# Jfm Instructions

User Manual: Pdf

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This draft was prepared using the LaTeX style file belonging to the Journal of Fluid Mechanics

1

Guidelines for authors and submission
template
Alan N. Other1 †, H. - C. Smith1 and J. Q. Public2
1

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of America, Somewhere, IN 12345, USA
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Camford, Academic
Street, Camford CF3 5QL, UK

2

(Received xx; revised xx; accepted xx)

This file contains instructions for authors planning to submit a paper to the Journal of
Fluid Mechanics. These instructions were generated in LATEX using the JFM style, so the
LATEX source file can be used as a template for submissions. The present paragraph
appears in the abstract environment. All papers should feature a single-paragraph
abstract of no more than 250 words, which provides a summary of the main aims and
results.
Key words: Authors should not enter keywords on the manuscript, as these must
be chosen by the author during the online submission process and will then be added
during the typesetting process (see http://journals.cambridge.org/data/relatedlink/jfmkeywords.pdf for the full list)

1. Modifications
This version of the guidelines contains the following additions and bug fixes, mostly in
the new BibTeX style file jfm_jabbrv.bst:
• Abbreviation of journal titles with the package jabbrv. The BibTeX file must be
updated to be compatible with this package. This option can be disabled by commenting
the package, and changing the BibTeX style file jfm_jabbrv.bst according to the
instructions of that package.
• Replace the first name of authors in the References with their first name initials.
• Replace with et al. if more than 10 authors, according to the recommendations in
these guidelines.
• Fixed the case of “others” used in authors list, by adding \au{others}.
• Do not add arXiv if the paper is published: FUNCTION {format.eprint}.
• Removed empty ’, ,’ when empty series for FUNCTION {format.bvolume}.
Test of a BibTeX entry copied from Mendeley with special characters (Thoraval et al.
2012).

2. How to submit to the Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Authors must submit using the online submission and peer review system, Scholar One
Manuscripts (formerly Manuscript Central) at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jfm. If
† Email address for correspondence: jfm@damtp.cam.ac.uk

2

A. N. Other, H.-C. Smith and J. Q. Public

visiting the site for the first time, users must create a new account by clicking on ‘register
here’. Once logged in, authors should click on the ‘Corresponding Author Centre’, from
which point a new manuscript can be submitted, with step-by-step instructions provided.
Authors must at this stage specify whether the submission is a standard paper, or a
JFM Rapids paper (see §5 for more details). In addition, authors must specify an editor
to whom the paper will be submitted from the drop-down list provided. Note that all
editors exclusively deal with either standard papers or JFM Rapids (clearly indicated on
the list), so please ensure that you choose an editor accordingly. Corresponding authors
must provide a valid ORCID ID in order to submit a manuscript, either by linking an
existing ORCID profile to your ScholarOne account or by creating a new ORCID profile.
Once your submission is completed you will receive an email confirmation. Book reviews
should not be submitted via the online submission site and should instead be submitted
by email to c.p.caulfield@damtp.cam.ac.uk.

3. Rules of submission
Submission of a paper implies a declaration by the author that the work has not
previously been published, that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and
that it has not already been considered by a diﬀerent editor of the Journal. Note that a
report on a conference must be submitted within 3 months of the meeting.

4. Types of paper
4.1. Standard papers
Regular submissions to JFM are termed ‘standard papers’. Note that such papers must
contain original research, as review articles are not published in JFM. Papers should be
written in a concise manner; though JFM has no page limit, each paper will be judged
on its own merits, and those deemed excessive in length will be rejected or will require
significant revision.
4.2. JFM Rapids
JFM Rapids is devoted to the rapid publication of short, high-impact papers across
the full range of fluid mechanics. Manuscripts submitted as Rapids must be strictly 10
or fewer printed pages, and must be submitted in LATEX using the jfm.cls class file, so as
to ensure that they meet the page limit and to expedite their production. The principal
and over-riding objective is to publish papers of the highest scientific quality.
Once a paper is submitted, referees are asked to provide reports with a short
turnaround. In order to be accepted for publication in JFM Rapids, such papers must
require only minor revisions to improve clarity, usually without recourse to a second
round of refereeing. In this case, and at the discretion of the editor, some additional
pages may be allowed to address specific points raised by the referees, such as the
addition of an extra figure or some explanatory text.
In cases where the editor, guided by the referees, judges that a paper has merit but
requires substantial revision that will require significant refereeing, a decision of ‘revise
and resubmit’ will be given. On re-submission, such papers will be handled as standard
JFM papers and if accepted will not subsequently appear as JFM Rapids.
Rapids will be published online within one month of final acceptance. They will appear
within a designated section on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics website. Each Rapid will
be cited and indexed as a JFM article but with a distinctive Rapids identifier, and will

Guidelines for authors

3

be assigned to a JFM volume. Rapids will not be included in the regular print versions
of JFM, and accordingly they incur no colour figure charges.

5. File types
Authors are strongly encouraged to compose their papers in LATEX, using the jfm.cls
style file and supporting files provided at
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displaySpecialPage?pageId=2860, with the jfminstructions.tex file serving as a template (note that this is mandatory for JFM Rapids).
A PDF of the LATEX file should then be generated and submitted via the submission site.
Please note that PDFs larger than 10MB are not acceptable for review. There is no need
to submit the LATEX source file alongside the PDF, but upon provisional acceptance of
the paper, the LATEX source file, along with individual figure files and a PDF of the final
version, will need to be submitted for typesetting purposes. Authors may also compose
standard papers in Word, though this will lead to the paper spending a longer period
in production. If using Word, please note that equations must NOT be converted to
picture format and the file must be saved with the option ‘make equation editable’.

Authors should write their papers clearly and concisely in English, adhering to JFM’s
established style for notation, as provided in §12. We encourage the submission of online
supplementary material alongside the manuscript where appropriate (see section 6.3).
Metric units should be used throughout and all abbreviations must be defined at first
use, even those deemed to be well known to the readership. British spelling must be used,
and should follow the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.
6.1. Figures
All authors need to acquire the correct permissions and licences to reproduce figures.
Figures should be as small as possible while displaying clearly all the information required,
and with all lettering readable. Every eﬀort should be taken to avoid figures that run over
more than one page. Figures submitted in colour will appear online in colour but, with
the exception of JFM Rapids, all figures will be printed in black and white unless authors
specify during submission that figures should be printed in colour, for which there is a
charge of £200 plus VAT per figure (i.e. £240) with a cap of £1000 plus VAT per article
(i.e. £1200) (colour is free for JFM Rapids). Note that separate figures for online and
print will not be accepted and it is the author’s responsibility to ensure that if a figure is
to appear in colour online only, that same figure will still be meaningful when printed in
black and white (for example, do not rely upon colours to distinguish lines if those colours
will just appear as similar shades of grey when printed). If using colour, authors should
also ensure that some consistency is applied within the manuscript. For review purposes
figures should be embedded within the manuscript. Upon final acceptance, however,
individual figure files will be required for production. These should be submitted in EPS
or high-resolution TIFF format (1200 dpi for lines, 300 dpi for halftone and colour in
CMYK format, and 600 dpi for a mixture of lines and halftone). The minimum acceptable
width of any line is 0.5pt. Each figure should be accompanied by a single caption, to
appear beneath, and must be cited in the text. Figures should appear in the order in
which they are first mentioned in the text and figure files must be named accordingly
(‘Figure 1.eps’, ‘Figure 2a.tiﬀ’, etc) to assist the production process (and numbering of
figures should continue through any appendices). The word figure is only capitalized at

4

A. N. Other, H.-C. Smith and J. Q. Public

0.6

0.3

kd
0

−0.3
0

0.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

2.5

a/d
Figure 1. Trapped-mode wavenumbers, kd, plotted against a/d for three ellipses:
——, b/a = 1; · · · · · ·, b/a = 1.5.

(a)

5

y 0

5

(b)

0

−5
−5
−10

0

10
x

20

30

−20

−10

0

10

x

Figure 2. The features of the four possible modes corresponding to (a) periodic
and (b) half-periodic solutions.

the start of a sentence. For example see figures 1 and 2. Failure to follow figure guidelines
may result in a request for resupply and a subsequent delay in the production process.
Note that all figures are relabelled by the typesetter, so please ensure all figure labels are

6.2. Tables
Tables, however small, must be numbered sequentially in the order in which they are
mentioned in the text. The word table is only capitalized at the start of a sentence. See
table 1 for an example.

Guidelines for authors

a/d
0.1
0.3
0.55
0.7
0.913

5

M = 4 M = 8 Callan et al.
1.56905
1.56
1.56904
1.50484
1.504
1.50484
1.39128
1.391
1.39131
1.32281 10.322
1.32288
1.34479 100.351
1.35185

Table 1. Values of kd at which trapped modes occur when ρ(θ) = a

6.3. Online supplementary material
Relevant material which is not suitable for print production, such as movies or numerical simulations/animations, can be uploaded as part of the initial submission. Movies
should be designated as ‘Movie’ and each individual file must be accompanied by a
separate caption and a suitable title (eg Movie 1). Accepted formats are .mov, .mpg,
.mp4, and .avi, though they should be archived as a .zip or .tar file before uploading.
Each movie should be no more than 10MB. Upon publication these materials will then
be hosted online alongside the final published article. Likewise, should there be detailed
mathematical relations, tables or figures which are likely to be useful only to a few
specialists or take up excessive space in the printed journal, these can also be published
online as supplementary material [designated as ‘Other supplementary material’]. Note
that supplementary material is published ‘as is’, with no further production performed.

7. Editorial decisions
7.1. Revision
If a revision is requested, you should upload revised files following the same procedure
as for submitting a new paper. You begin by clicking on ‘Manuscripts with decision’ in
your Corresponding Author Center, and then on ‘Create a revision’. (Note that if you
abandon the process before completing the submission, to continue the submission, you
must click on ‘Revised manuscripts in draft’.) There is a new first page showing the
file. All the values filled in on original submission are displayed again. The ID number of
the paper will be appended ‘.R1’. Also note that if a manuscript is submitted as a JFM
Rapid, but requires substantial revision, it will be re-designated as a standard paper, and
the ID and paper type will be amended to reflect this.
7.2. Provisional acceptance
If the paper is accepted as suitable for publication you will be sent a provisional
acceptance decision. This enables you to upload the final files required for production:
(1) the final PDF or word version of the paper, designated as a ‘main document’; (2) any
source files (see section 5) which must be designated as ‘production (not for review)’ and
uploaded as a single .zip or .tar file.
7.3. Acceptance
On receipt of the production files you will be sent an email indicating completion of
the acceptance process.

6

A. N. Other, H.-C. Smith and J. Q. Public

8. Publication process
Once a paper has been accepted for publication and the source files have been uploaded, the manuscript will be sent to Cambridge University Press for copyediting and
typesetting, and will be assigned a digital object identifier (doi). When the proof is
and instructions for its correction and return. It is imperative that authors check their
proofs closely, particularly the equations and figures, which should be checked against
the accepted file, as the production schedule does not allow for corrections at a later
stage. Once ready for printing, papers will be published online on Cambridge Journals
Online in the current ‘open’ volume. JFM Rapids will also be assigned to the current
open volume, but will receive an article number in place of traditional pagination, as they
will not appear in the print version of that volume. Each volume will be kept open for
approximately two weeks, at which point it will be considered ‘closed’, and then printed
and distributed. The following volume will be immediately opened. Note that the PDF
published online is the Version of Record, matching the print version, and no further
alterations/corrections to this document will be allowed. The corresponding author is
emailed a link to the published article when it is first published online.

9. Corrigenda
The Journal will publish corrigenda that alter significant conclusions made in a paper.
Such corrigenda should be submitted to an associate editor, who will consider the
submission similarly to a new paper and may consult referees if appropriate. When
published, corrigenda are clearly linked with the original articles to which they refer, and
the articles to them.
The Journal does not normally publish corrigenda to amend typographical errors, so
it is extremely important that authors make very careful checks of their manuscript at
every stage, including the reading of proofs, prior to publication.

10. Obtaining help
Technical support for the online submission system is available by clicking on the ‘Get
Help Now’ link at the top-right corner of each page of the submission site. Any other
questions relating to the submission or publication process should be directed to the JFM
Editorial Assistant, Mrs Amanda Johns, at ajohns@cambridge.org.

11. Cambridge Language Editing Service
We suggest that authors whose first language is not English have their manuscripts
checked by a native English speaker before submission. This is optional but will help
to ensure that any submissions that reach peer review can be judged exclusively on
academic merit. We oﬀer a Cambridge service which you can find out more about at
https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/authors/language-services, and suggest that
authors make contact as appropriate. Please note that use of language editing services
is voluntary and at the author’s own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee
that the manuscript will be accepted for publication nor does it restrict the author to
submitting to a Cambridge-published journal

Guidelines for authors

7

12. Notation and style
Generally any queries concerning notation and journal style can be answered by viewing
recent pages in the Journal. However, the following guide provides the key points to note.
It is expected that Journal style will be followed, and authors should take care to define
all variables or entities upon first use. Also note that footnotes are not normally accepted.
12.1. Mathematical notation
12.1.1. Setting variables, functions, vectors, matrices etc
Italic font should be used for denoting variables, with multiple-letter symbols avoided
except in the case of dimensionless numbers such as Re, Pr and Pe (Reynolds, Prandtl,
and Péclet numbers respectively, which are defined as \Rey, \Pran and \Pen in the
template).
Upright Roman font (or upright Greek where appropriate) should be used for:
Operators: sin,
√log, d, ∆, e etc.
Constants: i ( −1), π (defined as \upi), etc.
Functions: Ai, Bi (Airy functions, defined as \Ai and \Bi), Re (real part, defined as
\Real), Im (imaginary part, defined as \Imag), etc.
Physical units: cm, s, etc
Abbreviations: c.c. (complex conjugate), h.o.t. (higher-order terms), DNS, etc.
Bold italic font (or bold sloping Greek) should be used for:
Vectors (with the centred dot for a scalar product also in bold): i · j
Bold sloping sans serif font, defined by the \mathsfbi macro, should be used for:
Tensors and matrices: D
Script font (for example G, R) can be used as an alternative to italic when the same
letter denotes a diﬀerent quantity (use \mathcal in LATEX)
The product symbol (×) should only be used to denote multiplication where an equation
is broken over more than one line, to denote a cross product, or between numbers (the ·
symbol should not be used, except to denote a scalar product specifically).
12.1.2. Other symbols
A centred point should be used only for the scalar product of vectors. Large numbers
that are not scientific powers should not include commas, but have the form 1600 or 16
000 or 160 000. Use O to denote ‘of the order of’, not the LATEX O.

13. Citations and references
All papers included in the References section must be cited in the article, and vice
versa. Citations should be included as, for example “It has been shown (Rogallo 1981)
that...” (using the \citep command, part of the natbib package) “recent work by
Dennis (1985)...” (using \citet). The natbib package can be used to generate citation
variations, as shown below.
\citet[pp. 2-4]{Hwang70}:
Hwang & Tuck (1970, pp. 2-4)
\citep[p. 6]{Worster92}:
(Worster 1992, p. 6)
\citep[see][]{Koch83, Lee71, Linton92}:
(see Koch 1983; Lee 1971; Linton & Evans 1992)
\citep[see][p. 18]{Martin80}:

8

A. N. Other, H.-C. Smith and J. Q. Public

(see Martin 1980, p. 18)
\citep{Brownell04,Brownell07,Ursell50,Wijngaarden68,Miller91}:
(Brownell & Su 2004, 2007; Ursell 1950; van Wijngaarden 1968; Miller 1991)
The References section can either be built from individual \bibitem commands,
or can be built using BibTex. The BibTex files used to generate the references in this
document can be found in the zip file at http://journals.cambridge.org/data/relatedlink/
jfm-ifc.zip.
Where there are up to ten authors, all authors’ names should be given in the reference
list. Where there are more than ten authors, only the first name should appear, followed
by et al.
Acknowledgements should be included at the end of the paper, before the References
section or any appendicies, and should be a separate paragraph without a heading. Several
anonymous individuals are thanked for contributions to these instructions.

Appendix A.
This appendix contains sample equations in the JFM style. Please refer to the LATEX
source file for examples of how to display such equations in your manuscript.
(∇2 + k 2 )Gs = (∇2 + k 2 )Ga = 0

(A 1)

∇ · v = 0,

(A 2)

∇2 P = ∇ · (v × w).

Gs , Ga ∼ 1/(2π) ln r

as

r ≡ |P − Q| → 0,

(A 3)


∂Gs
= 0 on y = 0, 
∂y

Ga = 0 on y = 0,
1
−
2π

∫

∞

γ −1 [exp(−kγ|y −η|)+exp(−kγ(2d−y −η))] cos k(x−ξ)tdt,

(A 4)

0 < y,

η < d,

0

(A 5)
{
γ(t) =

−i(1 − t2 )1/2 , t 6 1
(t2 − 1)1/2 ,
t > 1.

(A 6)

∫ ∞
1
cosh kγ(d − y)
−
− B(t)
cos k(x − ξ)t dt
2π 0
γ sinh kγd
∫
1
1 ∞ e−kγd
G = − i(H0 (kr) + H0 (kr1 )) − −
cosh kγ(d − y) cosh kγ(d − η)
4
π 0 γ sinh kγd

(A 7)

Note that when equations are included in definitions, it may be suitable to render
them in line, rather than in the equation environment: nq = (−y ′ (θ), x′ (θ))/w(θ). Now
fa where r = {[x(θ) − x(ψ)]2 + [y(θ) − y(ψ)]2 }1/2 and G
fa is regular as
Ga = 14 Y0 (kr) + G
kr → 0. However, any fractions displayed like this, other than 21 or 41 , must be written
on the line, and not stacked (ie 1/3).

Guidelines for authors
∂
∂nq

(

1
Y0 (kr)
4

)

1
[x′′ (θ)y ′ (θ) − y ′′ (θ)x′ (θ)]
4πw3 (θ)
1
=
[ρ′ (θ)ρ′′ (θ) − ρ2 (θ) − 2ρ′2 (θ)] as
4πw3 (θ)
∼

M
1
π ∑
a
ϕi =
ϕj Kij
wj ,
2
M j=1

where

{
a
Kij

=

kr → 0.

lim

ζ→Zl− (x)

ρ(x, ζ),

ρu =

lim

+
ζ→Zu
(x)

(A 10)

ρ(x, ζ)

(A 11a, b)

(ρ(x, ζ), ϕζζ (x, ζ)) = (ρ0 , N0 ) for Zl (x) < ζ < Zu (x).

(A 12)

τij = (ui uj − ui uj ) + (ui uSGS
+ uSGS
uj ) + uSGS
uSGS
,
j
i
i
j

(A 13a)

τjθ = (uj θ − uj θ) + (uj θSGS + uSGS
θ) + uSGS
θSGS .
j
j

(A 13b)

−ω −2 Vw′
β
V′
αω 2 w
iω −1

−(αt ω)−1

0

0

0






0
0
0
iω −1 





0
0
0
0 


QC =  −1 t
.
t
−1
iRδ (α + ω −1 Vw′′ )

0
−(iα
R
)
0
0
δ




iβ
−1 ′′

R V
0
0
0
0 


αω δ w
(3Rδ−1 + ct (iαt )−1 )
0
−(αt )−2 Rδ−1 0
(iαt )−1 Vw′

t

where η̂ =

(A 8)

(A 9)

i = 1, . . . , M,

∂Ga (θi , θj )/∂nq ,
i ̸= j
′
′′
2
′2
3
fa (θi , θi )/∂nq + [ρ ρ − ρ − 2ρ ]/4πw , i = j.
∂G
i i
i
i
i
ρl =



9

(A 14)

η t = η̂ t exp[i(αt xt1 − ωt)],

(A 15)

t
Det[ρω 2 δps − Cpqrs
kqt krt ] = 0,

(A 16)

⟨k1t , k2t , k3t ⟩ = ⟨αt , 0, γ⟩

(A 17)

f (θ, ψ) = (g(ψ) cos θ, g(ψ) sin θ, f (ψ)).

(A 18)

b exp(iγxt3 ).

3b
f (ψ1 ) =
π[2(a + b cos ψ1 )]3/2
3
g(ψ1 ) =
π[2(a + b cos ψ1 )]3/2

∫
0

2π

(

∫
0

2π

(sin ψ1 − sin ψ)(a + b cos ψ)1/2
dx,
[1 − cos(ψ1 − ψ)](2 + α)1/2

a + b cos ψ
2+α

(A 19)

)1/2 {
f (ψ)[(cos ψ1 − bβ1 )S + β1 P ]

10

A. N. Other, H.-C. Smith and J. Q. Public
[(
)
sin ψ1 − sin ψ
(sin ψ1 − sin ψ)2
2
×
+ g(ψ) 2 + α −
−b γ S
1 − cos(ψ1 − ψ)
1 − cos(ψ − ψ1 )
]}
(
a ) 1
1
2
+ b cos ψ1 γ − α F ( π, δ) − (2 + α) cos ψ1 E( π, δ)
dψ,
b
2
2

1 − cos(ψ − ψ1 )
. (A 21)
a + b cos ψ

ϵC v

′
2/3
′
H(0) = 1/2
, H (0) = −1 + ϵ C u + ϵĈ u ; 



ṽT (1 − β)
(A 22)


ϵu2∗
′′
′


H (0) = 1/2 , H (∞) = 0.

ṽT u2P

α = α(ψ, ψ1 ) =

b2 [1 − cos(ψ − ψ1 )]
,
(a + b cos ψ)(a + b cos ψ1 )

(A 20)

β − β(ψ, ψ1 ) =

Lemma 1. Let f (z) be a trial Batchelor (1971, pp. 231–232) function defined on [0, 1].
Let Λ1 denote the ground-state eigenvalue for −d2 g/dz 2 = Λg, where g must satisfy
±dg/dz + αg = 0 at z = 0, 1 for some non-negative constant α. Then for any f that is
not identically zero we have
∫ 1 ( )2
df
2
2
(
)2
α(f (0) + f (1)) +
dz
−α + (α2 + 8π2 α)1/2
dz
0
> Λ1 >
.
(A 23)
∫ 1
4π
2
f dz
0

Corollary 1. Any non-zero trial function f which satisfies the boundary condition
f (0) = f (1) = 0 always satisfies
∫ 1 ( )2
df
dz.
(A 24)
dz
0

REFERENCES
Batchelor, G. K. 1971 Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in
turbulent fluid. part 1. general discussion and the case of small conductivity. J. Fluid
Mech. 5, 113–133.
Brownell, C. J. & Su, L. K. 2004 Planar measurements of diﬀerential diﬀusion in turbulent
jets. AIAA Paper 2004-2335 .
Brownell, C. J. & Su, L. K. 2007 Scale relations and spatial spectra in a diﬀerentially
diﬀusing jet. AIAA Paper 2007-1314 .
Dennis, S. C. R. 1985 Compact explicit finite diﬀerence approximations to the Navier–
Stokes equation. In Ninth Intl Conf. on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics (ed.
Soubbaramayer & J. P. Boujot), Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 218, pp. 23–51. Springer.
Hwang, L.-S. & Tuck, E. O. 1970 On the oscillations of harbours of arbitrary shape. J. Fluid
Mech. 42, 447–464.
Koch, W. 1983 Resonant acoustic frequencies of flat plate cascades. J. Sound Vib. 88, 233–242.
Lee, J.-J. 1971 Wave-induced oscillations in harbours of arbitrary geometry. J. Fluid Mech.
45, 375–394.
Linton, C. M. & Evans, D. V. 1992 The radiation and scattering of surface waves by a
vertical circular cylinder in a channel. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 338, 325–357.
Martin, P. A. 1980 On the null-field equations for the exterior problems of acoustics. Q. J.
Mech. Appl. Math. 33, 385–396.
Miller, P. L. 1991 Mixing in high schmidt number turbulent jets. PhD thesis, California
Institute of Technology.

Guidelines for authors

11

Rogallo, R. S. 1981 Numerical experiments in homogeneous turbulence. Tech. Rep. 81835.
NASA Tech. Memo.
Thoraval, M.-J., Takehara, K., Etoh, T. G., Popinet, S., Ray, P., Josserand, C.,
Zaleski, S. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2012 von Kármán Vortex Street within an Impacting
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