Deaf HH Guidelines And (CA Dept Of Education) G 2000 Plus Proguidlns

User Manual: G-2000 Plus

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Guidelines
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Guidelines
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Standards
California Department of Education
Sacramento, 2000
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Publishing Information
Programs for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Guidelines for Quality
Standards was developed by the State Special Schools Division, California
Department of Education, and was published by the Department, 721
Capitol Mall, Sacramento, California (mailing address: P.O. Box 944272,
Sacramento, CA 94244-2720). It was distributed under the provisions of
the Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.
© 2000 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 0-8011-1502-7
Comments or questions regarding these guidelines may be addressed to:
Nancy Grosz Sager
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Programs Consultant
State Special Schools Division
California Department of Education
515 L Street, Suite 270
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 327-3868 (V/TTY)
(916) 445-4550 FAX
nsager@cde.ca.gov
Ordering Information
Copies of this publication are available for $12 each, plus shipping and
handling charges. California residents are charged sales tax. Orders may
be sent to California Department of Education, CDE Press, Sales Office,
P.O. Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95812-0271; FAX (916) 323-0823.
See page 200 for complete information on payment, including credit card
purchases. Prices on all publications are subject to change.
An illustrated Educational Resources Catalog describing publications,
videos, and other instructional media available from the Department can be
obtained without charge by writing to the address given above or by calling
the Sales Office at (916) 445-1260.
Notice
The guidance in Programs for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students:
Guidelines for Quality Standards is not binding on local educational
agencies or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court
decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and
compliance with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section Prepared for publication
33308.5.) by CSEA members.
Contents
Preface ...................................................................................................................... v
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students .................... 1
Scope of the Guidelines ..................................................................................... 4
Standards of the Guidelines .............................................................................. 5
Chapter One. Identification and Referral ....................................................... 21
Identification - Child Find ............................................................................... 22
Hearing Screening ............................................................................................ 24
Determination of Etiology ............................................................................... 25
Vision Screening ................................................................................................ 26
Chapter Two. Assessment of Unique Needs .................................................. 27
Purposes and Procedures of the Assessment Plan ....................................... 28
Persons Conducting the Assessment ............................................................. 29
Assessment of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants and Toddlers ............... 30
Areas That May Be Assessed .......................................................................... 31
Tests Administered in the Primary Language and Preferred
Language Mode ........................................................................................... 39
Specialized Services, Materials, and Equipment .......................................... 39
California Assessment Centers for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ........... 40
Chapter Three. Organization for Student Learning ..................................... 41
Central Role of Communication Access and Emphasis on Student
Achievement in Program Planning .......................................................... 42
Continuum of Options Through Regionalization ........................................ 44
Regionalization ................................................................................................. 50
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Multiple Disabilities ................ 51
Regional Program Coordinator/Director ..................................................... 52
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program Staff Roles and Responsibilities ...... 53
Class Size and Caseloads ................................................................................. 69
Staff Development ............................................................................................ 70
School Safety ...................................................................................................... 72
Facilities .............................................................................................................. 72
Program Accountability ................................................................................... 76
iii
Chapter Four. Curriculum and Instruction ..................................................... 79
Focus on Communication ................................................................................ 80
Early Childhood Programs .............................................................................. 80
Elementary and Secondary School Programs ............................................... 84
Transition from High School to Adult Programs ......................................... 85
How Assessment Is Used ................................................................................ 86
Chapter Five. Support for Student Learning .................................................. 87
Equal Access to All School-Related Activities .............................................. 88
Parental Involvement ....................................................................................... 88
Appendixes
A. Guidelines for Self-Review ..................................................................... 93
B. Assessment Instruments Commonly Used with Deaf and Hard
of Hearing Students ............................................................................... 129
C. Model Standards for the Certification of Educational Interpreters
for Deaf Students .................................................................................... 133
D. California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards for
Teachers of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students ............................... 140
E. Standards of the Council on Education for the Deaf for Teachers
of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students ............................................... 151
F. California Assembly Bill 1836: Deaf Children’s Bill of
Rights, 1994 ............................................................................................. 157
G. U.S. Department of Education: Deaf Students Education Services;
Policy Guidance, 1992 ............................................................................ 166
H. California Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 55: Relative
to the Provision of Programs for Pupils with Low Incidence
Disabilities ............................................................................................... 172
I. Resource List ........................................................................................... 175
Glossary ............................................................................................................... 193
Selected References ........................................................................................... 199
iv
Preface
T
his document contains recommended guidelines for parents, teachers,
administrators, governing boards, support personnel, other interagency
personnel, and interested community representatives to use in identifying,
assessing, planning, and providing appropriate educational services to all
children who are deaf or hard of hearing. It is also intended to assist in
monitoring programs for these students.
Because educational services for these students are governed by mandates
established in federal and state laws and regulations, the guidelines in this
document were developed to be consistent with these mandates and suggest
how the mandates might be carried out.
The following people gave generously of their time, talents, and labor to
make this revision possible:
John Allman
Parent, Orange County; Member,
IMPACT Board
Jacob Arcanin
Assistant Superintendent, California
School for the Deaf, Fremont; Mem-
ber, IMPACT Board; Member, Cali-
fornia Deaf and Hard-of-hearing
Education Advisory Task Force
Zibby Bayarsky
Parent, Riverside County; Outreach
Coordinator, California School for
the Deaf, Riverside; Member,
IMPACT Board
Michele Berke
Gallaudet University Regional
Center at Ohlone College; Member,
IMPACT Board
Susan Blackwell
Itinerant Deaf and Hard of Hearing
(DHH) Teacher, Capistrano Unified
School District; Chair, CAL-ED Itiner-
ant Teachers’ Special Interest Group
Suzanne Bradshaw
Itinerant DHH Teacher, Placentia-Yorba
Linda Unified School District
Mary Brewer
Itinerant Teacher, San Diego County
Office of Education/East County
SELPA
Regina Bryant
DHH Teacher, Los Angeles Unified
School District; President, California
Educators of the Deaf (CAL-ED)
Jean Ching
Retired; Former Special Education
Administrator, Palo Alto Unified School
District; Past President, CAL-ED
Note: The job titles of individuals were current at the time this publication was
developed.
v
Dick Crow
Education Programs Consultant, Deaf
and Hard of Hearing Unit, California
Department of Education
Shelly Freed
Deaf Consumer; Special Needs DHH
Teacher, California School for the
Deaf, Riverside; Member, IMPACT
Board
Margaret Giroux
DHH Teacher, California School for
the Deaf, Fremont; Member, CAL-ED
Board
Debbie Golos
DHH Teacher, California School for
the Deaf, Fremont; Past President,
CAL-ED
Priscilla Guiterrez
Parent, San Bernardino County;
Instructor, California State University,
San Bernardino; Member, IMPACT
Board
Sandy Harvey
Parent, Sacramento County; Former
Executive Director, American Society
for Deaf Children
Barbara Hecht
Professor, John Tracy Clinic
Rebecca Kahn
DHH Program Administrator, Los
Angeles Unified School District
Ed Kelly
Deaf Consumer; Executive Director,
Orange County Deaf (OCD)
Pam Lancaster
Parent, Sacramento County; Client
Advocate, NorCal Center on Deafness;
Member, IMPACT Board
Jessica Lee
Deaf Consumer; Collaboration
Specialist, Gallaudet University
Regional Center, Ohlone College
Jon Levy
Principal, Orange County DHH
Program; Member, IMPACT Board;
President, California Administrators
Serving the Deaf
Steve Longacre
Deaf Consumer; Principal, Taft School
DHH Program, Santa Ana
Angie McNeece
Administrator, Imperial Valley Center
for Exceptional Children
Barbara MacNeil
Deaf/Hard of Hearing Consumer;
DHH Program Administrator, San
Diego City Unified School District;
Past President, CAL-ED; Member,
California Deaf and Hard-of-hearing
Education Advisory Task Force
Sherrin Massie
Audiologist, Fresno County Office of
Education; Representative, California
Academy of Audiology
Pam Metzger
Speech Therapist, California School
for the Deaf, Riverside
Ann Moxley
Psychologist, Northern California
Assessment Center, California School
for the Deaf
Janice Myck-Wayne
DHH Infant Program Service Coordi-
nator, Los Angeles Unified School
District; Past Board Member, CAL-ED
Margo Pacey
Consultant, Specialized Populations
Unit, California Department of
Education
Rebecca Piepho
Deaf Consumer; Psychologist,
California School for the Deaf, River-
side; Member, California Deaf and
Hard-of-hearing Education Advisory
Task Force
vi
Laine Podell-Camino
DHH Infant Program Service Coordi-
nator, Los Angeles Unified School
District; Member, CAL-ED Board
Debbie Shahady
Deaf/Hard of Hearing Consumer;
DHH Teacher, Selaco High School;
Member, CAL-ED Board
Larry Siegel
Director, National Deaf Education
Project; Member, California Advisory
Commission on Special Education;
Member, California Deaf and Hard-
of-hearing Education Advisory Task
Force
Janie Solomon
Deaf Consumer; DHH Teacher,
Orange County Office of Education
Janine Swanson
Consultant, Early Intervention Unit,
California Department of Education
Grace Tiessen
Hard of Hearing Consumer; Member,
California Deaf and Hard-of-hearing
Education Advisory Task Force; Repre-
sentative, Self Help for Hard of Hearing
People, Inc. (SHHH)
Cathy Walsh
Parent, San Diego; Member, California
Chapter, A. G. Bell Association Board;
Vice-Chair, Low Incidence Disabilities
Advisory Committee; Past President,
IMPACT; Member, California Deaf and
Hard-of-hearing Education Advisory
Task Force
Barbara (Bobbi) Welton
Itinerant Consulting DHH Teacher, Los
Angeles County Office of Education
Lenore Williams
Infant DHH Teacher, Santa Clara
County Office of Education; Chair,
Infant and Preschool Special Interest
Group, CAL-ED; Coauthor, Raising Your
Deaf Child
Special thanks are extended to Cathy Walsh, Jake Arcanin, and Zibby Bayarsky,
members of the final writing committee; and to Larry Siegel, for his help in writing
the introduction to these guidelines.
HENRY DER ALICE D. PARKER
Deputy Superintendent
Education Equity, Access,
and Support Branch
Director
Special Education Division
RON KADISH
Director
State Special Schools
and Services Division
vii
A Vision
nia, including students with
multiple disabilities, will be
services and technology necessary
to allow him/her to develop age-
munication (whether it be spoken,
signed, cued, tactile, or any combi-
nation of these), which will allow
social, emotional, and vocational
skills needed for the establishment
for California’s
Deaf
and
Hearing
Students
Every deaf and hard of
hearing student in Califor-
provided with the educational
appropriate communication skills,
in his/her preferred mode of com-
him/her to acquire the academic,
of social relationships, economic
self-sufficiency, and the assump-
tion of civic responsibility.
Hard of
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
1
D
eaf and hard of hearing children have unique
communication needs which directly affect their
personal development and educational growth. The Califor-
nia Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Education Advisory Task
Force, formed in 1996 by State Superintendent of Public
Instruction Delaine Eastin, has described in clear terms the
importance of those needs:
Communication is at the heart of everything human beings do;
it defines and gives meaning to our emotions, beliefs, hopes,
creativity, and life experiences. Without communication, a
child is lost. The effective development, understanding, and
expression of language are fundamental to any educational
experience and are particularly crucial for deaf and hard-of-
hearing children.
Communication and educational growth depend on a lan-
guage-rich environment, one with ongoing, direct, and age-
appropriate language opportunities. We take it for granted
that hearing children will be in such an environment. Too
often, the deaf or hard-of-hearing child sits alone in a class-
room, unable to communicate effectively with peers and
teachers.
Because of their unique communication needs, deaf and hard-
of-hearing children are distinct from all other children with
disabilities. Children with a learning handicap or an emotional
disability can communicate with the world around them.
While deaf and hard-of-hearing children may have effective
modes of communication, they often do not have the opportu-
nity for direct communication with others. This distinction is
fundamental and separates deaf and hard-of-hearing children
from others in the educational world (Communication Access
and Quality Education for Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Children
1999, 1).
Most hearing children enter school with the ability to pro-
cess and integrate spoken information. They have acquired
an extensive vocabulary and have mastered the basic sen-
tence patterns that they will use for the rest of their lives.
The school system establishes its programs and services for
such children and develops a curriculum based on the as-
sumption that all children enter school with basic language
skills. The schools then proceed to teach children to read,
write, and compute. With these tools children are ready for
the acquisition of information in the content areas.
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
2
Public education in general helps students to reach the goals
of self-realization, development of proper human relation-
ships, attainment of economic sufficiency, and assumption
of civic responsibility. These are the identical goals in educat-
ing children who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, deaf
and hard of hearing children most often do not bring to their
education experience the same extensive language back-
ground or the same degree of language skills as do hearing
children. Deaf and hard of hearing children born to hearing
parents begin life unable to access the communication system
of those around them. Unless they are provided with early
intervention services that provide them with intensive, acces-
sible language input, they may not develop a vocabulary
(either signed or spoken) or an understanding of how to use
words in structured sentences that transmit meaning to
others.
A primary need for deaf and hard of hearing children is a
communication system that is accessible and allows for
effective and efficient social interaction and the acquisition
and sharing of ideas and concepts. Without communica-
tion deaf or hard of hearing children may experience
limited learning opportunities and human isolation.
In recent years both federal and state laws have recognized
the unique educational needs of children with hearing loss.
These unique needs include:
A communication mode that is identified, respected, uti-
lized, and developed to an appropriate level of proficiency
An understanding by all service providers of the unique
nature of deafness and specific training to work with deaf
and hard of hearing children
Special education teachers and support personnel profi-
cient in the student’s primary language mode and language
A sufficient number of language-mode peers of similar age
and ability
Involvement in program development by parents and by
deaf and hard of hearing adults
Access and exposure to deaf and hard of hearing role
models
Equal access to all components of the educational process,
including lunch, recess, and extracurricular social and
athletic activities
A primary need
for deaf and hard of
communication system
that is accessible and
allows for effective and
efficient social interac-
tion and the acquisition
and sharing of ideas
and concepts.
hearing children is a
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
3
Close cooperation
and coordination
and individuals
ing instruction and
meeting those needs
among parents, all
agencies, programs,
assessing and provid-
services are the keys to
successfully.
Access to vocational programs
Access to appropriate technology, including assistive
listening devices
Accommodations, when appropriate, in the general edu-
cation classroom, including but not limited to quality
educational interpreting services, real-time captioning,
note-taking support, assistive listening devices, preferen-
tial seating, adequate lighting levels, and modification in
teaching style␣
These guidelines are specifically intended to assist parents
and educators in providing deaf and hard of hearing chil-
dren with an education that is rich in communication so that
they may achieve their academic, social-emotional, and
vocational potential in adulthood.
Scope of the Guidelines
These guidelines have been established and revised in
accordance with California Education Code Section 56136.
That section states:
The superintendent shall develop guidelines for each low
incidence disability area and provide technical assistance to
parents, teachers, and administrators regarding the implemen-
tation of the guidelines. The guidelines shall clarify the identi-
fication, assessment, planning of, and the provision of, special-
ized services to pupils with low incidence disabilities. The
superintendent shall consider the guidelines when monitoring
programs serving pupils with low incidence disabilities
pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 56836.04. The adopted
guidelines shall be promulgated for the purpose of establish-
ing recommended guidelines and shall not operate to impose
minimum state requirements.
These guidelines serve as a model for meeting the unique
educational needs of individuals who are deaf or hard of
hearing. All instruction and services provided to students
who are deaf or hard of hearing need to be planned and
coordinated to focus on all of the specified needs of the
student. Close cooperation and coordination among parents,
all agencies, programs, and individuals assessing and pro-
viding instruction and services are the keys to meeting those
needs successfully. Readers of this publication may wish to
contact the California Department of Education (see Ac-
knowledgments) for technical assistance and publications in
these areas.
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
4
Standards of the Guidelines
The significant standards for each chapter reflect the best
current theories and practices regarding programs and
services for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. The
specific guidelines for meeting the unique needs of students
who are deaf or hard of hearing are addressed within each
chapter. An overview of the standards and relevant legal
citations follows:
Standards for Chapter One: Identification and Referral
Standards of the Guidelines
1. Procedures exist for locating and referring
deaf and hard of hearing youngsters who
may require special education.
Key
ACR refers to Assembly Concurrent Resolution.
EC refers to Education Code.
GC refers to Government Code.
IDEA refers to the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act.
17 CCR refers to California Code of Regulations,
Title 17; the number that follows is the section
number. (In 5 CCR, the 5 refers to Title 5.)
2. Programs for deaf and hard of hearing
students establish collaborative relation-
ships with local health care providers,
hospitals, audiologists, social service
agencies, and child care programs in
order to ensure that infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers with identified hearing loss
are promptly referred to the appropriate
Early Start or special education program.
Legal Citations
Each district, SELPA, or county office shall
actively and systematically seek out all individu-
als with exceptional needs ages 0-21 years. (EC
56300)
Regional centers and LEAs shall conduct child
find activities to locate all infants and toddlers
who may be eligible for early intervention ser-
vices. (17 CCR 52040[a])
Child find activities may include:
(1) Assigning liaisons to local hospitals with
neonatal intensive care units;
(2) Contacting local parent organizations and
support groups;
(3) Distributing early intervention materials to
agencies and individuals providing medical,
social and educational services in the community;
(4) Communitywide health and developmental
screening;
(5) Producing and distributing public service
announcements;
(6) Producing pamphlets, brochures and other
written communication; and,
(7) Making presentations to local professional
groups, philanthropic organizations and other
organizations established to inform and/or to
serve culturally diverse populations. (17 CCR
52040[b])
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
5
Standards for Chapter One: Identification and Referral (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines Legal Citations
Regional centers and LEAs shall coordinate
local child find activities with each other and
other public agencies. (17 CCR 52040[c])
Primary referral sources include but are not
limited to hospitals, including prenatal and
postnatal care facilities, physicians, parents,
child care programs, LEAs, public health
facilities, other social service agencies and other
health care providers. (17 CCR 52040[d])
Regional centers and LEAs shall inform pri-
mary referral sources of the:
(1) Eligibility criteria for early intervention
services;
(2) Types of early intervention services avail-
able through the Early Start Program;
(3) Contact persons and telephone numbers for
regional centers and LEAs; and,
(4) Federal requirement that a referral shall be
made to the regional center or LEA within two
(2) working days of identification of an infant
or toddler who is in need of early intervention
services. (17 CCR 52040[e])
3. School districts and county offices of Each pupil shall be given a screening test in
education conduct legally mandated kindergarten or first grade and in second, fifth,
hearing screenings to identify pupils eighth, and tenth or eleventh grades. (Health
who may have a hearing loss. and Safety Code Section 1685)
4. Students who fail hearing screenings All pupils continuing to fail a threshold test
receive an audiological assessment. shall be assessed by a licensed or credentialed
audiologist and such assessment shall be part of
the assessment plan. (5 CCR 3028)
5. Deaf and hard of hearing students are All pupils being assessed for initial and three-
screened for visual impairment at legally year review for special education services shall
mandated intervals. have had a hearing and vision screening, unless
parent permission was denied. (5 CCR 3027)
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
6
Standards for Chapter Two: Assessment of Unique Needs
Standards of the Guidelines
6. The assessment of deaf and hard of hear-
ing students is conducted by assessment
personnel who understand the unique
nature of hearing loss and are specifically
trained to work with deaf and hard of
hearing students.
7. The assessment of infants and toddlers
suspected of having a hearing loss is
conducted by qualified personnel knowl-
edgeable about deafness. The assessment
includes evaluation of cognitive develop-
ment, physical and motor development,
communication development, social/
emotional development, and adaptive
development.
8. The assessment of students suspected of
having a hearing loss includes all areas
related to their disabilities.
9. Tests are provided and administered in the
student’s primary language and preferred
mode of communication.
Legal Citations
The assessment of a pupil, including the
assessment of a pupil with a suspected low
incidence disability, shall be conducted by
persons knowledgeable of that disability. (EC
56320[g])
The determination of eligibility for an infant
or toddler shall be made by qualified person-
nel of the regional center or LEA. The deter-
mination shall be made with the participation
of the multidisciplinary team including the
parent. (b) Evaluation and assessment shall be
based on informed clinical opinion and
include:
(1) A review of pertinent records related to the
infant’s or toddler’s health status and medical
history provided by qualified health profes-
sionals who have evaluated or assessed the
infant or toddler;
(2) Information obtained from parental obser-
vation and report; and,
(3) Evaluation by qualified personnel of the
infant’s or toddler’s level of functioning in
each of the following areas:
(A) Cognitive development;
(B) Physical and motor development, includ-
ing vision and hearing;
(C) Communication development;
(D) Social or emotional development; and
(E) Adaptive development. (17 CCR 52082[a]
and [b])
Individuals are assessed in all areas related to
the suspected disability. (EC 56320[f])
Tests are provided and administered in the
student’s primary language or other mode of
communication, unless the assessment plan
indicates reasons why this provision and
administration are clearly not feasible. (EC
56320[b][1])
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
7
Standards for Chapter Two: Assessment of Unique Needs (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
10. The assessment report identifies the
unique educational needs of the student
related to the hearing loss, including needs
for specialized services, materials and
equipment, and accommodations in the
educational environment.
11. Deaf and hard of hearing students are
referred to the Northern or Southern
California Assessment Center for the Deaf
and Hard of Hearing, when appropriate.
Legal Citations
Special attention shall be given to the unique
educational needs, including, but not limited
to, skills and the need for specialized services,
materials, and equipment consistent with
guidelines established pursuant to Section
56136. (EC 56320[g])
A pupil may be referred, as appropriate, for
further assessment and recommendations to
the California Schools for the Deaf or Blind or
the Diagnostic Centers. (EC 56326)
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning
Standards of the Guidelines
12. The program for deaf and hard of hearing
students has a clear statement of purpose,
including expected student learning
results. The statement addresses the critical
need for equal opportunity for communi-
cation access.
13. The program has a written policy on the
central role of communication in the
development and education of deaf and
hard of hearing students. That policy
includes the following elements:
Appropriate, early, and ongoing commu-
nication assessment
Legal Citations
Deafness involves the most basic of human
needs—the ability to communicate with other
human beings. Many hard of hearing and
deaf children use an appropriate communica-
tion mode, sign language, which may be their
primary language, while others express and
receive language orally and aurally, with or
without visual signs or cues. Still others,
typically young hard of hearing and deaf
children, lack any significant language skills.
It is essential for the well-being and growth of
hard of hearing and deaf children that educa-
tional programs recognize the unique nature
of deafness and ensure that all hard of hearing
and deaf children have appropriate, ongoing,
and fully accessible educational opportuni-
ties. (EC 56000.5[b][1])
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children, like all children, have an education
in which their unique communication mode is
respected, utilized, and developed to an
appropriate level of proficiency.
(EC 56000.5[b][2])
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children have an education in which special
education teachers, psychologists, speech
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
8
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
Appropriate, early, and ongoing commu-
nication development and communica-
tion access, which means a critical mass
of age and language peers and staff
proficient in the child’s communication
mode
Recognition of the unique nature of
hearing loss
Recognition of the unique cultural and
linguistic needs of deaf children
Assurance that each child will have
access to communication-related services
(including qualified sign and oral inter-
preters, Cued Speech transliteration,
electronic note-taking and assistive
listening devices) and extracurricular
activities
Legal Citations
therapists, assessors, administrators, and
other special education personnel understand
the unique nature of deafness and are specifi-
cally trained to work with hard of hearing
and deaf pupils.
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children have an education in which their
special education teachers are proficient in
the language mode of those children.
(EC 56000.5[b][3])
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children, like all children, have an education
with a significant number of language mode
peers with whom they can communicate
directly and who are of the same, or approxi-
mately the same, age and ability level.
(EC␣ 56000.5[b][4])
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children, like all children, have programs in
which they have direct access to all compo-
nents of the educational process, including,
but not limited to, recess, lunch, and extra-
curricular social and athletic activities. (EC
56000.5[b][7])
Pupils with low-incidence disabilities require
highly specialized services, equipment, and
materials. (EC 56000.5[a][2])
Specialized services for low-incidence dis-
abilities may include:
(a) Specially designed instruction related to
the unique needs of pupils with low-incidence
disabilities provided by teachers credentialed
pursuant to Education Code Section 44265;
(b) Specialized services related to the unique
needs of pupils with low-incidence disabilities
provided by qualified individuals such as
interpreters, notetakers, readers, transcribers,
and other individuals who provide special-
ized materials and equipment. (5 CCR
3051.16)
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
9
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
Assurance that English-language acqui-
sition is recognized as the paramount
factor in the design of programs, cur-
ricula, materials, and assessment instru-
ments and in professional and parent
training
Recognition of American Sign Language
as a distinct language of deaf people and
the development of standards for teach-
ing it as a language
Assurance that sign language instruction
is provided on a continuing basis to deaf
students and their families
Legal Citations
It is the policy of the state to insure the mas-
tery of English by all pupils in the schools.
(EC 30-30.5)
When appropriate, the individualized educa-
tion program shall also include␣ .␣ .␣ . For indi-
viduals whose primary language is other
than English, linguistically appropriate goals,
objectives, programs, and services.
(EC 56345[b][4])
“Linguistically appropriate goals, objectives,
and programs” means (1)(A) Those activities
which lead to the development of English
language proficiency through the use of the
primary language of the individual with
exceptional needs; and (B) Those instructional
systems, either at the elementary or second-
ary level which meet the language develop-
ment needs of the limited English proficient
individual by building on the individual’s
existing language skills in order to develop
English proficiency. (5 CCR 3001[s][1])
Over the last 20 years, a significant and
growing body of scientific inquiry of Ameri-
can Sign Language (ASL) has been under-
taken, with the result that ASL is now gener-
ally recognized as a separate and complete
language with its own grammar and syn-
tax.␣ .␣ .␣ . The study and learning ofASL con-
tributes to a greater understanding of the
social and cultural aspects of deafness and to
the breakdown of the communication barriers
that have existed between hearing people and
deaf people. (ACR No. 22, 1987) [For pur-
poses of meeting high school graduation
requirements]␣ .␣ .␣ . a course in
American Sign
Language shall be deemed a course in foreign
language. (EC 51225.3)
Instruction and services for deaf and hard of
hearing pupils shall be provided by an indi-
vidual holding an appropriate credential,
who has competencies to provide services to
the hearing impaired and who has training,
10
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines Legal Citations
Assurance that the communication and experience and proficient communication
language needs of deaf and hard of skills for educating pupils with hearing
hearing students who rely on auditory/ impairments. Such services may include but
verbal or oral/aural language are fully need not be limited to:
provided for (1) Speech, speech reading and auditory
training.
(2) Instruction in oral, sign, and written
language development.
(3) Rehabilitative and educational services for
hearing impaired individuals to include
monitoring amplification, coordinating
information for the annual review, and recom-
mending additional services.
(4) Adapting curricula, methods, media, and
the environment to facilitate the learning
process.
(5) Consultation to pupils, parents, teachers,
and other school personnel as necessary to
maximize the pupil’s experiences in the
regular education program. (5 CCR
3051.18[a])
Consideration of Special Factors. The IEP
education program (IEP) team, as re-
Assurance that the individualized
Team shall—
quired by law, determines placement Consider the communication needs of the
based on the identified and essential child, and in the case of a child who is deaf or
communication needs of the child hard of hearing, consider the child’s language
and communication needs, opportunities for
direct communications with peers and profes-
sional personnel in the child’s language and
communication mode, academic level, and full
range of needs, including opportunities for
direct instruction in the child’s language and
communication mode. (IDEA Section
1414[d][3][B][iv])
Consistent with Section 56000.5 and clause (iv)
of subparagraph (B) of paragraph 3 of subsec-
tion (d) of Section 1414 of Title 20 of the United
States Code, it is the intent of the Legislature
that, in making a decision of what constitutes
an appropriate education to meet the unique
needs of a deaf or hard of hearing pupil in the
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
11
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines Legal Citations
least restrictive environment, the individual-
ized education program team shall consider
the related services and program options that
provide the pupil with an equal opportunity
for communication access. The individualized
education program team shall specifically
discuss the communication needs of the pupil,
consistent with the guidelines adopted pursu-
ant to Section 56136 and page 49274 of Vol-
ume 57 of the Federal Register, including all of
the following:
(1) The pupil’s primary language mode and
language, which may include the use of
spoken language with or without visual cues,
or the use of sign language, or both.
(2) The availability of a sufficient number of
age, cognitive, and language peers of similar
abilities which may be met by consolidating
services into a local plan areawide program or
providing placement pursuant to Section
56361.
(3) Appropriate, direct, and ongoing language
access to special education teachers and other
specialists who are proficient in the pupil’s
primary language mode and language consis-
tent with existing law regarding teacher
training requirements.
(4) Services necessary to ensure communica-
tion-accessible academic instructions, school
services, and extracurricular activities consis-
tent with the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of
1973 as set forth in Section 794 of Title 29 of
the United States Code and the Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990 as set forth in Section
12000 and following of Title 42 of the United
States Code. (EC 56345[e])
14. The governing authority and the superin- Each county office and district governing
tendent adopt policies that are consistent board shall have authority over the programs
with the program purpose and these it directly maintains, consistent with the local
guidelines. The policies support the plan submitted pursuant to Section 56195.1.
achievement of the expected schoolwide (EC 56195.5) “Local plan” means a plan that
learning results for students. The govern- meets the requirements of Chapter 3 (com-
ing authority delegates implementation of mencing with Section 56200) and that is
12
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
these policies to the professional staff and
monitors results.
15. The program provides access to a full
continuum of placement, program, ser-
vice, and communication options. The
program collaborates with the Deaf and
Hard of Hearing Unit in the State Special
Schools Division, other programs for deaf
and hard of hearing students in the region,
the State Special Schools, the Department
of Rehabilitation, institutions of higher
education, and other agencies to ensure
provision of appropriate services.
16. Programs and services should be provided
through regionalization to more effectively
serve deaf and hard of hearing students.
Legal Citations
submitted by a school district, special educa-
tion local plan area, or county office.
(EC 56027)
Each special education local plan area shall
ensure that a continuum of program options
is available to meet the needs of individuals
with exceptional needs for special education
and related services, as required by the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(20 United States Code Section 1400 et seq.) and
federal regulations relating thereto.
(EC 56360)
Given their unique communication needs ,
hard of hearing and deaf children would
benefit from the development and implemen-
tation of regional programs for children with
low-incidence disabilities. (EC 56000.5[b][10])
Pupils are to be educated in the least restric-
tive environment, which can be enhanced
through regionalization. (ACR No. 55, 1992)
Direct Services by the State Educational
Agency—
(1) In General—A State educational agency
shall use the payments that would otherwise
have been available to a local educational
agency or to a State agency to provide special
education and related services directly to
children with disabilities residing in the area
served by that local agency, or for whom that
State agency is responsible, if the State educa-
tional agency determines that the local educa-
tion agency or State agency, as the case may
be—
(A) has not provided the information
needed to establish the eligibility of
such agency under this section;
(B) is unable to establish and maintain
programs of free appropriate public
education that meet the requirements
of subsection (a);
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
13
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
17. Provision is made for appropriate services
for deaf and hard of hearing students with
multiple disabilities.
18. The program coordinator/director is an
experienced educator of deaf and hard of
hearing students, with skills to ensure that
deaf and hard of hearing students are
provided with appropriate instruction and
designated services. The program coordi-
nator has the skills necessary for facilitat-
ing participation of staff, parents, and the
deaf and hard of hearing community in
program development.
19. Each program provides qualified profes-
sional and paraprofessional personnel,
including administrators, who have the
skills necessary to provide instruction and
services that meet the educational needs of
deaf and hard of hearing students. Skills
must include proficiency in the student’s
primary mode of communication, knowl-
edge of accommodations necessary to meet
the student’s needs, and knowledge of
selection, use, and maintenance of assistive
listening devices.
Legal Citations
(C) is unable or unwilling to be consoli
dated with one or more local educa-
tional agencies in order to establish
and maintain such programs; or
(D) has one or more children with disabili-
ties who can best be served by a
regional or State program or service-
delivery system designed to meet the
needs of such children.
(IDEA Section 1413[h])
Every individual with exceptional needs, who
is eligible to receive educational instruction,
related services, or both under this part shall
receive such educational instruction, services,
or both, at no cost to his or her parents, as
appropriate, to him or her. (EC 56040)
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children have an education in which special
education teachers, psychologists, speech
therapists, assessors, administrators, and
other special education personnel understand
the unique nature of deafness and are specifi-
cally trained to work with hard of hearing and
deaf pupils. It is essential that hard of hearing
and deaf children have an education in which
their special education teachers are proficient
in the primary language mode of those chil-
dren. (EC 56000.5[b][3])
It is the intent of the Legislature that the
communication skills of teachers who work
with hard of hearing and deaf children be
improved, however, nothing in this section
shall be construed to remove the local educa-
tional agency’s discretionary authority in
regard to in-service activities. (EC 56345[g])
14
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
20. Deaf and hard of hearing students, birth
through age twenty-one, including those
with multiple disabilities, are instructed by
teachers who are specifically trained and
credentialed to teach deaf and hard of
hearing students.
21. Class size and caseloads of staff should
allow for providing specialized instruction
and services based on the unique educa-
tional needs of deaf and hard of hearing
students.
22. The program provides annual and on-
going training for all staff to enhance
student achievement.
23. The program provides training to general
education personnel serving its deaf and
hard of hearing students regarding ac-
commodations, modifications of the
curriculum, and understanding of the
impact of hearing loss on communication
development.
Legal Citations
Pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing shall be
taught by teachers whose professional prepa-
ration and credential authorization are specific
to that impairment. (EC 44265.5[b])
Credentialed personnel with expertise in
vision or hearing impairments shall be made
available by the district, special education local
plan area, or county office to early education
programs serving infants identified in accor-
dance with subdivision (a), (b), or (d) of
Section 3030 of Title 5 of the California Code of
Regulations, and shall be the primary providers
of services whenever possible. (EC 56426.6[b])
Special centers operating under this section
shall: Be staffed by qualified personnel at a
pupil/adult ratio to enable implementation
of the pupils’ individualized education
programs. (5 CCR 3054[a][2])
Staff development programs shall be provided
for regular and special education teachers,
administrators, certificated and classified
employees, volunteers, community advisory
committee members and, as appropriate,
members of the district and county governing
boards. (EC 56240)
Positive efforts shall be made to ensure that
individuals with exceptional needs and parents
of such individuals are involved in the design
and implementation of staff development
programs. (EC 56241[b])
It is the intent of the Legislature, pursuant to
this article, that each district, special educa-
tion local plan area, and county office provide
regular education teachers serving individu-
als with exceptional needs appropriate train-
ing each year relating to the needs of those
individuals. (EC 56243)
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
15
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
24. The program provides a safe and secure
environment in which to learn and teach.
Its atmosphere reflects the program’s
purpose and is characterized by respect for
differences, trust, caring, professionalism,
support, and high expectations for each
student.
25. Facilities are designed and maintained to
enhance the provision of instruction and
services to meet the unique communica-
tion, education, and safety needs of stu-
dents who are deaf and hard of hearing:
Deaf and hard of hearing students have
access to specialized materials and
equipment and services that provide
communication access to the core cur-
riculum.
Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing
students are clean, well-lit, and acousti-
cally appropriate; are equipped with
visual emergency warning signals; and
provide students with adequate techno-
logical tools and curriculum materials
for learning.
Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing
students are the same size as classrooms
for general education students on the
same campus.
Legal Citations
The Legislature hereby recognizes that all
pupils enrolled in the state public schools
have the inalienable right to attend classes on
campuses that are safe, secure, and peaceful.
(EC 32261)
The Legislature further finds and declares that
pupils learn best when school personnel and
school structure are responsive to their indi-
vidual characteristics and strengths, and
when the school establishes an atmosphere of
high expectations for all pupils, regardless of
sex, racial, ethnic, linguistic, or socioeconomic
background. (EC 58901[c])
The individualized education program (IEP)
includes for pupils with low-incidence dis-
abilities, specialized services, materials,
and equipment, consistent with guidelines
established pursuant to Section 56136.
(EC 56345[b][5])
Special centers operating pursuant to 5 CCR
3054 shall: Provide an emergency communica-
tion system for the health and safety of indi-
viduals with exceptional needs, such as fire,
earthquake, and smog alerts. (5 CCR
3054[a][3])
Special centers operating pursuant to 5 CCR
3054 shall: Have specialized equipment and
facilities to meet the needs of individuals
served in the special centers. (5 CCR
3054[a][4])
Portable classrooms for infant and preschool
programs shall be adequately equipped to
meet the educational needs of these students,
including, but not limited to, sinks and
restroom facilities. (EC 17089.5)
Special day classrooms are at least the same
size as regular education classrooms at that
site and are properly equipped for the stu-
dents who will occupy the space, for their age
and type of disabling condition. (5 CCR
14030[h][3][D])
16
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Standards for Chapter Three: Organization for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines
Space for itinerant teachers, speech and
language specialists, and other support
personnel serving deaf and hard of
hearing students is clean, well-lit, acous-
tically appropriate, and of adequate size
for instruction and for storage of instruc-
tional materials.
Space is available where parent confer-
ences and IEP meetings can be held with
confidentiality.
26. The school leadership and staff regularly
assess each student’s progress toward
accomplishing the expected schoolwide
learning results and report student
progress to the rest of the school commu-
nity, including parents, deaf and hard of
hearing community, and related agencies
and organizations.
27. The program conducts a self-review as
part of the state monitoring process, using
these guidelines and encompassing all
areas of program quality, and provides
written progress reports annually to
parents, staff, and the community.
28. The instructional delivery system sup-
ports students’ learning in a developmen-
tally appropriate context and focuses on
the unique communication needs of deaf
and hard of hearing students in order to
support students’ success.
Legal Citations
A new school designates at least 200 square
feet for the speech and language program
which is close to classrooms when an indi-
vidualized instruction program is necessary.
(5 CCR 14030[h][3][B])
A new school designates office area for the
psychologist/counseling program which
provides for confidentiality and may be
shared with other support service programs.
(5 CCR 14030[h][3][C])
A conference area is available to conduct
annual individualized education program
meetings for each special education student.
(5 CCR 14030[h][3][H])
In accordance with a program evaluation plan
adopted pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section
56100, the superintendent shall submit to the
board, the Legislature, and the Governor, an
annual evaluation of the special education
programs implemented under this part.
(EC 56602)
The superintendent shall consider the guide-
lines for each low-incidence disability when
monitoring programs serving pupils with
low-incidence disabilities pursuant to Section
56825. (EC 56136)
Consistent with Section 56000.5 and clause
(iv) of subpart (B) of paragraph (3) of subsec-
tion (d) of Section 1414 of Title 20 of the
United States Code, it is the intent of the Legis-
lature that, in making a determination of
what constitutes an appropriate education to
meet the unique needs of a deaf or hard of
hearing pupil in the least restrictive environ-
ment, the individualized education program
team shall consider the related services and
program options that provide the pupil with
an equal opportunity for communication
access. (EC 56345[e])
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
17
Standards for Chapter Four: Curriculum and Instruction
Standards of the Guidelines
29. Curriculum and instruction for deaf and
hard of hearing infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers, including those with mul-
tiple disabilities, are family focused,
developmentally appropriate, and focused
on the development of communication
skills and linguistic competence to ensure
later academic, social, and vocational
success.
30. School-aged deaf and hard of hearing
children, including those with multiple
disabilities, are provided with a challeng-
ing, coherent, and relevant core and
specialized curriculum to ensure students’
achievement toward expected schoolwide
learning results. The professional staff
implements a variety of engaging learning
experiences based on up-to-date and
research-based teaching and learning
principles.
31. Deaf and hard of hearing students aged
fourteen and older are provided with
appropriate transition services, including
vocational education and information
regarding postsecondary educational
options.
Legal Citations
The family is the constant in the child’s life,
while the service system and personnel within
those systems fluctuate. Because the primary
responsibility of an infant or toddler’s well-
being rests with the family, services should
support and enhance the family’s capability to
meet the special developmental needs of their
infant or toddler with disabilities.
(GC 95001[a][3])
Early education services for preschool children
may be provided to individuals or small groups
and shall include: Presenting activities that are
developmentally appropriate for the preschool
child and are specifically designed, based on
the child’s exceptional needs, to enhance the
child’s development.
(EC 56441.3[a][2])
Funds for regionalized operations and services
and the direct instructional support or program
specialists shall be apportioned to the special
education local plan areas. As a condition to
receiving those funds, the special education
local plan area shall assure that all functions
listed below (subdivisions [a] to [q]) are per-
formed in accordance with the description set
forth in its local plan adopted pursuant to
subdivision (c) of Section 56205. These functions
shall include a .␣ .␣ . (e) coor
dinated system of
curriculum development and alignment with
the core curriculum. (EC 56836.23[c])
Beginning at age 14, and updated annually, a
statement of the transition service needs of the
pupil shall be included in the pupil’s indi-
vidualized education program. The statement
shall be included under applicable compo-
nents of the pupil’s individualized education
program that focuses on the pupil’s courses of
study, such as advanced-placement courses or
a vocational education program. (EC
56345.1[a])
Beginning at age 16 or younger and annually
thereafter in accordance with Section 56462
18
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Standards for Chapter Four: Curriculum and Instruction (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines Legal Citations
and paragraph (30) of Section 1401 on Title 20
of the United States Code, a statement of
needed transition services shall be included in
the pupil’s individualized education program,
including whenever appropriate, a statement
of interagency responsibilities or any needed
linkages. (EC 56345.1[b])
32. The program uses assessment to measure It is the intent of the Legislature that school
students’ achievement, design effective districts and schools use the results of the
instruction, and communicate the academic achievement tests administered
program’s effectiveness. Deaf and hard of annually as part of the statewide pupil assess-
hearing students are included in statewide ment program to provide support to pupils
and local assessments. and parents or guardians in order to assist
pupils in strengthening their development as
learners, and thereby to improve their aca-
demic achievement and performance in
subsequent assessments. (EC 60607[b])
Standards for Chapter Five: Support for Student Learning
Standards of the Guidelines
33. The program provides equal access for all
students in curricular and extracurricular
activities and designated and related
services.
34. The program has an ongoing process for
involving parents and the deaf and hard
of hearing community in program devel-
opment and encourages strong collabora-
tion between school staff, parents, deaf
and hard of hearing community members,
and the business community. The program
leadership employs a wide range of
strategies to ensure that parental and
Legal Citations
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children, like all children, have programs in
which they have direct and appropriate access
to all components of the educational process,
including, but not limited to, recess, lunch,
and extracurricular social and athletic activi-
ties. (EC 56000.5[b][7])
Pupils with low-incidence disabilities require
highly specialized services, equipment, and
materials. (EC 56000.5[b])
It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf
children have an education in which their
parents and, where appropriate, hard of
hearing and deaf people are involved in
determining the extent, content, and purpose
of programs. (EC 56000.5[b][5])
The Legislature encourages the business
community to become a full partner in the
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
19
Standards for Chapter Five: Support for Student Learning (Continued)
Standards of the Guidelines Legal Citations
community involvement is integral to the efforts to restructure California’s public
program’s established support system for education and to offer its resources, including
students. time, expertise and skills, leadership, and
financial assistance, to further this demonstra-
tion of restructuring in public education. (EC
58901[i])
The superintendent shall encourage the
maximum practicable involvement of parents
of children enrolled in special education
programs. (EC 56126)
20
A Vision for California’s Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Assessment of Unique Needs
Chapter One
In California a student
is eligible for special
education services if he or
she “has a hearing impairment,
whether permanent or fluctuating,
which impairs the processing of
ing, even with amplification and
performance. Processing linguistic
information includes speech and
language reception and speech and
language discrimination.”
California Code of Regulations,
Section 3030(a)
Identification
and
Referral
linguistic information through hear-
which adversely affects educational
Title 5,
21
U nder the Individuals with Disabilities Education
have indicated
that the earlier a child
is identified as having
a hearing loss and
services and a means
of communication, the
for that child to
succeed later on.
Act (IDEA) regulations, deafness is defined as “a
hearing impairment which is so severe that a child is im-
paired in processing linguistic information through hearing,
Research studies
provided special
greater the chances are
with or without amplification, which adversely affects edu-
cational performance.” A child is hard of hearing if he or she
has “a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuat-
ing, which adversely affects a child’s educational perfor-
mance, but which is not included under the definition of
‘deaf’” (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Part 30, §␣ 300.7).
Any hearing loss, which may be mild to profound, bilateral
or unilateral, reverse slope, cookie bite, and permanent or
fluctuating, may result in delays in the development of
speech and language and may result in delays in achieve-
ment of academic potential. The Guidelines for Audiology
Services in the Schools (1993) states, “The potential negative
impact of mild, fluctuating, and unilateral losses in children
is greater than was recognized in the past.” Therefore, any
child with such an audiogram provided by a licensed audi-
ologist should be referred to the deaf and hard of hearing
program for an educational screening. This may lead to
further assessment that may indicate the need for special
education and related services.
Identification - Child Find
Identification is the process of seeking out and locating all
deaf and hard of hearing individuals from birth through
age twenty-one. Research studies have indicated that the
earlier a child is identified as having a hearing loss and
provided special services and a means of communication,
the greater the chances are for that child to succeed later on.
Children identified from birth through thirty-six months of
age follow the federal guidelines under Part C of IDEA. In
California infant and toddler services are referred to as
California Early Start Services. Children identified from ages
three through twenty-one fall under the guidelines of Part B
of IDEA.
22
Chapter One
Guidelines Standard 1
special education.
Procedures exist for locating and referring deaf
and hard of hearing youngsters who may require
School districts, county offices of education, and special
education local plan areas (SELPAs) are responsible for
developing and implementing a communitywide child-find
system for locating and identifying individuals, birth
through age twenty-one, who may have a hearing loss.
Available media, special events (e.g., Deaf Awareness
Month), and interagency collaboration should be utilized in
the coordination of the educational agencies’ identification
and referral procedures. Child-find activities may include
but not be limited to:
Producing and distributing public service announcements
Producing pamphlets, brochures, and other written com-
munications
Making presentations and distributing information re-
garding hearing loss to local hospitals and other medical
care providers and agencies, child care providers, social
service agencies, educational agencies, parent organiza-
tions and support groups, professional organizations,
philanthropic and service organizations, and other organi-
zations established to inform or serve culturally diverse
populations
Providing communitywide hearing screening
Guidelines Standard 2
Programs for deaf and hard of hearing students
establish collaborative relationships with local
health care providers, hospitals, audiologists, social
service agencies, and child care programs in order to
ensure that infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with identified
hearing loss are promptly referred to the appropriate Early
Start or special education program.
School districts, county offices of education, and Department
of Developmental Services Regional Centers are responsible
for establishing and maintaining collaborative relationships
Identification and Referral
23
with these local primary referral sources and for providing
them with necessary information regarding:
Eligibility criteria for special education services
Types of programs and services available for deaf and
hard of hearing individuals, birth through age twenty-one
Contact persons and telephone numbers for regional
centers and public-school-operated programs and services
for deaf and hard of hearing students
The federal requirement that a referral to the Early Start
Program be made within two working days of identifica-
tion of an infant or toddler with a hearing loss
Hearing Screening
Guidelines Standard 3
School districts and county offices of education
identify pupils who may have a hearing loss.
conduct legally mandated hearing screenings to
Hearing screening is a procedure used to identify children
who may require additional assessment to determine
whether they have any special needs; for example, special
education and related services and/or medical treatment.
Screening procedures generally are easily administered,
given in a brief period of time, inclusive of parents’ observa-
tions and interviews, inexpensive, and indicative of the need
for further evaluation. The screenings facilitate identification
of a suspected hearing loss, but they do not provide an
analysis of the type or degree of hearing loss. A screening is
not a substitute for a diagnostic assessment. According to
state and federal regulations, information from a screening
alone may not be used to determine a child’s hearing loss,
but the results are used as criteria for a referral for more
extensive evaluations.
Every newborn infant should be screened for hearing loss
before leaving the hospital. Every infant who fails a screen-
ing should be referred for further audiological assessment
and, if found to have a hearing loss, referred to the appropri-
ate educational and medical agencies for follow-up services.
Federal law requires that infants found to have a hearing
loss be referred to the Early Start Program operated by the
regional center or the local educational agency within two
days of identification.
24
Chapter One
Infants and toddlers being assessed for eligibility for the
Early Start Program must be given a hearing assessment prior
to their first individualized family service plan (IFSP). Pre-
school special education students must be given a hearing
screening prior to transition from preschool to kindergarten.
In schools each pupil must be given a hearing screening in
kindergarten or first grade and in second, fifth, eighth, and
tenth or eleventh grades. Each pupil enrolled in special edu-
cation programs or ungraded classes must be given hearing
tests when enrolled in the program and every third year
thereafter, pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Sec-
tion 1685. Screening should not be used for those students
who are already identified with a hearing loss.
Guidelines Standard 4
audiological assessment.
Students who fail hearing screenings receive an
The schools must provide the parents or guardians of chil-
dren who fail the hearing screening with written notification
of the screening results and recommend that further audio-
logical and/or otological evaluation be obtained, pursuant to
California Health and Safety Code Section 1685. The school
administrator is responsible for developing and implement-
ing procedures to ensure that referrals resulting from the
school hearing screening are acted on. Audiometric screening
and rescreening by an audiologist should precede any referral
for educational follow-up.
A referral to the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program or a
specialist for educational screening and assessment should
be initiated when a student’s hearing loss has been
substantiated.
Determination of Etiology
The etiology for a child’s hearing loss provides informa-
tion regarding possible needs based on characteristics
that may be prevalent. Due to various etiologies that involve
neurological components, such as rubella, students with a
hearing loss are at greater risk for concomitant disorders,
such as learning disabilities and attention deficits. Diseases
and accidents that cause deafness may often cause physical
Identification and Referral
25
disabilities as well as neurological and developmental disor-
ders. Genetic origins may result in an individual’s hearing
loss or other disabilities long after birth. The etiology for all
children’s hearing loss should be identified when possible.
Vision Screening
Guidelines Standard 5
for visual impairment at legally mandated
intervals.
Deaf and hard of hearing students are screened
by a physician. This
will have major implica-
tions for educational
planning.
Parents should
be aware that all
children with a hearing
loss should be screened
for Usher syndrome
syndrome, which
results in deaf-blindness,
Hearing loss places increased demands on visual functioning.
Visual impairments must be detected and treated to assist
children who are deaf or hard of hearing in achieving their
maximum potential.
Vision assessment procedures for all deaf and hard of hearing
children must be conducted prior to the child’s first individu-
alized family service plan (IFSP) or individualized education
program (IEP) or when they enroll in school, and at appropri-
ate intervals, including at the time of transition from pre-
school to kindergarten, as required by Education Code Section
49455.
The vision screening should include an assessment of
(1)␣ visual acuity, far and near; (2) field of vision; (3) color
vision; (4)␣ personal and family ocular history; and (5) Usher
syndrome. The schools must provide the parents or guard-
ians of children who fail the vision screening with written
notification of the screening results and recommend that a
medical evaluation be obtained.
Parents should be aware that all children with a hearing loss
should be screened for Usher syndrome by a physician. This
syndrome, which results in deaf-blindness, will have major
implications for educational planning. Brochures and infor-
mation regarding Usher syndrome or other syndromes affect-
ing hearing and vision may be obtained from California Deaf-
Blind Services.
School districts should be aware that if a child has been
diagnosed with any syndrome that puts hearing and vision at
risk, support services, such as orientation and mobility, in-
struction in the use of Braille by a vision specialist, and adap-
tive devices, may be required in meeting the child’s educa-
tional needs.
26
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Assessment
of
Unique
Needs
ment of their unique needs
when initially identified and
entering a special education
Deaf and hard of
hearing students are
to receive an assess-
at least every three years after
program.
Identification and Referral
27
Purposes and Procedures of the Assessment Plan
A
involvement during
is crucial in obtaining
both the quantity and
quality of information
best education and
communication deci-
of hearing.
n assessment plan is required to determine what infor-
mation is already available and what information is
needed. The goal of the assessment is to gather valid infor-
Parental
the assessment process
required to make the
sions for children
who are deaf or hard
mation about the child’s present level of functioning in the
school or home setting, or both, in order to construct an
educational plan to meet the unique needs of the individual
child.
In assessing and identifying the unique needs of children
with a hearing loss, one needs to recognize conditions that
affect individual needs, such as the following:
Primary language and preferred mode of communication
Etiology of hearing loss
Age of onset and age of diagnosis
Type and severity of hearing loss
Potential for use of residual hearing
Auditory skills
Visual skills
Effectiveness of amplification
Family history, including home language and cultural
factors, and hearing status of family members
Educational history
Health and developmental history
Multidisabling conditions
Attitude of the student
Parental involvement during the assessment process is cru-
cial in obtaining both the quantity and quality of information
required to make the best education and communication
decisions for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Procedures used in an assessment may include:
Observations
Parent interviews
Medical and audiological history
Gathering of educational information
Play assessment
Developmental scales
Norm-referenced tests
Criterion-referenced tests
Performance-based assessments
Career/vocational interests/skills inventories
28
Chapter Two
Situational assessments for transition, such as work experi-
ence education
Independent living skills assessment
Assistive technology assessments
Gathering of other appropriate information, such as grades,
portfolios, and so forth
The nature of hearing loss and the linguistic differences of
many deaf and hard of hearing students affect the administra-
tion and scoring of most assessment tools. Very few instru-
ments have been standardized for the deaf and hard of hear-
ing populations. Therefore, assessors need to decide whether
to use a standardized instrument in a nonstandardized situa-
tion, to modify standardized instruments developed for
hearing populations in order to acquire information, or to use
instruments that have been modified and standardized for the
deaf or hard of hearing populations. The use of nonverbal
instructions and modifications typically violates standardized
procedures, but the appropriate interpretation of assessment
data under these conditions justifies the use of modifications.
Modifications may include but are not limited to using a
different mode of communication (e.g., sign language or Cued
Speech), using a different method of presenting the test (e.g.,
written, oral, or demonstration), and rephrasing questions.
When a standardized test, even with accommodations or
modifications, is determined by the IEP team to be invalid for
a specific student, alternative assessments are to be used, as
specified in the IEP and the assessment plan. The results of
the alternative assessments are to be included in the assess-
ment report.
Persons Conducting the Assessment
Guidelines Standard 6
The assessment of deaf and hard of hearing
students is conducted by assessment personnel
hard of hearing students.
who understand the unique nature of hearing loss
and are specifically trained to work with deaf and
The assessment of deaf and hard of hearing students, includ-
ing those with multiple disabilities, must be conducted by
persons who are knowledgeable about deafness and hearing
loss, are skilled in administering the assessment tools, are
Assessment of Unique Needs
29
skilled in interpreting the results to ensure nondiscriminatory
testing, and have the requisite communication skills. The
parents perform a vital role in providing information to the
assessment team. Assessors may include the following per-
sonnel, as appropriate:
Teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students
Psychologist
Audiologist
Language, speech, and hearing specialist
American Sign Language (ASL) specialist
Reading specialist
Math specialist
General education teacher
Early childhood special education specialist
Parents
Guidance counselor
Career/vocational counselor
Medical doctor
Occupational therapist
Physical therapist
Adapted physical education specialist
Counselor
Nurse
Assessment of Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Infants and Toddlers
Guidelines Standard 7
The assessment of infants and toddlers suspected
of having a hearing loss is conducted by qualified
personnel knowledgeable about deafness. The assess-
ment includes evaluation of cognitive development, physical
and motor development, communication development, social/
emotional development, and adaptive development.
The evaluation of infants and toddlers includes:
Health: The overall physical health of the child, including
nutrition and growth, and medical history
Vision: The visual functioning, including visual tracking
Hearing: The ability to hear sounds at different decibels and
frequencies
30
Chapter Two
Cognitive development: The ability to explore surroundings,
interact with the environment, solve problems, and demon-
strate play skills
Motor development: Gross-motor skills (coordinated move-
ment of large muscles, including orientation and mobility)
and fine-motor skills (coordinated use of small muscles,
including eye-hand coordination)
Communication/language development: The ability to correctly
receive and understand verbal and nonverbal information
and communicate wants and needs through oral language,
signing, gesture, or alternative systems
Social/emotional development: The ability to adjust to surround-
ings and demonstrate interest in relationships and coping
skills (including parent to child, child to parent, and child to
child)
Adaptive/self-help development: The ability to care for self,
including dressing, washing, and toileting
Areas That May Be Assessed
Guidelines Standard 8
The assessment of students suspected of having a
disabilities.
hearing loss includes all areas related to their
Those making the initial and subsequent assessments of a
deaf or hard of hearing student should consider assessment
in the following areas:
Audiological Assessment
An audiological assessment should provide necessary infor-
mation regarding the integrity of the structures of the ear,
hearing ability for pure tones and speech, appropriate func-
tional gain for amplification, and specifics related to over-
coming the effects of hearing loss in the classroom. Audio-
logical assessment should include evaluation under ideal
testing conditions and under classroom conditions. The
following areas may be included in the assessment:
Developmental and medical history
Otoscopic examination
Immittance audiometry, including static immittance, physi-
cal volume, tympanometry, and acoustic reflex
Assessment of Unique Needs
31
Pure tone air/bone conduction thresholds (unaided and
aided)
Speech reception thresholds
Word recognition/speech discrimination (in quiet and in
noise)
Tests of auditory comprehension
Site of lesion specialty tests
Automatic brainstem response
Otoacoustic emissions
Ear mold fitting
Electroacoustic analysis of hearing aids
Electroacoustic analysis of hearing aids coupled to FM
systems
Functional interpretation of the audiogram
Recommendations may include:
Referral to outside agencies or medical personnel
Appropriate amplification, including specialized equip-
ment needs
Environmental accommodations
Educational goals and objectives
It is recommended that deaf and hard of hearing students be
given audiological assessments at the following intervals:
Birth to three years: At birth or before initial IFSP and every
six months thereafter (required by law before initial IFSP and
before transition to preschool)
Four through twelve years: Once a year (required by law at
time of transition to kindergarten or first grade and every
three years thereafter)
Thirteen through twenty-one years: Every two years (required
by law every three years)
Communication/Language Skills Assessment
An assessment of the communication and language skills of
deaf and hard of hearing children, including those with
multiple disabilities, is to be conducted by a teacher or
specialist who is proficient in the child’s language and lan-
guage mode. The assessor must be skilled in identifying,
using, and analyzing the child’s language and language
mode, which may include the use of sign language to send
32
Chapter Two
and receive messages or the use of spoken language, with or
without visual signs or cues.
The assessment of language competence affects all other
areas that are assessed. It is done for the purpose of deter-
mining whether or not the child has age-appropriate com-
munication and language skills. Formal tests and methods in
language assessment are clinical tools that can compare the
student’s performance with a set of norms; however, they
are limited and may describe only one facet of language.
Alternative forms of assessment, such as language sampling,
can provide useful diagnostic information regarding a
student’s language competence.
A language assessment (signed, spoken, or written) should
be a comprehensive assessment of language skills in all the
following areas:
Semantics: Includes vocabulary mastery, multiple meanings,
and basic concepts, both receptively and expressively (Se-
mantics may also include situational concepts and contexts.)
Syntax: Includes receptive and expressive abilities in the use
of word order and morphemes to create grammatically
correct sentences
Morphology: Includes receptive and expressive abilities to
use affixes and inflections to change the meanings of spoken
words or signs (e.g., to pluralize, to show verb tense, or to
show intensity or duration)
Pragmatics: Includes the ability to use language for interper-
sonal communicative purposes (e.g., turn-taking skills, use
of language to express needs, use of language to influence
another’s behavior, or use of language to refer to experiences
out of immediate context)
Assessment of Manual Communication
For a student who uses sign language or a sign system, an
assessment of the student’s manual communication leads to
the development of a more effective instructional program.
Forms of manual communication may include but are not
limited to:
American Sign Language (ASL): A natural language with its
own grammatical structure
Manually coded English (MCE): Any sign system that employs
English-language syntax, with varying decisions on denota-
tion for morphemic units and sign configuration
The assessment
of language compe-
tence affects all other
sessed. It is done for
the purpose of deter-
mining whether or
not the child has age-
cation and language
skills.
areas that are as-
appropriate communi-
Assessment of Unique Needs
33
For a deaf or
hard of hearing
student who uses
speech, a spoken
communication
assessment includes
an assessment of the
speech and speech-
communicate orally in
English or in combina-
tion with signs or with
Cued Speech.
student’s ability to use
reading skills to
Finger spelling: The use of 26 hand shapes that correspond to
the 26 letters of the alphabet
The assessment of manual communication skills includes the
testing and gathering of information in the following areas:
Visual and motor capabilities
An analysis and description of the sign language or sign
system the child uses
Semantic and grammatical accuracy pertinent to the sign
language or sign system used (e.g., ASL or MCE)
Pragmatics
Assessment of Spoken Communication
For a deaf or hard of hearing student who uses speech, a
spoken communication assessment includes an assessment
of the student’s ability to use speech and speechreading
skills to communicate orally in English or in combination
with signs or with Cued Speech.
An assessment of speech production includes the testing and
gathering of information in the following areas:
Phonological assessment: Voice, manner, placement,
syllabication, stimulability, and reception of speech
sounds
Prosodic features: Intonation, pitch, rhythm, and stress
Voice quality, such as nasality
Intelligibility of connected speech
Semantic and grammatical accuracy
Pragmatics
The assessment of receptive skills may include gathering
information in the following areas:
Ability to attend to the speaker and to sustain attention
over time
Ability to perceive speech sounds or elements
Ability to put words and phrases in meaningful context
Ability to reorder initial perceptions as meaning becomes
evident
The deaf or hard of hearing child’s performance on the
spoken communication assessments provides information
regarding the child’s ability to benefit from amplification or
other assistive listening technology and indicates whether
the child needs the added support of sign, Cued Speech,
34
Chapter Two
vibrotactile techniques, or a combination of supports. This
assessment may also include an informal assessment of the
child’s ability to care for and maintain his or her hearing aids
or other assistive listening device.
Assessment of Written Language
While written language is typically considered an academic
skill, for a deaf or hard of hearing child a written language
assessment can provide useful diagnostic information re-
garding the student’s English-language proficiency. Formal,
standardized assessments of written English are available.
Informal assessment and analysis of written language
samples can also provide useful information for educational
planning.
Assessment of Telecommunication Skills
When appropriate, the communication skills assessment
should include an informal assessment of the student’s
ability to use telecommunications, as follows:
Ability to use the telephone with or without amplification
Ability to use the telephone with a TTY (telecommunica-
tion device for the deaf)
Ability to access and use the California Relay Service
Ability to use a fax machine
Ability to use e-mail
The results of this informal assessment should be used to
develop IEP goals and objectives related to the use of tele-
communications.
Preacademic Skills Assessment
For educational planning for young deaf and hard of
hearing children, a thorough assessment of the student’s
currently measurable preacademic skills is important. This
assessment is to be done by a teacher or other professional
who is knowledgeable of early childhood education as well
as hearing loss and who is proficient in the child’s language
and language mode. For preacademic children, an assess-
ment of readiness skills (e.g., visual discrimination skills,
identification of letters and numbers, identification of body
parts, matching, sorting, basic concepts) is important for
developing IEP goals and objectives and for determining
when the child is ready to begin academic instruction.
For educational
planning for young
deaf and hard of
important.
hearing children, a
thorough assessment
of the student’s
currently measurable
preacademic skills is
Assessment of Unique Needs
35
Academic Skills Assessment
Academic assessment should provide information regarding
the student’s present level of functioning in at least the
following areas, as noted in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Educational Service Guidelines (1994):
Math computation and application in all contexts
(e.g.,␣ measurement, money, time, etc.);
Reading comprehension (e.g., words, phrases, sentences,
passages, literal/inferential skills);
Style of decoding (i.e., phonetic-acoustic versus visual
decoding);
Reading in real world versus reduced context situations;
Reading preferences, including time spent reading inde-
pendently;
Written English literacy, including word use, knowledge
conveyed, structure, and cohesiveness;
Writing for specific purposes (e.g., messages, discourse,
persuasion, narration, etc.); and
Spelling and penmanship.
Standardized assessments of academic achievement may
provide information regarding the student’s achievement in
comparison with that of hearing peers. A few academic tests
have been normed on deaf and hard of hearing populations.
Whether one uses instruments normed on hearing or on deaf
and hard of hearing populations, it is important to consider
the assessment results in conjunction with other assessment
information (e.g., criterion-referenced assessment, portfolio
assessment) when developing the individualized education
program.
In addition to taking part in academic achievement testing
for initial and triennial assessment, deaf and hard of hearing
students will participate in all statewide and local assess-
ment programs.
Motor Skills Assessment
The assessment of motor skills may be especially significant
for deaf and hard of hearing students. Etiologies such as
meningitis, rubella, and neurologically based deafness may
result in vestibular damage affecting an individual’s equilib-
rium, body awareness, and visual-motor functioning. If a
student is referred for additional motor assessment, it should
be conducted by a qualified adapted physical education
36
Chapter Two
specialist or an occupational or physical therapist. Areas to be
assessed may include fine- and gross-motor skills.
Psychological Assessment
The purpose of a psychological assessment is to collect data
that indicate the performance ability of a deaf or hard of
hearing student and to make recommendations that will lead
to optimal learning. Psychological assessment should be
conducted by a qualified professional who is proficient in the
student’s language and language mode. A student should
receive a psychological assessment as part of the initial
assessment process and should be reassessed on a triennial
basis to provide indicators of learning potential, including
strengths, areas of need, and recommendations for an opti-
mal learning focus.
A student who is believed to be gifted or talented should be
referred for a psychological assessment. Assessment person-
nel may need to consider ongoing evaluation in addition to a
psychological assessment if limiting factors (such as no for-
mal schooling or significant cultural differences) suggest a
need for long-term diagnostic assessment.
The areas of psychological assessment include developmental
skills, social/emotional maturity, intelligence, visual percep-
tion, and adaptive behavior.
The developmental skills assessment should include informa-
tion regarding the student’s family and medical history and
provide information in specific areas of functioning.
Social/emotional maturity should be a major component of the
assessment process for a deaf or hard of hearing student.
Communication problems that result from lack of access to
meaningful language contribute toward the development of a
child’s personality and social/emotional adjustment. Emo-
tional factors have a direct influence on the learning behavior
of any child. Social/emotional evaluations examine a
student’s self-image, social or interpersonal adjustment,
emotional adjustment, and life-style expectations.
A test of intellectual functioning should be conducted at the
time of initial assessment and may be conducted as part of
the triennial assessment if deemed appropriate by the assess-
ment team. Areas evaluated may include memory, analogous
reasoning, sequencing ability, categorical thinking, practical
judgment, visual alertness, concentration ability, spatial
reasoning, concept formation, problem solving, visualization,
The purpose of
a psychological
assessment is to collect
data that indicate the
performance ability of
a deaf or hard of
hearing student and to
that will lead to
optimal learning.
make recommendations
Assessment of Unique Needs
37
Deaf and hard
of hearing students
in secondary schools
with an individual
assessment.
should be provided
career/vocational
visual rote learning and recall, cognitive association, critical
analysis, estimation, and specific skills.
Assessment of visual perceptual skills is of great significance
for a student with a hearing loss who relies heavily on the
visual channel for communication. Early identification of
areas of weakness is important. Areas to be evaluated in-
clude visual discrimination, visual memory, visual-motor
integration, visual figure-ground, visual closure, spatial
relations, indications of reversals, simplifications, and com-
plications with presented material.
Assessment of adaptive behavior may be used for very young
deaf or hard of hearing children, for multidisabled deaf or
hard of hearing children, or for a specific area assessment for
any child with a hearing loss. Areas evaluated may include
self-help skills, independent functioning, daily living skills,
and communication/social skills.
Career/Vocational Assessment
Deaf and hard of hearing students in secondary schools
should be provided with an individual career/vocational
assessment. Career/vocational assessments may include but
are not limited to interest inventories, assessment of
prevocational skills, tests of physical dexterity, work
samples, observations, and interviews. Career/vocational
education specialists should provide the assessments, inter-
pret the results, provide information in a written report, and
provide recommendations for the development of the indi-
vidualized transition plan (ITP). The ITP is a required com-
ponent of the IEP for every student fourteen years of age or
older and may be deemed appropriate for students younger
than fourteen. The career/vocational specialist is responsible
for assisting the staff in implementing the career and voca-
tional components of the IEP and the ITP.
The Department of Rehabilitation has a statewide network of
specially trained Rehabilitation Counselors for the Deaf and
Hard of Hearing. Schools may have service agreements with
this department for the referral of students sixteen years or
older to determine their eligibility and to perform other
agreed-on activities for vocational assessments.
Many community colleges and adult vocational training
centers may also be used as a resource for assessment and
career/vocational information.
38
Chapter Two
Tests Administered in the Primary
Language and Preferred Language Mode
Guidelines Standard 9
of communication.
Tests are provided and administered in the
student’s primary language and preferred mode
When an assessment plan is being developed, the special
language needs of deaf and hard of hearing students should
be recognized. When the student has a primary and pre-
ferred language (including American Sign Language) other
than English, assessments should be conducted in that
language. The deaf or hard of hearing student’s preferred
language mode, which may be signed or spoken (with or
without the support of signs or cues), should be respected
and utilized when assessing the student.
Specialized Services, Materials, and Equipment
Guidelines Standard 10
hearing loss, including needs for specialized
services, materials and equipment, and accommoda-
The assessment report identifies the unique
educational needs of the student related to the
tions in the educational environment.
As the assessment report identifies the unique educational
needs of the student, the IEP team must identify whether the
student needs any specialized services (e.g., sign language
interpreting, oral or Cued Speech transliteration, note-tak-
ing, real-time captioning), materials and equipment
(e.g.,␣ assistive listening device, closed-captioned television,
telecommunication device for the deaf, amplified telephone,
captioned videos, specialized curriculum), and accommoda-
tions in the educational environment (e.g.,␣ acoustically
appropriate classroom, preferential seating, lighting) in
order for the student to have equal educational access and
meet the expected goals and objectives.
Assessment of Unique Needs
39
California Assessment Centers for
the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Guidelines Standard 11
the Northern or Southern California Assessment
Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, when
Deaf and hard of hearing students are referred to
appropriate.
Local educational agencies may refer deaf and hard of hear-
ing students to the Northern California Assessment Center
for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (located on the campus of
the California School for the Deaf, Fremont) or the Southern
California Assessment Center for the Deaf and Hard of
Hearing (located on the campus of the California School for
the Deaf, Riverside).
The centers were established to assist local educational
agencies by providing nonbiased testing of deaf and hard of
hearing students in their major communication mode—sign
language, oral communication, or a combination. Referrals
to the centers may be made for a variety of reasons, includ-
ing program placement concerns, concerns over lack of
progress, behavioral problems, specific educational prob-
lems, or a need for further educational ideas.
At the centers a multidisciplinary team of professionals,
knowledgeable in the unique needs of deaf and hard of
hearing students, conducts an intensive diagnostic study of
the child over a period of one to five days. The team collects
information through formal and informal testing, observa-
tion analysis, and parent interviews. At the end of the evalu-
ation, the Assessment Center staff meets with the parents
and school personnel to discuss the diagnostic findings and
to outline an educational program based on the student’s
identified strengths and weaknesses. The Assessment Center
conducts the assessment to assist the local educational
agency with educational planning for individual students
but does not recommend specific program placement.
Examples of assessment tools commonly used with deaf and
hard of hearing students may be found in Appendix B.
40
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
hearing students
nity for communication
access.
for Student
Learning
Deaf and hard of
benefit from programs
that strongly support and
provide for equal opportu-
Organization
Assessment of Unique Needs
41
Central Role of Communication Access
and Emphasis on Student Achievement
in Program Planning
Guidelines Standard 12
students has a clear statement of purpose,
for communication access.
The program for deaf and hard of hearing
including expected student learning results. The
statement addresses the critical need for equal opportunity
An essential element of systematic program improvement is a
clear statement of purpose. To ensure the statement truly
guides the program, it must be developed as a result of wide
community participation and reflect a consensus of all stake-
holder groups. The statement provides the program’s foun-
dation for establishing expected programwide learning
results. These learning results specify the knowledge, skills,
and understandings students should possess on exiting from
the program and serve as the basis for the development of
content and performance standards. The statement of pur-
pose must refer to the vital role of communication in the
development and education of deaf and hard of hearing
children.
Guidelines Standard 13
education of deaf and hard of hearing students.
That policy includes the following elements:
ment and communication access, which means a critical
Recognition of the unique cultural and linguistic needs of
The program has a written policy on the central
role of communication in the development and
Appropriate, early, and ongoing communication assessment
Appropriate, early, and ongoing communication develop-
mass of age and language peers and staff proficient in the
child’s communication mode
Recognition of the unique nature of hearing loss
deaf children
42
Chapter Three
Assurance that each child will have access to communica-
tion-related services (including qualified sign and oral
interpreters, Cued Speech transliteration, electronic note-
taking, and assistive listening devices) and extracurricular
activities
Assurance that English-language acquisition is recognized
as the paramount factor in the design of programs, cur-
ricula, materials, and assessment instruments and in profes-
sional and parent training
Recognition of American Sign Language as a distinct
language of deaf people and the development of standards for
teaching it as a language
Assurance that sign language instruction is provided on a
continuing basis to deaf students and their families
Assurance that the communication and language needs of
deaf and hard of hearing students who rely on auditory/
verbal or oral/aural language are fully provided for
Assurance that the individualized education program (IEP)
team, as required by law, determines placement based on the
identified and essential communication needs of the child
The effective development, reception, and expression of
language are fundamental to any educational experience and
are particularly crucial for deaf and hard of hearing chil-
dren.
Communication and educational growth are dependent on
a language-rich environment, one with ongoing, direct, and
age-appropriate language opportunities.
Deaf and hard of hearing children are distinct from all
other children because of their unique communication
needs. While they may have effective modes of communica-
tion, deaf and hard of hearing children often do not have the
opportunity for direct communication with others. This
distinction is fundamental and separates deaf and hard of
hearing children from others in the educational world.
Deaf and hard of
of their unique commu-
nication needs. While
they may have effective
modes of communica-
tion, deaf and hard of
do not have the oppor-
communication with
others.
hearing children
are distinct from all
other children because
hearing children often
tunity for direct
Organization for Student Learning
43
Guidelines Standard 14
The governing authority and the superintendent
purpose and these guidelines. The policies support
students. The governing authority delegates implementation of
adopt policies that are consistent with the program
the achievement of the expected schoolwide learning results for
these policies to the professional staff and monitors results.
Effective governance calls for policies that require programs to
have a clear statement of purpose and a statement of expected
learning results for students. County and district school
boards and school superintendents recognize the central role
of communication access for deaf and hard of hearing stu-
dents by developing and adopting policies that support and
are consistent with the recommendations of these guidelines.
Those policies include a commitment to increased student
achievement through the development of content and perfor-
mance standards and a system of assessment and accountabil-
ity. The implementation of these policies is delegated to the
professional staff. These policies should be incorporated into
the Local Plan for Special Education, and implementation of
the recommendations of these guidelines should be a part of
state and local compliance and quality reviews, pursuant to
Education Code Section 56836.04.
Continuum of Options Through Regionalization
Guidelines Standard 15
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Unit in the State Special
ment of Rehabilitation, institutions of higher education, and
The program provides access to a full continuum
of placement, program, service, and communica-
tion options. The program collaborates with the
Schools Division, other programs for deaf and hard of hearing
students in the region, the State Special Schools, the Depart-
other agencies to ensure provision of appropriate services.
Deaf and hard of hearing students represent a low-incidence
disability population with unique and varied needs. To ensure
an appropriate education for these students, the program
must provide access to a full continuum of placement, pro-
gram, service, and communication options.
44
Chapter Three
The placement and services continuum will include but not
be limited to:
Regional programs, which provide the critical mass of age-
appropriate and language-appropriate peers and opportu-
nities for direct instruction and direct communication with
staff and peers
State special schools for the deaf
General education placements with the necessary related
and support services, such as itinerant teachers creden-
tialed in deaf and hard of hearing education, interpreters,
assistive listening technology, and so forth
Special day classes and resource specialist programs, as
required by federal and state law, which may include
reverse mainstreaming, partial mainstreaming, and team-
teaching opportunities
Nonpublic schools, home instruction, hospital instruction,
and other institutions as required by federal and state law
The selection of a particular program option is determined
by the unique communication access and other needs of each
deaf or hard of hearing child. The individualized education
program (IEP) team is responsible for making the decision
regarding the placement of a student in a program and for
determining the related services necessary to meet the
unique, identified needs of that student. When determining
the most appropriate placement for an individual student,
the IEP team should consider the following options:
General Education Program
For some deaf or hard of hearing students, the general edu-
cation classroom with modifications may be the most appro-
priate placement. Some deaf or hard of hearing students may
be best served at their neighborhood schools; others may be
better served in a general education class on a campus where
a regionalized deaf and hard of hearing program is housed.
Deaf and hard of hearing students may need special materi-
als, equipment, seating, and services. Factors to consider
when mainstreaming a student include the following:
Will the student have full communication access in the
classroom? Is the student able to receive and express
language through speech, speechreading, or audition
sufficiently well to have access to all information presented
in the classroom? If not, is the student able to sufficiently
access information through the use of supplementary
Effective gover-
nance calls for
statement of purpose
and a statement of
expected learning
policies that require
programs to have a clear
results for students.
Organization for Student Learning
45
services (e.g., sign language interpreting, oral or Cued
Speech transliteration, real-time captioning, note-taking)?
Is a credentialed itinerant teacher of deaf and hard of
hearing students available to provide ongoing direct and
consultative services as necessary?
Are qualified interpreters/transliterators available for both
classroom and extracurricular activities?
Does the general education class enrollment allow the
teacher an opportunity to devote some of his or her time to
assist the deaf or hard of hearing student to meet the
classroom or course requirements?
Is the student’s social and emotional maturity level within
the average range of the students in the regular classroom?
Is the student able to direct his or her attention to the
assigned work and follow the directions he or she is given
for doing the work?
Is the student’s reading level at the approximate level of
the general education class in which he or she is to be
enrolled?
Have environmental factors, such as lighting, ambient
noise, classroom location, and visual emergency warning
devices, been considered?
General Education Co-Enrollment Model
Some programs for deaf and hard of hearing students offer a
co-enrollment model. In this model deaf, hard of hearing,
and hearing students are co-enrolled in a classroom that
utilizes general education curriculum. The co-enrolled class
is co-taught by a general education teacher and a teacher of
deaf and hard of hearing students. In a co-enrollment class-
room both the general education teacher and the teacher of
the deaf and hard of hearing should be proficient in commu-
nicating with deaf and hard of hearing students in their
primary language and preferred mode of communication.
Resource Specialist Program
A deaf or hard of hearing student who requires minimal
specialized instruction individually or in a small group may
benefit from the resource specialist program (RSP). Ongoing
consultation services from an itinerant teacher of deaf and
hard of hearing students must be provided to the RSP
teacher. Direct services by the itinerant teacher of the deaf or
designated instructional services (DIS) (e.g., speech and
46
Chapter Three
language services) or both may be provided in conjunction
with RSP services.
Special Day Class
Deaf and hard of hearing students with needs for intensive
services in communication, social, and academic skills
should be considered for enrollment in a special day class for
deaf and hard of hearing students for all or part of the school
day. Special day classes provided within a regionalized
program can provide deaf and hard of hearing students with
a sufficient number of age-appropriate language mode peers
and with direct access to teachers and other professionals/
paraprofessionals who are proficient in their language and
language mode. In a special day class, direct instruction that
emphasizes communication skills development, language
acquisition, concept development, and development of
academic skills using core and specialized curriculum is
provided by a teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students
in coordination with other appropriate specialists. Some
deaf and hard of hearing students may benefit by participat-
ing in general education classes in selected academic subject
areas or nonacademic areas, or both, as appropriate.
The size of the geographic area served by a regional special
day class program should be determined by the accessibility
of the schools in which the program for deaf and hard of
hearing students is maintained, as described in a compre-
hensive regional program plan. Transportation within a
reasonable time and distance should be arranged as suitable
to the well-being and safety of the students. In general,
students should not spend more than one hour in travel time
from home to school or from school to home. The bus driver
or responsible adult should be able to communicate with the
students on the bus.
State Special Schools
The California Department of Education operates two state
special schools (the California School for the Deaf, Fremont,
and the California School for the Deaf, Riverside) for stu-
dents who are deaf or hard of hearing. Students should be
considered for enrollment in one of the state special schools
when local school districts or special education local plan
areas (SELPAs) do not have enough students to provide a
comprehensive program or when the needs of the student
require specialized instruction and support services beyond
Special day classes
and hard of hearing
students with a suffi-
cient number of age-
mode peers and with
language and language
mode.
can provide deaf
appropriate language
direct access to teachers
and other professionals/
paraprofessionals who
are proficient in their
Organization for Student Learning
47
commitment and
factors in the success
of a deaf or hard of
less of the communica-
must be actively
involved in the deci-
communication option
for their child.
Because parental
involvement are key
hearing child, regard-
tion mode, parents
sion regarding the
most appropriate
that which can be reasonably provided in the local school
programs. Factors to consider when considering state special
school placement are:
Is the local plan area unable to reasonably provide appro-
priate services?
Is the incidence of deaf and hard of hearing students in the
local plan area too small to provide a comprehensive
program, including a sufficient number of age-appropriate
language mode peers?
Would travel time or distance to the nearest regional
program be excessive?
Nonpublic Schools and Agencies
The IEP team may determine that a nonpublic school or
agency is the most appropriate program option when a
public agency cannot meet a student’s needs, as identified by
the IEP team.
Communication Options
When a child is identified as deaf or hard of hearing, profes-
sionals are responsible for providing the parents with
nonbiased, research-based information regarding the commu-
nication options that may be used with deaf and hard of
hearing children. Because parental commitment and involve-
ment are key factors in the success of a deaf or hard of hear-
ing child, regardless of the communication mode, parents
must be actively involved in the decision regarding the most
appropriate communication option for their child. The
school staff is responsible for providing parents with infor-
mation that will empower them to participate as equal
members of the IFSP/IEP team in determining the commu-
nication option that is most appropriate to the needs of their
child and their family. The school staff is also responsible for
providing parent education so that parents can develop the
knowledge and skills they need to be able to provide their
child with a rich linguistic environment in the home.
The continuum of language/communication method options
will include:
American Sign Language (ASL)
Auditory-verbal
Bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi)
Cued Speech
Manually coded English (MCE)
48
Chapter Three
Oral-aural
Simultaneous communication (Sim Com)
Tactile communication
Total communication
American Sign Language. American Sign Language (ASL) is
the sign language most commonly used in the North Ameri-
can Deaf community. ASL is a rich and complex visual-
gestural language, with a grammatical structure indepen-
dent of English. ASL may be used in a total communication
program or in a bilingual/bicultural program.
Auditory-verbal. The auditory-verbal approach stresses the
use of appropriate amplification to teach children to listen,
process spoken language, and speak without the use of
signs, cues, speechreading, or other visual cues.
Bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi). Bi-Bi is an educational method
and philosophy emphasizing Deaf culture and involving the
use of American Sign Language as the primary language of
deaf and hard of hearing children. English is taught as a
second language, with the goal that the student become
fluent in both ASL and English.
Cued Speech. Cued Speech is a visual communication system
which uses eight handshapes in four locations (“cues”) in
combination with the natural mouth movements of speech
to make all the sounds of spoken language look different.
Cued Speech is generally considered an oral option, but
Cued Speech may also be used in total communication or
bilingual/bicultural programs.
Manually coded English. Manually coded English (MCE)
includes a number of different signing systems in which
finger spelling and American Sign Language signs are used
in English word order. Signs are created for words for which
there are no ASL equivalents, and for English suffixes and
prefixes, in order to represent the vocabulary and grammati-
cal structure of spoken English as explicitly as possible.
Oral-aural. The oral-aural approach encourages the use of the
child’s residual hearing (augmented by appropriate amplifi-
cation) to develop spoken language skills. While signs and
finger spelling are not used in oral/aural programs, children
are encouraged to use speechreading (lip movements and
facial expression) in learning to understand and use con-
nected speech.
Organization for Student Learning
49
Simultaneous communication (Sim Com). The simultaneous use
of spoken English and manually coded English.
Tactile communication. Tactile communication includes the
ability to access language through touch. Some examples of
tactile communication are finger spelling into the hand,
Braille, and Tadoma (tactile speechreading).
Total communication. Total communication is a philosophy
that encourages equally the development and use of speech,
speechreading, sign language and finger spelling, and writ-
ten language. In most total communication programs, a form
of manually coded English is used so that speech and sign
may be used simultaneously. American Sign Language or
Cued Speech or both are also used in some total communica-
tion programs.
Regionalization
Guidelines Standard 16
serve deaf and hard of hearing students.
Programs and services should be provided
through regionalization to more effectively
Deaf and hard of hearing children, like all children, need to
be in educational settings in which there is a sufficient num-
ber of age and language peers, or “critical mass.” The estab-
lishment of regions recognizes the low incidence of deaf and
hard of hearing children and provides placement options
that will bring together a sufficient number of age and lan-
guage peers. As defined by the Conference of Educational
Administrators Serving the Deaf (CEASD), a critical mass is
composed of a minimum of 40 students at the elementary
level and 150 students at the secondary level. These numbers
are goals to be considered and are not absolute requirements
for the establishment of regional programs.
Those deaf and hard of hearing students who do not attend
regional programs can benefit if the special education ser-
vices they require are provided through the regional pro-
gram and if the staff is supervised by the regional program
coordinator. Provision of services in a regional manner can
help ensure consistent quality of services and of service
delivery and can ensure that deaf and hard of hearing stu-
dents in placements other than regional programs are served
by appropriately qualified staff.
50
Chapter Three
gramming supported by the California Department of Edu-
Special Education (NASDSE), and the Commission on
of personnel, less duplication of services, and better use of
training
Responsibility for the design, implementation, and man-
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
with Multiple Disabilities
Guidelines Standard 17
deaf and hard of hearing students with multiple
disabilities.
T
of hearing students with multiple handicaps, ensuring:
varied and complex that they should be dealt with on an
Deaf and hard of
to be in educational
is a sufficient number
of age and language
peers, or “critical
mass.”
Regionalization represents the kind of comprehensive pro-
cation and the California Legislature and recommended by
CEASD, the National Association of State Directors of
Education of the Deaf (COED). The development of re-
gionalized programs and services encourages effective use
limited resources in order to ensure:
Cost-effective and appropriate staff development and
agement of regionalized programs by individuals who are
trained in deaf and hard of hearing education and are
knowledgeable about deaf and hard of hearing students
Provision and coordination of appropriate, quality services
Appropriate assessment and early intervention procedures
Parental involvement and appropriate training programs
for parents
Formation of peer groups, including hearing peers
Provision is made for appropriate services for
he program provides appropriate services for deaf and hard
Equal access to quality programs and services
Services from professionals with expertise not only in the
area of deaf and hard of hearing education but also in
areas of suspected or identified disabilities
Regionalized services where local programs cannot pro-
vide appropriate services
The unique needs resulting from multiple disabilities are so
individual basis through a collaborative effort among par-
ents, educators, and other service providers.
hearing children,
like all children, need
settings in which there
Organization for Student Learning
51
Regional Program Coordinator/Director
Guidelines Standard 18
enced educator of deaf and hard of hearing stu-
has the skills necessary for facilitating participation of staff,
The program coordinator/director is an experi-
dents, with skills to ensure that deaf and hard of
hearing students are provided with appropriate in-
struction and designated services. The program coordinator
parents, and the deaf and hard of hearing community in
program development.
The regional program for serving deaf and hard of hearing
students should have the services of a regional program
coordinator or director who is a trained educator of deaf and
hard of hearing students as well as a credentialed school
administrator. This person is responsible for implementing
California Education Code requirements and for coordinating
and supervising all educational services for deaf and hard of
hearing students within the geographical region. In addition,
this person is responsible for ensuring that programs are
coordinated with other public and private agencies, including
preschools,␣ child development pr
ograms, nonpublic nonsec-
tarian schools, regional occupational centers and programs,
postsecondary programs, adult programs for individuals
with exceptional needs, and other community resources.
Those who are employing and assigning a regional program
coordinator or director should consider the following: num-
ber of credentialed teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing,
travel distance, number of sites, number of classes, amount of
time for evaluation of teachers and other staff, and composi-
tion of the program. The regional program coordinator or
director has a number of responsibilities that may include:
Developing and implementing child find and screening
procedures for the purpose of identifying students who
may have hearing loss
Ensuring that appropriate assessment procedures and
personnel are used in the assessment of deaf and hard of
hearing students
Coordinating appropriate personnel (e.g., teachers of deaf
and hard of hearing students, speech and language special-
ists, psychologists, interpreters) to provide direct and
indirect services to deaf and hard of hearing students
52
Chapter Three
Evaluating staff employed in the deaf and hard of hearing
program
Providing specialized training and staff development to
parents, administrators, teachers, support staff, and instruc-
tional assistants regarding the unique needs of deaf and
hard of hearing students
Ensuring that a full continuum of services, program op-
tions, and specialized equipment and material is available
to deaf and hard of hearing students
Establishing and coordinating a regional advisory commit-
tee composed of parents, deaf and hard of hearing consum-
ers, and professionals
Having the role of advocate for programs serving deaf and
hard of hearing students
Ensuring that resources are effectively allocated and uti-
lized within the deaf and hard of hearing program
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program
Staff Roles and Responsibilities
Guidelines Standard 19
administrators, who have the skills necessary to
educational needs of deaf and hard of hearing students. Skills
communication, knowledge of accommodations necessary to
maintenance of assistive listening devices.
Each program provides qualified professional
and paraprofessional personnel, including
provide instruction and services that meet the
must include proficiency in the student’s primary mode of
meet the student’s needs, and knowledge of selection, use, and
All deaf and hard of hearing students must receive instruction
and services from qualified professional and paraprofessional
personnel who have the skills and abilities to meet their needs
as identified in the IEP. According to the National Association
of State Directors of Special Education’s Deaf and Hard of
Hearing Students: Educational Service Guidelines (1994):
All individuals, whether teachers, administrators, paraprofes-
sionals, or others, should demonstrate competency in all areas
of knowledge and skills listed below:
Ability to communicate proficiently with individuals who
are deaf and hard of hearing;
Organization for Student Learning
53
All deaf and
hard of hearing
instruction and ser-
personnel who have
the skills and abilities
to meet their needs as
students must receive
vices from qualified
professional and
paraprofessional
identified in the IEP.
Knowledge of principles of child growth and development
with emphasis on age/developmentally appropriate practice;
Knowledge of the impact of hearing loss on sociocultural,
linguistic, and educational development;
Knowledge of the interrelationships of family, environment,
culture, community, and language;
Knowledge of Deaf culture, history, literature, and folklore;
Knowledge of language development and use;
Knowledge of multicultural interactions and learning charac-
teristics;
Ability to utilize adults who are deaf and hard of hearing as a
resource for students, families, and professional staff;
Ability to promote high expectations and positive self-esteem;
Knowledge of learning styles and characteristics of learners;
Ability to use interpreters, transliterators, and foreign lan-
guage interpreters;
Ability to work effectively as a member of an interdiscipli-
nary team;
Ability to develop and implement an individualized program
plan (IEP/IFSP) in a given area of expertise;
Ability to provide consultation and support to parents/
caregivers and school personnel;
Ability to utilize resources essential for implementation
of the educational program for students;
Knowledge of assessment procedures for providing appropri-
ate services;
Knowledge of adaptations of physical environments to meet
auditory/visual needs;
Knowledge of amplification, assistive listening, and augmen-
tative communication devices;
Knowledge of assistive devices (telecommunication devices
for the deaf, decoders, vibrotactile devices);
Ability to implement techniques for facilitating the develop-
ment of speech and spoken language including but not
limited to speechreading and auditory training;
Knowledge of signing varieties that include features of both
English and ASL;
Knowledge of the Cued Speech system;
Ability to provide for one’s own professional growth;
Knowledge of federal and state laws and regulations pertain-
ing to the education and provision of services for individuals
who are deaf and hard of hearing;
Knowledge of postsecondary educational and vocational
options for students who are deaf and hard of hearing; and,
54
Chapter Three
Knowledge of resources (local, state, national) for individuals
who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families.
The roles and responsibilities of those who provide services
to deaf and hard of hearing students are examined below:
Program Specialist
The program specialist should be a credentialed, experienced
educator of deaf and hard of hearing students. The program
specialist has a variety of responsibilities that include:
Community awareness/education
Monitoring of assessment procedures
Classroom observations
Consultation with teachers, parents, administrators, and
support staff
Assessment of program needs
Staff development
Coordination of specialized equipment and materials
Assistance to regional coordinator regarding staff
evaluations
Monitoring of compliance
Supervision of staff members assigned to the deaf and
hard of hearing program to ensure that appropriate cur-
riculum and instruction are being provided
Involvement of parents and deaf and hard of hearing
individuals in program development
Site Administrator
If the site administrator has professional certification in the
area of deafness, he or she may assume the responsibilities of
the program specialist. However, if the site administrator has
little background or expertise in the area of deafness, he or
she should follow the guidelines contained in this publica-
tion. Consultation should be sought from and provided by
the program coordinator and program specialist, who will
assist the site administrator with practical applications for
the guidelines. Although the site administrator is often the
direct supervisor, evaluator, and implementor of administra-
tive policies, it is critical that the program coordinator and
program specialist provide technical assistance to the site
administrator. Technical assistance includes sharing class-
room observations and recommendations regarding teachers’
evaluations (including assessment of teachers’ sign language
Organization for Student Learning
55
proficiency and knowledge and expertise in the delivery of
specialized instruction), making appropriate suggestions for
staff development, making recommendations for appropriate
modifications to facilities, and ensuring that deaf and hard of
hearing students have full and equal access to all school-
related activities, including extracurricular athletic and social
activities.
Resource Specialist
Some programs for deaf and hard of hearing students may
employ a teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing as a re-
source specialist. The resource specialist should provide
diagnostic evaluations and assist in writing educational goals
and objectives that focus on the child’s individual needs. This
person should be available to provide individual or small-
group instruction in the student’s identified areas of need.
The resource specialist should have the appropriate creden-
tial and competencies to educate children who are deaf or
hard of hearing, including proficiency in the child’s language
and language mode.
Some deaf and hard of hearing children may be served by
resource specialists who are not teachers of the deaf and hard
of hearing. In this case, the resource specialist should have
the ongoing monitoring and support of an appropriately
credentialed teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students.
Instructional Aide
The special education instructional aide, working under the
supervision of a teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students,
can be a vital link in the educational program for a student
who is deaf or hard of hearing. Instructional aides must be
skilled and demonstrate proficiency in communicating with
deaf and hard of hearing students in the students’ preferred
language and language mode. Under the supervision of the
teacher, the instructional assistant provides tutoring and
reinforcement of instruction as outlined in each student’s
individualized education program (IEP).
General Education or Special Education Teacher
General education teachers or special education teachers
(other than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students)
may have a deaf or hard of hearing student enrolled in their
classroom for all or part of the day. Typical responsibilities of
the general or special education teacher include:
56
Chapter Three
Providing instruction with appropriate modifications or
accommodations, as specified in the student’s IEP
Participating as a member of the student’s IEP team
Evaluating the student’s progress, providing grades for the
student’s report card, and providing advice to the IEP team
regarding the student’s progress toward IEP goals and
objectives
Participating in preservice and in-service training regard-
ing the unique needs of students with hearing loss
Collaborating with support staff (e.g., itinerant deaf and
hard of hearing teacher, speech and language specialist,
interpreter)
Demonstrating willingness to make necessary modifica-
tions and accommodations for the student as determined
by the IEP team
Speech, Language, and Hearing Specialist
Language, speech, and hearing specialists who hold a Clini-
cal Rehabilitative Services Credential and who have appro-
priate competencies to work with deaf and hard of hearing
students provide diagnostic, instructional, and consultative
services for students when the need is determined by the IEP
team. The language, speech, and hearing specialist should
respect and be able to proficiently communicate in the
student’s primary language and preferred language mode.
Typical duties include but are not limited to:
Providing assessment of spoken language, including
speech production, speechreading, and listening skills
Providing direct instruction in speech, speechreading, and
listening skills
Working in cooperation with the teacher of the deaf and
hard of hearing in planning and implementing strategies
that develop communication, language, and related aca-
demic skills
Assisting school personnel and parents in enhancing stu-
dents’ overall communication skills, including use of
interpreters, communication through print, and other
methods of communication the student may use
Being knowledgeable in the use of technological devices to
enhance speech and language instruction
Speech and oral language instruction and auditory training
may be provided by either a speech, language, and hearing
The language,
speech, and hearing
specialist should
primary language and
mode.
respect and be able to
proficiently communi-
cate in the student’s
preferred language
Organization for Student Learning
57
In working
with deaf and
hard of hearing
students, the educa-
tional audiologist
language and
language mode
of the students.
should respect and
utilize the preferred
specialist or by an appropriately trained teacher of deaf and
hard of hearing students. When a deaf or hard of hearing
student has speech production issues not typically related to
hearing loss (e.g., cleft palate), speech therapy should be
provided by a speech and language specialist.
Audiologist
The audiologist’s reports and services are an integral part of
the educational program for a student who is deaf or hard of
hearing. The educational audiologist holds a Clinical Reha-
bilitative Services Credential or a California License in Audi-
ology or both. “Although clinical diagnostic audiology ser-
vices are essential in the schools, it is clear that educational
audiology services also include planning and delivery of
(re)habilitation services following diagnosis. Unique to edu-
cational audiology are skills such as analyzing instructional
listening dynamics, recommending modifications for school
environment or programs and educating school personnel
and parents to make instruction accessible to students with
hearing loss for their academic and social success” (Recom-
mended Professional Practices for Educational Audiology 1997). In
working with deaf and hard of hearing students, the educa-
tional audiologist should respect and utilize the preferred
language and language mode of the students. According to
the Guidelines for Audiology Services in the Schools (1993):
The audiologist is uniquely qualified to perform the following
activities with children:
Provide community leadership to ensure that all infants,
toddlers, and youth with impaired hearing are promptly
identified, evaluated, and provided with appropriate inter-
vention services.
Collaborate with community resources to develop a high-
risk registry and follow-up.
Develop and supervise a hearing screening program for
preschool and school-aged children.
Train audiometric technicians or other appropriate personnel
to screen for hearing loss.
Perform follow-up comprehensive audiological evaluations.
Assess central auditory function.
Make appropriate referrals for further audiological, commu-
nication, educational, psychosocial, or medical assessment.
Interpret audiological assessment results to other school
personnel.
Serve as a member of the educational team in the evaluation,
planning, and placement process, to make recommendations
58
Chapter Three
regarding placement, related service needs, and modifica-
tion of classroom environments for students with hearing
impairments or other auditory problems.
Provide in-service training on hearing and hearing impair-
ments and their implication to school personnel about
hearing loss prevention.
Make recommendations about the use of hearing aids,
cochlear implants, group and classroom amplification, and
assistive listening devices.
Ensure the proper fit and functioning of hearing aids, co-
chlear implants, group and classroom amplification, and
assistive listening devices.
Analyze classroom noise and acoustics and make recom-
mendations for improving the listening environment.
Manage the use and calibration of audiometric equipment.
Collaborate with the school, parents, teachers, special sup-
port personnel, and relevant community agencies and
professionals to ensure delivery of appropriate services.
Make recommendations for assistive devices (radio/televi-
sion, telephone, alerting, convenience) for students with
hearing impairment.
Provide services, including home programming if appropri-
ate, in the areas of speechreading, listening, communication
strategies, use and care of amplification, including cochlear
implants, and self-management of hearing needs.
Some of these responsibilities may be shared with the teacher
of the deaf and the speech and language specialist. Because of
the overlap in the training and skills of these professionals, it
is imperative that the professionals work in close collabora-
tion in order to provide team-based provision of services to
deaf and hard of hearing children and their families.
Educational Interpreter
Deaf and hard of hearing children who are receiving educa-
tion in the general education classroom may require the
services of a sign language interpreter or an oral, sign, or
Cued Speech transliterator to have access to and understand
the instructional material presented by the teacher and class
discussion involving other students.
The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) and the Coun-
cil on Education of the Deaf (CED) have developed the
“Model Standards for the Certification of Educational Inter-
preters for Deaf Students” (see Appendix C). Educational
agencies that employ educational interpreters should
Organization for Student Learning
59
The skills of the
educational
to the success of
these students in
interpreter are vital
mainstream settings.
develop job descriptions and qualifications that reflect the
recommended standards. According to the RID/CED stan-
dards, the educational interpreter serves “a variety of roles at
different age/grade levels, and in different educational set-
tings.” In addition, “Educational interpreters serve students
with a variety of communication skills and styles. The skills
of the educational interpreter are vital to the success of these
students in mainstream settings.” To meet these varied needs,
the standards recommend that educational interpreters
should have receptive and expressive communication skills
and proficiency in a variety of communication modes, includ-
ing speech, speechreading, sign (American Sign Language,
manually coded English, Pidgin Sign English), and Cued
Speech, and should be skilled in one or more of the following:
1. Interpret from spoken English to American Sign Language
and from American Sign Language to spoken English.
2. Transliterate from spoken English to Manually Coded En-
glish and from Manually Coded English to spoken English.
3. Transliterate from spoken English to Pidgin Sign English and
from Pidgin Sign English to spoken English.
4. Orally transliterate from spoken English to visible English
and from visible English to spoken English.
5. Cue from spoken English to Cued Speech and from Cued
Speech to spoken English.
Typical duties of interpreters/transliterators include:
Interpreting/transliterating lectures, discussions, tests,
films, assemblies, and so forth for students who are deaf
and hard of hearing and who are mainstreamed into gen-
eral education classes
Assessing the student’s receptive and expressive language
use and abilities and adjusting interpretive language to
match the student’s preferred language and language
mode and to ensure that the student comprehends the
interpretation
Interpreting for parent conferences, IEP meetings, and
other school-sponsored activities as needed
Providing tutoring and instructional support to students
who are deaf and hard of hearing to assist them in general
education classes
Participating in educational team meetings and providing
information on students’ use of interpreting services and
proficiency in communication
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Chapter Three
Providing staff orientations on the use of an interpreter
and teaching sign language to general education students
and staff
Improving knowledge and skill in interpreting through
participation in workshops, in-service training, and sign
classes and membership in professional organizations
Maintaining confidentiality about students’ behavior and
progress
Real-Time Captioner
For some deaf and hard of hearing students, real-time
captioning or electronic note-taking can provide the most
appropriate access to communication in the mainstream
classroom. The real-time captioner uses specialized technol-
ogy and equipment to provide the deaf or hard of hearing
student with an immediate electronic printout of spoken
communication in the classroom.
Note-taker
When deaf and hard of hearing students are mainstreamed
in general education classes, they must attend to the teacher
or interpreter to understand the instructional material pre-
sented. Thus, they are unable to take notes as do their hear-
ing peers. However, with the aid of note-takers (whether
paid or volunteer), classroom information can be recorded
accurately and in a form conducive for study. Selection of
note-takers should be based on criteria such as interest,
ability to organize thoughts, and clarity of handwriting. The
teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing should have the
responsibility to provide the necessary training and materi-
als for note-takers.
Adapted Physical Education Teacher
Qualified teachers of adapted physical education should
provide diagnostic, rehabilitative, instructional, and consul-
tative services for physical fitness and gross- and fine-motor
development when the need is determined by the IEP team
as a result of assessment. They should also provide instruc-
tion in the use of adaptive equipment that facilitates physical
education skills. A teacher of adapted physical education
should communicate with deaf and hard of hearing students
in their primary language and preferred mode of communi-
cation or use an interpreter or transliterator in accordance
with the student’s communication needs.
Organization for Student Learning
61
Responsibilities of the adapted physical education teacher
include:
Assessing the student’s motor skills
Making recommendations for IEP goals and objectives for
motor skills development
Providing instruction as outlined in the IEP
Occupational Therapist and Physical Therapist
A registered occupational therapist provides therapy in
sensory processing, visual-motor skills, fine-motor dexterity,
self-help skills, use of communication systems, and switch
control. A student who has difficulty learning motor tasks,
poor organization and sequencing of tasks, poor hand use,
difficulty accomplishing tasks without adaptive equipment,
unusual or limited play patterns, deficits in self-help skills,
poor attention to task, or hypo- or hypersensitivity to touch
would be appropriately referred for an assessment by an
occupational therapist.
A licensed physical therapist provides therapy in postural
stability and movement; muscle stability and strengthening;
management of trunk stability; orthopedic problems; range
of motion; positioning, bracing, and casting; transfer skills;
gait training; and cardiovascular and respiratory health.
Indicators that a student should be referred for an assess-
ment by a physical therapist include delayed gross-motor
skills, difficulty learning motor tasks, unusual walking or
motor patterns, difficulty moving safely in the school envi-
ronment, difficulty maintaining sitting posture, poor bal-
ance, difficulty accomplishing tasks without the use of
adaptive equipment, postural or orthopedic abnormalities,
or reduced endurance.
For further clarification regarding occupational therapy and
physical therapy services in the schools, see Guidelines for
Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy in California Public
Schools (1996).
Career/Vocational Specialist
The career/vocational specialist should develop and en-
hance programs that will provide preparatory experiences
for deaf and hard of hearing students. Typical responsibili-
ties of the career/vocational specialist may include:
Demonstrating effective communication techniques with
deaf and hard of hearing students
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Chapter Three
Designing and implementing programwide career educa-
tion programs within the structure of the existing curricu-
lum as follows: career exposure for preschool through
grade three; career awareness for grades four through
eight; career exploration for grades nine through twelve;
and career work groups for grades nine through twelve
Providing for training in specific occupational interests
and skills
Conducting individual career assessments
Interpreting and utilizing career assessment results in the
development of the individualized transition plan (ITP)
Assisting classroom teachers with the assessment of career
awareness, interests, and aptitudes
Assisting classroom teachers with making use of results
from career assessments at various levels
Identifying and obtaining materials for staff in-service
training
Establishing a career education resource center
Coordinating job training facilities for classroom training
and on-the-job training
Coordinating job sites for students’ observation and on-
the-job training
Providing outreach service to the community
Demonstrating knowledge of safety requirements and
occupational safety concerns for deaf and hard of hearing
individuals
Guidance Counselor
The primary role of the credentialed guidance counselor
working with deaf and hard of hearing students is to develop
programs promoting mental health for students and families.
In this way coping skills, problem-solving abilities, and posi-
tive self-concepts in deaf and hard of hearing students are
developed. Typical duties of the guidance counselor, as cited
in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Educational Service Guide-
lines (1994), may include:
Being knowledgeable in the psychosocial and sociological
aspects of deafness and the implications for family dynamics;
Being knowledgeable about postsecondary programs for
students who are deaf and hard of hearing;
Being knowledgeable about services available for individuals
who are deaf and hard of hearing at community, city, state,
and national levels;
guidance counselor
working with deaf
and hard of hearing
students is to develop
mental health for
students and families.
The primary role
of the credentialed
programs promoting
Organization for Student Learning
63
Being knowledgeable about counseling philosophies and
theories and their application to clientele who are deaf and
hard of hearing;
Being expert in providing psychosocial, developmental, and
coping skills training;
Communicating proficiently with individuals who are deaf
and hard of hearing in their primary language and preferred
communication mode␣ .␣ .␣ .␣ ;
Understanding practices and procedures for group guidance
and counseling; and
Demonstrating skills for group guidance and counseling.
Psychologist
The credentialed psychologist working with deaf and hard of
hearing students may have the following responsibilities, as
outlined in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Educational
Service Guidelines (1994):
Possessing training/background in the psychological and
sociological aspects of deafness;
Possessing training and knowledge to assess cultural and
linguistic factors related to deafness and the implications on
performance;
Possessing knowledge of issues related to non-discrimina-
tory assessment, particularly as it pertains to children who
are deaf and hard of hearing and who are from racial, ethnic,
and cultural minorities;
Selecting, administering, and interpreting verbal and non-
verbal assessment instruments appropriate for students who
are deaf and hard of hearing;
Assessing areas of cognitive/intellectual, psychosocial, and
independent living skills of students who are deaf and hard
of hearing;
Assessing social and emotional aspects of behavior and
implications on educational placement and achievement;
Providing group, individual, and family therapy as needed
or as appropriate;
Consulting with school personnel as necessary; and,
Communicating with students who are deaf and hard of
hearing in their primary language or preferred mode of
communication.
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Chapter Three
School Nurse
The responsibilities of the credentialed school nurse may
include:
Demonstrating effective communication techniques with
deaf and hard of hearing students
Establishing procedures for screening hearing and vision
and determining etiology
Conducting health and developmental assessments, as
necessary
Serving as an instructional resource to staff with regard to
health education for deaf and hard of hearing students
Serving as a resource to staff with regard to community
resources for health and welfare services for deaf and hard
of hearing students
Guidelines Standard 20
Deaf and hard of hearing students, birth
including those
with multiple disabilities,
tialed to teach deaf and hard of hearing students.
through age twenty-one,
are instructed
by teachers who are specifically trained and creden-
Deaf and hard of hearing students, birth through age twenty-
one, including those with multiple disabilities, shall receive
instruction and services from teachers who are specifically
trained and credentialed to teach deaf and hard of hearing
students. Deaf and hard of hearing students for whom the
IEP team has determined that the general education class-
room is the most appropriate placement should receive an
appropriate amount of consultative support or direct instruc-
tion or both from an itinerant teacher of deaf and hard of
hearing students.
The teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students should
demonstrate competency in all of the knowledge and skill
areas delineated above under Standard 19 and must be
specifically trained and credentialed by the California Com-
mission on Teacher Credentialing (see Appendix D) to teach
deaf and hard of hearing children. The Council on Education
of the Deaf has established nationally accepted standards for
teacher competency (see Appendix E). These competencies
may be helpful in selecting in-service training for teachers
who work with deaf and hard of hearing students.
Organization for Student Learning
65
Teacher of Early Childhood Deaf
and Hard of Hearing Students
The development of positive family-child relationships dur-
ing a child’s early years is critical to the child’s later cogni-
tive, linguistic, and social-emotional growth. The deaf or hard
of hearing child’s lack of full access to communication can
interfere with the development of a positive family-child
relationship. Therefore, it is critical that teachers in early
childhood deaf and hard of hearing programs focus their
service delivery on the family as well as on the child. These
teachers must be credentialed teachers of deaf and hard of
hearing children and must also have the competencies related
to the provision of services to infants, toddlers, preschoolers,
and their families.
Typical duties may include but are not limited to:
Working as a part of a multidisciplinary team in the assess-
ment of the child’s needs and the development of the
individualized family service plan (IFSP) or individualized
education program (IEP)
Providing direct and consultative services to the child and
the family, as determined by the IFSP/IEP, to facilitate the
development of communication and cognitive skills
Providing ongoing access to informational programs that
help the family learn about hearing loss, assessment, am-
plification options, communication options, educational
options, legal rights under state and federal special educa-
tion laws, resources and community services available for
deaf and hard of hearing children
Special Day Class Teacher for
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
The special day class teacher is primarily responsible for the
direct instruction of assigned students. In addition to provid-
ing instruction, the special day class teacher should assume
responsibility for the basic coordination of the mainstreamed
students’ programs with the general education staff. This
individual also assists the general education teacher, the site
principal, and the parents of the students in the program.
Furthermore, the special day class teacher must respect and
be proficient in the language mode(s) of the students.
Typical duties should include but not be limited to:
Assessing students in the area of preacademic/academic
achievement, making recommendations for academic goals
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Chapter Three
and objectives for the IEP, and providing academic in-
struction in the core curriculum to the students
Assessing students in the area of language and communi-
cation skills, making recommendations for language/
communication skills goals and objectives for the IEP, and
providing language and communication skills instruction
to the students (may work in conjunction with the speech
and language specialist and audiologist)
Teaching a deaf studies curriculum
Assisting in the appropriate placement of students
Collaborating with general education teachers and inter-
preters regarding the needs of deaf and hard of hearing
students who are mainstreamed
Monitoring students’ progress
Coordinating required services for students
Providing daily monitoring of individual hearing aids,
cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices and
group amplification devices, as appropriate (Note: When
monitoring any FM system, be aware of possible interfer-
ence from cellular phones, air control towers, or personal
pagers.)
Providing information to teachers and parents regarding
the education of deaf and hard of hearing students
Providing Deaf awareness and Deaf culture in-service
training to general education staff and students
Teaching daily living skills and independent living skills,
as appropriate
Itinerant Teacher of Deaf
and Hard of Hearing Students
Itinerant teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students are
fully credentialed teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing.
The itinerant teacher must ensure that hard of hearing and
deaf children, like all children, have programs in which they
have direct and appropriate access to all components of the
educational process, including but not limited to recess,
lunch, and extracurricular social and athletic activities.
Itinerant teachers may provide direct instruction and consul-
tative services to deaf and hard of hearing students enrolled
in a general education class, a resource specialist program,
special day class, or home or hospital program.
When appropriate caseloads for itinerant teachers are con-
sidered, factors such as mileage, direct service versus a
It is critical
that teachers in
early childhood deaf
and hard of hearing
service delivery on
the family as well as
on the child.
programs focus their
Organization for Student Learning
67
The itinerant
teacher must
hearing and deaf
grams in which they
priate access to all
components of the
including but not
lunch, and extracur-
ricular social and
athletic activities.
ensure that hard of
children, like all
children, have pro-
have direct and appro-
educational process,
limited to recess,
consultation model, age of students, number of students
with additional disabilities, and dynamics of school climate
must also be considered. A ratio of 1:10 to 1:24 is an appro-
priate range of standard caseload limits.
Typical responsibilities of the itinerant teacher may include
but are not limited to:
Providing in-service training for general education staff
and students regarding the specific communication and
educational needs of deaf and hard of hearing students
and ways of including deaf and hard of hearing students
in various situations and group settings
Obtaining specialized services, materials, or equipment for
deaf and hard of hearing students to use in the general
education classroom and providing specialized resources
and visual aids
Helping establish a system to ensure the inclusion of deaf
and hard of hearing students in activities
Providing instruction to deaf and hard of hearing students
regarding their hearing loss, Deaf culture, assistive de-
vices, and various communication methods used by deaf
and hard of hearing individuals
Facilitating opportunities for deaf and hard of hearing
students to interact socially with other deaf and hard of
hearing students and with deaf and hard of hearing role
models
Adapting curriculum to make subject matter accessible to
deaf and hard of hearing students
Keeping parents informed of the school curriculum and
methods and techniques to reinforce language and aca-
demic development
Evaluating and recommending appropriate environmental
conditions, such as lighting and acoustics, to meet the
unique communication needs of deaf and hard of hearing
students
Assessing students in the areas of academic achievement
and language and communication; when appropriate,
making recommendations for IEP goals and objectives in
these areas and providing direct, specialized instruction in
specific areas of need
Assisting in the appropriate placement of students
Coordinating required services for students
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Chapter Three
Providing monitoring of individual hearing aids, cochlear
implants, and assistive listening devices
Meeting regularly with program coordinators or program
specialists to discuss problems or concerns regarding pro-
grams for integrated students
Meeting regularly with general education teachers and
interpreters to discuss areas of concern and to ensure that
communication is effective
Class Size and Caseloads
Guidelines Standard 21
Class size and caseloads of staff should allow
services based on the unique educational needs
of deaf and hard of hearing students.
for providing specialized instruction and
For deaf and hard of hearing students, class size and student/
teacher ratio should be appropriate to the needs of the stu-
dents. When programs for deaf and hard of hearing students
are provided, class size may need to be flexible to accommo-
date other service delivery models, such as team teaching or
co-enrollment. However, class size guidelines become neces-
sary when the composition of the deaf and hard of hearing
group is influenced by multiage or multigrade factors or
additional handicapping conditions that dictate the need for a
unique classroom structure. Class size and caseloads must not
be so large that each student’s instructional needs, as deter-
mined by the IEP team, cannot be met. In such instances the
following student/teacher ratios are recommended for classes
for deaf and hard of hearing students:
Infants: Four infants per teacher if center based
Preschool: Four to six students per teacher
Multihandicapped: Four to six students per teacher
Primary (kindergarten through grade three): Four to eight
students per teacher
Intermediate (grades four through eight): Six to eight
students per teacher
Secondary: Eight to ten students per teacher
Caseloads for itinerant teachers must be such that each
student’s needs, as determined by the IEP team, can be met.
Distance traveled and number of sites should be taken into
Organization for Student Learning
69
consideration. An appropriate caseload for an itinerant
teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students is ten to 24 stu-
dents.
Staff Development
Guidelines Standard 22
ing for all staff to enhance student achievement.
The program provides annual and ongoing train-
Specialized staff development is critical for personnel work-
ing in programs for deaf and hard of hearing students. The
report of the California Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Education
Advisory Task Force states: “The quality of educational pro-
grams serving deaf and hard-of-hearing students depends
upon the specialized knowledge, skills, and attributes of all
administrators; teachers; educational interpreters; certificated
personnel; support service personnel; psychologists; audiolo-
gists; speech and language specialists; and other staff, includ-
ing note takers and real-time captionists. Unfortunately, a
severe shortage exists of qualified teachers and other staff to
serve deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Recruitment and
preservice and in-service training are essential to alleviating
this problem and providing quality staff” (Communication
Access and Quality Education for Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Chil-
dren 1999, 16).
An annual needs assessment should be developed and used to
plan staff development activities. Depending on the needs of
the program and the staff, program planners should provide
opportunities for in-service training, preservice training, and
specialized workshops and conferences. Staff development
topics may include using technology to enhance student
learning and networking with other deaf and hard of hearing
students throughout the state, enhancing behavioral interven-
tion skills, providing services for deaf and hard of hearing
students with special needs, developing and upgrading sign
language skills, identifying and teaching to individual learn-
ing styles, using appropriate curricular adaptations and teach-
ing strategies for deaf and hard of hearing students, and other
areas as identified through the needs assessment.
Administrators should support and facilitate networking
through regionalized staff development activities, video
conferencing, and computer networking. Networking is
important to provide staff with category-specific resources
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Chapter Three
and to allow for the exchange of ideas and experiences.
Guidelines Standard 23
tion personnel serving its deaf and hard of
modifications of the curriculum, and understanding
of the impact of hearing loss on communication development.
A general education teacher or special education teacher
should be given in-service training by qualified personnel
service training should include but not be limited to:
Modifying teaching behaviors to accommodate the needs
tions need to meet each child’s unique communication
mode—spoken, signed, or spoken in combination with
signs or cues.)
aids and equipment
amplification devices
(e.g., itinerant teacher of the deaf, speech and language
specialist)
Monitoring the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants,
and assistive listening devices
In addition, the general education or special education
itinerant teacher of the deaf.
A general
education teacher
or special education
teacher who has a deaf
or hard of hearing
student placed in the
given in-service
training by qualified
personnel prior to the
placement of the
student in the class-
Networking serves to reduce stress and motivates innova-
tion and high standards.
The program provides training to general educa-
hearing students regarding accommodations,
(other than a teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing) who
has a deaf or hard of hearing student placed in the classroom
prior to the placement of the student in the classroom. In-
of deaf and hard of hearing students (Specific modifica-
Creating a visual environment through the use of visual
Creating an acoustically appropriate environment
through the use of acoustic accommodations and use of
Working with or collaborating with support personnel
Working with an interpreter
Establishing a note-taking program
Ensuring that the deaf or hard of hearing child will have
access to and will be included in all classroom and school-
related activities
teacher and the deaf or hard of hearing student should
receive the ongoing support and services of a credentialed
classroom should be
room.
Organization for Student Learning
71
School Safety
Guidelines Standard 24
ism, support, and high expectations for each student.
The program provides a safe and secure environ-
ment in which to learn and teach. Its atmosphere
reflects the program’s purpose and is characterized
by respect for differences, trust, caring, professional-
The program has policies and procedures that ensure a safe,
secure, and clean teaching and learning environment for its
students and staff. Those policies address the following:
Collaborative interagency and community partnerships
to support and ensure the safety and security of all stu-
dents and staff through an effective safe program planning
process
Staff development activities that emphasize safe school
strategies
Standards for school cleanliness and lighting that provide
a clean and visually appropriate environment supportive
of the learning process
Regular maintenance of the program’s facilities to ensure
the safety and well-being of all students and staff members
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the program’s safety plan
Facilities
Guideline Standard 25
the unique communication, education, and safety
• Deaf and hard of hearing students have access to specialized
with adequate technological tools and curriculum materials
for learning.
Facilities are designed and maintained to enhance
the provision of instruction and services to meet
needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing:
materials and equipment and services that provide commu-
nication access to the core curriculum.
Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students are clean,
well-lit, and acoustically appropriate; are equipped with
visual emergency warning signals; and provide students
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Chapter Three
• Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students are the
same size as classrooms for general education students on
the same campus.
• Space for itinerant teachers, speech and language special-
ists, and other support personnel serving deaf and hard of
hearing students is clean, well-lit, acoustically appropri-
ate, and of adequate size for instruction and for storage of
instructional materials.
• Space is available where parent conferences and IEP
meetings can be held with confidentiality.
The physical facilities in programs for deaf and hard of
hearing students should include facilities for both indoor
and outdoor instruction, ancillary services, and administra-
tion. The facilities should be flexible to permit changes in
the program that are dictated by the students’ needs. Class-
rooms should be the same size as classrooms for general
education students on the same campus and should be large
enough to accommodate individual, small-group, or whole-
class instruction as well as the use and storage of the neces-
sary special equipment and teaching materials. Support
personnel (e.g., itinerant teachers, speech and language
specialists, psychologists) need adequate space for instruc-
tion and for storage of supplies and equipment. Adequate
space should be provided where IEP meetings can be held
with confidentiality and comfort.
Special attention should be given to the following aspects of
the environment for deaf and hard of hearing individuals:
Color. Because of the importance of sensory clues, the visual
environment should be warm, varied, cheerful, and restful
to the eyes. Color that will provide contrasting background
for ease in lipreading and reading sign language is essential.
Acoustics. When individual hearing aids or auditory training
equipment are used by deaf and hard of hearing students or
when a student with a cochlear implant is in a classroom,
special consideration should be given to the control and
reduction of ambient noise (background noise that competes
with the main speech signal) and reverberation (the prolonga-
tion of a sound after the sound source has ceased). Sources
of ambient noise in classrooms may include but are not
limited to heating and air conditioning units, fluorescent
light ballasts, mechanical equipment, and outside noise.
Organization for Student Learning
73
should be the same
general education
students on the same
campus and should be
accommodate indi-
whole-class instruction
as well as the use and
storage of the neces-
sary special equipment
and teaching materials.
Classrooms
size as classrooms for
large enough to
vidual, small-group, or
Reverberation is caused when sounds reflect off nonabsorp-
tive surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, and doors. Excessive
reverberation causes a speaker’s words to become distorted
and difficult to understand.
The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association makes
the following recommendations relative to classroom acous-
tics: in both self-contained and mainstream classrooms where
deaf and hard of hearing children are housed, the ambient
(background) noise level should be no greater than 30 dBA,
and reverberation time (RT) should be no more than 0.4
second. In order to achieve these desired acoustic criteria,
classrooms where deaf and hard of hearing children are
housed should be located as far as possible from noise
sources, such as street noise, playground noise, and cafeteria
noise. Air conditioning vents should be fitted with baffles or
split to reduce noise caused by the air, and the air conditioner
compressors should be mounted on rubber pads and sepa-
rated from the main building. Classrooms should have car-
peted floors, acoustic ceiling tiles, rubber seals around doors,
remote starter ballasts, drapes where necessary, and angled
room corners. Walls should not be hard surfaced. The use of
FM systems can also minimize distracting background noise
and improve the clarity of the teacher’s voice. For further
information regarding these recommendations, see “Position
Statement and Guidelines for Acoustics in Educational Set-
tings” (1995).
An audiologist should be involved in the modification of a
classroom to meet these criteria.
Antistatic precautions should be implemented in any setting
where children with cochlear implants are housed. Precau-
tions include antistatic or glare guards, or both, for computer
monitors and antistatic computer mats. Plastic playground
equipment, plastic furniture, and nylon carpet should be
avoided because of the added likelihood of damage to the
speech processor from electrostatic discharge.
Lighting. Because deaf and hard of hearing students must use
their eyes more extensively in the educational setting,
nonglare lighting is important. Lighting should be easily
modified and controlled. Easy access to control switches is an
important time-saver.
Emergency warning and signaling devices. Because deaf and
hard of hearing students do not always hear fire alarms, bells,
or verbal commands, all classrooms, bathrooms, hallways,
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Chapter Three
offices, and play areas should be equipped with visual emer-
gency warning devices, such as strobe lights or other electri-
cal devices.
Technology and teaching equipment. Teachers of deaf and hard
of hearing students use multimedia equipment in their in-
structional activities. Because a teacher usually faces students
to communicate, efficient and accessible audiovisual equip-
ment and other equipment are necessary. Specialized equip-
ment may be kept in a centralized media facility within a
school or program. The center should be located so that
needed equipment, films, and materials can be obtained
without undue delay. The following kinds of equipment were
suggested in a survey of those working with deaf and hard
of hearing students:
Computers with CD-ROM and multimedia and Internet
capability
Appropriate software
Televisions with closed captioning decoders
Videocassette recorders (VCRs)
Tape recorders or compact disc players that can be con-
nected to a group amplification device
Slide projectors and filmstrip projectors
Overhead projectors
Laser disc players
Telecommunications devices for the deaf or telephone
amplifiers
Video cameras
Real-time captioning equipment
Cameras (PolaroidTM/35mm/digital)
Copy stands
Large-print typewriters
Photocopy equipment for the production of both black-
and-white and color transparencies and paper copies
Laminators
Tachistoscopes
Video-conferencing equipment
Audiological equipment. A program for deaf and hard of hear-
ing students should have access to the following suggested
equipment for audiological services, including assessment
and rehabilitation:
Otoscope
Organization for Student Learning
75
Electroacoustic Immittance Meter to include tests for static
immittance, physical volume, tympanometry, and acoustic
reflex
Clinical audiometer with pure tone and bone conduction
and masking and speech capabilities
Electroacoustic hearing aid analyzer with real ear mea-
surements
Sound level meter
Specialized lighting and reinforcement equipment for
testing young or difficult-to-test children
Stock of loaner hearing aids
Individual FM systems with appropriate coupling options
Group FM systems (soundfield or teleloop or both)
Equipment and supplies for making and modifying ear
molds
Tactile-kinesthetic aids
Auditory training materials
Materials and visual aids for in-service training
Battery testers, stethosets, and cleaning materials for ear
molds
Appropriate files and forms for recordkeeping
Program Accountability
Guidelines Standard 26
The school leadership and staff regularly assess
each student’s progress toward accomplishing
the expected schoolwide learning results and
report student progress to the rest of the school
community, including parents, the deaf and hard of hearing
community, and related agencies and organizations.
The program has established an assessment process that
reports the extent to which every student is meeting content
and performance standards and expected student learning
results. The process includes the development of an assess-
ment plan that provides valid and reliable information about
(1) the achievement of every student related to content and
performance standards; and (2) what the program plans to
do to increase the level of each student’s achievement over
time. The assessment plan includes a description of the
following:
76
Chapter Three
The assessment formats and the types of information used
to determine whether every student is meeting the content
standards in each subject area
The method employed to ensure the validity, reliability, and
consistency of the evaluations of student achievement
The method employed to combine various types of infor-
mation about student achievement
The method employed to ensure that all students are as-
sessed appropriately in terms of the content standards
The program’s staff development process in the area of
assessment, ensuring that staff can reliably evaluate stu-
dents’ work in terms of content standards
Guidelines Standard 27
The program conducts a self-review as part of
the state monitoring process, using these
guidelines and encompassing all areas of program
quality, and provides written progress reports
annually to parents, staff, and the community.
Recognizing the importance of stakeholder participation and
collaboration, the governing authority has approved a com-
prehensive program accountability plan, including a self-
review process using these guidelines, that provides appro-
priate information about the program and students’
achievement to school staff, students, parents, administrators,
the local governing board, the community, and the California
Department of Education. The plan includes the following:
A description of the types of information to be gathered
and presented to school staff, students, parents, administra-
tors, the local governing board, the community, and the
California Department of Education
A timeline for reporting information about student achieve-
ment and compliance with these guidelines to the appro-
priate audiences
A timeline for the improvement of student achievement
and program guideline compliance, including targets for
improvement and for interventions if those targets are not
met
Procedures for the development and submittal of periodic
reports to the governing board, school staff, parents, and
the community
Organization for Student Learning
77
Chapter Four
Curriculum
and
of hearing
need . . . to be in
a linguistically rich
guage is fully accessible. . . .
Instruction
Deaf and hard
children . . .
environment in which lan-
Organization for Student Learning
79
Focus on Communication
Guidelines Standard 28
The instructional delivery system supports
priate context and focuses on the unique
communication needs of deaf and hard of hearing
students in order to support students’ success.
students’ learning in a developmentally appro-
Most hearing children enter public school with the ability to
process and integrate spoken information. They have mas-
tered the basic sentence patterns that they will use for the rest
of their lives and they have acquired an extensive vocabulary.
The school system establishes its programs and services for
such children and develops a curriculum based on the as-
sumption that all children enter school with basic language
skills. The schools then proceed to teach children to read,
write, and compute. With these tools, children are ready for
the acquisition of information in content areas.
Deaf and hard of hearing children have the same ability to
learn as do hearing children. But, for deaf and hard of hearing
children to learn, they need, like all children, to be in a lin-
guistically rich environment in which language is fully acces-
sible to deaf or hard of hearing children. It is the responsibility
of the school to provide such an environment for children
and to provide the parents with the knowledge, support, and
skills they need in order to provide their children with a
linguistically rich environment at home.
Early Childhood Programs
Guidelines Standard 29
Curriculum and instruction for deaf and hard of
the development of communication skills and linguistic compe-
hearing infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, in-
cluding those with multiple disabilities, are family
focused, developmentally appropriate, and focused on
tence to ensure later academic, social, and vocational success.
For deaf and hard of hearing infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers, curriculum should follow developmentally
appropriate practice, as established by the National Associa-
tion for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), and be
80
Chapter Four
family focused, as mandated by Part C of the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Curriculum for deaf
and hard of hearing infants and preschoolers must focus on
the development of communication skills and linguistic
competence to help ensure later academic, social, and voca-
tional success.
California’s Early Start Program for
Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families
All infants and toddlers with an identified hearing loss
are eligible for services through California Early Start Services
under Part C of IDEA. Children under three years of age who
have solely a hearing loss or a combination of hearing loss
and another low-incidence disability (visual impairment or
severe orthopedic impairment) are provided early interven-
tion services by the local educational agency (LEA). Deaf and
hard of hearing infants and toddlers with multihandicapping
conditions may be provided services by the local educational
agency or the local Department of Developmental Services
Regional Center or both. However, regardless of whether
services are provided by the LEA or by the regional center,
deaf and hard of hearing infants and toddlers require the
services of appropriately credentialed teachers of the deaf
and hard of hearing. Teachers working with deaf and hard of
hearing infants and toddlers and their families should have
the necessary competencies to work with deaf and hard of
hearing infants and toddlers as well as comprehensive train-
ing in early childhood education and family systems.
Infant-toddler programs for deaf and hard of hearing children
must provide intensive early intervention services aimed at
the development of communication skills and linguistic
competence. Research has shown that the years from birth to
three are critical for the natural acquisition of language. Early
intervention programs should take advantage of the very
young child’s ability to acquire language skills by providing
opportunities for infants and toddlers to participate in pro-
grams where they have intensive access to services and per-
sonnel who can provide accessible and comprehensible lan-
guage interaction that can enhance the acquisition of
language. Likewise, infant-toddler programs should provide
parents with training and education that will allow them to
provide an enriched communication environment at home. A
combination of home-based and center-based services can
best meet the needs of deaf and hard of hearing infants and
toddlers and their families.
Curriculum and Instruction
81
Infant-toddler
training and education
that will allow them to
communication envi-
programs should
provide parents with
provide an enriched
ronment at home.
Deaf and hard of hearing infants and toddlers are often most
appropriately served in center-based programs that allow for
the intensive language intervention, consistent interaction
with adults proficient in their language and language mode,
and access to language mode peers they need in order to
develop language and cognitive skills that will help them
succeed academically, socially, and vocationally later on.
Center-based programs for deaf and hard of hearing infants
and toddlers also allow parents better opportunities for
parent-to-parent support.
Services provided in the infant-toddler program include:
Service coordination by a coordinator who is knowledge-
able of the unique needs of deaf and hard of hearing in-
fants and toddlers and their families
Appropriate assessment of:
— Cognitive development
— Physical development, including vision and hearing
— Social/emotional development
— Adaptive development
— Family resources, priorities, and concerns
Development of an individualized family service plan
(IFSP)
Observations of the child and assistance in the develop-
ment of parent-child interaction
Modeling and demonstration of ways to use tasks and
routine interactions to create optimal speech and language
experiences
Information and education for the family regarding com-
munication alternatives and other related issues (Parents
need to be given the opportunity to research and explore
different communication modes and educational method-
ologies.)
Assistance to parents in becoming self-sufficient and strong
advocates for their deaf or hard of hearing child
Emotional support throughout the process of understand-
ing and coping with the ongoing needs of a deaf or hard of
hearing child
Direct instructional services to the hard of hearing or deaf
child, as outlined in the IFSP
Transition services for the parent and child to preschool
and other services, beginning at two years and six months
82
Chapter Four
Preschool Programs
A preschool program (for children from ages three to five
years) is required for all deaf and hard of hearing children.
Preschool services may be provided in a special day class for
deaf and hard of hearing preschoolers, or services may be
provided on an itinerant basis to deaf and hard of hearing
preschoolers in another preschool placement (such as Head
Start or child development preschool) if that is determined
by the IEP team to be the most appropriate placement.
Teachers working with deaf and hard of hearing pre-
schoolers should have the appropriate competencies and
comprehensive training in early childhood education and
family systems and should be appropriately trained and
credentialed to teach deaf and hard of hearing students.
Furthermore, preschool teachers should be proficient in the
language mode(s) of their students.
A well-defined program model and philosophy for pre-
school deaf and hard of hearing children should include:
A communication-based, developmentally appropriate
preschool curriculum
Comprehensive assessment and services for children from
three to five years of age
A multidisciplinary team approach for assessment and
IEP development
Program options to provide the most appropriate place-
ment for each child
Emphasis on parental involvement, training, and sup-
port
Interagency coordination
Provision of opportunities for observing and for conduct-
ing training for staff
Involvement with deaf and hard of hearing role models
Administrative support for and participation in in-service
training
Transition planning to ensure appropriate programs and
services when children reach school age
with deaf and hard of
priate competencies and
in early childhood
education and family
systems and should be
teach deaf and hard of
hearing students.
Teachers working
hearing preschoolers
should have the appro-
comprehensive training
appropriately trained
and credentialed to
Curriculum and Instruction
83
Elementary and Secondary School Programs
Guidelines Standard 30
students’ achievement toward expected schoolwide learning
based teaching and learning principles.
School-aged deaf and hard of hearing children,
including those with multiple disabilities, are
provided with a challenging, coherent, and
relevant core and specialized curriculum to ensure
results. The professional staff implements a variety of engag-
ing learning experiences based on up-to-date and research-
Deaf and hard of hearing students in elementary and second-
ary school programs should be provided instruction in the
district’s adopted core curriculum. The course of study in-
cludes English and language arts, reading, mathematics,
social studies, science, physical education, and computer
literacy. In addition, instruction should be provided in spe-
cialized curriculum areas, including but not limited to Deaf
studies, use of assistive technology, American Sign Language,
telecommunication devices for the deaf/telecommunication
skills, speech and speechreading, auditory training, social
skills instruction, independent living skills, career education,
and vocational education. The curriculum should contain
well-defined content and performance standards for each
grade level and should be sequential and coordinated with
other service providers. For core curriculum areas, the dis-
trict-adopted content and performance standards will usually
be appropriate for deaf and hard of hearing students. For
specialized curriculum areas, the deaf and hard of hearing
program staff is responsible for developing content and
performance standards. During the IEP meeting, curriculum
adaptations and specialized instructional strategies, materi-
als, media, equipment, and technology should be identified
to ensure accommodations and access to the core curriculum.
The particular needs of individual students may require the
use of differential or specialized curriculum materials and
instructional strategies if the IEP team determines the student
cannot benefit from the adopted curriculum materials and
instructional methods, even with adaptations.
The curriculum offered by a program for deaf and hard of
hearing students provides a full range of activities, including
after-class as well as class activities. This range of offerings
84
Chapter Four
is necessary to promote the social and emotional as well as
the intellectual development of deaf and hard of hearing
children. Communication access (e.g., sign language inter-
preters) must be provided for extracurricular as well as for
curricular activities.
Transition from High School to Adult Programs
Guidelines Standard 31
Deaf and hard of hearing students aged fourteen
tion services, including vocational education and
and older are provided with appropriate transi-
information regarding postsecondary educational options.
For deaf and hard of hearing students and their families,
transition planning, beginning at age fourteen or younger, is a
lifeline to adulthood. The Individuals with Disabilities Educa-
tion Act (1996) defines transition services as “A coordinated
set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-
oriented process, which promotes movement from school to
post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated
employment (including supported employment), continuing
and adult education, adult services, independent living, or
community participation. The coordinated set of activities
shall be based upon the individual student’s needs, taking
into account the student’s preferences and interests, and shall
include instruction, related services, community experiences,
the development of employment and other post-school adult
living objectives, and, when appropriate, acquisition of daily
living skills and a functional vocational evaluation.”
The purposes of transition planning are: “First, to help stu-
dents and families think about their life after high school and
identify long-range goals; second, to design the high school
experience to ensure that students gain the skills and connec-
tions they need to achieve those goals” (Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act, “Transition Requirements, A
Guide for States, Districts, Schools, and Families.”).
Students fourteen years of age or older must have an indi-
vidualized transition plan (ITP) developed. The transition
services language must be based on the student’s own needs,
preferences, interests, and long-range goals. Transition ser-
vices are provided as necessary to help the student work
toward those long-range goals.
Curriculum and Instruction
85
How Assessment Is Used
Guidelines Standard 32
dents’ achievement, design effective instruction,
statewide and local assessments.
The program uses assessment to measure stu-
and communicate the program’s effectiveness.
Deaf and hard of hearing students are included in
Deaf and hard of hearing students will be included in state-
wide and local assessments. Deaf and hard of hearing stu-
dents may require accommodations, as determined by the
IEP team, to provide equity to the assessment procedure.
Some students may be exempted from state and local assess-
ments, either at a parent’s request or by the IEP team’s
decision. If the IEP team determines that a student is not able
to participate in state or local assessments, alternative assess-
ments will be used to determine the student’s progress. It is
estimated that approximately 2 percent of students will
participate in alternative assessment.
Program effectiveness is demonstrated by:
Progress of students as measured by performance-based
assessment, criterion-referenced assessment, norm-refer-
enced assessment, promotion from grade to grade, suc-
cessful completion of requirements for graduation, attain-
ment of IEP goals and objectives, and follow-up of high
school graduates and of students who leave school with-
out graduating
Program self-review (as part of the quality assurance
process), using these guidelines and involving consumers,
consultants, program specialists, teachers, parents, admin-
istrators, students, and interagency service providers
86
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Support
for
Student
Learning The involve-
ment of the
family as
active partici-
pants is critical to
the success of a child who is
deaf or hard of hearing.
Curriculum and Instruction
87
Equal Access to All School-Related Activities
Guidelines Standard 33
students in curricular and extracurricular
The program provides equal access for all
activities and designated and related services.
Deaf and hard of hearing students must have access to all
school-related activities, including extracurricular activities
(e.g., after-school sports programs, student body govern-
ment, field trips, student assistance programs). Designated
and related services (e.g., interpreting, transportation) and
specialized materials and equipment (e.g., assistive listening
devices) must be provided if they are necessary for the deaf
or hard of hearing student to participate equally in the
activity.
Parental Involvement
Guidelines Standard 34
support system for students.
The program has an ongoing process for involv-
ing parents and the deaf and hard of hearing
community in program development and encour-
ages strong collaboration between school staff,
parents, deaf and hard of hearing community members, and
the business community. The program leadership employs a
wide range of strategies to ensure that parental and commu-
nity involvement is integral to the program’s established
The involvement of the family as active participants is criti-
cal to the success of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing
and of the program as a whole. Parental and community
involvement is a reciprocal relationship with the school and
the deaf and hard of hearing program. One part of this
relationship is the school and program’s providing informa-
tion and services to the family and the community so that
they can help the deaf or hard of hearing child to succeed.
The term families can mean a variety of individuals, such as
parents, guardians, foster parents, grandparents, siblings,
and extended family members. When community is used,
again that can mean a variety of individuals, businesses,
organizations, or agencies. The term deaf community means
88
Chapter Five
the deaf and hard of hearing individuals, parents of deaf and
hard of hearing children, children of deaf and hard of hear-
ing individuals, educators of the deaf and hard of hearing,
interpreters, and other professionals serving the deaf.
The deaf and hard of hearing program can provide impor-
tant information and services to families and the community
that will enhance the academic and social success of deaf
and hard of hearing children. Parents need knowledge and
support to make effective, informed decisions and to actively
participate in the IFSP/IEP/ITP process. The general goal of
service to parents is to enable parents to become advocates
in promoting what is best for their own child. Parents must
be empowered to make informed decisions by receiving
comprehensive, unbiased information.
It is essential for every deaf and hard of hearing program to
have a parent and community education component. That
education must start immediately, as soon as the parent
enrolls a child in the program or an IEP team determines
that the child is eligible for services from the deaf and hard
of hearing program. For families with deaf or hard of hear-
ing infants and toddlers, the parent/community education
needs to be an ongoing component of the educational pro-
gram. It would include home visits, group meetings, and
opportunities for the parents to volunteer in deaf and hard
of hearing classes other than their child’s classroom. The
parent/community education would include but not be
limited to information regarding special education laws,
parent rights and responsibilities, speech and language
development, normal child development, communication
methodologies, and program options. There should also be
opportunities for parents to meet and interact with deaf and
hard of hearing adults.
Within a program one staff member should be assigned the
responsibility of facilitating parent/community education.
These duties may be assumed by the program specialist or
coordinator, the guidance counselor, or another staff mem-
ber, as deemed appropriate. The person in charge of coordi-
nating parent education has the following responsibilities:
Conducting a parents’ needs/strengths assessment
Arranging for informational programs according to the
parents’ priorities
Providing resource personnel for educational programs
Support for Student Learning
89
have shown that
those gains when
guage for their child
at home rather than
depend solely on the
instruction the child
Research studies
children make greater
progress and maintain
parents provide lan-
receives in his or her
educational program.
Working with the parents and the community to organize a
support group
Obtaining and distributing written material on topics of
parental interest or need
Acting as a resource and referral person to make the com-
munity aware of the identification and implication of
hearing loss
Developing a parent/community library or resource center
Providing foreign language interpreters for non-English-
speaking parents at parent activities and translation of
written materials into foreign languages for non-English
speaking parents
Research studies have shown that children make greater
progress and maintain those gains when parents provide
language for their child at home rather than depend solely on
the instruction the child receives in his or her educational
program. Because parents play such a pivotal role in their
child’s total development, it is important for parents to have
intervention strategies that they can use in daily interactions
with their children. Parents can use these intervention strate-
gies to capitalize on natural opportunities that occur from
day to day to enhance their child’s language development.
For parents to provide language in the home, language devel-
opment instruction must be a central part of all parent and
community education. In addition to instruction on speech
and language development, the deaf and hard of hearing
program must provide ongoing, multilevel sign language
instruction classes for families and community members.
These classes should be given at times and locations conve-
nient for families and working parents. They should be free
of charge and open to siblings and other family members.
When the population is sufficient, American Sign Language
instruction should be in the home language of the parents.
Sign language classes should also be available to the students
at any school site with a deaf and hard of hearing program.
To help families and the community support and enhance
students’ achievement, the deaf and hard of hearing program
must provide information to parents and the community
regarding content and performance standards, grade-level
expectations for students’ achievement, and assessments
measuring that achievement, including both formal and
informal types of assessments. This information would
include (1)␣ written information, available in all languages,
90
Chapter Five
regarding standards and expectations for all curriculum
subject areas approved by the California State Board of
Education or district governing boards; and (2)␣ workshops or
programs at “open house” and alternative times convenient
for parents and community members during which the
standards, expectations, assessments, and accountability
process used by the program and the district would be
discussed. Each teacher should be required to document
discussion of the grade-level expectations, standards, and
assessments with the parents at each deaf and hard of hear-
ing child’s IEP meeting or parent conference.
Families and the community need to be involved in helping
the program to succeed. Each deaf and hard of hearing
program should establish an advisory council consisting of
parents, deaf and hard of hearing community members,
members of the larger community, deaf and hard of hearing
students, credentialed teachers and support staff from the
deaf and hard of hearing program, and other persons as
deemed appropriate; for example, representatives from deaf
and hard of hearing organizations or agencies.
The advisory council should participate in the implementa-
tion of staff development, in the development of parent/
community education programs, and in the selection and
evaluation of program administrators. The council should
also advise the program regarding all aspects of the system
of delivery. Representatives from the advisory council and
other parents or community members should be encouraged
to get involved in school-site governance teams, district
committees, and special education community advisory
committees.
Each deaf and hard of hearing program should also establish
a parent/community support group that functions as a
liaison to the parents and the community by providing a
regular newsletter; organizing social activities; sponsoring
sports and recreational opportunities for deaf and hard of
hearing children; raising funds for additional equipment or
materials for the deaf and hard of hearing program; provid-
ing recognition for teachers, staff, and students for outstand-
ing achievement; and so forth. The staff member responsible
for parent education can work with the leadership of the
parent/community support group and assist in providing
facilities, interpreters, transportation, and resources (such as
duplicating and distribution of materials) for meetings.
Each deaf and hard
should establish an
advisory council con-
and hard of hearing
community members,
hard of hearing stu-
teachers and support
gram, and other persons
of hearing program
sisting of parents, deaf
members of the larger
community, deaf and
dents, credentialed
staff from the deaf and
hard of hearing pro-
as deemed appropriate.
Support for Student Learning
91
The parents and the community can also assist the deaf and
hard of hearing program by helping to implement a Deaf
culture curriculum and a career/vocational program and by
providing personnel to participate in these programs. An-
other way that businesses or agencies that employ deaf and
hard of hearing individuals or serve the deaf and hard of
hearing can assist the deaf and hard of hearing program is
by collaborating to form a school or program partnership.
92
Chapter Five
Appendix A
Guidelines for Self-Review
A
guidelines is to be done as a
part of the California Depart-
ment of Education’s Quality
self-review based on these
Assurance Program. The pur-
pose of self-review is to determine
program strengths and weaknesses in order to
develop an action plan for continual program
improvement. The focus of self-review should
be on students’ achievement and on program
quality.
In conducting the self-review, one should
gather comments from a wide range of stake-
holders and data from a broad range of
sources. To achieve this, the following process
is recommended:
Form a Leadership Committee composed of (1)
the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program Coor-
dinator; (2) the SELPA Director or Special
Education Director; (3) a general education
administrator; (4) teacher(s) of deaf and hard
of hearing students; (5) classified employee(s);
(6)␣ parent(s); (7) deaf and hard of hearing
community member(s); and (8) a student or
students. The Leadership Team is responsible
for reviewing the guidelines standards and
determining what data or information should
be gathered to evaluate the program’s effec-
tiveness in meeting each standard. Each
Leadership Committee member serves on a
focus committee and is responsible for report-
ing back to the Leadership Committee regard-
ing the focus committee’s work.
Form five focus committees (Identification and
Referral, Assessment, Organization for Stu-
dent Learning, Curriculum and Instruction,
and Support for Student Learning). Each focus
committee should be composed of (1) certifi-
cated staff member(s); (2) parent(s); (3) deaf
and hard of hearing community member(s);
(4) student(s); (5) general education staff
member(s); and (6)␣ classified staf
f member(s).
Each focus committee gathers data and infor-
mation for the purpose of evaluating the
program’s effectiveness in meeting the stan-
dards related to the committee’s area. (Self-
review work sheets are provided in this
appendix for recording these data.) The focus
committees analyze the data collected and
identify strengths and weaknesses with
respect to the standards and expected
schoolwide learning results. The focus com-
mittees develop recommendations for pro-
gram improvement and report their findings
to the Leadership Committee.
Examples of the methods focus committees
may use to gather information include:
• Observing what students are doing and
producing
• Examining examples of students’ work
93
• Interviewing students about their studies
and school life
• Examining students’ performance-based
assessment data
• Interviewing and surveying teachers and
other staff
• Interviewing and surveying parents
The Leadership Committee gathers data and
recommendations from the focus committees.
The Leadership Committee analyzes and
synthesizes the findings of the focus commit-
tees to determine programwide growth needs
within the five standards categories. The
Leadership Committee uses the information
from the focus committees to develop an
action plan for program improvement.
The size of the focus committees may vary in
accordance with the size of the deaf and hard
of hearing program. Some programs may not
have a large enough staff or student popula-
tion to form five focus committees. In small
programs the Leadership Committee may
choose to function as a “committee of the
whole” and serve the dual role of Leadership/
Focus Committee.
Validation Review
After the self-review, it is recommended that
the program conduct a validation review.
Although the validation review is not manda-
tory, it can provide important information that
can lead to improvement in program quality.
Several California school districts have con-
ducted voluntary validation reviews of their
deaf and hard of hearing programs and, based
on their experiences, suggest the following
format for a validation review:
1. The membership of the validation team
should be composed of one school district
representative and the following visitors
(not from the district):
• Chairperson (administrator or teacher)
• A member of the Deaf and Hard of
Hearing (DHH) Unit in the State Special
Schools and Services Division of the
California Department of Education
• A teacher of deaf and hard of hearing
students
• An administrator of a program for deaf
and hard of hearing students
• A parent
• A deaf community member
• A hard of hearing community member
The California Department of Education’s
DHH Unit compiles and maintains lists of
professionals, parents, and consumers
interested in serving as validation team
members.
2. The DHH Unit and the program adminis-
trator agree on the date of the validation
team’s visit one year before the visitation.
The chairperson is selected four months
before the visit. Remaining team members
are selected at least two months before the
visit.
3. The chairperson visits the program three
months before the validation review,
becomes familiar with the program, and
begins development (with the program
administrator) of a detailed schedule for
the validation team’s visit. The schedule
should include adequate time for classroom
observations; interviews of staff, parents,
and students; and team dialogue and
writing. A room should be provided for the
team to meet and write. Clerical/word
processing/copying services should be
arranged.
4. Members of the validation team are sent
copies of the schedule and the self-review
results six weeks before the visit.
5. After completing observations and inter-
views, the validation team prepares a
written report based on the standards of
these guidelines and presents it to the
administrator of the program at the end of
the validation team visit.
94
Appendix A
Guidelines for Self-Review
Focus 1
Standards Related to Identification and Referral
For each standard, identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. Provide data or evidence
for your findings. Make recommendations for how the program may improve on identified
weaknesses.
Guidelines Standard 1. Procedures exist for locating and referring deaf and hard of hearing youngsters
who may require special education.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
95
Guidelines Standard 2. Programs for deaf and hard of hearing students establish collaborative relation-
ships with local health care providers, hospitals, audiologists, social service agencies, and child care
programs in order to ensure that infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with identified hearing loss are
promptly referred to the appropriate Early Start or special education program.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
96
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 3. School districts and county offices of education conduct legally mandated
hearing screenings to identify pupils who may have a hearing loss.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
97
Guidelines Standard 4. Students who fail hearing screenings receive an audiological assessment.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
98
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 5. Deaf and hard of hearing students are screened for visual impairment at legally
mandated intervals.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
99
Guidelines for Self-Review
Focus 2
Standards Related to Assessment of Unique Needs
For each standard, identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. Provide data or evidence
for your findings. Make recommendations for how the program may improve on identified
weaknesses.
Guidelines Standard 6. The assessment of deaf and hard of hearing students is conducted by assessment
personnel who understand the unique nature of hearing loss and are specifically trained to work with deaf
and hard of hearing students.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
100
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 7. The assessment of infants and toddlers suspected of having a hearing loss is
conducted by qualified personnel knowledgeable about deafness. The assessment includes evaluation of
cognitive development, physical and motor development, communication development, social/emotional
development, and adaptive development.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
101
Guidelines Standard 8. The assessment of students suspected of having a hearing loss includes all areas
related to their disabilities.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
102
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 9. Tests are provided and administered in the student’s primary language and
preferred mode of communication.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
103
Guidelines Standard 10. The assessment report identifies the unique educational needs of the student
related to the hearing loss, including needs for specialized services, materials and equipment, and accom-
modations in the educational environment.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
104
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 11. Deaf and hard of hearing students are referred to the Northern or Southern
California Assessment Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, when appropriate.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
105
Guidelines for Self-Review
Focus 3
Standards Related to Organization for Student Learning
For each standard, identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. Provide data or evidence
for your findings. Make recommendations for how the program may improve on identified
weaknesses.
Guidelines Standard 12. The program for deaf and hard of hearing students has a clear statement of
purpose, including expected student learning results. The statement addresses the critical need for equal
opportunity for communication access.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
106
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 13. The program has a written policy on the central role of communication in the
development and education of deaf and hard of hearing students. That policy includes the following
elements:
• Appropriate, early, and ongoing communication assessment
• Appropriate, early, and ongoing communication development and communication access,
which means a critical mass of age and language peers and staff proficient in the child’s
communication mode
• Recognition of the unique nature of the hearing loss
• Recognition of the unique cultural and linguistic needs of deaf children
• Assurance that each child will have access to communication-related services (including
qualified sign and oral interpreters, Cued Speech transliteration, electronic note-taking, and
assistive listening devices) and extracurricular activities
• Assurance that English-language acquisition is recognized as the paramount factor in the
design of programs, curricula, materials, and assessment instruments and in professional and
parent training
• Recognition of American Sign Language as a distinct language of deaf people and the devel-
opment of standards for teaching it as a language
• Assurance that sign language instruction is provided on a continuing basis to deaf students
and their families
• Assurance that the communication and language needs of deaf and hard of hearing students
who rely on auditory/verbal or oral/aural language are fully provided for
• Assurance that the individualized education program (IEP) team, as required by law, deter-
mines placement based on the identified and essential communication needs of the child
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
107
Guidelines Standard 14. The governing authority and the superintendent adopt policies that are
consistent with the program purpose and these guidelines. The policies support the achievement of the
expected schoolwide learning results for students. The governing authority delegates implementation of
these policies to the professional staff and monitors results.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
108
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 15. The program provides access to a full continuum of placement, program,
service, and communication options. The program collaborates with the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Unit
in the State Special Schools and Services Division, other programs for deaf and hard of hearing students
in the region, the State Special Schools, the Department of Rehabilitation, institutions of higher educa-
tion, and other agencies to ensure provision of appropriate services.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
109
Guidelines Standard 16. Programs and services should be provided through regionalization to more
effectively serve deaf and hard of hearing students.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
110
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 17. Provision is made for appropriate services for deaf and hard of hearing
students with multiple disabilities.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
111
Guidelines Standard 18. The program coordinator/director is an experienced educator of deaf and hard
of hearing students, with skills to ensure that deaf and hard of hearing students are provided with
appropriate instruction and designated services. The program coordinator has the skills necessary for
facilitating the participation of staff, parents, and the deaf and hard of hearing community in program
development.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
112
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 19. Each program provides qualified professional and paraprofessional personnel,
including administrators, who have the skills necessary to provide instruction and services that meet the
educational needs of deaf and hard of hearing students. Skills must include proficiency in the student’s
primary mode of communication; knowledge of accommodations necessary to meet the student’s needs;
and knowledge of selection, use, and maintenance of assistive listening devices.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
113
Guidelines Standard 20. Deaf and hard of hearing students, birth through age twenty-one, including
those with multiple disabilities, are instructed by teachers who are specifically trained and creden-
tialed to teach deaf and hard of hearing students.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
114
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 21. Class size and caseloads of staff should allow for providing specialized instruc-
tion and services based on the unique educational needs of deaf and hard of hearing students.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
115
Guidelines Standard 22. The program provides annual and ongoing training for all staff to enhance
student achievement.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
116
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 23. The program provides training to general education personnel serving its deaf
and hard of hearing students regarding accommodations, modifications of the curriculum, and under-
standing of the impact of hearing loss on communication development.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
117
Guidelines Standard 24. The program provides a safe and secure environment in which to learn and
teach. Its atmosphere reflects the program’s purpose and is characterized by respect for differences, trust,
caring, professionalism, support, and high expectations for each student.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
118
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 25. Facilities are designed and maintained to enhance the provision of instruction
and services to meet the unique communication, education, and safety needs of students who are deaf and
hard of hearing:
• Deaf and hard of hearing students have access to specialized materials and equipment and
services that provide communication access to the core curriculum.
• Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students are clean, well-lit, and acoustically appropri-
ate; are equipped with visual emergency warning signals; and provide students with adequate
technological tools and curriculum materials for learning.
• Classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students are the same size as classrooms for general
education students on the same campus.
• Space for itinerant teachers, speech and language specialists, and other support personnel
serving deaf and hard of hearing students is clean, well-lit, acoustically appropriate, and of
adequate size for instruction and for storage of instructional materials.
• Space is available where parent conferences and IEP meetings can be held with confidentiality.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
119
Guidelines Standard 26. The school leadership and staff regularly assess each student’s progress
toward accomplishing the expected schoolwide learning results and report student progress to the rest of
the school community, including parents, the deaf and hard of hearing community, and related agencies
and organizations.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
120
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 27. The program conducts a self-review as part of the state monitoring process,
using these guidelines and encompassing all areas of program quality, and provides written progress
reports annually to parents, staff, and the community.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
121
Guidelines for Self-Review
Focus 4
Standards Related to Curriculum and Instruction
For each standard, identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. Provide data or evidence
for your findings. Make recommendations for how the program may improve on identified
weaknesses.
Guidelines Standard 28. The instructional delivery system supports students’ learning in a develop-
mentally appropriate context and focuses on the unique communication needs of deaf and hard of
hearing students in order to support students’ success.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
122
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 29. Curriculum and instruction for deaf and hard of hearing infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers, including those with multiple disabilities, are family focused, developmentally appropriate,
and focused on the development of communication skills and linguistic competence to ensure later aca-
demic, social, and vocational success.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
123
Guidelines Standard 30. School-aged deaf and hard of hearing children, including those with multiple
disabilities, are provided with a challenging, coherent, and relevant core and specialized curriculum to
ensure students’ achievement toward expected schoolwide learning results. The professional staff imple-
ments a variety of engaging learning experiences based on up-to-date and research-based teaching and
learning principles.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
124
Appendix A
Guidelines Standard 31. Deaf and hard of hearing students aged fourteen and older are provided with
appropriate transition services, including vocational education and information regarding postsecondary
educational options.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
125
Guidelines Standard 32. The program uses assessment to measure students’ achievement, design
effective instruction, and communicate the program’s effectiveness. Deaf and hard of hearing students are
included in statewide and local assessments.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
126
Appendix A
Guidelines for Self-Review
Focus 5
Standards Related to Support for Student Learning
For each standard, identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. Provide data or evidence
for your findings. Make recommendations for how the program may improve on identified
weaknesses.
Guidelines Standard 33. The program provides equal access for all students in curricular and extracur-
ricular activities and designated and related services.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
Guidelines for Self-Review
127
Guidelines Standard 34. The program has an ongoing process for involving parents and the deaf and
hard of hearing community in program development and encourages strong collaboration between school
staff, parents, deaf and hard of hearing community members, and the business community. The program
leadership employs a wide range of strategies to ensure that parental and community involvement is
integral to the program’s established support system for students.
Strengths:
Needs:
Recommendations/Action Plan:
128
Appendix A
Assessment Instruments
Appendix B
Assessment Instruments
Commonly Used with
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Students
The following lists of Cognitive Assessment Instruments,
Adaptive Behavior and Social-Emotional Assessment Instru-
ments, Developmental/Criterion-Based and Parent Stress
and/or Home Surveys, and Tests of Academic and Readiness
Skills have been compiled by the Gallaudet Research Institute. Anne B.
Spragins, Ph.D., Lynne Biennerhassett, Ph.D. (both faculty members in the
Psychology Department at Gallaudet University), and Yvonne Mullen, Ed.D.
(Division of Psychology, Clarke School for the Deaf), have reviewed a variety
of instruments for use with deaf and hard of hearing students. Those reviews
are available at the Gallaudet Research Institute Web site at
http://www.gallaudet.edu/~catraxle/INTELLEC.html#tests.
Cognitive Assessment Instruments
1. Wechsler Scales: WAIS-III, WISC-III, WPSSI-R: Performance Scales
2. Leiter International Performance Scale (Revised)
3. Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude
4. Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
5. Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test
6. Merrill-Palmer Scale of Mental Tests
7. Smith-Johnson Nonverbal Performance Scale
8. Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Second edition)
9. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
129
10. Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (Third edition)
11. Raven’s Progressive Matrices␣
12. Central Institute for the Deaf Preschool Performance Scale
13. Matrix Analogies Test
14. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth edition)
15. Differential Ability Scales
16. Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence
Adaptive Behavior and Social-Emotional Assessment
I. Adaptive Behavior Measures
1. AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales
2. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
3. Scales of Independent Behavior
II. Rating Scales: Behavior and Social Skills
4. Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventories for Deaf and
Hearing-Impaired Students
5. Child Behavior Checklist
6. Behavior Rating Profile (Second edition)
7. Conner’s Rating Scales
8. BASC (Behavior Assessment System for Children)
9. Social Skills Rating System
III. Self Concept and Other Self Report Scales
10. Piers-Harris Children’s Self Concept Scale (Revised)
11. Multidimensional Self Concept Scale
12. Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self Concept Screening Test
13. Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale
14. Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire
15. Children’s Depression Inventory
16. Reynold’s Adolescent Depression Scale
IV. Drawing/Projective Tests
17. The Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (Second edition)
18. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test
19. Draw-A-Person: Screening
20. House-Tree-Person Projective Drawing Technique
21. The Kinetic Family Drawing System for Family and School
22. Roberts Apperception Test for Children
23. TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story)
24. The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System
130
Appendix B
Developmental/Criterion-Based and Parent
Stress and/or Home Surveys
1. Batelle Developmental Inventory
2. Bracken Basic Concept Scales
3. Brigance Inventory of Early Development
4. Callier-Azusa Scale
5. Developmental Activities Screening Inventory II
6. Developmental Profile II
7. Early Screening Profiles
8. Learning Accomplishment Profile (Revised edition)
9. Mullen Scales of Early Learning
10. Parenting Stress Index
11. Southern California Ordinal Scales of Development
12. Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment
Tests of Academic and Readiness Skills
I. Academic Skills
1. Stanford Achievement (Ninth edition)
2. Peabody Individual Achievement Test (Revised)
3. Keymath Revised: A Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics
4. Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests (Revised)
5. Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills
6. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery
7. Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement
8. Sequential Assessment of Mathematics Inventories
9. Test of Written Language (Third edition)
II. Readiness Skills
10. Bracken Basic Concept Scale
11. Test of Early Mathematics Ability (Second edition)
12. Test of Early Reading Ability—Deaf or Hard of Hearing
13. Metropolitan Readiness Tests (Sixth edition)
14. Test of Relation Concepts—Norms for Deaf Children
Speech and Language Assessments
The following list of assessments of speech and language skills was developed
by interview with a number of teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students
and speech and language specialists who serve deaf and hard of hearing
students in California. This list is intended to serve as a guide to speech and
language assessments commonly used with deaf and hard of hearing students
in California. It is not an exhaustive list.
1. Southern California Ordinal Scales of Communication
2. Test of Auditory Comprehension
3. Assessment of Children’s Language Comprehension
Assessment Instruments
131
4. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test
5. Woodcock-Johnson Revised (Selected language subtests)
6. Test of Written Language—3
7. Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
8. Test of Auditory Discrimination
9. Test of Auditory Comprehension
10. Developmental Approach to Successful Listening
11. Rhode Island Test of Language Structure
12. Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language
13. Carolina Picture Vocabulary Test
14. Conley-Vernon Idiom Test
15. Test of Syntactic Abilities
16. Dolch Sight Vocabulary Test
17. Craig Lipreading Inventory
18. Patterned Elicitation Syntax Test
19. Writing samples
20. Test of Problem Solving
21. Test of Language Competence
132
Appendix B
Assessment Instruments
Appendix C
Model Standards for the
Certification of Educational
Interpreters for Deaf Students
Presented by the
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
and the Council on Education of the Deaf
and reprinted with permission.
Preface
Educational interpreting is a profession that has grown in
large part due to legislation. Public Law 94-142 made it pos-
sible, through the use of interpreters, for deaf and hard of
hearing children to attend their local public school with hearing peers. As a
result, educational programs have become one of the largest employers of
interpreters in the United States. As the field evolved, it has become a hybrid of
education and interpreting. Often, interpreters in elementary and secondary
schools found themselves without guidance since the primary emphasis in the
field of interpretation had traditionally focused on working with adults. In
1985, the National Task Force on Educational Interpreting was formed to de-
velop guidelines for interpreters, teachers, administrators, and consumers of
interpreting services in the educational setting. The goal of the Task Force was
to help educational interpreting become an increasingly valuable service in the
education of mainstreamed deaf and hard of hearing students and an increas-
ingly satisfying and rewarding career for those who provide the service. The
Task Force developed a document reporting on the role and responsibilities of
educational interpreters. This led to the formation of the RID/CED Ad Hoc
Committee on Educational Interpreter Standards. This document is a result of
that Committee’s work.
133
The Standards
This document proposes model standards for the certification of educational
interpreters working in kindergarten through twelfth grade.
Five areas of competency and an Observation/Practicum were developed:
I. General Education
II. Foundations in Education and Deafness
III. Foundations in Interpretation
IV. Educational Interpreting
V. Communication and Educational Interpreting Skills
Within each area the listed competencies are not prioritized. An Observation/
Practicum provides direct experience in integrating the knowledge and skills
taught in the competency areas.
The committee focused on the findings of the National Task Force and feedback
from educators, educational interpreters, and interpreter trainers across the
country. The committee recognizes that the provision of an interpreter, no
matter how well qualified, does not in itself ensure complete access of a deaf
student to the mainstream experience. It is the function of a student’s individu-
alized education program (IEP) to spell out other factors contributing to a
successful mainstream experience for that student. The committee does feel
strongly that if an educational interpreter is required by the child’s IEP, the
interpreter must be prepared to function effectively in the educational setting.
These model standards are presented for your consideration.
Part A. Competencies for Certification of Educational Interpreters
I. General Education
It is expected that the educational interpreter will be able to provide services in
a wide variety of content areas within the school’s overall curriculum. In order
to have the flexibility to provide educational interpreting services K–12, he or
she must be able to draw on a broad spectrum of knowledge in the humanities,
the sciences, and the arts, often collectively called general studies. The educa-
tional interpreter must have basic knowledge in the following:
A. English: Vocabulary, spelling, grammar, reading, writing, and literature.
B. Humanities: Salient features of the humanities, philosophy, and the arts;
general understanding of major principles and/or events and significant
figures.
C. Physical Sciences: Principles and common terms used in the physical
sciences, including mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry, and in
computer science.
D. Social Sciences: Major principles and/or events and significant figures in
history, psychology, linguistics, sociology, and anthropology, with particu-
lar attention to human development and language development.
E. Public Speaking: Public speaking and acting techniques, use of appropriate
voice presentation techniques, ability to convey information through facial
expressions, body postures, pantomime.
134
Appendix C
F. Interpersonal Skills: Interpersonal communication techniques and skills,
including the ability to interact effectively with peers, supervisors, chil-
dren, and parents.
II. Foundations in Education and Deafness
Educational interpreters work with a variety of deaf and hard of hearing
students of different ages and grade levels. To help ensure the successful
functioning of these students in the mainstream, the role of the educational
interpreter requires knowledge of, but not necessarily skill in, the following:
A. Communication: Group dynamics and human relations, cross-cultural
communication issues, including deaf-hearing and multiethnic/
multicultural, communication modalities used by deaf individuals, in-
cluding American Sign Language, Manually Coded English, Pidgin Sign
English, Oral speech, speechreading, and Cued Speech; other communica-
tion techniques used with hard of hearing, deaf-blind, and deaf
multihandicapped individuals.
B. Hearing impairment: Hearing impairment in children and adults, knowl-
edge of definitions, etiologies, demographics; psychological, social, and
cultural conditions; audiological assessment; use and maintenance of
assistive listening devices; technical communication aids such as TDDs,
decoders, signaling systems, etc.
C. Deaf and hard of hearing people in society: Deafness and the community,
history, culture, community, family, and work; community organizations
and agencies of and/or serving deaf and hard of hearing persons, their
philosophies, relationships, and services.
D. Human development: Psychological, social, and language maturation
stages; learning and its facilitation; age-appropriate behavior patterns; first
and second language acquisition; relevance of childhood deafness to
developmental processes.
E. Education: History, philosophies, organizational structures, issues, and
trends at all educational levels; educational psychology.
F. Special education: The variety of handicapping conditions and special
needs and services relative to education; public laws, policies,
multidisciplinary team processes, and attitudes related to handicapped
and other minority students; parenting the exceptional child.
G. Education of deaf and hard of hearing students: History, philosophies, and
techniques in educating deaf and hard of hearing students in various
types of programs; educational placement alternatives and demographics;
special considerations for placement and services to deaf students with
additional handicaps; parenting a deaf or hard of hearing child; laws,
regulations, and policies affecting the education and placement of stu-
dents; support services available to deaf students in regular and special
schools; professional and parent organizations.
H. Major curriculum areas: Concepts and vocabulary used throughout the
elementary and secondary level in academic, vocational, and extracurricu-
lar areas.
Model Standards for the Certification of Educational Interpreters
135
I. Interpersonal relations: Strategies for professionalism in attitudes, judg-
ment, and behavior; flexibility and diplomacy; working with administra-
tors, colleagues, students, parents, and others; conflict resolution.
III. Foundations in Interpretation
All interpreting requires a unique mental process. The educational interpreter
should have a foundation in interpretation before beginning the study of educa-
tional interpreting. The interpreter must have knowledge of theory,
psycholinguistics, and ethical behavior both in general and specific to the
educational setting. The educational interpreter will have basic knowledge of
the process of interpreting, and interpreting for deaf persons, in the following
areas:
A. Theory: Theory and psycholinguistic processes involved in interpretation.
B. Interpreting: History, settings, organizations, and certification processes;
interpreting as a career.
C. Ethics: Codes of ethics and their applications to various settings.
D. Research, trends, and issues: Interpretation; interpreting for deaf people.
E. Physical considerations: Physical health and stress management, techniques
for reducing visual and physical fatigue and overload of both student and
interpreter.
F. Techniques: Settings and situations, including group interpreting, one-to-
one interpreting, telephone interpreting, interpreting to media, prioritizing
input from multiple speakers and environmental noises for interpretation.
IV. Educational Interpreting
The role and function of the educational interpreter is unique to the educational
setting. This specialized role calls for the integration of a number of different
responsibilities. As a member of an educational team, the educational interpreter
needs to be able to work cooperatively with numerous other persons and con-
tribute specialized knowledge.
A. Roles and responsibilities: Variety of roles at different age/grade levels and
in different educational settings, including attention, comprehension,
behavior, vocabulary clarification, and responsibilities under the individual-
ized education program.
B. Multidisciplinary team: Understand role and responsibilities of members of
the multidisciplinary team and function of educational interpreter as a
member of the team, including development, implementation, and revision
of the individualized education program.
C. Ethical codes and standards: As applied to educational interpreting, includ-
ing confidentiality, judging when to use verbatim sign-to-voice; professional
behavior.
D. Student development: Encouraging student independence, including use of
communication skills.
E. Educational support services: Tutoring techniques and responsibilities;
note-taking; use of visuals; specialized seating.
F. Orientation to deafness: Information about teaching sign language and
about deafness for the lay person; referral sources on general topics relating
136
Appendix C
to deafness; when, how, and to whom to make referrals; promoting an
expanded communication environment for the deaf or hard of hearing
student; fostering student participation in activities.
G. Communication comprehension: Monitoring student understanding in class
using the communication method designated by the IEP.
H. Professional development: Planning a program of professional development
for improving job-related skills.
V. Communication and Educational Interpreting Skills
Educational interpreters serve students with a variety of communication skills
and styles. The skills of the educational interpreter are vital to the success of
these students in mainstream settings. Therefore, the educational interpreter
must demonstrate communication, interpretation, and/or transliteration skills
in the following areas:
A. Receptive Communication Skills: The educational interpreter should dem-
onstrate the ability to understand students through speech, speechreading,
signs, and/or Cued Speech, as appropriate. Educational interpreters spe-
cializing in the use of signs should demonstrate ability to understand a
variety of students at different age levels in at least two of the following:
ASL, MCE, PSE.
B. Expressive Communication Skills: The educational interpreter should
demonstrate the ability to make himself/herself understood to a variety of
students at a variety of age levels through speech, signs, and/or Cued
Speech, as appropriate. Educational interpreters specializing in the use of
signs should demonstrate the ability to make themselves understood to
students in at least two of the following: ASL, MCE, PSE.
C. Educational Interpreting Skills: Skills to include are one or more of the
following:
1. Interpret from spoken English to American Sign Language and from
American Sign Language to spoken English.
2. Transliterate from spoken English to Manually Coded English and from
Manually Coded English to spoken English.
3. Transliterate from spoken English to Pidgin Sign English and from
Pidgin Sign English to spoken English.
4. Orally transliterate from spoken English to visible English and from
visible English to spoken English.
5. Cue from spoken English to Cued Speech and from Cued Speech to
spoken English.
VI. Observation and Practicum
The multifaceted aspects of the educational interpreting task require observa-
tion and performance of the job roles and responsibilities in kindergarten
through twelfth grade. The goal of the observation/practicum component is to
provide direct experience in the application of competencies listed in sections I–
V of this document. Educational interpreters will gain this experience through:
A. Observation: The educational interpreter should have an opportunity to
observe and participate in a variety of levels and settings throughout his or
her preparation.
Model Standards for the Certification of Educational Interpreters
137
B. Evaluation: The evaluation of skills for the mode in which the educational
interpreter is receiving training (e.g., ASL interpreting, Cued Speech
transliteration, oral transliteration, etc.) must be passed prior to a
practicum placement.
C. Practicum Experience: It is recommended that a semester (or the equiva-
lent) of full time practicum be required. Participation in at least two
supervised practicum experiences at different educational levels and
settings is recommended.
Part B. Suggested Routes to Certification as
an Educational Interpreter
Certification as an Educational Interpreter K–12 is a very new concept. Main-
stream placements for deaf and hard of hearing students increased markedly
after the passage of Public Law 94-142 in 1975, and many of the individuals
now working with these students began as instructional aides. Until recently
there were no training programs focusing on educational interpreting K–12.
The implementation of standards must take account of these facts and recog-
nize the need of these individuals for certification while at the same time
providing for certification of individuals completing newly developed pro-
grams of specialized training as educational interpreters.
I. Provisional Certification for Currently Working Educational Interpreters
This is a five-year, nonrenewable certificate for:
A. Persons who have completed a formal interpreter preparation program
with a certificate of completion, AA degree, or higher.
B. Persons who have received interpreter certification from a statewide or
nationally recognized organization or certifying body.
C. Persons who have been working for a minimum of four years as an educa-
tional interpreter in a K–12 setting.
138
Appendix C
The requirements for each of the above groups for the granting of a provi-
sional certificate are A, B, or C:
Background Additional Requirement
A. Completion of interpreter prepa- 1. Two years of full-time equivalent
ration program with noneduca- educational interpreting K–12 and
tional interpreting focus. recommendation of supervisor; or
2. Documented evidence of satisfac-
tory completion of 21 credits or
CEUs or equivalent.
1. Two years of full-time equivalent
nationally recognized organiza-
B. Certificate from statewide or
educational interpreting K–12 and
tion or certifying body. recommendation of supervisor; or
2. Documented evidence of satisfac-
tory completion of 21additional
credits of CEUs or equivalent.
1. A skills evaluation recognized by
time equivalent experience as an
C. A minimum of four years of full-
a state- or national-level body.
educational interpreter K–12 with
recommendation of supervisor.
Standard Certification for Currently Working Educational Interpreters
Standard certification may be obtained by individuals who have met all of the
requirements for one of the provisional certification options listed above
PLUS
1. Documented evidence of satisfactory completion of 21 additional credits or
CEUs in educational interpreting areas within the preceding five years.
AND
2. A minimum of two years successful experience at the K–12 level, with
recommendation by supervisor.
II. For Individuals Graduating from Educational Interpreter Preparation
Programs Designed to Develop the Competencies Approved by the CED/RID
I. Provisional Certification
Provisional certification will be automatically granted to graduates of Educa-
tional Interpreter Preparation Programs whose programs cover the competen-
cies approved by the CED/RID. This certification is for a five-year period and
is not renewable.
II. Standard Certification
The standard certification will be granted to Educational Interpreter Prepara-
tion Program graduates who receive Provisional Certification upon the
completion of two years of successful work experience at the K–12 level upon
the recommendation of their supervisor.
Model Standards for the Certification of Educational Interpreters
139
Appendix D
Appendix D
California Commission on
Teacher Credentialing
Standards for Teachers of Deaf
and Hard of Hearing Students
December 1996
Background Statement
Most people take communication and language for granted so
hearing loss, as well as the psychological and social implications.
that it is hard to imagine the impact deafness or a hearing loss
can have in these areas and on educational achievement. Few
teachers are aware of the educational implications of deafness or a
Fewer are aware of the existence of the deaf community and Deaf culture. The
degree of loss, age of onset, usefulness or non-usefulness of amplification,
family background, language used in the home, family support, types of
special adaptations introduced and at what age, and many other factors make
the task of educating deaf and hard of hearing students unique, challenging
and complicated.
Decisions must be made by the home and the school as to the type of commu-
nication to be employed—speech and amplification only, Cued Speech, Ameri-
can Sign Language, or a signed English system. Decisions must be made about
the optimal placement to foster educational growth—the neighborhood school,
with or without support services, a centralized program in a local elementary
or secondary school, or a school exclusively for deaf and hard of hearing
students. In addition, there are considerations concerning the curricula to be
followed and the required adaptations, if any, which need to be made. There
are also considerable challenges in working with the increasingly multicultural
deaf and hard of hearing students who come from homes where English is not
spoken. A sizable number of recent immigrants appear in middle or high
140
school with no prior formal education, no command of any language, only
rudimentary communication at home, and no formal communication skills to
use for learning.
For these reasons, teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students need special-
ized preparation. They need the same skills in curricular development, lesson
planning, behavior management, and assessment as do all teachers, but at
every step they must be aware of the effect deafness or a hearing loss may
have on the delivery or reception of the results and spontaneously implement
accommodations. They must also have the skills to develop optimal communi-
cation and literacy skills in students who do not hear the language spoken in
their environment and who may approach reading with no concept of the
structural meaning of an English sentence. The uniqueness of the professional
responsibilities of a teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students is highlighted
by the fact that the American Annals of the Deaf is the oldest professional journal
in the United States.
The teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students must be able to respond to all
of these challenges and must be prepared to educate individuals from birth to
age 22, including those with multiple disabilities. Skills are needed to work
with parents of children to establish effective family communication with the
child; to include an understanding of the culture to which the family belongs
and their view of deafness or hearing loss. An understanding of normal child
and language development is crucial, including the techniques for fostering
such development with deaf and hard of hearing children. The teacher must
be able to address the normal stresses of puberty while understanding and
compensating for the psychological and social aspects of deafness. The teacher
must be aware of the potential for inaccurate assessments by evaluators not
skilled in the means of communication used by the child and be able to obtain
accurate assessments and interpret them appropriately. The teacher must be
knowledgeable of the related services to request in order to meet the indi-
vidual student’s unique needs. The teacher must be knowledgeable about the
many aspects of Deaf culture and the services and social opportunities for
growth available in the deaf community and be able to foster the student’s
independence and social and emotional growth as a deaf or hard of hearing
person.
It is for all these reasons that the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED)
offers national certification as a teacher of deaf students. It is for these reasons
that many states, including California, that prepare teachers for working with
special students recognize the need for special training and certification for
teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students. The challenges are enormous,
the responsibility great. Deaf and hard of hearing students are most certainly
affected by the quality of their teachers. For students to become useful, pro-
ductive, contributing, well-adjusted citizens, their teachers must receive the
best possible preparation to meet their unique needs. Failure to produce such
teachers can mean not only educational failure for this segment of our popula-
tion, but personal and social failure as well, with a resulting ultimate cost to
society.
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards
141
Standards for Level I Education Specialist Credential:
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Standard 22: Development of Professional Perspectives
Each candidate demonstrates an understanding of essential themes, concepts,
and issues related to philosophical, historical, and legal foundations of special
education and education of deaf and hard of hearing students. Each candidate
is able to apply an understanding of the models and theories of deaf education
and demonstrate sensitivity to varied beliefs and cultural differences in their
contact with deaf and hard of hearing children.
Rationale
To become fully professional, prospective teachers must begin to develop
philosophical and methodological perspectives that are based on consideration
of fundamental issues, theories, and research in deaf education. Students must
also be aware of perspectives other than their own.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of the historical and legal founda-
tions of deaf education.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of the models, theories, current
research, and philosophies that provide the basis for educational practice in
deaf education.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of variations in beliefs, traditions,
and values across cultures (including Deaf culture).
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of the impact of the various educa-
tional placement options with regard to cultural identity, linguistic, aca-
demic, and social-emotional development.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of educational trends related to
communication and language development of deaf and hard of hearing
students.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 23: Characteristics of Learners
Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of research and issues on learner
characteristics that are unique to deaf and hard of hearing students, ages birth
to 22, including those with multiple disabilities.
Rationale
Deaf and hard of hearing students share many characteristics of hearing
learners, including diversity in learning styles. Each candidate must be famil-
iar with the additional learning, social, and physical characteristics that are
unique to deaf and hard of hearing individuals, including those with addi-
tional disabilities.
142
Appendix D
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate examines various factors affecting family and child develop-
ment, including the effect of early communication on the overall develop-
ment of the child.
• Each candidate is aware of the impact of various etiologies, age at onset and
at identification, and age at provision of services for deaf and hard of hear-
ing children.
• Each candidate is knowledgeable about various levels of hearing and visual
ability, differences between auditory and visual learners, and the educational
implications of both.
• Each candidate is knowledgeable of the potential educational and social
impact of additional disabilities and can recognize and support students
who need specialized services for their multiple disabilities, which are
beyond the capacity of the teacher to provide.
• Each candidate is familiar with communication features (visual, spatial,
tactile, and/or auditory) salient to individual learners.
• Each candidate examines research in cognition related to children who are
deaf or hard of hearing.
• Each candidate examines, evaluates and explains commonalities and indi-
vidual differences in the areas of communication, cognition, and social-
emotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 24: Communication Skill Development
Each candidate demonstrates for deaf and hard of hearing students those
communicative skills necessary to motivate and sustain student interest, teach
effectively, and develop student communication skills and literacy.
Rationale
Teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students have unique responsibilities for
developing their own communication skills in languages and modalities
appropriate for their students. They also have unique responsibilities for
developing the communication skills of their students.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of information related to American
Sign Language and existing communication modes used by students who
are deaf or hard of hearing.
• Each candidate demonstrates competence in the language(s) and/or mode
the beginning teacher will use to instruct students who are deaf or hard of
hearing in a means determined by the program, demonstrated by fieldwork,
including interactions with deaf adults.
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards
143
• Each candidate demonstrates the knowledge of and ability to apply tech-
niques to develop language and communication skills in deaf and hard of
hearing students.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to facilitate independent communica-
tion by deaf and hard of hearing students in a variety of environments.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought to
the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 25: Student Assessment
Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of formal and informal assessment
practices related to deaf and hard of hearing students ages birth to 22 including
terminology, legal provisions, regulations, guidelines, and adaptations neces-
sary for an appropriate evaluation.
Rationale
Teachers must properly and adequately identify the needs of deaf and hard of
hearing students to effectively guide their learning and plan appropriate in-
struction in a classroom.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to select, adapt, administer, interpret
and explain assessments and make accommodations in relation to a deaf and
hard of hearing student’s placement and progress in an educational program.
• Each candidate understands the value of qualitative and quantitative assess-
ment and appropriate applications of each.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of the legal provisions, regulations
and guidelines regarding unbiased diagnostic assessments and use of appro-
priate formal and informal assessment measures for deaf and hard of hearing
students.
• Each candidate understands the importance of appropriate assessment using
the preferred language and communication modality of the deaf and hard of
hearing student.
• Each candidate understands the importance of collaborating with the family
for identifying the effect of home environment on the learner’s development.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought to
the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 26: Instructional Techniques
Each candidate demonstrates an understanding of and ability to plan, manage,
and implement effective instruction for deaf and hard of hearing students, ages
birth to 22, including those with additional disabilities, in diverse learning
environments.
Rationale
To be well prepared to conduct daily teaching responsibilities, candidates
must be acquainted with managing effective learning environments and using
144
Appendix D
effective teaching practices. Such practices must incorporate an understanding
of individual linguistic, academic, and social needs and the impact of different
cultures, ethnicities, gender, socioeconomic status, and handicapping
conditions.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to facilitate the development of
cognitive, academic, communication, and social skills of deaf and hard of
hearing children.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to modify or design an appropriate
learning environment to meet individual deaf and hard of hearing student
needs and learning styles, including those with additional disabilities.
• Each candidate examines classroom practices, instructional strategies, tech-
nologies, and materials that promote educational achievement of deaf and
hard of hearing students in various types of placement options, such as self-
contained classes, residential schools, and itinerant.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of acoustical, visual, and safety
environmental modifications critical for deaf and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate demonstrates an understanding of the infusion of appropri-
ate media, technology, and assistive/augmentative devices into the learning
process for deaf and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to provide instruction for deaf and
hard of hearing students in skills relevant to independent living in the
community, self-advocacy, and employment.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to plan and implement instruction
about deafness-related topics, both as separate topics and infused through-
out the curriculum.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 27: Managing Student Behavior and Social Interaction Skills
Each candidate demonstrates the ability to motivate, manage student conduct,
and foster appropriate social interactions with deaf and hard of hearing stu-
dents ages birth to 22.
Rationale
Appropriate student behavior and interaction depend on appropriate motiva-
tion. Prospective teachers must be prepared to stimulate student interest and
involvement in varied activities while maintaining appropriate student con-
duct. They must also be able to foster student interaction with deaf, hard of
hearing, and hearing peers.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards
145
• Each candidate is able to identify teacher attitudes and behaviors that
influence student behavior.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of and the ability to implement
classroom behavioral management techniques.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of strategies for promoting interac-
tions of deaf and hard of hearing students with individuals in a variety of
environments, including home, school, and community.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of appropriate uses of school and
community resources and services for deaf and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to teach culturally and socially
acceptable behaviors (including Deaf culture) in a variety of environments
relevant to both deaf and hearing settings.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 28: Communication and Collaborative Partnerships
Each candidate demonstrates the ability to work cooperatively with other
service providers and understand their respective roles and responsibilities in
meeting the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students.
Rationale
Many individuals work cooperatively in serving the needs of deaf and hard of
hearing students. Each teacher of these students must be prepared to interact
effectively with all members of the educational team.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate is able to demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and na-
tional resources available for school personnel, student and family, includ-
ing educational options and communication modes/philosophies for deaf
and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate is knowledgeable of the roles of various support personnel,
such as aides, interpreters, and tutors, and how to use this support effec-
tively with deaf and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate is given the opportunity to demonstrate the ability to work
collaboratively with the deaf community and with other service providers
to collect data, set goals, develop action plans, and solve problems.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of effects of communication on
family relationships and strategies to facilitate communication between a
deaf and hard of hearing individual and their family/caregivers.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 29: Professionalism and Ethical Practices
Each candidate adheres to high standards of professional conduct, cooperates
effectively with other adults within the school community, and develops
146
Appendix D
professionally through self-assessment and collegial interactions with other
members of the profession who serve deaf and hard of hearing students.
Rationale
Teachers have obligations as members of a profession and a school community
to develop professionally. They must analyze and assess their own practices
and engage in collegial relationships with other members of the profession.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates an awareness of biases affecting teaching and
develops the ability to convey unbiased information to parents concerning
language and communication, placement, and services options for their deaf
or hard of hearing child.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of local, state, and national re-
sources for professional growth, including resources to enhance his or her
own communication and interaction skills with deaf and hard of hearing
adults.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to interact with a variety of deaf
and hard of hearing individuals on an adult-to-adult level.
• Each candidate identifies his or her own cultural and professional biases in
deaf education that affect one’s teaching.
• Each candidate will demonstrate a commitment toward ongoing develop-
ment of a high level of competence in specialized skills requisite for teach-
ing deaf and hard of hearing students, particularly communication.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standards for Professional Level II Education Specialist
Credential: Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Standard 13: Advancement of Personal Communication Skills
Each Level II candidate demonstrates advanced personal communication skills
which are necessary to effectively interact with the deaf and hard of hearing
students with whom they work. Each candidate demonstrates an advanced
level of communication skills, compared with that required in Level I.
Rationale
Effective instruction is dependent upon an accessible communication environ-
ment for deaf and hard of hearing students. Teachers of deaf and hard of
hearing students must continually strive to improve in their ability to interact
effectively with deaf and hard of hearing students and with members of the
deaf community.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards
147
• Each candidate demonstrates increased proficiency in the language(s) and/
or modes used by students who are deaf or hard of hearing.
• Each candidate demonstrates increased proficiency in the language(s) and/
or modes used by deaf adults who constitute the deaf community.
• Each candidate demonstrates an understanding of current research related
to the language(s) and/or modes used by students who are deaf or hard of
hearing.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 14: Special Populations Within the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Community
Each Level II candidate demonstrates advanced knowledge and skills related
to effective assessment and instruction of deaf and hard of hearing students
with special needs.
Rationale
There has been an increase in the number of deaf and hard of hearing students
having special needs. Candidates must be knowledgeable of the characteristics
of special needs populations, which in addition to the hearing loss, require
special modifications and instructional considerations. Educators must be
aware of services available for individual students whose unique needs re-
quire specialized services.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate is knowledgeable about the impact of physical, mental and
learning disabilities on the development of communication skills and
learning for deaf and hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate demonstrates alternative teaching strategies and instruc-
tional delivery adjustments in relation to educating special needs deaf and
hard of hearing students.
• Each candidate is knowledgeable about options and is able to access options
which are available for special needs students, such as the deaf-blind popu-
lation, whose unique characteristics profoundly affect the teaching and
learning process.
• Each candidate identifies special techniques that are successful in working
with deaf and hard of hearing students and their families from diverse
cultural backgrounds including older students with no previous formal
education.
• Each candidate identifies local, state, and national resources to assist in a
greater understanding of special needs deaf and hard of hearing popula-
tions.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
148
Appendix D
Standard 15: Early Childhood Intervention and Education
Each Level II candidate demonstrates knowledge of and ability to assess deaf
and hard of hearing infants and to plan, coordinate, collaborate, and/or imple-
ment an appropriate program for infants and their families.
Rationale
Infants and young children who are deaf and hard of hearing and who do not
hear language spoken in their environment have unique communication
needs. The first five years of life are critical for developing a foundation for
learning. Communication and cognitive development are a primary focus.
Teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students at the early childhood level
must have the knowledge and skills necessary to provide learning opportuni-
ties at this critical stage of development.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates an increased understanding of the potential
impact of hearing loss on aspects of early development, including the
development of language and communication skills.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge about the impact of a hearing loss
on the infant-care provider relationship which may impact later cognitive
and linguistic development.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of typical and atypical develop-
ment of infants and young children in six developmental areas, including
gross motor, fine motor, cognitive, communication, social–emotional, and
daily living skills.
• Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of age-specific, disability-appro-
priate assessment tools and the ability to assess infants and young children
who are deaf and hard of hearing.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to develop, coordinate, and/or
implement an appropriate program for deaf and hard of hearing infants and
young children and their families.
• Each candidate demonstrates the knowledge and ability to access other
community resources and state agencies that serve infants and young
children with hearing losses and their families.
• Each candidate demonstrates the ability to cite federal and state law and
regulations that support early intervention.
• Each candidate demonstrates skill as a service coordinator of families and
agencies in developing a multidisciplinary team service plan.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
Standard 16: Involvement With the Deaf Community
Each Level II candidate utilizes interaction opportunities with deaf and hard of
hearing adults.
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards
149
Rationale
Teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students have the responsibility of pro-
moting in students and their families an awareness of and respect for the
lifestyles and achievements of deaf and hard of hearing adults. This cannot be
accomplished unless teachers are themselves aware of and comfortable in
interaction opportunities with deaf and hard of hearing adults.
Factors to Consider
The following factors serve as a guide for initial program design and ongoing
program evaluation:
• Each candidate demonstrates awareness of interaction opportunities with
deaf and hard of hearing adults at the local, state, and national levels.
• Each candidate develops a plan for personal ongoing interaction with deaf
and hard of hearing adults.
• Each candidate demonstrates a plan to inform deaf and hard of hearing
students and their families of interaction opportunities and fosters their
participation.
• The program meets other factors related to this standard of quality brought
to the attention of the team by the institution.
150
Appendix D
Standards of the Council on Education of the Deaf
Appendix E
Standards of the Council
on␣ Education of the Deaf
for␣ eachers of Deaf and
T
Hard of Hearing Students
Preamble
The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the Council
on Education of the Deaf (CED), working together, developed
the CEC-CED Joint Knowledge and Skills Document presented
below. This document is a set of 66 statements specific to the educa-
tion of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and is an expan-
sion of the 107 CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills statements. Both
sets of statements are used together and form standards for judging
whether individuals have the necessary knowledge and skills to begin
teaching (license/certification) or whether professional teacher preparation
programs have met national standards (accreditation).
The Knowledge and Skills document assumes commitment by universities
and colleges to a full continuum of options both for students who are deaf/
hard of hearing and for teacher preparation programs regarding choice of
philosophy under which each program operates. Inherent in the overall
process are three basic assumptions:
1) Each teacher preparation program provides a clear philosophy and
mission statement which describes its approach to education of learners
who are deaf/hard of hearing, including clarification of communication
and teaching philosophy(ies) and practice(s);
2) Each program designs foundation courses and experiences consistent
with its philosophy(ies) and practice(s) which address diverse needs,
both generic and specific, of learners who are deaf/hard of hearing; and
151
3) Each program is evaluated by professionals with backgrounds similar to that
stated in the philosophy/mission statement.
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions of terminology
have been identified:
1) The term “communication” includes all avenues, verbal and nonverbal,
through which we represent information. Communication includes, but is
not limited to English in all forms, whether signed, spoken, or written,
American Sign Language (ASL), other formal languages, and nonverbal
communication acts.
2) The term “language” means any and all formal languages, spoken, signed, or
otherwise represented.
3) The terms “deaf” and “hard of hearing” are considered within a cultural,
educational, audiological, and/or medical context consistent with each
program’s philosophy/mission statement.
I. Philosophical, Historical, and Legal Foundations of Special
Education: Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
1. Current educational definitions of students with hearing loss, includ-
ing identification criteria, labeling issues, and current incidence and
prevalence figures.
2. Models, theories, and philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total com-
munication, oral/aural) that provide the basis for educational practice(s)
for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, as consistent with program
philosophy.
3. Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across cultures and within
society, and the effect of the relationships among children who are deaf/
hard of hearing, their families, and schooling.
4. Issues in the definition of and identification procedures for individuals
who are deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., cultural vs. medical perspective).
5. Rights and responsibilities (e.g., Deaf Children’s Bill of Rights) of par-
ents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to students who are
deaf/hard of hearing.
6. The impact of various educational placement options (from the perspec-
tive of the needs of any given child who is deaf/hard of hearing and
consistent with the program philosophy) with regard to cultural identity,
linguistic, academic, and social-emotional development.
B. Skills
7. Apply understanding of theory, philosophy and models of practice to the
education of students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
8. Articulate pros and cons of current issues and trends in special education
and the field of education of children who are deaf/hard of hearing.
9. Identify the major contributors to the growth and improvement of past-
to-present knowledge and practice in the field of education of children
who are deaf/hard of hearing.
152
Appendix E
II. Characteristics of Learners:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond the Common Core
A. Knowledge
10. Communication features (visual, spatial, tactile, and/or auditory)
salient to the learner who is deaf/hard of hearing which are necessary
to enhance cognitive, emotional, and social development.
11. Research in cognition related to children who are deaf/hard of hearing.
12. Cultural dimensions to add to the life of a child who is deaf/hard of
hearing.
13. Various etiologies that can result in additional sensory, motor, and/or
learning differences in students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
14. Effects of families and/or primary caregivers on the overall develop-
ment of the child who is deaf/hard of hearing.
15. Effect that onset of hearing loss, age of identification, and provision of
services have on the development of the child who is deaf/hard of
hearing.
16. Impact of early comprehensible communication on the development of
the child who is deaf/hard of hearing.
17. Recognition that being deaf or hard of hearing alone does not necessar-
ily preclude normal academic development, cognitive development, or
communication ability.
18. The differences in quality and quantity of incidental language/learning
experiences which deaf/hard of hearing children may experience.
19. Effects of sensory input on development of language and cognition of
children who are deaf/hard of hearing.
B. Skills (none in addition to core)
III. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Evaluation:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond the Common Core
A. Knowledge
20. Specialized terminology used in the assessments of children who are
deaf/hard of hearing.
21. Components of an adequate evaluation for eligibility placement and
program planning (e.g. , interpreters, special tests) decisions for stu-
dents who are deaf/hard of hearing.
22. Legal provisions, regulations and guidelines regarding unbiased
diagnostic assessment, and use of instructional assessment measures
with students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
23. Special policies regarding referral and placement procedures
(e.g.,␣ Federal Policy Guidance, Oct. 30, 1992) for students who are
deaf/hard of hearing.
B. Skills
24. Administer appropriate assessment tools utilizing the natural/native/
preferred language of the student who is deaf/hard of hearing.
Standards of the Council on Education of the Deaf
153
25. Gather and analyze communication samples from students who are
deaf/hard of hearing, including nonverbal as well as linguistic acts.
26. Use exceptionality-specific assessment instruments (e.g., SAT-HI, TERA-
DHH, FSST) appropriate for students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
IV. Instructional Content and Practice:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
27. Sources of specialized materials for students who are deaf/hard of
hearing.
28. Components of the non-linguistic and linguistic communication which
students who are deaf/hard of hearing use.
29. The procedures and technologies required to educate students who are
deaf/hard of hearing under one or more of the existing modes or phi-
losophies (consistent with program philosophy).
30. Information related to ASL and existing communication modes used by
students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
31. Current theories of how languages (e.g., ASL and English) develop in
children who are hearing and who are deaf/hard of hearing.
32. Subject matter and practices used in general education across content
areas.
33. Ways to facilitate cognitive and communicative development in stu-
dents who are deaf/hard of hearing (e.g., visual saliency) consistent
with program philosophy.
34. Techniques of stimulation and utilization of residual hearing in students
who are deaf/hard of hearing consistent with program philosophy.
35. Research supported instructional strategies and practice for teaching
students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
B. Skills
36. Demonstrate proficiency in the language(s) the beginning teacher will
use to instruct students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
37. Demonstrate characteristics of various existing communication modes
used with students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
38. Select, design, produce, and utilize media, materials, and resources
required to educate students who are deaf/hard of hearing under one or
more of the existing modes or philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural,
total communication, aural/oral).
39. Infuse speech skills into academic areas as consistent with mode or
philosophy espoused and ability of student who is deaf/hard of hear-
ing.
40. Modify instructional process and classroom environment to meet the
physical, cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of the child who
is deaf/hard of hearing (e.g., teacher’s style, acoustic environment,
availability of support services, availability of appropriate technologies).
41. Facilitate independent communication behavior in children who are
deaf/hard of hearing.
154
Appendix E
42. Apply first and second language teaching strategies (e.g., English
through ASL or ESL) appropriate to the needs of the individual student
who is deaf/hard of hearing and consistent with program philosophy.
43. Demonstrate ability to modify incidental language experiences to fit the
visual and other sensory needs of children who are deaf/hard of hear-
ing.
44. Provide appropriate activities for students who are deaf/hard of hear-
ing to promote literacy in English and/or ASL.
V. Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning
Environment: Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
45. Deaf cultural factors that may influence classroom management of
students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
46. Model programs, including career/vocational and transition, that have
been effective for students with hearing losses.
B. Skills
47. Manage assistive/augmentative devices appropriate for students who
are deaf/hard of hearing in learning environments.
48. Select, adapt, and implement classroom management strategies for
students who are deaf/hard of hearing that reflect understanding of
each child’s cultural needs, including primarily visual Deaf culture
where appropriate.
49. Design a classroom environment that maximizes opportunities for
visually oriented and/or auditory learning in students who are deaf/
hard of hearing.
50. Plan and implement instruction for students who are deaf/hard of
hearing and who have multiple disabilities and special needs.
VI. Managing Student Behavior and Social Interaction Skills:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
51. Processes for establishing ongoing interactions of students who are
deaf/hard of hearing with peers and role models who are deaf/hard of
hearing.
52. Opportunities for interaction with communities of individuals who are
deaf/hard of hearing on a local, state, and national level.
B. Skills
53. Prepare students who are deaf/hard of hearing in the appropriate use
of interpreters.
Standards of the Council on Education of the Deaf
155
VII. Communication and Collaborative Partnerships:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
54. Available resources to help parents of children who are deaf/hard of
hearing deal with their concerns regarding educational options and
communication modes/philosophies for their children.
55. Roles and responsibilities of teachers and support personnel in educa-
tional practice for deaf/hard of hearing (e.g., educational interpreters,
tutors, note-takers, etc.).
56. Effects of communication on the development of family relationships
and strategies used to facilitate communication in families with chil-
dren who are deaf/hard of hearing.
57. Services provided by governmental and non-governmental agencies or
individuals in the ongoing management of children who are deaf/hard
of hearing.
B. Skills
58. Teach students who are deaf/hard of hearing to use support personnel
effectively (e.g., educational interpreters, tutors, note-takers, etc.)
59. Facilitate communication between the child who is deaf/hard of
hearing and his family/caregivers.
60. Facilitate coordination of support personnel (e.g., interpreters) to meet
the diverse communication needs of the student who is deaf/hard of
hearing and/or primary caregivers.
VIII. Professionalism and Ethical Practices:
Knowledge and Skills Beyond Common Core
A. Knowledge
61. Ability to seek out process for acquiring the needed skills in modes/
philosophies of education of students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
62. Consumer and professional organizations, publications, and journals
relevant to the field of education of students who are deaf/hard of
hearing.
B. Skills
63. Actively seek interaction with adults in the deaf community to main-
tain/improve ASL, English signs, or Cues as consistent with program
philosophy.
64. Demonstrate ability to interact with a variety of individuals who are
deaf/hard of hearing on an adult-to-adult level.
65. Provide families with the knowledge and skills to make appropriate
choices needed to enhance development and transition of their children
who are deaf/hard of hearing.
66. Participate in the activities of professional organizations relevant to the
education of students who are deaf/hard of hearing.
156
Appendix E
Standards of the Council on Education of the Deaf
Appendix F
California Assembly Bill 1836:
Deaf Children’s
Bill of Rights, 1994
Chapter 1126
An act to amend Sections 56000.5, 56001, and 56345 of, and to
add Section 56026.2 to, the Education Code, relating to special
education, and declaring the urgency thereof, to take effect
immediately.
(Approved by the Governor on September 29, 1994. Filed with the
Secretary of State on September 30, 1994)
LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL’S DIGEST
AB 1836, Eastin. Special Education: hard of hearing or deaf pupils.
(1) Existing law expresses the intent of the Legislature that special education
programs include certain elements for each individual with exceptional needs,
including offering individuals with exceptional needs programs that promote
maximum interaction with the general school population.
This bill would add to those provisions the intent of the Legislature that those
programs for hard of hearing or deaf children take into consideration the
individual’s needs for age and language mode peers and for special education
teachers who are proficient in the individual’s primary language mode.
(2) Existing law makes certain findings and declarations relating to pupils with
low-incidence disabilities.
This bill would add to those findings and declarations provisions relating to
hard of hearing or deaf pupils.
(3) Existing law requires an individualized education program team to pro-
duce a written statement of the individualized education program for each
157
pupil with exceptional needs. The statement must address certain factors and
the program must include certain provisions.
This bill, in addition, would declare the intent of the Legislature that for hard
of hearing or deaf pupils the program include a determination of the specific
communication needs of the pupil, and make a placement determination that is
consistent with those needs, specified federal law and regulations, and speci-
fied legislative findings, in accordance with prescribed considerations.
The bill would also state that the cost of certain additional responsibilities and
services associated with the communication needs of the pupil and the place-
ment determination are to be paid from existing funding sources, as specified,
except the General Fund, that training is to be conducted within existing staff
development programs, and those training activities are to be consistent with
other staff development statutory provisions, as specified.
The bill would declare the intent of the Legislature to ensure that state law
complies with the requirements of the federal Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act.
The bill would provide that designated provisions shall be implemented only
to the extent that funds are specifically appropriated for that purpose in the
annual Budget Act.
(4) The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies
and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provi-
sions establish procedures for making that reimbursement, including the
creation of a State Mandates Claims fund to pay the costs of mandates which
do not exceed $1,000,000.
This bill would provide that, if the Commission on State Mandates determines
that this bill contains costs mandated by the state, reimbursement for those
costs shall be made pursuant to those statutory procedures and, if the state-
wide cost does not exceed $1,000,000, shall be made from the State Mandates
Claims Fund.
(5) This bill would declare that it is to take effect immediately as an urgency
statute.
The people of the State of California do enact as follows:
SECTION 1. Section 56000.5 of the Education Code is amended to read:
56000.5. (a) The Legislature finds and declares that:
(1) Pupils with low-incidence disabilities, as a group, make up less than 1
percent of the total statewide enrollment for kindergarten through grade 12.
(2) Pupils with low-incidence disabilities require highly specialized services,
equipment, and materials.
(b) The Legislature further finds and declares that:
(1) Deafness involves the most basic of human needs - the ability to communi-
cate with other human beings. Many hard of hearing and deaf children use an
appropriate communication mode, sign language, which may be their primary
language, while others express and receive language orally and aurally, with or
158
Appendix F
without visual signs or cues. Still others, typically young hard of hearing and
deaf children, lack any significant language skills. It is essential for the well-
being and growth of hard of hearing and deaf children that educational pro-
grams recognize the unique nature of deafness and ensure that all hard of
hearing and deaf children have appropriate, ongoing, and fully accessible
educational opportunities.
(2) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children, like all children, have
an education in which their unique communication mode is respected, uti-
lized, and developed to an appropriate level of proficiency.
(3) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children have an education in
which special education teachers, psychologists, speech therapists, assessors,
administrators, and other special education personnel understand the unique
nature of deafness and are specifically trained to work with hard of hearing
and deaf pupils. It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children have an
education in which their special education teachers are proficient in the pri-
mary language mode of those children.
(4) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children, like all children, have
an education with a sufficient number of language mode peers with whom
they can communicate directly and who are the same, or approximately the
same, age and ability level.
(5) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children have an education in
which their parents and, where appropriate, hard of hearing and deaf people
are involved in determining the extent, content, and purpose of programs.
(6) Hard of hearing and deaf children would benefit from an education in
which they are exposed to hard of hearing and deaf role models.
(7) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children, like all children, have
programs in which they have direct and appropriate access to all components
of the educational process, including, but not limited to, recess, lunch, and
extracurricular social and athletic activities.
(8) It is essential that hard of hearing and deaf children, like all children, have
programs in which their unique vocational needs are provided for, including
appropriate research, curricula, programs, staff, and outreach.
(9) Each hard of hearing and deaf child should have a determination of the
least restrictive environment that takes into consideration these legislative
findings and declarations.
(10) Given their unique communication needs, hard of hearing and deaf
children would benefit from the development and implementation of regional
programs for children with low-incidence disabilities.
SEC. 2. Section 56001 of the Education Code is amended to read:
56001. It is the intent of the Legislature that special education programs pro-
vide all of the following:
(a) Each individual with exceptional needs is assured an education appropri-
ate to his or her needs in publicly supported programs through completion of
California Assembly Bill 1836
159
his or her prescribed course of study or until the time that he or she has met
proficiency standards prescribed pursuant to Sections 51215 and 51216.
(b) By June 30, 1991, early educational opportunities shall be available to all
children between the ages of three and five years who require special educa-
tion and services.
(c) Early educational opportunities shall be made available to children
younger than three years of age pursuant to Chapter 4.4 (commencing with
Section 56425), appropriate sections of this part, and the California Early
Intervention Service Act, Title 14 (commencing with Section 95000) of the
Government Code.
(d) Any child younger than three years, potentially eligible for special educa-
tion shall be afforded the protections provided pursuant to the California Early
Intervention Services Act, Title 14 (commencing with Section 95000) of the
Government Code and Section 1480 of title 20 of the United States Code and
implementing regulations.
(e) Each individual with exceptional needs shall have his or her educational
goals, objectives, and special education and related services specified in a
written individualized education program.
(f) Education programs are provided under an approved local plan for special
education that sets forth the elements of the programs in accordance with this
part. This plan for special education shall be developed cooperatively with
input from the community advisory committee and appropriate representation
from special and regular teachers and administrators selected by the groups
they represent to ensure effective participation and communication.
(g) Individuals with exceptional needs are offered special assistance programs
that promote maximum interaction with the general school population in a
manner that is appropriate to the needs of both, taking into consideration, for
hard of hearing and deaf children, the individual’s need for a sufficient num-
ber of age and language mode peers and for special education teachers who
are proficient in the individual’s primary language mode.
(h) Pupils be transferred out of special education programs when special
education services are no longer needed.
(i) The unnecessary use of labels is avoided in providing special education and
related services for individuals with exceptional needs.
(j) Procedures and materials for assessment and placement of individuals with
exceptional needs shall be selected and administered so as not to be racially,
culturally, or sexually discriminatory. No single assessment instrument shall
be the sole criterion for determining placement of a pupil. The procedures and
materials for assessment and placement shall be in the individual’s mode of
communication. Procedures and materials for use with pupils of limited
English proficiency, as defined in subdivision (m) of Section 52163, shall be in
the individual’s primary language. All assessment materials and procedures
shall be selected and administered pursuant to Section 56320.
(k) Educational programs are coordinated with other public and private
agencies, including preschools, child development programs, nonpublic
160
Appendix F
nonsectarian schools, regional occupational centers and programs, and
postsecondary and adult programs for individuals with exceptional needs.
(l) Psychological and health services for individuals with exceptional needs
shall be available to each schoolsite.
(m) Continuous evaluation of the effectiveness of these special education
programs by the school district, special education local plan area, or county
office shall be made to ensure the highest quality educational offerings.
(n) Appropriate qualified staff are employed, consistent with credentialing
requirements, to fulfill the responsibilities of the local plan and positive efforts
are made to employ qualified handicapped individuals.
(o) Regular and special education personnel are adequately prepared to pro-
vide educational instruction and services to individuals with exceptional
needs.
(p) This section shall remain in effect only until California terminates its
participation in special education programs for individuals with exceptional
needs between the ages of three and five years, pursuant to Section 56448, and
as of that date is repealed.
SEC. 2.5. Section 56001 of the Education Code is amended to read:
56001. It is the intent of the Legislature that special education programs pro-
vide all of the following:
(a) Each individual with exceptional needs is assured an education appropri-
ate to his or her needs in publicly supported programs through completion of
his or her prescribed course of study or until the time that he or she has met
proficiency standards prescribed pursuant to Sections 51215 and 51216.
(b) Early educational opportunities are available to all children between the
ages of three and four years and nine months who require intensive special
education and services.
(c) Early educational opportunities shall be made available to children
younger than three years of age pursuant to Chapter 4.4 (commencing with
Section 56425), appropriate sections of this part, and the California Early
Intervention Service Act, Title 14 (commencing with Section 95000) of the
Government Code.
(d) Any child younger than three years, potentially eligible for special educa-
tion, shall be afforded the protections provided pursuant to the California
Early Intervention Service Act, Title 14 (commencing with Section 95000) of the
Government Code and Section 1480 of Title 20 of the United States Code and
implementing regulations.
(e) Each individual with exceptional needs shall have his or her educational
goals, objectives, and special education and related services specified in a
written individualized education program.
(f) Education programs are provided under an approved local plan for special
education that sets forth the elements of the programs in accordance with the
provisions of this part. This plan for special education shall be developed
California Assembly Bill 1836
161
cooperatively with input from the community advisory committee and appro-
priate representation from special and regular teachers and administrators
selected by the groups they represent to ensure effective participation and
communication.
(g) Individuals with exceptional needs are offered special assistance programs
that promote maximum interaction with the general school population in a
manner which is appropriate to the needs of both, taking into consideration, for
hard of hearing or deaf children, the individual’s needs for a sufficient number
of age and language mode peers and for special education teachers who are
proficient in the individual’s primary language mode.
(h) Pupils be transferred out of special education programs when special
education services are no longer needed.
(i) The unnecessary use of labels is avoided in providing special education and
related services for individuals with exceptional needs.
(j) Procedures and materials for assessment and placement of individuals with
exceptional needs shall be selected and administered so as not to be racially,
culturally, or sexually discriminatory. No single assessment instrument shall be
the sole criterion for determining placement of a pupil. The procedures and
materials for assessment and placement shall be in the individual’s mode of
communication. Procedures and materials for use with pupils of limited En-
glish proficiency as defined in subdivision (m) of Section 52163, shall be in the
individual’s primary language. All assessment materials and procedures shall
be selected and administered pursuant to Section 56320.
(k) Educational programs are coordinated with other public and private agen-
cies, including preschools, child development programs, nonpublic, nonsectar-
ian schools, regional occupational centers and programs, and postsecondary
and adult programs for individuals with exceptional needs.
(l) Psychological and health services for individuals with exceptional needs
shall be available to each schoolsite.
(m) Continuous evaluation of the effectiveness of these special education
programs by the school district, special education local plan area, or county
office shall be made to ensure the highest quality educational offerings.
(n) Appropriate qualified staff are employed, consistent with credentialing
requirements, to fulfill the responsibilities of the local plan and positive efforts
are made to employ qualified handicapped individuals.
(o) Regular and special education personnel are adequately prepared to pro-
vide educational instruction and services to individuals with exceptional needs.
(p) This section shall become operative on the date that California terminates its
participation in special education programs for individuals with exceptional
needs between the ages of three and five years, pursuant to Section 56448.
SEC. 3. Section 56026.2 is added to the Education Code, to read:
56026.2. “Language mode” means the method of communication used by hard
of hearing and deaf children that may include the use of sign language to send
162
Appendix F
or receive messages or the use of spoken language, with or without visual
signs or cues.
SEC. 4. Section 56345 of the Education Code is amended to read:
56345. (a) The individualized education program is a written statement deter-
mined in a meeting of the individualized education program team and shall
include, but not be limited to, all of the following:
(1) The present levels of the pupil’s educational performance.
(2) The annual goals, including short-term instructional objectives.
(3) The specific special educational instruction and related services required by
the pupil.
(4) The extent to which the pupil will be able to participate in regular educa-
tional programs.
(5) The projected date for initiation and the anticipated duration of the pro-
grams and services included in the individualized education program.
(6) Appropriate objective criteria, evaluation procedures, and schedules for
determining, on at least an annual basis, whether the short-term instructional
objectives are being achieved.
(b) When appropriate, the individualized education program shall also in-
clude, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) Prevocational career education for pupils in kindergarten and grades 1 to 6,
inclusive, or pupils of comparable chronological age.
(2) Vocational education, career education or work experience education, or
any combination thereof, in preparation for remunerative employment, includ-
ing independent living skill training for pupils in grades 7 to 12, inclusive, or
comparable chronological age, who require differential proficiency standards
pursuant to Section 51215.
(3) For pupils in grades 7 to 12, inclusive, any alternative means and modes
necessary for the pupil to complete the district’s prescribed course of study
and to meet or exceed proficiency standards for graduation in accordance with
Section 51215.
(4) For individuals whose primary language is other than English, linguisti-
cally appropriate goals, objectives, programs, and services.
(5) Extended school year services when needed, as determined by the indi-
vidualized education program team.
(6) Provision for the transition into the regular class program if the pupil is to
be transferred from a special class or center, or nonpublic, nonsectarian school
into a regular class in a public school for any part of the schoolday, including
the following:
(A) A description of activities provided to integrate the pupil into the regular
education program. The description shall indicate the nature of each activity,
and the time spent on the activity each day or week.
California Assembly Bill 1836
163
(B) A description of the activities provided to support the transition of pupils
from the special education program into the regular education program.
(7) For pupils with low-incidence disabilities, specialized services, materials,
and equipment, consistent with the guidelines established pursuant to Section
56136.
(c) It is the intent of the Legislature in requiring individualized education
programs that the district, special education local plan area, or county office is
responsible for providing the services delineated in the individualized educa-
tion program. However, the Legislature recognizes that some pupils may not
meet or exceed the growth projected in the annual goals and objectives of the
pupil’s individualized education program.
(d) Pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 51215, a pupil’s individualized educa-
tion program shall also include the determination of the individualized educa-
tion program team as to whether differential proficiency standards shall be
developed for the pupil. If differential proficiency standards are to be devel-
oped, the individualized education program shall include these standards.
(e) Consistent with Section 56000.5, it is the intent of the Legislature that, in
making a determination of what constitutes an appropriate education to meet
the unique needs of a deaf or hard of hearing pupil in the least restrictive
environment, the individualized education program team shall consider the
related services and program options that provide the pupil with an equal
opportunity for communication access. The individualized education program
team shall specifically discuss the communication needs of the pupil, consistent
with the guidelines adopted pursuant to Section 56136 and Page 49274 of the
Federal Register, including all of the following:
(1) The pupil’s primary language mode and language, which may include the
use of spoken language with or without visual cues, or the use of sign language,
or a combination of both.
(2) The availability of a sufficient number of age, cognitive, and language peers
of similar abilities which may be met by consolidating services into a local plan
areawide program or providing placement pursuant to Section 56361.
(3) Appropriate, direct, and ongoing language access to special education
teachers and other specialists who are proficient in the pupil’s primary lan-
guage mode and language consistent with existing law regarding teacher
training requirements.
(4) Services necessary to ensure communication-accessible academic instruc-
tions, school services, and extracurricular activities consistent with the Voca-
tional Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as set forth in Section 74 of Title 29 of the
United States Code and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 as set forth
in Section 12000 and following of title 42 of the United States Code.
(f) No General Fund money made available to school districts or local agencies
may be used for any additional responsibilities or services associated with
paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (e), including the training of special
education teachers and other specialists, even if those additional responsibilities
or services are required pursuant to a judicial or state agency determination.
164
Appendix F
Those responsibilities and services shall only be funded by a local educational
agency as follows:
(1) The costs of those activities shall be funded from existing programs and
funding sources.
(2) Those activities shall be supported by the resources otherwise made avail-
able to those programs.
(3) Those activities shall be consistent with the provisions of Sections 56240 to
56243, inclusive.
(g) It is the intent of the Legislature that the communication skills of teachers
who work with hard of hearing and deaf children be improved; however,
nothing in this section shall be construed to remove the local educational
agency’s discretionary authority in regard to in-service activities.
SEC. 5. By amending Sections 56000.5, 56001, and 56345 of the Education Code
by Sections 1, 2, 2.5, and 4 of this act, and by adding Section 56026.2 to the
Education Code by Section 3, it is the intent of the Legislature to ensure that
state law complies with the requirements of federal law under the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1400 et seq.)
SEC. 6. The changes made to Section 56000.5, 56001, and 56345 of the Educa-
tion Code by Sections 1, 2, 2.5, and 4 and the provisions of Section 56026.2, as
added to the Education Code by Section 3, shall be implemented only to the
extent that funds are specifically appropriated for that purpose in the annual
Budget Act. Notwithstanding Section 17610 of the Government Code, if the
Commission on State Mandates determines that this act contains costs man-
dated by the state, reimbursement to local agencies and school districts for
those costs shall be made pursuant to Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500)
of division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code. If the statewide cost of the
claim for reimbursement does not exceed one million dollars ($1,000,000),
reimbursement shall be made from the State Mandates Claims Fund. Notwith-
standing Section 17580 of the Government Code, unless otherwise specified in
this act, the provisions of this act shall become operative on the same date that
the act takes effect pursuant to the California Constitution.
SEC. 7. This act is an emergency statute necessary for the immediate preserva-
tion of the public peace, health, or safety within the meaning of Article IV of
the Constitution and shall go into immediate effect. The facts constituting the
necessity are:
In order to ensure that all pupils have an education that they can understand
provided to them in a setting in which they communicate, it is necessary that
this act take effect immediately.
California Assembly Bill 1836
165
Appendix G
Appendix G
U.S. Department of
Education: Deaf Students
Education Services;
Policy Guidance, 1992
Text of guidance published in the Federal Register at 57 Fed. Reg.
49274, October 30, 1992: Deaf Students Education Services; Policy
Guidance; Notice 4000-01
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
AGENCY: Department of Education
ACTION: Notice of Policy Guidance
SUMMARY: The Department provides additional guidance about Part B of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) as they relate to the provision of appro-
priate education services to students who are deaf. The guidance is issued in
response to concerns regarding Departmental policy on the provision of a free
appropriate public education (FAPE) to students who are deaf. Many of these
concerns were expressed in the report of the Commission on Education of the
Deaf. This guidance is intended to furnish State and local education agency
personnel with background information and specific steps that will help to
ensure that children and youth who are deaf are provided with a free appropri-
ate public education. It also describes procedural safeguards that ensure par-
ents are knowledgeable about their rights and about placement decisions made
by public agencies.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jean Peelen or Parma Yarkin, U.S.
Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Rooms 5046 and 3131,
Switzer Building, respectively, Washington, D.C. 20202-2524. Telephone: (202)
166
205-8637 and (202) 205-8723, respectively. Deaf and hearing impaired individu-
als may call (202) 205-8449 or (202) 205-8723, respectively, for TDD services.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
Background
In the past twenty-five years, two national panels have concluded that the
education of deaf students must be improved in order to meet their unique
communication and related needs. The most recent of these panels, the Com-
mission on Education of the Deaf (COED), recommended a number of changes
in the way the Federal government supports the education of individuals who
are deaf from birth through postsecondary schooling and training. With this
notice, the Secretary implements several COED recommendations relating to
the provision of appropriate education for elementary and secondary students
who are deaf.
The COED’s report and its primary finding (1) reflect a fundamental concern
within much of the deaf community that students who are deaf have significant
obstacles to overcome in order to have access to a free appropriate public
education that meets their unique educational needs, particularly their commu-
nication and related needs.
(2) The disability of deafness often results in significant and unique educational
needs for the individual child. The major barriers to learning associated with
deafness relate to language and communication, which, in turn, profoundly
affect most aspects of the educational process. For example, acquiring basic
English language skills is a tremendous challenge for most students who are
deaf. While the Department and others are supporting research activities in the
area of language acquisition for children who are deaf, effective methods of
instruction that can be implemented in a variety of educational settings are still
not available. The reading skills of deaf children reflect perhaps the most
momentous and dismal effects of the disability and of the education system’s
struggle to effectively teach deaf children: hearing impaired students “level off”
in their reading comprehension achievement at about the third grade level.
(3) Compounding the manifest educational considerations, the communication
nature of the disability is inherently isolating, with considerable effect on the
interaction with peers and teachers that make up the educational process. This
interaction, for the purpose of transmitting knowledge and developing the
child’s self-esteem and identity, is dependent upon direct communication. Yet,
communication is the area most hampered between a deaf child and his or her
hearing peers and teachers. Even the availability of interpreter services in the
educational setting may not address deaf children’s needs for direct and mean-
ingful communication with peers and teachers.
Because deafness is a low incidence disability, there is not widespread under-
standing of its educational implications, even among special educators. This
lack of knowledge and skills in our education system contributes to the already
substantial barriers to deaf students in receiving appropriate educational
services.
In light of all these factors, the Secretary believes that it is important to provide
additional guidance to State and local education agencies to ensure that the
U.S. Department of Education: Deaf Students Education Services
167
needs of students who are deaf are appropriately identified and met, and that
placement decisions for students who are deaf meet the standards of the
applicable statutes and their implementing regulations. It is the purpose of this
document to (1) clarify the free appropriate public education provisions of
IDEA for children who are deaf, including important factors in the determina-
tion of appropriate education for such children and the requirement that
education be provided in the least restrictive environment, and (2) clarify the
applicability of the procedural safeguards in the placement decisions.
Nothing in this notice alters a public agency’s obligation to place a student
with a disability in a regular classroom if FAPE can be provided in that setting.
Free Appropriate Public Education
The provision of a free appropriate public education based on the unique
needs of the child is at the heart of the IDEA. Similarly, the Section 504 regula-
tion at 34 CFR 104.33-104.36 contains free appropriate public education re-
quirements, which are also applicable to local educational agencies serving
children who are deaf. A child is receiving an appropriate education when all
of the requirements in the statute and the regulations are met. The Secretary
believes that full consideration of the unique needs of a child who is deaf will
help to ensure the provision of an appropriate education. For children who are
eligible under Part B of the IDEA, this is accomplished through the IEP pro-
cess. For children determined to be handicapped under Section 504, imple-
mentation of an individualized education program developed in accordance
with Part B of the IDEA is one means of meeting the free appropriate public
education requirements of the Section 504 regulations.
As part of the process of developing an individualized education program
(IEP) for a child with disabilities under the IDEA, State and local education
agencies must comply with the evaluation and placement regulations at CFR
34 300.530-300.534. In meeting the individual education needs of children who
are deaf under Section 504, LEAs must comply with the evaluation and place-
ment requirements at 34 CFR 104.35 of the Section 504 regulation, which
contain requirements similar to those of the IDEA. However, the Secretary
believes that the unique communication and related needs of many children
who are deaf have not been adequately considered in the development of their
IEPs. To assist public agencies in carrying out their responsibilities for children
who are deaf, the Department provides the following guidance.
The Secretary believes it is important that State and local education agencies,
in developing an IEP for a child who is deaf, take into consideration such
factors as:
1. Communication needs and the child’s and family’s preferred mode of
communication;
2. Linguistic needs;
3. Severity of hearing loss and potential for using residual hearing;
4. Academic level;
5. Social, emotional, and cultural needs, including opportunities for peer
interactions and communication.
168
Appendix G
In addition, the particular needs of an individual child may require the consid-
eration of additional factors. For example, the nature and severity of some
children’s needs will require the consideration of curriculum content and
method of curriculum delivery in determining how those needs can be met.
Including evaluators who are knowledgeable about these specific factors as part
of the multidisciplinary team evaluating the student will help ensure that the
deaf student’s needs are correctly identified.
Under the least restrictive environment (LRE) provision of IDEA, public agen-
cies must establish procedures to ensure that “to the maximum extent appropri-
ate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions
or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and
that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with
disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the
nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with
the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.”
The section 504 regulation at 34 CFR 104.34 contains a similar provision.
The Secretary is concerned that the least restrictive environment provisions of
the IDEA and Section 504 are being interpreted, incorrectly, to require the
placement of some children who are deaf in programs that may not meet the
individual student’s educational needs. Meeting the unique communication
and related needs of a student who is deaf is a fundamental part of providing a
free appropriate public education (FAPE) to the child. Any setting, including a
regular classroom, that prevents a child who is deaf from receiving an appropri-
ate education that meets his or her needs, including communication needs, is
not the LRE for that individual child.
Placement decisions must be based on the child’s IEP. (5) Thus, the consider-
ation of LRE as part of the placement decision must always be in the context of
the LRE in which appropriate services can be provided. Any setting which does
not meet the communication and related needs of a child who is deaf, and
therefore does not allow for the provision of FAPE, cannot be considered the
LRE for that child. The provision of FAPE is paramount, and the individual
placement determination about LRE is to be considered within the context of
FAPE.
The Secretary is concerned that some public agencies have misapplied the LRE
provision by presuming that placements in or closer to the regular classroom
are required for those children who are deaf, without taking into consideration
the range of communication and related needs that must be addressed in order
to provide FAPE for an individual deaf child - which includes a determination
as to the LRE in which appropriate services can be made available to the child -
must be made only after a full and complete IEP has been developed that
addresses the full range of the child’s needs.
The Secretary believes that consideration of the factors mentioned above will
assist placement teams in identifying the needs of children who are deaf and
will enable them to place children in the least restrictive environment appropri-
ate to their needs.
The overriding rule regarding placement is that placement decisions must be
made on an individual basis. (6) As in previous policy guidance, the Secretary
U.S. Department of Education: Deaf Students Education Services
169
emphasizes that placement decisions may not be based on category of disabil-
ity, the configuration of the delivery system, the availability of educational or
related services, availability of space, or administrative convenience.
States and school districts also are advised that the potential harmful effect of
the placement on the deaf child or the quality of services he or she needs must
be considered in determining the LRE.
The Secretary recognizes that regular educational settings are appropriate and
adaptable to meet the unique needs of particular children who are deaf. For
others, a center or special school may be the least restrictive environment in
which the child’s unique needs can be met. A full range of alternative place-
ments as described at 34 CFR 300.551(a) and (b)(1) of the IDEA regulations
must be available to the extent necessary to implement each child’s IEP. There
are cases when the nature of the disability and the individual child’s needs
dictate a specialized setting that provides structured curriculum or special
methods of teaching. Just as placement in the regular educational setting is
required when it is appropriate for the unique needs of a child who is deaf, so
is removal from the regular educational setting required when the child’s needs
cannot be met in that setting with the use of supplementary aids and services.
Procedural Safeguards
One important purpose of the procedural safeguards required under Part B and
the Section 504 regulation is to ensure that parents are knowledgeable about
their rights and about important decisions that public agencies make, such as
placement decisions. Under the Section 504 regulations at 34 CFR 104.36, a
public agency must establish a system of procedural safeguards that includes,
among other requirements, notice to parents with respect to placement deci-
sions. Compliance with the Part B procedural safeguards is one means of
meeting the requirements of the Section 504 regulations. Under Part B, before a
child is initially placed in special education the child’s parents must be given
written notice and must consent to the placement. The Part B regulations at 34
CFR 300.500(a) provide that consent means that parents have been fully in-
formed of all information relevant to the placement decision. The obligation to
fully inform parents includes informing the parents that the public agency is
required to have a full continuum of placement options available to meet the
needs of children with disabilities, including instruction in regular classes,
special classes, special schools, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals
and institutions. The Part B regulations at 34 CFR 300.504-300.505 also require
that parents must be given written notice a reasonable time before a public
agency proposes to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, educational
placement, or provision of a free appropriate public education to the child. This
notice to parents must include a description of the action proposed or refused
by the agency, an explanation of why the agency proposes or refuses to take the
action, and a description of any options the agency considered and the reasons
why those options were rejected. The requirement to provide a description of
any option considered includes a description of the types of placements that
were actually considered, e.g., special school or regular class, as well as any
specific schools that were actually considered and the reasons why these place-
ment options were rejected. Providing this kind of information to parents will
170
Appendix G
enable them to play a more knowledgeable and informed role in the education
of their children.
Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1411-1420; 29 U.S.C. 794
Dated:
Lamar Alexander, Secretary
Notes
(1) “The present status of education for persons who are deaf in the United
States is unsatisfactory. Unacceptably so. This is the primary and inescapable
conclusion of the Commission on Education of the Deaf.” Commission on
Education of the Deaf: Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf. (February 1988)
(2) As stated in the IDEA, the purpose of the Act is:␣ .␣ .␣ .␣ to assure that all chil-
dren with disabilities have available to them .␣ .␣ . a free and appropriate public
education which emphasizes special education and related services designed
to meet their unique needs.␣ .␣ .␣ . 20 U.S.C. sec. 1400(c)
In addition, the Section 504 regulations state: A recipient (of federal financial
assistance) that operates a public elementary or secondary education program
shall provide a free appropriate public education to each qualified handi-
. rcapped person .␣ .␣ egardless of the nature or severity of the person’s handi-
cap. 34 CFR 104.33(a)
(3) Thomas E. Allen, “Patterns of Academic Achievement Among Hearing
Impaired Students: 1974 and 1983,” in Deaf Children in America 162-164. Arthur
N. Schildroth and Michael A. Karchmer, eds. San Diego: College-Hill Press
(1986)
(4) 20 U.S.C. sec. 1412(5)(B).
(5) 20 U.S.C. sec. 1401(18): see also 34 CFR 300.552(a)(2), and 34 CFR
104.33(b)(2).
(6) 34 CFR 300.552 Comment. See also Appendix A to 34 CFR Part 104 at 24.
U.S. Department of Education: Deaf Students Education Services
171
Appendix H
Appendix H
California Assembly
Concurrent Resolution No. 55:
Relative to the Provision of Programs
for Pupils with Low Incidence Disabilities
(Filed with Secretary of State, May 12, 1992)
disabilities.
Legislative Counsel’s Digest
ACR 55, Farr. Special Education: pupils with low incidence
This measure would request the State Department of Education, in
cooperation with the education agencies, organizations, and individuals, to
develop regionalized pilot programs for pupils with low incidence disabilities
and to conduct a study on the effectiveness of those programs. The measure
would request that the study results be used to provide direction for any neces-
sary statewide changes in the delivery system of educational programs and
services for those pupils.
WHEREAS, In California there are over 20,000 students with highly specialized
needs due to their low incidence disabilities; and
WHEREAS, Section 56026.5 of the Education Code defines “low incidence
disability” as a severe handicapping condition with an expected incidence rate
of less than 1 percent of the total statewide enrollment in kindergarten and
grades 1 to 12, inclusive, and for purposes of this definition, severe handicap-
ping conditions are hearing impairments, vision impairments, and severe
orthopedic impairments, or any combination thereof; and
WHEREAS, It is difficult to serve pupils with low incidence disabilities because
of the severity of their disabilities or the combination thereof, their low preva-
lence in the school population, their highly specialized needs, and the difficulty
of providing adequate funding from state or local sources for specialized pro-
grams, services, materials, and equipment; and
172
WHEREAS, The costs to local education agencies to provide for the unique
needs of these pupils often far exceed funding provided by the state; and
WHEREAS, Federal laws and regulations mandate a free appropriate public
education for all individuals with disabilities and equal access to programs
and services to meet their unique needs; and
WHEREAS, Pupils are to be educated in the least restrictive environment,
which can be enhanced through regionalization; and
WHEREAS, The State of California has accepted the obligation to meet these
requirements and, in addition, has mandated further requirements to address
the unique educational needs of pupils with low incidence disabilities, which
requirements include the development and implementation of program guide-
lines for each low incidence disability, the utilization of the program guidelines
for technical assistance to parents, teachers, and administrators, and the
monitoring of the implementation guidelines; and
WHEREAS, The current service delivery model is unable to meet the intent of
the legislation as indicated in a recent statewide study of the quality of pro-
grams and services conducted as a result of concerns expressed by parents,
educators, and organizations; and
WHEREAS, The study identified the following 10 major issues regarding the
education of pupils with low incidence disabilities. The issues are:
(A) Administrators, particularly program supervisors, of low incidence pro-
grams need to be more knowledgeable about the unique educational needs of
pupils with low incidence disabilities.
(B) Assessments of pupils with low incidence disabilities often are not compre-
hensive, and the results do not consistently relate to pupils, individualized
education programs and assessments are not always conducted by individuals
who are appropriately trained and knowledgeable.
(C) There is a severe shortage of teachers and support personnel who are
properly trained to work with low incidence pupils.
(D) A full range of program options and services is not always available for
pupils with low incidence disabilities, particularly in rural areas, which limits
the appropriate placement of pupils.
(E) Specialized in-service training for parents, teachers, and administrators is
not always available.
(F) There is a need to further disseminate the low incidence guidelines, devel-
oped by the State Department of Education pursuant to Section 56136 of the
Education Code, and to provide training in their implementation.
(G) The unique educational needs of infants and pre-school children with low
incidence disabilities are often not being addressed adequately.
(H) There are inappropriate caseloads and class sizes in some low incidence
programs and services.
(I) There is a need to address access to the core curriculum and specialized
curriculum needs, including vocational education.
California Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 55
173
(J) There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of low incidence programs,
focusing on pupil outcome, and
WHEREAS, The Legislature recognizes the need to provide an effective,
efficient, and equitable statutory framework for the state’s delivery system of
educational services to meet the needs of its pupils with low incidence disabili-
ties in the coming decade; now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Assembly of the State of California, the Senate thereof concurring,
That the State Department of Education, in cooperation with educational
agencies, organizations, and individuals, develop regionalized pilot programs
for pupils with low incidence disabilities; and be it further
Resolved, That the State Department of Education conduct a study of the
impact and effectiveness of the regionalized pilot programs at improving
programs and services to pupils with low incidence disabilities by utilizing
standards and criteria established in the program guidelines developed pursu-
ant to Section 56136 of the Education Code; and be it further
Resolved, That the study of the implementation of regionalized pilot programs
be used to provide direction for any necessary statewide changes in the deliv-
ery system of educational programs and services for pupils with low incidence
disabilities; and be it further
Resolved, That the Chief Clerk of the Assembly transmit a copy of this resolu-
tion to the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
174
Appendix H
Appendix I
Resource List
T
the California Department of Education.
his directory contains a list of the many state and national
resources available to provide information to professionals,
parents, and deaf and hard of hearing consumers. Inclusion in
this resource list does not necessarily imply the endorsement of
ABLEDATA
8401 Colesville Rd., Suite 200 E-mail: ABLEDATA@macroint.com
Silver Spring, MD 20910 Web site: www.abledata.com
Voice: 301-608-8998
TTY: 301-608-8912
Fax: 301-608-8958
An information and referral project that maintains a database of more than
25,000 assistive technology products. The project also provides fact sheets on
types of devices and other aspects of assistive technology.
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL ASSOCIATION FOR THE DEAF
3417 Volta Place, NW E-mail: agbell2@aol.com
Washington, DC 20007-2778 Web site: www.AGBELL.org
Voice/TTY: 202-337-5220
Fax: 202-337-8314
Gathers and disseminates information on hearing loss in children and adults;
provides scholarships, financial, and parent-infant awards; promotes early
detection of hearing loss in infants; publishes books on deafness; and advocates
the rights of children and adults who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Resource List
175
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY
8201 Greensboro Dr., Suite 300 E-mail: molek@audiology.org
McLean, VA 22102 Web site: www.audiology.org/index.htm
Voice/TTY: 703-610-9022
Voice/TTY: 800-222-2336
Fax: 703-610-9005
A professional organization dedicated to providing high-quality hearing care
to the public. Provides professional development, education, and research and
promotes increased public awareness of hearing disorders and audiologic
services.
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD
AND NECK SURGERY
1 Prince St. E-mail: entnews@aol.com
Alexandria, VA 22314-3357 Web site: www.entnet.org
Voice: 703-836-4444
TTY: 703-519-1585
Fax: 703-683-5100
Promotes the art and science of medicine related to otolaryngology-head and
neck surgery, including providing continuing medical education courses and
publications. Distributes leaflets relating to ear, nose, and throat problems and
makes referrals to physicians.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF THE DEAF-BLIND
814 Thayer Ave., Room 302 E-mail: aadb@erols.com
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4500
TTY: 301-558-6545
Fax: 301-588-8705
Promotes better understanding and services for deaf-blind people. Its mission
is to ensure that a comprehensive, coordinated system of services is accessible
to all deaf-blind people, enabling them to achieve their maximum potential
through increased independence, productivity, and integration into the com-
munity. The biannual conventions provide a week of workshops, meetings,
tours, and recreational activities.
AMERICAN ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION OF THE DEAF
3607 Washington Blvd., #4 E-mail: AAADEAF@aol.com
Ogden, UT 84403-1737 Web site: home.us.net/~ddstout/nsad/
Voice: 801-393-8710 aaad2.htm
TTY: 801-393-7916
Fax: 801-393-2263
The governing body for all deaf sports and recreation in the United States.
Twenty different sports organizations and 200 member clubs are affiliated with
AAAD. Sponsors U.S. team to the World Games for the Deaf and other regional,
national, and international competitions.
176
Appendix I
AMERICAN HEARING RESEARCH FOUNDATION
55 E. Washington St., Suite 2022
Chicago, IL 60602
Voice: 312-726-9670
Fax: 312-726-9695
Supports medical research and education in the causes, prevention, and cures
of deafness, hearing losses, and balance disorders. Keeps physicians and the
public informed of the latest developments in hearing research and education.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR DEAF CHILDREN
P. O. Box 1510 Web site: www.deafchildren.org
Olney, MD 20830-1510
Voice/TTY: 800-942-ASDC
A nonprofit parent-helping-parent organization promoting a positive attitude
toward sign language and Deaf culture. Provides information, encouragement,
and support to families with deaf and hard of hearing children.
AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION
10801 Rockville Pike E-mail: irc@asha.org
Rockville, MD 20852 Web site: www.asha.org
Voice/TTY HELPLINE: 800-638-8255
Fax: 301-897-7348
A professional and scientific organization for speech-language pathologists and
audiologists concerned with communication disorders. Provides informational
materials and a toll-free HELPLINE number for consumers to inquire about
speech, language, or hearing problems. Provides referrals to audiologists and
speech-language pathologists in the United States.
AMERICAN TINNITUS ASSOCIATION
P. O. Box 5 E-mail: tinnitus@ata.org
Portland, OR 97207 Web site: www.ata.org
Voice/TTY: 800-634-8978
Fax: 503-248-0024
Provides information about tinnitus, makes referrals to local hearing profes-
sionals and support groups nationwide, funds scientific research related to
tinnitus, and conducts workshops for professionals.
ARKANSAS REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTER
FOR PERSONS WHO ARE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING
University of Arkansas E-mail:
4601 W. Markham St. REHABRES@CAVERN.UARK.EDU
Little Rock, AR 72205 Web site:
Voice/TTY: 501-686-9691 www.uark.edu/depts/rehabres
Fax: 501-686-9698
Resource List
177
Focuses on issues affecting the employability of deaf and hard of hearing