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STANDARD EDP REPORTS
An Information Service for the Electronic Data Processing Field

Prepared & Edited by
AUERBACH CORPORATION
Philadelphia, Penna.

Printed and Distributed by
BNA Incorporated·
WASHINGTON, D. C.

3

STANDARD

EDP
REPORTS

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The information contained herein has been obtained from reliable sources
and has been evaluated by technical teams with extensive working experience
in computer design, selection and application. The information, however, is
not guaranteed.
Acknowledgement is made of the inspiration and guidance provided by the
Information Systems Branch of Office of Naval Research which has supported
data gathering activity by Auerbach Corporation in fields similar to some
covered in these reports. The data contained and formats used in STANDARD
EDP REPORTS were not prepared under any contract with the U. S. Government; and they are the exclusive property of the copyright holders.

.--~

GE 115
General Electric Company

/

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

GE 115
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

310:011.010
GE-115
Summary Repart

SUMMARY REPORT: GE-115

_01

INTRODUCTION
The GE-115, announced in March, 1965, is designed primarily as a replacement
for conventional punched-card tabulating equipment and as a remote terminal for
GE'S larger computer systems (the GE-400 Series and the GE-600 Series). The
GE-115 represents the first joint development effort by General Electric (USA),
Bull-GE (France) and Olivetti-GE (Italy). All of its components have been developed by one of these three organizations. The design is based principally upon
the Olivetti 4035 ,computer. The contributions to the system by GE (USA) are
the CR-10 Card Reader, the DS-12 Removable Disc Storage Unit, and portions of the
software. Initially, all GE-115 systems will be manufactured in Italy; future plans
call for GE-115 systems to be manufactured in France and the USA as well. Because
of the problems involved in maintaining a widespread service force for a system with
such a small margin of profit, the initial marketing effort in the USA will be directed
toward current users of other GE computer equipment.
A GE-115 system with a card reader, printer, and communications adapter (a
typical remote terminal configuration) can be rented for as little as $1,240 per
month. Typical card system rentals will be in the $1,340 to $2,300 range. First
system delivery is scheduled for early 1966, and the current delivery schedule is
11 to 14 months for most components.
Significant features of the GE-115, and the paragraphs where they are described in
this Summary Report, include:

•

Up to 8,192 eight-bit character positions of 8-microsecond core storage
(Paragraph . 041) .
Over one million characters of on-line random-access storage using the DS-12
Disc Storage Unit (paragraph. 042).

•

•
•
•

. 02

Card reading speeds of 300 or 600 cards per minute, and three programselectable stackers (paragraphs . 071 and . 072).
Economical 300-card per-minute photoelectric card reader (Paragraph
.073).

Card punching speeds of up to 300 cards per minute (paragraphs. 074 and
.075).
Punched paper tape reading at 400 characters per second and punching at
100 characters per second (paragraphs. 076 and. 077).

•
•

Printing at speeds of 300 or 600 lines per minute (paragraphs .081 and .082).

•

Ability to perform two I/O data transfer operations simultaneously (paragraph .11).

•

Software that includes a basic assembler, service routines, a program for
simulating tabulating equipment, and a remote terminal program (paragraph
.15) .

Adaptors that permit communication with a remote computer system (Paragraph .101).

DATA STRUCTURE
The basic unit of data storage is a "character" consisting of eight data bits plus a
parity bit. Each character position can contain one alphanumeric character, two
decimal digits (packed), a one-decimal-digit arithmetic operand, or an 8-bit binary
operand.

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-11S

310:011.020
,02

DATA STRUCTURE (contd..)
Decimal arithmetic is performed on unsigned 4-bit BCD digits (Qllil. digit per character position); the remaining four bits of each character are ignored.
Most GE-1l5 instructions can process operands from 1 to 16 characters long; the
code translation -and editing instructions can operate on fields of up to 256 characters.
GE-1l5 instructions are two, four, or six characters in length and specify zero, one,
or two core storage addresses, respectively.
Note that there is no direct compatibility between the GE-1l5 and the IBM System/360,
although both systems use 8-bit character codes .

. 03

SYSTEMCONFIGURATION
Every GE-1l5 computer system has a GE-1l5 Central Processor with a built.,in console
and 4,096 or 8,192 locations of core storage.
One printer and one card reader can be connected direcUy to a GE-1l5 Central Processor. Two other peripheral devices can be connected through the GE-100 Standard
Interface. Alternatively, one (but not both) of the peripheral devices connected through
the Standard Interface can be replaced either by a direcUy-connected communications
terminal or by up to 64 peripheral devices operating through synchronizers connected
to the Standard Interface.
Peripheral devices available include line printers, card readers, card punches, a
paper tape reader, a paper tape punch, and a removable disc storage unit. The
peripheral devices are described in subsequent paragraphs.
A typical configuration that could be used to replace a unit record accounting machine
is presented in Paragraph. 031. Paragraph. 032 illustrates a GE-115 configuration
suitable for use as a remote terminal for a GE-400 or GE-600 Series computer system .

. 031 Typical Card System; Standard Configuration J
Equipment
1
1
1
1

-

GE-1l5 Central Processor with 8,192 characters of core storage
PR-ll Printer; 600 lpm
CR-12 Card Reader; 600 lpm
CP-21 Card Punch; 300 cpm
Total Rental

$

700
650
250
575
$2,175

.032 Typical Remote Terminal System
Equipment

Rental

1
1
1
1

$

- GE-1l5 Central Processor with 4,096 characters of core storage
- PR-10 Printer; 300 lpm
-CR-10 Card Reader; 300 cpm
- DATANET-10 or DATANET-ll Communications Terminal*
Total Rental

500
415
125
200
$1,240

* Does not include cost of the necessary digital subset.
NOTE: A DS-12 Removable Disc Storage Unit can be added to provide 1,179,645
characters of on-line random-access storage. Total rental of the above
system with one DS-12 unit (two disc handlers and controller) would be $1,890 .
. 04

INTERNAL STORAGE

.041 Core Storage
A GE-1l5 Central Processor can contain 4,096 or 8,192 locations of core storage.
Each location holds one character of 8 information bits plus a parity bit. Cycle time
per one-character access is eight microseconds. The maximum effective internal
transfer rate is 62,000 characters per second (124,000 digits per second when transferring packed decimal data).
(Contd.)
5/65

310:011.042

SUMMARY REPORT
.042 DS-12 Removable Disc Storage Unit
This unit, developed by the General Electric Computer Department in Phoenix, Arizona,
provides an economical, low-capacity, random-access storage device for GE-1l5
systems. Two disc handlers and the controller are housed in a single cabinet. Additional
disc handlers are available in pairs. The controller can control a total of six disc
handlers.
Each disc handler contains one access mechanism capable of accessing all positions of
one side of the single-disc cartridge. The disc cartridge must be physically removed,
turned over, and replaced to gain access to the information recorded on the other side.
Storage capacity is 589,824 characters per surface. Thus, each DS-12 subsystem
provides up to 3.5 million characters of on-line storage. The average random access
to any sector of data is 445 milliseconds, including rotational delay. The peak data
transfer rate is 95,040 characters per second .
. 05

CENTRAL PROCESSOR
The GE-115 Central Processor is basically a character-oriented, variable-'wordlength, two-address, sequential processor. All addressing is in the binary mode and
is direct; i. e., no indexing or other automatic adrlress modification facilities are
provided.
The basic instruction format is:
Part:

F

C

IA

IB

Size in bits:

8

8

16

16

Reduced formats of two or four 8-bit characters are used for some instructions which
require no reference, or only one reference, to memory. The operation code is
represented by F; the high-order two bits of this word specify the format of the instruction. The C character can represent an operand length for logical instructions
(up to 256 characters), the length of two operands for arithmetic instructions (up to
16 digits each), an 8-bit literal, an I/o device specification, or the complement of
the operation code, depending upon the particular instruction. The 16-bit fields IA
and IB, when present, represent the addresses of the operands.
A total of 25 instructions provide facilities for decimal addition and subtraction,
binary addition and subtraction, decimal and binary comparison, editing, branching
based upon the status of indicators set by compare operations, and the Boolean operations Inclusive OR, AND, and Exclusive OR. Literal operands can be used only in a
one-character store and a one-character compare operation.

Several interesting and potentially valuable instructions are included in the GE-1l5
repertoire. Among these are the Transcode instruction for translating between any
two 8-bit codes; the Pack and Unpack instructions for converting decimal data between
the tWo-digits-per-location packed format and the one-digit-per-Iocation format required for arithmetic instructions; and search instructions for locating a specified
character within a field. Note that all decimal arithmetic instructions operate on
unsigned fields. A subroutine is required to obtain the conventional algebraic type
of arithmetic operations. The only interrupt facility is the capability for recognizing
a request from a DATANET-10 or DATANET-ll terminal.
Probable execution times for decimal arithmetic are as follows, where B represents
the operand length'in 8-bit characters and D represents the operand length in decimal
digits. Note that these times are for unsigned fields; additional time must be allowed
if signed, algebraic-type operations are desired.
Time, Microseconds
For random addresses 96 + 40D.
c = a + b: . • . • . . • . • . . . . . . • • • . • • • . . . . . • • . • . • . .
48 + 20D.
b = a + b: • • • • • . . . . . . . . . • • . • • • . . • • . . . • • • . . . . .
(48 + 20D)N.
Sum N items: . . • . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • . . . • . . . . . . . . .
c = ab: . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • • • • . . • . . • • . . . • • • . • • . .
? *
c = alb: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . • • . . . . . . • . . • . . • . . . .
?*
For arrays of data ci = ai + bj: . . . . . . . " . . . • . . . : • . . • • . . . . . . . . • . . . .
bj = ai + bF' . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . • . . • . . . • . . . • . • .
Sum N items: . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c = c + aibj: " . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . • . . . . . '.' •..•...

372 + 40D.
234 + 20D.
(216 + 20D)N.

Moving data: . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . ' . . . . • . . . . .

48 + 16B.

*

?

*

subroutines are required for multiplication and division;
execution times are not available to date.

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE·115

310:011.051
. 051 Compatibility
There is no direct program compatibility between the GE-1l5 and any of GElS other
computer systems (the 200 Series, 400 Series and the 600 Series). Neither is there
any direct compatibility with the IBM System/360. However, through use of the
Transcode instruction, data files on punched cards and paper tape from almost any
other system can be utilized .
. 06

CONSOLE
A control panel built into the central processor cabinet provides the switches, keys,
and lights required for manual control of the system. No provision for keyboard input
or console typewriter output has been announced to date .

. 07

PUNCHED CARD AND PAPER TAPE INPUT-OUTPUT

.071 CR-12 Card Reader
This unit, developed by Olivetti-GE, reads standard 80-column punched cards at a
peak speed of 600 cards per minute. The effective speed will normally be very close
to the peak speed because this unit has an infinite clutch, so a complete cycle is not
lost when the processing time exceeds the time available between cards.
A l200-card hopper and three 500-card stackers are provided. Cards can be directed
to any of the three stackers under program control. The CR-12 card reader can be
equipped to read and translate the IBM, ISO, or Bull card code. Alternatively, cards
can be read in a column binary mode without translation.
The card reader can operate concurrently with any other peripheral device connected
to the other data channel. However, only the time between cards is available for
internal processing. This time depends on the number of characters read from the
card and is a minimum of 20 milliseconds per card when all 80 columns are being
read at the peak, 600 cpm speed.
,/

.072 CR-ll Card Reader
This unit is virtually the same as the CR-12 except that its peak speed is 300 cards
per minute .
. 073 CR-lO Card Reader
The CR-lO, developed by GE (USA), is a low-cost model similar to the CR-ll
but without multiple stackers. A 500-card hopper and one 500-card stacker
are provided .
. 074 CP-ll Card Punch
This unit, developed by Bull-GE, punches standard 80 column cards serially by
column at 100 columns per second. The peak punching speed varies from 60 cards
per minute when punching 80 columns per card to a maximum of 200 cards per minute. The CP-ll is equipped with one l500-card hopper and one 1500-card stacker .
. 075 CP- 21 Card Punch
This OOit is a version of the CP-20 Card Punch developed by GE for the GE-400 and
GE-600 Series computer systems. The CP-2l Card Punch punches standard 80column cards at a peak rate of 300 cards per minute. This unit has a l200-card
hopper, one l200-card output stacker, and one 100-card reject stacker. The characteristics of the CP-2l are similar to those of the CP-20 Card Punch described in
Section 330:072 of the GE-400 Series report .
. 076 TR-lO Punched Tape Reader
The TR-lO was developed by Olivetti-GE and operates entirely under program control. It can read punched paper tape at a peak speed of 400 characters per second.
Either square-hole (Olivetti) or conventional round-hole 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-level tapes
can be read. Reading can be done in either direction, and the device can stop on a
single character. Even or odd parity checking is used with conventional round-hole
tapes. When reading square-hole tapes, checking is accomplished by a second
reading station and a ,comparison of the characters read by the first and second heads.
(Contd.)
5/65

310:011.077

SUMMARY REPORT
.077 TP-10 Punched Paper Tape Punch
The TP-10 was also developed by Olivetti-GE and is capable' of punching standard
5-, 6-, 7, and 8-level tapes at a peak speed of 100 characters per second. Another
version of this unit is available to punch square-hole (Olivetti) tape.
; 08

PRINTERS

.081 PR-ll Line Printer
The PR-ll Printer is an asynchronous line printer developed by Olivetti-GE.
Skipping is initiated immediately following the last printed character of a line.
Some of the more important characteristics of this printer are:
•

104, 120, or 136 printing positions.

•

10 characters per inch horizontal spacing.

•

6 lines per inch vertical spacing.

•

64 printable characters (GE standard character set).

•

12 inches per second continuous skipping speed.

The PR-ll will accept continuous forms from 3 to 22 inches in width. An optional
feature allows form skipping at 64 inches per second.
The maximum printing rate utilizing the full 64-character set is 600 single-spaced
lines per minute .
. 082 PR-10 Line Printer
The PR-10 Printer is a slowed-down version of the PR-ll Printer described in the
previous paragraph. The maximum printing rate of the PR-ll is 300 single-spaced
lines per minute when using the full 64-character set. Other characteristics of the
PR-ll Printer are similar to those of the PR-10, except that the high-speed skip
option is not available for the PR-ll .
. 09

MAGNETIC TAPE
No provisions for magnetic tape input-output have been announced to date for the
GE-1l5 .

. 10

OTHER INPUT-OUTPUT EQUIPMENT

.101 DATANET-10 and DATANET-ll
These two devices enable a GE-1l5 system to be connected to a remote GE-400 Series
or GE-600 Series computer system via a second DATANET (any model) at the remote
site and a dial-Up or private-line communication circuit.
The DATANET-10 allows the GE-1l5 to be connected to the Bell System DSS201A, a
2, OOO-baud circuit. The DATANET-ll allows connection to the Bell System DSS201B,
a 2,400-baud private-line circuit.
Typical transmission rates between a GE-400 or GE-600 Series computer system and
the GE-1l5 are shown in Table I. These rates are based on record lengths of 80 characters per card or 120 characters per print line. Reduced record lengths can increase
the transmission rates up to the peak rates of the individual peripheral devices.
TABEL I: TYPICAL GE-1l5 REMOTE TERMINAL PERFORMANCE
Peripheral Device
Card Reader (any model)
CP-21 Card Punch
Printer (any model)

©

Rate
125 cards/min
85 cards/min
95 lines/min

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

310:011.110

GE-11S
.11

SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS
The GE-115 Central Processor has two data channels and four outlets for connecting
peripheriu devices,' Under program control, the data channels can be switched to
service different outlets. Data Channell can service outlets 1 and 2. Data Channel
2 can service outlets 2, 3, and 4. Only a printer can be connected to outlet 1; only
a card reader can be connected to outlet 2. One peripheral device with controller can
be connected to outlet 3 and one to outlet 4 through the GE-100 Standard Interface.
Alternatively, a communications device can be connected directly to outlet 4, and a
total of up to 64 peripheral devices with controllers can be attached to outlet 3 via
Synchronizers.
Data transfers on both channels can take place concurrently through time-sharing of
the core storage accesses required by each peripheral device. The processor, however,
is locked out during every peripheral operation from the initiation of the data transfer
until all data for that operation has been transferred. Thus, the time between card
columns is not available for internal processing, but the time between successive cards
is. In general, the processor delay is dependent upon the number of characters transferred in a peripheral operation (see Table II) .
The Sychronizer (or "Channel Expander") enables four peripheral controllers to be
connected to one outlet. Each outlet of the sychronizer can be Similarly expanded,
and up to three levels of Synchronizers can be cascaded in this manner. Thus, up to
64 peripheral controllers can be connected to outlet 3. Each controller is addressed
individually. Two peripheral devices connected to the same outlet via Sychronizers
cannot tranRfer data simultaneously.
Table n summarizes the delays imposed upon central processor operations by most
of the GE-1l5 input-output devices.
TABLE II: PROCESSOR DELAYS DURING I/O OPERATIONS
Cycle Time,
msec

Maximum
Processor
Delay,
msec

300cpm
300 cpm
600 cpm

200
200
100

108
108
80

CP-10
CP-21

100 col/sec
300 cpm

300 min.
200

Printing

PR-10
PR-ll

300lpm
600lpm

200
100

160
80

Paper Tape
Reading and
Punching

TR-10
TP-10

400 cps
100 cps

*
*

?
?

Disc Storage
Reading or
Writing

DS-12

95,040 cps

*

?

Function

Device

Peak
Speed

Card Reading

CR-10
CR-ll
CR-12

Card Punching

*
. 15

*

?
?

Varies with number of characters read, punched, or written .

SOFTWARE
GE has announced a limited amount of software to be available for the GE-1l5 by
June, 1965. The software will include a basic one-for-one assembler; a macro assembler for disc systems; a library of subroutines, debugging aids, and utility routines; a group of routines to aid in conversion from unit record tabulating equipment;
and.a remote terminal program. Detailed specifications for these routines are not
available to date.

5/65

./--

310:221.101
GE-115
Price Data

PRICE DATA

IDENTITY OF UNIT

CLASS
No.

Name

PRICES

Monthly
Rental

Monthly
Maintenance

$
CENTRAL
PROCESSOR

INTERNAL
STORAGE

$

4,096 characters
8,192 characters

500
700

?
?

24,000
33,600

650
400

-

?
?
?

31,200
19,200
260

125
160
250

?
?
?

6,000
7,680
12,000

Core storage is included in the GE-115
Central Processor above.
RDC115
ASU115
ADS115

INPUT.oUTPUT

Purchase

GE-115 Central Processor
115-04
115-08

RANDOM
ACCESS
STORAGE

$

CRZ100
CRZ110
CRZ120

DS-12 Removable Disc Storage and
Controller (2 disc handlers);
1 million words
Additional 2 Disc Handlers
Additional Disc Cartridge
CR-10 Card Reader; 300 cpm
CR-11 Card Reader; 300 cpm
. CR-12 Card Reader; 600 cpm

CPZ101
CPZ103

CP-11 Card Punch; 60 to 200 cpm
CP-21 Card Punch; 300 cpm

300
575

?
?

14,400
27,600

PRT100
OPT075
OPT076

PR-10 Printer; 300 lpm:
With 104 print positions
With 120 print positions
With 136 print positions

415
450
485

?
?
?

21,600
23,280
29,040

PRT110
OPT077
OPT078

PR-11 Printer; 600 lpm:
With 104 print positions
With 120 print positions
With 136 print positions

605
650
695

?
?
?

29,040
31,200
33,360

OPT079

Fast Skip Option (for PR-11)

70

?

3,360

PTR100
PTP100

Paper Tape Reader; 400 cps
Paper Tape Punch; 100 cps

110
120

?
?

5,280
5,760

CLIlOO
CLIl10

DATANET-10; 2,000 baud
DATANET-11; 2,40G baud

200
200

?
?

9.600
9,600

SYN115

Synchronizer (four outlets)

70

?

3,360

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE 215
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

GE 215
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

320:001.001
GE 215
CC!ntents

CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
9.
10.

11.

12.
13.

14.

Introduction;.....
Data Structure • . •
System Configuration
I
Typical Card System
II
4-Tape Business System
III
6-Tape Business System •
V
6-Tape Auxiliary Storage System.
VI
6-Tape Business/Scientific System
Internal Storage
Core Storage • . • . . . • . . . •
Mass Random Access Data Storage
Central Processors
Central Processor. . . .
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit
Console
Console (part of Central Processor) .
Console Typewriter . . . . • .
Input-Output; Punched Tape and Card
Card Reader (400 cards/minute)
Card Reader (1,000 cards/minute)
Card Punch (100 cards/minute)
Card Punch (300 cards/minute)
Paper Tape Reader
Paper Tape Punch . . . . . .
Input-Output; Printers
High Speed Printer (On-Line) .
Input-Output; Magnetic Tape
Dual Magnetic Tape Handler (15KC) •
Input-Output; Other
Magnetic Ink Document Handler.
DATANET-15 • • .
Sim ultaneous Operations. . • .
Controller Selector • .
Priority Access Control
Instruction List. .
Coding Specimens
GAP • . .
GECOM .
GECOM Report Writer.
TABSOL •
WIZ-II .
ZOOM.
Data Codes
Internal BCD and Printer .
Magnetic Tape (BCD Mode) •
Punched Cards . .
Collating Sequence . . . .

* Refer to

320:011
320:021
320:031. 1
320:031. 2
320:031. 3
320:031. 5
320:031. 6
320:041
320:042
320:051
320:051. 12
320:061
320:061. 13
320:071
320:072
320:073
320:073
320:074
320:075
320:081
320:091
320:101
320:102
320:111
320:111.1
320:111.1
321:121 *
321:131 *
321:132 *
321:133 *
321:134 *
321:135 *
321:136 *
321:141
321:142
321:143
321:144

*
*
*
*

indicated section of GE 225 report; all GE 225 software is directly usable on the

GE 215.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320:001.002
CONTENTS (Contd.)
15.

16.

17.

Problem Oriented Facilities
IBM 650 Simulator.
LGP-30 Simulator.
FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator.
GECOM Report Writer. •
Card Program Generator.
BRIDGE II Service System
Mathematical Routines. .
BANKPAC . . . . . . .
Electric Utility Routines '.
PRONTO . . . . . . .
Critical Path Method. . .
TRIM . . . . . . . . •
Assembly Line Balancing.
Permuted Index Program Package
Process Oriented Languages
GECOM •.
TABSOL . .
FORTRAN II
WIZ-II . . .
Machine Oriented Languages
GAP • • • .

18.

ZOOM • • .
Program Translators
GAP ••

19.
20.

21.
22.

GECOM . .
WIZ • . • .
Operating Environment
BRIDGE II Service System
System Performance • • • • . •
Generalized File Processing ••
Sorting • • • . .
Matrix Inversion
Physical Characteristics
Price Data
•..•..

* Refer to indicated section of GE
GE 215.
7/63

321:151.11 *
321:151. 11 *
321:151. 13 *
321:151. 14 *
321:151. 14 *
321:151.15 *
321:151.17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:151. 17 *
321:161 *
321:161. 14
321:162 *
321:163 *

*

*

321:171
321:172

*

321:181
321:182
321:183

*
*

*

321:191 *
320:201.001
320:201.1
320:201. 2
320:201. 3
321:211 *
320:221

225 report; all GE 225 software is directly usable on the

320:011.100
STANDARD

REPORTS

GE 215
Introduction

INTRODUCTION

§Oll.
The GE 215 is a small scale, solid-state data processing system that is adaptable
to a wide range of business and scientific applications. System rentals can range from
approximately $2,600 to over $18,000 per month, but most installations will probably fall
within the $4,000 to $12,000 range. The GE 215 was announced in February, 1963, and
initial customer deliveries are scheduled for the fourth quarter of 1963.
Compatibility
The GE 215 is the smallest member of General Electric Computer Department's
recently expanded line of general purpose digital computers. The more powerful GE 225
and GE 235 systems (Computer System Reports 321 and 323) are fully program -compatible
with the GE 215 and offer essentially the same line of peripheral equipment. Internal processing speeds of the GE 225 and 235 systems are approximately twice as fast and six times
as fast, respectively, as those of the GE 215, offering the potential for upward expansion
without reprogramming as the user's computer needs grow. (The GE 215 central processor
is, in fact, a slowed-down GE 225 central processor.)
The principal differences between the GE 215 system and the earlier GE 225 can be
summarized as follows:
•

Core storage cycle time is 36 microseconds in the GE 215, versus 18 microseconds in the GE 225.

• Maximum GE 215 core storage size is 8,192 words, versus 16,384 words in
the GE 225.
•

Maximum magnetic tape speed is 15,000 characters per second in the GE 215;
a 41,667 character per second handler is available for the GE 225.

•

The high speed printer has a rated speed of 450 alphameric lines per minute in
GE 215 systems, versus 900 lines per minute in GE 225 systems.

• The total number of controllers for magnetic tape, disc storage, high speed
printers, magnetic ink document handlers, data communication terminals, and
the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit is limited to three in the GE 215, versus up to
eight in the GE 225.
•

Only one magnetic tape controller can be used in aGE 215 system, versus up to
eight in a GE 225.

• Only one disc storage controller can be used in a GE 215 system, versus up to
eight in a GE 225.
Hardware
Core storage in the GE 215 can consist of 4, 096 or 8,192 word locations. Each
20-bit location can hold a one-address instruction, a binary data word of 19 bits plus sign,
or 3 alphameric characters in 6-bit BCD representation. Core storage cycle time is 36
microseconds. A parity check is performed upon all internal transfer operations.
The central processor provides complete arithmetic facilities for single word-length
binary operands. Loading, storing, addition, and subtraction of double-length binary data
items can also be performed. An optional feature permits addition and subtraction (but not
multiplication or division) of single- or double-length data items in BCD form. This feature

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporoted

7/63

GE 215

320:011.101

INTRODUCTION (Contd.)
§01I.
Hardware (Contd.)
can significantly reduce the number of time-consuming radix conversions requireq in business data processing, but will seldom eliminate the problem completely.
Three index registers and a fourth location that serves as a convenient counter
register are standard. An optional feature makes 31 additional 4-word groups in core
storage available as index registers or counters. Only one group, selected by a special
instruction, can be active at a time. Other optional features for the central processor are
a Move Command (which expedites internal block transfer operations), Three-Way Compare,
Automatic Priority Interrupt, and a Real-Time Clock. Instructions are executed at the rate
of about 10,000 pet" second in typical GE 215 routines.
The Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can perform double-length arithmetic in either fixed
or floating point mode under control of the central processor. This optional unit greatly
increases the 215's internal processing speeds on scientific problems.
Standard 80-column punched cards can be read at 400 or 1,000 cards per minute and
punched at 100 or 300 cards per minute. Paper tape can be read at 250 or 1,000 characters
per second and punched at 110 characters per second. A console typewriter provides typed
output at 10 characters per second. Input via the console typewriter is an optional feature.
All peripheral devices except those mentioned-above are connected to the central
processor through a three-way multiplexing device called the Controller Selector, which
gives the GE 215 capabilities for simultaneous operations that rival more costly systems.
Up to three controllers for magnetic tape units, disc storage units, printers, magnetic document handlers, data communication equipment, and the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can be connected to the Controller Selector. One peripheral unit on each controller can operate Simultaneously with internal processing and card reading and punching. Accesses to core storage
are automatically allocated among the operating units by a straightforward priority system.
Maximum gruss data transfer rate for the system is 27,800 words per second.
The printer has a peak speed of 450 alphameric lines per minute and a skipping
speed of 25 inches per second. The printer controller provides automatic editing and format control.
The magnetic tape nandler has a peak data transfer rate of 15,000 characters per
second at a recording density of 200 rows per inch. The tape format is compatible with the
IBM 727, 729, and 7330 Magnetic Tape Units at low density. Two tape handlers are mounted
in a single cabinet, one above the other. Up to eight tape handlers can be connected to the tape
controller, but only one tape read or write operation can occur at a time.
Each Mass Random Access Data Storage (MRADS) unit provides disc storage for
approximately 18.87 million alphameric characters in 98,304 fixed record locations of 64
words (or 192 characters) each. The average total waiting time for access to a randomlyplaced record is 225 milliseconds. Up to 294,912 characters per MRADS unit can be transferred without repoSitioning any of the 16 access arms. A maximum of four MRADS file
units can be connected to the MRADS controller. Only one MRADS read or write operation
can occur at a time.
Magnetically encoded paper documents can be read and sorted at a peak speed of
1,200 documents per minute. Two document handlers can be connected to each controller.
The DATANET-15 controls the transmission and reception of digital data over telephone and telegraph lines and two-wire cables at speeds ranging from 60 to 2,400 bits per
second. Up to 15 data transmission lines and a paper tape reader and punch can be connected to a DATANET-15 , butlit can control only one data transfer operation at a time.

7/63

/

320:011.102

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION (Contd.)

§Oll.
Hardware (Contd.)
GE'S line of data communications equipment also includes:
•

The DATANET-30 programmed data communication system.

•

The DATANET-600 paper tape terminal.

•

The DATANET-90 magnetic-tape-to-computer terminal.

•

The DATANET-91 off-line magnetic-tape-to-magnetic-tape terminal.

•

A variety of special digital input-output devices.

GE'S MOSE (Modification of Standard Equipment) group offers a variety of specialpurpose hardware for use with the 215 system, such as peripheral device switching controllers, printer plotting option, plotter interface units, etc.
Software
All of the programs and programming systems that have been developed for the
GE 225 are directly usable on Similarly equipped GE 215 systems. The available software
is summarized below and described in detail in the GE 225 report, Sections 321:151 through
321:191.
The General Assembly Program (GAP) is the basic symbolic assembly system for the
GE 215. It permits full utilization of the hardware facilities, is relatively easy to learn and
use, but provides few refinements. GAP-coded programs can be assembled on GE 215
systems with punched card, paper tape, or magnetic tape input-output equipment.
ZOOM is a "macro assembly system" designed to facilitate machine oriented programming by reducing the amount of detailed coding required While retaining high object
program effiCiencies. The ZOOM programmer uses a combination of pseudo- English statements, algebraic expressions, and GAP symbolic statements. These are translated into an
all-GAP program which if' then assembled in the normal manner. Magnetic tape is not required, but can be utilized to facilitate the translation process.
GECOM is offered as an all- purpose process oriented language. The bas ic language
structure is similar to that of COBOL-61 but is not compatible with it. (A COBOL-61 to
GECOM translator will be provided.) GECOM also handles algebraic expressions and
mathematical functions, and includes a report writer and TABSOL, a system that permits
decision logic to be expressed in a concise tabular format. At least four magnetic tape
handlers and 8,192 core storage locations are required for GECOM compilations.
WIZ is a one-pass algebraic compiler for use on punched card or paper tape systems
with at least 8,192 core storage locations. WIZ is less powerful than the FORTRAN or
ALGOL language, but it is easy to learn and provides high compilation speeds.
FORTRAN II is available for GE 215 systems with at least 8,192 core storage locations and 4 magnetic tape units. Arrays are limited to two dimensions, and Boolean, complex, and double precision statements are not permitted. On the other hand, several useful
extensions of the FORTRAN II language have been incorporated.
BRIDGE II is a tape file maintenance and run sequencing program whose functions are
directed by control cards. FORWARD is a generalized sort/merge generator. Simulation
programs are available for simulating the operations of mM 650 and General Precision LGP30 computers on the GE 215. The Card Program Generator simplifies the programming of
existing punched card tabulator and calculator runs for the GE 215. An adequate library of
generalized input-output, diagnostic, and mathematical routines are available, as are speCial-purpose packages for the banking and electric utility industries, numerical tool control,
inventory management, assembly line balancing, critical path scheduling, and information
retrieval.
7/63
© 1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

320:021.100
GE 215
Doto Structure

DATA STRUCTURE

§

.2

021.

.1

STORAGE LOCATIONS
Name of
Location Size

Purpose or Use

+ parity basic addressable

Word:

20 bits

Sector:

64 words

Band:

8 or 16 sectors

Disc:

512 bands

location.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage record
location.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage.

© 1963

INFORMATION FORMATS
Type of Information

Representation

Numeral (BCD):

three 6-bit characters per
word.
three 6-bit characters per
word.
one or two 3-character words.
one or two 20-bit words.
two words (30 bits + sign for
mantissa; 8 bits + sign for
exponent).
one word (two words for
certain input-output
instructions.

Letter (BCD): .
Number (BCD): . . . ..
Number (binary): . . .
Number (floating point):
Instruction: . . . . . .

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:031.100
GE 215
System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
§

031.

.1

TYPICAL CARD SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION I)
core storage is 75% larger.
card punch is 50% faster.
printer is 55% slower.
2 more simultaneous data transfer operations
are possible.
.
2 more index registers.
Equipment
Rental

Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . .

Core Storage: 4, 096 words

}

~,WO

Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

Card Reader & Controller:
1,000 cards/min.

810

Card Punch & Controller:
300 cards/min.

825

Controller Selector

o
Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Printer & Controller:
450 lines/min.

Move command.
Three-way compare.
Decimal addition & subtraction.
Additional address modification
groups.
TOTAL.

© 1963

by Auerbach Carporation and BNA Incorporated

775

75

)

200

$4,885

7/63

GE 215

320:031.200
§

031.

.2

4-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION II)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . . . .

core storage is 75% larger.
card reader is 20% slower.
3 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
3 index registers, console typewriter, and
multiply-divide are standard.
Equipment

Core Storage: 4,096 words

Rental

j
$2,200

Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer & Controller:
450 lines/min.

Magnetic Tape Units (4) &
Controller: 15,000 char/sec.

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

775

2,500

none.
TOTAL. . . • . . . . . . . . . ..

$6,250

(
.------:-c~

7/63

I AUERBACH I @Il

320:031.300

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

§

031.

.3

6-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION III)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . . . .

card reader is 20% slower.
magnetic tape is 50% slower.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
oper!ltions are possible.

Equipment

Core Storage: 4,096 words
Central Processor, Console,
Typewriter

I---~-----IO

Rental

.)

$2,200

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch.& Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer &. Controller:
450 lines/min.

775

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 char/sec.

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . Move Command.
Three-way compare.
Decimal addition & subtraction.
Additional address modification
groups.
TOTAL.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

3,350

1

75
200

$7,375

7/63

GE 215

320:031.500
§

031.

.5

6-TAPE AUXILIARY STORAGE SYSTEM (CONFIGUR"-r::ION V)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . • . . . . . . . .•

card reader is 20% slower.
magnetic tape is 50% slower.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Mass Random Access (Disc)
Storage & Controller:
18,874,368 characters

$2,625

Core Storage: 4,096 words
2,200
Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

1---OII~t----O

----,0

I--'-~

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

775

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15, 000 char/sec.

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . Move Command.
Three- Way Compare
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
Automatic Interrupt.
TOTAL . . • . . . . .

7/63

I AUERBACH I ,$]

3,350

1

75
200
75

$10,075

320:031.600

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

§

031.

.6

6-TAPE BUSINESS/SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION VI)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 56% smaller.
card reader is 20% slower.
magnetic tape is 50% slower.
2 more simultaneous non-tape transfer
operations are possible.

Equipment

Rental

Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit

$ 650

Core Storage: 8,192 words
Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

}

2,500

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer & Controller:
450 lines/min.

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 char/sec.

Optional Features Included: . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
}
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
TOTAL.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

775

3,350

75
200

$8,325

7/63

320:041.100
GE 215
Internal Storage
Core Storage

INTERNAL STORAGE: CORE STORAGE

§

041.

· 29

Potential Transfer Rates

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

Core Storage.
CA215A (4,096 locations).
CB215A (8,192 locations).

.292 Peak data rates
Unit of data:
Conversion factor:
Cycling rate: .
Data rate: . . .

.12

Basic Use: .

working storage.

.3

DATA CAPACITY

• 13

Description

· 31

Module and System Sizes

Core Storage is housed in the Central Processor
cabinet and may consist of 4,096 or 8,192 locations.
The corresponding processor model numbers are
listed above. Each storage location consists of
twenty data bits and one parity bit and can hold a
single-address instruction, a binary data word of
nineteen bits plus sign, or three BCD characters.
Single or double word-length load and store operations are possible in the basic processor; and internal block transfers of any length are possible with the
optional Move Command, at a maximum effective
rate of 13,900 words per second.

1 word.
20 bits per word.
27,800 cycles/second.
27,800 words/second.

Identity: . .
Words: •.•
Characters:
Instructions: .
Modules: . • .
• 32

Minimum
Storage

Maximum
Storage

CA215A
4,096
12,288
4,096

CB215A.
8,192.
24,576.
8,192.
1.

1

Rules for Combining
Modules: . . . . . .

all configurations are
shown above.

.. 14

Availability: . .

8 months as of March, 1963.

•4

CONTROLLER:

. 15

First Delivery:

late 1963 .

.5

ACCESS TIMING

.16

Reserved Storage

.51

Arrangement of Heads:

.52

Simultaneous
Operatlons:. . . . . . none.

.53

Access Time Parameters and Variations

Purpose
Index registers and
counters: . . . .
Arith registers: .
Logic registers: .
I/O control: . . .

No. of Locations
4 (128 optional)
none.
none.
none.

none.

PHYSICAL FORM

· 21

Storage Medium: .

magnetic core.

· 22

Physical Dimensions:

not available.

• 23

Storage Phenomenon:

direction of magnetization .

• 24

Recording Permanence

.531 For uniform access
Access time: . .
Cycle time:. . .
For data unit of:

.6

· 28

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE: . .

.7

PERFORMANCE

· 71

Data Transfer

18 J.Lsec.
36 J.Lsec.
1 word.
. . no.

Pairs of storage units possibilities
yes.
no.
yes (usually retained).
no.
no.

With self: . . . . •
With Mass Random
Access File: . . .

.72

....

coincident current .
uniform.

© 1963

yes.
yes (see Section 320:042).

Transfer Load Size
With self:

Access Techniques

• 281 Recording method:.
• 283 Type of access: . .

one access device per
system.

Locks

•2

.241 Data erasable by
program: . . .
. 242 Data regenerated
constantly: ••.•
· 243 Data volatile:
• 244 Data permanent: .
• 245 Storage changeable:

none.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

1 or 2 words; or, with optional Move Command, 1 to
N words, where N is limited by storage capacity.

7/63

320:041.730

GE 215
.8

§ 041.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

.73

Effective Transfer Rate
With self, using
indexed loop: . . . . . 4,000 words/second.
With self, using
optional Move
Command: . . . . . . 13,900 words/second.

7/63

Invalid address:
Receipt of data:
Dispatch of data:
Conflicting.
commands:
Recovety of data:
Recording of data:

Check or
Interlock
none.
parity check
send parity bit.

Action
indicator & alarm; optional stop.

not possible.
parity check
indicator & alarm; optional stop.
record parity bit.

320:042.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

REroRTS

GE 215
Internal Storage

MRADS
INTERNAL STORAGE: MASS RANDOM ACCESS DATA STORAGE

§

· 13

042.

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity:

. 13

. . . . . . . Mass Random Access Data
Storage.
M640A.
MRADS.

Description (Contd. )
Access Controller. Only one head positioning operation at a time may occur in each MRADS unit, or up
to four at a time per controller.

. 14

Availability: •.

1 month as of March, 1963•

· 15

First Deiivery:

1963 .

.16

Reserved Storage: .

no addressable locations
reserved.

·2

PHYSICAL FORM

• 21

Storage Medium: .

· 22

PhYSical Dimensions

Description
Each Mass Random Access file unit consists of sixteen data discs and two checking discs on a common
vertical axis. Up to four files can be connected to
one MRADS Controller, which occupies one of the
three "hubs" on the Controller Selector.
Each disc surface is divided into 256 bands. The
outer 128 bands contain sixteen sectors each and the
inner 128 bands contain eight sectors each. One 64word block of data (192 alphameric characters) can
be stored in each sector, and from one to siXteen
sectors can be transferred between disc storage and
core storage in a single MRADS read or write operation. Total capacity of each MRADS unit is 98,304
sectors, 6.29 million words, 18.87 million characters, or about 34.6 million decimal digits.
Each disc is served by an individual positioning arm
containing eight read-write heads. Four heads serve
the top disc surface and the other four serve the
bottom surface, so only sixty-four arm positions are
required to cover all the bands on a disc. Arm positioning time ranges from 70 to 305 milliseconds, and
the average total waiting time for random accessing
is 225 milliseconds. Up to 98,304 words per file
unit can be transferred without moving any of the
positioning arms. Peak transfer rate is 23,700
words per second for data recorded on the outer
bands and 11,850 words per second for the inner
bands. An effective bulk transfer rate of 20,000
words per second can be obtained with optimum data
placement.
A parity bit is recorded and checked for each word.
In addition, the sixty-fifth word recorded in each
sector is composed of one longitudinal parity check
bit for each of the twenty bit positions of the sixtyfour data words. This two-way parity check makes
it possible to locate and correct, by means of a subroutine, a single-bit error occurring anywhere in a
sector. The address of each sector is permanently
recorded in a "header" word and used for sector
identification and band address confirmation.
Three instructions words are required for each disc
seek, read, or write operation. The first word
selects the proper controller and transfers to it the
next two words, which specify the exact operation
and the addresses involved. Simultaneous read or
write operations are limited to one per Mass Random

© 1963

. multiple discs.

.222 Disc
Diameter: . . . . . . 31 inches.
Thickness or length: . thin.
18 discs (16 for data).
Number on shaft: . .
.23

Storage Phenomenon:

.24

Recording Permanence

.241 Data erasable by
program: . . . .
• 242 Data regenerated
constantly: . . .
• 243 Data volatile: .
. 244 Data permanent: •
. 245 Storage changeable:

.

.25

direction of magnetization.

yes .
no .
no .
no .
no.

Data Volume per Band of 1 Track

.

Words: . ·
Characters:
Digits: .

·.

Instructions: .
Sectors: ·

..

1,024 (outer) or 512 (inner).
3,072 (outer) or 1,536
(inner).
5,632 (outer) or 2,816
(inner).
1,024 (outer) or 512 (inner).
16 (outer) or 8 (inner).

.26

Bands per Physical Unit: 512 (256 per disc surface).

• 27

Interleaving Levels: .

.28

Access Techniques

.281 Recording method: .
.283 Types of access
Description of stage
Move head to
selected band:
Wait for start of
selected sector:
Transfer data: ..

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

1.

moving heads.
Possible starting stage
if new band is selected.
if head movement is
unnecessary.
no.

7/63

320:042.290
§

GE 215

042.

· 29

.445 Synchronization: . . .
Potential Transfer Rates

.291 Peak bit rates
Cycling rates:
Bits/inch/track: .
Bit rate per track:
· 292 Peak data rates
Unit of data: .
Conversion factor: .
Gain factor:
Data rate: . . . . .
.3

DATA CAPACITY

· 31

Module and System Sizes
Minimum
Storage

Identity:
Discs:
Words:
Characters:
Instructions:
Digits:
Sectors:
Modules:
· 32

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

CONTROLLER

. 41

Identity: . . . .

· 42

word.
20 data bits /word.
1.
23,700 (outer) or 11,850
(inner) words/sec.

M640A
16
6.29 x
18.87 x
6.29 x
34.60 x
98,304
1

106
106
106
106

Maximum Storage
per Controller
and per System
M640A (4 units)
64
25.2 x 106
75.5 x 106
25.2 x 106
138.4 x 106
393,216
4

..... .

.422 Off-line: . . . . . . .

MRADS Controller •
M225B.

1 per system; requires lof
the 3 Controller Selector
hubs.
none.

Data Transfer Control

.442 Input-output area:
• 443 Input-output area
access: . . . . .
• 444 Input-output area
lockout: . . . .

7/63

.51

Arrangement of Heads

.511 Number of stacks
Stacks per system:.
Stacks per module: .
Stacks per yoke: . .
Yokes per module: .
.512 Stack movement: . . .
. 513 Stacks that can access
any particular
location: . . . . . .
.514 Accessible locations
By single stack
With no movement: .
With all movement:.
By all stacks
With no movement: .

128 to 512 per controller.
128.
8.
16 (one for each disc).
in horizontal plane only.
1.

16 or 8 sectors.
1,024 or 512 sectors.
1,536 per module.
6,144 per controller.
49, 152 per system.

.515 Relationship between
stacks and locations:. least significant 7 bits of
MRADS address specify
stack and sector.
• 52

Simultaneous Operations

C:
D:

waiting for access to
specified location.
reading.
recording.

a + c + d = at most 1 per MRADS unit.
c +d
= at most 1 per system.

Connection to Device

· 441 Size of Load: •

ACCESS TIMING

A:

.431 Devices per controller: 4.
.432 Restrictions:. . . . . . none.
.44

.5

up to 4 MRADS units per
controller; 1 controller
per system.

Connection to System

.421 On-line:

· 43

1,200 rpm.
400 maximum.
500, 000 or 250, 000
bits/sec/track.

Single
MRADS Unit

Rules for Combining
Modules: •.

.4

.447 Table control: . . . .
· 448 Testable conditions: .

automatic during a read or
write operation
none.
MRADS ready, controller
ready.

1 to 16 sectors of 64 words
each.
core storage.
each word.
none.

.53

Access Time Parameters and Variations

.532 Variation in access time
Stage
Variation,
msec
Move head to
selected band: .
0 or 70 to 305
Wait for start of
selected sector: •
0 to 52
Transfer 1 sector
of data: . .
3. 1 or 6. 2
Total: . . . .
3. 1 to 363. 2
.6

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE: . .

.7

AUXILIARY STORAGE PERFORMANCE

• 71

Data Transfer

no .

Pair of storage units possibilities
With self:. . . . . .
no .
With core storage: . . yes.

Example,
msec
199 (avg.)
26 (avg.)
3.1.
328.1

320:042.720

INTERNAL STORAGE: MASS RANDOM ACCESS DATA STORAGE
.8

§ 042 •

. 72

Transfer Load Size
With core storage: .

.73

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION

1 to 16 sectors of 64 words
each.

Effective Transfer Rate
With core storage:. . . 20,000 words/sec or
60,000 char/sec.

© 1963

Error

Check or
Interlock

Invalid address:
Receipt of data:
Dispatch of data:
Conflicting commands:
Recovery of data:
Wrong record selected:
Recording of data:

check
pariry
send parity bit.
check
word & sector parity
address comparison
generate parity word.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Action
indicator.
Indicator.
indicator.
indicator.
indicator.

7/63

320:051.100
•

STANDARD

EDP

•

GE 215

REPORTS

Central Pracessar

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

. 12

§ OSlo

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity: .

Central Processor.
CA215, CB215.
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
X225A.
AAU.

. 12

Description (Contd. )
circuitry in the printer controller; this reduces time
demands upon the Central Processor while permitting
a high degree of flexibility in the printed output.
Conditional branch instructions result in execution of
the next sequential instruction (which will normally
be an unconditional branch) if the tested condition is
true; otherwise, the next sequential instruction is
·skipped •

Description
The GE 215 is completely program-compatible with
the larger GE 225 and GE 235 systems. Its effective
core storage cycle time is 36 microseconds ( or
twice as long as that of the GE 225), and it is more
restricted in the number of peripheral devices that
can be connected.
The 215 is a single-address, fixed word-length, sequential processor. The main arithmetic and control circuitry, core storage, and console controls
are housed in the processor cabinet. The two models differ only in the amount of core storage they
contain. Word length of core memory locations and
control registers is twenty bits • .one location may
contain an instruction, a binary data word consisting
of a sign bit and nineteen data bits, or an alphameric
data word consisting of three six-bit BCD-coded
characters. Complete arithmetic facilities for single
word-length binary data are built in.
Because the twenty-bit word is too short for many
data processing and scientific applications, standard
instructions are provided for double word -length addition, subtraction, and data transfers. In these
cases, the combined A and Q Registers serve as a
double-length accumulator. In the standard processor, subroutines must be used for double-length
binary multiplication and division and for all decimal
and floating point arithmetic operations. Optional
hardware which can provide many of these arithmetic
facilities is described below.
Three index registers and a fourth location that
serves as a convenient counter register are standard,
and special instructions facilitate incrementing and
testing them. A variety of instructions is provided
for inter-register transfers, shifting, normalizing,
and complementing. These instructions do not require an operand address, so bits 7 through 19, which
would normally contain the address, are used to define the exact operation to be performed. Through
various combinations of these thirteen bits, the advanced programmer can create many special instructions in addition to those in the standard GE-defined
repertoire. This technique is termed "micro-programming".
There are no table look-up facilities, and multiword internal transfers require the optional Move
Command. Editing is accomplished by format control

© 1963

Optional Features
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit (AAU): This independent
unit provides complete hardware facilities for double
word-length binary arithmetic in either fixed or floating point mode. Data can be transferred directly between the forty-bit AAU accumulator register and
core storage, and Central Processor operations can
continue while an arithmetic operation is in progress
in the AAU. The AAU is connected to the Processor
through the Controller Selector. Like the other
peripheral devices, it can be tested for "ready" or
"not ready" status and for various error conditions;
unlike the others, only one instruction word is required for any AAU operation. A floating point data
item is represented by thirty bits plus sign for the
mantissa and eight bits plus sign for the exponent.
This is the equivalent of 9 decimal digits of precision
and an exponent range of 10- 76 to 10+ 76 .
Decimal Addition and Subtraction: This feature enables the Central Processor to perform single and
double-length addition and subtraction on decimal data
stored in the six-bit BCD form. A carry indicator
facilitates the coding of additions or subtractions of
fields more than six characters long, but negative
BCD numbers must be stored in the inconvenient ten's
complement form. Instructions are provided to shift
between the decimal and binary arithmetic modes.
Additional Address Modification Word Groups: This
makes a total of thirty-two four-word groups (core
storage locations 0000-0127) available as index registers or counters. Only one group, selected by a
special instruction, may be active at a time, and only
three of the four words are usable for address modification.
Three-Way Compare: Permits branching to the first,
second, or third sequential instruction depending upon
whether the contents of a specified single or doublelength core storage location are greater than, equal
to, or less than the contents of the accumulator.
Move Command: Provides a single instruction to
transfer any number of successive words from one
core storage area to another. The A and Q registers
must contain, respectively, the new initial address
and the number of words to be moved.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:051.120

GE 215

.217 Edit format

§ OSlo

.12

Description (Contd. )
Automatic Priority Interrupt: Provides automatic
storing'of the sequence counter contents and a transfer of control to core storage location 0132 whenever
any selected peripheral controller switches from
"not ready" to "ready" status. Interruption from the
console is not possible. The interrupt feature is especially useful for overlapping data transcription operations with independent processing routines.

Availability:

8 months as of March, 1963.

• 14

First Delivery:

late 1963 .

.2

PROCESSING FACILITIES

. 21

Operations and Operands
Radix

Size

binalY (decimal
with option)

lor 2 words.

binalY

1 word (2

.211 Fixed point
Add-Subtract:

automatic

Multiply
Short:
Long:

automatic

non~.

with AAU).
Divide
No remainder:
Remainder:

none.
automatic

binalY

with AAU).

.212 Floating pOint
Add-Subtract:
Multiply:
Divide:

1 word (2

subroutine binalY
or AAU
subroutine binalY
orAAU
subroutine binalY
or AAU

30 & 8 bits
(2 words).
30 & 8 bits
(2 words).
30 & 8 bits
(2 words).

none.
}
automatic binalY
automatic

1 word.

• 213 Boolean
AND:
Inclusive OR:
Extract:

• 214 Comparison
1 word.
subtract & test
Numbers:
none.
Absolute:
1 word.
Letters:
subtract & test
1 word.
Mixed:
subtract & test
Collating sequence: 0 - 9. A - Z; special characters interspersed
among letters; see 321:144. 100.
Direct high-low. equal comparisons on 1 or 2
Comment:
words of numeric or alpha data are possible
with optional Three-Way Compare.

.215 Code translation
Provision
From
subroutine
paper tape
subroutine
internal
. 216 Radix conversion
Provision
From
subroutine
BCD
subroutine
binary
7/63

To
iiit'ernal.
paper tape .
To
binary.
BCD.

Comment
biliary

Size
lor 2
words.

Decimal mode
shift:

automatic with optional
Decimal AddSubtract only.
l's complement: automatic binary
1 word.
2's complement: automatic binary
1 word.
Select index
group:
automatic optional
1 of 32
groups.
. 22

Operation and
Variation
Provision

Provision
automatic

Normalize:

Real Time Clock: Provides a nineteen-bit binary
clock counter that measures time in sixths of
seconds from zero to 24 hours. The clock can be set
by the stored program or the operator and can be
interrogated by the program through a special
instruction.
.13

Provision
Size
automatic
automatic
automatic
up to 120 char.
automatic
automatic
automatic
none.
none.
. . . no provision.

Alter size:
Suppress zero:
Round off:
Insert point:
Insert spaces:
Insert any char:
Float $:
Protection:
.218 Table lookup:
.219 Others

Special Cases of Operands

.221 Negative numbers:. . . 2's complement (10's complement with Decimal
Add - Subtract.
.222 Zero: . . . . .
one form; 0 in all bit
positions .
. 223 Operand size
determination:
fixed.

.....

.23

Instruction Formats

.231 Instruction structure:

1 word (3 words for certain
input-output operations).

.232 Instruction layout:

I Part

lop

I Size (bits) I

5

IX

I

2

Addr or Op'
13

.233 Instruction parts
Name
Op: .

Purpose
operation code.
X: ••
index register specification .
Addr:
operand address.
Op': •
extension of operation code
in instructions with no
operand address .
.234 Basic address structure: 1 + O.
.235 Literals
Arithmetic: . . . .
none.
Comparisons and
• tests: . . . .
up to 8,192 on index
registers only.
Incrementing
modifiers: .
up to 8,192.
. 236 Directly address operands
.2361 Internal
Minimum Maximum
Volume
storage type size
size
Accessible
Core:
1 word
2 words *
8,192 words.
Disc:
64 words
1,024
total
words
capacity.
* or total capacity with Move Command.
.2362 Increased address
capaCity: . . . . . . none.

==---

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

320:051.237

§051.
· 237 Address indexing
· 2371 Nwnber of methods:
. 2372 Names: . . . . . • .
· 2373 Indexing rule:. . . .
.2374 Index specification:.

.331 Possible causes
In-out units: .
1.
indexing.
addition, modulo 32, 768.
bits 5 & 6 of instruction
to be modified.

· 2375 Nwnber of potential
indexers: . . . . .
3 (96 optional).
. 2376 Addresses which can
be indexed: . . . . . operand addresses in arithmetic, load, store, and
unconditional branch
instructions .
• 2377 Cwnulative indexing: . none.
· 2378 Combined index
and step: . . . . .
none.
none.
· 238 Indirect addressing: .
index registers.
· 239 Stepping: . . . . .
· 2391 Specification of
increment: . .
in stepping instI'\lction.
• 23.92 Increment sign:.
always positive.
.2393 Size of increment:
I to 8,192,
.2394 End value: • . . .
specified in test instruction.
• 2395 Combined step and
test: . . . . . . .
no.
· 24

Special Processor Storage

In-out controllers: .
Storage access:
Processor errors:
Other: . . . . . .
· 332 Program control
Individual control:
Method: . . . . . .
· 333

· 334

· 335

· 336

. 241 Category of storage
Number of Size in
bits
Program usage
locations
Category
'20 upper accumulator, A.
Central Processor: 1
lower accumulator, Q.
20
Central Processor: 1
instruction register, I.
20
Central Processor: 1
sequence counter. P.
Central Processor: 1
15
single char, buffer, N.
6
Central Processor: 1
memory buffer, M.
20
Central Processor: 1
arithmetic buffer, B.
20
Central Processor: 1
40
upper accumulator, AX.
Aux. Arith. Unit: 1
40
lower accumulator, QX.
Aux. Arith. Unit: 1
20
index' registers.
3 (96 with
Core Storage:
option)

indirectly, through
controller status.
change in status of
peripheral controller from
"not ready" to "ready".
indirectly, through
controller status.
no.
none .

.34

peripheral controllers.
"Priority Set" instruction
permits selected controller(s) to interrupt.
Operator control: . . . physical switch for each
controller permits or
locks out interruption by
that controller.
Interruption conditions: 1) in "Priority Set" mode.
2) not in priority routine.
3) change in status of any
selected controller.
Interruption process
Disabling interruption: automatic.
Registers saved:
sequence" counter automatic;
others by own coding.
Destination: .•
fixed jwnp to location 0132.
Control methods
Determine cause:
own coding; must test
selected controllers •
Enable interruption:
own coding; "Priority Set"
instruction.

Multi-running: . . . . . limited capability with
Automatic Priority
Interrupt feature.

.341 Method of control: .
.342 Maximwn nwnber
of programs: . . .
.343 Precedence rules:
.344 Program protection
.242 Category of storage
Storage:
Total Number Physical Access time, Cycle time,
In - out units:
Category
Central Processor:
Aux. Arith. Unit:
Core Storage:

locations

7
2
3 (96 with

form
register
register

p. sec

core

18.0

P. sec
36.
36.
36.

option)

.3

SEQUENCE CONTROL FEATURES

.31

Instruction Sequencing

,311 Nwnber of sequence
control facilities: .
.314 Special sub-sequence
counters: . . . .
· 315 Sequence control
step size: . . .
.316 Accessibility to
program: . . .

own coding.
2 is practical limit.
own coding.

..

none.
none .

.35

Multi - sequencin~:

none.

.4

PROCESSOR SPEEDS

.41

Instruction Times in /Lsec

•

.411 Fixed point
Double
Precision

Double PrecWon.
With AAU

72
90
216 to 468
504 to 558

108
126
4, 550 (SR)
5,250 (SR)

148.
148.
341 to 778.
1,071 to 1,217.

none
none
none

10,620 (SR)
11,304 (SR)
28,267 (SR)

162 to 709.
297 to I, 062.
837 to I, 231.

Single

~
Add:
Subtract:
Multiply:
Divide:

1.
none.

.412 Floating point

1 word.
can be stored in an index
register .

Add -subtract:
Multiply:
Divide:

. 317 Permanent or optional
modifier: . . . . . . . no.
.413 Additional allowance for
.32
.33

Look-Ahead:.
Interruption:.

Single
Precision

none.
with optional Automatic
Priority Interrupt only.

© 1963

Indexing:
Re-complementing:

Double
Precision

-36---

-36---

none

nORe

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Double Precision,
withAAU
36.

none.

7/63

320:051.414

§

GE 215

051.

.414 Control
Compare (with
Three-Way
Compare:
Branch:
Test & branch:

90 to 108
36.
90.

90 to 144.

· 415 Counter control
Step:
Step & test:
Test;

108.
198.
90.

. 416 Edit: . .

o (done in Printer
Controller).

· 417 Convert
BCD to binary:
Binary to BCD:

220 + 525D (SR).
698 to 9,415 (SR, for D =
6, with Decimal AddSubtract).
1, 750 + 1, 400D (SR, without
Decimal Add-Subtract) .
. 418 Shift:. . . . . . . . .. 60 + 12B (approximate, for
shift of B bits).
Note: SR indicates that a programmed subroutine
is used.
D is field length in decimal digits.
.42

Processor Performance in ,."sec

• 421 For random addresses

Fixed point,
single
precision
216
216
72N
594
675

c = a +b: • . .
b =a +b: . . .
Sum N items: .
c =ab: . . . .
c = alb: . . . .
. 422 For arrays of data
ci = ai + bf. .
684
bj = ai + bj:. .
684
Sum N items: .
504N
c = c + aibj= .
1,098
.423 Branch based on comparison
Without
Three-Way
Compare
Numeric data
(19-bit precision):
720
Alphabetic data
(3-char precision): . 720
• 424 Sw itching
Unchecked: .
288.
Checked: . .
720.
List search:
108 + 54ON.

7/63

Floating point,
with AAU
(average)
724.
724.
436N.
1,068.
1,322.
1,192
1,192.
1,012N.
1,936.
With
Three-Way
Compare
666.
666.

.425 Format control per character
Unpack
Without radix
conversion: .
40.
Including BCD-tobinary conversion: 595 (approx.).
Compose
Without radix
conversion: •
36.
Including binary-toBCD conversion: . 1,225 (approx., without
Decimal Add-Subtract).
700 (approx. , with Decimal
Add-Subtract).
.426 Table look up per comparison (single precision)
Without
With
Three-Way
Three-Way
Compare
Compare
For a match:. . . . . 540
504.
For least or greatest: 568
532.
For interpolation
point: . . . . . .
540
504 •
. 427 Bit indicators
Set bit in separate
location: . • . •
144.
Set bit in pattern:
180.
Test bit in separate
location: . . . . .
288.
Test bit in pattern: .
288.
Test AND for B bits: . 648 (B~ 19).
Test OR for B bits: .
720 (B.~ 19).
.428 Moving data
Single word: • . . .
144.
Double-length word:
216.
N words, using
programmed loop:
72 + 252N.
N words, using
optional MC: . . .
252 + 72N .
.8

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Overflow:
Underflow:
Zero divisor:
Invalid data:
Invalid opera don:
Arithmetic error:
Invalid address:
Receipt of data:

check
check (AAU only)
overflow check
none.
all codes used.
none.
none •
parity check

Dispatch of data:

parity check

Action
indicator & alarm.
indicator & alarm.
indicator & alarm.

indicator & alarm.
optional stop.
indicator & alarm.
optional stop.

320:061.100
GE 215
Console

CONSOLE

§

061.

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity: .

.12

.13

Associated Units:.

. 22

Connections:...... none.

.23

Stops and Restarts

contained in 215 Central
Processor cabinet.
Console Typewriter and
400 card per minute Card
Reader (if used) stand
upon the console desk.
(A free-standing 400 cpm
card reader is also available.)

The console control panel is mounted vertically at
desk-top level on the narrower face of the Central
Processor cabinet. A wide, L-shaped desk is
placed dir/lctly in front of the control panel and provides ample working space. The unusual shape of
the combined processor cabinet and console desk
may make it difficult to arrange the system components for operating convenience in a small room,
particularly since the printer and magnetic tape controllers and the Arithmetic Auxiliary Unit all contain alarm and condition lights which are clearly
visible only at close range. The control panel contains a fairly typical complement of register displays, alarm lights, and control buttons; these are
fully described below.

. 25

. 28

Power
Name
Power on:
Power off:

Form
button.
button.

© 1963

2-position
switch
2-position
switch

when ON. system halts on all parity

Name

Form

Comment

Start:

button

initiates a single step if Auto- Manual
switch is in MANU AL position.

errors.

Stepping

2-position selects steps of one machine cycle or
switch
one full instruction.
switch
inhibits normal advance of the sequence counter (P Register). so
same instruction is repeated.

Resets
~

Console Typewriter Input: Permits using the Console Typewriter as an input device. In the input
mode, one BCD character is transmitted to the N
register when a typewriter key is activated. The
character then may be shifted to the A register and
used in any manner desired.

.21

Auto- Manual:

initiates automatic operation if
Auto-Manual switch is in AUTO
position.
halts automatic operation when
switched to MANU AL.

Save P:

Optional Feature:

CONTROLS

Comment

button

Word-Instruction:

The Console Typewriter is a modified mM electric
model that stands on the right-hand wing of the console desk. Data cannot be entered into the system
.26
from the typewriter keyboard; the unit is used for
output only, at 10 characters per second. Data to
be typed, in BCD form, is sent to the unit via the 6bit N Register, one character at a time. The typewriter character set includes only the 26 letters,
10 numerals, and the special symbols / • J $ - and
space. Other BCD codes cause the unit to "hang up" •
. 27

.2

Form

Start:

Stop on Parity
Alarm:

.24

Description:

Name

Form

Comment

Reset Alarm:
Reset P:

button
button

Reset A:

button

resets all alarms and error indicators.
clears sequence counter. to location
0000.
clears accumulator (A Register).

Name

Form

Comment

Load Card:

button

reads one binary card into Core
Storage starting at location 0000.

Loading

Sense Switches
Name

Form

Bit Switches:

20 3-p0at - used to place 1 bits into any desired
sition cen - positions in the A register (when
ter-off
raised): and to set patterns that can
toggle
be read into the A register under
switches
program control (when lowered) to
control program branching •

Comment

SpeCial
Name

Form

Comment

A_I

button

XAQ

button

transfers contents of the A (accumulator) Register into the I (instructioljl
Register.
interchanges contents of the A and
Q Registers.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:061.300
§

GE 215

061 •

.3

DISPLAY

.31

Alarms

.32

Name

Form

Condition Indicated

Parity:
Overflow:
Card Reader:
Card Punch:
Echo:

light
light
light
light
light

parity error.
arithmetic overflow.
error involving Card Reader.
error involving Card Punch.
peripheral controller unable to
respond when addressed.

Storage: . . . . . . . . no direct display available.

.4

ENTRY OF DATA

.41

Into Control Registers:

. 42

Into Storage

Conditions
Name

Form

Condition Indicated

Priority:

light

loss of priority by Central Processor to a peripheral controller,
alarm condition, or automanual switch in manual mode,
reader available for input.
punch a vailable for output.
N Register available for paper
tape or typewriter operation.
processor in priority interrupt
routine.
index register group in use.
Central Processor operating
in deCimal mode.

Card Reader Ready: light
Card Punch Ready: light
light
N Register Ready:

. 33

.34

AIM:

light

IX Group:
Decimal Mode:

5 lights
light

Control Reg!sters

7/63

Name

Form

Comment

P Register:

15 lights

I Register:

20 lights

A Register:

20 lights

binary display of sequence
counter contents.
binary display of next instruction
to be executed.
binary display of accumulator
contents; pressing X AQ will
displa y Q Register contents.

20 Bit Switches permit direct data entry into A Register only; A _ I and
XAQ buttons permit loading of I and Q Regi "!rs
from A Register.

1. Set Auto- Manual switch to MANUAL.
2. Set "Store A Register" instruction, with desired
Core Storage location as operand address, in
Bit Switches.
3. Depress A _ I button to load the instruction.
4. Set Bit Switches to desired data value.
5. Depress Start button.

.5

CONVENIENCES

.51

Communication:

none.

.52

Clock: . . .

none .

. 53

De sk Space:

ample free work space is
provided on the console
desk.

.54

View:

Central Processor cabinet,
32 inches wide by 76
inches high, is directly in
front of seated operator;
view in other directions is
unobstructed.

320:071.100
GE 215
Input-Output
Card Reader
INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD READER (400CPM)

§

071.

.22

Sensing and Recording Systems

. 221 Recording system: .
.222 Sensing system:
• 11
. 12

Identity:

Card Reader .
D225B

Description:
This is the English- built Elliott reader for standard
eighty-column punched cards, extensively modified
and improved by GE. The rated 400 card per
minute speed is achieved when reading continuously into alternating input areas in core storage.
When feeding one card at a time upon demand, the
maximum speed is 360 cards per minute. The unit
is extremely compact "and usually stands upon the
console desk; an optional base converts it into a
free-standing unit. It provides none of the usual
checks upon card reading accuracy such as dual
reading stations or hole count checks. Programmed tests can be made to insure only that proper
read synchronization was achieved; i. e., that each
column was read once and only once. After every
card is read, the photocells are checked to ensure
that they are working.

. 23

Multiele Coeies: .

.24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:.
Stacks: .
Heads/ stack:
Methods of use:

.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.311 Medium:
. 312 Phenomenon:
.32

Column decimal; data in each card column is
translated automatically into one internal BCD
character, and three characters are stored in
each core storage location.
Ten-row binary; data in two successive card
columns fills one twenty bit core storage
location.

. 321 Serial by: .

.324 Track use
Data:
Total: .
.325 Row use
Data:
.33

Coding:

.34

Format Comeatibility

Twelve-row binary; data in each card column
fills the twelve least significant bit positions of
one core storage location. (Continuous feeding
is not possible in this mode. )
The automatic reading of data from successive
cards into alternating core storage areas in the
column decimal and ten-row binary modes can
save Central Processor time through the elimination of internal transfers before the input data is
processed.
.13

Availability:

3 months as of March,
1963.

.14

First Delivery:

March, 1961.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Drive Mechanism

.211 Drive past the head:
.212 Reservoirs:

pinch roller friction.
none.

© 1963

reading.
1.
12.
80 columns per card, one
at a time.

standard 80-column cards .
rectangular holes.

Positional Arrangement

. 322 Parallel by: .
Cards are read serially by column, and the input
instruction selects one of three data formats:

none.

80 columns at standard
spacing.
12 rows at standard
spacing.
80.
80.
12 (lO for lO-row binary
data).
Decimal: column code as
in Data Code Table No.3.
lO- Row Binary: 2 card
columns per 20- bit core
storage word.
12- Row Binary: 1 card
column per core storage
word, into the 12 least
significant bit positions.

Other device or system Code translation
All devices using
standard 80column cards: .
.35

Physical Dimensions:

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity':

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

not required.
standard 80-column cards.

Card Reader Controller.
(housed in Central
Processor).

7/63

320:071.420
§

GE 215
.56

071.

• 42

. 43

1.

none.

Connection to Device

.431 Devices per controller: 1.
.432 Restrictions: . • . • . • cannot be used in same
system with 1. 000card-per-minute reader.
.44

Disabled:. . . .
.
.
Busy device:. . . .
Nearlyexhausted:.
.
.
Busy controller:..
End of medium marks: .
Hopper empty:
.
Stacker full:
...

Connection to System

.421 On-line:
. 422 Off-line:

Data Transfer Control

.441 Size of load:

1 to N cards of 80
columns per card.
core storage; address of
first location filled must
be a multiple of 128 and
less than 2048.

.442 Input-output areas:

. 443 Input-output area
access: .
.444 Input-output area
lockout:
. 445 Table control: .
.446 Synchronization: •

.

each word.
none.
· none .
. ' automatic within a card;
by program for successive cards.

Testable Conditions

.6

PERFORMANCE

.61

Conditions:

.62

Speeds

yes .
yes.
no.
no .
no.
yes .
yes .

. . . none.

.621 Nominal or peak speed: 400 cards/minute.
asynchronous; reading rate
.623 Overhead: . . . .
is controlled by program.
.624 Effective speeds: . . . 400 cards/min. when
feeding continuously.
360 cards/min. maximum
if "halt card reader" instruction is given after
each card (demand feeding) .
· 63

Demands on System
Component

m. sec per card.

Core Storage:
.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

· 71

Adjustments: .

. none •

• 51

mocks

· 72

Other Controls:

none .

· 73

Loading and Unloading

.52

• 1 card •

· fixed.

. 525
. 526
· 53

Code Translation:

.54

Format Control:. .

· 55

Control Operations
Disable: . • • . .
Request interrupt:
Offset card: .•
Select stacker:
Select format:
Select code:

7/63

Capacity

Storage

• . . . . . . . 1 to N cards forward;
cards are read continuously until "halt card
reader" command is
given.
none.
Output: .
Stepping:
none.
Skipping:
none .
Marking:
none •
none.
Searching:

• 522
• 523
• 524

.731 Volumes handled

Input-Output Operations

· 521 Input:

automatic. by processor:
column decimal to internal BCD; or 10- or 12row binary to internal
binary.
none.

no.
yes. with automatic
Priority Interrupt.
no.
no.
no.
yes. in "read" command.

Percentage
2.0

•5

. 511 Size of block:
.512 mock demarcation
Input: . • . . . .

or

3.0

Hopper: . . . . .
Stacker: . . • . .
• 732 Replenishment time: .
.733 Adjustment time: .
.734 Optimum reloading
period: . • . . .

.8

600 cards.
600 cards.
0.25 to 0.50 mins .
reader doe s not need to
be stopped.
none.
1. 5 mins .

ERRORS. CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Reading:
Input area overflow:
Invalid code:
Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
TimIng conflicts:
Misfeed:
Stacker full:
Synchronization:

none.
none.
check.
check
none.
none.
check
check
check

Action

stop reader; alarm.

stop reader; alarm.
stop reader; alarm.
set bit indieator in
core storage.

320:072.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 215
Input-Output
Card Reader

REPORTS

INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD READER (1,000 CPM)

§

. 32

072.

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity: .

.12

Description

Card Reader.
D225C, D225D.

. 13

Availabilitl: . .

9 months as of March, 1963.

.14

First Delivery:

March, 1962.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Drive Mechanism

• 211 Drive past the head: .

.22

..

.24

Multiple Copies: .

.322 Parallel by:
.324 Track use
Data: •
Total: •
.325 Row use
Data: .
. 33

Coding:......... Decimal: column code as in
Data Code Table No.3.
lO-Row Binary: 2 card columns per 20- bit core
storage word.
12-Row Binary: 1 card
column per core storage
word, into the 12 least
significant bit positions.
Read Card Intermixed option
permits reading cards in
decimal and binary modes
intermixed (on Model
D225D only).

.34

Format Compatibili!¥

moving belt friction.
none .

none.
photoelectric (solarcells) .
none.

. 35

Physical Dimensions:

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identitl:

.42

Connection to Slstem

.421 On-line:
.422 Off-line:
.43

.

12 (10 for lO-row binary
data).

.

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station: .
Stacks: . .
Heads/stack: .
Method of use: .

80.
80.

Other device or system Code translation
All devices using
standard 80-column
not required.
cards: • . . . · .

Sensing and Recording Systems

. 221 Recording system: .
. 222 Sensing system: .
. 23

80 columns at standard
spacing.
12 rows at standard spacing.

.321 Serial by: •

This unit has been developed by GE to provide high
speed punched card input to the 215 system. Currently rated at 1,500 cards per minute when feeding
continuously, it is said to be capable of higher
speeds. When cards are fed singly on demand, the
rated maximum speed drops to 890 cards per minute.
A character validity check (on decimal coded data
only) and a read error check provide checks on reading accuracy. The unit reads standard eighty-column
cards only, and the hopper and single stacker have
capacities of 2,000 cards each. Cards are fed singly
by a vacuum pick-off and transported by a moving
belt past the photoelectric read heads. Input instructions, card data formats, and code translation facilities are identical to those for the slower reader, so
there is a high degree of upward compatibility between the two units.

.212 Reservoirs:

Positional Arrangement

reading.
1.

12.
80 columns per card, one at
a time.

...

Card Reader Controller
(housed in Central
Processor).

.. ·.
....

Connection to Device

·.

Data Transfer Control

.3

EXTERNAl. STORAGE

. 441 Size of load: . . . .

.31

Form of Storage

.442 Input-output areas:
standard 80-column cards .
rectangular holes .

© 1963

1.

none .

.431 Devices per controller: 1.
cannot be used in same
.432 Restrictions:. . .
system with 400-cardper-minute reader.
.44

. 311 Medium: ..
. 312 Phenomenon: .

standard 80-column cards .

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

1 to N cards of 80 columns
per card.
core storage; address of
first location filled must
be a mUltiple of 128 and
less than 2048.

7/63

320:072.443

§

GE 2lS

072.

.443 Input-output area
access: . . . . .
.444 Input-output area
lockout: . . . . .
.445 Table control: • .
. 446 Synchronization: .

none.
none .
automatic within a card; by
program for successive
cards.

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

.51

Blocks

.

.52

· 61

Conditions: .

.62

Speeds

. 522
.523
. 524
. 525
. 526

Output: . .
Stepping: .
Skipping: .
Marking: .
Searching:

. 53

Code Translation:

.54

Format Control: .

.55

Control Operations
Disable:
Request interrupt: .
Offset card:
Select stacker: .
Select format:
Select code:
Unload: .

1 card .
· 63
fixed .

7/63

Demands on System
Component

msec per card or Percentage

Core Storage:
1 to N cards forward; cards
are read continuously
until ''halt card reader"
command is given.
none.
none.
none .
none.
none.
automatic, by processor:
column decimal to internal
BCD; or 10- or 12-row
binary to internal binary.

· 73

none.

no.
yes, with Automatic Priority
Interrupt.
no.
no.
no.
yes, in "read" command.
no.

Testable Conditions
Disabled: . . . . .
Busy device: . . .
Nearly exhausted:
Busy controller: .
End of medium marks:
Hopper empty: ..
Stacker full: . . .
End of file:. . . .
Invalid character
(Hollerith): . . .

. . . none.

.621 Nominal or peak speed: 1,000 cards/minute nominal.
asynchronous; reading rate
.623 Overhead: • . . .
is controlled by program.
1,500 cards/min. when
· 624 Effective speeds:
feeding continuously.
890 cards/min. maximum if
''halt card reader" instruction is given after each
card (demand feeding).

Input-Output Operations

. 521 Input: .

. 56

PERFORMANCE

each word.

.5

.511 Size of block:
. 512 Block demarcation
Input: .

.6

yes.
yes.
no.
no.
no.
yes.
yes.
yes.
yes.

3.0

7.5 max.

.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

.71

Adjustments:...... none.

.72

Other Controls
Function

Form

Clear-read error: button
End of file:
button

resets error alarms .
sets bit indicator when
last card is read .

Loading and Unloading

.731 Volumes handled
Storage
Hopper: . . . .
Stacker: • . . .
.732 Replenishment time: .
.733 Adjustment time: .
.734 Optimum reloading
period: • • . . . .
.8

Comment

Capacity
2, 000 cards.
2,000 cards.
0.25 to 0.50 minutes.
reader does not need to be
stopped.
none.
1. 3 minutes.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or Interlock

Action

Reading:
Input area overflow:
Invalid code:
Exhausted mediwn:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflicts:
Misfeed:
Stacker full:
End of file:
Synchronization:

read check
none •
check (BCD data only)
check
none.
none.
check
check
check
check

set bit 18.
set bit 17.
set bit 19.

stop reader.
set bit 16.
set bit 1.
set bit pattern.

Note: "Set bit" denotes that the indicated bit in the "synchronization
word" (first, second, or fourth core location after the last word
read from the card) is set to 0 if the associated error occurs and
to 1 if it does not. The bit configoration of this word must be
tested by the program.

320:073.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 215

REl'ORTS

Input-Output
CARD PUNCH

INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD PUNCH
§

073 .

.24

.1

GENERAL

· 11

Identity:.......

.12

Card Punch.
E225K (100 cards/min.).
E225M (300 cards/min.).

Description:
Designed and built by General Electric, these units
punch standard 80-column cards at peak speeds of
100 and 300 cards per minute. They are compatible
with the mM Model 523 and 544 punches that were
used in early GE 225 systems. Cards can be
.3
punched in column decimal code from alphameric
data stored in the BCD form, orin ten-row or twelve- .31
row binary modes. The output instruction specifies
.311
the mode to be used. The starting core storage address of the data to be punched must be a multiple of
.312
128 and less than 2,048.
The only available check on punched output of the 100
card per minute model is a plugboard-wired check
for double punches and blank columns; it can check
up to 30 columns and is effective only on decimalcoded numeric data. Check sums are usually punched
into binary cards to make possible a programmed
check on punching and reading accuracy when the
data is re-entered. The 300 card per minute model
checks the complete card by the read-after-punch
technique, by counting the holes in each card row.

.13

Availability: . . • . •

.32

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station: .
Stacks: . . . . .
Heads/stack: .
Method of use: .

punching.
1.
80.
one row at a time.

Use of station: .
Stacks: . . . . .
Heads/stack:. .
Method of use: .

checking.
1.
80.
one row at a time.

EXTERNAL STORAGE
Form of Storage
Medium: . . .
Phenomenon:
Positional Arrangement

.321 Serial by:
.322 Parallel by:
. 324 Track use:.
.325 Row use:
.33

10-Row Binary:
12- Row Binary:

.14

First Delivery
E225K . . . •
E225M . • .

.2

• 21 Drive Mechanism
.211 Drive past the head:.
.212 Reservoirs: . . . . .
. 22

April, 1962.
September, 1963.
.34

PHYSICAL FORM

.221 Recording system:
.222 Sensing system: .
. 223 Common system:

die punch.
brush .
no.

.23

none.

Multiple Copies:.

© 1963

column code as in Data
Code Table No.3.
2 card columns per 20- bit
core storage word.
1 card column per core
storage word, from the
12 least significant bit
positions.

Format Compatibility
Other device or system Code translation
All devices using
standard 80-column
cards: •. . . . .
not required.

pinch roller friction.
none .

Sensing and Recording Systems

12 rows at standard
spacing.
80 columns at standard
spacing•
all for data.
all for data.

Coding
Decimal: .

Model E225K: 3 months as
of March, 1963.
Model E225M: 12 months
as of March, 1963.

standard 80-column punch
cards.
rectangular holes.

. 35

Physical Dimensions:

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:....

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

standard 80-column cards .

Card Punch Controller.
(housed in Central
Processor).

7/63

320:073.420
§

GE 215

073.

· 42

.56
Connection to System

. 421 On-line: .
.422 Off-line:.
. 43

Testable Conditions

1.
usable for independent
gang-punching.

Connection to Device

. 431 Devices per controller: 1.
.432 Restrictions: . . . . . none.

.6

PERFORMANCE

.44

.61

Conditions

Data Transfer Control

.441 Size of load: . . . .
.442 Input-output areas:

. 443 Input-output area
access: . . . . .
. 444 Input-output area
lockout: . . . . .
.445 Table control: . .
.446 Synchronization:.

1 card of BO columns.
core storage; address of
first word punched must
be a multiple of 12B and
less than 2, 04B •
each word.
none.
none.
automatic.

.5

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

.51

mocks

.511 Size of block:
. 512 mock demarcation:

1 card.
fixed size .

.52

Input- Output Operations

. 521
. 522
· 523
. 524
. 525
· 526

Input: . . .
Output: ..
Stepping:
Skipping:
Marking:
Searching: .

none .
1 card forward.
none .
none .
none.
none.

.53

Code Translation: .

automatic; internal BCD
to column decimal or
internal binary to 10- or
12-row binary.

. 54

Format Control
Control: . . . .
Format alternatives:
Rearrangement: .
Suppress zeros: .
Insert point: . . .
Insert spaces: . .
Section sizes: .
Select columns to be
checked: . . . . .

.55

yes (on 100 card per minute model only).

Control Operations
Disable: . . . . . •
Request interrupt: .
Offset card: ••
Select stacker:
Select format:
Select code:
Unload:

7/63

plugboard; seldom used.
undefined.
yes.
no.
yes.
yes.
no.

no.
yes, with Automatic Program Interrupt.
no.
no.
no.
yes, in "punch" command.
no.

yes.
yes .
no.
no.
no.
yes.
yes .

Disabled: " . . .
Busy device: . • . .
Nearly exhausted: •
Busy controller: . .
End of medium marks:
Hopper empty:.
Stacker full: . . •

.I :
II:

.62

Model E225K Card Punch.
Model E225M Card Punch.

Speeds

· 621 Nominal or peak speed
I: • . . . • . • . •.
II: . . . . . . . . . .
.622 Important parameters
Clutch cycle
I :
II:
.623 Overhead
Clutch points per cycle
I: . . . . . .
II: . . . . .
.624 Effective speeds: . "

· 63

Condition

Core Storage:

14.
1.
peak speeds are maintained
if "punch" instruction
occurs within 10 m. sec
after punching of previous
card is completed .

m. sec per card,

or

34.6
34.6

I

n

Percentage
5.B.
17.3.

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

• 71

Adjustments:

.72

Other Controls

....

Function
Reset:

.73

600 msec.
200 msec .

Demands on System
Component

.. 7

100 cards/minute •
300 cardS/minute.

Form
button

none •

Comment
resets error alarms.

Loading and Unloading

.731 Volumes handled
Storage
Hopper:
Stacker:
.732 Replenishment time:.
. 733 Adjustment time:
.734 Optimum reloading
period
I :
II:

Condition I

Condition II

BOO cards.
3.500 cards.
BOO cards.
3.500 cards.
0.25 to 0.50 mins.
punch does not need to
be stopped.
none.
B.O mins.
11.3 mins.

320:073.800

INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD PUNCH
.8

ERRORS, CHECKS AND AGrION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

Recording (Model
E225K):
Recording (Model
E225M):
Output block size:
Invalid code:
Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflicts:
Misfeed:
Stacker full:

double punch. blank
column e
read after punch

stop punch; alarm.

fIXed.
all codes valid.
check
none.
check
check
check

stop punch; alarm.

stop punch; alarm.
stop punch; alarm.
stop punch; alarm.
stop punch; alarm.

• For decimal-coded numeric data only; checks up to 30 columns
on E225K.

© 1963

by .Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporoted

7/63

320:074.100
GE 215
Input-Output
Paper Tape Reader
INPUT-OUTPUT: PAPER TAPE READER

§

074.

•1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: •.

.12

Description

. Paper Tape System
(Reader only).

The Paper Tape System is a free-standing unit housmg a reader, punch, and control circuitry for perforated tape input-output. Individual reader and
punch units also are available. The reader and
punch are mechanically independent of one another
and are covered in separate sections of this report.
The reader offers a choice of speeds of 250 or 1,000
characters per second on five-, six-, seven -, or
eight-track tape. At 250 characters per second, it
can stop on a single character and handle spooled
tape. At the higher speed, only un spooled strips
can be handled, and one additional character is read
after a "halt reader" instruction is given. Data
from five or six tracks is read continuously into the
six-bi.t N .Register, one character at a time. Synchrolllzatlon and code translation must be provided
by the stored program. Input parity checks are
made on seven- and eight-track codes, but the parity bit is not transmitted to the processor. The
Paper Tape Reader may not be turned on at the
same lime as either the Paper Tape Punch or the
Console Typewriter, since they all use the same
input-output instructions. A delay of 200 milliseconds must be programmed between the "reader
on" instruction and the first paper tape input instruction.

.222 Sensing system: .

· photoelectric •

.23

MUltiple Copies: .

· none •

.24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:.
Stacks: • . . . .
Heads/ stack: .
Method of use:

.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.311 Medium: . . .
. 312 Phenomenon:
.32

. 13

Availability: .

.14

First Delivery:

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Drive Mechanism

. 211 Drive past the head: .
.212 Reservoirs
Number:
Form:
Capacity: •
. 213 Feed drive:
. 214 Take-up drive:.

.

.22

Positional Arrangement

. 324 Track use
Data: . . .
Redundancy check:
Timing: . . . .
Control signals:
Total: .
. 325 Row use:

• 1 to N rows at 10 per inch •
• 5, 6, 7, or 8 tracks at
standard spacing .
· 5 or 6 (up to 8 with EightBit N Register option).
· 1 (1- & 8-track tape only).
.1 (sprocket holes).
· 1 (8-track tape only).
· 5 to 8 plus sprocket track .
· all for data (I-row interblock gaps required for
reading at 1,000 char /
sec).

.33

Coding: . . . . . . . . . any 5, 6, 7 or 8-track code
with up to 6 data tracks
(up to 8 with Eight-Bit N
Register option) can be
read.

.34

Format Compatibility

. 3 months as of March
1963.

Other device or system Code translation
All devices using
standard 5-,6-,7-,
or 8-track paper
tape: . • • . . • . . . programmed .

October, 1962.

. 35
pinch roller friction.

. . . . paper tape •
. . . . punched holes.

.321 Serial by: •
. 322 Parallel by:

Optional Feature
Eight-Bit N Register provides two additional bits in
the N Register, enabling data from as many as
eight tracks to be read into the Central Processor .

· reading.
· 1.
.8.
· one row at a time.

Physical Dimensions

.351 Overall width: •
.352 Length: . • . .

.11/16, 7/8, or 1 inch.
· up to 1,000 feet per reel.

2.
swinging arm.
12 inches •
motor.
motor.

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:....

.42

Connection to System

. . built into Paper Tape System •

Sensing and Recording Systems
.421 On-line: •
.422 Off-line:.

. 221 Recording system: ••• none.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

· 1•
• none.

7/63

320:074.430

§

GE 215

074.

•43

.62
Connection to Device

.431 Devices per controller: 1.
.432 Restrictions: • . • . . . none.
• 44

Data Transfer Control

...

.441 Size of load:
.442 Input-output areas:

· 1 to N characters.
• N register, a single- character I/O buffer.

• 443 Input-outPUt area
access:

.. . .

· contents can be shifted into
A register only.

.444 Input-output area
lockout:
• none .
• 445 Table control:. • . •. none.
.446 Synchronization:
· by program.
• 447 Synchronizing aids: • • test for "N Register ready"

.. ..

.5

PROGRAM F ACl'LITIES AVAILABLE

.51

Blocks

At 100 inches/sec.: • • 1,000N char/sec.
(N + 2)
where N: number of characters per block.
.63

Demands on System

· 1 to N characters.

· .....

Input-Output

.521 Input:

.621 Nominal or peak speed: 250 or 1,000 chllr/sec .
(higher speed usable on
tape strips only.)
.622 Important parameters
Tape speed: • . • . . • 25 or 100 inches/sec •
Maximum stop distance
At 25 inches / sec. :. . 0.025 inch.
At 100 inches/sec.: . 0.150 inch.
Start time (to first char.)
At 25 inches/sec.: .• 1.5 m.sec.
At 100 inches/sec.: . 0.5 m.sec •
.624 Effective Speeds
At 25 inches/ sec.: • · 250N char/sec.
(N+l) ,

Component

.511 Size of block:
.512 Block demarcation
Input:
.52

Speeds

Central Processor:

· any selected character, or
programmed counter.

.523
.524
.525
•526

Stepping:
Skipping:
Marking:
Searching: •

• read forward continuously
until halted by program
command.
· see Paper Tape Punch
section, 320:075.
• none.
• none.
· none.
· none.

.53

Code Translation:

· programmed.

.73

.54

Format Control:

· none.

.731 Volumes handled

.55

Control Operations

.522 Output:

·

.

Disable: . . . . . •
Request interrupt:
Select format:
Select code: •
Rewind: . . . •
.56

yes.
no.
no.
no.
no.

.6

PERFORMANCE

. 61

Conditions:

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

.71

Adjustments
Adjustment

Number of tracks: rotary switch

Comment
5,6,7, or 8
tracks.

Loading and Unloading

Capacity

Reel:
.732 Replenisliment time:
.733 Adjustment time: •.
Optimum reloading
period: • . . • . • •

·
·
·
·

yes.
no.
no.
no.
no.
· yes.
· yes.

.8

· 1,000 feet, or up to 120,000
char.
· 1.0 to 1.5 mins; r~ader
needs to be stopped'
• 1.5 to 2.0 mins.

· none .

• 8.0 minutes

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

Reading:

parity (7 - or 8-track
tape)
none.
none.
check
none.
none.

indicator & alarm.

Input area overflow:
Invalid code:
Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflicts:

.------,-,

7/63

Method

~734

Testable Conditions
Disabled:
Busy device:.
Nearly exhausted:.
Busy controller:.
End of medium marks:
Busy I/O register:
Exhausted:

.7

Storage
·
·
·
·
•

5.4 or
21.6

0.216

Comment: This is the time required to test "N
Register ready" and shift the six data
bits from N to A Register; code translation time is not included.

Operation~

· .......

m.sec per char or Percentage

I AUERBACH I .@

will remain "busy·.

320:075.100
STANDARD

•

EDP

R~~S

•

GE 215
Input-Output
Paper Tape Punch

INPUT-OUTPUT: PAPER TAPE PUNCH

§

075.

.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity:

.12

Description:

.32

This is the Teletype 1l0-character-per-second
punch, housed in the Paper Tape System cabinet
along with the reader and control circuitry. Individual reader and punch units also are available.
Paper tape with five, six, seven, or eight tracks
can be punched. One punch model is available for
punching 5 track tape only; another model permits
punching 6, 7, or 8 track tape codes only. Tape
codes to be punched are set up by the program in
the Central Processor's six-bit N Register, and odd
parity bits are generated automatically for seven or
eight-track codes. Each paper tape output instruction causes a single character to be punched. The
punch cannot be turned on at the same time as either
the Paper Tape Reader or the Console Typewriter,
and a delay of five hundred milliseconds must be
programmed between the "punch on" instruction and
the first paper tape output instruction.

• 321 Serial by: •
.322 Parallel by:

.33

Coding:.. • • • • • • any 5, 6, 7, or 8-track
code with up to 6 data
tracks.

Optional Feature

.34

Format Compatibility

.

· Paper Tape System (Punch
only).

• 311 Medium: . .
• 312 Phenomenon:

• 1 row at 10 per inch •
· 5, 6, 7, or 8 tracks at
standard spacing.

Redundancy check:
Timing: • • • •
Control signals:
Total: •
.325 Row use: • . • •

Availability:

.14

First Delivery: • • . . October, 1962.

• 351 Overall width: .
• 352 Length: •

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.4

CONTROLLER

.21

Drive Mechanism

.41

Identity:

.42

Connection to System

.22

Sensing and Recording:

• sprocket drive.
· none.
S~stems

• 221 Recording system: .
• 222 Sensing system: .

• die punches.
· none.

• 23

Multiple Copies: •

· none.

• 24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:.
Stacks: . . . •
Heads/stack: •
Method of use:

•
.
•
•

• 5 or 6 (up to 8 with EightBit N Register option).
· 1 (1 & 8 track tape only).
• 1 (sprocket holes).
• 1 (8 track tape only).
• 5 to 8 plus sprocket track.
· all for data (1- row interblock gaps required if
tape is to be read at
1,000 char/sec).

Other device or system Code translation
All devices using
standard 5, 6, 7, or
8-track paper tape: • programmed.

.13

.211 Drive past the head:
.212 Reservoirs:

• 3 months as of March,
1963.

Positional Arrangement

.324 Track use
Data: •.

Eight-bit N Register provides two additional bits in
the N Register, enabling data to be punched in up to
eight tracks.

· paper tape •
• punched holes .

.35

Physical Dimensions

..

.

.421 On-line:
.422 Off-line:
.43

· 11/16, 7/8, or 1 inch.
• up to 1,000 feet per reel.

· built into Paper Tape
System.

.1.
• none.

Connection to Device

.431 Devices per controller:. 1 •
. 432 Restrictions: . • • • • none .

punching.
1.
8.
one row at a time.

© 1963

.44

Data Transfer Control

.441 Size of load:. . . .
• 1 character •
.442 Input-output areas: • • • N register, a Single-character I/O buffer.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320:075.443
§

075.

.62

• 443 Input-output area
access: • • • •
.444 Input-output area
lockout: • • . •
.445 Table control:. •
• 446 Synchronization:.
• 447 Synchronizing aids:

• loaded by shift from A
register only.
•
·
•
•

none.
nOne.
by program •
test for "N Register ready".

Speeds

.621 Nominal or peak speed:
.622 Important parameters
Tape speed: • •
.624 Effective speeds: ••

• 63

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

.51

mocks

.511 Size of block:
• 5 i2 mock demarcation
Output: . • • • •
.52

Central Processor:

or

Percentage

0.216

2.4

Comment: This is the Processor time required to test"N Register
ready", shift the six data bits from A to N Register,
and punch a row; code translation is not included •

· 1 to N characters.

• as programmed.

.522
• 523
• 524
• 525
• 526

Output:
Stepping:
Skipping:
Marking:
Searching:

• see Paper Tape Reader
section, 320:074.
· punch 1 row forward •
• none •
• none .
• none •
• none.

.53

Code Translation:

• programmed.

.54

Form'at Control: •

• none.

.55

Control Operations
Disable:
Request interrupt:
Select format: •
Select code: •
Rewind:.

.

•
•
•
•
•

yes.
no.
no.
no.
no •

•
•
•
•
•
•
·

no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
yes.
yes.

Testable Conditions
Disabled: • • • •
Busy device:
Nearly exhausted:
Busy controller: • • •
End of medium marks:
Busy I/O register:
Exhausted: • . .

.6

PERFORMANCE

• 61

Conditions: • • . • . • none.

.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

.71

Adjustments
Adjustment
Number of tracks:

.72

.73

Method
rotary switch

Comment
for 6, 7, or 8 tracks
only.

Form
6 switches

Comment
set up bit pattern for
manual punching.

Other Controls
Function
Simulator switches:

Loading and Unloading

.731 Volumes handled
Storage
Reel:
.732 Replenishment time:
.733 Adjustment time:
• 734 Optimum reloading
period: . • • . .

.8

,--_ _ _ A

7/63

m. sec per char,

Input-Output Operations

.521 Input:

.56

11 inches/sec.
110 char/sec. if not more
than 9 m. secs. elapse
between successive
"punch" instructions •

Demands on System
Component

.5

110 char/sec •

Capacity
• 1,000 feet, or up to
120,000 characters.
.2.0 to 3.0 mins.
punch needs to be stopped.
.3.0 to 4.0 mins •
.18.1 minutes.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

-Recording:
Output block size:
InvaUd code:
Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflicts:

none.
none.
all codes punched •
check.
none •
none.

I AUERBACH I @Il

Action

will remain "busy".

320:081.100
GE 215
Input-Output
Printer
INPUT-OUTPUT: PRINTER

§

081 .

.22

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Description

. 221 Recording system: .
· High Speed Printer.
P215E.

One printer and its controller can be attached to
any of the three hubs on the Controller Selector.
The controller includes automatic format control
circuitry which uses a block of format words in
Core Storage to control zero suppression, insertion
of any desired format characters, and deletion of
data characters in any desired positions. Dollar
field editing is automatic, but no automatic provision is made for check protection or for floating
dollar, plus, or minus signs. Each printer output
operation requires three instruction words. The
first word selects the approximate Controller
Selector hub and causes the next two words to be
transferred to the Printer Controller, which then
assumes control of the operation. It causes from
one to forty BCD-coded data words and the corresponding format words to be transferred from Core
Storage, performs the specified editing functions,
and causes the line to be printed. This system
minimizes time demands upon the Central Processor during printing.
The Printer Controller includes a manual control
button that initiates an octal dump of the entire contents of Core Storage. A parity check is made on
data received by the controller for printing, and a
print cycle check detects synchronization errors.
Availability:

.14

First Delivery:

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

. 21

Drive Mechanism

.211 Drive past the head:
. 212 Reservoirs:

.222 Sensing system:
.23

The High Speed Printer utilizes the well-known
Anelex Series 4 drum printing mechanism, with a
rated peak speed of 450 alphameric lines per
minute at single spacing. There are 120 printing
positions and 50 printable characters. Skipping
speed is 25 inches per second, and the print
instruction may include a skip to any of 8 channels
in the paper tape control loop or a step of zero to
63 lines.

.13

Sensing and Recording System s

6 months as of March,
1963.
· March, 1963.

sprocket drive - paper
punched both sides.
· none.

© 1963

• on-the-fly hammer stroke
against engraved drum .
• none

Multiple Copies

.231 Maximum number
Interleaved carbon: • · 5.
.233 Types of master
Multilith:
· yes.
Xerox:
· yes.
Spirit:
· yes.
.24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:
Stacks: . . . .
Head/stack: . .
Method of use:

.25

printing.
1.
120.
prints 1 full line at a time.

Range of Symbols
Numerals:
Letters:
Special:
Alternatives:

FORTRAN set:
Req. COBOL set:
Total: . • • . .
.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.311 Medium: . . • •
.312 Phenomenon:
.32

•
·
·
·

10
26
14

0-9
A - Z

+. - $'" % / =,

[I #
any character set
can be requested
as a standard
modification.
optional.
by request.
• 50 and blank.

@

· continuous fan-fold
sprocket-punched stationery.
• printing.

Positional Arrangement

.321 Serial by:
.322 Parallel by:
.324 Track use
Data:
Total: •
. 325 Row use:

.

• 33

Coding: .

. 34

Format Compatibility:

by Auerbach Corporation and RNA Incorporated

1 line at 6 per inch (6 or 8
lines/inch available as an
option).
120 columns at 10 per inch.
120
120· all for data.
· engraved character font •
(Internal coding as in Data
Code Table No.1) .
none .

7/63

320:081.350

§

GE 215

081.

.35

Code Translation:

.54

Format Control

. 352 Length: .

.353 Maximum margins:
Left:
Right: •
.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identi~:

. 42

Connection to System

.422 Off-line:

• 3.5 to 19.5 inches by
ve1'l1ier.
· up to 22.0 inches per
sheet, by 1/6-inch
increments.

. .

Control:
Format alternatives:
Rearrangement: .
Suppress zeros: .
Insert point: .
Insert spaces: •
Section sizes: .

· 3,875 inches.
· 3, 875 inches.

• Printer Controller.

.421 On-line:

• 55

· up to 3; each requires 1 of
the 3 Controller Selector
hubs.
· none (Off/On-Line Printer
and Controller are available).

.56

Data Transfer Control

. 442 Input-output areas:
.443 Input-output area
access:
.444 Input-output area
lookout: •
.445 Table control: .
• 446 Synchronization: .

· 1 line of 3 to 120
characters .
• core storage.

.

· each word.
• none •
• none.
• automatic.

.5

PROORAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

.51

Blocks

.511 Size of block:
.512 Block demarcation
Output:

.52

1 line of 3 to 120
characters.
I-bit in sign position of
last word to be printed.
(not required when full
40-word line is printed).

• 524

.525
. 526

7/63

.

PERFORMANCE

• 61

Conditions:

· no .
yes, with optional Automatic Priority Interrupt .
• yes.
· no.
· yes .
·
•
·
·
·
·

yes
yes.
no.
yes.
no.
yes .

. • • none.

.62 Speeds
.621 Nominal or peak speed: 450 lines/min.
.622 Important parameters
Skipping speed:
· 25 inches/sec.
.623 Overhead: . . • •
• 6. 7 msec per single line
step •
.624 Effective speeds
Average spacing,
Effective speed,
inches
lines/min.
.450
1/6:
2/6:
.429
.410
3/6:
1:
• 360
2:
290
3:
243
4:
209
5:
184
.63 Demands on System
Basis: Printing full lines with automatic format control' at single spacing •

• 521 Input:.
.522 Output: •
.523

Select format: .
Select code: .
Select controller:
Testable Conditions

.6

Input-Output Operations
· none.
• 1 line forward, with automatic format control optional.
Stepping:
• step 0 to 63 lines; may be
combined in "print then
step" •
Skipping: • . . . • . • skip to 1 of 8 channels in
paper tape loop; may be
combined in "print then
skip" •
Marking: •
• none.
Searching:
· none.

· program or automatic, usin£ format words.
• unlimited.
• by program only.
• yes.
• yes.
• yes.
· yes •

O~rations

Disabled: .
Busy device:
Nearly exhausted:
Busy controller: •
End of medium marks:
Exhausted medium:

Connection to Device

.441 Size of load: .

Control

Disable:
Request interrupt: .

• 431 Devices per controller: 1.
.432 Restrictions:
· none.
. 44

· automatic, by controller
(from internal BCD code
only).

Physical Dimensions

.351 Overall width: •

.43

.53

Component
Core Storage:

msec per line,
3.0

.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

.71

Adjustments
Adjustment
Forms width:
Vertical forms positioning: . • . . •
Forms tension:
Penetration control:

or Percentage
2.25

Method
sliding forms tractors.
knob .
~ob .

knob.

320:081.720

INPUT-OUTPUT: PRINTER
§ 081.

. 72

Other Controls
Fllllction
On or off-line:
Skip to top of page:
Memory dump:

Manual clear:

. 73

.734 Optimum reloading
period:
Basis: • . . . • .
Form
Comment
button.
button.
button prints entire
Core Storage
contents in
octal form.
button halts printer
operation.

.8

. 124 minutes.
2-part forms, 17 inches
long, at I-inch line spacing.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Recording:
none.
Output block size: automatic
cut-off.
Invalid code:
none
Exhausted medium :check

Loading and Unloading

.731 Volumes handled
Capacity
Storage
Hopper: . . . .
· 3D-inch stack.
Stacker:
· 30- inch stack.
• 732 Replenishment time: • · 1 to 2 minutes .
Printer needs to be stopped.
. 733 Adjustment time: .
· 3 to 5 minutes.

© 1963

hnperfect medium: none
Timing conflicts: check
Receipt of data:
parity
Hammer fuses:

check

Synchronization:

print cycle
check

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

print space.
indicator and
alarm •
stop printer.
indicator and
alarm .
indicator and
alarm.
stop printer •

7/63

320:091.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 215
Input-Output
Magnetic Tape
INPUT-OUTPUT: MAGNETIC TAPE HANDLERS

§

091.

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity:

.22

. 12

motor .
motor .

.213 Feed drive: . .
. 214 Take-up drive:
Magnetic Tape Handler .
MTH680 (dual 15, 000
char/sec unit).

Sensing and Recording Systems
magnetic head.
magnetic head.
two-gap head provides
read-after-write checking.

. 221 Recording system: .
. 222 Sensing system: .
.223 Common system:

Description
Each dual Magnetic Tape Handler consists of two
modified Ampex digital tape transports mounted
one above the other in a single cabinet. Tape
speed is 75 inches per second and recording density
is 200 rows per inch, providing a peak data transfer
rate of 15, 000 characters per second. There is full
tape format compatibility with GE 225 and 235
systems and with ffiM 727, 729, and 7330 Magnetic
Tape Units - all at low density only. Block lengths
are variable, and tape can be read backward as well
as forward.
Only one Magnetic Tape Controller can be used in a
GE 215 system. It is connected to one of the three
Controller Selector hubs, and can control up to
eight tape transports (i. e., four dual tape handlers).
Only one magnetic tape input or output operation can
occur at a time, but tape operations are fully overlapped with internal processing and other inputoutput operations. Checking features include lateral
and longitudinal parity checks on both reading and
recording (i. e., "read-after-write" checking), and
checks for loss of data due to timing errors.
Data can be recorded in any of three modes:
1. BCD - three tape rows per GE 215 word (sign

and "1" bit are ignored, and some internal
codes are converted to achieve IBM compatibility).
2. Binary - four tape rows per word (zeros are
inserted into four excess bit positions in the
fourth row). This mode must be used when a
record contains both BCD and binary data.
3. Special binary - three tape rows per word
(sign and "1" bit are ignored).
. 13

Availability:.

3 months as of March,
1963.

. 14

First Delivery:

MaI"ch, 1961.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Drive Mechanism

. 23

Multiele copies: .

.24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:.
Stacks: .
Heads/ stack:
Method of use:

pinch roller friction.
2 per transport.
vacuum pocket.
about 8 inches each.

© 1963

.

Use of station:.
Stacks: .
Heads/ stack:
Method of use:
.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.311 Medium:
.312 Phenomenon:
. 32

recording.
1.
7.
one row at a time.
sensing.
1.

7.
one row at a time.

plastic tape with magnetizable surface.
magnetization.

Positional Arrangement

.321 Serial by:. . . . . . . 3 to N rows at 200
rows/inch; N limited by
available core storage.
. 322 Parallel by:. • . •
. 324 Track use
Data: . . . . . .
Redundancy check:
Timing: . . . .
Control signals:
Unused: •
Total:
. 325 Row use
Data: .
Redundancy check:
Timing: . • . .
Control signals:
Unused: .
Gap: . . • . .
.33

.211 Drive past the head:
. 212 Reservoirs
Number:
Form:
Capacity:

none.

7 tracks .

6.
1.

a (self-clocking).
O.
O.

7.
3 to N.
1 per block.
O.
O.

o.

O. 75 inch inter- block;
3.75 inch end of file .

Coding: . . . . . . . . BCD Mode: one tape row
per character, as in Data
Code Table No.2.
Binary mode: 4 tape rows
per 20- bit word .
Special Binary mode: 3 tape
rows per word; sign bit
and highest-order data bit
are ignored.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:091.340

GE 215

§091.
. 34

Format

Com~atibili!y

Other device or system Code translation
IBM 727. 729. 7330
tape units at 200
rows/inch: .
generally not required.
GE 225/235 systems: . not required.
. 35

.53

Code Translation:

• automatic, by controller .

.54

Format Control: •

• none •

•55

Control Operations
Disable:
Request interrupt:
Select format: •
Select code: •
Rewind: . . • •
Unload: • • • •
Select density:

Physical Dimensions

. 351 Overall width: .
. 352 Length: .
.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:

0.50 inch.
2. 400 feet per reel.
.56

. 42

Magnetic Tape Controller.
MTC680.

. 43

.

1 controller; requires 1 of
the 3 Controller Selector
hubs.
none •

. 422 Off-line:
Connection to Device

Testable Conditions
Disabled: •
Busy device: •
Output lock: •
Nearly exhausted:
Busy controller: •
End of medium marks:
End of file mark:
Any tape rewinding:

Connection to System

. 421 On-line:

• yes.
• yes, with optional Automatic Priority Interrupt.
• no.
• yes, in I/O instruction •
• yes •
• no •
• no.

• yes •
• yes •
• no.
• no •
• yes.
· yes.
• yes'•
• yes.

.6

PERFORMANCE

.431 Devices per controller: 4 dual handlers (8 tape
transports) •
. 432 Restrictions: . • . •
none.

.61

Conditions:

.62

Speeds

. 44

.621 Nominal or peak speed:. 15,000 char/sec •
.622 Important parameters
Tape speed: • •.
• 75 inches/sec •
Start + stop time:.
• 12.0 m.sec.
Full rewind time:.
• 2.5 minutes •
Inter-block gap:
• 0.75 inch.
End-of-file gap:.
• 3.75 inches.
.623 Overhead:
• 12.0 m.sec/block •
.624 Effective speed: • . • '. 15,OOON/(N+180)char/sec.
where N = char/block •
(See also Graph 320:091. 801. )

Data Transfer Control

. 441 Size of load:
. 442 Input-output areas:.
. 443 Input-output area
access: . • . .
. 444 Input-output area
lockout: • • • .
. 445 Table control:. •
.446 Synchronization:.

1 to N words. lim ited by
available core storage.
core storage •
each word.
none.
none.
automatic .

.5

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

.51

Blqcks

.511 Size of block:
.512 Block demarcation
Input: .

.

Output:
. 52

.63

1 to N words; 3 or 4 tape
rows per word.
gap on tape; maximum N
specified in "read"
instruction.
N specified in "write"
instruction.

• • • none.

Demands on System
Com[!onent

m. sec E!:r block, or

Core Storage:

0.108

Tape Controller:

12.0 +0. 06'lN

+ o. 012N

Percenta ge of
data transfer time
18.0
100.0

where N is number of characters per block •

.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

.71

Adjustments: • . • • • none .

.72

Other Controls

Input-Output Operations

.521 Input:
.522
. 523
. 524
.525

.526

7/63

1 block forward or backward.
Output: .
1 block forward •
Stepping:
none .
Skipping:
1 block backward (backspace).
Marking:
inter- block gap. O. 75
inch long.
end-of-file character and
3. 75-inch gap.
Searching: • • . • . . none.

Function

Form

Comment

Address selection:

rotary switch

File protection:

ring on reel

addresses 0 7.
ring permits
writing.

Rewind:
Manual transport
control:

button.
3 buttons

forward/reverse/stop.

INPUT -OUTPUT: MAGNETIC TAPE HANDLERS
§

.8

091.

.73

320:091.730

Loading and Unloacling

.731 Volumes handled
Storage
Reel: • . . . .

Capacity
2,400 feet; 5, ODD, 000
characters for 1,000char blocks.
. 732 Replenishment time: • • 0.5 to 1.0 minute •
tape unit needs to be
stopped.
.734 Optimum reloading
6.4 minutes.
period: • . • . •

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

Recording:

lateral & longitudinal parity
lateral & longitudinal parity
check
preset
all codes valid.
reflective spot on tape
none
I/O register exhaust
or overflow check

indicator & alarm.

Reading:
Input area overflow:
Output block size:
Invalid code:
Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflicts:
Incorrect number of
characters per word:

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

modUlo 3 or 4 check

indicator & alarm.
stop transfer; set bit.
indicator & alarm.
indica tor & alarm.

indicator & alarm.

7/63

320:091.801

GE 215

EFFECTIVE SPEED: MTH 680

10,000,000

7

4
2

1,000,000
7

4

2

100,000
7
Characters Per
Second

4

2

L,.- ....

10,000
7

/'

V

4

V

V

2

/

1,000

/

7
4

2

100
2

10

4

7

4

2

'1)0

,

7/63

2

1,000

Characters Per Block

A-U-ER-BA-CH-L"""~

'-1

7

4

7

10,000

320: 10 1. 100

_STANDARD
EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 215
Input-Output
Magnetic Ink Document Handler

INPUT-OUTPUT: DOCUMENT HANDLER
§

101.

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: .

.12

Magnetic Ink Document
Handler.
SI2B, Sl2C.

Description
The Docwnent Handler reads and sorts magnetically
encoded paper documents at a peak rate of 1, 200
documJnts per minute .. It can operate on-line with
the GE 215 system or off-line as a sorter only.
One Document Handler can be connected to a single
Controller Selector hub through a Document Handler
Adapter.
The unit will feed, transport, and stack documents
of intermixed sizes within the foi!owing ranges:
Length: . .
Width: . .
Thickness:

. 14

First Delivery:

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

· 21

Drive Mechanism

moving belt fri~tion;
document feeding and
pocket selection by
"vacuum pickup. "
.212 Reservoirs: . . . . . . none.

· 211 Drive past the head: .

· 22

magnetic heads.

.23

Multiple Copies:

none.

· 24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:
Stacks: . . . .
Heads/stack: •
Method of use:

· 25
It reads a single line of magnetic ink characters
printed in Font E-13B (adopted as standard by the
American Bankers' Association). Recognizable
characters are limited to the ten numerals and four
cue characters.

When operating off-line. the Document Handler is
controlled by the manual control panel and a wired
plugboard. The plugboard can define the format of
up to twelve sort fields, each containing up to ten
digits. The desired field and digit position for sorting are selected by push buttons. A "Zero Suppression" feature eliminates repeated handling of
documents which are already properly sorted by
routing them to the Special pocket. The alternative
"Multiple Digit Selection" feature causes documents
which contain a field of up to ten characters whose
value is equal to a corresponding field defined by
plugboard wiring to be sent to the Special pocket.
.13

Availability: . . . . . . 10 months as of
March, 1963.

© 1963

Sensing and Recording Systems

· 222 Sensing system:

5.75 to 8.75 inches
2.50 to 3.75 inches
O. 0027 to O. 0070 inches

In on-line operation, data read from the document
is stored as one BCD character per core storage location, in the six low-order bit positions. Invalid
or unrecognizable characters cause an indicator to
be set and an asterisk to be transmitted to storage.
One of the twelve stacker pockets must be selected
by the stored program. To achieve the peak rate,
documents must be fed continuously and synchronization controlled by the program. When documents
are fed singly upon demand, the maximum rate
drops to six hundred documents per minute. Three
instruction words are required to initiate each
Document Handler input or control operation.

. . . March, 1962.

Range of Symbols
Nwnerals:
Letters:
Special: .
Alternatives: .
Total: . . . .

.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

.311 Medium: . .
.312 Phenomenon: .
.32

reading.
1.
?
?

10
0 - 9.
none.
4
amount, dash, transit,
on-us.
none.
14 •

paper documents.
magnetic ink imprinting.

Positional Arrangement

.321 Serial by:
.322 Parallel by:
.323 Bands:

...

.324 Track use: .
.325 Row use: .
.33

Coding: .

.34

Format Compatibility

character; up to 64
characters per document.
? tracks.
one, consisting of
visually readable
imprinted characters.
all for data.
all for data.
Font E-13B magnetic ink
characters.

Other device or system Code translation
All equipment using
Font E-13B characters
in standard A. B. A.
format: . . . . . . . . none required.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320:101.350
§

101.

. 35

Physical Dimensions

· 351 Overall width: . . .
. 352 Length: . . . . . . .
· 353 Maximum margins
Distance of leading
edge of first symbol
from edge of
document: ..
.4

CONTROLLER

. 41

Identity:

. 42

Connection to System

.421 On-line:

.53

Code Translation: • • . automatic by controller •

· 54

Format Control

2. 50 to 3. 75 inches.
5.75 to 8.75 inches .

0.3125

Control: . . . .
Format alternatives:
Rearrangement:
Suppress zeros:
Insert point: .
Insert spaces: .
Section sizes: .
Select fields for
off-line sorting:

± O. 0625 inches.

Document Handler Adapter •
SA225.

· 55

1; requires 1 of the 3
Controller Selector hubs.

· 56

Connection to Device

. 441 Size of load: . . . .
1 document.
.442 Input-output areas: . . core storage; base address,
M, must be a multiple of
64; one character is read
into the least significant 6
bits of each location,
starting at M + 63 and
continuing downward.
. 443 Input-output area
access: . . . . .
each word.
.444 Input-output area
lockout: . . . . .
none.
.445 Table control: . .
none.
.446 Synchronization: .
automatic within a document;
by program for successive
documents.
.447 Synchronizing aids: .. tests for sorter ready,
sorter feeding, late pocket
decision.

•5

PROGRAM FACILITIES AVAILABLE

• 51

Blods

. 512 Block demarcation
Input: . • . . . . .

up to 64 characters per
document .

Testable Conditions
Disabled:. . . . .
Busy device: . . .
Nearly exhausted:
Busy controller: .
Feeding documents:
Late pocket decision:
Invalid character read:
Hopper empty: •
Stacker full: . . .

Data Transfer Control

.511 Size of block:

Control Operations
no •
yes, with Automatic
Priority Interrupt.
Select stacker: .
yes.
Select format: .
no .
no.
Select code: . .
Halt continuous feeding: yes.

.431 Devices per controller: 1 per SA225 Adapter.
. 432 Restrictions:. . . . . . none.
. 44

.6

PERFORMANCE

.61

Conditions: .

.62

Speeds

· 63

Component

.521 Input:. • . . . . . . . . read 1 document and halt;
or read 1 document and
continue feeding next
document .
. 522 Output: • .
none.
none.
· 523 Stepping: .
none .
.524 Skipping:.
none.
• 525 Marking:.
none.
· 526 Searching:
7/63

. . . none .

Demands on System

plugboard wiring.

Input-Output Operations

yes .
yes.
no .
yes.
yes •
yes.
yes.
yes.
no.

• 621 Nominal or peak speed: 1,200 documents/minute.
.622 Important parameters
Space between
documents: . .
variable (synchronous feed).
Time for pocket
selection: . . .
47 msecs max. after
completion of reading.
· 624 Effective speeds:
1,200 documents/minute
when feeding continuously.
600 documents/minute
maximum when feeding on
demand ("read 1 document
and halt") .

Core storage:
· 52

plugboard and control panel.

Disable: . . . . . .
Request interrupt: .

. 422 Off-line
Associated equipment
Use
Document sorting: . none.
.43

plugboard and program.
undefined.
by program.
by program.
no.
no.
plugboard.

msec per character
. 0.036.

.7

EXTERNAL FACILITIES

• 71

Adjustments:.....: none required (feeds intermixed documents of
varying sizes).

.72

Other Controls
Function

Form

Comment

Sort field selection: 12 buttons for off-line sorting
only.

rnpUT-OUTPUT: DOCUMENT HANDLER
§

320: 101.730

101.

. 73

.8

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION

Loading and Unloading
Error

.731 Volwnes handled
Storage
Feed hopper: .
Stackers (12): ...
• 732 Replenishment time:.

Capacity
12 inch stack (approx.
2,500 documents).
10 inch stack each.
0.5 to 1.0 minutes.
reader needs to be stopped.

. 734 Optimwn reloading
period: . . . . . . . . 2 minutes.

© 1963

Reading:

Check or
Interlock

Input area overflow:
Invalid code:

see "Invalid
code."
none.
validity check

Exhausted medium:
Imperfect medium:
Timing conflict:
Full stacker:
Misfeed:
Late pocket selection:

check
none.
none.
check
check
check

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Action

transmit • to storage &
set indicator.
indicator & alarm•

halt reader •
halt reader.
indicator & alarm.

7/63

•

~~EDP

•

320: 102.100

,[PORTS

GE 215
Input-Output
DATANET -15
INPUT-OUTPUT: DATANET-15

§

102.

. 12

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:.

. 12

Description

Description (Contd. )
transmit mode, only five bits are transferred to the
DATANET-15; therefore, the message must be programmed so the letter or numeric shift code is inserted into the proper position within the message .

. . DATANET-15.

The DATANET-15 links telecommunication terminals
to the GE 215 Central Processor via the Controller
Selector. The Automatic Priority Interrupt feature
is required on all GE 215s using the DATANET-15.
This feature permits the DATANET-15 to operate
concurrently with and time-share the core storage
facilities with other peripheral devices and internal
processing. The manufacturer estimates that less
than 4 per cent of the central processor time will be
used for normal communications storage accesses.
The basic DATANET-15 controller receives and
sends digital data over a maximum of two teletype
or telephone grade transmission facilities. Therefore, the basic model is called a "two-channel" controller, even though data can be transferred over
only one of the two connected transmission facilities
at a time. Optional features, described below, permit connection of up to 15 transmission units and 1
Paper Tape Unit, with the same restriction to 1 data
transfer operation into core storage at a time.
Transmission speeds of 75, 110, or 1,050 bits per
second are the standard options, but any transmission speed between 60 and 2,400 bits per second is
available upon request. The transmission speed is
controlled by a timing plug which emits a pulse to
coincide with each bit. The transmission speed of a
facility can be changed at any time by replacing the
existing timing plug with one corresponding to the
speed desired. Only one speed, for all of the channels
on a DATANET-15. is possible at one time. Any
serial five-. six-. seven-. or eight-bit data code
using start-stop bits to indicate the beginning and end
of each transmitted or received character will be
accepted by the DATANET-15. The start-stop bits
are stripped off and added by the DATANET-15 for
each character as needed.
Data are transferred serially by character and in
parallel by bit between the DATANET-15 and the
GE 215 computer and between the DATANET-15 and
the Paper Tape Unit. Data transfers are serial by
bit, using start-stop bits, between the DATANET-15
and remote units.
Each character is represented in core storage in the
five, six, or seven least Significant bits of a GE 215
word, depending on the code used. There is no automatic code conversion, but a plugboard allows rearrangement of the bit structure in anY'way desired,
thus effectively allowing conversion to any desired
character code. When using the five-bit character
code for receiving data, a bit is automatically generated in the sixth bit position to indicate that the
character is either a letter or a numeral. In the

© 1963

The DATANET-15 has two modes of operation: the
Receive mode and the Transmit mode. In the Receive
mode, a request-for-access signal from a remote
station is stored in a flip-flop indicator for that station. Once every 300 microseconds, a scanner
within the DATANET-15 interrogates the status of
the flip-flop indicators for each channel until either
a request-for-access signal is detected, a branch
select is executed, or the computer initiates a transmission. When a request-for-access signal is detected, the scanner stops on the requesting channel,
causes an automatic program interrupt to service it,
and locks out all other channels. After servicing the
request, scanning is resumed by a start-scanning instruction. After a scan instruction has been executed,
a total of 250 milliseconds elapses and the controller
is interlocked before the scanning operation is resumed, unless the previous instruction was a scan
instruction.
A 250 millisecond delay is encountered whenever the
mode of the DATANET-15 is changed, allowing time
for the communication channel to change modes. The
transmit mode is entered when a transmit instruction
is executed. In this mode, the scanner is positioned
on the channel specified in the instruction, enabling
data to be transmitted character by character from
core storage to the remote station via the DATANET15.
The instructions required to activate the DATANET15 are identical in format for either mode and consist
of three instruction words which contain the address
of the remote station, the core storage address, and
the character count of the message. The character
count is placed in the character counter, which provides a means for controlling the length of each
message transferred between core storage and the
DATANET-15. The counter can count up to 2,048
characters. When the specified number of characters has been counted, the character counter automatically terminates data transfer between the
DATANET-15 and core storage until a new command
is executed. Messages can also be terminated by
sensing an end of message or end of trlnsmission
character. It is possible to transmit messages
longer than 2, 048 characters by breaking the message
down into blocks of fewer than 2,048 characters each.
Reception of messages containing more than 2,048
characters can occur without the loss of a character
by issuing another receive instruction within half the
time required to receive a bit. (When transmitting
at a rate of 75 bits per second, the new receive instruction must be issued within 6.7 milliseconds
after the indication of the character counter
overflow. )

by Auerbach Carporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320: 102.120

§ 102.

. 12

.12

Description (Contd.)

Description (Contd.)

110-Baud Data Speed Plug: Permits transmission and
reception of data at 110 bits per second.

Odd parity checks are automatically performed by the
DATANET-15 on all input data which contains provisions for an odd parity bit. If this parity bit is in
error, the DATANET-15 corrects the parity and sets
a program -testable indicator.

1, 050-Baud Data Speed Plug: Permits transmission
and reception of data at 1,050 bits per second.

Optional Features
Five-Channel Operation: Permits serial five-bit
data codes with start and stop bits to be received
or transmitted.
Six-, Seven-, or Eight-Channel Operation: Permits
any single serial six-, seven-, or eight-bit data
code with start and stop bits to be received or
transmitted.
75-Baud Data Speed Plug: Permits transmission and
reception of data at 75 bits per second.

7/63

Special Data Speed Plug: Permits transmission and
reception of data at any other single bit rate between
60 and 2, 400 bits per second.
Paper Tape Adapter: Provides the capacity to connect
and control a GE free-standing Paper Tape Unit.
Four Additional Channels: Provides the capacity for
accommodating up to six transmission f:;tcilities.
Thirteen Additional Channels: Provides the capacity
for accommodating up to 15 transmission facilities.
Interface Adapter: Adapts the controller voltage and
current levels to those needed for low-speed telegraphic operation.

I AUERBAC~~

320: 111.1 00
_STANDARD

EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 215
Simultaneous Operations

SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS

§

111.

.12

.1

SPECIAL UNITS

• 11

Identity: . . . . .

• 12

Description (Contd. )
1. Card Reader (Channell).

Controller Selector •
Priority Access Control.
(Both are standard in all
GE 215 systems).

2. Controller Selector (Channels 2-4).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Description
There are six input-output channels in the GE 215
system. The card reader is connected to Channel
1 and requires one access to core storage for each
column read (80 accesses per card). The card punch
is connected to Channel 5 through an 80- bit shift register and requires 960 accesses to core storage for
each card punched. Synchronization of data transfers between the card input-output units and core
storage is automatic, and card reading and punching
can always be overlapped with internal processing.

3. Card Punch (Channel 5).
4. Central Processor, with paper tape and
typewriter input-output (Channel 6).
The criteria for establishing this priority order are
the repetition rate of memory access demands and
the consequences of not gaining access in time; the
central processor can wait indefinitely without danger of error or loss of information. Priority order
for the devices attached to the Controller Selector
is determined by the numbers of the hubs to which
they are attached and can be changed to meet changing system requirements.

The console typewriter and paper tape reader and
punch are connected to the 6-bit N Register in the
Central Processor, which forms the sixth inputoutput channel. Only one character is transferred
at a time, and synchronization must be controlled by
the stored program. These three units share the
same power supply, and" only one can be operated at
a time.

This method of handling simultaneous operations is
straightforward and powerful. When several highspeed peripheral units are operating simultaneously
it is pos~ible, though unlikely, that requests for
memory access will occur faster than the processor
can serve them, reSUlting in loss of data. There are
error indicators in the magnetic tape and Mass Random Access Data Storage controllers to detect this
condition; the other input-output units will "hang up"
if they are not granted access in time.

All other peripheral devices must be connected to
Channels 2 through 4. These three channels are
called the Controller Selector.
Controller Selector: This unit, housed in the Central
Processor cabinet, serves as a common control and
data transfer point between the processor and the
controllers for data transmission, printers, magnetic tape units, Magnetic Document Handlers, Mass
Random Access Data Storage, and the Auxiliary
Arithmetic Unit. The Controller Selector contains
three ''hubs.'' One peripheral controller can be
plugged into each hub and assumes the address of
that hub. The Controller Selector automatically
controls the time-sharing of core storage accesses
among all of the attached peripheral devices. One
device on each peripheral controller can therefore
operate simultaneously. Data is transferred through
the Controller Selector at the rate of 27, 800 words
per second.
Requests for access to core storage are automatically served by the Priority Access Control according to the following priority order. The unit with
the highest priority is listed first.

© 1963

Mass Random Access File Controller.
Magnetic Tape Controller.
Magnetic Document Handler Adapter •
Data Transmission Controller.
High Speed Printer(s).
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.

.2

CONFIGURATION
CONDITIONS:
. . . none.

.4

RULES
A total of three Controllers (or two if the Auxiliary
Arithmetic Unit is installed) are permitted in a system. The types of controllers will dictate the number of simultaneous operations possible, as detailed
below, since each controller is capable of only one
data transfer operation at any time.
-The central processor has a maximum transfer rate
of 27,800 words per second, or approximately
83,400 characters per second. It is possible for
various combinations of the operations listed below
to exceed this capacity, reSUlting in a loss of data
that will be Signalled.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320: 111.400

§

111.

.4

.4

RULES (Contd.)

RULES (Contd.)

"'One magnetic tape input or output operation.
"'One Mass Random Access Data Storage input or
output operation.

Any or all of the following can be in operation simultaneously. except that the total number of operations
preceded by '" cannot exceed three:

Up to four Mass Random Access Data Storage seek
operations.
"'One DATANET-lS input or output operation.

Internal processing.
"'One Magnetic Ink Document Handler input operation.
Read card.
"'Processing in Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
Punch card.
And any
"'Print.a line or advance forms on printer (one per
printer controller).

of the following:

Type on console typewriter.
Read paper tape.
Punch paper tape.

Any number of magnetic tape rewind operations.

I

7/63

~

@

.-,A-UE-RS-AC-H-,

320: 20 1. 001
GE 215
System Performance

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
§201.
GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING (320:201.1)
These problems involve updating a master file from information in a detail file and
producing a printed record of each transaction. This application is one of the most typical
of commercial data processing jobs and is fully described in Section 4:200.1 of the Users'
Guide.
The GE 215 is basically a fixed word-length, binary processor, although an optional
feature (included in Standard Configurations I and III) enables it to perform decimal addition
and subtraction. To minimize time-consuming radix conversion and unpacking operations,
records in the magnetic tape master file are organized in an unpacked format, with individual fields in either binary or alphameric form depending upon their usage. Each master
file record, whose nominal length is 108 characters, occupies 37 GE 215 word locations or
148 magnetic tape rows. (Magnetic tape files containing mixed alphameric and binary data
must be read and recorded in the binary mode, in which each computer word occupies four
tape rows.)
Standard Configuration I has no magnetic tape units. Therefore, it is assumed that
both the master and detail files are on punched cards, in alphameric format, and that the two
files have been collated off-line so that each detail card follows its associated master record
cards. Since master records with no activity (i.e., no corresponding detail cards) would,
in most cases, be removed from the file before the computer run, only the times at an activity
factor of 1. 0 are plotted for Standard Configuration I. The relatively low speed of the card
punch (300 cards per minute) in producing the updated Master File makes the over-all processing time for Configuration I much higher than for Configurations II and III, which utilize
magnetic tape for the master file. It should be noted that the master record length for
Standard File Problem A is 108 characters, which necessitates the use of two 80-column cards
for each master file record.
In Standard Configurations II and III, the master file is on magnetic tape, the detail
file is on punched cards, and the report file is produced by the on: line printer.
Standard Configuration II is a "stripped-down" magnetic tape system which includes
none of the optional features that improve the GE 215's proceSSing capabilities. Because of
the lack of automatic facilities for decimal arithmetic, block transfers, and three-way
comparisons, internal processing times for Configuration II are nearly twice as high as for
Configuration III. Even so, throughput at the lower activity ratios is limited by the effective
speed of the 15KC magnetic tape units rather than by the central processor (except in File
Problem B), as indicated by the horizontal segment of each File Processing performance curve
for Configuration II. At higher activity ratios, the central processor or the on-line printer
becomes the limiting factor. It is Significant to note that the GE 215, unlike most computers
in its price class, can keep its card reader, card punch, printer, and one magnetic tape unit
operating simultaneously at their maximum effective transfer rates - even in a "minimum"
configuration such as this one.
Standard Configuration III includes the optional facilities for decimal arithmetic, block
transfers, and three-way comparisions which are lacking in Configuration II. As a result,

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215"

320:201.002
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE (Contd.)
§201.
GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING (Contd.)
central processor speeds are significantly higher and overall processing times are reduced
at all except the lowest activity factors. where magnetic tape time is still the limiting
factor.
SORTING (320:201. 2)
The standard estimate for sorting 80-character records by straightforward merging
on magnetic tape was developed from the time for Standard File Problem A by the method
explained in Paragraph 4:200.213 of the Users' Guide. A two-way merge was used in
Configuration II (which has only four magnetic tape units) and a three-way merge in Configuration III. The results are shown in Graph 320:201.214.
MATRIX INVERSION (320:201.3)

In matrix inversion, the object is to measure central processor speed on the straightforward inversion of a non-symmetric, non-Singular matrix. No input-output operations are
involved. The standard estimate is based on the time to perform cumulative tllUltiplication
(c = c + aibj ) in eight-digit precision floating pOint, using both standard subroutines and the
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit (see Paragraph 320:051.422). The results are shown in Graph
320:201.313. It can be seen that the inversion speeds are about ten times as high when the
floating point arithmetic is performed by the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit as when floating point
subroutines are used. This is a reasonable indication of the value of the AAU for engineering
and scientific applications.

7/63

320:201.011

GE 215
System Performance

GE 215
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

©

1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:201.012

GE215

GE 215 SYSTEM PERFORMA"NCE
1

WORKSHEET DATA TABLE

Configuration
Worksheet

1

Input.
Output
Times

Reference

Item

Char/block

I

1/

1/1

(File 1)

18.5 words

370 words

370 words

(File 1)

0.5

10

10

111

111

Records/block

K

msec/block

File 1:: File 2

msec/switch

1

= 60;

= 200

2

File 3

60

150

150

File 4

171

171

171

File 1

= File

4:200.112
2

File 3
File 4
msec/penalty

2
Central
Processor
Times

3

File 1 = File 2

2

= 34.6

17.8

17.8

3.0

3.0

3.0

File 4

3.0

3.0

3.0

maec/block

al

1.368

1.368

1.368

maec/record

a2

6.156

13.968

6.156

msec/detail

b6

20.392

20.392

20.392

maec/work

b5 +b9

8.676

8.676

8.676

maec/report

b7 +b8

45.544

112.544

45.544

msec/block
for C.P.
and
dominant
column.

al

1.4

1.4

1.4

a2 K

3.1

139.7

61.6

a3 K

37.3

1,416.1

746.1

File 1 Master In

3.0

17.8

17.8

1-7.8

17.8
30.0

4:200.1132

4:200.114
File 2 Master Out

F = 1.0

Unit of measure

200.0

34.6

File 3 Details

1.6

30.0

File 4 Reports

1.6

30.0

1,710.0

30.0

1,710.0

1,652.8

1,710.0

904.7

1,710.0

Total

82.6

200.0

(words)
699

1,119

1,119

4

4

4

3 (Blocks 1 to 23)

150

171

159

6 (Blocks 24 to 48)

780

840

780

Files

350

1,614

1,614

50

50

50

2,003

3,798

3,726

Std. routines
Fixed
Standard
Problem A
Space

= 3.0;

File 3

Standard
Problem A

4

1

4:200.1151

Working
Total

I AUERBACH 1'.$-1

320:201.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 215

REPORTS

System Performance

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

§

201.

.112 Computation:
.113 Timing basis:

.1

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING

.11

Standard File Problem A

.111 Record sizes
Master file: •
Detail file:
Report file: .

standard.
using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.113.
see graph below •

• 114 Graph: • • • • • • • • .
• 115 Storage space required
Configuration I: •
2,003 words.
3, 798 words.
Configuration II: •
Configuration III:. • • 3, 726 words.

• 108 characters.
• 1 card.
· 1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2

100.0
7
4

Time in Minutes
to Process 10,000 2
Master File
Records

./

10.0

..,

7

/

4

/

..,

~

L

2

1.0
7

4
2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals. denote standard System Configurations.)

© 1963

by Auerbach Carporatian and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:201.120
§

GE215

201.

• 12

• 122 Computation:
.123 Timing basis:

standard •
using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.12 •
.124 Graph: • • • • • • • • • see graph below •

Standard File Problem B

• 121 Record sizes
Master file: •
Detail file:
Report file: •

54 characters.
1 card.
1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2

100.0
7

4
~

Time in Minutes
t() Process 10,000
Master File
Records

2
\\

~\\
~

10.0

.- .-

7

I!I"".

4

/

/

L

1/

/

I

I--f
1.0
7

4

2

0.1
0.0

0.1

0.33

ActiVity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

7/63

1.0

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
§

320:201.130

201.

.13

.132 Computation:
.133 Timing basis:

standard.
using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.13 •
.134 Graph: • • • • • • ••• see graph below.

Standard File Problem C

• 131 Record sizes
Master file:
Detail file:
Report file:

216 characters.
1 card.
1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2
II

100.0
7

4
Time in Minutes
to Process 10, 000
Master File
Records

2

~

10.0

~

7

4
2

1.0
7

4

2

0.1
0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
.Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

© 1963

by Auerbach Carporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

320:201.140
§

GE 215

201.

.14

.142 Computation:
• 143 Timing basis:

trebled •
using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.14 •
• 144 Graph: • • • • • • • • • see graph below.

Standard File Problem D

• 141 Record sizes
Master file: • •
Detail file: •
Report file: •

108 characters.
1 card.

1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2

100.0
7

4
Time in Minutes
to Process 10,000 2
Master FHe
Records

y

10.0
7

,

4

,

-----------~

-

""

./

L

2

1.0
7
4

2

0.1
0.0

0.1

0.33

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote, standard System Configurations.)

7/63

1.0

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

§

320:201.200

201.

.212 Key size: ••
• 213 Timing basis:

.2

SORTING

.21

Standard Problem Estimates

• 211 Record size: • • • ••

8 characters.
using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.213
• 214 Graph: • . • • • • • • . see graph below •

80 characters.

1,000.0

7

4
~

2

~

100.0

V ~~
~

, ,

7

"

//

4

L

Time in Minutes
to Put Records
2
Into Required
Order

II

1I'I1I

If'

1/
, ,

10.0

7
.~

/.

V

/

4

~ II~

//

'/

2

II

1.0

II ~
1.1 II

,

7

" "
~

4

/ V

//

2

/

O. 1
2

4

100

7

2.

4

1,000

7

2
10,000

4

7
100,000

Number of Records

©

1963 by Auerbach Corporationclnd BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 215

320:201.300
§

.312 Timing basis: • • • •• using estimating procedure outlined in
Users' Guide,
4:200.312 •
•313 Graph: • • • • • • • •. see graph below •
.314 Maximum matrix sizes
4,096 core storage
locations:
40.
8,192 core storage
locations:
60 •

201.

.3

MATRIX INVERSION

•31

Standard Problem Estimates

.311 Basic parameters: ••• general, non-symmetric
matrices, using floating
point to at least 8
decimal digits.

100.0

7

I

4

2

I

/

J WITiiOUT AAU

10.0

7

I

I

4

I

Time in Minutes 2
for Complete
Inversion

I

I(WITII AAU

J

L

1,0

7

If
J
I

4

I

J
J

2

I

V

0.1

/

c~-,

7
J

4

2
0.0 1

I

IJ
J

I
2

I
4

7

2

4

Size of Matrix

7/63

7

2
100

10

I AUERBACH I

tJ

•

7
1,000

320:221.101

.SIANDIRD

EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 215
Price Data

PRICE DATA
§

221.
PRICES

IDENTITY OF UNIT
CLASS

No.

Central
Processor

X225A

InputOutput

Controllers

Monthly
Rental

Monthly
Maintenance

Purchase

$

$

$

Central Processor, Console, and Typewriter
(including 3-hub Controller Selector)
CA2l5A
CB215A

Internal
Storage

Name

With 4, 096 core storage locations
With 8, 192 core storage locations

2,200
2,500

140,650
169,200

Optional Features
Move Command
Automatic Priority Interrupt
Three- Way Compare, Decimal Addition and
Subtraction, and Additional Address Modification Groups
Real Time Clock
Console Typewriter Input

75
75

3,300
3,800

200
75
200

4,410
3,600
9,600

Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit·

650

32,500

1, 725

76,000

Core Storage: Included in Central Processor
M640A

Mass Random Access Data Storage Unit

GA651A
GA651B

Paper Tape Punch & Reader
With Spooler
Without Spooler

490
440

22,000
19,800

D225B
D225C

Card Reader & Controller
400 cards/minute
1,500 cards/minute

375
810

18,350
32,400

E225K
E225M

Card Punch & Controller
100 cards/minute
300 cards/minute

400
825

21,460
41,150

P215E

High Speed (450 LPM) Printer and Controller

775

60,000

MTH680

Dual Magnetic Tape Handler (15,000 char/sec)

850

33,000

S12B

Magnetic Ink Document Handler

1,750

87,500

DTC901

DATANET-15

690

30,000

M225B

Mass Random Access Data Storage Controller

900

46,250

MTC680

Magnetic Tape Controller

800

37,500

SA225A

Magnetic Ink Document Handler Adapter
(For 1 Handler)

540

21,600

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE225
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

GE 225
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

321:001.001
GE 225
Contents

CONTENTS
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.
10.

11.

12.
13.

Introduction
• • 321:011
Revised
Data Structure
• ••• 321:021
System Configuration
Revised
· 321:031
I
Typical Card System •
• 321:031.1
II
4- Tape Business System
••••
• 321:031.2
III
6- Tape Business System
• • • • •
• • 321:031.3
IV
12- Tape Business System
• • • • • • • •
• 321:031.4
V
6- Tape Auxiliary Storage System • • • • •
• • 321:031.5
VI
6-Tape Business/Scientific System.
• • 321:031.6
Internal Storage
Core Storage • • • • • • • • • •
• 321:041
Mass Random Access Data Storage
• • 321:042
Revised
Central Processors
Central Processor • • • • •
• •••
• 321:051
Revised
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit • • • • •
• • • 321:051.12
Console
Console (part of Central Processor)
• 321:061
Revised
Console Typewriter • • • • • •
• • • 321:061.13
Input- Output; Punched Tape and Card
Card Reader (400 cards/minute)
• • • • •
• • 321:071
Card Reader (1,000 cards/minute) ••
• • • •• 321:072
Revised
Card Punch (100 cards/minute)
• • 321:073
Card Punch (300 cards/minute)
• 321:073
Paper Tape Reader •
• • 321:074
Paper Tape Punch • • • • • • • • • • •
• 321:075
Input- Output; Printers
High Sp~ed Printer (On- Line)
• 321:081
Revised
High Speed Printer (Off/On- Line)
• 321:081.12
Low Speed Printer (150 lines/minute)
• • • • 321:082
Input-Output; Magnetic Tape
Dual Magnetic'Tape Handler (15KC) •
Revised
• 321:091
• • • • • 321:091
Dual Magnetic Tape Handler (15/41. 6KC)
Input- Output; Other
Magnetic Ink Document Handler
• • 321:101
DATANET-15 • • •
• • 321:102
Simultaneous Operations • • • • • •
Revised
• •• 321:111
Controller Selector
• 321: 111.1
Priority Access Control
• 321:111.1
Instruction List • •
Revised
• •• 321: 121
Coding Specimens
GAP •
• • • • • • 321: 131
GBCOM
Revised
• 321:132
GBCOM Report Writer
• • • • 321:133
TABSOL
• •• 321:134
WIZ-II
• •• 321:135
ZOOM.
• • • • • • • 321: 136

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321 :001.002

GE225

CONTENTS (Contd.)
14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.
20.

21.
22.

7/63

Data Codes

Internal BCD and Printer
Magnetic Tape (BCD Mode)
Punched Cards • • • •
Collating Sequence ~ • • • • • • • •
Problem Oriented Facilities
IDM 650 Simulator • • • • •
LGP-30 Simulator •
• ••••
FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator
GECOM Report Writer • •
Card Program Generator •
BRIDGE II Service System
Mathematical Routines • •
BANKPAC • • • • • • •
Electric Utility Routines
PRONTO • • . • • • •
Critical Path Method . .
TRIM . . . . • . . . .
Assembly Line Balancing
Permuted Index Program Package.
Process Oriented Languages
GECOM
TABSOL
FORTRAN II
WIZ-II •••
Machine Oriented Languages
GAP • • • •
ZOOM • • •
Program Translators
GAP ••
GECOM
WIZ-II ••
Operating Environment
BRIDGE II Service System
System Performance
•••••••
Worksheet Data • • • • •
Generalized File Processing
Sorting • • • • •
Matrix Inversion
Physical Characteristics
Price Data • • • • • • • •

Revised

• •• 321:141
• 321:142
• 321: 143
• • 321:144
Revised
· 321:151
• • • • • • • • • 321: 151.11
• • • 321: 151.11
• • • • • • 321: 151.13
• 321:151.14
• • • • 321: 151.14
• •• 321:151.15
• • .321: 151.17
• • • 321: 151.17
• 321:151.17
• 321: 151.17
.321:151.17
· 321:151.17
· 321:151.17
· 321:151.17
Revised
• • 321:161
• • • 321: 161.14
• 321: 162
• 321:163
• • • • 321:171
• •• 321:172

Revised

• • • • 321:181
• •• 321:182
• •• 321:183

Revised
Revised

•
•
•
·
·
• •
•
•

321:191
Revised
321:201.001
321:201.011
321:201.1 Revised
321:201.2 Revised
321:201.3
321:211
Revised
321:221
Revised

321:011.100
GE 225
Introduction

INTRODUCTION

§Oll.
The GE 225 is a small to medium scale, solid-state data processing system that is
adaptable to a wide range of business and scientific applications. System rentals can range
from approximately $2,400 to over $30,000 per month, but most installations fall within the
$4,000 to $18,000 range. First customer deliveries of the GE 225 were made in March,
1961, and more than 100 have been installed to date.
Compatibility
The GE 225 line was expanded early in 1963 by the announcement of the GE 215 and
GE 235 systems. Both the new systems are fully program -compatible with the GE 225 and
offer essentially the same line of peripheral equipment. The GE 215 (described in Computer System Report 320) has internal processing speeds approximately half as high as the
GE 225 and decreased capabilities for simultaneous operations. The GE 235 (described in
Computer System Report 323) has internal processing speeds at least three times as high
as the GE 225.
Hardware
Core storage in the GE 225 can consist of 4,096, 8,192, or 16,384 word locations.
Each 20-bit location can hold a one-address instruction, a binary data word of 19 bits plus
sign, or 3 alphameric characters in 6-bit BCD representation. Core storage cycle time is
18 microseconds. A parity check is performed upon all internal transfer operations.
The central processor provides complete arithmetic facilities for single word-length
binary operands. Loading, storing, addition, and subtraction of double-length binary data
items can also be performed. An optional feature permits addition and subtraction (but not
multiplication or division) of single- or double-length data items in BCD form. This feature
can significantly reduce the number of time-consuming radix conversions required in business data processing, but will seldom eliminate the problem completely.
Three index register~ and a fourth location that serves as a convenient counter register are standard. An optional feature makes 31 additional 4-word groups in core storage
available as index registers or counters. Only one group, selected by a special instruction,
can be active at a time. Other optional features for the central processor are a Move Command (which expedites internal block transfer operations), Three-Way Compare, Automatic
Priority Interrupt, and a Real-Time Clock. Instructions are executed at the rate of about
20,000 per second in typical GE 225 routines.
The Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can perform double-length arithmetic in either fixed or
floating point mode under control of the central processor. This optional unit greatly increases the 225' s internal processing speeds on scientific problems.
Standard 80-column punched cards can be read at 400 or 1,000 cards per minute and
punched at 100 or 300 cards per minute. Paper tape can be read at 250 or 1,000 characters
per second and punched at 110 characters per second. A console typewriter provides typed
output at 10 characters per second. Input via the console typewriter is an optional feature.
All peripheral devices except those mentioned above are connected to the central
processor through an eight-way multiplexing device called the Controller Selector, which
gives the GE 225 capabilities for simultaneous operations that rival far more costly systems.
Up to eight c~mtrollers for magnetic tape units, disc storage units, printers, magnetic document handlers, data communication equipment, and the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can be
connected to the Controller Selector. One peripheral unit on each controller can operate
simultaneously with internal processing and card reading and punching. Accesses to core

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321:011.101

GE 225
INTRODUCTION (Contd.)

§Oll.
Hardware (Contd.)
storage are automatically allocated among the operating units by a straightforward priority
system. Maximum gross data transfer rate for the system is 55,600 words per second.
The printer has a peak speed of 900 alphameric lines per minute and a skipping
speed of 25 inches per second. The printer controller provides automatic editing and format control. Special models of the high speed printer are available for use either on-line
or for independent off-line tape-to-printer data transcriptions. Another printer with a
peak speed of 150 alphameric lines per minute and no automatic format control is offered
for use where output volume is relatively low.
Two magnetic tape handler models are available. One has a peak data transfer rate
of 15,000 characters per second at a recording density of 200 rows per inch. The other
model offers a choice of 200 or 556 rows per inch, with corresponding peak speeds of
15,000 or 41,667 characters per second. The tape format is compatible with the mM 727,
729, and 7330 Magnetic Tape Units. Two tape handlers are mounted in a single cabinet,
one above the other. Up to eight tape handlers can be connected to each tape controller.
No more than two 41.6KC tape read or write operations can occur at a time, but the number of simultaneous 15KC tape operations is limited only by the number of tape controllers
in the system.
Each Mass Random Access Data Storage (MRADS) unit provides disc storage for
approximately 18.87 million alphameric characters in 98,304 fixed record locations of
64 words (or 192 characters) each. The average total waiting time for access to a
randomly-placed record is 225 milliseconds. Up to 294,912 characters per MRADS unit
can be transferred without repositioning any of the 16 access arms. A maximum of four
MRADS file units can be connected to each MRADS controller, and up to eight controllers
can be used in a GE 225 system. Only one MRADS read or write operation can occur at a
time.
Magnetically encoded paper documents can be read and sorted at a peak speed of
1,200 documents per minute. Two document handlers can be connected to each controller,
providing a peak sorting speed of 2,400 documents per minute.
The DATANET-15 controls the transmission and reception of digital data over telephone and telegraph lines and two-wire cables at speeds ranging from 60 to 2,400 bits per
second. Up to 15 data transmission lines and a paper tape reader and punch can be connected to a DATANET-15, but it can control only one data transfer operation at a time.
GE'S line of data communications equipment also includes:
,/

•

The DATANET-30 programmed data communication system.

•

The DATANET-600 paper tape terminal.

•

The DATANET-90 magnetic-tape-to-computer terminal.

•

The DATANET-91 off-line magnetic-tape-to-magnetic-tape terminal.

•

A variety of special digital input-output devices.

GE'S MOSE (Modification of Standard Equipment) group offers a variety of specialpurpose hardware for use with the 225 system, such as peripheral device switching controllers, printer plotting option, plotter interface units, etc.

7/63 Revised

INTRODUCTION

321:011.102

INTRODUCTION (Contd.)
§

OIl.

Software
The General Assembly Program (GAP) is the basic symbolic assembly system for
the GE 225. It permits full utilization of the hardware facilities, is relatively easy to learn
and use, but provides few refinements. GAP-coded programs can be assembled on GE 225
systems with punched card, paper tape, or magnetic tape input-output equipment.
ZOOM is a "macro assembly system" designed to facilitate machine oriented programming by reducing the amount of detailed coding required while retaining high object
program efficiencies. The ZOOM programmer uses a combination of pseudo-English statements, algebraic expressions, and GAP symbolic statements. These are translated into
an all- GAP program which is then assembled in the normal manner. Magnetic tape is not
required, but can be utilized to facilitate the translation process.
GECOM is offered as an all-purpose process oriented language. The basic language
structure is similar to that of COBOL-61 but is not compatible with it. (A COBOL-61 to
GECOM translator will be provided.) GECOM also handles algebraic expressions and
mathematical functions, and includes a report writer and TABSOL, a system that permits
decision logic to be expressed in a concise tabular format. At least four magnetic tape
handlers and 8,192 core storage locations are required for GECOM compilations.
WIZ is a one-pass algebraic compiler for use on punched card or paper tape systems with at least 8,192 core storage locations. WIZ is less powerful than the FORTRAN
or ALGOL language, but it is easy to learn and provides high compilation speeds.
FORTRAN II is available for GE 225 systems with at least 8,192 core storage locations and 4 magnetic tape units. Arrays are limited to two dimensions, and Boolean,
complex, and double precision statements are not permitted. On the other hand, several
useful extensions of the FORTRAN II language have-been incorporated.
BRIDGE II is a tape file maintenance and run sequencing program whose functions
are directed by control cards. FORWARD is a generaUzed sort/merge generator. Simulation programs are available for simulating the operations of IBM 650 and General Precision LGP-30 computers on the GE 225. The Card Program Generator simplifies the
programming of existing punched card tabulator and calculator runs for the GE 225. An
adequate library of generalized input-output, diagnostic, and mathematical routines are
available, as are special-purpose packages for the banking and electric utility industries,
numerical tool control, inventory management, assembly line balancing, critical path
scheduling, and information retrieval.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321:021.100
•

STANDARD

EDP

_

-

REPORTS

'-

GE 225
Data Structure

DATA STRUCTURE

§

021.

.1

.2

Type of Information

STORAGE LOCATIONS
Name of
Location Size
Word:
Sector:
Band:
Disc:

INFORMATION FORMATS
Representation

Numeral (BCD):

Purpose or Use

20 bits +parity basic addressable
location.
64 words
Mass Random Access
Data Storage record
location.
8 or 16 sectors Mass Random Access
Data Storage.
512 bands
Mass Random Access
Data Storage.

© 1963

three 6-bit characters per
word.
Letter (BCD): .
three 6-bit characters per
word.
Number (BCD): .
one or two 3-character words.
Number (binary):
one or two 20-bit words.
Number (floating point): two words (30 bits + sign
for mantissa; 8 bits + sign
for exponent).
Instruction: . . . . • . one word (two words for
certain input-output
instructions ).

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Reprinted

7/63

321:031.100
•

STAnDARD

EDP
•

GE 225

R£PORTS

System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
§

031.

.1

TYPICAL CARD SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION I)
. core storage is 75% larger.
card punch is 50% faster.
2 more simultaneous data transfer operations are
possible.
2 more index registers.

Deviations from Standard Configuration:

Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 4.096 words
Central Processor. Console &
Typewriter

1

Card Reader & Controller:
1.000 cards/min.

810

Card Punch & Controller:
300 cards/min.

825

Controller Selector (special
I-channel model)

o
Optional Features Included:

30

1.275

Printer & Controller: 900 lines/min.

Move command.
Three-way compare.
Decimal addition & subtraction.
. Additional address modification groups.
TOTAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

© 1963

$1.900

by Auerbach Corporation ani:! BNA Incorporated

75

}

200

$5.115

Revised 7/63

321:031.200
§

GE 225

031.

.2

4-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION ll)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . • . .

core storage is 75% larger.
card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
3 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
3 index registers, console typewriter, and
multiply-divide are standard.

Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 4,096 words
$2,900
Central Processor, Console,
& Typewriter

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

Magnetic Tape Units (4)
& Controller: 15,000 char/sec.

Optional Features Included:

.••••.•.•...••••...

2,500

none.
TOTAL. . • • • • • • • • • . . .

7/63 Revised

1,275

$7,450

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
§

321:031.300

031.

.3

6"TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION Ill)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . .

. card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more simultaneous non"tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 4, 096 words
)
Central Processor, Console &
Typewriter

~,900

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) & Controller:
15,000 or 41,667 char/sec.
4.930

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Move Command.
Three-way compare.
Decimal addition & subtraction.
Additional address modification
groups.
TOTAL.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

75
}

200

$10,155

Revised 7/63

321:031.400
§

GE 225

031.

.4

12-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION IV)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . .

card punch is 50% faster.
magnetic tape is 30% slower.
1 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operation is possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 8, 192 words
Central Processor, Console &
Typewriter

Card Reader & Controller:
1, 000 cards/min.

810

Card Punch & Controller:
300 cards/min.

825

Controller Selector

Optional Features Included: . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or 41,667
char/sec.

4,930

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or 41,667
char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
}
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
Automatic Interrupt.
TOTAL . . . . • . • •

7/63 Revised

75
200
75

• $16,620

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
§

321:031.500

031.

.5

6-TAPE AUXILIARY STORAGE SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION V)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . . . . . . . . . ..

card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Mass Random Access (Disc)
Storage & Controller:
18, 874,368 characters

$2,625

Core Storage: 4, 096 words
Central Processor, Console &
Typewriter

I----.~I-----IO

---10

I------...-~

}

2,900

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Optional Features Included:. . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or 41,667
char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
Automatic Interrupt.
TOTAL . . . . . . . .

©

1963 by Auerbach, Corporation and BNA Incorporated

75

}

200
75

$12,855

Revised 7/63

321:031.600
§

GE 225

031.

.6

6-TAPB BUSINESS/SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION VI)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more, simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit

$ 650

Core Storage: 16,384 words
Central Processor, Console &
Typewriter '

}

',900

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

Optional Features Included: • . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . • . . . .

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or 41,667
char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
}
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
TOTAL: .

7/63 Revised

75
200

$12,805

321:041.100

.srINIl\RO

II

EDP
REPORTS

GE 225
Internal Storage
Core Storage

INTERNAL STORAGE: CORE STORAGE
§

041.

.28

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity: ..

.281 Recording method:
.283 Type of access: . .
· Core Storage.
CA225B or CA225C (4,096
locations) .
CB225C or CB225D (8, 192
locations) .
CC225A or CC225B (16, 384
locations) .

CS.
. 12

Basic Use: . .

· 13

Description:

· working storage.

Core Storage is housed in the Central Processor
cabinet and may consist of 4,096, 8,192, or 16,384
locations. The corresponding processor model
numbers are listed above; the first number in each
pair is for the processor with the optional Controller Selector installed. Each storage location consists of twenty data bits and one parity bit and can
hold a single -address instruction, a binary data
word of nineteen bits plus sign, or three BCD characters . Single or double word -length load and store
operations are possible in the basic processor; and
internal block transfers of any length are possible
with the optional Move Command at a maximum
effective rate of 27, 800 words per second. .
· 14

Availability: ..

.15

First Delivery:

· 16

Reserved Storage
Purpose
Index registers and
counters:
Arith registers:
Logic registers:
1-0 control:

,

Access Techniques

. 29

Locks
none.

none.
none.
none.

Potential Transfer Rates .

.292 Peak data rates
Unit of data: .
Conversion factor:.
Cycling rate:.
Data rate: . . . .

.3

DATA CAPACITY

.31

Module and

S~stem

.32

Rules for Combining
Modules: . . . . . .
CONTROLLER: .

Arrangement of Heads: . one access device per
system.

.52

Simultaneous
Operations: . . . . . . none.

.53

Access Time Parameters and Variations

. 21

Storage Medium:

· magnetic core.

.531 For uniform access
Access time: . . .
Cycle time: • . .
For data unit of:.

. 22

Physical Dimensions:

· not available .

.6

. 23

Storage Phenomenon:

· direction of magnetization.

.24

Recording Permanence

© 1963

· all configurations are
shown above.

ACCESS TIMING

PHYSICAL FORM

..

CB225CorD
8.192
24,576
8,192
1

Maximum
Storage
CC225A or B.
16,384.
49,152.
16,384.
1.

· none.

.2

.241 Data erasable by
program:.
· yes .
.242 Data regenerated
constantly:. . .
.no .
. 243 Data volatile:
· yes (usually retained).
. 244 Data permanent: .
.no.
. 245 Storage changeable: .. · no.

.1 word.
· 20 bits per word.
.55,600 cycles/second.
• 55,600 words/second .

Sizes

Minimum
Storage
Identity:
CA225B or C
4,096
Words:
Characters: 12,288
Instructions: 4,096
1
Modules:

· 3 months as of March, 1963. .4
.5
· March, 1961.
.51
No. of
Locations
4 (128 with AAM)

· coincident current .
· uniform .

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE:..

.7

PERFORMANCE

. 71

Data Transfer

• 91J. sec.
• 181J. sec.
.1 word.

. . • . no .

Pairs of storage units possibilities
With self: . . . . .
With Mass Random
Access File:. . .

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

• yes .
· yes (see Mass Random Access Data Storage section).
Reprinted 7/63

321 :041.720

§

GE225

041.

. 72

.8

Transfer Load Size
With self: . . . . •

. 73

lor 2 words; or, with optional Move Command, 1
to N words, where N is
limited by storage
capacity.

Effective Transfer Rate
With self, using
indexed loop:. .
With self, using
optional MC:. .

7/63 Reprinted

.8,000 words/second.
.27,800 words/second.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check o:r
Interlock

Invalid address:
Receipt of data:

none.
parity check

Dispatch of data:
send parity bit.
Conflicting commands: not possible •
Recovery of data:
parity check
Recording of data:

record parity bit.

Action

indicator & alarm;
optional stop.

indicator & alarm;
optional stop.

321 :042.100
.SlANOARO

EDP
"""15

•

GE 225
Internal Storage

MRADS
INTERNAL STORAGE: MASS-RANDOM ACCESS DATA STORAGE

§

.13

042.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.13

Description

Mass Random Access Data
Storage.
M640A.
MRADS.
Disk Storage Unit.

Each Mass Random Access file unit consists of sixteen data discs and two checking discs on a common
vertical axis. Up to four files can be connected to
one MRADS Controller, which occupies one of the
eight "hubs" on the Controller Selector. If no other
peripheral units were connected into the Controller
Selector, it would be possible to connect up to 32
MRADS units for a system capacity of about six
hundred million characters or over one billion
decimal digits.
Each disc surface is divided into 256 bands. The
outer 128 bands contain sixteen sectors each and the
inner 128 bands contain eight sectors each. One 64word block of data (192 alphameric characters) can
be stored in each sector, and from one to sixteen
sectors can be transferred between disc storage and
core storage in a single MR!\DS read or write operation. Total capacity of each MRADS unit is 98,304
sectors, 6.29 million words, 18.87 million characters, or about 34.6 million decimal digits.
Each disc is served by an individual positioning arm
containing eight read-write heads. Four heads serve
the top disc surface and the other four serve the
bottom surface, so only sixty-four arm positions are
required to cover all the bands on a disc. Arm
positioning time ranges from 70 to 305 milliseconds,
and the average total waiting time for random accessing is 225 milliseconds. Up to 98,304 words
per file unit can be transferred without moving any
of the positioning arms. Peak transfer rate is
23,700 words' per second for data recorded on the
outer bands and 11, 850 words per second for the
inner bands. An effective bulk transfer rate of
20, 000 words per second can be obtained with
optimum data placement.
A parity bit is recorded and checked for each word.
In addition, the sixty-fifth word recorded in each
sector is composed of one longitudinal parity check
bit for each of the twenty bit positions of the sixtyfour data words. This two-way parity check makes
it possible to locate and correct, by means of a subroutine, a single-bit error occurring anywhere in a
sector. The address of each sector is permanently
recorded in a "header" word and used for sector
identification and band address confirmation.

© 1963

Description (Contd.)

Three instruction words are required for each disc
seek, read, or write operation. The first word
selects the proper controller and transfers to it
the next two words, which specify the exact operation and the addresses involved. Simultaneous read
or write operations are limited to one per Mass
Random Access Controller. Only one head positioning operation at a time may occur in each MRADS
unit, or up to four at a time per controller.
.14 Availability:. . . . . . . 1 month as of March,
1963.
. 15

First Delivery:

. June, 1962 .

.16

Reserved Storage: .

. no addressable locations
reserved.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Storage Medium: . . . • multiple discs.

.22

Physical Dimensions

.222 Disc
Diameter: . . . . • . . 31 inches.
Thickness or length: . . thin.
Number on shaft:.
. 18 discs (16 for data).
,23

Storage Phenomenon: . . direction of magnetization.

.24

Recording Permanence

.241 Data erasable by
program:. . . .
· 24r Data regenerated
constantly:. . .
· 243 Data volatile: . .
.244 Data permanent:.
· 245 Storage changeable: .
· 25

. yes.
. no.
. no.
. no.
. no.

Data volume per band of 1 track
Words: •.
Characters:
Digits: . . .
Instructions: . .
Sectors: . . . .

· 1,024 (outer) or 512 (inner).
.3,072 (outer) or 1,536
(inner).
• 5,632 (outer) or 2,816
(inner).
· 1,024 (outer) or 512
(inner).
• 16 (outer) or 8 (inner).

.26

Bands per physical unit:. 512 (256 per disc surface).

.27

Interleaving Levels:. . . 1.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321 :042.280

§

GE 225

042.

.28

.44

• 441 Size of Load:..

Access Techniques

. 281 Recording method:.
.283 Types of access

· moving heads .

Description of stage

Possible starting stage

Move head to selected band~ • if new band is selected.
Wait for start of selected sector: if head movement is unnecessary.
Transfer data: • • • • • • • • • no.

.29

Potential Transfer Rates

. 291 Peak bit rates
Cycling rates:
Bits/inch/track: . .
Bit rate per track: .

.1,200 rpm.
· 400 maximum.
.500,000 or 250,000 bits/
sec/track.

.292 Peak data rates
Unit of data: .
. word.
Conversion factor:.
· 20 data bits/word.
Gain factor:
.1.
Data rate: . . . . . . 23,700 (outer) or 11,850
(inner) words/sec.
.3

DATA CAPACITY

.31

Module and System Sizes
(See table below)

. 32

Rules for Combining
Modules: • . . . . .

.4

CONTROLLER

. 41

Identity:....

.42

Connection to System

Data Transfer Control

· up to 4 MRADS units
per controller; up to 8
controllers per system.

· MRADS Controller.
M225B.

.442 Input-Output area:.
.443 Input-Output area
access: . • . . . .
.444 Input-Output area
lockout:
. 445 Synchronization:. .

. ...

. 447 Table control:. . .
.448 Testable conditions: .

.5

ACCESS TIMING

.51

Arrangement of Heads

.511 Number of stacks
Stacks per system:
Stacks per module:
Stacks per yoke:. .
Yokes per module:.
.512 Stack movement: . .
.513 Stacks that can access
any particular location: . . . . . . .

A:
C:
D:

. 43

a
c

Connection to Device

.431 Devices per controller: 4.
• 432 Restrictions: . . . . . . none.

7/63 Revised

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

· each word.
· none.
· automatic during a read or
write operation.
. none.
· MRADS ready, controller
ready .

· 128 to 512 per controller.
.128.
.8.
· 16 (one for each disc).
· in horizontal plane only •

.1.

Simultaneous Operations

.421 On-line: . . . . . . . . • up to 8; each requires
1 of the 8 Controller
Selector hubs.
.422 Off-line:. . • . . . .
. none.

Identity:
Discs:
Words:
Characters:
Instructions:
Digits:
Sectors:
Modules:

· 1 to 16 sectors of 64 words
each .
· core storage .

.514 Accessible locations
By single stack
With no movement: . . 16 or 8 sectors.
With all movement: .. 1,024 or 512 sectors .
By all stacks
With no movement: . . 1,536 per module.
6,144 per controller.
49,152 per system .
. 515 Relationship between
stacks and locations: .. least significant 7 bits of
MRADS address specify
stack and sector .
.52

Minimum
Storage

..

· waiting for access to specified location.
• reading.
· recording.

+ c + d = at most 1 per MRADS unit .
+d
=at most 1 per MRADS Control.

Note: A maximum of one MRADS controller can
transfer data at a time.

Single
MRADS file

Maximum Storage
per Controller

Maximum
Storage per
System

M640A
16
6.29x
18.87 x
6.29 x
34.60 x
98,304
1

M640A
64
25.2x 1O~
75.5 x 10 6
25.2x 10
138.4 x 10 6
393,216
4

M640A.
512.
6
210 x 10 6 .
604 x 10 6 ,
201 x 106 .
1,107 x 10 .
3,145,728.
32.

10 6

1O~

10
10 6

321 :042.530

INTERNAL STORAGE: MASS.RANSOM ACCESS DATA STORAGE
§

042.

.53

.72

Access Time Parameters and Variations

Transfer Load Size
. 1 to 16 sectors of 64 words
each .

With core storage:

. 532 Variation in access time
.73
Variation. m. sec
Move head to selected band: 0 or 70 to 305
Wait for start of selected
sector:
o to 52
Transfer 1 sector of data:
3.2 or 6.4
3.2 to 363.4
Total:

Effective Transfer Rate

Example. m. sec.

With core storage: . . . 20, 000 words/sec or
60, 000 char/sec.

199 (avg.)
26 (avg.)
3.2.
328.2.

.8

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Check or
Error
Interlock
lnvalid address:
Receipt of data:
Dispatch of data:
Conflicting commands:
Recovery of data:
Wrong record selected:
Recording of data:

•6

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE: . . . . . • . no.

.7

AUXIUARY STORAGE PERFORMANCE

.71

Data Transfer

check
parity
send parity bit.
check
word & sector parity
address comparison
generate parity word •

Action
indicator.
indicator.
indicator.
indicator •
indicator.

Pair of storage units possibilities
With self: . . . . .
With core storage:

. no.
. yes.

© 1963

by Auerboch Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321 :051.100

GE 225
Central Processor

CENTRAL PROCESSOR
§

.12

OSl.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity: . . . . . . . . Central Processor.
CA22sB, CB22sC, CB22sA,
CA225C, CB22sD,
CC225B.
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
X225A.
AAU.

. 12

Description (Contd.)
output. Conditional branch instructions result in
execution of the next sequential instruction (which
will normally be an unconditional branch) if the
tested condition is true; otherwise, the next sequential instruction is skipped. Since only thirteen
operand address bits are contained in an instruction, the top 8, 192 words of a 16, 384-word core
memory can be addressed only through the use of
index registers. Program instructions rather than
data will normally be loaded into the upper storage
bank, since the instruction address counter uses
fifteen bits and can address up to 32,768 .

Description
The 225 is a single-address, fixed word-length, sequential processor. The main arithmetic and control circuitry, core storage, and console controls
are housed in the processor cabinet. The six models differ only in the amount of core storage they
contain and whether or not the Controller Selector
is included. Word length of core memory locations
and control registers is twenty bits. One location
may contain an instruction, a binary data word consisting of a sign bit and nineteen data bits, or an
alphameric data word consisting of three six- bit
BCD-coded characters. Complete arithmetic facilities for single word-length binary data are built in.
Because the twenty-bit word is too short for many
data processing and scientific applications, standard instructions are provided .for double wordlength addition, subtraction, .and data transfers. In
these cases, the combined A and Q Registers serve
as a double-length accumulator. In the standard
processor, subroutines must be used for doublelength binary multiplication and division and for all
decimal and floating point arithmetic operations.
Optional hardware which can provide many of these
arithmetic facilities is described below.

Optional Features:
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit (AAU): This independent
unit provides complete hardware facilities for
double word-length binary arithmetic in either fixed
or floating point mode. Data can be transferred directly between the forty-bit AAU accumulator register and core storage, and Central Processor operations can continue while an arithmetic operation
is in progress in the AAU. The AAU is connected
to the Processor through the Controller Selector.
Like the other peripheral devices, it can be tested
for "ready" or "not ready" status and for various
error conditions; unlike the others, only one instruction word is required for any AAU operation.
A floating point data item is represented by thirty
bits plus sign for the mantissa and eight bits plus
sign for the exponent. This is the equivalent of
9 decimal digits of precision and an exponent range
of 10- 76 to 10+76 .
Decimal Addition and Subtraction: This feature enables the Central Processor to perform single and
double-length addition and subtraction on decimal
data stored in the six-bit BCD form. A carry indicator facilitates the coding of additions or subtractions of fields more than six characters long, but
negative BCD numbers must be stored in the inconvenient ten's complement form. Instructions are
provided to shift between the decimal and binary
arithmetic modes.

Three index registers and a fourth location that
serves as a convenient counter register are standard, and special instructions facilitate incrementing and testing them. A variety of instructions is
provided for inter-register transfers, shifting,
normalizing, and complementing. These instructions do not require an operand address, so bits 7
through 19, which would normally contain the address, are used to define the exact operation to be
performed. Through various combinations of these
thirteen bits, the advanced programmer can create
many special instructions in addition to those in the
standard GE-defined repertoire. This technique is
termed "micro-programming".

Additional Address Modification Word Groups: This
makes a total of thirty-two four-word groups (core
storage locations 0000-0127) available as index
registers or counters. Only one group, selected by
a special instruction, may be active at a time, and
only three of the four words are usable for address
modification.

There are no table look-up facilities, and multiword internal transfers require the optional Move
Command. Editing is accomplished by format control circuitry in the printer ~ontroller; this reduces
time demands upon the Central Processor while
permitting a high degree of flexibility in the printed

Three-Way Compare: Permits branching to the
first, second, or third sequential instruction depending upon whether the contents of a specified
single or double-length core storage location are
greater than, equal to, or less than the contents of
the accumulator.

CD 1963

by Auerbach Corporation ond BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321 :051.120
§

GE 225
.214

051.

• 12

Numbers:
subtract & test
1 word.
Absolute:
none •
subtract & test
1 word.
Letters:
1 word.
Mixed:
subtract & test
Collating sequence: 0-9. A-Z; special characters Interspersed
among letters. See 321: 144. 100.
Comment:
Direct high-law-equal comparisons on 1 or 2
words of numeric or alpha data are possible
with optional Three-Way Compare.

Description (Contd.)
Optional Features (Contd.)
Move Command: Provides a single instruction to
transfer any number' of successive words from one
core storage area to another. The A and Q registers must contain, respectively, the new initial
address and the number of words to be moved.
Automatic Priority Interrupt: Provides automatic
storing of the sequence counter contents and a transfer of control to core storage location 0132 whenever any selected peripheral controller switches
from "not ready" to "ready" status. Interruption
from the console is not possible. The interrupt
feature is especially useful for overlapping data
transcription operations with independent processing routines.

.215

.14

Availability: . . . . . . 6 months as of March,
1962.

.217

.218
. 219

Alter size:
Suppress zero:
Round off:
Insert point:
Insert spaces:
Insert any char:
Float $:
Protection:
Table look-up:
Others

.216

March, 1961.

First Delivery:

.2

PROCESSING FACILITIES

.21

Operations and 0Eerands
Operation and
Variation

.211

Multiply
Short:
Long:
Divide
No remainder:
Remainder:

.212

.213

Provision

Radix

Size

automatic

binary
(decimal
with option)

lor 2 words.

binary

1 word (2
with AAU).

none.
automatic

none.
automatic

binary

Add-Subtract:

subroutine or AAU

binary

MUltiply:

subrou tine or AAU

binary

Divide:

subroutine or AAU

binary

AND:
lncl usi ve OR:
Extract:

7/63 Revised

none.
automatic
automatic

l
J

To

paper tape
internal

internal.
paper tape.

From
BCD
binary

To
binary.
BCD.

Normalize:

Provision Comment Size
automatic binary
lor 2
words.

Decimal mode
shift:

automatic optional
automatic binary
automatic binary

1 word.
1 word.

automatic optional

1 of 32
groups.

.22

Special Cases of Operands

.221

Negative numbers: . . . 2's complement (lO's complement with Decimal
Add -S ubtract) •

.222
.223

Zero:. . . . . . . . . . one form; 0 in all bit positions.
Operand size determination: . . . . . . . . . fixed.

.23

Instruction Formats

30 & 8 bits
(2 words).
30 & 8 bits
(2 words).
30 & 8 bits
(2 words).

.231

Instruction structure:

.232

Instruction layout:
Part

binary

Provision
Size
automatic
automatic
automatic
automatic
up to 120 char.
automatic
automatic
none.
none.
no provision .

1 word (2
with AAU)

Floating point

Boolean

From

1 's complement:
2's complement:
Select index
group:

Fixed point
Add-Subtract:

Code translation
Provision
subroutine
subroutine
Radix conversion
Provision
subroutine
subroutine
Edit format

Real Time Clock: Provides a nineteen-bit binary
clock counter that measures time in sixths of
seconds from zero to 24 hours. The clock can be
set by the stored program or the operator and can
be interrogated by the program through a special
instruction.
. 13

Comparison

1 word.

AUERBACH /

Size (bits)

RNA

Op

X

5

2

1 word (3 words for
certain input-output
operations) .

Addr or Op'
13

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

§

321 :051.233
.241 Category of Storage (Contd.)

051.

.233

.234
.235

Number of Size in
locations
bits

Instruction parts
Name
Op:
X: . .

Purpose
operation code.
index register specification.
Addr:
operand address.
Op':
extension of operation code
in instructions with no
operand address.
Basic address structure: 1+ O.
Literals
Arithmetic: .
Comparisons and
tests: . . . . . .

Central Processor:
Central Processor:
Aux. Arith. Unit:
Aux. Arith. Unit:
Core Storage:

.242

Incrementing modifiers: . . . . . . ,
up to 8, 192.
.236 Directly addressed operands
.2361
Internal storage Minimum Maximum Volume
size
Accessible
type
size
2 words* 8, 192
Core:
1 word
words.
64 words 1, 024
total caDisc:
words
pacity.
* or total capacity with Move Command.
.2362 Increased address capacity
Method
Volume accessible
Indexing:
. 16,384 words (core).
.237 Address indexing
.2371
Number of methods:
1.
. 2372
Names: . . . . . . .
indexing .
addition, modulo 32,768.
.2373
Indexing rule:
bits 5 & 6 of instruction to
Index specification:
.2374
be modified.
.2375 Number of potential
indexers: . . . . .
3 (96 optional).
. 2376 Addresses which can
be indexed: . . . . . operand addresses in
arithmetic, load, store,
and unconditional branch
instructions.
. 2377 Cumulative indexing: . none.
.2378
Combined index and
step: . . . . . . .
none.
. 238 Indirect addressing: .
none.
index registers.
. 239 Stepping: . . . . . . .
Specification of incre.2391
ment: . . . . . .
in stepping instruction.
always positive.
.2392 Increment sign:
.2393
Size of increment:
1 to 8, 192.
specified in test instruc.2394 End value: . . . .
tion.
.2395 Combined step and
test: . . . . . . . .
no.
Special Processor Storage

.241

Category of Storage

Central Processor:
Central Processor:
Central Processor:
Central Processor:
Central Processor:

1
1

Size in Program usage
bits

20
20
20
15
6

upper accumulator, A.
lower accumulator, O.
instruction register, I.
sequence counter. p.

single char. buffer, N.

memory buffer, M.
arithmetic buffer, B.
upper accumulator, AX.
lower accumulator, OX.
index registers.

Category of Storage

2

register
register

3 (96

core

2.25
2.25
9.00

18.
18.
18.

with AAM)

.3

SEQUENCE CONTROL FEATURES

.31

Instruction Seguencing:

.311

Number of sequence
control facilities:
Special sub- sequence
counters: .
Sequence control step
size:
Accessibility to program: .

.314
.315
.316
.317

Permanent or optional
modifier: .

1.
none.
1 word.
can be stored in an index
register.
no.

. 32

Look- Ahead: . . . . . . none .

.33

Interruption: . . . . . . with optional Automatic
Priority Interrupt only .

.331

Possible causes
In-out units: .
In-out controllers:
Storage access:

.332

.333

. 334
Number of
loea tions

1
3 (96 with
option)

Central Processor:
Aux. Arith. Unit:
Core Storage:

up to 8, 192, on index registers only.

20
20
40
40
20

Total Number Physical Access time, Cycle time,
locations
form
f.L sec
f.L sec

none.

.24

1

Program usage

.335

Processor errors:
Other: . . . . . .
Program control
Individual control:
Method: . . . . . .

indirectly, through controller status.
change in status of peripheral controller from "not
ready" to "ready".
indirectly, through controller status.
no.
none.

peripheral controllers.
"Priority Set" instruction
permits selected controller(s) to interrupt.
Operator control: . . . physical switch for each
controller permits or
locks out interruption by
that controller.
Interruption conditions: 1) in "Priority Set" mode .
2) not in priority routine.
3) change in status of any
selected controller.
Interruption process
Disabling interruption: automatic.
Registers saved: . . . sequence counter automatic; others by own
coding.
Destination:
fixed jump to location 0132.

(('1 1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321 :051.336
§

GE 225

051.

. 336

Control methods
Determine cause:
Enable interruption:

. 34

. 341
.342

Multi-running:: .

limited capability with
Automatic Priority
Interrupt feature.

2 is practical limit.
own coding.

.35

Multi - seguencing::

none.

.4

PROCESSOR SPEEDS

.41

Instruction Times in J.£ secs

. 411

Fixed point Single Precision Double Pre- Double Precision.

.412

.424

. 417

.41B

with AAU

.425

94.
94.
287 to 724.
1,017 to I, 163.

36
54
162 to 414
468 to 522

54
90
2.600 (SR)
3,000 (SR)

none
none
none

162 to 709.
5,310 (SR)
297 to I, 062.
5,652 (SR)
14,131 (SR) 837 to 1,231.

18

18

18.

none

none

none.

•426

54 to 72
18.
54.
54.
108.
54.

Edit: . .

342
342
252N
666

Branch based on com- Without
parison
Three-Way
Compare

B14.
814 .
724N.
1,526.
With
Three-Way
Compare

Numeric data (19-bit
precision):
450
396.
Alphabetic data
(3-char precision):
450
396.
Switching
Unchecked: .
144.
360.
Checked: . .
List search:
54 + 270N .
Format control per character
Unpack
Without radix
conversion: .
20.
Including BCD-tobinary conversion: 340 (approx).
Compose
Without radix
conversion: .
lB.
Including binary"toBCD conversion: • 700 (approx, without
Decimal Add-Subtract).
400 (approx, with
Decimal Add-Subtract) .
Table look up per comparison (single precision)
With
Three-Way
Compare

54 to 90.

.427

o(done in Printer Controller) .

Convert
BCD to binary:
Binary to BCD:

126 + 300 D (SR),
398 to 5,438 (SR, for D =
6, with Decimal AddSubtract).
1, 000 + BOOD (SR, without
Decimal Add-Subtract).
Shift: . • . • • • • . • • 30 + 6B (approximate, for
shift of B bits),
Note: SR indicates that a programmed subroutine is used.
D is field length in decimal· digits •

7/63 Revised

Fixed pOint, Floating point,
single
withAAU
precision
(average)
lOB
580.
108
580.
36N
436N.
414
B74 •
567
1,178.

Without
Three-Way
Compare

Counter control
Step:
Step & test:
Test:

. 416

.423

none.
none.

Control
Compare (with
Three-Way
Compare).
Branch:
Test & branch:

.415

.422

c = a + b:
b = a+ b:
Sum N items:
c =ab
c = alb
For arrays of data
ci = ai + bf
bj = ai + bf
sum N items:
c =c+ aibf

Additional
allowance
for
Indexing:
Re-complementing:

.414

For random addresses

Floating point
Add-subtract:
Multiply:
Dlvide:

.413

.421

own coding.

cision
Add:
Subttact:
Multiply:
Divide:

Processor Performance in J.£ secs

own coding; must test selected controllers.
own coding; "Priority Set"
instruction.

Method of control: .
Maximum number of
programs:
Precedence rules:
Progtam protection
Storage:
In-out units:

.343
.344

.42

.428

For a match: . . . . .
For least or greatest:
For interpolation
point: . . . . . .
Bit indicators
Set bit in separate
location: . . . .
Set bit in pattern:
Test bit in separate
location: . . . . .
Test bit in pattern: .
Test AND for B bits: .
Test OR for B bits: ...
Moving data
Single word: . . . .
Double-length word:
N words, using programmed loop: . .
N words, using optional Move Command:

270

252.

2B4

266.

270

252.

72.
90.
144.

144.
324 (B < 19).
360 (B < 19).

72.
108.
36+ 126N.
126 + 36N.

321 :051.800

CENTRAL PROCESSOR
§

051.

.8

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

Overflow:
Underflow:
Zero divisor:
Invalid data:
Invalid operation:
Arithmetic error:
Invalid address:
Receipt of data:

check
check (AAU only)
overflow check
none.
all codes used.
none.
none.
parity check

indicator & alarm.
indicator & alarm.
indicator & alarm.

Dispatch of data:

parity check

indicator & alarm.
optional stop.
indicator & alarm.
optional stop.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321 :061.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 225

REFORTS

Console

CONSOLE

§

. 23

061.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Associated Units:

contained in 225 Central
Processor cabinet.

Name

Form

Stan:

initiates automatic operation if AutoManual switch is in AUTO position.
2-position halts automatic operation when
switch
switched to MANUAL

Auto-Manual:

. . Console Typewriter and 400
card per minute Card
Reader (if used) stand
upon the console desk.
(A free-standing 400 cpm
reader is also available. )

Stop on Parity
Alarm:

. 24
• 13

Stops and Restarts
Comment

button

2-position when ON, system halts on all parity
switch
errors.

Stepping

Description
The console control panel is mounted vertically at
desktop level on the narrower face of the Central
Processor cabinet. A wide, L-shaped desk is placed
directly in front of the control panel and provides
ample working space. The unusual shape of the combined processor cabinet and console desk may make
it difficult to arrange the system components for
operating convenience in a small room, particularly
since the printer and magnetic tape controllers and
the Arithmetic Auxiliary Unit all contain alarm and
condition lights which are clearly visible only at
close range. The control panel contains a fairly
typical complement of register displays, alarm
lights, and control buttons; these are fully described
below.
The Cons"le Typewriter is a modifed IBM electric
model that stands on the right-hand wing of the console desk. Data cannot be entered into the system
from the typewriter keyboard; the unit is used for
output only, at 10 characters per second. Data to
be typed, in BCD form, is sent to the unit via the
6-bit N Register, one character at a time. The
typewriter character set includes only the 26 letters,
10 numerals, and the special symbols /. , $ - and
space. Other BCD codes cause the unit to "hang up".

Name

Form

Start:

button

Word-Instruction:
Save P:

.25

.26

.27

Comment

initiates a single step if Auto-Manual
switch is in MANUAL pOSition.
2-position selects steps of one machine cycle or
swirch
one full instruction.
inhibits normal advance of the seswitch
quence counter (P Register), so
same instruction is repeated.

Resets
Name

Form

Comment

Reset Alarm:
Reset P:

button
button

Reset A:

button

resets all alarms and error indicators.
clears sequence counter to location
0000.
clears accumulator (A Register).

Name

Form

Comment

Load Card:

button

reads one binary card into Core
Storage starting at location 0000.

Name

Form

Comment

Bit Switches:

203-

used to place 1 bits into any desired
positions in the A register (when
raised); and to set patterns that can
be read into the A register under
program control (when lowered) to
control program branching.

Loading

Sense Switches

Optional Features
Console Typewriter Input: Permits using the Console
Typewriter as an input device. In the input mode,
one BCD character is transmitted to the N register
when a typewriter key is activated. The character
then may be shifted to the A register and used in any
manner desired.
.2

CONTROLS

.21

Power

• 22

position
centeroff
toggle
switches

.28

Special
Name

Name
Power on:.
Power off:

Form
button.
button.

Connections:

none.

XAQ

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Form

Comment

button

transfers contents of the A
(accumulator) Register into the I
(instruction) Register.
interchanges contents of the A and
Q Registers.

button

Revised 7/63

GE 225

321 :061.300
§ 061.

•3

DISPLAY

.31

Alanns

• 32

Name

Fonn

Condition Indicated

Parity:
Overflow:
Card Reader:
Card Punch:
Echo:

light
light
light
light
light

parity error.
arithmetic overflow.
error involYing Card Reader.
error involving Card Punch.
peripheral controller unable to
respond when addressed •

Conditions
Name

Fonn

Condition Indicated

Priority:

light

loss of priority by Central Processor
to a peripheral controller, alarm
condition, or auto-manual switch
in manual mode.
reader available for input.
punch available for output.
N Register available for paper tape
or typewriter operation.
processor in priority interrupt routine.
index register group in use.
Central Processor operating in
decimal mode.
indicates 16K processor is operating
in upper BK.

Card Reader Ready: light
Card Punch Ready: light
N Register Ready: light
AIM:
Decimal Mode:

light
5 lights
light

SK:

light

IX Group:

• 33

Control Registers
Name

Fonn

Comment

P Register:

15 lights

I Register:

20 lights

A Register:

20 lights

binaty display of sequence counter
contents.
binaty display of next instruction to
be executed.
binary display of accumulator contents; pressing XAQ will display
Q Register contents.

,34

Storage:........ no direct display available .

.4

ENTRY OF DATA

.41

Into Control Registers:

.42

Into Storage
1. Set Auto-Manual switch to MANUAL.
2. Set "Store A Register" instruction, with desired
Core Storage location as operand address, in Bit
Switches.
3. Depress A -+.1 button to load the instruction.
4. Set Bit Switches to desired data value.
5. Depress Start button.

.5

CONVENIENCES

.51

Communication:

none.

• 52

Clock: . . .

none .

.53

Desk Space:

ample free work space is
provided on the console
desk.

.54

View:.

Central Processor cabinet,
32 inches wide by 76 inches
high, is directly in front of
seated operator; view in
other directions is
unobstructed.

I

7/63 Revised

20 Bit Switches pennit
direct data entry into A
Register only; A I
and XAQ buttons pennit
loading of I and Q
Registers from A Register.

I AUERBACH I ®

321:071.100

_STANDARD
EDP
•

GE 225
Input Output
Card Reader

REPORTS

INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD READER (400 CPM)

§

071.

. 222 Sensing system: .

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Description:

Card Reader.
D225B.

This is the English-built Elliott reader for standard
eighty-column punched cards, extensively modified
and improved by GE. The rated four hundred cards
per minute speed is achieved when reading continuously into alternating input areas in core storage.
When feeding one card at a time upon demand, the
maximum speed is 360 cards per minute. The unit
is extremely compact and usually stands upon the
console desk; an optional base converts it into a
free-standing unit. It provides none of the usual
checks upon card reading accuracy such as dual
reading stations or hole count checks. Programmed
tests can be made to insure only that proper read
synchronization was achieved; i. e., that each
column was read once and only once. After every
card read, the photocells are checked to ensure that
they are working.
Cards are read serially by column, and the input
instruction selects one of three data formats:
Column decimal; data in each card column is
translated automatically into one internal BCD
character, and three characters are stored in
each core storage location.

~

.23

Multiple Copies:

.24

Arrangement of Heads
Use of station:
Stacks: .
Heads / stack:
Method of use: .

.3

EXTERNAL STORAGE

.31

Form of Storage

. 311 Medium:
. 312 Phenomenon:
.32

.

· photoelectric.
• none.

· reading.
1.
12.
80 columns per card, one
at a time.

standard 80-column cards •
rectangular holes •

Positional Arrangement

.321 Serial by:
.322 Parallel by:
. 324 Track use
Data: .
Total: .
.325 Row use
Data: .

80 columns at standard
spacing.
12 rows at standard
spacing .
80.
80.
12 (10 for lO-row binary
data).

.33

Coding: . • . • . . • . Decimal: column code as in
Data Code Table No.3.
10- Row Binary: 2 card
columns per 20-bit core
storage word.
l2-Row Binary: 1 card
column per core storage
word, into the 12 least
significant bit positions.

.34

Format Compatibility

Ten-row binary; data in two successive card
columns fills one twenty bit core storage location.
Twelve-row binary; data in each card column fills
the twelve least significant bit positions of one
core storage location. (Continuous feeding is not
possible in this mode.)
The automatic reading of data from successive cards
into alternating core storage areas in the column
decimal and ten-row binary modes can save Central
Processor time through the elimination of internal
transfers before the input data is processed.

Other device or system Code translation.
All devices using standard
80-column cards: •• not required •

. 13

Availability:. .

3 months as of March, 1963 . . 35

. 14

First Delivery: .

March, 1961.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

. 21

Drive Mechanism

Physical Dimensions: . • standard 80-column cards •

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:

.42

Connection to System

Card Reader Controller •
(housed in Central
Processor) •

. 211 Drive past the head:. . pinch roller friction •
. 212 Reservoirs: . . . . . none.
.22

Sensing and Recording Systems
.421 On-line:
.422 Off-line:

.221 Recording system:. . . none.

 (A), execute next instruction;
= (A), skip next instruction;
< (A), skip next two instructions.

Data Transfer
LDA
STA
OLD
DST
LQA
LAQ
XAQ

M
M
M
M

STO
STX
LDX
MOY

M
X
X

MAQ -

7/63

-

Y
Y
Y
Y

-

Y
Y
Y
Y

Revised

00 .....
03 .....
10 .....
13 .....
2504004
2504001
2504005
2504006
27 .....
17 .....
06 .....
24 .....

(Y) -A.
(A)-Y.
(Y & Y+ 1) -+A & Q.
(A & Q) _ Y & Y + 1.
(A)-Q.
(Q)-+A.
Interchange (A) and (Q).
(A)-Q; O-A.
(A) - + Y; operand address (bits 7-19) only.
(X) .:.-. Y.
(Y)-X.
Move N words starting with (Y) to new location starting at Z, where Z
is in A Register and - N is in Q Register. (Available with optional
MC only.)
.

@

~/

Ir-A--UE---RB--AC-H

.. !

,

INSTRUCTION LIST

§

321: 121.1 03

121.

INSTRUCTION LIST-Contd.
OPERATION

INSTRUCTION
Op.

X

Addr.

Octal
Code

RCS

2500011

TON
BNR
BNN
TYP
OFF

2500007
2514005
2516005
2500006
2500005

Input-Output: Console
Place a 1 bit in A wherever the corresponding console control switch is
on (down).
Turn on console typewriter power and turn off power for PTR & PTP.
Branch if N Register is ready for input-output.
Branch if N Register is not ready for input-output.
Type the 6- bit coded character in N Register.
Turn off power for typewriter, PTR, & PTP.

RON
RPT

2500014
2500006
2500016
2500015
2500006
2514005
2516005

Input-Output: Punched Tape
Turn on PTR power and turn off power for PTP and typewriter.
Read continuously from punched tape into N Register.
Halt PTR.
Turn on PTP power and turn off power for PTR and typewriter.
Punchthe 6- bit coded character in N Register.
Branch if N register is ready.
Branch if N register is not ready.

HPT

PON
WPT
BNR
BNN

Input-Output: Punched Cards
Read decimal cards continuously, storing data in BCD form as follows:
1st card into Y
through Y + 26;
2nd card into Y + 32 through Y + 58;
3rd card into Y + 64 through Y + 90;
4th card into Y + 96 through Y + 122;
5th card into Y
through Y + 26;
etc.
Read lO-row binary cards continuously:
1st card into Y
through Y + 39;
2nd card into Y + 64 through Y + 103;
3rd card into Y
through Y + 39 ;
etc.
Read one 12-row binary card into the 12 least significant bit positions of
Y through Y + 79.

RCD

M Y

25 OyyOO

RCB

M

Y

250yy01

RCF

M

Y

25 Oyy 10

HCR

-

-

2500004

Halt card reader.

BCR
BCN

-

-

2514006
2516006

Branch if card reader is ready.
Branch if card reader is not ready.
Note: For all punched card instructions Y must be a multiple
128 and less than 2048.

Y

250yy02
250yy03
25Oyy17

Punch one decimal card from BCD data in Y through Y + 26.
Punch one lO-row binary card from data in Y through Y + 39.
Punch one 12-row binary card from the 12 least significant bit positions
in Y through Y + 79.

-

2514007
2516007

Branch if card punch is ready.
Branch if card punch is not ready.

P

2500P20

BER

2514P27
2516P27

WCD
WCB
WCF

M

Y

M

Y

M

BPR
BPN

-

SELP

BCS
BCS

P
P

o~

BNE

Input-Output: Controller Selector
Select peripheral controller p, transmit contents of next 2 locations to
it, and reset its error indicator (0 ~ P ~ 7). The SEL P instruction
must immediately precede all Printer, Magnetic Tape, Magnetic Ink
Document Handler, and Mass Random Access File instructions except
conditional branches.
Branch if any error condition in controller P.
Branch if no error condition in controller P.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321: 121.1 04

§

GE 225

INSTRUCTION LIST -Contd.

121.
INSTRUCTION
Op.

X

Addr.

OPERATION
Octal
Code
Inl2ut-Outl2ut: Printer

WPL

C

Y

2600000
01yyyyy

}

Print 1 line of BCD data starting from
CS location Y.

C

M
Y

36mmmmm
01yyyyy

}

Print 1 line of BCD data starting from CS location Y according to
format words starting in CS location M.
data is all numeric.
C= N:
C = blank: data is alphameric.

SLW

-

N

0600000
nnOOOOO

}

Step paper N lines (0

SLT

-

N

OxOOOOO
xxOOOOO

}

Skip to punch in track N
of paper tape loop.

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P

BPN
BPR
BOP
BNP

2516P20
2514P20
2514P22
2516P22

WTD

T

M
N

02mmmmm} Write N BCD words, starting from CS location
M, on tape unit T.
ttnnnnn

WTB

T

M
N

03mmmmm} Write N binary words, starting from CS location
M, on tape unit T.
ttnnnnn

WTS

T

M
N

23mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Write N words in "special binary" mode, starting from
CS location M, on tape Unit T.

RTD

T

M
N

04mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read a maximum of N Decimal words on tape unit T
into CS starting at M.

RTB

T

M
N

05mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read a maximum of N binary words on tape unit
T into CS starting at M.

RTS

T

M
N

25mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read a maximum of N "special binary" words on
tape unit T into CS starting at M.

RBD

T

M
N

14mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read N decimal words backward on tape unit T
into CS locations M, M-1, M- 2, etc.

M
N

15mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read N binary words backward on tape unit T
into CS locations, M, M-1, M-2, etc.

WFL

Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch

if
if
if
if

printer
printer
printer
printer

~

N

~

63).

controller P is not ready.
controller P is ready.
is out of paper.
is not out of paper.

Inl2ut-Outl2ut: Magnetic Tal2e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

RBB

-

T
-

RBS

T

-

M
N

35mmmmm
ttnnnnn

}

Read N "special binary" words backward on tape unit T
into CS locations M, M-l, M-2, etc.

RWD

T

-

2000000
ttOOOOO

}

Rewind tape
unit T.

WEF

T

-

0200000
ttOOOOO

}

Write end-of-file character and gap
on tape unit T.

BKW

T

-

1600000
ttOOOOO

}

Backspace tape unit T 1 block and position
head for writing.

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P
P
P

BTN
BTR
BEF
BNF
BET
BNT

2516P20
2514P20
2514P21
2516P21
2514P22
2516P22

-

7/63

-

Revised

Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch

if tape controller P is not ready.

if tape controller P is ready.
if end-of-file indicator is on.
if end-of-file indicator is off.
if end-of-tape indicator is on.
if end-of-tape indicator is off.

I.-------;-,~
AUERBACH I @tl

321: 121.1 05

INSTRUCTION LIST

§

121.

INSTRUCTION LIST -Contd.
INSTRUCTION
Op.

X

Addr.

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

BRW
BNR
BPE
BPC

BIO
BIC
BME
BNM

OPERATION
Octal
Code
2514P23
2516P23
2514P24
2516P24
2514P25
2516P25
2514P26
2516P26

Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch
Branch

if any tape unit on P is rewinding.
if no tape unit on P is rewinding.
if parity error indicator is on.
if parity error indicator is off.
if I/O buffer error indicator is on.
if I/O buffer error indicator is off.
if mod 3 or 4 error indicator is on.
if mod 3 or 4 error indicator is off.

Input-Output: Magnetic Ink Document Handler
RSD

D

M

0020000
OOmmmOO

RDC

D

M

0040000
OOmmmOO

} Read 1 document as above and continue feeding
next document.

PKT

D

S

0060000
OOOOOss

} Route document read by MDH unit D to
stacker S.

HLT

D

M

0100000
OOmmmOO

} Halt MDH unit D and read last document into
CS locations M+ 63, M+ 62, etc.

ERB

D

0120000
0000000

} Reset MDH to ready condition after halt.

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P
P
P
P

SKN
SKR
NPK
PDK
FSK
NFK
ICK
VCK
SKE
SKC

} Read 1 document on MDH unit D into CS locations
M+ 63, M+ 62, etc.; halt MDH.

2516P20
2514P20
2514P22
2516P22
2514P24
2516P24
2514P26
2516P26
2514P30
2516P30

Branch if MDH unit K is not ready.
Branch if MDH unit K is ready.
Branch if stacker was not selected within required time.
Branch if stacker was selected within reqUired time.
Branch if MDH unit K is feeding.
Branch if MDH unit K is not feeding.
Branch if invalid character indicator is on.
Branch if invalid character indicator is off.
Branch if any error condition in MDH unit K.
Branch if no error condition in MDH unit K.
Note: In the above instructions, D or K may be 1 or 2; all
octal codes shown are for MDH unit 1 and will differ
for unit 2.

BCS

P

BCS

P

BCS

P

PRF
OCT

F
-

z

zzzzzzz

Internal Storage: Mass Random Access File
} Position access mechanism on MRAF unit F at
address Z (0'::;; F .::;; 3).

RRF

F

N

12f00nn
OOmmmmm

} Read N 64-word sectors from MRAF unit F into
CS starting at location M( 1 .::;; N .::;; 16).

37fOOnn
OOmmmmm

J

M
WRF
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

F
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

N

BRN
BRR
FKR
FKN
BIO
BIC
RPE
RPC

25fOOOO

2516P20
2514P20
2514P2K
2516P2K
2514P25
2516P25
2514P26
2516P26

© 1963

~ Write N 64-word sectors starting from CS
location Minto MRAF unit F (l :::; N .::;; 16).

Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS
Branch if MRADS

controller P is not ready.
controller P is ready.
unit K is ready (0 .::;; K :::; 3).
unit K is not ready.
I/O error indicator is on.
I/O error indicator is off.
parity error indicator is on.
parity error indicator is off.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321:121.106,

§

GE 225

INSTRUCTION LIST - Contd.

121.
INSTRUCTION

Cp.

X

Addr.

Octal
Code

OPERATION
InEut-Ou!Eut: DATANET-15

100CCCS
OOYYYYY
200CCCS
OOyyyyy
120CCCO
OOyyyyy
21OCCCO
OOYYYYY
1400000

SCN

C
y
C
y
C
y
C
y
0

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P
P

RCR
RCN
RNT
RTD
RAH

2514020
2516020
2516021
2516021
2514022

BCS

P

RNA

2516022

BCS
BCS

P
P

REC
RDP

2514023
2514024

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P
P

RND
RCP
RNP
RSP
RSN

2516024
2514025
2516025
2514026
2516026

BCS

P

RAE

2514027

BCS

P

RNE

2516027

BCS

P

REM

2514030

BCS

P

RNM

2516030

BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS
BCS

P
P
P
P

REX
RNX

2514031
2516031
2514032
2516032
2514033
2516033
2514034
2516034

RRM

WRM
RRT
WRT

7/63

RPH

RPI'

p
p

ROV
RNO

P

RAI

p

RNI

Revised

Read Remote Message into core storage starting at (Y) address
from (S) station for (C) maximum number of characters.
Write Remote Me~sage from core storage starting at (Y) address
to (S) station for (C) maximum number of characters.
Read Paper Tape fiito- core storage starting at location (Y) for
a maximum of (C) characters.
Punch Paper Tape from core storage location starting at (Y) and
stopping when an End of Transmission code is encountered.
Start the scanning logic and cause the controller to be set in
the receive mode.
Branch if DATANET-15 is ready.
Branch if DATANET-15 is not ready.
Branch if DATANET -15 N second Delay did not occur.
Branch and interrupt if DATANET-15 second delay occurred.
Branch when a command word parity error causes an alert
halt condition.
Branch if no command word parity error alert halt
condition occurs.
Branch if preselect DATANET-15 error code is not detected.
Branch if data parity error is detected on data received by the
DATANET-15 from either core storage or the Paper Tape
Reader.
Branch if no parity error is detected.
Branch if a command word parity error is detected.
Branch if a command word parity error is not detected.
Branch if scanner is positioned on station requesting access.
Branch if DATANET-15 scanner is not positioned on station
requesting 'access.
Branch on DATANET-15 any error if any error code is
detected.
Branch on DATANET-15 any error if no error code is
detected.
Branch if an end-of-message code is received during a
receive command.'
Branch if no end-of-message code is received during a
receive command.
Branch if an end of transmission code is detected.
Branch if an end of transmiSSion code is not detected.
Branch when Paper Tape unit is halted.
Branch when Paper Tape unit is not halted.
Branch if DATANET-15 character counter has overflowed.
Branch if DATANET-15 character counter has not overflowed.
Branch if DATANET -15 caused an automatic priority interrupt.
Branch if DATANET-15 did not cause an automatic priority
interrupt.

INSTRUCTION LIST

321: 121.107

§ 121.

INSTRUCTION LIST NOMENCLATURE
Symbol

Definition

A:

A Register, or upper accumulator.
Additional Address Modification Groups (optional).
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
Operand address.
Automatic Interrupt feature (optional).
AX Register in Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.

AAM: .
AAU:
Addr:
AI: .
AX:

C:.
CS:

Designator for ali-numeric data to be printed.
Core Storage.

D:.
DAS:

Magnetic Ink Document Handler unit number.
Decimal Addition and Subtraction (optional).

F:.

Mass Random Access File unit number.

G:.

Address Modification Word group number.

I:

Instruction Register.

J:

Bits 7-19 of an instruction used to increment or test an index register.

K:.

(1) Length of a shiftin bit positions.
(2) Unit number of a peripheral device.

M:

. . . . . . . (1) When in column X, denotes that the instruction may be modified by indexing.
(2) A Core Storage location.

MDH: ..
MRADS:.

Magnetic Ink Document Handler.
Mass Random Access Data Storage.

N: . . . .

(1) N Register, a 6-bit I/O buffer.
(2) Counter .for number of words, lines, records, etc.

Op:

Mnemonic operation code.

P: .
(P):
PTP:

PTR:

Unit number of a peripheral controller attached to the Controller Selector.
Contents of instruction address sequence counter (P Register).
Paper Tape Punch.
. Paper Tape Reader.

Q:.

Q Register, or lower accumulator.

QX:

QX Register in Auxiliary Arit:hmetic Unit.

S: .

Number of selected stacker on Magnetic Ink Document Handler.

T:.

Magnetic Tape Unit number.

TWC: .

Three- Way Compare Feature (optional).

X: . . .

(1) Bits 5 and 6 of instruction codes. "M" in column X denotes that the instruction may be
indexed; otherwise, modification is not permitted or will produce improper results.
(2) Index register number (0, I, 2, or 3) .

Y:.

. A Core Storage location.

Z:.

A Mass Random Access File sector address.

( ):

The contents of a register or Core Storage location; e ..g., (Y) means "contents of location Y"

}:

Denotes that these two instruction words are transmitted to a peripheral controller and
must be preceded by the SEL P instruction to select the appropriate controller.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321:131.100
•

STANDARD

_EDP
.,...

RffiJRTS

GE 225
Coding Specimen

GAP
CODING SPECIMEN: GAP
§

131 •

.1

CODING SHEET
225 CODING SHEET
PROBLEM: Reqn Cost & Labor Pricing
WRITTEN BY: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Symbol
11

I I I

I I

I

I

Opr
16 81

110 121

EIXIT ZIEIRIOI I I I

L L I

I

I

I I

I

I

BIRIU DI

I

X
119 2022

I I I I I I I
CARD CODE 1

I

I

I

IINIX -12181 I I

3

I I

I

I

I

SIPIB BICIDI IBIIIN

1

I

I

I

I

DIEIC 41

1 1 I

I

I

DIEIC 2181 I I I I I

I I

I I I

I

I I

CONVERT AREA TO BINARY

I I

I

I I I

I I

I

BIRIU EIRIRIOIRI I I

I I

I

I

I

LIAIQ

I

I

I

SIUIB TIAIBI I I I I

MOVE QTO A

I I I I I I I

3

I I

I

I

I

BINIZ

I I

I

I

I

BIR U TIEISIT

L t

I

I

I

IINIX 11 I I I I I I

3
3

I I I I I I I

I I

I

I

B XIL 1111 I I

I" I I

I

I

BIRIU HI

I I

RELATIVE RATE ADDRESS MAINTAINED IN
MODIFICATION WORD 3

I

BIRIU EIRIRIOIRI I I

I

SIPIB BICIDI IBIIINI

I I I

I

DIEIC 41

I I

I I I

I

I I I
~

I

I I I

I

I I I

I I I I

I I I I I I

I I I .1

I

I

ILL
TL U FOR CORRECT AREA

TIEISITI
I

I
I

I

I

I

I

I I I

DEC 3
I

I

ZERO MODIFICATION WORD 3

80

I I I I I I

I I

HI

I I
I

I

I I

I

75761
CARD CODE ZERO OR ONE?

I I I I I I

l!

Sequence

Remarks

Operand

I I I I I

I

BINIZ

PAGEiof

I I I I
I I I I
1

I

I I I I I I

I

I I

Ll~~

Reprinted from GE 225 Programming Manual. p. 118.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Reprinted

7/63

321: 132.100
GE 225
Coding Specimen

GECOM
CODING SPECIMEN: GECOM
§ 132 .

.1

SOURCE LISTING

GECOM LISTING OF JTS

PAGE 001

GE CODER

JUL 17

SOU R C E L r S T r N G
1000

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.

1005
1010
1015
1020
1025

PROGRAM ID.
AUTHOR.DATE COMPILED.
INSTALLATION.
REMARKS.

2000

ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.

2005
2010
2015
2020
2025

JTS.
GE CODER.
JUL 17.
GE COMPUTER DEPARTMENT IPC PHOENIX ARIZONA.
SAMPLE PROBLEM

OBJECT COMPUTER, 225, MEMORY SIZE 2 MODULES, ASSIGN OBJECT_PROGRAM
TO-CARD READER.
FILE CONTROL, SELECT JOB FILE ASSIGN TO CARD READER BUFFER,
SELECT SUMMARY FILE ASSIGN TO CARD PUNCH BUFFER,
SELECT DMH_REPORT ASSIGN TO HSP ON PLUG 6.

3000

PROCEDURE DIVISION.

3001
3005
3010
3015
3020
3025
3030
3035
3040
3045
3050
3055
3060
3065
3070
3075
3080
3085
3090
3095
3100
3105
3107
3110
31T5
3120
3125
3130
3135
3140

GO TO S3055
WPH SECTI ON.
BEGIN.
ADVANCE DMH REPORT TO TOP OF PAGE.
ADD 1 TO PAGE COUNT.
ADVANCE DMH REPORT 4 LINES.
WRITE RPT TITLE.
ADVANCE DMH REPORT 3 LINES.
WRITE COL TITLES.
ADVANCE DMH REPORT 2 LINES.
END WPH SECTION.
S3055. OPEN ALL FILES.
MOVE 0 TO pAGE COUNT.
PERFORM WPH SECTION.
MOVE #ZZ# TO LAST DEPT.
S3075. READ JOB FILE RECORD IF END FILE GO TO S3180.
IF DEPT OF JOB TICKET EQUALS LAST DEPT GO TO S3125.
SW3085. GO TO S3090. S3090. ALTER SW3085 TO PROCEED TO S3100.
GO TO S3115.
S3100. TOTAL HRS = ACC REG HRS + ACC OT HRS.
WRITCSUMMARY CARD. - SW3107. GO TO S3110.
S3110. ALTER SW3150 TO PROCEED TO S3155.
MOVE DEPT OF JOB TICKET TO LAST DEPT, DEPT OF WS.
S3115
MAN COUNT = ACC REG HRS = ACC oT HRS = O.
- S3125. ADD-l TO MAN COUNT.ADD REG HRS TO ACC REG HRS.
ADD OT HRS TO ACC OT HRS.
IF LINE_COUNT EQUALS-51 GO TO S3170.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

0010
0020
0030
0040
0050
0060
0070
0080
0090
0100
0110
0120
0130
0140
0150
0160
0170
0180
0190
0200
0210
0220
0230
0240
0250
0260
0270
0280
0290
0300

Revised

7/63

321:132.101
§

GE 225

132 .

.1

SOURCE LISTING (CON'ID.)

GECOM LISTING OF JTS

PAGE 002

GE CODER

JUL 17

SOU R C ELI S TIN G (e 0 N T. )
3145
3150
315,5
3160
3165
3170
3175
3180
3181
3182
3185

S3145. WRITE DETAIL RECORD.
SW3150. GO TO S3155.
S3155. MOVE SPACES TO DEPT OF WS.
ALTER SW3150 TO PROCEED TO S3075.
GO TO S3075.
S3170. PERFORM WPH SECTION.
GO TO S3145.
S3180. ALTER SW3107 TO PROCEED TO S3182.
GO TO S3100.
S3182. CLOSE JOB FILE, SUMMARY FILE.
STOP RUN #JTS#.

4000

DATA DIVISION.

(SEQ

GAP T DATA NAME

QUALIFIER

4005. FILE SECTION
4010 OUTPUT FILES.
4015 OODFD SUMMARY FILE.
4020 000 R SUMMARY-CARD
4021
F LAST DEPT
4022
F MAN COUNT
4023
F ACCREG HRS
F Ace-OT "FiRS
4024
F TOTAL "FiRS
4025
4100 001FD DMH REPORT.
4105 000 R RPT-TITLE
L
4110
4115
4120
L
4125
F PAGE COUNT
4130 001 R COL TITLES
L
4135
4140
4145
L
4150 002 R DETAIL
ws
F DEPT
4155
4160
F MAN NBR
F NAME
4165
F JOB CODE
4170
4175
F REG-HRS
4180
F OT "FiRS
4500 INPUT FILES.
4505 002FD JOB FILE.
4510 000 R JOB-TICKET
F MAN-NBR
4515
4520 OOJ F DEPT
F NAME
4525
F JOB CODE
4530
4535 05A F REG-HRS

7/63

Revised

0310
0320
0330
0340
0350
0360
0370
0380
0390
0400
0410

F RPT B J E MS LS DATA IMAGE)

P
XX B(5)
999 B( 29)
9(6)V9 B(4)
9999V9 B(5)
9(nV9 B( 12)
P
BBB #DEPARTMENT MAN HOUR R
EPORT#
B( 42) #PAGE#
B ZZZ9
B(7) #DEPT MAN NUMBER NAME
#
B(18) #JOB REG-HRS OT-HRS#
P
XX BBB
B(6)
A( 21)B
XX BB
ZZZ.9 BBB
B(n
X(5)

Zl.9

P
X(5)

XX BB
A( 21)
XXB(n·

999V9

321:132.200

CODING SPECIMEN: GECOM
§

132 .

.2

OBJECT LISTING AND TABLES

GECOM LISTING OF JTS

PAGE 004
JUL 17

GE CODER
REF E R E N C E T A B L E S
PROCEDURE NAME TO GAP SYMBOL
(GAP
AOI
AD3
A07
A08
All
A09
A05
A15
AI3
A14
A04
AI6
A06
AIO
A12
A02

PROCEDURE NAME)
S3055
S3075
S3090
S3100
S3110,
S3115
S3125
S3145
S3155
S3170
S3180
S3182
SW3085
SW3107
SW3150
WPH

/'lAMES OF SUB-ROUTINES REQUIRED
(GAP

SECTION NAME)

ADV
FLX
FXP

RCS
RLC
TYP
ZAM
ZBN
ZCB
ZED
ZNB
ZNN
ZOT
ZSC
ZSG
ZUA
GAP SYMBOLIC TO OCTAL LOCATION
(GAP OCTAL
OOA
OOV
OOZOO
OIU
OlW

GAP OCTAL

GAP OCTAL

GAP OCTAL

GAP OCTAL

GAP OCTAL)

01363
00J01402
005 01110 OOTCP 01713 OOTXT 01712
OOU 01646
01714 OOWOO 01664 OOWE 01675
OOW 01664
OOX 01406
OOY 01406
02040
OIA 01366
OIJ 01403
01501120 01TCP 02006 OITXT 02005
01737
OIV 02007 OIWOO 02032 OIWOI 02034 0lW02 02036 01WE 01772
01755
OIX 01406 OIZOO 02076 OIZOI 02120 01Z02 02133
02A 01370

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321:132.201
§

GE 225

132.

.2

OBJECT LISTING AND TABLES (CaNTO.)

PAGE 006

GECOM LISTING OF JTS
GE CODER

a

B J E C T

3001

JUL 17

LIS T I N G

GO TO S3055.
01144

0010

2601204

BRU

AOl

3005WPH SECTION.

0020

3010 BEGIN.

0030

01145
01146
01147

1420001
0000001
2701203

A02

l~X

LOA
STO

1
1
A02#/@

ADVANCE DMH REPORT TO TOP OF PAGE.

3015
01150
01151
01152
01153
3020

0721142
01142
2000006
0000252
0301405

ADV

SPB
EQU
OCT
LOA
STA

0040

ADV
TV2-02
2000006
ZER
PC6

ADD 1 TO PAGE COUNT.

0050

-

01154
01155
01156

0001363
0101442

0301363

LOA
ADD
STA

OOA
OJO
OOA

ADVANCE DMH REPORT 4 LINES.

3025
01157
01160
01161.
01162
01163
01164

0001444
0721142
0000006
0001444
0101405
0301405

LOA
SPB
OCT
LDA
ADD
STA

0060

OJI
ADV
0000006
OJI
PC6
PC6

WRITE RPT TITLE.

3030
01165

0722032

0070
SPB

01WOO

ADVANCE DMH_REPORT 3 LINES.

3035
01166
01167
01170
01171

01172
01173
3040

0001446
0721142
0000006
0001446
0101405
0301405

LOA
SPB
OCT
LOA
ADD
STA

0080

OJ2
ADV
0000006
OJ2
PC6
PC6

WRITE COL_TITLES.
01174

304S

0722034

0090
SPB

01WOl

ADVANCE DMH REPORT 2 LINES.

0100

pp. 60-64.
7/63

Revised

.....

COl

.....

t.:l
t.:l

til

GENERAL,. ELECTRIC
COMPUTER DEPARTMENT

GENERAL COMPILER

REPORT DESCRIPTION FORM

§
:;0

a

tI1
"tI
:;0

~

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:;0

en

't:l

0

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PAGE 28

WEEKLY-PAYROLL REPORT
12-01-61
ORG
CODE

PAY
NUMBER

5484

0671
0983
1201
1452
2352

:::a
CD

"0

I-j

~p.
l:t

....~

&
8.
s::
.......

i
1
~

~

0
0

l:I

J JONES
A JOHNSON
B SMITH
SCHROEDER
C BROWN
COUNT OF EMPLOYEES

5484
5485

EMPLOYEE NAME

0108
0112
1389
1545
1547
1999
2103

SEX

JOB
CLASS

REGULAR
HOURS

OVERTIME
HOURS

MALE
MALE
FEMALE
MALE
MALE

BOl
Al0
C50
DA2
011

40.0
37.5
40.0
32.0
40.0

10.0

.4

T23.44
184.01
148.02
84.66
105.19

189.5

18.4

645.32

40.0
35.2
40.0
40.0
38.2
40.0
40.0

8.0
12.0
2.2
1.8

100.01
115.55
72.06
123.11
182.78
78.23
101. 11

05
MALE
FEMALE
FEMALE
MALE
MALE
FEMALE
MALE

R EDWARDS
P SMYTHE
A ANDREWS
R MICHELSON
J BERG
A McMILLAN
J GWYNN

080
Bll
BOl
Al0
SOl
C09
BOl

8.0

GROSS
EARNINGS
$

g

5485

COUNT OF EMPLOYEES

07

273.4

24.0

842.85

~

5480

COUNl OF EMPLOYEES

12

4~2.9

42.4

1,388.16

0

5400

COUNT OF EMPLOYEES

33

1302.1

108.0

4,125.29

l.l

E::

~

"0

"?
c.l

~

5501

0133
0134
0222
2102
2359

C STEVENSEN
L ELLISON
H MURPHY
J OZER
A AMBERCROMBIE

MALE
MALE
FEMALE
MALE
MALE

E22
A09
C53
BOl
Bl1

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

Ii
0

I~

138.06
149.55
99.99
123.02
154.84

c.l

~

Cl

m

N

~

./

....

~

CO>

....

w
~

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tIl

~
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@

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GENERAL. ELECTRIC
GENERAL COMPILER SENTENCE FORM

COIPUTEROfPUTIIEMT,PHDEHIX,U1Z0IU.

PROGIU

@
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c:

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I-j

8.

...l'5
g'
...
0

(;)

tIl

n

~

-il0

'?

c..

w
';0

aiD

IDATE

SAMPLE DECISION TABLE

PROCiRAUER

IPACE

ICDIIPUTER

SEQUENCe
MUllllflt

'1'1'1'1'1- , '1'1"1" ululullS ,,!r7!1I!"!U!Zll uI1l114I zs ul271 nlnllO 1111 nlnlHln 1I117[lIIltlul·,ln[ulu/u 4'lnln[" 1501511511'154155

561571511,,16°161162 6l1'~u ,-;r6~,~,;r7;r;;p;r;;r~7-;r7~r.ftT1Q
Ip.IHH· l.,nTU; IF. . n. T.V. I.". 1.0.N
10PEr> I N PUT MAS TER-FI.LE.
RKAD 1\1 AS T RR_ F I L.E R.EC.O.R n I F .RNn F I L.E IG.o T.O .E,N.n- IRTIN
GET- IRFcr IRn
IT. F . ~ IRMAT.E G.O T o G.ET-R EC.C IRD
_ V.R-.RM.P.T ioV.F.n
IRx.~R IR.I.RN ...,.R
,6.1
.P.R,F Iv",Rx.p

.5

1 0
1 5
20
.2.5

n

o
c
z

c;')

V>

30

T.ABL IE

I T..R~ IRT. .F 10.
6
7
IA
g,

3 5
40
45
5.n
5,5
60

10

65

3

C OND I T IONS

EXPERIEN CE
E
2
E.Q 3,
.r..R. ~.
.G.R
G.R.

4
4

2 .AC T I ON S

5

-a
m

ROWS.

T T T L.R
PROGRA ME.R
PROG.RA.l'o 'MER .OR ANA ILYS T
.A.N.A .LV." .'1
.ANA. L.V,S .'T .n.R ,S.R .A.N.A ILV.S.T.
SR .ANAL ~ST

I
I

..
2

.4

5

o

~

10 '1'.0
PE-OUT
"

m

z

-i

»-

"
"
"

C:J

V>

o

r

GO T o G.ET-R.EC.( RD.
l'I'vP.);' ,".TT'T'
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. "V.RT.r;;,x,p,E IRLE,Ne.Kn.1Il:
ITo.'I'A "I. T. \
- .T.0,1 IA.I. .1. I \
1 .
GO T 10 GE'I:-RECO RD.
lEND,... IRII.N
.r..T..o. S. F. MA S T ER-F I L.E
IWR.T.'T' I., .'1' O.'I'.A.T. (.1
.'I'.O'l'.A.T. I.?. 1 TOT.AL( 3.\. T lo.'I'AL, (.4,) T,e TAL,I,5,), ON
STOP "END .RUN" •

70
.75
80
85
.0 !l

9 5

,1,1.1.1.1.

E.}( AM.PL E.

J

,1,lulll

1211]1141'5 161171111,,12~21lnluI2,lu

uiululniulnlnju/HllS uil7jlli"l.oI4lIul.llulu ,,1&11,,149[50151152151 s.\u

51151151\511101'1112

ul,Ju

I....VU"''''UT",'''D

TY PEW.R r.'I'.ER

,J,~lur:l7GIJJJ:IJ~r,J;J-,Ju

-inc;')

»-om
C:J~

V>::IN
N

oca

r

~

0\

W

.....

V>

n

3'
lO

::I

Ut

-W
N

w

f"-

0
0

321: 135.100
GE 225
Coding Specimen

WIZ-II
CODING SPECIMEN: WIZ-II
§

135 .

.1

SOURCE PROGRAM

GENERAL~ ELECTRIC
C~/II,PUTER DEPARTMENT

PHOENIX. UllOM ...

WIZ COMPILER SENTENCE FORM

DAT.~MA~y~,~1~96~2~______________

CURRENT IN AN A.C. SERIES CIRCUIT

PROGR II AI
PROGRAI",,,ER

I"

1..to 8 E l

DIi.U EN
CE
NU
BER

. .

7

____~~_____ .,_~2"___ _

W. It BRANSON

10

a

STATeMENT

..

TlPE
12

It

.. .

0020

$ SERIES CIRCUIT

0030

$ lV. 1. BRANSON
D

IARRAY(1000)

$ARRAY DIHENSION

0050

D

SRCH. (5)

$SEARCH ROUTINE

0060

I

0070

READ

CRD

PI(3.14159265)
VOLTS

OHHS

III

...

-

+

0
CI~

7>

tASE

" "

77

"

$INITIAL PI

FARADS

IFREQUENCY

0090

J=l

0100

FREQUENCY= IFREQUENCY

nlln

SL

X

HENRYS

FFREQUENCY

0080

mCREHENT
$ARRAY SUBSCRIPT
FIN

CURRENT IN AN A.C. SERIES CIRCUIT lVIlli

X

FREQUENCY VARIED lV.I. BRANSON MAY, 1962

0120
0130

PV

INPUT PARAMETERS

0140

PL

0150

PVL

0160

PVL IFREQUENCY
PL

l

0180

DIms

VOLTS

FARADS

FFREQUENCY

HENRYS
INCREHENT

ICALCUlATED RESULTS

;

PV
i,

0190

XC-l/ (2)''Pli'FREQUENCY'''FARADS)

I

0200

$CAPACITIVE REACTANCE
XL=2>"PI"'FREQUENCY>"HENRYS

0210

$INDUCTlVE REACTANCE

0220

I

0230

REACTANCE=XC-XL

o?<;n

I

I

IMPEDANCE= SORT. (OHMS,"OHMS+ REACTA.'lCE'~

0240

X

REACTANCE)

,

I

IARRAY (J)=ANPERES=VOLTS /DlPEDANCE
, .T=.T+1

n?7(l

PVI FREQUENCY, A}lPERES

0280
0290
0300

ellS

MAY, 1962

0040

0260

Cl4

61

$ PROGRAM TO COMPUTE CURRENT m AN A.C.

0010

0170

60

-+

0

C
1"11

A A N C H

(FREQUENCY=FREQUENCY+INCRIl&'"'NT) -

i

i

FFREQUENCY

X
'I,

..'(

SRCH

Reprinted from WIZ System Reference Manual, pp. E-3, 4.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE 225

321: 135.101
§

135 .

.1

SOURCE PROGRAM (CONTD.)

8 R .II N C H
SEOUENCE

STATEMENT

1. ... 8 E L

NUMBER

.

,

D T 't
7

10

11

0310

EI
U~

FREQUENCY

PVL

:.$

SRCH

0340
0350

e.

GIS

e8

-

+

0
GD

72

77

"

READ

K=J-1

SSAVE NO. OF LARGEST

*1:

J=J-1

$ DO NOT REPLACE

REDUCE

5

$ELEMENT NO
LARGEAMPERES-rARRAY(J).$COMPARE

5

*

FREOUENCY= IFREOUENCY+K'·'INCREMENT

.0410
0420

SFIND FREOUENCY THEN RETURN
• $ END OF SEARCH ROUTINE
FIN

PL

0440

END OF

$ END

END

PROGRAl'l

LOAD NEXT JOB

.

:

_L._
,

,.,

7/63

'"

CASE

"

7S

J=J-1

0390

0430

+-

0
Of

LARGEAMPERES

LARGEA,'1PERES- rARRAY (J) $REPLACE LARGER

0380
0400

~o

SEARCH FOR LARGEST CURREh'T CALCULATEr

'!:

0360

0370

c
eD

III

PV

0320
0330

P

12

"lib':

321:136.100
GE 225
Coding Specimen

ZOOM
CODING SPECIMEN: ZOOM
§

136 .

.1

SOURCE AND OBJECT LISTING
.1

NT I?RQBLEM. TO READ A CARl) AND PRINT THE CARD If ANYIH.lIiG
PUNCHED IN THE FIRST SIX COLUMNS OTHERWISE NOT

INPUT - ZOOM
ORG 128. CARD. ASS 40.
BEGIN, BCN *. RCD CARD. HCR. BCN
Z
IF D CARD EQ SPACE GO BEGIN.
PT 6 CARD. GO BEGIN.

G

*.

ZED.

NT NEED A CHECK PRINT ROUTTNF,
OUTPUT - GAp
CARD
ElI;;;GIl!l

QB~

BSS
El~~

1Z8
40

*

RCD CARD
!::H:R
BCN *
OLD CARD
DSU SPACE
6Z!;

XAQ
BZE
LOA
BRU
SEL
WP!,.
BRU
ZERO
DOC
SPACE ALF
ALF
ONE
DEC
QEC
IWO
THREE DEC
FOUR
DEC
FIVE
DEC
SIX
DEC
SEVEN DEC
EIGHT DEC
NINE
DEC
TEN
DEC
XX XXXX OCT
EQU
TRUE
FALSE EQU
XXXXYl DOC
END

BEGIN

*

CKPRNT

6

CARD
BEGIN
0

1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8
9

10
2777777

ZERO
ONE
0

BEGIN
Reprinted from ZOOM, a Macro Assembler, p. C-l.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

·7/63

321:141.100

.STAI

8-b

0

-

A
B

C
D
E
F
G

H
I

T
K
L
M

N
0
P
Q
R

-

/
S
T
U
V
W
X
y
Z

,
%

r

1

IS-I

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Reprinted

7/63

321:144.100

_STANDARD
EDP
•

GE 225

REPORTS

Data Code Table
Collating Sequence

DATA CODE TABLE NO.4

§

144.
internal collating sequence.

.1

USE OF CODE:

.2

STRUCTURE OF CODE
In ascending sequence:

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
#
@

J

K
L
M
N
0
P

Q
R
-0
$

*

blank

+
A
B
C
D
E

F
G
H

I

+0

/
S
T
U
V

W
X
y
Z

.

%
[

1

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

321:151.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 225

REPORlS

Problem Oriented Facilities

PROBLEM ORIENTED FACILITIES

§

151.

.11

Simulators of Other Computers (Contd.)

.1

UTILITY

Description: (Contd.)

.11

Simulators of Other Computers

instructions in subroutine form. Upon receiving
an LGP-30 instruction, the simulator program
decodes the operation and transfers control to the
appropriate subroutine for simulation of the operating functions of the LGP-30.

IBM 650
Reference:

Date available: •

Programming Manual for
the Interpretive Simulation
of the mM 650 on the GE
225-:-- --simulator for basic 650,
November, 1961.

The GE 225 minimum hardware configuration requirements are:
• 8,192- or 16, 384-word core storage
• Paper Tape Reader
• Card Reader (optional)
• Console Typewriter
• Paper Tape Punch (optional).

Description:
This routine enables a GE 225 with at least 8, 192
words of core storage, card reader, card punch,
and console typewriter to simulate an IBM 650 with
2,000 words of drum storage, one 533 card reader
and punch, magnetic tapes, core storage, index
registers, and floating point arithmetic. Two
words of GE 225 core storage are used to represent each ten-digit 650 word, and all internal
operations are carried out interpretively in double
precision. Plugboard wiring on the 650 is simulated by parameter cards. The routine is designed
for fast execution of production programs; the 650
console controls and displays are not fully simulated. A trace option is provided, and a typeout of
the 650' s register contents occurs whenever the
program stops. Average speed for internal proces,sing is about 1 to 2 times as fast as that of the
original 650 program.
Royal Precision LGP-30
GE 225 Interpretive SimuReference: • •
lation of the Royal McBee

I:GP=""3G. -

Date available:

- - ---

March, 1962.

Description:
Two separate LGP-30 simulator programs are
available. CD25511.001 is for use with GE 225
systems having 8, 192 words of core storage;
CD225Il.005 is for use with GE 225 systems having 16,384 words.
The only difference between the two programs is
that the l6,384-word version simulates any LGP-30
program without restriction upon program length,
and the 8, 192-word version requires an LGP-3o
program layout to determine the equivalent GE 225
core storage requirement.
Inputs to both simulator programs can be in the
form of punched paper tape and/or punched cards.
Punched paper tape can be coded in either decimal
or hexadecimal.
Both simulator programs are in GE 225 machine
language and simulate each of the 16 basic LGP-30

© 1963

• 12

Simulation by Other
Computers:. • • • • none.

.13

Data Sorting and Merging
FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator
Reference:
FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator Manual, Edition 1.
Record size: •
1 to 999 words.
Block size:
1 to 999 words.
Key size: • • •
1 to 99 words.
File size: • •
1 reel at a time for sorts;
up to 999 reels for merges.
Number of tapes:.
3 to 8.
Date available:
September, 1961.
Description:
FORWARD is a generalized tape sorting and merging routine that can be run on a 225 with the minimum 4,096 words of core storage and from three
to eight magnetic tape handlers of any speed. It
uses the "polyphase" merge technique, wherein
the pre-sort generates strings in such a way that
the input tapes for the merge process will be exhausted one at a time, and the merge order is always one less than the number of tape handlers
used. Parameters for each sort are punched into
control cards and used to initialize the generalized routine. Record sizes, key sizes, and blocking factors are pre-set by the parameter cards,
but user-coding elements in GAP language may be
inserted to handle varying input and output formats or media, to combine or eliminate records
having the same control key, or to use non-standard collating sequences. Memory dumps are
written at the beginning of each merge phase to
facilitate restarts. To avoid complicated tape
changing, input to the polyphase sort is limited
to one reel at a time. Straightforward merges
may be generated to collate from two to 999 input files into a multi-reel output file.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321: 151.140
§

GE 225

151 •

• 14

.15

Report Writing

Dita Transcription (Contd.)
Description:

GECOM Report Writer
Reference: •
Introduction to GECOM,
pp. 33-35.
Date Available: • • June, 1962.
Description:
0

•

BRIDGE n is a system of service routines to perform such tasks as the following:

•

1. Convert binary instruction cards to program
tapes.
2. Copy and correct binary tapes.
3. Convert binary or decimal data cards to magnetic tape.
4. Write or check tape labels.
5. Construct and maintain binary program systems tapes.
6. Maintain files containing symbolic source
programs or binary object programs.
7. Sequence runs, collect programs, and provide run-to-run linkage. (See also Section
321:191.)

The Report Writer will be usable in two ways:
as an independent routine and as an extension of
the GECOM system. When ,used within a GECOM
program, the Report Writer functions primarily
as an output subroutine. The Data Division is
expanded to include a Report Section made up of
detailed specifications for each report to be
produced by the object program. A special Report Description Form must be used. In the "nonprocedural" mode of operation (report writing
only), the source program may consist of an
Environment Division, a File Section containing
the input file descriptions, and a Report Section;
no other entries are required. While reports can
be described in the basic GECOM language, the
Report Writer will facilitate report preparation
and provide better documentation.

Minimum system configuration is 8,192 words of
core storage, card reader, printer, console typewriter, and two magnetic tape units (one for the
BRIDGE system tape and one work tape). Operation is controlled by Major Command Cards,
which cause the required routines to be loaded,
and Minor Command Cards, which provide the
parameters for the specific jobs to be done. All
data transcription operations are straightforward
media conversions with little or no provision for
format control or editing.

GE 225 Card Program Generator
Reference: • • • • • GE 225 Card Program
Generator for IBM 407
and IBM 604 Type Equipment.
Date available:
currently available.

.16

File Maintenance:

.17

Other

•• See BRIDGE

n,

above.

Description:
The GE 225 Card Program Generator is designed
to generate an object program froI11 a set of input
parameter cards. The basic design of this program facilitates converting existing plugboard
programs for IBM 407 tabulators and IBM 604 calculators into GE 225 programs that produce printed
or punched reports from data on punched cards or
magnetic tape.
Two versions of the Card Program Generator are
available. Program number CD225Gl.004 requires
a minimum system configuration of 4,096 words of
core storage, a card punch, a card reader, and an
on-line printer. This program has facilities for
card input only.
Program number CD225GI.005 requires the same
peripheral devices as the previous program plus
8,192 words of core storage. This version provides fadlities for magnetic tape input. Both
versions provide facilities for format control, data
movement, data conversion, insertion of "owncoding" routines, calling subroutines which are
available to "own-coding" portions of program, and
card and/or printer output.
o

15

All of the following routines are available now or
will become available during 1963.
1. Routines for solution of simultaneous equations, matrix algebra, linear programming,
roots of a polynomial, least squares polynomial fitting, bessel functions, and gamma
functions.
2. BANKPAC: A series of generalized routines
to handle the demand deposit accounting, installment loan, savings account, personal
trust, and transit item functions of a commercial bank. AGE 225 system with at least
8,192 core stqrage locations, four magnetic
tape transports, document handler, printer,
card reader, and console typewriter is required.
3. Electric Utility Routines: A series of routines
to perform calculations of electrical load flows,
opt1malloading of a power system, load durations, loading conditions resulting from circuit
failures, transient stability, and flows and pressures in a gas system. Required are 8,192
core storage locations, 2 to 5 magnetic tape
transports, card reader, punch, and printer.

Data Transcription
BRIDGE n Service System
Reference: • •
GE 225 Bridge Service System, CD225Jl.00l.
Date available: •• ' • BRIDGE I, December, 1961.
BRIDGE n, July, 1963.

7/63 Revised

4. PRONTO: A routine for numerical control of
machine tools, designed to control two-dimensional spindle movement of the tool. PRONTO
requires a 225 with 8,192 core storage locations, card reader, paper tape punch, card
punch, and 4 magnetic tape transports.

321:151.170

PROBLEM ORIENTED FACILITIES
§

151 •

. 17

.17

Other (Contd.)

Other (Contd.)
5. Critical Path Method (CPM): A routine (similar to PERT) for analyzing the scheduling of
a complex project. 8,192 core storage locations, four tape transports, card reader, and
printer are required. Capacity is 2,100 activities and 1, 000 events. The Project Monitoring and Control Method (PROMOCOM) uses
the CPM network model to analyze project
performance data, provide up-dated schedules,
and identify slippages and bottlenecks.
6. TRIM (Test Rules for Inventory Management):
A simulation program for analysis of existing or proposed decision rules for inventory
control. The computer model, programmed
in T ABSOL decision table form, can process
demands, estimate future requirements,
place and receive replenishment orders, and
publish a series of inventory system performance reports. TRIM requires at least 8,192
core storage locations, a card reader, and a
printer or card punch.
7. Assembly Line Balancing Program: A routine
to balance assembly lines through work element assignment. Adhering to specified constraints upon cycle time, precedence, and
.
zoning, the most efficient balance with a specifled number of operators is produced. Up to
225 work elements within up to 19 work zones
.2
can be analyzed. Required are 8,192 core
storage locations, card reader, and printer.

© 1963

8. Permuted Index Program Package: A routine
to produce an alphabetical index to a body of
text, using for indexing purposes only the
significant words contained within the text itself; i.e., the Key Word In Context (KWIC)
method. The input text must be punched into
cards, preferably after manual editing to eliminate indexing difficulties due to punctuation,.
initials, numerals, etc. An "exclusion dictionary" stores up to 1,494 terms which are
considered non-significant and are therefore
screened out during the permuting process.
The FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator, described in Paragraph .13, is used to arrange
the permuted index entries in alphabetical
sequence. The output is a list of significant
words, with each word shown in context with
the line of text (or portion thereof) in which
it is found. The present version limits the
input to the sort phase to one reel of tape,
which will accommodate approximately 5,000
cards of input text. Hardware requirements
are 8,192 core storage locations, four magnetic tape transports, card reader, and printer. A card'punch is required if punched
card output is desired.

PROBLEM ORIENTED

LANGUAGES:. • • • none.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321:161.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 225
Process Oriented Language

GECOM
PROCESS ORI ENTED LANGUAGE: GECOM

§

.14

161.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity: .

.12

Origin: . . . . . . . . General Electric Computer
Dept.

.13

Reference: . . . . . . GE 225 GECOM - II Reference
Manual.

.14

Description:

sists of one or more conditions on the left side and,
on the right side, one or more actions to be taken if
the specified conditions are true. If the specified
conditions are not satisfied, the next line of the table
is evaluated. A condition may be a relational or
logical expression or a true-false variable, and
arithmetic expressions may be used as operands in
the relations. Actions may be value assignments or
GO TO, PERFORM, STOP, READ, WRITE, OPEN,
or CLOSE statements.

General Compiler Language
GECOM.

GECOM is a pseudo-English process oriented language designed to handle scientific problems as well
as general business data processing. The basic Ian
guage structure is quite similar to that of COBOL 61.
Capabilities to evaluate complex equations, Boolean
expressions, and mathematical functions and to perform computations in floating pOint arithmetic have
been added to the COBOL framework to facilitate the
coding of scientific programs. A COBOL 61 to GECOM translator is scheduled for the fourth quarter
of 1963.
GECOM differs from COBOL 61 primarily in the
areas of data description and procedural organization. GECOM requires all data entities (files, records, groups, fields, and elements) to be described
in a fixed format on a standard Data Division form
whereas COBOL uses English -language entries for
data descriptions. The form of all GECOM fields is
defined in the Data Image columns in a manner simi1ar to COBOL's optional PICTURE clause. GECOM
permits only five levels of data, whereas up to 51
levels may be defined in COBOL. The valuable
COPY, RENAMES, and REDEFINES facilities of Re.l
qui red COBOL 61 are not provided in the GECOM
language. In addition to COBOL's File, WorkingStorage, and Constant Sections, the Data Division of
a GECOM program utilizing the scientific facilities
will usually require Array, Integer, True-False,
and Common -Storage Sections.
The Procedure Division of a GECOM source program
consists of a body of sentences called the main program. The Division may include other groups of
sentences called Sections, which are executed as
closed subroutines. The PERFORM verb in GECOM
can be used only to execute independent Sections,
whereas the same verb in COBOL permits execution
of any number of consecutive paragraphs or· sections
according to a variety of criteria. The COBOL verb
EXAMINE, which replaces and/or tallies the occurrences of a given character in a data item, is not
provided in GECOM. The ENTER verb permits the
insertion of GAP symbolic coding into the GECOM
source program.
Facilities for TABSOL and report generation are
included in the GECOM language. TABSOL is a
system for expressing decision logic in a straightforward, tabular form. Each line in a table con-

©

Description (Contd.)

Use of the TABSOL format should simplify and systematize the coding of many problems in both the
business and scientific areas. See Special Report
23:030 for a general discussion of the formulation
and application of decision tables. A sample TABSOL table is sllown in Section 321:134.
The GECOM Report Writer facilitates the preparation of priIited reports as an integral part of GECOMcoded programs. The GECOM Data Division is 'expanded to include a Report Sec.tion made up of de··
tailed specifications for each report. A special Report Description Form must be used. The facilities
of the GECOM Report Writer are described in Section 321: 151.14, and a sample Report Description
Form and the resulting printed report are shown 41
Section 321: 133.
" 15

Publication Date:

.2

PROGRAM STRUCTURE

.21

Divisions
Identification: .
Environment: .

Data: . . . .

Procedure:. • . . .
.22

· initial language specifications: December, 1961
GECOM-II Reference Man. ual: October, 1962 - -

• name of author; name and
date of program.
· describes target computer,
assigns I/O units to files,
and specifies computation mode.
· describes the data items
and shows the structure
of records, files, working
storage and constants.
· describes the procedures in
an imperative form.

Procedure Entities
Procedure Division: .
Main Program:
Section: .
Sentence:
Segment:

1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorparated

· main program plus sections.
· sentences.
· sentences, performed as a
subroutine.
· GECOM words.
• sentences~ performed as a
separately-compiled subprogram.
Revised

7/63

321: 161 :230

GE 225

§ 161.

• 23

Data Entities
File: •••
Record: •
Group: ••
Field: ••
Element: • • • . • •
Number of data levels:

.24

• records.
• groups.
• fields.
• elements.
• characters.
.5, as listed above.

.3

DATA DESCRIPTION FACIllTIES

.31

Methods of Direct Data Description

.311 Concise item picture: • · mandatory for each field;
DATA IMAGE is Similar
to COBOL picture.
.312 Ust by kind:. . • . . · yes, for integers, arrays,
and true-false variables.
.313 Qualify by adjective:
· no .
• 314 Qualify by phrase: •.
· no.
.315 Qualify by code: .•
• yes; format, justification,
radix, etc.
.316 Hierarchy by list: •
.no.
.317 Level by indenting:
• no.
• 318 Level by coding:.
• mandatory; TYPE •

Names

.241 Simple name formation
Alphabet: • . • . • . • • A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphen.
Size: . • • • . • • • . . 12 characters max.
Avoid key words:. '. . . yes.
Formation rule: . • . • at least one letter; no hy.32
phen as first or last char- .321
acter; may not be all num··
erals and letter E. (Procedure names may be all
numeric).
.322
• 242 Designators
Procedures
PROCEDURE
• • fixed name.
DIVISION: .•
Section:
• word "section" is part of name .33
Sentence:
· one word, followed by
.331
period.
•332
Data: .•••
• none.
.333
Equipment:.
• fixed names or abbreviations
for all devices.
.334
Comments:.
•• begin with· key word NOTE.
Translator control:
• none.
.335
.336
.25 Structure of Data Names
.337
• 338
.339
.251 QualWed names
Example: .•••
· TOTAL OF MASTER.
.34
Multiple qualifiers: . • yes.
Complete sequence: . • optional.
.341
Broken sequence: . • yes.
.342
,.252 Subscripts
Number per item: . .0 to 3.
Applicable to: ••• • fields. groups.
Class may be
Special index
variable: . .
.no.
.343
Any variable:.
· yes.
Literal: • . . •
• yes.
.344
Expression: .
• yes.
Form may be
Integer only: .
• no; also fixed or floating
point numbers.
Signed: • . . .
• yes; plus or minus.
.345
Truncated fraction: • yes.
Rounded fraction:
· no.
. 253 Synonyms: • . • • .
· none.
.346
. 348
• essentially unlimited.
.26 Number of Names:
.27

Region of Meaning of Names

.271 Universal names: .

• only those data names listed
in Common-Storage Section.
• 272 Local names: • . • • • · all other data names local
to main program. section,
or segment.

7/63

Revised

Files and Reels
Pile labels
Variable layout: ~ •
Control totals:. •
Identity control: .
Multi-reel: . • .
Reel sentinels
Variable layout: .
Block count: ••.
Multi-files: . . .
Records and Blocks

· preset; always 24 words long.
· automatic.
· description.

Variable record size:. • preset.
Variable block size:.
· preset .
• limited only by core storage
Record size range:
size.
Block size range: . • · limited only by core storage
size.
Choice of record size: · description.
Choice of block size:
• description.
Sequence control: • • . none.
In-out error control:
• automatic .
BlOCking control: . • • automatic.
Data Items
Designation of class:
Possible classes
Integer:• . . . .
Fixed point: . .
Floating point: .
Alphabetic: . .
Alphameric: •.
Choice of external
radix: . . . . .
Possible radices
Decimal: • • . . .
Binary:. • • .
Special binary
Justification:. •

'n

• description.
· yes.
· yes.
• yes.
• yes.
· yes.
• description.

• normal, unless binary is
indicated.
. •
. alternative.
(18 bit): alternative.
• . • • . description, or automatic
left for alpha and right
for BCD numeric.
•
. none .

Choice of code:
Item size
Variable size: .
Designation: . .
Range
Fixed point numeric:
FlOating point
numeric: ••

Alphameric: • .
• 349 Sign provision:

I AUERBACH I

· preset; always 24 words long.
· own coding.
• description.
· description.

• preset.
• picture.
.
. I to 11 char. (2 words).
• 1 to 9 char mantissa; 1 to
2 char characteristic
(2 words) •
.1 to 83 char.
• optional •

PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: GECOM

321: 161.350

§ 161.

.35

Data Values

.351 Constants
Possible sizes
Integer: . . .
Fixed point:
Floating point: .
Alphabetic: •
Alphameric:
Subscriptable: .
Sign provision:
. 352 Literals: . . . •

. lt05char.
. 1 to 11 char.
· 1 to 9 char mantissa.
· 1 to 120 char.
.1 to 120 char.
· no.
· optional.
· same as Constants, except
alphabetics and alphamerics may not exceed 30
characters in Procedure
Division literals.

. 353 Figuratives
Examples: .

• ZERO(S), SPA CE(S),
ONE(S), TWO(S) ,
NINE(S).
. 354 Conditional variables: . . yes.
.36

Special Description Facilities

.361 Duplicate format: .
. 362 Re-definition: . • .
• 363 Table description
Subscription:. '. •
Multi-subscripts:
Level of item: . .
Implied subscript
at lower level: •
. 364 Other subscriptable
entities: . . . . . .

• yes.
• partial.
· mandatory; preset size.
· maximum of 3.
· group or field.

· none.

OPERATION REPERTOIRE

.41

Formulae

x

= -x:

.

*

/

..

** .

SIN: .
COS: .
ATAN: .
SQRT:
EXP: .
LOG:.
LN:
ABS:
.412 Operands allowed
Classes: . . . .
Mixed scaling: .
Mixed classes:

= -x.

.42

.x=x+l.
· x =4.7 *,y.
• x = 5 * 10 ** 7 + y ** 2.
· YIDNFICA = YTJ)NFICA +
(ClJRRNFICA = GROSS""
PAY * 0.3).
X = -B+SQRT (B * B - 4.0
* A * C).
Operations on Arrays:. . none; own coding required .

.43

Other Computation

.431 Operator list
ADD: ••••
SUBTRACT:
MULTIPLY:
DIVIDE: •••
.432 Operands allowed
Mixed scaling:
Mixed classes:
Mixed radices:
Literals: . .
Restrictions:

· addition, to .
· subtraction, from.
· unrouncted multiplication, by.
· unrounded division, into.
·
·
·
·
·

yes .
yes .
no.
yes.
must be pure numeric data;
maximum size is 11 digits.

· no .
· no.
· none.
• no.
· last named' operand.
· optional ROUNDED in procedures; else t:J:Uncated~

. 435 Special cases

x

= -x:

. 411 Operator List

+ ..

·x

x=x+l:.
x = 4.7 y: •.•.
x = 5 x 107 + Y2: •
.416 Typical examples: •

.433 Statement
Mixed verbs:.
Multi -results: .
Size limits:. • .
Multi -operand: .
Implied results: .
,434 Rounding of results: .

.no.

.4

. 413 Statement structure (Contd.)
Parentheses (Contd.)
· maximum of 50 operators
Size limit: . . . . .
and/or functions per expreSSion.
Multi -results: . . • · yes; e.g. X=Y=Z=AtB.
.414 Rounding of results:.
• truncated .
.415 Special cases

· addition.
• subtraction.
· multiplication.
· division.
· exponentiation.
• sine.
• cosine.
· arctangent.
· square root.
· exponential.
· common logarithm.
· natural logarithm.
· absolute value.
· is replaced by.
· all numeric.
· yes.
· no; computation mode is
fixed point unless floating
is specified.
• yes.
· yes •

Mixed radices: . .
Literals: . . . . . .
.413 Statement structure
Parentheses
a - b - c means: • • • (a-b) - c.
. a+(bxc).
a + b x c means: .
a / b / c means:
· (a/b) /c.
abc means: . . . .
· «a)b)c.

© 1963

x =x+ 1:
x =x+y:
x = x + y:
x =xy:
x =.remainder x .;. y:
.436 Typical cases
x =y +z: . . .
.44

• SUBTRACT X FROM 0
GIVING X•
• ADD 1 TOX.
· ADD Y TO X.
• DIVIDE Y INTO X.
· MULTIPLY Y BY X.
· DIVIDE Y INTO X GIVING Z.
MULTIPLY Y BY Z.
SUBTRACT Z FROM X.
• ADD Y AND Z GIVING X.

Data Movement and Format

.441 Data copy example: .
. 442 Levels possible:.
. 443 Multiple results:
.444 Missing operands:.
.445 Size of operands
Exact match: •.
Alignment rule
Numbers:.
Alpha: . .
Filler rule:
Numbers:.
Alpha: . .
Truncating rule
Numbers:.
Alpha: . . . •

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

.MOVE X
· elements,
records,
.MOVE X
· none.

TO Y .
fields, groups,
arrays .
TO Y, Z .

· only groups and records.
· decimal point aligned.
· left justified.
· zeros.
· spaces .
· at each end.
· at right.
Revised

7/63

321:161.446
§

GE 225

16l.

.446 Editing possible
Change class:
· description.
Change radix: .
• yes.
Delete editing
symbols: . . .
. no.
Insert editing symbols
Actual point: . .. • description.
Suppress zeroes:.
• description.
Insert: . . •
. $, . * + - 0 blank.
Float: . . . .
. $ +-.
. 447 Special moves: •
• none.
. 448 Code translation:
• none.
. 449 Character
manipulation: .
• indirect.

.45

File Manipulation
Open:. . . . . . .
Close: . . • . . .
Advance to next
record: . . • . •
Step back a record: .'
Set restart point: •
Restart: . . . . .
Start new reel: .
Start new block: .
Search on key:.
Rewind:
Unload:

.46

. OPEN.
· CLOSE.
· READ, WRITE.
. none.
· specified in Environment.
• no.
· no.
.no.
· READ file -name UNTIL
condition.
· automatic with CLOSE file.
. none.

Operating Communication

.461 Log of progress: • • • • WRITE ... ON TYPEWRITER •
.462 Messages to operator: .. WRITE ... ON TYPEWRITER.
. 463 Offer options: . . . • . . own GECOM coding using
WRITE ... ON TYPEWRITER and READ . ~ .
FROM CONSOLE
SWITCHES •
. 464 Accept option:. . • • . • READ . .. FROM CONSOLE
SWITCHES
.47

Object Program Errors
Special Actions
Overflow: IF SIZE ERROR
In-out:
automatic

own GEGOM coding.
automatic. followed by own GEGOM
coding if error persists.

.5

PROCEDURE SEQUENCE CONTROL

.51

Jumps

• 511 Destinations allowed:
. 512 Unconditional jump:.
.513 Switch: . . . . . .
. 514 Setting a switch:.
.515 Switch on data: .

7/63

Revised

· sentences, TARSOL tables
and table roWl!l •
.GO TO X.
· sentence, named Y, containing only GO TO X.
· ALTER Y TO PROCEED
TOZ.
· GO TO X, Y, Z depending
onW.

.52 Conditional Procedures
.521 DeSignators
Condition: . . . •
• IF.
Procedure:. . . .
• implied.
.522 Simple Conditions
ExpreSSion v Expression:
yes.
Expression v Variable: •
yes.
Expression v Literal: .
yes.
Expression v Figurative:.
no.
yes.
Expression v Condition:
Variable
v Variable: • .
yes.
yes •
Variable
v Literal: . .
no •
Variable
v Figurative:.
yes •
Variable
v Condition:
yes.
Conditional value: . . . . .
.523 Conditional relations
Equal: • . • .
· IS (NOT) EQUAL TO; EQ;
NEQ.
Greater than:
· IS (NOT) GREATER THAN;
GR;NGR.
Less than: •.
· IS (NOT) LESS THAN; LS;
NLS.
Greater than or equal:. IS NOT LESS THAN; NLS.
Less than or equal:
. IS NOT GREATER THAN;
NGR .
.524 Variable conditions:. • IS (NOT) POSITIVE.
IS (NOT) NEGATIVE.
IS (NOT) ZERO.
.525 Compound Conditionals
IF x AND y: .
. unlimited; may be mixed
with OR.
IF x OR y:. .
. unlimited; may be mixed
with AND.
IF xDOa ANDy
DOb: . . . . .
.no.
IFxDOaORy
DOb: . . . . . • • · no .
. 526 Alternative deSignator: · none; go to next sentence if
condition is false.
.527 Condition on
alternative:
· no .
· 528 Typical examples:.
· IF X EQ Y GO TO Z.
IF X IS LESS THAN Y GO
TO A, IF EQUAl:. GO TO
B, IF GREATER GO TO C.
IF X GR 10 AND «A OR B
NGR 50) AND C LS D)
AND E NEQ F GO TO Z.
· 53 Subroutines
· 531 Designation
Single statement:
Set of statements
First:.
Last: . . . . . .
.532 Possible subroutines:
.533 Use in-line in
program: • . . . . .

· none.
· section-name SECTION.
· END section-name SECTION.
· sections, segments.
· optional copy of section as
open subroutine .

. 534 Mechanism
Cue with parameters: • PERFORM section-name
SECTION USING ...
GIVING ...
Number of
parameters:
· essentially unlimited.
Cue without
parameter:
· PERFORM section -name
SECTION .
Formal return:
· END section -name SECTION.
Alternative :r:eturn:
· none.

PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: GECOM
§

321: 161.535

161.

. 535 Names
Parameter call by
value: • . . . . • •
Parameter call by
name: . . • . . • .

Non -local names:
Local names:
Preserved local
variables: . .
• 536 Nesting limit: . •
.537 Automatic recursion
allowed: • . . . . .
· 54

. 543 Mechanism
Cue: ••.
Formal return:

• PERFORM section-name
SECTION ~ING name1, name-2, •.• GIVING
name-3, name-4~ ••.
• those listed in CommonStorage Section.
· all others.

. none.

· X = SIN (y + Z).
· automatic

· 56

Loop Control

. 564
. 565
.566
. 567
. 568
.6

.A. VARY B FROM CBYD
UNTIL condition. (Set of
one or more sentences)
EXIT A .
• no.

· none.
· VARY B FROM 1 BY 1
UNTIL B EQ 5.
Step: . . . • .
· any variable.
Criteria: . . .
· any conditional expression.
Multiple parameters: · no .
Control by condition
Example: " . . . · UNTIL
Combined with step:. · mandatory .
Control by list: . .
.no.
Nesting limit: . . .
· unlimited.
Jump out allowed:
· yes .
Control variable
exit status:. . .
· available always.
EXTENSION OF
THE LANGUAGE: ..

.7

LIBRARY FACILITIES

· 71

Identity:......

. 72

Kinds of Libraries

.721 Fixed master:. . . .
.722 Expandable master:.
. 723 Private: . . . . . . .

Varieties of Contents: . . math functions, input-output control routines,
radix conversion routines,
floating point arithmetic
routines.

.75

Mechanism

.751 Insertion of new item: . . no.

. 76

Types of Routine: .

.8

TRANSLATOR CONTROL

.81

Transfer to Another
Language: . . . . .

· closed .

. standard library functions
only .

Operand Definition
by Procedure:
• . • none.

. 562 Control by count:
· 563 Control by step
Parameter
Special index:
Any variable:

.74

.753 Method of call:. . . . . . functions by name; routines
by PERFORM routinename or automatically as
required by procedures or
data descriptions.

. none.
• no limit •

.55

.561 Designation of loop: .

Storage Form: . . . • • . magnetic tape .

· none.

Function Definition by Procedure

. 542 Level of procedure: .

.73

.82

.Optimizing Information
Statements: . . • . . . none.

. 83

Translator
Environment:

. by control card entries.

.84

Target Computer
Environment: • . . . . specified in Environment
Division.

.85

Program Documentation
Control: . . . . . . . by console switches.

.9

TARGET COMPUTER ALLOCATION CONTROL

.91

Choice of Storage
Level: . . • . . .

. none .

.92

Address Allocation:

· only via Common-Storage
assignments.

.93

Arrangement of Items
in words in Unpacked
Form:
. . . . . . . U in Format column of Data
Division .

.94

Assignment of InputOutput Devices: •.

· none.

. GECOM .
.95

Input-Output Areas: .

. yes.
. no.
. no.

© 1963

· ENTER GAP permits insertion of GAP coding in GECOM source program.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

. Environment Division .
. block length in Data Division; alternate areas
(BUFFER) in Environment
Division .

Revised

7/63

321:162.100
GE 225
Process Oriented Language
FORTRAN
PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: FORTRAN

§

.14

162.

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity:

GE 225 F.oRTRAN .

.12

.origin: .

Computer Techniques
Operation.
General Electric Missile
and Space Vehicle
Division, Valley Forge, Pa.

.13

Reference: . . . . . . . The General Electric 225
'F.oRTRAN System.

.14

Description
The GE 225 F.oRTRAN language is a restricted but
useful version of F.oRTRAN II, the most widely accepted process oriented language for scientific applications. For a general description of the F.oRTRAN II language, see Section 408:161. The principal restrictions on the GE 225 F.oRTRAN language
are the limitation of arrays to two dimensions rather
than three and the lack of Boolean, complex, and
double precision arithmetic. .other restrictions of
the GE 225 version relative to IBM 709/7090 F.oRTRAN II are listed in Paragraph. 142 below.
Because of the use of two consecutive 20-bit GE 225
words to represent a floating point number (30 bits
plus sign for the fraction and 8 bits plus sign for the
exponent), a wider range of numeric magnitudes call
be accommodated in the GE 225 than in the IBM 7090.
A precision of approximately nine decimal digits is
maintained. GE 225 F.oRTRAN includes a number of
other useful extensions to the F.oRTRAN II language.
All are described in Paragraph. 143 below.
The minimum equipment configuration for compilation and execution of GE 225 F.oRTRAN programs is:
Central Processor with 8,192 core storage
locations and typewriter.
1 Card Reader.
1 Card Punch.
1 On-Line Printer.
1 Magnetic Tape Controller.
4 Magnetic Tape Transports (i. e., 2 Dual Tape
Handlers.
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
Move Command.
Decimal Addition and Subtraction.
Three-Way Compare.
Additional Address Modification Groups.
.object programs can be executed on smaller systems
(e. g., no magnetic tape or printer) if certain language facilities are not utilized. If a 16,384-word
core store is available, the upper 8,192 locations can
be used for data storage but not for object program
instructions or subroutines.

©

Description (Contd. )
In the original version of GE 225 FORTRAN, source
programs are read from punched cards and converted
into VFAP, an assembly language also developed by
GE's Missile and Space Vehicle Division. The VFAP
program is then assembled into GE 225 machine language. The object program listing is in both VFAP
and absolute octal form. The entire translation
process is automatic. The GE 225 F.oRTRAN system
will be modified by the GE Computer Department to
use the GAP assembly language (Section 321:171) as
an intermediate in place of VFAP. (A punched card
F.oRTRAN II compiler for GE 225 systems without
magnetic tape is being developed, but details are not
yet available. )
.object programs produced by the GE 225 F.oRTRAN
Compiler differ in two ways from those produced by
the 709/7090 F.oRTRAN II Compiler: arrays are
stored "forward" (in increasing storage locations) in
the 225, and there are no "in-line" functions in GE
225 F.oRTRAN. All function references in the source
program cause the generation of links to closed subroutines. These compiler differences generally need
not concern the F.oRTRAN programmer.

.141 Availability: . . . . • . March, 1963.
. 142 Restrictions
(1) The following statements are not permitted:
Assigned GO T.o
ASSIGN
SENSE LIGHT
IF (SENSE LIGHT)
IF QUOTIENT .oVERFLOW
READ DRUM
WRITE DRUM.
(2) Boolean, complex, and double precision operations
are not permitted.
(3) Arrays are limited to two dimensions (709/7090
F.oRTRAN II permits three).
(4) The following statements may be included in the
source program, but will be ignor~:
IF ACCUMULAT.oR .oVERFLOW
IF DIVIDE CHECK
FREQUENCY.
(5) F.oRMAT specifications cannot be read in at
object program execution time .
(6) Alphameric characters are not permitted as
arguments in a CALL statement.
(7) Subroutine names are not permitted as arguments
in a CALL or SUBR.oUTINE statement.

1963 by Auerbach Carparatian and BNA Incarparated

7/63

321: 162.142
§

GE 225

162.

.143 Extensions (Contd.)

.142 Restrictions (Contd.)
(8) Arithmetic statement functions are not
permitted.
(9) The only permissible carriage control characters are blank (for single space), 0 (double
space), and 1 (skip to hole in channell of
printer format tape). These control characters
may be used only in PRINT statements, whereas
709/7090 FORTRAN II permits their use in
WRITE OUTPUT TAPE statements as well.
(10) In the FORMAT "pecification Aw, the maximum
number of significant alphameric characters per
item is three (versus six in 709/7090 FORTRAN
II).

(11) In the FORMAT specification Ow, the maximum
number of significant octal digits per item is
seven (versus twelve,in 709/7090 FORTRAN II).
(12) The CHAIN feature, which permits programs
too large to fit into core storage to be executed
as a series of independen.t "links, " has not been
implemented.

(2) Whereas a single statement cannot occupy more
than 10 cards in 709/7090 FORTRAN II, there is
essentially no limit in GE 225 F.ORTRAN.
(3) Statement numbers up to 99999 are permitted; the
limit is 32767 in 709/7090 FORTRAN II.
(4) Statements in the VFAP assembly language (also
developed by the GE Missile and Space Vehicle
Division) can be included in the source program.
VFAP cards are identified by a nV" punched in
column 1.

(5) The abbreviations WOT and RIPT can be substituted for the FORTRAN statements WRITE
OUTPUT TAPE and READ INPUT TAPE,
respectively.
(6) The statement RCD reads input data from
punched cards in a free field format. Fields may
be of variable length and are separated by
commas. F or X preceding a number denotes
conversion to floating or fixed point internal
form, respectively.

. 143 Extensions
(1) Larger ranges of numeric magnitudes can be
accommodated, as shown in the following table:
Floating Point
GE 225:
10- 76 to 10+76
IBM 709/7090: 10- 38 to 10+ 38

7/63

Fixed Point
1 to 524,287.
1 to 131,071.

(7) The COMMON storage area always starts at
octal location 17766 and extends downward. In
GE 225 systems with 16K core stores, there is
another storage area, called "KOMMON," which
extends downward from octal location 37766 and
is referenced by the added specification statement
KOMMON.

321: 163.100
•

STANDARD

:EDP
•

REfI>RTS

GE 225
Process Oriented Language

WIZ-II
PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: WIZ-II

§

163.

.14

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity:

• 12

Origin: . . . . . . . . . General Electric Computer
Department, Phoenix,
Arizona.

. . . . . . . GE 225 WIZ System.
WIZ-lI.

.13

Reference: . . . . . . . GE 225 WIZ System
Reference Manual.

.14

Description
WIZ is a one-pass algebraic compiler for scientific
problems. WIZ-coded programs can be compiled
and executed on aGE 225 with 8,192 core storage locations and punched card or paper tape input-output.
Magnetic tape can be utilized, when available, in
either the compilation or execution phase. The
WIZ-lI translator is described in Section 321:183.
The WIZ language is relatively easy to learn and use,
but its capabilities are considerably less extensive
than those of FORTRAN or ALGOL. Arithmetic operations are expressed in an "equation" form nearly
identical to that of FORTRAN. The left-hand side of
every equation is a variable, whose value is determined by evaluating the arithmetic expression on the
right side,pf the equal sign. The WIZ arithmetic operators, the sequence of operations, and the meaning
of parentheses are the same as in FORTRAN. Unlike FORTRAN, WIZ permits the use of more than
one equal sign (=) in a statement; e. g.
A

=B =J + (K = K + 1).

This means "increment the current value of K by 1,
add J, and store the result in both Band A. "

Description (Contd.)
Columns
Columns
Columns
Columns
Column
Columns

1-6:
7-10:
12-14:
15-59:
60:
61-80:

Sequence Number (optional)
Statement Label
Statement Type
StatementStatement-Continuation
Branch Fields

Statement labels are usually 2-digit numbers; they
may alternatively be alphameric labels of up to 4
characters or strings of 1 to 4 asterisks, in which
case special rules of usage apply. If a statement is
not referenced as a branch destination, it need not be
labeled.
The Statement Type field is left blank for ordinary
arithmetic statements. Eleveq other statement types,
designated by symbols of one to three characters, are
provided for control of data input and output, specification of array dimensions, assignment of initial
values, and translator control.
The Statement field defines the operation(s) to be performed. It can contain several statements separated
by commas, or a single statement can be continued
over an "unlimited" number of lines by inserting any
non-blank character except $ into Column 60 of each
line except the last.
The Branch Fields are the most novel feature of the
WIZ language. There are five 4-column Branch
Fields, labeled "zero, " "non-zero, " "plus, " "minus, "
and "any case." A statement label placed in any of
these Branch Fields causes a branch to the specified
statement if the result of the last expression evaluated
satisfies the specified condition. The Branch Fields
are examined in sequence, from left to right. The
"any case" field denotes an unconditional transfer of
control. If all of the Branch Fields are blank, or if
none of the specified conditions is true, the next statement in sequence is executed.

Arithmetic is performed in either the floating point
or integer mode, depending upon the form of the operands in an expression. Whenever mixed mode
operands are encountered, the computation is performed in the floating point mode. Two GE 225 word
locations are used to represent each variable and
constant, providing a floating point precision of 30
binary bits (or about 9 decimal digits) and a range of
10- 76 to 10+ 76• Floating point arithmetic is performed by the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit when it is
available; if not,· standard subroutines are used.
WIZ provides no facilities for complex or extended
precision arithmetic or for Boolean operations .,

Symbolic "Label Equivalents" can be written in the
Branch Fields as well as actual statement labels. A
Label Equivalent is a variable whose value at the time
the Branch Field is examined is considered a numeric
statement label. This provides a capability for
switches and multi-way transfers of control, as in
the Assigned GO TO and Computed GO TO statements of FORTRAN. WIZ provides no explicit facility for initialization and control of loops (such as the
DO statement of FORTRAN), but these operations
can easily be coded through proper use of the WIZ
Branch Fields.

WIZ source programs are written on fixed-format
coding sheets (shown on page 321:135.100) that have
the following layout:

Closed subroutines (called "procedures ") can be
coded in WIZ and compiled along with the main program or separately. The subroutines are usually

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and RNA Incorporated

7/63

321: 163.140

§

GE 225

163.

.14

.24

Description (Contd. )
used as functions, inwhich case up to 49 parameters
can be transmitted to the subroutine and a single result is returned to the main program. A library of
10 stand8.rd function subroutines is included in
WIZPAC, the WIZ object program execution package.
GAP-assembled machine language subroutines can be
utilized in WIZ programs if they are coded in a prescribed form to utilize the WIZ-generated linkages.
Data input to the WIZ object program is via punched
cards or paper tape. Only numeric data in decimal
form can be read in. The data can be punched in a
free-field format. Each number can be expressed
in fixed or floating point form and can be up to 12
characters long. A blank column is used to separate
consecutive items. The FORTRAN facility for implied 00 loops in input-output statements is not provided in WIZ.
Output from WIZ object programs can be on the
printer, the console typewriter, or the card or tape
punch, as specified by console switch settings.
Magnetic tape input-output can be used as an option.
Each data item is normally printed or punched into
a IS-character "value block." If desired, the label
of each variable can be printed in the value block immediately follOWing its numeric value. Alphameric
constants can also be printed to provide titles and
column headings. WIZ-produced output data on
punched cards can be re-entered as input data to any
WIZ-compiled program.

• 15

Publication Date:. . . • November 1961; revised in
June and December, 1962.

.2

PROGRAM STRUCTURE

• 21

Divisions: . • . . . . . no formal divisions •

.22

Procedure Entities
Program: .•
Procedure: .
Statement: •

.23

composed of statements and
(optional) procedures.
composed of statements.
composed of statement
label, statement type,
statement body, and
branch designators; all
parts except statement
body may be omitted.

Names

.241 Simple name formation (for variables and arrays)
Alphabet: .
letters A-Z and numerals
0-9.
Size: . . .
unlimited; first 30 characters must be unique.
not applicable.
Avoid key words:.
Formation rule:.
first character must be
alphabetic; no punctuation
marks allowed; blanks are
ignored.
• 242 Designators
Procedures
must begin with letter, conProcedure names:
tain maximum of 4 characters, and be followed by
a period; e. g., SQRT.
Statement labels: •• maximum of 4 characters
(usually 2-digit numbers
from 10- 99), or 1 to 4
asterisks, or blank if not
referenced in procedures.
Data: • • . .
no designators.
not named.
Equipment: .
begin with $ anywhere in
Comments: •
statement field.
statement type symbols,
Translator control:
composed of I to 3.1etters.
• 25

Structure of Data Names

.251 Qualified names: . .
.252 Subscripts
Number per item:
Applicable to: .
Class may be
Any variable: .
Literal: . • .
Expression: •
Form may be
Integer only:

not permitted.

.26

Number of Names:.

depends upon size of each
name used; approximately
250 4-character names can
be handled.

• 27

Region of Meaning of
Names: . . . . • • •

Variable: . . .

7/63

yes.
yes.
yes.

Il'!commended for
maximum efficiency.
Signed: ••.
must be non-negative.
Truncated fraction: • no.
Rounded fraction: •
yes.
• 253 Synonyms
Preset: . • • . . .
yes, using EQU statement.
Dynamically set: •
no.

Data Entities
a named one-word fixed
point or two-word floating
point quantity whose value
can be changed through
com putation.
Array: • . . . . . . • . a one-dimensional set of
related variables,· referenced by means of the
array name followed by a
subscript.

1.
any variable .

all WIZ names are universal, except for numeric
and asterisk statement
labels, which are local to
the procedure or main
program in which they
are defined.

.3

DATA DESCRIPTION FACILITIES

.31

Methods of Direct
Data Description:

none.

Files and Reels: . •

programmer-provided.

· 32

321: 163.330

PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: WIZ-II

§

163.

• 33
• 34

.411 Operator list (Contd. )
Functions
Records and Blocks: .

programmer-provided; no
facilities in WIZ language.

SIN. (E): .•

COS. (E): . .
ATAN. (E): •
SQRT. (E):

Data Items

LN. (E):

• 341 Designation of class:
. 342 Possible classes
Integer: . . . .
Fixed point:
Floating point:
Alphabetic: .
Alphameric:
• 343 Choice of external
radix: . . . .
• 345 Justification: . . . .

implied by procedures,
choice is made automatically at execution time.

INT. (E): .

SWT. (E):.

yes.
no.
yes.
no.
no.

MODE. (E):.

no; always decimal.
automatic right justification
for integers.
automatic.

• 346 Choice of code: . .
• 347 Possible external codes
Input: .
column-decimal card code.
Output: . . . . .
column-decimal card code,
or printed results in
decimal form.
· 348 Internal item size
Variable size:
fixed; 1 word per integer
and 2 words per floating
point item.
Range
Fixed point numeric: -99,999 to +99,999 (integer
only).
Floating point
10- 76 to 10+ 76 .
numeric:
.349 Sign provision:.
optional.
. 35

EXP. (E): •
ABS. (E): •

.412 Operands allowed
Classes: • . . .
Mixed scaling: .
Mixed classes: •
Mixed radices: .
Literals: . . . . .
.413 Statement structure
Parentheses
a - b - c means:
a + b x c means:
.alb/c means: . .
Size limit:
...
Multi - results:
.414 Rounding of results: .
. 415 Special cases
x = -x: . . . . .
x=x+1: . . . .
x = 4. 7y: • . . .
x =5 x 107 +y2:
x = y integer part:
.416 Typical examples: .

. 351 Constants
Possible sizes
Integer: . . .

1 to 5 decimal digits with no
decimal point or exponent.
none.
Fixed point:.
1 to 8 decimal digits with
Floating point:
decimal point and lor
decimal exponent, in range
10- 76 to 10+ 76 .
Alphameric:
for output only, 1 line of up
to 120 chars or 1 card of
up to 80 characters.
Sign provision: . • .
optional.
.352 Literals: . • . . . . . . same as constants.
. 353 Figuratives: • .. .. none.
.354 Conditional variables: . none.
.36

Special Description
Facilities: . . . . . none.

.4

OPERATION REPERTOIRE

. 41

Formulae

. 411 Operator list
Arithmetic

*.
I:.

** .
= :.

numeric only.
yes .
yes; conversion is automatic.
no .
yes .
(a - b) - c.
+ (b x c) •
(alb)/c.
not specified.
no.
truncated .

a

x = -X.
X=X+1.
X =4.7 * Y.
X = 5.T7 +Y*Y.
X =INT. (y).
X = (-B+SQRT. (B*B-4.0
... A * C»/(2. 0 * A) •
X = Y = K + = J + 1)•

a

Data Values

+:.

sine of E.
cosine of E.
arctangent of E.
square root of E.
natural log of E.
exponential: e E .
absolute value of E.
truncate E to an integer •
test console switch E, where
0'::: E'::: 19.
select printer, card punch,
or typewriter for compiler
output.

add.
subtract (may be unary).
multiply.
divide.
exponentiation.
is replaced by.

©

. 42

Operations on Arrays:. by own WIZ coding; no
automatic facilities.

.43

Other Computation: . • none.

.44

Data Movement and Format

.441
. 442
.443
.444
.445

Data copy example:
Levels possible: . .
Multiple results:.
Missing operands: •
Size of operands: .

.446 Editing possible
Change class:
Change radix:
Delete editing
symbols: . .
Insert editing symbols
Actual point: . . .
Suppress zeroes: .
Insert: • . .
Float: . . . •
. 447 Special moves: •
• 448 Code translation:
.449 Character
manipulation:. .
.45

File Manipulation: •

1963 by Auerbach Carparation and BNA Inco'lDorated

Y =X.
data items only.
yes; Z = Y =X.
not possible.
fixed for internal and output
operations; variable for
input data •
automatic.
automatic.
automatic.
automatic.
automatic; on integer output
only.
no.
no .
none •
automatic.
none.
none.

7/63

321:163.460

§

GE 225

163.

.46

.534 Mechanism
Cue with parameters:

Operating Communication

.461 Log of progress:. . • . printer or typewriter
messages.
.462 Messages to operator: • printer or typewriter
messages.
.463 Offer options:
printer or typewriter
messages.
.464 Accept option:
test console switch settings.
.47

Object Program Errors
Error

Discovery

Special Actions

Overflow:

automatic

set result to 10+ 76 and
continue (no message).
type message and halt.
type message, substitute
10+76 for the bad data,
and continue.
set result to zero and continue (no message).

In-out:
automatic
Invalid data: automatic
Underflow:

automatic

Cue without
parameter:

. .....

Formal return: . . .
Alternative return: •
.535 Names
Parameter call by
value: • . . . . •
Parameter call by
name: •••.
Local names.:. • .
Non -local names:
.536 Nesting limit:
• 537 Automatic recursion:

......

.54

PROCEDURE SEQUENCE CONTROL

• 51

Jumps

.511 Destinations allowed:

any named statement or
procedure.
.512 Unconditional jump:
to destination specified in
columns 77 - 80 of any
executable statement.
.513 Switch:. • . . . . • . . effected by use of a variable'
"Label Equivalent" in
columns 77-80 in place of
an absolute statement
label.

. 52

.53

Last:
• 542 Level of procedure:
.543 Mechanism
Cue: .............

.544 Names
Parameter call by
value: • • . . • .
Parameter call by
name: • . . .
Local names:. . .

.55

procedure name in Label
field.
Last: . . . . . . .
END. or next procedure
name •
• 532 Possible subroutines:
any number of statements.
• 533 Use in":line in.program: no.

Operand Definition by
ProceiIure: .

.56

Loop Control:

.6

EXTENSION OF
THE LANGUAGE:

Subroutines

.531 Designation
Single statement:.

7/63

Set of statements
First: •

Conditional Procedures

.521 Designators: • . • . . • WIZ has no explicit conditional statements. The 5
Bra,nch Designator fields
in columns 61-80 can
cause Jumps to specified
statements or procedures
if the result of the last
expression is:
zero
non-zero
positive
negative
any case.

procedure name without
terminal period in a branch
field.
period in a branch field.
none.
no.
no.
.only statement labels compOsed of 2 decimal digits
or 1 to 4 asterisks.
all other names.
no restriction.
no.

Function Definition by Procedure

.541 Designation
Single statement:.
.5

not possible for subroutines;
see Paragraph. 543 for
functions.

procedure name in
Label field.
procedure name in
Label field •
END, or next procedure
name.
any number of statements •
procedure name followed by
1 to 4 parameters enclosed
in parentheses; e.g.,
VOL. (TEMP, PRESS).
yes.
no.
only statement labels composed of 2 decimal digits
or 1 to 4 asterisks •
none.
WIZ has no explicit loop
control facilities (such as
DO, FOR,PERFORM, or
VARY). but the Branch
Designator fields (paragraph. 521) permit effective loop control by count.
by step. or by condition.
no facilities provided.

.7

LIBRARY FACIllTIES

• 71

Identity: ............

WIZ Function Library •

.72

Kinds of Libraries:

fixed master.

.73

Stora~

punched cards or paper
tape.

Form: •

PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: WIZ-II

§

321:163.740

163.

. 74
. 75

.82
Varieties of Contents:. 10 standard function
subroutines.

.83

Optimizing Information
Statements: .

..

Translator
Environment: .

console switches are used
to select output device .

Mechanism

• 751 Insertion of new item:. no provisions.
. 753 Method of call:. . . . . all standard function subroutines are included in
WIZPAC and are always
present at execution time.
. 76

Types of Routine: . . . closed only .

.8

TRANSLATOR CONTROL

.81

Transfer to Another
Language: . . . . . . no.

.84

Target CompiIter
Environment: ••

console switches are used to
select output device.

.85

Program Documentation
Control:
. . . by console switches •

.9

TARGET COMPUTER
ALLOCATION
CONTROL: . . . .

..

.

© 1963

none .

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

none .

7/63

321: 171.1 00

GE 225
M. O. Language

GAP
MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: GAP
§

171.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

· GE 225 General Assembly
Program.
GAP.
· General Electric Computer
Department.

. 13

Reference:

.14

Description

• GE 225 Programming
Reference Manual,
CPB 252.

The General Assembly Program is the basic machine
oriented language for the GE 225. It is a straightforward symbolic assembly system that permits full
utilization of the system's capabilities but provides
few refinements. No macro-instructions are provided, and literals are available only for incrementing and testing index registers. Twenty-three
pseudo-operations define constants, name and reserve areas, control address allocation, and cause
transfer control cards to be punched by the translator. Constants may be written in decimal form for
conversion by the translator to floating point or
single or double word-length fixed pOint form. The
three-letter mnemonic operation codes are easy to
remember, and operand addresses may be either
actual (in decimal notation) or symbolic.

.23

Corrections:

.24

Special Conventions

· leaving gaps in sequence
numbers permits insertions.

.241 Compound addresses: . · up to 8 characters of sums
and differences of symbois, decimal numbers
and/or asterisks.
.242 Multi -addresses:
· none .
.243 Literals:. . . . .
· available only for incrementing and testing
index registers.
. 244 Special coded addresses: * refers to "this address" .
.245 Other
Actual core storage
addresses: . . . . · decimal numbers positioned anywhere in operand
field.

.3

LABELS

.. 31

General

. 311 Maximum number of
labels:
..
.312 Common label
formation rule: .
. 313 Reserved labels: .
. 314 Other
restrictions: •
.315 Designators: . . .
. 316 Synonyms permitted:

I, 200 with 8K
core storage.

yes .
none .

.15

Publication Date:. . . . original specifications:
March, 1961.

.2

LANGUAGE FORMAT

.21

Diagram: .

.22

Legend

.32

SYMBOL:

.321 Labels for procedures
Existence: .
· mandatory if referenced
by other instructions.
Formation rule:
First character:
· any alphameric except
+, -, or *.
Others: ..
· any alphameric.except
+, -, or *.
Number of characters: . . .
· 1 to 6; at least one must
be non -numeric.
.322 Labels for library
routines:
· same as Procedures.
.323 Labels for constants: · same as Procedures.
.324 Labels for files:.
· none.
.325 Labels for records: . · none .
. 326 Labels for va:r:iables: · same as Procedures.

refer to GE 225 Coding
Sheet, 321:171.820.

· label for a core storage
location.
OPR:
· mnemonic operation code
for an instruction or
pseudo-instruction.
OPERAND:
· actUal (decimal) or symbolic address of data to
be operated upon, including specification of
relative addressing if
used.
X:
· number of an index register
(if address modification
is to be performed) or of
a peripheral unit.
REMARKS: . . . . . . · explanatory comments to
be listed but not trans1ated.
SEQUENCE:
. number for sequencing of
the source deck.

©

.33

none.
none .
yes.

Universal Labels

Local Labels: . . .

1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

. none.
Revised 7/63

GE 225

321:171.400
171.

§

.4

DATA

.41

Constants

.411 Maximum size constants
Integer
Decimal: . . . . . . · 6 digits for single ~ length
constant; 12 for doublelength, on 2 lines.
Octal: . . . .
.7 digits.
Hexadecimal:
· not used.
Fixed numeric
Decimal:
.8 chars/line; may be
continued.
Octal: . .
.7 digits.
Hexadecimal: .
· not used.
Floating numeric
Decimal:
.8 chars/line; may be continued.
Octal:. . . . .
. not used.
Hexadecimal:
. not used.
Alphabetic:. . .
.45 chars/line.
Alphameric: . . . . . . 45 chars/line.
.412 Maximum size literals: 8,192; for incrementing
and testing index registers only.
.42

Title phrase: . • .

. .

Input-Output Areas

.431 Data layout: .
.432 Data type: . .
.433 Copy layout:. .

.

.5

PROCEDURES

.51

Direct Operation Codes

.61

Special Arithmetic

.611 Facilities:. . . . .

. double length multiply
and divide, floating
point arithmetic, complex
floating arithmetic,
matrix arithmetic.
.612 Method of call: . . . . . . insert in deck and assemble
with source program.
· 62

Special Functions

.621 Facilities:. . . .

· mandatory.
. 278.
· ADD: (A)+(Y)-A.
· not used in GAP .

.52

Macro-Codes:

· none.

.53

Interludes:

· none.

.54

Translator Control

.541 Method of control
Allocation counter:
Label adjustment:
Annotation:. . . .
54'2 Allocation counter
Set to absolute:
Set to label: .
Step forward:
Step backward:
Reserve area:
7/63 Revised

. 622 Method of call:

.63

Overlar Control:

.64

Data Editing

Code translation:
.642 Format control:
. 643 Method of call:. . .

.511 Mnemonic
Existence:
Number: .
Example:
.512 Absolute:

• "Remarks" columns of
any card.
• REM pseudo.

SPECIAL ROUTINES AVAILABLE

.641 Radix conversion: .
· specified in program.
· tabulated in program .
.no.

· EQU pseudo .
· EQU pseudo.
· no .

•6

Working Areas

.421 Data layout
Implied by use:
· no.
Specified in program: yes.
.422 Data type: .. .
· tabulated in program.
.423 Redefinition:
· yell; EQU pseudo.
.43

· 543 Label adjustment
Set labels equal: .
Set absolute value:.
Clear label table:
· 544 Annotation
Comment phrase:

. 65

In~t-Output

.651
.652
.653
.654
.655

File labels:
Reel labels: .
Blocking: . . .
Error control:
Method of call:

· 66

Sorting:

· log, exponential, square
root, and common trigonometric functions in
single-length, doublelength, and floating point
modes .
· insert in deck and assemble
with source program.
· none .

· BCD-to-binary and binaryto-BCD.
· paper tape I/O routines.
· none; normally handled by
Printer Controller circuitry .
· insert in deck and assemble
with source program .

Control
· Symbolic Tape I/O System.
· Symbolic Tape I/O System .
· Symbolic Tape I/O System.
· Symbolic Tape I/O System.
· insert I/O routine and
parameter lists behind
symbolic deck before
assembly.

.661 Facilities:.

· pseudo-operations.
· pseudo-operations.
· pseudo-operations.
· ORG (decimal) or LOC
(octal) pseudo.
· ORG pseudo.
· ORG pseudo with * in
operand.
· ORG pseudo with * in
operand.
· BSS .pseudo.

· Short List Internal Sort
sequences records of 1 to
50 words.
• 662 Method of call: . . . . . insert in deck and
assemble with source
program.
.67

Diagnostics

.671 Dumps: . .

· selective core storage
dumps available for either
Console Typewriter or
Printer.

MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: GAP

321: 171. 672

171.
.672 Tracers:.

.82

§

· TRACE lists, after
executing each instruction' the location,
instruction, and contents
of A, Q, P, I, and index
registers.
. 673 Snapshots:. . . . . . . · Typewriter Memory Dump
subroutines permit selective printouts at any
point in program.
.7

LIDRAR Y FACILITIES

. 71

Identity:......

.72

Kinds of Libraries

· GE 225 Programming
Library.

.721 Fixed master:. . .
. 722 Expandable master: .
.723 Private: . . . .

· no.
· yes.
· yes.

. 73

Storage Form:

· cards (can be converted to
magnetic tape by the
BRIDGE Service System).

• 74

Varieties of Contents: . · input-output, math, and
service routines and
numerous problemoriented routines are
available or being develop':
ed.
Mechanism

.75

.751 Insertion of new item: .. file in card library.
,752 Language of new item:. . generally GAP.
.753 Method of call: . . . . insert in deck.
.76

Insertion in Program

.761 Open routines exist:.
. yes.
.762 Closed routines exist:. . ~s.
. 763 Open -closed is
optional: . . . . . . . . no.
".764 Closed routines appear
once: . . . . . . . . . yes.
•8

MACRO AND PSEUDO TABLES

. 81

Macros:......... none.

. 82

Pseudos
Code

Description

ALF: .

stores a 3-character
alphameric constant in
BCD form.
reserves a block of core
storage.
stores a decimal number
as a single precision
binary constant.

BSS: .
DEC: .

© 1963

Pseudos (Contd.)
Code
DOC:

Description

· . . . . . · . · stores a decimal number

as a double precision
binary constant.
END:
.. .
· indicates end of program
to be assembled, and
punches a transfer control card.
EQO:
· specifies the octal address
to be as signed to a symbol:
EQU:
· specifies the decimal or
symbolic address to be
assigned to a symbol.
FOC:
· stores a decimal number
·
as a two -word floating
pOint constant.
LOC:
· sets allocation counter to
specified octal address .
ORG:
· sets allocation counter to
specified decimal or
symbolic address .
NAL:
· stores 2's complement of
3 -character alphameric
constant.
OCT:
· stores an octal number as
a single precision binary
constant.
REM:
· .. · · denotes remarks to be
listed but ignored in the
assembly.
TCD: ·
· punches a card to transfer
control to the specified
address.
MAL: . . . . . . . . . . enters alphameric data
into as many as 15
consecutive storage
locations.
PAL: • . . . . . . . . . same as MAL, except minus
sign is entered into last
alphameric word •
SBR: . • • . . . • . . • obtains specified subroutine
from the GAP II Master
Tape.
EjT:
advances printer paper to
top of next page .
SEQ:
checks sequence numbers
on source program cards •
NAM:.
prints name or title on each
page of GAP listing.
inhibits printer listing of
NLS:
GAP assembly.
initiates printer listing of
LST:
GAP assembly after
NLS pseudo.
Z(xx): • . • . . . • • • sets operation bits of an
assembled instruction 'to
any specified configuration.

.·.

......

· . · ....

·.

. ..

· ..

.

.. · ....

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

""
,....

-..J

'0\
w

-..J
,....

GENERAL

:::a
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....

ELECTR I C

en

PROGRAMMER

Symbol

,12101

4

PROGRAM

Opr

Operand

X

1_1 6 6 I • I ,0 121'01141'"1 '61 17 1'81'. 20

N
0

I

(l)

p..

ex.

225 GENERAL ASSEMBLY PROGRAM CODING SHEET

COMPUTER DEPARTMENT, PHOENIX, ARIZONA

I

I PAGE •

DATE

OF

I

Sequence

REMARKS
31

I~........

75

,. I" I ,. I'· 180 -:,

I

2

,

3

4
!it

,

,

6
7

8

~1

rn

::0

~

i-

9

;

10

"

12

13
14
1S
16
I

17

,

,

18
19
20
21

,

22

,

23

,

24
2S
CK-34 (1/62)

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N
VI

321: 172.100
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 225
Machine Oriented Language
ZOOM

REPORTS

MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: ZOOM

§

172.

.14

•1

GENERAL

· 11

Identity:

ZOOM Macro Assembler.

.12

Origin:.

General Electric Computer
Department.

.13

Reference: •

GE 225 ZOOM: A Macro
Assembler, revised
May, 1962.

· 14

Description (Contd.)
therefore be referenced by field-names and
generated by means of GAP pseudo instructions.
The Z mode includes sentences and expressions
which are quite similar in structure and effect to
those of the GECOM language, but more abbreviated
in format; e. g.:
GECOM - ALTER SEN....1 TO PROCEED TO
SEN-2.
ZOOM

Description

- AT SEN-1 SEN-2.

ZOOM is a pre-GAP macro assembly system designed to facilitate machine oriented programming
of the GE 225. Input consists of punched cards containing combinations of GAP symbolic coding (described in Section 321:171) and ZOOM statements.
Output consists of GAP statements on punched cards
or magnetic tape, -which serve as direct input to the
GAP translator (Section 321:181). A printer listing
is optional.

There is a ZOOM statement analogous to each
GECOM statement, except that READ, WRITE, and
the ability to handle multi-dimensional arrays are
not provided in ZOOM. Printing and typing can be
executed in the Z mode. Other input-output operations are usually handled by standard GE 225 utility
subroutines or by specialized, user-coded subroutines. The Z mode sentence types are listed and
briefly described in Paragraph. 16, below.

The ZOOM system is an unusual compromise between the generalized, process oriented approach of
compiler systems (such as GECOM and WIZ) and the
straightforward but time-consuming approach of
simple symbolic assembly systems (such as GAP).
The objective is to minimize the detail work associated with assembly-level coding while retaining its
characteristically high object program efficiencies.

The S, F, and A modes are used to code algebraic
expressions. S designates fixed point single precision operations, F designates two-word floating point
using subroutines, and A designates two-word floating point using the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit. The
normal rules of algebra are followed. Unlike
FORTRAN, ALGOL, and GECOM, however, the
value of the expression on the left side of the equal
sign replaces the single variable on the right side;
e.g. :

The ZOOM language is made of up a combination of
pseudo-English statements, algebraic expressions,
and symbolic machine coding. ZOOM was designed
primarily to simplify the coding of these types of
operations:
•
•
•
•

Algebraic expressions
Logical decisions
Subscripting of field names
Data input and output.

The ZOOM source program is punched into 80column cards. The first six columns can hold an
optional sequence number. Column 7 designates one
of 5 sentence modes (Z, G, S, F, or A) which are
described below. Columns 8 through 80 are used for
the ZOOM sentence itself. Sentence-names and
field-names consist of one to six alphameric characters. A sentence can be up to 100 words in length,
spread over any number of cards and terminated by
a period. Each name and each special character
(e. g., period, comma, parenthesis) counts as one
word. Any field-name or sentence-name can be
"tagged" with a 1, 2, or 3 to designate indexing by
one of the three index registers. Except in a few
special cases, numeric literals cannot be used in
ZOOM statements. Constant numeric values must

© 1963

F SIN(A 2/C

+ J)*B=J=I

2.

In this example, the expression on the left is evaluated
and stored in symbolic address J and in the address
developed by adding the contents of index register 2
to symbolic address I. Variable A is also subscripted
by index register 2. The index register "tags" are
the only permissible subscripts in ZOOM, so the
evaluation of complex and/or multi-dimensional subscripts is not automatic (as in FORTRAN), but must
be coded in detail. Function linkages can be generated by preceding the argument with the name of the
function, as in the above example. The corresponding subroutine must be manually inserted into the
object deck. A maximum of twelve pairs of parentheses can be used in a sentence.
The G mode permits the use of GAP assembly language coding at any point in the ZOOM source program. All of the facilities of the GAP language can
be utilized. The GAP coding must be written in a
free-field format in ZOOM programs, whereas a
fixed format (page 321:171. 820) is required for direct
input to the GAP translator. GAP fields are separated by commas or blanks, each GAP instruction is

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

7/63

GE225

321:172.140
§

172.

. i4

. 16

Z Mode Sentence Types (Contd.)

Description (Contd.)

AS: .

terminated by a period, and more than one instruction can be punched on a card. The G mode cards
pass through the ZOOM macro assembly process
without translation.

AT:.

The ZOOM -to-GAP translation may require one or
two passes. The second pass is required only if
user-defined macro instructions are referenced in
the source program. The macro instructions must
be defined in GAP coding, either within the ZOOM
source program or on separate cards which are read
in during the second pass. Wherever a user-defined
macro is referenced in the source program, the associated GAP coding is inserted in -line during the
second pass. The second pass, when used, also
scans the object program in an effort to eliminate
excess COding.
There are three versions of the ZOOM translator.
The 8K version (program CD225F1. 002) requires a
GE 225 with 8, 192 core storage locations, a card
reader, and a card punch. Use of one magnetic tape
drive reduces card handling when the two-pass translation process is required. Four magnetic tape
drives permit automatic ZOOM -to-GAP and GAP-tomachine-language translations without operator
intervention.

BG: .
CA:.

DE: . . . . . . . . . . •

00:.
DX:.
ED:.
EN:.
ER:.
GO: . . . . . . . . . • .
IF: • . • . • . • . • . .

Two different versions of the ZOOM translator are
available for 4K GE 225 systems. Program
CD225F 1. 004 uses subroutines for all floating point
arithmetic operations, whereas Program
CD225F1. 005 assembles coding for the Auxiliary
Arithmetic Unit. Because of the limited core storage
space, the following restrictions apply to both 4K
versions:
• The AB, EX, DX, and DO sentence types are not
permitted.
• Required constants are not generated automatically; they must be supplied by the user.
• User-defined macro instructions cannot be used.
• No error typeouts are produced during the
translation.
• There are minor limitations on G mode (GAP)
coding.
.15
• 16

Publication Date:.

February 1962; revised
May 1962.

MO: • . . • • . • . . •

NT: • . . . • • . . . . .
PR: . . . . . • . . . . .

PT: .

sc: .
SN: •
ST: .
SW:.
SX: .
TY:.
VA:.

Z Mode Sentence Types
. . . . . . • • • . . takes the absolute value of
a single or double precision field; e. g., AB S A.
AD: • • . • . • • • • . • denotes double precision
addition and/or subtraction; e. g., AD A + B - F
AB~

=G =H.

AL:

7/63

denotes a string of alphameric characters to be
typed or printed.

·S or *D: . • . • . • . .

/S or /D: . . . . • • . .

denotes single precision
addition and/or subtraction.
sets a switch; analogous to
the ALTER verb of COBOL.
begins a ZOOM program.
performs a three-way comparison of two single or
double precision fields,
and transfers control
accordingly.
analogous to the "00 TO .
DEPENDING ON . . . "
conditional transfer of
COBOL.
controls the execution of a
loop, as in FORTRAN.
exchanges two double
precision fields.
ends a ZOOM program and
causes a string of
constants to be written.
ends a ZOOM program; no
constants are written.
transfers control to deSignated sentence upon
arithmetic overflow.
transfers control unconditionally to the designated
sentence.
performs logical comparisons and tests; e. g., IF
S VAL-l GR VAI:--2
00 SEN.,..!.
moves a block of 1 to 999
consecutive words from
one core storage area to
another.
designates a note, which
will not be reproduced on
the GAP output.
causes a section of coding
(see SN) to be performed,
after which control is returned to the main
program.
prints a line; control by.a
format line is optional.
advances printer paper to
specified channel.
designates a section of
coding, performed by a
PR sentence.
causes a processor halt.
advances printer paper the
specified number of lines.
exchanges ~o single
precision fields •
types an alphameric message.
controls the execution of a
loop; less specific and
less efficient than 00.
denotes multiplication of two
single precision fields; S or
D denotes single or double
precision result.
denotes division; divisor and
quotient must be single precision; S or D denotes single
or double precision dividend.

321: 181.100
.,STANDARO

EDP
•

REPORTS

GE 225
Program Translator

GAP
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: GAP

§

181.

· 232 Maximum size
source statements: •

•1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

· 12

Description

GE 225 General Assembly
Program.
GAP.

This translator converts GAP source programs into
GE 225 machine language form. Minimum configuration for operation of the translator includes 4,096
words of core storage, console typewriter, and
punched card or paper tape input-output units.
Three card passes are required to produce a packed
(38 instructions per card) binary object program
deck. A high speed printer, if available, can be
used for on-line listings of the symbolic and
machine-language instructions and error indications.
Systems with four or more magnetic tape units can
utilize the GAP Systems Tape for automatic assemblies without intermediate card handling operations.
There is a general one-to-one correspondence between GAP statements and machine-language instructions, except for pseudo-operations, double-length
constants, and some input-output and conditional
branching operations which require two computer
words. All hardware facilities in the target computer can be fully utilized.
. 13

Originator:. . . .

• 14

Maintainer:

as above .

.15

Availability:

March, 1961.

.2

INPUT

• 21

Language

.212 Exemptions:

OUTPUT

.31

Object Program

.311 Language name:
.312 Language style:
· 313 Output media:

· 32

· 321 Standard inclusions: •
.322 Compatible with: . . .
· 33

• 222 Obligatory ordering: .

· 223 Obligatory grouping: •

· 231 Maximum number of
source statements:. • limited by target computer
storage size.

©

Provision
listing.
listing.
listing (label table).
none.
listing and typewriter
message.

TRANSLATING PROCEDURE

.41

Phases and Passes

Pass 1: •
Pass 2: .

· 42

Optional Modes

.421
.422
.423
.424

Translate: •.•
Translate and run: .
Check only:
Patching:.

· 43

Size Limitations

none.
BRIDGE II Service System;
see Section 321:191.

.4

• 425 Up-dating: •

none.

GE 225 machine language.
binary; choice of absolute
or relocatable form.
punched cards" 38 instructions per card, or paper
tape; when Systems Tape
is used, output may be
cards, binary'magnetic
tape, or paper tape.

Documentation
Subject
Source program: •
Object program: .
Storage map:.. .
Restart point list:
Language errors:

GE 225 General Assembly
Language (GAP); see
Section 321:171.
none.

punched cards, paper tape,
or magnetic tape.
according to coding sheet
sequence numbers.

total of 1, 200 labels with 8K
core storage.

Conventions

Pass 0: . . • . . . .

Form

.221 Input media:

· 23

.3

. . General Electric Computer
Department,
Phoenix, Arizona.

• 211 Name:

. 22

. 233 Maximum number
of data items:

one card containing one
instruction or constant .

processes mnemonics and
analyzes all symbolic
labels.
assigns Rtorage locations
to symbolic labels.
processes operands and pre-,
pares 'object deck and
listing.

yes.
no.
no.
no; must alter object deck
or reassemble .
no.

Special Features

.431 Alter to check only:
. 432 Fast unoptimized
translate: . . . • .

1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

no .
no.
Revised 7/63

321: 181.433

§

GE 225
· 54

181.

· 433 Short translate on
restricted program:

no.

.44

Bulk Translating: • .

no.

.45

Program Diagnostics:

none.

.46

Translator Library

.461 Identity: . . . . . .
. 462 User restrictions: •
.463 Form
Storage medium: .
Organization: •
· 464 Contents:. . .
· 465 Ltbrarianship
Insertion:. .
..
Amendment:
Call Procedures: •

COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS

.61

Translating Computer

GAP Library •
general.
magnetic tape or cards.
relocatable binary form.
as incorporated by user.

.612 Larger configuration
advantages:. . . . .

BRIDGE Service System.
BRIDGE Service System.
SBR statement calls routine
from library tape and
forms linkage.

.5

TRANSLATOR PERFORMANCE

• 51

Object Program Space

.511 Fixed Overhead
Name
Space
Symbolic Tape I/O System: 868 words

Comment
optional
inclusion .

• 62

.7

Translation Time

• 521 Normal translating
Card version: • .

.53

7/63 Revised

.8

Central Processor with
4, 096 words of core
storage, card or paper
tape reader and punch,
and console typewriter.
printer provides
on -line listings; one
magnetic tape unit permits use of GAP Systems
Tape; four or more tape
units permit automatic
assembly.

Target Computer

• 621 Minimum
configuration:
· 622 Usable extra
facilities:. . .

. 512 Space required for each
input-output file: . . . variable .
. 513 Approximate expansion
of procedures: .
slightly over 1. O.

O. 0l7S minutes for 900statement program, including card handling time.
Magnetic tape version: O. OOSS minutes for 2,500statement program, using
15,OOD-char/sec. tape
units.
Optimizing Data:.
none.

unaffected; i. e., same as
hand coding.

.6

• 611 Minimum
configuration:

Note: No translator library for paper tape version;
required routines must be manually inserted
into object program.

. 52

Object Program
Performance: .

any GE 225 system •
all .

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION

Error

Check or
Interlock

Missing entries:
Unsequenced entries:
Duplicate names:
Improper format:
Incomplete entries:
Target computer overflow:
Inconsistent program:
Undefined names:
Illegal operations:
Symbol table overflow:

none.
optional check
check
limited checks
limited checks
none.
none.
check
check
check

ALTERNATIVE
TRANSLATORS: . . . none.

Action
noted
noted
noted
noted

in listing.
in listing•
in listing.
in listing•

noted in listing.
noted in listing.
type message and
stop.

321: 182.100
GE 225
Program Translator

GECOM
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: GECOM

§

.12

182.

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Description:

General Compiler.
GECOM.

The General Compiler translates programs written
in the GECOM language (described in Section
321:161) into relocatable GE 225 machine language
object programs. The minimum equipment requirements for GECOM compilations are 8,192
core storage locations, console typewriter, card
reader, card punch, printer, and at least 4 magnetic tape transports (i. e., 2 dual tape handlers).
One or two additional tape' transports can be utilized if available for source program input and/or
object program output. GECOM object programs
can be executed on any GE 225 system that has the
equipment required by the programs themselves.
Paper tape input-output and the Three-Way Compare and Decimal Add-Subtract features cannot be
utilized.
The compilation process is automatic and consists
of four distinct phases:
o

Transformer Phase - translates the source
program into an intermediate internal language;
lists the Identification and Environment Divisions; groups, organizes, and checks the Data
and Procedure Divisions; prints error messages
on the console typewriter; screens out unnessential words; and initiates preparation of the object
program.

•

Reformer Phase - calls in and initiates execution
of the routines that are reqUired to produce the
object program from the generator library on
the GECOM master tape.

•

Assembler Phase - translates the object program
from the intermediate language to GE 225
machine language and outputs it on punched cards
or magnetic tape.

•

Editor Phase - produces the program documentation, consisting of: a source program listing;
reference tables showing the GAP symbol assigned to each programmer-named sentence, the
names of all required subroutines, and the octal
address assigned to each GAP symbol; and an
object program listing in both absolute octal and
GAP symbolic form, with source statements
interspersed (see Section 321:131).

The GECOM Master Tape includes a library of
closed subroutines that are referenced when certain
language facilities are used. When the object program is written on magnetic tape, the required

© 1963

Description (Contd. )
library subroutines are included automatically.
When the object program is on punched cards, the
required subroutines can be punched as part of the
program deck or added manually at load time.
Input-output operations are controlled by standard
closed subroutines. The characteristics of each
file are defined by a "file table," which occupies
44 to 48 words of core storage per magnetic tape
file and 8 words per card reader, card punch, and
printer file.
Any input item that is referenced by a procedural
sentence other than MOVE, EXCHANGE, or WRITE
is automatically placed in Process Storage, a
compiler-generated extension of the Working Storage
Section, when it is read in by the object program.
At the same time, mode and radix conversions and
unpacking are performed as necessary to insure
efficient Procedure Division data manipulation. Two
word locations are assigned to each numeric item.
If the Computation Mode sentence in the Environment Division specifies the floating point mode, all
numerics except integers and true-false variables
are stored in floating point binary form; otherwise,
all numerics are stored in two-word fixed point
binary form. Alphameric fields in Process Storage
are in unpacked, left-justified, BCD form.
When the object program executes a WRITE sentence,
the output record is assembled by means of moves
from input records, Process Storage, and Working
Storage. All necessary radix conversions, editing,
and packing are performed to achieve the specified
output format. The fact that all GECOM computations are performed in the binary mode upon unpacked, fixed-length items makes it essential for the
GECOM programmer to follow certain conventions in
laying out the Data Division in order to produce
efficient object programs:
•

Items used in arithmetic computations should be
kept in binary form from run to run and converted
to decimal form only upon final output. Computational items in master files should be in binary
form. Non-computational items should be described as alphameric.

•

Items which are moved from input to output without Procedure Division references should be combined into alphameric "throughput strings, " which
can be moved with maximum efficiency.

• Items of high activity should be kept in unpacked
form from run to run.
•

Items which are combined in arithmetic operations
should be kept at the same binary or decimal scale
to minimize scaling operations.

Translation of a 250-card source program for a
typical business application required 11 minutes

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321: 182.120
§

GE 225

182.

.12

• 33
Description (Contd.)

Subject

and generated about 2,000 lines of object coding
(listed in GAP symbolic form) exclusive of required library routines. GE asserts that an
average program that fills an 8, 192-word memory
will not require more than 25 minutes for the
whole translation process. Data on object program
efficiencies is not yet available. Design objectives
call for over-all efficiencies of 90 percent on running time and 85 to 90 percent on storage
requirements.
.13

Originator:.

General Electric Computer
Dept., Phoenix, Arizona.

· 14

Maintainer:.

as above.

· 15

Availability:

initial version released in
March, 1962.

•2

INPUT

· 21

Language

. 211 Name:
. 212 Exemptions.

. 22

GECOM .
use of paper tape I/O,
Three-Way Compare,
Decimal Add-Subtract.

Form

. 221 Input media: .

punched cards, magnetic
tape.
· 222 Obligatory ordering: .
Identification Division.
Environment Division.
Data Division.
Procedure Division.
· 223 Obligatory grouping: . • by division and section.
.23

Size Limitations

.231 Maximum number of
source statements: .
· 232 Maximum size
source statements: .
. 233 Maximum number of
data items:
.3

OUTPUT

.31

Object Program

.311 Language name: .
.313 Output media: .
.32

. 322 Compatible with:.

7/63

limited by target computer
storage; overlays can be
utilized.
unlimited.
essentially unlimited.

GE 225 machine language.
. punched cards or magnetic
tape.

Conventions

. 321 Standard inclusions:

Revised

Documentation

loader; other routines as
required.
BRIDGE II Service System .

Source prograni: .
Object program: .
Storage map:.
Restart point list:
Language errors:.

Provision
listing.
listing (in GAP symbolic
form).
listing (symbolic label table).
listing.
listing and/or typewriter
message.

.4

TRANSLATING PROCEDURE

.41

Phases and passes:

.42

Optional Modes

.421
• 422
. 423
• 424
.425

Translate:
Translate and run: .
Check only: •
Patching: .
Up-dating:

.43

Special Features

.431 Alter to check only:
.432 Fast unoptimized
translate: ...
· 433 Short translate on
restricted program:

twelve passes, divided into
Transformer, Reformer,
Assembler, and Editor
phases. See Description,
Paragraph . 12.

· yes •
• no .
· yes .
can translate by segment.
· no .

no.
no .
no .

.44

Bulk Translating:

.45

Program Diagnostics: . none.

· 46

Translator Library

.461 Identity:
. 462 User restriction:
. 463 Form
Storage medium: .
Organization:
.464 Contents
Routines:
Functions: .
Data descriptions:
. 465 Librarianship
. Insertion:
Amendment: .
Call procedure:

. yes.

GECOM Library .
general .
magnetic tape.
?
closed.
absolute, square root, log,
exponential, trig.
none .
BRIDGE Service System.
BRIDGE Service System.
functions by name; standard
service routines inserted
automatically when required .

.5

TRANSLATOR PERFORMANCE

.51

Object Program Space

.511 Fixed overhead: .

576 locations, including
buffered card read and
punch areas.

PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: GECOM
§

321:182.512
. 62

182 .

. 512 Space required for each
input- output file:. . . alternate areas only if
specified in Environment Divisions .
. 513 Approximate expansion
of procedures:. . . . 8 for typical business
routine, exclusive of
library subroutines.
. 52

Target Computer

.621 Minimum
configuration:
. 622 Usable extra
facilities:

Translation Time

.521 Normal translating:

not more than 25 minutes
for average 8, 192-word
memory load, according
to GE .

. 53

Optimizing Data:

none.

. 54

Object Program Performance

.7

90 percent.
85 to 90 percent.

.6

COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS

.61

Translating computer

.611 Minimum configuration: 8, 192-word core storage,
4 magnetic tape drives,
card reader, card
punch, and printer .
. 612 Advantages of larger
configurations: . . .
source and/or object
program s can be on
magnetic tape.

© 1963

.8

up to 16, 384 core storage
locations. 15KC and
15/41. 7KC magnetic tape
drives, disc storage,
off-line printer, Auxiliary
Arithmetic Unit, Move
Command, Automatic
Priority Interrupt.

ERRORS, CHECKS, AND ACTION
Error

Check or Action
Interlock

Missing entries:
Unsequenced entries:
Duplicate names:
Improper format:
Incomplete entries:
Target computer overflow:
Inconsistent program:
Undefined names:
Illegal operations:

Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check

Design objectives (not necessarily achieved in
all cases)
Time:.
Space:.

any GE 225 system with
punched card inputoutput .

noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.
noted in listing.

.ALTERNATIVE
TRANSALTORS: . . . none.

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised 7/63

321: 183.100
GE 225
Program T ransl ator

WIZ -II
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: WIZ-II
§

183.

.2

INPUT
Language

.1

General

.21

.11

Identity: • • • • • • • GE 225 WIZ System.
WIZ-II.

.211 Name: •

• 12

.212 Exemptions:
• 22

Description
The WIZ-II Compiler program converts source programs coded in the WIZ algebraic language (Section
321:163) into GE 225 machine language object programs in a single pass. Two versions are available,
for GE 225 systems with either punched card or
paper tape input-output devices. Magnetic tape can
be utilized to facilitate both the compilation and
execution of WIZ-coded programs. AGE 225 with
at least 8,192 core storage locations is required for
both the compilation and execution phases. Use of a
GE 225 with 16,384 core storage locations perniits
immediate execution of WIZ-compiled programs.
The object program is stored in the upper 8,192 core
locations as it is compiled; then it is moved to the
lower 8,192 locations for execution.

.

WIZ-II, described in
Section 321:163.
none •

.

Form

.221 Input media: • • • • • punched cards or paper
tape.
.222 Obligatory ordering: • dimension statements,
initial value statements,
executable statements (in
correct sequence), procedures, END.
.23

Size Limitations

.231 Maximum number of source
statements: • • • • • . limited by target computer
core storage capacity.
.232 Maximum size source
statements:. • • • • unlimited.
.233 Maximum number of data
items: • • • • • • • limited by target computer
The main feature of the WIZ. system is the rapid comstorage.
pilation it provides. Object programs are compiled
.234 Others
and punched into binary cards at the rate of about
Maximum number of
1,600 instructions per minute. If the object pro90 numeric plus approx.
statement labels:.
gram is listed on the on-line printer, the over-all
200 alphameric.
rate is about 600 to 700 instructions per minute.
Maximum number of
procedure names:
limited by target computer
An object program package called W1ZPAC must be
storage.
loaded in order to execute WIZ-compiled programs.
W1ZPAC occupies about 3, 000 core storage locations
OUTPUT
.3
and contains standard input-output, floating point
arithmetic, and library function subroutines. The
.31 Object Program
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can be used, if available,
for automatic floating point operations. Use of
• 311 Language name:
GE 225 machine language •
the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit in place of the floating
• 312 Language style:
binary, non - relocatable •
point arithmetic subroutines can increase object
• 313 Output media:
punched cards or paper tape •
program execution speeds by a factor of up to four.
.32 Conventions
The principal advantages of the W1Z-II system over
its predecessor, WIZ-I, are the reduction of WIZPAC .321 Standard Inclusions:. • none.
storage requirements from 4,000 to 3,000 locations
.322 Compatible with: • • • WIZPAC object program
and an average reduction of 40 to 50 per cent in
package, containing
object program execution times. I:J:1 addition, sucinput-output, floating
cessive compilations have been facilitated by a short
point arithmetic, and
Re-Initialize deck that makes it unnecessary to reload
standard function subthe entire compiler program; the "compile and exroutines.
ecute" capability has been provided for 16K systems;
the exponentiation operator has been added; and the
.33 Documentation
data output facilities have been expanded.
Provision
Originator:
General Electric Computer
Department, Phoenix,
Source program: •
optional listing.
Arizona.
Object program: • • • optional listing.
Storage map:. • •
optional listing of .
as above •
Maintainer: •
symbol and constant
tables.
Language errors:. • • typewriter messages, plus
Availability: . . . • . WIZ-I: November, 1961 •
flagging of source proWIZ-II: December, 1962.
gram listing.

.

.

.13

• 14
• 15

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incarporated

7/63

321: 183.400

GE 225

183.

§

•4

TRANSLATlNGPROCEDURE

.41

Phases and Passes: • • one-pass compiler.

.42

Optional Mode

.421 Translate: • •
• 422 Translate and run:
.423 Check: only:
.424 Patching:
.425 Updating:
.43

yes.
optional, with 16K core
storage only.
yes, by suppressing all
output except error
messages.
selective recompilation is
possible.
no.

.513 Approximate expansion
of procedures:.
.52

Translation Time

.521 Normal translating:. • 0.8 + 0.016S minutes,
where S is number of
source program statements,
including printed object
program listing (**) •
(*'!') Estimate by the Editorial Staff, based on data for

typical cases and probably reliable.
.53

Optimizing Data:

.54

Object Program
Performance: •

Special Features

.431 Alter to check: only:. • see .423, above.
.432 Fast unoptimized translate: . • . . . . . . no.
.433 Short translate on
restricted program
no.
Bulk Translating: • • • no,· but successive compilations are facilitated by
a Re-lnitialize deck: which
is smaller and can be
loaded more rapidly than
the WIZ-II Compiler deck:.

.44

• 45

Program DiagnOl3ticB

• 451 Tracers:
.452 Snapshots:
.453 Dumps:

•
. . . . none
none.
an octal dump of the A and
Q registers and the 4 index registers can be initiated manually, or automatically upon detection
of object program errors.
Standard console dump
program is used if a full
core storage listing is
required.

10 (**) •

• none.
advertised overall efficiency is 50 to 70 per cent
with respect to storage
space and 70 to 90 per
cent with respect to
execution time, compared
to good hand-coded routines using the same subroutine package.

.6

COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS

.61

Translating Computex:

.611 Minimum configuration: GE 225 with 8,192 core
storage locations •
Card or paper tape reader.
Card or paper tape punch.
Typewriter •
.612 Larger configuration
advantages:. • • • • Printer permits on-line
listings.
16K core storage permits
"compile and execute"
operation.
.62

Target Computer

.621 Minimum configuration: GE 225 with 8,192 core
storage locations.
Card or paper tape reader.
Translator Library:,•• none (WIZ-coded subroutines'
Typewriter •
can be added to the source
.622 Usable extra facilities: Card or paper tape punch.
deck: and compiled with the
Printer.
program. GAP-coded subAuxiliary Arithmetic Unit.
routines in the proper
Magnetic Tape Units.
format can be assembled
separately and loaded into
.7
ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
the storage locations
assigned by the WIZ-II
Error
Check or
Action
Compiler).
Interlock:

• 46

•5

TRANSLATOR PERFORMANCE

• 51

Object Program Space

•511 Fixed overhead
Name: • • •
Space: ••
Contents: ••

WIZPAC.
3, 000 words.
input-output, floating point
a:rrithmetic, and standard
function subroutines.

.512 Space required for each
input-output fife: ':. • contained in WIZPAC.
7/63

Missing entries:
none •
none.
Unsequenced entries:
Target computer overflow: check
Input-output error:
check
Dimension error:
' check
Syntactical error:
check
illegal statement typt;:
check
Illegal character:
check
Symbol table overflow:
check
check
Sentence label error:

.8

ALTERNATIVE
TRANSLATORs: • • • none.

note
type
type
type
type
type
type
type

and type message at end •
message and halt.
message •
message.
message.
message.
message.
message.

321: 191.100

.STAI X24 X32

76 X35 X 3.2

42 X 176 X28

850

670

875

2,255

Printer
Controller

IDENTITY

Model Number

Height X width X depth, inches

Weight, Rounds

PHYSICAL

850

Maximum cable lengths

---

-------

---

0-120

0-120

0-120

Humidity, '7.

10-90

10-90

Temperature, of.

65-85

Humidity, '7.

-----

?

?

?

?

---

---

---

0-120

0-130

0-130

-20-135

10-90

10-90

10-90

10-90

10-95

65-85

65-85

65-85

65-85

65-85

65-85

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

1,810

3,380

5,955

3,875

4.4911

5,260

22,572

0

300

0

300

300

300

0

208 or 240

120

208 Or 240

208 or 240

208 or 240

208 or 240

208 or 240

±10'7.

± 10'7.

± 10'7.

± 10'7.

± 10'7.

± 10'7.

± 10'7.

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

+0.5 -1.5

+0.5-1.5

+0.5-1.5

+0.5-1.5

+0.5-1.5

+0.5-1.5

+0.5-1.5

3cp,4-wire

3cp.4-wire

3cp,4-wire

acp, 4-wlre

3cp,4-wire

3cp,4-wire

3cp,4-wire

0.9

1.4

4.8

Included in
Printer

2.0

3.0

7.5

To Indicated Unit

?
?

Storage
Ranges

ATMOS.
PHERE

Working
Ranges

Heat diasipated, BTU/hr.

Air now, cfm.

Nominal
Voltage
Tolerance

ELECTRI.

Nominal
Cycles

CAL
Tolerance

Phases and lines

LoadKVA

NOTES

©

1963 by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

321:211.104

GE 225

GE 225 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Contd.)
Mas. Random
Acces.
Data Storage
(Electronics)

Unit Name
IDENTITY

Mass Random
Access
Data Storage
(Controller)

DATANET-15
Data
T ran ami asian
Controller

Magnetic Ink
Document
Handler
Controller

Model Number
Height X Width X Depth, in.
Weight, lbs.

PHYSICAL

GE 235
Central
Processor

GE 235
Auxiliary
Arithmetic
Unit

CA235

AAU235

76x40x32

76x40x32

76x40x32

76x38X32

76x32x75

76x40x32

700

450

858

910

1,600

800

---

?

Maximum Cable Lengths
To Processor
To Power Receptacle
To Indicated Unit

?

?

?

---

?

?

?

---

35' to digital
sub-sets and
Interlace
Ladapters.

?

?

---

---

Temperature, OF.

0-120

0-120

?

20-135

0-120

0-120

Humldity, '7.

0-98

0-98

?

10-95

0-98

0-98

65-85

65-85

60-85

65-85

65-85

65-85

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

40-60

2,220

4,235

3,800

4,250

?

4,406

300

300

300

300

1540

660

Nomlnal

208

208

208

208

208 or 240

Tolerance

± lQ'r.

±10%

±10%

±10%

±1Q'r.

± lQ'r.

Nominal

60

60

60

60

60

60

Tolerance

±l

±1

±l

±1

+0.5-1.5

+0.5 -1.5

Storage
Ranges

Temperature, OF.

ATMOSPHERE

Working
Ranges
Humldlty,

or.

Heat Dissipated, BTU/hr.
Air Flow, clm..

208 or 240

Voltage

ELECTRICAL

Cycles

Phases and Lines
LoadKVA

NOTES

7/63

Revised

31>,4-wire

31>,4-wire

31>,4-wire

31>,4-wire

31>,4-wire

3cp,4-wire

.9

2.0

1.3

2.0

5.3

3.6

321:221.101
•

STANDARD

EDP

•

GE 225

REPORTS

Price Data

PRICE DATA
§

221.
IDENTITY OF UNIT
CLASS
No.

Central
Processor
CA225C
CB225D
CC225B
CA225B
CB225C
CC225A

X225A
Storage

InputOutput

Central Processor, Console and
Typewriter
Without Controller Selector
4, 096 words of core storage
8,192 words of core storage
16,384 words of core storage
With Controller Selector
4,096 words of core storage
8,192 words of core storage
16,384 words of core storage
Optional Features
Move Command
Automatic Interrupt
Three- Way Compare, Decimal Addition
and Subtraction, and Additional Address
Modification Gtoups
Real Time Clock
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit

1,900
2,500
3,900

135,000
165,000
221, 000

2,900
3,500
4,900

145,000
175,000
231,000

75
75

3,300
3,800

200
75

4,410
3,600

650

32,500

1,725

76,000

Core Storage: included in Central
Processor
M640A

Mass Random Access File

GA651A
GA651B

Paper Tape Punch & Reader
With Spooler
Without Spooler

490
440

22,000
19,800

D225B
D225C

Card Reader & Controller
400 cards/min model
1,000 cards/min model

375
810

18,350
32,400

E225K
E225M

Card Punch & Controller
100 cards/min model
300 cards/min model

400
825

21, 460
41, 150

1,275
1,295
2,950

61,500
61,950
137,250

3,500
700

157,500
33,000

P225D

High Speed Printer and Contr-oller
Standard On-Line
On- Line with FORTRAN character set
On/Off-Line, for 200 char/inch tape
On/Off- Line, for 200 or 556 char/inch
tape
On- Line 150 LPM Printer

MTH680
MTH69 0
DTC':IOl

Magnetic Tape Handlers
Dual 15,000 char/sec.
Dual 15,000/41,600 char/sec.
lJATANET-15

850
1,300
b':lU

33,000
47,850
30,000

SI2B

Magnetic Ink Document Handler

-1,750

87,500

M225B

900

46,250

MTC680
MTC69 0

Mass Random Access Controller
Magnetic Tape Controller
For 15,000 char/sec.
For 15,000/41,600 char/sec.

800
1,030

37,500
46,350

SA225A
SA225B

Magnetic Ink Document Handler Adapters
For 1 Handler
For 2 Handlers

540
680

21,600
27,200

P225A
P225C
PA690A
PA690B

Controllers

Name

PRICES (see note below)
Monthly
Monthly
Rental
Maintenance
Purchase
$
$
$

Note: These are believed to be the current rental and purchase prices for the GE 225 system components; the
manufacturer has neither confirmed nor denied them.

© 1963

by Auerbach Corporation and BNA Incorporated

Revised

7/63

GE 235
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

GE 235
General Electric Company

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

323:001.001
•

STANDARD

EDP
•

GE 235

REPORTS

Contents

CONTENTS
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.
lO.

11.

12.
13.

14.

*

Introduction
Data Structure
System Configuration
III
6- Tape Business System
IV
12-Tape Business System
V
6- Tape Auxiliary Storage System
VI
6- Tape Business/Scientific System
Internal Storage
Core Storage . • . ••
.•••
Mass Random Access Data Storage
Central Processors
Central Processor .
..
Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit
Console
Console (part of Central Processor)
Console Typewriter
•
•
Input-Output; Punched Tape and Card
Card Reader (400 cards/minute)
Card Reader (1,000 cards/minute)
Card Punch (100 cards/minute)
Card Punch (300 cards/minute)
Paper Tape Reader
Paper Tape Punch
Input-Output; Printers
High Speed Printer (On- Line)
High Speed Printer (Off/On-Line)
Low Speed Printer (150 lines/minute)
Input-Output; Magnetic Tape
Dual Magnetic Tape Handle:t:
Input-Output; Other
Magnetic Ink Document Handler.
DATANET-15 • . •
Simultaneous Operations • • • .
Controller Selector
•
Priority Access Control
Instruction List .
Coding Specimens
GAP
GECOM
GECOM Report Writer
TABSOL
WIZ-II
ZOOM
Data Codes
Internal BCD and Printer
Magnetic Tape (BCD Mode)

323:011
323:021
323:031.3
323:031.4
323:031.5
323:031.6
323:041
323:042
323:051
323:051.12
323:061
323:061.13
323:071
323:072
323:073
323:073
323:074
323:075
323:081
323:081.12
323:082
323:091
323:lOl
323:lO2
323:111
323: 111.1
323:111.1
321:121

*

321: 131
321:132
321:133
321:134
321:135
321:136

*
*

321: 141
321:142

*

*
*

*

*

*

Refer to indicated section of GE 225 report; all GE 225 software is directly usable
on the GE 235.

© 1963

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

8/63

323:001.002

GE 235

CONTENTS (Contd.)
14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.
20.

21.
22.

*

8/63

Data Codes (Contd.,)

321:143
321:144

Punched Cards
Collating Sequence •
Problem Oriented Facilities
mM 650 Simulator •
LGP- 30 Simulator .•
FORWARD Sort/Merge Generator
GECOM Report Writer •
Card Program Generator
BRIDGE II Service System .
Mathematical Routines •
BANKPAC ••
• ••
Electric Utility Routines
PRONTO
• • . ..
Critical Path Method
TRIM.
• • ••
.
Assembly Line Balancing
Permuted Index Program Package
Process Oriented Languages
GECOM.
TABSOL.
FORTRAN II.
WIZ-II.
••
Machine Oriented Languages
GAP. •
•
ZOOM
•
•
Program Translators
GAP.
GECOM .•
WIZ. ••
•
Operating Environment
BRIDGE II Service System
System Performance
Generalized File Processing •
Sorting. • ••
• •••..
Matrix Inversion .
Physical Characteristics. •
Price Data.
•••.

321: 151.11
321:151.11
321: 151.13
321:151.14
321: 151.14
321:151.15
321:151.17
321: 151.17
321:151.17
321:151.17
321: 151.17
321:151.17
321:151.17
321: 151.17
321:161
321: 161.14
321:162
321:163

®

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

321:181
321:182
321:183

*

321:191

*

Refer to indicated section of GE 225 report; all GE 225 software is directly usable
on the GE 235.

A

*

321:171
321:172

323:201.1
323:201.2
323:201.3
321:211
323:221

AUERBACH

*

*

*
*

*

323:011.100
GE 235
Introduction

INTRODUCTION
§

OIl.

The GE 235 is a medium scale, solid- state data processing systeri' 'at is adaptable
to a wide range of business and scientific applications. System rentals can range from approximately $4,000 to over $40,000 per month, but most installations will probably fall
within the $6,000 to $20,000 range. The GE 235 was announced in May, 1963, and initial
customer deliveries are scheduled for mid-1964.
Compatibility
The GE 235 is the largest member of General Electric Computer Department's
recently expanded line of general purpose digital computers. The GE 235 is fully programcompatible with the smaller GE 215 and GE 225 systems (Computer System Reports 320 and
321) and offers the same line of peripheral equipment. The central processor and core
storage used in the GE 225 have been re-engineered to achieve more than a three-fold increase in internal processing speeds. Scientific problems that utilize the Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit for floating point arithmetic operations may run up to 18 times as fast on the
GE 235 as on the 225. The GE 235 thus provides upward expansion without reprogramming
for users of the GE 215 and 225 systems. (Because the GE 235 uses the same peripheral
equipment as the GE 225, there will obviously be no improvement in the execution times for
runs which are limited by the speeds of specific input-output devices.)
The principal differences between the GE 235 and the GE 225 can be summarized
as follows:
•

Core storage cycle time is 6 microseconds, versus 18 microseconds in the
GE 225.

•

Execution times for all central processor operations are decreased by a factor
of at least three.

•

Execution times for Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit operations are decreased by a
factor of from 3 to 20.

•

Keyboard input via the console typewriter is standard in the GE 235 and optional
in the GE 225.

•

The optional Dual Access Controller Selector (not available for the GE 225)
doubles the potential input-output data transfer rate.

Hardware
Core storage in the GE 235 can consist of 4,096, 8, 192, or 16,384 word locations.
Each 20-bit location can hold a one-address instruction, a binary data word of 19 bits plus
sign, or 3 alphameric characters in 6-bit BCD representation. Core storage cycle time is
6 microseconds. A parity check is performed upon all internal transfer operations.
The central processor provides complete arithmetic facilities for single word-length
binary operands. Loading. storing, addition, and subtraction of double-length binary data
items can also be performed. An optional feature permits addition and subtraction (but not
multiplication or division) of single- or double-length data items in BCD form. This feature
can significantly reduce the number of time-consuming radix conversions required in business data processing. but will seldom eliminate the problem completely.
Three index registers and a fourth location that serves as a convenient counter register are standard. An optional feature makes 31 additional 4-word groups in core storage

© 1963

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

8/63

GE 235

323:011.101

INTRODUCTION (Contd.)
§

all.

available as index registers or counters. Only one group, selected by a special instruction,
can be active at a time. Other optional features for the central processor are a Move Command (which expedites internal block transfer operations), Three- Way Compare, Automatic Priority Interrupt, and a Real- Time Clock. Instructions are executed at the rate of
about 75, 000 per second in typical GE 235 routines.
The Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit can perform double-length arithmetic in either fixed
or floating point mode under control of the central processor. This optional unit greatly
increases the 235's internal processing speeds on scientific problems.
Standard 80-column punched cards can be read at 400 or .1, 000 cards per minute and
punched at 100 or 300 cards per minute. Paper tape can be read at 250 or 1, 000 characters
per second and punched at 110 characters per second. A console typewriter provides keyboard input and typed output at 15 characters per second.
All peripheral devices except those mentioned above are connected to the central
processor through a seven-way multiplexing device called the Controller Selector, which
gives the GE 235 impressive capabilities for simultaneous operations. Up to seven controllers for magnetic tape units, disc storage units, printers, data communication equipment, and magnetic document handlers can be connected to the Controller Selector. One
peripheral unit on each controller can operate simultaneously with internal processing and
card reading and punching. Accesses to core storage are automatically allocated among the
operating units by a straightforward priority system. Maximum gross data transfer rate
through the standard Controller Selector is 55,600 words per second; an optional Dual Access
Controller Selector increases the maximum rate to 111, 000 words (or 333, 000 characters)
per second.
The printer has a peak speed of 900 alphameric lines per minute and a skipping speed
of 25 inches per second. The printer controller provides automatic editing and format control. Special models of the high speed printer are available for use either on-line or for
independent off-line tape-to-printer data transcriptions. Another printer with a peak speed
of 150 alphameric lines per minute and no automatic format control is offered for use where
output volume is relatively low.
Two magnetic tape handlers models are available. One has a peak data transfer rate
of 15, 000 characters per second at a recording density Of 200 rows per inch. The other
model offers a choice of 200 or 556 rows per inch, with corresponding peak speeds of 15, 000
or 41,667 characters per second. The tape format is compatible with the IBM 727, 729, and
7330 Magnetic Tape Units. Two tape handlers are mounted in a single cabinet, one above the
other. Up to eight tape handlers can be connected to each tape controller. The number of
simultaneous 15KC tape read or write operations is limited only by the number of tape controllers in the system, but the number of simultaneous 41.6KC tape operations cannot exceed two (or four with the Dual Access Controller Selector).
Each Mass Random Access Data Storage (MRADS) unit provides disc storage for approximately 18.87 million alphameric characters in 98,304 fixed record locations of 64
words (or 192 characters) each. The average total waiting time for access to a randomlyplaced record is 225 milliseconds. Up to 294,912 characters per MRADS unit can be transferred without repositioning any of the 16 access arms. A maximum of four MRADS file
units can be connected to each MRADS controller, and up to eight controllers can be used in
aGE 225 system. Only one MRADS read or write operation can occur at a time.
Magnetically encoded paper documents can be read or sorted at a peak speed of
1,200 documents per minute. Two document handlers can be connected to each controller,
providing a peak sorting speed of 2,400 documents per minute.
The DATANET-15 controls the transmission and reception of digital data over telehone and telegraph lines and two-wire cables at speeds ranging from 60 to 2,400 bits per
second. Up to 15 data transmission lines and a paper tape reader and punch can be connected to a DATANET-15, but it can control only one data transfer operation at a time.

8/63

A

AUERBACH
®

323:011.102

INTRODUCTION

§

INTRODUCTION (Contd.)

all.

GE's line of data communications equipment also includes:
•

The DATANET-30 programmed data communication system.

•

The DATANET-600 paper tape terminal.

•

The DATANET-90 magnetic-tape-to-computer terminal.

•

The DATANET-91 off-line magnetic-tape-to-magnetic-tape terminal.

•

A variety of special digital input-output devices.

GE's MOSE (Modification of Standard Equipment) group offers a variety of specialpurpose hardware for use with the 235 system, such as peripheral device switching controllers, printer plotting option, plotter interface units, etc.
Software
All of the programs and programming systems that have been developed for the
GE 225 are directly usable on similarly equipped G5 235 systems. The available software
is summarized below and described in detail in the GE 225 report, Sections 321: 151
through 321:191.
The General Assembly Program (GAP) is the basic symbolic assembly system for the
GE 235. It permits full utilization of the hardware facilities, is relatively easy to learn and
use, but provides few refinements. GAP-coded programs can be assembled on GE 235 systems with punched card, paper tape, or magnetic tape input-output equipment.
ZOOM is a "macro assembly system" designed to facilitate machine oriented programming by reducing the amount of detailed coding required while retaining high object
program efficiencies. The ZOOM programmer uses a combination of pseudo- English
statements, algebraic expressions, and GAP symbolic statements. These are translated
into an all- GAP program which is then assembled in the normal manner. Magnetic tape is
not required, but can be utilized to facilitate the translation process.
GECOM is offered as an all-purpose process oriented language. The basic language
structure is similar to that of COBOL- 61 but is not compatible with it. (A COBOL- 61 to
GECOM translator will be provided.) GECOM also handles algebraic expressions and mathematical functions, and includes a report writer and TASSOL, a system that permits decision logic to be expressed in a concise tabular format. At least four magnetic tape han.ilers
and 8,192 core storage locations are required for GECOM compilations.
WIZ is a one-pass algebraic compiler for use on punched card or paper tape s~ stems
with at least 8, 192 core storage locations. WIZ is less powerful than the FORTRAN -fr
ALGOL language, but is easy to learn and provides high compilation speeds.
FORTRAN II is available for GE 235 systems with at least 8,192 core storage locations and 4 magnetic tape units. Arrays are limited to two dimensions, and Boolean, complex, and double precision statements are not permitted. On the other hand, several useful
extensions of the FORTRAN II language have been incorporated.

I

\

BRIDGE II is a tape file maintenance and run sequencing program whose functions are
directed by control cards. FOR WARD is a generalized sort/merge generator. Simulation
programs are available for simulating the operations of IDM 650 and General Precision
LGP- 30 computers on the GE 235. The Card Program Generator simplifies the programming
of existing punched card tabulator and calculator runs for the GE 235. An adequate library of
generalized input-output, diagnostic, and mathematical routines are available, as are
special-purpose packages for the banking and electric utility industries, numerical tool control, inventory management, assembly line balancing, critical path scheduling, and
information retrieval.

© 1963

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc:.

8/63

323:021.100
GE 235
Data Structure

OAT A STRUCTURE

§

021.

.1

.2

INFORMATION FORMATS

Type of Information

STORAGE LOCATIONS

Representation

Numeral (BCD):

Name of
Location

Size

Purpose or Use

Word:

20 bits + parity

Sector:

64 words

Band:

8 or 16 sectors

Disc:

512 bands

basic addressable
location.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage record
location.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage.
Mass Random Access
Data Storage.

© 1963

three 6- bit characters per
word.
Letter (BCD): .
three 6-bit characters per
word.
Number (BCD): . .
one or two 3-character words.
Number (binary): .
one or two 20- bit words.
Number (floating point): two words (30 bits + sign
for mantissa; 8 bits + sign
for exponent).
Instruction: .. . . . . one word (two words for
certain input-output
instructions ).

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

8/63

323:031.300
•

STANDARD

_EDP
."

GE 235

R[PORTS

System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

§

031.

.3

6-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION III)
Deviations from Standard Configuration:. . . . . .

card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 4,096 words
Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

Optional Features Included: . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • ..

~.5W

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

1,000

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or
41,667 char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three-way compare.
Decimal addition & subtraction.
Additional address modification
groups.
TOTAL.

© 1963

}

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

95
)
245

$11,870

8/63

323:031.400
§

GE 235

03!.

.4

12-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION IV)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . .

. card punch is 50% faster.
magnetic tape is 30% slower.
1 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operation is possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage: 8, 192 words

~.l~

}

Central Processor, Console, &:
Typewriter

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•

Card -Reader &: Controller:
1,000 cards/min.

810

Card Punch &: Controller:
300 cards/min.

825

Controller Selector

1,000

Printer &: Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &.
Controller: 15,000 or
41,667 char/sec.

4,930

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &.
Controller: 15,000 or
41,667 char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
Decimal Addition &: Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
Automatic Interrupt.
TOTAL • • • • . . . .

8/63

A

AUERBACH
®

l

95

245

$18,385

323:031.500

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

§

031.

.5

6-TAPE AUXlUARY STORAGE SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION V)
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . card reader is 20% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more. simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Mass Random Access (Disc)
Storage & Controller:
18,874,368 characters

$2,625

Core Storage: 4, 096 words
}

3,550

Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

1----4~f----0

---10

I----.-~

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .

Card Reader & Controller:
400 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
100 cards/min.

400

Controller Selector

1,000

Printer & Controller:
900 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15,000 or
41,667 char/sec.

4,930

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
Automatic Interrupt.
TOTAL . . . . . • . .

© 1963

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

95
)
245
95
$14,590

8/63

323:031.600
§

GE 235

.031 .

•6

6-TAPE BUSINESS/SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM (CONFIGURATION VJ)
Deviations from Standard

. nfiguration: . • . . • • • . • • • • • • card reader is 2.0% slower.
printer is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data transfer
operations are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Auxiliary Arithmetic Unit

$1,5.0.0

Core Storage: 16,384 words
Central Processor, Console, &
Typewriter

Optional Features Included: . . . . . . . • . • •• • • • • • . •.

A

AUERBACH
I!!l

5,3.0.0

Card Reader & Controller:
40.0 cards/min.

375

Card Punch & Controller:
10.0 cards/min.

4.0.0

Controller Selector

1,.0.0.0

Printer & Controller:
9.0.0 lines/min.

1,275

Magnetic Tape Units (6) &
Controller: 15, .0.0.0 or
41,667 char/sec.

4,93.0

Move Command.
Three- Way Compare.
}
Decimal Addition & Subtraction.
Additional Address Modification
Groups.
TOTAL .•

8/63

}

95
245

$15,12.0

323:041.100

_STANDARD
EDP
•

GE 235

R£PORTS

Internal Storage
Core Storage

INTERNAL STORAGE: CORE STORAGE

§ 041.

· 29

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity:

. 12

Basic Use: .

· 13

Description

. . . . . . . Core Storage.
MM235A (4,096 locations).
MM235B (8,192 locations).
MM235C (16,384 locations).
working storage.

Core Storage is housed in the Central Processor cabinet and may consist of 4,096, 8,192, or 16,384
locations. Each storage location consists of twenty
data bits and one parity bit and can hold a singleaddress instruction, a binary data word of nineteen
bits plus sign, or three BCD characters. Single or
double word -length load and store operations are
possible in the basic processor; and internal block
transfers of any length are possible with the optional
Move Command, at a maximum effective rate of
83,333 words per second.
· 14

15 months as of March,
1963.

Availability: ...

· 15

First Delivery: .

. 16

Reserved Storage
Purpose
Index registers
and counters:
Arith registers:
Logic registers:
I/O control:

1964.

No. of Locations

Locks

4 (128 with option)

none.

PHYSICAL FORM

· 21

Storage Medium: .

magnetic core.

· 22

Physical Dimensions:

not available.

. 23

Storage Phenomenon:

direction of magnetization .

· 24

Recording Permanence

• 28

.3

DATA CAPACITY

• 31

Module and System Sizes

Identity:
Words:
Characters:
Instructions:
Modules:
.32

1 word.
20 bits per word.
166,667 cycles/second.
166,667 words/second.

Minimum
Storage
MM235A
4,096
12,288
4,096
1

Rules for Combining
Modules: . . . . . .

MM235B
8,192
24,576
8,192
1

Maximum
Storage
MM235C.
16,384.
49,152.
16,384.
1.

all configurations are
shown above.

.4

CONTROLLER: .

.5

ACCESS TIMING

· 51

Arrangement of Heads:

.52

Simultaneous
Operations:. . . . . . none.

.53

Access Time Parameters and Variations

none.

one access device per
system .

3 iJ.sec.
6 iJ.sec.
1 word.

.6

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE: . . . . . . no.

.7

AUXILIARY STORAGE PERFORMANCE

• 71

Data Transfer
Pairs of storage units possibilities

yes.
no.
yes (usually retained) .
no.
no.

With self: . . . . . .
With Mass Random
Access File: . .
• 72

coincident current .
uniform.

© 1963

yes.
yes (see Section 323:042).

Transfer Load Size
With self: . . . . .

Access Techniques

. 281 Recording method: .
· 283 Type of access: . .

.. 292 Peak data rates
Unit of data: .
Conversion factor: .
Cycling rate: . .
Data rate: . . .

.531 For uniform access
Access time: . .
Cycle time:· ....
For data unit of:

none.
none.

·2

.241 Data erasable by
program: . . . .
· ~42 Data regenerated
constantly: . . .
. 243 Data volatile: . .
. 244 Data permanent: .
• 245 Storage changeable:

Potential Transfer Rates

Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

1 or.2 words; or, with
optional Move Command,
1 to N words, where N is
limited by storage
capacity.
8/63

323:041.730

§ 041.

.73

GE 235

.8
Effective Transfer Rate

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error
Invalid address:
Receipt of data:
Dispatch of data:
Conflicting
commands:
Recovery of data:
Recording of data:

With self, using
indexed loop: . • • •• 28,000 words/second.
With self, using
optional Move
Command: • . . . . . 83,333 words/second.

Check or
Interlock

Action

none.
parity check
send parity bit.

indicator & alarm: optional stop.

not possible.
parity check
record parity bit.

indicator & alarm; optional stop.

/

8/63

A

AUERBACH
®

323:042.100
_STANOARO

_EDP

IIJA

GE 235

REPORTS

Internal Storage

MRADS

INTERNAL STORAGE: MASS RANDOM ACCESS DATA STORAGE

§

042.

· 13

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity: .

.13

Description:

Three instruction words are required for each disc
seek, read, or write operation. The first word
selects the proper controller and transfers to it the
next two words, which specify the exact operation and
the addresses involved. Simultaneous read or write
operations are limited to one per Mass Random A~cess
Controller. Only one head positioning operation at a
time may occur in each MRADS unit, or up to four at
a time per controller.

Mass Random Access Data
Storage.
M640A.
MRADS.

Each Mass Random Access file unit consists of sixteen data discs and two checking discs on a common
vertical axis. Up to four files can be connected to
one MRADS Controller, which occupies one of the
seven "hubs" on the Controller Selector. If no other
peripheral units were connected into the Controller
Selector, it would be possible to connect up to 28
.MR,ADS Units for a system capacity of over five
hundred million characters.
Each disc surface is divided into 256 bands. The
.:,uter 128 bands contain sixteen sectors each and the
i.,mf.!r !28 bands contain eight sectors each. One 64,,'c'd block of data (192 alphameric characters) can
be sto ':f.;U in each s~ctor, and from one to sixteen
sectors can be t!"ansferred between disc storage and
core slC~age ill a single MRADS reae: or write operation. Total capacity of each MRADS unit is 98,304

<

6-8

001110

12-6-8

011110

"-

12-7-8

011111

•

11-0

100000

~

0-2-8

111010

]

12-4-8

011100

I

11-7-8

101111

(

12-5-8

011101

)

11-5-8

101101

=

0-5-8

111101

!

0-7-8

111111

?

7-8

001111

Reprinted from PR-20 Printer Reference Manual, page V-15.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330: 151.100
GE-400 Series
Problem Oriented Facilities
PROBLEM ORIENTED FACILITIES

.1

UTILITY ROUTINES

.11

Simulators of Other Computers

There are several other restrictions on IBM 1401
programs to be simulated. These include the
following:

1401 Simulator

•

The product resulting from a Multiply
instruction is restricted to a length of
80 digits. If this length is exceeded, a
message will be typed on the console
typewriter, the fields adjusted to produce the high-order 80 characters of
the product, and the program continued.

•

The dividend and divisor of a Divide instruction cannot exceed 16 digits. The
simulation routine uses only the loworder 16 digits of each field, and the
results developed could be erroneous.
This condition is not flagged in any way.

•

The combined lengths of all magnetic
tape blocks specified on the control card
must not exceed:

Availability: . . . . . . . currently in use.
Description:
The 1401 Simulator program is designed to enable a
GE-400 Series computer system to execute directly,
without need for translation or other alteration,
certain programs written for an IBM 1401 computer
system. The maximum 1401 configuration that can
be simulated is:
•

16,000 character positions of core storage.

•

Six magnetic tape handlers (any model except
7340 Hypertape).

•

One 1402 Card Read Punch.

•

One 1403 Printer.

All standard instructions can be simulated except
stacker select and those dealing with peripheral
devices not listed above. The Stacker Select instruction will be accepted but ignored. The 1401
collating sequence is simulated, so the results of
comparisons in the simulation mode will be the
same as in the 1401.
The following 1401 specialfeatures can be simulated:
Multiply-Divide (with field-length restrictions).
Additional Print Control.
Expanded Print Edit.
Indexing.
Store Address Register.
Move Record.
High-Low-Equal Compare.
Sense Switches.
The Start Read Feed and Start Punch Feed instructions, which require a 1401 Special Feature, are
accepted but ignored. The branch option for these
instructions is treated as an unconditional branch.
In general, GE states that no difficulty is encountered in simulating 1401 programs making use of
these special features on a GE-400 Series system.
The following 1401 special features cannot be
simulated and cause unpredictable results when
encountered:
Compressed Tape Operations.
Column Binary (except Branch on Bit Equal).
Numerical Print.
Interchangeable Chain Cartridge Adaptor.
Processing Overlap.
All "RPQ" (Request Price Quotation)
features and peripheral devices.

2,500 characters for an 8K GE-400.
16,600 characters for a 16K GE-400, or
49,920 characters for a 32K GE-400.
If these limits are exceeded, a message is
typed on the console typewriter and the job
is halted.
•

The Branch on Channel 9 instruction is
simulated the same as the Branch on Channel
12 instruction.

Simulation of an IBM 1401 program on a GE-400
Series computer having the required complement
of peripheral devices requires only the 1401 object
program deck, including clear storage and loader
cards, a vertical format control loop for the printer,
the 1401 Simulator deck, and one control card. The
control card specifies the maximum block lengths
for each magnetic tape file, the initial sense switch
settings, the channel assignments for the peripheral
devices, and the maximum number of characters
per line to be typed on the console typewriter.
All operating instructions used when running a
program on a 1401 apply when simulating it on a
GE-400 Series system. The current settings of
sense switches can be printed out on the console
typewriter, and the settings can be changed by
means of the keyboard. Programmed halts in a
1401 program cause the current I, A, and B addresses to be typed out in decimal form on the
console typewriter.
The 1401 Simulator contains a built-in core storage
dump routine that is available to the operator. When
using the dump routine, all of core storage is output to the printer in two formats. The core storage area outside the simulated 1401 program area

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330: 151.110
• 11

Simulators of Other Computers (Contd.)
is dumped in a format similar to that of the standard GEPost-Mortem Memory Dump Routine. The
simulated 1401 memory area is dumped in a format
similar to that produced by 1401 machine-language
core dump programs; i. e., two lines are printed
per 100 simulated 1401 characters. The first line
contains the 1401 address of the low-order memory
location on that line and 100 BCD characters; the
secondline contains the octal simulator address of
the low-order memory location and a "1" under
each character which has a word mark associated
with it.
This dump routine is not available when a 1401
program using magnetic tape is simulated on a
GE-400 Series system with only 8, 192 words of
core storage. A 1401 machine-language core dump
program can be used in this situation to dump the
simulated 1401 memory area.
The core storage capacity of the GE-400 Series
computer must be approximately eight times the
size of the program to be simulated; e.g., a 1401
program requiring 4, 000 character positions of
core storage would require a GE-400 Series core
storage capacity of approximately 32,000 characters, or 8, 000 words.
The simulation technique is similar to that used
in the 1401 Compatibility Option Program described
later in this section.
The 1401 Simulator program is not compatible with
the operating systems available for the GE-400
Series computers. Thus, when alternating between
simulated 1401 programs and regular GE-400
Series programs, the operating system must be
reinitialized each time.
The impact of the 1401 Simulator program on the
problem of converting from an IBM 1401 to a
GE-400 Series computer system is discussed in
Section 330:131, "Compatibility with the IBM
1401." GE estimates that the total run time of an
IBM 1401 program on a GE-400 Series computer
system will typically be one to four times longer
than on the 1401. For 'additional information on
the performance of a GE-400 Series computer
system when simulating an IBM 1401, see Section
330:131.

The maximum IBM 1401 configuration that can be
simulated by a GE-400 Series system using the
Compatibility Option is as follows:
•

12,000 characters of core storage.

•

Six magnetic tape handlers (any model
except 7340 Hypertape).

•

One 1402 Card Read Punch.

•

One 1403 Printer.

All standard instructions can be simulated except
those dealing with peripheral devices not listed
above. In the case of the Stacker Select instruction, the user has the option of ignoring the instruction or of writing a routine that outputs the
selected unit records on magnetic tape for later
punching and collation. The normal 1401 collating
sequence is simulated and used to determine the
results of compare operations. The following
1401 special features can be simulated by the
1401 Compatibility Option:
Advanced Programming (includes Indexing,
Store A Address, Store B Address, and
Move Record) .
Bit Test.
High- Low- Equal Compare.
Multiply-Divide.
Processing Overlap.
Sense Switches.
Read Punch Release.
Early Card Read.
Expanded Print Edit.
Additional Print Control.
Print Storage.
Space Suppression.
800 CPI Feature.
Tape Intermix.
The following 1401 special features cannot be simulated by the 1401 Compatibility Option:
Column Binary.
51-Column Feed Adapter.
Punch Feed Read Control.
Selective Tape Listing Feature.
Interchangeable Chain Cartridge.
Compressed Tape.
All "RPQ" (Request Price Quotation) features
and peripheral devices.

IBM 1401 Compatibility Option Program
Availability: . . . . . . . currently in use.
Description:
The Compatibility Option Program is a simulation
program that is used in conjunction with the Compatibility Option hardware features described in
Paragraph 330:051.12 to simulate an IBM 1401
on a GE-400 Series computer system. Briefly,
these features provide an alternate mode of operation, the compatibility mode. In this mode, one
4, 096-word segment of a GE-400 Series core
storage unit is addressed as a 12, 288-character
block of 8-bit characters, and one I/O channel,
assigned to a magnetic tape controller, is used
to transfer data between magnetic tape and the
modified segment of core storage in the modified
format.
5/65

The 1401 Compatibility Program occupies the loworder 4,096 words of core storage. Space is reserved in this area for input and output areas for
the card reader, card punch, and printer. Card
reading, card punching, and printing proceed independently of the 1401 program to permit maximum
use of the simultaneity of I/O operations in a GE400 Series computer system. Card and print line
images are transferred to and from the 1401 program area upon demand by the program. Magnetic
tape records are transferred directly between the
character-addressable core storage area holding
the 1401 program and the tape handlers.
The processor is delayed for the entire duration of
all magnetic tape operations except rewinds.
(Contd.)

330: 151.111

PROBLEM ORIENTED FACILITIES
• 11

Write characters from memory .
Branch.
Rewind magnetic tape.
Backspace magnetic tape.

Simulators of Other Computers (Contd.)
The simulation technique includes establishing
pseudo-registers for the A address, B address,
I address, d modifier, etc. Once the Compatibility
Option Program and the IBM 1401 program have
been loaded, the pseudo-I-address register is
loaded with the starting address of the 1401 program. Each 1401 instruction is examined character by character to isolate the operation code,
addresses, and d modifier. The address fields,
if any, are converted into the equivalent addresses
in the character-addressable memory and are
modified if called for. A branch is then made to
a subroutine that simulates the specified 1401
operation code. There is approximately one subroutine for each 1401 function. The desired operation is carried out on the 1401 data fields through
execution of GE-400 instructions in the compatibility mode.

Several service and diagnostic routines are contained within the 1401 Compatibility Option and
are available to the operator. These include:
Memory dump (including edited 1401 memory).
Initiate trace.
Halt trace.
The 1401 Compatibility Option provides the capability to simulate the 1401 Systems Tape Operation
and its associated software. GE indicates that
Autocoder assemblies and other 1401 software
functions can be simulated if a program requires
changes that cannot be handled by patching at object
level. Autocoder assemblies take from two to
three times as long as on the 1401.

The 1401 Compatibility Option requires the use
of the Basic Input/Output Supervisor to provide
I/O control for the card reader, card punch, and
printer. The minimum configuration of a GE-400
Series computer system for simulation of an IBM
1401 via the 1401 Compatibility Option is:
•

GE estimates that, in a typical installation, about
90% of the programs can be simulated directly
without any alterations, and that execution of the
simulated programs will typically take from about
the same time to twice the time they required on
a 1401.

GE-400 Series processor with 8,192 words
of core storage and the 1401 qompatibility
Option.

•

One card reader.

•

One card punch.

•

One printer.

•

Magnetic Tape Handlers as required by the
IBM 1401 program being simulated.

The above system is limited to the use of the
Card Operating System (see Paragraph 330:191.12).
If the Tape Operating System is to be used, one
additional tape handler must be available to accommodate the System Tape. The 1401 Compatibility Option Program interfaces with the standard
GE-400 Series Operating Systems and can be
loaded via a card reader or from the System Tape.
The 1401 program can also be loaded from cards
or magnetic tape. The Operating System provides
run-to-run supervision, permitting 1401 programs
to be interspersed with regular GE-400 programs
with minimum set-up time.
All operating instructions used when running a
program on a 1401 apply when simulating it on a
GE-400 Series system. The initial settings of
the sense switches are specified on a control
record, and the current settings can be printed
out or changed by means of the console typewriter.
All usual displays normally found on an IBM 1401
are simulated by printouts on the console typewriter
whenever a Halt instruction is encountered in the
1401 program. In addition, the following 1401
console operations can be initiated by typing the
appropriate control code:
Tape selection.
Load card or load tape.
Move characters to memory.
Load characters to memory.

The impact of the 1401 Compatibility Option on
the problem of converting from an IBM 1401 to a
GE-400 Series computer system is discussed in
Section 330:131, Compatibility with the IBM 1401.
.12

Simulation by Other
Computers: . . . . . . . none.

.13

Data Sorting and Merging
GE 400 Series Sort Generator
Reference: ..
Record size: .
Block size: .
Key size: .
File size: ..

· Reference Manual CPB-356.
· 4 to 512 words.
.4 to N words.
· 1 to 2, 048 characters.
· 1. 25 reels (unlimited if
Merge is used afterwards).

Number of merge
tapes: . . . . .
. .3 to 8.
Data available: . . . . June, 1964.
Description:
The Sort Generator can be run on a GE-400 Series
system with a minimum of 8,192 words of core
storage, 4 magnetic tape units, a card reader,
and a printer. The Sort routine generates an
object program that sorts data files according to
descriptive parameters specified in punched cards.
It can accept either basic (BAL) or macro (MAP)
assembly coding prepared by the user for inclusion
in the Sort object program. The user's coding
can be us ed to preprocess input files, to combine
or eliminate duplicate records, and to process
output data. Each generated sort routine is
tailoredfora specific job, and each of the following
factors can reduce the overall time required for
the sort:
•

Higher tape speed and/or density.

•

More tape units.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE·400 SERIES

330: 151.130
. 13

Data Sorting and Merging (Contd.)
•

More core storage.

•

Smaller key size.

•

Smaller record size.

•

Larger input-output blocking factors.

•

Dual-channel tape controller.

GE 400 Series Merge Generator
Reference: . .
. .. Reference Manual CPB-357.
Record size: .
. .. 4 to 512 words.
Block size: .
. .. 4 to N words.
Key size: . . . . .. . 1 to 2,048 characters.
File size: . . . . .. . unlimited.
Number of tapes:. .4 to 16.
Data available:
. June, 1964.
Description:

Count selected input records and/or detail
conditions.

•

Emit literal values.

•

Bypass the printing of a line.

•

Provide multiple insert points for manuallycoded routines supplied by the user.

•

Provide group indication in detail lines.

•

Assign certain records or lines to alternative
or additional output devices.

•

Assign multiple reports to a single tape for
selective deferred printing or punching.

Input data records can be from a file on a card
reader or magnetic tape. Output records can be
assigned to the printer, card punch, or to magnetic
tape for later media conversion.
The Report Program Generator is integrated with
the Macro Assembly Program. The source program contains Identification, Environment, and
Data Divisions as in the Macro Assembly Program.
An added Report Division specifies the report layout, line definitions, control breaks, and line or
item print control. The source program is read
from cards or tape by the generator, which uses the
Macro Assembly Program to assemble the object
program from the generated macros. Object program output can be on tape (for immediate execution)
or cards.

The Merge Generator is a generalized routine
that produces merge programs tailored to specific
applications on the GE-400 Series systems.
Merge, which complements the Sort Generator's
functions, generates object programs that merge
data files according to descriptive parameters.
It can accept either basic or macro language
symbolic coding prepared as separate segments
by the user for inclusion in the Merge object
program.
The output of the Merge generator is symbolic.
Merge calls in the Macro Assembly Program to
process the symbolic output and produce an object
program.
Minimum configuration requirements for the
Merge Generator are 8,192 words of core memory, 4 magnetic tape handlers, 1 card reader,
1 printer, and 1 card punch.

•

Four magnetic tape units, 8,192 core storage
locations, 1 card reader, 1 card punch, and 1
printer are required for report program generation.
.15

Data Transcription
Media Conversion Service Routines

.14

Report Writing
Reference: ...
Report Program Generator
Reference: ...
Date available:
Description:

. GE-425 System Manual,
CPB-309.
. June, 1964.

Date available:
Description:

. GE-425 System Mannual,
CPB-309.
. June, 1964.

The Media Conversion package will include
routines to perform the following operations:

The machine language programs created by
the Report Program Generator can perform the
following functions:

•

Card to tape

•

Tape to card

•

Print a variable number of heading, control,
detail, total, and footing lines.

•

Tape to printer

•

System Output Tape to printer.

•

Maintain page overflow control.
•

Card to Input Stack Tape.

•

Provide page numbering.

•

Provide up to nine levels of total lines plus
final totals.

•

Provide data editing.

•

Accumulate input field values.

Blocking and unblocking of files can be specified
by parameters. Editing of fields, including selecting and eliminating specified fields, can be
performed by user-coded inclusions. There are'
no current provisions for running media conversion
routines concurrently with other programs; but
see Paragraph 330:091.12, Operating Environment.
(Contd. )

5/65

330: 151.160

PROBLEM ORIENTED FACILITIES
.16

File Maintenance

•

First-In/First-Out (FIFO) -- A new record is
added to a chain by inserting it at the end of
the chain, just prior to the master record.

•

Last-In/First-Out (LIFO) - A new record is
added to a chain by inserting it immediately
after the master, making it the first detail
record in the chain.

Librarian
Reference:
Date available:
Description:

· GE-425 System Manual,
CPB-309.
· June, 1964.

The Librarian service routine provides for run
collection on magnetic tape and for creation and
maintenance of System Tapes and Master Instruction Tapes.
General Purpose Service Routines
Reference: ...
Date available:
Description:

· GE-425 System Manual,
CPB-309.
· June, 1964.

The General Purpose Service Routines include
programs such as Disc Unload to Tape, Disc
Load from Tape, Disc Dump to Tape or Printer,
Tape Compare, and Tape Copy.
Integrated Data Store (1-D-S)
Reference: ...
Data available:
Description:

· Introduction to Integrated
Data Store.
· third quarter, 1965.

I-D-S is a GE-developed technique for the organization and manipulation of files for disc storage
devices. Files are organized into a series of
chains of logical records, one chain for each
major type of record. Each chain contains one
master record and one or more detail records.
Each logical record, as stored on the magnetic
disc unit, can optionally contain links to the master record or prior detail record, and will always
contain a link to the next detail record. The chains
are closed loops - the last detail record references the master record as the next record. Any
record can be either a detail or master type and
can be linked into any number of chains; however,
there can be only one master record per chain.
Information common to all detail records of a
chain can be stored in the master record of that
chain. The effect of this organization is to minimize
the amount of information that needs to be stored in
duplicate.
A set of Data Description entries defines each
record. Information specified in these entries
includes symbolic names for the record and individual fields, the symbolic name of each chain
with which the record is to be linked, the relationship of the record to each chain (master or detail) ,
the prime chain for the record, and various control fields required for record retrieval. All
chains are ordered in one of three methods specfied in the control fields ofthe Data Description
entries.
•

Sorted - The detail records in a sorted chain
are arranged in sequence based on one or more
keys specified in the Data Description entries.
Each key can be treated in either ascending or
descending sequence.

©

Individual records can be members of different
chains using different sequencing methods.
The logical records are packed automatically into
blocks (based on prime chains) for storage. Data
is retrieved by blocks and transferred to buffers
in core storage; individual records are then moved
to working areas. Only the records in the working
area are accessible to a programmer. Multiple
blocks of data are maintained in core storage,
based upon the amount of core storage available
and the frequency of use of the data blocks. Each
time a new block of data is called into core storage, the block that had the least previous usage
is returned to the disc unit, provided any of the
records it contains has been modified. Only
record fields that have been modified are rewritten
on the disc unit. Working areas for each type of"
record are maintained, and records become unavailable only when another record of the same
type (name) has been called.
Four macro-instructions, in a format similar to
COBOL verbs, are provided for manipulation of
disc records:
•

STORE - Links new records into a chain in
accordance with its Data Description.

•

RETRIEVE - Retrieves a record and unpacks
it into a working area.

•

MODIFY - Uses the contents of specified fields
in a working storage area to modify (add to
or subtract from only) or to replace the corresponding fields of a record.

•

DELETE - Causes a record to be deleted
from a file and the links to be reformed. In
general, when a master record is deleted, all
the associated detail records are also deleted.
If one of these detail records happens to be a
master record for a second chain, the details
in the second chain are also eliminated. This
process continues until all dependent detail
records have been deleted. If desired, the
records deleted can be printed out, or the
deletion process can be aborted with no resultant deletions if a specified detail record
is encountered.

Except for the STORE command, the record involved can be specified to be the current, next,
previous, or master record of a chain. Conditional phrases are provided, permitting a transfer to
a program step or the performance of a series of
program steps out of the normal sequence with
return to the step immediately following the branch,
based on the record name of the record accessed.
Other control phrases permit the processing of
alternate records if retrieved, execution of subroutines, and error checking.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330: 151.161
. 16

File Maintenance (Contd.)
I-D-S provides mass storage facilities for
GE-400 Series COBOL programs, although it
does not follow the format of the ASA COBOL
preliminary standard for mass storage facilities
as stated in ASA X-3.4 COBOL Information
Bulletin #4. I-D-S cannot be used with the
other GE-400 Series programming languages.
The minimum system configuration capable of
using I-D-S is as follows:
•

16,384 words of core storage.

•

Disc Storage Subsystem (DS-20, DS-15,
or DS-25).

Input to the loader must be from a single source;
binary segments from a library tape may be included, however, The loader allows the processing
of a program which contains overlays with a minimum amount of instruction from the programmer.
Debugging Aids
Reference: . . . . ;
Date available:
Description:

. . GE-425 System Manual,
CPB-309.
.. June, 1964.

The following debugging aids are provided:

. 17

5/65

•

Dynamic Debugging Aids - selective memory
dump and selective trace (executed during
object program testing).

•

Post-Mortem Debugging Aids - post mortem
memory dump and tape dump (executed upon
conclusion of object program testing) .

GE-400 Series Loader

•

Test Data Dispersion - creates magnetic
tape files containing data for testing programs.

Reference: . . . . . . . . Reference Manual CPB-354.
Data available: . . . . . June, 1964.
Description:

•

Debug Segment - inserts exits to selective
dump or trace routines into programs being
tested.

The GE-400 Series Loader is designed to operate
within an operating system environment or independently. It has a modular construction.

•

Checkpoint Recovery - permits restarting of
interrupted production runs.

•

4 magnetic tape handlers.

•

1 card reader, 1 card punch, and 1 printer.

Other

330: 161.100
GE·400 Series
Problem Oriented Language
COBOL/400
PROBLEM ORIENTED LANGUAGE: COBOL/400

can alternatively be expressed as:

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity:

.12

Origin: . . . . . . . . . . GE Computer Dept.

. 13

Reference: . . . . . . . . GE Advance Publication
CPA-1001.

.14

Description

COMPUTE X=(A-B)/C .

. . . . . . . . . COBOL/400.

COBOL-61 is the most widely implemented pseudoEnglish common language for business applications.
The COBOL/400 language for GE-400 Series computer systems consists of Required COBOL-61, except for a few exceptions and extensions listed below,
and most of the features of Elective COBOL-61.
Neither the SORT nor Report Writer extensions to
COBOL-61 have been implemented. Mass storage
facilities have been implemented, although in a nonstandard way. (See the description of I-D-S in
Paragraph 330:151.16.)
Several interesting extensions to COBOL-61 are
provided in COBOL/400. One option of the NOTE
clause allows a limited range of diagnostic statements to be inserted into the program when compiling in the Object Program Debug Mode. When
compiling in the Normal Compilation Mode, these
diagnostic statements appear only on the listing.
Facilities available in this option of the NOTE clause
include the ADD, SUBTRACT, DISPLAY, and
MOVE verbs. A special verb usable only in this
format is PRINT, which causes the values of a list
of variables to be printed on a specified line printer.
Another extension, the PACKING and UNPACKING
TECHNIQUE options of the I-O-Control clause, can
ease the problem of efficiently storing information
on magnetic tape or punched card files, which is
often encountered on fixed word-length computers.
The flexible scatter-gather I/O facilities of the GE400 Series computer are used to eliminate nonsignificant portions of data words. This technique
can be used only with files containing a single type
of data record.
The DCW EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE option of the
I-O-Control clause allows input and output areas
to be alternated by switching the Data Control Words.
This eliminates the necessity to move data from an
input area to an output area. The files involved in
this operation must have the same record length
and blocking factor.

Other electives of COBOL-61 that are provided
include the ENTER verb, which permits the inclusion of BAP symbolic language anywhere in a
COBOL source program, and rerun facilities.
The most important COBOL-61 electives not
currently implemented are the INCL UDE verb,
which would permit the use of program libraries,
and the Segmentation feature, which would provide
techniques for handling programs too large to fit
into core storage at one time. Segmentation facilities are being developed by GE for COBOL/400,
but they will not follow the standard of COBOL-61.
Detailed lists of the restrictions, extensions, and
electives provided in COBOL/400 are included at
the end of this description.
COBOL/400 programs are compiled and run under
the control of the Tape Operating System (see
Section 330:191). Section 330:182 describes the
COBOL compiler for the GE-400 Series computer
systems, which accepts source programs written
in the language described here.
.141 Availability
Language (COBOL/400): April, 1964.
Compiler:. . . . . . . .. May, 1965.
.142 Deficiencies with Respect to Required COBOL-61
(1)

.143 Extensions to COBOL-61
(1)

One option of the NOTE clause provides the
optional capability to compile diagnostic
statements.

(2)

The PACKING and UNPACKING TECHNIQUE
options of the I-O-Control clause permit the
information in files containing records of the
same data type to be efficiently packed by
omitting the non-significant portions of data
words.

(3)

The DCW EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE option of
the I-O-Controlclause can eliminate movement
of data from an input area to an output area
if the respective files have the same record
length and blocking factor.

(4)

The I-D-S technique (Paragraph 330:151.16)
provides mass storage facilities for COBOL/
400 programs, though not in accordance with
COBOL-61 Extended.

The COMPUTE verb is a valuable COBOL-61
elective that is included in COBOL/400. This verb
permits arithmetic operations to be expressed in
a concise formula notation similar to that of
FORTRAN. For example, the COBOL operations:
SUBTRACT B FROM A GIVING T
DIVIDE C INTO T GIVING X

Only one dividend or multiplicand can be
specified in a single DIVIDE or MULTIPLY
clause.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE·400 SERIES

330: 161.144
.144 COBOL-61 Electives Implemented (see Paragraph 4:161. 3 in Users' Guide)
Key No.

Elective

Comments

Characters and Words
1
2
3
4

Formula characters
Relationship characters
Semicolon
Long literals

Formulas are allowed.
The symbols <, >, = are allowed.
A semicolon is in the character set.
The maximum size is 132 characters.

File Description
8

9
11

BLOCK CONTAINS
FILE CONTAINS
SEQUENCED ON*

A range of block sizes can be given.
The approximate size of the file can be shown.
Key fields can be listed for documentation only.

Record DescriEtion
13
16
17

Table-length
RANGE IS
RENAMES

20
21

Conditional ranges
Label handling

Lengths of tables and arrays may vary.
Value range of items can be shown.
Alternative groupings of elementary items can
be specified.
VALUES can be ascribed to conditionals.
Special label procedures may be used.

Verbs
22
24
26

COMPUTE
ENTER
USE

Algebraic formulas may be used.
BAP symbolic language can be used in a program.
Non-standard auxiliary I/O error-handling or
label-handling routines can be inserted.

Verb Options
27
28

LOCK
MOVE CORRESPONDING

30
31

ADVANCING
STOP provision

32
33
34

Formulas
Operand size
Relationship

35
36
37
38
39

Tests
Conditionals
Complex conditionals
Complex conditionals
Conditional statements

A rewound tape can be optionally locked.
Commonly-named items in a group can be
handled together.
Specific paper advance instructions can be given.
Information can be printed on the Console
Typewriter.
Algebraic formulas may be used.
Operands can be up to 16 digits in length.
IS EQUAL TO, EQUALS, EXCEEDS relationships
are allowed.
IF x IS NOT ZERO test is allowed.
Implied subjects with implied objects are allowed.
ANDs and ORs may be intermixed.
Nested conditionals are permitted.
IF, SIZE .ERROR, AT END, ELSE (OTHERWISE)
may follow an imperative statement.

Environment Division
40
41
44
46

SOURCE-COMPUTER
OBJECT-COMPUTER
PRIORITY IS
I-O-CONTROL

Computer description can be given.
Computer description can be given.
Priorities can be assigned to files.
A full range of rerun techniques is available.

Identification Division
47

DATE-COMPILED

The current date is inserted automatically.

Special Features
49

*

Segmentation

Facilities will be provided later, but in a
non-standard manner.

The compiler will accept but ignore this clause.
(Contd.)

5/65

330: 161.145

PROCESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE: COBOLl400
.145 COBOL-61 Electives Not Implemented
Key No.

Elective

Comments

Characters and Words
5
6
7

Figurative constants
Figurative constants
Computer-name
File

HIGH or LOW BOUND(S) are not available.
HIGH or LOW VALUE(S) are not available.
No alternative object computers.

Descri~tion

10

Label formats

12

HASHED

Labels must be standard, omitted, or
completely programmed.
Hash totals cannot be created.

Record Description
14
15
18
21

Item-length
BITS option
SIGN IS
Label handling

Variable length items cannot be specified.
Items cannot be specified in binary.
No separate signs allowed.
Only standard labels (or none) may be used.

Verbs
23
25

DEFINE
INCLUDE

The user cannot define new verbs.
No library routines available automatically.

Environment Division
42

SPECIAL-NAMES

43

FILE-CONTROL

45

I-a-CONTROL

Hardware devices, and their status conditions,
cannot be given special names by the program.
File naming and description of desired control
method cannot be taken from the library.
Input-Output control cannot be taken from the
library.

SEecial Features
48

\

Library

Library facilities for the procedure division are
not available.

'.

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330: 162.100

GE-400 Series
Problem Oriented Language
Basic FORTRAN IV
PROBLEM ORIENTED LANGUAGE: BASIC FORTRAN IV

.1

GENERAL

· 11

Identity:

· 12

Origin: . . . . . . . . . . GE Computer Dept.

· 13

Reference: . . . . . . . . GE Advanced Information
Publication #CPB-1086,
January, 1965.

. 14

. . . . . . . . . GE-400 Series Basic
FORTRAN IV.

.141 Restrictions Relative to IBM 7 090/7094 FORTRAN IV
(1)

The following statements are not provided:
BLOCK DATA
DATA
IF (t)s .

Description
GE-400 Series Basic FORTRAN IV is an implementation of the Basic FORTRAN language as proposed by the X.3.4.3 FORTRAN Group of the
American Standards Association, and as published
in the Communications of the ACM, October, 1964.
A few extensions have been included from the full
FORTRAN language as proposed by the same A. S. A.
group and published side-by-side with the Basic
FORTRAN specifications. The extensions include
the appropriate parts of Paragraphs 7. 1. 1. 3,
7.1.2.1.2,7.1.3.3,7.2.1.5,7.2.1.6,7.2.3.5,
and 7.2.3.10 of the published document referenced
above. The facilities provided by these extensions
include: the Assigned GO TO, EXTERNAL, and
TYPE statements; the capability to specify the line
spacing by the first character (non-printing) of a
record to be printed; the capability to specify scale
factors for FORMAT statements; and the capability
to specify an array name in an input-output list.
In essence, the GE-400 Series Basic FORTRAN IV
language is a restricted version of the FORTRAN IV
language as implemented for the IBM 7090/7094.
A general description of the IBM 7090/7094
FORTRAN IV language is presented in Section
408:162. The principal restrictions upon the GE400 Series FORTRAN IV language are the lack of
double precision, complex, and logical capabilities,
and the inability to modify programs at object
time. The restrictions and extensions of the GE400 Series version relative to IBM 7090/7094
FOR TRAN IV are listed in Paragraphs . 141 and
.142, respectively.

5/65

See Section 330:183 for a description of the GE-400
Series Basic FORTRAN IV Translator, which compiles programs written in the language described
in this section.
.

(2)

No facilities are provided for COMPLEX,
DOUBLE PRECISION, or LOGICAL operations.

(3)

The maximum size of integer constants is
223_1 in GE-400 FORTRAN IV as compared
to 235 _1 in 7090/7094 FORTRAN.

(4)

FORMAT statements cannot be read at
object time.

(5) Variables cannot appear as subscripts
in DIMENSION statements; i. e., adjustable
dimensions are not allowed.
(6)

Block names are not permitted in ,COMMON
statements.
"

(7) In the FORMAT specification Aw, the maximum
number of significant alphameric characters
per item is four (versus six in 7090/7094
FORTRAN IV) .
.142 Extensions Relative to IBM 7090/7094 FORTRAN IV
(1) Variables can have up to three levels of
subscripting in EQUIVALENCE statements.
(2) Type statements can be used to dimension
variables.
(3) The range of REAL numbers in G E-400 Series
FORTRAN IV is 10 :!-127 versus 10± 35 in IBM
FORTRAN IV. (Precision is the same: 8
digits. )

330: 171.100

GE-400 Series
Machine Oriented Language
Basic Assembly Language

MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: BASIC ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity: . . . . . . . . . . GE-400 Series Basic
Assembly Lanugage.
BAL.

. 12

Origin: ...

.13

Reference: . . . . . . . . GE-400 Series Reference
Manual CPB-351.

. 14

Description

Programs written in the Basic Assembly Language
can use the Basic Input/Output Supervisor,
(see Paragraph 330:191.12), which is a set of
routines, constants, and tables that are in core
memory during the execution of each program.
In general, the main program communicates with
the I/O system by constructing a file parameter
list for each device and executing a Store Program
Counter and Branch (PXB) instruction whenever
an I/O operation is required.

. . . . . GE Computer Dept. ,
Phoenix, Arizona.

The Basic Assembly Language (BAL) is a subset of
the more powerful and versatile Macro Assembly
Program (MAP) Language (Section 330:172), and is
translateiI by the Macro Assembly Program
(Section 330:181). Although BAL can be used to
code an entire program, it will usually be combined
with the more flexible MAP language, within which
all BAL facilities are available.

.15

Publication Date: . . . . December, 1963 .

.2

LANGUAGE FORMAT

.21

Diagram:

. refer to coding form, Page
330:171. 820.

.22
Sequence: .

. .. sequence numbers; checked
using GE 400 series collating sequence (optional).
Type:. . . . . . . . .. . indicates a comments line.
Reference Symbol:. . enables assignment of
symbols to instructions,
cons tants, etc.
Operation: . . . . . . .. mnemonic or absolute code
indicating machine or
pseudo operations.
Operation Parameters: parameters needed to complete the function (symbolic or absolute address,
an expression, a literal,
or a value) and comments.
Indentification: . . . . . identifies the program on
the printed assembly
listings.

The Basic Assembly Language was designed to
provide:
•

A symbolic representation of the entire GE-400
Series instruction repertoire.

•

A set of pseudo-operations for the reservation
of memory areas, for the handling of decimal
and octal constants, and for program segmentation.

•

The optional capability of referencing a program
in a subroutine library.

•

Compatibility with the Macro Assembly Program
Language.

. 23

Corrections: . . . . . . . no special provisions .

•

A symbol analyzer at the termination of the
assembly.

.24

Special Conventions

•

A convenient coding form identical to that used
for the Macro Assembly Program language.

.241 Compound addresses: . expression - a series of
symbols and/or integers
connected by +, -, * and

/.

Featured in BAL is a program segmentation facility
that allows individual operations to be tested separately, simplifies debugging, and permits overlaying
of areas in core memory. Segments are assembled
with relocatable addresses and communicate with
the main program or other segments by means of
global symbols. There are two types of global
symbols: internal and external. A global symbol
is "internal" to the segment in which it is defined
and "external" ..to any segment in which it is referenced except that segment in which it is defined.
Global symbols are indicated by means of pseudooperations. Symbols which are referenced only
within the segment in which they are defined are
called local labels.

.242 Multi-addresses: . . . . two lines are used for the
machine instructions that
require 2 addresses .
. 243 Literals: . . . . . . . . . preceded by #, #0, #B,
#S, #F, or " and followed
by #, blank, comma, or"
(see Paragraph .412).
. 244 Special coded
addresses:
* refers to the current
value of the location
.245 Othercounter.
Immediate Value
Literals: . . . . . . value of literal is placed in
the address portion of
the instruction itself.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330:171.245
.245 Other (Contd.)
Complementary Instruction Words: .. special mnemonic codes to
set up counters, list
pointers, data control
words, address modification, second addresses,
and input-output control.
.3

LABELS

. 31

General

.311 Maximum number of
labels: . . . . . . . . . . 1,200.
.312 Common label formation ruIe: . . . . . . yes.
.313 Reserved labels: . . . . special characters are
used for standard routines.
. 314 Other restriCtions: ... at least one character must
be alphabetic.
.315 Designators: . . . . . . . none .
. 316 Synonyms permitted: . yes; EQU pseudo.
.32

Univeral (Global)
Labels: . . . . . .

. indicated by pseudo operations; see Paragraph .12
above.

.321 Labels for procedures ...,.
Existence: . . . . . . . mandatory if referenced in
another segment (internal)
or if defined in another
segment and referenced
by current segment
(external) .
Formation ruIe First character: . alphanumeric; A-Z, 0-9.
Others: . . . . . . . . same.
Number of characters: . . . . . . . . . 1 to 8 characters; at least
one must be alphabetic.
(Note: blanks are deleted.)
. 322 Labels for library
routines: . . . • . . . . same as procedures .
. 323 Labels for constants: . same as procedures.
.324 Labels for files: . . . . sam.e as procedures .
. 325 Labels for records: .. same as procedures.
. 326 Labels for variables: . same as procedures.
.327 Labels for Basic I/O
subroutines Existence: . . . . . . . mandatory if Basic I/O
System is used.
Formation ruIe First two characters: . . . . . . . . B%.
Other: . . . . . . . . . alphanumeric; A-Z, 0-9.
Number of characters: . . • . . . . . . 1 to 8.
. 33

Local Labels

.331 Region: . . . . . . . . . . local to segments in which
they are defined.
. 332 Labels for procedures Existence: . . . . . . . mandatory if referenced
within the segment.
Formation ruIe First character: .. alphanumeric A-Z, 0.,9.
Others: . . . . . . . . same.

5/65

. 334
.335
• 336
.337

Number of characters: . . . . . . . . . 1 to 8 characters; at least
one must be alphabetic.
(Note: blanks are deleted.)
Labels for library
routines: . . . . .. . see Universal Labels,
above .
Labels for constants: . same as procedures.
Labels for files: . . . . same as procedures .
Labels for records: .. same as procedures .
Labels for variables: . same as procedures .

.4

DATA

.41

Constants

.333

.411 Maximum size constants Integer:
Decimal: . . . . . . . 16 digits plus sign .
Octal: . . . . . . . . . 32 octal digits.
Fixed numeric: . . . . own coding (octal).
Floating numeric: .. 8 decimal digits for
fraction and 3 for exponent;
exponent must be less
than 128 .
Alphabetic: . . . . . . . 13 words (52 characters).
Alphameric: . . . . . . 13 words (52 characters).
.412 Maximum size literals Integer:
Decimal: . . . . . . . 16 digits plus sign
(preceded by # and followed
by #, comma, or a blank).
Binary: . . . . . . . . decimal integer from 0 to
16, 777, 215 (preceded by
#B and followed by #,
blank, or a comma).
Octal: . . . . . . . . . 32 octal digits (preceded
by #0 and followed by #,
two blanks, or a comma).
Fixed numeric: ... no provision.
Floating numeric: . 8 decimal digits for fraction,
3 for exponent; exponent
must be less than 128; (preceded by #F and followed
by #, two blanks, or a
comma).
Alphabetic: . . . . . . 16 characters (preceded and
followed by ") .
Alphameric: . . . • . 16 characters (preceded and
followed by ").
.5

PROCEDURES

. 51

Direct Operation Codes

. 511 MnemonicExistence: . . • . . . .
Number: . . . . . . . . •
Example: . . . . . . . .
Comment: . . . . . . . .

alternative.
247.
ADS = Add Decimal Single.
119 of the 247 are twoaddress instructions .

. 512 AbsoluteExistence:
. . . . alternative.
Number: . . . . . . . . . 67 (octal) .
Example: . . . . . . . . 50 = Add Decimal Single.
.52

Macro-Codes: . . . • . . none in BAL (see MAP
language, Section
330:172).
(Contd.)

330:171.530

MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: BASIC ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
.53

Interludes: . . . . . . . . none.

· 54

Translator Control

. 541 Method of control Allocation counter: .. pseudo-operation.
Label adjustment: .. pseudo-operation.
Annotation: . . . . . . . pseudo-operation, special
cards, and notes.
· 542 Allocation counter Set to Absolute: . . . . ORG, ORGO, SGMT.
Set to label: . . . . . . ORG.
Step forward: ..•.• ORG.
Step backward: ...• ORG.
Reserve area: . . . . BSS, BSSL, BPS, BPSL,
LSB, LSBL, ACUM, ARP,
ARPL.
• 543 Label adjustment Set labels equal: ..• EQU, EQUG.
Set abs.olute value: .. EQU, EQUG, EQUO.
Clear label table: .•. none.
· 544 AnnotationComment phrase: .•. special card or notes after
instruction line.
Title phrase: . . . . . . TTL, pseudo.
.545 Other: . . . . . . . . . . . see table of pseudos,
Paragraph.82.
.6

SPECIAL ROUTINES AVAILABLE

· 61

Special Arithmetic

.611 Facilities: . . . . . . . . single and double precision
fixed-point multiply and
divide; normalized
floating-point add, subtract, inverse subtract,
multiply, divide, and inverse divide; un-normalized floating-point add, subtract, and multiply.
.612 Method of call: . . . . . CALL, INCL, or INCS
pseudo-instructions.
.62

Special Functions: ..• see Basic Input/Output
Supervisor, Paragraph
.14 .

. 63

Overlay Control: .•.. provided by Basic Input/
Output Supervisor.

· 64

Data Editing

. 641 Radix conversion: ... BCD-to-binary and binaryto-BCD.
Code translation: .•.. none to date (ASA standard
character codes are used).
· 642 Format control Zero suppression: .. hardware Edit instruction.
Size control: . . . . . . hardware Edit instruction.
Sign control: . . . . . . hardware Edit instruction.
Special characters: . hardware Edit instruction.
. 65

Input-Output Control

.651
. 652
.653
. 654

File labels: . . . . . . . .
Reel labels: . . . . . . .
Blocking: . . . . . . . . .
Error control: . . . . . .

*

none. *
none. *
none. *
Basic I/O System.

These are functions of the Extended I/O Supervisor, described in Paragraph 330:091.12.

©

.655 Method of call: . . . . . PXB (Program Counter to
Index and Branch) to
appropriate Basic I/O
routine .
. 66

Sorting: . . . . . . . . . . GE-400 Series Sort and
Merge Generators (see
Section 330 :151).

.67

Diagnostics

.671 Dumps: . . . . . . . . . . post-mortem memory dumps
and tape dump.
.672 Tracers: . . • . . • . . . selective trace.
.673 Snapshots: . . . . • . . . selective memory dump.
.7

LIBRARY FACILITIES

.71

Identity:

. 72

Kinds of Libraries: .. expandable master .

.73

Storage Form: . . . . . . magnetic tape.

.74

Varieties of Contents:. routines, subroutines, and
macro generators .

.75

Mechanism

. Service Routines Library
on Systems Tape or separate
Library Tape.

.751 Insertion of new item:. Librarian routine .
. 752 Language of new item: machine or assembly
language.
.753 Method of call: . . . . . CALL, INCL, or INCS
. ps eudo- ins tructions .
.76

Insertion in Program

.761 Open routines exist: ..
.762 Closed routines exist:.
.763 Open-closed is
optional: . . . . . . . . .
.764 Closed routines appear
once: . . . . . . . . . . .

yes.
yes.
no.
yes.

.8

MACRO AND PSEUDO TABLES

.81

Macros: . . . . . . . . . . none in BAL (see Macro
Assembly Program
Language, Section
330:172) .

.82

Pseudos
Description
SGMT: . . . . . . . . . . . indicates name and address
of segment.
DIG: . . . . . . . . . . . . indicates symbolic global
reference in the segment.
DXG: ..••.•••.•.. indicates symbolic external
global symbols in a segment.
segment .
DGRX: . . . . . . • . . . . helps to reduce number of
global symbols by
"chaining" .
DGRE: . . . . . . . . . . . ends definition of global
symbols defined by DGRX .
DGR: . . . . . . . . . . . . indicates beginning of
common storage in a segment.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330: 171.820
.82

GE-400 SERIES

Pseudos (Contd.)

Description

Code

Description

FILL:

EQUG: . . . . . . • . . . . equates a local symbol to an
external global symbol.
CALL: . . . . . . • . • . . indicates that segments are
needed which are on a
library tape.
INCL: •••.•.•.... indicates that segments are
needed and must be supplied at assembly time.
INCS: . . . . . • . • • . . indicates that segments are
needed and must be supplied and listed at assembly time.
BSSL, BPSL, LSBL,
ARPL: . . . . . . . . . . allows allocation of storage
that is occupied by the
loader.
BSS: . • • . • . . . . . • . reserves a block of consecutive memory locations
and defines a tag as the
first location.
BPS: . . . . . . • . . . . . reserves a block of memory
and defines a tag as the
location which immediately
precedes the block.
LSB: ..••.••••... reserves a block of consecutive locations and
assigns a tag to the last
location.
ARP: . . . . • . . . . . . insures that those symbols
used as accumulator
references are defined as
locations which are evenly
divisible by 4.
FDEC: . . . . • • • . . . . defines a floating point
decimal constant.
SBIN: ..•.•.••.•.. defines a signed binary
constant.
RMT: . . . . . . . • . . . . causes subsequent instructions to be assembled out
of the normal sequence.
NRMT: . . . • • . • . • . . terminates the remote
function initiated by RMT.
RMTL: . . . . . . . . . • . causes previously unpro cessed blocks of instructions
defined by an RMT to be
assembled immediately.
The TLI, TLD, and END
pseUdo-instructions also
have this function.
ACUM: . . . . . . . • . . establishes a working
accumulator and assigns
a tag.

. specifies the contents of
Fill words produced by
the assembler during
processing of ARP or
ACUM.

DECS, DECD, DECT,
DECQ: . . . . . . . . . . defines decimal constants.
AN: . . . . . . • . . . . . . defines an alphanumeric
constant.
LSAN: . . . • • • . . . . . defines an alphanumeric
constant with tag assigned
to the last location.
OCTS, OCTD, OCTT,
OCTQ: . . . . • • . . . . defines an octal constant.
TTL: . . . . . . . • . • . . specifies the heading line
printed at the top of
each subsequent page
in the listing.
EJT: . . . . • . . . . . . . causes the assembler to
skip to the top of the next
page.
IDEN: . . . . . . . . . . . specifies the identification,
in columns 77-80, on
the binary output cards.
FULL: . . . . • • . . . . . causes assembler to produce cards in full binary
mode (40 instructions per
card).
LORG: . . . . . . . . . . . specifies the beginning
of a literal table in the
object program.
ORG: . . . . • . . . . . . . sets the location counter to
a specific value.
ORGO: . . • . . • . . . . . sets the location counter to
a specific octal number.
EQU: . . . . . . . . . . . . equates a symbol to a
value.
EQUO: . . . . . . . . . . . equates a symbol to an
octal number.
PRFX: . . • • . . . . . . . specifies a unique prefix for
a region of a segment.
TLI: . . . . . . . . • . . . permits interruption in
loading process to execute
some instructions and
then return control.
TLD: . . . . . . • . . . . . terminates the assembly of
a segment and prepares a
TLD transfer card for
the loader.
END: . . . . . . . . . • . . terminates assembly of
segment and prepares a
transfer card for the
loader.

GE 400 SERIES PROGRAMMING FORM
GENERAL. ELECTRIC

,..........
":QuaNell

_

:

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D ... T .. N .... "

11 17

tl"f.

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5/65

330: 172.100
GE·400 Series
Machine Oriented Language
Macro Assembly Program
MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: MACRO ASSEMBLY PROGRAM

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: . . . . . . . .

GE-400 Series Macro
Assembly Program
Language.
MAP Language.
GE Computer Dept.
Phoenix, Arizona.

• 12

Origin: . . . • . . . • .

.13

Reference: . . . . . . • • GE-400 Series Reference
Manual CPB-351.

.14

Description
The Macro Assembly Program Language is an
extension of the Basic Assembly Language
(Section 330:171) and is the recommended language
for machine oriented programming of GE-400
series systems. Input is divided into four divisions
closely resembling those of COBOL: Identification,
Environment, Data, and Procedure. In the ProcedureDivision, both Basic Assembly Language
instructions and pseudo-instructions and Macro
Assembly Program language statements can be
used. The Macro Assembly Program (Section
330:181) converts source programs written in
the Macro Assembly Language into machine
language object programs.
The MAP system is an unusual compromise
between the generalized, process oriented approach
of compiler systems (such as COBOL) and the
straightforward but time-consuming approach of
simple symbolic assembly systems (such as the
Basic Assembly Language). The objective is to
minimize the detail work associated with assemblylevel coding while retaining its characteristically
high object program efficiencies.
The Macro Assembly Program Language was
designed primarily to simplify the coding of these
types of operations:
• Input-output.
• Arithmetic.
• Data movement.
•

Basic Input-Output Supervisor for execution
of the object program, and specifies the
method for including a subroutine.

Procedure control.

The four divisions in a MAP language program
have the following functions:
• The Identification Division identifies the source
program, labels the output from the assembly,
and specifies an absolute or relocatable
assembly.
• The Environment Division indicates the
characteristics of the object computer,
specifies the major control routines required
by the Extended Input-Output System or the

• The Data Division, which consists of a File
Section and a Working Storage Section,
describes the input and output files to be
processed and allocates memory for inputoutput buffers, intermediate work areas,
file parameter tables, indexes, switches,
and constants. Information such as data
name, level number, picture, value,
synchronization, redefinition, usage, and occurs
must be supplied by the programmer. Special
columns on the coding form are provided for
this purpose.
• The Procedure Division contains macroinstructions or Basic Assembly Language
symbolic instructions and pseudo-operations
which define the functions to be performed.
The Macro Assembly Language is designed to
operate with the Extended Input/Output System
and the Basic Input-Output Supervisor (see
Paragraph 330: 191. 12) .
• 15

Publication Date: •.•• December, 1963 •

.2

LANGUAGE FORMAT

.21

Diagram:

.22

Legend

refer to coding form, Page
330:171. 820.

Data Division
Sequence: ••••.•••• provides a sequence number check for cards in the
source deck.
Type: •••••..•.•• describes the use of the
line.
Data name: .•••••.• indicates name assigned to
an entry.
Level: • • • • . • • • . • • defines the various levels
of a logical record and
indicates related and unrelated items in working
storage.
Sync (Synchronization): . • • . . • . • . specifies the positioning of
elementary items within a
computer word or words.
Use: ., ••••••..•• specifies how a data item
is to be used in memory.
Picture: .•.•••.••• describes the mode, size,
decimal point location,
and editing characteristics of the named entry.
Occurs: ••••.••••• indicates the number of
times an item is to be
repeated.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330: 172.220
.22

Legend (Contd.)
Value: • . . . . . . . . . . specifies an initial value
for a data item in the
Working Storage Section.
Ident (Identification): • associates the individual
card with a source program deck.
Procedure Division
Sequence: ••.•...•. same use as in Data
Division.
Type: . . . . . . . . . . . . indicates a comment or
continuation line.
Reference Symbol: ... assigns symbols to the
instructions and pseudo
instructions in the Procedure Division.
Operation: . . . . • . . . a mnemonic code: a macro
instruction, machine instruction, or pseudo
operation.
Operation Parameters: supply information needed
to complete the operation
function.
Ident (Identification): . same use as in Data Division.

. 23

Corrections: . • . . . . . no special prOvisions.

.24

SEecial Conventions

.322
.323
. 324
.325
. 326
.327

.33

Formation rule First character:
alphanumeric (A-Z, 0-9).
others: ., • . . . . . same.
Number of
characters: . . . . . 1 to 8 characters; at least
one must be alphabetic.
Imbedded blanks are not
allowed.
Labels for library
routines: . . . . • • . . same as procedures.
Labels for constants: same as procedures.
Labels for files: ..•. same as procedures.
Labels for records: . . same as procedures.
Labels for variables: same as procedures .
Labels for Basic I/O
Supervisor routines Existence: •...•. supplied when referenced
by Extended I/O System
or main program.
Formation rule First two characters: B%.
Others: ...•••.. alphanumeric (A-Z, 0-9).
Number of cha:r:acters: . . . • . . . . . 1 to 8.
Local Labels

.3

LABELS

.331 Region: . . . . . • . . . • local to segments in which
they are defined •
'
• 332 Labels for procedures Existence: . . • . . . . mandatory if referenced
within the segment.
Formation ruleFirst character:
alphanumeric: A-Z, 0-9.
Others: ....•.•• same as first character.
Number of characters: ...•••••• 1 to 8 characters; at least
one must be alphabetic.
Imbedded blanks are not
permitted.
· 333 Labels for library
routines: ..•..•.• library routine labels are
universal.
• 334 Labels for constants: same as procedures .
• 335 Labels for files: ...• same as procedures .
. 336 Labels for records: .. same as procedures .
· 337 Labels for variables: same as procedures.

.31

General

.4

DATA

· 41

Constants

.241 Compound addresses:

reference symbol parameters ± decimal integer.
.242 Multi-addresses: . . . . standard in many macro
instructions.
.243 Literals:
non-numeric literals are
enclosed in quotation
marks.
.244 Special coded
addresses: . . . . • . . * refers to "this address. "
.245 OtherOperation parameters: .••.•..• consist of operands,
choices, options, key
words.

.........

.311 Maximum number of
labels: .•.•..•.•. 1,200 for 8K memory .
. 312 Common label formation rule: •..•.. yes.
)
.313 Reserved labels: •••. names of standard library
routines (begin with B%) .
• 314 other restrictions: ..• at least one character must
be alphabetic. Imbedded
blanks are not allowed.
.316 Synonyms permitted: yes; EQU, EQUO, and
EQUG pseudos in BAL.
. 32

Universal (Global) Labels

• 321 Labels for proceduresExistence: .•...•. mandatory if referenced in
another segment (internal)
or if defined in another
segment and referenced
by current segment
(external) •

. 411 Maximum size constantsInteger:
Decimal: " .•..• 16 digits plus sign.
Octal: ..••.••.. 32 octal digits .
Fixed numeric:
Decimal: .• . . . . • 16 digits plus sign.
Floating numeric: .. 8 decimal digits for fraction, 3 for exponent;
exponent must be less
than 128 .
Alphabetic: .•.••.• no restriction.
Alphameric: .•••.. no restriction.
.412 Maximum size literals Integer:
Decimal: . . . . . . . 16 digits plus optional sign.
Fixed numeric:
Decimal: ....•.• 16 digits plus sign and/or
decimal point.
(Contd. )

5/65

330: 172.412

MACHINE ORIENTED LANGUAGE: MACRO ASSEMBLY PROGRAM
.412 Maximum size literals (Contd.)
Floating numeric: .. 8 decimal digits for
fraction, 3 for exponent;
exponent must be less than
128.
Alphameric: . . . . . . 40 characters, enclosed in
quotes.
.42

Working Areas

.421 Data layout: •.•••.• specified in program.
• 422 Data type: •••.•.••• tabulated in program •
• 423 Redefinition: ••••••• yes.
• 43

· 65

Input-Output Control

.651
.652
.653
• 654

File labels: •••••.••
Reel labels: •••.••.
Blocking: •.••••••.
Error control:. . • • • .

.66

Sorting

Extended I/O System.
Extended I/O System.
Extended I/O System.
Basic I/O and Extended
I/O Systems.
• 655 Method of call: . . • . • Basic I/O: Automatic &
macros.
Extended I/O: macros and
file parameter tables .

Input-Output Areas

· 431 Data. layout: ., . . • • . explicit layout.
.432 Data type:. . • • • • • • . specified in program.
. 433 Copy layout: •••••.• yes.

.661 Facilities:

· 67

.5

PROCEDURES

.51

Direct Operation
Codes: ••••.•.•.. all facilities of the Basic
Assembly Language are
usable (see Paragraph
330:171.51) .

· 52

Macro-Codes

.521 Number availableInput-output: •.•..•
Arithmetic: ••••.••
Math functions: •..•
Error control: ••.•.
Restarts: ••.....•
Data movement: . . . .
Procedure control:. •
.522 ExamplesSimple: •••••••••
Elaborate: ••.••••
.523 New Macros: •••.•••

1.
1.
3.
7.
MOVE A; B.
IF A EQ B GOTO PLACE.
no special provision.

Diagnostics

.671 Dumps: •••••••••• post-mortem memory dump
and various tape dumps.
. 672 Tracers: .•••.•... selective trace •
. 673 Snapshots: .•.••.•• selective memory dump •
.7

LIBRARY FACILITIES

.71

Identity: . . . • . . • . . • Service Routines library on
System Tape or separate
Library Tape.

.72

Kinds of Libraries: •• expandable master.

.73

Storage Form: .•..•. magnetic tape.

.74

Varieties of Contents: routines, subroutines, and
macro generators.

• 75

Mechanism

12.
8.
O.

GE-400 Series Sort and
Merge Generators (see
Section 330 :151) •

• 53

Interludes: ••.••.•• none.

.54

Translator Control: .. see Basic Assembly
Language (Paragraph
330:171.54).

.751 Insertion of new item: Librarian routine .
.752 Language of new item: machine or assembly
language.
• 753 Method of call: . • • • • CALL, INCL, or INCS
pseudo instructions •

.6

SPECIAL ROUTINES AVAILABLE

• 76

.61

Special Arithmetic

.761 Open routines exist: ..
.762 Closed routines exist:
• 763 Open-closed is
optional: •••••••••
.764 Closed routines appear
once: ••.••••••••

.611 Facilities: ' "
.612 Method of call:

and divide.
..... multiply
..... CALL, INCS, or INCL
pseudo instructions.

Insertion in Program
yes.
yes .
no.
yes.

• 62

Special Functions: .•• none to date.

.8

MACRO AND PSEUDO TABLES

. 63

Overlay Control: •.•• provided by Loader.

.81

Macros

.64

Data Editing

Code

.641 Radix conversion:

BCD-to-binary and binaryto-BCD.
.642 Code translation: •••• none to date (ASA standard
character codes are used).
.643 Format controlZero suppression: .• implemented by hardware.
Size control: • • • • • • implemented by hardware.
Sign control: ••..•• implemented by hardware.
Special characters: implemented by hardware.

©

Description

MOVE: .•.•••••••• transfers data from one
item to another conforming
to the description of the
receiving item.
LOAD: • • • • . . • • • • • transfers data to the
standard accumulator.
UNLOAD: ••.•.•.•. transfers contents of
standard accumulator to
a data area.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330: 172.810
• 81

GE-400 SERIES

Macros (Contd.)
Code

Description

COMPARE:

compares the contents of
two data areas and transfers control to one of
three symbols based on
the result of that comparison (>, =, < ).
IF: .•••••••••••• branches to a symbol or
continues in-line coding
based upon the existence
of a specified condition
(>,<, =, not >, not <, of,
+, -, zero, not zero, ON,
OFF).
SETSW: •.•••••.•• sets a programmerspecified switch to an
on or off condition.
GOTO: •.••••••.•• transfers control to a
specified reference
symbol.
GOTO ••• DEPENDING ON: .••••..• transfers control to one of
n specified reference
symbols based upon the
value of a specified data
name.
HALT: •••.••••••• halts the object program
after ensuring that all
critical computer operations have terminated.
EOJ: •••••••••... terminates processing by
the object program.
ABORT: ••••••.••• terminates processing by
the object program under
error conditions and
causes a memory dump.
ADDR: •••.••..•.• adds two numeric items
and places the rounded
result in the second item
(or a third item, if
specified) .
ADDT: .••.•••••.• same as above except that
result is truncated.

5/65

Code

Description

SUBR: • . • • • • • • • . .
SUBT: ••••.•.••.•
MPYR: ••.••••••.•
MPYT: .••••.•••••
DIVR: •. • . • • • • • • •
DIVT: • . • • • • • • • . •

subtract and round.
subtract and truncate.
multiply and round.
multiply and truncate.
divide and round.
divide and truncate.

Extended Input-Output System Macros
Code

Description

READ: • . . • • • • • ..

obtains the next logical
record from an input file.
releases a record to an
output file.
releases a record without
internal movement of the
data record.
prepares input or output
files for processing by
input-output macro instructions.
terminates the processing
of input-output files.
performs requested typewriter input-output
operations in alphanumeric
or octal.
forward-space to tape mark.
back-space to tape mark.
back-space N blocks.
rewinds tape.
writes tape mark.
writes checkpoint dump.
forces immediate end-ofreel processing.
causes next READ or WRITE
macro to reference start
of new block.

WRITE: ..••••••••
WRITEX: • • • • • • • . •
OPEN: .••••••••.•

CLOSE: • • • . • • • • . •
TYPE: ••••••••..•

FSTM: .•••••••••
BSTM: .••..••..•
BSNBLK: ..•.•••••
REWIND: •••••••••
WRITETM: ..•••..•
CKPT: •..•••••••
FORCE: ...•••••••
RELEASE: ••••••••

.82

Pseudos: ••.••••.. see Basic Assembly
Language (Paragraph
330: 171. 82).

339: 181.100

GE-400 Series
Program Translator
Macro Assembly Progrom
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: MACRO ASSEMBLY PROGRAM

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: ..

_12

Description

Macro Assembly Program.
MAP.

The Macro Assembly Program (MAP) is used to
convert programs written in the Basic Assembly
Language, the Macro Assembly Language, or
(most commonly) a combination of the two into
GE-400 Series machine language. Minimum requirements for MAP are 8,192 words of memory,
4 magnetic tape handlers, printer, card reader,
and punch. Additional tape units permit tape to
be used in place of the card equipment and the
printer.

.232 Maximum size source
statements: . . . . . 1 card (Basic statements).
no limit (Macro procedure
statements) .
.233 Maximum number of
data items: . • • • . approximately 1,200 with
8K core memory.
.3

OUTPUT

.31

Object Program

.311 Language name:
. 312 Language style:
.313 Output media:
.32

MAP is a three-phase translator. The second
phase is bypassed when the program being assembled contains only the Basic Assembly Language.
The Translator phase reads and processes the
source program. The Selector phase links macro
calls with required generators. The final phase,
the Assembler, assembles the generated and
source Basic Assembly Language instructions and
produces an object program deck and listing.
Originator:

GE Computer Department.

.14

Maintainer:

GE Computer Department.

. 15

Availability:

June, 1964 .

.2

INPUT

.21

Language

.211 Name:
.212 Exemptions:
.22

Extended I/O System.

.322 Compatible with:. . .

Basic I/o Supervisor,
Program Monitor, Loader,
Sort Generator, Merge
Generator, and Report
Program Generator.

• 222 Obligatory ordering:

.223 Obligatory grouping:

\

. 23

Documentation
Subject
Source Program: .
Object Program: .
Storage map:.. •
Restart point list:
Language errors:.
Symbol analysis: .

punched cards or magnetic
tape.
Control and Option Cards .
Identification Division.
Environment Division
(optional) .
Data Division (optional).
Procedure Division.
End of Transfer Card.
list of subroutines required,
data description, procedures.

TRANSLATING PROCEDURE

.41

Phases and Passes
Translator phase:.

Selector phase: • . .

Assembler phase: . .

Size Limitations

. 231 Maximum number of
source statements:

no limit.

©

Provision
listing.
listing.
none.
none.
listing.
listing (optional).

.4

Form

.221 Input Media:

(

Macro Assembly Program
Language and Basic Assembly Language.
none.

Conventions

.321 standard inclusions: •

.33
.13

GE -400 Series relocatable
binary.
machine •
punched cards or magnetic
tape.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

reads and processes the
source program; produces
a tape with macro-calls
and Basic Assembly
Language
links macro-calls with
their required generators
and produces a tape of
generated and input Basic
Assembly Language instructions .
assembles the Basic Assembly Language instructions and produces the assembly listing and object
deck.
Note: When source deck
contains only Basic Assembly Language instructions, phase 2 is bypassed.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330: 181.420
· 42

Optional Mode

.421 Translate:
· 422 Translate and run:
· 423 Check only:
· 424 Patching: .
· 425 Up-dating:
· 43

yes
yes, under control of Program Monitor (Section
330:191) .
yes ..
no special provisions.
no special provisions.

Special Features

· 431 Alter to check only:
. 432 Fast unoptimized
translate:.
...
. 433 Short translate on
restricted program:

yes .
no .
phase 2 is by-passed when
no macros are used.

. 44

Bulk Translating:. . . yes, under control of Program Monitor.

· 45

Program Diagnostics
Selective Trace subroutine .
Selective Memory Dump
subroutine.
ABORT macro, post-mortem memory dump, and
tape dump subroutines.

. 451 Tracers: .
.452 Snapshots:
.453 Dumps:, .

· 46

Translator Library

.461 Identity:

. .

.462 User restriction:
.463 FormStorage medium:
Organization: .

· 464 ContentsRoutines:
Data descriptions:
Macro generators:
. 465 LibrarianshipInsertion: . . . .
Amendment:
Call procedure:
CALL:
!NCS and INCL:

.512 Space required for
each input-output
file: . . .
. . . . . alternate input-output
areas are optional.
.513 Approximate expansion
of procedures Basic Assembly
Language: . .
1 to 1.
Maco Assembly
7 to 1 (average, estimated
Language:
by GE).

Systems Tape (and Library
Tape).
none.

.52

Translation Time:

no data available to date.

.53

Optimizing Data:

data fields can be unpacked
during input, and packed
during output .

\

.54

COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS

.61

Translating Computer

.611 Minimum configuration:
..

open and closed utility
routines, diagnostics,
generators.
none.
yes .

· 612 Larger configuration
advantages:

yes.
yes.

· 62

loaded at execution time.
included at assembly time.

· 621 Minimum configuration:
· 622 Usable extra
facilities:

TRANSLATOR PERFORMANCE

.51

Object Program Space

.7

.511 Fixed overhead
Comment
none

Basic I/O Supervisor: 1,280 words.
Extended I/O System: variable
may specify
the subroutines
needed.
Loader:
none
special area
definition
pseudos allow
overlay of the
loader area.
5/65

Duplicate names:
Improper format:
Incomplete
entries:
Target computer
overflow:
.8

16K and 32K core storage
provides faster translations
and handles more data
item names.

any GE-400 Series system.
all .

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION

Missing entries:
Unsequenced
entries:

read in when
needed.

GE-400 Series central processor with 8,192 core
storage locations.
4 magnetic tape handlers
(1 tape control unit).
1 printer.
1 card reader.
1 card punch.

Target Computer

Error

Name

unaffected for Basic Assembly Language coding
(i. e., same as hand coding); somewhat less efficient with respect to both
space and time when macros are used extensively.

.6

magnetic tape.
software packages and subroutine library, with
Program Monitor between
each program.

.5

Program Monitor:

Object Program
Performance:

Check or
Interlock

Action

check

flagged in listing.

optional
check
check
check

flagged in listing.
flagged in listing.
flagged in listing.

check

flagged in listing.

check

flagged in listing.

ALTERNATIVE TRANSnone.
LATORS:

330: 182.100
GE-400 Series
Program Translator
COBOL
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: COBOL

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Description

.22
. GE-400 Series COBOL
Compiler.

The GE-400 Series COBOL Compiler accepts
COBOL/400 source programs (see Section 330:161)
from punched cards or magnetic tape and converts
the source statements into equivalent BAP symbolic
coding. The standard MAP translator (see Section
330:181) is used to generate relocatable binary
object coding on either punched cards or magnetic
tape. Translation is continuous from the loading
of the source program through the production of the
object program and listing.
The translating GE-400 Series computer must have
a minimum of 8, 192 words of core storage, 4
magnetic tape handlers, one printer, one card
reader, and one card punch. An additional tape
handler allows an object program to be executed
immediately after compilation (i. e., "compile
and run" operation). Any GE-400 Series system
can compile programs to be run on a different
GE-400 system.
All COBOL source programs are compiled under
control of the Tape Operating System (see Section
330:191). COBOL object programs require the
Tape or Card Operating System to provide I/O
control and run-to-run supervision.
Extensive checking is performed on both the source
coding and the generated symbolic coding for syntax
errors and for consistency. A listing of the source
coding, the generated coding, and the errors can
be printed on-line or written on magnetic tape for
subsequent transcription by a media conversion
routine.
. 13

Originator:

.14

Maintainer:

. 15

Availability:

.2

INPUT

.21

Language

.. Computer Division,
General Electric Company.

Form

· 221 Input media:

. . . . . . punched cards or magnetic tape.
.222 Obligatory ordering: .. Identification Division.
Environment Division.
Data Division.
Procedure Division.
.223 Obligatory grouping: .. by division, section, and
paragraph.
· 23

Size Limitations

.231 Maximum number of
source statements: .. no practical limit.
· 232 Maximum size source
statements: . . . . . . . 96 syntactical entries
or 288 operands per
statement.
· 233 Maximum number of
labeled data items: ..
· 234 Maximum number of
files: . . . . . . . . . . . 15.
.3

OUTPUT

.31

Object Program

.311 Language name: .
. 312 Language style:
.313 Output media: .
· 32

Conventions

.321 Standard inclusions:

. Basic Input/Output
Supervisor, Extended
Input/Output System,
and Standard subroutines.
· 322 Compatible with: . . .. Tape or Card Operating
Systems (see Section
330:191) .
· 33

Documentation

. as above.

Provision
Source program:

. . . optional listing on printer
or magnetic tape.
Object program:
· optional listing.
Storage map:
· listing at load time.
Restart point list:
· none.
Language errors: .
· listing.

. . . . . . May, 1965 .

.... GE-400 Series COBOL,
(COBOL/400; see
Section 330:161) .
. 212 Exemptions: . . . . . . . see "Deficiencies with
Respect to Required
COBOL-61" in Paragraph 330:161.142.

· . Basic Assembly Program
(BAP).
· . 1-to-1 symbolic language .
· punched cards or magnetic
tape.

.4

TRANS LA TING PROCEDURE

.41

Phases and Passes

.211 Name:

Phase 1:

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

· . reads the source program
from cards or magnetic
tape; checks source statements for validity and
5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330: 182.410
. 41

Phases and Passes (Contd.)

Phase 2:

Phase 3:

consistency; creates DCW
lists for each file; analyzes
syntax and creates table
of generator calls; creates
symbol table; lists diagnostic messages.
. _. . . . . . . . generates Basic Assembly
Language (BAP) symbolic
instructions based on
generator call table
created in Phase I.
.... . . . . . translates BAP coding
into machine-language
object coding using MAP
translator (see Section

.52

Translation Time: ... no data available to date .

.53

02timizing Data: .... none.

. 54

Object Program
Performance: . . . . . no data available to date.

.6

COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS

.61

Translating Com2uter

.611 Minimum
configuration:

. 8, 192 words of core

storage.
1 printer.
1 card reader.
1 card punch.
4 magnetic tape handlers.

330:181).
.42

02tional Mode

.421
. 422
.423
.424
.425

Translate: . .
· . yes .
Translate and run: . · . yes.
Check only:
· . no.
Patching:
· no.
Updating: . . .
· . no .

.43

S2ecial Features

.612 Larger configuration

advantages:

.62

· no.

translate:
.433 Short translate on
restricted program: . . . . . .

· no.

. . · . no .

configuration:

Bulk Translating:

.45

Program Diagnostics

. 622 Usable extra

· . yes.

.451 Tracers: .
.452 Snapshots:

· no provisions.
· can be incorporated using
options of the NOTE
. clause; deletion requires
recompilation.
.453 Dumps: . . . . . . .... provided by standard
operating systems.
Translator Library:

.7

. The only library available
is the standard relocatable library, which contains all subroutines.

.5

TRANSLATOR PERFORMANCE

.51

Object Program S2ace

. all additional memory and
conventional peripheral
devices.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION
Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

MiSSing entries:

check

print error
message. *

Unsequenced
entries:

check

Duplicate names:

check

Improper format:

check

print error
message. *
print error
message. *
print error
message. *

Incomplete
entries:

check

Target computer
overflow:
Inconsistent
program:

.511 Fixed overhead (for supervisor, etc) Name
Basic I/O
Supervisor:
· 1,280 words.
Extended I/O
System: ....
· .2,400 words.
.512 Space required for
each input-output
file: . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
.513 Approximate expansion
of procedures: .... averages between 4.5 and
7 to 1 (GE estimate).

.. 8, 192 words of core

storage.
1 magnetic tape handler
or card reader for
loading program .
facilities: ..

.44

5/65

Target Com2uter

.621 Minimum

.431 Alter to check only:
.432 Fast unoptimized

.46

. . . . . . additional memory permits
larger internal tables.
additional tape unit
allows "compile and run"
operation.

print error
message. *

none.
check

print error
message. '"

*Error messages can be printed on the printer
or written on magnetic tape. The normal
action is to delete the erroneous entry and
continue the translation.
.8

ALTERNATIVE
TRANSLATORS: . .. none.

330: 183.100

GE-400 Series
Program Translator
Basic FORTRAN IV
PROGRAM TRANSLATOR: BASIC FORTRAN IV

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:

.12

Description

. . . . . . . . . GE-400 Series Basic
FORTRAN IV Translator.

The GE-400 Series Basic FORTRAN IV Translator
is used to translate programs written in the Basic
FORTRAN IV language into Basic Assembly Language (BAL; see Section 330:171). The BALcoding
is then translated into GE-400 Series machine language by the Macro Assembly Program (MAP; see
section 330:181). Translation is continuous from
the loading of the source program through the
production of the object program and listing, and
is under control of the Tape Operating System
(Section 330:191). The generated object program
requires the use of the Tape or Card Operating
System in the target computer to furnish I/O control and run-to-run supervision.
Minimum requirements for use of the Basic
FORTRAN IV Translator are 8,192 words of core
storage, 4 magnetic tape handlers, a card reader,
a printer, and a card purich. Any GE-400 Series
computer system can generate an object program
for any other member of the series that has the
required memory and peripheral complement.

· 232 Maximum size source
statements: . . . . . . . no practical limit.
.233 Maximum number of
data items:
. . . . . approximately 300 data
items and statement
numbers with an 8K
memory.
.3

OUTPUT

.31

Object Program

.311 Language name: . . . . Basic Assembly Language.
.312 Language style: . . . . . 1-to-1 symbolic assembly
language.
.313 Output media: . . . . . . punched card or magnetic
tape, and/or printer.
· 32

Conventions

.321 Standard inclusions: .. Basic I/O Supervisor, and
desired subroutines and
built-in functions.
.322 Compatible with: . . . . Tape Operating System.
· 33

Documentation
Provision
Source program: . . . . listing .
Object program: . . . . optional listing in Basic
Assembly Language.
Storage map: . . . . . . provided by Basic Assembly
Program and Loader.
Restart point list: ... none.
Language errors: ... printer listing .

. . . GE Computer Department,
Phoenix, Arizona.

.13

Originator:

.14

Maintainer:

. 15

Availabili~:

.2

INPUT

.4

TRANSLATING PROCEDURE

.21

Language

.41

Phases and Passes

. . same as above.
. . . . . . June, 1965 .

.212 Name: ..
. 213 Exemptions:, ...
.22

.. GE-400 Series Basic
FORTRAN IV; see Section
330:162.
. none.

Phase 2:

Form

· 221 Input media: . . . . . . . punched card or magnetic
tape .
. 222 Obligatory ordering: .. yes; e. g., a DIMENSION
statement for an array
must precede the first
appearance of an array
name in an executable
statement.
· 223 Obligatory grouping: . . none.
· 23

Phase 1:

. . . . . . . read source statements
and generate assemblylanguage coding .
. . . . . . . . . process above into object
coding using Macro
Assembly Program.

· 42

Optional Mode

.421
.422
.423
.424
.425

Translate: . . . . . . . .
Translate and run: ...
Check only: . . . . . . . .
Patching: . . . . . . . . .
Updating: . . . .. . ..

.43

SpeCial Features

yes.
yes.
no.
no special provisions.
handled by GE-400
Series Librarian.

Size Limitations

.231 Maximum number of
source statements: .. no practical limit.

.431 Alter to check only: .. no .
. 432 Fast unoptimized
translate:
.. no.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE·4pO SERIES

330: 183.433
. 433 Short translate on
restricted program: . . . . . . . . . . no.
. 44

Bulk Translating:

. 45

Program Diagnostics

.513 Approximate expansion
of procedures:
?
.52

Translation Time: ... no data available to date .

.53

Dptimizing Data:

. 54

Dbject Program
Performance: . . . . . no data available to date .

.6

COMPUTER CDNFIGURA TIONS

.61

Translating Computer

... yes.

.451 Tracers: . . . . . . . . . standard subroutine.
. 452 Snapshots: . . . . . . . . . standard subroutine .
.453 Dumps: . . . . . . . . . . two subroutines, DUMP
and PDUMP, enable
selected segments of
core storage to be
dumped in octal floating
point, integer, or octal
with mnemonic format.
The DUMP routine
causes the program to
be terminated and control transferred to the
Program Monitor after
dumping. With the
PDUMP routine, the
program is continued
after dumping.

.611 Minimum
configuration:

.464

. 465

. . . . . . . . . GE-400 Relocatable
Library.
User restriction: . . . . none .
Form Storage medium: .. magnetic tape.
Drganization: "
.. relocatable binary.
Contents Routines: . . . . . . . . open.
Functions: . . . . . . . yes; standard and user.
coded.
Data Descriptions: .. no .
Librarianship: . . . . . . handled by GE-400
Librarian.

.5

TRANS LA TDR PERFDRMANCE

.51

Dbject Program Space

.621 Minimum
configuration:

. 622 Usable extra
facilities:

.7

. 511 Fixed overhead (for supervisor, etc.) Name
Basic Input/Dutput
Supervisor: . . . . .
Input/Output areas: ..
Floating-point
subroutines: . . . . .
.512 Space required for
each input-output
file: . . . • . . . . . . .

5/65

Target Computer

Translator Library

.461 Identity:
.462
. 463

. 4 magnetic tape handlers.
Card reader.
Card punch.
Printer.
8,192 words of core
storage .

. 612 Larger configuration
advantages: . . . . . . additional core storage
permits more symbols.
.62

.46

.. , none .

· .. any GE-400 Series
computer system with at
least 8, 192 words of
core storage, an input
device, and an output
device .
· . . additional memory and
I/O. devices.
Floating Point Dption.

ERRDRS, CHECKS AND ACTIDN
Error

Check

Missing entries:
Unsequenced entries
Duplicate names:
Improper format:

yes
no
yes
yes

Incomplete entries:
Target computer
overflow:
Inconsistent program:

yes

Approximate Space
1,300 words.
1,000 words.
300 words.
.8
contained in I/O. areas.

no
limited
checking

ALTERNATIVE
TRANSLATDRS: · .. none.

Action

print error
message on
printer.

330: 191. 100

GE-400 Series
Operating Environment
Tape Operating System

OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: TAPE OPERATING SYSTEM

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: ..

GE-400 Series Tape
Operating System.
GE-400 Series Card
Operating System

. 12

Description
The Tape Operating System is a group of related
routines for controlling the execution of programs
and for handling run-to-run control. There are
three major routines:
Loader
Basic Input·-Output Supervisor.
Program Monitor.
The Loader is described in Paragraph 330:151.17,
Problem Oriented Facilities.
The Basic Input-Output Supervisor resides in core
storage at all times and performs the following
functions:
Execution of all basic input-output commands.
Input-output error analysis.
Standard procedures for equipment error
correction or recovery.
Input-output simultaneity control.
Typewriter input-output control.
Control of processor channel interrupts
due to:
Arithmetic overflow.
Invalid operation.
Invalid address.
Operator interrupt.
Standard job termination routine.
Link to post-mortem memory dump routine.
Translation of logical to actual input-output
channel and device numbers.
Core image loading routine.
Control of magnetic tape dual channel usage.
Monitor linkage.
Additional I/O facilities can be incorporated in
programs at assembly or compile time through
the use of the Extended Input-Output System.
Communication with the system is performed by
macro-instructions and file parameters; the appropriate coding is generated and becomes an
integral part of a program. Facilities provided
by the Extended I/o System include:
Fixed- and variable-length logical record
processing.
Blocking and unblocking of logical data records.
Input-output buffer alternation.
Extended error recovery procedures.
Input-output buffer scheduling, based upon
Automatic Program Interrupt logic design.
Tape label checking.

©

End-of-reel tape alternation.
Block count and block serial number checking.
Checkpoints and restarts.
Modular design for maximum flexibility and
core utilization.
The Program Monitor assists in the handling of
assembly, debugging, and production runs by
providing run-to-run control and reducing setup
time between runs.
In the assembly and debugging stage, the Program
Monitor uses the System Tape as the operating
tape. The Monitor can load the appropriate translator, read in symbolic programs, assemble them,
and execute them. The System Tape contains all
the major software packages: the Program Monitor itself, the Loader, the Librarian, the Sort and
Merge Generators, the Report Program Generator, the Macro Assembly Program, the COBOL
Compiler, the FORTRAN compiler, and a library
of standard subroutines.
The operating tape for the production function of
the monitor is a Master Instruction Tape containing production programs and the Program Monitor
itself. These programs are usually in the highspeed (non-relocatable) core load format, although
a relocatable format can also be used. The Librarian routine is used to create and maintain the
System and Master Instruction Tapes.
The Program Monitor is automatically called into
core storage from tape at the end of each run. It
receives "next job" or "next run" information from
"control records, " which can be entered via the
card reader, console typewriter, or magnetic tape.
The monitor then locates and loads the next program to be run. The monitor need not be present
in core storage during the run, so there is no reduction in available storage space. All system
functions are performed in the sequence specified
by the control records. The sequence can be
altered at run time by the operator or by the programs themselves.
The Tape Operating System described above is
available now. In its present form it does not
provide any multiprogramming facilities. Also
currently available is a Card Operating System
that includes all the facilities of the present Tape
Operating System except the capability for handling language translations. Use of the Card Operating System makes one additional magnetic tape
handler available to the program.
A new version of the Operating System is being
developed to enable several programs to be run
concurrently in a multiprogramming mode. This
version is scheduled to become available in the
second quarter of 1966. The multiprogramming version will require the Direct Access

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330:191.120
.12

· 13

Description (Contd.)

· 32

Option (see Paragraph 330:051.12). Versions
using disc storage units for system storage will be
available with the delivery of the new disc storage
units.

.321 Initial assignment:
. 322 Alternation: ..
· 323 Reassignment: , ...

Availability

.4

RUNNING SUPERVISION

.41

Simultaneous Working: as incorporated in user's
program.

.42

Multiprogramming:

present versions lack
multiprogramming capabilities; a multiprogramming version is being
developed.

.43

Multi-sequencing: ..

no provisions.

· 44

Errors, Checks, and Action

Tape Operating System
No multiprogramming capabilities:
Multiprogramming
version: . . . . .
Card Operating
System:

currently in use.
second quarter, 1966.
currently available.

· 14

Originator: ..

GE Computer Dept.

. 15

Maintainer: ..

GE Computer Dept .

·2

PROGRAM LOADING

· 21

Source of Programs

Error

.211 Programs from on-

Loading input
error:
Allocation
impossible:
In-out error single:
In-out error persistent:
Storage overflow:
Invalid instructions:

line libraries: . . .

from system tape, library
tape, or previously prepared master instruction
tape, directed by control
records entered via cards,
magnetic tape or keyboard.
.212 Independent programs: from punched cards or magnetic tape, directed by
control records.
.213 Data: . . . . . . . .
as incorporated in user's
program.
.214 Master routines:
from System Tape or Master Instruction Tape.
.22
· 23

.3

• 31

Library Subroutines:
Loading Sequence:

HARDWARE
ALLOCATION:

Program conflicts:
Arithmetic
overflow:

from System Tape or
separate Library Tape.
as specified by control
records; sequence can be
established while collecting programs to form
Master Instruction Tape
or Input Stack Tapes (independent programs), and
can be altered at execution
time when necessary.

Underflow:
Invalid operation:

as incorporated in user's
program .

Storage

standard assignment.
control records .
control records.

Check or
Interlock

Action

check

operator alert.

check

operator alert.

check

automatic recovery.

check

operator alert.

check

operator alert.

check

alert and optional
recovery.

none.
check

alert and optional
recovery.

none.
check

alert and optional
recovery.

Invalid
address:

check

alert and optional
recovery.

Reference to
forbidden
area:

none.

Note: "Alert" means that operator's attention is
required.

.45

.311 Sequencing of program

for movement between levels: . . . .

Input-Output Units

Restarts

.451 Establishing restart

incorporated in program if
in high-speed core format;
otherwise in relocatable
form and assigned by
loader .

points: . . . . . . . . .
. 452 Restarting process:
·5

PROGRAM DIAGNOSTICS

.51

Dynamic

. 312 Occupation of working

storage: . . . . . . . . . programs and overlay segments can be in either
absolute or relocatable
form.

handled by Extended I/O
System.
via control records .

· 511 Tracing:. . . . . . . ..
.512 Snapshots:..... . ..

via control records.
via control records.
(Contd. )

5/65

OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: TAPE OPERATING SYSTEM
.52

Post Mortem: . . . ..

operator or program can
transfer to ABORT routine. which writes a core
dump on magnetic tape
and then returns control
to the monitor.

330: 191. 520
·8

PERFORMANCE

· 81

System Requirements

· 811 Minimum config-

uration: . . . . . . . .

8, 192 core storage loca-

tions.
1 card reader .

.6

OPERATOR CONTROL

. 61

Signals to Operator

.611 Decision required by
operator: . . . . . .. console typewriter.
.612 Action required by
operator: . . . . . .. console typewriter.
.613 Reporting progress of
run: . . . . . . . . . .. all control records are
typed as they are executed;
typing of "last run", "next
run", and time of day is
optional.
.62

Operator's Decisions: via console typewriter.

. 63

Operator's Signals

. 631 Inquiry: . . . . . . . .
· 632 Change of normal

progress: . . . . . .

via console typewriter .
console typewriter permits
operator to assume control
and type in control records
to direct monitor functions.

•7

LOGGING

· 71

Operator Signals: .

console typewriter.

· 72

Operator Decisions:

console typewriter.

.73

Run Progress: . . . .

console typewriter.

.74

Errors:.........

console typewriter.

· 75

Running Times:

optional typeouts.

5 magnetic tape handlers.
1 console typewriter .
Note: The card reader replaces one magnetic tape
handler when the Card Operating System is
used. An addi tional magnetic tape handler
permits program execution immediately after
translation ("compile and run'~.
.812 Usable extra facilities: . . . . . . . . .. all Library Tapes, 2
scratch tapes, Input
Stack tape (control data).
.813 Reserved equipment:
1,280 locations are reserved for fixed words
and the Basic I/o Supervisor; monitor uses core
storage and equipment
only between runs .
.82 System Overhead
.821 Loading time: ...

.822 Reloading frequency:

· 83

· 84

.85

Program Space
Available: ...
Program Loading
Time: . . . . . . .

insignificant; loaded from
tape.
monitor is reloaded automatically upon termination of each job.
all except 1,280 words
mentioned in .813 .
limited by speed of input
device.

Program Performance: no running overhead other
than normal I/O control;
the Program Monitor only
handles run-to-run linkages. No performance
information is available
to date for the multiprogramming version.

(
\

"-

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330:201.100
GE-400 Series
System Performance

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

The overall perfonnance of a GE-400 Series computer system varies with the
speed of the core storage unit and the peripheral equipment incorporated. The performance
of each of the current members of the GE-400 Series on the AUERBACH Standard EDP
Reports benchmark measures of system perfonnance has been analyzed separately. For
performance curves, summary worksheets, and analyses of the results, turn to the System
Performance sections of the individual subreports, as listed below:
GE-415
GE-425
GE-435

©

. 332:201.
.333:201.
. 334:201.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

330:211. 10 1
GE·400 Series
Physical Characteristics

PHYSICAL c::HARACTERISTICS

Width,
inches

Depth,
inches

Height,
inches

Weight,
pounds

64

69

76

1,500

3.85

7,800

78

78

76

1,900

4.2

9,800

78

26

41

309

0.11

380

CR- 21 Card Reader
CP-11 Card Punch
CP-20 Card Punch
TS-20 Paper Tape
Reader/Punch
PR-21 Printer
ML-20 Multiple Tape
Lister

42
47
28
61

33
33
63
26

47
49
60
68

600
700
1,300
770

3.2
1.5
2.3
1. 63

9,850
2,540
6,450
5,400

76
52

34
38

58
57

1,470
1,500

5.4
2.1

11,000
5,360

MT-24, MT-26 Magnetic
Tape Unit
MT-17, MT-19, MT-21,
MT-23 Magnetic ~ape
Unit
Magnetic Tape Controller
(single-channel)
Magnetic Tape Controller
(dual- channel)
MR-20 MICR ReaderSorter

29

32.5

72

750

2.0

5,500

24

32.5

72

540

1.5

4,400

56

32.5

72

785

1. 56

4,600

56

32.5

72

890

1.9

5,600

176

28

45

2,000

9.95

25,000

Unit
415 and 425 Central Processors
(includes core storage)
435 Central Processor
(includes core storage)
Console

Power,
KVA

DS-15 Removable
Disc Storage Unit
(includes space for
two disc drives)
DS-15 Disc Cartridge
DS-15 Controller

50

24

61

?

?

?

19.1
41

16.5
29

1.4
72

?
?

0

0

?

?

DS-20 Disc File Unit
DS-20 Controller
DS-20 File Electronics

71
61
40

38
26
32

63
68
76

2,500
870
390

3.95
1.9
1.9

DS-25 Disc Storage Unit
DS-25 Controller
DS-25 File Electronics

71
91
91

38
34
34

76.5
72
72

4,000

?
?
?

MS-40 Mass Storage Unit
MS- 20 Controller

68.5
41

50.5
29

60
72

1,950

DATANET-20
DATANET-21
DATANET-25
DATANET-30
DATANET-70

}

Manual Peripheral Switch
Console (includes space
for 16 switching units)
General ReqUlrements

?
?

?

8.7
?

7,560
6,180
2,220
?

?
?

19,500
?

Located in Central Processor Cabinet.
117
44

32
34

76
70.4

39

25

67

2,200
?

400

9.6
2.0

2,200

0.7

1,965

Temperature: •••....•.••..••.••. 65 to 85°F.
Relative Humidity: ••••.•..•...•.••• 40 to 60%.
Power: ••••..••...••••..•..••••. 208/120 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire, 60-cycle source.
5/65

BTU
per hr.

?

330:221.101

GE-400 Series
Price Data

PRICE DATA

IDENTITY OF UNIT
CLASS

No.

Name

PRICES
Monthly
Rental

Monthly
Purchase *
Maintenancet

$
CENTRAL
PROCESSOR

$

Central Processor, Console, I/O
Typewriter, eight I/O Channels
(excluding High Speed Channels)
and Core Storage:
415-04
415-08
415-16
415-32

GE-415
4,096 words of core storage
8,192 " I I ' "
"
16,384 " " "
"
32,768
" " "
"

1,750
2,050
3,250
4,450

155
166
230
338

108,192
120,528
186,295
244,608

425-08
425-16
425-32

GE-425
8,192 words of core storage
16,384 "
" "
"
32,768 "
" "
"

3,000
4,100
5,500

178
238
345

154,560
195,400
257,510

435-08
435-16
435-32

GE-435
8,192 words of core storage
16,384 "
" "
"
32,768 "
" "
"

5,500
7,000
8,800

?
305
455

221,130
280,800
354,240

CM6050
TC6011
PS6010

OQtional Features
IBM 1401 Compatibility
Time of Day Clock
Programmed Peripheral Switch

300
110
500

30
5
55

12,000
4,900
24,000

350
450
550
300

30
30
30

16,800
21,600
26,400
14,500

125
65
250

-

8

6,000
3,120
12,000

Removable Disc Storage Unit
(7. 8 million characters)
Controller for DS-15 (includes
High Speed 1/0 Channel)
Second Channel Option
Block Count/File Protect
Disc Cartridge

450

45

21,600

700

50

33,600

175
50
15

-

10

8,400
2,400
400

Disc Storage Unit with 4 Discs
(5.9 million char)
Controller for DS-20

1,125

350

53,000

1,475

45

86,400

OPT140
OPT141
OPT142
DAP930

OPT504
OPT072
OPT506
INTERNAL
STORAGE

$

DS-15
DPC600
OPT137
OPT136
OPT135
DS-20
DSC200

Floating Point Option:
For GE-415
For GE-425
For GE-435
Direct Access option, including:
Memory Protect, SecondLevel Interrupt, Interval
Timer, Non-Stop Mode,
Symbol Controlled Mode,
and Channel Expansion (four
additional I/O channels, ex-eluding High Speed Channels)
Channel Expansion
Symbol-Controlled Move
High Speed Channel (400 KC)

-

* Purchase price includes installatlOn.
t Maintenance rates shown here are for 0-36 months; maintenance rates for older equipment are
slightly higher.
© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-400 SERIES

330:221. 102

IDENTITY OF UNIT
CLASS

Name

No.

PRICES
Monthly
Rental

$
INTERNAL
STORAGE
(Contd.)

OPT201
OPT202
OPT203
OPT204
OPT205

4 Additional Discs (5.9
million char)
8 Additional Discs (11.8
million char)
12 Additional Discs (1. 7
million char)
Fast Access I (4 Discs)
Fast Access n (8 Discs)
Note: Maximum of 16 discs per
DS-20 unit; maximum of
8 Fast Access discs per

Monthly
Purchase*
Maintenance t

$

$

200

-

8,000

400

-

16,000

4,700

300

225,000

1,250

67

60,000

1,900

100

91,000

1,100

52

50,000

2,200

102

100,000

-

14,500

2,800

475

136,500

1,100
175

58
10

52,800
8,400
350

125

15

6,000

40
275

4
50

1,920
6,750

650
35
500
825
1,400
90
80

69
5
69
115
247

1,700

285

30,000
1,680
22,500
41,150
64,800
3,000
3,200
150
81,600

600
300
400

23,000
15,000
20,000

unit.
DS-25
DSC-250
DSC-25
OPT601
OPT602
OPT604
MS-40
DCA60~

OPT130
OPT620
INPUTOUTPUT

PC6011
PS6011
PC6011
CR-21
OPT150
CP-I0
CP-20
PR-21

ML-20

Disc Storage Unit with 16 discs
(100 million char)
Controller for DS:-25 (single
channel)
Controller for DS-25 (dual
channel)
3 Additional Discs (50
million char)
16 Additional Discs (100
million char)
Additional Data Channel (maximum of 3; only 1 per GE400 Series Processor)
Data Cell Drive (533 million
char)
Controller for MS-40
Second Channel Option
Data Cell Cartridge
Peripheral Switch Console with
1 Switch Unit (contains space
for a total of 16 Switch Units)
Switch Unit
Plotter Interface Unit
Punched Card Units and Printer
Card Reader (900 cpm)
51-Column Card Option
Card Punch (100 cpm)
Card Punch (300 cpm)
Printer (1200 lpm)
Custom Print Segments
Code Wheel Change
Extra Code Wheel
Multiple Tape Lister (6 lists;
2,000Ipm)

300

-

-

-

-

-

5

TR-20
TP-20
TS-20

Punched TaEe Units
Punched Tape Reader (500 cps)
Punched Tape Punch (150 cps)
Punched Tape Reader and Punct

500
560
950

75
75
78

22,500
25,200
45,600

MR-20

MICR Equipment
MICR Reader 7Sorter (1,200 dpm)

2,000

300

90.000

* Purchase price includes installation.

t

Maintenance rates shown here are for 0-36 months; maintenance rates for older equipment are
slightly higher.
(Contd.)

5/65

330:221.103

PRICE DATA

IDENTITY OF UNIT
CLASS

No.

Name

PRICES
Monthly
Rental

Monthly
Purchase*
Maintenancet

$
INPUTOUTPUT
(Contd.)

Endorser Option

OPTll

$

100

-

$
450

MT-17
MT-19
MT-21
MT-23
MT-24
MT-26

Magnetic Tape
7-Track Magnetic
20,900 char/sec
30,000 char/sec
42,000 char/sec
60,000 char/sec
83,000 char/sec
120,000 char/sec

Tape Units:
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.

290
400
485
590
700
900

80
100
150
180
200
200

13,920
19,200
23,280
28,320
31,500
40,500

MT-17
MT-19
MT-21
MR-23
MT-24
MT-26

9-Track
28,000
40,000
56,000
80,000
11,000
160,000

Tape Units:
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.

385
430
575
635
850
990

85
110
160
165
210
225

18,500
20,640
27,600
30,408
38,250
44,550

900

30

43,200

1,380

50

66,240

970

40

46,560

1,485

60

71,280

200

30

9,600

200

30

9,600

290

15

11,600

720
10
60
50
20
175

60
2
6
5
3
17

34,600
480
2,880
2,400
960
8,400

MTC-71
MTC-72

MTC-91
MTC-92

OPT033
OPT034
SC60ll
MLC200
OPT120
OPT121
OPT122
OPT123
OPT124

Magnetic
char/sec
char/sec
char/sec
char/sec
char/sec
char/sec

7-Track Magnetic Tape Controllers:
Single-Channel; up to 8 tape
units, any combination
Dual Channel; up to 16 tape
units, any combination
9-Track Magnetic Tape Controllers:
Single-Channel; up to 8 tape
units, any combination
Dual-Channel; up to 16 tape
units, any combination
Communications EguiJ2ment
DATANET-20 (asynchronous
single-line controller)
DATANET-21 (synchronous
single-line controller)
DATANET-25 (multi-processor
adaptor)
DATANET-70
Teletype Buffer
Voice Line Buffer (Asynchronou~
Voice Line Buffer (Synchronous)
Automatic Calling Unit Adaptor
Telpak A Buffer

*

Purchase price includes installation.

t

Maintenance rates shown here are for 0-36 months; maintenance rates for older equipment
are slightly higher.

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

~-

GE 415

'",---

.

General Electric Company

(

',,--

(

"'--AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

GE 415
General Electric Company

/

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

332:011.101

GE-41S
Introduction

INTRODUCTION

The GE-415 is characterized by the cycle time of its core storage unit microseconds for each access of one 24-bit word.

5.8

This report concentrates upon the performance of the GE-415 in particular. All
general characteristics of the GE-400 Series hardware and software are described in Computer System Report 330: GE-400 Series - General.
The System Configuration section which follows shows the GE-415 in the following
standard configurations:
I:
II:
III:

IV:
V:
VIlA:

Typical Card System
4-Tape Business System
6-Tape Business System
12-Tape Business System
6- Tape Auxiliary Storage System
10-Tape General System (Integrated).

These configurations were selected to illustrate the versatility of the GE-415
computer system. Note that while configuration VIlA is very similar to Configuration IV,
it incorporates the optional floating-point hardware. The system configurations are arranged according to the rules in the Users' Guide, page 4:030.120, and any significant
deviations from the standard specifications are listed.
Section 332:051 presents detailed central processor timing data for the GE-415.
See Section 330:051 for the other characteristics of the GE-400 Series Central Processors.
The software provided for all GE-400 Series systems is described in Sections
330:151 through 330:191 of the general report.
A detailed analysis of the overall System Performance of the GE-415 on our
standard benchmark problems is presented in Section 332:201.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

/

332:031.100
GE-415
System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

.1

TYPICAL CARD SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION I
Deviations from Standard Configurations: . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
card punch is 50% faster.
5 more index registers and
console I/O typewriter are
included.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
4,096 words
Central Processor,
Console, I/O Typewriter,
and I/O Channels

CR-21 Card Reader: 900
cards/min.
CP-20 Card Punch:
300 cards/min.
PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
TOTAL RENTAL:

$ 1,750

650
825

1,400

$ 4,625

For overall configuration rules for GE-400 Series -systems, please refer to Section 330:031.

© 1965 AUERBACH

Corporation'_~nd AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

(iE-415

332:031.200
.2

4-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION IT
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
magnetic tape units are 39% faster.
printer is at least 80% faster .
. card reader is 80% faster.
6 index registers, console
I/o typewriter, and multiplydivide are standard.
any or all I/O operations can
be performed simultaneously
with internal processing.
Equipment
Core Storage:
4,096 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

CR- 21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
MT-17 Magnetic Tape Handlers (4)
and Controller: 20,900
characters/sec.
TOTAL RENTAL:
Note:

$ 1,750

1,400

2,060

$ 6,360

GE states that tape configurations will normally contain at least 8, 192 words of
core storage because most of the tape-oriented software requires 8K; this would
increase the system rental by $300 per month.

(Contd.)
5/65

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
.3

332:031.300

6-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION III
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
3 more index registers and console
typewriter input are included.
2 more simultaneous non-tape data
transfers are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

CR-2l Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
MT-19 Magnetic Tape Handlers (6)
.and Controller: 30,000
characters/sec.
TOTAL RENTAL:

©

$ 2,050

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

1,400

3,300

$ 7,900

5/65

332:031.400
.4

GE-415

12-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION IV
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . card punch is 50% faster.
console typewriter input included.
1 more simultaneous non-tape data
transfer is possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

$ 2,050

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-20 Card Punch:
300 cards/min.

825

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min,

MT-23 Magnetic Tape Handers (12)
and Dual Channel Controller:
60, 000 characters/sec.
TOTA-L RENTAL:

1,400

8,460
$13,385

(Contd. )
5/65

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
.5

332:031.500

6-TAPE AUXILIARY STORAGE SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION V
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
3 more index registers and console
typewriter input are included.
2 more simultaneous non-tape
data transfers are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels (except
High Speed Channel)

$ 2,050

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-I0 Card Punch:
100 cards/min

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.

1,400

MT-19 Magnetic Tape Handlers (6)
and Controller: 30,000
characters/sec.

3,300

DS-15 Removable Disc Storage
Units (3), Controller, and
High Speed I/O Channel:
23.4 million characters
TOTAL RENTAL:

2,050*

$ 9,950

* Does not include $15 per month rental for each Disc Cartridge.

."

\

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:031.600

.6

GE-415

10-TAPE GENERAL SYSTEM (INTEGRATED); CONFIGURATION VIlA
Deviations from Standard Configurations: . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 25% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
1 more simultaneous non-tape
transfer is possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
32,768 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

CR- 21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.

MT-23 Magnetic Tape Handlers (10)
and Dual Channel Controller:
60,000 characters/sec.

Optional Features Included:

$ 4,450

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floating Point Option
TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

7,280

350
$14,630

/

,/

5/65

332:051.100
GE-415
Central Processor

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: .

.12

Description

· GE-400 Series Central
Processor with GE-415
Core Storage Unit.

See Section 330:051 for a comprehensive presentation of the capabilities of the GE-400 Series Central
Processor.

.415 Counter control (step and test) Fixed-word counter:. 13.5
Any-word counter: .. 19.3
.416 Edit .With suppression: .. 6.4 + 44. 8W average.
Without suppression: 5.8+ 27. 6W average.
. 417 Convert:. . . . . . . . . . none .
.418 Shift Character: . . . . . . 8.9 to 165.8
Binary: . . . . . . . . 17.6to55.5
.42

The Instruction Times and Processor Performance
Times for the GE-415 system are listed below. This
system now has a 5. 8-microsecond core storage
cycle. See Paragraphs 4:050.41 and 4:050.42 of
the Users' Guide for the definitions of these standard
measures of central processor performance.

.4

Instruction Times in Microseconds

.411 Fixed point Add-subtract:
Multiply: ...
Divide: . . . . . . .

.5.8 + 11.6W
· 62. 2 + 2. 1M (M = value of
the single multiplier
digit) .
· 131. 3 + 2. 1Q (Q = value of
the single quotient digit) .

. 412 Floating point* These times are based on no address modification
in the succeeding instruction. See Paragraph
330:051. 4 for a general presentation of the floatingpoint execution times.
Add- subtract: . . . . . 17.4
Multiply: . . . . . . . . 21. 8
Divide: . . . . . . . . . 31. 7
. 413 Additional allowance for Indexing: . . . . . . . . 5.8 per sequence step.
Indirect addressing: . 5.8 per level.
Recomplementing: .. 7. 7W (1. 0 when W = 1).
.414 ControlCompare: . . . . . . . . 5.8 + 11. 6W
Branch: . . . . . . . . . 5.8 (11.6 for Branch on
Minus or Zero).
*

D = number of digits in multiplier or quotient.
Note that in some tasks additional time may be
required to properly position the product or
quotient.
.421 For random addresses -

PROCESSOR SPEEDS
Note: W = number of 24-bit words in operand.

.41

Processor Performance in Microseconds

With Floating Point Option.

©

Fixed point

Floating point*

c=a+b:...
..17.4+23.2W
b = a + b: . . .
. . 11. 6 + 11. 6W
Sum N items: . . . . (5.8 + 11. 6W)N
c = ab: . . . . . . . . . . 54.1 + 85. 2D
c = alb: . . . . . . . . . 77.3 + 154.3D
.422 For arrays of data c i = ai + b j : . . . . . . . 75.3 + 23.2W
b. =a. +b.: . . . . . . . 63.7 + 11.6W
S~m iteths: . . . . . (38.6 + 11. 6W)N
c = c + aibr . . . . . . 133.3 + 91D

N

70.6
70.6
17.4N
74.0
83.9
127.5
127.5
85. ON
143.5

.423 Branch based on comparison (numeric or
alphanumeric information):. . .
.72.4 + 11.6W.
.424 SwitchingUnchecked:.
.17.4
Checked: . .
. 58. 0
List search:
. 38.6 + 61. 8N (N = number of
comparisons) .
. 425 Format control, per character Unpack: . . . . . . . . . O. 58 .
Compose: . . . . . . . . 12.3 .
. 426 Table look-up, per comparison For a match: . . . . . . 44.4+ 11. 6W
For least or greatest:50. 2 + 11. 6W
For interpolation
point: . . . . . . . . . . 44.4 + 11. 6W.
.428 Moving: . . . . . . . . . . 29.4 + 11. 6W.
* With Floating Point Option.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:201.001

GE-415
System Performance

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING (332:201.100)
These problems involve updating a master file from transaction data in a detail
file and producing a printed record of the results of each transaction. This type of run is
one of the most common commercial data processing jobs (e. g., in payroll, billing, and
inventory control applications). The Standard File Problems are fully described in Section
4:200.1 of the Users' Guide.
In all of the GE-415 Standard Configurations (shown in Section 332:031), the detail
file is assigned to the on-line card reader and the report file to the on-line printer. The
master file is on punched cards in Configuration I and on magnetic tape in all the other Standard Configurations. Because of the GE-415's powerful scatter-read, gather-write facilities
(described in Section 330:111), the master file can be packed very efficiently on magnetic tape
and held to a record size of 108 characters - the same tape record size as in characteroriented systems such as the IBM 1400 line.
The file processing performance of Standard Configuration I, which has no magnetic
tape units and uses punched cards for the master file, is limited by the 300-cards-per-minute
output speed of the CP-20 Card Punch.
Standard Configurations II, ill, IV, and VIlA are progressively more powerful and
more expensive, but the following general comments apply to the performance of all four
configurations of all four of the Standard File Problems. At low activity (i. e., low ratios of
transaction records to master records), magnetic tape time for reading the master file and
writing the updated master file is the limiting factor, as shown by the horizontal lines at the
left side of Graphs 332:201.100 through 332:201.140. At higher activities, the speed of the online printer (665 lines per minute at the required I-inch average line spacing) becomes the
limiting factor in all cases. The GE-415 central processor is sufficiently fast so that at no
time does internal processing speed become the limiting factor on system performance on
these problems.
SORTING (332:201. 200)
The standard estimates for sorting 80-character records by straightforward merging
on magnetic tape (Graph 332:201. 200) were developed from the processing times for Standard
File Problem A according to the method explained in the Users' Guide, Paragraph 4:200. 213.
MATRIX INVERSION (332: 201.300)
The standard estimate for inverting a non-symmetric, non-singular matrix was
computed, by the simple method described in Paragraph 4:200. 312 of the Users' Guide, for
Standard Configuration VIlA, which includes the Floating Point Option. Computation is performed in the floating-point format (l1-digit precision).
GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING (332:201.400)
Standard Mathematical Problem A is an application in which there is one stream of
input data, a fixed computation to be performed, and one stream of output results. Two variables are introduced to demonstrate how the time for a job varies with different proportions
of input, computation, and output. The factor C shows the effect of variations in the amount
of computation per input record. The factor R indicates the ratio of input records to output
records. The procedure used to evaluate performance on the Standard Mathematical Problem
is fully described in Paragraph 4:200.2 of the Users' Guide.
For the GE-415, this problem was evaluated for Standard Configuration VIlA, which
includes the Floating Point Option. Computation is performed in the floating-point format (11digit precision). As a result of the high cost of performing the radix conversions between the
BCD format of the input and output and the internal floating-point binary format, the central
processor is the limiting factor for all conditions evaluated.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:201.011

GE·41S

WORKSHEET DATA TABLE 1 (STANDARD FILE PROBLEM A)
CONFIGURATION
ITEM

1

InputOutput
Times

8.0

(File 1)

Char/block

=-- - - - - -

(File 1)

Recorda/hlock

K

mscc/block

~1 = File
~3_ _ _. _

ill

1. 080

1.080

1,080

10

10

10

0.5

--~- ----~- -

_ _ _O
__

~1=File.~

msec/switch

~1=

____ o~_

File 2 _

~---2

msec/block

~---.-

msec/record

~--.-

~---.-

msec/detail

~9 _ _ _.

msec/work

_

b7 + b8

msec/report

C.P.

- - - - - - - -1.13
--

3.17

3.17

1.13

----- - - - - -1. 61
1. 61
0.29

0.29

0.29

- - - -----o:2ii -

f---- ---

0.28

0.28

---0.18

1 - - - - - . -f - - - - - - -

f - - ___O_.1~ I- _ _ _ _.O~

Punch

-"=----2.~ - - a3 K

Printer

C.P.

0
----0-

--0

f----- -

-=----f---o~ --a2 K

msec/block

~----

3.17

-----

0.29

4:200.112

0

0

2.75
_ _ _ _2_.7_5_ _ f - - _ _2_._75_
1------1. 67
1. 67
1. 67

al

for C.P. and

-,-- --s6.7 -

0

1. 61

____
0.1_8_ _

3
Standard
File
Problem A
F = 1. 0

0

1. 61
0.29
------_ _ _0_.2_8_ _

29.0

56.9
---66.:r--

- - - - - - - -- - - - -0

_ _ _1._13_ _ _ _ _ _1_.13_

File 4

Central
Processor
Times

--i

---- - - ' - - - 0- 0

File 4

C.P.

v.29
~o-1 - - -1--2 :80 r - i--f----

~.90

45.90 -

---1. 67
Printer

0.29

~
45.~

-----

3.17

3.17

column.

4:200.1132

2.75

C.P.

Printer

0.29

------ -

3.17
File 1: Master In
I - -1 - - - I--- -3.17- - - - - -0.70- 200 ---3.17
3.17
File 2: Master Out _o.~
I - -I - - -- - - - 0.56 - - 11.30
11. 30
11.30
File 3: Details
---f---goz
902'--lii'.lQ -90~
~10
File 4: Reports
0.80

dominant

REFERENCE

- - - - - -- - -90.2
- - --90:290.2

0

~3_ _ _. _

msec penalty

72.5

66.7/200
90.2

File 4

IV & VilA

II

I

4:200.114

~-

4

200

5.49

Total

82.73

82.73

902

902

82.73

902

Unit of measure (word')
952

952

952

952

Std. routines

- - -72- - - ' - - - -72- - - - - - - - - 7 - 2 - - - - -72- ---.---Fixed
- - - --i2
0 - - ---12-0-- - - - - r 2 0 - - - - - r n 3 (Blocks 1 to 23)

Standard
File
ProblemA
Space

!-

~--....,..,.,...

- - 7 - 3 - 2 - - ~---73-2--

6 (Blocks 24 to 48)
--'----'884
Files
---125---Working
2,885
Total

-----

- - " ' 7 3 2 -- - - - 7 3 2

- - - - - -- - - - - - - - 1,796
----- -"I:796 1,796
- - - u s - ---rn-- - - - r 2 5 3,922

3,922

4:200.1151

3.922

'" 1 word = 4 characters.

WORKSHEET DATA TABLE 2 (STANDARD MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM A)
CONFIGURATION
ITEM

5

VIlA
Floating point

Fixed/floating point

CR-21 Card Reader

input

Unit name

1-----

Size of record

f---=:---. -

output
input

Standard
Mathematical
Problem A

output
input

msec/block

Tl
UtT2 -

I--;jp

input

msec penalty
msec/record

REFERENCE

TS

f--=:-.-output
T4

--- --- - - --- PR-21 Printer
80 char

- - - --- - - --_.130 char

4:200.413

66.7

--- - - --- --- 90.2
1.1

- - - -1.5- - - - 100.00

T5
--- --------- T6
- - - - -------- -maec/report
' - - - --- ----T7
1. 01
~'---

maec/5 loops

~5-8--

(Contd.)

5/65

332:201.100

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
.1

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING

. 11

Standard File Problem A

. 111 Record sizes Master file: . . . . • .
Detail file: . . . . . . .
Report file: . . . . . . .
. 112 Computation: . . . . . . .

.113 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.113 .
.114 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below .
. 115 Storage space required Configuration I: . . . . 2,885 words .
Configuration II: ... 3,922 words.
Configuration m: ... 3, 922 words.
Configuration IV: •.. 3,922 words.
Configuration VIlA: . 3, 922 words .

108 characters.
1 card.
1Une.
standard.

1,000.0
7
4

2
100.0
7

I

4

Time in Minutes to
2
Process 10,000
Master File Records
10.0
7
",

./'

4

,
ffJ

/'

II

2

1.0
7

-

t-IIT

- f-f-I "

--

~l,~

vu]>..

-

./
/

t-~.

,

I

4

~

2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:201.120
. 12

GE·415
.122 Computation: . . . . . . . standard .

Standard File Problem B

.123 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users I Guide,

. 121 Record sizes Master file: . . . . . . 54 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: . . . . . . . 1 line.

4:200.12 •
. 124 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below.

1,000.0

7
4

!

2
100.0
7

4
(:)

Time in Minutes to
Process 10,000
Master File Records

2

10.0

7
",-

JIll""

4

'

-

./

/

2

~/

1.0
7

-

4

-

2

--

IV \Tn}.

.-E' 111.:..

I

If'

r;
~-

J

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

(Contd. )
5/65

332:201.130

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

. 13

.132 Computation: . . . . . . . standard .
.133 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide •
4:200.13 .
. 134 Graph: .. , . . . . . . . . see graph below.

Standard File Problem C

. 131 Record sizes -:Master file: . . . . . . 216 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: . . . . . . . 1 line.
1,000.0
7
4

2

100.0

I

7
4

Time in Minutes to
Process 10,000
Master File Records

2

- --n.

10.0
7

-

~II

4

-

-IT!

.JI'

./'

*
I

III. IV.

vnA

"

~'

2

1.0
7
4

2
0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:201.140
.14

GE·41S

Standard File Problem D

. 142 Computation: . . . . . . . trebled .
. 143 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.14 .
. 144 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below.

.141 Record sizes Master file: . . . . . . 108 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: . . . . . . . 1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2
100.0
7

I

4
Time in Minutes to
Process 10,000
Master File Records

2

TIl IV VIIA_

10.0
7

./

4
II

2

1.0
7

/

/'

"

-

~'

/

- f--1lI
- f-A~
- ~,
'L

~

I

4

~

2
0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
A verage Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

(Contd.)
5/65

332:201.200

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
.2

SORTING

.21

Standard Problem Estimates

,213 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure

outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.213 ..

Two-way merge is used in
Standard Configuration
II, and three-way merge
in Configurations III,
IV, and VilA .
. 214 Graph:. . .. . .. . . ..... see graph below.

.211 Record size: . . . . . . . 80 characters.
.212 Key size: . . . . . . . . . 8 characters.

1,000

7
4

I

2

V~

~

100
If

7

L

II"

/

4

/
/

2
Time in Minutes to
put Records into
Required Order
10

/

~

/

V~

/

/

V

/

Y /

2
~

1

I

}/

/

II

V

I

~~~

.,

f

7

V

f

,

/

/

4

~

/

f

7

~Y

/

/

4

/

/

2

0.1

/

/

v/
100

~

/~

/

;'

/

II
~

2

4

7

2

4

7

1,000

2

4

10,000

7
100,000

Number of Records
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

332:201.300

GE~415

.3

MATRIX INV'ERSION

.31

Standard Problem Estimates

.312 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200. :312, and Floating
.
Point Option .
. 313 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below .

. 311 Basic parameters: ... general, non-symmetric
matrices, using floating
point to at least 8
decimal digits.
100

7

4

I

I

.

II
2

J

10

7

I

4

II

2
Time in Minutes
for Complete
Inversion

I

1

i
I

I

4

I
1/

1

0.1
"

7

1

I

I

4

I

2

I

0.01
1

2

4

7
10

2

4

7

2
100

4

7
1,000

Size of Matrix
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

(Contd.)
5/65

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

332:201.400

.4

GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING

.41

Standard Mathematical Problem A Estimates

.412 Computation: . . . . . . . 5 fifth-order polynomials,
5 divisions, and 1
square root; computation
is in floating-point mode
(l1-digit precision) .
.413 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.413 .
. 414 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below.

.411 Record sizes: . . . . . . 10 signed numbers; avg.
size 5 digits, max.
size 8 digits.

100,000

7
4

2

10,000

7
4

2
I~

Time in
1,000
Milliseconds
per Input Record 7

, ./

4

--

2

100

7

~~

'-

ff~

~

""'~'l \l'

I.'\'\.'

4

2

10

2
0.1

4

7

2
1.0

4

7

2

4

10.0

7
100.0

C, Number of Computations per Input Record
(Roman numeral denotes standard System Configuration.
R = Number of output records per input record. )
I

\

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE 425
General Electric Company

I

)
/

(

'----- --

I/'--~'

i

-,,---

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED U U. S. A.

GE 425
General Electric Company

/

!

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

333:011.101

,

GE-425

"

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

The GE-425 is characterized by the cycle time of its core storage unit - 3.9 microseconds for each access of one 24-bit word.
This report concentrates upon the performance of the GE-425 in particular. All
general characteristics of the GE-400 Series hardware and software are described in Computer System Report 330: GE-400 Series - General.
The System Configuration section which follows shows the GE-425 in the following
standard configurations:
I:
II:
ill:

IV:

V:
VIIA:

Typical Card System
4-Tape Business System
6-Tape Business System
12-Tape Business System
6-Tape Auxiliary Storage System
10- Tape General System (Integrated).

These configurations were selected to illustrate the versatility of the GE-425
computer system. Note that while Configuration VlIA is very similar to Configuration IV,
it incorporates the optional floating-point hardware. The system configurations are
arranged according to the rules in the Users' Guide, page 4:030.120, and any significant
deviations from the standard specifications are listed.
Section 333:051 presents detailed central processor timing data for the GE-425.
See Section 330:051 for the other characteristics of the GE-400 Series Central Processors.
The software provided for all GE-400 Series systems is described in Sections
330:151 through 330:191 of the general report.
A detailed analysis of the overall System Performance of the GE-425 on our
standard benchmark problems is presented in Section 333:201.

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

333:031.100
GE-425
System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

.1

TYPICAL CARD SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION I
Deviations from Standard Configurations: . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 300% larger.
card punch is 50% faster.
5 more index registers and
console I/O typewriter are
included.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor,
Console, I/O Typewriter,
and I/O Channels

$ 3,000

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-20 Card Punch:
300 cards/min.

825

\
PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

$ 5,875

For overall configuration rules for GE-400 Series systems, please refer to Section 330:031.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-425

333:031.200
.2

4-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION II
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
magnetic tape units are 39% faster.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
6 index registers, console
I/o typewriter, and multiplydivide are standard.
any or all I/O operations can
be performed simultaneously
with internal processing.
Equipment
Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

$ 3,000

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
MT-17 Magnetic Tape Handlers (4)
and Controller: 20,.900 characters/sec.
TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

2,060

$ 7,610

/

(Contd.)
5/65

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
.3

333:031.300

6-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONfIGURATION III
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 100% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
magnetic tape is 39% faster.
3 more index registers and
console typewriter input are
included.
2 more simultaneous non-tape
data transfers are possible.
Equipment
Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/O Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR- 21 Printer: 1.200
lines/min.
MT-19 Magnetic Tape Handlers (6)
and Controller: 30,000
characters/sec.
TOTAL RENTAL:

©

$ 3,000

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc,

1,400

3,300

$ 8,850

5/65

. GE-425

333:031.400
.4

12-TAPE BUSINESS SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION IV
Deviations from Standard Configuration: . . . . . . . , . . . . . card reader is 10% slower.
card punch is 50% faster.
console typewriter input included.
1 more simultaneous non-tape data
transfer is possible.
Equipment
Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
1/0 Typewriter, and
1/0 Channels

$ 3,000

CR- 21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP- 20 Card Punch:
300 cards 1m in.

825

PR-·21 Printer: 1,200
lineS/min.

MT-23 Magnetic Tape Handlers (12)
and Dual Channel Controller:
60,000 cha,racters/sec.

TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

8,460

$14,335

,/

(Contd.)

5/65

333:031.500

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
.5

6-TAPE AUXILIARY STORAGE SYSTEM; CONFIGURATION V
Deviations from Standard Configuration:

core storage is 100% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
3 more index registers and console
typewriter input are included.
2 more simultaneous non-tape
data transfers are possible.
Equipment

Rental

Core Storage:
8,192 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/o Typewriter, and
I/o Channels (except
High Speed Channel)

$ 3,000

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-I0 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.
MT-19 Magnetic Tape Handlers (6)
and Controller: 30,000
characters/sec.
DS-15 Removable Disc Storage Units (3),
Controller, and High Speed Data Channel:
,23.4 million characters
TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

3,300

2,050*
$10,900

* Does not include $15 per month rental for each Disc Cartridge.

i

\.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-425

333;031.600

.6

IO-TAPE GENERAL SYSTEM (INTEGRATED); CONFIGURATION VIlA
Deviations from Standard Configurations; . . . . . . . . . . . . core storage is 25% larger.
printer is at least 80% faster.
card reader is 80% faster.
1 more simultaneous non-tape
transfer is possible.
Equipment
Core Storage:
32,768 words
Central Processor, Console,
I/o Typewriter, and
I/O Channels

CR-21 Card Reader:
900 cards/min.

650

CP-10 Card Punch:
100 cards/min.

500

PR-21 Printer: 1,200
lines/min.

MT- 23 Magnetic Tape Handlers (10)
and Dual Channel Tape Controller:
60,000 characters/sec.

Optional Features Included:

I

$ 5,500

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floating Point Option
TOTAL RENTAL:

1,400

7,280

450
$15,780

/

5/65

333:051.100
GE-425
Central Processor

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

.1

GENERAL

.11

Identity:.......... GE-400 Series Central
Processor with GE-425
Core Storage Unit.

. 12

Description
See Section 330:051 for a comprehensive presentation of the capabilities of the GE-400 Series Central
Processor.

.415 Counter control (step and test) Fixed-word counter:. 9.7
Any-word counter: .. 13.6
.416 EditWith suppression: .. 39. 7W - 2.7 average.
Without suppression: 19.9W + 3.9 average .
. 417 Convert: . . . . . . . . . . none .
.41S ShiftCharacter: . . . . . • . 12.9 to 92.1
Binary: . . . . . . . . . 12.9 to 43. S
.42

The Instruction Times and Processor Performance
Times for the GE-425 system are listed below. This
system uses a 3. 9-microsecond core storage unit.
See Paragraphs 4:050.41 and 4:050.42 of the Users'
Guide for the definitions of these standard measures
of central processor performance.

Processor Performance in Microseconds
D = number of digits in multiplier or quotient.
Note that in some tasks additional time may be
required to properly position the product or
quotient.

.421 For random addresses .4

PROCESSOR SPEEDS
Note: W

.41

Fixed point

= number of words

in operand.

Instruction Times in Microseconds

.411 Fixed point Add-Subtract: ..•.• 3. 9 + 7. SW
Multiply: ••..•.•. 4S. 0 + 2.1M
(M = value of the single
multiplier digit).
Divide: . . . . . . . . . . 100. S + 2.1Q
(Q = value of the single
quotient digit).
.412 Floating pOint* These times are based on no address modification
in succeeding instruction. See Paragraph
330:051.4 for a general presentation of the floatingpoint execution times.
Add-Subtract: . • . . . 11. S
Multiply: . . • . . . . . IS. 0
Divide: . • . . . . . . . . 27.9
.413 Additional allowance for Indexing: . . . • . . . . 3.9 per sequence step.
Indirect addressing: . 3.9 per level.
Recomplementing: .• 5. SW (1. 9 when W = 1).
.414 ControlCompare: . . . . . . . . 3.9 + 7. SW
Branch: . . • • . . . • . 3. 9 (7. S for Branch on Minus
or Zero).

*

With Floating Point Option.

©

.422

.423

.424

.425
.426

.42S

Floating pOint*

47.2
c = a + b: . . . . . . 11. 7 + 15. 6W
b = a + b: . . . . . . 7. S + 7. SW
47.2
Sum N items: . . . (3.9 + 7. SW)N
I1.SN
c = ab: . . . . . . . . 36.5 + 6S.2D
53.4
c = alb: . . . . . . . 52.1 + 121.0D
63.3
For arrays of data ci = ai + br . . . . . 52.5 + 15. 6W
SS.O
bj = ai + bj: . . . . . 43.7 + 7. SW
SS.O
Sum N items: . . . (27.2 + 7. SW)N
5S.7N
c = c + aibj= . . . . 91. 5 + 72.1D
9S.2
Branch based on comparison (numeric or
alphanumeric information): . . . . . . . • . 50 + 7. SW
Switching Unchecked: . . . . . . . 11. 7
Checked: . . • . . . . . 39.0
List search: . . . . . . 27.2 + 42. SN (N = number
of comparisons).
Format control, per character Unpack: . . . . . . . . . 0.39
Compose: . . . . . . . . 9.9
Table look-up, per comparison For a match: . . . . . . 31.1 + 7. SW
For least or
greatest: • • . . . . . 33. 0 + 7. SW
For interpolation
point: . . . . • . • . . . 31.1 + 7. SW
Moving: . . . . . . . . . . 21. S + 7. SW
* With Floating Point Option.

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

333:201. 00 1

GE-425
System Performance

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING (333:201.100)
These problems involve updating a master file from transaction data in a detail file
and producing a printed record of the results of each transaction. Thi;3 type of run is one of
the most common commercial data processing jobs (e. g., in payroll, billing, and inventory
control applications). The Standard File Problems are fully described in Section 4:200.1 of
the Users' Guide.
In all of the GE-425 Standard Configurations (shown in Section 333:031), the detail
file is assigned to the on-line card reader and the report file to the on-line printer. The
master file is on punched cards in Configuration I and on magnetic tape in all the other Standard Configurations. Because of the GE-425's powerful scatter-read, gather-write facilities
(described in Section 330:111). the master file can be packed very efficiently on magnetic tape
and held to a record size of 108 characters - the same tape record size as in characteroriented systems such as the IBM 1400 line.

The file processing performance of Standard Configuration I, which has no magnetic
tape units and uses punched cards for the master file, is limited by the 300-cards-per-minute
output speed of the card punch.
Standard Configurations II, III, IV, and VIlA are progressively more powerful and
more expensive, but the following general comments apply to the performance of all four
configurations on all four of the Standard File Problems. At low activities (i. e., low ratios of
transaction records to master records), magnetic tape time for reading the master file and
writing the updated master file is the limiting factor, as shown by the horizontal lines at the
left side of Graphs 333:201.100 through 333:201.140. At higher activities, the speed of the online printer (665 lines per minute at the required I-inch average line spacing) becomes the
limiting factor in all cases. The GE-425 central processor is sufficiently fast so that at no
time does internal processing speed become the limiting factor on system performance on
these problems.
SORTING (333:201. 200)
The standard estimates for sorting 80-character records by straightforward merging
on magnetic tape (Graph 333:201. 200) were developed from the processing times for Standard
File Problem A according to the method explained in the Users' Guide, Paragraph 4:200.213.
MATRIX INVERSION (333:201. 300)
The standard estimate for inverting a non-symmetric, non-singular matrix was computed, by the simple method described in Paragraph 4:200.312 of the Users' Guide, for Standard Configuration VilA, which includes the Floating Point Option. Computation is performed
in the floating-point format (11-digit precision).
GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING (333:201.400)
Standard Mathematical Problem A is an application in which there is one stream of
input data, a fixed computation to be performed, and one stream of output results. Two variables are introduced to demonstrate how the time for a job varies with different proportions of
input, computation, and output. The factor C shows the effect of variations in the amount of
computation per input record. The factor R indicates the ratio of input records to output
records. The procedure used to evaluate performance on the Standard Mathematical Problem
is fully described in Paragraph 4:200.2 of the Users' Guide.
For the GE-425, this problem was evaluated for Standard Configuration VIlA, which
includes the Floating Point Option. Computation is performed in the floating-point format
(ll-digit precision). As a result of the high cost of performing the radix conversions between
the BCD format of the input and output and the internal floating-point, binary format, the central processor is the limiting factor for all conditions evaluated except at low computational
loads (C less than 0.8) when R = 1. Under these conditions, the printer is the limiting factor.

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

333:201.011

GE·425

WORKSHEET DATA TABLE 1 (STANDARD FILE PROBLEM A)
CONFIGURATION
ITEM

1

(File 1)

Char/block
K

Records/block
maec/block

IoputOutput
Times

IV & VIlA
1. 080
10
29.0

72.5

56.9
- _6ii':'7- f---~- 1 - - - - - -66.7

--

~-4--'-

---~- 1-----9~-

- - ----s6.'7 -

1 - - - - - - - 9Q."290.2
4:200.112
0
1------0
1 - - - -0- -1 - - - - - 0 -

0
0
- - - -00 _ . -1------_.1--------0
0
- - - 0 - - -1 - - - - 0

~-4--'-

File 1 = File 2

0.51

2.29

2.29

File 4

1.16

1.16

1.16

/"~

2.29

~3---'- 1 - - - - - - -1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - -1 - - - - - 0.83
0.83
0.83
0.83
1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - -1 - - - - -1 - - - - - - -

0.20
al
1-----_.- f - - - - 0.19

maec/block

0.20
1------ 0.19

- - - -1.16
--

0.20

1----0.19
~--- 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - -1 - - - - - - - 0.12
I-- ___O.~_1 - - - I- _ _ _ _O~
---

~---.-

msec/detail

b5 + b9
I--- - - - - b7 + b8

msee/work

2.05

1-------1. 22 .

C.P.

3

0.20

Punch

~---- I-- o:lO
a2 K
1--=-=--- 1-- 1-:70 1 - - -

msec/block
for C.P. and

---

a3 K
File 1: Master In

column.

C.P.

'--=----- '-- :58 f - - - - File 4: Reports
Total
Unit of measure

200

4:200.1132

C.P.

Printer

Printer

C.P.

Printer

~O-

f---- --.,.

------

t-----a3 .90 1 - - - - ~:*- I--

1--2.~1 - -

~.~ 1 - - - 4:200.114

-

8.30

-

8.30
1---11.
-60- ~- -U.60 t-002 - 'l:i.60
902
8.30

60.48

902

60.48

60.48

902

902

(word')
~

Standard
File
Problem A
Space

4.02

---~-

0.20
0.20
I - -1 - - - -I--- O~ ~-1 - 1. 90
1. 90
2.29

.42

0.20

----- - -0.19
--

2.05
2.05
2.05
1 - - - - - - -I--- ---1-.-22-1 - - - - 1. 22
1. 22

1 - - - - - - I--~ 1 - - - - - - I - - - - ---':'::'" I--- 2.29
File 2: Master Ou
---.:.29
1 - - - - - - I--~ f-~
1----

dominant

File 3: Details

4

10

66.7/200

File 3

msee/report

Standard
File
Problem A
F = 1.0

1.080

10

File 1 = File 2
f-ru.,-3--· -

1-------

maee/record
Central
Processor
Times

1. 080

0.5

File 1 = File 2

msee/switch

msee penalty

2

54

(File 1)

REFERENCE

m

IT

I

routines_ _

Fixed
1-----3 (Blocks 1 to 23)

f--'-'-- - -

~

~ocks24to~

- - -952
- - - I---~- ---~- -~____
72_ _

72
72
72
---- --------- - -1 - - -120
_ _ _ _120
120
----_.1 - - - - - - -~f--- _ _
732_ _ _

I--~-- ---~- -~-~-

_ _ _1.~_
I- ___
884_ _ _._
Files
I---~1------250
250
125
Working
2.885

Total

3.922

3.922

4:200.1151

250

.3.922

WORKSHEET DATA TABLE 2 (STANDARD MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM A)
CONFIGURATION
VIlA

ITEM

5

REFERENCE

Floating point

Fixed/floating point

Unit name

CR- 21 Card Reader
1-------- 1---- ---- --------PR- 21 Printer
output

Si~e

1 - - - - _ . - 1 - - - - - ~ha-r---- -

input

80 char

input

Standard
Mathematical
Problem A

of record

output

input

T1

66.7

output

T2

90.2

msec/block

f------.- 1----- - - - ---. -

msee penalty

input
T3
1 - - - - - _ . - 1-"------output T4

msec/record

T5

msec/report

T7

4:200.413

~
---- 1. 07
80.0

1 - - - - - - - - - - - - . - 1------- - - - - - - -----14.4
~C/5100PS _ _ _ ~ __
I-- - - - - - - - - -

/

0.83

(Contd. )

5/65

--

333:201.100

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

.1

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING

. 11

Standard File Problem A

. 111 Record sizesMaster file: . . . . . .
Detail file: . . . • . . •
Report file: . . . . . . .
. 112 Computation: . . . . . • .

.113 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.113 .
. 114 Graph: . . . . . . . . . . . see graph below .
. 115 Storage space requiredConfiguration I: . . . . 2,885 words .
Configuration II: ... 3,922 words.
Configuration III: ... 3, 922 words.
Configuration IV: ... 3,922 words .
Configuration VIIA: . 3, 922 words.

108 characters.
1 card.
1 line.
standard.

1,000.0

7
4

2

100.0
7

I

4

Time in Minutes to
Process 10,000
Master File Records

2

10.0

7
l/"

./

4

1-11
2

-

./

,,

7

/"

/

I-III

1.0

-

~

\T'Ut.

I

/

I
4

- iV, VIIA

2
0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

333:201.120

. 12

GE-425
.122 Computation: . • . . . . . standard .
.123 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure

Standard File Problem B

outlined in Users' Guide,

.121 Record sizes -

4:200.12.
. 124 Graph: . . . . . . . • . • . see graph below.

Master file: . . . . . . 54 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: . . . . . . . 1 line.

1,000.0

7
4

2
100.0
7

4

Time in Minutes to
Process 10, 000
Master File Records

1
ITEM

REFERENCE
VIlA

5

Floating point

Fixed/floating point
~t_ _ _. _

Unit name
Size of record

S~ndard
Mathematical
Problem A

maee penalty
~/record
~ec/5

~t --_.- t - - - - - - ~h~ _

/"

120 char

output

T1
1------ ~ - - - ---.
90.2
T2

output

0.67
---- - - - - - - ---0.96

~tT3

output
T4
_ _ _ _ _ _TL- _ _ _ _

loops _ _ _ _ _ _T6_

msec/report

1-:---- - - - - - PR-21 Printer

output

~

msec/block

CR-21 Card Reader

T7

~O

4:200.413.

____

----~---0.69

(Contd.)
5/65

334:201.100

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
•1

GENERALIZED FILE PROCESSING

• 11

Standard File Problem A

.112 Computation: ••••••• standard •
.113 Timing basis: •••••• using estimating procedure

outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.113 •
• 114 Graph:.... . • • . • • . see graph below •
. 115 Storage space requirerl Configuration III: . . • 3, 922 words.
Configuration IV: •.. 3,922 words.
Configuration VIIA: • 3,922 words.

• 111 Record sizes Master file: ••.••• 108 characters.
Detail file: ••••••• 1 card.
Report file: ••.•••. 1 line.

1,000.0
7

4

2
100.0

7
4
Time in Minutes to
Process 10, 000
Master File Records

2

10.0

7
~

/"

4

2

1.0

7

/'

-

/

- I-ITI

- r-ffiI--

-

111.J-V,.:!}Ji'.

I

I-~'
r-,
'I

I

4

2

0.1
0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-435

334:201.120
. 12

• 122 Computation:....... standard •
.123 Timing basis: . . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.12.
. 124 Graph:...... • • • . • see graph below.

Standard File Problem B

.121 Record sizesMaster file: . . . . • . 54 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: •.•..•. 1 line.

1,000.0

.. -

.-

7
4

2
100.0
7

4
Time in Minutes to
2
Process 10,000
Master File Records
10.0
7
.""
~

4

/'

2
1.0

- In!

7

-

4

-

2

/

--

-vnA.

.-J!k1V.!..

-

/

W!
~

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

(Contd.)
5/65

334:201.130

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
. 13

.132 Computation: ....••. standard .
.133 Timing basis: • . . . . . using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.13.
• 134 Graph:.. . • . . . . . . . see graph below.

Standard File Problem C

.131 Record sizesMaster file: . . . • . . 216 characters.
Detail file: . . . . . . . 1 card.
Report file: ..•..•• 11ine.

1,000.0
7
4

2
100.0
7

4
Time in Minutes to
Process 10, 000
Master File Records

2

10.0

.-

7
~

4

-

---

Ill, IV, VlIA

/"

-ill
/

,

~y

2

~/

1.0

7
4

2
0.1

o. 1

0.0

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-435

334:201.140
• 14

Standard File Problem D

• 142 Computation:....... trebled .
• 143 Timing basis: ••.•.. using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.14.
• 144 Graph:. . . • • . • . . • • see graph below.

. 141 Record sizes Master file: •.••.. 108 characters.
Detail file: ••..•.. 1 card.
Report file: •.•...• 1 line.
1,000.0
7

4

2
100.0
7

4
Time in Minutes to
Process 10,000
Master File Records

2

-

11I., tv , \T11A.

10.0
7
",

.- .-

-

~

4

/

III

2

ffJ
1.0 ~.

/'

V

I

7

I

I

4

~

2
0.1
0.0

0.1

0.33

1.0

Activity Factor
Average Number of Detail Records Per Master Record
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations. )

(Contd.)
5/65·

334:201.200

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
.2

SORTING

• 21

Standard Problem Estimates

.213 Timing basis: •••••. using estimating procedure,
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.213 •
Three-way merge is used
in Configuration ill,
IV. and VIlA .
.214 Graph: . • . . . • . . • . • see graph below •

• 211 Record size: .••..•• 80 characters.
• 212 Key size: •••••..•. 8 characters.

1,000

7
4

2
;

100
~

7

~

4

/

V

/V
2

Y

Time in Minutes to
put Records into
Required Order
10

I

.:o.~/

V

~;

7

,/

/

4

V

/

V

2

/

1

I

)1

I

f

7

/

/

-I

4

/

/
2

/~

/
/

0.1
100

2

4

~~
7

1,000

2

4

7

10,000

2

4

7

100,000

Number of Records
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

i

\

©

1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

GE-435

334:201.300 .

_3

MA TRIX INVERSION

.31

Standard Problem Estimates

_312 Timing basis: _ •••.• using estimating procedure
outlined in Users' Guide,
4:200.312, and Floating
Point Option •
• 313 Graph:.... • • • • • • • see graph below •

• 311 Basic parameters: ••• general, non-symmetric
matrices, using floating
point to at least 8 decimal
digits.
10
7

4

/-

J

I
/

2

1

7
4

1/

II

2

II

Time in Minutes
for Complete
0.1
Inversion
7

I

I

I

4

;:s

!j

2

/

0.01
I

7

I

I

4

I

I

/

2

If

0.001

2
1

4

7

2

4

10

2

7

4

100

7
1,000

Size of Matrix
(Roman numerals denote standard System Configurations.)

(Contd.)
5/65

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

334:201.400

.4

GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL PROCESSING

. 41

Standard Mathematical Problem A Estimates

root; computation is in
floating-point mode (11digit precision) •

.411 Record sizes: •••••• 10 signed numbers; avg.
size 5 digits, max. size
8 digits.
• 412 Computation: •••.. 5 fifth-order polynomials,
5 divisions, and 1 square

.413 Timing basis: •••••. using estimating procedure
outlined in Users I Guide,
4:200.413 •
.414 Graph: ••.••.•••.. see graph below.

100,000

7

4

2

10,000

7
4

2
Time in
1,000
Milliseconds
per Input Record 7

4

~

2

100

7

- -R

~
R-O.01,0.1

v

,. ~ ;~

-

1.0

V

4

2

10

2
0.1

4

7

2
1.0

4

2

7

4

10.0

7
100.0

C, Number of Computations per Input Record
(Roman numeral denotes standard System Configuration.
R = Number of output records per input record.)

© 1965 AUERBACH Corporation and AUERBACH Info, Inc.

5/65

/.

~-

GE 600 SERIES
General Electric Company

l

(

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

:,I

,',

',I"~,'

.~

"

":
<1:'"
"

:,~,

,

;!

GE 600 SERIES
General Electric Company

/

AUERBACH INFO, INC.
PRINTED IN U. S. A.

340:001.001
GE-600 Series
Contents

CONTENTS

Report 340: GE-600 Series - General

\

Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
Data Structure . . . . . . . . .
System Configuration (general)
Internal Storage
Core Storage. . . . . . .
DS-20 Disc Storage Unit
MDS 200 Magnetic Drum

340:011
340:021
340:031

Central Processor Module (general)
Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input-Output: Punched Card and Tape
CR-20 Card Reader . . . . . . .
CP-10 and CP-20 Card Punches
TS-20 Punched Tape Unit
Input-Output: Printers
PR-20 Printer . . . . .
Input-Output: Magnetic Tape
7-Track Magnetic Tape Handlers: MT-17,
MT-19, MT-21, MT-24, MT-26 . . . . .
9-Track Magnetic Tape Handlers; MT-17A,
MT-19A, MT-21A, MT-24A, MT-26A
Input-Output: Other
Datanet-30
.....
Simultaneous Operations
Input/Output Control.
Demands on System
Instruction List
Data Codes . . . . . . .
Problem Oriented Facilities
Sort/Merge
Data Transcription
IDS
....... .
GIFT . . . . . . . .
Process Oriented Languages
COBOL . . . . . . . . .
FORTRAN IV . . . . . .
Machine Oriented Language: GEM
Operating Environment
GECOS .
GEIOS . . . . .
GEFRC . . . . .
General Loader
GERTS . . . . .
System Performance (general)
Physical Characteristics
Price Data . . . . . . . . . .

340:051
340:061

340:041
340:042
340:044

340:071
340:072
340:073
340:081
340:091
340:092
340: 101
340:111
340:111
340:121
340:141
340:151.
340:151.
340:151.
340:151.

13
15
16
17

340:161
340:162
340:171
340:191
340:191.
340: 191.
340:191.
340:191.
340:201
340:211
340:221

122
123
124
125

Report 343: GE-625
Introduction
System Configuration
Central Processor .
System Performance
Comments
Generalized File Processing
Sorting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix Inversion
.... .
Generalized Mathematical Processing

© 1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

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GE-600 SERIES

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Report 344: GE-635
Introduction
System Configuration
Central Processor .
System Performance
Comments . . . .
Generalized File Processing
Sorting . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix Inversion
.... .
Generalized Mathematical Processing

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GE-625 COMPUTER SYSTEM
(Photo courtesy of General Electric Computer Department)

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340:011.1 00

GE-600 Series
I ntroducti on

INTRODUCTION

The GE-600 Series represents the General Electric Computer Department's first entry
into the large-scale computer field. Emphasis in the design of the GE-600 Series has been to
incorporate the better features of existing computer systems rather than to blaze new trails in
hardware development. The series was developed primarily to supersede the many IBM 7090/7094
installations within the General Electric organization. It appears to be a well-engineered and
well-coordinated, although cautious, entry into the large-scale computer market.
Two members of the series, the GE-625 and GE-635, were announced for commercial
sale in May 1964, with rumors of more to come. Already announced is a corresponding line of
computers for military procurement. This line includes, along with the above systems: the
militarized M-625; the M-605, which is similar to the M-625 but lacks floating-point and doubleprecision hardware; and the A-605, which is a miniaturized version for aerospace applications.
The GE-625 and GE-635 share all components except core storage, and their performance is
quite similar. First delivery of a commercial GE-600 Series computer system is scheduled for the
first quarter of 1965. Typical rentals for a single-processor GE-635 system range from approximately $40, 000 to $65,000 per month. GE-625 systems with 32K words of core storage will
rent· for $3,000 less than the corresponding GE-635 systems.
There is no direct program compatibility between the GE-600 Series and other GE
computer systems (the GE-400 Series and the GE-200 Series), although the 600 and 400 Series
do share the same peripheral devices. More important is the question of compatibility between
the GE-600 Series and the IBM 7090 and 7094 systems. Present compatibility is limited to the
follOWing:
o

Software - The GE-600 Series. FORTRAN IV compiler will accept
and compile source programs written in FORTRAN IV for an
IBM 7090/94. The General Internal FORTRAN Translator (GIFT)
will accept source programs written in FORTRAN II for an IBM
7090/94 and translate them to FORTRAN IV language. The restrictions for GIFT are the same as for SIFT, the Share Internal
FORTRAN Translator.

o

Hardware - The GE-600 Series Magnetic Tape Handlers are codecompatible (except for a few special characters) with IBM 729
Magnetic Tape Units in both the binary and BCD modes.

The compatibility outlook for the future is more promising. General Electric is developing a combination hardware-software system that will enable an IBM 7090/94 object program to be
run on a GE-600 Series computer system with few, if any, changes. The hardware for this
purpose will be a "black box" containing the same number and size of accumulators and registers
as in the simulated computer, and some control logic. The software will consist of extensions to
the operating system (GECOS) to provide the necessary interrupt actions and I/O interface; i. e. ,
the 7090/94 input-output operations will be simulated. GE indicates that the object programs run
on a GE-600 Series computer system will duplicate the results (precision, truncation, etc.) obtained on the simulated computer, and that it will be possible to run a 7090/94 program in a multiprogramming mode with other GE-600 Series programs. Typical scientific program run times are
expected to be at least as fast as on the IBM systems. The 7090/94 simulator facilities are scheduled for release about the third quarter of 1965.
In order to emphasize the similarities of the current members of the GE-600 Series and
to prepare for future additions to the line, the AUERBACH Standard EDP Reports analysis of the
GE-600 Series is organized in a manner similar to the IBM System/360 report. The main body
of general description and analysis is presented in this Computer System Report (340:\. with subreports (343: for the GE-625 and 344: for the GE-635) providing detailed information about the performance of the individual systems. In the general report (340:), where differences exist, the
specifications are presented for both systems. Otherwise, all remarks apply to both the GE-625
and GE-635.
The GE-600 Series Computer systems can be characterized by three major topics: the
modularity of the hardware, the comprehensive line of software, and the emphaSis upon multiprogrammed operation. Each of these topics is discussed in the paragraphs that follow.

©1964 Auerbach Corporotion and Info, Inc.

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GE-600 SERIES

340:011.1 01
HARDWARE
A GE-600 Series computer system includes four major types of components:
•

Memory Modules

•

Processor Modules

•

Input/Output Controller Modules

•

Peripheral devices.

Memory Module
The two currently-announced members of the GE-600 Series, the GE-625 and the GE635, differ only in the speed of their core storage units. The GE-625 uses a co-re memory with
a cycle time of 2 microseconds; the GE-635 uses a unit with a I-microsecond cycle time. Each
access, in both systems, is for a word-pair (two 36-bit-plus-parity words).
Up to 262,144 36-bit words of core storage can be incorporated in a single-processor
GE-600 Series system, in modules of 32,768 words. One40, 960-word module can be substituted
for a 32K module in systems containing less than the maximum capacity.
The Memory Module is the .heart of every GE-600 Series system. Each Memory
Module is composed of a System Controller and one or two 32K modules of core storage (or
possibly one 32K and one 40K module), and is an independent unit capable of being accessed
simultaneously with other Memory Modules.
The System Controller performs many of the priority and control functions in a GE-600
Series system. Among these functions are:
•

Control of communication between memory and the central processor and
between memory and the I/O Controller.

•

Control of input-output interrupts for multiprocessor jobs, system programs, and
peripheral devices.

•

Switching of control· signals, addresses, and data to and from the Memory Module.

Each System Controller has eight "memory ports" (channels) for connection to Processor Modules, I/O Controller Modules, or non-standard peripheral devices.
Processor Module
The GE-600 Series Processor Module uses a single-address instruction format and has
a wide range of address modification capabilities, including various combinations of indexing and
indirect addressing. There are two basic modes of processor operation: master mode and
slave mode. Control programs will normally be executed in the master mode, and the user's
object programs in the slave mode. Programs running in the master mode have access to the
entire core memory, can initiate peripheral and internal control functions, and do not have
base address relocation applied. Programs running in the slave mode have access to a limited
portion of the memory (as specified by the Base Address Register), cannot initiate peripheral
control instructions, and have the contents of the Base Address Register added to all relative
memory addresses of the object program. The processor is automatically put into the master
mode of operation when the Master Mode Indicator is set or when any interrupt is recognized.
In a system having multiple Processor Modules, one is designated the control processor. Only
the control processor, operating in the master mode, can initiate input-output operations.
Instructions are fetched in pairs - an even word and the successive odd word. Address
modification, operand fetching; instruction execution, and fetching of the next pair of instructions
are overlapped to increase processor performance wherever possible. Indexing does not increase
the instruction execution times, but indirect addressing does.
Processor registers include a timer register, eight index registers, an indicator
register, an instruction counter, a 72-bit accumulator (which can also be used as two independent
accumulators or four independent index registers), an exponent register for floating point
operations, and the Base Address Register mentioned above.
A total of 170 basic instructions are available, most of which will be familiar to programmers of other large-scale binary computers. The instruction repertoire includes comparisoris (logical, algebraic, magnitude, masked, and between limits), loading, storing, Boolean
operations, branching, and shifting instructions. Provision is made for the use of half-word,
Single-word, or double-word operands in many operations.
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INTRODUCTION

340:011.1 02

Floating-point operations include single or double precision loading, storing, comparison, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Floating-point numbers are represented
by a mantissa of 28 bits (single precision) or 64 bits (double precision) and a binary exponent of
8 bits. Both the exponent and mantissa are represented in two's complement notation. Single
precision is equivalent to about 8 decimal digits, and double precision to 19 decimal digits.
Several special instructions can reduce programming effort and increase efficiency
by facilitating the processing of lists of data and the coding of routines that require multi-word
precision. There are, however, no editing instructions, no code translation instructions other
than Gray to binary, and no radix conversion instructions other than a one-digit-at-a-time
binary to BCD instruction.
A powerful, nine-level interrupt system is incorporated into the GE-600 Series processors. The interrupt levels fall into two broad classifications:
•

Fault interrupts - five level of interrupts caused by detection of faults
or special conditions within the Processor Module.

•

Program interrupts - four levels of interrupts, all dealing with
input-output conditions.

Handling of the interrupts and error conditions is normally a function of GECOS, the
standard supervisory routine, but the programmer can specify the use of his own routines for
many conditions.
Input/Output Controller Module
The I/O Controller is a small processor containing the necessary logic circuits for
independent handling of all I/O operations once a connection to a Memory Module has been established. The I/O Controller uses information from the supervisory area of core memory to
indicate the input or output area of memory. It also performs an address check to prevent an
I/O operation from either reading or writing in an area outside the proper program area. An
I/O Controller can have up to 16 input-output channels: 10 standard-speed (up to 25,000 characters per second) and 6-high-speed (up to 400,000 ·characters per second). Each I/O Controller can access up to four Memory Modules, and each Memory Module can be connected to
up to four I/O Controllers, providing the capability for connecting a large number of peripherals on-line to a GE-600 Series computer system.
Peripheral Devices
A limited number of conventional peripheral devices have been announced to date;
they are listed in Table I, along with the number of high-speed (type HS) or standard-speed (type
SC) input-output channels required for each subsystem.
System Configuration
Configuration rules for the GE-600 Series components can be summarized as follows:

•

•
•

Each Processor Module can be connected to 1 to 4 Memory Modules.
Each Memory Module can be connected to a total of up to 8 Processor
Modules, I/o Controller Modules, and non-standard input-output devices.
Up to 262, 144 words of core storage can be incorporated in a singleprocessor system.
Each I/O Controller Module can be connected to 1 to 4 Memory Modules
and can have from 3 to 6 high-speed input-output channels and from 5 to 10
standard-speed input-output channels.

Software
General Electric is providing a well-integrated line of software for the 600 Series that
includes:

•

General Comprehensive Operating Supervisor (GECOS) - This is a master
control routine, and all activities of a GE-600 Series computer system
are normally carried out under its control. GECOS has provisions for
receiving job programs from a card reader or from a program library,
scheduling, allocation of peripherals and memory, and communication
with the operator. It can control the execution of up to eight programs
concurrently in a multiprogramming mode. Scheduling is based on
priority and peripheral availability. Communication with GECOS is
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340:011.103

GE-600 SERIES
handled through control cards or the console typewriter. A version of
GECOS that will handle multi-sequencing (multiple Processor Modules)
is scheduled for mid-1965.

•

General File Record Control (GEFRC) - This is the control routine
that will usually be used by programmers specifying input-output
operations. It permits all input-output data to be regarded by the
programmer in terms of files, and frees the programmer from tedious
coding of input-output operations. File Specifications in the user's
programs specify record sizes, blocking, and other information.
(They are produced automatically by the COBOL and FORTRAN compilers.) The device assigned to each file at execution time depends
upon the content of the File Control Card submitted at load time, providing a degree of freedom from the need for specific types of peripheral devices.

•

General Loader - The functions of the General Loader include:
(1) loading programs from the magnetic drum (or disc) into core
storage when they have been scheduled to run; (2) relocating subprograms into a contiguous area of memory and setting the required
linkages; and (3) loading overlay segments and setting up the required
linkages. The General Loader can also cause debugging facilities to
be incorporated at load time.

•

General Remote Terminal Supervisor (GERTS) - GERTS is the control
program for handling jobs from remote terminals. It accepts jobs,
stores them on the magnetic drum (or disc), and submits them to
GECOS for execution based on a priority transmitted with the job.

•

Macro Assembler (GEM) - GEM is the symbolic assembly language
for the GE-600 Series. The prime feature of GEM is its extensive
macro capabilities.

•

COBOL - GE-600 Series COBOL incorporates all of Required COBOL-61,
most of Elective COBOL-61, and the SORT and Report Writer facilities
of Extended COBOL-61. The implemented features of Elective COBOL-61
include the CORRESPONDING option of the MOVE verb and the COMPUTE,
ENTER, and USE verbs.

•

FORTRAN - This is a standard implementation of the mM 7090/94
FORTRAN IV language, with a few extensions. Capabilities for
debugging and variable-field input and output are featured.

•

SORT/MERGE - The GE-600 Series Sort/Merge routine accepts input
from magnetic drum, disc, or tape and will produce output to any
of the same devices. Sorts can be performed on numeric or alphanumeric keys, with the individual fields of a key in either ascending
or descending order.

•

Bulk Media Conversion - The Bulk Media Conversion routine' is contained
in the system library and can be called by control cards. Conversion
capabilities include punched card to magnetic tape or magnetic disc;
perforated tape to magnetic disc; magnetic tape to printer, punched
card, or remote terminal; and magnetic disc to punched card, remote
terminal, or magnetic tape.

•

Mathematical Routines - An extensive library of mathematical routines
includes trigometric, exponential, and logrithmic function evaluation,
matrix manipulation, curve fitting, and polynomial root determination.

•

•

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Service Routines - An integrated set of service routines is provided for
file maintenance, software maintenance (updating of system or user's
compilers or programs), and diagnostics.
Integrated Data Store (I-D-S) - This routine provides the capability
for organizing files on a disc storage unit in a non-sequential manner.
Individual detail records are linked together to form chains. A record
can belong to more than one chain, effectively eliminating the need to
store duplicate information. Macro operations are provided for
obtaining a record to be processed, for storing and linking a processed
record, and for deleting a record. I-D-S can be used to provide mass
storage facilities for COBOL or assembly-language programs for any
GE-600 Series computer system that includes a disc storage unit.

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340:011.104

INTRODUCTION
Use of GECOS, the standard supervisory control routine, requires 8,192 words of core
storage and the following complement of peripheral equipment: one magnetic drum or disc file,
three magnetic tape units, card reader, card punch, and printer. In addition, the system compilers, such as COBOL and FORTRAN, require three additional files which can be held on three
more tape units or one drum or disc file.
The success of the GE-600 Series will be largely dependent upon the quality of the software provided. Most of the GE-600 Series software was developed by individual GE departments
that are experienced users of large-scale computers, and GE is emphasizing the benefits of this
"user-developed" software.
MULTIPROGRAMMING

The general considerations for successful multiprogramming are examined at length
in the IBM System/360 report, Paragraph 420:011. 52. In the GE-600 Series systems, scheduling
of programs to be run is a function of GECOS, based on availability of peripherals and userdefined priorities. Precautions have been taken to prevent a program from being locked out
due to a large requirement for peripherals and to prevent a compute-bound program from "hogging"
the processor. Switching from one program to another program is normally a result of the initiation of an I/O operation that would delay the program from actively using the processor. Control is given to another program selected on the basis of priority and ability to use the processor
immediately (i. e., no I/O operation in process). There appears to be little a user can do to
influence the mix of programs being run at any given time in any way other than through judicious
assignment of priorities. The operator can alter priorities to permit the inclusion of a "crash"
program.
It is impossible, without modification of the standard control routines, for one program
to access any area outside the program limits set at load time. This applies to input-output
operations as well as internal processing, and should provide adequate protection against
interference between concurrently running programs.

Because multi-programming will probably be the normal mode of operation for GE-600
Series computer systems, their performance on the Standard File Processing Problems and the
Standard Mathematical Processing Problem has been evaluated with this in mind. Input and
output files are considered to be on tape for the main processing runs, and the times for the input
and output data transcription runs are shown separately.
TABLE I: GE-600 SERIES PERIPHERAL SUBSYSTEMS
I/O Channels
Type

Subsystem

Reference

No.

1

se

CR-20 Card Reader - 900 cpm

340:071

1

SC

CP-10 Card Punch - 100 cpm

340:072

1

SC

CP-20 Card Punch - 300 cpm

340:072

1

SC

PR-20 Printer - 1200 lpm

340:081

1

SC

TP-20 Perforated Tape Punch - llO char/sec

340:073

1

SC

TR-20 Perforated Tape Reader - 500 char/sec

340:073

1

SC

TS:"20 Perforated Tape Reader/Punch

340:073

1

HS

Single-Channel Magnetic Tape Subsystem - 1 to 16 7track or 9-track magnetic tape units, from 7,500 to
160,000 char/sec

340:091,
340:092

2

HS

Dual-Channel Magnetic Tape Subsystem - 1 to 16 7track or 9-track magnetic tape units, from 7,500 to
160,000 char/sec

340:091,
340:092

1

HS

MDS 200 Magnetic Drum Unit - 786,432 words, 17 msec
average access time

340:044

1

HS

DS-20 Disc Storage Unit - 4 to 16 discs, 245,760 words per
diSC, 225 msec average access time

340:042

1

SC

DATANET-30 Data Communications Processor

340:101

1

SC

Console with Typewriter

340:061

© 1964 Auerbach Carporation and Info, Inc.

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340:021.100
GE-600 Series
Data Structure

DATA STRUCTURE

.1

.2

STORAGE LOCATIONS
Name of Location

Size

Purpose or Use

Word:

36 bits + parity bit

basic addressable storage
unit; holds 6 characters or
one single-precision fixedpoint or floating-point
binary operand.
basic unit transferred from
core storage in each access;
holds one double-precision
fixed-point or floating-point
binary operand.
holds 1 character.
Disc Storage record location.
Disc Storage.
Magnetic Drum .

Word pair (Double-word):

2 words

Row (magnetic tape):
Sector (Disc Storage):
Track (Disc Storage):
Band (Magnetic Drum):

6 or 8 data bits + parity bit
40 words
8 or 16 sectors
6,144 words

INFORMATION FORMATS
Type of Information
Alphanumeric character: . . . . . . . .
.
Fixed-point binary operand (short): . .
.
Fixed-point binary operand (long): . . . . . .
Floating-point binary operand (short): ...

Representation

6-bit portion of a word.
1 word.
2 words.
1 word; 28-bit fraction and 8-bit binary
exponent.
Floating-point binary operand (long): . . . . 2 words; 64-bit fraction and 8-bit binary
exponent.
Instruction:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 word.

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340:031.100
GE-600 Series
System Configuration

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

A GE-600 Series computer system is a highly flexible system capable of almost unlimited expansion. Each GE-600 system consists of:
•

Processor Module(s).

•

Main Memory Module(s) and associated System Controller(s)

•

Input-Output Controller Module(s).

•

Various peripheral sUbsystems.

•

Magnetic drum or magnetic disc unit(s).

Processor Module
Only one Processor Module, Model CP 8030, has been announced to date for GE-600 Series
computer systems. Each processor in a system can have up to four Processor Ports, each
connected to a different System Controller. Each processor can thus directly address up to
262,144 words of core storage.
Main Memory
The core storage modules offered with the GE-625 system are:
•

Model MM 8031 - System Controller and 32,768 words.

•

Model MM 8032 - System Controller and 40, 960 words.

•

Model OPT 804 - 32,768 words.

The GE-625 core storage units are characterized by a cycle time of 2 microseconds per access
of two 36-bit words.
The core storage modules offered with the GE-635 system are:
•

Model MM 8030 - System Controller and 32,768 words.

•

Model MM 8033 - System Controller and 40, 960 words.

•

Model OPT 801 - 32,768 words.

The GE-635 core storage units are characterized by a cycle time of 1 microsecond per access
of two 36-bit words.
The rules for combining core storage modules are the same for both systems. A Memory
Module is composed of a System Controller and 32K, 40K, 64K, or 72K words of memory; however, only one 40K or 72K unit is allowed per system. The maximum core storage for a "single
computer system" is 262,144 words. (Such a system can actually have more than one Processor
Module - one processor acts as control processor with the otl:lers acting as slave processors. >"
The maximum core storage for a "multi-computer system" (independent processors sharing one
or more core storage units) depends upon the number of processors incorporated in the system.
Each System Controller can have up to eight Memory Ports, each connected to a Processor Module,
an Input-Output Controller Module, or a non-standard input-output device.
Input-Output Controller Module
Each Input-Output Controller can have from 3 to 6 high-performance (400,000 characters per
second) and from 5 to 10 standard-performance (25,000 characters per second) input-output
channels. The maximum data transfer rate between an I/O Controller and a System Controller
is 1. 6 million characters per second. Each I/O Controller can have up to four IOC Ports, each
connected to a different System Controller.
Peripheral Subsystems
The number and type of channels required for each GE-600 Series peripheral SUbsystem are
shown in Table I. . HS refers to a high-speed input-output channel, BC to a standard-speed
channel. The Reference column defines the report section where additional information can be
found concerning each subsystem.

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

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GE~600

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TABLE I: GE-600 SERIES PERIPHERAL SUBSYSTEMS
I/O Channels
No.
Type

Reference

Subsystem

1

SC

CR-20 Card Reader - 900 cpm

340:071

1

SC

CP-I0 Card Punch - 100 cpm

340:072

1

SC

CP-20Card Punch - 300 cpm

340:072

1

SC

PR-20 Printer - 1200 lpm

340:081

1

SC

TP-20 Perforated Tape Punch - 110 char/sec

340:073

1

SC

TR-20 Perforated Tape Reader- 500 char/sec

340:073

1

SC

TS-20 Perforated Tape Reader/Punch

340:073

1

HS

Single-channel Magnetic Tape Subsystem - 1 to 16
magnetic tape units, 7,500 to 160,000 char/sec

340:091,
340:092

2

.HS

Dual-channel Magnetic Tape.8ubsystem - 1 to 16
magnetic tape units, 7,500 to 160,000 char/sec

340:091,
340:092

1

HS

MDS 200 Magnetic Drum Unit - 786,432 words,
17 msec average access time

340:044

1

HS

DS-20 Disc Storage Unit - 4 to 16 discs, 245,760
words per disc, 225 msec average access time

340:042

1

SC

DATANET-30 Data Communications Processor

340:101

1

SC

Console with Typewriter

340:061

Summary of General Configuration ·Rules
•

Each Processor Module can be connected to 1 to 4 Memory Modules.

•

Each Memory Module can be connected to a total of 8 Processor Modules,
I/O Controller Modules, and non-standard input-output devices. Up to
262, 144 words of core storage can be incorporated in a single-computer system.

•

Each I/O Controller Module can be connected to 1 to 4 Memory Modules and can
have from 3 to 6 high-speed input-output channels and from 5 to 10 standard-speed
input-output channels.

Minimum Configuration
Use of the standard supervisory program, GECOS, requires the following peripherals:
•

Magnetic drum unit or disc storage unit;

•

3 magnetic tape units;

•

Card reader;

•

Card punch;

•

Printer.

In addition, the system compilers, s!1ch as COBOL or FORTRAN, require three files for
compilation. These files can be implemented with three magnetic tape units or a single magnetic drum or disc storage unit (in addition to the magnetic tape units, magnetic drum, or disc
file for GECOS).
Standard Configurations
Representative standard configurations (as defined in Section 4:030, System Configuration,
of the Users' Guide) are shown in the individual system sub-reports:
GE-625:
GE':'635: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Section 343:031.
Section 344:031.

SERIES

340:041.100
GE-600 Series
Internal Storage
Core Storage

INTERNAL STORAGE: CORE STORAGE

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: . .

.....

o Switching of control signals, addresses, and
data to and from the Memory Module.
MM 8031 2-f-tsec Memory
Module (includes 32,768
words and System Controller).
MM 8032 2-f-tsec Memory
Module (includes 40,960
words and System Controller).
OPT 804 2-f-tsec additional
module (32,768 words).

Contained in the System Controller are four registers which aid in controlling the movement of data
within a GE-600 Series system:
o Execute Interrupt Register - a 32-bit register
that specifies, on a priority basis, which of 8
ports and which of 4 conditions caused a program
(I/O) interrupt (see Paragraphs 340:951.125 and
340:051.33).

MM 8030 1-f-tsec Memory
Module (includes 32,768
words and System Controller).
MM 8033 1-f-tsec Memory
Module (includes 40,960
words and System Controller).
OPT 801 1-f-tsec additional
module (32,768 words).
.12

Basic Use:

.13

Description

. . ...

e

Execute Interrupt Mask Register - a 32-bit
register that can be set to prevent the corresponding positions of the Execute Interrupt
Register from causing an interrupt.

o Memory Port Lockout Mask - an 8-bit register
that can be set to prevent access to the devices
connected to one or more of the eight ports of a
System Controller.
o Control-Processor-Designation Register .- indicates (in a multiprocessor system) which processor can alter the contents of the above special
registers or can initiate an I/O operation.

working storage.

The two currently-announced members of the GE600 Series, the GE-625 and the GE-635, differ only
in the speed of their core storage units. The GE625 uses a core storage unit with a cycle time of 2
microseconds; the GE-635, a unit with a I-microsecond cycle time. Each access, in both systems,
is for a word-pair (two 36-bit-plus-parity words).
Where differences exist, such as in data transfer
rates, entries are given for each unit; otherwise,
all remarks in this section apply to both GE-625
and GE-635 core storage units.

The first three of the above special registers are
program -accessible by the processor designated as
control processor when it is operating in the master mode. Any attempt to access these registers
under other conditions results in a fault interrupt.
The last register, the Control-Processor-Designation Register, is set by external switches on the
Core Storage Unit Cabinet. Other switches permit
the assignment of Memory Modules to continuous
segments of memory.

Up to 262,144 36-bit words of core storage can be
incorporated in a single-processor system, in
modules of 32,768 words. One 40, 960-word module can be substituted for a 32K module in systems
containing less than the maximum capacity.

Each System Controller has eight memory ports
(channels) for connection to Processor Modules,
I/O Controller Modules, or non-standard I/O de-.
vices. These ports are assigned priorities to facilitate the servicing of demands on memory in an
order ly manner.

Each Memory Module is composed of a System Controller and one or two 32K modules (or possibly one
32K and one 40K module) and is an independent unit
capable of being accessed simultaneously with other
Memory Modules.

.14

Availability: . . . .

?

. 15

First Delivery: .

1st quarter, 1965.

.16

Reserved Storage:

8, 192 words of core storage
are normally reserved for
the operating system
(GECOS). This includes
areas for I/O control,
multiprogramming control,
etc.

.2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Storage Medium:

. 23

Storage Phenomenon: . direction of magnetization.

The System Controller performs many of the priorityand control functions in a GE-600 Series system.
Among these functions are:
• Control of communication between memory and
the Processor Module and between memory and
the I/O Controller.
• Control of program (I/O) interrupts for multiprocessor jobs, system programs, and peripheral devices.

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info,lnc.

magnetic core.

12/64

340:041.240
.24

GE-600 SERIES

Recording Permanence

.241 Data erasable by
instructions:
.242 Data regenerated
constantly:
. 243 Data volatile: •
.244 Data permanent:
. 245 Storage changeable: •
.28

Connection to Device:

.5

ACCESS TIMING

.52

Simultaneous
Operations: . .. . . all Memory Modules can be
accessed simultaneously.

.53

Access Time Parameters and Variations

yes.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Access Technigues

.281 Recording method: .. coincident current .
. 283 Type of access: . . . . uniform.
. 29

.43

.531 For uniform access -

Potential Transfer Rates

. 292 Peak data rates GE-625

Cycling rates (cycles/
second)

2

500,000

1,000,000

36

36

Conversion factor
(bits/word)
Data rate (words/
sec)

GE-635
2

Unit of data (words/
access)

1,000,000* 2,000,000*

DATA CAPACITY

. 31

Module and System Sizes
(See table below. )

.32

Rules for Combining Modules

GE-625

GE-635

Access time
(microseconds)

?

?

Cycle time
(microseconds)

2.0

1.0

Unit of data
(words/access)

2

2

.7

PERFORMANCE

.72

Transfer Load Size

* Effective cycle can be somewhat faster through
overlapped accessing of two Memory Modules.
.3

With self:

.73

1 or 2 words (up to 1024
words can be transferred
by one Repeat Double loop) .

Effective Transfer Rate (wit.1-t self, using Repeat
Double loop)
400,000 words/second
(2,400,000 char/second).
556,000 words/second
(3,330,000 char/second).

GE-625: .

A Memory Module is composed of a System Controller and one or two 32K modules. (One 40K
module can be incorporated in a system except when
the total storage connected to a processor would be
greater than 262K.)

GE-635: .

8

ERRORS, CHECKS, AND ACTION

A maximum of 262,144words, or eight 32Kmodules,
of core storage can be addressed by anyone Processor
Module .
.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:

. 42

Connection to System: 1 to 4 System Controllers
can be connected to any
one Processor Module.
A total of 8 processors
and/or I/O Controllers
can be connected to any
one System Controller.

.31

. . . .

each System Controller
controls one 32K, 40K,
64K, or 72K core storage
unit.

System Controller.

Check or
Interlock
Invalid address:
Invalid code:
Receipt of data:
Recording of data:
Recovery of data:
Dispatch of data:
Reference to
protected* area:

check
all codes valid.
parity check
record parity bit .
parity check .
send parity bit.

interrupt.

check

interrupt.

*Area outside of program limits.

Module and System Sizes
Minimum
Storage
Identity:
Words:
Characters:
Instructions:
Modules:

32K Memory
Module
32,768
196,608
32,768
1

Maximum
Storage**
40K Memory
Module
40,960
245,760
40,960
1

64K Memory
Module
65,536
393,216
65,536
2

** Maximum storage addressable by anyone Processor Module.
12/64

72K Memory
Module
73,728
442,368
73,728
2

262,144
1,572,864
262,144
8

interrupt.
interrupt.

340:042.100
GE-600 Series
Internal Storage
Disc Starage Unit

INTERNAL STORAGE: DISC STORAGE UNIT

.1

GENERAL

• 11

Identity: •.

. 12

Basic U!;le:

. 13

Description

..

DS-20 Disc Storage Unit.
DSC-20 Disc Storage
Controller.
auxiliary storage .

The DS-20 Disc Storage Unit consists of up to 16
data discs (32 recording surfaces) capable of storing up to 23.5 million characters. From 1 to 4 of
these units can be connected to the DSC-20 Disc
Storage Controller to provide a total random access
storage capacity of 94 million characters per controller. The combination DS-20 and DSC-20 is referred to by the manufacturer as the Disc Storage
Subsystem and requires one high-speed input-output
channel of an Input-Output Controller Module.
There is no practical limit upon the total number of
Disc Storage Units that can be connected on-line to
a GE-600 Series system (see Section 340:031, System Configuration).
Each disc surface is divided into two 128-track
parts called the outer and inner zones. Each circumferential track is, in turn, divided into a number of addressable sectors; 16 sectors per outerzone track and 8 per inner-zone track. This arrangement yields a total of 3, 072 fixed addressable
sector positions on each disc surface at which the
reading or writing of data can begin. A sector has
a fixed capacity of 240 six-bit characters plus a
six-bit modulo-64 check character.
Each disc is served by an individual positioning arm
containing 8 read-write heads (4 per surface) so that
only 64 arm positions are required to cover all the
tracks on a disc. Arm positioning time ranges fro
70 to 305 milliseconds, and the total average waiting time for random accessing is 225 milliseconds.
Up to 368,000 characters per Disc Storage Unit can
be transferred with no movement of the access
arms. Peak data transfer rate is 41,700 (inner
zone) or 83,400 (outer zone) characters per second.
An effective bulk transfer rate of 69,500 characters
per second can be obtained with optimum data placement.
The DSC-20 Controller contains a 1, 024-character
addressable buffer which facilitates the serial-toparallel conversion process between the Disc Storage Unit and core storage. The buffer arrangement
also permits the simultaneous transfer of data between core storage and one section of the buffer,
and between another section of the buffer and any
one Disc Storage Unit., Under program control, information written onto the discs can be read back
and a character-by-character comparison made
with the data image as it appears in the controller
buffer. Thus a verification check can be made to
insure that data was recorded correctly.

The 1, 024-character addressable core buffer can
hold up to four 240-character disc records (sectors)
at a time. This feature, coupled with the system's
scatter-read, gather-write capabilities, lets the
user transfer only the fields he needs for updating
into and out of core memory, without moving the
whole record. This can result in faster file updating operations and reduced core memory space requirements .
The ability to search up to 32 consecutive disc sectors with one instruction makes it possible to locate
the desired sector on the basis of its content rather
than its specific address. This capability can save
processing time by reducing or eliminating the need
to pre-sort input records that would normally require separate disc look-up operations.
A parity check is made on each word transferred
to or from the controller buffer. In addition, each
240-character sector has an associated check character to help increase reading and writing accuracy.
The detection of a parity error results in the termination of the disc operation. The address of each
sector is permanently recorded in a "header" word
and used for sector identification and track address
confirmation.
The follOwing disc file instructions are used by
current GE-600 Series systems:
o

Seek File.

o

Read File Continuous and Release Seek.

o

Write File Continuous and Release Seek.

o

Write File Continuous, Verify, and Release Seek.

The Disc Storage Unit will be available with 4, 8,
12, or 16 discs. A Fast Access option provides
high-speed (26 milliseconds average) access to
high-priority data for program overlay routines,
address dictionaries, subroutines, tables, and key
data for fast record updating. It is estimated that
use of Fast Access storage for tables and subroutines can reduce unit-record update-cycle times by
50% or more.
The high-speed access is provided by locking the
read-write arms on 4 or 8 discs, eliminating positioning and track verification time. Access time is
thus only the disc latency time (an average of 26
milliseconds). Storage capacity of each fast Access
disc is 96 sectors (23,040 characters). The total
number of discs (standard plus Fast Access) in a
DS-20 Disc Storage Unit cannot exceed 16.
Data can be simultaneously transferred between the
central processor and the disc file buffer, and
between the buffer and anyone Disc Storage Unit.
The number of Disc Storage SUbsystems that can
operate Simultaneously depends on the number of

@1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

12/64

340:042.130
· 13

GE 600 SERIES

Description (Contd. )

· 283 Type of access -

other operating peripherals connected to the same
I/O Controller Module (see Section 340:111, Simultaneous Operations).
Speclal conditions (such as successful completion
of an operation, invalid command, etc.) cause the
setting of the appropriate bit in the execute-interrupt register of the System Controller. Subsequent
action by a supervisor program (normally GECOS)
can determine the particular condition by interpreting a requested Status Return.
Normally a GE-600 Series programmer does not
program input-output operations in detail; this is
usually handled by the operating system (GECOS)
on a file-specification basis. A detailed description of the input-output process is presented in
Section 430:111, Simultaneous Operations. Accessing of the Disc Storage Unit can be overlapped with
other input-output operations and with processing.
Detailed considerations for simultaneity, including
time demands on the system, are also presented in
the Simultaneous Operations section.
· 15

First Delivery:

.16

Reserved Storage:

·2

PHYSICAL FORM

.21

Storage Medium: .

· 22

Physical Dimensions

April, 1964 (with GE-400
Series systems).

Storage Phenomenon:

· 24

Recording Permanence

.241 Data erasable by
instructions:
· 242 Data regenerated
constantly:
. 243 Data volatile: . .
· 244 Data permanent: .
. 245 Storage changeable:
.25

320
1,920
1,920
480

640.
3,840.
3,840.
960.
16.

8

Module and System Sizes

.4

CONTROLLER

.41

Identity:

.42

Connection to System

.431 Devices per controller: .
. 432 Restrictions:. . . . .

· 28

Access Technigues

· 443 Input-output area
access: .
.444 Input-output area
lockout: . . . .
.445 Synchronization:
. 447 Table control:

moving heads.

,

AU ER BACH

Maximum
Storage

DS-20
1 module

DS-20
4 units.
64.
15,700,000.
94,000,000.
23,500,000.
393,216.

4

983,000
5,898,000
1,466,000
24,576

DSC-20 Disc Storage Controller.

up to 6 controllers per I/O
Controller Module.
none.

up to 4 Disc Storage Units .
none.

Data Transfer Control

.442 Input-output area:

1.

Minimum
Storage

Connection to Device

.441 Size of load:

Interleaving Levels:

character.
6 bits/char.
41, 700 (inner zone) or
83,400 (outer zone)
char/sec.

.31

· 44

. 27

1,170 rpm.
250,000 or 500,000 bits/
sec/track.

DATA CAPACITY

· 43

Outer Zone

0usly selected.
no.

.3

.422 Off-line:

512 (256 per disc surface).

12/64

· 292 Peak data rates Unit of data: . .
Conversion factor:
Data rate:

no .
no.
no .
no.

Tracks per Physical
Unit:

.281 Recording method: .

.291 Peak bit rates Cycling rate: .
Bit rate per track:

.421 On-line:

Iilner Zone

if same track was previ-

Potential Transfer Rates

yes.

Words:
Characters:
Digits:
Instructions:
Sectors:
.26

.29

Identity:
Storage Units:
Discs:
Words:
Characters:
Instructions:
Sectors:

Data Volume per Band of 1 track

if new track is selected.

Transfer data:

multiple discs.

direction of magnetization.

Possible Starting Stage

Move head to selected
track:
...
Wait for start of
selected sector:.

none.

.222 DiscDiameter: . . . . . 31 inches.
Thickness or length: 0.158 inch.
Number on shaft: .
16.
.23

Description of Stage

1 to 32 sectors of 240 characters each.
core storage, via addressable 1, 024-character buffer.
each word.
none .
automatic .
yes; scatter-read and gatherwrite are available at programmer's option.

INTERNAL STORAGE: DISC STORAGE UNIT

340:042.448

device-controller ready;
device busy; error condition.

.448 Testable conditions:

.5

ACCESS TIMING

.51

Arrangement of Heads

file buffer, and between
the buffer and anyone
Disc Storage Unit.
.53

.511 Number of Stacks Stacks per system: .
Stacks per unit:
Stacks per yoke:
Yokes per unit: .
. 512 Stack movement: .
.513 Stacks that can access
any particular
location.
.514 Accessible locations
By single stackWith no movement:
With all movement:
By all stacks With no movement:

.532 Variation in access time 128 to 512 per controller.
128.
8.
16 (one for each disc).
horizontal only.

Simultaneous
Operations: .

Average
Variation {msec) {msec)

Stage

Move head to selected
track:
o or 70 to 305
Wait for selected
sector:
o to 52
Transfer 1 sector:
3.2 or 6.4
Total:
3.2to363.4

1.

8 or 16 sectors.
512 or 1,024 sectors.

.6

1,536 sectors per unit.
6,144 sectors per controller.

.7

AUXIliARY STORAGE PERFORMANCE

.72

Transfer Load Size

.515 Relationship between
stacks and locations: least significant 7 bits of
disc address specify stack
and sector.
. 52

Access Time Parameters and Variations

With core storage: .

. 73
data can be simultaneously
transferred between the
I/O Controller and disc
.8

CHANGEABLE
STORAGE:

199.
26.
3.2
228.2

none.

1 to 32 sectors; maximum
of 240 characters per
sectors .

Effective Transfer Rate
With core storage:..

69,500 characters/sec or
17,375 words/sec.

ERRORS, CHECKS AND ACTION

Error

Check or
Interlock

Action

Invalid address:
Invalid code:
Receipt of data:
Recording of data:

check
check
parity check
generate check
character.
character and
sector parity
check
send parity bit.
check

interrupt.
interrupt.
interrupt.

Recovery of data:
Dispatch of data:
Timing conflicts:
Wrong record
selected:

address comparison

interrupt.

interrupt.
interrupt.

i

\.

@1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info,lnc.

12/64

340:044.100
GE-600 Series
Internal Storage
Magnetic Drum
INTERNAL STORAGE: MAGNETIC DRUM

.1

GENERAL

.12

Identity: . . . .

. 13

Basic Use: ..

. 14

Description

. . . . MDS 200 Magnetic Drum and
Controller (UNIVAC FH880 Drum).
.. auxiliary storage.

Use of the GE-600 Series supervisory program,
GECOS, requires either a magnetic drum or disc
storage unit. Initial deliveries of systems using a
magnetic drum will incorporate the UNIVAC FH880 Drum, designated the MDS 200 by GE. This
unit is described in detail in the Computer System
Report on the UNIVAC 1107, page 784:043.100. A
summary of the characteristics of the FH-880 Drum
and special considerations for its use in GE-600
Series systems are presented below.
•

One drum and one drum controller comprise a
Magnetic Drum Subsystem.

•

Each drum controller is attached to one highspeed input-output channel of a GE-600 Series
I/O Controller Module; there are six high-speed
channels available on each I/O Controller.

•

The storage capacity of each drum is 786,432
words (36 bits each).

•

The maximum potential storage capacity is
786,432 words per subsystem and 4, 718, 592
words per I/O Controller .

•

Average access time is 17 milliseconds.

•

Up to 262,144 words can be transferred by means
of a single command.

•

Peak data transfer rate is approximately 62,000
words (372,000 characters) per second.

•

Each character transferred is checked for parity.

•

Only one data transfer operation (read or write)
can take place at a time per Magnetic Drum
Subsystem.

Normally a GE-600 Series programmer does not
program input-output operations in detail; this is
usually handled by the operating system (GECOS) on
a file-specification basis. A detailed description of
the input-output process is presented in Section
430:111, Simultaneous Operations. Transfer of
data to or from a Magnetic Drum Subsystem can be
overlapped with other input-output operations and
with processing. Detailed considerations for simultaneity, including time demands on the system, are
also presented in the Simultaneous Operations
section.

,/

12/64

340:051.100

GE-600 Series
Central Processor

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity:

.12

Description

. Model CP S030 Processor
Module.

. 121 Basic Design
GE-625 and GE-635 systems use the same central
processor, the Model CP S030 Processor Module,
which insures program compatibility between the
two systems. Differences in their processor performance are a result of using core storage units
with different cycle times: the GE-625 uses a 2microsecond memory, and the GE-635 uses a 1microsecond memory. (See Section 340:041, Core
Storage, for a discussion of the different core
storage ·units. )
The Processor Module uses a single-address
instruction format with a wide range of address
modification capabilities (see Paragraph .123,
Addressing). There are two basic modes of
processor operation: master mode and slave
mode. Control programs will normally be executed in the master mode, and object programs
in the slave mode. Programs running in the master
mode have access to the entire core memory, can
initiate peripheral and internal control functions,
and do not have base-address relocation applied.
Programs running in the slave mode have access
to only a limited portion of core memory (as
speCified by the Base Address Register), cannot
initiate peripheral control instructions, and have
the contents of the Base Address Register added
to all relative memory addresses of the object
program. The processor is automatically switched
into the master mode of operation when the
Master Mode Indicator is set or when any interrupt is recognized.
All input-output operations are initiated by a single
instruction, Connect, which can be executed only in
the master mode. This instruction establishes a
connection between core memory and the appropriate I/o Controller and then sends the necessary
information to the controller to initiate the input
or output operation. After execution of the Connect
instruction, the input or output operation is under
control of the I/o Controller, and the central
processor is not involved again until a program
(I/O) interrupt occurs. Section 340:111, Simultaneous Operations, presents a detailed description of the input-output process.
A scatter-gather facility allows blocks of up to
4, 096 words of data to be read into non-contiguous
segments of core storage. This facility can reduce
the time required to move data from place to
place in memory.

A 24-bit Timer Register is available (accessible
only in the master mode), which is decremented
by one every 15.625 microseconds. The timer is
used by the standard executive routine, GECOS,
for automatic job termination, to prevent a job
from monopolizing a processor, and to provide
accounting information by monitoring processing
and input-output elapsed time .
Instructions are fetched in pairs (an even word
and the SuccEl.ssive odd word). Address modification, operand fetching, instruction execution,
and the fetc_hing of the next pair of instructions
are overlapped to increase processor performance
wherever possible. Certain operations, such as
indirect addressing, transferring control from
an even location, or transferring control to an
odd location, cannot take full advantage of this
overlapping capability.
.122 Registers
The Base Address Register (BAR) is an IS-bit
register located in the Processor Module. The
first nine bits of the BAR (the ninth bit is permanently set to zero) are used as the base address and are added to the first nine bits of a program address to form an actual address. Each
reference to core storage made by a program
running in the slave mode is indexed by the
contents of the BAR prior to any other specified
address modifications.
The last nine bits of the BAR (again the ninth bit
is permanently set to zero) are used as the program
limit to check an actual address prior to acceSSing
core storage but after performing all address
modification. The first nine bits of the actual
address are subtracted from the program limit,
with a fault interrupt resulting if the result is zero
or negative. This address translation and checking
occurs only when the processor is in the slave mode.
Allocation of memory to a program is in blocks of
1024 words. The Base Address Register can be
loaded only in the master mode, but its contents can
be stored in either mode.
The other registers provided include a timer
register, eight index registers, an indicator register, an instruction counter, a 72-bit accumulator
(which can also be used as two independent accumulators or four independent index registers), and an
exponent register for floating point operations.
These registers are described in Paragraph. 241.
. 123 Addressing
A wide range of address modification capabilities
is provided. All addresses in the slave mode are

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

12/64

GE-600 SERIES

340:051.123
.123 Addressing (Contd.)
indexed by the contents of the BAR (as described
above) prior to other address modification. The
general format of the instructions is shown below.
Address
Name:
Symbol:
y
Bits
18

(See Paragraph
.232)
12

Tag field
t"" I td
2 I 4

Initial modification is specified by the tag field
of the instruction. The field ~ specifies one of
four types of address modification:
R RI IR IT -

indexing.
indexing, then indirect.
indirect, then indexing.
indirect, then tally.

. 124 Instruction Repertoire

For types R, RI, and IR, the field td specifies
the register to be used for indexing (see Paragraph. 2375 for a listing of the possible registers
that can be used), or that no indexing is to take
place. In addition, for type R only, the field td
can specify that the 18-bit address field specified
in the instruction is to be used as the upper or
lower half of a literal operand, the remaining bits
being treated as zeros.
For "indirect, then tally" (IT) address modifications,
the field td specifies the type of tally operation.
The format of the indirect word is shown below.
Name
Bits:

Address
18

I

Tally field
12

I

Tag field
6

There are nine possible tally deSignators that
specify how the indirect word to be fetched is
modified or used, as listed in Table I.
Address modifications can be chained, with the
chain generally ending when a type R or IT modification is encountered. Register modification
(type R) is straight indexing. For type RI modifications the address specified in the instruction
(or indirect word), modified according to the register speCified in the tag field, is used to fetch
an indirect word. The tag field of the indirect
word is analyzed, and further modifications can
be of any type.
For type IR modifications an indirect word is
fetched first from the location specified by the
address in the instruction (or another indirect
word). Further modification is based on an
analysis of the tag field of the indirect word and
can only be of type R, RI, or IR. The register
specified by the last IR modification encountered
is used to index the developed address after all
other modifications have taken place. The various
possibilities for type IT modifications are shown
in Table I.
Indexing takes no extra execution time due to the
overlapping of functions in the processor. Indirect addreSSing does require extra time:
Time per indirect cycle
which does not modify the
indirect word:
Time per indirect cycle
which modifies the indirect
word:
12/64

The SC and CI variations of the "indirect, then
tally" (IT) type of address modification can be
used with single-precision load, store, add, subtract, Boolean, divide, and compare instructions,
permitting extensive operations to be performed
on individual characters of a BCD field. The SC
variation permits stepping, character-by-character,
through a whole field. This capability is important
because no automatic code translation (except Gray
to binary) or decimal arithmetic facilities are
provided, and only a one-digit-at-a-time radix
conversion facility (binary to BCD only) is provided.

GE-625

GE-635

2.0 JLsec

1. 7 JLsec

3.5 JLsec

2.5 JLsec

A total of 170 basic instructions are available
in the CP 8030 Processor, and most of them will
be familiar to programmers of other large-scale
binary computers. The instruction repertoire is
shown in the Instruction List (page 340:121.100)
and includes instructions which perform comparisons (logical, algebraic, magnitude, masked,
and between limits), loading, storing, Boolean
operations, branching, and shifting. Provision is
made for the use of half-word, single-word, or
double-word operands in many operations.
All shifts, regardless of length, take essentially
the same length of time (2.0 microseconds in the
GE-625 and 1. 8 microseconds in the GE-635).
This is worthy of notice because many applications of large-scale binary computers require a
large number of shifts, particularly where automatic editing facilities are not provided.
The format for fixed-point binary numbers is two's
complement notation. Fixed point addition or subtraction can be performed with either single-word
(36-bit) or double-word (72-bit) operands, and
the result can appear in either the accumulator
(A, Q, or AQ) or in core storage. Fixed-point
multiplication and division are provided for singleword operands in both fractional (result leftjustified) or integer (result right-justified) form.
Floating-point numbers are represented by 11
mantissa of 28 bits (single precision) or 64 bits
(double precision) and a binary exponent of 8 bits.
Both the exponent and mantissa are represented in
the two's-complement notation. Single precision
is equivalent to 8 decimal digits, and double
precision to 19 decimal digits.
Floating-point operations include single or double
precision loading, storing, comparison, addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division. The
AQ register holds the mantissa and the exponent
register holds the exponent for all floating-point
operations. Floating-point multiplication, addition,
and subtraction can be either normalized or unnormalized.
There is one important consideration for all
double-word operations. Core storage is organized in 72-bit word-pairs (although there is a
parity bit for each word). The first word of each
pair is in an even location and the second is in the
following odd location (e. g., locations 1102 and
1103). Each request by the processor results in
the System Controller in the appropriate Memory
Module sending a word-pair to the processor,

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

340:051.124

TABLE I: EFFECTS OF THE TALLY DESIGNATORS IN TYPE IT MODIFICATION
Tally designator, td
(symbolic)

Next item fetched and address

Indirect word modification*

I

Operand is fetched from the
address specified by the indirect
word.

No modification takes place.

DI

Operand is fetched from the
address specified by the indirect
word after modification.

Address field is decremented by
one;
tally field is incremented by one.

ID

Operand is fetched from the
address specified by the indirect
word before modification.

Address field is incremented by
one;
tally field is decremented by one.

DIC

Depends on the tag field of the
indirect word. All references
use the address .specified in the
indirect word after modification.

Address field is decremented by
one;
tally field is incremented by one.

IDC

Depends on the tag field of
the indirect word. All references
use the address specified in the
indirect word before modification.

Address field is incremented by
one;
tally field is decremented by one.

AD

Operand is fetched from the address
specified in the indirect word
before
- - - modification.

Address field is incremented by
the contents of the tag field in
the indirect word;
tally field is decremented by one.

CI

A six-bit segment specified by
the tag field of the indirect word
is fetched from the location
specified by the address in the
indirect word.

No modification takes place.

SC

Same as for CI (using the address
specified in the indirect word
before modification).

Tag field is incremented by one;
if the result is greater than six,
the address field is incremented
by one and the tag field is reset
to zero;
tally field is decremented by one.

F

None.

A fault interrupt occurs when this
tag is recognized.

* When the tally field reaches zero during modification, the tally run-out indicator is set to
one; no interrupt is generated.
.124 Instruction Repertoire (Contd.)
regardless of whether the even word or the odd
word was addressed. For single-word operations,
internal circuitry selects the proper word of the
word-pair. For double-word operations, the
complete word-pair is used, thus requiring the
first word of every double-word operand to be in
an even location. This consideration is taken
into account in the standard software, but it could
cause problems in debugging and patching of
machine-language programs.
Program-testable indicators provide information
about the result of an operation and permit program control through the use of branch-on-condition instructions. The negative and zero indicators are affected each time the contents of
a register. or adder are altered (e. g., through

operations such as load, add, add to store, multiply, compare, shifts, etc.). In addition, a
carry indicator is set when a carry is generated
out of the left-most bit position during left shift,
addition, subtraction, and compare operations.
Two tests, involving the negative, zero, and
carry indicators, are required to distinguish
between equal, greater than, and less than
conditions. A single test can distinguish between
the condition "equal to or greater than" and the
condition "equal to or less than."
Overflow indicators are included for indicating
arithmetic overflow, exponent overflow, and exponent underflow. Normally an overflow also
generates a fault interrupt, but an overflow mask
bit can be set that prevents the interrupt, but does
not affect the setting, testing, or storing of the

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

12/64

340:051.1241
. 124 Instruction Repertoire (Contd.)
three overflow indicators. The parity error indicator is set when a parity error ·is detected
during a reference to a core storage unit. As
with the overflow indicators, setting of this indicator normally causes a fault interrupt, but
the interrupt can be masked out without affecting
the setting, testing, or storing of the indicator.
The tally-run-out indicator is set when the tally
field associated with an indirect-then-tally (IT)
address modification, or with a Repeat, Repeat
Double, or Repeat Link instruction, reaches zero.
There are several noticeable omissions from the
GE-600 Series instruction repertoire:
•

No editing instructions.

•

No code translation instructions other than
Gray to binary.

•

No radix conversion instructions other than a
one-digit-at-a-time binary to BCD instruction.

Estimates by the editorial staff indicate that formation of a typical 120-character line of print
(including radix conversions), such as that for
the Standard File Processing Problem (see page
4:200.1112 of the Users' Guide), takes approximately 2.2 milliseconds for the GE-625 and 1. 7
milliseconds for the GE-635.
Several useful instructions are provided that can
reduce programming effort and increase program
efficiency. Three repeat instructions, Repeat (RPT) ,
Repeat Double (RPD) , and Repeat Link (RPL), are
useful for processing lists of data. The RPT and
RPD instructions permit the execution of the next
one or two instructions a speCified number of
times (up to 256) with or without indexing. Index
registers can be automatically stepped by an
increment specified in the RPT or RPD instruction.
The loop may be terminated when the specified
number of executions has been performed or when
one or more specified indicators are ON or OFF.
The address of the operand causing the termination,
if any, as well as the indicator specifying the condition, are available for program use.
The most frequent use of the RPT instruction will
probably be with comparison instructions for list
searching. The RPD instruction (with the Load
Double and Store Double instructions) is the most
efficient method for mass movement of data within
core storage. Using this loop, the GE-625 can
transfer data within core storage at an effective
rate of 400, 000 words per second (2,400, 000
characters per second), and the GE-635 at 556,000
words per second (3,333,000 characters per second).
The RPL instruction is similar to the other repeat
instructions except that each word in the list
contains an IS-bit operand and an IS-bit address
of the next word in the list; no indexing is allowed
except to specify the first word in the list.
Special addition and subtraction instructions are
provided that are useful for programming in
multiword precision. These instructions automatically add or subtract one from the least
Significant position of the accumulator if the carry
indicator is ON at the beginning of the instruction.

12/64

GE-600 SERIES
. 125 Interrupt System
A powerful, nine-level interrupt system is incorporated in the GE-600 Series processor. The
interrupt levels fall into two broad classifications:
•

Fault interrupt - five levels of interrupts
for faults or special conditions within the
Processor Module.

•

Program interrupt - four levels of interrupts,
all dealing with input-output conditions.

Detailed information about the interrupt system
is presented in Paragraph. 33 of this report
section. In general, each fault interrupt causes
a transfer to one of 16 locations (one for each type
of fault interrupt) in the area allocated to the
executive routine. Program interrupts cause a
specific bit in the Execute-Interrupt Request
Register in the appropriate core storage System
Controller to be set. This register has 32 bit
positions, 16 of which are not used at present.
There is one bit for each of four conditions for
each of four I/O controllers. At the same time
that the request interrupt bit is being set, a status
word containing information about the channel,
device, and particular condition is stored in a
queue in the executive area. The Execute-Interrupt
Register is scanned between instruction fetches
unless the scan is inhibited by an inhibit specification in the instruction or by a branch instruction.
The highest priority interrupt active at the time
of the scan is serviced. Additional information
about program interrupts with respect to the
Input/Output Controller is presented in Section
340.111, Simultaneous Operations.
Handling of the interrupts and error conditions is
normally under the direction of the executive
routine, but the programmer can specify his own
routines for many conditions. Information about
how the interrupt system is incorporated in the
software is included in the section on the standard
executive routine, GECOS (page 340:191.100).
.126 Multiprogramming Facilities
The capability to run more than one program at a
time requires effective solutions to two major
hardware problems. These are the sequencing
problem (Le., prov;.ding automatic switching
between programs) and the safety problem (i. e. ,
safeguarding each program from interference by
all the others). In the GE-600 Series computer
systems, the necessary functions are performed
by an executive routine in conjunction with the
interrupt system and several special registers.
An interrupt, or the execution of one of two special
instructions (Master Mode Entry, MME, or Detail,
DRL) , causes a transfer to the executive routine
area and causes the processor to enter the master
mode. While in the master mode, the contents of
the Base Address Register, the Timer Register,
the Memory Controller Mask Register, and the
Memory Controller Interrupt Register can be
altered and I/O operations can be initiated.
The usual mode of multiprogramming permits
switching from program to program based upon
I/o demands; i. e., if the processor would be

/

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

340:051.126

.126 Multiprogramming Facilities (Contd.)
delayed to await the completion of an I/o operation
in one program, control will be switched to
another program. Provision has been made in
the executive routine to limit a program to no
more than 16 milliseconds of processor time
without recognizing a program (I/O) interrupt.
This effectively prevents a processor-bound
program from "hogging" the processor.
A special mode of multiprogramming, Courtesy
Call, is primarily for use by data transcription
programs. In this mode, control is returned to a
program for a short length of time (400 microseconds for the GE-625, 200 microseconds for the
GE-635) as soon as the I/o operation requested by
that program is completed. Exceeding this time
causes the program to be aborted. Normally,
once aprogram has relinquished control, it does not
resume control until the program following it and
all higher-priority programs have been serviced.
Program protection is accomplished through
checking of each address prior to referencing
memory, both by the processor when fetching operands and instructions, and by the I/O Controller
when reading data in or out. Although it is possible
for a program to destroy one of its own files, it
cannot read or write in the area assigned to another
program.
It is difficult to estimate the amount of time used
by the executive routine in controlling multiprogrammed operation, since this will vary with the
particular types of programs being run together.
The time occupied in switching from one program
to another must include the time required for
safe-storing all registers used by the present
program and for loading the registers for the next
program. Currently this must be done one register
at a time because there is no instruction for
storing multiple registers in a single operation.
.2

PROCESSING FACILITIES

. 21

Operations and Operands
~ration

and
Variation

. 211 Fixed point*
Add-subtract:
Multiply.
I

\

Provision

automatic
automatic

Divide:
No remainder: none.
Remainder:
automatic

Operation and
Variation

binary full word (fullword quotient
and full-word
remainder) .

* Both fractiolJ.al and integer.

----

· 212 Floating point Add-subtract:** automatic

Multiply:**

automatic

Divide:

automatic

Radix Size

binary 27 & 7 bits
(short).
63 & 7 bits
(long) .
binary 27 & 7 bits
(short).
63 & 7 bits
(long) .
binary 27 & 7 bits
(short).
63 & 7 bits
(long) .

** Both normalized and un-normalized.
.213 BooleanAND:

automatic

binary half-word, fullword, or
double-word.

Inclusive OR:

automatic

binary half-word, fullword, or
double-word.

Exclusive OR:

automatic

binary half-word, fullword, or
double-word.

automatic

binary half-word, fullword, or
double-word.

Absolute:

automatic

binary half-word, fullword, or
double-word.

Letters (in
binary form
only):

automatic

.214 Comparison
Numbers:

1, 3, 6, or 12
characters.
Collating sequence: ... numbers, then letters,
with special characters
interspersed (see Data
Code Table, Page
340.141.100) .

Radix Size

binary half-word,
full-word, or
double-word.
binary full word (7 Obit product +
sign).

Provision

· 215 Code translation:
· 216 Radix conversion:

Provision

From

To

automatic

Gray

binary 1 word.

automatic

binary

BCD

1 decimal
digit.
.217 Edit format: . . . . . . . no hardware facilities
other than the capability
of addressing individual
6-bit characters within
a word. Editing
subroutines will be provided that meet the
requirements of COBOL.
.218 Table lookup: . . . . . . . none (but see Repeat
instruction, Paragraph
.219).

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

12/64

GE 600 SERIES

340:051.219
Provision

Comments

automatic

circular, logical, and
arithmetic; 1 to 127
bit positions.

Execute and
Execute
Double:

automatic

causes one or two outof sequence instructions to be executed.

Repeat and
Repeat
Double:

automatic

causes one or two
sequential instructions
to be repeated a
specific number of
times or until a specified condition occurs.
Index registers can be
automatically stepped
in any increment up to
127.
similar to Repeat,
except address of
next operand is
specified in the upper
portion of this operand.
Thus, nonordered lists
can be processed.

. 219 OthersShifts:

Repeat Link:

automatic

.232 Instruction layout (general)

I~~r:(bits): IIs I OP'9 Code I ~ I i
. 233 Instruction parts
Name
Purpose
y: . . . • . . . . . ..• sRecifies relative operand
address, address of indirect word, or shift count;
or holds an 18-bit literal
operand.
Op. Code: . . . . . . . specifies operation code.
i: . . . . . . . . .
. . specifies interrupts
(Group V and I/O - see
Paragraph .331) to be
delayed (see Paragraph
.334).
tm: . . . . . . . . . . . specifies type of address
modification.
ld: ............ specifies the register to be
used for indexing or the
type of indirect addressing.
z: . . . . . . . . . . . . . must be zero.
. 234 Basic address structure: 1 + O.
.235 LiteralsArithmetic: . . . . . • . . 18 bits.
Comparisons and tests: 18 bits.
Incrementing
modifiers: . . . • . . . . 18 bits.
. 236 Directly addressed operands Internal storage
Minimum
~
size
Core storage:
Registers:

12/64

6 bits
8 bits

Maximum
size

. 237 Address indexing
.2371 Number of methods: ... 2 .
.2372 Names: . . . . . . . . . . . (1) base address register (automatic
in the slave mode).
(2) register.
.2373 Indexing rule: . . . . . . . addition; addresses
generated beyond program limits (while processor is in .slave mode)
or beyond limits of existing core storage result in a fault interrupt.
.2374 Index specification: ... addresses are always indexed by contents of
BAR when processor is
in the slave mode;
further indexing is
specified by contents
of tag field (bits 30
through 35) of the instruction word.
.2375 Number of potential
indexers: . . . . . . . . . 14; 8 index registers,
4 18-bit sections of
AQ register, BAR, and
instruction counter.
.2376 Addresses which can be
indexed: . . . . . . . . . . all core storage addresses,
.2377 Cumulative indexing: ... none, but see Paragraph
.2384.
.2378 Combined index and
step: . , . . . . . , , ... none, except for Repeat
and Repeat Double
Instructions (see
Paragraph. 219),
,238 Indirect addressing
.2381 Recursive: . . . . . . . . . yes.
,2382 Designation:. , . . . . . . tag field (bits 30 through
35) of instruction word .
. 2383 Control: ... , . . . . . . the last indirect word is
marked by contents of
the tag field (bits 30
through 35) of the
indirect word.
• 2384 Indexing with indirect
addressing: . . . . , ... yes; indexing can take
place before starting
indirect cycles (RI),
after completion of
indirect cycles OR), or
before or after each
indirect cycle (IT) .
.239 Stepping
.2391 Specification of
increment: ... , .•.. in the Repeat or Repeat
Double instruction.
,2392 Increment sign: . . . . • always positive.
.2393 Size of increment: ... 0 to 127 .
Volume accessible

double-word 262,144 words.
double-word 1 8-bit register (exponent register), 8 18-bit
registers (index registers and instruction
counter) and 1 72-bit register (can be used
as 72-bit accumulator, 2 independent 36-bit
accumulators, or 4 independent 18-bit index
registers) .

/

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

340:051.2394

.2394 End value: . . . . . . . . when the tally count (number
of repeats yet to be performed) reaches zero or
when a specified condition
(the status of one or more
indicators) is met .
. 2395 Combined step and
test: . . . . . . . . . . yes .
. 24

Special Processor Storage

. 241 Category of
storage

Program usage

Number of Size in
locations bits

Accumulator
register

1

72

Index register:

8

18

Exponent register:

1

8

Base Address register:

1

18

Indicator register:
Timer register:

1
1

18
24

stores the status of the various indicators.
decremented by 1 each 15.625 IJ.sec; causes
a fault interrupt when its contents reach
zero (can be program-set only in the
master mode).

Instruction Counter
register:

1

18

contains the address of the next instruction to be executed.

serves as mantissa register for
floating-point operations, as operand register for double-precision
fixed-point operations (each half can
be used independently for Single-precision fixed-point operations), or as
four independent 18-bit index registers.
serves as index register or as operand
register for half-precision fixed-point
operands.
hold exponent for all floating-point
operations.
stores the base address and memory
allocation for an object program.

.3

SEQUENCE CONTROL FEATURES

. 33

.31

Instruction Sequencing: sequential.

.331 Possible causes -

.311. Number of sequence

FAULT INTERRUPTS

control facilities: ... 1 - instruction counter .
. 312 Arrangement: . . . . . . in central processor.
.314 Special sub-sequence
counters: . . . . . • . . index register XO holds
tally field for Repeat
instructions.
.315 Sequence control step
size: . . . . . .
. 1 word.
.316 Accessibility to
routines: ...
. instruction counter can be
stored at any location
in core storage.
.32

Interruption

Look-Ahead: . . . . . . . instructions are fetched
in pairs while the previous operation is being
executed. Address
indexing and operation
fetching are also overlapped. Time savings
are lost if a transfer
instruction, or the
location transferred to,
is the second word of an
instruction pair.

Classification
(in descending
priority)

Interrupt
Number
(octal)

Cause

17

activation of Execute
switch on maintenance
panel.
power applied to the
system.
address outside the
limits of existing
core storage; an
operation was not
completed by processor or system Controller.
an interrupt inhibit has
existed for more than
64 msec.
divide check.
fixed-point overflow or floatingpoint overflow or
underflow.

14
II

13

7

III

@1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

16
15

12/64

340:051.331

GE-600 SERIES
.332 Control by routine Individual control:

.331 Possible causes (Contd.)
F AU LT INTERRUPTS (Contd.)
Classification
in descending
Eriority)
IV

Interrupt
Number
(octal)
12

11
6
5

3
2

1

v

10
4

o

Cause

attempted execution
of an invalid operation code (all
zeros).
parity error in core
storage acess.
execution of a Derail
ins truction.
attempt to issue in
the slave mode an
instruction reserved
for master mode,
or attempt to use a
memory channel
that has been
. masked off.
recognition of a Fault
Tag in an indirect
word.
execution of a Master
Mode Entry instruction.
program referenced an
address that was
outside physical
memory or outside program
boundaries.
execution of a Connect
instruction.
Timer register
reached zero.
power removed from
system.

PROGRAM (I/O) INTERRUPTS
Classification
(in descending
priority)
C

04

S

14

I

24

T

34

Note:

12/64

Interrupt
cell no.
(octal)

Cause

failure to access Data
Control Word and
duplicate without
parity errors.
occurrence of special
conditions (completion of magnetic tape
rewind, device
ready, etc.).
failure to initiate an
I/O operation.
termination of a channel busy status.

The interrupt cell numbers shown are for the
first I/O Controller Module. The numbers
for the next module would be 05, 15, 25, 35,
etc. Priority is by interrupt cell number,
with the lowest cell number having the
highest priority.

· I/o interrupts from each
I/O Controller can be
generated or inhibited
by classification (see
Paragraph. 331).
parity and overflow
interrupts can be inhibited.
I/O and group V interrupts can be delayed
(see Paragraph .334);
all other interrupts
are granted, automatically, based on priority.
Method: . . . . . . . . . · setting of specific bit
in appropriate register
or instruction word.
.333 Operator control: . . . . · operator can only request
interrupt via the console
typewriter and the I/o
Interrupt Register in
the System Controller.
.334 Interruption conditions General: . . . . . . . . . . only one interrupt
within a priority group
(except I/o interrupts)
can be active at anyone
time.
Group I and II: . . • . . . interrupt will be processed immediately
without completing
present operation.
Group III and IV: . . . . interrupt will be processed follOWing completion of present
operation.
Group V and I/O interrupts: . . . . • . . . . • . interrupt procedure will
be carried out as soon
as an instruction from
an odd memory location
has been executed that:
(1) did not have bit
position 28 set to a 1,
(2) did not cause an
actual transfer of control, and (3) was not an
Execute or Execute
Double instruction (the
second instruction in an
Execute Double instruction will be executed
prior to allowing the
interrupt in any case).
.335 Interruption process Interruption action: ... forced transfer to a
location within the
supervisor area determined by the classification of the interrupt.
Registers saved: ..•. none of the registers is
stored automatically;
however, the operating
system (see GECOS,
page 340:191.100)
normally stores the
contents of the Instruction Counter and Indicator register prior
to executing an interrupt routine, and will

/

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

340:051.335

.335 Interruption process Registers saved (Contd.)
save the contents of all
registers if a transfer to
another program is made.
. 335 Control methods Determine cause:
Group I through V: . fixed-point overflow and
floating-point overflow
and underflow can be
distinguished by an analysis of the Indicator
register; each of the 16
conditions mentioned in
Paragraph. 331 causes
a transfer to a unique
location; except for
overflow conditions, no
further analysis is
possible.
I/O interrupts: ... analysis of the device
status word, which is
stored in an interrupt
queue in memory at the
same time the execute
request register is set.
Each status word specifies
the device, channel, and
condition causing an
interrupt.
Enable interruption: . automatically enabled once
the condition is' serviced,
or enabled by resetting
the masks.
. 34

.35

.4

boundaries causes the program to be aborted.
In-out units: . . . . . . the I/O controller performs
an address check on all
input or output areas.
If the areas are outside
the program boundaries,
the program is aborted.
Multi-sequencing: ... handled by software (due
to be available in mid1965).
PROCESSOR SPEEDS
The processor speeds for each GE-600 Series
system are presented in the following individual
sub- reports:
GE-625: . . . . . . . • ' •. page 343:051.100
GE-635: . . . . . . . . . . page 344:051.100

.5

ERRORS, CHECKS, AND ACTION
Error
Overflow (fixed
or floatingpoint):
Underflow
(fl0 atingpoint):
Zero divisor:
Unavailable
operation:

Check or
Interlock

Action

check

*

check
check

*

check

instruction acts
as No Operation
or forced transfer to a fixed location, depending
on the instruction.

Multiprogramming
(Multiprogramming is the process of intermingling
instructions from several different independent
programs.)

.341 Method of control: ... handled by the operating
system, GECOS (see
page 340: 191. 100) .
. 342 Maximum number of
programs: . . . . . . . . 8.
.343 Precedence rules: ... priority list.
• 344 Program protection Storage: . . . . . . . . . program base address and
program boundaries are
stored in the Base Address
Register (BAR). Any
attempt by a program in
the slave mode to reference
an address outside the

Invalid
operation:
check
Operation not
completed:
check
Invalid address: check
Receipt of data: parity check
by System
Controller
Dispatch of data: none .
Lock-up (continuous inhibition of interrupts
for more than
64 msec):
check

*

*

*
*
*
*

*

Forced transfer to a fixed location in core
storage.

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info, Inc.

12/64

340.072. 100
GE-600 Series
Input-Output
Card Punches
INPUT-OUTPUT: CARD PUNCHES

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: ..

. 12

Some important characteristics of the card punches
?e:
. . . . CP-10 Card Punch (100
cards per minute).
CP-20 Card Punch (300
cards per minute).

Description

(0)

An SO-bit buffer (CP-10) or a full-card-image
buffer (CP-20) internal to the card punch.

() SOO-card input hopper and output stacker capacity
in the CP-10; 3500-card hopper and 3000-card
stacker in the CP-20.

CP-10

o Only one output stacker.

The CP-10 Card Punch is the same unit offered with
the GE-400 Series computer systems. The peak
punching speed of the CP-10 is 100 cards per minute. A new punch instruction must be received
within 43 milliseconds after the completion of the
previous cycle to maintain the maximum rate of
punching. The rate of punching drops 7 cards per
minute for each 43-millisecond period (or fraction
thereof) of delay after the initial one.

Q

Punches SO-column cards row-by-row.

() Loading and unloading can be done during
operation.
\) Accepts either square- or round-cornered cards
(can be intermixed).
o Column binary punching capability.
o Post-punch row parity check.
\) Parity check on data received for punching.

CP-20
The CP-20 Card Punch is a new unit, developed by
GE. Its peak punching speed is 300 cards per minute. A new punch command must be received
within 10 milliseconds after the completion of the
previous cycle to maintain the maximum rate of
punching. If the 10-millisecond period is exceeded,
the rate of punching drops to 150 cards per minute.
Characteristics
There is virtually no limit to the number of card
punches that can be connected on-line (see Section
340:031; System Configuration). Models can be
intermixed in the same GE-600 system. The number of card punches that can operate Simultaneously
depends on the number of other operating peripherals connected to the same I/O controller module
(see Section 340:111, Simultaneous Operations).

Special conditions (such as successful completion of
an operation, full output stacker, card jam, invalid
command, etc.) cause the setting of a bit for the
appropriate channel in the execute-interrupt register of the System Controller in the Memory Module.
Subsequent action by a supervisor program (normally GECOS) can determine the particular condition by interpreting a requested Status Return.
Normally a programmer does not program inputoutput operations in detail; this is usually handled
by the operating system (GECOS) on a filespecification basis. A detailed description of the
input-output process is presented in Section 430:111,
Simultaneous Operations. Card punching can be
overlapped with other input-output operations and
with processing. Detailed considerations for simultaneity, including time demands on the system, are
also presented in the section on Simultaneous
Operations.

©1964 Auerbach Corporation and Info,lnc.

12/64

340:073.100
GE-600 Series
Input-Output
Punched Tape Equipment
INPUT-OUTPUT: PUNCHED TAPE EQUIPMENT

.1

GENERAL

. 11

Identity: . . . . . . . . . . TS-20 Perforated Tape
Reader /Punch.

. 12

Description
The TS-20 Tape Reader/Punch, a free-standing
unit housing a reader, punch, and control circuitry
for punched tape input and output, is the same unit
offered for the GE-400 Series computer systems.
The reader and punch are mechanically independent,
and the user may order the reader and its spooler
mechanisms only (Model TR-20) or the punch and
its spooler only (Model TP-20). Punched tape with
standard or special 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-level character
code configurations can be read or punched. The
Tape Reader/Punch can also be used off-line for
duplicating or verifying tapes.

The reader operates at a peak speed of 500 characters per second, using standard paper or plastic
tape with fully-punched holes. Reading is by means
of photoelectric diodes. There is only one reader
command, which causes continuous feeding and
reading of tape in a channel mode established by the
removable plugboard. The plugboard has provisions
for recognizing stop or end-of-file characters. The
bit configuration of these characters is determined
by plugboard wiring and can be either single characters or groups. The plugboard also controls
parity checking (odd, even, or none) and deletion of
plugboard-specified characters. In addition, a plugboard identification configuration (6 bits) can be
wired and is part of the normal Subsystem Ready
Status Return. The plugboard must be in place
prior to initiating a punched tape read instruction.
Characters can be transmitted to storage either in
their tape format or in a format rearranged by plugboard wiring. Each 36-bit word in storage can hold
up to six characters of a 5- or 6-level tape code or
three characters of a 7- or 8-level tape code. Conversion to the internal BCD character code, when
necessary, must be accomplished by programming
through the use of a translating routine and suitable
translation tables.

The punch has a peak speed of 150 characters per
second, and the on-line operating modes are under
program control at all times. The following instructions are available:

12/64

•

Punch - feed and punch 7-channel tape with odd
parity punched in channel 5. Each word in storage produces 6 tape characters .

•

Punch Edited - same as Punch, except delete
any Ignore characters in the output data .

•

Punch Single - feed and punch 5- or 6-channel
tape with no parity bit punched. Each word in
storage produces 6 tape characters.

•

Punch Double - feed and punch 7- or 8-channel
tape with no parity bit punched. Each word in
storage produces 3 tape characters.

Accuracy control consists of a parity check on each
character received from core memory and a transfer timing check which detects an error if a data
character is not received within 10 milliseconds of
the time for activating the punch pins. Either of
these errors results in terminating the current
operation and in transmitting a "data alert" signal
to the I/o Controller.
Configuration and Simultaneity
There is virtually no limit to the number of punched
tape subsystems that can be connected on-line (see
Section 340:031, System Configuration). The number that can operate Simultaneously depends on the
number of other operating peripherals connected to
the same I/O controller module (see Section 340:111,
Simultaneous Operations). Punched tape reading
and punching cannot occur simultaneously in the
same unit, but either reading or punching can be
overlapped with other input-output operations and
with processing.
Special conditions (such as successful completion of