"" Maximum altitude: 1 5 ,000 ft.
(4 , 722 m)

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX 171-576

©

1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleCD SC, AppleTalk, HyperCard, LaserWriter,
LocalTalk, Macintosh, Multifinder, and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Desktop Bus, Disk First Aid, QuickDraw, and SuperDrive are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Classic is a registered trademark, licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of
Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Mention of
non-Apple products is for infonnational purposes, and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a
recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, performance, or use
of these products.
August 1 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0913LL/A

Macintosh SE

Overview
The Macintosh® SE personal
computer combines the compact
design of the Macintosh Plus with
added power, faster file access,
and greater flexibility.
It includes an internal expan­
sion slot that allows you to cus­
tomize the system to meet your
needs, and it offers a choice of
three storage configurations.
The Macintosh SE uses the
Apple® FDHD™ Internal Drive, a
high-capacity 3 . 5-inch floppy disk
drive capable of reading 400K,
SOOK, and 1 .4-megabyte Macin­
tosh disks. In addition, the FDHD
drive lets you read from and write
to MS-DOS, OS/2, and ProDOS®

formatted disks. This combination
of capabilities makes the Macin­
tosh SE an excellent choice for
use in multivendor environments.
Adding to the power and
versatility of the Macintosh SE
is Apple's multitasking operating
system, MultiFinder�M MultiFinder
allows you to open multiple
applications concurrently and
perform background tasks-such
as printing documents on laser
printers-while you continue to
work in an application.
In addition to the system
software, the Macintosh SE
is packaged with Apple's
HyperCard ® software. HyperCard

lets you organize information on
your computer the way you
organize it in your mind-by
association and with unlimited
cross-references .
The Macintosh SE continues to
offer the benefits that character­
ize all Macintosh computers: a
consistent user interface and
intuitive design that make the
Macintosh easy to learn and use.
The Macintosh SE is compat­
ible with existing Macintosh
hardware and software, and
lets you share files with other
members of the Macintosh
family of computers .

Features

Benefits

..,. Macintosh SE expansion slot with
accessory access port

..,. Allows you to customize a system
with products such as accelerator cards,
external monitor adapters, MS-DOS
coprocessor cards , networking cards,
communications cards, or a 5 . 25-inch
MS-DOS disk drive controller card .
..,. Lets you install internal cards without
modifying the system.
..,. Provides an easy way for external
devices to he connected to cards plugged
in to the expansion slot.

..,. Apple FDHD Internal Drive

..,. Provides almost twice the storage
capacity of existing SOOK disks
( 1 . 4 megabytes) .
..,. Allows you to conveniently transfer
data files hetween Macintosh, MS-DOS,
OS/2 , and Apple II systems using the
Apple File Exchange software .
..,. Offers compatibility with existing SOOK
and 400K Macintosh disks .

..,. Three options for built-in storage :
An FDHD drive and one of the following:
a second FDHD floppy disk drive , a
Macintosh Internal Hard Disk 20SC, or a
Macintosh Internal Hard Disk 40SC

..,. Increases storage capacity with a
second internal disk drive that requires
no additional desk space .
..,. Minimizes disk swapping and, with a
hard disk , provides ample storage for all
applications and files .
..,. Significantly speeds program/data
storage and retrieval using hard disk option .

..,. Macintosh user interface : mouse, icons,
windows, and pull-down menus

..,. Makes applications easy to learn and
intuitive .
..,. Provides a consistent interface across
applications .
..,. Reduces tra ining and support costs .

..,. Compact design with a high-resolution
9-inch screen

..,. Offers an economical, compact system
that requires little desk space and is easy to
set up and transport .

..,. MultiFinder multitasking operating
system

..,. Lets you easily integrate information
from multiple applications hy cutting and
pasting
..,. Lets you move quickly and easily
hetween applications .
..,. Allows you to continue working with
applications while performing some tasks
in the background , such as print spooling
to an Apple LaserWriter® printer or down­
loading remote fil es .

..,. 68000 microprocessor

..,. Provides compatibility with existing
Macintosh software .

Features

Benefits

�

Improved processing speed relative to
the Macintosh Plus

Completes work such as recalculations
or repagination more quickly.

� 1 or 2 megabytes of RAM, expandable
to 4 megabytes (the Macintosh SE with
40-megabyte hard disk comes standard
with 2 megabytes of RAM)

� Lets you work with large amounts of
data, and run most available software
applications .
� Provides memory-expansion options
sufficient for running multiple applications
concurrently under MultiFinder, and for
running memory-intensive software
applications.

� 256K of ROM that includes :
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for the FDHD disk drive,
AppleTalk® network system, Apple
Desktop Bus:" and SCSI connector
-Macintosh Toolbox
-QuickDraw'" graphics

� The Hierarchical File System organizes
storage for documents and allows easy
access to files.
� The SCSI interface supports high­
performance peripherals.
� QuickDraw provides the consistent
interface throughout the Macintosh family.

� Advanced graphics capability, including
on-screen integration of text and graphics

� Lets you produce professional-quality
reports, newsletters, and business forms
that integrate text and graphics.
� Ensures fidelity between what you see
on the screen and what you get on the
printed page .

� Seven built-in ports (one SCSI, one
drive, two serial, two Apple Desktop Bus,
one sound)

� Makes it easy to expand your system
with additional peripherals.
� Provides access to LocalTalk™ net­
works, allowing you to connect the
Macintosh SE to other computers and to
LaserWriter printers through the AppleTalk
network system.
� Supports up to seven high-speed SCSI
peripherals.
� Provides connections for Apple
Desktop Bus devices, such as a keyboard,
hand-controlled pointing device (such as a
mouse or trackball) , or graphics tablet.

�

Apple Desktop Bus interface

� Keyboard options
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

�

� Allows daisy-chaining of up to 16 Apple
Desktop Bus devices.
� Apple Keyboard includes a numeric
keypad and cursor keys for efficient
operation.
� Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work
effectively with alternate operating systems,
terminal-emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.

Product Details
Configuration

Three Macintosh SE systems are
availahle:
-The Macintosh SE CPU (includes the
CPU, 1 megabyte of RAM two 1 .4megahyte FDHD floppy disk drives,
and mouse)
-The Macintosh SE Hard Disk 20 CPU
(includes the CPU, 1 megabyte of RAM
an internal 20-megahyte SCSI hard disk,
one 1 .4-megahyte FDHD floppy disk
drive, and mouse)
-The Macintosh SE Hard Disk 40 CPU
(includes the CPU, 2 megabytes of RAM ,
an internal 40-megabyte SCSI hard disk,
one l .4-megabyte FDHD floppy disk
drive, and mouse)
� The keyboard and other peripheral
devices are packaged and sold separately.
�

,

,

RAM
� The Macintosh SE can be upgraded to
4 megabytes of RAM.
Performance

Overall performance is 1 5 percent to
20 percent faster than that of the Macintosh
Plus. Hard disk performance is up to two
times faster with the Macintosh SE than
with the Macintosh Plus.
�

Upgrade path for Macintosh SE
computers with SOOK disk drives

An upgrade path is available for the
standard 68000-based Macintosh SE.
�

Expansion slot
� The high-performance expansion
slot supports one "SE-Bus" card. (Note :
The expansion slot is not compatible
with Macintosh SE/30 or NuBusrn
expansion cards.)

Operating system software
� Macintosh system software includes:
-System Tools 6.0.3 or higher (the Macin­
tosh operating system) and Finder"' 6 . 1 or
higher
-Printer disk (the printer drivers for all
Apple printers)
-Utility disks, which include utilities such
as Apple File Exchange, HD SC Setup, Disk
First Aid�M and Font / DA Mover

HyperCard
�

ti.

HyperCard software is included.

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SCSI is a high-performance interface for
connecting the computer to a hard disk
and other mass-storage peripherals. Up to
seven SCSI peripherals (including an
internal hard disk) can he connected to the
Macintosh SE.
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� The Macintosh SE serial ports include
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Technical Specifications
Processor
� MC68000; 32-bit internal
architecture ; 7.83-megahertz
clock speed
Memory
� 1 or 2 megabytes of RAM ,
expandable to 4 megabytes
� 256K of ROM standard
� 256 bytes of parameter
memory
Disk storage
� Internal 1 . 4-megabyte
FDHD floppy disk drive
� Either a second internal 1 .4megabyte FDHD floppy disk
drive, or a 20- or 40-megabyte
internal Apple SCSI hard disk
drive
� Optional external floppy
disk drive or SCSI hard disk
drives

� Fan Outlet

� Accessory Access Port
� Security Connector
� Power
� On/Off Switch

� Serial Ports
� Audio Jack
� SCSI Connector
� External Drive Port
� Apple Desktop
Bus Connectors

Keyboard
Detachable keyboard options:
� Apple Keyboard: 81 keys,
including numeric keypad and
cursor keys
� Apple Extended Keyboard:
105 keys, including 15 function
keys, separate cursor pad, 1 0key numeric keypad, and
Apple Desktop Bus connectors

Mouse
� Mechanical tracking; optical
shaft encoding at 3.94 pulses
per mm (100 pulses per inch)
of travel; connects through
Apple Desktop Bus
Screen
� 9-inch diagonal, high­
resolution, 5 1 2- by 342-pixel
bit-mapped display
Interfaces
� Two Apple Desktop Bus
connectors for communication
with keyboard, mouse, and
other input devices
� Two RS-232/RS-422 serial
ports, 230.4 kilobaud maxi­
mum; use mini-8 connectors
� External disk drive interface
� Macintosh SE expansion
slot; uses a 96-pin Euro-DIN
connector
� SCSI interface; uses a 50-pin
connector (internal) and a
DB-25 connector (external)
� Sound port for external
audio amplifier (standard
miniature)
Sound generator
� Four-voice sound with 8-bit
digital/analog conversion using
22-kilohertz sampling rate

Clock/Calendar
� CMOS custom chip with
seven-year lithium battery
Fan
� 10 CFM cross flow
� 38 dB
Electrical requirements
� Line voltage: 90 to 140 volts
AC; 170 to 270 volts AC
� Frequency: 47 to 63 Hz
� Maximum power: 100 watts
Size and weight
Main unit
� Height: 13.6 in. (34.5 cm)
� Width: 9.6 in. (24.4 cm)
� Depth: 10.9 in. (27.6 cm)
� Weight: 17 to 2 1 lb.
(7.7 to 9. 5 kg)*

Mouse
� Height: 1 . 1 in. (2.8 cm)
� Width: 2 . 1 in. (5.3 cm)
� Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
� Weight: 6 oz. ( . 1 7 kg)
' Weight varies depending on whether hard
disk or second floppy disk drive has been
installed.

Macintosh SE
Ordering Information

Macintosh SE CPU

Order No. M0029LL/A

With your order, you'll receive
the following:
� Macintosh SE personal
computer with built-in 9-inch
monitor, 1 megabyte of RAM
and two built-in 1 .4-megabyte
FDHD drives
� Mouse
� System software
� HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Owner's guide
� Getting Started guide
� Limited warranty statement
,

Macintosh SE
Hard Disk 20 CPU

Order No. M0028LL/A

With your order, you'll receive
the following:
� Macintosh SE personal
computer with built-in 9-inch
monitor, 1 megabyte of RAM
a built-in 1 .4-megabyte FDHD
drive, and an internal 20megabyte hard disk drive
� Mouse
� System software
� HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Owner's guide
� Getting Started guide
� Limited warranty statement
,

Macintosh SE
Hard Disk 40 CPU

Order No. M0031LL/A

With your order, you'll receive
the following:
� Macintosh SE personal
computer with built-in 9-inch
monitor, 2 megabytes of RAM
a built-in 1 .4-megabyte FDHD
drive, and an internal 40megabyte hard disk drive
� Mouse
� System software
� HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Owner's guide
� Getting Started guide
� Limited warranty statement
,

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, HyperCard, LaserWriter, Macintosh,
and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop llus, Disk First Aid,
FDHD, Finder, LocalTalk, MultiFinder, and QuickDraw are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS
is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Nullus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. OS/2 is a
trademark of International llusiness Machines Corporation.
August 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2226/D

Macintosh II

Overview
The Macintosh® II personal com­
puter is the high-performance,
open-architecture member of
the Macintosh family. It provides
advanced color and graphics
capabilities, with a palette of
over 16 million colors.
The Macintosh II is designed
for advanced applications in busi­
ness, desktop publishing, science,
and engineering. It comes stan­
dard with a full 32-bit 68020
microprocessor and a 68881
floating-point coprocessor.
For maximum flexibility,
the Macintosh II makes room
for more memory-up to 8
megabytes of on-board RAM­
and includes six built-in ports
and six expansion slots that let
you create virtually any system

configuration you need. Using
hardware and software options
from Apple and third parties, the
Macintosh II can support other
operating environments, includ­
ing MS-DOS and AT&T UN�
To go with the Macintosh II,
you have a choice of monitors­
including the AppleColor'" High­
Resolution RGB Monitor-as well
as keyboards and internal or ex­
ternal disk drives.
The Macintosh II is compatible
with existing Macintosh software,
and comes standard with 1 mega­
byte of RAM and a built-in 800kilobyte floppy disk drive. It is
available in two configurations:
with or without an internal 40megabyte hard disk drive.

Adding to the power and
versatility of the Macintosh II
is Apple's first-generation
multitasking operating system,
MultiFinde( MultiFinder allows
you to open multiple applications
concurrently and perform back­
ground tasks-such as printing
documents on laser printers­
while you continue to work in
an application.
In addition to the System soft­
ware, the Macintosh II is packaged
with Apple's exciting HyperCard®
application. HyperCard is an in­
formation-management toolkit
that lets you organize informa­
tion on your computer the way
you organize it in your mindby association, and with unlimited
cross-references.

Features

Benefits

� Full 32-bit, 68020 microprocessor
operating at 15.7 megahertz

� Provides increased speed, power, and
performance-up to four times greater
than with Apple's previous 68000-based
computers.

� 68881 floating-point coprocessor

� Performs arithmetic calculations up to
200 times faster than previous systems.

� 1 megabyte of on-board RAM ,
expandable to 8 megabytes

� Lets you run the most powerful, sophis­
ticated software available.
� Accommodates extremely large models,
documents, and databases.
� Provides the flexibility to grow as you
need additional memory.
� With MultiFinder, allows you to use
multiple applications simultaneously.

� 256K of ROM that includes:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for Macintosh hard disk
drives, NuBus'" expansion slots,
Apple Desktop Bus'� 68881 floating­
point coprocessor, SCSI, and
AppleTalk® network
-Color QuickDraw

� The Hierarchical File System organizes
storage for documents and allows easy
access to files.
� The SCSI interface supports high­
performance peripherals.
� QuickDraw provides the consistent
graphics interface throughout the
Macintosh family.
� Color QuickDraw provides a consistent
interface for both black-and-white and
color applications.

� Six NuBus expansion slots

� Makes it easy to add memory, com­
munications, and coprocessor cards.
(Cards are self-configuring-they require
no DIP switches, and can be placed in
any slot.)
� Lets you configure your system to meet
your specific needs.
� Provides flexibility for expansion as
requirements change and new technology
becomes available.
� Lets you work within other operating
environments.

� Advanced color graphics
capabilities

� Allows you to create and display vivid,
true-to-life graphics using over 16 million
colors.

� Six built-in ports: two serial,
two Apple Desktop Bus, one SCSI,
one sound

� Lets you expand your system with
popular peripherals without using expan­
sion slots.
� Provides access to LocalTalk'" cabling­
based networks, which allows you to con­
nect your Macintosh II to other computers
and to LaserWriter® II printers through the
AppleTalk Network System.
� Provides connection for Apple Desktop
Bus devices such as keyboards and mice.
� Supports up to seven high-speed SCSI
peripherals.

Features

Benefits

• Internal SCSI connector

• Permits connection of internal hard

disks.
• SCSI transfer rate up to

• Allows fast loading and saving of

1 megabyte per second

applications and documents.

• Two standard configurations:
-BOOK built-in disk drive
-BOOK drive, plus internal 40-megabyte
hard disk drive
-A second internal SOOK drive can be
added to both configurations

•
•
•
•

• Macintosh user interface: mouse,

• Makes applications easy to learn and

icons, windows, and pull-down menus

intuitive.
• Provides a consistent interface across
applications.
• Reduces training and support costs in a
corporate environment.

• MultiFinder multitasking
operating system

• Enables you to use multiple applications

• Macintosh software

Gives you multiple storage options.
Uses standard SOOK 3.5-inch disks.
Requires no desk space for disk drives.
Lets you add storage capacity as your
requirements expand.

simultaneously and easily transfer data
among them by cutting and pasting.
• Allows you to continue working with
applications while performing background
tasks such as laser printing.
• Runs existing Macintosh software.

compatibility
• Apple stereo sound chip

• Provides high-quality digital sound.
• Is compatible with most applications

that use Macintosh sound.
• Optional 68851 PMMU memory
management upgrade

• Choice of keyboards (sold separately):
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

• Choice of monitors (sold separately):
-Apple High-Resolution Monochrome
Monitor
-AppleColor High-Resolution RGB
Monitor

• Provides memory management

necessary to run multitasking, multi­
user operating systems such as NUX®,
Apple's implementation of AT&T UNIX®.
• Apple Keyboard includes numeric

keypad and cursor keys for efficient
operations.
• Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work effec­
tively with alternate operating systems,
terminal emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.
• Lets you choose the monitor that best

fits your needs.

Product Details
System configuration
� Two configurations are available:
-The Macintosh II CPU, which includes
the CPU, 68881 floating-point coprocessor,
1 megabyte of RAM one SOOK 3.5-inch
floppy disk drive, and mouse.
-The Macintosh II Hard Disk 40 CPU,
which includes the Macintosh II CPU plus
an internal 40-megabyte SCSI hard disk
drive.
� Keyboard, monitors, and other periph­
eral devices are packaged and sold
separately.
,

NuBus expansion slots
� NuBus provides a 32-bit single address
bus and data bus on a 96-pin connector.
� NuBus is self-configuring. Cards can be
plugged into any slot and the system will
automatically identify and configure each
card, without any DIP switches or jumper
wires.

� The 32-bit address bus provides a total
addressable space of 4 gigabytes.

RAM
� RAM can be upgraded on the mother­
board to 2 megabytes with the lMB RAM
Expansion Kit; it can be upgraded to 4, 5,
or 8 megabytes with 2MB RAM Expansion
Kits.
68881 floating-point math
coprocessor
� Macintosh programs that utilize the
Standard Apple Numerics Environment
(SANE®) will have floating-point compu­
tations accelerated by 3 to 30 times.
� Programs that make direct use of the
68881 will have floating-point computa­
tions accelerated by up to 200 times.

� The Macintosh II is equipped with the
32-bit 68020 processor running at 1 5 .7
megahertz. Overall, the performance of
the Macintosh II is at least four times faster
than that of Apple's 68000-based systems.

Six NuBus Slots

Button

Stereo

Apple Desktop Bus
Connectors

Jack

Network support
� The Macintosh II serial ports include
full support for AppleTalk network
connections.

HyperCard
� HyperCard software included.

Cover-Release

Audio

SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface)
� SCSI is a high-performance interface
for connecting the computer to hard disks
and other mass-storage peripherals. Up
to seven SCSI peripherals (including inter­
nal hard disk) can be connected to the
Macintosh II.
� SCSI performance on the Macintosh II
is rated at up to 1 megabyte per second
(up to four times faster than on a Macintosh
Plus).

Operating system software
� Macintosh System software includes:
-MultiFinder
-Utilities such as the Hard Disk Backup

68020 processor

Reset

Stereo sound
� The Apple Sound Chip supports stereo
sound at a sampling rate of up to 44. l
kilohertz.

Serial Ports

SCSI Connector

Outlet for

Cover-Release

Monitor

Button

Power

Security
Tie-Down
Connector

Technical Specifications
Processor
MC6S020, 32-bit internal archi­
tecture, 15.7-megahertz clock
speed
Math coprocessor
6SSS1 floating-point device
(IEEE standard)

•

Memory
• 1 megabyte of RAM , expand­
able to S megabytes on board
• 256K of ROM standard
Memory management
Optional 6SS51 PMMU

•

Disk storage
Two standard configurations
-One built-in SOOK disk drive
-One built-in SOOK disk drive
and an internal 40-megabyte
SCSI hard disk drive
• Options include 20-, 40-, and
SO-megabyte internal SCSI hard
disk drives
•

Monitor options (sold
separately)
• Apple High-Resolution
Monochrome Monitor: an
analog monitor with a 12-inch
diagonal screen, 640 by 4SO
pixels
• AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor: an analog RGB
monitor with 1 3-inch diagonal
screen, 640 by 4SO pixels

Color capabilities
• Palette of over 16 million
colors
• Color QuickDraw built into
ROM
Keyboard options (sold
separately)
Detachable keyboard options:
• Apple Keyboard: Sl keys,
including numeric keypad and
cursor keys
• Apple Extended Keyboard:
105 keys, including 15 function
keys, separate cursor pad, 10key numeric keypad, and Apple
Desktop Bus connectors
Mouse (included)
• Mechanical tracking: optical
shaft encoding at 3.54 pulses
per mm (90 pulses per inch) of
travel
Interfaces
• Two mini-S serial (RS-232/
RS-422) ports
• SCSI interface; uses a 50-pin
connector (internal) and a DB25 connector (external)
• Two Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) ports
• Six NuBus internal slots sup­
porting full 32-bit address and
data buses

Sound generator
Apple custom digital sound
chip (ASC), including four-voice
wave-table synthesis, stereo
sampling generator. Capable of
driving stereo headphones or
other stereo equipment.
•

Electrical requirements
Line voltage: 90 to 140 volts
AC; 170 to 270 volts AC, auto­
matically configured
• Frequency: 4S to 62 Hz
• Maximum power: 230 watts,
not including monitor power
•

Size and weight
Main unit
• Height: 5 . 5 1 in. (14.0 cm)
• Width: 18.66 in. (47.4 cm)
• Depth: 14.37 in. (36.S cm)
• Weight: 24 lbs. to 26 lbs.
(10.9 kg to 1 1 .S kg) *

Mouse
• Height: 1 . 1 1 in. (2.S cm)
• Width: 2 . 1 in. (5.3 cm)
• Depth: 3.S in. (9.7 cm)
• Weight: 6 oz. (.17 kg)

• Weight varies depending on whether op­
tional hard disk or second floppy disk has
been installed.

Macintosh II
Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

Macintosh II CPU

Order No. M5333

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh II personal com­
puter with a built-in SOOK disk
drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement

Macintosh II
Hard Disk 40 CPU

Order No. M5430

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh II personal com­
puter with a built-in SOOK disk
drive and an internal 40-mega­
byte SCSI hard disk drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(40S) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 - 576

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, A/UX, HyperCard, LaserWriter,
Macintosh, and SANE are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleColor, Apple Desktop
Bus, LocalTalk, and MultiFinder are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered
trademark of Microsoft Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. UNIX is a registered
trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2227/B

Macintosh LC

Overview
The Apple® Macintosh® LC personal
computer is Apple Computer's lowest­
cost color-capable Macintosh. Combin­
ing the flexibility of a modular system
with a sleek new design, the Macintosh
LC gives you a range of options for
larger screens, color displays, and
system expansion, all at an even more
affordable price.
The computer features a 16-megahertz
68020 microprocessor that increases
system responsiveness more than 1 00
percent over the Macintosh SE and the
Macintosh Classic.®
The Macintosh LC also offers built-in
support for three Apple monitors­
including the Macintosh 1 2'' RGB Dis­
play, the Macintosh 12" Monochrome
Display, and the AppleColor'" High­
Resolution RGB Monitor. This means
you can choose the monitor you want
to work with-without having to add a
separate video card.

Right from the start, with a Macintosh
LC you can enhance graphics, presenta­
tion materials, and other documents
with a range of shades and colors-256
colors on the Macintosh 1 2" RGB Dis­
play, 16 shades of gray on the Macintosh
12" Monochrome Display, and 16 colors
on the AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor.
With an optional Macintosh LC 5 1 2K
VRAM (video random-access memory)
SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module),
the system is capable of generating even
more colors or shades of gray on all
three monitors.
The Macintosh LC also provides an
important new Macintosh capability:
sound input. Macintosh computers have
always offered sound output, but the
Macintosh LC has been designed so you
can add sounds to documents created
with the computer.
The system comes standard with
the 1 .4-megabyte Apple SuperDrive"'
disk drive, which allows you to work
more easily in different computing

environments because it can read from
and write to 3 . 5-inch disks initialized for
the Macintosh as well as MS-DOS, OS/2,
and ProDOS� In addition, a 40-megabyte
internal hard disk drive accommodates
large files and applications.
Seven built-in ports allow you to
expand the system with popular periph­
eral equipment such as additional hard
disks, scanners, and printers. Built-in net­
working makes it easy to connect to dif­
ferent networks for sharing information.
And a processor-direct slot allows you to
add a high-performance expansion card
for additional graphics, communications,
and other capabilities.
What's more, when equipped with the
Apple IIe Card, the Macintosh LC can run
virtually all applications developed for
Apple IIe systems. And the Macintosh LC
will be able to run the next generation of
Macintosh applications-those supported
by Macintosh system software version
7.0-when they become available.

Features

Benefits

� 68020 microprocessor,
running at 16 megahertz

� Offers more than 100 percent faster
performance and system responsiveness
than Macintosh SE and Macintosh Classic
systems.

� Built-in video support for three
Apple monitors:
-Macintosh 1 2'' RGB Display
-Macintosh 1 2 " Monochrome
Display
-AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor

� Lets you choose from the most
popular Apple displays; both color and
monochrome.
� Lets you work with up to 256 colors
simultaneously on the Macintosh 12" RGB
Display, up to 16 shades of gray on the
Macintosh 12" Monochrome Display,
and up to 16 colors on the AppleColor
High-Resolution RGB Monitor.
� Allows you to change displays without
adding a video card.

� Optional Macintosh LC
512K VRAM SIMM

� Boosts the color depth to 256 colors
or shades of gray on the AppleColor High­
Resolution RGB Monitor and Macintosh
12" Monochrome Display.
� Provides 32,000 colors on the
Macintosh 12" RGB Display.

�

Sound input

� Apple SuperDrive
(1.4-megabyte floppy disk drive)

� Allows you to add voice comments
to voice-capable word processing, spread­
sheet, and other documents; send spoken
electronic mail messages; add voice excerpts
to presentations; and create spoken pass­
word protection for sensitive files.
� Allows convenient transfer of data
files between Macintosh, OS/2 , MS-DOS,
and Apple II systems.
� Provides almost twice the storage
capacity of SOOK disk drives.

�

Apple Ile Card

� Allows you to run virtually all appli­
cations that have been developed for
Apple Ile computers.
� Preserves your investment in Apple Ile
software.

�

020 Direct Slot

� Allows you to expand system capabil­
ities with a high-performance expansion
card for communication, emulation, graph­
ics and other options.

Features

Benefits

� Seven built-in ports:
-One SCSI port
-One Apple Desktop Bus'' (ADB) port
-Two serial ports
-One sound-in port
-One sound-out port
-One video output port

� Provide support for up to seven
popular peripherals such as CD-ROM
drives, scanners, and printers.
� Permit communication with the
keyboard, mouse, and other input devices.
� Provide easy external access to
optional expansion cards.
� Provide access to LocalTalk® cable­
based networks, which allow you to
connect Macintosh LC systems to other
computers and to LaserWriter® printers
through the AppleTalk® network system.
� Support sound input via microphone
or phono jack adapter.
� Supply high-quality sound output that
is compatible with all applications that use
Macintosh sound.
� Provide connection to external video
display devices.

� 40-megabyte internal hard
disk drive

Handles a broad range of computing
needs by providing ample storage capacity
for files and applications.

� 2 megabytes of on-board RAM ,
expandable to 10 megabytes

Provides a simple growth path as you
need additional memory.
� Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as spreadsheets, scanned
images, and sound files.

Macintosh user interface,
including mouse, icons, windows,
and pull-down menus

� Makes most applications intuitive
and easy to learn.
� Reduces training and support costs.
� Provides a consistent user interface
across applications.

�

�

�

�

MultiFinder® operating system

� Allows multiple applications to be
opened concurrently.
� Lets you easily cut and paste parts of
documents from one application to
another.
� Allows background tasks to be run
while you interact with applications in
the foreground.

�

Software compatibility

� Lets you run virtually all Macintosh
software .
� Allows you to run virtually all
applications that have been developed
for Apple Ile computers using the
Apple Ile Card.

Product Details
System configuration
� The Macintosh LC comes with 2 mega­
bytes of RAM (expandable to 10 mega­
bytes), internal 1 .4-megabyte Apple
SuperDrive floppy disk drive, internal
40-megabyte hard disk drive, ADB key­
board and mouse, system software, and
training disk.
RAM configurations
� The Macintosh LC comes with 2 mega­
bytes of RAM on the main logic board. Up
to 8 megabytes of RAM can be added by
installing a memory expansion card and
then adding SIMMs. Some possible config­
urations include:
-4 megabytes (2 megabytes on main
logic board; two 1-megabyte SIMMs)
-10 megabytes (2 megabytes on main
logic board; two 4-megabyte SIMMs)

� HyperCard® 2.0 Home, Addresses with
Audio, Appointments with Audio, Audio
Palette, and Audio Help stacks.

SCSI
� SCSI (Small Computer System Inter­
face) is a high-performance interface
bus used to connect hard disks and
other SCSI-based devices, such as the
AppleCD SC® CD-ROM drive, the Apple
Scanner, and the Apple Personal Laser­
Writer to the Macintosh LC. This single
interface can support up to seven SCSI
peripheral devices.
Network support
� The Macintosh LC provides full ROM
support for all AppleTalk protocols and
includes built-in serial ports for LocalTalk
network connections.
Operating system support
� Macintosh system software includes:
-System software version 6.0.6 or later
(the Macintosh Operating System) with
System Startup disk
-System Additions disk (includes utilities
such as the Apple File Exchange, HD SC
Setup, CloseView, Disk First Aid'," and
Font/DA Mover)

Video
Port

Printer
Port

Modem
Port

SCSI Port

Sound input
� The Macintosh LC has been designed
to accept and process sound as well as
generate it. Using a microphone or phono
jack adapter, and appropriate software,
you can speak into the computer to create
electronic voice messages and add voice
comments to files. Sound entering the
computer is filtered through a custom fil­
ter/preamplifier chip, converted to digital
form, and stored in DRAM or directly
on the hard disk.
Sound generator
� The sound generator is a high-quality
sampling generator that provides the
sound signal to the internal speaker or to
both channels of stereo mini-phone-jack
headphones.

Apple
Desktop
Bus Port

Sound-out
Port

Sound-in
Port

Expansion
Slot Access
Port

Technical Specifications
Microprocessor
� MC68020, 32-bit architecture
� 16-megahertz clock speed
Memory
� 2 megabytes of RAM ,
expandable to 4 or 10
megabytes
� 5 1 2K of ROM, socketed for
future ROM upgrades
� 256 bytes of parameter
memory
Disk drives
� Built-in Apple SuperDrive
1 .4-megabyte floppy disk drive
� Internal 40-megabyte Apple
SCSI hard disk drive
� Optional external Apple SCSI
hard disk (many capacities
available)

-

Monitors
� Supports several color and
monochrome monitors,
including:
-Macintosh 1 2 " RGB Display
-Macintosh 1 2 " Monochrome
Display
-AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor
� When equipped with a
video expansion card, supports
other Apple and non-Apple
monitors; see your authorized
Apple dealer for details.

� Two serial (RS-232/RS-422)
ports, 230 kilobits per second
maximum (up to 0.920 mega­
bits per second if clocked
externally)
� Video port, supporting color
and monochrome monitors of
various sizes and resolutions
� SCSI interface, using a 50-pin
internal connector and a DB-25
connector for the first external
device; all subsequent SCSI­
based peripheral devices use
standard SCSI-to-SCSI interface
cables.
� Internal expansion slot,
supporting an 020 Direct Slot
expansion card
� Monophonic sound output
port for external audio devices
� Sound input port for mon­
aural sound input

Interfaces
� One Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port, supporting a
keyboard, mouse, and other
devices daisy-chained through
a low-speed, synchronous
serial bus (a maximum of three
daisy-chained devices is
recommended)

(continued)

. --------�

1;___1

Macintosh LC with ADE keyboard,
mouse, microphone, and Macintosh
12" RGE Display.

Macintosh LC with ADE keyboard, mouse,
microphone, and 13-inch AppleColor
High-Resolution RGE Monitor.

.. .

. \\

' " "

\ \I

.
\ I ' c:::
:::-

Macintosh LC with ADE keyboard,
mouse, microphone, and Macintosh
12" Monochrome Display.

Macintosh LC
Technical Specifications

Sound input

Mouse

(continued)

.,.. Monaural 8-bit sound
.,.. Sound samples can be made
at 22 or 1 1 kilohertz.
.,.. Macintosh Audio Compres­
sion Expansion (MACE) sound
utility, supporting 3: 1 or 6: 1
compression, which allows
approximately half an hour of
sound to be stored on a single
40-megabyte hard disk

.,.. Apple Desktop Bus Mouse;
mechanical tracking: optical
shaft or contact encoding; 100 ±
10 pulses per in. (3.9 ± 0.39
pulses per mm) of travel

Sound generator
.,.. Monophonic 8-bit digital­
analog conversion using 22kilohertz sample rate-capable
of supplying the same signal to
both channels of stereo head­
phones or other stereo equip­
ment through the sound jack

.,.. "Hands free" omnidirectional
electret microphone
Keyboard

Size and weight

.,.. ADB keyboard with numeric
keypad
.,.. Two-level tilt adjustment

Main unit:
.,.. Height: 3.0 in. (7.7 cm)
.,.. Width: 1 2 . 2 in. (31 . 0 cm)
.,.. Depth: 15.0 in. (38 . 2 cm)
.,.. Weight: 8.8 lb (4.0 kg)

Macintosh LC

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. Macintosh LC personal
computer with 2 megabytes of
RAM, built-in 1 .4-megabyte
Apple SuperDrive floppy disk
drive, and internal 40-megabyte
hard disk drive

Order No. M0442LL/A

Apple Computer, Inc.

.,.. Line voltage : 90 to 240 volts
AC, RMS
.,.. Frequency: 47 to 63 hertz,
single phase
.,.. Power: 50 watts maximum,
not including monitor power
ADB power requirements
.,.. Maximum power draw for
all ADB devices: 200 milliamps
(a maximum of three ADB
devices, daisy-chained to the
port, is recommended)
.,.. Mouse draws 80 milliamps .
.,.. Keyboard draws 25
milliamps.

Microphone

Ordering Information

Electrical requirements

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX 171-576

©

Mouse:
.,.. Height: 1 . 1 in. (2 .8 cm)
.,.. Width: 2 . 1 in. (5 .3 cm)
.,.. Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
.,.. Weight: 6 oz. (.17 kg)
Keyboard:
.,.. Height: 1 .8 in. (4.4 cm)
.,.. Width: 16.5 in. (41 .8 cm)
.,.. Depth: 5.6 in. (14.2 cm)
.,.. Weight: 2 lb. (1 kg)
Operating environment
.,.. Operating temperature :
50° F to 104° F (10° C to 40° C)
.,.. Storage temperature: -40° F
to 1 16.6° F (-40° C to 47° C)
.,.. Relative humidity: 20% to
80%, noncondensing
.,.. Maximum altitude : 10,000 ft.
(3,048 m)

.,.. Keyboard
.,.. Mouse
.,.. Complete setup, learning,
and reference documentation
.,.. System software and
HyperCard software
.,.. Training disks .
.,.. Limited warranty statement

1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleCD SC, AppleTalk, HyperCard, LaserWriter,
Loca!Talk, Macintosh, Multifinder, and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
AppleColor, Apple Desktop Bus, Disk First Aid, and SuperDrive are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 is a trademark of International Business
Machines Corporation. Mention of non-Apple products is for informational purposes, and constitutes
neither an endorsement nor a recommendat;on. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the
selection, performance, or use of these products. Classic is a registered trademark, licensed to Apple
Computer, Inc. August 1 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0938LL/A

Macintosh !Ix

Overview
The Macintosh® Ilx is ideal for
people who require maximum
expandability, disk storage
capacity, and the flexibility of a
modular Macintosh personal
computer system.
The performance of the Macin­
tosh Ilx results primarily from its
advanced 68030 microprocessor.
And to accelerate the processing
of complex math functions, the
Macintosh Ilx comes standard
with a 68882 coprocessor.
To meet the demands of the
growing number of powerful
Macintosh applications available
today, the memory of the Macin­
tosh Ilx can be expanded incre­
mentally to 8 megabytes of RAM .

And virtually any type of Macin­
tosh Ilx configuration can be
created, because the system in­
cludes six internal NuBus™
expansion slots to add cards
(such as additional network
interfaces), as well as six exter­
nal ports to accommodate periph­
erals (such as hard disks and
printers) and LocalTalk™ network
connections. The Macintosh Ilx
also offers advanced color and
gray-scale graphics capabilities,
and can be used with a wide
range of monitors .
For floppy disk storage, the
Macintosh Ilx uses the unique
1 .4-megabyte Apple® FDHD™

SuperDrive;M which allows it to
read from and write to not only
3 . 5-inch Macintosh floppy disks,
but also the 3 . 5-inch disks used
in many other types of personal
computers. An internal Apple
hard disk-with up to 160 mega­
bytes of capacity-can also be
installed, as well as a second
SuperDrive.
The Macintosh Ilx is compatible
with virtually all Macintosh
applications, and comes standard
with Apple's MultiFinder™ operat­
ing system and HyperCard � a tool
for custom software solutions.

Features

Benefits

... Full 32-bit 68030 microprocessor with
built-in Paged Memory Management Unit
(PMMU)

... Offers power, performance, and high­
speed processing.
... Supports multitasking operating
systems (such as Apple's A/UX®) that
require memory management capabilities
in order to run.

... 68882 floating-point coprocessor

... Offers fast processing of complex
mathematical functions, such as logarithmic
and trigonometric series.

... Six NuBus expansion slots

... Lets you configure your system to meet
specific needs .
..., Makes it easy to add a variety of cards.
(Cards are self-configuring-they require
no DIP switches, and can be placed in
any slot.)
... Provides flexibility for expansion as
your requirements change and new
technology becomes available.

... Apple FDHD SuperDrive
- A second SuperDrive can be installed.

... Provides 75 percent more storage
capacity than SOOK disk drives.
... Allows you to conveniently transfer data
files between Macintosh, OS/2, MS-DOS,
and Apple II systems on the same 3 .5-inch
disk, using the Apple File Exchange utility.

... Internal hard disk storage

... Accommodates either 5 . 25- or 3 . 5-inch
hard disk drives (higher-capacity hard disk
drives typically become available first in the
5 . 25-inch size) .

... Choice of monitors (sold separately) :
-Apple High-Resolution Monochrome
Monitor
-AppleColor™ High-Resolution RGB
Monitor
-Apple Two-Page Monochrome Monitor
-Apple Macintosh Portrait Display

... Lets you choose the monitor you
need-from high-quality RGB monitors
with vivid colors to monochrome monitors
that offer the crispness and clarity tradition­
ally associated with Macintosh.

... Six built-in ports: two serial, two
Apple Desktop Bus:M one SCSI, one sound

... Lets you expand your system with
popular peripherals without using
expansion slots.
... Provides access to LocalTalk cable­
based networks, which allows you to
connect your Macintosh Ilx to other
computers and to LaserWriter® printers
through the AppleTalk® network system.
... Provides connection for Apple
Desktop Bus devices such as a keyboard,
hand-controlled pointing device (such as
a mouse or trackball), or graphics tablet.
... Supports up to seven SCSI peripherals.

Features

Benefits

� 1 megabyte of on-board RAM , expand­
able to 8 megabytes

Provides the flexibility to grow as you
need additional memory.
� Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as large spreadsheets, large
scanned images, and sound editing files.
� Lets you open multiple applications
concurrently under MultiFinder.

� 256K of ROM on SIMM (Single In-line
Memory Module), including:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for Macintosh hard disk drives,
NuBus expansion slots, Apple Desktop
Bus, 68882 floating-point coprocessor,
SCSI, and AppleTalk network
-Color QuickDraw™

� The SIMM mounting makes it easy to
remove and replace ROM for more
convenient configuration and servicing.
� The Hierarchical File System organizes
storage for documents and allows easy
access to files.
� The SCSI interface supports high­
performance peripherals.
� QuickDraw and Color QuickDraw
enable Macintosh applications to offer a
consistent interface throughout the
Macintosh family and enable color systems
to display 256 colors or shades of gray
simultaneously.

� Macintosh user interface: mouse, icons,
windows, and pull-down menus

� Makes most applications intuitive and
easy to learn.
� Provides a consistent interface across
applications.
� Reduces training and support costs.

�

�

MultiFinder operating system software

� Allows multiple applications to be
opened concurrently.
� Lets you easily integrate information
from multiple applications by cutting and
pasting between them.
� Allows you to continue working with
applications while performing tasks in the
background, such as print spooling or
downloading remote files.

�

Software compatibility

Runs virtually all Macintosh software,
including applications designed to take
advantage of floating-point coprocessors.

�

Apple stereo sound chip

Provides high-quality digital sound.
Offers compatibility with all applications
that use Macintosh sound.

� Choice of keyboards (sold separately) :
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

�

�
�

� Apple Keyboard includes numeric
keypad and cursor keys for efficient
operation.
� Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work effec­
tively with alternate operating systems,
terminal-emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.

------- - ---- -- -

-- - �

Product Details
System Configuration
.,. Five configurations are available:
-The Macintosh Ilx CPU includes the
68030 microprocessor, 68882 floating-point
coprocessor, 1 megabyte of RAM one 1 .4megabyte floppy disk drive, and mouse.
-The Macintosh Ilx 1/40 CPU includes all
of the features of the Macintosh Ilx CPU,
plus a 40-megabyte internal hard disk drive .
-The Macintosh Ilx 4/80 CPU includes all
of the features of the Macintosh Ilx, except
that it has 4 megabytes of RAM and an 80megabyte hard disk drive.
-The Macintosh Ilx 4/160 CPU includes all
of the features of the Macintosh Ilx, except
that it has 4 megabytes of RAM and a 160megabyte hard disk drive.
-The Macintosh Ilx also comes preconfig­
ured with A/UX on a system that has 4
megabytes of RAM and an 80-megabyte
hard disk.
.,. The keyboard, monitor, and other
peripheral devices are packaged and sold
separately.
,

NuBus Expansion Slots
.,. NuBus provides a multiplexed 32-bit
address bus and data bus on a single 96-pin
connector.
.,. NuBus is self-configuring: Cards can be
plugged into any slot and the system will
automatically identify and configure each
card, without any DIP switches or jumper
wires .
.,. The NuBus architecture supports data
transfer rates of up to 37.5 megabytes per
second.

68030 Processor
.,. The 32-bit 68030 processor runs at
1 5.667 megahertz.
.,. The 32-bit address bus provides a total
addressable space of 4 gigabytes.
.,. Separate instruction and data caches
provide significantly faster processing.
.,. Built-in PMMU supports virtual, shared,
and protected memory in operating
systems that have been designed for it
(such as Apple's A/UX).

SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface)
.,. SCSI is a high-performance interface for
connecting the Macintosh IIx to hard disks
and other peripherals, such as the Apple
Scanner, AppleCD SC™ CD-ROM drive, and
other devices. Up to seven SCSI peripherals
(including an internal hard disk) can be
connected.
.,. SCSI provides data transfer rates of up
to 1 megabyte per second.

68882 Floating-Point Math
Coprocessor
.,. The 68882 performs complex mathe­
matical calculations, such as logarithmic
and trigonometric functions.

Network Support
.,. The Macintosh Ilx provides full ROM
support for all AppleTalk protocols, and
has serial ports for LocalTalk network
connections.

RAM

Operating System Software
.,. Macintosh system software includes:
-System Tools Version 6.0.3 or greater
(the Macintosh operating system)
-Printer disk (the printer drivers for all
Apple printers)
-Utility disks, which include utilities such
as Apple File Exchange, HD SC Setup,
CloseView, Disk First Aid:M and the
Font/DA Mover
.,. HyperCard is included.
.,. A/UX Version 1 . 1 (or greater) is
compatible with the Macintosh Ilx.

.,. The Macintosh Ilx can be upgraded
incrementally to 8 megabytes of RAM
through the addition of 1-megabyte or 4megabyte memory expansion kits.
.,. When denser chips become available,
the Macintosh Ilx can be upgraded to 32
megabytes of RAM
.

Technical Specifications
Processor
� 68030; 32-bit internal
Harvard architecture
� 1 5 .667-megahertz clock
speed
� 256-byte instruction and
data caches

Mouse
� Mechanical tracking: optical
shaft encoding at 3.94:!:D.39
pulses per mm (100±10 pulses
per inch) of travel

Coprocessor
68882 floating-point
coprocessor (IEEE standard80 bits precision)
� 1 5 .667-megahertz clock
speed

�

Interfaces
� Six NuBus internal slots
support full 32-bit address and
data buses
� Two mini-8 serial (RS-232/
RS-422) ports
� Two Apple Desktop Bus
ports allow daisy-chaining of
multiple peripheral devices
� SCSI interface: uses a SO-pin
connector (internal) and a
DB-25 connector (external)
�
Sound jack for stereo output

Cover-Release

Sound generator
� Apple's custom digital
sound chip provides 8-bit
stereo sampling at 44. l kilo­
hertz, and includes four-voice
wave-table synthesis. Capable
of driving stereo headphones or
other stereo equipment through
the sound jack.

Size and weight
Main unit
� Height: S . S in. (14.0 cm)
� Width: 18. 7 in. ( 47.4 cm)
� Depth: 14.4 in. (36.S cm)
� Weight: 24 lb. (10.9 kg)*

*Weight will be more if hard disk drive
is installed.

Mouse
� Height: 1 . 1 in. (2.8 cm)
� Width: 2 . 1 in. (5.3 cm)
� Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
� Weight: 6 oz. ( . 1 7 kg)

Electrical requirements
� Line voltage: 100 to 240
volts AC, automatically
configured
� Frequency: 48 to 62 Hz
� Maximum power: 230 watts,
not including monitor power

Six NuBus Slots

Button

Outlet for

Cover-Release

Monitor

Button

�//'l// / / 1 1 \

•

Reset

Stereo

Apple Desktop Bus

Audio

Connectors

Jack

Serial Ports

•

SCSI Connector

Power

Security
Tie-Down
Connector

Macintosh !Ix
Ordering Information

Macintosh IIx CPU

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Ilx personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM and a built-in 1 .4megabyte floppy disk drive

•

Macintosh IIx 1/40 CPU

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Ilx personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and a 40megabyte hard disk drive

Mouse
Owner's guide
• System software and
HyperCard
• Training disks (2)
• Limited warranty statement

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Ilx personal
computer with 4 megabytes of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and an 80megabyte hard disk drive

Mouse
Owner's guide
• System software and
HyperCard
• Training disks (2)
• Limited warranty statement

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Ilx personal
computer with 4 megabytes of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and a 160megabyte hard disk drive

Mouse
Owner's guide
• System software and
HyperCard
• Training disks (2)
• Limited warranty statement

Order No. M5790

Order No. M5810

,

Macintosh IIx 4/80 CPU

Order No. M5830

,

Macintosh IIx 4/160 CPU

Order No. M5860

,

Macintosh IIx A/UX CPU

Order No. B0002LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Ilx personal
computer with 4 megabytes of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and an 80megabyte hard disk drive with
A/UX installed
,

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX 171-576

Mouse
Owner's guide
• System software and
HyperCard
• Training disks (2)
• Limited warranty statement
•

•
•

•
•

•
•

Mouse
Owner's guide
• System software and
HyperCard
• Training disks (2)
• Limited warranty statement
•

•

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, NUX, HyperCard, LaserWriter, and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCD SC, AppleColor, Apple Desktop
Bus, Disk First Aid, FDHD, LocalTalk, MultiFinder, QuickDraw, and SuperDrive are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of
Texas Instruments. OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Monitor and keyboard sold separately. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Printed in U.S.A. September 1989.
M6022/B

Macintosh SE/30

Overview
The Macintosh® SE/30 personal
computer was designed for
people who want maximum
performance from a compact
computer system. It provides up
to four times the computational
speed of the Macintosh SE, while
continuing to offer the benefits
that characterize all Macintosh
computers: a consistent user
interface and intuitive design that
make Macintosh easy to learn and
use. The Macintosh SE/30 runs
virtually all current versions of
Macintosh software. And, like the
Macintosh SE, it features a small
footprint, easy setup, and
transportability.
The performance increase of
the Macintosh SE/30 derives

from the full 32-bit 68030 micro­
processor. The 68030 runs at
twice the clock speed of the
68000 microprocessor used in the
Macintosh SE. And twice as much
data can be moved at a time
because its external data bus is
twice as wide as that of the
68000. The Macintosh SE/30 also
includes a 68882 floating-point
coprocessor for faster processing
of complex math functions-up
to 100 times faster than the
Macintosh SE.
The Macintosh SE/30 uses the
new Apple® FDHD™drive, a
high-capacity 3 . 5-inch floppy
disk drive capable of reading
400K, SOOK, and 1 .4-megabyte
Macintosh disks. In addition, the

FDHD lets users read from and
write to MS-DOS, OS/2, and
ProDOS® formatted disks through
the Apple File Exchange utility.
This combination of capabilities
makes the Macintosh SE/30 an
excellent choice for use in
multivendor environments.
Expansion options for the
Macintosh SE/30 can be accom­
modated through the 030 Direct
Slot. Via the 030 Direct Slot, the
Macintosh SE/30 can accept
communications cards, such as
Ethernet and Token Ring cards,
as well as high-performance
video cards that support large
gray-scale and color monitors.

I
L

Features

Benefits

� 32-bit 6S030 microprocessor (operating
at 16 megahertz) with instruction and data
caches, and built-in Paged Memory
Management Unit (PMMU)

� Executes applications at up to four times
the speed of the 6SOOO-based Macintosh SE.
� Provides hardware support for advanced,
multitasking operating systems.

� 6SSS2 floating-point coprocessor
(operating at 16 megahertz)

� Provides fast processing of complex
mathematical functions (such as loga­
rithmic or trigonometric calculations)
often used in spreadsheets and high-end
graphics and statistics applications.

� Macintosh user interface: mouse, icons,
windows, and pull-down menus

�

Compact design with high-resolution
9-inch screen

�

Makes most applications intuitive and
easy to learn.
� Provides a consistent interface across
applications.
� Reduces training and support costs.
� Offers an affordable, compact system
that requires little desk space and is easy to
set up and transport.

�

Apple FDHD Internal Drive

� Provides almost twice the storage
capacity of existing SOOK disks
(1.4 megabytes).
� Allows you to conveniently transfer data
files between Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2,
and Apple II systems using the Apple File
Exchange software.
� Offers compatibility with existing SOOK
and 400K Macintosh disks.

�

MultiFinder™ operating system

� Lets you easily integrate information
from multiple applications by cutting and
pasting.
� Lets you move quickly and easily
between applications.
� Allows you to continue working with
applications while performing some tasks
in the background, such as print spooling
to an Apple LaserWriter® printer or
downloading remote files.

�

Macintosh software compatibility

� Runs virtually all current versions of
Macintosh SE and Macintosh II software,
including applications designed to take
advantage of the 6SSS2 floating-point
coprocessor.

�

030 Direct Slot

� Allows you to customize your system
with high-performance expansion cards,
including video cards for external color and
gray-scale monitors, special memory cards,
communications cards, and digital signal
processing cards.

Features
�

030 Direct Slot access port

� 1 or 4 megabytes of RAM , expandable
to 8 megabytes

�

Apple Sound Chip

Benefits
� Provides an easy way to connect
external devices to 030 Direct Slot cards.

Lets you run multiple applications
concurrently under Apple's MultiFinder
operating system.
� Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as large spreadsheets, scanned
images, and sound files.
� Provides the flexibility to grow as you
need additional memory.
�

� Provides high-quality, four-voice stereo
sound.
� Offers compatibility with all applica­
tions that use Macintosh sound.

� 256K of ROM on a SIMM (Single In-line
Memory Module), including:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for Macintosh hard disks, Apple
Desktop Bus, 68882 floating-point
coprocessor, SCSI, and AppleTalk®
network
-Macintosh Toolbox
-QuickDraw™ and Color QuickDraw

� The SIMM mounting makes it easy to
remove and replace ROMs for more
convenient servicing.
� The Hierarchical File System organizes
storage for documents and allows easy
access to files.
� The SCSI interface supports high­
performance peripherals.
� QuickDraw provides the consistent
interface throughout the Macintosh family.
� Color QuickDraw provides a consistent
interface for both black-and-white and
color applications.

�

Seven built-in ports (one SCSI, one disk
drive, two serial, two Apple Desktop Bus,
one stereo sound)

� Makes it easy to expand your system
with additional peripherals.
� Provides access to LocalTalk™ cable­
based networks, allowing you to connect
the Macintosh SE/30 to other computers
and to LaserWriter printers through the
AppleTalk Network System.
� Supports up to seven high-speed SCSI
peripherals.
� Provides connections for Apple Desktop
Bus™ devices, such as a keyboard, hand­
controlled pointing device (such as a
mouse or trackball), or graphics tablet.

� Choice of keyboards (sold separately):
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

� Apple Keyboard includes a numeric
keypad and cursor keys for efficient
operation.
� Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work effec­
tively with alternate operating systems,
terminal-emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.

Product Details
System Configuration

Network Support

.,.. Three configurations are available:
-The Macintosh SE/30 CPU includes
the main unit, 1 megabyte of RAM, one
1 .4-megabyte FDHD floppy disk drive,
and mouse.
-The Macintosh SE/30 Hard Disk 40 CPU
includes the main unit, 1 megabyte of RAM,
an internal 40-megabyte hard disk, one
1 .4-megabyte FDHD floppy disk drive,
and mouse.
-The Macintosh SE/30 Hard Disk 80 CPU
includes the main unit, 4 megabytes of
RAM, an internal SO-megabyte hard disk,
one 1 .4-megabyte FDHD floppy disk drive,
and mouse.
-The keyboard and other peripheral
devices are packaged and sold separately.

.,.. The Macintosh SE/30 serial ports
provide full support for LocalTalk network
connections .
.,.. The Macintosh SE/30 provides full
ROM support for all AppleTalk protocols.

Apple printers)
-Utility disks, which include utilities such
as Apple File Exchange, HD SC Setup, Disk
First Aid, and Font/DA Mover
HyperCard

.,.. Apple's HyperCard® software (version
1 . 2 or higher) and manual are included .

Operating System Software

.,.. Macintosh System software includes:
-System Tools 6.0.3 or higher (the Macin­
tosh operating system) and Finder 6.1 or
higher
-Printer disk (the printer drivers for all

Upgrade Path for Current
Macintosh SE Computer Owners

.,.. An upgrade is available for the
standard 68000-based Macintosh SE.

030 Direct Slot

.,.. The 030 Direct Slot provides a 32-bit slot
directly connected to the microprocessor
bus that will support one high-performance
expansion card. (Note: The slot is not
compatible with SE-Bus expansion cards or
Macintosh II expansion cards.)

9.

..i.prlt· Computl'r. lnr.
Cupertino.California

RAM

Made in USA.

.,.. The Macintosh SE/30 CPU and the
Macintosh SE/30 Hard Disk 40 CPU with
1 megabyte of RAM can be upgraded to
2 megabytes of RAM with a 1-megabyte
Memory Expansion Kit, 5 megabytes of
RAM with two 2-megabyte Memory
Expansion Kits, or 8 megabytes of RAM
with four 2-megabyte Memory Expansion
Kits .
.,.. The Macintosh SE/30 Hard Disk 80
CPU with 4 megabytes of RAM can be
upgraded to 8 megabytes of RAM with two
2-megabyte Memory Expansion Kits.

Model No.: M5119

MH01IO!e!.IM

,A WIRNING .t\,.

SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface)

.,.. Up to seven SCSI peripherals (includ­
ing an internal hard disk) can be connected
to the Macintosh SE/30 .
.,.. SCSI provides data transfer rates of up
to 1 megabyte per second.

@
�

listed
OlficeEquipment
126Z

100-211ov­
e so-sottz
2A

To p1event electrical shock, do not remove cover.
No user-serviceablefJal/S inside. Refer servicing
ro qualified se1vice personnel.
This product complies with DHHS Rules. 21 CFR.
Subcf/apter J. applicable at date of manufacrure.

I FCCID:BCG9GRN5119 I

ofFCC Rules. See instructions ifinterference to
radio reception is suspected.

1----··-·

Stereo Sound

.,.. The Apple Sound Chip provides four­
voice, wave-table synthesis and a stereo
sampling generator capable of mixing left
and right channels for the internal speaker
or providing full stereo sound output
through a miniature stereo phone plug.

Macintosh0SE/30

·

Technical Specifications
Processor

Interfaces

Mouse

MC68030 32-bit internal
Harvard architecture
� 1 5 .667-megahertz clock
frequency
� Built-in Paged Memory
Management Unit (PMMU)
� 256-byte instruction and
data caches

�

Two Apple Desktop Bus
connectors for communication
with keyboard, mouse, and
other input devices over low­
speed, synchronous serial bus
� 030 Direct Slot supporting
full 32-bit address and data
lines through 120-pin Euro-DIN
connector
� Two RS-232/RS-422 serial
ports, 230.4 kilobaud maximum
(up to 0.920 megabit per
second if clocked externally)
� SCSI interface
� Stereo sound port for
external audio amplifier

Apple Desktop Bus mouse
with mechanical tracking;
optical shaft or contact encoding
at 3.94 ± 0.39 pulse per mm
(100 ± 10 pulses per inch)
of travel

�

Coprocessor

MC68882 floating-point unit
(follows IEEE standards)

�

Memory

1 or 4 megabytes of RAM,
expandable to 8 megabytes
(expandable to 1 28 megabytes
when SIMMs with higher­
density DRAM chips become
available; additionally expand­
able through 030 Direct Slot)
� 256K of ROM
� 256 bytes of user-settable
parameter memory
�

�

�

Fan Outlet
Disk storage

Accessory Access Port

�

Security Connector

�

Power

�

On/Off Switch

Ii- Serial Ports
�

Audio]ack

�

SCSI Connector

�

External Drive Port

�

Apple Desktop
Bus Connectors

� 1 .4-megabyte high-density
floppy disk drive (external
floppy disk drive optional)
� Optional internal 40- or 80megabyte Apple SCSI hard disk
(external SCSI hard disks
optional)

Sound generator

Apple Sound Chip (ASC)
including four-voice, wave­
table synthesis and stereo
sampling generator capable of
driving stereo mini-phone-jack
headphones or other stereo
equipment
� Mixed stereo monophonic
sound output through internal
speaker

�

Clock/Calendar

CMOS custom chip with
long-life lithium battery

�

Keyboards (not included)
Video display

Built-in 9-inch diagonal,
high-resolution, 512- by 342pixel bit-mapped display
� Color QuickDraw in ROM
provides support for gray-scale
and color video cards installed
in the 030 Direct Slot
�

�
�

Apple Keyboard
Apple Extended Keyboard

�

Fan
�

10 CFM radial

Electrical requirements

Line voltage: 1 20 to 240
volts AC, RMS automatically
configured
� Frequency: 48 to 62 Hz,
single phase
� Maximum power: 75 watts
�

Size and weight

Main Unit
� Height: 13.6 in. (34.5 cm)
� Width:
9.6 in. (24.4 cm)
� Depth: 10.9 in. (27.6 cm)
� Weight: 2 1 . 5 lb. (9.75 kg)
Mouse
� Height: 1 . 1 in. (2.8 cm)
� Width: 2 . 1 in. (5 .3 cm)
� Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
� Weight: 6 oz. (.17 kg)

Macintosh SE/30
Ordering Information

Macintosh SE/30 CPU

Order No. M5392

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh SE/30 personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM and a built-in 1 .4-mega­
byte FDHD drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Limited warranty statement

Order No. M5390

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh SE/30 personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM, a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
FDHD drive, and an internal
40-megabyte SCSI hard disk
drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Limited warranty statement

Order No. M5361

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh SE/30 personal
computer with 4 megabytes of
RAM, a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
FDHD drive, and an internal
SO-megabyte SCSI hard disk
drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard software
� Guided Tour disk
� Limited warranty statement

(1 megabyte of RAM)

Macintosh SE/30
Hard Disk 40 CPU

(1 megabyte of RAM)

Macintosh SE/30
Hard Disk 80 CPU

(4 megabytes of RAM)

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1989 Apple Computer, lnc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, HyperCard, LaserWriter, Macintosh,
and ProDOS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop Bus, EtherTalk, FDHD,
LocalTalk, Multifinder, and QuickDraw are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a
registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines
Corporation.
January 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
M0032LL/B

Macintosh !lex

Overview
To meet the growing demands
The Macintosh® IIcx personal
of the advanced Macintosh
computer is designed for people
applications available today, the
who want the performance,
functionality, and flexibility of the memory of the Macintosh Ilcx can
be expanded incrementally to 8
modular Macintosh product line
in a system with a small footprint. megabytes of RAM. And virtually
any type of Macintosh Ilcx
Its versatile design allows it to
be used in either a vertical or
configuration can be created,
because the system includes three
horizontal orientation-which
internal NuBus™ expansion slots
means the Macintosh IIcx can be
placed upright next to a monitor, to add cards (such as additional
network interfaces), as well as
underneath it, or on a shelf or
seven external ports to accom­
other support nearby.
modate peripherals (such as
In terms of performance, the
hard disks and printers) and
advanced 68030 microprocessor
used in the Macintosh IIcx offers
LocalTalk™ network connections .
The Macintosh Ilcx also offers
high-speed program execution.
advanced color and gray-scale
And to accelerate the processing
graphics capabilities, and can be
of complex math functions, the
used with a range of monitors.
Macintosh IIcx comes standard
with a 68882 coprocessor.

For floppy disk storage, the
Macintosh Ilcx uses the unique
1 .4-megabyte Apple® FDHD™
SuperDrive;M which allows it to
read from and write to not only
3 . 5-inch Macintosh floppy disks,
but also the 3 . 5-inch disks used
in many other types of personal
computers. An internal hard
disk can also be installed, and a
second floppy disk drive can be
connected externally.
The Macintosh Ilcx is compat­
ible with virtually all Macintosh
applications, and comes standard
with Apple's MultiFinder™ operat­
ing system and HyperCard� a tool
for custom software solutions.

Features

Benefits

... Full 32-bit 68030 microprocessor with
built-in Paged Memory Management Unit
(PMMU)

... Offers power, performance, and high­
speed processing.
... Supports multitasking operating systems
(such as Apple's A/UX®) that require
memory management capabilities in order
to run.

... 68882 floating-point coprocessor

... Offers fast processing of complex
mathematical functions, such as logarithmic
and trigonometric series.

... Three NuBus expansion slots

... Lets you configure your system to meet
specific needs.
... Makes it easy to add a variety of cards.
(Cards are self-configuring-they require
no DIP switches, and can be placed in
any slot.)
... Provides flexibility for expansion as
your requirements change and new
technology becomes available.

... Unique industrial design

... Can be used in either horizontal or
vertical orientation.
... Takes up little desktop space.
... Allows system to restart automatically in
the event of a power failure; for example,
when used as a file server.

-Small footprint
-Locking power switch

... Apple FDHD SuperDrive

... Provides 75 percent more storage
capacity than SOOK disk drives.
... Allows you to conveniently transfer data
files between Macintosh, OS/2, MS-DOS,
and Apple II systems on the same 3.5-inch
disk, using the Apple File Exchange utility.

... Internal hard disk storage

... Accommodates a 3. 5-inch hard disk
drive (several capacities are available).

... Choice of monitors (sold separately):
-Apple High-Resolution Monochrome
Monitor
-AppleColor™ High-Resolution RGB
Monitor
-Apple Two-Page Monochrome Monitor
-Apple Macintosh Portrait Display

... Lets you choose the monitor you
need-from high-quality RGB monitors
with vivid colors to monochrome monitors
that offer the crispness and clarity tradition­
ally associated with Macintosh.

... Seven built-in ports: two serial, two
Apple Desktop Bus�M one SCSI, one DB-19
serial (for external floppy disk drive), one
sound

... Allows you to expand your system with
popular peripherals without using expan­
sion slots.
... Provides access to LocalTalk cable­
based networks, which allows you to
connect a Macintosh Hex to other comput­
ers and to LaserWriter® printers through the
AppleTalk® network system.
... Provides connection for Apple Desktop
Bus devices such as a keyboard, hand­
controlled pointing device (such as a
mouse or trackball), or graphics tablet.
... Supports up to seven SCSI peripherals.

Features

Benefits

... 1 megabyte of on-board RAM , expand­
able to 8 megabytes

... Provides the flexibility to grow as you
need additional memory.
... Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as large spreadsheets, large
scanned images, and sound editing files.
... Enables you to open multiple applica­
tions concurrently under MultiFinder.

... 256K of ROM, including:
-Hierarchical File System
-Drivers for Macintosh hard disk drives,
NuBus expansion slots, Apple Desktop
Bus, 68882 floating-point coprocessor,
SCSI, and AppleTalk network
-Color QuickDraw™

... The Hierarchical File System organizes
storage for documents and allows easy
access to files.
... The SCSI interface supports high­
performance peripherals.
... QuickDraw and Color QuickDraw
enable Macintosh applications to offer a
consistent interface throughout the
Macintosh family and enable color systems
to display 256 colors or shades of gray
simultaneously.

... Socket for ROMs on SIMM (Single
In-Line Memory Module)

... Makes it easy to install SIMM-mounted
ROM when upgrading or servicing.

... Macintosh user interface: mouse, icons,
windows, and pull-down menus

... Makes most applications intuitive and
easy to learn.
... Provides a consistent interface across
applications.
... Reduces training and support costs.

... MultiFinder operating system software

... Allows multiple applications to be
opened concurrently.
... Lets you easily integrate information
from multiple applications by cutting and
pasting between them.
... Allows you to continue working with
applications while performing tasks in the
background, such as print spooling or
downloading remote files.

... Software compatibility

... Runs virtually all Macintosh software,
including applications designed to take
advantage of floating-point coprocessors.

... Apple stereo sound chip

... Provides high-quality digital sound.
... Offers compatibility with all applications
that use Macintosh sound.

... Choice of keyboards (sold separately):
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

... Apple Keyboard includes numeric
keypad and cursor keys for efficient
operation.
... Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work effec­
tively with alternate operating systems,
terminal-emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.
·

Product Details
System Configuration

68030 Processor

Four configurations are available:
-The Macintosh Hex CPU includes the
68030 microprocessor, 68882 floating-point
copr�cessor, 1 megabyte of RAM one
1 .4-megabyte floppy disk drive, and mouse.
-The Macintosh II ex 1/40 CPU includes all
of the features of the Macintosh Hex, plus a
40-megabyte hard disk drive.
-The Macintosh Hex 4/80 CPU includes all
of the features of the Macintosh Hex, except
that it has 4 megabytes of RAM and an 80megabyte hard disk drive.
-The Macintosh Hex also comes with
A/UX preconfigured on a system that has
4 megabytes of RAM and an SO-megabyte
hard disk.
� The keyboard, monitor, and other
peripheral devices are packaged and sold
separately.

The 32-bit 68030 processor runs at
15.667 megahertz.
� The 32-bit address bus provides a total
addressable space of 4 gigabytes.
� Separate instruction and data caches
provide significantly faster processing.
� Built-in PMMU supports virtual, shared,
and protected memory in operating
systems that have been designed for it.

�

,

NuBus Expansion Slots

NuBus provides a multiplexed 32-bit
address bus and data bus on a single
96-pin connector.
� NuBus is self-configuring: Cards can be
plugged into any slot and the system will
automatically identify and configure each
card, without any DIP switches or jumper
wires.
� The NuBus architecture supports data
transfer rates of up to 37. 5 megabytes per
second.

�

Main Power
Receptacle

Power
Switch

�

68882 Floating-Point Math
Coprocessor

Outlet for
Monitor

Floppy
Disk Drive
Connector

The Macintosh Hex provides full ROM
support for all AppleTalk protocols, and
has serial ports for LocalTalk network
connections.

�

RAM
The Macintosh Hex can be upgraded
incrementally to 8 megabytes of RAM
through the addition of 1-megabyte or
4-megabyte memory expansion kits.
� When denser chips become available,
the Macintosh Hex can be upgraded to 32
megabytes of RAM
.

SCSI is a high-performance interface for
connecting the Macintosh Hex to hard disks
and other peripherals, such as the Laser­
Writer Ilse, Apple Scanner, AppleCD SC™
CD-ROM drive, and other devices. Up to
seven SCSI peripherals (including an
internal hard disk) can be connected.
�
SCSI provides data transfer rates of up
to 1 megabyte per second.
�

Network Support

The 68882 performs complex mathe­
matical calculations, such as logarithmic
and trigonometric functions.

�

�

SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface)

Operating System Software

Macintosh system software includes:
-System Tools Version 6.0.3 or greater
(the Macintosh operating system)
-Printer disk (the printer drivers for all
Apple printers)
-Utility disks, which include utilities such
as Apple File Exchange, HD SC Setup,
CloseView, Disk First Aid�Mand the
Font/DA Mover
� HyperCard is included.
� A/UX Version 1 . 1 (or greater) is
compatible with the Macintosh Hex.

�

Three NuBus Slots

SCSI
Connector

Printer
Port

Modem
Port

Stereo
Audio
Jack

Apple Desktop
Bus Connectors

Technical Specifications
Processor

Mouse

Size and weight

68030; 32-bit internal
Harvard architecture
� 1 5 .667-megahertz clock
speed
� 256-byte instruction and
data caches

�

Mechanical tracking: optical
shaft encoding at 3.94::!::0 . 39
pulses per mm (100±10 pulses
per inch) of travel

Main unit
� Height: 5 . 5 in. (14.0 cm)
� Width: 1 1 .9 in. (30.2 cm)
� Depth: 14.4 in. (36.5 cm)
� Weight: 14 lb. (6.4 kg)*

�

Coprocessor

68882 floating-point
coprocessor (IEEE standard80 bits precision)

�

Interfaces

Three NuBus internal slots
support full 32-bit address and
data buses
� Two mini-8 serial (RS-232/
RS-422) ports
� Two Apple Desktop Bus
ports allow daisy-chaining of
multiple peripheral devices
� SCSI interface: uses a 50-pin
connector (internal) and a
DB-25 connector (external)
� One DB-19 serial port for
connecting external floppy disk
drives
� Sound jack

�

Sound generator

Apple's custom digital
sound chip provides 8-bit
stereo sampling at 44. 1 kilo­
hertz, and includes four-voice
wave-table synthesis. Capable
of driving stereo headphones
or other stereo equipment
through the sound jack.

�

Electrical requirements

Line voltage: 100 to 240
volts AC, automatically
configured
� Frequency: 50 to 60 Hz,
single phase
� Maximum power: 90 watts,
not including monitor power

�

The versatile design of the Macintosh !Jex allows it to be used
in either a vertical or horizontal orientation.

*Weight will be less if no hard disk

drive is installed.

Mouse
Height: 1 . 1 in. (2 .8 cm)
� Width: 2 . 1 in. (5 .3 cm)
� Depth: 3.8 in. (9.7 cm)
� Weight: 6 oz. (.17 kg)
�

Macintosh !lex
Ordering Information

Macintosh Ilcx CPU

Order No. M5660

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Hex personal
computer with 1 megabyte
of RAM and a built-in 1.4megabyte floppy disk drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement

Macintosh Ilcx 1/40 CPU

Order No. M5610

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Hex personal
computer with 1 megabyte of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and a 40megabyte hard disk drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement
,

Macintosh Ilcx 4/80 CPU

Order No. M5680

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Hex personal
computer with 4 megabytes of
RAM , a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and an 80megabyte hard disk drive
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement

Macintosh Ilcx A/UX CPU

Order No. M5690

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Hex personal
computer with 4 .megabytes of
RAM a built-in 1 .4-megabyte
floppy disk drive, and an 80megabyte hard disk drive with
A/UX installed
� Mouse
� Owner's guide
� System software and
HyperCard
� Training disks (2)
� Limited warranty statement
,

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, A/UX, HyperCard, LaserWriter, and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCD SC, AppleColor, Apple Desktop
Bus, Disk First Aid, FDHD, LocalTalk, MultiFinder, QuickDraw, and SuperDrive are trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. NuBus is a
trademark of Texas Instruments. OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Monitor and keyboard sold separately. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Printed in U.S.A. September 1989.
M0066LUB

Macintosh Ilsi

Overview
The Apple® Macintosh" Hsi is the lowest­
cost member of the Macintosh II line,
Apple Computer's most powetful line of
Macintosh personal computers. Offering
high performance and a wide range of
expansion and video options, the
Macintosh Hsi is ideal for people who
need a powetful but very affordable
Macintosh system that can easily grow
with their needs over time.
Like other Macintosh II systems, the
Macintosh Hsi offers excellent perfor­
mance. At the heart of the Macintosh Hsi
is a 20-megahertz 68030 microprocessor
that lets you run Macintosh applications
up to five times faster than the Macintosh
Classic� The 68030 microprocessor also
lets you work under A/UX� Apple's
implementation of the AT&T UNIX"
operating system. And with future ver­
sions of Macintosh system software, the
68030 microprocessor will allow you
to run more applications with the same

amount of dynamic random-access
memory (DRAM) through a new feature,
virtual memory.
The Macintosh Hsi comes with built-in
support for four Apple monitors as well
as third-party monitors, so you can
choose the monitor that best suits your
needs-then simply plug it in. In addi­
tion, by adding a video expansion card,
you can use any other Apple or third­
party monitor with the Macintosh Hsi.
The Macintosh Hsi can be easily
expanded to incorporate new capabilities
or increase system performance. An inter­
nal expansion slot for either a NuBus'"
card or an 030 Direct Slot card allows you
to add one of hundreds of high-perfor­
mance expansion cards that are available
today for communications, video, copro­
cessing, and other uses. An optional float­
ing-point math coprocessor also can be
added to speed mathematical calcula­
tions generated by applications such as
CAD/CAM and sophisticated graphics.
And eight external ports allow you to
connect popular peripheral equipment

such as printers, scanners, and CD-ROM
disc drives, as well as access the built-in
networking capabilities found in all
Macintosh computers.
One exciting new Macintosh advance­
ment incorporated into the Macintosh Hsi
is sound input. The Macintosh Hsi comes
with a microphone and phono jack
adapter, which let you input your voice
into documents, presentations, and even
electronic mail messages.
Best of all, the Macintosh Hsi provides
all of the important benefits for which
the Macintosh is known-powetful tech­
nology that's easy to use, thousands of
applications that work well together,
"plug-and-play" compatibility, and the
assurance that all Macintosh components
will work together smoothly.
And since the Macintosh Hsi has been
designed to run the next generation of
innovative Macintosh applications­
those supported by system software ver­
sion 7.0 -the value of the Macintosh Hsi
will last, and even improve, over time.

Features

Benefits

"" 6S030 microprocessor,
running at 20 megahertz
-Built-in Memory
Management Unit (MMU)

Delivers high-speed system perfor­
mance and enables the Macintosh Hsi
to run applications up to five times
faster than the Macintosh Classic.
"" Supports NUX, Apple's implementa­
tion of the AT&T UNIX .operating system.
"" Will support the virtual memory feature
in future system software versions.

11> Optional 6SSS2 floating-point
math coprocessor, running at
20 megahertz

11> Provides fast processing of mathe­
matical calculations generated by
applications such as CAD/CAM and
sophisticated graphics packages.

11> Multiple monitor options
including:
-Built-in video support for four
Apple monitors: Macintosh 12"
RGB Display, AppleColor"
High-Resolution RGB Monitor,
Macintosh 12" Monochrome
Display, and Apple Macintosh
Portrait Display
-Support for other Apple or
third-party monitor that requires
a video expansion card

11> Lets you choose from the most
popular Apple displays, both color
and monochrome.
11> Eliminates the need for a separate
video card or special driver software.
"" Lets you work with up to 256 colors
or shades of gray simultaneously on
the Macintosh 12" RGB Display and the
AppleColor High-Resolution RGB
Monitor, up to 256 shades of gray
with the Macintosh 12" Monochrome
Display, and up to 16 shades of gray with
the Apple Macintosh Portrait Display.
"" Lets you work with the monitor that
best suits your needs-including monitors
that produce photographic-quality color.

11> One internal expansion slot
for either a NuBus card or an
030 Direct Slot card

11>

11>

Sound input

11>

Lets you incorporate new capabilities
or increase system performance by
adding an expansion card for communi­
cations, graphics, emulation, and more.
11> Lets you add one of hundreds of
NuBus cards that are already available
for all other Macintosh II systems.
"" Lets you add one of the many 030
Direct Slot cards that are available for
the Macintosh SE/30 personal computer.
11> Allows you to add voice comments
to voice-capable word processing, spread­
sheet, presentations, and other documents.

11>

Apple SuperDrive"
(1.4-megabyte floppy disk drive)

Allows convenient transfer of data
files between Macintosh, OS/2, MS-DOS,
and Apple II systems.
"" Provides almost twice the storage
capacity of SOOK disk drives.

40- or SO-megabyte
internal hard disk drive

11>

11>

11>

Provides ample storage capacity for
files and applications.

Features

Benefits

� Eight built-in ports:
-One SCSI port
-One Apple Desktop Bus" (ADB) port
-External disk drive port
-Two serial ports
-One sound-in port
-One sound-out port
-One video port

� Provide support for up to seven
popular peripherals such as CD-ROM
drives, scanners, and printers.
� Permit communication with the
keyboard, mouse, and other devices.
� Support either an external SOOK or
1 .4-megabyte Apple SuperDrive floppy
disk drive.
� Provide access to LocalTalk® cable­
based networks, which allow you to
connect Macintosh Hsi systems to other
computers and to LaserWriter® printers
through the AppleTalk® network system.
� Support sound input via microphone
or phono jack adapter.
� Supply high-quality, four-voice digital
sound output that is compatible with all
applications that use Macintosh sound.
� Provide connection to all monitors sup­
ported by the Macintosh Hsi computer's
built-in monitor support.

� 1 megabyte of on-board RAM ,
expandable to 17 megabytes

� Lets you work with large amounts of
data, such as large spreadsheets, scanned
images, and sound files.

� 512K of ROM, including
support for:
-32-bit addressing
-Hierarchical File System
-32-Bit QuickDraw"
-Sound input

� Enables future 32-bit versions of the
Macintosh Operating System to address
up to 4 gigabytes of memory.
� Organizes document storage and
allows easy access to files.
� Enables color systems to display up
to 16 million colors simultaneously.

� Choice of keyboards
(sold separately)
-Apple Keyboard
-Apple Extended Keyboard

� Apple Keyboard includes a numeric
keypad and cursor keys.
� Apple Extended Keyboard also includes
15 function keys, letting you work effec­
tively with alternate operating systems,
terminal-emulation programs, and other
data communications applications.

� Macintosh user interface,
including mouse, icons, windows,
and pull-down menus

�

Makes most applications intuitive and
easy to learn.
� Reduces training and support costs.
� Provides a consistent user interface
across applications.

�

MultiFinder® operating system

� Allows multiple applications to be
opened concurrently.
� Lets you easily cut and paste parts of
documents from one application to another.
� Allows background tasks to be run while
you interact with applications in the
foreground.

�

Software compatibility

� Lets you run virtually all Macintosh
software.

Product Details
68030 microprocessor

-5 megabytes (1 megabyte on main logic
board; four 1-megabyte SIMMs)
-9 megabytes (1 megabyte on main logic
board: four 2-megabyte SIMMs)
-17 megabytes (1 megabyte on main logic
board; four 4-megabyte SIMMs)
� The Macintosh Hsi uses 100-nano­
second (or faster) fast-paged mode RAM.

The 68030 microprocessor runs at 20
megahertz and features a built-in Memory
Management Unit (MMU). The MMU sup­
ports the A/UX operating system and
provides the capabilities necessary to
support virtual memory, a new feature
of Macintosh system software version 7.0.
Virtual memory lets you work with more
applications without the need for large
amounts of DRAM by setting up sections
on the hard disk for easy memory
swapping.
� 256-byte data and instruction caches
accelerate overall system performance by
eliminating one wait state that occurs with
the 68020 processor.
�

ROM
� A ROM SIMM socket on the logic board
provides an easy ROM upgrade path.

Expansion slot

One NuBus card or 030 Direct Slot card
can be added to the Macintosh Hsi by con­
necting it to a Macintosh Hsi adapter card
(sold separately).
� NuBus provides a multiplexed, 32-bit
address bus and data bus on a single 96pin connector. The NuBus architecture
supports data transfer rates up to 3.75
megabytes per second.
� The 030 Direct Slot provides a 32-bit
slot directly to the microprocessor via a
1 20-pin connector. This slot is compatible
with expansion cards available for the
Macintosh SE/30 personal computer.
� The Motorola 68882 floating-point
math coprocessor is on the adapter cards.
�

68882 math coprocessor (optional)
� Customers who work routinely with
software such as sophisticated CAD/CAM
and graphics applications may want to add
the Motorola 68882 floating-point math
coprocessor to their systems. The 68882
optimizes the computer's performance
during math-intensive calculations.

RAM configurations

� The Macintosh Hsi comes with 1 mega­
byte of RAM on the main logic board. Up
to 16 megabytes of RAM can be added by
installing Single In-line Memory Modules
(SIMMs). Some possible configurations
include:
-2 megabytes (1 megabyte on main logic
board; four 256K SIMMs)
-3 megabytes (1 megabyte on main logic
board; four 5 1 2K SIMMs)

SCSI

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
is a high-performance interface bus used to
connect hard disks and other SCSI-based
devices, such as the AppleCD SC® CD-ROM
drive, the Apple Scanner, and the Apple
Personal LaserWriter® to the Macintosh Hsi.
This single interface can support up to
seven SCSI peripheral devices .
�

J

•
Main Power
----+4----+,.
Receptacle
Fan Outlet

Power Switch

 Allows you to run virtually all current
versions of Macintosh software.
..,. Lets you connect your computer to
Macintosh-compatible peripherals and
networks .

..,. Macintosh user interface: icons,
windows, and pull-down menus

..,. Makes applications intuitive and easy
to learn.
..,. Provides a consistent interface across
applications .
..,. Reduces training and support costs .

..,. CMOS 68000 processor, operating at
16 megahertz

..,. Conserves power and extends
battery life .
..,. Provides rapid processing for spread­
sheets, databases, and other applications.

..,. Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display,
640 by 400 pixels

Delivers superior graphics capabilities .
Provides a fast response rate that
enables the Macintosh Portable to display
the Macintosh graphics-based user
interface and graphical programs .
..,. Lets you work in a wide range of light­
ing conditions, from low to bright light.
..,. Permits you to see the screen clearly
from almost any viewing angle .
..,. Allows you to view the full width of a
letter-size page, for working with docu­
ments more easily .

..,. Intelligent power-management
operations:
-Dedicated microprocessor for power
management
-Control Panel settings
-Replaceable lead acid batte1y

-Battery desk accessory
-Automatic low-power warnings
-Power adapter for 70 to 270 volts,
40 to 70 hertz

ll> All-in-one design with built-in display,
trackball, disk drive, and keyboard

ll>

Standard Macintosh keyboard layout

ll>

ll>

..,. Provides long battery life, allowing you
to work for 6 to 1 2 hours before recharging
the battery .
..,. Lets you control power use by specify­
ing how much time will elapse before the
system automatically turns off the power.
..,. Lets you recharge the battery at any
time, without requiring a deep-discharge
cycle.
ll> Allows you to replace the battery while
the computer is turned on.
ll> Lets you quickly check the battery
charge and plan power use accordingly
.,._ Reduces the possibility of accidentally
running out of power, by notifying you
when power is low.
ll> Allows you to use the computer in
almost any count1y without using trans­
formers (needs only a simple plug adapter) .
.

..,. Makes it easy to quickly pack, carry, set
up, and use the system almost anywhere.
..,. Eliminates the need for a mouse pad or
flat surface, while providing the functional­
ity of a mouse.
11> Eliminates the need to learn a new
keyboard, because all of the keys are in a
familiar location.

Features
�

Flexible keyboard configuration

Benefits
� Lets you work the way you like,
with the trackball or numeric keypad
installed on either side of the keyboard,
for left- or right-handed use.
� Allows replacement of the trackball
with a keypad for number-intensive
applications.

� 1 megabyte of low-power-consumption
RAM , expandable to 2 megabytes*

� Minimizes power consumption,
allowing you to work for a long time
between battery charges.
� Retains the contents of memory while
the system is in sleep mode.

� Built-in Apple FDHD SuperDrive
(a second internal FDHD floppy disk
drive can also be installed)

� Provides 75 percent more storage
capacity than existing SOOK disk drives.
� Allows you to transfer data files
conveniently between Macintosh, OS/2,
MS-DOS, and Apple II systems on the
same 3. 5-inch disk, using the Apple File
Exchange utility.

�

Optional 40-megabyte hard disk

� Eight built-in ports
-External disk drive
-SCSI
-Apple Desktop Bus™
-Printer
-Modem
-Audio
-Power adapter
-Video port

� Gives you fast and easy access to
multiple applications and large data files.

� Lets you connect the Macintosh Por­
table with existing Macintosh peripherals.
� Supports up to seven high-speed SCSI
peripherals.
� Provides connection for Apple Desktop
Bus devices such as a mouse, graphics
tablet, or keyboard.
� Provides access to an AppleTalk®
network system for file sharing, data
transfer, and peripherals sharing.
� With the Macintosh Portable Video
Adapter, makes it easy to connect the
Macintosh Portable to external monitors
and projection devices.

�

Internal connector for modem

� Lets you install a modem for connection
to numerous on-line databases and
corporate computer systems, without
using additional cables or connectors.

�

Apple stereo sound chip

Provides high-quality digital sound.
Offers compatibility with all applica­
tions that use Macintosh sound.
�

�

� Polycarbonate plastic housing with
rugged hard disk design

� Reduces the need for special handling
by protecting internal components.

� Carrying case with protective foam and
pockets for items such as a battery charger,
an extra battery, disks, and papers

Provides easy portability.
Protects sensitive components and
accessories.
�
�

'The Macintosh Portable architecture will support up to 9 megabytes of RAM when higher-density chips become available.

Product Details
Configuration

Power Management

Two Macintosh Portable systems are
available:
-The Macintosh Portable CPU includes
the CPU, Active Matrix Liquid Crystal
Display, keyboard, trackball, mouse,
1 megabyte of RAM, and a built-in
1 .4-megabyte FDHD SuperDrive.
-The Macintosh Portable Hard Disk 40
CPU includes all the features of the
Macintosh Portable CPU, as well as an
internal 40-megabyte hard disk.

Most battery-powered computers
provide only a few hours of usage before
they need recharging, and include no
options for managing the computer's power
consumption. The Macintosh Portable,
however, provides better power manage­
ment and operates longer between re­
charges than comparable computers
because of its Active Matrix Liquid Crystal
Display, dedicated microprocessor (which
serves as a power manager), low-power
RAM, and lead acid batteries.
The power manager monitors and
controls power allocation, and automati­
cally puts the system into a standby "rest"
mode or "sleep" mode when it has been
inactive for a preset period. During rest
mode, the system operating speed de­
creases from 16 megahertz to 1 mega­
hertz-a change that is unnoticed by the
user but saves significant power. During
sleep mode, power is turned off but
memory contents are retained. The user
simply presses any key to instantly "wake
up" the computer from either mode.

�

CMOS Microprocessor
�

The Macintosh Portable contains a
special version of the Motorola 68000
microprocessor that conserves battery
power and yet provides high-performance
processing. The complementary metal
oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 68000 micro­
processor consumes less power than its
non-CMOS counterpart, and operates at 16megahertz clock speed-twice that of the
68000 in the Macintosh SE computer.
Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display

The Macintosh Portable Active Matrix
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) provides very
high contrast-up to five times that of
standard LCD screens-to offer the
superior graphics capabilities that support
Macintosh applications, including animated
graphics. And because of the fast response
rate of the Active Matrix LCD, Macintosh
Portable users can see the cursor move
when they drag it across the screen with
the mouse or trackball; with other battery­
operated computers, the cursor is harder to
follow because it disappears when moving.
The Macintosh P01table screen also can
be viewed clearly in most lighting condi­
tions-especially in bright light-and from
almost any angle. A transistor under every
pixel of the Active Matrix LCD provides
the fast response for the Macintosh user
interface.
�

�

batteries. And since the battery voltage of a
lead acid battery diminishes gradually as
power is used up, the computer can
provide users with information about the
power level, as well as posting low-power
warnings.
Read-Only Memory (ROM) Slot
�

This connector allows installation of up
to 3 megabytes of ROM for permanent
storage of custom applications or data.

Network Support
�

The Macintosh Portable serial ports
provide full support for LocalTalk™
network connections.
� The Macintosh Portable provides full
ROM support for all AppleTalk protocols.
Stereo Sound

The Apple Sound Chip supports stereo
sound at a sampling rate of up to 44. 1
kilohertz.
�

SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface)
�

SCSI is a high-performance interface for
connecting the computer to hard disks and
� The PDS is a high-performance slot
other mass-storage peripherals. Up to
connected to the microprocessor bus that
seven SCSI peripherals (including an
will support one expansion card. (Note: The internal hard disk) can be connected to
PDS is not compatible with the SE, SE/30, or the Macintosh Portable.
� SCSI provides data transfer rates of up
NuBus expansion slots.)
to 1 megabyte per second.
Processor Direct Slot (PDS)

Low-power RAM
� To maximize battery life, the Macintosh
Portable contains special low-power RAM,
which consumes less power than standard
dynamic RAM (DRAM). RAM can be
upgraded from 1 megabyte to 2 megabytes
by installing the Macintosh Portable lMB
Memory Expansion Kit in the RAM expan­
sion slot. When higher-density chips
become available, the Macintosh Portable
will be able to support up to 9 megabytes
of memory.

Lead Acid Batteries
� The Macintosh Portable uses lead acid
batteries because they provide long
operating life and can be recharged more
fully and more often than nickel cadmium

Operating System Software
� Macintosh system software includes:
-System Tools Version 6.0.4 or greater
(the Macintosh operating system)
-Printer disk (the printer drivers for all
Apple printers)
-Utilities disks, which include utilities
such as the Apple File Exchange, HD SC
Setup, CloseView, Disk First Aid�M and
Font/DA Mover
� The Macintosh system software is
preinstalled on the Macintosh Portable
Hard Disk 40 CPU.

HyperCard
�

The HyperCard® software and manual
are included. HyperCard is preinstalled on
the Macintosh Portable Hard Disk 40 CPU.

Technical Specifications
Processor

Keyboard

..,. CMOS 68000
..,. 16-megahertz clock speed

..,. Built-in keyboard with
standard Macintosh layout
..,. 63 keys

..,. One Apple Desktop Bus
port allows daisy-chaining of
multiple peripheral devices
..,. One audio port
..,. One power adapter port
..,. One printer port
..,. One external modem port
..,. One video port

Memory
...

Trackball

1 megabyte of low-power

RAM expandable to 2 mega-

bytes through the installation of
a memory card in the RAM slot,
and to up to 9 megabytes when
higher-density chips become
available

... 1 .3-inch-diameter trackball
pointing device
..,. Left- or right-handed
placement
..,. Can be replaced with the
numeric keypad

Screen

Numeric keypad (optional)

..,. Active Matrix Liquid Crystal
Display
..,. Full page width
..,. 640 by 400 pixels

...

,

Expansion connectors
..,. RAM expansion slot

..,. Modem connector
..,. Processor Direct Slot
..,. ROM expansion slot

18 keys
..,. Can be installed as an
alternative to the trackball
Mouse

Disk storage

..,. Two standard configurations:
-One built-in double-sided
FDHD SuperDrive that uses 1 . 4megabyte high-density floppy
disks; reads, writes, and formats
Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2, and
Apple II ProDOS® disks
-One built-in double-sided
FDHD SuperDrive that uses 1 . 4megabyte high-density floppy
disks, and an internal 40megabyte hard disk drive

..,. Low-power Apple Desktop
Bus mouse
..,. Mechanical tracking: optical
shaft encoding at 3.54 pulses
per mm (90 pulses per inch)
of travel
..,. One external disk drive
interface
..,. One SCSI interface: uses a
SO-pin connector (internal) and
a DB-25 connector (external)

l

..,. Operating temperature:
50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
..,. Storage temperature: -40°
to 140° F (-25° to 60° C) for
a period not to exceed 3 days;
storage for a longer period
must be within operating ternperature range
..,. Relative humidity: 5% to
95%
..,. Altitude: 0 to 10,000 ft.
(0 to 3,048 m)

Sound generator

Size and weight

..,. Apple custom digital sound
chip provides 8-bit stereo
sampling at 44 kilohertz, and
includes four-voice wave-table
synthesis. Capable of driving
stereo headphones or other
stereo equipment through the
sound jack.

..,. Height
-Rear panel: 4.05 in.
(10.29 cm)
-Front panel: 2 . 1 in. (5 .33 cm)
-From base to highest point
with display open: 1 1 .0 in .
(27.9 cm)
..,. Width: 1 5 . 25 in. (38.74 cm)
..,. Depth: 14.83 in. (37.69 cm)
..,. Weight (including battery)
-Without hard disk: 13.75 lb.
(6.25 kg)
-With hard disk: 1 5 .75 lb.
(7. 16 kg)

Electrical requirements
Interfaces

Environmental
requirements

..,. Line voltage: 85 to 270 volts
AC, 48 to 62 Hz
..,. Power: 15 watts maximum

J

'

'

u
, o.
-D

��

d-'.6.-.

--

...
�_...�

j • �

Video-Out
Port

External
Disk Drive
Port

SCSI
Port

Security
Lock

Phone
Jack

Apple
Desktop
Bus Port

Printer Modem
Port
Port

Audio
Port

Power
Adapter
Port

•

®

Ordering Information

Macintosh Portable
With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Portable personal
computer with built-in Active
Matrix Liquid Crystal Display,
trackball, keyboard, and 1 .4megabyte FDHD SuperDrive
� Mouse
� Carrying case
� The Macintosh Portable
Owner's Guide

�

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh Portable personal
computer with built-in Active
Matrix Liquid Crystal Display,
trackball, keyboard, 1 .4-mega­
byte FDHD SuperDrive, and
internal 40-megabyte SCSI hard
disk drive
� Mouse
� Carrying case
� The Macintosh Portable
Owner's Guide

�

Macintosh Portable
Numeric Keypad Module

Macintosh Portable
Video Adapter

Macintosh Portable
Internal 40SC Hard Disk

Order No. M0239
Requires installation by an
authorized Apple service
provider.

Order No. M0251
Required to drive an external
monitor or projection system.

Order No. M0268
To upgrade from one floppy
disk drive to a 40-megabyte
hard disk and a floppy disk
drive. Requires installation by
an authorized Apple service
provider.

Macintosh Portable CPU

Order No. M5350

Macintosh Portable
Hard Disk 40 CPU

Order No. M5351

Peripherals Options

Macintosh Portable lMB
Memory Expansion Kit

Order No. M0248
Macintosh Portable
Data Modem 2400

Order No. M0250

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIJC: 171-576

Macintosh Portable Internal
FDHD SuperDrive Upgrade

Order No. M0262
To upgrade from one floppy
disk drive to two floppy disk
drives. Requires installation by
an authorized Apple service
provider.

The Macintosh Portable
Handbook
� System software
� HyperCard software
� Inside the Macintosh
Portable HyperCard stack
� Macintosh Portable
Product Sampler HyperCard
stack
� Limited warranty statement
The Macintosh Portable
Handbook
� System software
� HyperCard software
� Inside the Macintosh
Portable HyperCard stack
� Macintosh Portable
Product Sampler HyperCard
stack
� Limited warranty statement

Macintosh Portable
Battery Recharger

Order No. M0275
Includes power adapter.

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, HyperCard, Macintosh, and ProDOS
are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop Bus, Disk First Aid, FDHD,
LocalTalk, and SuperDrive are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Motorola is a registered trademark
of Motorola Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 is a
trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
September 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0335LUA

Apple A!UX Operating System Version 1 . 1 . 1

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Overview
The Apple® A/UX® operating
system is a full implementation
of AT&T's UNIX® System V,
Release 2, Version 2 (with BSD
4.3 extensions) for the Apple
Macintosh® II family of CPUs
and the Macintosh SE/30
personal computer.

This industry-standard multi­
tasking operating system pro­
vides higher education, govern­
ment, engineering, scientific, and
OEM/VAR users with excellent
support for software develop­
ment; research; computer-aided
design, engineering, and manu­
facturing; technical publishing;
office productivity; and database
applications.

Version 1 . 1 . 1 enhances the
usefulness of A/UX by allowing
more Macintosh applications to
run in the A/UX environment,
and by broadening the range of
platforms it supports to include
the Macintosh Ilci and Macintosh
SE/30. It also supports the op­
tional X Window System add-on
product and conforms to the
POSIX Federal Information
Processing Standard (FIPS).

Features

Benefits

.,. Apple Tape Backup 40SC tape
subsystem support

.,. Enables local tape backup using
standard UNIX utilities, which provide
flexible archival and restore facilities .

.,. Apple Macintosh desk accessory
support

.,. Allows users to set parameters and
select network printers for Macintosh
and A/UX applications by using the
Chooser and the Control Panel.

.,. File transfer between Macintosh and
A/UX file systems

.,. Allows users to move their data files
and applications between the Macintosh
and A/UX environments .

.,. Macintosh video driver support

.,. Allows use of compatible video cards
and monitors without requiring special
drivers .

.,. Support for the AppleCD Sc™ CD-ROM
drive

.,. Allows inexpensive mass distribution of
large A/UX file systems on compact discs .

.,. Other software enhancements

.,. Incorporates the latest functions of
BSD networking (Version 4.3) and NFS
(Version 3 . 2) .
.,. Provides disk input/output up to two
and a half times faster than the previous
version; quadruples SCSI throughput to
1 megabyte per second .

.,. Multiple-user AT&T UNIX license

.,. Each binaty copy and software update
of A/UX Version 1 . 1 . 1 includes a 16-user
AT&T UNIX license.

Features

Benefits

� Ability to run many 32-bit-compatible
Macintosh applications

� Enables users to run both UNIX and
Macintosh applications in the same
operating environment.

� Support for color through the Macin­
tosh Toolbox and X Window System

� Enables display of 256 colors from a
palette of 16 million colors.

�

Runs HyperCard®Version 1 .2.2

� Allows users to organize information by
association and context.
� Lets users create and manage informa­
tion using virtually any medium.
� Allows for high-speed information
searches.

�

Support for POSIX Draft 1 2 and FIPS

� Provides application portability by
following the standard guidelines of the
Federal Information Processing Standard
(FIPS) #151 for UNIX systems, enabling
federal government buyers to purchase
A/UX systems.

� X Window System Version 1 1 , Release 3
(optional add-on)

� Allows programs written for the X
Window System to run and/or use display
service in the A/UX environment. Multiple
screens and color displays are supported.

� Serial Line/Internet Protocol (SL/IP)
support

� Enables internet access to A/UX
services such as Sun Microsystems'
Network File System (NFS) and standard
BSD networking facilities over serial lines.

� AppleTalk®for A/UX Version 2.0
(included with A/UX Version 1 . 1 . 1)

� Allows any A/UX application­
Macintosh or UNIX-to share Apple
LaserWriter® and ImageWriter® printers
over the AppleTalk network system. These
printers can also be shared by Macintosh
computers running the Macintosh operat­
ing system.

Product Details

Macintosh Applications
Execution
NUX Version 1 . 1 . 1 allows
many 32-bit-compatible
Macintosh applications to run
in the NUX environment.
Macintosh applications that
adhere to the specifications for
the Macintosh 32-bit environ­
ment, as documented in the
Inside Macintosh series, run in
the NUX environment without
change. Most Macintosh
Toolbox features-including
color and printing-are
supported. Sound and direct
hardware access are
not available.
POSIX Support
NUX is compliant with both
the Federal Information
Processing Standard #151
(FIPS) and the POSIX Draft 12
standard. The federal govern­
ment created FIPS for POSIX
Draft 1 2 . POSIX is the trade
name of the IEEE Pl003
standard for the UNIX op­
erating system.
Apple Tape Backup 40SC
Support
NUX supports the UNIX
archival utilities, including tar
and cpio, for the Apple Tape
Backup 40SC, which uses
preformatted DC2000 1/4-inch
tape cartridges in QIC-100
format.

AppleCD SC Support
The AppleCD SC drive can be
used as a read-only NUX file
system of up to 500 megabytes,
giving information systems
providers an inexpensive distri­
bution medium.
Multiuser and Multitasking
Support
A/UX supports multiple
processes per user, enabling
one interactive application to
run many subtasks at once.
Applications that don't use the
screen, such as network
communications and printing
functions, can also run invisibly
behind another application.
With term or the optional X
Window System add-on,
multiple interactive programs
may run simultaneously. NUX
also supports multiuser activity
via two back-panel serial ports
or via third-party add-in boards.
Communications
A/UX provides standard UNIX
communications such as cu
and uucp, as well as more
advanced UNIX facilities such
as Berkeley Networking
Services, NFS, Yellow Pages,
and Mail. Serial, Ethernet, and
TCP/IP support are provided.
AppleTalk for A/UX Version 2.0
supports AppleTalk printing
over LocalTalk™ and EtherTalk™
networks.

Text Editing and Processing
Text editing and processing
utilities include vi, ex, ed,
ditroff, nroff, tbl, eqn, and pie.
NUX also includes Adobe
Systems' Transcript utility for
formatting output to the Apple
LaserWriter printer.
Programming
NUX offers an assembler, a
C compiler, debuggers, the
Source Code Control System
(SCCS), and related tools to
assist in developing new
applications or porting existing
software to NUX. It also
includes a set of UNIX libraries
that allow C programs to access
the functionality of the Macin­
tosh Toolbox, so that NUX
applications can present the
graphics-based user interface
familiar to Macintosh users, in
addition to the traditional UNIX
appearance. Numerous other
languages and tools are
available from developers.
System Administration
NUX simplifies configuration
and recovery. It automatically
configures the smallest kernel
possible, and simplifies the
manual addition of new drivers.
In addition, NUX keeps redun­
dant copies of crucial files so
that, in the event of a damaging
system crash, it can automati­
cally return the system to a
networkable state.

System Requirements

To use the Apple A/UX
operating system, you will
need:

... A Macintosh SE/30, Ilci, IIx,
or Hex computer with a
minimum of 4 megabytes of
RAM or a Macintosh II
computer with a minimum of
4 megabytes of RAM and an
Apple Paged Memory Management Unit (PMMU)
... An Apple hard disk (minimum 80 megabytes) or the
equivalent
... An Apple or equivalent
monitor that is compatible
with A/UX Version 1 . 1 . 1

... For Ethernet connectivity,
the Apple EtherTalk NB Card or
equivalent for the Macintosh II,
IIx, Ilcx, or Ilci. For the
Macintosh SE/30, an Ethernet
interface card is required.

Communications
... Network access via Ethernet
or serial lines using TCP /IP or
SL/IP protocols, or via direct
serial or modem connections
... File transfer, terminal
emulation, and electronic mail
with UNIX systems via uucp
protocols
... Local area networking over
Ethernet with the EtherTalk NB
Card or over serial lines using
SL/IP
... Transparent file sharing
over Ethernet or serial lines
using NFS Version 3 . 2
... Remote log-in and execution, resource sharing, file
transfer, and electronic mail
with Berkeley Networking
Services (from BSD 4.3)
... Domains, name service, and
subnets
... Remote execution or
display service via X Window
System Version 1 1 , Release 3
(optional add-on)

Apple enhancements
... Access to Macintosh
Toolbox for A/UX applications
and Macintosh applications
... Automatic recovery of files
in case of a crash
... Automatic reconfiguration
of device drivers
... File transfer utility that
converts Macintosh files to
A/UX files
... AppleTalk printing support
over Loca!Talk and EtherTalk
networks. (EtherTalk printing
to LaserWriter and ImageWriter
printers requires a n EtherTalkto-Loca!Talk router such as the
AppleTalk Internet Router.)

,

Technical Specifications

Portability standard
... AT&T UNIX System V,
Release 2, Version 2
... Compliant with the System
V Interface Definition (SVID),
and conforms to the System V
Verification Suite (SVVS)
... 4.3 BSD extensions (including signals, job control, groups,
sockets, TCP/IP, subnets, and
domains)
... Compliant with FIPS #151
and the IEEE P1003 . 1 (POSIX
Draft 1 2) standard
Shells (command-line
interpreters)
... Bourne, Korn, C
Development tools
... Editors (vi, ex, ed, ditroff,
nroff, tbl, eqn, and pie)
... Assembler and C compiler

Lint, lex, yacc
Debuggers (adb, sdb)
... Linker (/d)
... Source control (SCCS,
make, and other UNIX tools)
...

...

Optional Equipment
... Additional memory
... An Apple Tape Backup
40SC or the equivalent
... An AppleCD SC drive

Apple A!UX Operating System Version 1 . 1 . 1
Ordering Information

Macintosh Ilci A/UX System
Order No. B0159LL/A
Macintosh IIci personal
computer with A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on
SO-megabyte internal hard disk

A/UX Internal 80MB
Hard Disk
Order No. MSOl l/C
AIUX 1 . 1 . 1 on SO-megabyte
hard disk

Macintosh Ilcx A/UX System
Order No. B0097LL/A
Macintosh Hex personal
computer with A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on
SO-megabyte internal hard disk

A/UX Tape Product 1.1.1
Order No. B0043LL/B
A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on a 40-megabyte
tape cartridge

Macintosh IIx A/UX System
Order No. B002LL/C
Macintosh IIx personal
computer with A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on
SO-megabyte internal hard disk

A/UX External 80MB
Hard Disk
Order No. MS004/D
A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on SO-megabyte
hard disk
Related Products
and Services

Apple 68851 Paged
Memory Management
Unit (PMMU)*
Order No. M022 1
Macintosh II EtherTalk
NB Card
Order No. M0405
Apple Tape Backup 40SC
Order No. M2640/A
Apple 4MB Memory
Expansion Kit*
Order No. M0707

Information for
Programmers and
Developers

The Apple Programmers and
Developers Association (APDA)
provides a wide range of development products and documentation-from Apple and other
suppliers-for programmers and
developers who work with
Apple equipment. For information about APDA, contact:

A/UX Floppy Disk Product
Order No. MSl 43/D
A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 on SOOK floppy
disks
A/UX Update Tape Product
Order No. B0055LL/C
Update A/UX Versions 1.0,
1 .0 . 1 , or 1.1 to A/UX 1 . 1 . 1 with
a 40-megabyte tape cartridge

AppleCD SC Drive
Order No. M2700/A
Apple Hard Disk 80SC
Order No. M26SS/A
X Window System for A/UX

Order No. M0709

Inside Macintosh
Available from APDA™
A/UX Hotline-5-hour
Telephone Support
Order No. MS130
APDA
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 33G
Cupertino, CA 95014
S00-2S2-APDA (S00-2S2-2732)
Fax: ( 40S) 562-3971
Telex: 171-576
AppleLink: APDA
If you plan to develop Applecompatible hardware or software products for sale through

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(40S) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

A/UX Update Floppy
Disk Product
Order No. B0056LL/C
Update A/UX Versions 1 . 0,
1 . 0 . 1 , or 1 . 1 to A/UX 1 . 1 . 1
with SOOK floppy disks
A/UX Manual Set
Order No. MS044/A
1 5-binder manual set, includes
references and guides on such
topics as system administration, text-processing tools,
man (manual) pages, software
development tools, and
networking

A/UX Hotline-15-hour
Telephone Support
Order No. MS140
A/UX Manual Set Update
Service-Single Copy
Order No. MS125
A/UX Software Set Update
Service-Individual
Workstation
Tape Order No. MS007
Disk Order No. MS002
'Dealer installation i s required.

retail channels, you can get
valuable support from Apple
Developer Programs. Write to:
Apple Developer Programs
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 51W
Cupertino, CA 95014
For the name of your nearest
authorized Apple A/UX dealer,
call S00-53S-9696.

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, NUX, HyperCard, ImageWriter,
LaserWriter, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. APOA, AppleCD SC,
EtherTalk, and LocalTalk are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. NFS is a trademark of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. Transcript is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of
AT&T Information Systems.
August 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M8142/B

X

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Overview
Apple Computer's implementation
of X Window System™, Version 1 1 ,
Release 4 for the A/UX® operating
system provides two distinct
products: Xl 1 and MacX™.
The first, Xl 1 , delivers a native
X Window System environment
that is well-suited for technical
users and software developers.
Xl 1 provides a full development
environment, including X pro­
gramming libraries, the X Toolkit
intrinsics, and the Athena
Widget Set.

The second, MacX, allows X
applications to share the A/UX
software Finder™ desktop with
Macintosh® and UNIX® applica­
tions. With MacX, users can open
frequently-used X client applica­
tions by just choosing a command
from a Macintosh pull-down
menu.
Both Xl 1 and MacX allow users
to take advantage of the highly
portable, network-transparent
X Window System.

The X Window System is the
result of years of development
work by researchers from the
computer industry and from
the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT).
Apple Computer's X Window
System for A/UX complies with
the standards and conventions set
by the MIT X Consortium.

Product Details
Xl l for A/UX
Environment
� Xl l for NUX offers the
native X Window System
environment with the improved
performance of the X Window
System, Version 1 1 , Release 4
server. Xl 1 controls the display
and does not allow access to
the NUX Finder.

X libraries and applications

Network transparency
� Xl l client applications can
reside on any system on the
network-on a local computer
or a remote host computer. The
applications can also be
displayed on a local or remote
system.

Xl 1 display font families
include Charter, Clean, Courier,
Helvetica®, Lucida, New Century
Schoolbook, Symbol, and
Times®.

Standard libraries, standard
include files, applications, and
utilities are provided for X client
application development. These
include l ibX l l , l ibXau,
�

l ibXaw, l ibXdmcp,
l ibXext , l ibXinput ,
l ibXmu, l ibXt, and
l ib o l dX.

Screen options
� Xl l supports both mono­
chrome and 8-bit color video
cards and displays. The 8-bit
color option allows simulta­
neous display of up to 256
colors or shades of gray from a
palette of 16 million colors.

�

Documentation
� Xl 1 documentation includes

Environment
� MacX allows X client
applications to share the NUX
Finder with multiple Macintosh
and UNIX applications. MacX
is appropriate for novice and
experienced users alike.

Documentation
� MacX documentation
includes MacX User's Guide,
which describes how to use
MacX features.

� MacXfor A/UX Supplement
describes how to use the MacX
server in the NUX Finder
environment.

Required equipment

� At least 4 megabytes of RAM
(5 megabytes recommended)
� Apple SO-megabyte (or
larger) hard disk or the
equivalent (160 megabytes
recommended)
� NUX operating system
Version 2.0, NUX Version 2.0. 1 ,
o r later versions

XI I User's Guide for AIUX,
which describes how to use
Xl l ; and two reference guides,
XI I Command Reference for
AIUX and XI I Programmer's
Reference for AIUX, which
describe command usage and
the programming libraries.

MacXfor A/DX

To use the X Window System
for NUX, you'll need the
following:
� Macintosh IIfx, Macintosh
IIci, Macintosh IIx, Macintosh
Hex, Macintosh Hsi, or Macin­
tosh SE/30 personal computer;
or Macintosh II with PMMU

Optional equipment
� Optional: an Apple®
EtherTalk® NB Card for the
Macintosh II family of
computers, or an equivalent
Ethernet card for the Macintosh
SE/30 (the use of Ethernet is
recommended)

Features

Bent;{its

Xll for A/UX
.,. X Window System, Version 1 1 ,
Release 4 server

.,. Optimizes graphics performance and
memory usage

.,. Native X Window System user
environment

.,. Provides X Window System environ­
ment suitable for displaying client applica­
tion running on other hardware platforms

.,. Complete Xl l Release 4 development
tools

.,. Allow users to develop X applications
using the Xlib library and the Xtk Toolkit

.,. Sample widget set

.,. Includes MIT Athena Widget Set,
suitable for customization

.,. X Window System, Version 1 1 ,
Release 4 client applications

.,. Provides desktop client applications,
such as o c l o ck and x c a l c ; utilities,
such as xt e rm ex terminal emulator); and
development tools

.,. Support for 1-bit black-and-white
display, and 2 56-color display with
an 8-bit video card

.,. Permits display of X client applications
on any monitor connected to an A/UX
system

.,. Support for multiple-screen display

.,. Lets users display an X client applica­
tion on any monitor connected to an A/UX
system

.,. User and reference manuals

.,. Provide documentation on using
Apple Computer's X Window System for
A/UX

.,. Provide reference pages that describe
Xl 1 commands, client applications, and
programming libraries

MacXfor A/UX
.,. A/UX Finder integration

.,. Lets users run X client applications,
Macintosh productivity applications, and
UNIX applications concurrently on A/UX

X Window System 2. 1 for A/UY
Technical Specifications

Xll for A/UX
Environment

Network transparency
� Color support
� Support for "backing store"
and "save under" features that
dramatically improve window
system performance
�

Window manager

User control of screen
configuration and
customization
�

� Ability to manage multiple
screens (using t wm) from a
single window manager
process

� Bitmapped image manipula­
tion utilities, including conver­
sion from screen image to
PostScript® format (b i tmap,

Client applications

(v i ewre s)

All client applications are
based on Xll Release 4
� Terminal emulator with
DEUM VT102™ and Tektronix
4014 compatibility (xt e rm)
� Mouse-based screen editor
�

(xe dit)
(xman)
�

Manual page browser

xdpr, xwd, xwud, xp r)
�

�

Widget browser

Font displayer (x fd)

C libraries
� Full application develop­
ment toolkit (X Toolkit intrinsics
and Xaw Athena Widget Set)
� Graphics library (Xlib)
� Include files

MacXjor A/UX
Environment

Color support
Full international
character set support

Window Manager

X Window System 2.1 for
A/UX
Order No. M0411LL/B

With your order, you'll receive
X Window System 2 . 1 for A/UX
software:
-15 installation disks for Xll
-6 installation disks for MacX

-X Window System 2 . 1 for
A/UX documentation, which
includes
� Getting Started with X
Window System for AIUX
� MacX User's Guide
� MacXfor A!UX Supplement
� Xl l User's Guide for AIUX
� Xl 1 Command Reference
for AIUX
� Xl 1 Programmer's
Reference for A!UX

X Window System
Site License

Order No. M0747LL/B

X Window System 2.1 for
A/UX Right to Copy

Order No. M0749LL/B

X Window System 2.1 for

Order No. M0748LL/B

Network transparency
� Integrated with the
A/UX: Finder
�

Ordering Information

A/UX Manual Set

�
�

� User control of screen
configuration and customization

For the name of your nearest authorized Apple A/UX and X Window System dealer, call 800-538-9696.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
408- 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, NUX, EthetTalk, Macintosh are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Finder and MacX are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Charter is a
trademark of Bitstream. DEC and VT102 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Helvetica and
Times are registered trademarks of Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries. Lucida is registered trademark of
Bigelow and Holmes. Postscript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Tektronix is a registered
trademark of Tektronix, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems. X Window
System is a trademark of MIT.
January 1990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0659LL/B

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Overview
MacX™ 1 . 1 software provides an
X Window System™ display server
for the Apple® Macintosh® and
A/UX® operating systems. MacX
allows X client applications to
share the desktop with Macintosh
applications.
Macintosh users can trans­
parently access X applications
running on a variety of computers
that support the X Window

System. With MacX, users can
display X applications in easy-to­
use Macintosh windows by
choosing commands from a
customizable pull-down menu.
MacX allows users to cut and
paste graphics between X and
Macintosh applications.
The X Window System is the
result of years of development by
researchers from the computer

industry and from the Massachu­
setts Institute of Technology
(MIT). MacX 1 . 1 complies with
the Version 1 1 , Release 4 stan­
dards and conventions set by the
MIT X Consortium.
MacX demonstrates Apple
Computer's commitment to
multivendor connectivity and
industry standards.

Product Details
MultiFinder compatibility

Foreign window manager

DECwindows support

.,.. Client applications can share
the desktop with Macintosh
applications. Users can move
easily back and forth between
MacX, the desktop, and other
Macintosh applications.

support

.,.. MacX offers support for the
use of DECwindows™. With the
appropriate network software
from Apple, MacX is com­
patible with DECwindows
conventions for remote startup
of applications and for cutting
and pasting between Macintosh
and DECwindows applications.

Standards conformance

.,.. MacX 1 . 1 implements X
Window System, Version 1 1 ,
Release 4 standards, including
Xl l protocols, ICCCM window
management, and the XLFD (X
logical font description)
protocol. MacX includes
support for the Version 1 1 ,
Release 4 shape extension.
MacX window manager

.,.. MacX includes a built-in
window manager that complies
with the ICCCM standard. The
MacX window manager
provides title bars, close boxes,
and other Macintosh window
controls. Users can control
client applications in windows
on their desktop using
Macintosh user interface
capabilities.

Required equipment

To use MacX, you'll need the
following:
.,.. Any Macintosh computer
.,.. At least 2 megabytes of
memory
.,.. At least two floppy disk
drives (a hard disk is highly
recommended)

.,.. MacX includes a special
capability for those users who
want to use a foreign window
manager, such as mwm of
OSF/Motif or twm. MacX offers
a special Macintosh window
devoted to displaying client
applications controlled by a
foreign window manager.
This window can share the
desktop with other client appli­
cations, which are controlled by
the built-in MacX window
manager.
Font Manager

.,.. MacX includes a rich library
of font families: Charter, Clean,
Courier, Helvetica®, Lucida,
Lucida Bright, Lucida Type­
writer, New Century School­
book, Symbol, and Times®. In
addition, MacX can access the
Macintosh screen fonts located
in the System file. MacX comes
with sophisticated tools for font
manipulation, such as a font
compiler that compiles font
files from bitmap distribution
format (BDF) to the server's
internal format.

.,.. Macintosh system software
version 6.0.4 (or later)
.,.. A network connection
(using the built-in LocalTalk®
port in the Macintosh or an
Ethernet connection)

Color support

.,.. MacX supports 8-bit color
and gray-scale video cards.
Users have access to 256
distinct colors or shades of gray
from a palette of 16 million
colors. MacX supports Apple
video cards, including the 8 • 24
Card and 8 • 24 GC Card; third­
party video cards; and built-in
video on Macintosh computers,
such as the Macintosh Ilci.
Network configurations

.,.. MacX takes advantage of the
Macintosh Communications
Toolbox, allowing multiple
simultaneous connections over
different transport protocols. A
communications tool that
supports TCP/IP is provided.
DECnet connection tools are
available from third-party
sources.
Optional equipment

.,.. Apple EtherTalk® NB Card
or the equivalent
.,.. Macintosh II Extended High­
Resolution Display Video Card
and AppleColor� High­
Resolution RGB Monitor or the
equivalent (multiscreen
configurations are supported)
.,.. Apple Two-Page Mono­
chrome Monitor
.,.. Apple Macintosh Portrait
Display

Features

Benefits

.,.. Compliance with the MIT X Consortium
specifications for the X Window System,
Version 1 1 , Release 4

.,.. Provides a complete standard­
conforming X Window System server
implementation for Macintosh computers

.,.. Integration with MultiFinder® software

.,.. Allows users to switch between X client
applications and Macintosh applications
from the desktop

.... Support for multiple networking
protocols

.,.. Permits MacX to take full advantage of
popular networking protocols for the
Macintosh, including TCP /IP, third-party
DECnet'" implementations, and the
AppleTalk® network system

.,.. Support for multiple monitors

.,.. Enables users to take advantage of
multiple monitor setups
.,.. Allows client applications to display
on multiple screens

.... Built-in window manager

.,.. Gives users the familiar techniques of
the Macintosh user interface when moving
and resizing MacX windows

.,.. Support for display of monochrome
and color applications

.,.. Allows simultaneous display of up to

256 colors or shades of gray from a palette
of 16 million colors with the appropriate
video card

.,.. Easy X application startup using
pull-down menus

.,.. Allows users to open a client
application by choosing a command from a
pull-down menu
.... Includes capability to customize the
pull-down menu; users can create, edit,
and save commands to open frequently­
used client applications quickly .

.,.. Full copy and paste capabilities for
text and color graphics

.... Lets users copy images of X client
applications and paste them into
Macintosh applications through the
Macintosh Clipboard
.,.. Allows Macintosh applications to
provide graphic selections for pasting into
X client applications

.,.. Complete set of user manuals

.,.. Provides the information necessary
to install, configure, and use MacX

MacX 1 . 1
Technical Specifications

MacX display server

... Network transparency
... Xl 1 Release 4 compliance
.,. Support for multiple
monitors
... Copy and paste capabilities
for text and graphics between X
and Macintosh applications
.,. Color support
.,. Support for the full interna­
tional character set, including
the ability to translate automatiOrdering Information

MacX

Order No. M0108LL/B

cally between the Macintosh
and X representations of
8-bit characters
.,. Support for the all Apple
keyboards and the Apple
Desktop Bus™ (ADB) mouse
(for applications that make use
of them, the second and third
mouse buttons are emulated
through the keyboard)
... Support for the "backing
store" and "save under"
With your order, you'll receive
... MacX software
... Macintosh Communications
Toolbox software
... MacTCP software
... MacX Font Library software
... .MacX User's Guide

... .MacX Installation Guide
.,. .MacTCP Administrator's
Guide
Related Products

MacX Manual Set

Order No. M0602LL/A

X Window System

Order No. M0747LL/A

features, which dramatically
improve X Window System
perforn1ance
Network connections

... Support for LocalTalk and
EtherTalk connections
... Transport protocols support
includes MacTCP® (Apple
Computer's implementation of
the TCP/IP protocols),
Apple Talk ADSP, and DECnet

For information about site
licenses, contact
Apple Software Licensing
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 38-I
Cupertino, CA 95014
408-974-4667

Site License
X Window System 2.1

Order No. M04 1 1 LL/B

X Window System for A/UX

Order No. M0748LL/B

Apple EtherTalk NB Card

Order No. M0410LL/A

AppleColor High-Resolution

Order No. M0401

for A/UX

Manual Set

RGB Monitor
Apple Macintosh Portrait

Order No. M0404

Display

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
408-996-1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, A/UX, EtherTalk, LocalTalk, Macintosh,
MacTCP, and Multifinder are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleColor, Apple Desktop
Bus, and MacX are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Charter is a trademark of Bitstream. DECnet and
DECwindows are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Helvetica and Times are registered
trademarks of Linotype Company. Lucida is a registered trademark of Bigelow & Holmes. OSF/Motif is a
trademark of Open Software Foundation, Inc. X Window System is a trademark of MIT.
April 1990. Product specifications are subj ect to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0246!.L/C

MacX25

Used By:
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Overview
The MacX25™ software links
Apple ® Macintosh® personal
computers to packet-switched
data networks (PSDNs) support­
ing CCITT Recommendation X. 25.
MacX25 server software allows
a Macintosh to be set up as a
single entry point to the PSDN.
Access to host computers and
end-user services on the PSDN
is distributed from the server to
Macintosh computers over the
AppleTalk® network system.
MacPAD™ software, included
with MacX25 , works in conjunc­
tion with the server software and

provides packet assembler/dis­
users with a menu listing avail­
able hosts and end-user services
assembler (PAD) connectivity to
the PSDN. Implemented as a con­ by name. Users connect to
services simply by selecting the
nection tool for the Macintosh
Communications Toolbox,
appropriate name-they aren't
MacPAD allows terminal applica­ required to know PAD com­
mands and address numbers.
tions using the toolbox to con­
nect to host systems on the
The MacX25 Programming
PSDN.
Library (available separately)
works in conjunction with the
MacX25 features an adminis­
trator's application that facilitates MacX25 server to provide X. 25
configuration and administration access to applications, enabling
of the server. An address service
developers to create Macintosh
allows administrators to set
solutions that give users access
addressing details on the Macin­
to packet-switched networks.
tosh server, presenting MacPAD

Features

Benefits

,... X.25 network access

,... Provides Macintosh computer users
with reliable wide area network
connectivity.

,... Conformance to International
Telegraph & Telephone Consultative
Committee (CCITT) recommendations

,... Provides universal interoperability with
other X.25-conformant systems.

,... Server-based access

,... Makes it easy to add users.
,... Reduces costs by maximizing use of
expensive resources such as leased lines.

,... Packet assembly/disassembly facility
(MacPAD)

,... Supports asynchronous terminal access
to packet-switched networks.

,... Easy-to-use Address Book with a
graphics-based user interface

,... Allows users to select an available
service by name without having to learn
traditional PAD commands.

,... Graphics-based Administrator
application

,... Facilitates software installation and
administration of user access.

,... User passwords

,... Prevents unauthorized users from
accessing the se1ver.

,... Runs under the MultiFindd" system
software

,... Eliminates the need for a dedicated
computer, allowing the server to run other
applications.

Technical Summary
General Features

Optional Facilities

MacX25 supports the
following:
.,. CCITT 1980 Compatible
Mode
.,. CCITT 1984 Compatible
Mode
.,. Packet Assembler/Disassem­
bler (X.3, X.28, X. 29)
.,. Operation as a DTE

.,. Operation as a DCE
.,. Virtual Circuits: 64 maximum
.,. Single link for each Apple
Serial NB Card
.,. Multiple cards for each
Macintosh II
.,. Operation at up to 19.2Kbps
with RS-232C
.,. Operation at up to 64Kbps
with V.35

For Subscription
Registration

At Call Initiation

At Call Reception

MacX25 supports the following:
.,. Packet Size Negotiation
.,. Window Size Negotiation
.,. Throughput Class
Negotiation
.,. CUG Group Specification
.,. BCUG Group Specification
.,. Fast Select
.,. Network User Identification
.,. Charging Information
.,. Reverse Charging
.,. RPOA Selection
.,. Call Address Modified
Notification
.,. Transit Delay Selection
.,. User Data Field
.,. Calling Address Extension
.,. Called Address Extension
.,. Quality of Service
Negotiation
.,. Expedited Data Negotiation

MacX25 supports the following:
.,. Packet Size Negotiation
.,. Window Size Negotiation
.,. Throughput Class
Negotiation
.,. CUG Group Specification
.,. BCUG Group Specification
.,. Fast Select Acceptance
.,. Reverse Charging
Acceptance .
.,. Charging Information
.,. Call Redirection Notification
.,. Transit Delay Selection
.,. User Data Field
.,. Calling Address Extension
.,. Called Address Extension
.,. Quality of Service
Negotiation
.,. Expedited Data Negotiation

MacX25 supports the following:
.,. Extended Sequence numbers
.,. Default Packet Size
Assignment: 32 to 4,096
.,. Default Window Size
Assignment: 1 to 1 28
.,. Flow Control Parameter
Negotiation: Fixed (at "yes")
.,. Throughput Class Negotiation: Fixed (at "yes")
.,. Closed User Groups
.,. Bilateral Closed User Groups
.,. Fast Select Acceptance :
Fixed (at "yes")
.,. Reverse Charging
Acceptance
.,. Local Charging Prevention
MacX25 does not support the
following:
.,. On-Line Facility Registration
.,. Default Throughput Class
Assignment: Fixed
(at 48000 bps)
.,. D bit modification

.,. Multiple servers for each
AppleTalk network system
MacX25 does not support the
following:
.,. Permanent Virtual Circuits
.,. X.32 switched circuit
operation

Note: The preceding sections list the capabilities of the MacX25 server, and not those of MacPAD. Use
of a facility depends on support for it in the appropriate supported PSDN. All parameters listed under
Subscription Registration can be set by the administrator via the Administrator application, except
for parameters marked "Fixed"; these parameters are fixed at the specified values or settings.
Parameters listed under Call Initiation and Call Reception are accessible to software developers
via the MacX25 server.
Network Certification

MacX25 is certified for connection to Telenet and GEIS (GEISCO) networks. Certification is planned
for Tymnet and DDN; and in Europe, for the U.K. (PSS), Germany (Datex-P) , France (Transpac), Italy
(ITAPAC), Sweden (Datapak) , the Netherlands (DN-1), Canada (Datapac), and Australia (Austpac) .

System Requirements

MacX25 Server

To set up a MacX25 server,
you'll need:
.,. Any personal computer in
the Macintosh II family with an
internal hard disk (2 megabytes
of RAM recommended)
.,. Macintosh System Software
Version 6.0.3 (or later)
.,. An Apple Serial NB Card
with the appropriate RS-232C
or V.35 cable
.,. The appropriate LocalTalkT"
network-compatible cable
connectors

To use MacX25 on an Ethernet
network, you'll need the appro­
priate Ethernet interface card
for your Macintosh .
MacPAD

To use MacPAD, you'll need:
.,. A Macintosh Plus, Macin­
tosh SE, or Macintosh SE/30
personal computer, or any
computer in the Macintosh II
family
.,. A terminal-service applica­
tion that uses the Macintosh
Communications Toolbox

.,. The appropriate LocalTalk­
compatible cable connectors
To use MacPAD on an Ethernet
network, you'll need the appro­
priate Ethernet interface card
for your Macintosh .
The AppleTalk Data Stream
Protocol (ADSP) software and
the Macintosh Communications
Toolbox software are included
with the MacX25 server
software.

MacX25 Programming Library
Overview
The MacX25 Programming Libra1y
allows developers to create soft­

Features
11o>

High-level programming interface

ware solutions that provide users
with access to a packet-switched
data network . It works in conjunc­
tion with the MacX2 5 server to
provide X. 2 5 services to application
programs .

.,.. Library of X.25 service routines

The library is a toolkit, or collec­
tion of routines, that offers a high­
level program interface for applica­
tions . Routines are included for
initiating and terminating contact
with the MacX2 5 server, establishing
and closing down a virtual circuit,
passing data across an established
circuit, and more . Technical support
is available to Apple Partners .

Benefits
.,.. Provides access to X.25 over the
AppleTalk network system, using the
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) .
.,.. Eliminates the need for developers to
have detailed knowledge of ADSP and
AppleTalk.
.,.. Facilitates development of distributed
X.25 applications.
.,.. Allows applications to run on the
MacX25 server under MultiFinder.

Product Details

C programming libraries are supplied with
the MacX25 Programming Libra1y.
Routines are included that allow users to
connect and disconnect from the server
and to query server status and circuit
information. A packet-level interface using
control blocks is provided for developers
who require maximum control. A higher-

level logical packet interface, also pro­
vided, performs data translation and
formatting services, creates X. 25 packets,
and relieves the programmer of some
lower-level tasks. The MacX25 Program­
ming Library includes a programmer's
guide .

System Requirements

To use the MacX25 Programming Library,
you'll need:
.,.. A Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh SE/30 personal computer, or
any computer in the Macintosh II family
.,.. Macintosh System Software Version
6.0.3 (or later)
.,.. The appropriate LocalTalk-compatible
cable connectors

To use the MacX25 Programming Library
on an Ethernet network, you'll need an ap­
propriate Ethernet interface card for your
Macintosh.
For development work, the Macintosh
Programmer's Workshop (MPWT) Version
3.0 with MPW C is required.

MacX25
Ordering Information

MacX25

Order No. M07 1 1

MacX25 Programming
Library

Order No. M0245LL/A

Apple Serial NB Card

Order No. M0264

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

With your order, you'll receive :
.,.. MacX25 server software
.,.. MacPAD software
.,.. Macintosh Communications
Toolbox software

.,.. ADSP software
.,.. MacX25 Administrator's
Guide
.,.. MacPAD User's Guide

With your order, you'll receive :
.,.. MacX25 Programming
Library software
.,.. MacX25 Programmer's
Guide

For information about
licensing, contact:
Apple Software Licensing
Apple Computer, Inc .
10431 De Anza Blvd., MIS 381
Cupertino, CA 95014
To use the Apple Serial NB
Card, you'll need one of the
following cables:
.,.. RS-232C Cable
(Order No. M01 28LL/A)
.,.. V'.35 Cable
(Order No. M01 27LL/A)

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, and Macintosh are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. LocalTalk, MacPAD, MacX25, MPW, and MultiFinder are
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
June 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0247LUA

Macintosh Portable Numeric Keypad Module

Overview

Features

Benefits

The Macintosh ® Portable Numeric
Keypad Module is designed
especially for the Apple® Macin­
tosh Portable personal computer.
This 18-key keypad can be in­
serted on the right or left of your
keyboard, for your convenience,
in place of the trackball. The
keypad is ideal for number­
intensive applications, because its
firm, positive-response keys make
it easy to enter numeric data
quickly and accurately. And the
keypad consumes very little
power, enabling you to use your
computer for a long time before
recharging the battery.

� Firm, positive-response keys in
standard layout

� Makes it easy to enter numbers
quickly and accurately.
� Lets you do most calculations right on
the keypad-without having to move
back to the keyboard-with its four
arithmetic function keys: Enter, Clear,
decimal point, and equal sign.

�

Flexible configuration

� Lets you work the way you like, with
the keypad mounted on either side of the
keyboard, for left- or right-handed use.
� Is interchangeable with the Macintosh
Portable Trackball� for convenient use of
number-intensive applications as well as
those that require frequent use of the
trackball.

�

Power-efficient design

� Optimizes the life of your Macintosh
battery.
� Lets you use your computer longer
before recharging.

'Requires inst21lation by an authorized Apple dealer.

Macintosh Portable Numeric Keypad Module
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Macintosh Portable
Numeric Keypad Module, you'll
need a Macintosh Portable

personal computer with System
Software Version 6.0.4 (or later).

Keys

Size and weight

Number of keys: 18
� Keys included
Numbers: 0-9
Arithmetic operators: /, *, -, +
Decimal point
Enter
Clear

Height: maximum 1 . 0 in.
(2. 5 cm)
� Width: 3.0 in. (7.6 cm)
� Depth: 5.0 in. (12.7 cm)
� Weight: 5.0 oz. (140 g)

�

=,

�

Interface
Direct internal connection
with the Macintosh Portable
personal computer

�

Ordering Information

Macintosh Portable Numeric
Keypad Module*

Order No. M0239

Environmental
requirements
Operating temperature:
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
� Storage temperature:
-40° to 140° F (-40° to 60° C)
� Relative humidity:
95% noncondensing at 32°
to 122° F (0° to 50° C) for 8
hours
�

With your order, you'll receive:
Macintosh Portable
Numeric Keypad Module
� Limited warranty
statement
�

'Requires installation by an authorized Apple dealer.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc.
September 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0345Ll)A

Apple Keyboard

Overview

Features

Bene.fits

The Apple ® Keyboard is the stan­
dard keyboard for the Macintosh™
SE and Macintosh II personal
computers. Featuring a typewriter­
style layout plus a numeric key­
pad and cursor keys, it provides
an ideal solution for business and
higher-education uses.

• Apple Desktop Bus'"
(ADB) interface

• Plugs directly into any ADB port on
your computer or another ADB peripheral.
• Allows the daisy-chain connection of
other ADB input devices.

• Standard typewriter-style keyboard
with numeric keypad and cursor keys

• Speeds data entry for number-intensive
applications.
• Lets you quickly move the cursor
through a document without taking your
hands off the keyboard.

• Remapping desk accessory
(packaged separately) *

• Lets you assign menu-based commands
or text strings to a particular key or key
combination.

·

•

®

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

Apple Keyboard
Any Apple personal computer
with an Apple Desktop Bus
interface.

Number of keys

Size and weight

81; includes 10-key numeric
pad and four cursor-control
keys

Height: 1 .75 in. (44.5 mm)
Width: 16.5 in. (418 mm)
� Depth: 5.6 in. (142 mm)
� Weight: 2.25 lbs. (1 kg)

�

Ordering Information

Apple Keyboard

�

�

Order No. M01 16

With your order, you'll receive:

� Apple Keyboard and cable
� Referral card
� Limited warranty statement
* See your authorized Apple representative for details regarding the remapping desk accessory.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Desktop Bus and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
March 1987. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
M2228

Apple Extended Keyboard

Overview

Features

Benefits

The Apple® Extended Keyboard is
an alternative keyboard for your
Macintosh'" SE or Macintosh II
personal computer. It includes 15
function keys, a numeric keypad,
standard cursor arrow keys in a
T-style layout, and 6 cursor
control keys. It's ideal for running
terminal-emulation and related
data communications programs,
alternate operating systems, and
their applications.

�

Apple Desktop Bus'"
(ADB) interface

�

Plugs directly into any ADB port on your
computer or another ADB peripheral.
� Allows the daisy-chain connection of
other ADB input devices.
Lets you take advantage of applications
that support function keys.

15 built-in function keys

�

Remapping desk accessory
(packaged separately)

�

�

�

Lets you assign menu-based commands
or text strings to a particular key or
combination of keys (including the
function keys).
Represents some of the most common
functions of the MS-DOS environment.

�

Dual-legend keycaps

�

�

T-style cursor pad

� Provides an intuitive layout of the cursor
arrow keys.

�

6 cursor control keys

�

�

Numeric keypad

�

Lets you quickly move through a docu­
ment without taking your hands off the
keyboard.
Speeds data entry for number-intensive
applications.

•

®

Apple Extended Keyboard

System Requirements

Any Apple personal computer
with an Apple Desktop Bus
interface.

Technical Specifications

Keys
Total number: 105
• Additional features:
-10-key numeric pad
-15 function keys
-4 arrow cursor-control keys
in T-style layout
-6 special cursor-control
keys (Home, Page Up, Page
Down, Forward Delete, End,
and Help)
•

Product Details

The keyboard has 1 5
function keys (Fl-F 1 5)
and 6 cursor control keys
(Home, Page Up, Page
Down, Forward Delete,
End and Help).

•

•

•

•

Height: 2.25 in. (56.4 mm)
Width: 19. 1 3 in. ( 486 mm)
Depth: 7.4 in. (188 mm)
Weight: 3 .63 lbs. ( 1 . 6 kg)

use these definitions as ap­
propriate. The remaining
1 1 function keys can also
be defined by the user.
The remapping facility is
available for a specific
application or globally for
all applications.

•

Fl-F4 are labeled on the
housing under the keys
(Fl =undo, F2=cut, F3=copy,
and F4=paste). These are
not predefined default
values, however developers
are being encouraged to

•

Apple Extended Keyboard

Order No. M01 15

•

Ordering Information

Size and weight
•

The function keys are
operative by using the
remapping desk accessory
or by using an MS-DOS
application with appro­
priate co-processor card.

Developers are being en­
couraged to support these
keys in their applications.
The Caps Lock LED is
operative in the Macintosh
environment. The Num
Lock and Scroll Lock are
used by some third-party
applications. Developers
are being encouraged to
support these LEDs in their
applications.

•

With your order, you'll receive:
Apple Extended Keyboard
and cable
• Referral card
• Limited warranty statement
•

*See your authorized Apple Representative for details regarding the remapping desk accessory.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trndemarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Desktop Bus and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer MS-DOS is a registered trndemark of
Microsoft Inc.
July 1987. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
M2229

Apple Memory Expansion Kits: lMB) 2MB.

Overview

Features

Benefits

Apple® Memory Expansion Kits
give you the ability to expand
your Macintosh'" Plus, Macintosh
SE, or Macintosh II personal com­
puter as your needs change. They
let you go to the maximum user
memory (RAM) immediately, or
in convenient steps as your
requirements increase.

11> Total RAM (random-access
memory) of up to 4 megabytes for
the Macintosh Plus and Macintosh
SE,and 8 megabytes for the
Macintosh II

Gives you all the memory you need
for the most powerful applications.
.,. Provides a development platform for
sophisticated new applications.
11> Lets you run alternate operating
systems.

11>

11> Lets you add just as much memory as
you need, whenever you need it.

Flexible configurations

11> RAM is fully addressable by both
the processor and the operating
system

II>

11>

Allows the operating system and
applications to take full advantage of
the expanded memory.

•

®

Product Details

Apple Memory Expansion Kits: lMB) 2MB.
SIMMs and logic Board
Sockets
Both Apple Memoiy Expansion
Kits come in the form of single
in-line memoiy modules
(SIMMs).

Macintosh Plus and
Macintosh SE
Each of these computers has
four SIMM sockets. At the time
of manufacture, all four sock­
ets are used to provide the
basic 1 megabyte of RAM
(256K in each socket). Since
Macintosh Plus or SE SIMM's
must be changed in multiples
of two, the upgrade options

Each SIMM is a small circuit
board containing eight RAM
chips. The SIMMs fit into
sockets on the main logic
board of each computer.

The lMB kit contains four
256K SIMMs, and the 2MB kit
contains two lMB SIMMs.

for these machines are as
follows * :
• Replace two of the existing
256K SIMMs with the Apple
2MB Memoiy Expansion Kit,
resulting in a total RAM of 2.5
megabytes.
• Replace all four existing
256K SIMMS with two Apple
2MB Memoiy Expansion Kits,

resulting in a total RAM of
4 megabytes.
Note: These options assume
beginning with a lMB mac­
hine. The RAM can also be in­
creased to the maximum from
the intermediate level.
* A 2-megabyte configuration is possible
but not practical, because it would involve
eliminating two of the existing 256K SIMMs
without installing anything in their place.

This computer has eight SIMM
sockets. At the time of manu­
facture, four of the sockets are
used to provide the basic 1
megabyte of RAM (256K in
each socket), and four are left
empty. Since Macintosh II
SIMMs must be installed or
changed in multiples of four,
the upgrade options for this
machine are as follows* :

• Add one Apple lMB
Memoiy Expansion Kit in the
empty sockets, resulting in a
total RAM of 2 megabytes.
• Add two Apple 2MB
Memoiy Expansion Kits in the
empty sockets, resulting in a
total RAM of 5 megabytes.
• Install four Apple 2MB
Memoiy Expansion Kits
(re lacing the existing RAM
as well as filling the empty

System Requirements

The Apple lMB Memoiy Ex­
pansion Kit can only be used
with a Macintosh II personal
computer.

The Apple 2MB Memoiy Ex­
pansion Kit can be used with a
Macintosh Plus (or a Macintosh
128K or Macintosh 512K that

has been upgraded with the
Macintosh Plus logic board),
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II
personal computer.

Ordering Information

Apple lMB Memory
Expansion Kit*

Order No. M0218

With your order, you'll receive:
Apple lMB Memoiy Expan­
sion Kit (contains four 256K
SIMMs)
• Limited warranty statement

Apple 2MB Memory
Expansion Kit*

Order No. M0219

Macintosh II

p

sockets), resulting in a total

RAM of 8 megabytes.
Note: These options assume
beginning with a lMB ma­
chine. The RAM can also be
increased to the maximum
from any intermediate level.
* A 4-megabyte configuration is possible
but not practical, because it would involve
eliminating the four existing 256K SIMMs
without installing anything in their place.

•

* De-.tler installation is required.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Macintosh and Switcher are trddemarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
July 1987. Produa specifications are subjea to change without notice.
M2240

..

Macintosh 12" Monochrome Display

� rue

Edit

urew

"°'*"sauC 1 2-inch CRT with full analog
RGB color

11> Produces excellent, vibrant colors
on a full-size screen.

11> 5 1 2 horizontal pixels by
384 ve1tical lines at 64 dots
per inch (dpi)

11> Lets you display the full width
(except margins) and almost half the
height of a letter-size page.

11>

0. 28-mm dot pitch

11> Provides clear, crisp images, even
in finely detailed drawings.

11>

60-he1tz screen refresh rate

11>

Minimizes flickering and eyestrain.

11>

High brightness

11>

Reduces eyestrain.

11> Brightness and contrast
controls

11> Lets you adjust the display to suit
your preferences and environment.

Macintosh 12" RGB Display
Product Details

With the Macintosh 12" RGB
Display, the number of colors
that you can work with simultaneously depends on the
Macintosh model and/or video
card that you're using. For
example, you can work with

256 colors simultaneously
(from a color space of more than
16 million colors) if you have a
Macintosh LC, a Macintosh Hsi,
a Macintosh IIci, or a modular
Macintosh computer equipped
with the Macintosh Display

Card 4 • 8. If you have a moduJar Macintosh equipped with
the Macintosh Display Card
8 • 24, you can work with 16.7
million colors concurrently.

System Requirements

To use the Macintosh 1 2 "
RGB Display, you'll need the
following:

� A Macintosh personal computer with a built-in video port
or an appropriate video card,
such as the Macintosh Display

Card 4 • 8 or the Macintosh
Display Card 8 • 24
� A video cable (supplied
with the display)

Technical Specifications

Picture tube

Input signals

Fuse protection

1 2-in. viewable diagonal,
with in-line gun
� 90° deflection angle
� Black matrix-type dot
screen
� Phosphor type P22
(aluminized)
� Faceplate of spherical,
gray filter glass
� Shadow mask

Red, green, and blue video
signals using RS-343 standard;
TTL composite sync

� Internal power line fuse
protection; the display fuse
should be replaced with a fuse
of the same type by a qualified
service technician.

Screen resolution

Horizontal scan rate:
24.48 kilohertz
� Vertical refresh rate:
60. 1 5 hertz

�

5 1 2 horizontal pixels by
384 vertical lines; 64 dots per
inch (dpi)
� 0. 28-mm dot pitch
�

User controls

Back panel:
-Power switch
� Right side:
-Brightness
-Contrast
�

Ordering Information

Macintosh 12" RGB Display

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX 171-576

�

Active video display area
� 8.08 in. horizontal by 6.02 in.
vertical (205 mm horizontal by
153 mm vertical); remainder of
display area is used for border.

Scanning and refresh rates
�

Rise and fall time
�

�
�

Operating temperature:
50° F to 104° F (10° C to 40° C)
� Operating humidity: 95%
maximum, noncondensing
� Operating altitude: 10,000
ft. (3,048 m) maximum; 104° F
(40° C) operation from 0 to
7000 ft. (2,134 m) and derated
linearly to maximum 64° F
(25° C) at 10,000 ft.
�

27 nanoseconds maximum
Size and weight

Electrical requirements
�

Operating environment

Voltage: 100 to 1 20 volts AC
Frequency: 50 to 60 hertz
Power: 90 watts maximum

Order No. M0297LL/A

�

�

�

�

Height: 1 2 . 2 in. (3 1 . 0 cm)
Width: 14.4 in. (36. 5 cm)
Depth: 10.0 in. (25.3 cm)
Weight: 35 lb. ( 1 5 . 9 kg)

With your order, you'll receive:
� Macintosh 1 2" RGB Display
� Video cable
� Power cable
� Complete setup, learning,
and reference documentation
� Limited warranty statement

© 1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc.
August 1 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0915LL/A

AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor

Eastern Region

1 9 8 7 Reve n u e G r o w t h

D
D
D
Cl

No G r o w t h
Slow Growth
11oder' a t e G r o w t h
Fast Growth

Overview

Features

Benefits

The AppleColor'" High-Resolution
RGB Monitor sets a new standard
in color graphics for personal com­
puters. Taking full advantage of
the advanced graphics capabilities
of the Macintosh'" II personal com­
puter, the AppleColor High-Reso­
lution RGB Monitor brings you
brilliant color graphics and equally
sharp text on a high-resolution,
13-inch screen.
Combined with the Macintosh II
Video Card or Video Expansion Kit,
the AppleColor monitor is capable
of simultaneously displaying 16 to
256 colors from a palette of more
than 16 million.

• 640- by 480-pixel resolution

• Provides sharper display of text and
graphics in both colors and gray scales.
• Delivers professional color graphics
quality.
• Displays a full range of text sizes.

Lets you view the full width and more
than half the length of a half-page
document.
• Displays a full range of text sizes.

•

13-inch Trinitron CRT

•

•

Analog input format

• Permits a much wider range of colors
and gray scales than is possible with
digital (ffi) RGB displays.

• 66.7-hertz screen refresh rate

• Produces crisp, clear information.
• Reduces eye strain.

• Universal power supply

• Allows the monitor to be used with
different line voltages.

®

System Re­
quirements

AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor
To use the AppleColor High­
Resolution RGB Monitor,
you must have the following:

A Macintosh II personal
computer

II>

A Macintosh II Video Card
A video cable (supplied with
monitor)

11>

II>

Technical Specifications

Picture tube
13-inch viewable diagonal
II> .25-millimeter aperture
grille pitch
11> Trinitron'" CRT

II>

Resolution
640 dots horizontally by
480 dots vertically

11>

Active display area
II> 235 millimeters horizontal
by 176 millimeters vertical
(remainder of display area
is used for border)
Input signals
Red, green, and blue video
signals using RS-343 standard
Composite synchronization,
negative going rn

11>

Video bandwidth
II> 23 megahertz

Ordering Information

Scan rates
35.0 kilohertz horizontal
II> 66.7 hertz vertical
II>

Controls
Right side:
-Brightness, with detent
reference
-Contrast
Back panel:
-Power switch
-Degauss switch
-Vertical misconvergence
adjustment
-Horizontal misconvergence
adjustment

11>

Electrical
requirements
... Line voltage: 85 to 270 volts AC
II> Frequency: 47 to 63 Hz
II> Nominal power: 90 watts

AppleColor
High-Resolution
RGB Monitor

Order No. M0401

Macintosh II Video Card*

Order No. M02 1 1

Macintosh II Video Card
Expansion Kit*

Order No. M02 13

Apple Universal
Monitor Stand

Order No. M0403

You may also want to purchase:
An Apple Universal Monitor
Stand
11> A Macintosh II Video Card
Expansion Kit
II>

Environmental
requirements
II> Operating temperature:
50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
11> Relative humidity:
900/o maximum
11> Maximum altitude:
10,000 feet (3,048 m)
Fuse protection
The monitor contains internal
power line fuse protection. This
fuse should be replaced with
the same type by a qualified
service technician

II>

Warm-up time
20 minutes to meet all
specifications

II>

Size and weight
Height: 1 1 in. (281 mm)
11> Width: 13.5 in. (344 mm)
II> Depth: 15.2 in. (385 mm)
11> Weight: 34 lbs. (1 5 . S kg)
II>

With your order, you'll receive:
AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor
11> Video cable
II> Power cable
II> Owner's guide
II> Limited warranty statement

11>

* Dealers installation of these chips is strongly recommended

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 -576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
AppleColor and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Trinitron is a registered trademark of
Sony Corporation.
July 1987. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
M2231

Apple Universal Monitor Stand

Overview

Features

Bene.fits

With its tilt-and-swivel features,
the Apple® Universal Monitor Stand
makes it easy for you to adjust
your monitor to the position you
like best. Designed for use with
the new Macintosh'" II monitorsthe Apple High-Resolution Monochrome Monitor and AppleColor'"
High-Resolution RGB Monitorthe Apple Universal Monitor
Stand also can be used with
Apple IIGs'" monitors.

..,,. Tilt-and-swivel functions

..,,. Lets you position the monitor at the
angle you find most comfortable.

Apple Universal Monitor Stand
System Requirements

The Apple Universal Monitor
Stand is compatible with these
monitors:

.,.. Apple High-Resolution
Monochrome Monitor
.,.. AppleColor High-Resolu­
tion RGB Monitor

.,.. Apple Monochrome Monitor
.,.. AppleColor Composite
Monitor
.,.. AppleColor RGB Monitor

Tilt range

Swivel range

Size

.,.. Backwards 12°
.,.. Forwards 10°

.,.. 45° each direction

.,.. Height: 3.5 in. (140 mm)
.,.. Width: 1 1 .25 in. (550 mm)
.,.. Depth: 14.5 in. (680 mm)

Ordering Information

Apple Universal
Monitor Stand

Order No. M0403

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. Apple Universal Monitor Stand
.,.. Owner's guide
.,.. Limited warranty statement

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
AppleColor, Apple lies, and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
March 1987. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.

Technical Specifications

M2232

Macintosh Portable Video Adapter

Overview

Features

Benefits

The Apple® Macintosh® Portable
Video Adapter lets you connect
your Macintosh Portable personal
computer to many types of
external monitors and projection
devices for desktop viewing or
for use in presentations. A self­
contained unit that is powered by
the Macintosh Portable, the video
adapter supplies monochrome
images to the Apple High­
Resolution Monochrome Monitor,
the AppleColor™ High-Resolution
RGB Monitor, NTSC-, PAL-, and
SECAM-standard televisions,
videocassette recorders, and
projection televisions.

.,.. Industry-standard output signals: NTSC,
PAL, and SECAM

.,.. Lets you connect the Macintosh
Portable computer to many types of
external projection devices for large­
group presentations and lectures.

.,.. Support for the Apple High-Resolution
Monochrome Monitor and AppleColor
High-Resolution RGB Monitor

.,.. Lets you connect the Macintosh
Portable computer to external Apple
monitors for desktop or small-group
work sessions.

.,.. Slow- and fast-phosphor settings

.,.. Lets you work with both slow- and
fast-phosphor monitors.

.,.. Compact design

.,.. Ensures fast setup, because no power
cord is required.
.,.. Saves space, because it fits inside a
pocket of the Macintosh Portable
computer's carrying case.

Macintosh Portable Video Adapter
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Macintosh Portable
Video Adapter, you'll need the
following:

.,.. Macintosh Portable
computer

.,.. An external video device
.,.. A video cable

Display resolution

Controls

.,.. 640 pixels horizontally by 400

.,.. Video output signal
switch :
-Apple High-Resolution
Monochrome Monitor and
AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor
-NTSC devices
-PAL and SECAM devices

.,.. Phosphor signal switch:
-Slow-phosphor monitors
-Fast-phosphor monitors

pixels vertically

Connector
.,.. Mini DB- 1 5
.,.. RCA jack

Input signals

Power consumption
.,.. 2 watts

.,.. 8 data lines
.,.. 4 power lines
.,.. 3 LCD synchronizing signals

Ordering Information

Macintosh Portable Video
Adapter

Order No. M025 1

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, HyperCard, and Macintosh are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleColor is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
September 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0337L!JA

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. Macintosh Portable Video
Adapter
.,.. Owner's guide
.,.. HyperCard® stack
setup disk
.,.. Limited warranty statement

Macintosh Display Card 4 • 8 and 8•24

Overview
The Macintosh® Display Card 4•8 and

perceive-on all Apple displays . The

addition, the Macintosh Display Card

Macintosh Display Card 8•24 provide

card also supports full 24-bit true color

8•24 provides the highest-possible­

the Apple® Macintosh II family of

on the AppleColor High-Resolution

quality interlaced video through the use

modular computers with a single

RGB Monitor, allowing you to generate

of Apple Convolution. A capability that

interface to all Apple displays and a

images of photographic quality by dis­

is usually associated with much more

broad range of graphics capabilities .

playing up to 16.7 million colors

expensive systems, Apple Convolution

simultaneously. In addition to letting

evaluates adjacent lines and pixels on

The Macintosh Display Card 4•8
provides support for up to 256 colors or

you display and work with photo­

interlaced video devices, then adjusts

shades of gray on the Apple High­

graphic-quality images , true gray-scale

the image on the screen to provide

Resolution Monochrome Monitor and

and true color capabilities allow you to

smoother, more continuous images

the AppleColor™ High-Resolution RGB

work with lifelike simulations, anima­

than could otherwise be generated.

Monitor. In addition, it provides for up

tions, and visual effects.

to 16 levels of gray on the Apple

The Macintosh Display Card 4•8 can

The Macintosh Display Card 4•8 and
Macintosh Display Card 8•24 provide a

Macintosh Portrait Display and the

be upgraded to the Macintosh Display

wide range of graphics capabilities,

Apple Two-Page Monochrome Monitor.

Card 8•24 by using the Macintosh

which, when combined with the power

The Macintosh 8•24 Display Card

Display Card VRAM Expansion Kit.

supports all Apple displays to the

Both cards also support RS- 170

of the Macintosh II family of computers,
enable you to take advantage of

maximum of their capabilities, includ­

standard timing, for compatibility with

sophisticated applications and produce

ing full 2 5 6-level true gray scale-all the

numerous interlaced video devices . In

powerful results .

shades of gray that the eye can

Features

Bene.fits

•

Support for all Apple displays

•

Two versions of the card

•

•

Provides support for a wide range of display
types, both color and monochrome.
• Enables you to upgrade to color displays or
to larger displays without replacing the card.
• Allows managers of large installations to mix
and match monitors and computers more easily.
Provides easier configuration and the ability
to grow as your needs grow.
• With the Macintosh Display Card VRAM
Expansion Kit, allows the Macintosh Display
Card 4•8 to be upgraded to the Macintosh
Display Card 8•24.

•

24-bit true color and 256-level true
gray-scale support

•

Auto-configuration and software-selectable
display modes

Streamlines operation by automatically
determining which Apple display is attached
and switching modes without user intervention.
• Lets you choose pixel depths to display 2, 4,
16, 256, or 16.7 million colors with a simple
change on the computer's Control Panel.

•

Supports up to full 24-bit true color on the
AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor, and
full 256-level gray scale on all Apple displays.
• Offers a comprehensive range of colors and
gray levels fo r enhancing graphics, presentation
materials, and other documents.
•

•

RS-170 timing and Apple Convolution

•

•

NuBus'" compatible

•

Provides interlaced video output compatible
with many types of video equipment.
• Apple Convolution improves the image
quality on interlaced video devices; with the
Macintosh Display Card 8•24, provides support
fo r up to 256 colors (8 bits per pixel).
Plugs easily into any Macintosh II slot.
Gives complete flexibility of internal card
placement.
• Supports multiple video cards and displays.
• Supports NuBus slave block transfer modes
for fast access by NuBus master cards.
•

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Macintosh Display Card

... System Software Version 6.0. 5

... To take advantage of full 24-bit

4 • 8 or Macintosh Display Card

or later

color, a minimum of 2 megabytes

8 • 24, you'll need:

of RAM is recommended.

... A personal computer in the

... For Macintosh II, !Ix, and !lex:
The 32-bit QuickDraw™ software is

Macintosh II family with an

needed to run 24-bit color

available NuBus slot

applications .

Interface

Apple Convolution

... NuBus; plugs into any

... Convolution available for

Supports RS-170 timing standard

Macintosh II slot

RS-170 interlaced video to up to

for interlaced video with overscan

... NuBus slave block transfer

8 bits per pixel (256 colors) on the

and underscan modes .

modes supported

Macintosh Display Card 8 • 24

... Sync: Separate or composite

Connector

Color lookup table

negative-going; TTL

... 1 5-pin D-style

... In 24-bit mode, provides direct
access to 16.7 million colors,

Raster rates

Display modes

driving 8-bit DACs (digital-analog

... Variable raster rates under

... 1, 2, 4, 8, or 24 bits per pixel

converters) for each of the three

software control

(2, 4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million colors)

RGB channels

... Software-selectable

... In other modes, provides a

... Vertical refresh: 66.7 or 75
hertz depending on display

... Video: RS-343 standard.

depending on display resolution;

palette of up to 256 colors out of

resolution

16.7 million

... Dot clock: 12. 2727, 30.24,

by 870 pixels vertically, depending

Output signals

depending on display resolution

on the resolution of the display

... Modes: RGB (analog) and

... Auto-configuring

gray scale

Power consumption
... 7 watts

Display

Macintosh Display Card 4•8

Macintosh Display Card 8• 24

... Apple High-Resolution

... 640 x 480 pixels

... 640 x 480 pixels

Monochrome Monitor

.,. 2, 4, 16, or 256 gray levels

... 2, 4, 16, or 2 56 gray levels

... AppleColor High-Resolution

... 640 x 480 pixels

... 640 x 480 pixels

RGB Monitor

... 2, 4, 16, or 256 colors

... 2, 4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million

Display resolution

... Up to 1 , 1 52 pixels horizontally

57.2832, or 100 megahertz

Display Modes Supported

colors
... Apple Macintosh Portrait

... 640 x 870 pixels

... 640 x 870 pixels

Display

... 2, 4, or 16 gray levels

... 2, 4, 16, or 2 56 gray levels

... Apple Two-Page Monochrome

... 1 , 1 52 x 870 pixels

... 1 , 1 5 2 x 870 pixels

Monitor

... 2, 4, or 16 gray levels

... 2, 4, 16, or 256 gray levels

.,. Interlaced video devices

... 640 x 480 pixels

... 640 x 480 pixels

... 2, 4, 16, or 256 colors

... 2, 4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million
colors (Apple Convolution enabled
up to 256 colors)

Macintosh Display Card 4 • 8 and 8•24
Ordering Information

Macintosh Display Card 4 • 8

Macintosh Display Card 8 • 24

Order No.

With your order, you'll receive:

M0121PA/A

... Macintosh Display Card 4 • 8
... Limited warranty statement

Order No.

With your order, you'll receive:
... Macintosh Display Card 8 • 24

M0507PA/A

... Limited warranty statement

Apple Computer, Inc.

Macintosh Display Card

Order No.

VRAM Kit

M041 2LL/A

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TLX: 171-576

With your order, you'll receive:
... Two VRAM upgrade SIMMs

© 1990 Apple Colllputer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered tradelllarks of Apple
Colllputer, Inc. AppleColor and QuickDr.1w are tradelllarks of Apple Colllputer, Inc. Nu Bus is a
trademark of Texas Instruments.
March I 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M065SLUA

Macintosh II Video Card and Expansion Kit

Overview
The Macintosh'" II Video Card
provides a single interface for
both the Apple® High-Resolution
Monochrome Monitor and the
AppleColor'" High-Resolution RGB
Monitor. It allows you to display
up to 16 colors (or gray levels)
simultaneously from a palette of
more than 16 million.
The optional Macintosh II Video
Card Expansion Kit increases the
display capability of your monitor
to 256 colors (or gray levels)
simultaneously.

Features

Bene.fits

!lo-

!lo-

Up to 16 colors (or shades
of gray) at one time from a palette of
more than 16 million colors/gray levels

!lo-

Compatible with �oth the AppleColor
High-Resolution RGB Monitor and the
Apple High-Resolution Monochrome
Monitor

!lo-

Requires only one video card for either
color or monochrome display.
!lo- Provides a monitor upgrade path with
no additional interface costs.
Offers a comprehensive range of profes­
sional-quality colors for enhancing graphics,
presentation mat�rials, and other documents.
Increases the display capability to
256 colors (or gray levels).

!lo-

Optional 8-bit expansion kit

!lo-

!lo-

Software-selectable display modes

!lo-

!lo-

NuBus compatible

!lo-

RS-170 capability

·

Lets you display two, four, 16, or 256*
colors/gray levels with a simple change
from the computer's Control Panel.

Plugs easily into any Macintosh II slot.
Gives you complete flexibility with
internal card placement.

!lo-

!lo-

' 256-color option available only with expansion kit installed.

Provides interlaced video output
compatible with many types of
video equipment.

!lo-

Macintosh II Video Card and Expansion Kit
Product Details

Software-selectable display
modes

Using the Control Panel of the
Macintosh II System file, you
can set the Macintosh II Video
Card to display one, two, or
four bits per pixel. This pro­
vides, respectively, 2, 4, or 16
colors or gray levels. (The
AppleColor High-Resolution
RGB Monitor can display either
colors or gray levels; the Apple

High-Resolution Monochrome
Monitor will display gray
levels.)
1he ability to set a two-level
display ensures the fastest
operation of monochromatic Macintosh applications.
Optional 8-bit upgrade

The Macintosh II Video Card
comes with 4-bit-per-pixel dis-

play capability. By upgrading
this to 8 bits per pixel with the
Video Card Expansion Kit, you
can then view up to 256
colors/gray levels on your
monitor's screen simul­
taneously (by selecting the 8bit option on the Control
Panel). The upgrade consists
of eight video RAM chips,
which fit into sockets on the
Video Card.

System Requirements

A Macintosh II personal
computer

Technical Specifications

Interface

Display resolution

Color lookup table

NuBus; plugs into any Mac­
intosh II slot

640 pixels horizontally by
480 pixels vertically

Connector

Output signals

Iii- Provides a palette of 16 mil­
lion colors driving 8-bit DACs
(digital-analog converters) for
each of the three RGB channels

Iii-

Iii-

Iii-

15-pin D-style

Display modes

1, 2, or 4 bits per pixel
(2, 4, or 16 colors/gray levels)
Iii- Upgradable to 8 bits per
pixel (256 colors/gray levels)
with the Macintosh II Video
Card Expansion Kit
Iii-

Iii-

Iii- Modes: RGB (analog) and
monochrome
Iii- Video: RS343 standard, and
RS-170 timing-standard inter­
laced video
Iii- Sync: Composite; negative­
going ffi

Read/write speed

400 nanoseconds (through
NuBus interface)

Iii-

Raster rates
IiiIiiIii-

Vertical: 66.7 hertz
Horizontal: 35.0 kilohertz
Dot clock: 30.24 megahertz

Power consumption
Iii-

Ordering Information

10 watts

Macintosh II Video Card

Order No. M021 1

With your order, you'll receive:
Iii- Macintosh II Video Card
(4 bit per pixel on-board
capability)
Iii- Installation referral card
Iii- Limited warranty statement

Macintosh II Video Card
Expansion Kit*

Order No. M0213

With your order, you'll receive:
Iii- Expansion Kit (consisting of
8 video RAM chips)

*Dealer installation of these chips � required.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX: 171-576

©1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
AppleColor and Macintosh are traderruuks of Apple Computer, Inc. NuBus � a trademark of Texas Instruments.
March 1987. Producr specificatioru; are subjecr to change without notice.
M2241

Macintosh Display Card 8•24 cc

Overview
The Macintosh® Display Card 8•24 GC
combines the capabilities of a display card
with the power of a dedicated graphics
coprocessor, providing the Apple®
Macintosh II family of personal computers
with sophisticated graphics capabilities at
significantly faster drawing speeds .
The Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC
contains an Am29000 RISC-based
microprocessor that runs a version of
QuickDraw™ that has been optimized for a
coprocessing environment. The Am29000
and the Macintosh CPU work together to
accelerate the QuickDraw environment,
increasing the Macintosh drawing speed
5 to 30 times depending on the application.
As a result, graphics-intensive applications
work faster and more smoothly, especially
when using full 24-bit color.

The Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC
supports all Apple displays to the maxi­
mum of their capabilities, including full
256-level true gray scale on all Apple
displays. The card also supports full 24-bit
true color on the AppleColor™ High­
Resolution RGB Monitor, giving you the
ability to display up to 16.7 million colors
simultaneously to generate images of
photographic quality. In addition to letting
you display and work with photographic­
quality images, true gray-scale and true
color capabilities allow you to work with
!ifelike simulations, animations, and visual
effects.
The card also supports RS- 170 standard
timing, for compatibility with interlaced
video devices such as televisions and VCRs,
and provides the highest-possible-quality

interlaced video through the use of Apple
Convolution. A capability that is usually
associated with much more expensive
systems, Apple Convolution evaluates
adjacent lines and pixels on interlaced
video devices, then adjusts the image on
the screen to provide smoother, more
continuous images than could otherwise
be generated.
In addition, the Macintosh Display
Card 8•24 GC can be upgraded using the
Macintosh Display Card DRAM Expansion
Kit, which can improve the performance
of applications that use larger off-screen
bitmaps and other imaging methods.
The capabilities of the Macintosh
Display Card 8•24 GC, combined with the
power of Macintosh, enable you to produce
powerful results.

Features

Benefits

� Combined display and graphics

� Provides support for a wide range of display

all Apple displays

� Enables you to upgrade to color displays or

coprocessing capabilities with support for

types, both color and gray scale.

to larger displays without replacing the card.

� Requires only one NuBus'M slot.
� On-board Am29000 RISC-based

microprocessor running at 30 megahertz

� Enables graphics-intensive applications to

run more quickly, and new types of applica­

tions to run, by boosting the performance of
applications by as much as 30 times over
normal Macintosh drawing speeds.
� Provides fast access to display memory.
� 24-bit true color and 256-level true

gray-scale support

� Supports up to full 24-bit true color on the

AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor, and
full 256-level gray scale on all Apple displays.

� Offers a comprehensive range of colors and

gray levels for enhancing graphics, presentation
materials, and other documents .

� Software downloading at system startup

� A single file placed in the Macintosh System

Folder provides instructions to the Macintosh

Display Card 8•24 GC.
� Provides a version of QuickDraw imaging

software that is optimized for a coprocessing
environment, as well as a Control Panel
accessory.
� Auto-configuration and software-selectable

display modes

� Streamlines operation by automatically

determining which Apple display is attached
and switching modes without user intervention.

� Lets you choose pixel depths to display 2, 4,

16, 256, or 16.7 million colors with a simple

change on the computer's Control Panel.
� RS-170 timing and Apple Convolution

� Provides interlaced video output compatible

with many types of video equipment.

� Apple Convolution improves the image

quality on interlaced video devices; with the
Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC, up to 256
colors (8 bits per pixel) are supported.
� NuBus compatible

� Plugs easily into any Macintosh II slot.
� Supports NuBus master and slave block

transfer modes for fast access to other cards
installed in the computer.

� Optional Macintosh Display Card DRAM

Expansion Kit

� Lets users add on-board dynamic RAM

(DRAM) to boost the performance of applica­
tions that use off-screen bitmaps and other
graphics techniques.

System Requirements

To use the Macintosh Display Card
8•24 GC , you 'll need the following:
� A personal computer in the

� System Software Version 6.0.5

or later

� A minimum of 2 megabytes of

� For Macintosh II, !Ix, and !lex:

The 32-bit QuickDraw software is
needed to run 24-bit color

memory

applications.

� Auto-configuring

� Video: RS-343 standard.

Am29000 RISC-based processor

Apple Convolution

for interlaced video with overscan

running at 30 megahertz

� Convolution available for

Macintosh II family with an
available NuBus slot

Technical Specifications

Graphics coprocessor
� Advanced Micro Devices

RS-170 interlaced video to up to

On-board memory
� 2 megabytes of DRAM used as

8 bits per pixel (256 colors)

display frame buffer and processor

Interface
� NuBus; plugs into any

processor instruction cache

and underscan modes.
� Syne: Separate or composite

depending on display resolution;

negative-going; TTL

instruction memory

� 64 kilobytes of SRAM used as

Supports RS-170 timing standard

Macintosh II slot

� NuBus master and slave block

Raster rates
� Variable raster rates under

software control

� Can be expanded via SIMM

transfer modes supported

� Vertical refresh: 66.7 or 75

Card DRAM Expansion Kit to hold

Connector

resolution

an additional 2 megabytes of

� 1 5-pin D-style

� Dot clock: 1 2 . 2727, 30. 24,

off-screen graphics . Can be

Color lookup table

depending on display resolution

expanded to up to 8 megabytes via

� In 24-bit mode, provides direct

sockets with the Macintosh Display

DRAM, for processing of large

third-party SIMMs.

hertz depending on display

57. 2832, or 100 megahertz

access to 16.7 million colors,

Power consumption

driving 8-bit DACs (digital-analog

� 20 watts

Display modes

converters) for each of the three

�

RGB channels

utilized, the power requirements

� In other modes, provides a

of all cards installed should be

1, 2, 4, 8, or 24 bits per pixel (2,

4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million colors)

� Software-selectable

palette of up to 256 colors out of
16.7 million

Display resolution

� Up to 1 , 1 5 2 pixels horizontally

by 870 pixels vertically, depending
on display resolution

(In systems with all NuBus slots

added together to ensure that the
NuBus power draw is not
exceeded. For more information,

Output signals

see the Macintosh owner's guide. )

� Modes: RGB (analog) and

gray scale

Display Modes Supported
Display
� Apple High-Resolution

Monochrome Monitor

� AppleColor High-Resolution

RGB Monitor

� Apple Macintosh Portrait

Display

� Apple Two-Page Monochrome

Monitor

� Interlaced video devices

Macintosh Display Card 8 •24 GC
� 640 x 480 pixels

� 2, 4, 16, or 256 gray levels
� 640 x 480 pixels

� 2, 4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million colors
� 640 x 870 pixels

� 2, 4, 16, or 256 gray levels
� 1 , 1 52 x 870 pixels

� 2, 4, 16, or 256 gray levels
� 640 x 480 pixels

� 2, 4, 16, 256, or 16.7 million colors

(Apple Convolution enabled u p t o 2 5 6 colors)

Macintosh Display Card 8 •24 cc
Ordering Information

Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC

Order No.

With your order, you'll receive :

M0122

� Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC

� Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC

software

� Owner's guide

� Limited warranty statement

Apple Computer, Inc.

Macintosh Display Card

Order No.

With your order, you'll receive:

DRAM Kit

M0505LL/A

� Two DRAM upgrade SIMMs

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. AppleColor and QuickDraw are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Am29000 is a
trJdemark of Advanced Micro Devices. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
March 1 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0657LUA

/---

Apple Technical Information Source

Overview
The Technical Information Source
CD-ROM provides fast, fingertip

Features

Benefits

� Broad range of software, tools, and

� Supplies, all in one place, most of the tools

information

access to a wide range of support

users.

tools and information-all in one
place . Contents include technical
databases, frequently used system

and information you need to support your

Macintosh® and Apple II personal computer

� Distributed on CD-ROM (compact disc,

read-only memo1y)

� Provides up to 550 megabytes of data on

one convenient disc.

utilities and diagnostics , and

� Virtually eliminates the risk of the informa­

support-oriented HyperCard® stacks .

computer virus.

tion's being accidentally erased or infected by a

The Technical Information Source
compact disc is ideal for anyone
who supports Apple® computer
systems . By helping you work more
efficiently, it enables you to provide

� HyperCard front end

� Provides fast and intuitive navigation

� Can be configured as a volume on an

� Lets eve1yone on a network share tools and

AppleShare® file server

SC® drive and the Technical Information Source .

your users . In turn, the time you save

� Decreases demands o n support providers.

allows you to offer a broader range
greater end-user satisfaction.

information.

� Leverages your investment in the AppleCD

faster and more accurate support to

of support services, resulting in even

through eve1ything on the disc.

� Updated regularly

� Ensures that you have access to the latest

software, tools, and information to keep all your
systems operating at their best.

Apple Technical Information Source
Product Details

The Technical Information Source

current and historical versions of

direct you to other sources of

CD-ROM is ideal for resellers, in­

Macintosh, Apple I!Gs� and Lisa®

suppo1t information.

house support organizations,

system software, peripheral

independent support contractors,

drivers, utilities, and more.

and anyone else who needs to
provide top-quality support to
users of Apple II and Macintosh
computers.
The disc is organized in eight
ma j or categories . Eve1ything is tied
together with a HyperCard front
end, allowing you to quickly
browse through the entire disc and
find the information you need.
Applications

The Applications section provides
limited-functionality versions of
Apple and thircl-pa11y software, as
well as "guided tours . " The
applications let you emulate users'
problems for more effective
troubleshooting, and assist you in
providing advice on the best
solutions for a prospective user's
needs.

In this section, you'll find the

questions asked most often by

diagnostic programs often needed

suppo1t providers . It covers both

to troubleshoot networking

the Macintosh and the Apple II

problems. Programs include

product families . The special

NocleCheck';" AppleTalk® Peek,

HyperCarcl front encl and a built-in

and AppleTalk Poke . This

search capability allow you to sift

collection does not include the

through the more than 4,000

hardware diagnostics used by

a1ticles quickly and efficiently to

authorized Apple Service

find the answer you need.

Technicians.

Training

Presentations

If you're frequently called on to

As a suppo11 provider, you

help new users get up to speed,

probably receive frequent requests

the Training section will save you a

for technical presentations . This

lot of time . It provides self-paced

section provides Apple-developed

training stacks on most Apple

presentations on such technical

CPUs and peripherals, helping

topics as networking, connectivity,

users train themselves so that your

and the A/UX® operating system .

time is freed for more demanding

There are also building blocks­

support activities .

inclucling clip-art images-that will
help you put together your own

The Copy Center includes images

presentations .

of many of the 3 . 5-inch disks
images enable you to provide
users with replacement disks
quickly and easily, no matter what
system they're using. Included are

The Tech Info section is a database
of answers to the technical

Diagnostics

Copy Center

released by Apple . These disk

Tech Info

Utilities

The Utilities section provides the
system utilities most often needed

References

by support providers, including

The References section offers a

the Apple File Exchange, Font/DA

broad foundation of technical

Mover, and ResEclit'." They're

reference information about Apple

brought together in one place so

products and solutions. It will help

you'll always have the tool you

you prepare ahead of time to

need to solve a particular problem.

answer users' questions, and can
Additional Features

System Requirements

The Technical Information Source

addition, to make sure that future

feature, which lets you send in

disc also provides a keyword

versions of this disc meet your

suggestions for design changes

search feature and an on-line

expectations and needs , Apple has

and content enhancements .

user's guide and help files. In

included a built-in feedback

To use the Technical Information
Source, you'll need:

� An Apple Macintosh computer

with at least 1 megabyte of RAM

� An AppleCD SC drive or

compatible CD-ROM drive

(2 megabytes recommended)
Ordering Information

Apple Technical

With your order, you'll receive:

Information Source

� Apple Technical Information

Order No. M0772LL/A

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1 0 1 0
TLX: 1 7 1 -576

, Source CD-ROM

� User's guide

� Multiuser software license

� Limited warranty statement

© 1 990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo. AppleCD SC, AppleShare, AppleTalk. Apple IJGS,

A/UX, HyperCard, Lisa,

and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. NodeCheck

and ResEdit are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
April 1 990. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
COl 90LL/A

Macintosh HyperCard 1 .2 Software

: : :·:

Home Card

Addr ess

f:!l

Documents

Calendar

Clip Art

Card Ideas

Button

Ideas

Stack Ideas

Quotations

Overview
HyperCard® software for the
Macintosh® family of personal
computers lets you organize in­
formation much the way you
do in your mind-by association
and context. It lets you explore
large amounts of information at
exceptional speeds, or quickly
zero in on exactly what you need.
HyperCard is also the ideal tool
for managing and creating infor­
mation using virtually any type of
media, including video, animation,
and sound.
HyperCard uses as a metaphor a
nearly universal method for storing
information: the index card. Text,
graphics, and sounds are stored

on cards that appear on the
Macintosh screen. A group of
these cards is called a "stack." You
can make notes, type, or draw on
them just as you might on paper
index cards. You can sort cards,
browse among them, or quickly
find specific information by point­
ing and clicking on "buttons. "
Buttons do specific tasks, such
as connecting one card to another.
Buttons can also do many other
things, such as dialing a phone,
printing a report-even launching
other applications. You can sim­
ply cut and paste the buttons that
come with HyperCard and use
them in your stacks. There's even
a powerful English-like scripting

language, HyperTalk'� built into
HyperCard. HyperTalk lets you
write your own scripts to give
directions to buttons. Developers
can extend HyperTalk to control
external devices such as
videodisc players, on-line infor­
mation services, and CD-ROM
drives.
HyperCard is a powerful new
medium for creating and exchang­
ing information. It is an extension
of Macintosh technology that puts
new power into the hands of all
Macintosh users. With this power,
people without special training in
programming can create entirely
new uses for the Macintosh.

Features

Benefits

Information organized by
association and context as
well as by hierarchy

� Gives more intuitive and efficient access to
information.

High speed, high capacity

� Provides rapid access to an extremely large
amount of information.

�

�

Powerful tools to manipulate
graphics, text, and buttons
�

� Allows you to customize stacks and templates
using the familiar Macintosh interface.

�

Built-in stacks and templates

�

�

HyperTalk scripting language

� Lets you expand and customize the function of
buttons, cards, and stacks.

�

Complete on-line help system

� Gives you immediate reference information and
assistance.

� Platform for interactive multimedia
presentations

�

Supports read-only access

Enables you to get started immediately with
hundreds of ready-to-use stacks, such as an address
file, a datebook, "To Do" lists, calendars, clip art,
and filing systems. There are also templates and
card designs to help you make your own stacks.

� Enriches definition of information beyond text

and graphics to include video, sound, voice, and
animation.
Allows stacks to be stored on CD-ROMs.
Permits multiuser access over the
AppleShare® file server.
� Allows stacks to be stored on locked floppy
disks.
� Lets users lock files from the Finder'" or from
within the HyperCard program.
�
�

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use HyperCard, you must
have:
..,. A Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II personal computer with at least
1 megabyte of memory (2
megabytes of memory are required when using HyperCard
with other applications under
MultiFinder'")

..,. Two BOOK disk drives or one
BOOK disk drive and one hard-

Number of stacks

..,. Edit menu commands
-Standard Macintosh
Edit menu
-New Card, Delete Card

..,. Limited only by available
disk or file-server storage-each
stack is one Macintosh disk file
Maximum stack size

..,. 4,096 megabytes
Number of cards per stack

..,. Limited only by available
disk or file-server storage
Card size

..,. 512 horizontal by 342
vertical pixels (the size of a
Macintosh Plus screen)
Graphics

..,. Black-and-white bitmaps
with opaque and transparent
areas
Number of text fields
per card

..,. Unlimited
Maximum amount of text
per field

..,. 30,000 characters

Number of buttons and
links per card

..,. Unlimited

Number of variables

..,. Unlimited
User interface

..,. File menu commands
-Standard Macintosh File
menu (HyperCard automatically
saves changes)
-Print Card, Stack, or Report

disk drive (preferred)
..,. System file Version 3.2
or later
..,. Finder Version 5.3 or later

..,. Go menu commands
-Go to Home Card
-Go to Help Card
-Go to Next or Previous Card
-Go to First or Last Card in
Stack
-Find Text in This Stack
-Go Back, Card by Card,
through the last 100 cards seen
-Review Last 42 Cards Seen
..,. Painting tools
-MacPaint tools on a "tear off'
menu
-Import and export graphics
from and to other files
-Draw transparent or opaque
graphics
-Lighten and darken filled-in
areas
-Draw regular polygons
-Select the last object drawn
..,. Authoring commands
-Create, delete, or change
styles of fields and buttons
-Edit any script
-Search or print a script
(HyperTalk commands can be
executed immediately)
..,. HyperTalk
--Object-oriented and
message-passing
-Any button, field, card, background, or stack can have a
script

..,. ImageWriter driver, Version
2.6 or later, for use with Apple®
ImageWriter® or ImageWriter II
printer
..,. LaserWriter driver, Version 4.0
or later, for use with Apple
LaserWriter® or LaserWriter Plus
printer

-Each script can have any
number of "handlers" for messages generated by the system
or the user
-Maximum script length:
30,000 characters
..,. HyperTalk commands
-Go to any card in any stack,
by position, name, or ID
number
-Visual effects such as fade,
wipe, or scroll
-Put text in any field of any
card
-Show dialog box for user
input
-Perform numeric calculations
Control structures

..,.
..,.
..,.
..,.
..,.

Repeat until condition
Repeat with loop counter
If/then/else conditionals
Exit loop or procedure
Pass message/send message

Data types

..,. Strings of unlimited length
..,. Conversion to SANE®
numerics (9-place accuracy)
..,. Conversion to date and time
Variables

..,. Contents of any field
..,. Dynamically created local
variables
..,. Global variables

Macintosh HyperCard 1 .2 Software
Ordering Information

HyperCard 1.2
Order No. M0556/A

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

With your order, you'll receive:
II>- HyperCard & Stacks disk
11>- HyperCard Help stacks
II>- HyperCard Ideas stack
11>- User manual
11>- Quick Reference Card

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, HyperCard, ImageWriter, LaserWriter,
Macintosh, and SANE are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Finder, HyperTalk, and Multi­
Finder are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MacPaint is a registered trademark of Claris Corporation.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2305/A

Apple Scanner

Overview
The Apple® Scanner enables
Apple Macintosh® personal com­
puter users to import graphics
and images into a variety of soft­
ware applications. This flatbed
scanner and its accompanying
AppleScan'" software give you a
better and more intuitive way of
scanning graphics and images,
allowing you to create the best
possible scanned images quickly
and efficiently.
The Apple Scanner works
with other Apple products­
the Macintosh computer, the
AppleFax'" Modem, and the
LaserWriter® family of printers
-to provide a powerful
image-processing system.

The scanner was carefully de­
signed to integrate not only with
Apple products, but also with
sophisticated third-party page
layout and graphics programs.
The scanner and AppleScan
software streamline the scanning
process, greatly reducing the time
needed to get an image to print
the way you want it to look. For
example, you don't need to re­
scan the image every time you
make setting adjustments. Also
included with the scanner is
HyperScan'" software, which en­
ables you to create high-quality
scanned images and incorporate
them into HyperCard® stacks.

The Apple Scanner has a full
range of enhancing controls,
which let you adjust the contrast,
brightness, gray map, and half­
tone pattern of the scanned
image. It supports three compo­
sition modes: line art, halftone,
and gray scale. You can scan im­
ages at 75, 100, 1 50, 200, and 300
dots per inch. Together, these
features give you complete con­
trol over the final appearance of
the scanned image.
And when it's time to print
the scanned image, you can rest
assured you'll get the best possi­
ble output, because the scanner is
compatible with all Apple printers.

---- --

Features
Hardware

Flatbed design

------

Bene.fits
Lets you scan a range of document sizes: letter
(8.5 by 1 1 inches), A4, and legal (8.5 by 14 inches).
Enables you to scan documents from bound
originals, without having to alter the originals.
Eliminates the need to line up your document
as you would with a feed-through device.
Reduces distortion in the scanned image be­
cause it prevents the original document from
sliding during the scanning process.

Variable scanning resolution75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 dots
per inch

Lets you match the scanned image to the resolu­
tion of your Apple printer and AppleFax Modem.

Three composition modes: gray
scale, line art, and halftone

Lets you scan original documents of all composi­
tion types, producing the highest-quality results.
Supports the display gray-scale capabilities of
Macintosh II monitors.
Ensures high-quality images for use in desktop
publishing applications.

Gray-scale scanning

Creates gray-scale images that can be processed
using other applications with gray-scale
capabilities.
Provides high-quality images for display on
Macintosh II monitors.

Full AppleFax Modem support

When teamed with AppleScan software and an
AppleFax Modem, provides a link to the worldwide
installed base of facsimile machines.

Removable lid

Lets you scan bulky documents that don't fit
under the scanner's lid.

Industry-standard Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI)

Allows high-speed data transfer between the
Apple Scanner and the Macintosh.
Lets you daisy-chain as many as six additional
SCSI devices.

Features
Software

Benefits

Preview scan

Allows you to select a portion or portions of
an original document, eliminating the need to
rescan the entire document each time you
make an adjustment.
Streamlines the scanning process and saves
you time.

Settings dialogue

Lets you sample the effects of changes to an im­
age, so you can choose the desired settings before
the entire image is scanned.

Brightness and contrast controls,
choice of halftone patterns, and gray­
map settings

Allows you to be creative by giving you com­
plete control over how the scanned image appears
on the screen and how it looks when printed.

Selectable and user-definable
halftone patterns

Lets you control how the computer interprets,
displays, and prints continuous-tone information,
such as photographs.

Reduction/Enlargement capability

Lets you enlarge or reduce an image to fit a
desired field size.

Images stored in virtual memory

Allows you to scan and manipulate images even
if their file size exceeds the amount of memory
available in the Macintosh.

Support for PICT, TIFF, and MacPaint
file formats
Bit editing
Gray-map setting

Ensures compatibility with graphics, painting,
drawing, and page layout programs.
Allows precise editing of highly detailed images.
Allows you to enhance details of light or dark
originals.

Apple Scanner
System Requirements

To use the Apple Scanner and
AppleScan software, you will
need the following:

A Macintosh Plus, Macintosh
SE, or Macintosh II computer
with at least 1 megabyte of
memory. (You can increase the
performance of the Apple Scanner by using it with a Macintosh
that has more than 1 megabyte
of memory.)

A hard disk drive
System file version 6.0
or later
Appropriate SCSI cabling

Technical Specifications

Characteristics

Output resolution: 75, 100,
1 50, 200, and 300 dots per inch
Contrast levels: up to 8
(specified by user)
Brightness levels: up to 16
(specified by user)
Threshold values: up to 16
(specified by user)
Gray-map settings: more
light detail, normal detail, more
dark detail
Halftone techniques: spiral,
bayer, 2 x 2, line, user-definable
patterns, and adaptive dithering
to gray-scale data that has been
scanned into the Macintosh

Environmental requirements

With your order, you'll receive:
Apple Scanner
One Macintosh Apple
Scanner disk including
-AppleScan application
program
-AppleScan Resource utility
-LaserWriter Resource utility

One disk containing the
HyperScan HyperCard stack
Your Tour of the Apple
Scanner disk
User's guide
Power cord
Sample photograph
Limited warranty statement

Scanner type: flatbed
Maximum document size:
8.5 by 14 inches
Interface: SCSI
Dropout color: green
Scanning speed: 20.4
seconds for a 300-dot-per-inch
scan measuring 8.5 by 1 1 inches
Scan mode selections: line
art, halftone, gray scale
Gray scale: 16 levels (4 bits
per pixel)
Scaling: from 25 percent to
400 percent, depending on
output resolution

Ordering Information

Apple Scanner
Order No. A9M0337

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 - 576

Operating temperature:
32° to 104° F (0° to 40° C)
Storage temperature:
-40° to 149° F (-40° to 65° C)
Relative humidity: 5% to 95%
noncondensing

Electrical requirements
Line voltage: 120 volts
AC ± 10%
Frequency: 58 to 62 hertz

Size and weight
Height: 4.4 in. (1 1 . 2 cm)
Width: 13.6 in. (34.5 cm)
Depth: 2 1 . 8 in. (55.4 cm)
Weight: 20.0 lbs. (9. 1 kg)

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, HyperCard, LaserWriter, and Macintosh are
registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleFax, AppleScan, and HyperScan are trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc. MacPaint is a registered trademark of Claris Corporation.
August 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M6294

AppleCD SC

Overview
The AppleCD SC" drive offers
Macintosh® and Apple® II com­
puter owners a convenient and
cost-effective way to access and
explore tremendous amounts of
information. Each 1 2-centimeter
CD-ROM disc can hold over 550
megabytes of information-the
equivalent of seven hundred
SOOK floppy disks, or more than
270,000 typewritten pages.

The AppleCD SC drive pro­
vides access to text, graphics, and
sound stored on digitally recorded
CD-ROM discs. You can copy and
paste the data for use in other
applications. When paired with
Apple's HyperCard'" software,
the AppleCD SC drive lets you
quickly access and present infor. mation from the disc.

The AppleCD SC drive sup­
ports the Apple II, Macintosh,
and industry-standard High Sierra
file systems, giving users access
to a broad range of CD-ROM titles.
The AppleCD SC also has
audio capabilities. Utilizing the
AppleCD SC drive's headphone
j acks or RCA j acks, the user can
listen to audio CDs when not
working with CD-ROM discs.

Features

Benefits

.,.. Front-loading CD-ROM slot

.,.. Makes it easy to insert and retrieve
CD-ROM discs .
.,.. Lets you stack the drive on top of
or underneath your computer, saving
desk space .

.,.. 64K RAM buffer

.,.. Offers improved data transfer.

.,.. High Sierra compatibility

.,.. Lets you play discs, using either the
Apple II or Macintosh computer, that are
pressed in an industry-standard file format.

.,.. AppleShare® file server support

.,.. Lets users on a network access informa­
tion stored on a shared AppleCD SC drive
attached to an AppleShare file server.
.,.. Lowers the cost of the drive per user.

.,.. CD Caddy

.,.. Protects discs, guarding the integrity of
the recorded information.
.,.. Provides a convenient way to store
discs .

.,.. Universal power supply

.,.. Ensures compatibility with worldwide
electrical standards .

.,.. CD Audio Chip set and CD Remote
desk accessory

.,.. Lets you play audio CDs when not
working with CD-ROMs--even while you
are working in other applications .

.,.. RCA jacks (two)

.,.. Provides audio connectors for external
amplified speakers .
.,.. Lets you listen to stereophonic audio
information stored on the disc.

.,.. Headphone jack

.,.. Lets you listen privately to stereophonic
audio information stored on the disc.

System Requirements

To use the AppleCD SC drive
with a Macintosh computer,
you'll need the following:

II>-

To connect the AppleCD SC to
an Apple II Plus, Apple Ile, or
Apple IIGS® computer, you must
have:

11>-

Appropriate SCSI cabling*

An Apple II SCSI Interface
Card with Rev. C (or later) ROMs
11>- Appropriate SCSI cabling

'Connection to a Macintosh is made via the computer's DB-25 SCSI port.

Technical Specifications

Playback mediwn

Characteristics

12-centimeter optical disc in­
stalled in a CD Caddy (any CD­
ROM or audio compact disc is
compatible)

Access time (including
latency)
-Average: less than 600
milliseconds (500 ms, typical)
-Maximum (first to last block):
less than 1 . 2 seconds (800 ms,
typical)
II>- Data-streaming rate
-Mode 1 : 150 K/second
-Mode 2: 171 K/second
II>- Block rate: 75 blocks/second
11>- SCSI bus transfer rate:
approximately SOOK/second
II>- Rotational speed:
approximately 230 to 530 rpm
(variable)
II>- Startup time: 5 seconds
(typical; media-dependent)
II>- Spin-down time: 2 seconds
(typical)

II>-

Capacity
11>- Data capacity
-Mode 1 : 656 megabytes
-Mode 2: 748 megabytes
II>- Recording surfaces: 1
II>- Data block (available to user)
-Mode 1 : 2,048 bytes
-Mode 2: 2,336 bytes
II>- Blocks per disc: more
than 270,000

Audio playback

Playing time: more than
1 hour
II>- Frequency response:
20 to 20,000 hertz
II>-

11>-

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage: 85 to
270 volts AC
II>- Frequency: 47 to 64 hertz
II>- Maximum power: 40 watts
II>-

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
... Storage temperature:
-22° to 122° F (-30° to 50° C)
11>- Operating relative humidity:
10% to 90% noncondensing
II>- Operating altitude:
-1,000 to 15,000 feet
II>- Transportation/Storage
altitude: -1 ,000 to 40,000 feet

II>-

Size and weight

Height: 3.31 inches (84 mm)
Width: 9.69 inches (246 mm)
11>- Depth: 10.47 inches
(266 mm)
11>- Weight: 8.8 lbs. (4 kg)

11>-

11>-

AppleCD SC
Ordering Information

AppleCD SC
Order No. M2700

With your order, you'll receive:
� AppleCD SC
� Owner's Guide
� Apple CD Caddy
� One 3.5-inch Macintosh CD
Setup disk

One 5.25-inch Apple II CD
Setup disk
� One 3.5-inch Apple II CD
Setup disk
� Power cord
� Limited warranty statement
�

Apple CD Caddy
(box of 5)
Order No. M2705
Apple SCSI System Cable
Order No. M0206
Apple SCSI Cable
Terminator
Order No. M0209
Apple SCSI Peripheral
Interface Cable
Order No. M0207
Apple SCSI Cable
Extender
Order No. M0208
Apple II SCSI
Interface Card
Rev. C (or later) ROMs
Order No. A2B2087

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1 988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, Apple llGS, and Macintosh are regis­
tered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCD SC and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc.
February 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Printed in the U.S.A.
A7F0081

Apple Technical Answerline

Overview

Features

Bene.fits

Apple is committed to providing
long-term support that will help
you maximize your investment in
our products. We've created the
Apple Technical Answerline to
give you direct access to Apple
support engineers for technical assistance with high-end
Macintosh® computer products.
A single yearly fee lets you
make unlimited toll-free calls for
answers to your most difficult
questions on networking, com­
munications, and (optionally) the
Apple® NUX® operating system.
Quarterly call reports help you
accurately track your organiza­
tion's support needs.

.,. Toll-free direct access to expert Apple
support engineers

.,. Gives you immediate solutions to your
complex networking and communications
problems.
.,. Makes it possible to quickly return your
computer installation to full productivity.

.,. Convenient annual fee

.,. Allows you tQ budget for an entire year's
support needs.

.,. Flexible subscription options

.,. Lets you choose the type of support you
need: networking and communications only,
A/UX only, or both.

.,. Quarterly call activity report

.,. Gives you detailed information on the
number and content of your organization's
recent Technical Answerline calls.
.,. Helps you pinpoint problem areas so
you can improve in-house training and
support.

.,. Advanced support technology

.,. Helps Apple support engineers quickly
pinpoint your problem and find a solution.

Apple Technical Answerline
Program Details

As networking, communica­
tions, and system software
products for Macintosh com­
puters become more complex,
it's increasingly difficult for
your organization's support
personnel to be familiar with
all of them-and with all of
their possible combinations.
Help is now available
directly from Apple Computer
in the form of the Apple Tech­
nical Answerline. Your calls to
the Technical Answerline go
directly to a knowledgeable
support engineer, not to an
answering service for eventual
referral. Answerline engineers
are trained extensively on the
latest Apple networking, com­
munications, and A/UX prod­
ucts. They also have access to a
specially equipped laboratory
where these products can be
tested in a multitude of con­
figurations.
Answerline engineers han­
dle questions on the following
issues, with an emphasis on

products relating to networking
and communications:
""' Configuration
""' Installation
""' Compatibility
""' Usage
""' Administration
""' Troubleshooting
The Answerline is designed
for user-level questions. Devel­
opers should use other Apple
support services for assistance
with complex Macintosh devel­
opment questions. Also, Tech­
nical Answerline personnel do
not resolve questions about
hardware or software that has
been modified in any way.
In some instances, the prob­
lem you are experiencing is
caused by another manufactur­
er's hardware or software; in
such cases, you will need to con­
tact that company for assistance.
The Technical Answerline,
however, can help to identify
third-party product problems,
which can save your company
valuable time and productivity.

Networking and Communi­
cations option. If you choose
this subscription, you'll receive
assistance with products such

as those listed below. Addition­
al products will be added to
the program in the future as
appropriate.
""' AppleTalk products:
-AppleShare® PC
-AppleTalk® for VMS'"
-AppleTalk Internet Router
""' IBM networking and con­
nectivity products:
-Apple TokenTalk® NB Card
and TokenTalk software
-Apple Serial NB Card
-Apple Coax/Twinax Card
-Apple EtherTalk® NB Card
and EtherTalk software
""' Integration products:
-MacAPPC'"
-MacX25'"
-Macintosh Communications
Toolbox
-MacWorkStation'"
-CUI'"

A!UX option. If you choose

this subscription, you'll receive
assistance with the following
A/UX products:
""' X Window System
""' MacX'"
""' AppleTalk for A/UX
""' EtherTalk for A/UX
""' A/UX Operating System

Program Operation

When you subscribe to the
Apple Technical Answerline,
you will designate two people
from your organization to be
your Answerline contacts. They
are the only people who can
use the service, although they
can make an unlimited number
of calls each year.

Details about your organi­
zation's previous calls will be
kept on-line at the Answerline
center. Support engineers can
immediately view this infor­
mation, saving your staff from
having to repeat it.

Answerline support is avail­
able from 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M.
Pacific time, Monday through
Friday, except for New Year's
Eve, New Year's Day, Memorial
Day, Independence Day, Labor
Day, Thanksgiving and the
day after, Christmas Eve, and
Christmas Day.

Ordering Information

For more information on the
Apple Technical Answerline,
and for a Support Services

order form, contact your
authorized Apple reseller
or sales representative.

Networking and
Communications option:
Order No. M0595LL/A
A/UX option:
Order No. M0594LL/A

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1990 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo. AppleShare, AppleTalk, A/UX. EtherTalk, Macintosh,
and TokenTalk are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MacAPPC, MacWorkStation, MacX, and
MacX25 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. CUI is a trademark of Network Innovations Corporation.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. VMS is a trademark of
Digital Equipment Corporation.
March 1990. Program specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
C0134LUB

•

AppleLink -Personal Edition

A PPLE
COM M U NITY

®

GENERAL
S E R V I C ES

Overview
AppleLink!._Personal Edition is
a unique on-line service designed
especially for users of Apple® per­
sonal computers. It's your direct
connection to the information
and services you need to get the
most from your Apple products.
In addition, it offers a myriad of
general-interest information, in­
cluding news stories from around
the world and the latest stock
quotations.
With AppleLink-Personal
Edition software, an Apple II or
Macintosh® computer, and a mo­
dem, you can join a nationwide
community of Apple owners on

this exciting, easy-to-use, and
affordable service.*
AppleLink-Personal Edition
has two main divisions. The
Apple Community features
Apple-specific information ser­
vices. You can get the latest, most
accurate product details directly
from Apple and our developer
partners. Download public­
domain and demonstration soft­
ware. Learn how to make the
most effective use of your Apple
hardware and applications. Take
part in special-interest discussion
groups, developer forums, and
real-time conferencing with other
Apple users.

But that's only half the story,
because AppleLink also includes
a General Services section that
offers national and international
news, stock quotations, airline
schedules, on-line shopping, inter­
active games, general-interest
clubs-even an electronic college.
In short, AppleLink-Personal
Edition adds an exciting new di­
mension to your Apple personal
computer. It's your one-stop
source for Apple information
and fun.
' Macintosh version scheduled for availability
in Fall 1988.

Features

Bene.fits

�

Direct connection to Apple resources

�

�

On-line forums and conferences

�

Real-time "chat" mode and private
messaging

�

�

Access to third-party developers

�

�

Electronic mail

�

�

One-step sign--on procedure

�

�

Preferences setup

�

�

Easy-to-use interface, including icons
and pull-down menus

�

Provides accurate, up-to-date informa­
tion on Apple and Apple-compatible
products.

Lets you exchange ideas with and get
support from a nationwide community of
Apple users and industry experts.
Connects you live with other AppleLink
members, allowing you to participate in a
group discussion or to have a private
conversation.

Provides information on Apple­
compatible products.
� Gives you the opportunity to try out
demonstration software.
Lets you send an electronic letter or
a fully formatted disk file to another
subscriber-instantly.
Eliminates the need to enter your
password and connection information
every time you access the system.

Lets you preset a variety of options for
easier, faster system use (such as shortcuts
to the on-line areas you use most often).
Allows easy navigation through all of
the on-line areas.

�

�

Off-line work option

�

�

Up to five on-line screen names

�

�

�

AppleLink Update™ monthly guide

On-line help

Nationwide communications net­
works used, for local--call access from
most areas

�

Reduces on-line charges by allowing
you to compose mail, work with files, and
do other work on the system before you
sign on.
Allows as many as five family members
to share the same AppleLink account.

� Provides detailed listings of nightly con­
ferences and other on-line events.
� Keeps you informed about the latest
AppleLink enhancements.

Gives you the help you need, any time
you need it.

�

Provides easy and affordable access to
AppleLink.

�

Product Details
AppleLink--Personal
Edition Services

Apple Community
Apple Reference Library. Get
detailed product information,
or look up answers to your
technical questions. Read con­
tributed software reviews-and
post your own. Find out about
special-education software, the
Apple Programmer's and Devel­
oper's Association (APDA™) ,
and more.

�

their development. Exchange
information and helpful tips.
�

Apple Software Center.

Download public-domain and
shareware programs covering a
variety of special-interest appli­
cations.

Apple Headquarters. Con­
nect to Apple's Customer Rela­
tions group to ask a question
or offer an opinion. Read press
� Apple Fornms. Join with other
releases on new products and
users in discussions about Apple promotional programs. Chat
II and Macintosh products and
with Apple employees at the

General Services
Peopk Connection. Chat with
other AppleLink members all
across the country. Attend a lec­
ture, bid at an auction, or so­
cialize at an on-line party. Play
trivia games or be a contestant
in a game show.

�

Financial District. Read
today's stock market summary;
check out the latest quotations
from the New York (NYSE),
American (AMEX), and Over the
Counter (OTC) stock exchanges.

�

�

Recreation Center. Play inter­

active games with one or more
partners anywhere in the
country. Get the latest enter-

Accessing AppleLink

To use the AppleLink-Personal
Edition information service,
you'll need dedicated AppleLink
software. Each software pack­
age contains a unique registra­
tion number and instructions on
how to access the system.

�

"Apple Cafe." Purchase Apple
T-shirts, mugs, and other specialty
items.
� Industry Connection. Meet
third-party Apple hardware and
software developers. Try out
demonstration versions of soft­
ware, peruse product catalogs,
and post questions to product­
support message boards.

Apple University. Enroll in
on-line courses to learn more
about Apple hardware, program­
ming, and applications.

�

tainment and sports news. Find
out which books are on the
best-seller list-and share your
own book and movie reviews.

Reuters, the Associated Press,
and United Press International.
Debate current issues with
people all around the nation.

Club House. Make friends
with people who share your in­
terests, in subjects from photog­
raphy to music.

�

�

Learning Center. Get tutoring
help with your homework.
Learn a new subject by enrolling
in an on-line course. Look up
facts in seconds using a 20volume encyclopedia that's
updated regularly.

�

News Room. Read the latest
news and sports reports from

�

During your first session, you'll
enter your name, address,
phone number, and billing
information. On-line fees are
charged directly to your credit
card or checking account.

The Mall. Stroll through an
on-line mall and shop for over
200,000 name-brand products at
discount prices. Send flowers to
someone special. Plan a com­
plete business trip or vacation:
Check for the lowest airfares,
then make flight, hotel, and ren­
tal car reservations.

The General Seroi,ces section of
AppleLink-Personal &lition is
provided by Quantum Com­
puter Seroi,ces, Inc.

Each subscription (one per
software package) can accom­
modate up to five users' names.
Access to AppleLink is via the
Tymnet and Telenet communi­
cations networks, available by
local phone call from most areas.

•

®

AppleLink -Personal Edition

System Requirements

To use AppleLink-Personal
Edition software, you'll need:
.,.. One of the following com­
puter systems:
-An Apple Ile personal com­
puter enhanced with 128K ROM
and equipped with 80-column

text card, Super Serial Card, disk
drive (3.5-inch or 5.25-inch),
and monitor
-An Apple Ile personal com­
puter and monitor
-An Apple IIGs® personal
computer with disk drive (3.5inch or 5.25-inch) and monitor

-An Apple Macintosh

Ordering Information

AppleLink--Personal Edition
software (Apple II version)
Order No. A2D2004

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. One 3.5-inch AppleLink
program disk
.,.. One 5.25-inch AppleLink
program disk

.,.. AppleLink Connect Guide

.,.. AppleLink User's Guide

AppleLink--Personal Edition
software (Macintosh
version)*
Order No. M0533

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. One 3.5-inch AppleLink
program disk
.,.. Applelink User's Guide
.,.. AppleLink Connect Guide

(contains information on com­
patible modems, local access
numbers, and account
registration)

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX: 171-576

personal
computer
.,.. An Apple Personal Modem or
any Hayes-compatible modem
(300, 1200, or 2400 baud), plus
appropriate cables
.,.. A standard telephone line

(contains information on com­
patible modems, local access
numbers, and account
registration)
.,.. Price sheet (lists on-line
service fees)
.,.. Quick-reference card
.,.. Registration certificate
.,.. Price sheet (lists on-line
service fees)
.,.. Quick-reference card
.,.. Registration certificate
•

Macintosh version scheduled for

availability in Fall 1988.

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleLink, Apple IIGS, and Macintosh are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. APDA and AppleLink Update are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
People Connection is a seivice mark of Quantum Computer Seivices, Inc. Telenet is a registered trade­
mark of Telenet Communications Corp. Tymnet is a registered trademark of McDonnell-Douglas
Corporation.
May 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
A2FOI30 70K

Apple File Exchange

Overview

Features

The Apple® File Exchange utility
program allows a file or docu­
ment created by one application
to be translated into the format
required by another application.
When used with the Apple PC
5.25 Drive, it transfers and trans­
lates between Macintosh® and
MS-DOS environments, or with
a Macintosh 3.5-inch drive, it
transfers and translates between
Macintosh and ProDOS® formats.
It can also be used with data files
transferred to Macintosh disks via
network or data communications
links.

�

File conversion between applications

Macintosh/MS-DOS and
Macintosh/ProDOS transfers

�

�

Batch translation

Bene.fits
Makes documents and files created with
one application usable in others, allowing
more versatile use of your information.

�

Allows greater flexibility in data sharing,
by providing a bridge between different
operating environments.

�

Automates the translation of large
numbers of files---even documents
from different applications.

�

�

Includes text, binary, and DCA-RYf/
MacWrite translators that all work under a
common user interface

�

Standard framework for development
of additional translators

�

�

Handles a wide range of general file­
translation needs.
� Offers easy-to-learn, easy-to-use file
translation.
Encourages development of specific
application-to-application translators.

Apple File Exchange
Product Details

Translators
The Apple File Exchange program works with "translators"
that control the conversion of
file formats between dissimilar
applications. The package indudes translators to handle
some common translations.
Many applications feature
an import option that does
translation. The binary translator included with Apple File
Exchange allows documents

to be converted for use with
these applications.
The text translator translates
bidirectionally between plain
text formats of the MS-DOS,
Macintosh, and ProDOS operating systems.
The DCA-RFf/MacWrite
translator translates bidirectionally between IBM Document Content Architecture
Revisable Text Format and
the MacWrite format.

Additional translators for use
with Apple File Exchange are
available from independent
software developers such as
DataViz, Inc. These follow the
user and software interface
standards set by Apple's
translators.
Apple File Exchange can
work with multiple translators
simultaneously. Simply indicate
the files you want translated,
and the program selects the
appropriate translator from
the available set.

System Requirements

To use Apple File Exchange,
you will need:
For data on Macintosh disks:
� A Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II
personal computer
� Any additional applicationto-application translators

For data on 5.25-inch MS-DOSformatted disks:
� A Macintosh SE or Macintosh
II personal computer
� An Apple PC 5.25 Drive
� The appropriate controller
card
� Any additional applicationto-application translators

For data on 3.5-inch ProDOSformatted disks:
� A Macintosh 512K Enhanced, Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II
� Any additional applicationto-application translators

Translators included:
Text
� Binary
� DCA-RFf/MacWrite

Translators available from
DataViz:
� DCA-RFf/MacWrite or
Microsoft Word 3.0
� Lotus 1-2-3/Microsoft Excel
� MultiMate/MacWrite or
Microsoft Word 3.0

WordPerfect/MacWrite or
Microsoft Word 3.0
� WordStar/MacWrite or
Microsoft Word 3.0

Ordering lnfonnation

Apple File Exchange will be
available in two ways:

1) Packaged with the Macintosh
SE-Bus PC Drive Card (Order
No. M5023) and the Macintosh
II PC Drive Card (Order No.
M5056).

2) Included with the Macintosh
system software. Contact your
authorized Apple sales representative for further details.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 -576

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, Macintosh, and ProDOS are registered trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Lotus
and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. MacWrite is a registered trademark
of Claris Corporation. Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MultiMate
is a trademark of MultiMate International, a subsidiary of Ashton-Tate Corporation. WordPerfect is a
trademark of WordPerfect Corporation. WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International
Corporation.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M23!0/A

Technical Specifications

�

�

•

AppleShare File Seroer Version 2. 0

S e rv e r N o m e :
A p p l e S h a re S e rv e r

I

®

Vol umes:
Sal es
M a rk e t i n g

U s e rs :
R i c h A n d re w s
S u s a n V i e i rn
P a t D i rk s
C a ro l W e i s s
M a rk N e u b i e s e r
A1 an Oppenhei mer
R a n d y C a rr

F ri , M a y 1 3 , 1 9 B B
Acti vi ty:

....___
ta

7:52:04 AM
____.

_
_
_
_

I I
idle

I

I

I

I

I

I I I
busy

Overoiew
The AppleShare® File Server lets
members of your workgroup use
an AppleTalk® network system to
share information quickly and
easily. AppleShare turns a dedi­
cated Macintosh® II, Macintosh
SE, or Macintosh Plus personal
computer with one or more
hard disk drives into a central
electronic filing cabinet. Here,
everyone in your workgroup can

store documents in folders similar
to the ones that are common to
all Macintosh applications.
By giving everyone access to
the same documents and applica­
tions, the AppleShare File Server
simplifies and speeds up the
work of the group-whether it
involves creating budgets, updat­
ing data files, producing publica­
tions, or assembling reports. And

AppleShare has a powerful set of
privacy features that let you con­
trol who has access to the infor­
mation stored in each folder, and
what type of access is allowed.
AppleShare will greatly increase
the productivity of any environ­
ment equipped with Macintosh,
MS-DOS, and even Apple® II
computers.

Features

Benefits

Centralized electronic storage of
data, documents, and applications

Makes it easy for everyone in a workgroup to
share information.
II> Lets network users store applications and files
in one convenient location.
11> Permits document backup from a central
location.

11>

II>

Transparent access

II>

Allows users to access information stored on
an AppleShare file server as if it were located on
a local disk.

II>

II>

Access by up to 50 users at a time
(when the server is a Macintosh II) or up
to 25 users at a time (when the server is
a Macintosh SE or Macintosh Plus)

II>

11>

AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP)
compatibility

II>

II>

Support for multiple operating
systems

11>

11>

Support for up to seven SCSI hard
disk or CD-ROM drives per server

11>

Runs concurrently with AppleShare
Print Server software

11> Lets you use a single, dedicated Macintosh II,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh Plus computer to share
files as well as to manage networked printers.
II> Increases the return on your hardware
investment.

II>

Lets everyone in the group work with docu­
ments and multiuser applications at the same time.

Provides compatibility with all software applica­
tions written to the AFP standard.
Lets Macintosh, MS-DOS, and Apple II users
share information stored on the file server.

Provides reliable, virtually unlimited storage
space.
11> Offers a simple, economical growth path.

11>

Copy protection

11>

II>

On-line administration

11> Lets the network administrator perform ad­
ministrative functions (such as adding users and
creating groups of users) without shutting down
services.

Lets the network administrator copy-protect
applications stored on the file server so that users
cannot copy them.

11>

Standard Macintosh hardware
platform

II>

Volume copy with full AppleShare
access privileges retained

II>

11>

II>

"Super user" capability

Preserves your investment in hardware: you
can start with a Macintosh Plus or SE as the server,
and then, as your needs expand, replace it with
a Macintosh II and use the original Macintosh
as a personal computer.
Permits easy upgrading to larger volumes.

Allows the administrator to perform routine
folder maintenance over the network.

11>

Product Details

Simple administration
Administration of the Apple­
Share File Server requires no
special skills. Administrative
functions, such as adding new
users and creating groups of
users, are carried out using the
familiar Macintosh user inter­
face, including pull-down
menus, dialog boxes, icons,
and windows.
Access control
To ensure privacy, security, and
control over information shared
with others on the network,
AppleShare lets individual users
decide who can have access to
information stored in folders
they create on the server, and
what type of access they can
have.
The folder's owner can as­
sign access privileges to three
classes of users:
-The owner of the folder;
-A group of users; or
-Everyone on the network.

The folder's owner can also
define which of three levels of
access the owner and other users
can have, namely, whether
users can:
-See documents and applica­
tions stored in the folder;
-See other folders stored in the
folder;
-Make changes to documents
and applications stored in the
folder.
As in other Macintosh appli­
cations, documents are stored
in folders on an AppleShare file
server, but folders on the server
fall into several types depending
on the type of access provided.
For example, documents stored
in privatefolders automatically
remain private to their owner­
only the folder's owner can see
or change documents stored
there.

Documents stored in shared
folders can be seen and read by
everyone in the group, but the
folder's owner can choose the
type of access people have. The
folder's owner may specify that:
-The documents in the folder
can be changed only by the
owner (this is useful for storing
forms that you want everyone
on the network to be able to
copy and use but not change),
or that
-Documents can be changed
by other users.
Documents stored in "drop
box"folders can be seen and
changed only by the owner.
However, other users with the
appropriate access to the serv­
er can copy documents into
the drop box. This is useful for
collecting and storing sensitive
documents such as expense
reports and personnel
evaluations.

AppleShare File Server Version 2. 0
System Requirements

Ordering Information

To use the AppleShare File
Server, you'll need:
111> One dedicated Macintosh II,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh Plus
computer to be used as the
server
111> One or more SCSI hard disks
Ill> One Macintosh, ProDOS� or
MS-DOS computer for each
user on the network
111> Appropriate network cables
and connectors for each work­
station, server, printer, or other
network device
111> AppleShare PC (Order No.
M0673) and a LocalTalk'" PC
Card (Order No. M2313) for
each MS-DOS computer con­
nected to the network
111> AppleShare IIGs® Workstation
Software (Order No. A2D2060)
for each Apple IIGs® computer
connected to the network
111> Apple II Workstation Card
(Order No. A2B2088), which
includes AppleShare Ile

AppleShare File Server
Software
Order No. M0548/B

AppleShare File Server
User's Guide 5-Pack
Order No. M0559/A
AppleShare File and
Print Server Manuals
Order No. M0565

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 -576

Workstation software, for each
Apple Ile computer connected
to the network

Recommended

Ill> External disk drive or hard
disk at each workstation
111> The Network Administrators
Course (a two-day seminar on
the fundamentals of network
administration, including file
service, backup, electronic mail,
and utilities)

Opdonal equipment

Ill> Additional or larger hard disks
111> Concurrent service applica­
tions, such as AppleShare Print
Server or electronic-mail service
Ill> One or more CD-ROM drives,
such as the AppleCD SC"
111> AppleTalk bridges and
gateways, such as:
-InterBridge (from Hayes
Microcomputer Products, Inc.)
or NetBridge (from Shiva
Corporation) for connecting
multiple LocalTalk networks

-FastPath (from Kinetics,
Inc.) for connecting an Apple
EtherTalk'" network with a
LocalTalk network
-Solana R Server (from Solana
Communications) or NetModem
(from Shiva Corporation) for
remote connection to an
AppleTalk network

Cabling systems for
AppleTalk
111> Apple LocalTalk cabling
system (shielded twisted-pair)
111> LANSTAR from Northern
Telecom (telephone wire/
unshielded twisted-pair)
111> PhoneNET from Farallon
Computing (telephone wire/
unshielded twisted-pair)
111> Apple EtherTalk (standard or
thin wire Ethernet coaxial, and
unshielded twisted-pair)
Ill> Fiber Optic LAN System
(standard fiber-optic cable)
from Du Pont Electronics

With your order, you'll receive:
AppleShare File Server
Administrator's Guide
111> AppleShare File Server User's
Guide
Ill> AppleShare File Server
Administrator's Supplementfor
Apple II Workstations
Ill> One AppleShare File Server
administration disk
111> One AppleShare File Server
server installer disk

Ill> One AppleShare File Server
Apple II setup disk
Ill> One AppleShare File Server
workstation installer disk for
use with Macintosh II, SE, and
Plus computers
Ill> One AppleShare File Server
workstation installer disk for
use with Macintosh 5 1 2K
Enhanced computers

With your order, you'll receive:

111>

With your order, you'll receive:
AppleShare File Server User's
Guide
Ill> AppleShare File Server
Administrator's Guide

111>

111>

111>

Five copies of the Apple­
Share File Server User's Guide

AppleShare File Server
Administrator's Supplement
for Apple II Workstations
111> AppleShare Print Seroer
Administrator's Guide

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Apple llGS, Macintosh,
ProDOS, and llGS are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. EtherTalk and Loca!Talk are trade­
marks of Apple Computer, Inc. FastPath is a trademark of Kinetics, Inc. Fiber Optic LAN System is a
trademark of Du Pont Electronics. Inter Bridge is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc.
MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. NetModem and NetBridge are trademarks
of Shiva Corporation. PhoneNET is a registered trademark of Farallon Computing, Inc.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2247/A

AppleShare Print Server Version 2. 0

I m a g e W ri t e r 1 1 S p o o l e r Q u e u e
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Status

Document

ToDo

User

Mark Neubieser

Date /Time

5 / 1 3 /88

8 :55 :4 1 AM

Overview

Features

Benefits

With the AppleShare® Print Server,
you can continue working on your
Macintosh� Apple® Ile, Apple IIGS�
or MS-DOS computer while your
documents are being printed
on an AppleTalk®-networked
LaserWriter® or ImageWriter®
printer. The AppleShare Print
Server runs on a dedicated
Macintosh II, Macintosh SE,
Macintosh Plus, or Macintosh
512K Enhanced computer, and
will increase the productivity
of any workgroup that makes
frequent use of LaserWriter or
ImageWriter printing.

• Print spooling

• Improves workgroup productivity;

users can continue working while their
documents are being printed.
• Eliminates waiting because it accepts
documents from multiple users at the same
time, even while the printer is busy.
• Simultaneous support for up to

• Assures a growth path: makes it easy to

five printers

add printers as your needs change.

• Runs concurrently with

• Lets you use a single, dedicated Mac­
intosh II, Macintosh SE, or Macintosh Plus

AppleShare File Server software

computer to share files and applications
as well as to manage networked printers.
• Increases the return on your hardware
investment by eliminating the need for a
second dedicated server.

• Print-queue management

• Lets the system administrator manage

up to five networked printers from a single
location.
• Compatibility with all standard

• Eliminates the need for special training.

applications
• Power failure recovery

• Saves documents waiting to be printed,

even after a power failure.

AppleShare Print Server Version 2. 0
Product Details

How spooling works
Ordinarily the user's computer
must wait while a document is
being printed-the computer
can't be used for anything else.
And if the printer is busy, the
user must wait for it to become

free. The AppleShare Print
Server saves time in several
ways. As soon as users send a
document over an AppleTalk
network system to the print
server, they can continue working on their computers. The
print server sends the docu-

ments along to the LaserWriter
or ImageWriter as soon as the
printer is ready. And because
the print server can accept files
from more than one user at the
same time, there's never any
waiting for the server to be
available.

System Requirements

To use the AppleShare Print
Server, you'll need the
following:

"" An AppleTalk-networked
LaserWriter or ImageWriter
printer
"" One dedicated Macintosh II,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh Plus,
or Macintosh 5 1 2K Enhanced
computer to be used as the
server.* (When running both
the AppleShare Print Server
and AppleShare File Server
software on the same system, a
Macintosh II, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh Plus is required.)
"" One Macintosh, Apple Ile
(equipped with an Apple II
Workstation Card), Apple
Iles, or MS-DOS computer
(equipped with a LocalTalk'"
PC Card) for each user on the
network

"" Appropriate network cables
and connectors for each workstation, server, printer, or other
network device

With your order, you'll receive:
"" One AppleShare Print
Server installer disk for use with
Macintosh II, Macintosh SE, and
Macintosh Plus computers
"" One AppleShare Print Server
installer disk for use with Macintosh 5 1 2K Enhanced computers

"" One AppleShare Print Server
Workstation installer disk
"" AppleShare Print Seroer
Administrator's Guide
"" Limited warranty statement

Ordering Information

AppleShare Print
Server Software
Order No. M0576

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 -576

'When using a Macintosh 5 l 2K Enhanced
computer as the server, or when using a
1-megabyte Macintosh computer (Plus, SE,
or II) with both File Server and Print Server
software, you can spool to two printers
simultaneously.

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Apple IIGS, ImageWriter,
LaserWriter, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Loca!Talk is a trademark
of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2248/A

AppleShare PC Version 2. 0

Overview
AppleShare® PC software provides
users of MS-DOS personal com­
puters with access to the full
range of services available on the
AppleTalk® network system.
With AppleShare PC, users of
MS-DOS and Macintosh® personal
computers can communicate
with one another, share data files
stored on an AppleShare file
server, and enjoy transparent
access to Apple® LaserWriter® and
ImageWriter® network printers.

MS-DOS personal computer
users select network resources
through an intuitive menu system
modeled after the Macintosh
Chooser. Once selected, file and
print resources are automatically
available every time users turn
on their machines. And using
the AppleShare server from an
MS-DOS system is as easy as
using a local disk drive.
AppleShare PC Version 2 . 0
is compatible with AppleTalk

Phase 2 and is data-link inde­
pendent. It offers advanced
capabilities such as extended
AppleTalk addressing, which
provides support for networks
of up to 16 million nodes.
AppleShare PC is ideally
suited to the requirements of
users who work in environments
utilizing both Macintosh and
MS-DOS personal computers .

Features

Benefits

.,. MS-DOS access to the AppleShare
file server

.,. Allows MS-DOS and Macintosh users to
access information stored on the same
AppleShare file server.
.,. Lets MS-DOS users and Macintosh users
share information created by applications
that use a common file format (for example,
Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC and Microsoft
Excel for the Macintosh, or dBASE III for the
IBM PC and dBASE Mac for the Macintosh) .
.,. Lets AppleShare PC users share MS-DOS
applications stored on AppleShare file server
volumes. (The software license must specifi­
cally allow application sharing.)

.,. MS-DOS access to networked printers

.,. Gives MS-DOS users full access to the
power of LaserWriter printers-including
dozens of type styles and sizes and full­
page, high-resolution graphics-through
MS-DOS applications that support the
Postscript® page description language .
.,. Performs Epson LQ2500 emulation
when working with older MS-DOS applica­
tions that don't support Postscript.
.,. Gives MS-DOS users access to net­
worked ImageWriter dot-matrix printers .

.,. Data file mapping

.,. Allows data files created with MS-DOS
applications to be mapped to Macintosh
applications that share the same file format.
(For example, WKl files created with Lotus
1-2-3 and stored on the AppleShare file
server can appear as Microsoft Excel data
files, and double-clicking on an Excel data
file launches the Excel application.)

.,. Data-link independence

.,. Lets AppleShare PC work with any
network interface card that is compliant
with the MLI (Multiple Link Interface) driver
specification, including drivers that support
the Apple LocalTalk™ PC Card, 3Com
Etherlink II and Etherlink MC, and IBM
Token-Ring .

.,. Controlled access to directories
(folders) stored on AppleShare servers

.,. Provides privacy and personal control
over information shared with others on the
network.
.,. Lets the directory's owner choose to limit
access in the following ways:
-To keep the directory private;
-To give access privileges to a predefined
group of users; or
-To give access privileges to everyone on
the network.

Features

Benefits

... Controlled nature of access, based
on directory type

... Documents stored in private directories
can be seen or changed only by the
directory's owner.
... Documents stored in shared directories
can be seen and read by everyone on the
network; a directory's owner can specify
that
-The documents can be changed only by
the owner. (This is useful for storing forms
that you want eve1yone on the network to
be able to copy and use but not change .)
Or that
-The documents can be changed by
others on the network.
... Documents stored in one-way "drop
box " directories (much like one-way mail
slots) can be seen and changed only by the
owner. However, anyone on the network
can copy documents into the drop box.
(This is useful for collecting and storing
sensitive documents such as expense
reports and personnel evaluations .)

... Transparent functionality

... Lets MS-DOS users work with informa­
tion on AppleShare servers as if it were
located on a local MS-DOS disk.
... Makes accessing applications and
information simple and efficient.
... Allows users to access AppleShare
servers located on other AppleTalk
networks, through add-on bridges
such as the Hayes InterBridge and the
Kinetics FastPath.
... Lets users connect to servers, change
access privileges, and execute DOS utilities
from within an application, through pop-up
menus .
... Lets MS-DOS users access network
printers as if they were connected locally.

... Command-line interface

... Allows construction and editing of batch
files for automatic log on and other tasks.

AppleShare PC Version 2. 0
Product Details

AppleShare volumes
AppleShare volumes appear
to MS-DOS users as logical DOS
drives and are accessed using
standard DOS commands. Most
applications and documents can
be stored and used on the
server with no modification.

of type styles and sizes, and
with full-page, high-resolution
graphics. For users of older
MS-DOS applications that
do not support Postscript,
AppleShare PC provides an
emulation of an Epson LQ2500
printer.

Access procedures
Accessing information is
simple and efficient; users
need only remember one
password. Once a user has
logged on to a server, the
server automatically manages
access to all directories.

Macintosh/MS-DOS
compatibility
With AppleShare PC, both
MS-DOS users and Macintosh
users have access to docu­
ments created using either of
the two operating systems . In
addition, AppleShare PC
provides file extension
mapping that allows MS-DOS
users to easily assign a
Macintosh icon type and
application appropriate to
a data file.

Printing
Through AppleShare PC, users
of MS-DOS applications that
support Postscript (such as
Microsoft Word and WordPer­
fect) can take full advantage of
the power of Apple LaserWriter
printers. This includes produc­
ing documents in a wide range
System Requirements

Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

Privacy
AppleShare PC fully supports
the AppleShare file server's

powerful privacy system. Users
control information by selec­
tively granting access to the
directories they have created on
the file server volumes. Setting
access privileges 'a llows a
directory's owner to keep infor­
mation private, share it within a
workgroup, or make it available
to everyone on the network.
Additionally, users can control
the type of access others have to
the contents of a directory.
Installation
The procedure consists of
installing AppleShare PC
software on a startup disk;
adding a LocalTalk PC Card to
an IBM PC or PC-compatible
computer, and connecting the
computer to an AppleTalk
network system equipped with
an AppleShare server and a
networked printer.

To use AppleShare PC, you will
need:
� An MS-DOS computer
with at least 384K of RAM
� Two floppy disk drives

MS-DOS Version 3 . 1 or
later (including Version 4.0)
� A LocalTalk PC Card or
another MLI driver-compliant
interface card

AppleShare PC
Order No. M0098LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
� One 3. 5-inch and two
5 . 25-inch installer disks

�

AppleShare PC Bundle
Order No. B0040LL/A

With your order, you'll receive :
� A LocalTalk PC Carel
� Two 360-kilobyte, 5 . 25-inch
floppy disks (a startup disk and
an application disk)

� One 3. 5-inch disk (includes
both startup and application)
� Loca!Talk PC Card Owner's
Guide
� Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit (DB9)
Order No. M2065

With your order, you'll receive:
� LocalTalk locking connector
(DB9)

�

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171 -576

© 1989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, lmageWriter, LaserWriter,
and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. LocalTalk is a trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc. dllASE and dllASE Ill are registered trademarks of Ashton-Tate Corporation. EtherLink is
a trademark of 3Com Corporation. FastPath is a trademark of Kinetics, Inc. Hayes and lnterllridge are
trademarks of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International
Business Machines Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development
Corporation. Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Postscript is a
registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. WordPerfect is a registered trademark of
WordPerfect Corporation.
June 1989. Product specifications are subiect to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M2302/ll

�

A LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit (DB9)
(Order No. M2065)

�

Recommended equipment:
A hard disk

�

�

�

�

AppleShare PC User's Guide
Limited warranty statement

Two-meter cable
Cable extender
Setup guide

Inter• Poll Network Administrator)s Utility

(

Clear

Search Time

I

50

Zone

Mac i n tosh P l us
Mac i n tosh

3 10

3 10

4 7 Rose Neeack

App l e

93 Susan Bruno

Mac i n tosh

1 03 Chad S tump

MS-DOS 3 . 2

1 1 5 G l enda Z i rk l e

ACME Managemen t
ACME Managemen t

1 1

System I nform a t i o n

ACME Managemen t
ACME Managemen t
ACME Managemen t

Laserf.lr i ter

O S y s t e m f i l e Uersion
@ finder f i l e U e rs i o n

O L a s e rW ri t e r D ri u e r U e rs i o n

I

1 00

ACME Managemen t

1 1

Mac i n tosh SE

205 Express Press

O f s p l ay:

I I GS

J

(90) .

I

0

3 10

S t a rt

Search Time : 2 Min 30 Sec

Searching for All Devices

3 10

(

)

ACME Managemen t

[

G e t S y s t e m I n fo

J

Finder File Version

Bene.fits

Overview

Features

The Inter•Poll'" Network Admini­
strator's Utility contains tools an
AppleTalk® network administrator
can use to implement a network
support program. These tools
cover network mapping, trouble­
shooting methods, selective
searches for active devices, net­
work-link integrity tests, and ver­
sion reporting for workstation
system software. Together, these
tools help the AppleTalk network
administrator eliminate many
network problems before they
adversely affect users.

�

Selective lists of active network devices

�

�

Network mapping tools

�

Integrity test of network path to a
targeted device

�

Allows the network administrator to
monitor a specified group of active devices.
Assists the network administrator in
creating and updating network diagrams
for use in solving network problems.
Saves time by helping the network
administrator isolate and locate network
problems.

�

Helps avoid problems caused by
running incompatible versions of system
software on the same network.

�

System software version reporting

�

�

Full internetwork support

�

�

Intuitive user interface

�

Support for Macintosh®, Apple® II,
MS-DOS, and DEC VAX'" computers

�

Can be used in small, medium-size, and
large AppleTalk systems.
Is more effective to use because it is
easy to learn.
Lets the network administrator support a
multivendor AppleTalk network with a
single utility.

�

Inter• Poll Network Administrator's Utility
Product Details

Test Packets
Ech(}--Tests link integrity
between the Inter• Poll work­
station and any active named
device.

Ill>

Printer status-Returns printer

status information.

System information----Queries

Ill> Device Llsts

Search criteria-By zone, net­

work number, device name,
device type, or unnamed device
Search duration-In minutes
and seconds, or continuous
Search interoaJ-In seconds

Ill> Reports

Supponedprinters-Apple
LaserWriter® and ImageWriter®
Supponedfileformat�Tab­
delimited text

Macintosh personal computers
running AppleTalk Responder
software (included) for the sys­
tem software version numbers.
System Requirements

To run the Inter• Poll Network
Administrator's Utility, you
must have:

Ill>

A Macintosh II, Macintosh
SE, or Macintosh Plus.

You can install the AppleTalk
Responder on a Macintosh II,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh Plus,
or Macintosh 512K Enhanced
personal computer.

Technical Specifications

AppleTalk protocols used:

Ill> Name Binding Protocol

Ill> Printer Access Protocol

(NBP)
To find named devices

Ill> Link Access Protocol

(IAP)

To find unnamed devices
Ill> Echo Protocol (EP)
To determine link integrity and
petformance
Ordering Information

Inter• Poll Network
Administrator's Utility
Order No. M0697

With your order, you'll receive:

(PAP)
To get printer status information
Ill> AppleTalk Transaction
Protocol (ATP)
To get system information

Ill> Inter• Poll Network
Administrator's Application disk
Ill> Inter• Poll Workstation
Installer disk (SOOK)
Ill> Inter• Poll Workstation
Installer disk (400K)

Inter• Poll Network
Administrator's Guide

Ill>

Ill> Limited warranty statement

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, !he Apple logo, AppleTalk, ImageWriter, LaserWriter, and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Incero Poll is a trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc. DEC is a registered trademark and VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment
Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
February 1988. Product specifications are subj ect to change without notice.
M2291

ti®
I

AppleTalk Internet Router

1 1 ,2 1

O,328

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Rece nt Acti vi t y Rate :

Busy

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Rece nt Net\o/o r k E r ro r
Rate :

1 4 zo ne s , 1 4 net\o/o r ks so rted b y :
Net\o/o r k Ra n g e

1456
6750 -

31 7

6850

47101 - 471 1 5
321 50 - 321 80

45952 - 46000
1 31 2 -

1 325

221 00 - 22200
1 3075 - 1 3 1 00

1 1400 - 1 1450

Z o n e Name
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P u r·c hasi ng
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P u bl i cati o ns
C usto me r S u p po r·t

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T o k e nTal k
E t h e rTal k

Overview
The AppleTalk® Internet Router
lets you increase the size and
improve the performance and
manageability of your AppleTalk
network system. It allows
AppleTalk networks such as
LocalTalk�M EtherTalk�M and
TokenTalk™ to be interconnected
to form an internet. The router
moves data from one network to
another transparently so that the

such as extended addressing and
internet functions like a single
network. This means that users
improved zone-based access to
can share files and printers across internet resources let network
the internet, as well as send and
professionals build for the future.
receive mail, in the same way that As with other Apple® Macintosh®
they access these resources on a
products, the AppleTalk Internet
single network.
Router is easy to use. Even a
A key component of the
network novice can have it
AppleTalk network system, the
running in minutes and begin
AppleTalk Internet Router offers
to make use of its powerful
room to grow for even the largest features.
networking installations. Features

Features

Benefits

..,.. Background routing capability

..,.. Allows the Macintosh running the router
software to run other services in the
foreground .

..,.. Up to eight network ports per router

..,.. Allows interconnection of up to eight
networks per Macintosh, enabling flexible
network topologies and optimum use of
the Macintosh serving as a router.

..,.. Up to 1 ,024 networks per internet

..,.. Provides room for growth for even the
largest network systems .

..,.. Extended network addressing of up to
16 million nodes

..,.. Supports large network systems
that use data link bridges for local and wide
area networking .

..,.. Zone naming on a per-node basis

..,.. Streamlines the use of the Chooser in
large networks.

..,.. Network independent

... Supports LocalTalk, EtherTalk, and
TokenTalk.
... Lets you choose the best network for
each environment and then connect multiple
networks to form an integrated network
system .

..,.. Monitoring of router traffic and errors

..,.. Provides an effective internetwork
management tool.

..,.. Easy setup and operation

..,.. Lets even novice network users benefit
from this powerful software .

..,.. Dynamic internet route maintenance

..,.. Requires no additional administration
after setup .

..,.. Isolation of local traffic

..,.. Increases internet performance by
keeping local traffic at the local network
level-isolating it from the internet.

..,.. Redundant topologies

..,.. Allows AppleTalk internets to use
alternate routes automatically in the event
of a failure in the primary route .

..,.. Report facility

..,.. Allows router statistics and routing
tables to be printed and logged for network
management purposes.

Product Details

Support of Large Networks

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The AppleTalk Internet Router
lets users build large internets
that span a company or cam­
pus . An AppleTalk internet can
support as many as 16 million
devices (nodes) . These can be
distributed over as many as
1 ,024 interconnected networks,
or can be allocated to one large
network such as those that use
data link bridges to interconnect
local area networks.

Easy Setup
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The AppleTalk Internet Router
identifies all network connec­
tions installed on the Macintosh
serving as the router. You
simply enter a network number
range for each network you
want to interconnect. Zone
names can be defined to
streamline directory services
on large internets. The rest is
automatic, because the
AppleTalk Internet Router
dynamically communicates
with other AppleTalk routers to
build a table of the entire
internet. Users can then view
and access resources through­
out the internet.

Improved Internet
Reliability
The AppleTalk Internet Router
can be used to improve internet
reliability. Most network
problems remain isolated to a
single network. By using a
redundant route topology,
internet traffic can be rerouted
in case of a failure in a particu­
lar network.
Flexibility
The router lets network
planners fine-tune their
AppleTalk systems by isolating
local traffic from internet traffic,
and by providing a choice of
topology and network perfor­
mance to accommodate the
most demanding network
environments.
The Router Environment
AppleTalk Internet Router
software nms in the back­
ground on a Macintosh
computer, allowing the router
to share the same Macintosh as
the AppleShare® File and Print
Servers, as well as third-party
mail servers. The router uses
between 1 20K and 160K of
system memory, depending
on the number of networks in
the internet.
Media Independence
The AppleTalk Internet Router
can interconnect all types of
AppleTalk networks, including
LocalTalk, EtherTalk, and
TokenTalk, to offer the greatest
flexibility in choice of media
and topology. The AppleTalk
Internet Router can be used to
provide transparent access
to the LaserWriter® and
ImageWriter® II printers from
EtherTalk and TokenTalk
networks.
Direct Routing
The improved routing protocol
of AppleTalk Phase 2 sends
data directly to the router
along the shortest path to the
destination, increasing internet
performance.

Monitoring and Control

Through the router desk
accessory, you can display
various windows that let you
monitor activity and network
statistics on the router, view an
active routing table of the entire
internet, change the router
setup information, or print
the contents of the setup and
administrative displays.

Zone Multicast
Zone Multicast, provided on
EtherTalk and TokenTalk
networks, allows a message to
be sent to all members of a par­
ticular zone without disturbing
other nodes on the network.
Zone Multicast improves
network performance by
reducing traffic overhead
caused by broadcasts.
Upgrade Path
AppleTalk internets can include
AppleTalk Internet Routers as
well as third-party routers that
meet the AppleTalk Phase 2
specification. An upgrade utility
is included with the AppleTalk
Interµet Router so that it can
communicate with older routers
during the upgrade process.
Also, during the upgrade
to AppleTalk Phase 2, the
AppleTalk Internet Router
allows nodes using older
versions of EtherTalk to com­
municate with nodes using
EtherTalk Version 2 . 0 . These
features allow an incremental
upgrade path to AppleTalk
Phase 2 where needed.

AppleTalk Internet Router
System Requirements

To use the AppleTalk Internet
Router, you'll need:
� A Macintosh Plus, SE, SE/30,
II, !Ix, or Ilcx personal computer

�

Macintosh System Software
Version 6.0.3 or later

�

Ordering Information

AppleTalk Internet Router

Order No. M0705

With your order, you'll receive:
� AppleTalk Internet Router
software
� Macintosh System Software

All necessary network
interface cards, cabling, and
software for each network
connection

6.0.3

AppleTalk Internet Router
Administrator's Guide

�

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TLX: 171 -576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleShare, AppleTalk, lmageWriter, LaserWriter,
and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. EtherTalk, LocalTalk, and TokenTalk
are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
June 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0065LUA

•

Mac Workstation

P a s s e n g e r:
Destination:
D e.p a rt :

R d d re s s :
City:
Zip:

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Overoiew
MacWorkStation'" is a collection
of high-level Toolbox routines that
allow host programs running over
any supported communications
protocol to utilize the standard
user-interface, file-management,
and printing features of the Apple®
Macintosh® personal computer. It
gives programmers full access to
and control over windows, pull­
down menus, dialog boxes, and
other features of the Macintosh
user interface-without requiring

them to learn the details of a tradi­
tional Macintosh programming
environment.
MacWorkStation provides two
primary benefits: high-level access
to the Macintosh Toolbox and a
framework for building coopera­
tive Macintosh-to-host applica­
tions. MacWorkStation allows
programmers not familiar with
programming the Macintosh to
easily build Macintosh-style inter­
faces for their host applications.
(Without MacWorkStation, de­
veloping a Macintosh interface

to a host application requires ex­
tensive work and detailed knowl­
edge of the Macintosh.)
This combination of features
allows corporate MIS departments,
software developers, value-added
resellers, and systems integrators
to enhance their existing host­
based applications, and to use
their existing programming staffs
to create applications with the
characteristics of the Macintosh
interface.

Features

Bene.fits

..,.. MacWorkStation

..,.. Brings the benefits of the graphics­
based Macintosh interface to host
applications .
..,.. Requires minimal Macintosh pro­
gramming experience, allowing host
programmers to concentrate on func­
tional application issues on the host itself.
..,.. Integrates well into existing host
environments without disrupting current
practices or processes .

..,.. Presentation Directors

..,.. Allows the host application to easily
access the standard Macintosh user interface, including dialog boxes, pull-down
menus, alerts, graphics, and windows .

..,.. File Directors

..,.. Allows the host application to use the
Macintosh file-management and printing
features .

..,.. Exec Modules

..,.. Allows MIS and commercial developers
to extend the MacWorkStation tools .

..,.. Communications Connection
Language (CCL)

..,.. Provides a sophisticated method for ac­
cessing host applications over a variety of
network paths .

..,.. Communications Modules

..,.. Allows MacWorkStation to be used with
many communications protocols.

Product Details

Message Protocols

Exec Modules

The heart of MacWorkStation,
these are messages that are
received from or sent to a host.
Messages are either commands
or events; commands are messages sent from the host requesting an action on the Macintosh,
and events are messages sent
from the Macintosh informing
the host of a significant change
of state.

These constitute a Macintosh
code resource that can be
created from any high-level
Macintosh programming
language and added to the
MacWorkStation application
or document file.
One or more Exec Modules
can be launched locally (or by
the host) and may perform any
programming task. These Exec
Modules run simultaneously
and can trap events or interact
with the host or user while
MacWorkStation is running. This
provides a very powerful way
of extending and customizing
MacWorkStation to fit a wide
range of cooperative processing
needs.
Exec Modules also have
the capability of using MacWorkStation commands to perform any user-interface, printing,
or file-management functions.
This reduces the amount of
knowledge that even an Exec
Module programmer needs in
order to perform Macintosh
programming.

Directors

These act as a high-level toolbox
that interprets commands from
the host to build and maintain a
Macintosh interface. Directors
use the underlying Macintosh
Toolbox managers to support a
consistent environment between
host and local applications.
These Directors include Alert,
Dialog, Graphics, Window,
Cursor, Menu, List, and File.
Additional Directors can be
added.

Conununications Connection Language (CCL)

This is a powerful scripting Ianguage built specifically to help
access remote applications. The
CCL script can be lengthy and
complex or it can be very short,
depending on how the user is
accessing the remote application. Once the host application
is reached, the CCL script transfers control of the session to the
appropriate Communications
Module.
Conununications Modules

These are Macintosh code segments that may be written and
added to MacWorkStation. They
are responsible for ensuring that
MacWorkStation functions entirely independently, without
regard to the type of network
the communication with the
host application is taking place
on. This allows MacWorkStation
to work over a wide range of
communications protocols.

Data Flow Diagram

Host

(mainframe)

Macintosh
Screen

Printer

lllllHlll llllmlllll!IN

Application
running on
the host

Host
libraries

Macintosh
While (x=y)

1
Host

MacWorkStation messages
Supported network

1
MacWorkStation

MacWorkStation
application

Mac Workstation
Implementation

Utilizing MacWorkStation to
develop a Macintosh interface
on a host application requires
that the host software be mod­
ified. This modification can take
one of two forms. If the applica­
tion has been written with a
separate module to manage the
terminal or user-interface inter-

action, then a Macintosh inter­
face module can be written to
manage the interaction between
the host application and Mac­
WorkStation. If the application
has been written to include the
terminal-handling function as an
integral part, then the applica­
tion must be modified directly to
support MacWorkStation.

In a typical application,
MacWorkStation could be used
as a front-end for the following:
.,.. An office automation system
(mail, calendar handling, and
other tasks)
.,.. A transaction entty system
.,.. A database system
.,.. An executive information
system

MacWorkStation Architecture

Director
Suites

Communications Modules

•

3.0

D

Future support

System Requirements

MacWorkStation can be used
with a Macintosh 512K En­
hanced, Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II
personal computer.

Communications Modules
for TIY (Asynchronous), Apple­
Talk� and AppleLine'" 3270
are provided with the initial
package.

Product Support

Support is available through
Apple's developer services
organization. Apple direct ac­
counts and MIS developers

also have access to Apple's
Technical Communications
support group.

Availability

Apple Software Licensing
20525 Mariani Avenue, MIS 28B
Cupertino, CA 95014

Additional Communications
Modules will be available from
Apple and third parties.

(408) 973-4667

.,.. MacWorkStation program­
mer's reference
.,.. Macintosh user-interface
guidelines

Ordering Information

MacWorkStation
Order No. M0684

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. MacWorkStation Program
disk
.,.. Test Host Program disk
.,.. MacWorkStation program­
mer's guide

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc. AppleLlne and MacWorkSration are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
January 1988
Product specifications are subject to change without notice.

MacAPPC

A p p l eT a l k Z o n e s :
M a r-k e t i n g G ro u p
F i n a n c e D e p a r-t rn e n t
M I �; D e v e 1 o p rr1 e n t

!!!!!!

U s e r- N a m e :

Davi d Appl eton
A p p l eT a l k

(�) A c t i v e
() I n a c t i v e

Overview
MacAPPC™ software is one of a
family of connectivity products
that let the Apple® Macintosh®
personal computer function in
mainstream IBM Systems Net­
work Architecture (SNA) environ­
ments. It provides programmers
with the necessary software tools
to support communications
services between Macintosh and
SNA networks.
MacAPPC provides a com­
plete implementation of the SNA
Logical Unit 6.2 (LU 6.2) peer-to­
peer protocol. It is a modular

extension to Macintosh system
software, ensuring its availability
on all members of the Macintosh
family, as well as its compatibility
with other networks (such as
AppleTalk®) and software that
may already be installed.
MacAPPC makes it possible to
develop commercial applications
that provide access to other
Macintosh and non-Macintosh
environments using the services
of the LU 6.2 protocol. It also
allows for the development of
applications that tightly integrate

Macintosh personal computers
with established environments
that support LU 6.2.
MacAPPC software provides
the tools to create powerful,
sophisticated distributed applica­
tions that provide transparent
access to information-regard­
less of its location or the type of
system on which it resides. And
because it is a Macintosh tool,
MacAPPC makes this remote in­
formation accessible through the
familiar Macintosh user interface.

Features

Benefits

� Implementation of IBM SNA Logical
Unit 6 . 2 (LU 6 . 2)/Physical Unit 2 . 1 (PU 2 . 1)
protocols

� Facilitates development of Macintosh
applications that are compatible with SNA
and other networks that support advanced
SNA protocols .

� Support for peer-to-peer communica­
tions between Macintosh and other
SNA/LU 6 . 2-based systems via IBM's
Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications (APPC) facilities

� Enables Macintosh applications to
dynamically exchange information with
IBM-based applications .

� Macintosh Toolbox extension

� Makes it easier to develop consistent,
easy-to-use Macintosh applications for end
users .

� Hardware independence

� Suppo1ts present and future hardware
operating environments .
� Allows users to choose the means of
connection that best meets their needs (for
example , Token Ring, SDLC, or X.25).

Chooser compatibility

� Features integration with the Macintosh
user interface, for easy setup and access by
the end user.

�

� AppleTalk communications server

� Provides transparent connectivity to SNA
through existing AppleTalk networks .

� Standard programmatic interface

� Provides developers with a common
application program interface. This toolbox,
known as a protocol boundary in the IBM
environment, provides the full set of LU 6 . 2
functionality.

Technical Notes

MacAPPC is implemented in
a client-server configuration.
The server code resides on
a Macintosh Coprocessor
PlatformT" communications card
plugged into one of the NuBus
expansion slots of any member

of the Macintosh II family. The
toolbox portion (the client)
exists as a set of device drivers
on the same Macintosh and/or
on one or more Macintosh
computers connected to the
server via AppleTalk . Because

the Macintosh Coprocessor
Platform is providing the
services and using only the
resources found on the card,
MacAPPC offers LU 6 . 2
connectivity without requiring a
dedicated Macintosh system.

LU 6.2 Device Driver Notes

Protocol Boundary: The LU
6.2 device driver conforms to
the standard Macintosh device
driver format and acts as the
programmatic interface for the
toolbox. The well-defined and
documented programmatic
interface defines the LU 6. 2
protocol bounda1y for
MacAPPC. The protocol
boundary is designed to follow
as closely as possible the verb
definition, parameter names ,
and syntax used in the IBM
protocol bounda1y, with which
developers may already be
familiar.
Support for the LU 6 . 2defined basic conversation,

mapped conversation, and
control operator verbs, a set of
node operator verbs, and
transaction program verbs is
provided in the toolbox.
Interface files for the LU 6. 2
device drivers are available for
the following languages :
� MPWT" 68000 Assembler
� MPW C
� MPW Pascal

Basic conversation verbs
Control operator
CNOS verbs
� Control operator session
control verbs
� Control operator LU
definition verbs
� Node operator control verbs
� Node operator definition
verbs

Functions: The LU 6.2 device
drivers provide the following
functions :
�

Mapped conversation verbs

� Type-independent conversation verbs (except SyncP oint
and Backout)

�

�

� Transaction program

connection verbs

�

Transaction program

utility verbs
� PU 2 . 1 support
� Parallel sessions

MacAPPC
System Requirements

Server requirements:
Any member of the Macintosh II
family and an intelligent

NuBus plug-in communica­
tions card that adheres to the
Macintosh Coprocessor
Platform architecture

Availability

Apple Software Licensing
20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 28B
Cupertino, CA 950 14
(408) 974-4667

Additional Technical
Documentation
(documentation only)
Apple Programmers and
Developers Association (APDA™)
Apple Computer, Inc.
20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 33G
Cupertino, CA 95014-6299
U . S .A.

Ordering Information

MacAPPC

Order No. M0698

Client requirements:
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE,
Macintosh SE/30, or any member
of the Macintosh II family

With your order, you'll receive:
Four BOOK disks with
MacAPPC code and sample
applications, including source
code for sample applications,
plus HyperCard® examples
� Documentation on MacAPPC
�

Apple Computer, Inc.

MacAPPC Documentation

Order No. M0701

With your order, you'll receive:
� Documentation on MacAPPC

MacAPPC Single-User
Evaluation Kit

Order No. M02 18LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
� Single-user evaluation copy
of the complete MacAPPC
software package, including
documentation

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, HyperCard, and Macintosh are
registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. APDA, MacAPPC, Macintosh Coprocessor Platform, and
MPW are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. IBM and SNA are registered trademarks of International
Business Machines Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
June 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
M0238LUA

MacDFT
Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

Session 4

A p p 1 e C o m p u t e r .•

Session 5
*

I nc .

Commun i cat i ons Product

Deve l opment

L o n e s t a r·
OS :

f1 lJ S / X A 2 . 2 . 0

***

****

****

*******

***

*******

***************************

*******************************

******************************
****************************
***************************
***************************

***************************

****************************

*****************************
*************************
***********************
******

******

Overview
MacDFTM is a full-function 3270
terminal emulation program that
enables personal computers in
the Macintosh® II family of sys­
tems to communicate with IBM
mainframes. This application
provides both Control Unit
Terminal (CUT) and Distributed
Function Terminal (DFT) emula­
tion of IBM 3270 Information
Display Systems.

The MacDFT application
software works with the Apple®
Coax/Twinax Card to allow
single-session CUT emulation
or up to five-session DFT 3270
emulation. Files can be trans­
ferred to or from mainframes
running VM/CMS or MVS/TSO
using the IBM IND$FILE pack­
age. MacDFT supports text,
binary, and MacBinary file
transfers.

MacDFT stays active in the
background under MultiFinder�M
Copy and paste functions
between the Macintosh and
mainframe applications are
supported using the Clipboard.
This allows the user to transfer
data easily between an applica­
tion on the mainframe and a local
application on the Macintosh
desktop.

Features

Benefits

� 3270 Information Display Systems
emulation

� Allows access to 3270 applications and
data on IBM mainframes.

� Support for

3270 screen formats

2, 3, 4, and 5

� Supports standard application screen
layouts .

� Distributed Function Terminal (DFT)
support

� Displays up to five separate 3270
sessions simultaneously.

� Integrated file transfer between
Macintosh II systems and IBM mainframes
running VM/CMS or MYS/TSO

� Permits transfer of files between
Macintosh II computers and IBM main­
frames (file transfer based on IBM's
IND $FILE) .

� Keyboard remapping

� Enables users to assign function keys to

3270 applications .

� Keystroke record and playback

� Allows definition of a string of
frequently used keystrokes .

� Supports both the Apple Coax/Twinax
Card and the Apple TokenTalk"' NB Card

� Provides software portability between
coax and Token-Ring connections for
Macintosh II systems .

Apple 32 70 AP!
Overview
The Apple 3270 API , a high-level
application programming interface ,

Features

Benefits

� The 3270 application programming

�

interface

gives application developers a
consistent platform for developing
customized 3270 applications .
Because the Apple 3270 API is

�

Mapped to IBM's HLLAPI

Enables third-party developers and
information systems application program­
mers to provide consistent Macintosh-to­
IBM value-added applications .
Allows developers to leverage
3270/SNA expertise.

�

based on the IBM 3270 PC High­
Level Language Application
Programming Interface (HLLAPI) ,
application programmers can apply
their knowledge of HLLAPI to
develop Macintosh-to-mainframe
applications .
The API is designed to allow
terminal emulators , file-transfer
programs , and other Macintosh
applications and tools , such as
T
CL/1 M and MacWorkStation:M to
use the 3270 services without being
aware of the physical network
connection details of coax, Token­
Ring, and SDLC .
The Apple 3270 API establishes
and terminates sessions with a
mainframe , maintains context
separation between multiple main­
frame sessions , and sends 3270
keystrokes to the mainframe .

Support for the Apple Coax/Twinax
Card and the Apple TokenTalk NB Card

�

� Allows applications written to the AP!
to be portable across key IBM standard
data links.

MacDFT and Apple 32 70 AP!
System Requirements

To use MacDFT, you'll need:
..,.. A personal computer in the
Macintosh II family of systems

..,.. System Software Version
6.0.3 or higher
..,.. An Apple Coax/Twinax
Card or an Apple TokenTalk
NB Card

On the IBM host, you must
have one of the following IBM
file-transfer software products:
..,.. 5665-3 1 1 (MYS/TSO )
..,.. 5664-281 (VM/CMS)

Ordering Information

MacDFT

Order No. M0695

With your order, you'll receive :
..,.. MacDFT software

..,.. MacDFT User's Guide
..,.. Limited warranty statement

Apple 3270 API

..,.. The Apple 3270 API package, which includes header files,
code, and reference manual, is available from:
Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Software Licensing
1 0431 North De Anza Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 974-4667

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1 0 1 0
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MacDFr, MacWorkStation, MultiFinder, and TokenTalk are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. CUI is a trademark of Network Innovations Corporation. IBM and SNA are registered
trademarks, and MYS and VM are trademarks, of International Business Machines Corporation.
Nu Bus is a rrademark of Texas Instruments.
June 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0064LIJA

Mac TCP

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.

Overview

Features

With MacTCP'" software, devel­
opers now have a way to create
Apple® Macintosh® applications
for network environments that
use TCP/IP protocols-a widely
used standard for networking
heterogenous systems. Licensed
to third-party developers, Mac­
TCP includes TCP, UDP, and IP
protocols and conforms to Inter­
net RFCs and MIL-STDs, thus
ensuring interoperability with
systems on the TCP/IP Internet .
MacTCP runs over both Ethernet
and LocalTalk"-compatible ca­
bling systems and is co-resident
with AppleTalk® protocols . It can
be installed on a Macintosh II,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh Plus,
or Macintosh 512K Enhanced
computer.

�

.

.

.... .

..

.. .

TCP/IP protocol driver implementation

I

I ® 1i£
I 0
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. �
. . .. :
. .

...

.

.

. .. ... . ... .

Bene.fits
Provides a standard platform for
developing applications and solutions.
� Supports multiple TCP/IP services
concurrently.
�

Lets third-party developers create
applications that can run on a range
of Macintosh computers.

�

Compatible with Macintosh II, SE,
Plus, and 512K Enhanced computers

�

� Concurrent TCP/IP and
AppleTalk operation

Preserves full access to AppleTalk ser­
vices. For example, users can run MacTCP
while printing to an Apple LaserWriter®
printer over LocalTalk cabling.

� Both C and assembly
language interfaces

� Provides developers with a familiar
development environment.

Address configuration via
the Control Panel

�

�

�

Apple-supported driver

�

Simplifies installation and setup
procedures for end users and network
administrators.

� Makes technical assistance available for
Apple Certified Developers.

•

®

Mac TCP

System Requirements

To use MacTCP for a Macintosh
computer with a LocalTalkcompatible cabling system,
you'll need the following:
� A Macintosh II, Macintosh
SE, Macintosh Plus, or
Macintosh 5 12K Enhanced
computer

�

Appropriate LocalTalkcompatible cable connectors
� A router with AppleTalk and
TCP/IP support, such as the
Kinetics FastPath

To use MacTCP for a Macintosh
computer on Ethernet, you'll
need:
� A Macintosh II with an
Ethernet interface card such as
the Apple EtherTalk'" Interface
Card, or a Macintosh SE with an
Ethernet interface card such as
the Kinetics EtherPort SE card

Product Details

MacTCP consists of object
code libraries and associated
files for both C and assembly
language development.
Libraries include TCP and
UDP interfaces along with a
name-to-address resolver. A
programmer's reference guide
and an administrator's guide
are provided.

MacTCP implements the following protocols:
-IP (RFCs 791 , 894;
MIL-STD 1777)
-UDP (RFC 768)
-TCP (RFC 793, MIL-STD 1778)
-ARP (RFC 826)
-RARP (RFC 903)
-ICMP (RFC 792)

-BootP (RFCs 951 , 1048)
-RIP (IDEA004)
-DNR (RFCs 1034, 1035)
-Internet Subnetting
(RFC 950)
-Internet Assigned Numbers
(RFC 1010)

MacTCP

MacTCP is a site-licensed product. To order MacTCP, contact:

MacTCP comes with a programmer's reference guide and
a network administrator's guide.

Ordering Information

Software Licensing Department
Apple Computer, Inc.
10431 De Anza Blvd. , MIS 38I
Cupertino, CA 95014

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 -576

Throughput is 3.0 megabits per
second memory-to-memory (on
a Macintosh II over Ethernet).

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, LaserWriter, and Macintosh are
registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. EtherTalk, LocalTalk, and MacTCP are trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc. FastPath and EtherPon SE are trademarks of Kinetics, Inc.
August 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M6045

CUl Serverfor VWCMS
Macintosh with
CL/1 client

•

•

,--

-..,

.------

~

[El �

D

_,

D

.-'

D

---

"" 'b

·-

CL/1 Server software

r ··. ..., .. .. r ... , .,, ,,

D

D

IBM mainframe
running VM/CMS

'D

f-...

'-----

..__

_.,.

.::::i
_.,.

SQL/DS databases

MS-DOS with
CL/1 client

Overview
The CL/1 TM Server for VM/CMS
is a networking software product
that provides CL/1 access to the
Structured Query Language/Data
System (SQL/DS) on a VM/CMS
host system. Running on the
VM/CMS host, the CL/1 Server
works cooperatively with per­
sonal· computer applications that
support CL/1 , such as spread­
sheets, databases, and word
processors running on Apple®
Macintosh® computers and
MS-DOS-compatible computers .

A total connectivity solution
for VM/CMS includes a client
personal computer running an
application with embedded CL/1
support, and a VM/CMS host with
the CL/1 Server. The CL/1 Server
receives requests from the per­
sonal computer application,
carries them out against SQL/DS ,
and sends the desired data back
to the application for desktop
processing.

The CL/1 Server for VM/CMS
provides uniform support for
CL/1-based applications, regard­
less of the type of personal
computer used. It works with
existing SQL/DS databases,
operating under standard VM and
SQL/DS security. As a result, per­
sonal computer users receive
seamless, transparent access to
the SQL/DS data that they have
been authorized to access.

Features

Benefits

� Server operates as a CMS task under
standard VM username/password security

� Maintains the security and integrity of
VM and SQL/DS .
� Eliminates the need for new system
administration procedures for VM or
SQL/DS.

� Uniform support for CL/1 clients

� Allows one server to support all personal
computers running CL/1-compatible
applications , including Macintosh and
MS-DOS applications.

� Standard VM installation procedures

� Makes installation quick and easy.

� Asynchronous operation

� Allows the user to continue other work
while the CL/1 Server performs a connec­
tivity request.

� Incremental compiler implementation

� Improves performance for repetitive
requests .
� Reduces the client system processing
load.

�

Support for the Apple 3270 API

(application program interface)

� Supports Apple's standard connectivity

platform for communications between
Macintosh computers and IBM mainframes.

Product Details

Database Support
.,.. Provides access to SQL/DS
databases
.,.. Provides standard database
naming, data types, system
catalog structure , error codes,
and buffer management

Client Support
.,.. Provides uniform support
for any application developed
with CL/1 developer's toolkits,
including Macintosh and
MS-DO S applications, using
a supported network

Resource Usage

.,.. Provides 3270 datastream
support; allows SNA or nonSNA connection

.,.. 1 megabyte of disk storage
.,.. 1 -megabyte virtual machine
for each active user
.,.. Test program verifies correct
installation and usage

To use the CL/1 Server for
VM/CMS, you'll need the
following:
.,.. Host environment: VM/CMS

.,.. Personal computer clients
running CL/1-compatible
Macintosh or MS-DOS
applications

Network Support

System Requirements

.,.. The client must have the
supported 3270 hardware and
software to emulate a 3278-type
device operating in Control
Unit Terminal (CUT) mode:
-MacDFT"' software and
either the Apple Coax/Twinax
Card or the Apple TokenTalk"'
NB Card for the Macintosh II
family of systems
-PC 3270 entry-level emulator
and supporting hardware under
MS-DOS

Language Specifications
CL/1 is a complete language for
describing connectivity tasks .
The CL/1 language consists of
these statement groups :
.,.. Host connection statements :
Establish and terminate a
connection to a host system in
the network
.,.. Data manipulation statements : Offer complete , SQLbased data access to host
databases
.,.. Program structure statements : Support testing,
looping, and procedure calls
within a CL/1 program
.,.. Output statements :
Generate output messages from
the CL/1 program, which are
processed by the client
application
.,.. Any supported version of
SQL/DS
.,.. Appropriate networking
hardware and software

CI)J Serverfor VJWCMS
Ordering Information

To order the CL/1 Server for VM/CMS, contact:
Network Innovations Corporation
20863 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 257-6800
AppleLink� D0978
Fax: (408) 257-7982

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

With your order, you'll receive:
� A 9-track, 1600-bpi tape
containing the CL/ 1 Server
software and the installation
and configuration programs
� Installation manual
� 90 days of software technical
support
� CL/1 Connectivity Language
Description

© 1 989 I\"et�vork Innovations Corporation. CUl is l:I trndemark of Network Innovations Corporation.
Apple, the Apple logo, AppleLink, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc.
MacDFT and TokenTalk are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. IBM and SNA are registered trademarks,
and CMS, SQL/DS, and V�l are trademarks, of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is
a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
June 1 989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0249Ll/A

CI/1 Serverfor MVS/TSO
Macintosh with
CL/1 client

IBM mainframe
running MVS/TSO
DB2 databases

MS-DOS with
CL/1 client

Overview
The CL/I'M Server for MVS/TSO
is a networking software product
that provides CL/I access to
IBM Database 2 (DB2) databases
on an MVS/TSO host system.
Running on the MVS/TSO host,
the CL/I Server works coopera­
tively with personal computer
applications that support CL/I ,
such as spreadsheets, databases,
and word processors running on
Apple® Macintosh® computers and
MS-DOS-compatible computers.

A total connectivity solution
for MVS/TSO includes a client
personal computer running an
application with embedded CL/I
support, and an MVS/TSO host
with the CL/I Server. The CL/I
Server receives requests from the
personal computer application,
carries them out on MVS against
DB2, and sends the desired data
back to the application for desk­
top processing.

The CL/I Server for MVS/TSO
provides uniform support for
CL/I -based applications, regard­
less of the type of personal
computer used. It works with
existing DB2 databases, operating
under standard TSO and DB2
security. As a result, personal
computer users receive seamless,
transparent access to the DB2
data that they have been autho­
rized to access. CL/I also pro­
vides concurrent access to
multiple DB2 subsystems from
within one desktop application.

Features

Benefits

.,.. Server operates as an MVS task under
standard TSO usemame/password security

.,.. Maintains the security and integrity of
MVS , TSO , and DB2 systems .
.,.. Eliminates the need for new system
administration procedures for MVS , TSO ,
o r D B 2.

.,.. Uniform support for CL/1 clients

.,.. Allows one server to support all personal
computers running CL/1 -compatible
applications, including Macintosh and
MS-DOS applications .

.,.. Standard MVS utilities for installation

.,.. Makes installation quick and easy .

.,.. Asynchronous operation

.,.. Allows the user to continue other work
while the CL/1 Server performs a connec­
tivity request.

.,.. Incremental compiler implementation

.,.. Improves performance for repetitive
requests .
.,.. Reduces the client system processing
load .

.,.. Support for the Apple 3270 API
(application program interface)

.,.. Supports Apple's standard connectivity
platform for communications between
Macintosh computers and IBM mainframes.

Product Details

Database Support
... Provides access to DB2
databases
... Provides standard database
naming, data types , system
catalog structure , error codes ,
and buffer management

Client Support
... Provides uniform support
for any application developed
with CL/1 developer's toolkits,
including Macintosh and
MS-DOS applications, using
a supported network

Network Support
... Provides 3270 datastream
support; allows SNA or nonSNA connection

System Requirements

To use the CL/1 Server for
MVS/TSO, you'll need the
following:
... Host environment:
MVS/TSO

... The client must have the
supported 3270 hardware and
software to emulate a 3278-type
device operating in Control
Unit Terminal (CUT) mode:
-MacDFT"' software and
either the Apple Coax/Twinax
Card or the Apple TokenTalkT"
NB Card for the Macintosh II
family of systems
-PC 3270 entry-level emulator
and supporting hardware under
MS-DOS

Resource Usage
... 1 megabyte of disk storage
... 1 -megabyte virtual machine
for each active user
... Test program verifies correct
installation and usage

... Personal computer clients
running CL/1-compatible
Macintosh or MS-DOS
applications

Language Specifications
CL/1 is a complete language for
describing connectivity tasks .
The CL/1 language consists of
these statement groups:
... Host connection statements :
Establish and terminate a
connection to a host system in
the network
... Data manipulation statements : Offer complete, SQLbased data access to host
databases
... Program structure statements : Support testing,
looping, and procedure calls
within a CL/1 program
... Output statements :
Generate output messages
from the CL/1 program, which
are processed by the client
application
... Any supported version of
DB2
... Appropriate networking
hardware and software

Cl/1 Serverfor MVS/TSO
Ordering Information

To order the CL/1 Server for MVS/TSO, contact:
Network Innovations Corporation
20863 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 257-6800
AppleLink� D0978
Fax: (408) 257-7982

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

With your order, you'll receive:
� A 9-track, 1600-bpi tape
containing the CL/1 Server
software and the installation
and configuration programs
� Installation manual
� 90 days of software technical
support
� CL/1 Connectivity Language
Description

© 1989 Network Innovations Corporation. Cl/1 is a trademark of Network Innovations Corporation.
Apple, the Apple logo, AppleLink, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
MacDFT and TokenTalk are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. IBM and SNA are registered trademarks,
and DB2, MVS, and TSO are trademarks, of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a
registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
June 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0251LUA

Apple EtherTalk NB Card

Overview
The Apple® EtherTalk™ NB Card
provides direct connectivity to
802 . 3 Ethernet networks for the
Macintosh® II family of personal
computers. This easy-to-install
card lets you use the computer
with a variety of networking
protocols, including the
AppleTalk® network system
and TCP/IP .

Features
�

Compliance with IEEE 802 . 3 standards

� Includes EtherTalk software
(AppleTalk Phase 2 protocol support for
users of the Macintosh operating system)

Benefits
� Allows Macintosh II computers to con­
nect to industry-standard Ethernet networks.
� Provides users on the AppleTalk
network system with a higher-performance
cabling alternative that can support single
networks of more than 64,000 nodes and
internets of more than 16 million nodes.

�

A/UX® local area networking support

� When used with Apple's A/UX operating
system, provides a complete solution for
connecting into common UNIX® operating
system-based local area network environ­
ments, including TCP/IP and the Network
File System (NFS) .

�

On-board transceiver

� Allows the use of "thin" Ethernet
coaxial cabling without expensive external
transceivers .

�

NuBus™ compatible

� Plugs into a NuBus expansion slot in
any computer in the Macintosh II family.

�

User installable

�

Installs in minutes.

Apple EtherTalk NB Card
Product Details

The Apple EtherTalk NB Card
provides physical and link­
level access to data communi­
cations networks meeting the
IEEE 802 . 3 and 802 . 2 Logical
Link Control (LLC) standards.
Any of a number of network­
ing protocols can be used with
the EtherTalk NB card. The
table outlines configurations
provided by Apple.

Operating
System

Protocol

Product

Ordering
Information

Macintosh

AppleTalk

EtherTalk
software

Included with
EtherTalk NB card

Macintosh

TCP/IP

MacTCP™

Available through Apple
Software Licensing

A/UX

AppleTalk

EtherTalk
for A/UX

Available through
A/UX dealers

A/UX

TCP/IP
and NFS

B-NET

Included with A/UX

Other operating system/protocol configurations are available from
independent (third-party) developers.

System Requirements

In addition to the Apple
EtherTalk NB Card and accom­
panying software, the following
are required to connect a

Macintosh II personal computer
to Ethernet:
.,. One available NuBus slot
in the computer
.,. Macintosh or A/UX
operating system

.,. Thin coaxial Ethernet
cabling, or a transceiver cable
and transceiver for thick coaxial,
twisted-pair, or fiber-optic
cabling

Technical Specifications

Connectors
.,. BNC connector for thin
Ethernet (RG-58) cabling
.,. AUI (15-pin D-style)
connector for connecting
external transceivers

Packet buffering
.,. 64 kilobytes of dual-ported
local RAM for packet buffering
.,. 32 kilobytes of ROM

Environmental
requirements
.,. Operating temperature:
32° to 1 3 1 ° F (0° to 55° C)
.,. Humidity: 1 0% to 90%
noncondensing

Transmit/Receive data rate
.,. 10-megabit-per-second
maximum data rate
.,. On-board thin Ethernet
transceiver (jumper-selectable)
Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

Apple EtherTalk NB Card

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

Power dissipation
.,. +5 volts:
6 . 5 watts maximum
.,. + 12 volts:
3.6 watts maximum

Order No. M0410LL/A

With your order, you'll receive:
.,. Apple EtherTalk NB Card
.,. T-connector for thin Ethernet
cabling
.,. Clip and screws for AUI
connector
.,. EtherTalk software
.,. EtherTalk NB User's Guide
.,. Limited warranty statement

© 1989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, NUX, and Macintosh are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. EtherTalk and MacTCP are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
NFS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. UNIX is a
registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
June 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2300/B

Apple Coax/Twinax Card

Overview
The Apple® Coax/Twinax Card
microprocessor, memory, and
is an expansion card that allows
multitasking operating system.
personal computers in the
Operating independently of the
Macintosh® II family of systems to main Macintosh II processor,
connect to an IBM SNA network
the Apple Coax/Twinax Card
as 3270 Information Display
supports the execution of com­
Systems, via industry-standard
munications protocols with
coax cabling. The card allows
minimal access to the Macintosh
users to access mainframe-based
II processor and operating
3270 applications in the same
system. And because all of the
manner as they would from a
communications processing is
terminal, while enjoying all of the done on the card, Macintosh
benefits of Macintosh technology applications can run more effec­
for their local applications. The
tively under MultiFinder.™
Apple Coax/Twinax Card also has
The MacDFT'M application
a twinax connector for future
software works with the Apple
5250 terminal emulation support. Coax/Twinax Card to allow
This intelligent NuBus™ inter­
single-session Control Unit
face card has its own 68000
Terminal (CUT) emulation or

up to five-session Distributed
Function Terminal (DFT) 3270
emulation. Files can be trans­
ferred to or from mainframes
running VM/CMS or MYS/TSO
using the IBM IND$FILE package.
The Apple 3270 API, a high­
level application programming
interface, gives application
developers a consistent platform
for developing customized 3270
applications.
The Apple Coax/Twinax Card
offers Macintosh customers Apple
support for Macintosh-to-IBM
3270 mainframe applications.

Apple Coax/Twinax Card
Features and Benefits

Features
�

Benefits

Connection to SNA networks

Allows access to applications and data on
IBM mainframes .

�

Based o n the Macintosh Coprocessor
PlatformT"

� Handles all SNA communications processing
for the Macintosh II.

�

�

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

5 1 2K of RAM expandable to 1 megabyte

�

,

To use the Apple Coa:x/Twinax
Card, you'll need:

Connector
BNC (coax) and 1 5-pin
D-style (twinax)

Provides support for multiple protocols.

�

A personal computer in the
Macintosh II family of systems
� System Software Version
6.0.3 or higher

�

Processor
Motorola 68000 running at
10 megahertz

Application programming
interface
� Apple 3270 API

�

�

Interface
� NuBus; plugs into any
Macintosh II computer

Memory
� 5 1 2K of RAM expandable
to 1 megabyte
,

MacDFT application software

Coax support
Category A

�

Power dissipation
10 watts

�

Ordering Information

Apple Coax/Twinax Card

Order No. M0261

With your order, you'll receive :
Apple Coax/Twinax Card
� MacDFT application
software (included with the
Apple Coa:x/Twinax Card) .
Please refer to the MacDFT data
sheet (M0064LL/A) for features
and product details .
�

�

�

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

MacDFT User's Guide

Limited warranty statement

©1989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MacDFT, Macintosh Coprocessor Platfonn, and Multifinder are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. IBM and SNA are registered trademarks, and MVS and VM are trademarks, of
International Business Machines Corporation. Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola
Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
June 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0063LUA

Apple Serial NB Card

Overview
The Apple® Serial NB Card is
an expansion card that allows
personal computers in the
Macintosh® II family of systems to
connect to remote systems via a
variety of industry-standard serial
communications protocols. The
card includes four serial ports that
support RS-232, RS-422, X. 2 1 , or
V.35 communications.
An intelligent NuBus™ card,
the Apple Serial NB has its own
68000 microprocessor, memory,

and multitasking operating
system. Operating independently
of the main Macintosh II proces­
sor, the Serial NB Card supports
the execution of communications
protocols with minimal access
to the Macintosh II processor and
operating system. And because
all of the communications
processing is done on the card,
Macintosh applications can
run more effectively under
MultiFinder �M

When used with Apple's
MacAPPC™ software, the Serial
NB Card provides a complete
SDLC solution, at the physical
and data-link layers, for connec­
tivity in the IBM Systems
Network Architecture (SNA)
environment.

Apple Serial NB Card
Features and Benefits

Features

Benefits

�

Based on the Macintosh Coprocessor
Platform™

�

Four serial ports, two of which can be
configured for high-speed communications

�

�

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Apple Serial NB
Card, you'll need:

Connector
DB-62 connector-for
multiple-port connectivity
(cables available separately
from Apple Computer)

�

Interface
NuBus-plugs into any
computer in the Macintosh II
family

Handles all communications processing for
the Macintosh II.

Can be configured for use as RS-232, RS-422,
X. 2 1 , or V.35 communications ports.

�

A personal computer in the
Macintosh II family of systems

�

�

Processor
Motorola 68000 running at
10 megahertz

Power dissipation
� 1 2 . 5 watts

Memory
� 5 1 2K of RAM , expandable
to 1 megabyte

Transmit/Receive data rates
19.2 kilobits per second
� 64 kilobits per second using
the specified DMA-backed ports

Macintosh System Software
Version 6.0.3 (or greater)

�

�

Ordering Information

Apple Serial NB Card

Order No. M0264

With your order, you'll receive:
Apple Serial NB Card
� Installation guide
� Limited warranty statement

�

MacAPPC
(available separately from
Apple Computer)

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TIX 171-576

Order No. M0698

With your order, you'll receive:
� Four SOOK disks with
MacAPPC code and sample
applications
� Documentation on MacAPPC

© 1989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MacAPPC, Macintosh Coprocessor Platform, and MultiFinder are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. IBM and SNA are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation.
Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
June 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M0239LL/A

Apple Token Talk NB Card

Overview
The Apple® TokenTalk™ NB
Card is an expansion card that
allows personal computers in the
Macintosh® II family of systems
to connect to IBM and IBM­
compatible Token-Ring networks .
Because the card supports a
variety of network environments,
including AppleTalk,® 3270,
APPC, and SMB, users can access
local area network (LAN) and
mainframe-based services con­
nected to the Token-Ring.
The Apple TokenTalk NB
Card is an intelligent NuBus'M
interface card that has its own

68000 microprocessor, memory,
and multitasking operating sys­
tem. Operating independently of
the main Macintosh II processor,
the card supports the concurrent
execution of multiple networking
protocols with minimal access to
the Macintosh II processor and
operating system. It incorporates
the industry-standard Texas
Instruments TMS 380 chip set for
all Token-Ring access functions.
And because all the communica­
tions processing is done on the
card, your Macintosh II is free to
run other Macintosh applications .

The Apple TokenTalk NB
Card is compatible with the IEEE
802. 5 Media Access Control
(MAC) standard for Token-Ring
networks, as well as the IEEE
802 . 2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
standard for higher-level software
access to 802 . 5 facilities. The
card transmits and receives data
at 4 megabits per second, and
interoperates with other IEEE
802-compatible Token-Ring
interface cards at the physical
and data link layers.

Features

Benefits

..,. Connection to IEEE 802 . 5 and 802 . 2
industry-standard Token-Ring networks

..,. Provides Macintosh access to network­
based applications, services , and data .
..,. Supports the IBM cabling system.

..,. Support for AppleTalk protocols and
services

..,. Allows access to network-based
services via a single cabling system.
..,. Provides access to AppleTalk services
at 4 megabits per second .

..,. Texas Instruments' TMS 380 Token
Ring chip set

..,. Ensures compatibility with the IEEE and
IBM Token-Ring standards .

..,. Based on the Macintosh Coprocessor
Platform

..,. Handles all communications processing
for the Macintosh II.
..,. Allows concurrent execution of
multiple networking protocols .

..,. Support for Apple and third-party
network services

..,. Enables the user to choose from a range
of network environments .

TM

Token Talk Software and SMB File Transfer Utility
(included with Apple TokenTalk NB Card)
TokenTalk Software

Apple's TokenTalk software, which is
compatible with AppleTalk Phase 2 ,
brings the advantages o f the AppleTalk
network system to standard Token-Ring
networks . Personal computers in the
Macintosh II family of systems can be
connected to virtually any size Token­
Ring network or internetwork while
retaining access to all AppleTalk-based
resources, such as Apple LaserWriter®
printers and AppleShare® file and
print servers .
As part of the AppleTalk
network system, TokenTalk is comIii:

rn e

[dl1

Ulew

�Pe•lal

o ro l P o n e l

pletely transparent to the Macintosh
user. After the user installs TokenTalk
via a simple Macintosh program,
AppleTalk services appear as they
would on any AppleTalk network.
Through the Control Panel desk
accessory, the user can easily establish
a link to the TokenTalk network. The
Chooser desk accessory is then used to
select AppleTalk network services .
The TokenTalk software provides
the extended features of AppleTalk
Phase 2. AppleTalk Phase 2 permits
users to build single networks of more

than 64,000 Macintosh personal
computers , and internetworks of more
than 16 million Macintosh computers.
And the TokenTalk software delivers
AppleTalk network services concur­
rently with other Token-Ring services,
such as MacDFT or MacAPPC.
Using network routers , such
as the AppleTalk Internet Router,
TokenTalk also allows easy user
access to services on LocalTalk"'' and
EtherTalk"' networks .

Features

Benefits

� Support for AppleTalk Phase 2
protocols running over 802 . 5 Token­
Ring networks

� Brings AppleTalk se1vices to Macintosh
users in Token-Ring environments .

� Integration into the Macintosh desktop
environment

� Provides consistency in network
installation, connection, and access .

� Support for source-routing bridges

� Allows TokenTalk users to leverage
their investment in IBM Token-Ring bridges.

� User-installable

� Installs quickly and easily.

network can access information on IBM
PC LAN Program SMB (Server Message
Block) file se1vers . Users can mount
SMB volumes and transfer files be­
tween their Macintosh II systems and
the mounted volumes. The SMB File

Transfer Utility uses the Apple File
Exchange application (included)
to transfer and translate files
between Macintosh and MS-DOS
formats .

ID� l n t

.�.
- Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit-DB-9
Order No. M2065

For use with the Macintosh 128K,
Macintosh 512K, Macintosh 5 1 2K
Enhanced, and some network
peripherals

With your order, you'll receive:
II>- 1 LocalTalk connector with
DB-9 plug
!)>- 2 meters of LocalTalk cable
II> 1 cable-extender plug
..,. Installation and operating
manual
� Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Locking
Cable Kit-10 Meter
Order No. M2066

With your order, you'll receive:
II>- 10 meters of LocalTalk cable
li'I>- 1 cable-extender plug
11> Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Locking
Cable Kit-25 Meter
Order No. M2069

With your order, you'll receive:
r>- 25 meters of LocalTalk cable
..,. 1 cable-extender plug
..,. Limited warranty statement

LocalTalk Custom
Wiring Kit
Order No. M2070

With your order, you'll receive:
!lo- 100 meters of Loca!Talk
cable
11>- 20 preassembled plugs
... 20 cable-splicing
mechanisms
..,. 4 cable-extender plugs
11> Installation instructions
111> Limited warranty statement

ImageWriter 11/LQ
AppleTalk Option
Order No. A9B0313

To connect an ImageWriter II or
ImageWriter LQ printer to a
LocalTalk network

With your order, you'll receive:
Ii>- ImageWriter II/LQ
AppleTalk Option Card
.. 1 disk (printer drivers)
111> User's guide
Di> Limited warranty statement

AppleTalk PC Card
Order No. M2050

To connect an IBM PC or other
MS-DOS computer to a LocalTalk
network

With your order, you'll receive:
� AppleTalk PC Card
t> 2 disks (1 startup,
1 program)
..,. Installation and operating
manual
ti> Limited warranty statement

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 -576

©1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, Apple UGS, AppleTalk, ImageWriter, LaserWriter, and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleShare, LaserShare, and LocalTalk are trade­
marks of Apple Computer, Inc. Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. IBM is a registered trade­
mark of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
October 1987. Product specifications are subj ect to change without notice.
M3004

LocalTalk PC Card

Overview

Features

Benefits

LocalTalk'" PC Card, a half-size
card for the PC expansion bus,
allows users of MS-DOS comput­
ers to share the unique benefits
of the AppleTalk® Network Sys­
tem-including the ability to print
professional-quality documents
on networked Apple® LaserWriter®
printers. The LocalTalk PC Card
also provides the foundation for
other network services, such as
electronic mail, print service, and
file and peripherals sharing. For
example, with the addition of
AppleShare® PC software, MS-DOS
users can share information with
Macintosh® users on the network
through an AppleShare file server,
and take full advantage of the
power of the LaserWriter printer.

�

LaserWriter printing for PC-compatible
computers using PC LaserWriter program

�

�

Attaches to LocalTalk Cabling
System

�

Information sharing between Macintosh
and MS-DOS systems

Lets Macintosh and PC-compatible com­
puters share information, using software
such as AppleShare PC.
� Allows integration of MS-DOS informa­
tion into Macintosh applications such as
desktop-publishing programs.
� Connects PC-compatible computers to
the fastest-growing workgroup network.

�

Brings professional-quality printing to
documents produced on PC-compatible
computers.

Gives MS-DOS users access to the
LaserWriter printer's wide range of type
styles and sizes, and graphics capabilities.

�

LocalTalk PC Card
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the LocalTalk PC Card,
you will need:
llJJ> An IBM PC, PC XT, PC AT,
PS/2 (Model 25 or Model 30),
or a compatible computer
.,. A minimum of 256K RAM
with either two double-sided
floppy disk drives or one hard
disk drive and one floppy disk

.,. AppleTalk protocol
support

llJJ>

Accessed through software
interrupt with parameter block

Processor

Power consumption

LAP, DDP, ATP, NBP, ZIP, EP,
PAP, RTMP, ASP

Driver interface

.,. 65C02; 1 .8-megahertz clock
speed

.,. 4 watts at 5 volts DC (typical)

Memory

.,. PC half-size card (5 in. long
by 4.5 in. high)

.,. 8 kilobytes RAM 8 kilobytes
ROM
,

AppleTalk commwtications
controller
.,. Zilog 8530 sec

Interfaces

.,. RS-422 serial port (230.4kilobaud data transfer rate);
DMA interface to host PC

Apple Computer, Inc.

Configuration

.,. Selectable Interrupt Request
(IRQ), DMA Request and Ac­
knowledge (DRQ and DACK),
and I/0 Address; default con­
figuration corresponding to PC
COM2 device

11JJ>

Ordering Information

drive, and MS-DOS Version 3.1
or later (or a compatible operat­
ing system)
.,. An AppleTalk network that
uses the LocalTalk cabling
system
llJJ> A LocalTalk Locking
Connector Kit (DB9)

localTalk PC Card
Order No. M2313

Size

Applications supported

.,. Lotus 1-2-3, MultiMate, and
WordStar (directly from PC
LaserWriter program menu)
11JJ> dBASE II, III, and III Plus;
DisplayWrite 3; Framework I
and II; Microsoft Word 3.0;
MultiMate Advantage; PC-Write;
Perfect Writer; RBase 5000;
Symphony; SideKick; Word­
Perfect; and WordStar and
WordStar 2000 (through ASCII
menu option)

With your order, you'll receive:
llJJ> LocalTalk PC Card
.,. Two 360-kilobyte, 5.25-inch
floppy disks (a startup disk and
an applications disk)

Recommended equipment:
An Apple LaserWriter, Laser­
Writer Plus, LaserWriter IIm,
or LaserWriter IINTX printer
.,. Appropriate LocalTalk net­
work cables for all additional
computers on the network
llJJ> AppleShare File Server and
Print Server software
.,. AppleShare PC workstation
software

llJJ>

Print-file formats supported
.,. PostScript®
.,. Diablo 630
ASCII

llJJ>

Printer utilities functions
.,. Select LaserWriter
.,. Rename LaserWriter
.,. Send test page

Accessible fonts

.,. Courier, Helvetica� and
Times® Roman (directly from
PC LaserWriter program menu)
.,. All LaserWriter fonts (using
PostScript commands)

PostScript programming
access

.,. PostScript programming ad­
ditions may be made directly
within the text of a file, or in­
directly by modifying the PC
LaserWriter program dictionary
files so that programming ad­
ditions can be made available
to all documents.

One 3.5-inch disk (includes
both startup and application)
.,. LocalTalk PC Card Owner's
llJJ>

Guide

.,. Limited warranty statement

localTalk Locking
Connector Kit (DB9)

Order No. M2o65

AppleShare PC Software

Order No. Mo673

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 -576

© 1 988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleLink, AppleShare, AppleTalk, l.aserWriter, and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Loca!Talk is a trademark of Apple Computer,
Inc. dBASE, dBASE II, dBASE III, dBASE lII Plus, Framework, and Framework II are trademarks of Ashton­
Tate Corporation. Diablo 630 is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. Helvetica and Times are registered
trademarks of Linotype Company. Lotus, 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation. MultiMate is a trademark of MultiMate International, a subsidiary of Ashton-Tate Corporation.
PC-Write is a trademark of Quicksoft. Perfect Writer is a trademark of Thorn EM! Computer Software, Inc.
PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. RBase is a trademark of Microrim, Inc.
SideKick is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc. WordPerfect is a trademark of WordPerfect
Corporation. WordSrar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corporation.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2245/A

Apple Image Writer II

Overview
The Apple® ImageWriter® II printer
can enhance the quality of all your
printed communications. It works
with any Apple personal computer
to create high-quality text and
graphics in black or-with a color
ribbon and appropriate software­
in color. You can print up to 2 Yz
pages per minute (250 characters
per second), or choose the "near-

letter-quality" mode for documents
with a professional look.
This is a printer that will grow
with your needs. Add the Image­
Writer II SheetFeeder for effortless
cut-sheet printing. An AppleTalk®
card allows up to 31 users to
share an ImageWriter II over the
AppleTalk Personal Network.
Or add a 32K Memory Option
printing buffer (works with

Apple II computers only) so you
can continue working while
your document is being printed.
For any application-from
word processing and business
graphics to accounting and
artwork-you'll find the Apple
ImageWriter II the right printer
for your current and future needs.

Features
•

Complete Apple compatibility

Bene.fits
• Works with any Apple personal
computer system.

• Three speeds and resolutions

• Lets you choose the speed and output
quality you need at any moment-from
fast drafts to near-letter-quality finals.

• Choice of paper

• Accepts continuous-form computer
paper as well as single sheets such as
letterhead and labels.

• Simple paper loading

• Loads single sheets and continuous­
form paper at the push of a button-or
add the optional SheetFeeder for
automatic loading of up to 100 pages
of cut-sheet paper.

• Quiet operation

• Prints quietly enough for use in any
office or schoolroom.

•

Variety of text enhancements

• Supports boldface, superscript,
subscript, underlining, and pro­
portional text.

•

Optional AppleTalk interface

• Allows access by as many as 31
users for cost-effective printing.

• Color capability

• With the ImageWriter II color ribbon,
prints text and graphics in vibrant colors.

• Buffer option for the

• With the 32K Memory Option, stores
your document in memory so you can
continue working without waiting for
printing to finish.

Apple II family

•

Multiple carbon-copy capability

• Lets you print up to four sheets
simultaneously.

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Apple ImageWriter
II, you'll need one of the fol­
lowing systems:

... An Apple IIGS'", Apple Ile,
Apple III, or Macintosh'" 128K,
512K, or 512K Enhanced,
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE,
Macintosh II, Macintosh XL, or
Lisa® personal computer

.,. An Apple Ile, Apple II Plus,
or Apple II personal computer
with an Apple Super Serial Card
(or other compatible interface)
.,. The appropriate connector
cable for your system

Print method

Character pitches

Maximum number of copies

.,. Impact dot matrix

Print modes/speeds

.,. Draft: 250 characters per
second (cps) at 10 characters
per inch (2 Y2 pages per
minute)
.,. Standard: 180 cps (2 pages
per minute)
.,. Near-letter-quality: 45 cps
( Y2 page per minute)
(Actual throughput will vary
depending on computer and
software.)
Character format

.,. Fixed alphanumeric symbols
-Draft mode: Up to 12 by 8
dot matrix
-Standard mode: Up to 7 by
8 dots
-Near-letter-quality mode:
Up to 16 by 16 dots
.,. Custom (downloaded)
characters
-Variable width, up to 16 by
8 dots

·

.,. Draft, standard, and near­
letter-quality: 9 to 17 characters
per inch (72 to 136 characters
per line), through use of nor­
mal and double-width modes
• Proportional text: 144 or 160
dots per inch
Built-in character sets

.,. American, Italian, Danish,
British, German, Swedish,
French, and Spanish
.,. Selectable by using dip
switches or appropriate
software
Graphic densities

... 72, 80, 96, 107, 1 20, 1 36,
144, and 160 dots per inch
(maximum dots per line: 1 ,280)

line spacing

.,. 6 or 8 lines per inch, or user
programmable in increments of
Yl44 inch (up to 991144 inch)

Maximum line-feed rate

.,. 4 inches per second

Paper requirements

.,. Format: Cut sheet or fanfold
continuous
.,. Width: 3 to 10 inches (on
pin-feed paper, hole centers
must be spaced between 4.0
and 9.5 inches)
.,. Thickness: 0.05 to 0.28 mm

.,. Original plus three

Ribbons

Type: Fabric; continuous loop
.,. Available colors:
-Black (typical life: 2 million
characters)
-Four-color (magenta, cyan,
yellow, black) (typical life: 1
million characters per color)
Interface

.,. Type: RS-422/RS-232 (serial)
.,. Buffer: 2 kilobytes
.,. Baud rate: 300, 1200, 2400,
or 9600 (user selectable)
.,. Connector: mini-circular 8-pin

Size and weight

.,.
.,.
.,.
.,.

Height: 5.0 in. (127.0 mm)
Width: 17.0 in. (431.8 mm)
Depth: 12.0 in. (304.8 mm)
Weight: 25 lbs. (1 1 . 36 kg)

Power requirements

.,. 1 20 volts AC (± 10%); 60
hertz

Apple Image Writer II
Ordering Information

Apple ImageWriter II

Order No. A9M0320

You will also need one of the
following connector cables:
•

Macintosh Plus

Peripheral-8 Cable

(for a Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh II,
or Apple IlGs)
Order No. M0197
• Macintosh Peripheral-8
Cable
(for a Macintosh 128K, 512K,
or 512K Enhanced)
Order No. M0196
Optional Accessories

With your order, you'll receive:
• Apple ImageWriter II printer
• Power cord

• Ribbon cassette (black)
• User's guide
• Limited warranty statement

• Apple Ile Peripheral-8

•

Cabl1e

Connector Kit

(for an Apple Ile)
Order No. A2C4313

(for use over an AppleTalk net­
work with the ImageWriter
AppleTalk Option installed)
Order No. M2052

• Apple Ile Printer-8 Cable

(for an Apple Ile, Apple II Plus,
or Apple II)
Order No. A2C0314
• Apple Ile Modem-8 Cable
(for a Macintosh XL, Lisa, or
Apple III*)
Order No. A2C0312

AppleTalk System

If you wish to use an Apple Super Serial Card to
interface alternately with both the ImageWriter ll
and a modem, you'll need to use the Apple Ile
Modem-8 Cable. For standard Apple ll con­
figurations, use the Apple Ile Printer-8 Cable.
•

ImageWriter II SheetFeeder

ImageWriter II Color Ribbon

Order No. A9G0432

Order No. A9G0331

32K Memory Option

Image Writer II Reference
Manual
(available from Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company)

Order No. A9B0312
ImageWriter II AppleTalk
Option

Order No. A9B031 1
ImageWriter II Black Ribbon

Order No. A2M0077

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 9%-1010
TIX: 171-576

©1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, lmageWriter, and Lisa are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple llGS and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
March 1987. Produa specifications are subject to change without notice.
M2238

.
Apple Imaae
w rt'ter LQ
6 lv;;

Overview

��
: �7�
�
�

The Apple® I ag Writef" LQ is
ideal for user
o. need a versatile dot-mat
ter t� handle
a broad range of c� pnnting
tasks . Besides roducmg letterquality text a graphics, the
ImageWriter Q offers paper
ng, color and networkhandli
.
mg capabilities '.
Compatible with both Macintosh® and A le II personal
computers t e �ag�Writer LQ
is designed to pnnt virtually any

:�

·

•

®

type of document on a1most any
type of paper' w'th
1 ease and
clarity.
.
Exceptionally fl e�ble paperhandling feature mcluding
a single push/pu tractor,. a
bottom fieed , and an oPt10nal
cut-sheet fieeder-let you effort1essly print mult'tpart forms '
heavy-gauge pa ::, envelopes,
and labels in ad itton to standard
reports or corr�spondence . A 1 5inch-wide carnage 1ets you print
financial spread he ts and, with
the addition of t e mageWriter LQ

�l

�
�

t

Color Ribbon , you can use color
to highlight
rts or presenta­
at, s more, with
tion graphic
the addition of the lmageWriter
AppleTalk® Opt'ion, up to 31
users on an A pleTalk network
can share an nage�riter LQ,
for cost-effec ve . prmting .
1
The cImageWnter LQ is designed 1 or any task. from word
processing and b smess graphics
to accounting an artwork-and
any office .

:��
r
/

�

Features

Benefits

Unique 27-pin print head prints
up to 216 dots per inch (dpi)

�

Three speeds and resolutions

�

�

�

Delivers outstanding letter-quality text
and graphics.
Lets you choose the speed and output
quality you need for any document-fast
draft, near-letter-quality (NLQ) or letter­
quality (LQ).
Prints a wide range of type sizes
in the most popular typefaces: Times�
Helvetica� Courier, and Symbol.

Variety of Macintosh typefaces
and type sizes

�

Apple II text enhancements

�

�

�

Supports boldface, superscript, sub­
script, underlining, and proportional text.
Accepts continuous-form computer
paper, single sheets such as letterhead,
labels, envelopes, heavy-gauge paper,
and multipart forms.

Flexible paper-handling
mechanism

�

15-inch-wide carriage

�

�

�

Accepts spreadsheets and forms that
exceed standard S Yz-inch page widths.

�

Multiple-carbon-copy
capability

� Lets you print multiple-part forms of as
many as five sheets each.

Single tractor with push or
pull mode

�

�

�

Bottom feed

Optional sheet feeder with up
to three bins
�

Eliminates the need for multiple tractors
for different printing tasks, and allows
choice of tractor mode.
Simplifies feeding of multipart forms,
labels, and heavy-gauge papers.
� Prevents the jamming that's commonly
associated with top-through feeding.

�

Permits automatic loading of up to 100
pages of cut-sheet paper per bin.
� Permits envelope feeding with the use
of an optional envelope attachment.

�

�

Optional AppleTalk interface

� Allows access by as many as 31 users,
for cost-effective printing.
� Permits higher-speed printing.

�

Color capability

� With the ImageWriter LQ color ribbon,
prints text and graphics in vibrant colors.

�

Software compatibility

� Offers compatibility with most Apple II
and Macintosh software*.

* See your authorized Apple dealer or software supplierfor details.

System Requirements

To use the Apple ImageWriter
LQ printer, you will need:

.... An Apple IIGS� Apple Ile,
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE,
or Macintosh II computer; or
an Apple Ile computer with an

Apple Super Serial Card (or
other compatible interface)
.,.. The appropriate connector
cable for your system

Technical Specifications

Print method
.,.. 27-pin impact dot matrix

Macintosh fonts (on disk)
.,.. Times, Helvetica, Courier,
and Symbol typefaces in 9-, 10-,
1 2-, 14-, 18-, and 24-point sizes

Ribbons
.,.. Type: fabric, continuous loop
.,.. Available colors
-Black (typical life: 4 million
characters)
-Four-color (magenta, cyan,
yellow, black) (typical life:
1 million characters per color)

Print modes/speeds*
(using internal ROM fonts)
.,.. Draft: 250 characters per
second (cps) at 10 characters
per inch (cpi)
.,.. Near-letter-quality (NLQ):
90 cps at 10 cpi; 140 cps at
144 dots per inch (dpi)
(proportional)
.,.. Letter quality (LQ): 115 cps
at 216 dpi (proportional)
Print resolutions
(using internal ROM fonts)
.,.. Draft: 72 dpi horizontal x
72 dpi vertical
.,.. NLQ: 144 dpi (H) x 216
dpi (V)
.,.. LQ: 216 dpi (H) x 216
dpi (V)
Character pitches
(using internal ROM fonts)
.,.. Draft and NLQ fixed pitch:
9 to 17 cpi
.,.. Draft proportional: 144 or
160 dpi (using half-dot tech­
nique)
.,.. NLQ proportional: 144 or
160 dpi
.,.. LQ proportional: 216 dpi
* Calculated using Shannon
text. Actual speed will vary
depending on computer and
software.

Character sets (built-in)
.,.. American, British, Italian,
Danish, German, Swedish,
French, and Spanish
.,.. Selectable by using dip
switches or appropriate
software
Line spacing
.,.. 6 or 8 lines per inch, or user
programmable in increments
of 1/144 inch (up to 99/J44 inch)
Maximum line-feed rate
.,.. 4 inches per second
Paper options
.,.. Format: cut sheet or fanfold
continuous, envelopes, labels,
multipart forms
.,.. Width: 3.5 to 15 inches (plus
pin-feed margins)
.,.. Thickness: .05 to .55 milli­
meters
Multipart form capability
.,.. Up to 5 pages thick

Interface
.,.. Type: RS-422/RS-232 (serial)
.,.. Buffer: 5 kilobytes
.,.. Baud rate: 300, 1200, 2400,
9600, or 19,200 (user selectable)
.,.. Connector: minicircular 8-pin
Size and weight
.,.. Height: 5 Vs in. 030 mm)
.,.. Width: 23 in. (590 mm)
.,.. Depth: 1 5 YI in. (380 mm)
.,.. Weight: 38 lb. (17 kg)
Power requirements
.,.. 120 volts AC (± 10%; 60
hertz)

Apple Image Writer LQ
Ordering Information

Optional Accessories

Apple Computer, Inc.

Apple ImageWriter LQ
Order No. A9M0340

With your order, you'll receive:
..,. Apple ImageWriter LQ printer
..,. Power cord
..,. Ribbon (black)

..,. Printer resource and Macintosh
fonts on SOOK disks
..,. User's guide
..,. Limited warranty statement

You will also need one of the
following connector cables:
..,. Apple System Peripheral­
s Cable (for a Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh II, or
Apple IIGS)
Order No. M0197

"' Macintosh Peripheral-8
Cable (for a Macintosh 512K
Enhanced)
Order No. M0196

"' Apple II Printer-8 Cable
(for an Apple Ile)
Order No. A9C0314

ImageWriter 11/LQ
AppleTalk Option
Order No. A9B0313

ImageWriter LQ Cut Sheet
Feeder (primary bin)
Order No. A9G0340

ImageWriter LQ Black
Ribbon
Order No. A9G0335

ImageWriter LQ Expansion
Bin (for use with A9G0340)
Order No. A9G0341

ImageWriter LQ Color
Ribbon
Order No. A9G0336

ImageWriter LQ Envelope
Attachment (for use with
A9G0340)
Order No. A9G0343

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996- 1010
TIX: 171 -576

..,. Apple Ile Peripheral-8
Cable (for an Apple Ile)
Order No. A2C4313

.... Localfalk locking
Connector Kit DIN-8
(for use over an AppleTalk
network with the
ImageWriter AppleTalk
Option installed)
Order No. M2o68
Image Writer LQ Reference

(available from Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company)

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, Apple I!GS, ImageWriter, and Macintosh
are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. LocalTalk is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Helvetica and Times are registered tradmarks of Linotype Co. March 1988. Product specifications are sub­
ject to change without notice.
A7F0031

LaserWriter Ilse

Overoiew

The Apple® LaserWriter® Ilse is
Apple's entry-level, single-user
laser printer for the Macintosh®
personal computer. It brings the
individual Macintosh user full­
page, high-resolution (300 dpi)
text and graphics print capability
at an affordable price.

With the LaserWriter Ilse print­
er, Macintosh system users can
produce near-typeset-quality doc­
uments-from correspondence,
proposals, and presentations to
price lists, spreadsheets, and
forms-while saving both time
and money.

The LaserWriter Ilse comes
with four font families: Times�
Helvetica� Courier, and Symbol.

Features

Benefits

Full-page, high-resolution text and
graphics

�

�

�

Motorola 68000 processor

Variety of Macintosh typefaces
and type sizes

�

Provides 300-dot-per-inch resolution
over the entire page, for high-quality
documents.
Allows high-performance printing at up to 8
pages per minute.

�

Prints a wide range of type sizes in the most
popular typefaces: Times, Helvetica, Courier, and
Symbol.

�

�

SCSI interface

�

Background printing

� With the MultiFinder'" software, allows you to
continue work on your Macintosh computer while
printing.

�

LaserWriter family print engine

�

�

Versatile paper handling

Comes with choice of face-down or face-up
output trays.
� Offers adjustable manual feed for labels and
envelopes.
� Features interchangeable paper trays for dif­
ferent paper sizes.

�

Print-media versatility

�

�

Improved toner system

Offers darker blacks and longer life than
previous LaserWriter cartridges.

Transfers data at high speeds for fast printing.
Allows daisy-chaining of up to six additional
peripheral devices.

�

�

Uses the second-generation engine common to
all LaserWriter II models, offering a logical upgrade
path.

�

Lets you print on almost any material-includ­
ing standard photocopy paper, letterhead, labels,
envelopes, and transparency film-for maximum
flexibility in meeting your printing needs.

�

Product Details

QuickDraw
Built into every Macintosh
computer is QuickDraw, a set
of text and graphics routines.
The LaserWriter Ilse relies on
those routines to print.

Users
The LaserWriter Ilse is dedi­
cated to single Macintosh Plus,
SE, or II systems through the
SCSI port. This connection also
allows you to daisy-chain as

Upgrade Options

Your LaserWriter Ilse printer can
be upgraded to a LaserWriter IINT

or LaserWriter IINTX by your
authorized Apple dealer.

System Requirements

To use the Apple LaserWriter
Ilse printer, you must have a

Macintosh II, SE, or Plus com­
puter, with System software 5 . 1
or greater.

many as six additional SCSI
devices, such as hard disks.

LaserWriter Ilse
Technical Specifications

Marking engine
Canon LBP-SX laser
xerographic

Ill-

Processor
Motorola 68000 (7.4Smegahertz dock speed)

Ill-

Memory
16 kilobytes ROM;
1 megabyte RAM

Ill-

Interfaces
SCSI and Apple Desktop
Bus'" (for future expansion)
ports

Ill-

Macintosh fonts (on disk)
Times, Helvetica, Courier,
and Symbol typefaces in 9-, 10-,
1 2-, 14-, 18-, and 24-point sizes.
(For best results, these fonts
should be installed in the Systern file of your Macintosh computer from the disks shipped
with the LaserWriter Ilse.)
Ill-

Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

Apple LaserWriter Ilse
Order No. M6200

20S2S Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 9S014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 - S76

Speed
8 pages per minute maximum throughput (actual speed
depends on images printed)

Ill-

Print quality
... All text and graphics printed
at 300 by 300 dots per inch, full
page
Print materials
... Letter, legal, A4, and BS sizes
using 16- to 20-pound singlesheet photocopy bond, 8- to 34pound letterhead and colored
stock, or transparency overhead
film. Envelopes, labels, and
paper (up to 36-pound) supported via manual feed. Envelopes also supported via
optional envelope tray.
Print capacities
Ill- Paper cassettes hold 200
sheets of 20-pound paper.
... Optional envelope cassette
holds lS envelopes.

With your order, you'll receive:
LaserWriter Ilse printer
... LaserWriter Ilse Fonts disk
... LaserWriter II Installation disk
Ill-

Printable surface
Ill- Letter size: 8.0 by 10.5
inches; legal: 8.0 by 13.0 inches;
A4: 7.41 by 10.86 inches; BS:
7.69 by 10.16 inches (actual
printable area may vary
depending on application)
Size and weight
Height: 8.6 in. (21 .8 cm)
Ill- Width: 20 in. (S0.8 cm)
With letter tray attached, 26.4 in.
(67.1 cm)
Ill- Depth: 18.5 in. (47 cm)
Ill- Weight: 4S lb. (20.2S kg)
Ill-

Operating environment
Ill- Temperature: S0° to 90° F
(10° to 32° C)
Ill- Humidity: 20 percent to 80
percent
Power requirements
90 to 126 volts AC;
SO to 60 hertz

Ill-

Ill-

Ill-

Ill-

Ill-

Letter cassette
Toner cartridge
Owner's guide
Limited warranty statement

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, LaserWriter, and Macintosh are registered trade­
marks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop Bus and MultiFinder are trademarks of Apple Computer,
Inc. Helvetica and Times are registered trademarks of Linotype Company. Motorola is a registered
trademark of Motorola Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M3015

LaserWriter !INT

Overview
The Apple® LaserWriter® IINT,
which combines high resolution
with the ability to produce full­
page text and graphics, is Apple's
mainstream network laser printer
for both individuals and work­
groups.
The LaserWriter IINT printer
offers individuals or users linked

through an AppleTalk® network
the versatility needed to produce
a wide variety of near-typeset­
quality documents-from letters,
memos, and reports to sophis­
ticated text and graphics output,
including artwork, illustrations,
page layouts, and presentations.
It features 1 1 font families (35
typefaces): Times� Helvetica�

Courier, and Symbol, along with
ITC Avant Garde Gothic� ITC
Bookman� New Century School­
book, Helvetica Narrow� Palatino�
ITC Zapf Chancery� and ITC Zapf
Dingbats�

Features

Bene.fits

..,.. Full-page, high-resolution text and
graphics

..,.. Provides 300-dot-per-inch resolution over the
entire page for high-quality documents.

..,.. Motorola 68000 processor

..,.. Allows high-performance printing at up to 8
pages per minute .

..,.. 2 megabytes of RAM

..,.. Improves performance when using multiple
fonts .
..,.. Provides flexibility for the addition of down­
loadable fonts .

..,.. Wide selection of built-in fonts

..,.. Features 1 1 type families in an unlimited range
of sizes and styles .

..,.. PostScript® support

..,.. Offers virtually unlimited versatility in creating
and manipulating text and graphics .
..,.. Works with any software that outputs PostScript­
compatible files, including virtually all Macintosh®
applications, some Apple IlGs® programs, some
MS-DOS and OS/2 applications, and many AT&T
UNIX® programs (requires additional software).
..,.. Provides an upgrade path for your documents;
proof them on a LaserWriter IINT printer, then out­
put the final masters on a PostScript typesetter
without rekeying.

..,.. AppleTalk Network System interface

..,.. Allows access by up to 31 users for cost­
effective printing .
..,.. Allows printing from an Apple Macintosh (mini­
mum 512K of RAM), an Apple IlGs, or an MS-DOS
or OS/2 computer (using the LocalTalk'" PC Card) .

..,.. Background printing

..,.. With the MultiFinder'" software, allows you to
continue work on your Macintosh system while
printing .

..,.. Diablo 630 emulation

..,.. Allows nearly any computer with an RS-232
interface to connect directly and produce high­
quality text output.

..,.. LaserWriter family print engine

..,.. Uses the second-generation engine common to
all LaserWriter II models, offering a logical upgrade
path .

..,.. Versatile paper handling

..,.. Comes with choice of face-down or face-up
output trays .
..,.. Offers adjustable manual feed .
..,.. Features interchangeable paper trays for dif­
ferent paper sizes .

..,.. Print-media versatility

..,.. Lets you print on almost any material­
including standard photocopy paper, letterhead,
labels, envelopes, and transparency film-for
maximum flexibility.

..,.. Improved toner system

..,.. Offers darker blacks and longer life than
previous LaserWriter cartridges.

Product Details

Upgrade Options

PostScript
PostScript is an industry­
standard "page description"
language: it tells a printer pre­
cisely where to place text and
graphics on the page, allowing
fonts to appear in any size,
style, and orientation, and offer­
ing virtually unlimited graphics
capabilities. PostScript is one of
the most powerful and versatile
page-description languages
available.
Virtually all software for the
Apple Macintosh system creates
PostScript-compatible output
files. There are also PostScript­
compatible applications for the
Apple IIGS system and for MS­
DOS or OS/2 compatibles. If
you are working with AT&T
UNIX, you can use the Tran­
Script utility available from

Your LaserWriter IINT can be
upgraded to a LaserWriter IINTX
by your authorized Apple
dealer.

Adobe Systems to convert files
to PostScript format for printing
on the LaserWriter IINT.
When you require higher
resolution or more pages per
minute, or need to use larger or
heavier paper stock than the
LaserWriter IINT can handle, you
can print your documents on
any typesetter that has Post­
Script capability, without retyp­
ing the text or re-creating the
graphics.
Using a LaserWriter IINT
with MS-DOS or OS/2
There are several ways to print
, on a LaserWriter IINT system
from an MS-DOS or OS/2 com­
patible computer:
II>- AppleTalk. Adding a Local­
Talk PC Card to an MS-DOS
or OS/2 computer gives you
access to all of the LaserWriter
IINT printer's text and graphics

capabilities over the AppleTalk
Network System.
PostScript-compatible soft­
ware. An increasing number of

11>-

MS-DOS or OS/2 applications
support the PostScript page­
description language. You can
print on the LaserWriter IINT
from these applications simply
by connecting your computer
to the printer's RS-232 port.
Other MS-DOS or OS/2
software. You can also print

11>-

documents on the LaserWriter
IINT from other MS-DOS or
OS/2 applications via RS-232
connection using Diablo 630
emulation mode. (See the
LaserWriter IINT and LocalTalk
PC Card user's guides for further
details on these options.)

LaserWriter !INT
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Apple LaserWriter
IINT printer, you must have one
of these systems:
..,.. One or more Macintosh
(minimum S12K of RAM) or
Apple IIGs computers conMarking engine

Speed

Printable surface

..,.. 8 pages per minute maximum throughput (actual speed
depends on images printed)

..,.. Letter size: 8.0 by 10.5
inches; legal: 8.0 by 13.0 inches;
A4: 7.41 by 10.86 inches; BS:
7.69 by 10. 16 inches (actual
printable area may vary
depending on application)

Processor

Memory

..,.. 1 megabyte ROM;
2 megabytes RAM

Printing protocols

..,.. Postscript and a subset of the
Diablo 630 command set
Print materials

..,.. All text and graphics printed
at 300 by 300 dots per inch, full
page

..,.. Lelter, legal, A4, and BS sizes
using 16- to 20-pound singlesheet photocopy bond, 8- to 34pound letterhead and colored
stock, or transparency overhead
film. Envelopes, labels, and
paper (up to 36-pound) supported via manual feed.
Envelopes also supported via
optional envelope tray.

Built-in font families

Print capacities

Interfaces

..,.. AppleTalk, Apple Desktop
Bus'" (for future expansion),
and RS-232-C ports
Print quality

..,.. Times, Helvetica, Courier,
Symbol, ITC Avant Garde
Gothic, ITC Bookman, New
Century Schoolbook, Helvetica
Narrow, Palatino, ITC Zapf
Chancery, and ITC Zapf
Dingbats
Apple LaserWriter IINr

Order No. M6210

Apple Computer, Inc.

..,.. Any other computer with an
RS-232-C cable and appropriate
software .

..,.. Canon LBP-SX laser
xerographic
..,.. Motorola 68000 (12megahertz clock speed)

Ordering Information

nected via the LocalTalk
Cabling System.
..,.. An MS-DOS or OS/2 computer with a LocalTalk PC Card
or an RS-232-C cable and appropriate software.

20S2S Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 9S014
(408) 996 -1010
TLX: 171 - S76

..,.. Paper cassettes hold 200
sheets of 20-pound paper.
..,.. Envelope cassette holds lS
envelopes.

With your order, you'll receive:
..,.. LaserWriter IINT printer
..,.. LaserWriter IINT/NTX
Fonts disk
..,.. LaserWriter II Installation
disk

Size and weight

..,.. Height: 8.6 in. (21 .8 cm)
..,.. Width: 20 in. (S0.8 cm)
With letter tray attached, 26.4 in.
(67.1 cm)
..,.. Depth: 18.S in. (47 cm)
..,.. Weight: 4S lb. (20.2S kg)
Operating environment

..,.. Temperature: S0° to 90° F
(10° to 32° C)
..,.. Humidity: 20 percent to 80
percent
Power requirements

..,.. 90 to 126 volts AC;
SO to 60 hertz

Letter cassette
..,.. Toner cartridge
..,.. Owner's guide
..,.. Limited warranty statement

...

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, Apple IIGS, LaserWriter, and Macintosh
are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop Bus, LocalTalk, and Multifinder are
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Diablo is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Helvetica,
Helvetica Narrow, Palatino, and Times are registered trademarks of Linotype Company. ITC Avant
Garde Gothic, ITC Bookman, ITC Zapf Chancery, and ITC Zapf Dingbats are registered trademarks of
International Typeface Corporation. Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Corporation. MS­
DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. PostScript and Transcript are registered
trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M3034/A

•

LaserWriter IINTX

®

Overoiew
The Apple® LaserWriter® IINIX is
a high-performance, expandable
network laser printer for individ­
uals and workgroups. Featuring
the advanced Motorola 68020
processor, the LaserWriter IINIX
prints significantly faster than
previous LaserWriter printers. It
also includes expansion options
that enhance both performance
and font capabilities in a variety
of ways.

The LaserWriter IINIX offers
unparalleled performance and
flexibility for people who pro­
duce a high volume of printed
materials or for people who need
to produce documents containing
sophisticated text and graphics. It
can meet the most rigorous print­
ing requirements of individuals or
users linked through a network­
from memos to proposals to over­
head transparencies for presen­
tations. And it can also handle

the most advanced desktop pub­
lishing needs, including page
layout, artwork, and illustration.
The LaserWriter IINIX features
1 1 font families (35 typefaces):
Times� Helvetica� Courier, and
Symbol, along with ITC Avant
Garde Gothic� ITC Bookman�
New Century Schoolbook, Hel­
vetica Narrow� Palatino� ITC
Zapf Chancery� and ITC Zapf
Dingbats�

Features

Bene.fits

.,. Full-page, high-resolution
text and graphics

.,. Provides 300-dot-per-inch resolution
over the entire page, for high-quality
documents .

.,. Motorola 68020 processor

.,. Allows state-of-the-art performance in
printing text and graphics .
.,. Prints up to four times faster than
previous LaserWriter printers .

.,. 2 megabytes of RAM

.,. Improves performance when using
multiple fonts .
.,. Provides flexibility for the addition of
downloadable fonts .

.,. Expandable up to 12 megabytes
of RAM

.,. Lets you customize the printer for
heavy use of downloadable fonts.

.,. Font-expansion slot

.,. Lets you add optional Font Expansion
Card for additional high-speed ROM­
resident fonts .

.,. External SCSI port

.,. Lets you add as many as seven optional
SCSI hard disks to store downloadable
fonts, which improves performance when
printing fonts in multiple styles and sizes .

.,. Wide selection of built-in fonts

.,. Features 35 typefaces in an unlimited
range of sizes and styles .

.,. PostScript® support

.,. Offers virtually unlimited versatility in
creating and manipulating text and
graphics .
.,. Works with any software that outputs
Postscript-compatible files, including prac­
tically all Macintosh® computer applica­
tions, some Apple IIGs® programs, some
MS-DOS and OS/2 applications, and many
AT&T UNIX® programs (requires addition­
al software).
.,. Provides an upgrade path for your doc­
uments; proof them on a LaserWriter IINTX
printer, then output the final masters on a
PostScript-compatible typesetter without
rekeying.

Features

Bene.fits

�

AppleTalk® Network System interface

� Allows access by up to 31 users for cost­
effective printing.
� Allows printing from an Apple Macin­
tosh (minimum 512K of RAM), an Apple
IIGs, or an MS-DOS or OS/2 computer
(using the LocalTalk'" PC Card).

�

Background printing

�

�

Diablo 630 emulation

�

�

LaserJet Plus emulation

�

�

LaserWriter II family print engine

�

�

Versatile paper handling

�

�

Print-media versatility

Lets you print on almost any material­
including standard photocopy paper, letter­
head, labels, envelopes, and transparency
film-for maximum flexibility in meeting
your printing needs.

�

Improved toner system

�

With the MultiFinder'" software, allows
you to continue work on your Macintosh
system while printing.
Allows nearly any computer with an
RS-232 interface to connect directly and
produce high-quality text output.
Offers compatibility with this widely
used standard in MS-DOS and OS/2
environments.

Uses the second-generation engine
common to all LaserWriter II models.

Comes with a choice of face-down or
face-up output trays.
� Offers adjustable manual feed for labels
and envelopes.
� Features interchangeable paper trays for
different paper sizes.

�

Offers darker blacks and longer life than
previous LaserWriter cartridges.

Product Details

PostScript

PostScript is an industiy­
standard "page description"
language: it tells a printer pre­
cisely where to place text and
graphics on the page, allowing
fonts to appear in any size,
style, and orientation, and offer­
ing virtually unlimited graphics
capabilities. Postscript is one of
the most powerful and versatile
page-description languages
available.
Virtually all software for
the Apple Macintosh personal
computer creates PostScript­
compatible output files. There
are also PostScript-compatible
applications for the Apple Iles
computer and for MS-DOS or
OS/2 compatibles. If you are
working with AT&T UNIX,
you can use the Transcript
Expandability Options

Your LaserWriter IINI'X printer
can be expanded in three ways:

utility from Adobe Systems to
convert files to PostScript for­
mat for printing on the Laser­
Writer IINI'X printer.
When you require higher
resolution or more pages per
minute, or need to use larger
or heavier paper stock than
the LaserWriter IINI'X printer
can handle, you can print your
documents on any typesetter
that has PostScript capability,
without retyping the text or re­
creating the graphics.
Using a LaserWriter IINrx
with MS-DOS or OS/2

There are several ways to print
on a LaserWriter IINrX from an
MS-DOS or OS/2 compatible
computer:
..,. AppleTalk. Adding a Local­
Talk PC Card to an MS-DOS
or OS/2 computer gives you
..,. By installation of additional
RAM for storage of download­
able fonts .
..,. By filling the font-expansion
slot with a Font Expansion Card
for additional high-speed ROM­
resident fonts.

access to all of the LaserWriter
IINrX printer's text and graphics
capabilities over the AppleTalk
Network System.
..,. PostScript-compatible soft­
ware. An increasing number of

MS-DOS or OS/2 applications
support the PostScript page­
description language. You can
print on the LaserWriter IINI'X
from these applications simply
by connecting your computer
to the printer's RS-232 port.
..,. Other MS-DOS or OS/2 soft­
ware. You can also print docu­

ments on the LaserWriter IINI'X
from other MS-DOS or OS/2
applications via RS-232 connec­
tion using Diablo 630 emulation
mode. (See the LaserWriter
IINI'X and LocalTalk PC Card
user's guides for further details
on these options.)
..,. By adding as many as seven
SCSI hard disks for greater
capacity to store downloadable
fonts.

System Requirements

Technical Specifications

An MS-DOS or OS/2 computer with a LocalTalk PC Card
or an RS-232-C cable and appropriate software.
� Any other computer with an
RS-232-C cable and appropriate
software.

�

Marking engine

Built-in font families

Print capacities

Canon LBP-SX laser
xerographic

�

Times, Helvetica, Courier,
Symbol, ITC Avant Garde Gothic,
ITC Bookman, New Century
Schoolbook, Helvetica Narrow,
Palatino, ITC Zapf Chancery,
and ITC Zapf Dingbats

�

�

Processor

Motorola 68020 (16.67megahertz clock speed)

�

Memory

1 megabyte ROM;
2 megabytes RAM

�

Interfaces

SCSI, AppleTalk, Apple
Desktop Bus'" (for future expansion), and RS-232-C ports

�

Expansion capabilities

ROM expansion via fontexpansion slot
� RAM expansion up to 12
megabytes
� External SCSI port for hard
disk font storage
� Apple Desktop Bus for future
expansion
�

Print quality

All text and graphics printed
at 300 by 300 dots per inch,
full page

�

Ordering Information

One or more Macintosh
(minimum S12K of RAM) or
Apple IlGs computers connected via the LocalTalk Cabling
System.

To use the Apple LaserWriter
IINTX printer, you must have one
of these systems:

Apple LaserWriter llNrx

Order No. M621S

Speed

8 pages per minute maximum throughput (actual speed
depends on images printed)

�

Printing protocols

Postscript, a subset of the
Diablo 630 command set, and
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Plus
emulation

�

Print materials

Letter, legal, A4, and BS
sizes, using 16- to 20-pound
single-sheet photocopy bond,
8- to 34-pound letterhead and
colored stock, or transparency
overhead film. Envelopes,
labels, and paper (up to 36pound) supported via manual
feed. Envelopes also supported
via optional envelope tray.

�

With your order, you'll receive:
LaserWriter IINTX printer
� LaserWriter IINT/NTX Fonts
disk

�

�

Paper cassettes hold 200
sheets of 20-pound paper.
� Envelope cassette holds lS
envelopes.
Printable surface

Letter size: 8.0 by 10.5
inches; legal: 8.0 by 13.0 inches;
A4: 7.41 by 10.86 inches; BS:
7.69 by 10.16 inches (actual
printable area may vary
depending on application)

�

Size and weight

Height: 8.6 in. (21 . 8 cm)
Width: 20 in. (S0.8 cm)
With letter tray attached, 26.4 in.
(67.l cm)
� Depth: 18.5 in. (47 cm)
� Weight: 4S lb. (20.2S kg)
�

�

Operating environment

Temperature: S0° to 90° F
(10° to 32° C)
� Humidity: 20 percent to 80
percent
�

Power requirements

90 to 126 volts AC;
SO to 60 hertz

�

�

�
�

�

�

LaserWriter II Installation disk
Letter cassette
Toner cartridge
Owner's guide
Limited warranty statement

LaserWriter !!NIX

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
llX: 171 -576

© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, Apple llGS, LaserWri1er, and Macintosh
are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Desktop Bus, LocalTalk, and Multifinder are
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Diablo is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Helvetica,
Helvetica Narrow, Palatino, and Times are registered trademarks of Linotype Company. ITC Avant
Garde Gothic, ITC Bookman, ITC Zapf Chancery, and ITC Zapf Dingbats are registered trademarks of
International Typeface Corporation. LaserJet Plus is a registered trademark of Hewlen-Packard.
Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of
Microsoft Corporation. PostScript and TranScripl are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc.
UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
June 1988. Product specifications are subject 10 change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M3008/A

Apple 3.5 Drive

Overview

Small in size but large in power,
the Apple® 3.5 Drive stores BOOK
of data on a single 3.5-inch disk.

Features

• Uses BOOK double-sided,
3.5-inch floppy disks

It's a flexible, economical choice
for owners of Macintosh'" Plus,
Macintosh SE, and Apple IIGs'"
personal computers who want
high-capacity storage at an afford­
able price.

• Easy Apple II system expandability

•

In-use light

Benefits

Provides over 2.5 times the capacity
of on-line data storage available from
5.25-inch disks.
• Lets you hold large data files and
applications on one disk, reducing the
need to swap disks.
• Retrieves and stores data substantially
faster than a 5.25-inch drive.
• Provides compatibility with 400K disks.
• Protects data, because disks are rugged
and easy to carry.
• Allows Apple IIGS owners to run
applications that come on 3.5-inch disks.
•

Lets you add up to three additional
disk drives (either 3.5-inch or 5.25 inch)
to increase storage capacity as your
needs change.

•

•

Indicates when drive is running.

Apple 3.5 Drive
System Requirements

To use the Apple 3.5 Drive,
you will need one of the
following:

• An Apple IIGS
• A Macintosh Plus
• A Macintosh SE
• A Macintosh 512K Enhanced

Technical Specifications

Recording media

Head position accuracy
• ±o.035 mm

• Disk diameter: 3.5 inches
• Recording surfaces: 2
• Tracks per inch: 80

Capacity

• Formatted data capacity:
800 kilobytes•
• Unformatted data capacity:
1,246 kilobytes
'Disks used in the Apple

3.5 Drive should

contain certified double-sided media

• Drive characteristics
• Seek time (track to track):
6 milliseconds maximum
• Settle time: 30 milliseconds
maximum
• Drive startup time: 600 mil­
liseconds maximum

Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

Interfaces
• Connects directly to the
disk-drive port of the Macintosh
512K Enhanced, Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, or Apple IIGS.
With the Apple IIGS, an addi­
tional drive can be daisy­
chained to the first drive.
Electrical

requirements
• + 12 volts
-Standby: 10 microamps
-Typical: 120 milliamps
-Peak: 600 milliamps

Environmental

requirements

• Operating temperature:
40° to 122° F (5° to 50° C)
• Storage temperature:
-40° to 140° F (-40° to 6o° C)
with no condensation
• Relative humidity:
5% to 9(}>/o (with maximum wet
bulb temperature of 85° F [29°C]
and no condensation)

Si7.e and weight

•
•
•
•

Height: 2.01 in. (51 mm)
Width: 4.72 in. (120 mm)
Depth: 7:87 in. (200 mm)
Weight: 2.8 lb. (1.3 kg)

(during eject only: 2-second maximum duration)

• +5 volts
-Standby: 10 milliamps
-Typical: 36o milliamps

Apple 3.5 Drive

Order No. A9M01o6

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171-576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are regi&ered trademarl Macintosh II personal
computer.

Technical Specifications

Recording media
Ill> Disk diameter: 3.5 inches
Ill> Recording surfaces: 2
Ill> Tracks per inch: 80

Head position accuracy
Ill> ±o.035 mm

C.apacity

Ill> Fonnatted data capacity:
800 kilobytes*
Ill> Unfonnatted data capacity:
1,246 kilobytes
*Disks used in the Apple 3.5 Drive should
rontain cel1ified double-sided media

Drive characteristics

Ill> Seek time (track to track):
6 milliseconds maximum
Ill> Settle time: 30 milliseconds
maximum
Ill> Drive startup time:
600 milliseconds maximum

Ordering Information

Macintosh Internal SOOK

Interfaces
Ill> Connects to the Macintosh
II via the internal serial
connector
Electrical

requirements

+12 volts
-Standby: 10 microamps
-Typical: 120 milliamps
-Peak: 600 milliamps
(during eject only: 2-second
maximum duration)
Ill> +5 volts
-Standby: 10 milliamps
-Typical: 360 milliamps

Ill>

Order No. M0136

Disk Drive

Apple C:Omputer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX 171-576

Environmental
requirements

Ill> Operating temperature:
40° to 122° F ( 5° to 50° C )
Ill> Storage temperature:
-40° to 140° F (-40° to 6o° C )
(no condensation)
Ill> Relative humidity: 5% to 9(}>Ai
(with maximum wet bulb
temperature of 85° F [29° CJ
and no condensation)

She
Height: 2.01 in. (51 mm)
Ill> Width: 4.72 in. (120 mm)
Ill> Depth: 7.87 in. (200 mm)

Ill>

With your order, you'll receive:
Macintosh Internal 800K Disk
Drive
Ill> Owner's guide
Ill> Limited warranty statement
Ill>

©

1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc.

Macintosh is a trademark of Apple

Computer,-lnc.
July 1987. Product specifications are subject to dt111ge without notice.
M1237

•

Macintosh SE-Bus PC Drive Card

®

Overview

Features

Benefits

The Macintosh® SE-Bus PC Drive
Card provides the link between
an Apple® Macintosh SE personal
computer and the Apple PC 5.25
Drive. With this hardware and the
Apple File Exchange program (in­
cluded), you can convert many
standard MS-DOS data files for use
in Macintosh applications, and
Macintosh files into the MS-DOS
format.*

..,. Direct interface between
Macintosh SE and the
Apple PC 5.25 Drive

..,. In conjunction with the Apple File Ex­
change software, allows your Macintosh
SE to convert files between the Macintosh
and MS-DOS formats.

..,. Apple File Exchange
program included

..,. Provides all the interfacing hardware
and software you need for a complete
data-conversion solution between the
Macintosh and MS-DOS environments.

*See the Apple PC 5.25 Drive and Apple File Exchange data sheets for more information.

Macintosh SE-Bus PC Drive Card
System Requirements

To use the Macintosh SE-Bus
PC Drive Card, you'll need the
following:

.,.. A Macintosh SE personal
computer
.,.. An Apple PC 5.25 Drive

Technical Specifications

Interface
.,.. Installs in the Macintosh
SE-Bus expansion slot

Disk compatibility
.,.. Apple PC 5.25 Drive (uses
360K disks)

Ordering Information

Macintosh SE-Bus PC
Drive Card

Order No. M5023/A

.,.. The Apple File Exchange
software (included with the
Macintosh SE-Bus PC Drive
Card)

With your order, you'll receive:
.,.. Macintosh SE-Bus PC
Drive Card
.,.. Installation kit*
.,.. Apple File Exchange
software and user's guide
.,.. Limited warranty statement
*Dealer installation is required for
this product.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 -576

©1989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
April 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2286/A

Macintosh II PC Drive Card

Overview

Features

Benefits

The Macintosh® II PC Drive Card
provides the link between an
Apple® Macintosh II personal com­
puter and the Apple PC 5.25 Drive.
With this hardware and the Apple
File Exchange program (included),
you can convert many standard
MS-DOS data files so they can be
used in Macintosh applications.*
You can also convert Macintosh
files into the MS-DOS format.

..,. Direct interface between
Macintosh II and Apple PC
5.25 Drive

..,. In conjunction with Apple File Ex­
change software, allows your Macintosh II
to convert files between the Macintosh and
MS-DOS formats.

..,. User installable

..,. Plugs in easily.

..,. Apple File Exchange program
included

..,. Provides all the interfacing hardware
and software you need for a complete
data-conversion solution between the
Macintosh and MS-DOS environments.

'See the Apple PC 5.25 Drive and Apple File Exchange software data sheets for additional information.

Macintosh II PC Drive Card
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

.,. A Macintosh II personal
computer

.,. An Apple PC 5.25 Drive

.,. Apple File Exchange
software (included with the
Macintosh II PC Drive Card)

Interface

Disk Compatibility

.,. NuBus'" ; plugs into any
Macintosh II slot

.,. Apple PC 5.25 Drive (uses
360K disks)

Ordering Information

Macintosh II PC Drive
Card

Order No. M5056

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

©1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. NuBus is a trademark of
Texas Instruments.
June 1 988. Product specifications subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
M2295

With your order, you'll receive:
.,. Macintosh II PC Drive Card
.,. Apple File Exchange
software and user's guide
.,. Limited warranty statement

Apple PC 5.25 Drive

Overview

Features

Bene.fits

The Apple® PC 5.25 Drive is ideal
for Macintosh® personal computer
users who want to use data cre­
ated with MS-DOS applications.
Compatible with formatted MS­
DOS 5.25-inch disks, the Apple
PC 5.25 Drive allows Macintosh
SE and Macintosh II users to
exchange files between MS-DOS­
formatted media and Macintosh­
formatted media. And when a
coprocessor or hardware emu­
lator is installed in the system, the
Apple PC 5.25 Drive can act as an
MS-DOS drive, enabling users to
actually load and run MS-DOS
programs. This affordable, highly
reliable data storage system is
easily attached to a Macintosh
disk-drive controller card.

11>-

MS-DOS-format drive with a standard
connector

Provides easy data exchange between
Apple and MS-DOS-formatted 360-kilo­
byte, 5.25-inch disks.
11>- Acts as an MS-DOS drive when used
with a system that includes a coprocessor.
II>- Provides compatibility with MS-DOS
computers using a standard DB-37
connector.

11>-

NEC controller chip

11>-

Provides the same data transfer rates as
MS-DOS drives.
11>- Offers compatibility with copy­
protected MS-DOS applications.
II>-

Apple PC 5.25 Drive
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use the Apple PC 5.25 Drive,
you will need:

�

A Macintosh SE personal
computer with the Macintosh
SE-Bus PC Drive Card or a
Macintosh II personal computer
with the Macintosh II PC Drive
Card

�

Recording media
5.25-inch removable floppy
disks

�

Rotational speed: 300 rpm
Average startup time: 500
milliseconds

Capacity
Formatted capacity: 360
kilobytes per disk
� Recording surfaces: 2
� Tracks per surface: 40
� Tracks per inch: 48

Power requirements
� 12 volts DC ± lQ Apple SCSI Cable Terminator

To use an Apple Hard Disk
20SC with an Apple Ile or IIGS,
you must have:
• Apple II SCSI Interface Card
• Apple SCSI System Cable

• SCSI Expansion

tional SCSI devices to an Apple
Ile or Apple IIGS, or as many
as six to a Macintosh.

SCSI expansion lets you con­
nect as many as three addi-

Technical Specifications

•

Apple SCSI Cable Terminator

Recording Media

Two double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/Tracks:

20 megabytes (formatted)
4
1
512
39,360
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh Plus:
Macintosh SE:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

85 milliseconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Mac­
intosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh II via the external
SCSI DB-25 connector.

Connects to the Apple Ile or
Apple IIGS via the expansion
port, using the Apple II SCSI
Interface Card.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
30 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)

Altitude:

Ordering Information

Size and weight

Height:
Width:

Apple Hard disk 20SC

With yourorderyou'll receive:
JI>- Apple Hard Disk 20SC
• Owner's Guide
JI>- Setup Disk
JI>- Power cord
• Limited warranty statement

Order No.

M2620

3.1 in. (78.Smm)
9.7 in. (246mm)

265,000 bytes per second
660,000 bytes per second
937,000 bytes per second:
2,744 rpm
15 seconds
25 seconds

Depth:
Weight:

10.5 in. (266 mm)
9 lbs. (4kg)

Apple SCSI System Cable
Order No.

M0206

Apple Cable Terminator
Order No.

M0209

Applen SCSI Interface Card
Order No.

A2B2087

Apple Hard Disk 40SC
System Requirements

See the Apple Hard Disk 20SC for the Apple Hard Disk 40SC system requirements.
Future ProDos updates will
allow full access to the 40
megabyte capacity

Ill- SCSI Expansion
SCSI expansion lets you con­
nect as many as three addi­
tional SCSI devices to an Apple
Ile or Apple IIGS or as many as
six to a Macintosh.

Product Details

111- ProDos
ProDos 1.1 can only access
32 megabytes of storage,
regardless od drive capacity

Technical Specifications

Recording Media

Two double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/Tracks:

40 megabytes (formatted)
4
1
512
78,246
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh Plus:
Macintosh SE:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

30 milliseconds
265,000 bytes per second
660,000 bytes per second
937,000 bytes per second:
3,662 rpm
13 seconds
18 seconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Mac­
intosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh II via the external
SCSI DB-25 connector.

Connects to the Apple Ile or
Apple UGS via the expansion
port, using the Apple II SCSI
Interface Card.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
60 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:
Altitude:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 800/o (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)

Size and weight

Height: 3.1 in. (78.Smm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246mm)

Depth: 10.S in. (266 mm)
Weight: 9 lbs. (4kg)

Apple Hard disk 40SC
Order No. M2644

With your order you'll receive:
Ill- Apple Hard Disk 40SC
Ill- Owner's Guide
111- Setup Disk
Ill- Power cord
.,,. Limited warranty statement

Apple SCSI System Cable
Order No. M02o6
Apple Cable Terminator
Order No. M0209
Applell SCSI Interface Card
Order No. A2B2087

Ordering Information

Apple Hard Disk 80SC
System Requirements

See the Apple Hard Disk 20SC for the Apple Hard Disk 80SC system requirements.

Product Details

• ProDos
ProDos 1.1 can only access
32 megabytes of storage,
regardless od drive capacity
Future ProDos updates will

Technical Specifications

Recording Media

Three double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/Tracks:

80 megabytes (formatted)
6
1
512
156,370
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh Plus:
Macintosh SE:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

30 milliseconds
265,000 bytes per second
660,000 bytes per second
937,000 bytes per second:
3,662 rpm
13 seconds
18 seconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Mac­
intosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or
Macintosh II via the external
SCSI DB-25 connector.

Connects to the Apple Ile or
Apple IIGS via the expansion
port, using the Apple II SCSI
Interface Card.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
60 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:
Altitude:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (0 to 3,048 m)

Size and weight

Height: 3.1 in. (78.Smm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246mm)

Depth: 10.5 in. (266 mm)
Weight: 9 lbs. (4kg)

Ordering Information

Apple Hard disk SOSC
Order No. M2688

With your orderyou'll receive:
• Apple Hard Disk 80SC
• Owner's Guide
• Setup Disk
• Power cord
• Limited warranty statement

Apple SCSI System Cable
Order No. M0206
Apple Cable Terminator
Order No. M0209
Applen SCSI Interface Card
Order No. A2B2087

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

allow full access to the 40
megabyte capacity
• SCSI Expansion
SCSI expansion lets you con­
nect as amny as three addi-

tional SCSI devices to an Apple
Ile or Apple IIGS or as many as
six to a Macintosh.

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc.
AppleShare, Apple llGS, and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. UN1J( is a registered trademark
of AT&T lnforrnation Systems. July 1987. Proclua specifications are subjea to change without notice.
M2234

Macintosh Internal Hard Disks 205� 405� 805C

•

Overview

Features

Bene.fits

Three Macintosh'" Internal Hard
Disks-the 20SC, 40SC, and 80SC
-provide access to high-perfor­
mance storage and large-capacity
solutions. The Maacintosh Internal
Hard Disk 20SC fits inside Macin­
tosh SE and Macintosh II person­
al computers, and the 40SC or
80SC fit inside the Macintosh II.
These disks require no desk space,
and virtually eliminate disk swap­
because they can accommodate
multiple applications, lengthy
documents, and large data bases,
in one convenient location.
Besides providing up to 100
times the storage capacity of an
SOOK floppy disk, Macintosh
Internal Hard Disks let you ac­
cess data up to six times faster
than 3. 5-inch floppy-disk drives.

... 20, 40, or 80 megabytes of internal
disk storage

... Provides space for data-intensive files,
large documents, and bigger applications.
... Virtually eliminates disk swapping.

... Fast data access:
-30 milliseconds with the Macintosh
Internal 40SC and 80SC Hard Disks
-85 milliseconds with the 20SC Hard Disk

... Finds data significantly faster than
3. 5-inch floppy drives.

... Industry-standard Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI)

... Provides faster data transmission than
a serial interface.
... Provides connection to the Apple Tape
Backup 40SC for efficient file backup
and restoration.
... Lets you expand your system with up

to six additional SCSI hard disks, tape
backup drives, or other SCSI devices.

®

Macintosh Internal Hard Disk 20SC
System Requirements

To use an Macintosh Internal
Hard Disk 20SC, you must
have a Macintosh SE or Mac­
intosh II personal computer.

Technical Specifications

Recording Media

Two double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/Tracks:

20 megabytes (formatted)
4
1
512
39,360
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh Plus:
Macintosh SE:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

85 milliseconds

Ordering Information

265,000 bytes per second
660,000 bytes per second
937,000 bytes per second:
2,744 rpm
15 seconds
25 seconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Macintosh SE or Macintosh II
via the internal SCSI 50-pin connector.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
60 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:
Altitude:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)

Size and weight

Height: 3.1 in. (78.Smm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246mm)

Depth: 10.5 in. (266 mm)
Weight: 9 lbs. (4kg)

Macintosh Internal

With your order, you'll receive:
• Macintosh Internal Hard Disk
(20 megabytes)
• Owner's Guide
• Macintosh utilities disk
• Macintosh utilities manual
• Power cord
• Limited warranty statement

Hard Disks 20SC
Order No. M0216

Macintosh Internal Hard Disk 40SC
System Requirements

To use an Macintosh Internal
Hard Disk 40SC, you must
have a Macintosh SE or Mac­
intosh II personal computer.

Technical Specifications

Recording Media

Two double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/Tracks:

40 megabytes (formatted)
4
1
512
78,246
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

30 milliseconds

Ordering Information

937,000 bytes per second:
3,662 rpm
13 seconds
18 seconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Macintosh II
via the internal SCSI 50-pin connector.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
60 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:
Altitude:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)

Size and weight

Height: 3.1 in. (78.5mm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246mm)

Depth: 10.5 in. (266 mm)
Weight: 9 lbs. (4kg)

Macintosh Internal

With your order, you'll receive:
Ill- Macintosh Internal Hard Disk
(40 megabytes)
.... Owner's Guide
� Macintosh utilities disk
.... Macintosh utilities manual
.... Power cord
Ill- Limited warranty statement

Hard Disks 40SC
Order No. M0232

Macintosh Internal Hard Disk BOSC
System Requirements

To use an Macintosh Internal
Hard Disk 80SC, you must
have a Macintosh SE or Mac­
intosh II personal computer.

Technical Specifications

Recording Media

Three double-sided rigid fixed disks with two dual read/write heads

Capacity

Data capacity:
Data surfaces:
Heads/Surfaces:
Block size:
Total disk blocks:
Sectors/fracks:

80 megabytes (formatted)
6
1
512
156,370
32

Characteristics

Average seek time:
Transfer rate:
Macintosh II:
Rotational speed:
Startup time:
Spin-down time:

30 milliseconds

Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

937,000 bytes per second:
3,662 rpm
13 seconds
18 seconds

Interface

Connects directly to the Macintosh II
via the internal SCSI 50-pin connector.

Electrical
requirements

Line voltage:
Frequency:
Maximum power:

85 to 270 volts AC
47 to 64 hertz
60 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating temperature:
Storage temperature:
Relative humidity:
Altitude:

50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
32° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)

Size and weight

Height: 3.1 in. (78.5mm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246mm)

Depth: 10.5 in. (266 mm)
Weight: 9 lbs. (4kg)

Macintosh Internal
Hard Disks 80SC
Order No. M0233

With your order, you'll receive:
... Macintosh Internal Hard Disk
(80 megabytes)
... Owner's Guide
... Macintosh utilities disk
... Macintosh utilities manual
... Power cord
... Limited warranty statement

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 - 1010
TIX 171 -576

© 1987 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple and the Apple logo are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
AppleShare, Apple Ile.\ and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. UNIX is a regl;tered trademark of
AT&T Information Systems. July 1987. Produa specifications are subjea to change without notice.
M2233

Macintosh Portable Internal 40SC Hard Disk

Overview
The Macintosh® Portable Internal
40SC Hard Disk provides fast,
convenient access to high­
performance storage and large­
capacity applications. Only one
inch high and weighing 1 . 1
pounds, the Macintosh Internal
40SC Hard Disk has been
designed especially for use with
the Apple® Macintosh Portable
personal computer. It draws little
power from your batteries, and
virtually eliminates disk swap­
ping because it can accommo­
date multiple applications,
complex documents, and large
databases in one convenient
location.

Features

Benefits

�

40 megabytes of internal disk storage

Puts large documents and dozens of
applications at your fingertips.
� Offers 50 times the capacity of an
SOOK floppy disk.
� Virtually eliminates disk swapping.
� Is conveniently portable; the disk fits
inside the computer.

�

Rapid data accessing

�

�

Power-efficient design

� Extends the life of your portable
battery.
� Lets you use your computer longer
before recharging.

�

Rugged design

�

� Industry-standard Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI)

�

Accesses data as quickly as most
desktop disk drives of the same size.

�

Resists shock and impact.
Protects your data.

� Transmits data faster than a serial
interface, at up to 1 .25 megabytes per
second.
� Lets you expand your system with up
to six additional SCSI hard disks, tape
backup drives, or other SCSI devices.

Macintosh Portable Internal 40SC Hard Disk
System Requirements

Technical Specifications

To use a Macintosh Portable
Internal 40SC Hard Disk, you will
need a Macintosh Portable

personal computer and System
Software Version 6.0.4 (or later).

Capacity

�

Data capacity:
40 megabytes (formatted)
� Data surfaces: 2
� Heads/surface: 1
� Block size: 5 1 2 bytes
� Total disk blocks: 82,080
� Blocks/track: 40
�

Characteristics

Average seek time:
25 milliseconds
� Rotational speed: 3,557 rpm
� Startup time: 20 seconds
(maximum)
� Typical startup time (from
sleep): 6 seconds
� Spin-down time: 10 seconds
(maximum)
�

Ordering Information

Macintosh Portable
Internal 40SC Hard Disk*

Typical spin-down time:
5 seconds
� Automatically retracks to
the inner stop (nondata area)
upon power down to protect
data area during travel and
startup
Interface

Connects directly to the
Macintosh Portable via the
SCSI 34-pin connector
(inside the case)

�

Electrical requirements
(system)

Environmental
requirements (system)

Operating temperature:
50° to 104° F (10° to 40° C)
� Storage temperature:
-40° to 140° F (-25° to 60° C)
(for a period not to exceed
three days; storage for longer
periods must be within
operating temperature range)
� Relative humidity:
5% to 95% noncondensing
� Operating altitude:
0 to 10,000 ft. (O to 3,048 m)
�

Size and weight

Height: 1 in. (2. 5 cm)
Depth: 5 .75 in. (14.38 cm)
Width: 4 in. (10.0 cm)
Weight: 1 . 1 lbs. (0. 5 kg)

Line voltage:
70 to 270 volts AC
� Frequency: 40 to 70 hertz
� Maximum power: 1 5 watts

�

Order No. M0268

With your order, you'll receive:
Macintosh Portable Internal
40SC Hard Disk
� Limited warranty statement
� Customer referral sheet

�

�

�
�

�

'Requires installation by an authorized Apple dealer.

Apple Computer, Inc.

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX: 171-576

© 1 989 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc.
September 1989. Product specifications are subject to change without nocice. Printed in the U.S.A.
M0344LUA

Apple Tape Backup 40SC

Overview
With the Apple® Tape Backup
40SC, Macintosh'" personal
computer owners now have a
convenient, easy way to back
up and restore critical data.

Since it uses removable tape
cartridges-each of which pro­
vides 40 megabytes of backup
storage-the Apple Tape Backup
40SC offers virtually unlimited

storage capacity. It is designed
for use with all SCSI-based
Macintosh systems that include
a hard disk.

Features

Bene.fits

.,_ 40 megabytes of backup
storage per tape cartridge

.,. Offers virtually unlimited storage
capacity for large quantities of data .

.,_

Provides a more efficient backup
method than using floppy disks.

.,_

.,. Flexible, easy-to-use program with
Volume and File Backup/Restore
options

.,. Lets you back up or restore all
information in one simple operation.
.,. Lets you back up or restore individual
files or small groups of files .
.,_ Lets you back up hard disks
unattended .

.,_

Status dialog box

Furnishes 50 times the storage capacity
of a single SOOK disk.

Indicates volume, elapsed time, and
percentage of backup complete .
.,_ Lets you cancel the operation at
any time .
.,_

.,. Preformatted QIC-100
Y4-inch cartridge tape

.,_

.,. Removable cartridges

.,_

Permits backup of an entire 20MB
or 40MB hard disk in one operation .
.,. Saves up to 35 minutes in
formatting time .

.,_
.,_ Industry-standard Small
Computer System
Interface (SCSI)

Improves data security .
Provides archive storage for older files .

Offers compatibility with all Macintosh
hard-disk-based systems.
.,_ Lets you connect as many as six
additional hard disks, tape backup
systems, or other SCSI devices .
.,_ Provides faster data transmission
than a serial interface.
.,_

Technical Specifications
Recording media

Yi-inch removable mini­
cartridge (DC2000),
preformatted

ll>

Capacity

Formatted Capacity: 38.5
megabytes of fully-corrected
data
ll> Block Size: 8,192 bytes
ll> Sectors/Tracks: 24;
serpentine

ll>

Characteristics

Data format: Industry­
standard QIC-100 1/4-inch
cartridge (8 kilobytes of
user data, 4 kilobytes of
data redundancy)
ll> Tape speed: 60 inches per
second read or write; 90
inches per second search
or rewind
ll> Transfer rate:
-Burst mode: 1 .25
megabytes per minute
-Normal operation (volume
mode): up to 1 megabyte
per minute
ll>

Volume backup time:
Approximately 17 to 18
minutes per 20 megabytes
ll>

Backup software features*

Volume (Image) backup:
Allows users to back up
an entire Hierarchical File
System (HFS) disk volume.
ll> Volume (Image) restore:
Restores an entire HFS disk
volume from the tape
containing a prior backup.
ll> File backup: Backs up
individual files/folders.
Includes option to back up
only files that have changes
since previous file backup.
ll> File restore: Restores files
that have been backed up in
File Backup mode.
ll> Formatting: Formats
unformatted tape (35 minutes).
..,. Clear tape: Removes
unnecessary files.
ll>

Interface

Connects directly to the
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE,
or Macintosh II via system
cable to a SCSI connector.

ll>

* Compatible only with Macintosh's Hierarchical File System.

Electrical
requirements
ll>

ll>
ll>

Line Voltage: 85 to 270 volts
Frequency: 47 to 64 hertz
Maximum Power: 15 watts

Environmental
requirements

Operating Temperature:
50° to 90° F (10° to 35° C)
ll> Storing Temperature:
-40° to 122° F (0° to 50° C)
ll> Relative Humidity:
20% to 80% (noncondensing)
ll> Altitude:
1 ,000 to 10,000 ft.
(304 to 3,048 m)

ll>

Size and weight
ll>

ll>

ll>
ll>

Height: 3.01 in. (78 mm)
Width: 9.7 in. (246 mm)
Depth: 10.5 in. (266 mm)
Weight: 7.3 lbs. (3.3 kg)

Apple Tape Backup 40SC
System Requirements

Ordering Information

Apple Computer, Inc.

To use the Apple Tape
Backup 40SC, you must
have the following:

llJ> A Macintosh Plus,
Macintosh SE, Macintosh II
llJ> An Apple Hard Disk 20SC,
40SC, or SOSC, or Macintosh
Internal Hard Disk 20SC,
40SC, or SOSC

llJ> A blank formatted tape
cartridge (one is supplied with
each Apple Tape Backup
40SC order)

You may also want to
purchase a 5-pack of
40MB Tape Cartridges

Apple Tape Backup 40SC

Order No. M2640

With your order, you'll receive:
II>- Apple Tape Backup 40SC
Ill> One blank formatted tape
cartridge
llJ> Owner's guide
llJ> Limited warranty statement

40MB Tape Cartridges

Order No. M0132

It>

20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014
(408) 996 -1010
TIX: 171 - 576

© 1987 Apple Computer,