Advisory Circular 150/5300 13A, Airport Design 5300 150 13a

User Manual: 5300

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U.S. Department
of Transportation
Federal Aviation
Administration
Advisory
Circular
Subject: Airport Design Date: DRAFT
Initiated by: AAS-100
AC No: AC 150/5300-13A
Change:
1. What is the purpose of this advisory circular (AC)?
This AC contains the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) standards and recommendations
for airport design.
2. Does this AC cancel any prior ACs?
AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, dated September 29, 1989, is canceled.
3. To whom does this AC apply?
The FAA recommends the guidelines and specifications in this AC for materials and methods
used in the construction of airports. In general, use of this AC is not mandatory. However, use of
this AC is mandatory for all projects funded with Federal grant monies through the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) and with revenue from the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC)
Program. See Grant Assurance No. 34, Policies, Standards, and Specifications, and PFC
Assurance No. 9, Standards and Specifications. For information about grant assurances, see
http://www.faa.gov/airports/aip/grant_assurances/.
4. Are there any related documents?
Related documents to this AC are indicated in paragraph 108. A few, but not all, of the
significant related documents are:
a. AC 150/5070-6, Airport Master Plans
b. AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling, and Dispensing on Airports
c. AC 150/5320-5, Surface Drainage Design
d. AC 150/5320-6, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation
e. AC 150/5325-4, Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design
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f. AC 150/5360-13, Planning and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities
g. Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures
(TERPS)
h. Other Orders in the 8260 series
i. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 77, Safe, Efficient Use, and
Preservation of the Navigable Airspace
5. What are the principal changes in this AC?
This AC was substantially revised to fully incorporate all previous Changes to AC 150/5300-13,
as well as new standards and technical requirements. This document was reformatted to simplify
and clarify the FAA’s airport design standards and improve readability. Therefore, change bars
were not used to signify what has changed from the previous document. Users should review the
entire document to familiarize themselves with the new format. Additional principal changes
include:
a. An introduction of the Runway Design Code (RDC)
b. An introduction of the Runway Reference Code (RRC)
c. An expanded discussion on Declared Distances
d. A clarified and expanded discussion of the Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)
e. An introduction of the Taxiway Design Group (TDG) concept for fillet design
f. The establishment of a minimum separation between non-intersecting runways
g. The inclusion of Runway Incursion Prevention geometry for new construction
h. The consolidation of numerous design tables into one interactive Runway Design
Requirements Matrix (Table 3–4)
i. Hyperlinks (allowing the reader to access documents located on the internet and
to maneuver within this document) are provided throughout this document and are
identified with underlined text. When navigating within this document, return to
the previously viewed page by pressing the “ALT” and “” keys simultaneously.
6. How are metrics represented?
Throughout this AC, customary English units will be used followed with “soft” (rounded)
conversion to metric units. The English units govern.
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7. How can I get this and other FAA publications?
You can view a list of all ACs at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/.
You can view the Federal Aviation Regulations at
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/faa_regulations/.
Michael J. O’Donnell
Director of Airport Safety and Standards
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Intentionally left blank.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1
101. PURPOSE. .............................................................................................................. 1
102. DEFINITIONS. ....................................................................................................... 2
103. ROLES OF FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS. .................... 9
104. NOTICE OF PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION. ................................................... 11
105. PLANNING. ......................................................................................................... 14
106. AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN (ALP). .................................................................... 16
107. COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION OF AIRPORT DATA. 17
108. RELATED ADVISORY CIRCULARS (ACs), ORDERS, AND FEDERAL
REGULATIONS............................................................................................. 18
109. to 199. RESERVED. ............................................................................................. 30
Chapter 2. DESIGN PROCESS................................................................................................. 31
201. GENERAL. ........................................................................................................... 31
202. DESIGN AIRCRAFT. .......................................................................................... 33
203. RUNWAY INCURSIONS. .................................................................................. 34
204. AIRPORT DESIGN STANDARDS AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS.
......................................................................................................................... 34
205. RUNWAY LOCATION, ORIENTATION AND WIND COVERAGE. ............. 35
206. PLANNED VISIBILITY MINIMUMS FOR INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES. 36
207. RUNWAY VISIBILITY REQUIREMENTS. ...................................................... 37
208. AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER (ATCT) SITING. ............................ 38
209. AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP). ............................................................ 39
210. HELIPORTS/HELIPADS. ................................................................................... 39
211. OTHER AERONAUTIC USES ON AIRPORTS. ............................................... 40
212. DRAINAGE CONSIDERATIONS. ..................................................................... 40
213. SECURITY OF AIRPORTS................................................................................. 41
214. PAVEMENT STRENGTH AND DESIGN. ........................................................ 43
215. LOCATION OF ON-AIRFIELD FACILITIES. .................................................. 43
216. to 299. RESERVED. ............................................................................................ 44
Chapter 3. RUNWAY DESIGN................................................................................................. 45
301. INTRODUCTION. ............................................................................................... 45
302. RUNWAY DESIGN CONCEPTS. ...................................................................... 45
303. RUNWAY END SITING REQUIREMENTS. .................................................... 46
304. DECLARED DISTANCES. ................................................................................. 56
305. RUNWAY GEOMETRY. .................................................................................... 71
306. OBJECT CLEARING. .......................................................................................... 75
307. RUNWAY SAFETY AREA (RSA) / ENGINEERED MATERIALS
ARRESTING SYSTEMS (EMAS). ............................................................... 75
308. OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (OFZ). ....................................................................... 78
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309. RUNWAY OBJECT FREE AREA (ROFA). ....................................................... 86
310. RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONE (RPZ). ........................................................... 86
311. CLEARWAY STANDARDS. .............................................................................. 91
312. STOPWAY STANDARDS. ................................................................................. 92
313. SURFACE GRADIENT. ...................................................................................... 93
314. TURF RUNWAYS. ............................................................................................ 101
315. MARKING AND LIGHTING. ........................................................................... 103
316. RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS. .................. 103
317. APPROACH PROCEDURE PLANNING. ........................................................ 106
318. RUNWAY REFERENCE CODE (RRC). .......................................................... 110
319. AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING (ARFF) ACCESS. .................. 110
320. JET BLAST. ....................................................................................................... 110
321. RUNWAY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS MATRIX. ......................................... 110
322. to 399. RESERVED. .......................................................................................... 115
Chapter 4. TAXIWAY AND TAXILANE DESIGN ............................................................. 117
401. GENERAL. ......................................................................................................... 117
402. TAXIWAY DEFINITIONS................................................................................ 123
403. PARALLEL TAXIWAYS. ................................................................................. 123
404. TAXIWAY WIDTH. .......................................................................................... 125
405. CURVES AND INTERSECTIONS. .................................................................. 126
406. CROSSOVER TAXIWAYS. .............................................................................. 132
407. BYPASS TAXIWAYS. ...................................................................................... 132
408. RUNWAY/TAXIWAY INTERSECTIONS. ..................................................... 133
409. ENTRANCE TAXIWAYS. ................................................................................ 134
410. EXIT TAXIWAYS. ............................................................................................ 135
411. HOLDING BAYS FOR RUNWAY ENDS. ...................................................... 142
412. TAXIWAY TURNAROUNDS. ......................................................................... 144
413. APRON TAXIWAYS AND TAXILANES. ...................................................... 145
414. END-AROUND TAXIWAYS (EATS). ............................................................. 145
415. ALIGNED TAXIWAYS PROHIBITED. ........................................................... 149
416. TAXIWAY SHOULDERS. ................................................................................ 149
417. FILLET DESIGN................................................................................................ 149
418. SURFACE GRADIENT AND LINE OF SIGHT (LOS). .................................. 150
419. TAXIWAY CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 154
420. MARKINGS/LIGHTING/SIGNS. ..................................................................... 158
421. ISLANDS. ........................................................................................................... 159
422. TAXIWAY BRIDGES. ...................................................................................... 159
423. JET BLAST. ....................................................................................................... 159
424. to 499. RESERVED. ........................................................................................... 159
Chapter 5. APRONS ................................................................................................................. 161
501. BACKGROUND. ............................................................................................... 161
502. APRON TYPES. ................................................................................................. 161
503. APRON LAYOUT AND RUNWAY INCURSION PREVENTION. ............... 161
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504. APRON DESIGN REQUIREMENTS. .............................................................. 164
505. FUELING. .......................................................................................................... 166
506. OBJECT CLEARANCE. .................................................................................... 166
507. DE-ICING FACILITIES. ................................................................................... 166
508. SURFACE GRADIENTS. .................................................................................. 166
509. DRAINAGE. ....................................................................................................... 167
510. MARKING AND LIGHTING. ........................................................................... 167
511. PAVEMENT DESIGN. ...................................................................................... 167
512. JET BLAST. ....................................................................................................... 167
513. ATCT VISIBILITY / LINE OF SIGHT (LOS). ................................................. 167
514. SERVICE ROADS. ............................................................................................ 168
515. TERMINAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS..................................................... 168
516. to 599. RESERVED. ........................................................................................... 168
Chapter 6. NAVIGATION AIDS (NAVAIDs) AND ON-AIRPORT AIR TRAFFIC
CONTROL FACILITIES (ATC-F) ................................................................ 169
601. BACKGROUND. ............................................................................................... 169
602. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE. ................................................................. 169
603. FEDERALLY OWNED AND NON-FEDERALLY OWNED NAVAIDs. ...... 171
604. SITING CRITERIA/LAND REQUIREMENTS. ............................................... 171
605. NAVAIDS AS OBSTACLES............................................................................. 172
606. PHYSICAL SECURITY. ................................................................................... 174
607. MAINTENANCE ACCESS. .............................................................................. 177
608. ELECTRICAL POWER. .................................................................................... 177
609. CABLE PROTECTION...................................................................................... 177
610. CABLE LOOP SYSTEM. .................................................................................. 177
611. COMMUNICATION AND POWER CABLE TRENCHES. ............................ 177
612. FACILITIES. ...................................................................................................... 177
613. TOWERS AND ELEVATED STRUCTURES. ................................................. 178
614. AIR TRAFFIC ORGANIZATION (ATO)ORDERS AND NOTICES. ......... 178
615. DECOMMISSIONED FACILITIES. ................................................................. 178
616. AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER (ATCT). ........................................ 178
617. REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER (RTR). .............................................. 179
618. AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR (ASR). ................................................. 180
619. PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM). .................................................... 181
620. AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT (ASDE). .......................... 182
621. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM (ALS). ...................................................... 182
622. APPROACH LEAD-IN LIGHTING SYSTEMS (LDINs). ............................... 188
623. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTING (REIL). ......................................... 189
624. AIRPORT ROTATING BEACONS. ................................................................. 191
625. PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR (PAPI). .................................. 191
626. INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS). .................................................... 192
627. DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME). .......................................... 195
628. RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR). ............................................................... 196
629. VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE (VOR). ........... 197
630. NON-DIRECTIONAL BEACON (NDB). ......................................................... 200
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631. SEGMENTED CIRCLES AND WIND CONES. .............................................. 200
632. ASOS AND AWOS. ........................................................................................... 201
633. WEATHER CAMERA (WCAM). ..................................................................... 201
634. WIND EQUIPMENT F-400 (WEF). .................................................................. 202
635. LOW LEVEL WINDSHEAR ALERT SYSTEM (LLWAS). ............................ 203
636. to 699. RESERVED. .......................................................................................... 203
Chapter 7. AIRFIELD BRIDGES AND TUNNELS ............................................................. 205
701. GENERAL. ......................................................................................................... 205
702. SITING GUIDELINES. ...................................................................................... 205
703. DIMENSIONAL CRITERIA. ............................................................................ 205
704. LOAD CONSIDERATIONS. ............................................................................. 208
705. MARKING AND LIGHTING. ........................................................................... 208
706. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS............................................................................ 210
707. STORM WATER STRUCTURES. .................................................................... 211
708. to 799. RESERVED. ........................................................................................... 211
Appendix 1. AIRCRAFT CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................... 213
Appendix 2. WIND ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 221
Appendix 3. THE EFFECTS AND TREATMENT OF JET BLAST ................................ 231
Appendix 4. END-AROUND TAXIWAY (EAT) SCREENS ............................................. 237
Appendix 5. GENERAL AVIATION APRONS AND HANGARS ................................... 247
Appendix 6. COMPASS CALIBRATION PAD .................................................................. 253
Appendix 7. RUNWAY DESIGN STANDARDS MATRIX ............................................... 259
Appendix 8. ACRONYMS ..................................................................................................... 271
Appendix 9. INDEX ................................................................................................................ 277
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1. Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA) website:
https://oeaaa.faa.gov/oeaaa/external/portal.jsp ..................................................................14
Figure 2-1. Runway Visibility Zone .............................................................................................38
Figure 3-1. Runway Ends .............................................................................................................47
Figure 3-2. Threshold Siting Based on Approach Slope ..............................................................49
Figure 3-3. Approach Slopes – With Offset Approach Course ....................................................53
Figure 3-4. Departure Surface for Instrument Runways TERPS (40:1) .......................................54
Figure 3-5. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Obstacle Identification Surface (OIS) (62.5:1) .........55
Figure 3-6. Balanced Field Concept - Normal Takeoff Case .......................................................58
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Figure 3-7. Balanced Field Concept – Rejected Takeoff Case .....................................................59
Figure 3-8. Balanced Field Concept - Landing Case ....................................................................60
Figure 3-9. Normal Location of Start of Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA), Takeoff
Distance Available (TODA), and Takeoff Run Available (TORA) ..................................61
Figure 3-10. Normal Location of Departure End of TORA, TODA, LDA and ASDA ...............62
Figure 3-11. Departure End of TORA Based on Departure RPZ .................................................62
Figure 3-12. Departure End of TORA and TODA Based on Penetration to Departure Surface ..63
Figure 3-13. TODA Extended By Use of A Clearway, Normal TORA .......................................64
Figure 3-14. TODA Extended By Use of A Clearway, Shortened TORA ...................................65
Figure 3-15. Stop End of Landing Distance Available (LDA) and ASDA Located to Provide
Standard Runway Safety Area (RSA)/ Runway Object Free Area (ROFA) .....................66
Figure 3-16. Stop End of LDA and ASDA Located to Provide Standard ROFA ........................67
Figure 3-17. Stop End of ASDA Located Based on Use of a Stopway ........................................67
Figure 3-18. Normal Start of LDA ...............................................................................................68
Figure 3-19. Start of LDA at Displaced Threshold Based on Threshold Siting Surface (TSS) ...69
Figure 3-20. Start of LDA at Displaced Threshold Based on Approach RPZ ..............................69
Figure 3-21. Start of LDA Based on RSA/ROFA ........................................................................70
Figure 3-22. RSA ..........................................................................................................................72
Figure 3-23. Intersecting Runways ...............................................................................................74
Figure 3-24. Approximate Distance Aircraft Overrun the Runway End ......................................76
Figure 3-25. OFZ for Visual Runways and Runways With Not Lower Than ¾ Statute Mile
(1.2 km) Approach Visibility Minimums ..........................................................................81
Figure 3-26. OFZ for Operations on Runways By Small Aircraft With Lower Than ¾ Statute
Mile (1.2 km) Approach Visibility Minimums ..................................................................81
Figure 3-27. OFZ for Operations on Runways By Large Aircraft With Lower Than ¾-Statute
Mile (1.2 km) Approach Visibility Minimums ..................................................................82
Figure 3-28. OFZ for Operations on Runways By Large Aircraft With Lower Than ¾-Statute
Mile (1.2 km) Approach Visibility Minimums and Displaced Threshold .........................82
Figure 3-29. Sectional Views of the OFZ .....................................................................................83
Figure 3-30. Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ) – No Displaced Threshold ..........................84
Figure 3-31. POFZ – Displaced Threshold ...................................................................................85
Figure 3-32. RPZ .........................................................................................................................88
Figure 3-33. Runway with no Published Declared Distances.......................................................89
Figure 3-34. Approach and Departure RPZs where the TORA is less than the TODA ...............90
Figure 3-35. Clearway ..................................................................................................................92
Figure 3-36. Stopway ....................................................................................................................93
Figure 3-37. Longitudinal Grade Limitations for Aircraft Approach Categories A & B .............96
Figure 3-38. Transverse Grade Limitations for Aircraft Approach Categories A & B ................97
Figure 3-39. Longitudinal Grade Limitations for Aircraft Approach Categories C D, & E .........98
Figure 3-40. Transverse Grade Limitations for Aircraft Approach Categories C D, & E ............99
Figure 3-41. RSA Grade Limitations Beyond 200 feet (61 m) from the Runway End ..............101
Figure 3-42. Parallel Runway Separation, Simultaneous Radar Controlled Approach – Staggered
Threshold .........................................................................................................................105
Figure 3-43. Typical Airport Layout ..........................................................................................114
Figure 4-1. Taxiway Design Groups (TDGs) .............................................................................117
Figure 4-2. Three Node Taxiway ................................................................................................119
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Figure 4-3. Taxiway Designs to Avoid (Examples A, B, C, D) .................................................121
Figure 4-4. Taxiway Designs to Avoid (Examples E, F, G) .......................................................122
Figure 4-5. Parallel Taxiways .....................................................................................................123
Figure 4-6. Pavement Edge Clearance on Straight Segment ......................................................126
Figure 4-7. Taxiway Turn ...........................................................................................................127
Figure 4-8. Poor Taxiway Design ...............................................................................................131
Figure 4-9. Proper Taxiway Design ............................................................................................131
Figure 4-10. Crossover Taxiway.................................................................................................132
Figure 4-11. Bypass Taxiway .....................................................................................................133
Figure 4-12. Entrance Taxiway...................................................................................................134
Figure 4-13. Right-Angled Exit Taxiway ...................................................................................136
Figure 4-14. ADG-VI/TDG-7 High Speed Exit Taxiway ..........................................................137
Figure 4-15. ADG-V/TDG-5 High Speed Exit Taxiway ............................................................138
Figure 4-16. ADG-III/TDG-3 High Speed Exit Taxiway ...........................................................139
Figure 4-17. ADG-V/TDG-6 High Speed Exit Taxiway ............................................................140
Figure 4-18. Poor Design of High Speed Exits...........................................................................141
Figure 4-19. Proper Design of High Speed Exits .......................................................................141
Figure 4-20. Typical Holding Bay Configurations .....................................................................143
Figure 4-21. Poor Holding Bay Design ......................................................................................144
Figure 4-22. Taxiway Turnaround ..............................................................................................144
Figure 4-23. End-Around Taxiway (EAT) ADG-II .................................................................147
Figure 4-24. End-Around Taxiway (EAT) ADG-IV ...............................................................148
Figure 4-25. Taxiway Transverse Gradients for Approach Categories A & B ..........................152
Figure 4-26. Taxiway Transverse Gradients for Approach Categories C D, & E ......................153
Figure 4-27. Wingtip Clearance - Parallel Taxiways..................................................................154
Figure 4-28. Wingtip Clearance from Taxiway ..........................................................................155
Figure 4-29. Wingtip Clearance from Apron Taxiway ...............................................................156
Figure 4-30. Wingtip Clearance from Taxilane ..........................................................................157
Figure 5-1. Runway Incursion Prevention ..................................................................................163
Figure 6-1. Typical CNSW Placement .......................................................................................170
Figure 6-2. Two Frangible Connections .....................................................................................174
Figure 6-3. ATCT Facility ..........................................................................................................179
Figure 6-4. RTR Communication Facility ..................................................................................180
Figure 6-5. ASR Steel Tower (17 feet (5 m) high) .....................................................................181
Figure 6-6. PRM Facility ............................................................................................................181
Figure 6-7. ALSF-2 .....................................................................................................................183
Figure 6-8. SSALR .....................................................................................................................184
Figure 6-9. MALSR ....................................................................................................................185
Figure 6-10. MALSR Facility .....................................................................................................186
Figure 6-11. MALS .....................................................................................................................186
Figure 6-12. MALSF ..................................................................................................................187
Figure 6-13. ODALS ..................................................................................................................187
Figure 6-14. Lead-in Lighting System (LDIN)...........................................................................188
Figure 6-15. Approach LDIN Facility ........................................................................................189
Figure 6-16. REIL .......................................................................................................................190
Figure 6-17. REIL .......................................................................................................................190
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Figure 6-18. PAPI .......................................................................................................................191
Figure 6-19. PAPI Light Boxes ..................................................................................................192
Figure 6-20. Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) Siting and Critical Area .......192
Figure 6-21. LOC 8-Antenna Array............................................................................................193
Figure 6-22. LOC 14-Antenna Array..........................................................................................194
Figure 6-23. GS Siting and Critical Area....................................................................................194
Figure 6-24. GS Antenna and Equipment Shelter ......................................................................195
Figure 6-25. DME Antenna ........................................................................................................195
Figure 6-26. Touchdown RVR ...................................................................................................196
Figure 6-27. Enroute VOR Facility ............................................................................................198
Figure 6-28. Terminal VOR (TVOR) Facility ............................................................................198
Figure 6-29. TVOR Installation ..................................................................................................199
Figure 6-30. TVOR Clearances ..................................................................................................199
Figure 6-31. NDB Facility ..........................................................................................................200
Figure 6-32. Segmented Circle and Wind Cone .........................................................................200
Figure 6-33. ASOS Weather Sensors Suite ................................................................................201
Figure 6-34. Weather Camera (WCAM) Pole ............................................................................202
Figure 6-35. Weather Equipment Sensor Pole ............................................................................202
Figure 6-36. LLWAS Sensor Pole ..............................................................................................203
Figure 7-1. Tunnel Under a Runway and Parallel Taxiway .......................................................206
Figure 7-2. Cross-Section of a Tunnel Under a Runway and Taxiway ......................................207
Figure 7-3. Airfield Bridge .........................................................................................................208
Figure 7-4. Shoulder Marking for Full-Standard and Minimum-Width Taxiway Bridge ..........209
Figure 7-5. Example of a Structural Deck with Lighted Depressed Roadway ...........................211
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2–1. Increases in Airport Design Standards Associated with an Upgrade in the First
Component (Aircraft Approach Category) of the Airport Reference Code (ARC) and the
Runway Design Code (RDC).............................................................................................32
Table 2–2. Changes in Airport Design Standards to Provide for Lower Approach Visibility
Minimums. .........................................................................................................................33
Table 2–3. Aircraft Characteristics and Design Components. ......................................................34
Table 2–4. Allowable Crosswind per RDC ..................................................................................35
Table 3–1. Approach/Departure Standards Table .........................................................................50
Table 3–2. Standards for PA and Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance (APV) Lower
than 250 HATh ................................................................................................................108
Table 3–3. Standards for Non-precision Approaches (NPAs) and APV with => 250 ft. HATh 109
Table 3–4. Runway Design Standards Matrix ............................................................................112
Table 3–5. Runway to Taxiway Separation Based on TDG .......................................................113
Table 36. Crop Buffers .............................................................................................................115
Table 4–1. Design Standards Based on Airplane Design Group (ADG) ....................................124
Table 4–2. Design Standards Based on TDG .............................................................................125
Table 4–3. Intersection Details for TDG 1 .................................................................................127
Table 4–4. Intersection Details for TDG 2 .................................................................................128
Table 4–5. Intersection Details for TDGs 3 & 4 .........................................................................128
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Table 4–6. Intersection Details for TDG 5 .................................................................................129
Table 4–7. Intersection Details for TDG 6 .................................................................................129
Table 4–8. Intersection Details for TDG 7 .................................................................................130
Table 49. Exit Taxiway Cumulative Utilization Percentages ...................................................142
Table 6–1. Fixed-by-Function Designation for NAVAID and Air Traffic Control (ATC)
Facilities for RSA and ROFA ..........................................................................................173
Table 62. List of NAVAID Facility Type .................................................................................175
Table 6–3. Surveillance Facility Type ........................................................................................176
Table 6–4. Communications Facility Type .................................................................................176
Table 65. Weather Detection Facility Type ..............................................................................176
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Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
101. PURPOSE.
a. General. Section 103 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 states in part, “In the
exercise and performance of his power and duties under this Act, the Secretary of
Transportation shall consider the following, among other things, as being in the public interest:
(a) The regulation of air commerce in such manner as to best promote its development and
safety and fulfill the requirements of defense; (b) The promotion, encouragement, and
development of civil aeronautics . . . ,” This public charge, in effect, requires the development
and maintenance of a national system of safe, delay-free, and cost-effective airports. The use of
the standards and recommendations contained in this publication in the design of airports
supports this public charge. In addition, U.S. Code Title 49, Chapter 471, Airport Development,
states that it is the policy of the United States that the safe operation of the airport and airway
system is the highest aviation priority. The policy emphasizes, in part, airport construction and
improvement projects that:
(1) Increase safety
(2) Increase capacity to accommodate passenger and cargo and decrease
delays
(3) Comply with federal environmental standards (see also Order 5050.4,
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Instructions for Airport Projects).
(4) Encourage innovative technologies that promote safety, capacity, and
efficiency.
The use of the standards and recommendations contained in this advisory circular (AC) support
this policy.
These standards and recommendations, however, do not limit or regulate the operations of
aircraft.
b. New Airports. These standards represent the most effective national approach
for meeting the long-term aviation demand in a manner that is consistent with national policy.
Safety cannot be compromised. The airport design standards in this AC are intended to identify
the critical design elements needed to maintain safety and efficiency according to national
policy.
c. Existing Airports. Every effort should be made to bring an airport up to current
standards. It may not, however, be feasible to meet all current standards at existing airports, and
in the case of federal assistance programs, funding of improvements may subject to FAA
criteria. In those cases, consultation with the appropriate offices of the FAA Office of Airports
and Flight Standards Service will identify any applicable FAA funding criteria and/or
adjustments to operational procedures necessary to accommodate operations to the maximum
extent while maintaining an acceptable level of safety. For non-standard conditions associated
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with a federally funded project, the FAA may consider alternative means of ensuring an
acceptable level of safety. For further information regarding a modification of standards, refer
to Order 5300.1, Modification to Agency Airport Design, Construction, and Equipment
Standards.
d. Federal Regulations and Safety.
(1) These standards and recommendations do not limit or regulate the
operation of aircraft. Aircraft operations cannot be prevented, regulated, or controlled simply
because the airport or runway does not meet the design standards for a particular aircraft type.
For specific operational situations unique to the airport, consult with the FAA Flight Standards
Service.
(2) Airports that have scheduled air carrier operations with more than nine
passenger seats or unscheduled air carrier operations with more than 30 passenger seats are
regulated by Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 139, Certification of Airports.
Compliance with this AC may be used to demonstrate compliance with some requirements of
Part 139.
e. Design Standards. For the purposes of this AC, the selection of the design
aircraft, or group of aircraft characteristics, used to design or update an airport facility is
independent of:
(1) Airport ownership
(2) Funding source used to establish, improve, or update the facility to meet
anticipated needs
(3) Service level or number of aircraft operations.
For additional information on the eligibility for federal funding, please refer to Order 5100.38,
Airport Improvement Program Handbook.
102. DEFINITIONS.
The definitions in this paragraph are relevant to airport design standards. Definitions marked
with an asterisk (*) can also be found in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
Air Traffic Control Facilities (ATC-F): Electronic equipment and buildings aiding air traffic
control (ATC) – for communications, surveillance of aircraft including weather detection and
advisory systems.
Aircraft. For this AC, an aircraft refers to all types of fixed-wing airplanes. Tilt-rotors and
helicopters are not included.
Aircraft Approach Category*. As specified in 14 CFR Section 97.3, “Symbols and terms used in
procedures:” A grouping of aircraft based on an approach speed of 1.3 times their stall speed in
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their landing configuration at the certificated maximum flap setting and maximum landing
weight at standard atmospheric conditions. The categories are as follows:
Category A: Approach speed less than 91 knots.
Category B: Approach speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots.
Category C: Approach speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots.
Category D: Approach speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots.
Category E: Approach speed 166 knots or more.
Airplane Design Group (ADG). A classification of aircraft based on wingspan and tail height.
When the aircraft wingspan and tail height fall in different groups, the higher group is used. The
groups are as follows:
Group #
Tail Height
[ft (m)]
I
< 20' (<6 m)
II
20' - < 30' (6 m - < 9 m)
III
30' - < 45' (9 m - < 13.5 m)
IV
45' - < 60' (13.5 m - < 18.5 m)
V
60' - < 66' (18.5 m - < 20 m)
VI
66' - < 80' (20 m - < 24.5 m)
Airplane *. An engine-driven, fixed-wing aircraft that is heavier than air, and is supported in
flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
Airport Elevation*. The highest point on an airport's usable runways expressed in feet above
mean sea level (MSL).
Airport Layout Plan (ALP). A set of scale drawings of current and future airport facilities that
provides a graphic representation of the long-term development plan for the airport and
demonstrates the preservation and continuity of safety, utility, and efficiency of the airport to the
satisfaction of the FAA.
Airport. For this AC, an area of land that is used or intended to be used for the landing and
takeoff of aircraft, and includes its buildings and facilities, if any.
Airport Reference Code (ARC). An airport designation that signifies the airport’s highest
Runway Design Code (RDC). The ARC is used for planning only. Faster and/or larger aircraft
may be able to operate safely on the airport.
Airport Reference Point (ARP)*. The approximate geometric center of all usable runways at the
airport.
Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA). See Declared Distances.
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Aligned Taxiway. A taxiway with its centerline aligned with a runway centerline. (Not
permitted see paragraph 415.)
Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance (APV). An Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP)
providing both vertical and lateral electronic guidance.
Assembly Area. A public place such as a church, school, hospital, office building, shopping
center, public road or transit, or other uses with similar concentrations of persons.
Blast Fence. A barrier used to divert or dissipate jet blast or propeller wash.
Building Restriction Line (BRL). A line that identifies suitable and unsuitable locations for
buildings on airports.
Bypass Taxiway. A taxiway used to reduce aircraft queuing demand by taxiing an aircraft
around other aircraft for takeoff.
Circling Approach.* A maneuver initiated by the pilot to align the aircraft with a runway for
landing when a straight-in landing from an instrument approach is not possible or is not
desirable.
Clearway:1 A defined rectangular area beyond the end of a runway cleared or suitable for use in
lieu of runway to satisfy takeoff distance requirements (see also “Take Off Distance Available”).
For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond
the runway, not less than 500 feet (152 m) wide, centrally located about the extended
centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is
expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an
upward slope not exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object or any terrain protrudes.
However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of
the runway is 26 inches (66 cm) or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.
For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after September 30, 1958, but before
August 30, 1959, an area beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet
(91 m) on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an elevation no higher
than the elevation of the end of the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the
control of the airport authorities.
Compass Calibration Pad. An airport facility used for calibrating an aircraft compass.
Crossover Taxiway. A taxiway connecting two parallel taxiways (also referred to as a transverse
taxiway).
Decision Altitude (DA): see Decision Height.
1 14 CFR Part 1, Definitions and Abbreviations.
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Decision Height (DH)*. For landing aircraft, the height above the runway at which a decision
must be made during an instrument approach to either continue the approach or execute a missed
approach. DH is also referred to as DA.
Declared Distances. The distances the airport owner declares available for the aircraft's takeoff
run, takeoff distance, accelerate-stop distance, and landing distance requirements. These
distances are published in the FAA Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD), the Aeronautical
Information Publication for international airports, and FAA Form 5010, Airport Master Record.
The distances are:
Takeoff Run Available (TORA)* - the runway length declared available and suitable for
the ground run of an aircraft taking off;
Takeoff Distance Available (TODA)* - the TORA plus the length of any remaining
runway or clearway beyond the far end of the TORA;
Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA)* – the runway plus stopway length declared
available and suitable for the acceleration and deceleration of an aircraft aborting a
takeoff; and
Landing Distance Available (LDA)* - the runway length declared available and suitable
for landing an aircraft.
Design Aircraft. An aircraft with characteristics that determine the application of airport design
standards for a specific runway and associated taxiway, taxilane and apron. This aircraft can be
a specific aircraft model or a composite of several aircraft using, expected, or intended to use the
airport. (Also called “critical aircraft” or “critical design aircraft.”)
Displaced Threshold*. A threshold that is located at a point on the runway other than the
designated beginning of the runway.
End-Around Taxiway (EAT). A taxiway crossing the extended centerline of a runway, that does
not require specific clearance from ATC to cross the extended centerline of the runway.
Entrance Taxiway. A taxiway designed to be used by an aircraft entering a runway. Entrance
taxiways may also be used to exit a runway.
Exit Taxiway. A taxiway designed to be used by an aircraft only to exit a runway.
Acute-Angled Exit Taxiway. A taxiway forming an angle less than 90 degrees from the
runway centerline.
High Speed Exit Taxiway. An acute-angled exit taxiway forming a 30 degree angle with
the runway centerline, designed to allow an aircraft to exit a runway without having to
decelerate to typical taxi speed.
Fixed-By-Function NAVAID. An air navigation aid (NAVAID) that must be positioned in a
particular location in order to provide an essential benefit for aviation is fixed-by-function.
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Table 6–1 gives fixed-by-function designations for various NAVAIDs as they relate to the
Runway Safety Area (RSA) and Runway Object Free Area (ROFA). Some NAVAIDs that are
not fixed-by-function in regard to the RSA or ROFA may be fixed-by-function in regard to the
Runway Protection Zone (RPZ).
Equipment shelters, junction boxes, transformers, and other appurtenances that support a
fixed-by-function NAVAID are not fixed-by-function in regard to the RSA or ROFA
unless operational requirements require them to be located near the NAVAID.
Some NAVAIDs, such as localizers (LOCs), can provide beneficial performance even
when they are not located at their optimal location. These NAVAIDS are not fixed-by-
function in regard to the RSA or ROFA.
Frangible. Retains its structural integrity and stiffness up to a designated maximum load, but on
impact from a greater load, breaks, distorts, or yields in such a manner as to present the
minimum hazard to aircraft. In the airport environment, the goal is to not impede the motion of,
or radically alter the path of, an aircraft while minimizing the overall potential for damage during
an incident. See AC 150/5220-23, Frangible Connections.
General Aviation. All non-scheduled flights other than military conducted by non-commercial
aircraft. General aviation covers local recreational flying to business transport that are not
operating under the FAA regulations for commercial air carriers.
Glidepath Angle (GPA). The GPA is the angle of the final approach descent path relative to the
approach surface baseline.
Glideslope (GS). Equipment in an Instrument Landing System (ILS) that provides vertical
guidance to landing aircraft.
Hazard to Air Navigation. An existing or proposed object that the FAA, as a result of an
aeronautical study, determines will have a substantial adverse effect upon the safe and efficient
use of navigable airspace by aircraft, operation of air navigation facilities, or existing or potential
airport capacity. See Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters, for more
information.
Height Above Threshold (HATh). The height of DA/DH above the landing threshold.
Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP)*. A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly
transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial
approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually. It is prescribed
and approved for a specific airport by competent authority.
Island. An unused paved or grassy area between taxiways, between runways, or between a
taxiway and a runway. Paved islands are clearly marked as unusable, either by painting or the
use of artificial turf. See paragraph 421.
Joint-Use Airport. An airport owned by the United States that leases a portion of the airport for
the operation of a public use airport specified under Part 139.
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Landing Distance Available (LDA). See Declared Distances.
Large Aircraft. An aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 12,500
pounds (5670 kg).
Low Impact Resistant (LIR) Supports. Supports designed to resist operational and environmental
static loads and fail when subjected to a shock load such as that from a colliding aircraft.
Modifications to Standards. Any change to FAA standards, other than dimensional standards for
RSAs, applicable to an airport design, construction, or equipment procurement project that
results in lower costs, greater efficiency, or is necessary to accommodate an unusual local
condition on a specific project, when adopted on a case-by-case basis. See Order 5300.1.
Movement Area. The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport that are used for taxiing or
hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading aprons and aircraft
parking areas (reference Part 139).
Navigation Aid (NAVAID): Electronic and visual air navigation aids, lights, signs, and associated
supporting equipment.
Non-Precision Approach (NPA)*. A standard IAP in which no electronic GS is provided. For
the purpose of this AC, an IAP providing course guidance without vertical path guidance. Table
3–3 describes approach procedures without vertical guidance.
Object. Includes, but is not limited to, above ground structures, NAVAIDs, people, equipment,
vehicles, natural growth, terrain, and parked or taxiing aircraft.
Object Free Area (OFA). An area centered on the ground on a runway, taxiway, or taxilane
centerline provided to enhance the safety of aircraft operations by remaining clear of objects,
except for objects that need to be located in the OFA for air navigation or aircraft ground
maneuvering purposes.
Obstacle. An existing object at a fixed geographical location or which may be expected at a
fixed location within a prescribed area with reference to which vertical clearance is or must be
provided during flight operation.
Obstacle Clearance Surface (OCS). An evaluation surface that defines the minimum required
obstruction clearance for approach or departure procedures.
Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ). The OFZ is the three-dimensional airspace along the runway and
extended runway centerline that is required to be clear of obstacles for protection for aircraft
landing or taking off from the runway and for missed approaches.
Obstruction to Air Navigation*. An object of greater height than any of the heights or surfaces
presented in Subpart C of Title 14 CFR Part 77, Standards for Determining Obstructions to Air
Navigation or Navigational Aids or Facilities.
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Parallel Taxiway. A taxiway running parallel to a runway:
Dual Parallel Taxiways. Two taxiways that run side-by-side, parallel to the runway.
Full Parallel Taxiway. A parallel taxiway running the full length of the runway.
Partial Parallel Taxiway. A parallel taxiway running less than full length of the runway.
Precision Approach. For the purposes of this document, any IAP providing course and vertical
path to a DH of less than 250, including those requiring special authorization. Table 3–2
describes IAPs.
Precision Approach Procedure*. A standard IAP in which an electronic GS/glidepath is
provided; e.g., ILS and PAR.
Runway (RW)*. A defined rectangular surface on an airport prepared or suitable for the landing
or takeoff of aircraft.
Runway Blast Pad. A surface adjacent to the ends of runways provided to reduce the erosive
effect of jet blast and propeller wash. A blast pad is not a stopway.
Runway Design Code (RDC). When an airport has more than one runway, and at least one
runway is intended to serve a fleet of aircraft different from another runway, each runway is
designated by an RDC that is analogous to the ARC. The RDC signifies the design standards to
which the runway is (to be) built. See paragraph 105.c for more information on the application
of RDC to design requirements.
Runway Incursion. Any occurrence at an airport involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft,
vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of
aircraft.
Runway Protection Zone (RPZ). An area at ground level off the runway end to enhance the
safety and protection of people and property on the ground.
Runway Reference Code (RRC). A code signifying the current operational capabilities of a
runway. See paragraph 318 for more information on the RRC.
Runway Safety Area (RSA). A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared or suitable for
reducing the risk of damage to aircraft in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion
from the runway.
Shoulder. An area adjacent to the defined edge of paved runways, taxiways, or aprons providing
a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface; support for aircraft and emergency
vehicles deviating from the full-strength pavement; enhanced drainage; and blast protection.
Small Aircraft. An aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds (5670
kg) or less.
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Stopway.2 An area beyond the takeoff runway, no less wide than the runway and centered upon
the extended centerline of the runway, able to support the airplane during an aborted takeoff,
without causing structural damage to the airplane, and designated by the airport authorities for
use in decelerating the airplane during an aborted takeoff. A blast pad is not a stopway.
Taxilane. A taxiway designed for low speed (approximately 15 mph) and precise taxiing.
Taxilanes are usually, but not always, located outside the movement area, providing access from
taxiways (usually an apron taxiway) to aircraft parking positions and other terminal areas.
Taxiway. A defined path established for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport to
another.
Taxiway Design Group (TDG). A grouping of airplanes based on overall main gear width
(MGW) and cockpit to main gear (CMG) distance. TDGs are shown graphically in Figure 4-1.
Taxiway Safety Area. A defined surface alongside the taxiway prepared or suitable for reducing
the risk of damage to an aircraft deviating from the taxiway.
Threshold*. The beginning of that portion of the runway available for landing. In some
instances, the landing threshold may be displaced.
Threshold Crossing Height (TCH). For the purposes of this AC, the TCH is the theoretical
height above the runway threshold at which the aircraft’s GS antenna would be if the aircraft
maintains the trajectory established by the ILS GS, or the height of the pilot’s eye above the
runway threshold based on a visual guidance system.
Takeoff Distance Available (TODA). See Declared Distances.
Takeoff Run Available (TORA). See Declared Distances.
Visual Runway. A runway without an existing or planned straight-in IAP.
103. ROLES OF FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS.
a. Federal.
(1) Federal Assistance. The FAA administers a grant program (Order
5100.38, Airport Improvement Program Handbook) which provides financial assistance for
developing public-use airports. Persons interested in the program can obtain information from
the FAA Airports Regional Office or Airports District Office (ADO) that serves their geographic
area. Consult these offices for assistance with selection of the design aircraft for federally
funded projects, which depends on demand factors that are beyond the scope of this AC.
Technical assistance with airport development is also available from these offices.
2 14 CFR Part 1, Definitions and Abbreviations.
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(2) Obligated Airports. Airport sponsors agree to certain obligations when
they accept Federal grant funds or Federal property transfers for airport purposes. The duration
of these obligations depends on the type, the recipient, the useful life of the facility being
developed, and other conditions stipulated. The FAA enforces these obligations through its
Airport Compliance Program. More information on the Airport Compliance Program can be
found in Order 5190.6, FAA Airport Compliance Manual. Information on specific assurances
and obligations associated with Federal grant funds can be found in Order 5100.38. The
standards in this AC demonstrate compliance with obligations associated with airport design and
development.
(3) Certificated Airports. The FAA regulates commercial service airports
under 14 CFR Part 139. This regulation prescribes rules governing the certification and
operation of airports in any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any territory
or possession of the United States that serve scheduled or unscheduled passenger service. ACs
contain methods and procedures that certificate holders may use to comply with the requirements
of Part 139.
(4) Non-Obligated Public-Use and Private-Use Airports. For airports not
included in subparagraphs (2) and (3) above:
(a) The standards in this AC are recommended for all civil airports.
(b) Proponents must comply with Title 14 CFR Part 157, Notice of
Construction, Alteration, Activation, and Deactivation of Airports. See paragraph 104.
(5) Environmental Protection. Federal assistance in airport development
projects and ALP approvals require the FAA to follow the procedures of the NEPA in
connection with project approval. NEPA requires the FAA to disclose to the interested public a
clear, accurate description of potential environmental impacts and reasonable alternatives to the
proposed action. Order 5050.4 provides guidance for meeting NEPA requirements. See also
Order 1050.1, Policies and Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts.
b. State.
(1) Regulations and Assistance. Many State aviation agencies require prior
approval and, in some instances, a license for the establishment and operation of an airport.
Some States administer a financial assistance program similar to the Federal program.
Proponents should contact their respective State aviation agencies for information on licensing
and assistance programs. See http://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/state_aviation/.
(2) Design Standards. Although FAA can accept state standards for
construction materials and methods under certain conditions (reference AC 150/5100-13,
Development of State Standards for Non-Primary Airports), the use of state dimensional
standards that differ from the standards in this AC are NOT acceptable for federally obligated or
certificated airports.
c. Local. Most communities have zoning ordinances, building codes, and fire
regulations which may affect airport development. Some have codes or ordinances regulating
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environmental issues such as noise and air quality. Others may have specific procedures for
establishing an airport. All communities should have sufficient zoning and land-use controls in
place to protect the investment in the airport. With respect to hazard removal/mitigation and
compatible land use, communities should take appropriate action to:
(1) ensure that such airspace as is required to protect instrument and visual
operations to the airport (including established minimum flight altitudes) is adequately cleared
and protected by removing, lowering, relocating, marking, or lighting or otherwise mitigating
existing airport hazards and by preventing the existence of future airport hazards (see AC
150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects Around Airports), and
(2) restrict the use of land, including the establishment of zoning laws, near
the airport to activities and purposes compatible with normal airport operations, including
landing and takeoff of aircraft.
104. NOTICE OF PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION.
Part 77 requires proponents of construction or alteration on or near airports to notify the FAA,
allowing the FAA to evaluate the potential impact on air navigation.
a. On-Airport Construction or Alteration Public-Use Airports.
(1) FAA Notification. Any construction on a public-use airport requires the
airport owner/operator to file notice with the FAA prior to start of construction (Title 14 CFR
Section 77.7, Form and Time of Notice). This applies to all tenants, lessees, and FAA operations
on the airport. It is important to note that “shielding” does not apply on an airport. If the
construction is on the airport, you must file notice. Further, the installation of a NAVAID is
exempt from the requirement to file notice only when the NAVAID is fixed-by function (see
paragraph 102).
(2) Part 77 requires persons proposing any construction or alteration described
in Title 14 CFR Section 77.5, Applicability, to give 45-day notice to the FAA of their intent.
Notice is submitted on FAA Form 7460-1, Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration. The
FAA encourages filing the Notice electronically on the FAA’s Obstruction Evaluation/Airport
Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA) website: https://oeaaa.faa.gov/oeaaa.
(3) Plans on File. Future airport development plans and feasibility studies on
file with the FAA may influence the determination resulting from Part 77 studies. Having their
plans on file with the FAA is the only way airport owners can ensure full consideration of airport
development.
(a) Runway Development. For any new runway, runway extension, or
planned runway upgrade, the necessary plan data include, as a minimum, planned runway end
and landing threshold coordinates, elevation(s), type of approach category or visibility
minimums, and whether the runway will be a designated instrument departure runway. See
paragraphs 107 and 303.
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(b) Submitting “plan on file” data. “Plan on file” data can, in general,
be submitted in any form that is convenient for the airport owner provided complete and
sufficient information on the development is provided. An update to the ALP is generally the
best method to transmit plan on file information. Submit this information to the local FAA
Airports Region or ADO that serves your geographic area. The location of Airports Region and
ADO offices is available on the FAA website: www.faa.gov/airports, or the OE/AAA website:
https://oeaaa.faa.gov/oeaaa.
b. Off-Airport Construction or Alteration.
(1) FAA Notification. Part 77 requires persons proposing any construction or
alteration described in Title 14 CFR Section 77.9, Construction or Alteration Requiring Notice,
to give 45-day notice to the FAA of their intent. This includes any construction or alteration of
structures more than 200 feet (61 m) in height above the ground level or at a height that
penetrates defined imaginary surfaces extending outward and upward at a defined slope
dependent upon the conditions at the airport (public-use or private-use with special instrument
procedures).
(2) Notice is submitted on FAA Form 7460-1. Notice can be filed
electronically on the FAA’s OE/AAA website: https://oeaaa.faa.gov/oeaaa.
(3) Off-Airport Development. The plan on file concept, discussed in
paragraph 104.a(3), also applies to airport or community plans to remove off-airport objects that
could improve navigable airspace. For example, the FAA can issue a notice of hazard for
proposals that would otherwise be shielded by existing objects if a plan on file includes removal
of the existing object(s).
c. Airport Construction or Alteration Non-obligated public-use and private-
use airports (14 CFR Part 157). Part 157 applies to persons proposing to construct, alter,
activate, or deactivate a civil or joint-use airport or to alter the status or use of such an airport.
(1) Part 157 requires notice to the FAA by anyone who intends to:
(a) construct or otherwise establish a new airport or activate an airport.
(b) construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft
landing or takeoff area of an airport.
(c) deactivate, discontinue using, or abandon an airport or any landing
or takeoff area of an airport for a period of one year or more.
(d) construct, realign, alter, activate, deactivate, abandon, or
discontinue using a taxiway associated with a landing or takeoff area on a public-use airport.
(e) change the status of an airport from private-use to public-use or
from public-use to another status.
(f) change any traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction.
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(g) change status from Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) to Visual Flight
Rules (VFR) or VFR to IFR.
(2) Notice consists of submission of FAA Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing
Area Proposal, along with supporting documentation, to the FAA Airports Regional or ADO that
serves your geographic area.
(3) Part 157 does not apply when:
(a) An airport subject to conditions of a federal agreement (obligated
airport) that requires an approved current ALP to be on file with the FAA.
(b) An airport at which flight operations will be conducted under VFR
for less than 30 consecutive days with less than 10 operations per day, and
(c) The intermittent use of a site that is not an established airport,
which is used or intended to be used for less than one year and at which flight operations will be
conducted only under VFR. Intermittent use under Part 157 means the site is used no more than
3 days in any one week, with no more than 10 operations in any one day.
(4) Refer to Part 157, Order JO 7400.2 and AC 150/5200-35, Submitting the
Airport Master Record in Order to Activate a New Airport, for additional guidance.
d. Penalty for failure to provide notice under Parts 77 and 157. Persons who
knowingly and willingly fail to give such notice are subject to civil penalty of not more than
$1,000 under Title 49 U.S.C. Section 46301, Civil Penalties.
e. Specific airspace procedures and requirements can be found in Order JO 7400.2.
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Figure 1-1. Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA) website:
https://oeaaa.faa.gov/oeaaa/external/portal.jsp
105. PLANNING.
General information is provided below, however airport planning is beyond the scope of this AC.
See AC 150/5020-1, Noise Control and Compatibility Planning for Airports, AC 150/5060-5,
Airport Capacity and Delay, AC 150/5070-6, Airport Master Plans, and AC 150/5070-7, The
Airport System Planning Process.
a. General. Airport design standards provide basic guidelines for a safe, efficient,
and economic airport system. The standards in this AC cover the wide range of size and
performance characteristics of aircraft that are anticipated to use an airport. These standards
also cover various elements of airport infrastructure and their functions. Airport designers and
planners need to carefully choose the basic aircraft characteristics for which the airport will be
designed. Airport designs based only on existing aircraft can severely limit the ability to
expand the airport to meet future requirements for larger, more demanding aircraft. Airport
designs that are based on large aircraft never likely to be served by the airport are not
economical. Building to the standards in this AC ensures that aircraft in a particular category
can operate at the airport without restrictions or location-specific encumbrances that could
impact safe and efficient operations.
b. Design Aircraft. Planning a new airport or improvements to an existing airport
requires the selection of a “design aircraft.” The design aircraft can take the form of one
particular aircraft, for example, in the case of a private airport. In most cases, however, the
design aircraft is a composite aircraft representing a collection of aircraft classified by three
parameters: Aircraft Approach Category, ADG, and TDG. These parameters, explained in detail
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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below, represent the aircraft that are intended to be accommodated by the airport. In the case of
an airport with multiple runways, a design aircraft is selected for each runway. The first
consideration of the airport planner should be the safe operation of aircraft likely to use the
airport. Any operation of an aircraft that exceeds design criteria of the airport may result in
either an unsafe operation or a lesser safety margin unless ATC Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs) are in place for those operations. However, it is not the usual practice to base the airport
design on an aircraft that uses the airport infrequently, and it is appropriate to develop ATC
SOPs to accommodate faster and/or larger aircraft that use the airport occasionally.
c. RDC. The aircraft approach category and ADG are combined to form the RDC
of a particular runway. The RDC provides the information needed to determine certain design
standards that apply. The first component, depicted by a letter, is the Aircraft Approach
Category and relates to aircraft approach speed (operational characteristics). The second
component, depicted by a Roman numeral, is the ADG and relates to either the aircraft
wingspan or tail height (physical characteristics), whichever is most restrictive. Generally,
runway standards are related to aircraft approach speed, aircraft wingspan, and designated or
planned approach visibility minimums. Runway to taxiway and taxiway/taxilane to
taxiway/taxilane separation standards are related to ADG and TDG. For example, an airport’s
air carrier runway can have an RDC of C-IV and the same airport’s smaller runway used for
general aviation activity can have an RDC of B-II. (Other aspects of runway design, such as
length and pavement strength, require additional information.) See Chapter 3 for guidance on
runway design and separation requirements. See Chapter 4 for guidance on taxiway design.
d. TDG. TDG relates to the undercarriage dimensions of the aircraft.
Taxiway/taxilane width and fillet standards, and in some instances, runway to taxiway and
taxiway/taxilane separation standards, are determined by TDG. It is appropriate for a series of
taxiways on an airport to be built to a different TDG than another based on expected use.
e. Planning Process. It is important that airport planners look to both the present
and potential aviation needs and demand associated with the airport. Consider planning for
runways and taxiways locations that will meet future separation requirements even if the width,
strength, and length must increase later. Such decisions should be supported by appropriate
planning and should be shown on the approved ALP. Coordination with the FAA and users of
the airport will assist in determining the immediate and long range characteristics that will best
satisfy the needs of the community and travelling public. This involves determining the
following:
(1) The operating characteristics, dimensions, and weights of the airplanes
expected at the airport;
(2) The most demanding meteorological conditions for desired/planned level
of service;
(3) The volume and mix of operations;
(4) The possible constraints on navigable airspace; and
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
16
(5) The environmental and compatible land use considerations associated with
topography, residential development, schools, churches, hospitals, sites of public assembly, and
the like.
f. Approaches. Based on anticipated future demand, the airport should be planned
for lower minimums and higher performance aircraft. Such planning includes the appropriate
RPZ size and approach slopes for the future design aircraft and visibility minimums. Proper
planning should ensure that future airspace requirements are adequately protected with an FAA
plan on file (see paragraph 104.a(3)). See paragraphs 306 and 316 for obstruction clearing
standards.
g. Land Acquisition and Airspace Protection. Off airport development will have
a negative impact on current and future airport operations when it creates obstacles to the safe
and efficient use of the airspace surrounding the airport. Early land acquisition will provide for
future airport development needs and long term viability of the airport. Consider the ultimate
airport configuration including the number and orientation of runways and proper separation for
parallel taxiways and the terminal building complex. Because land acquisition to protect all
possible airspace intrusions is not feasible, airports should pursue local zoning, easements, or
other means to mitigate potential incompatible land uses and potential obstacle conflicts. AC
150/5190-4 presents guidance for controlling the height of objects around airports. At a
minimum, land acquisition should include:
(1) OFAs,
(2) RPZs, and
(3) Adequate areas surrounding the runway(s) to protect the runway clearing
surfaces identified by paragraph 306.
h. Existing Airports. Planning for the upgrade of an existing airport to a higher
design category should begin well in advance of actual demand. Because of cost and site
constraints, it is seldom possible to make all of the improvements needed at one time when
demand materializes. Instead, it may be preferable implement a phased improvement plan.
106. AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN (ALP).
a. Description. An ALP is a scaled drawing of existing and proposed land and
facilities necessary for the operation and development of the airport. Any airport will benefit
from a carefully developed plan that reflects current FAA design standards and planning
criteria. AC 150/5070-6 contains guidance on the development of ALPs, as well as a detailed
listing of the various components that constitute a well-appointed ALP.
b. Federally Obligated Airports. All airport development at federally obligated
airports must conform to an FAA-approved ALP. The ALP, to the extent practicable, must
conform to the FAA airport design standards existing at the time of its approval. Due to
unusual site, environmental, or other constraints, the FAA may approve an ALP not fully
complying with design standards. Such approval requires the FAA to determine the proposed
modification is safe for the specific site and conditions. See Order 5300.1. When the FAA
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
17
revises a standard, airport owners should, to the extent practicable, incorporate the changes in
the ALP before all new development.
107. COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION OF AIRPORT DATA.
a. Airport Data Needs. Airport planning, design, and evaluation activities require
information that accurately describes the location and condition of airport facilities as well as
off-airport structures and features. This information is derived from geospatial data that are
collected during the planning, design, and construction phase of airport development.
Geospatial data describe objects in a three-dimensional geographic reference system that relates
physical objects with the surrounding airspace. It is crucial for airports to accurately collect and
report safety-critical data to the FAA in a timely manner. AC 150/5300-18, General Guidance
and Specifications for Submission of Aeronautical Surveys to NGS: Field Data Collection and
Geographic Information System (GIS) Standards, provides standards for identifying, collecting,
and reporting safety critical data. FAA uses these data, in part, to:
(1) Protect existing runway approaches from proposed development that could
create a hazard to air navigation,
(2) Provide for the design and development of new IAPs to the lowest
visibility minimums possible,
(3) Provide accurate information for planning studies that assess the impact of
airport noise, and
(4) Ensure that review and coordination of on-airport development proposals
maintain critical clearance standards for the completed project.
b. Airspace Data. The FAA conducts airspace studies of proposed development
under 14 CFR Part 77 as described in paragraph 104. These studies assess the potential impact
on air navigation using the best available data and plans on file. To ensure that the FAA has the
best possible data with which to conduct these studies, the airport should submit any airfield
changes as soon as they occur. This process is usually done in connection with ALP updates,
but airports are encouraged to keep the FAA up to date with critical changes any time they
occur. In particular, ensure that FAA has the latest data on actual and planned facilities for:
(1) Runway ends.
(2) Runway touchdown zones.
(3) Displaced thresholds.
(4) High and low points on the runway surfaces.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
18
c. Airport Master Record. The FAA maintains airport master records that are
used to publish safety and operational information in the FAA A/FD. This information is
usually collected during periodic FAA-sponsored inspections of the airport. These inspections
collect information on runway length, runway condition, runway strength, navigational
facilities, and controlling obstructions as well as other important data. Inspections are
conducted in connection with Part 139 certification inspections for commercial service airports
and Airport Master Record inspection for all other airports. Airport operators should become
aware of the inspection schedules for their airports and ensure that the inspectors are provided
with the latest changes to insure that FAA publications are current and accurate.
d. Aeronautical Surveys. The FAA uses aeronautical surveys to develop and
modify instrument procedures. Survey requirements are provided by AC 150/5300-16, General
Guidance and Specifications for Aeronautical Surveys: Establishment of Geodetic Control and
Submission to the National Geodetic Survey, AC 150/5300-17, General Guidance and
Specifications for Aeronautical Survey Airport Imagery Acquisition and Submission to the
National Geodetic Survey, and AC 150/5300-18.
e. Airports GIS. The Airports GIS is a comprehensive geographic information
system that will house critical safety data for the FAA and the airport community. Data in the
Airports GIS will be collected by individual airports and validated by the FAA for use, in part,
to:
(1) Conduct airspace studies
(2) Publish aeronautical information
(3) Develop instrument flight procedures
(4) Facilitate internal review and coordination of all airport development
proposals.
Airports GIS information and data specifications can be found in AC 150/5300-18.
108. RELATED ADVISORY CIRCULARS (ACs), ORDERS, AND FEDERAL
REGULATIONS.
The following is a list of documents referenced in this AC and additional related information.
Most Advisory Circulars, Orders, and Regulations can be found online at www.faa.gov. All
references to ACs, Orders, and Federal Regulations are to be the most recent versions.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
19
a. Advisory Circulars.
(1) AC 00-44, Status of Federal Aviation Regulations,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74292.
(2) AC 20-35, Tiedown Sense,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22573.
(3) AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction Marking and Lighting,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74452.
(4) AC 103-6, Ultralight Vehicle Operations – Airports, ATC, and Weather,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22639.
(5) AC 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather
Minimums for Approach,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22752.
(6) AC 150/5020-1, Noise Control and Compatibility Planning for Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22771.
(7) AC 150/5060-5, Airport Capacity and Delay,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22824.
(8) AC 150/5070-6, Airport Master Plans,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22329.
(9) AC 150/5070-7, The Airport System Planning Process,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22412.
(10) AC 150/5100-13, Development of State Standards for Nonprimary
Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019558.
(11) AC 150/5100-17, Land Acquisition and Relocation Assistance for Airport
Improvement Program Assisted Projects,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23049.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
20
(12) AC 150/5190-4, A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects
Around Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22826.
(13) AC 150/5190-6, Exclusive Rights at Federally Obligated Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22331.
(14) AC 150/5190-7, Minimum Standards for Commercial Aeronautical
Activities,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22332.
(15) AC 150/5200-33, Hazardous Wildlife Attractants On or Near Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22820.
(16) AC 150/5200-34, Construction or Establishment of Landfills near Public
Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22095.
(17) AC 150/5200-35, Submitting the Airport Master Record in Order to
Activate a New Airport,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/393458.
(18) AC 150/5210-15, Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Station Building
Design,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74200.
(19) AC 150/5210-22, Airport Certification Manual (ACM),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23246.
(20) AC 150/5220-16, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for
Non-Federal Applications,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1018858.
(21) AC 150/5220-18, Buildings for Storage and Maintenance of Airport Snow
and Ice Control Equipment and Materials,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23251.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
21
(22) AC 150/5220-22, Engineered Materials Arresting Systems (EMAS) for
Aircraft Overruns,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22806.
(23) AC 150/5220-23, Frangible Connections,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74141.
(24) AC 150/5220-26, Airport Ground Vehicle Automatic Dependent
Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Squitter Equipment,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019594.
(25) AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling, and Dispensing on
Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23051.
(26) AC 150/5300-7, FAA Policy on Facility Relocations Occasioned by
Airport Improvements or Changes,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23052.
(27) AC 150/5300-14, Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/73589.
(28) AC 150/5300-16, General Guidance and Specifications for Aeronautical
Surveys: Establishment of Geodetic Control and Submission to the National Geodetic Survey,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22508.
(29) AC 150/5300-17, Standards for Using Remote Sensing Technologies in
Airport Surveys,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019537.
(30) AC 150/5300-18, General Guidance and Specifications for Submission of
Aeronautical Surveys to NGS: Field Data Collection and Geographic Information System (GIS)
Standards,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74204.
(31) AC 150/5320-5 (UFC 3-230-01), Surface Drainage Design,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22336.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
22
(32) AC 150/5320-6, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/99762.
(33) AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid
Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22107.
(34) AC 150/5320-15, Management of Airport Industrial Waste
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/74205.
(35) AC 150/5325-4, Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22809.
(36) AC 150/5335-5, Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement
Strength – PCN,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019460.
(37) AC 150/5340-1, Standards for Airport Marking,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/386812.
(38) AC 150/5340-5, Segmented Circle Airport Marker System,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23243.
(39) AC 150/5340-18, Standards for Airport Sign Systems,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/321003.
(40) AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019550.
(41) AC 150/5345-43, Specification for Obstruction Lighting Equipment,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22218.
(42) AC 150/5345-44, Specification for Runway and Taxiway Signs,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/393448.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
23
(43) AC 150/5345-52, Generic Visual Glideslope Indicators (GVGI),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22614.
(44) AC 150/5360-9, Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Facilities at
Non-Hub Locations,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22224.
(45) AC 150/5360-13, Planning and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal
Facilities,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22618.
(46) AC 150/5370-2, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019533.
(47) AC 150/5370-10, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019625.
(48) AC 150/5370-15, Airside Application for Artificial Turf,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/1019532.
(49) AC 150/5390-2, Heliport Design,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/23095.
(50) AC 150/5395-1, Seaplane Bases,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/
documentID/22228.
b. Orders.
(1) Order 1050.1, Policies and Procedures for Considering Environmental
Impacts,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/13975.
(2) Order 5050.4, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing
Instructions for Airport Projects,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/14836.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
24
(3) Order 5090.3, Field Formulation of the National Plan of Integrated Airport
Systems (NPIAS),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/12754.
(4) Order 5100.37, Land Acquisition and Relocation Assistance for Airport
Projects,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/14837.
(5) Order 5100.38, Airport Improvement Program Handbook,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/14406.
(6) Order 5190.6, FAA Airport Compliance Manual,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/99721.
(7) Order 5200.8, Runway Safety Area Program,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/8471.
(8) Order 5200.9, Financial Feasibility and Equivalency of Runway Safety
Area Improvements and Engineered Material Arresting Systems,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/13908.
(9) Order 5200.11, FAA Airports (ARP) Safety Management System (SMS),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/323070.
(10) Order 5300.1, Modifications to Agency Airport Design, Construction, and
Equipment Standards,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/12698.
(11) Order 6030.20, Electrical Power Policy,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/16212.
(12) Order 6310.6, Primary/secondary Terminal Radar Siting Handbook,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/8868.
(13) Order 6480.4, Airport Traffic Control Tower Siting Criteria,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/15735.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
25
(14) Order 6560.20, Siting Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems
(AWOS),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9380.
(15) Order 6560.21, Siting Guidelines for Low Level Windshear Alert System
(LLWAS) Remote Facilities,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9383.
(16) Order JO 6580.3, Remote Communications Facilities Installation
Standards Handbook,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/73415
(17) Order 6750.16, Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/14226.
(18) Order 6750.36, Site Survey, Selection, and Engineering Documentation
for ILS and Ancillary Aids,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9633.
(19) Order 6780.5, DME Installation Standards Handbook Type FA-96-39,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9691.
(20) Order 6820.9, VOR, VOR/DME, VORTAC Installation Standard
Drawings,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9739.
(21) Order 6820.10, VOR, VOR/DME and VORTAC Siting Criteria,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9741.
(22) Order JO 6850.2, Visual Guidance Lighting Systems,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/321004.
(23) Order 6850.10, Runway End Identifier Lighting (REIL) System Standard
Drawings,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9784.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
26
(24) Order 6850.19, Frangible Coupling,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9793.
(25) Order 6850.20, Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System Threshold
Lighting Backfit,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/9794
(26) Order 6950.23, Cable Loop Communication Systems at Airport Facilities,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/12821.
(27) Order 7110.104, Non-Federal Automated Weather Observation System
(AWOS) Connection to the Weather Messaging Switching,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/10255.
(28) Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/1019806.
(29) Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/14505.
(30) Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures
(TERPS),
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/doc
umentID/11698.
(31) Other Orders in the 8260 series,
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.list?omni=Order
sNotices&q=8260&documentTypeIDList=2&display=all&parentTopicID=0&documentNumber
=.
c. Federal Regulations.
(1) 14 CFR Part 1, Definitions and Abbreviations,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.1.
1&idno=14 .
(2) 14 CFR Part 23, Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and
Commuter Category Airplanes, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.
10&idno=14.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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(3) 14 CFR Part 25, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.
11&idno=14.
(4) 14 CFR Part 77, Safe, Efficient Use, and Preservation of the Navigable
Airspace, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:2.0.1.2.
9&idno=14.
(5) 14 CFR Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:2.0.1.3.
10&idno=14.
(6) 14 CFR Part 97, Standard Instrument Procedures,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:2.0.1.3.
13&idno=14 .
(7) 14 CFR Part 121, Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and
Supplemental Operations, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.1.
7&idno=14.
(8) 14 CFR Part 129, Operations: Foreign Air Carriers and Foreign Operators
of U.S.-Registered Aircraft Engaged in Common Carriage,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.1.
9&idno=14.
(9) 14 CFR Part 135, Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand
Operations and Rules Governing Persons On Board Such Aircraft,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.1.
11&idno=14.
(10) 14 CFR Part 139, Certification of Airports,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.1.
14&idno=14.
(11) 14 CFR Part 150, Airport Noise Compatibility Planning,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.3.
21&idno=14
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(12) 14 CFR Part 151, Federal Aid to Airports,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.3.
22&idno=14.
(13) 14 CFR Part 152, Airport Aid Program,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.3.
23&idno=14.
(14) 14 CFR Part 157, Notice of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and
Deactivation of Airports, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.3.
27&idno=14.
(15) 14 CFR Part 171, Non-Federal Navigation Facilities,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=fab9bfa191e740463dbdb9acc14b6e2a&rgn=div5&view=text&node=14:3.0.1.4.
32&idno=14.
(16) 49 CFR Part 24, Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property
Acquisition for Federal and Federally-Assisted Programs,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:1.0.1.1.
18&idno=49.
(17) 49 CFR Part 1540, Civil Aviation Security: General Rules,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr;sid=bea8e3d217db2cf2a562c85911cc3f7f;rgn=div5;view=text;node=49%3A9.1.3.5.9
;idno=49;cc=ecfr.
(18) 49 CFR Part 1542, Airport Security,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
10&idno=49.
(19) 49 CFR Part 1544, Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and
Commercial Operators, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
11&idno=49.
(20) 49 CFR Part 1546, Foreign Air Carrier Security
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
12&idno=49.
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(21) 49 CFR Part 1548, Indirect Air Carrier Security,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
13&idno=49.
(22) 49 CFR Part 1549, Certified Cargo Screening Program,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
14&idno=49.
(23) 49 CFR Part 1550, Aircraft Security under General Operating and Flight
Rules, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
15&idno=49.
(24) 49 CFR Part 1552, Flight Schools, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
16&idno=49.
(25) 49 CFR Part 1554, Aircraft Repair Station Security (Reserved).
(26) 49 CFR Part 1560, Secure Flight Program (Reserved),
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
17&idno=49.
(27) 49 CFR Part 1562, Operations in the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area,
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-
idx?c=ecfr&sid=f8c021cea6b0746900717e84b2fe6ccd&rgn=div5&view=text&node=49:9.1.3.5.
18&idno=49.
d. Forms.
(1) Form 5010, Airport Master Record,
http://www.faa.gov/forms/index.cfm/go/document.list?omni=Forms&q=5010&parentTopicID=0
&display=current&subjectClassPrefix=&documentNumber=.
(2) Form 7460-1, Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration,
http://www.faa.gov/forms/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/186273.
(3) Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing Area Proposal,
http://www.faa.gov/forms/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/185334.
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e. Other.
(1) FAA-C-1217, Electrical Work, Interior.
(2) FAA-STD-019, Lightning and Surge Protection, Grounding, Bonding and
Shielding Requirements for Facilities and Electronics Equipment.
(3) Grant Assurance No. 34, Policies, Standards, and Specifications, and PFC
Assurance No. 9, Standards and Specifications.
(4) Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM),
http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/aim/.
(5) FAA/USDA manual, Wildlife Hazard Management at Airports,
http://wildlife.pr.erau.edu/EnglishManual/2005_FAA_Manual_complete.pdf.
(6) Airport/Facility Directory,
http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/productcatalog/supplementalcharts/AirportDir
ectory/.
(7) Aeronautical Information Publication,
http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/media/aip.pdf.
(8) ASTM D 4956, Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for
Traffic Control, http://www.astm.org/Standards/D4956.htm.
109. to 199. RESERVED.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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Chapter 2. DESIGN PROCESS
201. GENERAL.
Airport design first requires selecting the RDC(s), then the most demanding meteorological
conditions for desired/planned level of service for each runway, and then applying the airport
design criteria associated with the RDC and the designated or planned approach visibility
minimums. Table 2–1 and Table 2–2 depict the change in design standards associated with
changes in the design group, approach speed, or visibility minimums.
a. Instrument flight procedures minimums are based on the characteristics and
infrastructure of the runway (i.e. markings, approach light system, protected airspace, etc),
airspace evaluation, and the navigation system available to the aircraft. Unless these items are
considered in the development of the airport, the operational minimums may be other than
desired.
b. For airports with two or more runways, it is often desirable to design all airport
elements to meet the requirements of the most demanding RDC and TDG. However, it may be
more practical and economical to design some airport elements, e.g., a secondary runway and its
associated taxiway, to standards associated with a lesser demanding RDC and TDG. A typical
example would be an air carrier airport that has a separate general aviation or commuter runway
or a crosswind runway only needed for small aircraft.
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Table 2–1. Increases in Airport Design Standards Associated with an Upgrade in the First
Component (Aircraft Approach Category) of the Airport Reference Code (ARC) and the
Runway Design Code (RDC).
ARC/RDC
upgrade
Changes in airport design standards.
A-I* to B-I*
No change in airport design standards.
B-I* to C-I
Increase in crosswind component. Refer to paragraph 204.a and Table 2–4.
Increase in runway separation standards. Refer to Table 3–4 and Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4 and paragraph 310.f.
Increase in OFZ dimensions. Refer to paragraph 308.
Increase in runway design standards. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in surface gradient standards. Refer to paragraph 313, Figure 4-25,
paragraph 418, and paragraph 508.
Increase in threshold siting standards. Refer to paragraph 303.
A-I to B-I
No change in airport design standards.
B-I to C-1
Increase in crosswind component. Refer to paragraph 204.a. and Table 2–4.
Increase in runway separation standards. Refer to Table 3–4 and Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4 and paragraph 310.f.
Increase in runway design standards. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in surface gradient standards. Refer to paragraphs 313, Figure 4-25,
paragraph 418, and paragraph 508.
A-II to B-II
No change in airport design standards.
B-II to C-II
Increase in crosswind component. Refer to paragraph 204.a. and Table 2–4.
Increase in runway separation standards. Refer to Table 3–4 and Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4 and paragraph 310.f.
Increase in runway design standards. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in surface gradient standards. Refer to paragraph 313, Figure 4-25,
paragraph 418 and paragraph 508.
A-III to B-III
No change in airport standards.
B-III to C-III
Increase in runway separation standards. Refer to Table 3–4 and Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4 and paragraph 310.f.
Increase in runway design standards. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in surface gradient standards. Refer to paragraph 313, Figure 4-25,
paragraph 418 and paragraph 508.
A-IV to B-IV
No change in airport design standards.
B-IV to C-IV
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4 and paragraph 310.f.
Increase in surface gradient standards. Refer to paragraph 313, Figure 4-25,
paragraph 418 and paragraph 508.
* These airport design standards pertain to facilities designed for small aircraft.
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Table 2–2. Changes in Airport Design Standards to Provide for Lower Approach Visibility
Minimums.
Visibility
minimums*
Changes in airport design standards
Visual
to
Not lower than
1-Mile
No change in airport design standards.
Not lower than
1-Mile
to
Not lower than
3/4-Mile
Parallel Taxiway
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in threshold siting standards. Refer to paragraph 303.
Not lower than
3/4-Mile
to
Not lower than
CAT I
For aircraft approach categories A & B runways:
Increase in runway separation standards. Refer to Table 3–4 and
Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in OFZ dimensions. Refer to paragraph 308.
Increase in runway design standards. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in threshold siting standards. Refer to paragraph 303.
For aircraft approach categories C, D, & E runways:
Increase in runway separation standards for ADG-I & ADG-II runways.
Refer to Table 3–4 and Table 3–5.
Increase in RPZ dimensions. Refer to Table 3–4.
Increase in OFZ dimensions. Refer to paragraph 308.
Increase in threshold siting standards. Refer to paragraph 303.
Not lower than
CAT I
to
Lower than
CAT I
Increase in OFZ dimensions for runways serving large aircraft. Refer to
paragraph 308.
Increase in threshold siting standards. Refer to paragraph 303.
* In addition to the changes in airport design standards as noted, providing for lower approach
visibility minimums may result in an increase in the number of objects identified as obstructions
to air navigation in accordance with 14 CFR Part 77. This may require object removal or
marking and lighting. Refer to paragraph 306.
202. DESIGN AIRCRAFT.
The design aircraft enables airport planners and engineers to design the airport in such a way as
to satisfy the operational requirements of such aircraft and meet national standards for separation
and geometric design (safety issues). The “design” aircraft may be a single aircraft or a
composite of several different aircraft composed of the most demanding characteristics of each
(see paragraph 105.b.). Examples of such characteristics and the design components affected
follow:
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Table 2–3. Aircraft Characteristics and Design Components.
Aircraft Characteristics
Design Components
Approach Speed
RSA, OFA, RPZ, Runway width, Runway-to-Taxiway
Separation, Runway-to-Fixed object.
Landing and Takeoff Distance
Runway length
CMG
Fillet design, Apron area, Parking layout
Gear Width
Taxiway width, fillet design
Wingspan / Tail Height
Taxiway and apron OFA, Parking configuration, Hangar
locations, taxiway-to-taxiway separation, runway to
taxiway separation
203. RUNWAY INCURSIONS.
The overall airfield design should be developed with the intent of preventing runway incursions.
Specifically, this can be addressed in the design of the taxiway system using such concepts as
limiting indirect access and avoiding high energy intersections. Taxiway design and runway
incursion prevention are discussed in Chapter 4.
204. AIRPORT DESIGN STANDARDS AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS.
a. Purpose and Need. For federally funded airport projects, design standards in
this AC represent the key components of the airport that are needed to fulfill the federal mission
and policy as stipulated by U.S. Code Title 49, Chapter 471, Airport Development. Chapter 471
requires balancing a variety of interests associated with the airports, including:
Safe operations
Increasing capacity and efficiency
Delay reduction
Economic viability
Noise reduction
Environmental protection
These standards work to balance these interests. For normal environmental processes, these
standards establish the fundamental purpose and need for airport development.
b. Safety. All prudent and feasible alternatives must be considered when a
proposed development project has potential environmental effects. However, safety is the
highest priority for any airport development and any airport operations.
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205. RUNWAY LOCATION, ORIENTATION AND WIND COVERAGE.
Runway location and orientation are paramount to airport safety, efficiency, economics, and
environmental impact. The weight and degree of concern given to each of the following factors
depend, in part, on: the RDC; the meteorological conditions; the surrounding environment;
topography; and the volume of air traffic expected at the airport. To minimize adverse wind
conditions, overcome environmental impacts, or accommodate operational demands, an
additional runway may be necessary.
a. Wind. Wind data analysis for airport planning and design is discussed in
Appendix 2. The wind data analysis considers the wind speed and direction as related to the
existing and forecasted operations during visual and instrument meteorological conditions. It
may also consider wind by time of day. A crosswind runway is recommended when the
primary runway orientation provides less than 95 percent wind coverage. The 95 percent wind
coverage is computed on the basis of the crosswind not exceeding the allowable value, as listed
in Table 2–4, per RDC.
Table 2–4. Allowable Crosswind per RDC
RDC
Allowable Crosswind
Knots
A-I and B-I *
10.5 knots
A-II and B-II
13 knot
A-III, B-III,
C-I through D-III
D-I through D-III
16 knots
A-IV and B-IV,
C-IV through C-VI,
D-IV through D-VI
20 knots
E-I through E-VI
20 knots
* Includes A-I and B-I small aircraft.
b. Airspace Analysis and Obstruction to Air Navigation.
(1) Airspace Analysis. Existing and planned IAPs, missed approach
procedures, departure procedures, Class B, C, D and/or E airspace, special use airspace,
restricted airspace, and traffic patterns influence airport layouts and locations. Contact the FAA
for assistance on airspace matters.
(2) Obstructions to Air Navigation. An obstruction survey should identify
those objects that may affect aircraft operations. The runway should be oriented to provide a
clear approach/departure path for intended level of service.
c. Environmental Factors. In developing runways to be compatible with the
airport environs, conduct environmental studies that consider the impact of existing and
proposed land use and noise on nearby residents, air and water quality, wildlife, and
historical/archeological features.
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d. Topography. Topography affects the amount of grading and drainage work
required to construct a runway. In determining runway orientation, consider the costs of both
the initial work and ultimate airport development. See paragraphs 313, 418 and 508 and AC
150/5320-5 for further guidance.
e. Wildlife Hazards. In orienting runways, consider the relative locations of bird
sanctuaries, sanitary landfills, or other areas that may attract large numbers of birds or other
wildlife. Where bird hazards exist, develop and implement bird control procedures to minimize
such hazards. See AC 150/5200-33, AC 150/5200-34, and FAA/USDA manual, Wildlife
Hazard Management at Airports. This manual may be used to determine, on a case-by-case
basis, what uses may be compatible with a particular airport environment with respect to
wildlife management. Guidance is also available through local FAA Airports offices.
f. Operational Demands. An additional runway is necessary when current or
expected traffic volume exceeds the capacity of the existing runway(s). With rare exception,
capacity-justified runways are parallel to the primary runway. Refer to AC 150/5060-5 for
additional discussion.
g. Survey Requirements. Surveys are done in accordance with AC 150/5300-16,
AC 150/5300-17, and AC 150/5300-18.
206. PLANNED VISIBILITY MINIMUMS FOR INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES.
Runways provide maximum utility when they can be used in less than ideal weather conditions.
For runways, weather conditions translate to visibility in terms of the distance to see and identify
prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. In order to land
during periods of limited visibility, pilots must be able to see the runway or associated lighting at
a certain distance from and height above the runway. If the runway environment cannot be
identified at the minimum visibility point on the approach, FAA regulations do not authorize
pilots to land.
a. Planning Considerations. While lower visibility minimums are often desirable,
runway design requirements ranging from obstacles in the approach path to separation and
buffers around the runway become much more restrictive. Therefore, it is important to carefully
weigh the demand, benefits and costs when deciding the visibility minimums for which the
runway will be designed.
b. Visibility Categories. The ultimate runway development should be designed for
one of the following visibility categories:
(1) Visual. Runways classified as visual are not designed to handle or
anticipated to handle any IFR operations now or in the future, including circling approaches.
These runways support VFR operations only and are unlighted or lighted with Low Intensity
Runway Lights (LIRL), and have only visual (basic) runway markings as defined in AC
150/5340-1.
(2) NPA. Runways classified as NPA are designed to handle circling
approaches and instrument approaches providing only lateral guidance. NPA runways will only
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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support IFR approach operations to visibilities of 1 statute mile (1.6 km) or greater. NAVAIDs
providing lateral only guidance for instrument approaches are VOR, NDB, area navigation
(RNAV) (GPS) LNAV, localizer performance, (LP), LOC. These runways are generally at least
3,200 feet (975 m) long, with a minimum width based on RDC, are lighted using LIRL or
medium intensity runway lights (MIRL), and have non-precision runway markings as defined in
AC 150/5340-1.
(3) APV. Runways classified as APV are designed to handle instrument
approach operations where the navigation system provides vertical guidance down to 250 DH
and visibilities to as low as 3/4 statute mile. May apply to the following approach types: ILS,
RNAV (GPS), LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or RNAV (RNP)...". These runways must be longer than
3,200 feet (975 m) in length with a width greater than 60 feet (18.5 m) (with 75 or 100 feet (23
or 30 m) typically being optimum), and must have at least MIRL (or may have High Intensity
Runway Lights (HIRL)) with non-precision runway markings as defined in AC 150/5340-1.
(4) Precision Approach. Runways classified as precision are designed to
handle instrument approach operations supporting instrument approach with DH lower than 240
and visibility lower than 3/4, down to and including CAT III (zero visibility). PIRs support IFR
operations with visibilities down to and including CAT III (zero visibility) with the appropriate
infrastructure. The navigational systems capable of supporting precision operations are ILS,
RNAV(GPS) LPV, and GLS. These runways must be longer than 4200 feet (1280 m), are wider
than 75 feet (23 m) with the typical width being at least 100 feet (30 m). These runways are
typically lighted by HIRL’s and must have precision runway markings as defined in AC
150/5340-1.
207. RUNWAY VISIBILITY REQUIREMENTS.
a. Purpose. The runway visibility requirements facilitate coordination among
aircraft, and between aircraft and vehicles that are operating on active runways at airports
without an ATCT. This allows departing and arriving aircraft to verify the location and actions
of other aircraft and vehicles on the ground that could create a conflict.
b. Visibility Standards along Individual Runways.
(1) Runways without Full Parallel Taxiways. Any point five feet (1.5 m)
above the runway centerline must be mutually visible with any other point five feet (1.5 m)
above the runway centerline.
(2) Runways with a Full Parallel Taxiway. Any point five feet (1.5 m) above
the runway centerline must be mutually visible with any other point five feet (1.5 m) above the
runway centerline that is located at a distance that is less than one half the length of the runway.
c. Visibility Standards between Intersecting Runways. Any point five feet (1.5
m) above runway centerline and in the runway visibility zone (Figure 2-1) must be mutually
visible with any other point five feet (1.5 m) above the centerline of the crossing runway and
inside the runway visibility zone. The runway visibility zone is defined as an area formed by
imaginary lines connecting the two runways' visibility points. Locate the runway visibility
points as follows:
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
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(1) The end of the runway if runway end is located within 750 feet (229 m) of
the crossing runway centerline or extension.
(2) A point 750 feet (229 m) from the runway intersection (or extension) if the
end of the runway is located within 1,500 feet (457 m) of the crossing runway centerline or
extension.
(3) A point one-half of the distance from the intersecting runway centerline
(or extension), if the end of the runway is located at least 1,500 feet (457 m) from the crossing
runway centerline or extension.
d. Modifications. A modification to this standard may be approved by the FAA if
an acceptable level of safety is maintained, because: (1) the airport has a 24-hour control tower;
and (2) the operation of the control tower will continue based on acceptable activity forecasts.
Figure 2-1. Runway Visibility Zone
208. AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER (ATCT) SITING.
a. General. The ATCT should be constructed at the minimum height required to
satisfy all siting criteria. Order 6480.4 provides guidance on siting criteria and the evaluation
and approval procedures for the height and location of an ATCT to ensure safety within the
National Airspace System (NAS). The existing (or future) ATCT must have a clear line of sight
(LOS) to: all traffic patterns; the final approaches to all runways; all runway structural
d b
c
a
ZONE
RUNWAY VISIBILITY
A
BBUT
C
D
THEN
xa = DISTANCE TO
END OF RUNWAY
xb = 750 FT [229 M]
xc = 1/2 C
xd = 1/2 D
WHEN
750 FT [229 M]
1500 FT [457 M]
1500 FT [457 M]
1500 FT [457 M]
750 FT [229 M]
x
D B
A
C
1/2 D 750'
1/2 C
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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pavement; and other operational surfaces controlled by ATC. A clear LOS to taxilane
centerlines is desirable. Operational surfaces not having a clear unobstructed LOS from the
ATCT are designated by ATC as non-movement areas through a local agreement with the
airport owner.
b. Land Requirements. From ATCTs, ATC personnel control flight operations
within the airport's designated airspace and the operation of aircraft and vehicles on the
movement area. A typical ATCT site will range from 3 to 7 acres. Additional land may be
needed for combined ATC facilities. The proposed site must be large enough to accommodate
current and future building needs, including employee parking spaces.
c. Considerations for Planned Runway and/or Taxiway Extensions. During the
planning of a runway or taxiway extension, the existing ATCT site should be evaluated for
impacts from the extension, such as object discrimination, unobstructed view, and two-point
lateral discrimination (depth perception).
d. Considerations for Planned Taxiway Construction Projects. During the
planning of a taxiway construction project, the existing ATCT site should be evaluated for
impacts due to construction, such as an unobstructed view from construction equipment and/or
activities, temporary and/or permanent changes in taxiing patterns, and changes to aircraft
operations.
e. Considerations for Planned Buildings. When planning on-airport buildings,
such as terminal buildings, hangars, snow removal equipment buildings, aircraft rescue and fire
fighting (ARFF) buildings, the existing ATCT site should be evaluated for impacts from the
project, such as clear LOS, glare, and smoke or vapor plume.
209. AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP).
The ARP is the geometric center of all usable runways at the airport. The FAA uses the ARP to
establish the official horizontal geographic location for the airport. The ARP is normally not
monumented or physically marked on the ground. The location of the ARP is computed using
runway length and is typically presented for both the existing and ultimate runway lengths
proposed for development. This allows the FAA to adequately protect the existing and ultimate
airspace surrounding the airport. These computations do not use closed or abandoned areas. The
FAA-approved ALP shows the ultimate development. If there is no ALP, the ultimate runway
lengths are the existing runways plus those which have airspace approval, less closed or
abandoned areas. Once the ARP is computed, the only time that a recomputation is needed is
when the proposed ultimate development is changed. Refer to AC 150/5300-18 for specific
calculation requirements and further guidance.
210. HELIPORTS/HELIPADS.
Refer to AC 150/5390-2 for guidance on helicopter facilities on airports. AC 150/5390-2
provides recommended distances between the helicopter Final Approach and Takeoff Area
(FATO) center to runway centerline. Safety area dimensions for helipads are also discussed.
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
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211. OTHER AERONAUTIC USES ON AIRPORTS.
a. Light Sport Aircraft and Ultralights. Aircraft in this category have a
maximum takeoff weight of less than 1,320 lbs (599 kg) and 254 lbs (115 kg) respectively, and
a maximum stall speed of not more than 45 knots and 24 knots respectively. Since these aircraft
regularly operate on turf runways, follow the guidance in paragraph 313. Otherwise, use the
standards in this AC for small aircraft with approach speeds of more than 50 knots, and less
than 50 knots, respectively. Refer to AC 103-6 for further guidance.
b. Seaplanes. Refer to AC 150/5395-1.
c. Skydiving. Contact the appropriate FAA Airports office for guidance.
212. DRAINAGE CONSIDERATIONS.
The objective of storm drainage design is to provide for safe passage of vehicles or operation of
the facility during the design storm event. Design considerations are discussed in more detail
below. Refer to AC 150/5320-5 for further guidance on the design of storm drainage systems.
a. Design Objectives. The drainage system should be designed to:
(1) Provide for surface drainage by the rapid removal of storm water from the
airfield pavement including the drainage of the pavement base or subbase by a subdrain system.
(2) Provide an efficient mechanism for collecting airfield flows and
conveying design flows to acceptable discharge points.
(3) Provide levels of storm water conveyance that protect airfield pavements
and embankments from damage during large storm water events. Additionally any
improvements required for airport operations such as utilities and NAVAIDs should be similarly
protected.
(4) Provide for a safe level of operation for both airside and landside ground
vehicles.
(5) Maintain offsite peak discharge at historic or undeveloped rates. Any
detention of large storm water events within the airport site is developed allowing for such
facilities draining within 48 hours.
(6) Address storm water quality issues in accordance with individual National
Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements. Such issues can include
storm water quality when discharging to offsite receiving waters, collection and treatment of
runoff contaminated with de-icing fluids, and the collection of “first flush” contaminants from
apron areas.
(7) Account for future airport expansion and grading requirements. The
development of an Airport Storm Water Master plan is vital to designing a cost effective storm
water collection system that functions in accordance to design guidelines.
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(8) Follow airfield design requirements for safety areas and OFAs.
(9) Prevent accumulations of water that attract wildlife. Refer to AC
150/5200-33 for guidance on how to prevent or minimize the attraction of wildlife.
b. Storm Drain Design. Storm runoff must be effectively removed to avoid
interruption of operations during or following storms and to prevent temporary or permanent
damage to pavement subgrades. Removal is accomplished by a drainage system unique to each
site. Drainage systems will vary in design and extent depending upon local soil conditions and
topography; size of the physical facility; vegetation cover (or its absence); the anticipated
presence, or absence, of ponding; and local storm intensity and frequency patterns. The
drainage system should function with a minimum of maintenance difficulties and expense and
should be adaptable to future expansion. Open channels or natural water courses are permitted
only at the periphery of an airfield or heliport facility and must be well removed from the
runways and traffic areas. Subdrains are used to drain the base material, lower the water table,
or drain perched water tables. Fluctuations of the water table must be considered in the initial
design of the facility.
c. Storm Water Control Facilities. Construction improvements on airports often
convert natural pervious areas to impervious areas. These activities cause increased runoff
because infiltration is reduced, the surface is usually smoother, allowing more rapid drainage,
and depression storage is usually reduced. In addition, natural drainage systems are often
replaced by lined channels or storm drains. These man-made systems produce an increase in
runoff volume and peak discharge. One of the fundamental objectives of storm water
management is to maintain the peak runoff rate from a developing area at or below the pre-
development rate to control flooding, soil erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.
d. Water Quality Considerations. Employ best management practices (BMPs) to
mitigate the adverse impacts of development activity. Regulatory control for water quality
practices is driven by NPDES requirements under such programs as the Clean Water Act. Refer
to AC 150/5320-15 for guidance on the management and regulations of industrial waste
generated at airports.
213. SECURITY OF AIRPORTS.
The focus of airport security is to identify and reduce existing or potential risks, threats, targets
and vulnerabilities to the facility. Appropriate protective measures vary dependent on the level
of threat and the class of operator and airport. There is no universal standard at this time. The
Transportation Security Administration document, Recommended Security Guidelines for
Airport Planning and Construction, provides more specific information. A copy of this document
can be obtained from the Airport Consultants Council, Airports Council International, or
American Association of Airport Executives.
a. Threat and Security Measures. During design, consider potential types of
attack or threat to the facility, and how to incorporate associated security measures for each.
Additional information on providing security for building occupants and assets is available from
the Whole Building Design Group (WBDG). See its website at
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
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www.wbdg.org/design/provide_security.php for recommendations prepared by the WBDG
Secure/Safe Committee.
b. FAA Regulations.
(1) Certificated Airports. Airports Certificated under 14 CFR Part 139 must
provide the following:
(a) Safeguards to prevent inadvertent entry to the movement area by
unauthorized persons or vehicles.
(b) Reasonable protection of persons and property from aircraft jet
blast or propeller wash.
(c) Fencing that meets the requirements of applicable FAA and
Transportation Security Administration security regulations in areas subject to these regulations.
(2) Military/U.S. Government-Operated Airports. The FAA does not have the
statutory authority to regulate airports operated by the U.S. Government agencies, including
airports operated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). 14 CFR Part 139 clarifies that the
rule does not apply to these airports (see section 139.1(c)(2)). However, in some instances, Part
139 requirements will apply to a civilian entity that has responsibility for a portion of an airport
operated by the U.S. Government.
(3) Airports with Civilian and Military Operations. Airports where civilian
and military operations commingle are known as either “joint-use airports” or “shared-use
airports.” Under 14 CFR Part 139, civilian air carrier operations of either a joint-use or a shared-
use airport must comply with Part 139 (see section 139.1(b) and section 139.5).
c. Transportation Security Administration Security Regulations. The
Transportation Security Administration requires airport operators to implement a security
program approved by the Transportation Security Administration. The security program
includes requirements such as establishing secured areas, air operations areas, security
identification display areas, and access control systems. The Transportation Security
Administration issues and administers these requirements under the Transportation Security
Regulations (TSRs),
http://www.tsa.gov/research/laws/regs/editorial_multi_image_with_table_0205.shtm, which are
codified in Title 49 CFR, Chapter XII, parts 1500 through 1699. Refer to the following parts
under Subchapter C – Civil Aviation Security for further guidance:
(1) Part 1540, Civil Aviation Security: General Rules
(2) Part 1542, Airport Security
(3) Part 1544, Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial
Operators
(4) Part 1546, Foreign Air Carrier Security
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(5) Part 1548, Indirect Air Carrier Security
(6) Part 1549, Certified Cargo Screening Program
(7) Part 1550, Aircraft Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules
(8) Part 1552, Flight Schools
(9) Part 1554, Aircraft Repair Station Security (Reserved)
(10) Part 1560, Secure Flight Program (reserved)
(11) Part 1562, Operations in the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area
d. DOD Security Regulations. The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC)
(www.wbdg.org) documents provide planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration,
and modernization criteria.
214. PAVEMENT STRENGTH AND DESIGN.General. Airfield pavements are
constructed to provide adequate support for the loads imposed by aircraft using the airport as
well as resisting the abrasive action of traffic and deterioration from adverse weather conditions
and other influences. They are designed not only to withstand the loads of the largest and
heaviest aircraft, but they must also be able to withstand the repetitive loadings of the entire
range of aircraft expected to use the pavement over many years. Proper pavement strength
design represents the most economical solution for long-term aviation needs. AC 150/5320-6
provides guidance for airfield pavement design.
b. Surface Friction Treatment. Airport pavements should provide a surface that
is not slippery and will provide good traction during any weather conditions. Grooving or other
surface friction treatment must be provided for all primary and secondary runways at
commercial service airports or where the runway serves turbojet operations. AC 150/5320-12
presents information on skid resistant surfaces.
215. LOCATION OF ON-AIRFIELD FACILITIES.
a. BRL. A BRL is the line beyond which airport buildings must not be located,
limiting building proximity to aircraft movement areas. A BRL should be placed on an ALP for
identifying suitable building area locations on airports. The BRL should encompass the RPZs,
the OFZs, the OFAs, the runway visibility zone (see paragraph 207.c), NAVAID critical areas,
areas required for TERPs, and ATCT clear LOS. The location of the BRL is dependent upon
the selected allowable structure height. A typical allowable structure height is 35 feet (10.5 m).
The closer development is allowed to the Aircraft Operations Area (AOA), the more impact it
will have on future expansion capabilities of the airport.
b. Airport Aprons. Refer to Chapter 5 for the design standards for airport aprons
and related activities for parking and storage of aircraft on an apron. The tables cited in Table
3–4 present separation criteria applicable to aprons. For further passenger apron design criteria
refer to AC 150/5360-13 and AC 150/5070-6.
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216. to 299. RESERVED.
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Chapter 3. RUNWAY DESIGN
301. INTRODUCTION.
This chapter presents the design standards for runways and runway associated elements such as
shoulders, blast pads, RSAs, OFZs, OFAs, clearways, and stopways. In addition, this chapter
presents design standards and recommendations for runway end siting requirements, object
clearing, approach procedure development, and rescue and fire fighting access. Refer to the
Runway Design Matrix (Table 3–4) for specific dimensional design criteria per RDC.
302. RUNWAY DESIGN CONCEPTS.
a. Runway Length. The runway should be long enough to accommodate landing
and departures for the design aircraft. AC 150/5325-4 describes procedures for establishing the
appropriate runway length. Takeoff distances are often longer than landing distances. All
aircraft operational considerations, to include the takeoff, landing, and accelerate stop distances,
and obstacle clearance to include one engine inoperative (OEI) performance, need to be
considered when determining runway length for the aircraft intended to use the runway.
b. Runway Ends. Approach and departure surfaces should remain clear of
obstacles, including aircraft, in order to prevent operational restrictions that might affect aircraft
operating weights and visibility minimums. Paragraph 306 discusses the OCSs for various
operating conditions. Be sure to consider ultimate runway length requirements as well as
ultimate visibility minimum requirements when evaluating new runway locations.
c. Orientation and Number of Runways. The primary runway, taking into
considerations other factors; should be oriented in the direction of the prevailing wind. The
number of runways should be sufficient to meet air traffic demands. See Appendix 2 for wind
analysis details. Other factors to be considered are:
(1) Environmental issues, such as bird migration and noise (see paragraph
103.a(5) above).
(2) Traffic volumes and ATC aspects.
(3) The proposed airfield location and its natural surroundings.
(4) Local and special meteorological conditions of the surrounding area.
(5) Aircraft performance.
(6) Air traffic demands including arrivals, departures and aircraft mix at peak
volume. See AC 150/5060-5.
d. Runway Markings. AC 150/5340-1 addresses runway markings in detail.
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e. NAVAIDs. Ground based NAVAIDs are often needed to provide desired
approach minimums and instrument capabilities. Approach lighting systems (ALSs) can extend
as far as 3,000 feet (914 m) out from the landing threshold. Ground-based electronic aids often
need additional land area and clearances from runways, taxiways and other facilities that could
interfere with the electronic signal. Chapter 6 provides guidance for locating NAVAIDS that
support runways.
f. Runway Design Standards. As a minimum, runway design and runway
extensions must accommodate the following design elements:
(1) RSA, paragraph 307.
(2) OFZ, paragraph 308.
(3) ROFA, paragraph 309.
(4) RPZ, paragraph 310.
(5) Approach and Departure Surfaces, paragraphs 303.b and 303.c.
(6) Runway to taxiway separation standards, Table 3–4.
g. Landside Interface. Runways connect to taxiways that provide access to
terminal facilities, aprons and cargo areas. Therefore, proper runway design must consider
ultimate airport development and how these elements will relate to one another while providing
a safe and efficient operation. Consider ultimate terminal expansion plans and the possibility of
dual parallel taxiways to ensure that the runway is located far enough from the terminal. See
Chapter 4 for more information on taxiway arrangement.
h. FAA-operated Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT). Ensure unobstructed
view from the tower cab is provided to all runway ends and approaches in accordance with
Order 6480.4. For new airport construction, an ATCT is sited per Order 6480.4. See paragraph
208 for more information.
303. RUNWAY END SITING REQUIREMENTS.
This paragraph defines criteria and procedures for establishing and protecting runway departure
ends and landing thresholds.
a. Introduction.
(1) Runway Ends. The runway ends are the physical ends of the rectangular
surface that constitutes a runway. The end of the runway is normally the beginning of the
takeoff roll and the end of the landing roll out. (See Figure 3-1).
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Figure 3-1. Runway Ends
9
27
NOTES:
1.
BEGINNING OF THE TAKEOFF RUN
AVAILABLE RUNWAY FOR
LANDING OPERATIONS
DISPLACED LANDING
THRESHOLD
DEPARTURE END (DER)
(SEE NOTE 3)
FOR OPERATIONS ON RUNWAY 9
9
27
BEGINNING OF THE TAKEOFF RUN
AVAILABLE RUNWAY FOR
LANDING OPERATIONS
LANDING THESHOLD
(THIS THRESHOLD
DEPARTURE END (DER)
(SEE NOTE 3)
FOR OPERATIONS ON RUNWAY 27
IS NOT DISPLACED)
2.
3.
FOR RUNWAY MARKING STANDARDS, SEE ADVISORY CIRCULAR 150/5340-1.
FOR RUNWAY LIGHTING STANDARDS, SEE ADVISORY CIRCULAR 150/5340-30.
THE DER IS AT THE END OF THE CLEARWAY, IF AVAILABLE.
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(2) Landing Threshold. The landing threshold is ideally located at the end of
the runway. The landing threshold is located to provide proper clearance for landing aircraft
over existing obstacles while on approach to landing. Landing thresholds that are not located at
the beginning of the takeoff run are called displaced landing thresholds. Landing thresholds can
be displaced to provide:
(a) Proper clearance from obstacles in the landing approach.
(b) A means for obtaining additional RSA. See paragraph 307.
(c) A means for obtaining additional ROFA. See paragraph 309.
(d) A means for obtaining additional RPZ. See paragraph 310.
(e) Mitigation of environmental impacts, including noise impacts.
(3) Departure End of the Runway (DER). The DER normally marks the end
of the full-strength runway pavement available and suitable for departure. The DER defines the
beginning point of the 40:1 and 62.5:1 departure surfaces, when applicable. The DER is located
to provide proper clearance for obstacles in the departure surface.
(4) Establishing and Protecting Runway Ends. Runway ends are established
whenever an existing runway is extended or modified or whenever a new runway is constructed.
When establishing runway ends:
(a) All approach surfaces associated with the landing threshold should
be clear of obstacles, and
(b) The 40:1 instrument departure surface associated with the ends of
designated departure runways must be clear of obstacles. The FAA recommends the 40:1
departure surface be clear at all other departure ends.
(c) RSA and RPZ standards must be met.
(d) Ensure protection of runway ends from proposed development or
natural vegetation growth that could penetrate either the approach or departure surfaces.
Protection is provided through land use restrictions and zoning easements or acquisitions (see
AC 150/5020-1).
(e) Consider other surfaces associated with electronic and visual
NAVAIDs such as a Visual Glide Slope Indicator (VGSI), ALS, or ILS.
b. Approach Surfaces.
(1) General. Approach surfaces are designed to protect the use of the runway
in both visual and instrument meteorological conditions near the airport. The approach surface
typically has a trapezoidal shape that extends away from the runway along the centerline and at a
specific slope, expressed in horizontal feet by vertical feet. For example, a 20:1 slope rises one
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foot (305 mm) vertically for every 20 feet (6 m) horizontally. The specific size, slope and
starting point of the trapezoid depends upon the visibility minimums and the type of procedure
associated with the runway end. See Figure 3-2, paragraph 207, and Table 3–1. If necessary to
avoid obstacles, the approach surface may be offset as shown in Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-2. Threshold Siting Based on Approach Slope
2C
THRESHOLD
THRESHOLD
OBJECT
OBJECT
SURFACE
DISPLACEMENT NOT REQUIRED
DISPLACEMENT REQUIRED
SURFACE
FIXED OBJECT
RUNWAY END
DISPLACED THRESHOLD
DISPLACED THRESHOLD
FIXED OBJECT
RUNWAY END
2C
A
A
2C
2B
2B
SEE TABLE 3-1 FOR DIMENSIONAL DATA.
ED
ED
A
A
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Table 3–1. Approach/Departure Standards Table
Runway Type
DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS*
Feet (Meters)
Slope/
OCS
A
B
C
D
E
1
Approach end of runways expected to serve small airplanes
with approach speeds less than 50 knots. (Visual runways only,
day/night)
0
(0) 120
(37) 300
(91) 500
(152) 2,500
(762) 15:1
2
Approach end of runways expected to serve small airplanes
with approach speeds of 50 knots or more. (Visual runways
only, day/night)
0
(0) 250
(76) 700
(213) 2,250
(686) 2,750
(838) 20:1
3
Approach end of runways expected to serve large airplanes
(Visual day/night); or instrument minimums 1 statute mile
(1.6 km) (day only).
0
(0) 400
(122) 1000
(305) 1,500
(457) 8,500
(2591) 20:1
4
Approach end of runways expected to support instrument night
operations, serving approach Category A and B aircraft only.
1
200
(61)
400
(122)
3,800
(1158)
10,000 2
(3048)
0
(0)
20:1
5
Approach end of runways expected to support instrument night
operations serving greater than approach Category B aircraft.
1
200
(61)
800
(244)
3,800
(1158)
10,000 2
(3048)
0
(0)
20:1
6
Approach end of runways expected to accommodate instrument
approaches having visibility minimums 3/4 but < 1 statute
mile ( 1.2 km but < 1.6 km), day or night.
200
(61) 800
(244) 3,800
(1158) 10,000 2
(3048) 0
(0) 20:1
7
Approach end of runways expected to accommodate instrument
approaches having visibility minimums < 3/4 statute mile (1.2
km) or precision approach (ILS, or GLS), day or night.
200
(61) 800
(244) 3,800
(1158) 10,000 2
(3048) 0
(0) 34:1
8
Approach runway ends having Category II approach minimums
or lower.
The criteria are set forth in Order 8260.3 (“TERPS”).
9 3,
6, 7, 8
Approach end of runways expected to accommodate
approaches with vertical guidance [Glidepath Qualification
Surface (GQS)].
0
(0)
Runway
width +
200
(61)
1520
(463) 10,000 2
(3048) 0
(0) 30:1
10 Departure runway ends for all instrument operations.
0 4
(0)
See Figure 3-4. 40:1
11 Departure runway ends supporting Air Carrier operations.5
0 4
(0)
See Figure 3-5. 62.5:1
* The letters are keyed to those shown in Figure 3-2.
NOTES:
1. Marking & Lighting of obstacle penetrations to this surface or the use of a Visual Guidance Slope Indicator (VGSI), as defined by
Order 8260.3, may avoid displacing the threshold.
2. 10,000 feet (3048 m) is a nominal value for planning purposes. The actual length of these areas is dependent upon the visual descent
point position for 20:1 and 34:1, and DA point for the 30:1.
3. When objects exceed the height of the GQS, an APV (ILS, PAR, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, etc.) is not authorized. Refer to Table 3–2 and
its footnote 3 for further information on GQS.
4. Dimension A is measured relative to DER or TODA (to include clearway).
5. Objects that penetrate an OEI obstacle identification surface (OIS) should be identified. The surface starts at the DER and at the
elevation of the runway at that point, and slopes upward at 62.5:1. Note: A National One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Policy is under
development based on the recommendations from the National OEI Pilot Project. Implementation is anticipated for Fall 2013.
6. Surface dimensions/ OCS slope represent a nominal approach with 3 degree GPA, 50’ (15 m) TCH, < 500’ (152 m) HATh. For
specific cases, refer to Order 8260.3. The OCS slope (30:1) supports a nominal approach of 3 degrees (also known as the GPA). This
assumes a TCH of 50 feet (15 m). Three degrees is commonly used for ILS systems and VGSI aiming angles. This approximates a
30:1 approach slope that is between the 34:1 and the 20:1 notice surfaces of 14 CFR Part 77. Surfaces cleared to 34:1 should
accommodate a 30:1 approach without any obstacle clearance problems.
7. For runways with vertically guided approaches the criteria in Row 9 is in addition to the basic criteria established within the table, to
ensure the protection of the GQS.
8. For planning purposes, operators and consultants determine a tentative DA based on a 3° GPA and a 50-foot (15 m) TCH.
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(2) Landing Threshold Establishment. Position the landing threshold so that
there are no obstacle penetrations to the appropriate approach surface specified in Table 3–1 and
that RSA and RPZ standards are met. Airport designers should consider the ultimate approach
visibility minimums planned for the runway when establishing the landing threshold. For
example, a landing threshold positioned to meet visual approach surface requirements may not
allow for the future implementation of an IAP because of penetrations to the instrument approach
surfaces.
(3) Approach Procedures. Once a landing threshold is established with the
appropriate approach surface, the airport operator files a request with the FAA’s Aeronautical
Navigation Products (www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav). The FAA designs the
procedure, performs a flight check, and then publishes the procedure for pilots. When approach
surfaces are entirely clear of obstacles, the resulting procedure will provide the optimum and
most versatile situation for the pilot. Otherwise, a special mitigation measure may need to be
added to the approach design to provide an equivalent level of safety. Mitigation measures are
determined on a case-by-case basis, and may include, but not be limited to, the following:
(a) Higher instrument landing minimums;
(b) Higher than normal GPAs;
(c) Non-standard TCHs; and
(d) Final approach offset.
Therefore, it is important to continue to protect instrument approaches from proposed
development and the natural vegetation growth.
c. Departure Surfaces.
(1) General. Departure surfaces, when clear, allow pilots to follow standard
departure procedures. Except for runways that have a designated clearway, the departure surface
is a trapezoid shape that begins at the DER and extends along the extended runway centerline
and with a slope of 1 foot (0.5 m) vertically for every 40 feet (12 m) horizontally (40:1). For
runways that have a clearway, the departure surface begins at the far end of the clearway at the
elevation of the clearway at that point. Figure 3-4 provides more information of the size, shape
and orientation of the departure surface.
(2) Departure End Establishment. The standard location for the DER places
the departure surface in such a way that there are no obstacle penetrations of the 40:1 surface.
This arrangement provides the most flexibility for efficient flight path routing and capacity
needs. Except when applying declared distances where the TODA may end other than at the
runway end, the DER is the physical end of the runway available for departures. When declared
distances are used, the DER is located at the end point of the TODA. See paragraph 304 for
information on the application of declared distances.
(3) Departure Procedures. Obstacles frequently penetrate the departure
surface. These procedures may require:
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(a) Non-standard climb rates, and/or
(b) Non-standard (higher) departure minimums. Therefore, it is
important for airports to identify and remove these obstacles whenever possible when takeoff
procedures can be enhanced and prevent new obstacles.
(4) Landing Threshold and Departure Surface Protection. Paragraph 306
provides guidance for acquiring property interest as necessary to protect approach and departure
surfaces. Proposed development on land not owned by the airport is studied under 14 CFR Part
77. This regulation requires proponents to notify FAA of plans to construct an object that might
penetrate a 14 CFR Part 77 surface and provides for FAA to conduct a study to determine if the
proposal would constitute a hazard to air navigation if it were constructed. Note that the FAA
determinations are advisory and do not prevent construction of hazards. See also
AC 150/5020-1.
d. Displaced Landing Thresholds.
(1) The landing threshold is normally located at the beginning of the full-
strength runway pavement or runway surface. However, displacement of the landing threshold
may be required when an object that obstructs the airspace required for landing aircraft is beyond
the airport owner's power to remove, relocate, or lower. Thresholds may also be displaced for
environmental considerations, such as noise abatement, or to provide additional RSA and ROFA
lengths. Displacement of a threshold reduces the length of runway available for landings. The
portion of the runway behind a displaced threshold may be available for takeoffs and, depending
on the reason for displacement, may be available for takeoffs and landings from the opposite
direction. Refer to paragraph 304 for additional information.
(2) Displacement of the landing threshold often introduces disruptions to an
otherwise orderly airport design. Approach light systems and NAVAIDs used for landing need to
be relocated. Taxiways that remain in the new approach area (prior to the landing threshold) can
create situations where taxiing aircraft penetrate the approach surface or the POFZ (see
paragraph 308.d), and may be considered end around taxiways (see paragraph 102). Holdlines
(paragraph 315) may also need to be relocated to keep aircraft clear of these areas and runway
capacity may be affected. While landing threshold displacement is often used to as a solution for
constrained airspace, airport designers need to carefully weigh the trade-offs of a displaced
threshold. Displacing a threshold may also create a situation where the holdline must be placed
on the parallel taxiway. This is undesirable as pilots do not normally expect to encounter a
holdline on the parallel taxiway.
(3) These standards should not be interpreted as an FAA endorsement of the
alternative to displace a runway threshold. Threshold displacement should be undertaken only
after a full evaluation reveals that displacement is the best alternative. These standards minimize
the loss of operational use of the established runway and reflect the FAA policy of maximum
utilization and retention of existing paved areas on airports.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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Figure 3-3. Approach Slopes With Offset Approach Course
C
L
A
FINAL APPROACH
COARSE
LEGEND:
APPROACH PLANE
OFFSET APPROACH PLANE
D
C
D
B
+10°
NAVAID
NOTES:
REFER TO TABLE A3-1 FOR ALL APPLICABLE DIMENSIONAL
TO DETERMINE OFFSET APPROACH PLANE:
A. CONSTRUCT THE APPROACH TRAPEZOID FOR THE RUNWAY TYPE IN TABLE 3-1
B. POINT 1 IS LOCATED AT DISTANCE "A" FROM THE RUNWAY THRESHOLD AND DISTANCE
1/2 "B" FROM THE RUNWAY CENTERLINE IN THE DIRECTION OF THE OFFSET ( ).
C. FROM POINT 1, EXTEND LINE AT AN ANGLE ( + 10°) A DISTANCE "D" LOCATING POINT 6.
D. CONNECT POINT 6 TO POINT 3.
E. THE OFFSET AREA IS DEFINED BY THE PERIMETER 1-6-3-4-5-1.
1.
2.
= ANGLE OF THE OFFSET FINAL APPROACH (ANGLE FORMED BY THE INTERSECTION OF
LOCATING POINTS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5.
THE OFFSET FINAL APPROACH COURSE WITH THE EXTENDED RUNWAY CL).
5
1
6
2
4
3
STANDARDS AND SLOPES.
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Figure 3-4. Departure Surface for Instrument Runways TERPS (40:1)
TERPS (40:1)
TERPS (40:1)
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
IF THERE IS NO
CLEARWAY
3,233 FT
[985 M]
3,233 FT
[985 M]
10,200 FT [3,109 M]
15°
15°
SURFACE STARTS
AT END OF CLEARWAY
IF ONE IS IN PLACE
SEE
NOTE
NOTE: THIS IS AN INTERPRETATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE TERPS SURFACE ASSOCIATED WITH A CLEARWAY.
CLEARWAY
SLOPE
80:1 OR 1.25%
STARTS AT THE ELEVATION OF THE CLEARWAY SURFACE
(IF ONE EXISTS)
10,200 FT [3,109 M]
1,000 FT
[305 M]
500 FT
[152 M]
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
IF THERE IS NO
CLEARWAY
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Figure 3-5. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Obstacle Identification Surface (OIS) (62.5:1)
OIS (62.5:1)
OIS (62.5:1)
600 FT
[183 M]
15°
OIS SURFACE
STARTS AT END
OF CLEARWAY
IF ONE IS IN PLACE
OBSTACLE IDENTIFICATION
SURFACE (OIS)
62.5:1
6,000 FT
[1,829 M]
15°
50,000 FT [15,240 M]
300 FT
[91 M]
C
L
CLEARWAY
SLOPE
80:1 OR 1.25% STARTS AT THE ELEVATION OF THE CLEARWAY SURFACE
(IF ONE EXISTS)
300 FT
[91 M]
50,000 FT [15,240 M]
6,000 FT
[1,829 M]
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
IF THERE IS NO
CLEARWAY
STARTS AT
DEPARTURE END
OF RUNWAY (DER)
IF THERE IS NO
CLEARWAY
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304. DECLARED DISTANCES.
a. Application. Runway declared distances represent the maximum distances
available and suitable for meeting takeoff, rejected takeoff, and landing distances for turbine
powered aircraft performance requirements. By treating the aircraft’s runway performance
distances independently in each operational direction, declared distances is a design
methodology that results in declaring distances to satisfy the aircraft’s takeoff run, takeoff
distance, accelerate-stop distance and landing distance requirements. Declared distances may
also be used as an incremental improvement technique when it is not practical to fully meet
these requirements. The declared distances are TORA and TODA, which are applicable to
takeoff; ASDA which is applicable to an rejected takeoff; and LDA, which is applicable to
landing. A clearway may be included as part of the TODA, and a stopway may be included as
part of the ASDA. Declared distances may be used to obtain additional RSA and/or ROFA
prior to the approach runway end or beyond the departure runway end, to mitigate unacceptable
incompatible land uses in the RPZ, or to meet runway approach and/or departure surface
clearance requirements, in accordance with airport design standards. Declared distances may
also be used to mitigate environmental impacts. However, declared distances may only be used
for these purposes where it is impracticable to meet the airport design standards or mitigate the
environmental impacts by other means, and the use of declared distances will not result in
unacceptable operational impacts. Declared distances may limit or increase runway use. The
use of declared distances may result in a displaced runway threshold or change in the location of
the DER, and may affect the beginning and ending of the RSA, ROFA, and RPZ. For runways
without published declared distances, the declared distances are equal to the physical length of
the runway unless there is a displaced threshold. In such a case, the LDA is shortened by the
length of the threshold displacement. Declared distances that are not equal to the physical length
of the runway are discussed in the remainder of this section and must be approved by the FAA
and published in the A/FD (and in the Aeronautical Information Publication, for international
airports) for each operational runway direction. Note that except for the case of a displaced
threshold, the physical length of the runway available to and usable by an aircraft does not
change.
b. RSA, ROFA, and RPZ Lengths and related nomenclature. The
nomenclature referenced in the following paragraphs is used throughout the rest of this section
and is always based upon the direction of operation.
(1) RSA, ROFA standards. The length “R” is specified in Table 3–4 as the
required length of the RSA and ROFA beyond the runway departure end. The length “P” is
specified in Table 3–4 as the required length of the RSA and ROFA prior to the landing
threshold. A full dimension RSA and full dimension ROFA extend the length of the runway plus
2 × R when there is no stopway. Where a stopway exists, R is measured from the far end of the
stopway based upon the takeoff direction, and the RSA and ROFA extend the full length of the
runway plus the length of the stopway(s) plus 2 × R.
(2) Existing or proposed RSA and ROFA beyond the runway ends. The RSA
length “S” is the existing or proposed RSA beyond the runway ends. The ROFA length “T” is
the existing or proposed ROFA beyond the runway ends.
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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(3) RPZ Lengths. The standard RPZ length “L” is the length specified in
Table 3–4 for both the Approach RPZ, which ends 200 ft (61 m) from the threshold based upon
the landing direction, and the Departure RPZ, which begins 200 ft (61 m) from the runway end
based upon the direction of takeoff. See Figure 3-32, Figure 3-33, and Figure 3-34.
c. Background. In applying declared distances in airport design, it is helpful to
understand the relationship between aircraft certification, aircraft operating rules, airport data,
and airport design. A balanced field length is the shortest field length at which a balanced field
takeoff can be performed. A balanced field takeoff is a condition where the accelerate-stop
distance is equal to the takeoff distance required for the aircraft weight, engine thrust, runway
condition, and aircraft configuration. The takeoff decision speed V1, or critical rejected takeoff
speed, is the fastest speed at which a pilot can decide to abort the takeoff. At speeds below V1,
the aircraft may be able to stop before the end of the runway. At speeds greater than V1, the
pilot must continue to takeoff even if an emergency occurs. The balanced field concept is
illustrated in Figure 3-6, Figure 3-7, and Figure 3-8. Aircraft certification provides the aircraft's
performance distances. The performance speeds, e.g., takeoff decision speed (V1), lift-off speed
(VLOF), takeoff safety speed (V2), stalling speed (VSO), or the minimum steady flight speed in
the landing configuration, and the following distances to achieve or decelerate from these
speeds are established by the manufacturer and confirmed during certification testing for
varying climatological conditions, operating weights, etc.
(a) Takeoff run the distance to accelerate from brake release to lift-
off, plus safety factors.
(b) Takeoff distance the distance to accelerate from brake release
past lift-off to start of takeoff climb, plus safety factors.
(c) Accelerate-stop distance — the distance to accelerate from brake
release to V1 and then decelerate to a stop, plus safety factors.
(d) Landing distance — the distance from the threshold to complete
the approach, touchdown, and decelerate to a stop, plus safety factors.
(2) Aircraft operating rules provide a minimum acceptable level of safety by
controlling the aircraft maximum operating weights and limiting the aircraft's performance
distances as follows:
(a) Takeoff run must not exceed the length of runway.
(b) Takeoff distance must not exceed the length of runway plus
clearway.
(c) Accelerate-stop distance must not exceed the length of runway
plus stopway.
(d) Landing distance must not exceed the length of runway.
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(3) Airport data provide the runway length and/or the following declared
distance information for calculating maximum operating weights and/or operating capability.
Figure 3-6. Balanced Field Concept - Normal Takeoff Case
NOTES:
FULL STRENGTH RUNWAY EQUALS "TAKEOFF RUN".
CLEARWAY: SEE PARAGRAPH 311.
1.
2.
LIFT-OFF
DISTANCE
DISTANCE TO
35 FT [10.5 M]
TAKEOFF DISTANCE
(115% DISTANCE
TO 35 FT [10.5 M])
CLEARWAY
115% OF
LIFT-OFF
DISTANCE
1
35 FT [10.5 M]
ABOVE CLEARWAY
CLEARWAY CANNOT
BE MORE THAN
HALF THIS DISTANCE
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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Figure 3-7. Balanced Field Concept Rejected Takeoff Case
LIFT-OFF
DISTANCE
"TAKEOFF DISTANCE"
(DISTANCE TO 35 FT [10.5 M])
CLEARWAY CANNOT
BE MORE THAN
HALF THIS DISTANCE
DECELERATE
TO STOP
ACCELERATE-STOP
DISTANCE
STOPWAY
CLEARWAY
NOTES:
FULL STRENGTH RUNWAY EQUALS "TAKEOFF RUN" AVAILABLE.
CLEARWAY: SEE PARAGRAPH 311.
STOPWAY: SEE PARAGRAPH 312.
1.
2.
3.
ACCELERATE
TO V1
ENGINE FAILURE
AT V1
35 FT
[10.5 M]
ABOVE CLEARWAY
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Figure 3-8. Balanced Field Concept - Landing Case
50 FT [15 M]
ABOVE THRESHOLD
DISTANCE TO STOP
POINT MUST BE 60%
OF LANDING DISTANCE
STOP POINT
LANDING DISTANCE
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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d. For Takeoff.
(1) Start of takeoff ends of runway: The start of takeoff for ASDA, TORA
and TODA will always be collocated. Neither, the threshold locations, the RPZs, nor the RSA
and ROFA behind the start of takeoff, are considered in establishing the start of takeoff. The
start of takeoff is most often at the beginning of the runway, but may also be located farther up
the runway (see Figure 3-9).
Figure 3-9. Normal Location of Start of Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA),
Takeoff Distance Available (TODA), and Takeoff Run Available (TORA)
(2) TORA — the length of runway declared available and suitable for
satisfying takeoff run requirements. The start of takeoff, the departure RPZ, and limitations
resulting from a reduced TODA are to be considered in determining the TORA. When the full
runway beyond the start of takeoff is available for the takeoff run, the departure end of the
TORA is located at the end of the runway (see Figure 3-10). The TORA may be reduced such
that it ends prior to the runway end to obtain additional RSA and ROFA, to resolve incompatible
land uses in the departure RPZ, and to mitigate environmental effects. The departure RPZ
begins 200 ft (61 m) from the end of the TORA and extends out a distance L (see Figure 3-11).
Since TORA can never be longer than the TODA, whenever the TODA is shortened to less than
the runway length, the TORA is limited to the length of the TODA. Additionally, if a clearway
exists and it begins prior to the runway end, the TORA ends at the beginning of the clearway
(see Figure 3-12).
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
9
27
START OF ASDA, TODA AND TORA
NOTE: MOST COMMON START OF TAKEOFF
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Figure 3-10. Normal Location of Departure End of TORA, TODA, LDA and ASDA
Figure 3-11. Departure End of TORA Based on Departure RPZ
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
27
NOTE: MOST COMMON
200' [61 M] DEPARTURE RPZ
END OF TORA,
TODA, LDA
AND ASDA
POFARSA
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
27
200' [61 M] DEPARTURE RPZ
END OF TORA
UNACCEPTABLE INCOMPATIBLE RPZ LAND USE
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Figure 3-12. Departure End of TORA and TODA Based on Penetration to Departure
Surface
(3) TODA — the TORA plus the length of any remaining runway or clearway
beyond the departure end of the TORA available for satisfying takeoff distance requirements.
The start of takeoff, departure surface requirements, and any clearway are considered in
determining the TODA. When only the full runway beyond the start of takeoff is available for
takeoff distance, the departure end of the TODA is located at the end of the runway (see Figure
3-10). The TODA may be prevented from extending to the runway end due to departure surface
clearance requirements (see Figure 3-12). The TODA may also extend beyond the runway end
through the use of a clearway (see Figure 3-13 and Figure 3-14). The usable TODA length is
controlled by obstacles present in the departure area and aircraft performance. As such, the
27
OBJECT PENETRATING THE 40:1
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
DEPARTURE RPZ
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE (PENETRATED)
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE (PENETRATED)
END OF TODA
200' [61 M]
END OF TORA
NOTE: THE PENETRATION TO THE INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
HAS BEEN MITIGATED BY THE DECREASED LENGTH OF THE TODA.
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
END OF TORA
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usable TODA length is determined by the aircraft operator before each takeoff and requires
knowledge of each controlling obstacle in the departure area. Extending the usable TODA
length requires the removal of objects limiting the usable TODA length.
Figure 3-13. TODA Extended By Use of A Clearway, Normal TORA
27
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
END OF TORA
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
CLEARWAY
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
CLEARWAY
END OF TORA
END OF TODA
DER
END OF TODA
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Figure 3-14. TODA Extended By Use of A Clearway, Shortened TORA
(4) Clearway. A clearway is located at the departure end of the TORA. Any
portion of the runway extending into the clearway is unavailable and\or unsuitable for takeoff
run and takeoff distance computations. A clearway increases the allowable airplane operating
takeoff weight without increasing runway length. See paragraph 102.
(5) ASDA — the length of runway plus stopway declared available and
suitable for satisfying accelerate-stop distance requirements. The start of takeoff, the RSA and
ROFA beyond the ASDA are considered in determining the ASDA. When only the full runway
beyond the start of takeoff is available for completing a rejected takeoff, the stop end of the
ASDA is located at the end of the runway, with the standard RSA and ROFA length R beyond
the runway end (see Figure 3-10). When the standard RSA length R beyond the end of the
27
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
CLEARWAY
40:1 INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE SURFACE
CLEARWAY
END OF TORA
END OF TODA
DER
END OF TODA
DER
END OF TORA
Draft AC 150/5300-13A 5/01/2012
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runway is not obtainable, additional RSA may be obtained beyond the ASDA by reducing the
ASDA (see Figure 3-15). Where it has been decided that declared distances will also be used to
provide ROFA not obtainable beyond the runway end and T is less than S, additional ROFA may
be obtained by further reducing the ASDA (see Figure 3-16). When a runway includes a
stopway, the RSA and ROFA extend R beyond the stopway (see Figure 3-17). The portion of
runway beyond the ASDA is unavailable and/or unsuitable for ASDA computations. See the
definition of a stopway in paragraph 102.
Figure 3-15. Stop End of Landing Distance Available (LDA) and ASDA Located to
Provide Standard Runway Safety Area (RSA)/ Runway Object Free Area (ROFA)
S, T
27
STOP END OF LDA OR ASDA
OFA
RSA
R
R -S, T
NOTE: LDA AND ASDA REDUCED TO PROVIDE STANDARD RSA BEYOND LDA AND ASDA
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
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Figure 3-16. Stop End of LDA and ASDA Located to Provide Standard ROFA
Figure 3-17. Stop End of ASDA Located Based on Use of a Stopway
T
27
STOP END OF RWY 9 LDA OR ASDA OFA
RSA
R
R - T
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
S
27
STOP END OF RWY 9 LDA OR ASDA
OFA
RSA
R, S AND T
NOTE: STANDARD OFA AND RSA MUST EXIST BEYOND STOPWAY
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
STOPWAY
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e. For Landing.
(1) LDA the length of runway declared available and suitable for satisfying
landing distance requirements. The threshold siting criteria, the approach RPZ, the RSA and
ROFA prior to the landing threshold and beyond the LDA are considerations in establishing this
distance.
(a) The beginning of the LDA. The LDA begins at the threshold,
which may be displaced. When there are multiple reasons to displace a threshold, each
displacement requirement is calculated. The longest displacement is selected. All other criteria
are then reevaluated from the calculated threshold location to ensure that they are not violated,
such as new obstacle penetrations due to the splay of the approach surface that is associated with
the new threshold. The threshold may be displaced to obtain additional RSA and ROFA, to
mitigate incompatible land uses in the RPZ, to meet approach surface requirements, and to
mitigate environmental effects (see Figure 3-18, Figure 3-19, Figure 3-20, and Figure 3-21).
Figure 3-18. Normal Start of LDA
9
A
SEE TABLE 3-1
200' (FIXED) THRESHOLD
TO END OF APPROACH RPZ
END OF APPROACH RPZ
THRESHOLD SITING
SURFACE APPROACH RPZ
S AND T = P
START OF LDA RWY 9
RSA
OFA
NOTE: S AND T ARE GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO P, THE STANDARD RSA PRIOR TO THE THRESHOLD
OPERATIONAL DIRECTION
5/01/2012 Draft AC 150/5300-13A
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Figure 3-19. Start of LDA at Displaced Threshold Based on Threshold Siting Surface
(TSS)
Figure 3-20. Start of LDA at Displaced Threshold Based on Approach RPZ
9
THRESHOLD SITING SURFACE
0 OR 200' (FIXED)
SEE TABLE 3-1
START OF
LDA RWY 9