# INFORMS Style Instructions 2016 02 22

### INFORMS-Style-Instructions-2016-02-22

### INFORMS-Style-Instructions-2016-02-22

### INFORMS-Style-Instructions-2016-02-22

### INFORMS-Style-Instructions-2016-02-22

### INFORMS-Style-Instructions-2016-02-22

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ANY INFORMS JOURNAL

February 2016, pp. 1–11 INFORMS

http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/educ.1104.0001

c

2016 INFORMS

Formatting Instructions for

INFORMS Author Styles, 2016/02/22

Mirko Janc

INFORMS, 5521 Research Park Drive, Suite 200, Catonsville, Maryland 21228, mirko.janc@informs.org

Second Author

School of Industrial Engineering, Good College, Collegeville, Maine 01234, secauth@goodcoll.edu

Third Author, Fourth Author

Their Common Aﬃliation {thauth@anywhere.edu, fourauth@anywhere.edu}

The abstract is limited to one paragraph and should contain no references and no equations. Follow-

ing the abstract, please enter the following items (depending on the requirements of the particular

INFORMS journal): (1) key words (KEYWORDS), (2) MSC subject classiﬁcation identifying primary and sec-

ondary codes (see http://www.ams.org/msc) (MSCCLASS), (3) OR/MS classiﬁcation, also identifying primary

and secondary (see http://or.pubs.informs.org/Media/ORSubject.pdf) (ORMSCCLASS), (4) subject classiﬁca-

tions (SUBJECTCLASS), and (5) area of review (AREAOFREVIEW). In later stages of manuscript processing, the

history line (HISTORY) will be added.

Key words : INFORMS journals; LaTeX styles; author templates; instructions to authors

1. Templates and LaTeX Style

INFORMS currently publishes 11 print journals and three more that are online only (print

on demand available). This document gives a brief description of the LaTeX author style

informs3.cls. A LaTeX template is provided for each of the journals, giving further guidance

on the order and format of entering information, particularly article metadata. For every journal

there is a mandatory option when invoking the style, which consists of the oﬃcial abbreviation

of the journal. This option will load particular details not necessarily shared by all journals. For

example,

\documentclass[mnsc]{informs3}

Following is a list of all INFORMS journal abbreviations.

deca Decision Analysis

ijoc INFORMS Journal on Computing

inte Interfaces

isre Information Systems Research

ited INFORMS Transactions on Education

mnsc Management Science

mksc Marketing Science

moor Mathematics of Operations Research

msom Manufacturing & Service Operations Management

opre Operations Research

orsc Organization Science

serv Service Science

stsc Strategy Science

trsc Transportation Science

1

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2016 INFORMS

Other important options that should be combined with the journal abbreviation are blindrev

and nonblindrev. Options blindrev and nonblindrev are to be used when preparing a LaTeX-

keyed mansucript for review. For blind review journals, option blindrev hides authors’ names,

the history line, and acknowledgments (and visibly announces that fact). In both blindrev and

nonblindrev cases, the printout clearly indicates that the manuscript is submitted to “X” journal;

the message is repeated in all running heads to avoid the possibly incorrect impression that the

article is already accepted for publication.

The line spread in the manuscript diﬀers from journal to journal to accommodate various editorial

requirements. Follow the template (do not edit the LaTeX preamble!) and instructions on the

covers of the respective journal. Standard LaTeX penalties that prevent inappropriate page breaks

are also removed. For tables no spread is applied because a larger table, as one solid piece, could

extend past the bottom edge of the page.

Templates are provided one per journal to reﬂect particular relevant details not shared by all

INFORMS journals. For journals that allow electronic companions (ECs) (Management Science,

Operations Research), additional instructions can be found in the template of respective journals.

2. LaTeX Packages/Tools Available

The informs3.cls house style will automatically load amsmath,amssymb,ifthen,url,graphicx,

array, and theorem styles/tools. Package dcolumn is also loaded to help align numbers in tables

on decimals. Please refer to respective LaTeX documentation sources for further explanation of

how these packages work. By loading amsmath, the whole range of enhanced math typesetting

commands is available in addition to the standard LaTeX constructions. Art (ﬁgures) should be

included by using the syntax of the standard graphicx package.

For reference processing, we use natbib because of its versatility to handle the author-year

system used by all INFORMS journals except moor. Of course, it handles the numeric style used by

moor equally well. For handling internal (and external) links, an option to use the hyperref package

is oﬀered within templates. natbib and hyperref are loaded and conﬁgured only in individual

journal templates due to the high sensitivity of the order of their actions (they redeﬁne many

internal LaTeX commands).

3. Author and Title Information

Please enter author and title information per template. Besides the obvious TITLE, there are

RUNAUTHOR and RUNTITLE—shortened versions to be used in running heads (page headers).

In the general case of multiple authors, the style provides a block ARTICLEAUTHORS, used as

\ARTICLEAUTHORS{%

\AUTHOR{<first author or first group of authors sharing the same affiliation}

\AFF{<first affiliation>,

\EMAIL{<email of the first author>}}

\AUTHOR{<second author or second group sharing the same affiliation}

\AFF{<second affiliation>,

\EMAIL{<email of the first person in the group>},

\EMAIL{<email of the second person in the group>},

...}

...}

Enter all authors names. If hyperref is used, the syntax for URLs and e-mail addresses should be

\href{http://www.informs.org}{INFORMS}

\href{mailto:pubtech@informs.org}{pubtech@informs.org}

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where the second argument is printable/visible, while the ﬁrst one indicates the action browser

will perform if pointed to the visible part of the hyperlink. For details, please see the hyperref

manual.

4. Internal Links

To use the full potential of LaTeX and enable smooth revisions and updates of the article and its

references, all heads and subheads (section,subsection,subsubsection), equations that will

be referenced (not all equations!), theorem-like environments, and especially citations (references)

should be input properly, using symbolic links via \label{},\ref{}, and \cite{} (and similar

commands). This is important regardless of whether you use hyperref.

5. Mathematical Formulas

Please see LaTeX documentation. We will only point out some details not regularly available or

often overlooked by LaTeX users.

5.1. Special Characters

To help prevent incorrect coding for calligraphic and openface (blackboard bold) letters, this style

automatically loads amsmath and amssymb, so Rand Nare available and coded, respectively,

$\mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{N}$. Standard calligraphic letters like A,D,U, and Xshould be

coded as $\mathcal{A}$,$\mathcal{D}$,$\mathcal{U}$, and $\mathcal{X}$. With standard

fonts, only uppercase letters are available in both cases.

5.2. Bold Mathematical Symbols

Following the style guidelines of the American Mathematical Society, INFORMS does not set math

in bold, even if the environment is bold (as for example a section title). However, bold symbols

(roman and greek letters, and occasionally digits) are in wide use for variety of reasons. We added

macros to facilitate their use in regular math without resorting to overarching packages like \bm

or using the clumsy \mbox{\boldmath$$} construction.

This style provides the following sequence of bold symbols: Ato Z;ato z;0,1, to 9;αto Ω;

Ato Z; as well as symbols ı,,`,℘, and ∇. This list is keyed as

$\BFA$ to $\BFZ$; $\BFa$ to $\BFz$; $\BFzero$, $\BFone$, to $\BFnine$;

$\BFalpha$ to $\BFOmega$; $\BFcalA$ to $\BFcalZ$; as well as symbols

$\BFimath$, $\BFjmath$, $\BFell$, $\BFwp$, and $\BFnabla$.

5.3. Equation Counter

Whenever possible, equation numbering should be consecutive through the article (1, 2, . . . ). This

setting is achieved by outcommenting the command

\EquationNumbersThrough

in the journal template. If the complexity of the article really requires it, equation numbering can

be done by section. The template line

%\EquationNumbersBySection

should be outcommented in this case. Whichever equation numbering system you choose, please

number only the equations that will be referenced. Supply those equations with labels so that

the referencing can be done by \ref{} in the standard LaTeX process. Should you use eqnarray,

make sure that the last line does not end with \\, because that will set another blank line with an

equation number assigned to a formula that does not exist, and the numbering will go awry.

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2016 INFORMS

5.4. Some Other Math Details

We mention a couple of random but useful points.

•For more convenient setting of matrices and matrix-like structures we supplied four environ-

ments that ﬁne-tune math spacing around large delimiters. These are Matrix,vMatrix,bMatrix,

and pMatrix. For example, the Vandermonde determinant can be set as

1 1 ... 1

x1x2. . . xn

.

.

..

.

.....

.

.

xn−1

1xn−1

2. . . xn−1

n

by using the code

\begin{vMatrix}{cccc}1&1&\hdots&1\\ x_1&x_2&\hdots&x_n\\

\vdots&\vdots&\ddots&\vdots\\ x_1^{n-1}& x_2^{n-1}&\hdots&x_n^{n-1}\end{vMatrix}

The delimiters in the four constructs are, respectively, none, vertical bars, brackets, and parentheses

(no preﬁx, v,b, and p).

•Besides the usual math operators like \sin,\max, etc., we introduced \argmin and \argmax

to achieve the proper spacing and position of their limits in the display—centered under the whole

operator, not only under “max” or “min.”

•In math display constructions where the ubiquituous array is used, its elements are set in

\textstyle. Most notably, fractions will be set small and lines will appear cramped. Limits that

are supposed to go under operators will appear as subscripts. It is a matter of good mathematical

exposition, rather than of any rigid rules, that the \displaystyle be used when a formula is

considered too small and tight. To save keystrokes in such cases, we supplied \DS,\TS, and \mcr,

for, respectively, \displaystyle,\textstyle, and the code that should end any line instead of \\

to allow more generous spacing. Compare

11

a2+b2

1

c2+d2

1

a2+b2

1

c2+d2,

11

a2+b2

1

c2+d2

1

a2+b2

1

c2+d2

,and

11

a2+b2

1

c2+d2

1

a2+b2

1

c2+d2

.

In the middle, the bMatrix end of line is keyed as the standard \\, instead of the enhanced \mcr

that is used in the last matrix.

6. Lists

INFORMS has a special style for lists to accommodate journal column width. Typically lists are

set as standard paragraphs, starting with the identiﬁer (number, bullet, etc.). To reﬂect this in an

automated way, we turned the standard settings for LaTeX lists “upside down.”

The style supplies enumerate,itemize, and description lists descr in the above-mentioned

paragraph style, whereas the standard hanging lists, if absolutely necessary, can be entered using

list environments with names that are tentatively preceded by “h” (for “hang”): henumerate,

hitemize, and hdescr. From time to time, our authors use a bulleted list within a numbered list.

To get proper settings for this—itemize within enumerate—we also introduced an enumitemize

list.

Following is a sample of enumerate based on text that appears on the inside cover of Marketing

Science. In the ﬁrst item there is also an enumitemize sublist to illustrate its use.

1. Although our primary focus is on articles that answer important research questions in mar-

keting using mathematical modeling, we also consider publishing many other diﬀerent types of

manuscripts. These manuscripts include

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2016 INFORMS 5

•empirical papers reporting signiﬁcant ﬁndings (but without any speciﬁc contribution to

modeling),

•papers describing applications (emphasizing implementation issues), and

•scholarly papers reporting developments (in fundamental disciplines) of interest to mar-

keting.

2. Manuscripts should report the results of studies that make signiﬁcant contributions. Contribu-

tions can include signiﬁcant substantive ﬁndings, improvements in modeling methods, meaningful

theoretical developments, important methodological advances, tests of existing theories, compar-

isons of methods and empirical investigations.

3. Marketing Science promises to provide constructive, fair, and timely reviews with the goal of

identifying the best submissions for ultimate publication in the Journal.

Compare it to henumerate (the bulleted list from the previous example is run into the ﬁrst

item here):

1. Although our primary focus is on articles that answer important research questions in mar-

keting using mathematical modeling, we also consider publishing many other diﬀerent types

of manuscripts. These manuscripts include empirical papers reporting signiﬁcant ﬁndings (but

without any speciﬁc contribution to modeling), papers describing applications (emphasizing

implementation issues), and scholarly papers reporting developments (in fundamental disci-

plines) of interest to marketing.

2. Manuscripts should report the results of studies that make signiﬁcant contributions. Contribu-

tions can include signiﬁcant substantive ﬁndings, improvements in modeling methods, mean-

ingful theoretical developments, important methodological advances, tests of existing theories,

comparisons of methods and empirical investigations.

3. Marketing Science promises to provide constructive, fair, and timely reviews with the goal of

identifying the best submissions for ultimate publication in the Journal.

Following is the same text formatted as a bulleted list per INFORMS style.

•Although our primary focus is on articles that answer important research questions in mar-

keting using mathematical modeling, we also consider publishing many other diﬀerent types of

manuscripts. These manuscripts include empirical papers reporting signiﬁcant ﬁndings (but without

any speciﬁc contribution to modeling), papers describing applications (emphasizing implementa-

tion issues), and scholarly papers reporting developments (in fundamental disciplines) of interest

to marketing.

•Manuscripts should report the results of studies that make signiﬁcant contributions. Contribu-

tions can include signiﬁcant substantive ﬁndings, improvements in modeling methods, meaningful

theoretical developments, important methodological advances, tests of existing theories, compar-

isons of methods and empirical investigations.

•Marketing Science promises to provide constructive, fair, and timely reviews with the goal of

identifying the best submissions for ultimate publication in the Journal.

Description list (as in glossaries, for example) will be set per this sample.

Originality: By submitting any manuscript, the author certiﬁes that the manuscript is not

copyrighted and is not currently under review for any journal or conference proceedings. If the

manuscript (or any part of it) has appeared, or will appear, in another publication of any kind, all

details must be provided to the editor in chief at the time of submission. . .

Permissions: Permission to make digital/hard copy of part or all of this work for personal or

classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for proﬁt

or commercial advantage, the copyright notice, the title of the publication and its date appear,

and notice is given that copying is by permission of the Institute for Operations Research and the

Management Sciences. . .

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2016 INFORMS

Subscription Services: Marketing Science (ISSN 0732-2399) is a quarterly journal published

by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences at 7240 Parkway Drive,

Suite 310, Hanover, MD 21076.

7. Theorems and Theorem-Like Environments

Theorems and other theorem-like environments come in two main styles. Theorems, lemmas, propo-

sitions, and corollaries are traditionally set in italic type, and environments like examples and

remarks are set in roman.

To achieve automated distinction between these two main theorem styles (and substyles that are,

to some extent, journal dependent), we deﬁned several new theorem styles, most notably TH and

EX. INFORMS house style prefers that all theorems (say) are numbered consecutively throughout.

However, for longer papers with a more complex structure, numbering by section is also provided.

The choice must be made in the template, because various counters deﬁned in this way need to be

declared after hyperref.

The preferred version, \TheoremsNumberedThrough, is shown here

\def\TheoremsNumberedThrough{%

\theoremstyle{TH}%

\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}

\newtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}

\newtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}

\newtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}

\newtheorem{claim}{Claim}

\newtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}

\newtheorem{hypothesis}{Hypothesis}

\newtheorem{assumption}{Assumption}

\theoremstyle{EX}

\newtheorem{remark}{Remark}

\newtheorem{example}{Example}

\newtheorem{problem}{Problem}

\newtheorem{definition}{Definition}

\newtheorem{question}{Question}

\newtheorem{answer}{Answer}

\newtheorem{exercise}{Exercise}

}

The other, two-tier numbering scheme, is deﬁned via

\def\TheoremsNumberedBySection{%

\theoremstyle{TH}%

\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]

\newtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}[section]

\newtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}[section]

\newtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}[section]

\newtheorem{claim}{Claim}[section]

\newtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}[section]

\newtheorem{hypothesis}{Hypothesis}[section]

\newtheorem{assumption}{Assumption}[section]

\theoremstyle{EX}

\newtheorem{remark}{Remark}[section]

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2016 INFORMS 7

\newtheorem{example}{Example}[section]

\newtheorem{problem}{Problem}[section]

\newtheorem{definition}{Definition}[section]

\newtheorem{question}{Question}[section]

\newtheorem{answer}{Answer}[section]

\newtheorem{exercise}{Exercise}[section]

}

Changing these numbering patterns by setting several diﬀerent enunciations on the same counter

is strongly discouraged. The house style does not allow Theorem 1 to be followed by Lemma 2 and

then by Corollary 3.

For those who require an exception to the rule, there are theorem styles THkey and EXkey. These

follow the general style of TH and EX but if used with an optional argument, allow for keying any

text as a theorem title—numbering and embellishments are taken away in this case. For example,

{\theoremstyle{THkey}\newtheorem{mytheorem}{XXXXX}}

should be used only with the optional argument to get something like

My Dearest Most Important Theorem. a=a.

by keying

\begin{mytheorem}[My Dearest Most Important Theorem.]$a=a$.

\end{mytheorem}

For proofs, there is \proof{<proof name>} ... \endproof. Here <proof name> may be

“Proof.”, or for example, “Proof of Theorem \label{mytheor1}.” In general, the end of proof

should be marked with the open box, aka \Halmos (). The proof can end after a normal sentence or

after displayed math. \Halmos should be entered manually (or not at all for the non-QED-oriented

authors).

8. Footnotes and Endnotes

Use of footnotes varies among the INFORMS journals. Most journals allow regular footnotes.

However, inte does not allow footnotes, whereas opre and orsc use endnotes instead of footnotes.

Details of how to use endnotes are explained in the comments of the respective journals; template

ﬁles. In the opre and orsc cases, package endnotes.sty is invoked to automatically do the job.

9. Figures and Tables

graphicx package should be used for inclusion of graphic ﬁles (it is automatically loaded). Please

see LaTeX documentation for details.

Here we will concentrate on our macros for handling the whole trio: caption, ﬁgure (art ﬁle),

and ﬁgure note, as well as the counterpart trio for tables. To enable proper style, all elements have

to be captured at once, so that the macro can analyze components for presence or absence of the

caption text, for presence or absence of a note, as well as for the tentative size of a ﬁgure or a

table, etc.

9.1. Figures

A typical setting for ﬁgures is

\begin{figure}

\FIGURE

{\includegraphics{figure-filename.pdf}}

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2016 INFORMS

Figure 1 Text of the Figure Caption

Note. Text of the notes.

{Text of the Figure Caption.\label{fig1}}

{Text of the notes.}

\end{figure}

The result may look as shown in Figure 1 (just a rectangle to simplify this document). The typo-

graphical style and position of the caption (above or below the ﬁgure) will be automatically set

depending on the selected journal option. To summarize, within \FIGURE, the order of entries is

art—caption (with label)—notes. Even if notes are not included, the third argument to \FIGURE

must be present as an empty group {}, otherwise a syntax error will occur.

Regarding the ﬁgure itself (“art”), the preferred formats are PDF or EPS, whenever they can

guarantee the vector format (drawing, not image). A common problem is caused by transferring

graphs in MS Oﬃce products via the clipboard. In many cases the transfer creates a bitmap/image

instead of the original vector-based graph, which typically degrades the quality of art to an unac-

ceptably low level. Such images are also (almost) ineditable.

If the art is a real image (photograph), JPEG and TIFF ﬁle formats are the way to go. JPEG

should be used with best quality in mind, not with the smallest ﬁle size. The latter typically

renders it useless for publishing. TIFF is not “lossy,” so it is preferred in such cases. Make sure

the resolution is high enough: For photographs, resolution should be at least 300 dpi in both black

and white and color cases. If there is a need to reproduce a piece of line art from an old source,

where an electronic ﬁle is not available and the only option is to scan, resolution should not be

lower than 900 dpi.

9.2. Tables

For inclusion of tables, a typical setting is

\begin{table}

\TABLE

{Text of the Table Caption.\label{tab1}}

{\begin{tabular}{<table format>}

entries

\end{tabular}}

{Text of the notes.}

\end{table}

The order of entries in \TABLE is caption (with label)—table body—notes, because the table caption

is always set above the table body. Within the table, INFORMS house style requires only three

rules: above the table column heads, between the table column heads and the table body, and after

the table body. Of course, straddle rules are acceptable if necessary (the “\cline{3--5} stuﬀ”).

In extreme cases, a table may be so complex that it needs to be set as a piece of artwork, in which

case, a properly formatted vector-based ﬁgure may be included instead of a keyed table.

To enhance the appearance of tables regarding vertical spacing, macros \up and \down should

be used. \up should be used in rows following a rule (increasing the space below the rule). \down

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2016 INFORMS 9

should be used in rows before a rule (increasing the space before the rule). The following LaTeX

detail shows how to use \up and \down.

\hline

\up\down System & Benchmark\\

\hline

\up First entry...\\

...

\down Last row\\

\hline

9.3. Rotated Figures and Tables

In cases where a ﬁgure, or more often a table, is so large that it cannot reasonably ﬁt in the portrait

position, landscape setting is also available. The whole environment (figure or table) should be

surrounded by

\begin{rotate}

<table or figure>

\end{rotate}

Before resorting to this extreme measure, please try smaller type size for the table body or even

some reworking/restructuring to make it ﬁt.

10. About Appendices

There are a variety of ways authors set their appendices. We tried to standardize those options to

make them work well with the internal linking system. Two basic styles are available.

1. Appendix started by a general title “Appendix,” possibly followed by two or more sections.

It should be keyed as

\begin{APPENDIX}{}

...

\end{APPENDIX}

Subsections and subsubsections are also allowed. There are two subtypes of such an appendix.

•If the empty braces after {APPENDIX} are left empty, the title of the whole section will be

“Appendix.”

•If a speciﬁc title is entered, say “Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems,” the appendix title will

appear as “Appendix. Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems.”

\begin{APPENDIX}{Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems}

will start that appendix type.

2. When you have two or more appendices that should logically be independent, we provide the

environment APPENDICES:

\begin{APPENDICES}

...

\end{APPENDICES}

This environment has no arguments. It is supposed to have at least two sections. Their titles will

be set as “Appendix A. <Title of Appendix A>,” “Appendix B. <Title of Appendix B>,” etc.

Subsections and subsubsections are also allowed.

The type size and relative position of the appendix with respect to the acknowledgments is

regulated by the style of the particular journal and reﬂected in the journal template.

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11. Citations and References

INFORMS journals use the author-year style of references, with the exception of moor that uses

the numeric style. In addition to the text here, a comprehensive (mixed) sample of references is

added to this main text.

To set references in the INFORMS house style, it is best to use BibTeX coupled with our .bst

(BibTeX) style informs2014.bst (informs2014trsc.bst in the case of Transportation Science).

For example, if your ﬁle is named mypaper.tex and your BibTeX database is myrefs.bib, enter

\bibliographystyle{informs2014}

\bibliography{myrefs}

in the place where references should be set. After the ﬁrst LaTeX run, apply BibTeX

bibtex mypaper

That will produce the mypaper.bbl ﬁle, as well as the mypaper.blg log ﬁle. Please read the

mypaper.blg text ﬁle to make sure your database is not missing a required ﬁeld. Please keep and

submit the .bbl file along with your .bib ﬁle. Even with best care, the database may have some

inconsistencies, typos, and inadequate journal abbreviations to adhere to the INFORMS style. The

BibTeX style cannot automatically rectify such problems, so we need your .bbl as an editable ﬁle

for those minor corrections.

11.1. Author-Year Style Labels

In case you do not use BibTeX, your references are keyed (manually) in the style found in INFORMS

journals. Journal templates set the natbib conﬁguration (in the preamble) to reﬂect the particular

journal style. To have \cite{} work properly also for the manually keyed references, you should

follow the proper syntax as explained in the following example.

Consider the following ﬁve \bibitem lines.

\bibitem[{Psaraftis(1988)}]{Psaraftis:1998}

\bibitem[{Psaraftis(1995)}]{Psaraftis:1995}

\bibitem[{Regan et~al.(1998{\natexlab{a}})Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet}]{Regan:1998a}

\bibitem[{Regan et~al.(1998{\natexlab{b}})Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet}]{Regan:1998b}

\bibitem[{Rego and Roucairol(1995)}]{Rego}

Symbolic labels used in \cite{} entries is what is shown in the last set of braces: Psaraftis:1998

through Rego. For natbib to access names and years separately, it is very important to strictly

adhere to the syntax of the optional argument to \bibitem as shown. It is in the form

\bibitem[{string1}], where string1 is composed as

<short-name>(year<possible-alpha-label>)<long-name>

Note that there are no space before and after (and ). The <long-name> part can be omitted in

journal styles so that string1 simpliﬁes to

<short-name>(year<possible-alpha-label>)

The <possible-alpha-label> part is only used when the <short-name> and year are identical,

in which case we append lowercase letters a, b, c, and so on. For a citation with one author, follow

examples from lines 1 and 2. For citations with two authors, see the last line (Rego and Roucairol).

Lines 3 and 4 show a sample where <short-name> and year are identical. Citations with three or

more authors abbreviate into “ﬁrst-author et al.”

Note. In Transportation Science (trsc), the “ﬁrst-author et al.” rule applies to four authors or

more; three-authors citations are set with their full last names. Hence, lines 3 and 4 should be

altered (again, we need the .bbl ﬁle) to read

\bibitem[{Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet(1998{\natexlab{a}})}]{Regan:1998a}

\bibitem[{Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet(1998{\natexlab{b}})}]{Regan:1998b}

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pp. 1–11, c

2016 INFORMS 11

Details of usage for \cite are available from the natbib documentation. Following is a brief

excerpt.

\citet{key} ==>> Jones et al. (1990)

\citep{key} ==>> (Jones et al., 1990)

\citep[chap. 2]{key} ==>> (Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)

\citep[e.g.][]{key} ==>> (e.g. Jones et al., 1990)

\citep[e.g.][p. 32]{key} ==>> (e.g. Jones et al., p. 32)

\citeauthor{key} ==>> Jones et al.

\citeyear{key} ==>> 1990

\citealt{key} ==>> Jones et al.\ 1990

\citealp{key} ==>> Jones et al., 1990

\citealp{key,key2} ==>> Jones et al., 1990; James et al., 1991

\citealp[p.~32]{key} ==>> Jones et al., 1990, p.~32

\citetext{priv.\ comm.} ==>> (priv.\ comm.)

11.2. Numeric Style Labels

The same ﬁve \bibitem lines

\bibitem[{Psaraftis(1988)}]{Psaraftis:1998}

\bibitem[{Psaraftis(1995)}]{Psaraftis:1995}

\bibitem[{Regan et~al.(1998{\natexlab{a}})Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet}]{Regan:1998a}

\bibitem[{Regan et~al.(1998{\natexlab{b}})Regan, Mahmassani, and Jaillet}]{Regan:1998b}

\bibitem[{Rego and Roucairol(1995)}]{Rego}

in the numeric style will be ﬁne. The only change is the removal of the now unnecessary labels “a”

and “b” (where applicable), because the reference counter is what will distinguish such cases. The

above-described command \cite and its derivations \citet,\citep, etc. for natbib will behave

diﬀerently in the numeric style. A brief overview follows.

\citet{jon90} ==>> Jones et al. [21]

\citet[chap.~2]{jon90} ==>> Jones et al. [21, chap.~2]

\citep{jon90} ==>> [21]

\citep[chap.~2]{jon90} ==>> [21, chap.~2]

\citep[see][]{jon90} ==>> [see 21]

\citep[see][chap.~2]{jon90} ==>> [see 21, chap.~2]

\citep{jon90a,jon90b} ==>> [21, 32]

© 2016 INFORMS

Sample INFORMS References, 2016/02/23

Mirko Janc

INFORMS, 5521 Research Park Drive, Suite 200, Catonsville MD 21228, mailto:mirko.janc@informs.org

This is a compilation of references of several INFORMS articles to serve as a sample for those who do not

use BiBTeX but key their references directly.

Keywords: INFORMS references; references style

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