# 2019 Formatting Instructions For Authors Using LaTeX

### formatting-instructions-latex-2019

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2019 Formatting Instructions
for Authors Using LATEX
AAAI Press
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
2275 East Bayshore Road, Suite 160
Palo Alto, California 94303

Abstract
AAAI creates proceedings, working notes, and technical reports directly from electronic source furnished by the authors.
To ensure that all papers in the publication have a uniform appearance, authors must adhere to the following instructions.

Congratulations on having a paper selected for inclusion in
an AAAI Press proceedings or technical report! This document details the requirements necessary to get your accepted paper published using LATEX. If you are using Microsoft Word, instructions are provided in a different document. If you want to use some other formatting software,
you must obtain permission from AAAI Press first.
The instructions herein are provided as a general guide
for experienced LATEX users. If you do not know how to use
LATEX, do not use it to format your paper. AAAI cannot provide you with support and the accompanying style files are
not guaranteed to work. If the results you obtain are not in
accordance with the specifications you received, you must
correct your source file to achieve the correct result.
These instructions are generic. Consequently, they do not
include specific dates, page charges, and so forth. Please
document for specific instructions that might apply to your
particular situation. All authors must comply with the following:
• You must use the 2019 AAAI Press LATEX style file and
bib file, which are located in the 2019 author kit.
• You must complete, sign, and return by the deadline the
• You must read and format your paper source and PDF according to the formatting instructions for authors.
• You must submit your electronic files and abstract using
our electronic submission form on time.
• You must pay any required page or formatting charges to

• You must check your paper before submitting it, ensuring that it compiles without error, and complies with the
guidelines found in the author kit.

All papers submitted for publication by AAAI Press must
be accompanied by a valid signed copyright form or, in the
case of technical reports, by a valid signed permission to
distribute form. There are no exceptions to this requirement.
You must send us the original version of this form. However,
to meet the deadline, you may fax (1-650-321-4457) or scan
and e-mail the form (pubforms19@aaai.org) to AAAI by the
submission deadline, and then mail the original via postal
mail to the AAAI office. If you fail to send in a signed
copyright or permission form, we will be unable to publish your paper. There are no exceptions to this policy.
You will find PDF versions of the AAAI copyright and permission to distribute forms in the author kit.

Formatting Requirements in Brief
We need source and PDF files that can be used in a variety of
ways and can be output on a variety of devices. The design
and appearance of the paper is governed by the aaai style
file. You must not make any changes to the aaai style file,
nor use any commands, packages, style files, or macros
within your own paper that alter that design, including,
but not limited to spacing, floats, margins, fonts, font
size, and appearance. AAAI imposes requirements on your
source and PDF files that must be followed. Most of these
requirements are based on our efforts to standardize conference manuscript properties and layout. All papers submitted
to AAAI for publication will be recompiled for standardization purposes. Consequently, every paper submission must
comply with the following requirements:
• Your .tex file must compile in PDFLATEX — no .ps or
.eps figure files.
• All fonts must be embedded in the PDF file — this includes your figures.
• Modifications to the style file, whether directly or via
especially when made in an effort to avoid extra page
charges or make your paper fit in a specific number of
pages.

• No type 3 fonts may be used (even in illustrations).

What Files to Submit

• You may not alter the spacing above and below captions,

You must submit the following items to ensure that your paper is published:

• You may not alter the font sizes of text elements, footnotes, heading elements, captions, or title information (for
references and tables and mathematics, please see the the
limited exceptions provided herein).

• A fully-compliant PDF file.

• You may not alter the line spacing of text.
sentence case).

• Your LATEX source file submitted as a single .tex file (do
not use the “input” command to include sections of your
paper — every section must be in the single source file).
The only exception is the reference list, which you should
include separately. Your source must compile on our system, which includes the standard LATEX support files.
• Only the graphics files used in compiling paper.

• Your .tex file must include completed metadata to passthrough to the PDF (see PDFINFO below)

• The LATEX-generated files (e.g. .aux and .bib file, etc.) for

• LATEX documents must use the Times or Nimbus font
package (do not use Computer Modern for the text of your
paper).

• If you have used an old installation of LATEX, you should
include algorithm style files). If in doubt, include it.

• No LATEX 209 documents may be used or submitted.
• Your source must not require use of fonts for non-Roman
alphabets within the text itself. If your paper includes
symbols in other languages (such as, but not limited to,
Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, Thai, Russian and
other Cyrillic languages), you must restrict their use to
bit-mapped figures.
• Fonts that require non-English language support (CID
and Identity-H) must be converted to outlines or 300 dpi
bitmap or removed from the document (even if they are in
a graphics file embedded in the document).
• Two-column format in AAAI style is required for all papers.
• The paper size for final submission must be US letter
without exception.
• The source file must exactly match the PDF.
• The document margins must be as specified in the formatting instructions.
• The number of pages and the file size must be as specified
• No document may be password protected.
• Neither the PDFs nor the source may contain any embedded links or bookmarks.
• Your source and PDF must not have any page numbers,
• Your PDF must be compatible with Acrobat 5 or higher.
• Your LATEX source file (excluding references) must consist of a single file (use of the “input” command is not
allowed.
• Your graphics must be sized appropriately outside of
LATEX (do not use the “clip” command) .
If you do not follow the above requirements, your submission will be subject to reformatting and special handling
fees that can easily exceed the extra page fee.

Your LATEX source will be reviewed and recompiled on
our system (if it does not compile, you may incur late fees).
Do not submit your source in multiple text files. Your single LATEX source file must include all your text, your bibliography (formatted using aaai.bst), and any custom macros.
Accompanying this source file, you must also supply any
nonstandard (or older) referenced style files and all your referenced graphics files.
Your files should work without any supporting files (other
than the program itself) on any computer with a standard
LATEX distribution. Place your PDF and source files in a
single tar, zipped, gzipped, stuffed, or compressed archive.
Do not send files that are not actually used in the paper. We don’t want you to send us any files not needed for
compiling your paper, including, for example, this instructions file, unused graphics files, standard style files, additional material sent for the purpose of the paper review, and
so forth.
Obsolete style files. The commands for some common
packages (such as some used for algorithms), may have
changed. Please be certain that you are not compiling your
paper using old or obsolete style files.

Using LATEX to Format Your Paper
search path. Placing it in the same directory as the paper
the complete author kit so that you will have the latest instruction set and style file.

Document Preamble
In the LATEX source for your paper, you must place the following lines as shown in the example in this subsection. This
command set-up is for three authors. Add or subtract author
and address lines as necessary, and uncomment the portions
that apply to you. In most instances, this is all you need to
do to format your paper in the Times font. The helvet package will cause Helvetica to be used for sans serif. These files
are part of the PSNFSS2e package, which is freely available

from many Internet sites (and is often part of a standard installation).
Leave the setcounter for section number depth commented out and set at 0 unless you want to add section numbers to your paper. If you do add section numbers, you must
uncomment this line and change the number to 1 (for section numbers), or 2 (for section and subsection numbers).
The style file will not work properly with numbering of subsubsections, so do not use a number higher than 2.
If (and only if) your author title information will not
fit within the specified height allowed, put \setlength
\titlebox2.5in in your preamble. Increase the height until the
height error disappears from your log. You may not use the
\setlength command elsewhere in your paper, and it may not
be used to reduce the height of the author-title box.
The Following Must Appear in Your Preamble
\documentclass[letterpaper]{article}
\usepackage{aaai}
\usepackage{times}
\usepackage{helvet}
\usepackage{courier}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\frenchspacing
% packages may NOT be used (this list
% is not exhaustive:
% authblk, caption, CJK, float, fullpage, geometry,
%hyperref, layout, nameref, natbib, savetrees,
%setspace, titlesec, tocbibind, ulem
%
%US Lettersize Paper Is Required
\setlength{pdfpagewidth}{8.5in}
\setlength{pdfpageheight}{11in}\\
%
%
% PDFINFO
% You are required to complete the following
% for pass-through to the PDF.
% No LaTeX commands of any kind may be
% entered. The parentheses and spaces
% are an integral part of the
% pdfinfo script and must not be removed.
%
\pdfinfo{
/Title (Input Your Paper Title Here)
/Author (John Doe, Jane Doe)
/Keywords (Input your keywords in this optional area)
}
%
%Section Numbers
% Uncomment if you want to use section numbers
% and change the 0 to a 1 or 2
% \setcounter{secnumdepth}{0}
% Title and Author Information Must Immediately Follow
% the pdfinfo within the preamble
%
\title{Title}\\
\author\{Author 1 \ and Author 2\\

\ And\\
Author 3\\
}\\
%

After the preamble above, you should prepare your paper as
follows:
%
\begin{document}
\maketitle
\begin{abstract}
%...
\end{abstract}

The Following Must Conclude Your Document
%References and End of Paper
%These lines must be placed at the end of your paper
\bibliography{Bibliography-File}
\bibliographystyle{aaai}
\end{document}

PDF files contain document summary information that enables us to create an Acrobat index (pdx) file, and also allows search engines to locate and present your paper more
accurately. Document metadata for author and title are REQUIRED. You may not apply any script or macro to implementation of the title, author, and metadata information in
Important: Do not include any LATEX code or nonascii
characters (including accented characters) in the metadata.
The data in the metadata must be completely plain ascii. It
may not include slashes, accents, linebreaks, unicode, or any
LATEX commands. Type the title exactly as it appears on the
paper (minus all formatting). Input the author names in the
order in which they appear on the paper (minus all accents),
separating each author by a comma. You may also include
keywords in the Keywords field.
\begin{document}\\
\maketitle\\
...\\
\bibliography{Bibliography-File}\\
\bibliographystyle{aaai}\\
\end{document}\\

Illegal Commands
There are a number of packages, commands, scripts, and
macros that are incompatable with aaai19.sty. The common
ones are provided later on in this document (See some Common Errors to Avoid). Generally, if a command, package,
script, or macro alters floats, margins, fonts, sizing, linespacing, or the presentation of the references and citations, it
is unacceptable. The following commands are some of the
more common ones that may not be used in your paper (this
list is not exhaustive — there are others):
• \renewcommand (in almost all instances)

• \baselinestretch

Overlength Papers

• \setlength (except for titlebox)

If your paper is too long, turn on \frenchspacing, which
will reduce the space after periods. Next, shrink the size of
your figure environment. For mathematical environments,
you may reduce fontsize but not below 6.5 point. You
may also alter the size of your bibliography by inserting
\fontsize{9.5pt}{10.5pt} \selectfont right before the bibliography (the minimum size is \fontsize{9.0pt}{10.0pt}.
Commands that alter page layout are forbidden. These
include \columnsep, \topmargin, \topskip, \textheight,
\textwidth, \oddsidemargin, and \evensizemargin (this list
is not exhaustive). If you alter page layout, you will be required to pay the page fee plus a reformatting fee. Other
commands that are questionable and may cause your paper
to be rejected include \parindent, and \parskip. Commands
that alter the space between sections are forbidden. The title sec package is not allowed. Regardless of the above, if
your paper is obviously “squeezed” it is not going to to be
accepted. Options for reducing the length of a paper include
reducing the size of your graphics, cutting text, or paying the
extra page charge (if it is offered).

• \input
• \vspace or vskip (when used before or after a section or
subsection or figure or table)
• \columnsep
• \top margin (or text height or addsidemargin or even side
margin)
• trim or clip (used to crop figures)
• any command that globally alters floats, space above and
below figures and tables

Removing Certain Commands in Your Final Paper
For your final camera ready copy, you must not use any page
break commands, including, but not limited to:
• \newpage
• \break
• \clearpage

Figures

• \pagebreak

Your paper must compile in PDFLATEX. Consequently, all
your figures must be .jpg, .png, or .pdf. You may not use
the .gif (the resolution is too low), .ps, or .eps file format for
When you include your figures, you must crop them outside of LATEX. The command \includegraphics*[clip=true,
viewport 0 0 10 10]... might result in a PDF that looks great,
but the image is not really cropped. The full image can
reappear (and obscure whatever it is overlapping) when page
numbers are applied or color space is standardized.

(References must flow directly after the text without breaks.)
Note that this may not the case when submitting a paper
for review. Some conferences require references to be on a
separate page during the review process. AAAI Press, however, does not require this condition for the final paper. You
must also be certain that your \pdfino author field includes
all your authors. The latter step is often forgotten.

Paper Size, Margins, and Column Width
Papers must be formatted to print in two-column format on
8.5 x 11 inch US letter-sized paper. The margins must be
exactly as follows:
• Top margin: .75 inches
• Left margin: .75 inches
• Right margin: .75 inches
• Bottom margin: 1.25 inches
The default paper size in most installations of LATEX is A4.
However, because we require that your electronic paper be
formatted in US letter size, the preamble we have provided
includes commands that alter the default to US letter size.
Please note that using any other package to alter page size
(such as, but not limited to the Geometry package) will result
in your final paper being rejected.
Column Width and Margins. To ensure maximum readability, your paper must include two columns. Each column
should be 3.3 inches wide (slightly more than 3.25 inches),
with a .375 inch (.952 cm) gutter of white space between the
two columns. The aaai19.sty file will automatically create
these columns for you.

Type Font and Size
Your paper must be formatted in Times Roman or Nimbus.
We will not accept papers formatted using Computer Modern or Palatino or some other font as the text or heading typeface. Sans serif, when used, should be Courier. Use Symbol
or Lucida or Computer Modern for mathematics only.
Do not use type 3 fonts for any portion of your paper,
including graphics. Type 3 bitmapped fonts are designed
for fixed resolution printers. Most print at 300 dpi even if
the printer resolution is 1200 dpi or higher. They also often
cause high resolution imagesetter devices and our PDF indexing software to crash. Consequently, AAAI will not accept electronic files containing obsolete type 3 fonts. Files
containing those fonts (even in graphics) will be rejected.
Fortunately, there are effective workarounds that will prevent your file from embedding type 3 bitmapped fonts. The
easiest workaround is to use the required times, helvet, and
courier packages with LATEX2e. (Note that papers formatted
in this way will still use Computer Modern for the mathematics. To make the math look good, you’ll either have to
use Symbol or Lucida, or you will need to install type 1
Computer Modern fonts — for more on these fonts, see the
section “Obtaining Type 1 Computer Modern.”)

If you are unsure if your paper contains type 3 fonts, view
the PDF in Acrobat Reader. The Properties/Fonts window
will display the font name, font type, and encoding properties of all the fonts in the document. If you are unsure if your
graphics contain type 3 fonts (and they are PostScript or encapsulated PostScript documents), create PDF versions of
them, and consult the properties window in Acrobat Reader.
The default size for your type should be ten-point with
twelve-point leading (line spacing). Start all pages (except
the first) directly under the top margin. (See the next section for instructions on formatting the title page.) Indent ten
points when beginning a new paragraph, unless the paragraph begins directly below a heading or subheading.
Obtaining Type 1 Computer Modern for LATEX. If
you use Computer Modern for the mathematics in your
paper (you cannot use it for the text) you may need
without charge from the American Mathematical Society:
http://www.ams.org/tex/type1-fonts.html.

Title and Authors
Your title must appear in mixed case (nouns, pronouns, and
verbs are capitalized) near the top of the first page, centered over both columns in sixteen-point bold type (twentyfour point leading). This style is called “mixed case.” Author’s names should appear below the title of the paper, centered in twelve-point type (with fifteen point leading), along
with affiliation(s) and complete address(es) (including electronic mail address if available) in nine-point roman type
(the twelve point leading). (If the title is long, or you have
many authors, you may reduce the specified point sizes by
up to two points.) You should begin the two-column format
when you come to the abstract.
Formatting Author Information Author information can
be set in a number of different styles, depending on the number of authors and the number of affiliations you need to display. In formatting your author information, however, you
may not use a table nor may you employ the \authorblk.sty
package. For several authors from the same institution, use
\and:
\author{Author 1 \and ... \and Author n\\

If the names do not fit well on one line use:
\author{Author 1} ... \\
{\bf \Large Author ... Author}\\
}

For authors from different institutions, use \And:
\And ... \And Author n\\

To start a separate “row” of authors, use \AND:
If the title and author information does not fit in the
area allocated, place \setlength\titlebox{height} after the
\documentclass line where {height} is 2.5in or greater.

Formatting Author Information — Alternative Method
If your paper has a large number of authors from different
institutions, you may use the following alternative method
for displaying the author information.
\author{AuthorOne},\textsuperscript{1}
\author{AuthorTwo},\textsuperscript{2}
\author{AuthorThree},\textsuperscript{3}
\author{AuthorFour},\textsuperscript{4}
\author{AuthorFive}, \textsuperscript{5}\\
\textsuperscript{1}AffiliationOne}\\
\textsuperscript{2}AffiliationTwo}\\
\textsuperscript{3}AffiliationThree}\\
\textsuperscript{4}AffiliationFour}\\
\textsuperscript{5}AffiliationFive}\\
\{email, email\}@affiliation.com,
email@affiliation.com,
email@affiliation.com,
email@affiliation.com

The copyright notice automatically appears if you use
aaai.sty. If you are creating a technical report, it is not necessary to include this notice. You may disable the copyright
line using the \nocopyrightcommand. To change the entire
however, that if you disable or change the copyright line and

Credits
Any credits to a sponsoring agency should appear in the acknowledgments section, unless the agency requires different
placement. If it is necessary to include this information on
the front page, use \thanks in either the \author or \title
commands. For example:
\title{Very Important Results in AI\thanks{This work is supported by everybody.}}

Multiple \thanks commands can be given. Each will result in
a separate footnote indication in the author or title with the
corresponding text at the botton of the first column of the
document. Note that the \thanks command is fragile. You
will need to use \protect.

Abstract
Follow the example commands in this document for creation
of your abstract. Further indentation is not required. Do not

Page Numbers
Do not ever print any page numbers on your paper.

Text
The main body of the paper must be formatted in ten-point

Citations
Citations within the text should include the author’s last
name and year, for example (Newell 1980). Append lowercase letters to the year in cases of ambiguity. Multiple authors should be treated as follows: (Feigenbaum and Engelmore 1988) or (Ford, Hayes, and Glymour 1992). In the case
of four or more authors, list only the first author, followed by
et al. (Ford et al. 1997).

Illustrations and Figures

Extracts
Long quotations and extracts should be indented ten points
from the left and right margins.
This is an example of an extract or quotation. Note the
indent on both sides. Quotation marks are not necessary
if you offset the text in a block like this, and properly
identify and cite the quotation in the text.

Footnotes
Avoid footnotes as much as possible; they interrupt the reading of the text. When essential, they should be consecutively numbered throughout with superscript Arabic numbers. Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page, separated from the text by a blank line space and a thin, halfpoint rule.

When necessary, headings should be used to separate major
sections of your paper. Remember, you are writing a short
paper, not a lengthy book! An overabundance of headings
will tend to make your paper look more like an outline than
a paper. The aaai.sty package will create headings for you.
Do not alter their size nor their spacing above or below.
Section Numbers The use of section numbers in AAAI
Press papers is optional. To use section numbers in LATEX,
uncomment the setcounter line in your document preamble
and change the 0 to a 1 or 2. Section numbers should not be
used in short poster papers.

References The references section should be labeled
“References” and should appear at the very end of the paper
(don’t end the paper with references, and then put a figure by
itself on the last page). A sample list of references is given
later on in these instructions. Please use a consistent format
for references. Poorly prepared or sloppy references reflect
prepare complete and accurate citations.

Sections should be arranged and

Acknowledgments. The acknowledgments section, if included, appears after the main body of text and is headed
“Acknowledgments.” This section includes acknowledgments of help from associates and colleagues, credits to
sponsoring agencies, financial support, and permission to
publish. Please acknowledge other contributors, grant support, and so forth, in this section. Do not put acknowledgments in a footnote on the first page. If your grant agency
requires acknowledgment of the grant on page 1, limit the
footnote to the required statement, and put the remaining
acknowledgments at the back. Please try to limit acknowledgments to no more than three sentences.
Appendices. Any appendices follow the acknowledgments, if included, or after the main body of text if no acknowledgments appear.

Figures, drawings, tables, and photographs should be placed
throughout the paper near the place where they are first discussed. Do not group them together at the end of the paper. If placed at the top or bottom of the paper, illustrations
may run across both columns. Figures must not invade the
top, bottom, or side margin areas. Figures must be inserted
using the \usepackage{graphicx}. Number figures sequentially, for example, figure 1, and so on.
The illustration number and caption should appear under
the illustration. Labels, and other text with the actual illustration must be at least nine-point type.
If your paper includes illustrations that are not compatible
with PDFTEX (such as .eps or .ps documents), you will need
to convert them. The epstopdf package will usually work
for eps files. You will need to convert your ps files to PDF
however.
Low-Resolution Bitmaps. You may not use lowresolution (such as 72 dpi) screen-dumps and GIF
files—these files contain so few pixels that they are always
blurry, and illegible when printed. If they are color, they
will become an indecipherable mess when converted to
black and white. This is always the case with gif files, which
should never be used. The resolution of screen dumps can be
increased by reducing the print size of the original file while
retaining the same number of pixels. You can also enlarge
files by manipulating them in software such as PhotoShop.
Your figures should be 300 dpi when incorporated into your
document.
LATEX Overflow. LATEX users please beware: LATEX will
sometimes put portions of the figure or table or an equation
in the margin. If this happens, you need to scale the figure or
table down, or reformat the equation. Check your log file!
You must fix any overflow into the margin (that means no
overfull boxes in LATEX). If you don’t, the overflow text will
simply be eliminated. Nothing is permitted to intrude into
the margin or gutter.
Using Color. Use of color is restricted to figures only. It
may never be used for any portion of the text of your paper.
The archival version of your paper will be printed in black
and white and grayscale. Consequently, because conversion
to grayscale can cause undesirable effects (red changes to
black, yellow can disappear, and so forth), we strongly suggest you avoid placing color figures in your document. If
you do include color figures, you must (1) use the CMYK
(not RGB) colorspace and (2) be mindful of readers who
may happen to have a color deficiency. Your paper must be
decipherable without using color for distinction.

Drawings. We suggest you use computer drawing software (such as Adobe Illustrator or, (if unavoidable), the
drawing tools in Microsoft Word) to create your illustrations. Do not use Microsoft Publisher. These illustrations
will look best if all line widths are uniform (half- to twopoint in size), and you do not create labels over shaded areas. Shading should be 133 lines per inch if possible. Use
Times Roman or Helvetica for all figure call-outs. Do not
use hairline width lines — be sure that the stroke width of
all lines is at least .5 pt. Zero point lines will print on a laser
printer, but will completely disappear on the high-resolution
devices used by our printers.
Photographs and Images. Photographs and other images
should be in grayscale (color photographs will not reproduce
well; for example, red tones will reproduce as black, yellow
may turn to white, and so forth) and set to a minimum of 300
dpi. Do not prescreen images.
Resizing Graphics. Resize your graphics before you include them with LaTeX. You may not use trim or clip options as part of your \includegraphics command. Resize the
Fonts in Your Illustrations You must embed all fonts in

References
The AAAI style includes a set of definitions for use in formatting references with BibTeX. These definitions make the
bibliography style fairly close to the one specified below.
To use these definitions, you also need the BibTeX style file
“aaai.bst,” available in the author kit on the AAAI web site.
Then, at the end of your paper but before \enddocument,
you need to put the following lines:
\bibliographystyle{aaai} \bibliography{bibfile1,bibfile2,...}

Please note that you are required to use
\bibliographystyle{aaai} for your references. You may
not use named, plain, apalike, acm, ieeetr, siam, chicago, or
any other style. Use of natbib is also not acceptable.
The list of files in the \bibliography command should be
the names of your BibTeX source files (that is, the .bib files
The following commands are available for your use in citing references:
\cite: Cites the given reference(s) with a full citation. This appears as “(Author Year)” for one reference, or “(Author Year;
Author Year)” for multiple references.
\shortcite: Cites the given reference(s) with just the year. This
appears as “(Year)” for one reference, or “(Year; Year)” for
multiple references.
\citeauthor: Cites the given reference(s) with just the author
name(s) and no parentheses.
\citeyear: Cites the given reference(s) with just the date(s)
and no parentheses.

Warning: The aaai.sty file is incompatible with the hyperref and natbib packages. If you use either, your references
will be garbled and your paper will not be published.

Formatted bibliographies should look like the following
examples.
Book with Multiple Authors
Engelmore, R., and Morgan, A. eds. 1986. Blackboard Systems. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Journal Article
Robinson, A. L. 1980a. New Ways to Make Microcircuits
Smaller. Science 208: 1019–1026.
Magazine Article
Hasling, D. W.; Clancey, W. J.; and Rennels, G. R. 1983.
Strategic Explanations in Consultation. The International
Journal of Man-Machine Studies 20(1): 3–19.
Clancey, W. J. 1983. Communication, Simulation, and Intelligent Agents: Implications of Personal Intelligent Machines
for Medical Education. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 556–
560. Menlo Park, Calif.: International Joint Conferences on
Artificial Intelligence, Inc.
Clancey, W. J. 1984. Classification Problem Solving. In Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 49–54. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
University Technical Report
Rice, J. 1986. Poligon: A System for Parallel Problem Solving, Technical Report, KSL-86-19, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ.
Dissertation or Thesis
Clancey, W. J. 1979. Transfer of Rule-Based Expertise
through a Tutorial Dialogue. Ph.D. diss., Dept. of Computer
Science, Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif.
Forthcoming Publication
Clancey, W. J. 1986. The Engineering of Qualitative Models.
Forthcoming.

Some Common Errors to Avoid
The following list includes a number of the most common
mistakes made by authors when formatting their paper and
the reponses that have been sent to the author regarding
them:
PDFINFO
The following required elements are missing from the preamble to your LaTeX source (or are malformed):
\pdfinfo{
/Title ()
/Author ()
}
A4
The PDF you submitted is A4. All PDFs must be US Letter
sized. Submissions that do not conform to this requirement
cannot be published.
ABOVEDISPLAY
You’ve used \abovedisplay, \belowdisplay, \above caption,
and \belowcaption to alter aaai19.sty. These commands are
illegal and must be stripped from your source.

ABSTRACT INDENTATION
Remove the \begin{quote} and \{endquote} around your abstract. It might buy you some space.

EPSF / EPSFIG / PSFIG
The epsf, epsfig, and psfig packages are obsolete. Use the

ASPECT RATIO OF FIGURES CHANGED
You may scale the height OR the width of your figures, but
not both.

EULER
The euler package is obsolte

AUTHOR LIST MALFORMED (AUTHBLK)
The authblk.sty package cannot be used.
AUTHOR LIST MALFORMED
You did not use the built-in commands in aaai19.sty to format
for authors using LaTeX.
AUTHOR LIST TOO WIDE
break the line and insert {\bf \Large} around the authors on
the second line. The author and title information must be presented as specified in the author instructions.
AUTHOR AFFLIATIONS TOO WIDE
Your author’s affiliations go beyond the accepted page width.
BASELINESTRETCH
You’ve used \baselinestretch — a command specifically prohibited in the author formatting instructions. Please remove
it.
CAPTION STYLE ALTERED (CAPTION.STY)
You’ve altered the font and style of captions. Captions must
be rendered as specified by aaai.sty. They cannot be altered
by changing the font, fontsize, or position, whether manually
or by using caption.sty. Such revisions must be removed.
CJK
The CJK package cannot be used. Restrict use of non-roman
alphabets to figures and tables, which must be compiled and
converted to PDF, then imported as a figure into LaTeX.
CLIP
You may not use the clip to import only a portion of a graphic.
It only places a fragile layer that screens the remained of the
figure from view, but imports the entire figure into the PDF.
The layer is fragile, and often fails when flattened. The full
content of all figures must be imported. In addition and for the
same reason, you may not use vspace to reposition a figure.
All figures must be completely cropped and adjusted outside
of LaTeX before being imported.
COLUMN WIDTH
Unfortunately, your paper contains material that exceeds the
all the overfull boxes.
COMPILE ERRORS
Unfortunately, the source file you submitted will not compile.
We are getting undefined control sequence errors. There are
either missing packages in your preamble, or missing definitions, or perhaps you are using an old or modified style.
For your information, we are using a complete 2017 install of
TeXLive, complete with all updates as of September 1. The
packages listed in your preamble are all installed on all our
systems. If you are using a style file that is not in that package, you will need to include it. Whatever the reason, we need
your paper contains graphics, be certain that the fonts are embedded.)

FIGURES HAVE BEEN CROPPED WITH LATEX
You have used trim and clip commands in your
appropriately using a standard graphics program (not
Preview). The masks created by LaTeX are fragile, and
disappear when PDFs are combined together. This will result
in text in your paper becoming obscured by the fully restored
graphic you have imported.
FIGURES MISSING
Unfortunately, the source file you submitted are incomplete.
You did not include the graphics files. As a result, your paper
will not compile. You must upload a new compressed archive
that contains all the files required to compile your paper on
a different computer and network. (If your paper contains
graphics, be certain that the fonts are embedded.)
FLOATS ALTERED
You’ve altered floats. The \renewcommand cannot be used.
The float package cannot be used. Please remove them.
FOOTNOTE STYLE ALTERED
Footnotes must follow the built-in style.
FONTS (EMBEDDING)
Unfortunately, one or more of the fonts in your paper (most
likely the figures) were not embedded in your PDF. This can
cause hidden and silent changes to characters once the paper
is published, especially when it is combined with other PDFs
in the proceedings. If you need to know how to verify the
You will find a number of methods, one or more of which
may be suitable for your operating system and available software. We recommend using Acrobat Reader to check document properties in your PDF, as it is standards-based software. Consequently, you must embed all the fonts in all your
graphics files. If you do not know how to do this, change them
to png or jpg.
FONTS (LANGUAGE)
We cannot accept files that require custom installation of nonroman font sets, including CJK and arabic.
FONTS (TYPE 3)
Unfortunately, one or more of the fonts in your paper (most
likely the figures) are type 3 PDF. If in your figures, you must
either change them to type 1 embedded fonts or change them
to png or jpg. If the problem is in your text, you will need to
switch the package you are using that is calling type 3 fonts
to one that uses type 1 fonts. (Blackboard fonts are often the
problem in these cases.)
FULL PAGE USED
You used \usepackage{full page}, which is a package specifically disallowed. You must remove it.
GEOMETRY USED
You used \usepackage{geometry}, which is a package
specifically disallowed. You must remove it.
GRAPHICS
The graphics package is obsolete. Use the graphicx package

HYPERREF
The hyperref package may never be used. If you are using it
INCOMPATIBLE SCRIPT OR MACRO
You’ve used an incompatible script (such as \maltepaper.sty)
to automate completion of the title and author information
on your paper and in the metadata. Such scripts impede correction of your paper and often are incompatible with Acrobat (producing corrupted metadata fields). Scripts and macros
cannot be used to automate population of metadata, author or
title information, or insertion of figures or tables.
LAYOUT
The layout package cannot be used. Use url.sty instead.
\linespread alters aaai.sty. This command (along with
\baselineshift and others that alter aaai.sty) cannot be used.
You must remove it.
LMODERN
You used \usepackage{lmodern}, which is a package specifically disallowed. You must remove it.
LAYOUT USED
You used \usepackage{layout}, which is a package specifically disallowed. You must remove it.
MBOX USED FOR FIGURES
You cannot use mboxes to insert figures. They circumvent the
spacing requirements for aaai.sty. Use subfigures instead.
MULTIPLE TEX FILES
You did not submit a single .tex file as specified in the instructions. We require this to avoid production errors and to
facilitate debugging. The \input command is not allowed in
.tex file (references can remain in .bbl or .bib file).
NAMEREF
The nameref package cannot be used.
NATBIB
Natbib is incompatible with aaai19.sty and aaai.bst. It must
be removed. See References Malformed below.
PAGE BREAKS
You’ve included pagebreaks in your final submission. (They
are not required before your references accepted final papers
and must be removed).
PAGE NUMBERS
Your paper contains page numbers. You need to remove them.
PDFLaTeX NOT USED
Your source will not compile in PDFLaTeX. You must convert your eps graphics to PDF.
PDFCOMMENT
You used pdfcomment, which is a disallowed package. You
must remove it.
PSTRICKS
You used pstricks, which is a package specifically disallowed.
You must remove it. (Use Tikz instead). If you are simply
REFERENCES ARE INDENTED
You’ve indented your references. Remove the \begin{quote}
and \endquote

REFERENCES MALFORMED
You’ve used natbib, which is incompatible with aaai.bst.
As an alternate to this, try this workaround:
% \usepackage{natbib}
\newcommand{\citet}[1]
{\citeauthor{#1}˜\shortcite{#1}}
\newcommand{\citep}{\cite}
\newcommand{\citealp}[1]
{\citeauthor{#1}˜\citeyear{#1}}

REFERENCES TOO SMALL
Your references are too small. They cannot be any smaller
than 9 pt (\small). Please correct this.
SAVETREES
The savetrees may not be used.
SETLENGTH
You’ve used \setlength to alter textfloats. This command is
recompile.
SETSPACE
The setspace package may not be used.
SPACE ABOVE, BELOW ELEMENTS ALTERED
You’ve adjusted the space above or below tables, figures, captions, floats, and/or section/subsection/subsubsections. These
changes alter aaai.sty and are not allowed. Please remove
them and either edit your text or resize figures or both.
SOURCE FILES MISSING
Your compressed archive does not contain *ALL* your
source files (a stand-alone archive containing all the files
necessary to recompile your paper in LaTeX). Consequently,
your LaTeX file will not compile. You must create another
compressed archive in which you have included all the files
necessary to compile your paper on a separate computer. We
cannot publish your paper without these files.
SPACE ALTERED ABOVE, BELOW FLOATS AND SECTIONS
You’ve adjusted the space above or below tables, figures,
captions, and/or section/subsection/subsubsections. These
changes alter aaai.sty and have resulted in a paper that is more
or resize figures or both.
STYLE FILE OF BIBLIOGRAPHY IS INCORRECT
You did not use aaai.bst (you used named.bst instead). This
is not an IJCAI conference. You need to recompile your bibliography using the correct style for AAAI-19.
STYLE FILE IS INCORRECT
You did not use aaai19.sty. This style file is required. No
other style file (including previous versions of aaai.sty) may
be used.
STYLE FILE NOT IN CTAN
All styles must be available in the CTAN archive. If they are
custom, you need to remove them and put the contents of
the custom style directly in your preamble so that our source
checker will allow compilation of your file.
TIMES PACKAGE NOT USED
Your paper is not formatted using the Times package, either
because it is missing completely from your preamble, or because you are using another package that is cancelling use of
times. This package is required.

TITLESEC
The title sec package may not be used.
VSPACE USED
You’ve used negative vspace around section / subsections.
These must be removed.
TIMES PACKAGE MISSING
You neglected to use \usepackage{times}. This font is required.
TITLE AND AUTHOR INFORMATION MALFORMED
You need to remove the formatting commands from your title and author information. The style for this information is
governed by the conference style file. It cannot be altered.
TITLE BOX TOO SMALL
Your author-title-affiliation data exceeds the limit of the title box. To fix this, you need to increase the size of the title
box. You can do this by placing \setlength\titlebox{2.5in}
in your preamble. You may need to increase the measurement
until the log file error goes away. (Please note: This command
cannot be used elsewhere in the paper, and cannot be used to
shrink the size of the title box.)
TITLE IN SENTENCE CASE
Your title is formatted in sentence case. Title Case (Mixed
Case) is required. Please capitalize the initial letters of all
words in your title except for conjunctions and prepositions.
You need to do this in your source, in the \pdfinfo in your
source, and on the submission website.
TITLE MALFORMED (TITLESEC)
You’ve used titlesec.sty, which alters the AAAI style. It must
be removed.
TOCBIBIND
The tocbibind package may not be used.
ULEM
The ulem package may not be used.
T1ENC
The T1enc package is obsolete. Us the CM Super Fonts package instead.

Producing Reliable PDF
Documents with LATEX
Generally speaking, PDF files are platform independent and
accessible to everyone. When creating a paper for a proceedings or publication in which many PDF documents must be
merged and then printed on high-resolution PostScript RIPs,
several requirements must be met that are not normally of
concern. Thus to ensure that your paper will look like it does
when printed on your own machine, you must take several
precautions:
• Use type 1 fonts (not type 3 fonts)
• Use only standard Times, Nimbus, and CMR font packages (not fonts like F3 or fonts with tildes in the names or
fonts—other than Computer Modern—that are created for
specific point sizes, like Times˜19) or fonts with strange
combinations of numbers and letters

Creating Output Using PDFLATEX Is Required
By using the PDFTEX program instead of straight LATEX or
TEX, you will probably avoid the type 3 font problem altogether (unless you use a package that calls for metafont).
PDFLATEX enables you to create a PDF document directly
from LATEX source. The one requirement of this software is
that all your graphics and images must be available in a format that PDFLATEX understands (normally PDF, jpg, or png).
PDFLATEX’s default is to create documents with type 1
fonts. If you find that it is not doing so in your case, it is
likely that one or more fonts are missing from your system
or are not in a path that is known to PDFLATEX.
dvipdf Script Scripts such as dvipdf which ostensibly bypass the Postscript intermediary should not be used since
they generally do not instruct dvips to use the config.pdf file.
dvipdfm Do not use this dvi-PDF conversion package.

Ghostscript
LATEX users should not use GhostScript to create their PDFs.

Graphics
If you are still finding type 3 fonts in your PDF file, look at
your graphics! LATEX users should check all their imported
graphics files as well for font problems.

Please check all the pages of your PDF file. Is the page size
A4? Are there any type 3, Identity-H, or CID fonts? Are all
the fonts embedded? Are there any areas where equations
or figures run into the margins? Did you include all your
figures? Did you follow mixed case capitalization rules for
the pages scroll slowly (because the graphics draw slowly
on the page)? Are URLs underlined and in color? You will
need to fix these common errors before submitting your file.

Improperly Formatted Files
In the past, AAAI has corrected improperly formatted files
submitted by the authors. Unfortunately, this has become an
increasingly burdensome expense that we can no longer absorb. Consequently, if your file is improperly formatted, it
will not be included in the publication. If time allows, however, you will be notified via e-mail of the problems with
your file and given the option of correcting the file yourself.
A resubmission fee (minimum \$50.00, and likely higher)
will be required for this service). Optionally, you may ask
that AAAI have the file corrected for you, for an additional
fee. If you opt to correct the file yourself, please note that
that given in your packet. Files that are not corrected after a
second attempt will not be included in the publication.

• Embed all fonts when producing the PDF

LATEX 209 Warning

• Do not use the [T1]fontenc package (install the CM super

If you use LATEX 209 we will not be able to publish your
paper. Convert your paper to LATEX2e.

We request that you name your LATEX source file with your
last name (family name) so that it can easily be differentiated from other submissions. If you name your files with the
name of the event or “aaai” or “paper” or “camera-ready”
or some other generic or indecipherable name, you bear all
risks of loss — it is extremely likely that your file may be
overwritten.

Submitting Your Electronic Files to AAAI
Submitting your files to AAAI is a two-step process. It is
explained fully in the author registration and submission instructions. Please consult this document for details on how

Inquiries
If you have any questions about the preparation or submission of your paper as instructed in this document, please
contact AAAI Press at the address given below. If you have
technical questions about implementation of the aaai style
technical support for LATEX or any other software package.
not incorporate complicated macros and style files.
AAAI Press
2275 East Bayshore Road, Suite 160
Palo Alto, California 94303
Telephone: (650) 328-3123
E-mail: See the submission instructions for your particular conference or event.

LATEX is a difficult program to master. If you’ve used
that software, and this document didn’t help or some
items were not explained clearly, we recommend you read
Michael Shell’s excellent document (testflow doc.txt V1.0a
2002/08/13) about obtaining correct PS/PDF output on
LATEX systems. (It was written for another purpose, but it has
general application as well). It is available at www.ctan.org
in the tex-archive.

Acknowledgments
AAAI is especially grateful to Peter Patel Schneider for his
work in implementing the aaai.sty file, liberally using the
ideas of other style hackers, including Barbara Beeton. We
also acknowledge with thanks the work of George Ferguson
for his guide to using the style and BibTeX files — which
has been incorporated into this document — and Hans Guesgen, who provided several timely modifications, as well as
the many others who have, from time to time, sent in suggestions on improvements to the AAAI style.
The preparation of the LATEX and BibTEX files that implement these instructions was supported by Schlumberger
Palo Alto Research, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, The Live Oak Press, LLC, and AAAI

Press. Bibliography style changes were added by Sunil Issar. \pubnote was added by J. Scott Penberthy. George Ferguson added support for printing the AAAI copyright slug.
by the AAAI staff.
Thank you for reading these instructions carefully. We look
forward to receiving your electronic files!



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