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2017 Formatting Instructions
for Authors Using LATEX
AAAI Press
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
2275 East Bayshore Road, Suite 160
Palo Alto, California 94303

AAAI creates proceedings, working notes, and technical reports directly from electronic source furnished by the authors.
To ensure that all papers in the publication have a uniform appearance, authors must adhere to the following instructions.

Congratulations on having a paper selected for inclusion in
an AAAI Press proceedings or technical report! This document details the requirements necessary to get your accepted paper published using LATEX. If you are using Microsoft Word, instructions are provided in a different document. If you want to use some other formatting software,
you must obtain permission from AAAI Press first.
The instructions herein are provided as a general guide for
experienced LATEX users who would like to use that software
to format their paper for an AAAI Press publication or report. If you are not an experienced LATEX user, do not use it
to format your paper. AAAI cannot provide you with support
and the accompanying style files are not guaranteed to work.
If the results you obtain are not in accordance with the specifications you received, you must correct your source file to
achieve the correct result.
These instructions are generic. Consequently, they do not
include specific dates, page charges, and so forth. Please
consult your specific written conference instructions for details regarding your submission. Please review the entire
document for specific instructions that might apply to your
particular situation. All authors must comply with the following:
• You must use the latest AAAI Press LATEX style file.
• Download the author kit.
• Complete, sign, and return by the deadline the AAAI
copyright form (proceedings authors) or distribution license (technical report authors).
• Read and format your paper source and PDF according to
the formatting instructions for authors.
• Submit your electronic files and abstract using our electronic submission form on time.
Copyright c 2017, Association for the Advancement of Artificial
Intelligence ( All rights reserved.

• Submit your copyright form, and any required page or formatting charges to AAAI Press so that they are received
by the deadline.
• Check every page of your paper before submitting it.

All papers submitted for publication by AAAI Press must
be accompanied by a valid signed copyright form or, in the
case of technical reports, by a valid signed permission to
distribute form. There are no exceptions to this requirement.
You must send us the original version of this form. However,
to meet the deadline, you may fax (1-650-321-4457) or scan
and e-mail the form ( to AAAI by the
submission deadline, and then mail the original via postal
mail to the AAAI office. If you fail to send in a signed
copyright or permission form, your paper will not be
published. You will find PDF versions of the AAAI copyright and permission to distribute forms in the author kit.

Formatting Requirements in Brief
We need source and PDF files that can be used in a variety
of ways and can be output on a variety of devices. AAAI imposes some requirements on your source and PDF files that
must be followed. Most of these requirements are based on
our efforts to standardize conference manuscript properties
and layout. These requirements are as follows, and all papers
submitted to AAAI for publication must comply:
• Your .tex file must compile in PDFLATEX — no .ps or
.eps figure files.
• All fonts must be embedded in the PDF file — this includes your figures.
• Modifications to the style sheet (or your document) in an
effort to avoid extra page charges or make your paper fit
are NOT allowed.
• No type 3 fonts may be used (even in illustrations).
• Your title must follow Title Case capitalization rules (not
sentence case).
• LATEX documents must use the Times or Nimbus font
package (do not use Computer Modern for the text of your
• No LATEX 209 documents may be used or submitted.

• Your source must not require use of fonts for non-Roman
alphabets within the text itself. If your paper includes
symbols in other languages (such as, but not limited to
Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian and other
Cyrillic languages), you must restrict their use to figures.
• Fonts that require non-English language support (CID
and Identity-H) must be converted to outlines or 300 dpi
bitmap or removed from the document (even if they are in
a graphics file embedded in the document).
• Two-column format in AAAI style is required for all papers.
• The paper size for final submission must be US letter. No
• The source file must exactly match the PDF.
• The document margins must be as specified in the formatting instructions.
• The number of pages and the file size must be as specified
for your event.
• No document may be password protected.
• Neither the PDFs nor the source may contain any embedded links or bookmarks.
• Your source and PDF must not have any page numbers,
footers, or headers.
• Your PDF must be compatible with Acrobat 5 or higher.
• Your LATEX source file (excluding references) must consist of a single file (use of the “input” command is not
• Your graphics must be sized appropriately outside of
LATEX (do not use the “clip” command) .
If you do not follow the above requirements, it is likely
that we will be unable to publish your paper.

What Files to Submit
You must submit the following items to ensure that your paper is published:
• A fully-compliant PDF file.
• Your LATEX source file submitted as a single .tex file (do
not use the “input” command to include sections of your
paper — every section must be in the single source file).
The only exception is the bibliography, which you may
include separately. Your source must compile on our system, which includes the standard LATEX support files.
• All your graphics files.
• The LATEX-generated files (e.g. .aux and .bib file, etc.) for
your compiled source.
• All the nonstandard style files (ones not commonly found
in standard LATEX installations) used in your document
(including, for example, old algorithm style files). If in
doubt, include it.
Your LATEX source will be reviewed and recompiled on
our system (if it does not compile, you may incur late fees).

Do not submit your source in multiple text files. Your single LATEX source file must include all your text, your bibliography (formatted using aaai.bst), and any custom macros.
Accompanying this source file, you must also supply any
nonstandard (or older) referenced style files and all your referenced graphics files.
Your files should work without any supporting files (other
than the program itself) on any computer with a standard
LATEX distribution. Place your PDF and source files in a
single tar, zipped, gzipped, stuffed, or compressed archive.
Name your source file with your last (family) name.
Do not send files that are not actually used in the paper. We don’t want you to send us any files not needed for
compiling your paper, including, for example, this instructions file, unused graphics files, standard style files, and so
Obsolete style files. The commands for some common
packages (such as some used for algorithms), may have
changed. Please be certain that you are not compiling your
paper using old or obsolete style files.

Using LATEX to Format Your Paper
The latest version of the AAAI style file is available on
AAAI’s website. Download this file and place it in the TEX
search path. Placing it in the same directory as the paper
should also work. You must download the latest version of
the complete author kit so that you will have the latest instruction set and style file.

Document Preamble
In the LATEX source for your paper, you must place the following lines as shown in the example in this subsection. This
command set-up is for three authors. Add or subtract author
and address lines as necessary, and uncomment the portions
that apply to you. In most instances, this is all you need to
do to format your paper in the Times font. The helvet package will cause Helvetica to be used for sans serif. These files
are part of the PSNFSS2e package, which is freely available
from many Internet sites (and is often part of a standard installation).
Leave the setcounter for section number depth commented out and set at 0 unless you want to add section numbers to your paper. If you do add section numbers, you must
uncomment this line and change the number to 1 (for section numbers), or 2 (for section and subsection numbers).
The style file will not work properly with numbering of subsubsections, so do not use a number higher than 2.
If (and only if) your author title information will not
fit within the specified height allowed, put \setlength
\titlebox2.5in in your preamble. Increase the height until the
height error disappears from your log. You may not use the
\setlength command elsewhere in your paper, and it may not
be used to reduce the height of the author-title box.
% Required Packages

% Uncomment and complete the following for metadata
(your paper must compile with PDFLATEX)
/Title (Input Your Paper Title Here)
/Author (John Doe, Jane Doe)
/Keywords (Input your paper’s keywords in this optional
% Section Numbers
% Uncomment if you want to use section numbers
% and change the 0 to a 1 or 2
% \setcounter{secnumdepth}{0}
% Title, Author, and Address Information
\author{Author 1 \and Author 2\\
Address line\\
Address line\\
Author 3\\
Address line\\
Address line}
% Body of Paper Begins
% References and End of Paper

Inserting Document Metadata with LATEX
PDF files contain document summary information that enables us to create an Acrobat index (pdx) file, and also allows search engines to locate and present your paper more
accurately. Document Metadata for Author and Title are
If your paper includes illustrations that are not compatible
with PDFTEX (such as .eps or .ps documents), you will need
to convert them. The epstopdf package will usually work
for eps files. You will need to convert your ps files to PDF
Important: Do not include any LATEX code or nonascii
characters (including accented characters) in the metadata.
The data in the metadata must be completely plain ascii. It
may not include slashes, accents, linebreaks, unicode, or any
LATEX commands. Type the title exactly as it appears on the
paper (minus all formatting). Input the author names in the
order in which they appear on the paper (minus all accents),
separating each author by a comma. You may also include
keywords in the Keywords field.

Preparing Your Paper
After the preamble above, you should prepare your paper as

Incompatible Packages
The following packages are incompatible with aaai.sty
and/or aaai.bst and must not be used (this list is not exhaustive — there are others as well):
• authblk
• fullpage
• hyperref
• natbib
• geometry
• titlesec
• layout
• caption
• titlesec
• savetrees
• T1 fontenc package (install the CM super fonts package

Illegal Commands
The following commands may not be used in your paper
(this list is exhaustive — there are others; generally, if it alters aaai.sty, it isn’t acceptable):
• \input
• \vspace or vskip (when used before or after a section or
• \addtolength
• \columnsep
• \top margin (or text height or addsidemargin or even side
• trim or clip (used to crop figures)
• any command that globally alters floats, space above and
below figures and tables

Paper Size, Margins, and Column Width
Papers must be formatted to print in two-column format on
8.5 x 11 inch US letter-sized paper. The margins must be
exactly as follows:
• Top margin: .75 inches
• Left margin: .75 inches
• Right margin: .75 inches

• Bottom margin: 1.25 inches

Type Font and Size

The default paper size in most installations of LATEX is
A4. However, because we require that your electronic paper be formatted in US letter size, you will need to alter
the default for this paper to US letter size. Assuming you
are using the 2e version of LATEX, you can do this by including the [letterpaper] option at the beginning of your file:
This command is usually sufficient to change the
format. Sometimes, however, it may not work. Use
PDFLATEX and include \setlength{\pdfpagewidth}{8.5in}
\setlength{\pdfpageheight}{11in} in your preamble.
Do not use the Geometry package to alter the page
size. Use of this style file alters aaai.sty and will result in
your paper being rejected.

Your paper must be formatted in Times Roman or Nimbus.
We will not accept papers formatted using Computer Modern or Palatino or some other font as the text or heading typeface. Sans serif, when used, should be Courier. Use Symbol
or Lucida or Computer Modern for mathematics only.
Do not use type 3 fonts for any portion of your paper,
including graphics. Type 3 bitmapped fonts are designed
for fixed resolution printers. Most print at 300 dpi even if
the printer resolution is 1200 dpi or higher. They also often
cause high resolution imagesetter devices and our PDF indexing software to crash. Consequently, AAAI will not accept electronic files containing obsolete type 3 fonts. Files
containing those fonts (even in graphics) will be rejected.
Fortunately, there are effective workarounds that will prevent your file from embedding type 3 bitmapped fonts. The
easiest workaround is to use the required times, helvet, and
courier packages with LATEX2e. (Note that papers formatted
in this way will still use Computer Modern for the mathematics. To make the math look good, you’ll either have to
use Symbol or Lucida, or you will need to install type 1
Computer Modern fonts — for more on these fonts, see the
section “Obtaining Type 1 Computer Modern.”)
If you are unsure if your paper contains type 3 fonts, view
the PDF in Acrobat Reader. The Properties/Fonts window
will display the font name, font type, and encoding properties of all the fonts in the document. If you are unsure if your
graphics contain type 3 fonts (and they are PostScript or encapsulated PostScript documents), create PDF versions of
them, and consult the properties window in Acrobat Reader.
The default size for your type should be ten-point with
twelve-point leading (line spacing). Start all pages (except
the first) directly under the top margin. (See the next section for instructions on formatting the title page.) Indent ten
points when beginning a new paragraph, unless the paragraph begins directly below a heading or subheading.

Column Width and Margins. To ensure maximum readability, your paper must include two columns. Each column
should be 3.3 inches wide (slightly more than 3.25 inches),
with a .375 inch (.952 cm) gutter of white space between
the two columns. The aaai.sty file will automatically create
these columns for you.

Overlength Papers
If your paper is too long, turn on \frenchspacing, which
will reduce the space after periods. Next, shrink the size of
your graphics. Use \centering instead of \begin{center} in
your figure environment. For mathematical environments,
you may reduce fontsize. You may also alter the size
of your bibliography by inserting \fontsize{9.5pt}{10.5pt}
\selectfont right before the bibliography (the minimum size
is \fontsize{9.0pt}{10.0pt}.
Commands that alter page layout are forbidden. These
include \columnsep, \topmargin, \topskip, \textheight,
\textwidth, \oddsidemargin, and \evensizemargin (this list
is not exhaustive). If you alter page layout, you will be required to pay the page fee plus a reformatting fee. Other
commands that are questionable and may cause your paper
to be rejected include \parindent, and \parskip. Commands
that alter the space between sections are forbidden. The title sec package is not allowed. Regardless of the above, if
your paper is obviously “squeezed” it is not going to to be
accepted. Before using every trick you know to make your
paper a certain length, try reducing the size of your graphics
or cutting text instead or (if allowed) paying the extra page

Your paper must compile in PDFLATEX. Consequently, all
your figures must be .jpg, .png, or .pdf. You may not use
the .gif (the resolution is too low), .ps, or .eps file format for
your figures.
When you include your figures, you must crop them outside of LATEX. The command \includegraphics*[clip=true,
viewport 0 0 10 10]... might result in a PDF that looks great,
but the image is not really cropped. The full image can
reappear (and obscure whatever it is overlapping) when page
numbers are applied or color space is standardized.

Obtaining Type 1 Computer Modern for LATEX. If
you use Computer Modern for the mathematics in your
paper (you cannot use it for the text) you may need
to download type 1 Computer fonts. They are available
without charge from the American Mathematical Society:

Title and Authors
Your title must appear in mixed case (nouns, pronouns, and
verbs are capitalized) near the top of the first page, centered over both columns in sixteen-point bold type (twentyfour point leading). This style is called “mixed case.” Author’s names should appear below the title of the paper, centered in twelve-point type (with fifteen point leading), along
with affiliation(s) and complete address(es) (including electronic mail address if available) in nine-point roman type
(the twelve point leading). (If the title is long, or you have
many authors, you may reduce the specified point sizes by
up to two points.) You should begin the two-column format
when you come to the abstract.

Formatting Author Information Author information can
be set in a number of different styles, depending on the number of authors and the number of affiliations you need to display. For several authors from the same institution, use \and:
\author{Author 1 \and ... \and Author n\\
Address line \\ ... \\ Address line}

If the names do not fit well on one line use:
\author{Author 1}\\
{\bf Author 2}\\ ... \\ {\bf Author n}\\
Address line \\ ... \\ Address line}

For authors from different institutions, use \And:
\author{Author 1\\ Address line \\ ... \\ Address line
\And ... \And Author n\\
Address line\\ ... \\ Address line}

To start a separate “row” of authors, use \AND:
\author{Author 1\\ Address line \\ ... \\ Address line\\
Author 2 \\ Address line \\ ... \\ Address line\\
Author 3 \\ Address line \\ ... \\ Address line\\

If the title and author information does not fit in the
area allocated, place \setlength\titlebox{height} after the
\documentclass line where {height} is 2.5in or greater.

LATEX Copyright Notice
The copyright notice automatically appears if you use
aaai.sty. If you are creating a technical report, it is not necessary to include this notice. You may disable the copyright
line using the \nocopyrightcommand. To change the entire
text of the copyright slug, use: \copyrighttext {text}. Either
of these must appear before \maketitle. Please be advised,
however, that if you disable or change the copyright line and
transfer of copyright is required, your paper will not be published.

Any credits to a sponsoring agency should appear in the acknowledgments section, unless the agency requires different
placement. If it is necessary to include this information on
the front page, use \thanks in either the \author or \title
commands. For example:
\title{Very Important Results in AI\thanks{This work is supported by everybody.}}

Multiple \thanks commands can be given. Each will result in
a separate footnote indication in the author or title with the
corresponding text at the botton of the first column of the
document. Note that the \thanks command is fragile. You
will need to use \protect.
Please do not include \pubnote commands in your document.

Follow the example commands in this document for creation
of your abstract. Further indentation is not required. Do not
include references in your abstract!

Page Numbers
Do not ever print any page numbers on your paper.

The main body of the paper must be formatted in ten-point
with twelve-point leading (line spacing).

Citations within the text should include the author’s last
name and year, for example (Newell 1980). Append lowercase letters to the year in cases of ambiguity. Multiple authors should be treated as follows: (Feigenbaum and Engelmore 1988) or (Ford, Hayes, and Glymour 1992). In the case
of four or more authors, list only the first author, followed by
et al. (Ford et al. 1997).

Long quotations and extracts should be indented ten points
from the left and right margins.
This is an example of an extract or quotation. Note the
indent on both sides. Quotation marks are not necessary
if you offset the text in a block like this, and properly
identify and cite the quotation in the text.

Avoid footnotes as much as possible; they interrupt the reading of the text. When essential, they should be consecutively numbered throughout with superscript Arabic numbers. Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page, separated from the text by a blank line space and a thin, halfpoint rule.

Headings and Sections
When necessary, headings should be used to separate major
sections of your paper. Remember, you are writing a short
paper, not a lengthy book! An overabundance of headings
will tend to make your paper look more like an outline than
a paper. The aaai.sty package will create headings for you.
Do not alter their size nor their spacing above or below.
Section Numbers The use of section numbers in AAAI
Press papers is optional. To use section numbers in LATEX,
uncomment the setcounter line in your document preamble
and change the 0 to a 1 or 2. Section numbers should not be
used in short poster papers.
Section Headings.
headed as follows:

Sections should be arranged and

Acknowledgments. The acknowledgments section, if included, appears after the main body of text and is headed
“Acknowledgments.” This section includes acknowledgments of help from associates and colleagues, credits to
sponsoring agencies, financial support, and permission to
publish. Please acknowledge other contributors, grant support, and so forth, in this section. Do not put acknowledgments in a footnote on the first page. If your grant agency
requires acknowledgment of the grant on page 1, limit the
footnote to the required statement, and put the remaining

acknowledgments at the back. Please try to limit acknowledgments to no more than three sentences.
Appendices. Any appendices follow the acknowledgments, if included, or after the main body of text if no acknowledgments appear.
References The references section should be labeled
“References” and should appear at the very end of the paper
(don’t end the paper with references, and then put a figure by
itself on the last page). A sample list of references is given
later on in these instructions. Please use a consistent format
for references. Poorly prepared or sloppy references reflect
badly on the quality of your paper and your research. Please
prepare complete and accurate citations.

Illustrations and Figures

drawing tools in Microsoft Word) to create your illustrations. Do not use Microsoft Publisher. These illustrations
will look best if all line widths are uniform (half- to twopoint in size), and you do not create labels over shaded areas. Shading should be 133 lines per inch if possible. Use
Times Roman or Helvetica for all figure call-outs. Do not
use hairline width lines — be sure that the stroke width of
all lines is at least .5 pt. Zero point lines will print on a laser
printer, but will completely disappear on the high-resolution
devices used by our printers.
Photographs and Images. Photographs and other images
should be in grayscale (color photographs will not reproduce
well; for example, red tones will reproduce as black, yellow
may turn to white, and so forth) and set to a minimum of 300
dpi. Do not prescreen images.
Resizing Graphics. Resize your graphics before you include them with LaTeX. You may not use trim or clip options as part of your \includgraphics command. Resize the
media box of your PDF using a graphics program instead.

Figures, drawings, tables, and photographs should be placed
throughout the paper near the place where they are first discussed. Do not group them together at the end of the paper. If placed at the top or bottom of the paper, illustrations
may run across both columns. Figures must not invade the
top, bottom, or side margin areas. Figures must be inserted
using the \usepackage{graphicx}. Number figures sequentially, for example, figure 1, and so on.
The illustration number and caption should appear under
the illustration. Labels, and other text with the actual illustration must be at least nine-point type.

Fonts in Your Illustrations You must embed all fonts in
your graphics before including them in your LaTeX document.

Low-Resolution Bitmaps. You may not use lowresolution (such as 72 dpi) screen-dumps and GIF
files—these files contain so few pixels that they are always
blurry, and illegible when printed. If they are color, they
will become an indecipherable mess when converted to
black and white. This is always the case with gif files, which
should never be used. The resolution of screen dumps can be
increased by reducing the print size of the original file while
retaining the same number of pixels. You can also enlarge
files by manipulating them in software such as PhotoShop.
Your figures should be 300 dpi when incorporated into your

\bibliographystyle{aaai} \bibliography{bibfile1,bibfile2,...}

LATEX Overflow. LATEX users please beware: LATEX will
sometimes put portions of the figure or table or an equation
in the margin. If this happens, you need to scale the figure or
table down, or reformat the equation. Check your log file!
You must fix any overflow into the margin (that means no
overfull boxes in LATEX). If you don’t, the overflow text will
simply be eliminated. Nothing is permitted to intrude into
the margin or gutter.
Using Color. Your paper will be printed in black and
white and grayscale. Consequently, because conversion to
grayscale can cause undesirable effects (red changes to
black, yellow can disappear, and so forth), we strongly suggest you avoid placing color figures in your document. Of
course, any reference to color will be indecipherable to your
Drawings. We suggest you use computer drawing software (such as Adobe Illustrator or, (if unavoidable), the

The aaai.sty file includes a set of definitions for use in formatting references with BibTeX. These definitions make the
bibliography style fairly close to the one specified below.
To use these definitions, you also need the BibTeX style file
“aaai.bst,” available in the author kit on the AAAI web site.
Then, at the end of your paper but before \enddocument,
you need to put the following lines:
The list of files in the \bibliography command should be
the names of your BibTeX source files (that is, the .bib files
referenced in your paper).
The following commands are available for your use in citing references:
\cite: Cites the given reference(s) with a full citation. This appears as “(Author Year)” for one reference, or “(Author Year;
Author Year)” for multiple references.
\shortcite: Cites the given reference(s) with just the year. This
appears as “(Year)” for one reference, or “(Year; Year)” for
multiple references.
\citeauthor: Cites the given reference(s) with just the author
name(s) and no parentheses.
\citeyear: Cites the given reference(s) with just the date(s)
and no parentheses.

Warning: The aaai.sty file is incompatible with the hyperref and natbib packages. If you use either, your references
will be garbled and your paper will not be published.
Formatted bibliographies should look like the following
Book with Multiple Authors
Engelmore, R., and Morgan, A. eds. 1986. Blackboard Systems. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Journal Article
Robinson, A. L. 1980a. New Ways to Make Microcircuits
Smaller. Science 208: 1019–1026.
Magazine Article
Hasling, D. W.; Clancey, W. J.; and Rennels, G. R. 1983.
Strategic Explanations in Consultation. The International
Journal of Man-Machine Studies 20(1): 3–19.
Proceedings Paper Published by a Society
Clancey, W. J. 1983b. Communication, Simulation, and Intelligent Agents: Implications of Personal Intelligent Machines for Medical Education. In Proceedings of the Eighth
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,
556–560. Menlo Park, Calif.: International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence, Inc.
Proceedings Paper Published by a Press or Publisher
Clancey, W. J. 1984. Classification Problem Solving. In Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 49–54. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
University Technical Report
Rice, J. 1986. Poligon: A System for Parallel Problem Solving, Technical Report, KSL-86-19, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ.
Dissertation or Thesis
Clancey, W. J. 1979b. Transfer of Rule-Based Expertise
through a Tutorial Dialogue. Ph.D. diss., Dept. of Computer
Science, Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif.
Forthcoming Publication
Clancey, W. J. 1986a. The Engineering of Qualitative Models. Forthcoming.

Producing Reliable PDF
Documents with LATEX

from LATEX source. The one requirement of this software is
that all your graphics and images must be available in a format that PDFLATEX understands (normally PDF).
PDFLATEX’s default is to create documents with type 1
fonts. If you find that it is not doing so in your case, it is
likely that one or more fonts are missing from your system
or are not in a path that is known to PDFLATEX.
dvipdf Script Scripts such as dvipdf which ostensibly bypass the Postscript intermediary should not be used since
they generally do not instruct dvips to use the config.pdf file.
dvipdfm Do not use this dvi-PDF conversion package.

LATEX users should not use GhostScript to create their PDFs.

If you are still finding type 3 fonts in your PDF file, look at
your graphics! LATEX users should check all their imported
graphics files as well for font problems.

Proofreading Your PDF
Please check all the pages of your PDF file. Is the page size
A4? Are there any type 3, Identity-H, or CID fonts? Are all
the fonts embedded? Are there any areas where equations
or figures run into the margins? Did you include all your
figures? Did you follow mixed case capitalization rules for
your title? Did you include a copyright notice? Do any of
the pages scroll slowly (because the graphics draw slowly
on the page)? Are URLs underlined and in color? You will
need to fix these common errors before submitting your file.

Improperly Formatted Files

Generally speaking, PDF files are platform independent and
accessible to everyone. When creating a paper for a proceedings or publication in which many PDF documents must be
merged and then printed on high-resolution PostScript RIPs,
several requirements must be met that are not normally of
concern. Thus to ensure that your paper will look like it does
when printed on your own machine, you must take several
• Use type 1 fonts (not type 3 fonts)
• Use only standard Times, Nimbus, and CMR font packages (not fonts like F3 or fonts with tildes in the names or
fonts—other than Computer Modern—that are created for
specific point sizes, like Times˜19) or fonts with strange
combinations of numbers and letters

In the past, AAAI has corrected improperly formatted files
submitted by the authors. Unfortunately, this has become an
increasingly burdensome expense that we can no longer absorb. Consequently, if your file is improperly formatted, it
will not be included in the publication. If time allows, however, you will be notified via e-mail (with a copy to the program chair) of the problems with your file and given the option of correcting the file yourself (and paying a late fee)
or asking that AAAI have the file corrected for you, for an
additional fee. If you opt to correct the file yourself, please
note that we cannot provide you with any additional advice
beyond that given in your packet. Files that are not corrected
after a second attempt will not be included in the publication.

• Embed all fonts when producing the PDF

LATEX 209 Warning

• Do not use the [T1]fontenc package (install the CM super
fonts package instead)

If you use LATEX 209 we will not be able to publish your
paper. Convert your paper to LATEX2e.

Creating Output Using PDFLATEX Is Required

By using the PDFTEX program instead of straight EX or
TEX, you will probably avoid the type 3 font problem altogether (unless you use a package that calls for metafont).
PDFLATEX enables you to create a PDF document directly

Naming Your Electronic File
We request that you name your LATEX source file with your
last name (family name) so that it can easily be differentiated from other submissions. If you name your files with the
name of the event or “aaai” or “paper” or “camera-ready”

or some other generic or indecipherable name, you bear all
risks of loss — it is extremely likely that your file may be

Submitting Your Electronic Files to AAAI
Submitting your files to AAAI is a two-step process. It is
explained fully in the author registration and submission instructions. Please consult this document for details on how
to submit your paper.

If you have any questions about the preparation or submission of your paper as instructed in this document, please
contact AAAI Press at the address given below. If you have
technical questions about implementation of the aaai style
file, please contact an expert at your site. We do not provide
technical support for LATEX or any other software package.
To avoid problems, please keep your paper simple, and do
not incorporate complicated macros and style files.
AAAI Press
2275 East Bayshore Road, Suite 160
Palo Alto, California 94303
Telephone: (650) 328-3123
E-mail: See the submission instructions for your particular conference or event.

Additional Resources
LATEX is a difficult program to master. If you’ve used
that software, and this document didn’t help or some
items were not explained clearly, we recommend you read
Michael Shell’s excellent document (testflow doc.txt V1.0a
2002/08/13) about obtaining correct PS/PDF output on
LATEX systems. (It was written for another purpose, but it has
general application as well). It is available at
in the tex-archive.

AAAI is especially grateful to Peter Patel Schneider for his
work in implementing the aaai.sty file, liberally using the
ideas of other style hackers, including Barbara Beeton. We
also acknowledge with thanks the work of George Ferguson
for his guide to using the style and BibTeX files — which
has been incorporated into this document — and Hans Guesgen, who provided several timely modifications, as well as
the many others who have, from time to time, sent in suggestions on improvements to the AAAI style.
The preparation of the LATEX and BibTEX files that implement these instructions was supported by Schlumberger
Palo Alto Research, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, The Live Oak Press, LLC, and AAAI
Press. Bibliography style changes were added by Sunil Issar. \pubnote was added by J. Scott Penberthy. George Ferguson added support for printing the AAAI copyright slug.
Additional changes to aaai.sty and aaai.bst have been made
by the AAAI staff.
Thank you for reading these instructions carefully. We look
forward to receiving your electronic files!


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