Adobe Acrobat DC Help Guide EN

User Manual: adobe Acrobat - DC - Help Guide Free User Guide for Adobe Acrobat Reader Software, Manual

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Legal notices

Legal notices
For legal notices, see http://help.adobe.com/en_US/legalnotices/index.html.

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Contents
Chapter 1: Workspace
Workspace basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Mobile Link: open once, read anywhere

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Viewing PDFs and viewing preferences

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Keyboard shortcuts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Navigating PDF pages
Adjusting PDF views

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Flash Player needed | Acrobat DC, Acrobat Reader DC
Asian, Cyrillic, and right-to-left text in PDFs
Opening PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Updating Acrobat DC and using Adobe Digital Editions
Working with online accounts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Grids, guides, and measurements in PDFs
Chapter 2: Creating PDFs
Create PDFs with Acrobat DC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Acrobat in Mac OS | Acrobat Pro DC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Create PDFs with PDFMaker (Windows)
Print to PDF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Scan documents to PDF
Overview of PDF creation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Using the Adobe PDF printer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Converting web pages to PDF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Creating PDFs with Acrobat Distiller
PDF fonts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Adobe PDF conversion settings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Chapter 3: Editing PDFs
Edit text in PDFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Edit images or objects in a PDF
Edit scanned PDFs

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Rotate, move, delete, and renumber PDF pages
Optimizing PDFs

Setting up PDFs for a presentation
Action wizard (Acrobat Pro DC)
PDF articles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Page thumbnails and bookmarks inPDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

PDF properties and metadata

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Links and attachments in PDFs

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PDF layers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

PDFs converted to web pages
Geospatial PDFs

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Applying actions and scripts to PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

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Chapter 4: Forms
PDF forms basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Creating and distributing PDF forms
Filling in PDF forms

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Fill and sign PDF forms

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About Forms Tracker

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Collecting and managing PDF form data
Setting action buttons in PDF forms

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Publishing interactive PDF web forms
PDF barcode form fields

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

PDF form field properties
PDF form field basics

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Chapter 5: Combining files
Combine or merge files into single PDF

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Rotate, move, delete, and renumber PDF pages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
Crop PDF pages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Add watermarks to PDFs

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Add backgrounds to PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Publish and share PDF Portfolios

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Working with component files in a PDF Portfolio
Create and customize PDF Portfolios
Overview of PDF Portfolios

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Chapter 6: Reviews and commenting
Mark up text with edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Preparing for a PDF review

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Starting a PDF review

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Commenting in PDFs

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Sharing PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Participating in a PDF review

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Approval workflows

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

Managing comments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Send and track large files online

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Importing and exporting comments
Adding a stamp to a PDF

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Chapter 7: Saving and exporting PDFs
Saving PDFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Convert or export PDFs to other file formats
File format options for PDF export
Reusing PDF content

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Chapter 8: Security
Enhanced security setting for PDFs
Securing PDFs with passwords

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Digital IDs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Securing PDFs with certificates
Opening secured PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Removing sensitive content from PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Protected View feature for PDFs (Windows only)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

Security warnings when a PDF opens

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

Setting up security policies for PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

Securing PDFs with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES
Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDFs
JavaScripts in PDFs as a security risk

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Choosing a security method for PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Attachments as security risks in Acrobat Reader DC and Acrobat DC
Allow or block links to the Internet in PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Chapter 9: Electronic signatures
Sign PDF documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Send PDF documents for signature

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Certificate-based signatures

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Validating digital signatures

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

Validating certificate-based signatures
Manage trusted identities
Chapter 10: Printing
Basic PDF printing tasks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

Print Booklets and PDF Portfolios

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

Printing color PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Printing PDFs in custom sizes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

Advanced PDF print settings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

Chapter 11: Accessibility, tags, and reflow
Create and verify PDF accessibility (Acrobat Pro DC)
Accessibility features in PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

Edit document structure with the Content and Tags panels (Acrobat Pro)
Creating accessible PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

Chapter 12: Searching and indexing
Searching PDFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Creating PDF indexes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

Chapter 13: Multimedia and 3D models
Add audio, video, and interactive objects to PDFs
Adding 3D models to PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
Displaying 3D models in PDFs
Interacting with 3D models

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Measuring 3D objects in PDFs
Setting 3D views in PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

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Adding multimedia to PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

Add comments to videos (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

Playing video, audio, and multimedia formats in PDFs
Commenting on 3D designs in PDFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

Chapter 14: Print production tools (Acrobat Pro DC)
Print production tools overview (Acrobat Pro DC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Printer marks and hairlines (Acrobat Pro DC)
Previewing output (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

Transparency flattening (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473

Color conversion and ink management (Acrobat Pro DC)
Trapping color (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

Chapter 15: Preflight (Acrobat Pro DC)
Advanced preflight inspections (Acrobat Pro DC)
Preflight reports (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

Viewing preflight results, objects, and resources (Acrobat Pro DC)
Preflight profiles (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

Output intents in PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

Correcting problem areas with the Preflight tool (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

Automating document analysis with droplets or preflight actions (Acrobat Pro DC)
Analyzing documents with the Preflight tool (Acrobat Pro DC)
PDF/X-, PDF/A-, and PDF/E-compliant files (Acrobat Pro DC)
Additional checks in the Preflighttool (Acrobat Pro DC)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

Chapter 16: Color management
Keeping colors consistent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Working with color profiles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524

Understanding color management
Color settings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529

Color-managing documents

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

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Chapter 1: Workspace

Workspace basics
Workspace overview
Adobe Acrobat DC user interface has three views - Home, Tools, and Document.
Home This is the gateway or the landing page when you don’t have a PDF opened in Acrobat DC.
Tools This is the go to place to discover the tools that’s available in Acrobat DC. All Acrobat DC tools are shown in this

view.
Document This is the default view whenever a document is opened in Acrobat DC.

Home view
This is the gateway or the landing page when you don’t have a PDF opened in Acrobat. When you launch Acrobat, you
see a welcome message with the Learn More button pointing to a quick introduction document.
The Home view displays two file lists - Recent and Sent. All your recently accessed files are displayed in the Recent file
list, and all the files that you sent using Adobe Send & Track and Send for Signature are displayed in the Sent file list.
The Storage option lists various places from which you can open and work on files from within Acrobat - My Computer,
Document Cloud, and Add Account(a SharePoint account).
In the Home > Recent files list, you can:

• See your recently used files, and also sync them across devices using the Mobile Link option at the bottom of the
righ pane.
• Access your files stored securely in Adobe Document Cloud uisng the Document Cloud link in the left pane.
• Add SharePoint accounts using the Add Account link in the left pane.

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Workspace

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Workspace

In the Home > Sent file list, you can:

• Track and manage your sent files online. The available options are displayed when you choose a file in the right pane.
• Manage your files sent for signature using the Manage Document Sent for Signature link at the bottom in the right
pane.

Tools center
This is the go to place to discover the tools that’s available in Acrobat. All the tools are shown in this view. When you
choose a tool, the tool-specific commands or toolbar appears in the document view if a file is opened.
Note: You can also open some tools even without opening a document. If the tool requires a document to be open,
choosing a tool prompts you to select a document.

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Workspace

Add or remove shortcuts of tools in the right pane
To add a shortcut of a tool in the right pane, click the Add button below the tool name.

To remove the shortcut of a tool from the right pane, click the Down Arrow button next to Open below the tool name,
and then choose Remove Shortcut.

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Workspace

Alternatively, to remove the shortcut, click the cross button for the shortcut in the right pane.

Document view
This is the default view whenever a document is opened in Acrobat.
The menu bar and the toolbar are visible at the top of the work area. The work area for the stand-alone application
includes a document pane in the middle, a navigation pane on the left, and tools or task pane on the right side. The
document pane displays Adobe® PDFs. The navigation pane on the left side helps you browse through the PDF and
perform other options on PDF files. Toolbars near the top of the window provide other controls that you can use to
work with PDFs.
Note: When a tool is opened, you see the tool-specific commands in the toolbar and the right pane.

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Workspace

Menus and context menus
Ordinarily, it’s a good idea to keep the Acrobat menus visible so that they are available as you work. It is possible to hide
them, using the View > Show/Hide > Menu Bar command. However, the only way to display and use them again is by
pressing F9 (Windows) or Shift+Command+M (Mac OS).
Unlike the menus that appear at the top of your screen, context-sensitive menus display commands related to the active
tool or selection. You can use context menus as a quick way to choose commonly used commands. For example, when
you right-click the toolbar area, that context menu displays the same commands as the View > Show/Hide > Toolbar
Items menu.
1 Position the pointer over the document, object, or panel.
2 Click the right mouse button.

Note: (Mac OS) If you don’t have a two-button mouse, you can display a context menu by pressing the Control key as you
click with the mouse.

Toolbars
Initially, you may not see various tools in the toolbar. You can add tools to the toolbar for easy access.
To add tools in the toolbar, right-click an empty space in the toolbar and choose the tools that you want to appear in
the toolbar.

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Workspace

Quick tools
You can add tools you use frequently from the Tools to the Quick Tools toolbar.
1 Right-click an empty space in the toolbar and choose Customize Quick Tools.
2 In the Customize Quick Tools dialog box, do any of the following:

• To add a tool, select it in the left pane and click the Up Arrow
• To remove a tool, select its icon and click the Delete

icon.

icon.

• To change a tool’s position in the toolbar, select its icon and click either
• To add a vertical line to separate groups of tools in the toolbar, click

or

.

.

Common Tools
You can add tools to the Common Tools toolbar.
1 Right-click an empty space in the toolbar.
2 Select a tool from the menu.
3 To remove a tool from the toolbar, right-click the tool and deselect it from the menu.

Hide and show toolbars
When your work does not involve using the tools in a toolbar, you can close the toolbar to tidy up the work area. If
several PDFs are open, you can customize the toolbars for each PDF independently. The different customized states
persist as you switch between PDFs.

• To hide all toolbars, choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Hide Toolbars.
• To return toolbars to their default configuration, choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Reset Toolbars.
If you have hidden all the toolbars, you can show them again by pressing F8.

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Workspace

Select a tool
By default, the Select tool is active when Acrobat opens, because it is the most versatile tool.
❖ Do one of the following:

• Select a tool in a toolbar.
• Choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > [toolbar name] > [tool].

Create custom tools
You can assemble your own customized collection of Acrobat features, then save it and share with others. It allows you
to quickly access the tools and commands you use the most.
1 Choose Tools > Create Custom Tool.
2 To customize the Toolbar, do any of the following:

• To add a tool to the toolbar, click the panel on the left, select the tool, and click the Add To Toolbar
• To remove a tool from the toolbar set, select its icon, and click the Delete

icon.

• To change a tool’s position in the toolbar, select its icon, and click either the move left
icon.
• To add a vertical line to separate groups of tools in the toolbar, click the Add Vertical Line

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icon.

or move right
icon.

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Workspace

A Arrange or delete tools in the Tool's Toolbar B Add custom panels, instructions, or divider line between tools C Rename, arrange, or delete
tools D Add to Tool's Toolbar above or Custom Tools set on the right

3 To customize tools in the Custom set, do any of the following:

• To add a tool in the Custom set, click the panel on the left, and then click the Add To Custom set
• To create your own panel, click the Add Section

icon.

icon on the right. Give the panel a name, and click Save.

• To add a tool to a panel, select the panel on the right, select the tool on the left, and click the Add To Custom set
icon.
• To remove a tool from the set, select its icon and click the Delete

icon.

• To change the position of a tool, select it on the right, and click the Up

or Down

• To add a horizontal line to separate groups of tools, click the Add Divider
• To edit instructions or section name, select it, and click the Edit

Arrow icons.

icon.

icon.

4 When your tool set is complete, click Save, type its name, and click Save again.

The created custom tool is added to the Tools center. To open the tool, choose Tools > [custom tool name].

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Workspace

Edit, delete, rename, or share a custom tool
You can edit, rename, copy, delete, rearrange, or share tool sets. You can specify the order the tool sets appear in the
Customize menu by moving them up or down in the list. You can share tool sets with your workgroup using the Import
and Export options.

• Choose Tools > [custom tool name] > click the Down Arrow button and then choose an appropriate option.

Navigation pane
The navigation pane is an area of the workspace that can display different navigation panels. Various functional tools
can appear in the navigation pane. For example, the Page Thumbnails panel contains thumbnail images of each page;
clicking a thumbnail opens that page in the document.
When you open a PDF, the navigation pane is closed by default. Buttons along the left side of the work area provide easy
and the Bookmarks panel button
. When
access to various panels, such as the Page Thumbnails button
Acrobat is open but empty (no PDF is open), the navigation pane is unavailable.

Show or hide the navigation pane
1 To open the navigation pane, do one of the following:

• Click any panel button on the left side of the work area to open that panel.
• Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Show Navigation Pane.
2 To close the navigation pane, do one of the following:

• Click the button for the currently open panel in the navigation pane.
• Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Hide Navigation Pane.
Note: The creator of the PDF can control the contents of some navigation panels and may make them empty.

Change the display area for navigation panels
All navigation panels, such as Bookmarks, appear in a column on the left side of the work area.

• To change the width of the navigation pane, drag its right border.
• To view a different panel, on the left side of the navigation pane, select the button for the panel

Options in a navigation panel
All navigation panels have an options menu

in the upper-left corner. The commands available in these menus vary.

Some panels also contain other buttons that affect the items in the panel. Again, these buttons vary among the different
panels, and some panels have none.

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Set preferences
Many program settings are specified in the Preferences dialog box, including settings for display, tools, conversion,
signatures, and performance. Once you set preferences, they remain in effect until you change them.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Adobe Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 Under Categories, select the type of preference you want to change.

Restore (re-create) preferences

Restore the Acrobat Preferences folder (Windows)
Restore the Acrobat Preferences folder to eliminate problems that damaged preferences cause. Most preference
problems are caused by these file-based preferences, although most Acrobat preferences are stored within the registry.
Note: This solution removes custom settings for Collaboration, JavaScripts, Security, Stamps, Color Management, Auto Fill,
Web Capture, and Updater.
1 Quit Acrobat.
2 In Windows Explorer, go to the Preferences folder:

• (Windows 7/Vista) C:\Users\[username]\AppData\Roaming\Adobe\Acrobat\[version]
• (XP) C:\Documents and Settings\[username]\Application Data\Adobe\Acrobat\[version]
3 Move the Preferences folder to another location (for example, C:\Temp).
4 Restart Acrobat.

If the problem recurs after you restore the Acrobat Preferences folder, then the problem isn’t related to the Preferences
folder. To restore custom settings, drag the folder you moved in step 2 back to its original location. Then click Yes To
All to replace the new Preferences folder.

Restore the Acrobat preferences files (Mac OS)
Restore the Acrobat preferences files to eliminate problems caused by a damaged preferences file.
Note: Re-creating the Acrobat preferences files restores settings to their defaults.
1 Quit Acrobat.
2 Drag the following files from the Users/[Username]/Library/Preferences folder to the Desktop:

• Acrobat WebCapture Cookies
• com.adobe.Acrobat.Pro.plist or com.adobe.Acrobat.Pro_x86_9.0.plist
• Acrobat Distiller Prefs and com.adobe.Acrobat.Pro.plist (if you are troubleshooting an issue with Distiller)
• The Acrobat folder, which contains preferences for forms (MRUFormsList), collaboration (OfflineDocs), and
color settings (AcrobatColor Settings.csf)
3 Restart Acrobat

If the problem recurs after you restore the Acrobat preferences files, then the problem isn’t related to preferences files.
To restore custom settings, drag the files you moved in step 2 back to their original location. Then click OK to the alert
“A newer item named ‘[filename]’ already exists in this location. Do you want to replace it with the older one you're
moving?”

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More Help topics
PDF Portfolio window overview
Keys for selecting tools
View PDFs in Read mode
Security warnings
Enhanced security
Filling in forms
Commenting

Mobile Link: open once, read anywhere
Access your recent files across all devices using Mobile Link
With the new Mobile Link feature, the files you opened recently on any of your computers or mobile devices are always
with you. You can also access your recent files by signing in to your Adobe Document Cloud account using a web
browser.
When you enable the feature on any one of your devices, the PDF files that you opened recently are available in your
recent file list wherever you are. Sign in on all your devices to access the up-to-date recent files list. Reader/Acrobat
automatically uploads your recently viewed files to Adobe Document Cloud in the background and synchronizes the
recent files list among all your devices. When you open a file from the list, Reader/Acrobat downloads the file in real
time if it’s not available locally, and then displays the file.
Note: The Mobile Link feature is not available in Reader and Acrobat on Windows XP.

Enable Mobile Link
Turn Mobile Link ON from any device and it's ON everywhere. Simply sign in on your other devices or at
https://cloud.acrobat.com in a web browser and your recently opened PDF files are available for you.

On the desktop
1 Launch Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC. Choose Home > Recent file list.
2 The Mobile Link status is displayed at the botton of the right pane on the left.

Click the slider button on the left. You see a confirmation message that the feature is ON now.

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If you’re not signed in to Adobe Document Cloud, the Sign In dialog box appears. Enter your Adobe ID and
password, and then click Sign In.

On mobile devices
1 Launch Adobe Acrobat DC or Reader DC on your mobile device.
2 Do one of the following:

• Tap Recents> Turn on.

• From the home page, tap My Account > Mobile Link Off.

You see the Mobile Link ON/OFF status page. Tap the ON/OFF button.

If you’re not signed in to Acrobat.com, the Sign In dialog box appears. Sign in with your Adobe ID and password to
complete the procedure.

What to do on your second or other devices once the feature is turned ON?
Simply sign in on your second device to see all your recent files.
Note: For a seamless experience, remain signed in on all your devices.

View a recent file
The Recent file list displays recently opened files on all your devices. You can also sign in to the web at
https://cloud.acrobat.com, and see your recent files.

Viewing PDFs and viewing preferences
The initial view of the PDF depends on how its creator set the document properties. For example, a document may open
at a particular page or magnification.

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Note: The Organizer and Organizer-related commands are not available in Acrobat X and later.

View PDFs in Read mode
When you’re reading a document, you can hide all the toolbars and task panes to maximize the viewing area on your
screen.
The basic reading controls, such as page navigation and zoom, appear in a semi-transparent floating toolbar near the
bottom of the window.

• To open Read mode, choose View > Read Mode, or click the Read Mode button
toolbar.

in the upper-right corner of the

• To restore the work area to its previous view, choose View > Read Mode again. You can also click the close button
in the floating toolbar.
Note: Read mode is the default viewing mode when you open a PDF in a web browser.

View PDFs in Full Screen mode
In Full Screen mode, only the document appears; the menu bar, toolbars, task panes, and window controls are hidden.
A PDF creator can set a PDF to open in Full Screen mode, or you can set the view yourself. Full Screen mode is often
used for presentations, sometimes with automatic page advancement and transitions.
The pointer remains active in Full Screen mode so that you can click links and open notes. There are two ways to
advance through a PDF in Full Screen mode. You can use keyboard shortcuts for navigational and magnification
commands, and you can set a Full Screen preference to display Full Screen navigation buttons that you click to change
pages or exit Full Screen mode.

Set the Full Screen navigation bar preference
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Full Screen.
2 Select Show Navigation Bar, then click OK.
3 Select View > Full Screen Mode.

The Full Screen navigation bar contains Previous Page , Next Page
buttons appear in the lower-left corner of the work area.

, and Close Full Screen View

buttons. These

Read a document in Full Screen mode
If the Full Screen navigation bar is not shown, you can use keyboard shortcuts to navigate through a PDF.
Note: If you have two monitors installed, the Full Screen mode of a page sometimes appears on only one of the monitors.
To page through the document, click the screen displaying the page in Full Screen mode.
Choose View > Full Screen Mode.
1 Do any of the following:

• To go to the next page, press the Enter, Page Down, or Right Arrow key.
• To go to the previous page, press Shift+Enter, Page Up, or the Left Arrow key.

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2 To close Full Screen mode, press Ctrl+L or Esc. (Escape Key Exits must be selected in the Full Screen preferences.)

To show a Full Screen tool
in the Common Tools toolbar, right-click the toolbar area and choose Page Display > Full
Screen Mode. Then click the Full Screen tool to switch to Full Screen mode.

Touch mode for tablet and mobile devices
Touch mode makes it easier to use Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC on touch devices. Toolbar buttons, panels, and
menus shift apart slightly to accommodate selecting with your fingers. The Touch reading mode optimizes viewing and
supports most common gestures. Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC automatically switch to Touch mode when on
a touch-enabled device. You can add a Touch mode toggle button to the toolbar or change the default preference setting
for Touch mode.

Display Touch mode button on toolbar
You can display a toolbar button to toggle Touch mode on and off.
❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Touch Mode.

Set Touch Mode preference
You can set how Acrobat DC enters Touch mode, if at all, for touch enabled-devices.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Adobe Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 Under Categories, select General.
3 In Basic Tools, choose the desired default setting from the Touch Mode menu.

Change the PDF/A viewing mode
PDF/A is an ISO standard for long-term archiving and preservation of electronic documents. Documents you scan to
PDF are PDF/A-compliant. You can specify whether you want to view documents in this viewing mode.
When you open a PDF/A compliant document in PDF/A viewing mode, the document is opened in Read mode to
prevent modification. A message is displayed in the document message bar. You will be unable to make changes and
add annotations to the document. If you turn off PDF/A mode, you can edit the document.
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Documents.
2 Choose an option for View Documents In PDF/A Mode: Never, or Only For PDF/A Documents.

You can switch in or out of PDF/A viewing mode by changing this preference setting.
For a video on working with PDF/A files, see www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_pdfa_en.

Display PDFs in Line Weights view
The Line Weights view displays lines with the weights defined in the PDF. When Line Weights view is off, it applies a
constant stroke width (1 pixel) to lines, regardless of zoom. When you print the document, the stroke prints at the true
width.
Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Line Weights. To turn off Line Weights view, choose View > Show/Hide
> Rulers & Grids > Line Weights again.
Note: You cannot turn off Line Weights view when viewing PDFs within a web browser.

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Compare a revised PDF to an earlier version (Acrobat Pro DC)
Use the Compare Documents feature to show the differences between two versions of a PDF. You can customize many
options for displaying the compare results. For a video on comparing PDFs, see
www.adobe.com/go/lrvid_011_acrx_en. (Video applies to both Acrobat X and Acrobat XI.)
1 Choose View > Compare Documents.
2 Specify the two documents to compare. If one or both of the documents is in a PDF Portfolio, select the PDF

Portfolio. Under Package Item, select the component PDF.
3 As needed, specify the page ranges in the documents to compare in the First Page and Last Page boxes.
4 Select the Document Description that best describes the documents you are comparing, and click OK.

Once the two documents are analyzed, a results document appears with the Compare panel open. The new
document is shown with annotations indicating the changes. The first page shows a summary of the comparison
results.
5 From the Compare panel, do any of the following:

• To hide the annotations that display changes, click Hide Results.
• To specify the display options for compare results, click Show Options. You can specify the type of changes to
display, and the color scheme and opacity of the annotations. To return to the page thumbnails, click Hide
Options.
• To show each of the documents in its own window, from the options menu
, choose Show Documents Tiled
or Show Documents Side By Side. To synchronize the relevant pages while showing the documents in their own
windows, from the options menu, choose Synchronize Pages.
• Click a page thumbnail to go directly to that page. To change the size of the page thumbnails, from the options
menu, choose Thumbnail Size > [option].
• Drag the splitter bar at the bottom of the Compare panel up to show thumbnails of the old document. Click a
thumbnail from the old document to open it in a new window.

Document Description options
Reports, Spreadsheets, Magazine Layouts Compares the content as one continuous text body, from end to end.
Presentation Decks, Drawings Or Illustrations Looks at each slide or page as a mini-document, and matches ones that

are similar. Then compares the content of each matching document. Identifies documents that have moved, such as
slides in presentation.
Scanned Documents Creates an image capture of each scanned page and compares pixels. Looks at each scanned page

and matches ones that are similar. Also identifies pages that are in a different order. This option is useful for comparing
images or architectural drawings.
Compare Text Only Use this option with any document type. This option is designed for comparing text in large

documents (250 pages or more). This option also compares text between documents that have background artwork on
each page, which slows processing.

• With either the reports or presentation options selected, the Compare Text Only option identifies only the text
differences between two documents.
• With Scanned Documents selected, the text is compared separately from the graphics, and then the results are
combined. In documents containing magazine advertisements that have text on top of background image art, a
reflowed passage is compared in text-only mode. The artwork is compared separately in the background. The
differences (both text and line art and images) are combined into a single results document.

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Preferences for viewing PDFs
The Preferences dialog box defines a default page layout and customizes your application in many other ways. For
viewing PDFs, examine the preferences options for Documents, General, Page Display, and 3D & Multimedia.
The preferences settings control how the application behaves whenever you use it; they are not associated with any
particular PDF document.
Note: If you install any third-party plug-ins, set these preferences using the Third-Party Preferences menu item.

Documents preferences
Open Settings
Restore Last View Settings When Reopening Documents Determines whether documents open automatically to the

last viewed page within a work session.
Open Cross-document Links In Same Window Closes the current document and opens the document being linked to

in the same window, minimizing the number of windows open. If the document being linked to is already open in
another window, the current document is not closed when you click a link to the open document. If you do not select
this option, a new window opens each time you click a link to a different document.
Allow Layer State To Be Set By User Information Allows the author of a layered PDF document to specify layer visibility

based on user information.
Allow Documents To Hide The Menu Bar, Toolbars, And Window Controls Allows the PDF to determine whether the

menu bar, toolbar, and window controls are hidden when the PDF is opened.
Documents In Recently Used List Sets the maximum number of documents listed in the File menu.

Save Settings
Automatically Save Document Changes To Temporary File Every _ Minutes Determines how often Acrobat

automatically saves changes to an open document.
Save As Optimizes For Fast Web View Restructures a PDF document for page-at-a-time downloading from web

servers.
PDF/A View Mode
View Documents In PDF/A Mode Specifies when to use this viewing mode: Never, or Only For PDF/A Documents.

Hidden Information
Searches the PDF for items that may not be apparent, such as metadata, file attachments, comments, and hidden text
and layers. The search results appear in a dialog box, and you can remove any type of item that appears there.
Remove Hidden Information When Closing Document (Not selected by default.)
Remove Hidden Information When Sending Document By Email (Not selected by default.)

Redaction
Adjust Filename When Saving Applied Redaction Marks Specifies a prefix or suffix to use when saving a file to which

redaction marks have been applied.
Choose Localization For Search and Redact Patterns Specifies which installed language version of Acrobat to use for
the patterns. For example, if you installed both the English and German versions, then you can choose either language
for the patterns. The Patterns option appears in the Search and Redaction dialog boxes.

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Full Screen preferences
Full Screen Setup
Current Document Only Specifies whether the display is limited to a single PDF.
Fill Screen With One Page At A Time Sets the page view to the maximum screen coverage by a single page.
Alert When Document Requests Full Screen Displays a message before going into Full Screen mode. Selecting this
option overrides a previous selection of Do Not Show This Message Again in that message.
Which Monitor To Use Specifies the monitor on which full-screen display appears (for users with multiple-monitor

configurations).
Full Screen Navigation
Escape Key Exits Lets you exit Full Screen mode by pressing the Esc key. If this option is not selected, you can exit by

pressing Ctrl+L.
Show Navigation Bar Shows a minimal navigation toolbar regardless of the document settings.
Left Click To Go Forward One Page; Right Click To Go Back One Page Lets you page through an Adobe PDF document

by clicking the mouse. You can also page through a document by pressing Return, Shift-Return (to go backward), or
the arrow keys.
Loop After Last Page Lets you page through a PDF document continuously, returning to the first page after the last.

This option is typically used for setting up kiosk displays.
Advance Every _ Seconds Specifies whether to advance automatically from page to page every set number of seconds.

You can page through a document using mouse or keyboard commands even if automatic paging is selected.
Full Screen Appearance
Background Color Specifies the window’s background color in Full Screen mode. You can select a color from the color
palette to customize the background color.
Mouse Cursor Specifies whether to show or hide the pointer when Full Screen mode is in operation.

Full Screen Transitions
Ignore All Transitions Removes transition effects from presentations that you view in Full Screen mode.
Default Transition Specifies the transition effect to display when you switch pages in Full Screen mode and no

transition effect has been set for the document.
Direction Determines the flow of the selected default transition on the screen, such as Down, Left, Horizontal, and so
on. The available options vary according to the transition. If no directional options affect the selected default transition,
this option is not available.
Navigation Controls Direction Mimics the user’s progress through the presentation, such as transitioning from top to

bottom when the user proceeds to the next page and from bottom to top when the user backtracks to the previous page.
Available only for transitions with directional options.

General preferences
Basic Tools
Use Single Key Accelerators To Access Tools Enables you to select tools with a single keystroke. This option is

deselected by default.
Create Links From URLs Specifies whether links that weren’t created with Acrobat are automatically identified in the

PDF document and become clickable links.

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Make Hand Tool Select Text & Images Enables the Hand tool to function as the Select tool when it hovers over text in

an Adobe PDF.
Make Hand Tool Read Articles Changes the appearance of the Hand tool pointer when over an article thread. Upon the
first click, the article zooms to fill the document pane horizontally; subsequent clicks follow the thread of the article.
Make Hand Tool Use Mouse-wheel Zooming Changes the action of the mouse wheel from scrolling to zooming.
Make Select Tool Select Images Before Text Changes the order in which the Select tool selects.
Use Fixed Resolution For Snapshot Tool Images Sets the resolution used to copy an image captured with the Snapshot

tool.
Touch Mode Sets how Acrobat enters the Touch mode, if at all, for touch enabled-devices. In Touch mode, Toolbar

buttons, panels, and menus shift apart slightly to accommodate selecting with your fingers. The Touch reading mode
optimizes viewing and supports most common gestures.
Warnings
Do Not Show Edit Warnings Disables warning boxes that would normally appear when you delete items such as links,
pages, page thumbnails, and bookmarks.
Reset All Warnings Restores default settings for warnings.

Messages From Adobe
Show Me Messages When I Launch Acrobat Allows in-product marketing messages from Adobe to appear in the

Welcome Screen when you launch the application without a document open. Click a message to get information about
features, updates, or online services, or to open an element in the application, such as a task pane. Deselect the option
to prevent in-product marketing messages from appearing.

Note: Transactional messages, which facilitate the Adobe Online Service, cannot be turned off.
Application Startup
Show Splash Screen (Mac OS) Determines whether the application startup screen appears each time the application

starts.
Use Only Certified Plug-Ins Ensures that only Adobe-certified third-party plug-ins are loaded. The notation Currently
in Certified Mode indicates either Yes or No depending on its status.
Check 2D Graphics Accelerator (Windows only) (Appears only if your computer hardware supports 2D graphics

acceleration.) When selected, allows hardware acceleration usage when the first document is opened. When deselected,
hardware acceleration usage starts after the first document is opened. This option can slow startup time, so it is
deselected by default.
Note: This option is available only when the option Use 2D Graphics Acceleration in the Page Display preferences is
selected.
Select Default PDF Handler (Windows only) Specifies which application, Reader or Acrobat, is used to open PDFs. This

setting applies if you have both Acrobat and Reader installed on your computer. In Windows 7 or earlier, a browser uses
this setting only if it is using the Adobe plug-in or add-on for viewing PDF files. In Windows 8, this setting controls
which application is the default PDF application for your system, including in your browser. Windows 8 prompts you
to allow this change before applying it to your system. Once set, Windows 8 also uses the selected PDF application for
tasks related to PDF files, such as previewing, displaying thumbnails, and providing file information.

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Page Display preferences
Default Layout And Zoom
Page Layout Sets the page layout used for scrolling when you first open a document. The default setting is Automatic.

The Page Layout setting in File > Properties > Initial View overrides this value.
Zoom Sets the magnification level for PDF documents when they are first opened. The default setting is Automatic.

The Magnification setting in File > Properties > Initial View overrides this value.
Note: Two conditions can affect page layout and zoom. 1) Someone has already set an individual PDF to a different initial
view in File > Properties. 2) You have the option Restore Last View Settings When Reopening Documents selected in Edit
> Preferences > Document category.
Resolution
Use System Setting Uses the system settings for monitor resolution.
Custom Resolution Sets the monitor resolution.

Rendering
Smooth Text Specifies the type of text-smoothing to apply.
Smooth Line Art Applies smoothing to remove abrupt angles in lines.
Smooth Images Applies smoothing to minimize abrupt changes in images.
Use Local Fonts Specifies whether the application uses or ignores local fonts installed on your system. When

deselected, substitute fonts are used for any font not embedded in the PDF. If a font cannot be substituted, the text
appears as bullets and an error message appears.
Enhance Thin Lines When selected, clarifies thin lines in the display to make them more visible.
Use Page Cache Places the next page in a buffer before the current page is viewed to reduce the time required to page

through a document.
Use 2D Graphics Acceleration (Windows only) (Appears only if your computer hardware supports 2D graphics

acceleration.) Speeds up zooming, scrolling, and redrawing of page content, and speeds the rendering and
manipulation of 2D PDF content. This option is selected by default.

Note: If this option is not available in the Page Display preferences, you may need to update your GPU card driver to enable
this hardware feature. Contact your card vendor or computer manufacturer for an updated driver.
Page Content And Information
Show Large Images Displays large images. If your system is slow to display image-intensive pages, deselect this option.
Use Smooth Zooming (Windows only) When deselected, turns off animation effects, which improves performance.
Show Art, Trim, & Bleed Boxes Displays any art, trim, or bleed boxes defined for a document.
Show Transparency Grid Displays the grid behind transparent objects.
Use Logical Page Numbers Enables the Number Pages command for matching the position of the page in the PDF to
the number printed on the page. A page number, followed by the page position in parentheses, appears in the Page
Navigation toolbar and in the Go To Page and Print dialog boxes. For example, i (1 of 1) if the printed number of the
first page is i. If this option is not selected, pages are numbered with arabic numbers starting at 1. Selecting this option
helps prevent unexpected behavior when clicking Back or Go Back in your web browser.
Always Show Document Page Size Displays the page measurements beside the horizontal scroll bar.

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Use Overprint Preview Specifies whether Overprint Preview mode is on only for PDF/X files, never on, always on, or

set automatically. When set to Automatic, if a document contains overprints, then Overprint Preview mode is activated.
The Overprint Preview mode lets you see (onscreen) the effects of ink aliasing in the printed output. For example, a
printer or service provider could create an ink alias if a document contains two similar spot colors and only one is
required.
Default Transparency Blending Color Space Sets the default color space, Working RGB or Working CMYK, for

transparency blending.
Reference XObjects View Mode
Show Reference XObject Targets Specifies the type of documents in which reference XObjects can be viewed.
Location Of Referenced Files (Optional) Specifies a location for the referenced documents.

More Help topics
Open a PDF in a web browser
Setting up a presentation
About PDF/X, PDF/E, and PDF/A standards
3D preferences
Multimedia preferences
Setting accessibility preferences
Change updating preferences

Keyboard shortcuts
For common keyboard shortcuts you can use with Windows, see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/126449.

Keys for selecting tools
To enable single-key shortcuts, open the Preferences dialog box, and under General, select the Use Single-Key
Accelerators To Access Tools option.
Tool

Windows/UNIX action

Mac OS action

Hand tool

H

H

Temporarily select Hand tool

Spacebar

Spacebar

Select tool

V

V

Marquee Zoom tool

Z

Z

Cycle through zoom tools: Marquee
Zoom,Dynamic Zoom, Loupe

Shift+Z

Shift+Z

Temporarily select Dynamic Zoom tool (when Shift
Marquee Zoom tool is selected)

Shift

Temporarily zoom out (when Marquee Zoom
tool is selected)

Option

Ctrl

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Tool

Windows/UNIX action

Mac OS action

Temporarily select Zoom In tool

Ctrl+spacebar

Spacebar+Command

Select Object tool

R

R

Edit Object tool

O

O

Enter/Exit Forms editing

A

A

Crop tool

C

C

Link tool

L

L

Text Field tool

F

F

Cycle through tools in forms authoring mode: Shift+F
Text Field, Check Box, Radio Button, List Box,
Dropdown Box, Button, Digital Signature,
Barcode

Shift+F

3D tool

M

M

Cycle through Multimedia tools: Flash, Video

Shift+M

Shift+M

Edit Document Text tool

T

T

Redaction

Y

Y

Cycle through Touch Up tools: Touch Up Text, Shift+T
Touch Up Reading Order, Touch Up Object

Shift+T

JavaScript Debugger

Ctrl+J

Command+J

Insert Blank Pages tool

Shift+Ctrl+T

Shift+Command+T

Insert Files

Ctrl+Shift+I

Delete pages

Ctrl+Shift+D

Open Output Preview

~

~

Touch Up Reading Order tool (or if already
selected, return focus to dialog box)

Shift+Ctrl+U

Shift+Command+U

Keys for working with comments
To enable single-key shortcuts, select the Use Single-Key Accelerators To Access Tools option in General preferences.
Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Sticky Note tool

S

S

Text Edits tool

E

E

Stamp tool

K

K

Current highlighting tool

U

U

Cycle through highlighting tools:
Highlighter,Underline Text, Cross Out Text

Shift+U (Windows only)

Shift+U

Current drawing markup tool

D

D

Cycle through drawing markup tools: Cloud,
Arrow, Line, Rectangle, Oval, Polygon Line,
Polygon, Pencil Tool, Eraser Tool

Shift+D (Windows only)

Shift+D

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Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Cloud tool

Q (Windows only)

Q

Text Box tool

X

X

Current Stamp or Attach tool

J

J

Cycle through Stamp, Attach File, Record
Audio Comment

Shift+J

Shift+J

Move focus to next comment or form field

Tab

Tab

Move focus to previous comment or form field Shift+Tab

Shift+Tab

Open pop-up note (or text field in Comments Enter
List) for comment that has focus

Return

Closes pop-up (or text field in Comments List) Esc
for comment that has focus

Esc

Keys for navigating a PDF
Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Previous screen

Page Up or Shift+Enter

Page Up or Shift+Return

Next screen

Page Down or Enter

Page Down or Return

First page

Home or Shift+Ctrl+Page Up or Shift+Ctrl+Up Home or Shift+Command+Up Arrow
Arrow

Last page

End or Shift+Ctrl+Page Down or
Shift+Ctrl+Down Arrow

End or Shift+Command+Down Arrow

Previous page

Left Arrow or Ctrl+Page Up

Left Arrow or Command+Page Up

Next page

Right Arrow or Ctrl+Page Down

Right Arrow or Command+Page Down

Previous open document

Ctrl+F6 (UNIX)

Command+F6

Next open document

Shift+Ctrl+F6 (UNIX)

Shift+Command+F6

Scroll up

Up Arrow

Up Arrow

Scroll down

Down Arrow

Down Arrow

Scroll (when Hand tool is selected)

Spacebar

Spacebar

Zoom in

Ctrl+equal sign

Command+equal sign

Zoom out

Ctrl+hyphen

Command+hyphen

Keys for working with PDF Portfolios
These keys are available in the files list of the Details pane.

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Result

Windows Action

Mac OS Action

Move forward or backward among the current Tab or Shift+Tab
column header selected for sorting, the
current row with focus, and the Go Back
button if in a folder

Tab or Shift+Tab

Move focus to the next or previous row when
in the body of the file list on the left

Up Arrow or Down Arrow

Up Arrow or Down Arrow

Selects the next or previous column header
for sorting

Left Arrow or Right Arrow

Left Arrow or Right Arrow

If pressed in the body of the file list, navigate
one level up from within a folder

Backspace

Delete

Press the Go Back button in a folder if focus is
on the button.

Enter or Spacebar

Enter or Spacebar

If pressed when focus is on a row in the file list Enter
representing a subfolder, navigate to a
subfolder, or open an attachment in Preview
mode.

Enter

If in the body of the file list, move to the first or Home or End
last row

Home or End

If in the body of the file list, move to the next
or last set of rows to fit the screen

Page Down or Page Up

Page Down or Page Up

Select or deselect all files

Ctrl+A or Shift+Ctrl+A

Command+A or Shift+Command+A

If in the body of the file list, extend the
selection by adding the next row above or
below the selected row

Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow

Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow

Change whether the row with focus is in the
selection

Ctrl+Spacebar

Command+Spacebar

Move focus up or down one row without
changing the selection

Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow

Command+Up Arrow or Command+Down
Arrow

Reverse the sort order when focus is on a
column header

Spacebar

Spacebar

Keys for navigating task panes
Result

Windows Action

Mac OS Action

Move focus to the next item among
Document pane, Task panes, Message bar,
and Navigation bar

F6

F6

Move focus to the previous item among
Document pane, Task panes, message bar,
and Navigation bar

Shift+F6

Shift+F6

Move focus to the next panel in the Task pane Ctrl+Tab

Command+Tab

Move focus to the previous panel in the Task
pane

Ctrl+Shift+Tab

Command+ Shift+Tab

Navigate to the next panel and panel control
within an open Task pane

Tab

Tab

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Result

Windows Action

Mac OS Action

Navigate to the previous panel and panel
control within an open Task pane

Shift+Tab

Shift+Tab

Navigate to the next command button within Down Arrow
a panel

Down Arrow

Navigate to the previous command button
within a panel

Up Arrow

Up Arrow

Expand or collapse panel in focus (press F6 to Spacebar or Enter
move focus to Tools pane, then tab to desired
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
panel)

Spacebar or Enter

Open or close the Task pane

Shift+F4

Shift+F4

Left Arrow or Right Arrow

Close the pane that lists the tasks of an Action Ctrl+Shift+F4

Ctrl+Shift+F4

Open the menu and move the focus to the
first menu option when focus is on a
command with a submenu or submenu
element with a flyout

Spacebar or Enter

Spacebar or Enter

Move the focus back to the parent command
button with a submenu or submenu element
with a flyout

Esc

Esc

Run the command in focus

Spacebar or Enter

Spacebar or Enter

Navigate to the next item in the active panel Tab
in the Create New Action, Edit Action, Create
New Tool Set, or the Edit Tool Set dialog boxes

Tab

Navigate to the previous item in the active
panel in the Create New Action, Edit Action,
Create New Tool Set, and the Edit Tool Set
dialog boxes

Shift+Tab

Shift+Tab

Keys for general navigating
Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Move focus to menus (Windows, UNIX);
expand first menu item (UNIX)

F10

Control+F2

Move focus to toolbar in browser and
application

Shift+F8

Shift+F8

Move to next open document (when focus is
on document pane)

Ctrl+F6

Command+F6

Move to previous open document (when
focus is on document pane)

Ctrl+Shift+F6

Command+Shift+F6

Close current document

Ctrl+F4

Command+F4

Close all open documents

Not available

Command+Option+W

Move focus to next comment, link, or form
field in the document pane

Tab

Tab

Move focus to document pane

F5

F5

Move focus to previous comment, link, or
form field in the document pane

Shift+Tab

Shift+Tab

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Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Activate selected tool, item (such as a movie
clip or bookmark), or command

Spacebar or Enter

Spacebar or Return

Open context menu

Shift+F10

Control+click

Close context menu

F10

Esc

Return to Hand tool or Select tool

Esc

Esc

Move focus to next tab in a tabbed dialog box Ctrl+Tab

Not available

Move to previous search result and highlight it Shift + F3
in the document

Not available

Move to next search result and highlight it in
the document

F3

F3

Search previous document (with Search
results displaying multiple files)

Alt+Shift+Left Arrow (Windows only)

Command+Shift+Left Arrow

Search next document (with Search results
displaying multiple files)

Alt+Shift+Right Arrow (Windows only)

Command+Shift+Right Arrow

Select text (with Select tool selected)

Shift+arrow keys

Shift+arrow keys

Select next word or deselect previous word
(with Select tool selected)

Shift+Ctrl+Right Arrow or Left Arrow

Not available

Keys for working with navigation panels
Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Open and move focus to navigation pane

Ctrl+Shift+F5

Command+Shift+F5

Move focus among the document, message
bar, and navigation panels

F6

F6

Move focus to previous pane or panel

Shift+F6

Shift+F6

Move among the elements of the active
navigation panel

Tab

Tab

Move to previous or next navigation panel
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
and make it active (when focus is on the panel
button)

Up Arrow or Down Arrow

Move to next navigation panel and make it
active (when focus is anywhere in the
navigation pane)

Ctrl+Tab

Not available

Expand the current bookmark (focus on
Bookmarks panel)

Right Arrow or Shift+plus sign

Right Arrow or Shift+plus sign

Collapse the current bookmark (focus on
Bookmarks panel)

Left Arrow or minus sign

Left Arrow or minus sign

Expand all bookmarks

Shift+*

Shift+*

Collapse selected bookmark

Forward Slash (/)

Forward Slash (/)

Move focus to next item in a navigation panel Down Arrow

Down Arrow

Move focus to previous item in a navigation
panel

Up Arrow

Up Arrow

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Keys for navigating the Help window
Result

Windows/UNIX Action

Mac OS Action

Open Help window

F1

F1 or Command+?

Close Help window

Ctrl+W (Windows only) or Alt+F4

Command+W

Move back to previously opened topic

Alt+Left Arrow

Command+Left Arrow

Move forward to next topic

Alt+Right Arrow

Command+Right Arrow

Move to next pane

Ctrl+Tab

See Help for your default browser

Move to previous pane

Shift+Ctrl+Tab

See Help for your default browser

Move focus to the next link within a pane

Tab

Not available

Move focus to the previous link within a pane Shift+Tab

Not available

Activate highlighted link

Enter

Not available

Print Help topic

Ctrl+P

Command+P

Result

Windows Action

Mac OS Action

Change reading settings for the current
document

Shift+Ctrl+5

Shift+Command+5

Reflow a tagged PDF, and return to
unreflowed view

Ctrl+4

Command+4

Activate and deactivate Read Out Loud

Shift+Ctrl+Y

Shift+Command+Y

Read only the current page out loud

Shift+Ctrl+V

Shift+Command+V

Read out loud from the current page to the
end of the document

Shift+Ctrl+B

Shift+Command+B

Pause reading out loud

Shift+Ctrl+C

Shift+Command+C

Stop reading out loud

Shift+Ctrl+E

Shift+Command+E

Keys for accessibility

Navigating PDF pages
Opening pages in a PDF
Depending on the PDF you open, you may need to move forward through multiple pages, see different parts of the
page, or change the magnification. There are many ways to navigate, but the following items are commonly used:
Note: If you do not see these items, choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Reset Toolbars.
Next and Previous The Next Page

and Previous Page
buttons appear in the Page Navigation toolbar. The text
box next to them is also interactive, so you can type a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page.

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Scroll bars Vertical and horizontal scroll bars appear to the right and bottom of the document pane whenever the view
does not show the entire document. Click the arrows or drag to view other pages or different areas of the page.
Select & Zoom toolbar This toolbar contains buttons and controls for changing the page magnification.
Page Thumbnails panel The Page Thumbnails button

on the left side of the work area opens the navigation pane to
the Page Thumbnails panel, which displays thumbnail images of each page. Click a page thumbnail to open that page
in the document pane.

Page through a document
There are many ways to turn pages in a PDF. Many people use the buttons on the Page Navigation toolbar, but you can
also use arrow keys, scroll bars, and other features to move forward and backward through a multipage PDF.
The Page Navigation toolbar opens by default. The default toolbar contains frequently used tools: the Show Next Page
, Show Previous Page
, and Page Number. Like all toolbars, the Page Navigation toolbar can be hidden and
reopened by choosing it in the Toolbars menu under the View menu. You can display additional tools on the Page
Navigation toolbar by right-clicking the toolbar and choosing an individual tool, Show All Tools, or More Tools and
then selecting and deselecting tools in the dialog box.

Move through a PDF
❖ Do one of the following:

• Click the Previous Page

or Next Page

button in the toolbar.

• Choose View > Page Navigation > [location].
• Choose View > Page Navigation > Page, type the page number in the Go To Page dialog box and then click OK.
• Press the Page Up and Page Down keys on the keyboard.

Jump to a specific page
❖ Do one of the following:

• From Single Page or Two-Up page display view, drag the vertical scroll bar until the page appears in the small
pop-up display.
• Type the page number to replace the one currently displayed in the Page Navigation toolbar, and press Enter.
Note: If the document page numbers are different from the actual page position in the PDF file, the page’s position within
the file appears in parentheses after the assigned page number in the Page Navigation toolbar. For example, if you assign
numbering for a file that is an 18-page chapter to begin with page 223, the number shown when the first page is active
is 223 (1 of 18). You can turn off logical page numbers in the Page Display preferences. See Renumber pages and
Preferences for viewing PDFs.

Jump to bookmarked pages
Bookmarks provide a table of contents and usually represent the chapters and sections in a document. Bookmarks
appear in the navigation pane.

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A Bookmarks button B Click to display bookmark options menu. C Expanded bookmark

1 Click the Bookmarks button, or choose View > Show/Hide >Navigation Panes > Bookmarks.
2 To jump to a topic, click the bookmark. Expand or collapse bookmark contents, as needed.

Note: Depending on how the bookmark was defined, clicking it may not take you to that location but perform some
other action instead.
If the list of bookmarks disappears when you click a bookmark, click the Bookmarks button to display the list again.
If you want to hide the Bookmarks button after you click a bookmark, select Hide After Use from the options menu.

Use page thumbnails to jump to specific pages
Page thumbnails provide miniature previews of document pages. You can use thumbnails in the Page Thumbnails panel
to change the display of pages and to go to other pages. The red page-view box in the page thumbnail indicates which
area of the page appears. You can resize this box to change the zoom percentage.
1 Click the Page Thumbnails button or choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Page Thumbnails to display

the Page Thumbnails panel.
2 To jump to another page, click its thumbnail.

Automatically scroll through a document
Automatic scrolling advances your view of the PDF at a steady rate, moving vertically down the document. If you
interrupt the process by using the scroll bars to move back or forward to another page or position, automatic scrolling
continues from that point forward. At the end of the PDF, automatic scrolling stops and does not begin again until you
choose automatic scrolling again.
1 Choose View > Page Display > Automatically Scroll.
2 Press Esc to stop scrolling.

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Retrace your viewing path
You can find PDF pages that you viewed earlier by retracing your viewing path. It’s helpful to understand the difference
between previous and next pages and previous and next views. In the case of pages, previous and next refer to the two
adjacent pages, before and after the currently active page. In the case of views, previous and next refer to your viewing
history. For example, if you jump forward and backward in a document, your viewing history retraces those steps,
showing you the pages you viewed in the reverse order that you viewed them.
Choose View > Page Navigation > Previous View.
1 To continue seeing another part of your path, do either of the following:

• Repeat step 1.
• Choose View > Page Navigation > Next View.
Note: You can make the Previous View button
and Next View button
available in the toolbar area by rightclicking the Page Navigation toolbar and choosing them on the context menu, or choosing Show All Tools.

Navigate with links
Links can take you to another location in the current document, to other PDF documents, or to websites. Clicking a
link can also open file attachments and play 3D content, movies, and sound clips. To play these media clips, you must
have the appropriate hardware and software installed.
The person who created the PDF document determines what links look like in the PDF.
Note: Unless a link was created in Acrobat using the Link tool, you must have the Create Links From URLs option selected
in the General preferences for a link to work correctly.
1 Choose the Select tool.
2 Position the pointer over the linked area on the page until the pointer changes to the hand with a pointing finger. A

plus sign (+) or a w appears within the hand if the link points to the web. Then click the link.

PDFs with file attachments
If you open a PDF that has one or more attached files, the Attachments panel automatically opens, listing the attached
files. You can open these files for viewing, edit the attachments, and save your changes, as permitted by the document
authors.
If you move the PDF to a new location, the attachments automatically move with it.

Article threads
In PDFs, articles are optional electronic threads that the PDF author may define within that PDF. Articles lead readers
through the PDF content, jumping over pages or areas of the page that are not included in the article, in the same way
that you might skim through a traditional newspaper or magazine, following one specific story and ignoring the rest.
When you read an article, the page view may zoom in or out so that the current part of the article fills the screen.

Open and navigate an article thread
1 Click the Hand tool on the Common Tools toolbar.

Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Articles to open the Articles panel.
Note: You cannot open the Articles panel if you are viewing the PDF inside a web browser. You must open the PDF in
Acrobat.

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2 Double-click the Article icon to go to the beginning of that article. The icon changes to the Follow Article pointer

.
Note: If the Articles panel is blank, then the author has not defined any article threads for this PDF.
3 With the article thread open, do any of the following:

• To scroll through the article one pane at a time, press Enter or click in the article.
• To scroll backward through the article one pane at a time, Shift-click in the article, or press Shift+Enter.
• To go to the beginning of the article, Ctrl-click within the article.
4 At the end of the article, click in the article again.

The previous page view is restored, and the pointer changes to the End Article pointer

.

Exit a thread before the end of the article
1 Make sure that the Hand tool is selected.
2 Shift+Ctrl-click the page.

The previous page view is restored.

More Help topics
Adjust page magnification
About bookmarks
About page thumbnails
Set the page layout and orientation
Links and attachments
Multimedia preferences
Open, save, or delete an attachment
Attachments
Articles

Adjusting PDF views
Adjust page magnification
Tools on the Select & Zoom toolbar can change the magnification of PDF documents. Only some of these tools appear
on the default view of the toolbar. You can see all the tools by right-clicking the Select & Zoom toolbar and choosing
either individual tools, Show All Select & Zoom Tools.

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A Marquee Zoom tool B Continuous Zoom tool C Zoom Out button D Zoom In button E Zoom Value menu button F Actual Size button G Fit
Width button H Zoom To Page Level button I Pan & Zoom tool J Loupe tool

• The Marquee Zoom tool works in a few different ways. You can use it to drag a rectangle around a portion of the
page that you want to fill the viewing area. Or, simply clicking the Marquee Zoom tool increases the magnification
by one preset level, centering on the point where you clicked. To decrease the magnification by one preset level, Ctrlclick the Marquee Zoom tool.
• The Continuous Zoom or Dynamic tool zooms in when you drag it up the page and it zooms out when you drag
down. If you use a mouse wheel, this tool zooms in when you roll forward and zooms out when you roll backward.
• Zoom In and Zoom Out buttons change the document magnification by preset levels.
• The Zoom Value option changes the page view according to a percentage you type in or select from a pop-up menu.
• Actual Size displays the page at 100% magnification.
• Fit Width adjusts the magnification so that the PDF fills the document pane horizontally.
• Zoom To Page Level adjusts the magnification so that one page fills the document pane vertically.
• The Pan & Zoom tool adjusts the magnification and position of the view area to match the area in an adjustable
rectangle in the Pan & Zoom window’s thumbnail view of the page.
• The Loupe Tool window displays a magnified portion of the PDF that matches the area in an adjustable rectangle
on the document pane.

Resize a page to fit the window
• To resize the page to fit entirely in the document pane, choose View > Zoom > Zoom To Page Level.
• To resize the page to fit the width of the window, choose View > Zoom > Fit Width. Part of the page may be out of
view.
• To resize the page to fit the height of the window, choose View > Zoom > Fit Height. Part of the page may be out of
view.
• To resize the page so that its text and images fit the width of the window, choose View > Zoom >Fit Visible. Part of
the page may be out of view.
To see keyboard shortcuts for resizing the document, open the View > Zoom menu.

Show a page at actual size
❖ Choose View > Zoom > Actual Size.

The actual size for a PDF page is typically 100%, but the document may have been set to another magnification level
when it was created.

Change the magnification with zoom tools
❖ Do one of the following:

• Click the Zoom In button

or the Zoom Out button

in the toolbar.

• Enter a magnification percentage in the Common Tools toolbar, either by typing or choosing from the pop-up
menu.

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• Drag the Marquee Zoom tool
Zoom > Marquee Zoom)

to define the area of the page that you want to fill the document pane. (View >

• Drag the Continuous Zoom tool (also called Dynamic Zoom) up to increase the magnification and down to
decrease magnification. (View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Select & Zoom > Dynamic Zoom)
When the Marquee Zoom tool is selected, you can Ctrl-click or Ctrl-drag to zoom out. Holding down Shift switches
temporarily from the Marquee Zoom tool to the Dynamic Zoom tool.

Change the magnification with the Pan & Zoom Window tool
1 Choose View > Zoom > Pan & Zoom, or click the Pan & Zoom tool

in the Common Tools toolbar.

2 Do any of the following:

• Drag the handles of the box in the Pan & Zoom window to change the document magnification.
• Drag the center of the box to pan across the area you want to see.
• Click the navigation buttons to move to a different page.
• Enter a value in the zoom text box, or click the plus
magnification by preset levels.

or minus

buttons to increase or decrease the

Change the magnification with the Loupe tool
Choose View > Zoom> Loupe Tool.
1 Click the area of the document you want to view in closer detail. A rectangle appears in the document,

corresponding to the area shown in the Loupe Tool window. You can drag or resize the rectangle to change the
Loupe tool view.
2 To change the magnification of the Loupe tool, do any of the following:

• Drag the slider.
• Click the plus or minus buttons.
• Enter a value in the zoom text box.

You can change the color of the Loupe tool rectangle. Click the Line Color pop-up menu in the lower-right corner of
the Loupe Tool window, and select a new color.

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Change the magnification by using a page thumbnail
1 Click the Page Thumbnails button

in the navigation pane on the left side of the window.

2 Locate the thumbnail for the page. Then position the pointer over the lower-right corner of the page-view box until

the pointer changes into a double-headed arrow.
3 Drag the corner of the box to reduce or expand the view of the page.
4 As needed, move the pointer over the zoom box frame within the thumbnail until it changes into a Hand icon. Then

drag the frame to see a different area of the page in the document pane.

Change the default magnification
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Page Display.
2 Open the Zoom pop-up menu and choose a default magnification level.

Display off-screen areas of a magnified page
When you zoom in to a high magnification, you may be able to see only part of a page. You can shift the view to show
other areas of the page without changing the magnification level.
❖ Do either of the following:

• Use the vertical scroll bars to move up and down the pages or the horizontal scroll bars to move across the page.
• Select the Hand tool in the Common Tools toolbar and drag to move the page, as if moving a piece of paper on
a table.

Set the page layout and orientation
Changing the page layout is especially useful when you want to zoom out to get an overview of the document layout.
Choose View > Page Display, and select any of the following page layouts:
Single Page View Displays one page at a time, with no portion on other pages visible.
Enable Scrolling Displays pages in a continuous vertical column that is one page wide.
Two Page View Displays each two-page spread with no portion of other pages visible.
Two Page Scrolling Displays facing pages side by side in a continuous vertical column.

If a document has more than two pages, you can ensure that the first page appears alone on the right side of the
document pane. Select either Two Page View or Two Page Scrolling. Also select View > Page Display > Show Cover Page
In Two Page View.

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You can also display buttons for each of these options in the Quick Tools toolbar by choosing View > > Show/Hide >
Toolbar Items > Page Display, and selecting them in the menu.
Note: In Single Page View, choosing Edit >Select All selects all text on the current page. In other layouts,Select All selects all
text in the PDF.

Rotate the page view
You can change the view of a page in 90-degree increments. This changes the view of the page, not its actual orientation.

• To temporarily rotate the page view, choose View > Rotate View > Clockwise or Counterclockwise. You can’t save
this change.
• To save the rotation with the document, click the Rotate Page button
> Pages > Rotate.

in the Quick Tools toolbar, or choose Tools

Change the default page layout (initial view)
You specify the default initial view settings in the Preferences dialog box. (See Set preferences.)
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Page Display.
2 Open the Page Layout menu and choose Automatic, Single Page, Single Page Continuous, Two-Up, or Two-Up

Continuous.
Note: The PDF opens with the page layout specified in Preferences unless a different page layout is specified in Document
Properties (File > Properties > Initial View). The Document Properties setting overrides the Preferences setting. If using
Document Properties, be sure to save and close the document for the change to take effect. Acrobat users can change the
initial view, unless security settings prevent changes. Reader users cannot change the initial view.

Use split-window view
You can view a PDF with the document pane divided into two panes (Split command) or four panes (Spreadsheet Split
command).
With Split view, you can scroll, change the magnification level, or turn to a different page in the active pane without
affecting the other pane.
The Spreadsheet Split view is useful if you want to keep column headings and row labels visible while scrolling through
a large spreadsheet or table. In this mode, changing the magnification in one pane changes the magnification in all
panes. Also, scrolling is coordinated between the panes. Scrolling a pane horizontally also scrolls the pane above or
below it. Scrolling vertically also scrolls the pane to the left or right of that pane.
1 Start creating the type of split view you want:

• To split the view into two panes, choose Window > Split, or drag the gray box above the vertical scroll bar.
• To split the view into four panes with synchronized scrolling and zoom levels, choose Window > Spreadsheet
Split.
2 Drag the splitter bars up, down, left, or right to resize the panes, as needed.

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3 Adjust the zoom level, as needed:

• In Split view, click a pane to make it active, and change the zoom level for that pane only.
• In Spreadsheet Split view, adjust the zoom level to change the displays in all four panes.
4 Scroll, as needed:

• In Split view, click a pane to make it active, and scroll to change that pane only.
• In Spreadsheet Split view, click a pane, and scroll vertically to change the views in the active pane and the pane
beside it. Scroll horizontally to change the views in the active pane and the pane above or below it.
5 To restore single-pane view, choose Window > Remove Split.

View a document in multiple windows
You can create multiple windows for the same document using the New Window command. New windows have the
same size, magnification, and layout as the original window and open at the same page and on top of the original
window. When you open a new window, Acrobat adds the suffix 1 to the original filename and assigns the suffix 2 to
the new window. You can open multiple windows with the suffix incrementing with each new window. Closing a
window causes the remaining open windows to be renumbered sequentially; that is, if you have five windows open and
you close the third window that you opened, the windows are renumbered with the suffixes 1 to 4.
Note: This feature is not available when PDFs are viewed in a browser.

Open a new window
❖ Select Window > New Window.

Close a window
❖ Click the close box in the window. You are prompted to save any changes. Closing a window does not close a

document if more than one window is open.

Close all windows for a document
❖ Choose File > Close. You are prompted to save any changes before each window is closed.

More Help topics
About PDF layers
Viewing PDFs and viewing preferences
View document properties

Flash Player needed | Acrobat DC, Acrobat Reader DC
Why an alert about Flash Player?
You need Flash Player to view Flash content in PDFs, PDF Portfolios, and other features. Adobe Reader and Acrobat
no longer include Flash Player and features that require Flash now leverage the machine’s local copy of Flash. This new
strategy allows users and administrators to manage Flash Player updates independently of Acrobat product updates.

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Note that the Flash Active X component is not enough to display this content. A full Flash player must be installed.

Flash Player installs for end users
1 Right-click and download the Flash Player Installer for Windows (Active X and Plugin) or the Flash Player Installer

for Mac OS.
2 Choose Save Link As or Save Target As to download the installer to your computer.
3 Specify a location for the installer (such as your desktop), and click Save.
4 Browse to the installer
5 Double-click it to begin the installation.

NOTE: For Windows, download both Active X and Plugin.

Flash Player installs for IT
Enterprise IT and administrators should download an installer suitable for distibution across their organization by
starting here: http://www.adobe.com/products/players/flash-player-distribution.html.

System requirements for Flash Player
Windows

• 2.33 GHz or faster x86-compatible processor, or Intel® Atom™ 1.6 GHz or faster processor for Netbooks
• Microsoft® Windows® XP (32 bit), Windows Server® 2003 (32 bit), Windows Server 2008 (32 bit), Windows Vista®
(32 bit), Windows 7 (32 bit and 64 bit)
• 128 MB of RAM (1 GB of RAM recommended for Netbooks); 128 MB of graphics memory
Mac OS

• Intel Core™ Duo 1.33 GHz or faster processor
• Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, or 10.8
• 256 MB of RAM; 128 MB of graphics memory

Asian, Cyrillic, and right-to-left text in PDFs
Asian language PDFs
You can use Acrobat to view, search, and print PDF documents that contain Asian text (Traditional and Simplified
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). You can also use these languages when you fill in forms, add comments, and apply
digital signatures.
Almost all of the Acrobat features are supported for Traditional and Simplified Chinese, Japanese, and Korean text if
you install the respective Asian language font packs.
In Acrobat in Windows, you must install the Asian language support files by using the custom installation and selecting
the Asian Language Support options under Create Adobe PDF and View Adobe PDF.

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PDFMaker and the Adobe PDF printer automatically embed most Asian fonts in your file when creating PDF files. You
can control whether Asian fonts are embedded.
In Windows, you may be able to view and print files that contain Asian languages without having the necessary Asian
language support installed on your system. If you try to open a PDF file for which language support is required, you are
automatically prompted to install the required fonts.

Cyrillic, Central European, and Eastern European language PDFs
You can work with Adobe PDF files that contain Cyrillic text (including Bulgarian and Russian), Central European text,
and Eastern European text (including Czech, Hungarian, and Polish) if the fonts are embedded in the PDF files. If the
fonts are embedded, you can view and print the files on any system. Fonts do not need to be embedded to use the Search
feature.
Note: If you open a PDF file in which form fields or text boxes contain these languages but the fonts are not embedded and
are not installed on your system, choosing Help > Check For Updates Now automatically prompts you to download and
install the necessary fonts.

Hebrew, Arabic, Thai, and Vietnamese language PDFs
Acrobat supports the entry and display of Thai and Vietnamese text. In Windows only, Arabic and Hebrew are also
supported. By default, Right-To-Left Language Options is enabled under Arabic and Hebrew regional settings (in
Windows).

Enable right-to-left languages
Enabling right-to-left language options displays the user interface elements for controlling paragraph direction, digit
style, and ligature. When this option is selected, you can specify the writing direction (left-to-right or right-to-left) and
type of digits (Western or Arabic-Indic) used for creating and filling out certain form fields, adding digital signatures,
and creating text box markups.
Enable Right-To-Left Language Options is enabled by default under Arabic and Hebrew regional settings.
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Language.
2 Select Enable Right-To-Left Language Options.

Opening PDFs
You can open a PDF in many ways: from within the Acrobat DC application, from your email application, from your
file system, or on a network from within a web browser.
Note: The Organizer and Organizer-related commands are not available in Acrobat X and later.

Open a PDF in the application
❖ Start Acrobat DC and do one of the following:

• Open a file from the Home > Recent view.
• Choose File > Open. In the Open dialog box, select one or more filenames, and click Open. PDF documents
usually have the extension .pdf.

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If more than one document is open, you can switch between documents by choosing the document name from the
Window menu.

Open a PDF from the desktop or within another application
❖ Do one of the following:

• To open a PDF attached to an email message, open the message and double-click the PDF icon.
• To open a PDF linked to an open web page, click the PDF file link. The PDF usually opens in the web browser.
• Double-click the PDF file icon in your file system.
Note: In Mac OS, you sometimes cannot open a PDF created in Windows by double-clicking the icon. Instead, choose
File > Open With > Acrobat > DC.

Open a PDF in a web browser
When PDFs open in a web page, they open in Read mode. Read mode displays the PDF without the menus, panes, or
toolbars visible. Near the bottom of the window, a floating toolbar appears with basic functionality for viewing
document.

• To show the toolbar, roll your cursor near the bottom of the window.
• To page through the PDF, use the navigation buttons in the toolbar.
• To close Read mode and display the work area, click the Acrobat icon

in the toolbar.

• To disable Read mode within the browser, open the Acrobat or Reader Preferences (in Windows, choose Edit >
Preferences, in Mac OS, choose Acrobat DC/ Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences). Select Internet from the left pane.
Deselect Display In Read Mode By Default.
Note: If you have more than one Adobe PDF application on your computer, you can specify which one is used to open PDFs.
See the Select Default PDF Handler in General preferences.

About viewing PDFs in a web browser
Options in the web browser control how you view a PDF, either within the browser or directly in Acrobat or Reader. To
change the current display behavior, see the browser documentation on managing add-ons or plug-ins. If you open
PDFs in Acrobat outside the browser, you cannot use the preference Allow Fast Web View in a browser.
Because keyboard commands can be mapped to the web browser, some Acrobat shortcuts cannot be available.
Similarly, you may need to use the tools and commands in the Acrobat toolbar rather than the browser toolbar or menu
bar. For example, to print a PDF document, use the Print button in the Acrobat toolbar rather than the Print command
in the browser. (In Microsoft Internet Explorer, you can choose File > Print, Edit > Copy, and Edit > Find On This Page
on the Internet Explorer toolbar.)
Note: Having multiple versions of Acrobat or Adobe Reader installed on the same computer is not recommended. Mixed
versions on your system can prevent you from viewing PDFs in a web browser. Examples include Acrobat XI with Adobe
Reader X, or Acrobat 9 with Reader XI, and so on. For more information about coexisting installations, see this TechNote.

Internet preferences
Display In Read Mode By Default Select to display PDFs in the browser without the menus, panes, or toolbars visible.
Allow Fast Web View Select to allow page-at-a-time downloading for PDFs that have been saved with Fast Web View

enabled. With Fast Web View turned on, a web server can send just the requested page, rather than the entire PDF.

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Allow Speculative Downloading In The Background Choose to allow the browser to continue downloading PDF pages

from the web, even after the first page displays.
Connection Speed Choose a connection speed from the menu. The connection speed helps Acrobat or other media

provide a smooth display when content is read on the Internet.
Internet Settings [or Network Settings] Click to open the Internet or network connection dialog box or panel for your

computer. For more information, consult your operating system Help, your Internet service provider, or your local
network administrator.

Updating Acrobat DC and using Adobe Digital Editions
Updating Acrobat DC
Acrobat DC application files and components can be updated in a variety of ways. Some updates are available when you
open a PDF that triggers the updating process automatically. For example, if you open a form that uses Asian-language
fonts, you are asked whether you want to download the fonts. Other updates are available only from the Help menu,
and must be installed manually. Some updates are available both automatically and manually.

Manually update the software
❖ Choose Help > Check For Updates, and follow any onscreen instructions.

Change updating preferences
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Adobe Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 From the Categories on the left, select Updater.
3 In the Check For Updates section, select one of the following options for installing updates:
Automatically install updates (recommended) (Windows) Acrobat regularly checks for important updates,

downloads them, and installs them automatically. When finished, you are alerted via a small message in the system
tray that your software has been updated. This method is the best way to keep Acrobat up-to-date and more secure.
Automatically download updates, but let me choose when to install them Acrobat regularly checks for important

updates and downloads them. Acrobat prompts you to start the installation.
Notify me, but let me choose when to download and install updates Acrobat regularly checks for important

updates and notifies you. You can choose to download and install the updates at your convenience.
Do not download or install updates Acrobat doesn't check for updates. Instead, you check for updates yourself
(Help > Check For Updates). This option is the least secure and recommended only for organizations that deploy
updates using other methods.

Manage security settings
If your organization uses server-based security policies, you can set up Acrobat to regularly check for updates to these
policies. Server-based security is set up by an administrator who provides the URL from which to get security updates.
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Security.
2 In the Security Settings, select Load Security Settings From A Server.
3 Type the server address in the URL field.

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4 Select how often you want to check for security updates.
5 Select Ask Before Installing to receive notification before the server is checked for policy updates.

Adobe Digital Editions
Use the free Adobe® Digital Editions software to read and organize eBooks and other publications.Adobe Digital
Editions is a separate web-based rich Internet application (RIA) that replaces the eBooks features in previous versions
of Acrobat.
When you install Adobe Digital Editions, your existing bookshelf items are automatically imported and available
within the new Adobe Digital Editions bookshelf experience. You can also manually import individual PDFs into your
Adobe Digital Editions bookshelf.
Note: When you open an eBook for the first time, the Adobe Digital Editions software is automatically installed on your
computer.
For more information about Adobe Digital Editions and to download the software, see
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_digital_en.

Working with online accounts
Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC let you open and save files to online file management services such as Adobe
Document Cloud and Microsoft SharePoint. You can access PDF files hosted on these online services either through
their web interface or directly in Adobe Acrobat DC or Adobe Acrobat Reader DC.
Note: Your SharePoint administrator must configure the SharePoint server to enable editing of PDF documents. See this
TechNote for details.

Access PDF files in an online account
The Home > Document Cloud view lets you choose files that are available in your account.
To access or save to SharePoint resources, choose Home > Add Account. You can specify the URL using the following
options:

• (Windows) URL of the repository; for example, http://mysharepointserver/mysite/mydoclib
• (Windows) Complete UNC path; for example, \\mysharepointserver\mysite\mydoclib
• Mapped network drives

Check out a file from SharePoint
The safest way to work on a PDF file that resides on a SharePoint Server is to check out the file. Other users cannot edit
the file while you're working on it.
1 To check out a PDF file, do one of the following:

• (Windows) Using Internet Explorer, navigate to the PDF file on the SharePoint portal. Click the document or
choose Edit Document from the file pop-up menu.

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• In Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC, choose Home > Add Account. Then specify the URL or complete UNC
path of the PDF file.

2 A dialog box displays the filename and location. Click one of the following:

• Check Out and Open
• Open, to open the file without checking it out
Note: If you are required to sign in to the SharePoint server, enter your user name and password when prompted.

Cancel checkout
You can discard the checked-out version of a PDF file if you don’t want to save your changes.
1 Choose File > SharePoint Server > Discard Check Out.
2 A confirmation message appears. Click OK.

Note: You cannot edit a document offline.

Prepare document properties
You can specify the document’s SharePoint properties from within Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC.
1 Choose File > SharePoint Server > Prepare Document Properties.
2 Double-click the property to edit. The Edit dialog box appears. Enter a value and click OK.

Check in
When you complete your edits, you can check the file into the SharePoint server. Other users can see the changes. If
versioning is enabled, SharePoint also manages version history for the file.
1 Choose File > SharePoint Server > Check In. The Check In dialog box appears.
2 If version numbering is enabled, the version information appears. Choose major version, minor version, or

overwrite current version.
3 Enter the Version Comments.
4 Optionally, enable Keep the Document Checked Out After Checking In This Version and click OK.

Acrobat in Mac OS | Acrobat Pro DC
Generally, Acrobat works the same for Windows and Mac OS. Some exceptions are noted throughout Help. In addition,
be aware of the following differences:
Common keyboard actions and functions
Windows

Mac OS

Right-click

Control-click

Alt

Option

Ctrl+[character]

Command+[character]

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Windows

Mac OS

Ctrl-click

Option-click

Ctrl-drag

Option-drag

My Computer

[disk name]

Windows Explorer

Finder

Open the Preferences dialog box
To open the Preferences dialog box in Mac OS, choose Acrobat Pro DC > Preferences.
Expand a nested list
Items such as bookmarks sometimes appear in nested lists that can be expanded or collapsed. To expand a list in Mac
OS, click the right-pointing triangle to the left of the icon. Click the down-pointing triangle to collapse the list. To
expand or collapse all items in a multilevel list, Option-click the triangle.

More Help topics
Keyboard shortcuts

Grids, guides, and measurements in PDFs
View grids
Use grids to accurately line up text and objects in a document. When turned on, the grid is visible over the document.
The Snap To Grid option aligns an object with the nearest grid line when you move the object.

View or hide the grid
❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Grid. A check mark appears next to the command name when the

grid is displayed.

Turn the Snap To Grid option on or off
❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Snap To Grid. A check mark appears next to the command name

when the option is turned on.

Change the grid appearance
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Units & Guides.
2 To change grid settings, do any of the following:

• To change the spacing between grid lines, enter a value for Width Between Lines and Height Between Lines.
• To change the origin of the grid, enter a value for Grid Offset From Left Edge and Grid Offset From Top Edge.
• To change the number of subdivisions within each grid square, enter a value for Subdivisions. Subdivision lines
are lighter than grid lines.
• To change the color of the grid lines, click theGrid Line Color square and choose a new color from the Color popup menu.

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Create ruler guides
Horizontal and vertical rulers let you check the size of objects in your document. You can also create guides in your
document, which are especially useful for lining up objects, such as form fields. You can change the unit of
measurement and color used in the ruler.

Create new ruler guides
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Rulers.
2 Do one of the following:

• Drag down from the horizontal ruler to create a horizontal guide, or drag right from the vertical ruler to create
a vertical guide.
• Double-click a location on the horizontal ruler to create a vertical guide, or double-click a location on the vertical
ruler to create a horizontal guide.

Show or hide guides
❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Guides.

Move or delete ruler guides
1 To move a guide, click the guide to select it and then drag it to a new location.
2 To delete a guide, click the guide to select it and press the Delete key.
3 To delete all guides, right-click in the ruler area and choose Clear All Guides or Clear Guides On Page.

Change guide colors
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Units & Guides.
2 Click the Guide Color square and choose a new color from the Color pop-up menu.

Measure the height, width, or area of objects
Use the measuring tools to measure distances and areas of objects in PDF documents. The measuring tools are useful
for showing the distances and areas associated with objects in a form or computer-aided design (CAD) drawing. You
can also use these tools to measure certain areas of a document before sending it to a professional printer. The
measuring tools are available to Acrobat Reader DC users only if the PDF creator enables measuring functionality.
When you use a measuring tool, the Measurement Info panel shows information about the measurement, such as
current measurement, delta values, and scale ratio. Acrobat DC inserts comments with the values calculated for
distance, perimeter, or area.

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A Measuring toolbar B Object being measured C Measurement Info panel

1 Choose Tools > Measure.

The measurement toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Measuring Tool.

The Measuring toolbar and the Measurement Info panel are displayed.
3 To measure areas of your PDF document, select any of the following measurement types:

• Select the Distance tool
to measure the distance between two points. Click the first point, move the pointer
to the second point, and click again.
• Select the Perimeter tool
to measure a set of distances between multiple points. Click each point you want
to measure. Then, double-click the last point.
• Select the Area tool
to measure the area within the line segments that you draw. Click each point you want
to measure. After you have clicked at least two points, click the first point to complete the area measurement.
4 While measuring objects, do any of the following:

• To snap the measurement to the end of a line, select Snap To Paths

.

• To snap the measurement to the endpoint of a line, select Snap To Endpoints

.

• To snap the measurement to the midpoint of a line, select Snap To Midpoints

.

• To snap the measurement to the intersection of multiple lines, select Snap To Intersections
• To constrain the measurement lines to increments of 45º, hold down the Shift key.
• To discontinue a measurement, right-click and chooseCancel Measurement.
• To delete a measurement markup, click it with theMeasurement Tool and press the Delete key.

Measuring tool options
To set measuring tool options, select the tool, then right-click anywhere in the PDF to view the options.
Change Scale Ratio Change the scaling ratio (such as 3:2) and unit of measurement on the drawing areas.
Change Markup Label Add or change text that appears with the measurement.

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Disable/Enable Measurement Markup When enabled, the measurement lines you draw are added to the PDF. When
disabled, the measurement lines disappear when you measure another object or select another tool.
Turn Ortho On/Off When enabled, measurement lines are orthographic only.
Show/Hide Rulers Show or hide vertical and horizontal rulers on the page. (Has the same effect as choosing View >

Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Rulers.)
Snap To Page Content/Don’t Snap To Page Content Turn all Snap Enables on or off.
Export Measurement Markup To Excel Save the information for all the measurements in your PDF to a CSV file.
Preferences Open the Measurement (2D) preferences.

Measuring preferences
Change the 2D Measuring preferences to determine how 2D data is measured.
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, Measuring preferences apply to PDFs that have commenting enabled.
Use Scales And Units From Document (When Present) When enabled, measurements based on the units generated

from the original document, if present, are used. Deselect this option to specify the units of measurements manually.
Use Orthographic Lines When enabled, measurement lines are orthographic only.
Measuring Line Color Specifies the color or the line that appears while drawing.
Enable Measurement Markup When enabled, the measurement lines you draw are added to the PDF. When disabled,

the measurement lines disappear when you measure another object or select another tool. You can use the default
measurement labels or specify your own label.
Use Default Leader Length (Distance Tool only) When deselected, each time you draw a distance measurement, you

move the mouse to determine the leader length.
Default Line Ending (Distance Tool only) Specifies the appearance of the line endings in distance measurements.
Caption Style (Distance Tool only) Specifies whether the distance measurement caption is Inside or on Top of the

measurement line.
Default Leader Length (Distance Tool only) Specifies the length of the line leader that appears on one side of the

measurement points.
Default Leader Extension Above Line (Distance Tool only) Specifies the length of the leader extension that appears

above the measurement line.
Default Leader Offset From Line Points (Distance Tool only) Specifies the amount of blank space that appears between

the measurement points and the leader.
2D Snap Settings Specify snap behavior. Sensitivity indicates how close the pointer must be to the item being snapped
to. Snap Hint Color specifies the color of the snap line that appears when you hold the pointer over the object.

View cursor coordinates
The Cursor Coordinates show the coordinate position of the pointer within the document pane. The position
numbering begins in the upper-left corner of the document. Cursor Coordinates also shows the width and height of a
selected object as you resize it.

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View x and y coordinates
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Cursor Coordinates.
2 Move the pointer to view x and y coordinates.

Change the Cursor Coordinates measurement units
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Units & Guides.
2 Choose a different unit of measurement from the Page & Ruler Units drop-down list.

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Chapter 2: Creating PDFs

Create PDFs with Acrobat DC
There are various ways to create a PDF file using Acrobat DC. Generate a PDF quickly by using menu commands,
dragging-and-dropping files onto the Acrobat DC application icon, or converting clipboard data.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Acrobat Reader DC, see What can I do with
Acrobat Reader DC. if you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help . And, if you're using Adobe Acrobat 7, 8, or 9, see
previous versions of Acrobat Help.

Convert a file to PDF using Acrobat DC menu commands
1 On the Acrobat DC File menu, choose Create > PDF From File.
2 In the Open dialog box, select the file that you want to convert. You can browse all file types or select a specific type

from the Files Of Type drop-down menu.

3 Optionally, click Settings to change the conversion options if you're converting an image file to PDF. The options

available vary depending on the file type.
Note: The Settings button is unavailable if you choose All Files as the file type or if no conversion settings are available
for the selected file type. (For example, the Settings button is unavailable for Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel files.)
4 Click Open to convert the file to a PDF.

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Depending on the type of file being converted, the authoring application opens automatically, or a progress dialog
box appears. If the file is in an unsupported format, a message appears, telling you that the file cannot be converted
to PDF.
5 When the new PDF opens, choose File > Save or File > Save As; then select a name and location for the PDF.

When naming a PDF that’s intended for electronic distribution, limit the filename to eight characters (with no spaces)
and include the .pdf extension. This action ensures that email programs or network servers don’t truncate the filename
and that the PDF opens as expected.

Drag-and-drop to create PDFs
This method is best reserved for small, simple files, such as small image files and plain text files, when the balance
between file size and output quality is not important. You can use this technique with many other types of files, but you
cannot adjust any conversion settings during the process.
1 Select the icons of one or more files in the Windows Explorer or Mac OS Finder.
2 Drag the file icons onto the Acrobat DC application icon. Or (Windows only) drag the files into the open Acrobat

DC window.
If a message appears saying that the file could not be opened in Acrobat DC, then that file type cannot be converted
to PDF by the drag-and-drop method. Use one of the other conversion methods for that file.
Note: You can also convert PostScript and EPS files to PDF by dragging them onto the Acrobat DC window or the
Acrobat DC application icon.
3 Save the PDF.

(Windows only) You can also right-click a file in Windows Explorer and choose Convert to Adobe PDF.

Convert clipboard content to PDF
You can create PDFs from text and images that you copy from applications on Mac OS or Windows.
1 Capture content in the Clipboard:

• Use the copy command in the applications.
• Press the PrintScreen key (Windows).
• Use the Grab utility (Applications > Utilities > Grab), and choose Edit > Copy to place the content on the
clipboard. (Mac OS)
• In a PDF file, you can select objects using the Edit Object tool (Tools > Print Production > Edit Object), and
then copy the selected objects.

2 In Acrobat DC, choose File > Create > PDF from Clipboard. Or Choose Tools > Create PDF > Clipboard >

Create.
Note: The PDF from Clipboard command appears only when content is copied to the Clipboard. If the Clipboard is
empty, the command is disabled.

Create a blank PDF
You can create a blank PDF, rather than beginning with a file, a clipboard image, or scanning.

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This process can be useful for creating a one-page PDF. For longer, more complex, or heavily formatted documents, it’s
better to create the source document in an application that offers more layout and formatting options, such as Adobe
InDesign or Microsoft Word.
1 In Adobe Acrobat DC, close all open documents.
2 Choose Tools > Create PDF > Blank Page > Create.

A blank single-page PDF is created.
To add a blank page to an existing PDF, open the PDF and then choose Tools > Organize Pages > Insert > Blank Page.

Create multiple PDFs from multiple files (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can create multiple PDFs from multiple native files, including files of different supported formats, in one operation.
This method is useful when you must convert a large number of files to PDF.
Note: When you use this method, Acrobat DC applies the most recently used conversion settings without offering you access
to those settings. If you want to adjust the conversion settings, do so before using this method.
1 Choose File > Create > Create Multiple PDF Files.
2 Choose Add Files > Add Files or Add Folders, and then select the files or folder.

3 Click OK. The Output options dialog box appears.
4 In the Output Options dialog box, specify your target folder and filename preferences, and then click OK.

More Help topics
Adobe PDF conversion settings
Scan documents to PDF
Using the Adobe PDF printer

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Converting web pages to PDF
Creating PDFs with PDFMaker

Create PDFs with PDFMaker (Windows)
About Acrobat PDFMaker
PDFMaker is an Acrobat feature that operates within many business applications, such as Microsoft Office applications,
AutoCAD, and Lotus Notes. When you install Acrobat, PDFMaker controls appear in the work area of the authoring
application.
Note: Some PDFMaker features are not available in certain versions of the authoring applications. For a comparison chart,
see Compatible web browsers and PDFMaker applications | Acrobat, Reader.
Using PDFMaker within an authoring application is a simple, one-click procedure. It involves clicking an Acrobat
PDFMaker toolbar button or choosing a command on the Adobe PDF menu. It is not necessary to open Acrobat.

Convert a file to PDF using PDFMaker
In Windows, Acrobat installs both an Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and an Adobe PDF menu in many popular authoring
applications. You can use either the toolbar buttons or the Adobe PDF menu (the Action menu in Lotus Notes) to create
PDFs, but the menu also provides access to conversion settings. Although many of the conversion options are common
to all authoring applications, a few are application-specific.
For Microsoft Office 2007 and later applications such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, the options for creating PDFs
are available from the Acrobat ribbon.
Note: If you don’t see the PDF toolbar buttons in an application, you must show or activate the PDF toolbar. For other
troubleshooting issues, see Troubleshoot Acrobat PDFMaker Problems.

Show or activate PDFMaker in Microsoft Office and Lotus Notes
If the PDF toolbar buttons don’t appear in your Microsoft Office or Lotus Notes application, use one of the following
methods to show or activate PDFMaker.
For Lotus Notes 8 or later, choose File > Preferences. In the dialog box that appears, choose Toolbar > Toolbars, and
select the Visible option for Acrobat PDFMaker.
For Office 2003 or earlier, choose View > Toolbars > Acrobat PDFMaker.
For Office 2007 or Office 2010, follow these steps:
1 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook 2007) Choose Tools > Trust Center.
• (Other Office 2007 applications) Click the Office button, and then click the [Application] Options button, where
[Application] is the Office application name. For example, in Word, the button name is Word Options.
• (Office 2010 applications) Click the File tab, and then click Option.
2 Click Add-Ins on the left side of the dialog box.

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3 Do one of the following:

• If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Add-in is not listed, choose COM Add-Ins from the
Manage pop-up menu and click Go.
• If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Add-in is listed under Disabled Application Add-ins, select
Disabled Items from the Manage pop-up menu and click Go.
4 Select PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Add-in and click OK.
5 Restart the Office application.

Convert a file to PDF
1 Open the file in the application used to create it.
2 Click the Convert To Adobe PDF button

on the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar.

For Microsoft Office 2007 or 2010 applications, such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, click the Create PDF button
on the Acrobat ribbon.
3 Enter a filename and location for the PDF, and click Save.
4 (Optional) Check View Result to open the PDF or enable Protect PDF to specify the Security settings for the PDF.

Create a PDF as an email attachment
1 Open the file in the application used to create it.
2 Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Email.

For Microsoft Office 2007 or 2010 applications, such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, click the Create And Attach
on the Acrobat ribbon.
To Email button
When the conversion has finished, a blank message with the new PDF included as an attachment automatically
opens in your default email application. You can then address and complete the message and either send it or save
it as a draft.

Attach a file as PDF (Outlook)
1 In the Outlook email Message window, click the Attach As Adobe PDF button.

Note: If the Attach As Adobe PDF button isn’t visible, choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings, and then select
Show Attach As Adobe PDF button. This option is not available in Outlook 2007 or later.
2 Select a file to attach, and click Open.

Convert files to a secured PDF and attach it to an email message (Outlook)
1 In the Outlook email Message window, click the Attach As Secured Adobe PDF button

.

Note: The Attach As Secured Adobe PDF button appears only after you’ve configured an Adobe LiveCycle® Rights
Management Server using the Tools > Protection > More Protection > Security Settings dialog box.
2 Click Browse, select a file to convert, and click Open.
3 Specify the users that can open the PDF, and then click OK:

• To specify only users that receive the PDF, select Restrict Access Only To People In This Message’s To:, Cc:, And
Bcc: List. In this case, the PDF isn’t secured until you send the email message.

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• To specify only users that are specified by a security policy, select Restrict Access By Applying The Following
Security Policy, and then select a security policy in the list. In this case, the PDF is secured before it is attached
to the email message.
4 If prompted, enter your user name and password to log in to the Adobe LiveCycleRights Management Server.

Create a PDF and send it for review
1 Open the file in the application used to create it.
2 Click the Convert To Adobe PDF And Send For Review button

on the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar, or (if
available) choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Send For Review.
For Microsoft Office 2007 or 2010 applications such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, click the Create And Send For
on the Acrobat ribbon.
Review button

3 When the Identity Setup dialog box appears, enter the appropriate information about yourself, and click Complete.
4 Follow the directions in the wizard that appears, as described in Start an email-based review.

Create a PDF and run an action
1 Open the file in the application used to create it.
2 Click the Convert To Adobe PDF And Run Action button on the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar, or (if available) choose

Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Run Action.
For Microsoft Office 2007 or 2010 applications such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, click the Create PDF And Run
Action button on the Acrobat ribbon.
3 Click an action to from the button menu, and follow the onscreen prompts to save the files.
4 The PDF opens in Acrobat. Click Start in the right-hand pane to process the file.

View PDFMaker conversion settings
PDFMaker conversion settings vary according to file types. For example, the options available for PowerPoint files
aren’t the same as the options available for Outlook files. Once you’ve selected conversion settings, those choices apply
to all subsequent PDFs you create from that file type. It’s a good idea to review the settings occasionally.
1 Open a PDFMaker-enabled application (such as Word or Excel).
2 Do one of the following:

• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Change Adobe PDF Conversion Settings.
• (Office 2007 or 2010 applications) In the Acrobat or Adobe PDF ribbon, click Preferences.
• (All other applications) Choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings.
3 (Optional) To revert to the original default settings, click Restore Defaults on the Settings tab.

Settings tab of the Adobe PDFMaker preferences
The settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using PDFMaker.
Conversion Settings Specifies the standard by which the PDF will be optimized. When you choose an item in the
menu, a description of that preset appears immediately below it.
View Adobe PDF Result Opens the converted document directly into Acrobat. (Exception: when you choose Convert

To Adobe PDF And Email.)

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Prompt For Adobe PDF File Name Lets you enter a custom filename for the resulting PDF. Deselect this option to save

the file in the same folder as the source file, using the same name but with a .pdf extension.
Convert Document Information Adds document information from the Properties dialog box of the source file. This

setting overrides the printer preferences and settings in the Advanced panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box.
Note: The Advanced Settings button opens the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box, which contains many additional conversion
options. These conversion settings apply to all Acrobat features that create PDFs, such as Acrobat Distiller, PDFMaker, and
the Acrobat application itself.
PDF/A Compliance Creates the PDF so that it conforms to the selected ISO standard for long-term preservation of

electronic documents.

Security tab of the Adobe PDFMaker preferences
The settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using PDFMaker.
Require A Password To Open The Document When selected, makes the Document Open Password option available,

where you enter a password that users must use to open the document.
Restrict Editing And Printing Of The Document When selected, makes the other Permissions options available.
Change Permissions Password Specifies a password you set that users must use in order to do any allowable printing

or editing.
Printing Allowed Specifies whether users who use the Permissions Password can print the document and at what

resolution.
Changes Allowed Specifies what changes users who use the Permissions Password can make.
Enable Copying Of Text, Images, And Other Contents Prevents or allows users from copying from the PDF.
Enable Text Access For Screen Reader Devices For The Visually Impaired Prevents or allows screen reader devices to

read text. (Selected by default.)
Enable Plaintext Metadata Specifies whether the search engine can read the document metadata. Available only when

the PDF-compatibility is set to Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5) or later.

Convert Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel files to PDF
When creating a PDF from Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, or Excel, you can set conversion options for the current file.
You can also select a range of content in the file to convert. The conversion options that you can set in the following
steps are some of the most commonly used settings from the Acrobat PDFMaker dialog box. Any changes you make to
the conversion options apply to the current conversion only.
In Acrobat Pro, PDFMaker includes an option to embed many types of multimedia files in Microsoft Word and
PowerPoint files. The files are converted to FLV format files. When you convert the document to PDF, the PDF includes
a playable FLV file.

Convert Excel files to PDF
1 Open a file in Excel.
2 Optionally, select the cells to convert.
3 Do one of the following:

• (Office 2003 or earlier) From the Adobe PDF menu, select one of the Convert To Adobe PDF options.
• (Office 2007 or 2010) From the Acrobat ribbon, select one of the Create options.

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4 In the Acrobat PDFMaker dialog box, select a Conversion Range, then click Convert To PDF.
5 In the Save Adobe PDF File As dialog box, specify a filename and location for the PDF.
6 Optionally, click the Options button to change the conversion settings.
7 Click Save to create the PDF.

Convert Word and PowerPoint files to PDF
1 Open a file in Word or PowerPoint.
2 Optionally, select objects and text (Word) or slides (PowerPoint), as needed.
3 Do one of the following:

• (Office 2003 or earlier) From the Adobe PDF menu, select one of the Convert To Adobe PDF options.
• (Office 2007 or 2010) From the Acrobat ribbon, select Create PDF, Create And Attach to Email, or Create And
Send For Review.
4 In the Save Adobe PDF File As dialog box, specify a filename and location for the PDF.
5 Optionally, click the Options button to change the conversion settings.
6 Select a Page Range (Word) or Slide Range (PowerPoint). The Selection option is available only if you have selected

content in the file.
7 Click OK, then click Save to create the PDF.

Embed multimedia files into Word and PowerPoint documents (Acrobat Pro)
1 Do one of the following:

• (Office 2003 or earlier) Choose Adobe PDF > Embed Video And Convert To Flash Format
• (Office 2007 or 2010) In the Acrobat ribbon, click Embed Flash.
2 In the Insert Flash dialog box, choose a multimedia file from the menu, or click Browse to locate and select the file.
3 (Optional) To select a video frame to use as a poster, click Set Poster Image From Current Frame.
4 Choose a media player skin from the menu.
5 Click OK. Acrobat converts the file to FLV format and inserts it into the document.
6 When you are ready to create a PDF, follow the steps to create a PDF as usual. (PowerPoint only) In the Save Adobe

PDF File As dialog box, click Options and make sure that the Convert Multimedia option is selected.

Convert email messages to PDFs
You can use PDFMaker to convert one or more Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes email messages or entire folders of
messages to a merged PDF or PDF Portfolio. Within a PDF Portfolio, each email message appears as a separate PDF file.
The Acrobat PDFMaker Conversion Settings dialog box contains the option that determines whether email messages
are merged into one continuous PDF or assembled into a PDF Portfolio.
The controls that activate an email conversion to PDF appear in two places within the email application: on the Acrobat
PDFMaker toolbar and on a menu. In Outlook, the menu is called Adobe PDF and appears to the right of the Outlook
Help menu. In Lotus Notes, PDF commands appear under the Actions menu.
You can convert one currently open email message to PDF (not to a PDF Portfolio) by choosing File > Print, and
selecting Adobe PDF as the printer in the Print dialog box. The PDFMaker conversion settings do not affect this process.

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Specify whether email messages become merged PDFs or PDF Portfolios
1 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook) Choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings.
• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Change Adobe PDF Conversion Settings.
2 Do one of the following:

• To convert and merge email messages into a PDF as sequential pages of one document, deselect Output Adobe
PDF Portfolio When Creating A New PDF File.
• To assemble converted email messages as components of a PDF Portfolio, select Output Adobe PDF Portfolio
When Creating A New PDF File.

Convert an open email message to PDF (Outlook)
❖ Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF.

You can also convert a different file to PDF from within an open Outlook email message if the Attach As Adobe PDF
toolbar is shown. Clicking this button opens a series of dialog boxes for selecting and saving the new PDF and also starts
Acrobat, if it is not already running. The resulting PDF is attached to the open email message.

Convert email messages to a new PDF
1 In Outlook or Lotus Notes, select the individual email messages.
2 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook) Choose Adobe PDF > Convert Selected Messages > Create New PDF.
• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Convert Selected Messages To Adobe PDF.
3 In the Save Adobe PDF As dialog box, select a location, type a filename, and click Save.

Add email messages or folders to an existing PDF
1 In Outlook or Lotus Notes, select the individual email messages or folders.
2 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook) Choose Adobe PDF > Convert Selected Messages > Append To Existing PDF, or Adobe PDF >
Convert Selected Folders > Append To Existing PDF.
Note: If you have already created one or more PDF Portfolios, you can choose from recently created PDF Portfolios in
addition to the Append To Existing PDF option.

• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Append Selected Message(s) To Existing Adobe PDF, or Actions > Append
Selected Folder(s) To Existing Adobe PDF.
3 Locate and select the PDF or PDF Portfolio to which you want to add the converted emails, and click Open.

Note: Do not type a new name for the PDF. If you do, a warning message appears telling you that the PDF was not found.
Click OK, and select a PDF without changing its name.
4 (Outlook only) If a message appears, alerting you that the existing PDF was created using an earlier version of

PDFMaker, do one of the following:

• To create a PDF Portfolio from the original PDF archive, click Yes, and select a name and location for the new
archive. (The default name adds _Portfolio to the original PDF filename.) When the conversion is complete and
the Creating Adobe PDF dialog box closes, the new archive opens in Acrobat.
• Click No to cancel the process.

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Note: For PDF Portfolios of email converted or migrated in Acrobat 8 or later, only new messages—that is, messages that
are not already part of the PDF Portfolio—are appended.

Convert email folders to a new PDF
PDFMaker can convert multiple folders to PDF in one procedure. It is not necessary to select the folders at the
beginning of the process because you can select them in a dialog box that appears automatically.
1 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook) Choose Adobe PDF > Convert Selected Folders > Create New PDF.
• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Convert Selected Folder(s) To Adobe PDF.
2 In the Convert Folder(s) To PDF dialog box, select the folders. Then select or deselect the Convert This Folder And

All Sub Folders option.
3 In the Save Adobe PDF File As, select a location and name for the PDF Portfolio.

When the conversion is complete, the new PDF opens in Acrobat.

Set up automatic email archiving
1 Do one of the following:

• (Outlook) Choose Adobe PDF > Setup Automatic Archival.
• (Lotus Notes) Choose Actions > Setup Automatic Archival.
2 On the Automatic Archival tab of the Acrobat PDFMaker dialog box, select Enable Automatic Archival. Then select

options for Frequency and the time of day at which automatic archiving occurs.
3 Select other options, according to your needs:
Maintain Log Of Archival Creates a record of each archiving session.
Choose File Specifies the name and location of the archiving log.
Embed Index For Faster Search Creates an index that you can search to find specific words or characters instead of
having to search each individual document.

4 Click Add, and select the email folders and subfolders. Then select or deselect the Convert This Folder And All Sub

Folders option, as preferred, and click OK.
5 In the Save PDF Archive File As dialog box, select a name and location for the archived email PDF. Then click Open.
6 Review the settings and the archive folder names listed in the Acrobat PDFMaker dialog box, and do any of the

following:

• To add other email folders to the list, click Add and select the folder.
• To remove folders from the list, select the folders and click Delete.
• To change an archive file, select any folder name from the list, click Change Archive File, and specify the name
and location.
• To start archiving email immediately, click Run Archival Now.

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Create PDFs from Word mail merges
Mail merges from Word generate documents like form letters—for one common example—that are personalized with
information like the names and addresses of the recipients. With Acrobat PDFMaker, you can save steps by using a
Word mail merge document and corresponding data file to output mail merges directly to PDF. You can even set up
PDFMaker to attach those PDFs to email messages that are generated during the PDF-creation process.
Note: For information on setting up files for the Word Mail Merge feature, see Microsoft Office Word Help.
1 In Microsoft Word, open the template that you have created as the basis of your mail merge, or create the file using

the Word Mail Merge toolbar and Mail Merge wizard, as needed.
Note: Do not complete the mail merge in Word. Instead, set up and preview the mail merge as usual, so that you can
verify that the merge will work correctly.
2 Do one of the following:

• Choose Adobe PDF > Mail Merge To Adobe PDF.
• Click the Mail Merge To Adobe PDF button on the Mail Merge toolbar (View > Toolbars > Mail Merge).
• (Word 2007) From the Acrobat ribbon, click Mail Merge.
3 In the Acrobat PDFMaker - Mail Merge dialog box, select the options you want:

• To specify which records in the data file will be imported into the merged files, select All or Current, or enter a
range of pages by typing in the From and To boxes.
• To name the PDF that will be created, type in the Specify PDF File Name box.
Note: The PDF will be named using this text plus a series of numbers. For example, if you type JulyLetter in the Specify
PDF File Name box, the mail-merged PDFs might appear as JulyLetter_0000123, JulyLetter_0000124,
JulyLetter_0000125, and so forth.
4 For Automatically Send Adobe PDF Files By Email, do one of the following:

• To create and save merged PDFs for printing or sending later in email, leave the option deselected, and click OK.
• To create merged PDFs and attach each one to an email message to the appropriate recipient, select this check
box, and fill in the other Email options.
5 When the Browse For Folder dialog box appears, navigate to the location you want to use and click OK.

Status indicators appear as PDFMaker generates the individual PDFs,
6 If you selected Automatically Send Adobe PDF Files By Email, a dialog box appears asking for your email profile.

Enter the appropriate information and click OK.
When the job has finished, a message appears, telling you that the process was successful.

Email options for PDF mail merges
To Use the pop-up menu to select the field or column in the associated data file that contains the email addresses in
each individual’s record.
Subject Line Type the text that you want to appear in the subject line of each message.
Message Type to add or edit text that you want to appear in the body of the email messages.

PDFs from Microsoft Project (Acrobat Pro)
There are specific differences to be aware of when you create PDFs from files authored in Microsoft Project.

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You can create PDFs of only the current selected view. Views designated as non-printable in Project cannot be
converted to PDF.

Convert Visio files to PDF (Acrobat Pro)
PDFs created from Visio files preserve page sizes and support layers, searchable text, custom properties, links,
bookmarks, and comments, depending on the conversion settings. To specify the properties

• (Visio 2007 or 2003) Choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings to review these settings, if needed.
• (Visio 2010) From the ribbon choose Acrobat > Preferences
When you convert your Visio file, only shapes and guides that are printable and visible in the Visio drawing are
converted and appear in the PDF. Shapes are converted regardless of their protection or behavior. Shape custom
properties can be converted to PDF object data.
When you convert the Visio file to a PDF, you can preserve all or just some layers, or you can flatten all layers. If you
flatten layers, the PDF will look like the original drawing, but won’t contain any layer information. When flattened, the
contents of only visible and printable layers will appear in the converted PDF.

Convert Visio files
1 If you want to change the PDFMaker conversion settings, do one of the following. (For information about a setting,

place the pointer over the setting to display a tool tip below.)

• (Visio 2007 or 2003) Choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings
• (Visio 2010) Choose Acrobat > Preferences
2 If you want to convert each page in the Visio file to a bookmarked page in the PDF file, choose Adobe PDF > Convert

All Pages In Drawing. If this option is deselected, only the current page is converted.
3 Do one of the following:

• (Visio 2007 or 2003) Click the Convert To Adobe PDF button in the Adobe PDF toolbar.
• (Visio 2007 or 2003) Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF.
• (Visio 2007 or 2003) Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Email. The PDF file attaches to a new
email message in your default email application.
• (Visio 2007 or 2003)Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDFAnd Send For Review. The file converts to an
Adobe PDF file, and an email-based review process begins.
• (Visio 2010) Choose Acrobat > Create PDF.
• (Visio 2010) Choose Acrobat > Convert To Adobe PDF.
• (Visio 2010) Choose Acrobat > Create and Attach To Email. The PDF file attaches to a new email message in your
default email application.
• (Visio 2010) Choose Acrobat > Create and Send For Review. The file converts to an Adobe PDF file, and an
email-based review process begins.
4 If you want to include the custom properties of shapes, select that option.
5 Click Continue.
6 Select a layers option to retain or flatten layers in the resulting PDF, and click Continue.

Note: If you select Retain Some Layers In The Selected Page, you’ll be prompted to choose which Visio layers to include.
7 Click Convert To Adobe PDF, specify a location and filename, and click Save.

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Select Visio layers to convert (Acrobat Pro)
You can convert a Visio drawing that contains layers to a PDF and retain some or all of the layers in the resulting PDF,
or you can flatten the layers. You can also organize the Visio layers in layer sets, which are folders in the Acrobat Layers
panel.
1 With the multilayered file open in Visio, click a button in the Adobe PDF toolbar, and select Retain Some Layers In

The Selected Page.
Note: If the Retain Some Layers In The Selected Page option is not available, deselect the Convert All Pages In Drawing
option.
2 Select one or more layers in the Layers In Visio Drawing list.
3 To add the selected Visio layers to the list of layers to convert to the PDF file, do one of the following:

• To convert the selected Visio layers to individual PDF layers within a PDF layer set, click Create Layer Set, and
optionally, type a layer name.
• To convert the selected Visio layers to individual layers (but not grouped under a layer set), click the Add Layer(s)
button.
Note: The name of a layer in the Layers In Visio Drawing list is unavailable if that layer is included in the Layers In
PDF list. When you select that layer in the Layers In PDF list, a bullet appears next to the layer’s name in the Layers In
Visio Drawing list.
4 Optionally, do any of the following:

• To reorder the layers in the Layers In PDF list, drag an item up or down in the list.
• To include a visibility property that can be switched on or off in Acrobat, deselect Locked On adjacent to the PDF
layer; to lock the resulting PDF layer’s visibility on, select Locked On.
• To save the current settings of Visio layers selected, click Save PDF Settings, and click OK. These settings are used
the next time you convert the current Visio file to a PDF file.
5 Click Convert To PDF, specify a folder in the Save In box in which to save the PDF file, type a filename, and then

click Save.
Note: Visio layers that were selected for conversion and that have Visio settings for visible, printable, or lock are
converted to PDF layers; the visible and printable properties are included in the resulting PDF layers. If the Visio file
contains a background page, header, or footer, the PDF file automatically has PDF layers named for those items.

Convert AutoCAD files to PDF (Acrobat Pro for Windows)
Use PDFMaker to convert AutoCAD files from within the AutoCAD application. You can also use the Batch
Conversion feature to convert many AutoCAD files in one operation. Even if you don’t have AutoCAD, you can convert
AutoCAD files to PDF from Acrobat.
Acrobat PDFMaker allows you to preserve selected layers and layouts when converting AutoCAD files to PDF.

Convert AutoCAD files when AutoCAD is not installed
The default Acrobat installation installs Autodesk filters. These filters allow you to convert files in DWG, DWF, DST,
DWT, and DXF format into PDF, without the native application installed.
1 In Acrobat, choose File > Create > PDF From File.

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2 (Optional) From the Files Of Type menu, select Autodesk AutoCAD, then click the Settings button and change the

conversion settings as needed. The settings are the same as the AutoCAD-specific Acrobat PDFMaker settings, with
the following additions:
Convert Model Space To 3D When selected, the model space layout is converted to a 3D annotation in the PDF.
Click Choose 3D Settings to specify 3D conversion options.
Configuration Preferences Click this button to specify resource directories for SHX font files, plot configuration

files, and plot style tables for AutoCAD drawings. If an SHX Font File Search Path is not specified, all SHX fonts are
replaced with MyriadCAD in converted PDFs.
Always Show This Dialog During Conversion When selected, this dialog box appears during the conversion process.

3 Locate and select the AutoCAD file.
4 If the Adobe PDF Settings For Autodesk AutoCAD Documents dialog box appears, specify the settings as needed,

and click OK.

Convert AutoCAD files when AutoCAD is installed
When converting individual AutoCAD files, you don't usually need to change page size and plotting settings.
PDFMaker uses the appropriate layout page size and plotting information to create a correctly sized PDF file.
1 To change the PDF conversion settings, choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings in AutoCAD.
2 Do one of the following:

• Click a button in the Adobe PDF toolbar: Convert To Adobe PDF
Review
.

or Convert To Adobe PDFAnd Send For

• Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF.
• Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Email.
• Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDFAnd Send For Review.
3 In the Choose Layouts dialog box, add or remove layouts as needed. To reorder the layouts, select a layout from the

Layouts In PDF list, and click Move Up or Move Down.
4 To determine how the AutoCAD layers are converted, select one of the following, and then click Continue:

• Flatten All Layers. When layers are flattened, only those entities belonging to layers that are not frozen and are
printable appear in the converted PDF.
• Retain All Or Some Layers. In the next dialog box, specify the layers to include in the resulting PDF.
5 Specify a filename and location in the Save As dialog box, and click Save.

Select AutoCAD layers to convert
If you choose to retain all or some AutoCAD layers when converting to PDF, you can specify which layers are preserved
in the PDF.
1 In AutoCAD, start to convert an AutoCAD file and select the Retain All Or Some Layers option.
2 To show specific AutoCAD layers in the Layers In Drawing list, do any of the following:

• Choose an option from the Named Layer Filters menu to list all layers that fit that criterion.
• Select the Invert option to list all layers except those layers that are described by the selected choice in the Named
Layer Filters menu.
• To change the sort order of the layers, click the headings.

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Note: To change the On, Frozen, or Plot properties for a layer, click Cancel, change the properties in the AutoCAD
drawing, and restart the procedure.
3 To select the AutoCAD layers to convert, do any of the following:

• Choose a previously saved set of layers from the PDF Layer Settings menu.
• Select one or more layers from the Layers In Drawing List.
• To convert all of the layers in the drawing, click Add All Layers, and go to step 5.
4 To add the selected AutoCAD layers to the Layers In PDF list, do one of the following:

• To convert the selected AutoCAD layers to individual layers within a PDF layer set, click Create Layer Set. This
action creates a folder of layers in the Layers navigation pane in Acrobat.
• To convert the selected AutoCAD layers to individual layers, click Add Layer(s).
5 Optionally, do any of the following in the Layers In PDF list:

• To reorder layers, drag an item up or down in the list.
• To include a visibility property that can be switched on or off in Acrobat, deselect Locked On for the PDF layer.
To lock the resulting PDF layer’s visibility on, select Locked On.
• To save the current list of selected AutoCAD layers, click Add PDF Setting. Later, you can retrieve this list from
the PDF Layer Settings menu.
6 Click Convert, specify a filename and location, and then click Save.

Convert AutoCAD files in batches
1 Choose Adobe PDF > Batch Conversion.
2 Specify your preferences for layers, page size, plot style, and output PDFs. Click Conversion Settings to specify the

Acrobat PDFMaker settings.
3 In the DWG List, do any of the following:

• Click Add Folder or Add Files, and then specify the folder or files.
• To load a previously saved list of files, click Append List, and then specify the list.
• As needed, expand individual files and select or deselect the items you want, such as model space and layouts. To
exclude or include all model space, click the associated buttons.
• To exclude a file from the conversion, deselect the file box. As needed, select or deselect all of the files in the list,
change the order of the files, remove files, or clear the list.
• To show the complete file paths, select Expand File Name(s).
• To save the DWG list for later use, click Save List. This action saves the list in its current state, including the file
order and file selections. You can retrieve this list at any time by clicking Append List.
4 Click Convert.
5 Once the conversion has finished, you can click Save Details to save a log file of the conversion.

Application-specific PDFMaker settings
Sometimes the conversion settings in one PDFMaker-enabled application are different from the settings in a different
application.
Some PDFMaker settings are common to several or most applications. Some options are unique to a specific
application.

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Settings tab options available from within most applications
The following settings appear on the Settings tab available from within most PDFMaker-enabled applications.
Attach Source File Includes the document being converted as an attachment to the PDF.
Create Bookmarks Converts certain elements in original Office documents to PDF bookmarks: Word headings, Excel

worksheet names, or PowerPoint titles. Selecting this option overrides any settings on the Bookmarks tab of the
Conversion Settings dialog box.
Add Links Includes active links and hypertext in the PDF.

Note: If this option is deselected, but the recipient of the PDF has the create Links From URLs preference selected, URLs in
the PDF are still active.
Enable Accessibility And Reflow With Tagged Adobe PDF Embeds tags in the PDF.

Excel-specific options on the Settings tab
Convert Comments Converts user-created Excel comments to notes and lists them in the Acrobat Comments panel.
Actual Size Uses actual size specified in the worksheet. Worksheets are not resized.
Fit Worksheet To A Single Page Adjusts the size of each worksheet so that all the entries on that worksheet appear on

the same page of the PDF.
Fit To Paper Width Adjusts the width of each worksheet so that all the columns on that worksheet appear on one page

in the PDF.
Prompt For Selecting Excel Sheets Opens a dialog box at the beginning of the file conversion process. In this dialog

box, you can specify which worksheets are included in the PDF and the order in which the sheets appear in the PDF.

PowerPoint-specific options on the Settings tab
Convert Multimedia Converts linked audio-video files to an FLV file and embeds it in the PDF.
Preserve Animation (PowerPoint 2003 only) Converts any animation effects in the PowerPoint file to equivalent
animations in the PDF. This option is not available in PowerPoint 2007 or later.
Preserve Slide Transitions Converts PowerPoint slide transition effects to PDF transition effects.
Convert Hidden Slides To PDF Pages Converts any PowerPoint slides that are not seen in the usual playing of the

presentation to PDF pages.
Convert Speaker Notes Converts any speaker notes for the PowerPoint presentation into Text notes in the PDF.
Use PowerPoint Printer Settings (PowerPoint 2003 only) Uses the same printer settings in the PDF as in the original

file. This option is not available in PowerPoint 2007 or later.

Email-specific options on the Settings tab
The following options appear when you open the PDFMaker settings from within Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes.
Compatibility Sets the compatibility level of the PDF. Use the most recent version (in this case, version 1.7 ADBE-3) to
include all the latest features and functionality. If you’re creating PDFs that are distributed widely, choose an earlier level
to ensure that all users can view and print the document.
Attachments Indicates whether all files attached to email messages are included in the PDF.
Output Adobe PDF Portfolio When Creating A New PDF File When selected, always converts individual messages as
component files of a PDF Portfolio. When deselected, merges individual messages as separate pages of a PDF.
Do Not Include Folder Name Information When selected, excludes mail folder names from PDFs.

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Embed Index For Faster Search Creates an embedded index, which speeds up searches, especially when you convert
large numbers of email messages or message folders.
Block Download Of External Content When selected, prevents the downloading of any external Internet content, such

as images, CSS, and JavaScript.
Page Layout options Specifies page properties, like the properties found in the Print dialog box: page dimensions,

orientation, and margins.
Show This Number Of Recent Archives (Outlook only) When converting email messages and folders, the Adobe PDF >

[Convert Selected Messages and Convert Selected Folders] menus can list recently created PDFs to append. This option
specifies the maximum number of PDFs to list in the menus.
Show “Attach As Adobe PDF” Buttons If selected, the Attach As Adobe PDF button appears in the Outlook email

message window.

AutoCAD-specific options on the Settings tab (Acrobat Pro)
The following options appear when you open the PDFMaker settings from within Autodesk AutoCAD.
Compliance Standard Specify the PDF/A or PDF/E compliance standard, or none.
Open Layers Pane When Viewed In Acrobat Shows the layers structure when a PDF is opened in Acrobat.
Embed Scale Information Preserves drawing-scale information, which is usable with the Acrobat measurement tools.
Do Not Convert Model Space To 3D When selected, the model space layout is not converted to a 3D annotation in the

PDF.
Choose Layout Option Specifies whether Current Layout, All Layouts, or Selected Layouts are included in the PDF.
Exclude Model Space (Available only when Convert All Layouts Without Prompting is selected from Choose Layout
Option.) When selected, all layouts except the model space are included in the PDF.
Choose Layer Option Specifies whether All Layers, Selected Layers, or No Layers are included as layers in the PDF.

Visio-specific options on the Settings tab (Acrobat Pro)
The following options appear when you open the PDFMaker settings from within Microsoft Visio.
Include Visio Custom Properties As Object Data In The Adobe PDF Indicates whether custom properties of the Visio

image are included as object data in the new PDF.
Exclude Visio Objects With No Custom Properties Indicates whether the new PDF excludes Visio objects without

custom properties.
Convert Comments To Adobe PDF Comments Indicates whether the comments in the Visio file are converted to PDF

comments in the new PDF.
Always Flatten Layers In Adobe PDF Specifies if the layers are flattened. If you flatten layers, the PDF looks like the

original drawing, but doesn’t contain any layer information. All shapes in the Visio drawing are converted, regardless
of their protection or behavior, and shape custom properties can be converted to PDF object data.
Open Layers Pane When Viewed In Acrobat Shows the layers structure when a PDF is opened in Acrobat.

Word tab settings (Microsoft Word)
Convert Displayed Comments To Notes In Adobe PDF Changes any Word comment entries to PDF comments. If the

currently open Word document contains comments, more options appear in the Comments list on this tab:
Reviewer Lists the names of reviewers who have entered comments in the current Word document.

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Include When deselected, does not include the comments in the PDF.
Notes Open Specifies whether the PDF comment windows automatically open or are closed for that reviewer’s

comments.
Color Shows the color for that reviewer’s comment icons. Clicking the color icon repeatedly cycles through a limited

set of available colors.
# Of Comments Shows the number of comments that the reviewer made.
Convert Cross-References And Table Of Contents To Links (Word 2002 and 2003) Enables one-click navigation of these

elements in the new PDF. This option is not available in Word 2007.
Convert Footnote And Endnote Links Integrates these into the PDF.
Convert signature fields specified by pdfmarks Converts signature fields indicated by pdfmarks.
Enable Advanced Tagging Integrates this into the PDF.

Bookmarks tab settings (Microsoft Word)
The options you specify on this tab determine which items are converted into PDF bookmarks in the PDF.
Note: To include bookmarks in the conversion process, you must select the Add Bookmarks To Adobe PDF option on the
Settings tab. If you deselect that option, you override any options you select on this tab, and no bookmarks are created.
Convert Word Headings To Bookmarks Selects all the headings in the Elements list for conversion to PDF bookmarks.
Convert Word Styles To Bookmarks Selects all the text styles in the Elements list for conversion to PDF bookmarks

(deselected by default).
Convert Word Bookmarks Converts any user-created Word bookmarks to PDF bookmarks.
Element list Specifies which Word headings and styles are converted to PDF bookmarks.
Element Lists the names of all available Word headings and styles. The icons for Headings

and Styles

indicate the

element types.
Type Also indicates whether the element is a heading or style in the Word document.
Bookmark Displays X’s, indicating whether individual elements are converted to PDF bookmarks. Clicking an

individual Bookmark option changes the selection status for that element.
Level Specifies where the element fits in the hierarchy structure of the PDF Bookmarks panel. Clicking an individual

Level number opens a menu that you can use to change the value.
Note: When some but not all of the available Word headings and styles are selected for conversion to PDF bookmarks, the
marker in the corresponding check boxes at the top of the tab change. If all elements of the type are selected, a check mark
appears. If only some of the elements of that type are selected, a colored square appears. Otherwise, the check box is empty.

More Help topics
Overview of creating PDFs
Creating simple PDFs with Acrobat
Adobe PDF conversion settings
Scan documents to PDF
Using the Adobe PDF printer
Converting web pages to PDF

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Customize Adobe PDF settings
Adobe PDF conversion settings

Print to PDF
Instead of a physical printer, you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows or Mac OS application. Print to PDF
creates an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk.
When you use Acrobat DC to print a document to PDF, people will see it just like you sent it — whether they're viewing
it on a computer, tablet, or smartphone.

Print to PDF (Windows)
1 Open a file in a Windows application.
2 Choose File > Print.
3 Choose Adobe PDF as the printer in the Print dialog box.
4 Click Print. Type a name for your file, and click Save.

Print to PDF (Mac OS)
1 Open a file in a Mac OS application.
2 Click the PDF button and choose Save As Adobe PDF.
3 Choose the Adobe PDF Settings and click Continue.
4 Type a name for your file, and click Save.

Scan documents to PDF
Scan a paper document to PDF and turn it into a smart, searchable PDF with selectable text.

Scan a paper document to PDF
You can create a PDF file directly from a paper document, using your scanner and Acrobat DC. On Windows, Acrobat
DC supports TWAIN scanner drivers and Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) drivers. On Mac OS, Acrobat DC
supports TWAIN and Image Capture (ICA).
In Windows, you can either use the Autodetect Color Mode and let Acrobat determine the paper document’s content
type, or use other presets (Black & White Document, Grayscale Document, Color Image, and Color Document) based
on your judgment. You can configure the scanning presets or use the Custom Scan option to scan with the settings of
your choice.
Note: Preset scanning is available only for scanner drivers that support Hide Scanner’s Native Interface mode. The scanning
presets are not available on Mac OS.

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In Windows, if a WIA driver is installed for your scanner, you can use the Scan button on your scanner to create a PDF.
Press the Scan button, and then in Windows, choose Adobe Acrobat DC from the list of registered applications. Then,
in the Acrobat DC Scan dialog box, select a scanner and a document preset or Custom Scan.

Scan a paper document to PDF using Autodetect Color Mode (Windows)
1 Choose File > Create > PDF from Scanner > Autodetect Color Mode.
2 If prompted to scan more pages, select Scan More Pages, Scan Reverse Sides, or Scan Is Complete, and click OK.

Scan a paper document to PDF using a preset (Windows)
1 Choose File > Create > PDF from Scanner > [document preset].
2 If prompted to scan more pages, select Scan More Pages, Scan Reverse Sides, or Scan Is Complete, and click OK.

Scan a paper document to PDF without presets
1 In Acrobat DC, do one of the following:

• (Windows) Choose File > Create > PDF from Scanner > Custom Scan.
• (Mac OS) Choose File > Create > PDF from Scanner.
2 Select scanning options in the Scan dialog box, as needed, and then click Scan.

Note: If you specify that you want to use the native scanner user interface instead of the Acrobat user interface, other
windows or dialog boxes appear. Consult the scanner documentation information on available options. In Mac OS, the
scanner user interface is always shown.
3 If prompted to scan more pages, select Scan More Pages, Scan Reverse Sides, or Scan Is Complete, and click OK.

Enhance or optimize a scanned PDF
1 Open a PDF created from a scanned document.
2 Choose Tools > Enhance Scans > Enhance > Scanned Document.
3 Select options in the Secondary toolbar - click the Settings

icon and choose appropriate options in the Enhance

Scanned PDF dialog box, and click OK.
For more information on the options displayed in the dialog box, see Enhance Scanned PDF dialog box.

Configure scanning presets (Windows)
1 Choose File > Create > PDF from Scanner > Configure Presets.
2 In the Configure Presets dialog box, select a preset: Autodetect Color Mode, Black & White Document, Grayscale

Document, Color Document, or Color Image.
3 Adjust the settings as needed.
4 Click Save to save the preset, and then click Close.

Scanning options
Scanner Select an installed scanner. You must have the manufacturer scanning software installed on your computer. In

Windows only, click the Options button to specify scanner options.
Presets Select a Preset to modify.
Sides Specify single or double-sided scanning. If you select Both Sides and the settings of the scanner are for only one

side, the scanner setting overrides the Acrobat settings.

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Note: You can scan both sides of pages even on scanners that do not themselves support two-sided scanning. When Both
Sides is selected, a dialog box appears after the first sides are scanned. You can then reverse the original paper documents
in the tray, and select the Scan Reverse Side (Put Reverse Of Sheets) option in that dialog box. This method produces a PDF
with all pages in the proper sequence.
Color Mode (Windows only) Select a basic color mode (Autodetect, Color, Black and White, or Grayscale) that your
scanner supports. This option is enabled if your Scanner Options are set to use the Acrobat scanning dialog box instead
of the scanner application.
Resolution (Windows only) Select a resolution that your scanner supports. This option is enabled if your Scanner

Options are set to use the Acrobat scanning dialog box instead of the scanner application.
Note: If you select a Color Mode or Resolution option not supported by your scanner, a message appears and your scanner
application window opens. Select different options in the scanner application window.
Paper Size (Windows only) Select a paper size or specify a custom Width and Height.
Prompt For Scanning More Pages When selected, a dialog box prompting you to scan additional pages appears after

every scanning session.
New PDF Document Creates a PDF. This option is not available in the Configure Presets dialog box.
Multiple Files Creates multiple files from multiple paper documents. Click More Options, and specify whether to
create a PDF Portfolio of the files, the number of pages for each file, and a filename prefix. These options are not
available in the Configure Presets dialog box.
Append To Existing File Or Portfolio Adds the converted scan to an existing PDF or PDF Portfolio. This option is not
available in the Configure Presets dialog box.
Optimize Scanned Pages Select this option to run the optimization process on the PDF. This option is used to

compresses and filter the images in the scanned PDF.
Small Size/High Quality Drag the slider to set the balance point between file size and quality. Click Options to
customize optimization with specific settings for file compression and filtering.
Make Searchable (Run OCR) Select this option to convert text images in the PDF to searchable and selectable text. This
option applies optical character recognition (OCR) and font and page recognition to the text images. Click Options to
specify settings in the Recognize Text - Settings dialog box. See Recognize text in scanned documents.
Make PDF/A Compliant Select this option to make the PDF conform to ISO standards for PDF/A-1b. When selected,
only Searchable Image is available in the Recognize Text - Settings dialog box for the PDF Output Style option.
Add Metadata When selected, the Document Properties dialog box appears after scanning. In the Document

Properties dialog box, you can add metadata, or information about the scanned document, to the PDF file. If you are
creating multiple files, you can enter common metadata for all of the files.

Scanner Options dialog box
Data Transfer Method Native Mode transfers in the default mode for your scanner. Memory Mode is automatically
selected for scanning in resolutions over 600 dots per inch (dpi).
User Interface The Hide Scanner’s Native Interface option bypasses the windows and dialog boxes provided by the
scanner manufacturer. Instead, scanning starts directly with the settings specified in the Custom Scan settings.
Invert Black And White Images This option creates positive images from black-and-white negatives, for example.

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Enhance Scanned PDF dialog box
The Enhance Scanned PDF dialog box controls the image settings of how scanned images are filtered and compressed
for the PDF. Default settings are suitable for a wide range of document pages, but you may want to customize settings
for higher-quality images, smaller file sizes, or scanning issues.
Apply Adaptive Compression Divides each page into black-and-white, grayscale, and color regions and chooses a

representation that preserves appearance while highly compressing each type of content. The recommended scanning
resolutions are 300 dots per inch (dpi) for grayscale and RGB input, or 600 dpi for black-and-white input.
Color/Grayscale settings When scanning color or grayscale pages, select one of the following:
JPEG2000 Applies JPEG2000 compression to the colored image content. (This setting is not recommended when

creating PDF/A files. Use JPEG instead.)
ZIP Applies ZIP compression to the colored image content.
JPEG Applies JPEG compression to the colored image content.

Note: The scanner uses either the selected Color/Grayscale option or the selected Monochrome option. Which one is used
depends on the settings you select in the Acrobat Scan dialog box or in the scanner’s TWAIN interface, which may open
after you click Scan in the Acrobat Scan dialog box. (By default, the scanner application dialog box does not open.)
Monochrome When scanning black-and-white or monotone images, select one of the following:
JBIG2 (Lossless) & JBIG2(Lossy) Applies the JBIG2 compression method to black-and-white input pages. Highestquality levels use the lossless method; at lower settings, text is highly compressed. Text pages typically are 60% smaller
than CCITT Group 4 compressed pages, but processing is slow. Compatible with Acrobat 5.0 (PDF 1.4) and later.

Note: For compatibility with Acrobat 4.0, use a compression method other than JBIG2.
CCITT Group 4 Applies CCITT Group 4 compression to black-and-white input page images. This fast, lossless

compression method is compatible with Acrobat 3.0 (PDF 1.2) and later.
Small Size/High Quality Sets the balance point between file size and quality.
Deskew Rotates any page that is not square with the sides of the scanner bed, to make the PDF page align vertically.
Choose On or Off.
Background Removal Whitens nearly white areas of grayscale and color input (not black-and-white input).

For best results, calibrate your scanner’s contrast and brightness settings so that a scan of a normal black-and-white page
has dark gray or black text and a white background. Then, Off or Low should produce good results. If scanning off-white
paper or newsprint, use Medium or High to clean up the page.
Descreen Removes halftone dot structure, which can reduce JPEG compression, cause moire patterns, and make text
difficult to recognize. Suitable for 200–400-dpi grayscale or RGB input or, for Adaptive Compression, 400–600-dpi
black-and-white input. The On setting (recommended) applies the filter for 300 dpi or higher grayscale and RGB input.
Select Off when scanning a page with no pictures or filled areas, or when scanning at a resolution higher than the
effective range.
Text Sharpening Sharpens the text of the scanned PDF file. The default value of low is suitable for most documents.
Increase it if the quality of the printed document is low and the text is unclear.
Document Language By default the OCR language is picked from default locale. To change the language, click Edit and
choose a different language.
Output Either Searchable Image or Editable Text and Images.

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Scanning tips
• Acrobat scanning accepts images between 10 dpi and 3000 dpi. If you select Searchable Image or ClearScan for PDF
Output Style, input resolution of 72 dpi or higher is required. Also, input resolution higher than 600 dpi is
downsampled to 600 dpi or lower.
• To apply lossless compression to a scanned image, select one of these options under the Optimization Options in
the Optimize Scanned PDF dialog box: CCITT Group 4 for monochrome images, or Lossless for color or grayscale
images. If this image is appended to a PDF document, and you save the file using the Save option, the scanned image
remains uncompressed. If you save the PDF using Save As, the scanned image may be compressed.
• For most pages, black-and-white scanning at 300 dpi produces text best suited for conversion. At 150 dpi, OCR
accuracy is slightly lower, and more font-recognition errors occur; at 400 dpi and higher resolution, processing
slows, and compressed pages are bigger. If a page has many unrecognized words or small text (9 points or smaller),
try scanning at higher resolution. Scan in black and white whenever possible.
• When Recognize Text Using OCR is disabled, full 10-to-3000 dpi resolution range may be used, but the
recommended resolution is 72 and higher dpi. For Adaptive Compression, 300 dpi is recommended for grayscale or
RGB input, or 600 dpi for black-and-white input.
• Pages scanned in 24-bit color, 300 dpi, at 8-1/2–by-11 in. (21.59-by-27.94 cm) result in large images (25 MB) before
compression. Your system may require 50 MB of virtual memory or more to scan the image. At 600 dpi, both
scanning and processing typically are about four times slower than at 300 dpi.
• Avoid dithering or halftone scanner settings. These settings can improve the appearance of photographs, but they
make it difficult to recognize text.
• For text printed on colored paper, try increasing the brightness and contrast by about 10%. If your scanner has colorfiltering capability, consider using a filter or lamp that drops out the background color. Or if the text isn’t crisp or
drops out, try adjusting scanner contrast and brightness to clarify the scan.
• If your scanner has a manual brightness control, adjust it so that characters are clean and well formed. If characters
are touching, use a higher (brighter) setting. If characters are separated, use a lower (darker) setting.

Recognize text in scanned documents
You can use Acrobat DC to recognize text in previously scanned documents that have already been converted to PDF.
Optical character recognition (OCR) software enables you to search, correct, and copy the text in a scanned PDF. To
apply OCR to a PDF, the original scanner resolution must have been set at 72 dpi or higher.
Note: Scanning at 300 dpi produces the best text for conversion. At 150 dpi, OCR accuracy is slightly lower.

Recognize text in a single document
1 Open the scanned PDF.
2 Choose Tools > Enhance Scans > Recognize Text > In This File.

The Recognize Text options are displayed in the Secondary toolbar.
3 In the Secondary toolbar, select a page range and language for text recognition.
4 Optionally, click Settings to open the Recognize Text dialog box, and specify the options as needed.
5 Click Recognize Text. Acrobat creates a layer of text in your PDF that can be searched — or copied and pasted into

a new document.

Recognize text in multiple documents
1 Choose Tools > Enhance Scans > Recognize Text > In Multiple Files.

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2 In the Recognize Text dialog box, click Add Files, and choose Add Files, Add Folders, or Add Open Files. Then

select the files or folder.
3 In the Output Options dialog box, specify a target folder for output files, and filename preferences.
4 In the Recognize Text - General Settings dialog box, specify the options, and then click OK.

Acrobat creates a layer of text in your PDF that can be searched — or copied and pasted into a new document.

Recognize Text - General Settings dialog box
Document Language Specifies the language for the OCR engine to use to identify the characters.
Output (PDF Output Style) Determines the type of PDF to produce. All options require an input resolution of 72 dpi or
higher (recommended). All formats apply OCR and font and page recognition to the text images and convert them to
normal text.
Searchable Image Ensures that text is searchable and selectable. This option keeps the original image, deskews it as
needed, and places an invisible text layer over it. The selection for Downsample Images in this same dialog box
determines whether the image is downsampled and to what extent.
Searchable Image (Exact) Ensures that text is searchable and selectable. This option keeps the original image and places

an invisible text layer over it. Recommended for cases requiring maximum fidelity to the original image.
Editable Text & Images Synthesizes a new custom font that closely approximates the original, and preserves the page
background using a low-resolution copy.
Downsample To Decreases the number of pixels in color, grayscale, and monochrome images after OCR is complete.
Choose the degree of downsampling to apply. Higher-numbered options do less downsampling, producing higherresolution PDFs.

Correct OCR text in PDFs
When you run OCR on a scanned output, Acrobat DC analyzes bitmaps of text and substitutes words and characters
for those bitmap areas. If the ideal substitution is uncertain, Acrobat DC marks the word as suspect. Suspects appear
in the PDF as the original bitmap of the word, but the text is included on an invisible layer behind the bitmap of the
word. This method makes the word searchable even though it is displayed as a bitmap.
Note: If you try to select text in a scanned PDF that does not have OCR applied, or try to perform a Read Out Loud
operation on an image file, Acrobat DC asks if you want to run OCR. If you click OK, the Text Recognition dialog box
opens and you can select options, which are described in detail under the previous topic.
1 Choose Tools > Enhance Scans > Recognize Text > Correct Recognized Text.

Acrobat DC identifies suspected text errors and displays the image and text side by side in the Secondary toolbar.
(All suspect words on the page are enclosed in boxes.)
2 Click the highlighted object or box in the document, and then correct it in the Recognized As box in the Secondary

toolbar. Click Accept.
The next suspect is highlighted. Correct mistakes as needed. Click Accept for each correction.
3 Click Close in the Secondary toolbar when the task is complete.

Overview of PDF creation

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What’s the best way to create a PDF?
You create a PDF by converting other documents and resources to Portable Document Format. You can usually choose
from several PDF creation methods, depending on the type of file you start with and your requirements for the PDF.
You can create PDFs from documents printed on paper, Microsoft Word documents, InDesign® files, and digital
images, to name just a few examples. Different types of sources have different tools available for PDF conversion. In
many applications, you can create PDFs by selecting the Adobe PDF printer in the Print dialog box.
If a file is open in its authoring application (such as a spreadsheet that is open in Microsoft Excel), you can usually
convert the file to PDF without opening Adobe Acrobat XI. Similarly, if Acrobat is already open, you don’t have to open
the authoring application to convert a file to PDF.
Every PDF strikes a balance between efficiency (small file size) and quality (such as resolution and color). When that
balance is critical to your task, you’ll want to use a method that includes access to various conversion options.
For example, you can drag files to the Acrobat icon to create PDFs. In this case, Acrobat applies the most recently used
conversion settings without providing access to those settings. If you want more control over the process, you’ll want
to use another method.

Additional resource
• Acrobat user community forums: acrobatusers.com/forum/pdf-creation.

PDF creation methods by file type
Refer to the following lists to determine the methods available for the different types of files.

Most files
These methods can be used for documents and images in almost all file formats.
Create menu or Tools > Create PDF Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from File.
Adobe PDF printer Within most applications, in the Print dialog box.
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder.
Context menu On the desktop or in a folder, by right-clicking.

Paper documents
Requires a scanner and a hard copy of the document.
Create menu or Tools > Create PDF Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from Scanner. Or, for previously scanned paper

documents, by choosing PDF from File.

Microsoft Office documents
PDFMaker (Windows only) Within the authoring application, in the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and on the Adobe PDF

menu. For Microsoft Office 2007 or later applications, in the Acrobat or Adobe PDF ribbon.
Save As Adobe PDF (Mac OS) Within the authoring application, choose File > Print > PDF > Adobe PDF.
Adobe PDF printer (Windows only) Within the authoring application, in the Print dialog box.
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder.
Context menu (Windows only) On the desktop or in a folder, by right-clicking.

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Email messages
PDFMaker (Windows only) Within Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes, by clicking Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar buttons.

Or by choosing commands in the Adobe PDF menu (Outlook) or the Actions menu (Lotus Notes).
Adobe PDF printer (Windows only) Within the email application, in the Print dialog box. Creates a PDF (not a PDF

Portfolio).
Context menu (Outlook 2007 or later) On an email folder or selection of messages, by right-clicking.

Web pages
Create menu or Tools > Create PDF Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from Web Page.
PDFMaker (Windows only) Within Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, or when editing in a web-authoring

application that supports PDFMaker, such as Word. Also, in the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and on the Adobe PDF
menu.
Adobe PDF printer (Windows 7) Within a web browser or when editing in a web-authoring application, such as Word;

in the Print dialog box.
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder, dragging the HTML file.
Context menu (HTML files) On the desktop or in a folder, by right-clicking the HTML file.

Content copied on the clipboard
Create menu Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from Clipboard.

AutoCAD files (Acrobat Pro DC for Windows only)
Create menu or Tools > Create PDF Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from File.
PDFMaker Within AutoCAD, in the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar or in the Adobe PDF menu.
Adobe PDF printer Within AutoCAD, in the Print dialog box.
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder.
Context menu On the desktop or in a folder, by right-clicking.

PostScript and EPS files
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder, by dragging to the Acrobat Distiller icon or into the Acrobat Distiller®

window.
Double-clicking (PostScript® files only) On the desktop or in a folder.
Open command Within Acrobat Distiller, in the File menu.
Create menu Within Acrobat, by choosing PDF from File.
Context menu On the desktop or in a folder, by right-clicking.

3D files (Acrobat Pro)
Create menu or Tools > Create PDF Within Acrobat Pro, by choosing PDF From File.
Drag and drop On the desktop or from a folder.

Adobe Presenter slideshows
Adobe PDF Within Microsoft PowerPoint, choose Adobe Presenter > Publish.

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Balancing PDF file size and quality
You can select various settings to ensure that your PDF has the best balance between file size, resolution, conformity to
specific standards, and other factors. Which settings you select depends on your goals for the PDF that you are creating.
For example, a PDF intended for high-quality commercial printing requires different settings than a PDF intended only
for onscreen viewing and quick downloading over the Internet.
Once selected, these settings apply across PDFMaker, Acrobat, and Acrobat Distiller. However, some settings are
limited to specific contexts or file types. For example, PDFMaker options can vary among the different types of
Microsoft Office applications.
For convenience, you can select one of the conversion presets available in Acrobat. You can also create, define, save, and
reuse custom presets that are uniquely suited to your purposes.
For scanned documents, you can choose from Autodetect Color Mode or several scanning presets that are optimized
for scanning documents and images in color or black and white. You can modify these presets, or use your own custom
scanning settings.

More Help topics
Creating simple PDFs with Acrobat
Adobe PDF conversion settings
Creating PDFs with Acrobat Distiller
Scan documents to PDF
Using the Adobe PDF printer
Converting web pages to PDF
Creating PDFs with PDFMaker (Windows)

Using the Adobe PDF printer
Create PDFs by printing to file
In many authoring applications, you can use the Print command with the Adobe PDF printer to convert your file to
PDF. Your source document is converted to PostScript and fed directly to Distiller for conversion to PDF, without
manually starting Distiller. The current Distiller preference settings and Adobe PDF settings are used to convert the
file. If you’re working with nonstandard page sizes, create a custom page size.
Note: (Windows) For Microsoft Office documents, the Adobe PDF printer does not include some of the features that are
available from PDFMaker. For example, you cannot create bookmarks and hyperlinks using the Adobe PDF printer. If
you’re creating a PDF from a Microsoft Office document and you want to use these features, use PDFMaker.
The Adobe PDF printer creates untagged PDFs. A tagged structure is required for reflowing content to a handheld
device and is preferable for producing reliable results with a screen reader.

Create a PDF using the Print command (Windows)
1 Open the file in its authoring application, and choose File > Print.

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2 Choose Adobe PDF from the printers menu.
3 Click the Properties (or Preferences) button to customize the Adobe PDF printer setting. (In some applications, you

may need to click Setup in the Print dialog box to open the list of printers, and then click Properties or Preferences.)
4 In the Print dialog box, click OK.

Note: Your PDF is saved in the folder specified by the setting of the Adobe PDF Output Folder in the Preferences dialog
box; the default location is My Documents. If you specify Prompt For Adobe PDF Filename, then a Save As dialog opens
when you print.

Create a PDF using the Print command (Mac OS X)
The method for creating PDFs using the Print command changed in Mac OS v10.6 Snow Leopard with Acrobat 9.1 and
later. The following procedure describes the method in both Snow Leopard and earlier versions of Mac OS X.
1 Open the file in its authoring application, and choose File > Print.
2 Choose Save AsAdobe PDF from the PDF menu at the bottom of the dialog box.
3 For Adobe PDF Settings, choose one of the default settings, or customize the settings using Distiller. Any custom

settings that you have defined are listed.
For most users, the default Adobe PDF conversion settings are adequate.
4 For After PDF Creation, specify whether to open the PDF.
5 Click Continue.
6 Select a name and location for your PDF, and click Save.

Note: By default, your PDF is saved with the same filename and a .pdf extension.

Adobe PDF printing preferences (Windows)
Printing preferences apply to all applications that use the Adobe PDF printer, unless you change the settings in an
authoring application by using the Page Setup,Document Setup, or Print menu.
Note: The dialog box for setting printing preferences is named Adobe PDFPrinting Preferences, Adobe PDF Printing
Defaults, or Adobe PDFDocument Properties, depending on how you access it.
To access printing preferences:

• Open the Printers window from the Start menu. Right-click the Adobe PDF printer, and choose Printing
Preferences.
• In an authoring application such as Adobe InDesign, choose File > Print. Select Adobe PDF as the printer, and click
the Properties (or Preferences) button. (In some applications, you may need to click Setup in the Print dialog box to
access the list of printers, and then click Properties or Preferences to customize the Adobe PDF settings.)
PDF-specific options appear on the Adobe PDF Settings tab. The Paper Quality tab and Layout tab contain other
familiar options for the paper source, printer ink, page orientation, and number of pages per sheet.
Note: Printing Preferences are different from printer Properties. The Preferences include Adobe PDF-specific options for the
conversion process; the Properties dialog box contains tabs of options that are available for any type of printer.
Adobe PDFConversion Settings Select a predefined set of options from the Default Settings menu or click Edit to view

or change the settings in the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box.
Adobe PDF Security To add security to the PDF, choose one of the following options, or click Edit to view or change

the security settings:

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Reconfirm Security For Each Job Opens the Adobe PDF - Security dialog box each time you create a PDF using the
Adobe PDF printer. Specify settings in the dialog box.
Use The Last Known Security Settings Uses the same security settings that were used the last time a PDF was created

using the Adobe PDF printer on your computer.
Adobe PDF Output Folder Choose an output folder for the converted PDF, or click Browse to add or change the output

folder. Choose Prompt For Adobe PDF Filename to specify a location and filename at the time of conversion.
Adobe PDF Page Size menu Select a custom page size that you have defined.
View Adobe PDF Results Automatically starts Acrobat DC and displays the converted document immediately.
Add Document Information Includes information such as the filename and date and time of creation.
Rely On System Fonts Only; Do Not Use Document Fonts Deselect this option to download fonts when creating the

PDF. All your fonts will be available in the PDF, but it will take longer to create it. Leave this option selected if you are
working with Asian-language documents.
Delete Log Files For Successful Jobs Automatically deletes the log files unless the job fails.
Ask To Replace Existing PDF File Warns you when you are about to overwrite an existing PDF with a file of the same

name.

Set Adobe PDF printer properties (Windows)
In Windows, you can usually leave the Adobe PDF printer properties unchanged, unless you have configured printer
sharing or set security.
Note: Printing Properties are different from printer Preferences. The Properties dialog box contains tabs of options that
apply to any type of printer; the Preferences include conversion options specifically for the Adobe PDF printer.

Set Adobe PDF printer properties
1 Open Devices and Printers from the Start menu, and right-click the Adobe PDF printer.
2 Choose Properties.
3 Click the tabs, and select options as needed.

Reassign the port that the Adobe PDF printer uses
1 Quit Distiller if it is running, and allow all queued jobs to the Adobe PDF printer to complete.
2 Open Devices and Printers from the Start menu.
3 Right-click the Adobe PDF printer, and choose Printer Properties.
4 Click the Ports tab, and then click Add Port.
5 Select Adobe PDF Port (Windows XP) or Adobe PDF Port Monitor (Vista/Windows 7) from the list of available port

types, and click New Port.
6 Select a local folder for PDF output files, and click OK. Then click Close to quit the Printer Ports dialog box.
7 In the Adobe PDF Properties dialog box, click Apply, and then click OK.

For best results, select a folder on the same system where Distiller is installed. Although remote or network folders
are supported, they have limited user access and security issues.

Delete a folder and reassign the Adobe PDF printer to the default port
1 Quit Distiller if it is running, and allow a few minutes for all queued jobs to Adobe PDF to complete.

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2 Open Devices and Printers from the Start menu.
3 Right-click the Adobe PDF printer, and choose Printer Properties.
4 Click the Ports tab.
5 Select the default port, Documents, and click Apply.
6 Select the port to delete, click Delete Port, and then click OK to confirm the deletion.
7 Select the Documents port again and click Close.

Create and use a custom page size
It’s important to distinguish between page size (as defined in the source application’s Document Setup dialog box for
your document) and paper size (the sheet of paper, piece of film, or area of the printing plate you’ll print on). Your page
size might be U.S. Letter (8-1/2-by-11 in. or 21.59-by-27.94 cm), but you might need to print on a larger piece of paper
or film to accommodate any printer’s marks or the bleed area. To ensure that your document prints as expected, set up
your page size in both the source application and the printer.
The list of paper sizes available to Acrobat DC comes from the PPD file (PostScript printers) or from the printer driver
(non-PostScript printers). If the printer and PPD file you’ve chosen for PostScript printing support custom paper sizes,
you see a Custom option in the Paper Size menu. For printers capable of producing very large print areas, Acrobat DC
supports pages as large as 15,000,000 in. (38,100,000 cm) by 15,000,000 in. (38,100,000 cm).

Create a custom page size (Windows)
1 Do one of the following:

• Open Devices and Printers or Printer And Faxes window from the Start menu. Right-click the Adobe PDF
printer, and choose Printing Preferences.
• In an authoring application such as Adobe InDesign, choose File > Print. Select Adobe PDF as the printer, and
click the Properties button. (In some applications, you may need to click Setup in the Print dialog box to open
the list of printers, and then click Properties or Preferences to customize the Adobe PDF settings.)
2 In the Adobe PDF Settings tab, click the Add button next to the Adobe PDF Page Size menu.
3 Specify the name, width, height, and unit of measurement. Click Add/Modify to add the custom page size name to

the Adobe PDF Page Size menu.

Create a custom page size (Mac OS)
1 In an authoring application such as Adobe InDesign, choose File > Page Setup.
2 In the Paper Size pop-up menu, select Manage Custom Sizes.
3 Click the + button.
4 Specify the name, height, width, and margins. The unit of measurement depends on the system language.

Use the custom page size
1 Choose File > Print.
2 Click the Page Setup button.
3 Select the new custom page size from the Paper Size menu.

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More Help topics
Overview of creating PDFs
Creating simple PDFs with Acrobat DC
Adobe PDF conversion settings
Creating PDFs with Acrobat Distiller
Creating PDFs with PDFMaker (Windows)
Scan documents to PDF
Converting web pages to PDF
Creating accessible PDFs

Converting web pages to PDF
Web pages and PDFs
The core of a web page is a file written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Typically, the HTML file includes
associations with other files that either appear on the web page or govern how it looks or works.
When you convert a web page to PDF, the HTML file and all associated files—such as JPEG images, Adobe FLA files,
cascading style sheets, text files, image maps, and forms—are included in the conversion process.
The resulting PDF behaves much like the original web page. For example, the images, links, image maps, and most
media files appear and function normally within the PDF. (Animated GIF files appear as still images, showing the last
frame of the animation.)
Also, the PDF functions like any other PDF. For example, you can navigate through the file by scrolling or using
bookmarks; users can add comments to it; you can add security, form fields, and other features that enhance it.
In preparing to convert web pages to PDF, consider the following factors, which affect how you approach the conversion
process:

• How much do you want to convert?
If you want to convert only selected areas of the currently open web page, use PDFMaker from within Internet
Explorer. If you want to convert several levels or all of a multipage website to PDF, work within Acrobat.

• Do you want to create a new PDF from the web pages or to append the converted pages to an existing PDF?
You can do both in either Acrobat or Internet Explorer, but you choose different buttons or commands to
accomplish these things.
Note: To convert Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) language web pages to PDF on a Roman (Western) system in
Windows, you must have installed the CJK language support files while installing Acrobat. Also, it is preferable to select an
appropriate encoding from the HTML conversion settings.

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Convert web pages to PDF in Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Firefox
(Windows)
Acrobat installs an Adobe PDF toolbar in Internet Explorer (version 7.0 or later), Google Chrome, and Firefox (version
3.5 or later). Using the commands on this toolbar, you can convert the currently displayed web page to PDF in various
ways. For example, you can convert the entire web page or selected areas of it. Or, you can create a PDF or append the
converted web page to an existing PDF. The toolbar has additional commands that initiate further actions after
conversion, such as attaching the new PDF to a new email message or printing it.
See the video Creating PDF Files from a Web Browser for additional information.

Convert a web page to PDF
To convert a webpage to PDF, do the following:
1 Go to the web page.

• For Windows, use Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Chrome.
• For Mac, use Firefox.
2 Using the Convert menu on the Adobe PDF toolbar, do one of the following:

• To create a PDF from the currently open web page, choose Convert Web Page To PDF. Then select a location,
type a filename, and click Save.
• To add a PDF of the currently open web page to another PDF, choose Add Web Page To Existing PDF. Then locate
and select the existing PDF, and click Save.
• (Internet Explorer and Firefox only) To create and print a PDF from the currently open web page, choose Print
Web Page. When the conversion is complete and the Print dialog box opens, specify options and click OK.
• (Internet Explorer and Firefox only) To create a PDF from the currently open web page and attach it to a blank
email message, choose Convert Web Page And Email. Then specify a location and filename for the PDF, and
click Save. Type the appropriate information in the email message that opens after the conversion is complete.
• For any of these options, to open the output PDF after conversion, select View Adobe PDF Results.
Note: The Adobe Create PDF icon gets added to the supported browsers when you install Acrobat. If you’re unable to see
the Create PDF icon, do the following:

• In Internet Explorer, choose View > Toolbars > Adobe Acrobat Create PDF Toolbar.
• In Firefox, choose Tools > Add-ons > Extensions, and then enable the Adobe Acrobat - Create PDF extension.
• In Google Chrome, choose Customize menu > Settings and then click Extensions from the left pane. Enable the
Adobe Acrobat - Create PDF extension.

Convert part of a web page to PDF (Internet Explorer and Firefox)
1 Drag the pointer to select text and images on a web page.

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2 Right-click on the selected content and choose one of the following:

• To create a new PDF, choose Convert To Adobe PDF or Convert Web Page To Adobe PDF (Internet Explorer)
or Convert Selection to Adobe PDF (Firefox). Then select a name and location for the PDF.
• To append the selected content to another PDF, choose Append To Existing PDF (Internet Explorer) or Append
Selection to Existing PDF (Firefox). Then locate and select the PDF to which the selection will be added.

Convert selected areas in a web page to PDF (Internet Explorer only)
You can use the Select option to select specific areas on a web page to convert. You can use this option to convert
meaningful content on a web page and omit unwanted content, such as advertisements.
1 On the Adobe PDF toolbar, click Select (next to Convert).
2 As you move the pointer around the web page, a red dotted line indicates areas of the web page that you can select.

Click the areas to convert. Selected areas appear in blue boxes. To deselect an area, click it again.
3 Proceed with conversion as usual.
4 To deselect all areas and exit the select mode, click Select again.

Convert a linked web page to PDF
❖ In the open web page, right-click the linked text and choose one of the following:

• To add the linked web page to an existing PDF, choose Append Link Target To Existing PDF. Then locate and
select the existing PDF, and click Save.
• To convert the linked web page to a new PDF, choose Convert Link Target To Adobe PDF.
Note: The right-click menu also includes the options Append To Existing PDF and Convert To Adobe PDF. If you select
either of these options, the currently open web page, not the selected link, is converted.

Convert web pages to PDF in Acrobat
Although you can convert an open web page to PDF from Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, you get
additional options when you run the conversion from Acrobat. For example, you can include an entire website in the
PDF or just some levels of a website.

Convert a web page to PDF
1 Choose File > Create > PDF from Web Page.
2 Enter the complete path to the web page, or click Browse and locate an HTML file.
3 To change the number of levels in the website to convert, expand Capture Multiple Levels. Enter the number of

levels to include, or select Get Entire Site to include all levels from the website.
Note: Some websites have hundreds or even thousands of pages. Converting a large website can make your system slow
and unresponsive, and can even use up available hard drive space and memory, causing a system crash. It’s a good idea
to begin by downloading one level of pages and then go through them to find particular links to download.
4 If Get Only N Level(s) is selected, select one or both of the following options:
Stay On Same Path Downloads only web pages subordinate to the specified URL.
Stay On Same Server Downloads only web pages stored on the same server.

5 Click Settings, change the selected options in the Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box as needed, and click OK.

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6 Click Create.

Note: You can view PDF pages while they are downloading; however, you cannot modify a page until the download
process is complete.
You do not need to wait for the conversion to complete before adding more requests. While a conversion is in progress,
you can convert another page to PDF and that gets added to the queue. The number of requests in the queue are
indicated by the Pending Conversions field in the Download Status dialog box.

Add an unlinked web page to an existing PDF
Use this procedure to append pages to a writable PDF. If the original PDF is read-only, the result will be a new PDF
rather than new pages in the existing PDF.
1 Open the existing PDF in Acrobat (the PDF to which you want to append a web page).
2 Choose Tools > Organize Pages > Insert > Insert from Web Page.
3 Enter the URL to the web page you want to append and select options, as described for converting web pages to PDF,

and then click Create.

Add a linked web page to an existing PDF
1 Open the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing links to the pages you

want to add.
2 Right-click the web link, and choose Append To Document.

Note: After pages have been converted, links to these pages change to internal links, and clicking a link takes you to the
PDF page, rather than to the original HTML page on the web.

Convert a linked web page to a new PDF
1 Open the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing a web link you want to

convert.
2 Right-click the web link, and choose Open Weblink As New Document.

Note: In Windows, you can also convert a linked page from a web page displayed in Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or
Firefox, using a similar right-click command.

Copy the URL of a web link
Use this procedure to copy the path for a web link to the clipboard, to use it for other purposes.
1 Open the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing links to the pages you

want to copy.
2 Right-click the web link and choose Copy Link Location.

Change web page conversion options
The settings for converting web pages to PDF apply to the conversion process. The settings changes do not affect
existing PDFs.
1 Do one of the following:

• From Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, in the Adobe PDF toolbar, choose Convert > Preferences.
• From Acrobat, choose File > Create > PDF from Web Page, and then click Settings.

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2 On the General tab, select options under Conversion Settings and PDF Settings, as needed. Click the Settings button

to see additional options for the selected File Type.
3 On the Page Layout tab, select options for page size, orientation, and scaling, as needed.

Web page conversion options
The Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box is available from within Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Firefox, and
Acrobat.

General tab
Conversion Settings Specifies the conversion settings for HTML and Text. Choose a file type and click Settings to select
the font properties and other characteristics.
Create Bookmarks Creates a tagged bookmark for each converted web page using the page title (HTML Title element)

as the bookmark name. If the page has no title, the URL is used as the bookmark name.
Create PDF Tags Stores a structure in the PDF that corresponds to the HTML structure of the web pages. This structure

lets you create tagged bookmarks for paragraphs, list elements, and other items that use HTML elements.
Place Headers And Footers On New Page Places a header and footer on every page. Headers show the web page title, or
if no title is available, the web page URL or file path. Footers show the web page URL or file path, and the date and time
of the download.

Page Layout tab
The Page Layout options specify a selection of page sizes and options for width, height, margin measurements, and page
orientation.
The Scaling options are as follows:
Scale Wide Contents To Fit Page Rescales the contents of a page, if necessary, to fit the width of the page. If this option

is not selected, the paper size adjusts to fit the contents of the page, if necessary.
Switch To Landscape If Scaled Smaller Than Changes the page orientation to landscape if the new version of a page is

less than the specified percentage of the original size. Available only if you selected portrait orientation.

HTML Conversion Settings
This dialog box opens when you select HTML on the General tab of the Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box and
then click the Settings button.
Default Encoding Lets you specify the following options:
Default Encoding Sets the input encoding of the file text from a menu of operating systems and alphabets.
Always Ignores any encoding that is specified in the HTML source file and uses the selection shown in the Default

Encoding option.
When Page Doesn’t Specify Encoding Uses the selection shown in the Default Encoding option only if the HTML

source file does not specify a type of encoding.
Language Specific Font Settings Use these settings to change the language script, body text typeface, and base typeface

size.
Default Colors Sets the default colors for text, page backgrounds, and web links. Click the color button to open a palette

and select the color. To use these colors in the PDF, select Force These Settings For All Pages. When this option is
unselected, the default colors are applied only for pages that don't have a specified color scheme.

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Multimedia Content Determines whether to disable multimedia capture, embed multimedia files when possible, or
link to multimedia (such as SWF files) by URL.
Retain Page Background Specifies whether to display colors and tiled images in page backgrounds and colors in table

cells. If options are deselected, converted web pages sometimes look different than they do in a web browser, but are
easier to read when printed.
Convert Images Includes images in the conversion to PDF.
Underline Links Underlines textual web links on the pages.
Expand Scrollable Blocks Expands scrollable blocks to include complete information on the converted PDF.

Text Settings
Input Encoding Sets the input encoding of the text for a file.
Language Specific Font Settings Use these settings to change the language script, body text typeface, and base typeface

size.
Default Colors Sets the default colors for text and page backgrounds. Click the color button to open a palette, and select

the color.
Wrap Lines At Margin Inserts a soft return when the text reaches the edge of the text area on the page.

Creating PDFs with Acrobat Distiller
Acrobat Distiller overview
In Acrobat Distiller, you can select settings used to convert documents to PDFs, security options, and font information.
You also use the Acrobat Distiller window to monitor the jobs you’ve lined up for PDF conversion.

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A Menus B Adobe PDF settings files C Files in job queue D Failed job E Context menu F Status window

To convert PostScript files automatically in Acrobat Pro, set up a watched folder in Distiller.
To start Acrobat Distiller (Windows), choose All Program > Adobe Acrobat Distiller DC.

Manage the conversion queue
Distiller lets you queue PostScript files that you create in authoring applications and then monitor them throughout the
PDF conversion process.

Queue a PostScript file
1 In Distiller, select an Adobe PDF settings file from the Default Settings pop-up menu.
2 (Optional) Choose Settings > Security and select an encryption level.
3 Open the PostScript file and start the conversion process, using either method:

• Choose File > Open, select a PostScript file, and click Open.
• Drag one or more PostScript files from the desktop to the Acrobat Distiller window.
Click Pause before doing step 3 if you want to review the queue before Distiller starts converting the files.

Change the queue during processing
Do any of the following:

• To temporarily stop processing the current job, click Pause.
• To resume processing the current job, click Resume.

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• To delete files from the queue, click Cancel Job. Cancel Job deletes all files from the queue that are not yet
successfully completed. Or (Windows only), select and right-click individual files in the job queue and choose
Cancel Job(s) to delete only those files.
• (Windows only) To open the folder where the selected files are, right-click the job queue and choose Explore.
• (Windows only) To open the selected PDF in Acrobat, a browser, or Reader, right-click the job queue and choose
View. Or, double-click the PDF to open it in Acrobat.

Save a history of the job queue (Windows)
❖ Right-click the job queue, and choose Save List.

Distiller saves and opens the history as a PDF.

Clear the queue
Remove all paused and successfully converted files from the list:

• (Windows) Right-click the job queue, and choose Clear History.
• (Mac OS) Click the Clear List button above the queue.

Distiller preferences
The Distiller preferences control global Distiller settings. You set Distiller preferences by choosing File > Preferences
(Windows) or Distiller > Preferences (Mac OS).
Notify When Watched Folders Are Unavailable (Acrobat Pro) Returns a message if a watched folder becomes

unavailable or can’t be found.
(Windows) Notify When Windows TEMP Folder Is Nearly Full Warns you if available hard disk space is less than 1 MB.

Required hard disk space is often double the size of the PostScript file being processed.
Ask For PDF File Destination Lets you specify the name and location for files when using drag-and-drop or the Print

command.
Ask To Replace Existing PDF File Warns you if you are about to overwrite an existing PDF.
View PDF When Using Distiller Automatically opens the converted PDF.
Delete Log Files For Successful Jobs Creates a log file (named messages.log) only if there are messages from interpreting
the PostScript file or if a PostScript error occurs. (Log files for failed jobs are always created.)

Guidelines for creating PostScript files
If you want to fine-tune the creation of the PDF with Distiller parameters or pdfmark operators, first create a PostScript
file and then convert that file to PDF. For more information about the Adobe Acrobat DC SDK, see the Acrobat
Developer Center at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_devcenter_en (English only).
In authoring applications such as Adobe InDesign, use the Print command with the Adobe PDF printer to convert a
file to PostScript. The Print dialog boxes can vary from application to application. For instructions on creating a
PostScript file from your specific application, see the application documentation.
Keep in mind the following guidelines when creating PostScript files:

• Use PostScript Language Level 3 whenever possible to take advantage of the most advanced features of PostScript.
• Use the Adobe PDF printer as your PostScript printer.
• (Windows) Send the fonts used in the document.
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• Give a PostScript file the same name as the original document, but with the extension .ps. (Some applications use a
.prn extension instead.)
• Use color and custom page sizes that are available with the Adobe Acrobat Distiller DC PPD file. Other PPD files
may cause inappropriate colors, fonts, or page sizes in the PDF.
• Send PostScript files as 8-bit binary data when using FTP to transfer the files between computers, especially if the
platforms are different. This action prevents converting line feeds to carriage returns or vice versa.

About watched folders (Acrobat Pro)
You can configure Distiller to look for PostScript files in certain folders called watched folders. Distiller can monitor
up to 100 watched folders. When Distiller finds a PostScript file located in the In folder of a watched folder, it converts
the file to PDF and then moves the PDF (and usually the PostScript file and any associated log file) to the Out folder.
A watched folder can have its own Adobe PDF settings and security settings that apply to all files processed from that
folder. Security settings for a watched folder take priority over the security settings for Distiller. For example, Distiller
does not convert a PostScript file in a watched folder if the file is marked with read-only permission.
(Windows) Settings and preferences are unique to each user. On a non-NT File System (NTFS), custom settings files
stored in this settings folder are read- and write-accessible by every user on the system. On an NTFS, only files created
by respective users are read- and write-accessible. Settings files created by other users are read-only. (The default
settings files installed with Adobe Acrobat Distiller DC are Read Only and Hidden.)
(Mac OS) Each user’s settings and preferences for Distiller are normally not accessible to any other user. To share a
watched folder with other users, the creator of the folder must set the appropriate permissions for the In and Out
folders. Sharing enables other users to copy files to the In folder and get files from the Out folder. The creator must be
logged into the system and have Distiller running. The other users must log in remotely to open the live watched folder
and have their files processed.
Note: You can’t set up watched folders as a network service for other users. Every user who creates PDFs must have an
Acrobat Pro license.

Set watched folders (Acrobat Pro)
1 In Acrobat Distiller DC, choose Settings > Watched Folders.
2 Click Add Folder, and select the target folder. Distiller automatically puts an In folder and an Out folder in the target

folder. You can place In and Out folders at any level of a disk drive.
3 To define security options for a folder, select the folder and click Edit Security. Click OK to return to the Watched

Folders dialog box.
Note: A security icon is prepended to any folder name for which security is set. To return a folder to the original options
selected in the Distiller window, select the folder, and click Clear Security.
4 Set Adobe PDF conversion settings for the folders:

• To edit the Adobe PDF settings to be applied to a folder, select the folder, click Edit Settings, and edit the Adobe
PDF settings. Click OK to save it to the watched folder as folder.joboptions.
• To use a different set of Adobe PDF settings, select the folder and click Load Settings. Use any settings that you
have defined, named, and saved, and then click OK.
5 Set options to manage the processing of files:

• Enter a number of seconds to specify how often to check the folders. You can enter up to 9999. (For example, 120
equals 2 minutes, and 9999 equals about 2-3/4 hours.)

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• Choose what to do with a PostScript file after it has been processed. The file can be moved to the Out folder along
with the PDF file or deleted. Any log file is also automatically copied to the Out folder.
• To delete PDFs after a certain period of time, enter a number of days, up to 999. This option also deletes
PostScript and log files, if you have chosen to delete them.
6 If you want to remove a folder, select the folder and click Remove Folder. Make sure that Distiller has finished

processing all the files in the folder before you remove it.
Note: When you remove a watched folder, Distiller does not delete the In and Out folders, their contents, or the
folder.joboptions file. You can delete these manually when appropriate.

More Help topics
Overview of creating PDFs
Creating simple PDFs with Acrobat
Adobe PDF conversion settings
Scan documents to PDF
Using the Adobe PDF printer
Converting web pages to PDF
Creating PDFs with PDFMaker (Windows)
Customize Adobe PDF settings

PDF fonts
Font embedding and substitution
A font can be embedded only if it contains a setting by the font vendor that permits it to be embedded. Embedding
prevents font substitution when readers view or print the file, and ensures that readers see the text in its original font.
Embedding increases file size only slightly, unless the document uses CID fonts. a font format commonly used for Asian
languages. You can embed or substitute fonts in Acrobat or when you export an InDesign document to PDF.
You can embed the entire font, or just a subset of the characters used in the file. Subsetting ensures that your fonts and
font metrics are used at print time by creating a custom font name. That way, for example, your version of Adobe
Garamond®, not your service provider’s version, can always be used by the service provider for viewing and printing.
Type 1 and TrueType fonts can be embedded if they are included in the PostScript file, or are available in one of the font
locations that Distiller monitors and are not restricted from embedding.
When a font cannot be embedded because of the font vendor’s settings, and someone who opens or prints a PDF does
not have access to the original font, a Multiple Master typeface is temporarily substituted: AdobeSerifMM for a missing
serif font, and AdobeSansMM for a missing sans serif font.
The Multiple Master typeface can stretch or condense to fit, to ensure that line and page breaks in the original
document are maintained. The substitution cannot always match the shape of the original characters, however,
especially if the characters are unconventional ones, such as script typefaces.

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Note: For Asian text, Acrobat DC uses fonts from the installed Asian language kit or from similar fonts on the user’s system.
Fonts from some languages or with unknown encodings cannot be substituted; in these cases, the text appears as bullets in
the file.

If you have difficulty copying and pasting text from a PDF, first check if the problem font is embedded (File > Properties
> Font tab). For an embedded font, try changing the point where the font is embedded, rather than sending it inside the
PostScript file. Distill the PDF without embedding that font. Then open the PDF in Acrobat and embed the font using the
Preflight fixup.

Accessing and embedding fonts using Distiller
When converting a PostScript file to PDF, Distiller needs access to the file’s fonts to insert the appropriate information
in the PDF. Distiller first searches the PostScript file for Type 1, TrueType, and OpenType fonts. If the font isn’t
embedded in the PostScript file, Distiller searches additional font folders. Distiller searches the following font folders
in Windows:

• /Resource/Font in the Acrobat folder
• /Program Files/Common Files/Adobe/Fonts
Distiller searches the following font folders in Mac OS:

• /Resource/Font in the Acrobat folder
• /Users/[user name]/Library/Fonts
• /Library/Fonts
• /System/Library/Fonts
The Acrobat installation includes width-only versions of many common Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts,
therefore Distiller can then access these fonts in Acrobat. Make sure that the fonts are available on your computer.
(In Windows, choose Complete when you install Acrobat, or choose Custom and select the Asian Language Support
option under the View Adobe PDF category. In Mac OS, these fonts are installed automatically.)
For information on including fonts in a PostScript file, see the documentation that came with the application and
printer driver you use to create PostScript files.
Note: Distiller does not support Type 32 fonts.
To specify other font folders for Distiller to search, in Acrobat Distiller, choose Settings > Font Locations. Then in the
dialog box, click Add to add a font folder. Select Ignore TrueType Versions Of Standard PostScript Fonts to exclude
TrueType fonts that have the same name as a font in the PostScript 3 font collection.
Note: To provide Distiller with access to a font folder that has been moved, use this dialog box to remove the folder listed
in its old location and add it in its new location.

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Preview PDFs without local fonts
You can create a printable preview of your document that substitutes default fonts for any text formatted in fonts that
are available on your local computer but are not embedded in the PDF. This preview can help you decide whether to
embed those local fonts in the PDF, to achieve the look you want for your document.
❖ In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Page Display, and then deselect Use Local Fonts.

Note: If a font cannot be substituted, the text appears as bullets, and Acrobat displays an error message.

Find PostScript font names
If you need to enter a font name manually on the Fonts panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box, you can use a PDF
to find the exact spelling of the name.
1 Use any application to create a one-page document with the font.
2 Create a PDF from the document.
3 Open the PDF in Acrobat DC, and choose File > Properties > Fonts.
4 Write down the name of the font, using the exact spelling, capitalization, and hyphenation of the name as it appears

in the Font Info dialog box.

Adobe PDF conversion settings
Choose an Adobe PDF preset for converting files
1 Do one of the following:

• Start Acrobat Distiller.
• In an Adobe Creative Cloud application, choose File > Print, select Adobe PDF as the target printer, and click
Print Settings (Photoshop) or Setup > Preferences (InDesign).
• (Windows) In Office 2007 or later applications, choose Acrobat > Preferences.
• (Windows) In another authoring application or utility, choose Adobe PDF > Change Conversion Settings.
2 Choose a preset from the Default Settings (or Conversion Settings) menu.

Adobe PDF presets
A PDF preset is a group of settings that affect the process of creating a PDF. These settings are designed to balance file
size with quality, depending on how the PDF are used. Most predefined presets are shared across Adobe Creative Cloud
applications, including InDesign CC, Illustrator CC, Photoshop CC, and Acrobat DC. You can also create and share
custom presets for your unique output requirements. A saved PDF preset file has the suffix .joboptions.
A few of the following presets are not available until you move them from the Extras folder (where they installed by
default) to the Settings folder for custom settings.
Note: Acrobat Standard CC does not include the Extras folder. The presets installed in the Extras folder are only available
in Acrobat Pro DC.

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Typically, the Extras and Settings folders for default settings are found at the following locations.

• (Windows XP) Documents and Settings/All Users/Application Data/Adobe/Adobe PDF
• (Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8) ProgramData/Adobe/Adobe PDF
• (Acrobat Pro DC on Mac OS) Library/Application Support/Adobe PDF
The default settings files installed with Distiller are Read Only and Hidden.

The custom settings are found in the following locations:

• (Windows XP) Documents and Settings/[username]/Application Data/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings
• (Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8) Users/[username]/AppData/Roaming/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings
• (Acrobat Pro DC on Mac OS) Users/[username]/Library/Application Support/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings

Some presets are not available in some Adobe Creative Cloud applications.
Review your PDF settings periodically. The settings do not automatically revert to the default settings. Applications and
utilities that create PDFs use the last set of PDF settings defined or selected.
High Quality Print Creates PDFs for quality printing on desktop printers and proofing devices. This preset uses PDF

1.4, downsamples color and grayscale images to 300 ppi and monochrome images to 1200 ppi. It also embeds subsets
of all fonts, leaves color unchanged, and does not flatten transparency (for file types capable of transparency). These
PDFs can be opened in Acrobat 5.0 and Acrobat Reader 5.0 and later.
Oversized Pages (Acrobat Pro) Creates PDFs suitable for viewing and printing of engineering drawings larger than 200
x 200 in. (508 x 508 cm). These PDFs can be opened in Acrobat and Reader 7.0 and later.
PDF/A-1b: 2005 (CMYK and RGB) Used for long-term preservation (archival) of electronic documents. PDF/A-1b uses

PDF 1.4 and converts all colors to either CMYK or RGB, depending on which standard you choose. These PDFs can
be opened in Acrobat and Reader versions 5.0 and later.
PDF/X-1a (2001 and 2003) (Acrobat Pro) PDF/X-1a requires all fonts to be embedded, the appropriate PDF bounding

boxes to be specified, and color to appear as CMYK, spot colors, or both. Compliant files must contain information
describing the printing condition for which they are prepared. PDF files created with PDF/X-1a compliance can be
opened in Acrobat 4.0 and Acrobat Reader 4.0 and later.
PDF/X-1a uses PDF 1.3, downsamples color and grayscale images to 300 ppi and monochrome images to 1200 ppi. It
embeds subsets of all fonts, creates untagged PDFs, and flattens transparency using the High Resolution setting.
Note: The PDF/X1-a:2003 and PDF/X-3 (2003) presets are placed on your computer during installation. However, they
aren’t available until you move them from the Extras folder to the Settings folder.
PDF/X-4 (2007) (Acrobat Pro) This preset is based on PDF 1.4, which includes support for live transparency. PDF/X-4
has the same color-management and International Color Consortium (ICC) color specifications as PDF/X-3. You can
create PDF/X-4-compliant files directly with Creative Suite 3 applications (Illustrator, InDesign, and Photoshop). In
Acrobat 9, use the Preflight feature to convert PDFs to PDF/X-4 DRAFT.

PDF files created with PDF/X-4 compliance can be opened in Acrobat 7.0 and Reader 7.0 and later.
Press Quality Creates PDF files for high-quality print production (for example, for digital printing or for color
separations to an imagesetter or platesetter). However, it does not create files that are PDF/X compliant. In this case,
the quality of the content is the highest consideration. The objective is to maintain all the information in a PDF file that
a commercial printer or print service provider requires to print the document correctly. This set of options uses PDF

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1.4, converts colors to CMYK, and downsamples color and grayscale images to 300 ppi and monochrome images to
1200 ppi. It embeds subsets of all fonts and preserves transparency (for file types capable of transparency).
These PDF files can be opened in Acrobat 5.0 and Acrobat Reader 5.0 and later.
Note: Before creating a PDF file to send to a commercial printer or print service provider, find out what output resolution
and other settings are required. Or, ask for a .joboptions file with the recommended settings. You sometimes must customize
the Adobe PDF settings for a particular provider and then provide a .joboptions file of your own.
Rich Content PDF (Acrobat Pro DC) Creates accessible PDF files that include tags, hyperlinks, bookmarks, interactive
elements, and layers. This set of options uses PDF 1.6 and embeds subsets of all fonts. It also optimizes files for byte
serving. These PDF files can be opened in Acrobat and Reader 7.0 and later. (The Rich Content PDF preset is in the
Extras folder).

Note: This preset was called eBook in earlier versions of some applications.
Smallest File Size Creates PDF files for displaying on the web or an intranet, or for distribution through an email
system. This set of options uses compression, downsampling, and a relatively low image resolution. It converts all colors
to sRGB, and (for Adobe Acrobat Distiller-based conversions) does not embed fonts. It also optimizes files for byte
serving.

These PDF files can be opened in Acrobat and Reader 6.0 and later.
Standard Creates PDF files to be printed to desktop printers or digital copiers, published on a CD, or sent to a client as

a publishing proof. This set of options uses compression and downsampling to keep the file size down. However, it also
embeds subsets of all (allowed) fonts used in the file, converts all colors to sRGB, and prints to a medium resolution.
Windows font subsets are not embedded by default. PDF files created with this settings file can be opened in Acrobat
and Reader 6.0 and later.

About PDF/X, PDF/E, and PDF/A standards
PDF/X, PDF/E, and PDF/A standards are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). PDF/X
standards apply to graphic content exchange; PDF/E standards apply to the interactive exchange of engineering
documents; PDF/A standards apply to long-term archiving of electronic documents. During PDF conversion, the file
that is being processed is checked against the specified standard. If the PDF does not meet the selected ISO standard,
you are prompted to either cancel the conversion or create a non-compliant file.
The most widely used standards for a print publishing workflow are several PDF/X formats: PDF/X-1a, PDF/X-3, and
(in 2008) PDF/X-4. The most widely used standards for PDF archiving are PDF/A-1a and PDF/A-1b (for less stringent
requirements). Currently, the only version of PDF/E is PDF/E-1.
For more information on PDF/X, PDF/E, and PDF/A, see the ISO and AIIM websites.
For details on creating and working with PDF/A files, see www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_pdfa_en.

Customize Adobe PDF settings
You may want to create custom conversion settings for certain jobs or output devices. The selections you make
determine such things as whether the document fonts are embedded and subsetted at 100%, how vector objects and
images are compressed and/or sampled, and whether the resulting PDF includes high-end printing information such
as OPI (Open Prepress Interface) comments. Default settings files cannot be modified, but can be duplicated to help
create new settings files.
Note: If the PDF is intended for high-end printing, ask your service provider for their custom .joboptions file with the
recommended output resolution and other settings. This way, the PDF you give them will have characteristics optimized
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Create a custom Adobe PDF settings file
1 Do one of the following:

• In Acrobat Distiller, select one of the predefined sets of options from the Default Settings menu to use as a
starting point, and then choose Settings > Edit Adobe PDF Settings.
• In authoring applications or utilities, select Adobe PDF as the target printer—typically in the Page Setup or Print
dialog boxes—and click Properties.
• (Windows) In the Acrobat PDFMaker dialog box, clickAdvanced Settings in the Settings tab.
Note: In Windows, you can switch to a different preset from within the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box. To do
this, select Show All Settings at the bottom left and then select a preset from the list on the left.

2 Select panels one at a time, and make changes as needed.
3 Save your customized preset in one of the following ways:

• Click OK to save a duplicate of the custom preset file, which will automatically be renamed. For example, if you
edit the Press Quality preset, your first customized version appears as Press Quality (1).
• Click Save As, type a new descriptive name for the file, and click Save.
The custom file is saved in (Windows) /Documents and Settings/[user name]/Application Data/Adobe/Adobe
PDF/Settings, (Vista/7/8) User/[user name]/AppData/Roaming/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings, or (Mac OS)
Users/[user name]/Library/Application Support/Adobe PDF/Settings.

Delete custom Adobe PDF settings files
1 In Acrobat Distiller, choose Settings > Remove Adobe PDF Settings.
2 Select the custom file and click Remove.
3 Repeat step 2 as needed, and then click Cancel to close the Remove Adobe PDF Settings dialog box.

Adobe PDF settings
The Acrobat Distiller Adobe PDFMaker Settings > Advanced Settings contains panels of options that you can select to
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General panel options
Use this panel to select a version of Acrobat for file compatibility and other file and device settings.
Compatibility Sets the compatibility level of the PDF. Use the most recent version (in this case, version 1.7) to include
all the latest features and functionality. If you’re creating PDFs that will be distributed widely, choose an earlier level, to
ensure that all users can view and print the document.
Object Level Compression Compresses structural information (such as bookmarks, accessibility, and noncompressible

objects), making this information neither visible or usable in Acrobat 5.0 or Reader 5.0. Tags Only compresses
structural information; Off applies no compression.
Auto-Rotate Pages Automatically rotates pages according to the direction of text.

Note: If Process DSC Comments is selected in the Advanced panel and if %%Viewing Orientation comments are included,
these comments take precedence in determining page orientation.
Collectively By File Rotates all pages to match the orientation of the majority of text in the document.
Individually Rotates each page based on the orientation of the text on that page.
Off Prevents pages from rotating.
Binding Specifies whether to display a PDF with left side or right side binding. The Binding setting affects the

appearance of pages in the Two-Up Continuous view and the appearance of thumbnails side by side.
Resolution Use for PostScript files to emulate resolutions based on the printer they are printing to. Permitted values

range from 72 to 4000. Use the default setting unless you plan to print the PDF on a specific printer while emulating
the resolution defined in the original PostScript file.
Note: Increasing the resolution setting increases file size and may slightly increase the time required to process some files.
Pages Specifies which pages to convert to PDF.
Embed Thumbnails Embeds a thumbnail preview for each page in the PDF, increasing the file size. Deselect this setting
when users of Acrobat 5.0 and later will view and print the PDF; these versions generate thumbnails dynamically each
time you click the Pages panel of a PDF.
Optimize For Fast Web View Restructures the file for faster access (page-at-a-time downloading, or byte serving) from

web servers. This option compresses text and line art, overriding compression selections on the Images panel.
Default Page Size Specifies the page size to use when one is not specified in the original file. EPS files give a bounding

box size, not a page size.

Images panel options
The options in the Images panel specify compression and resampling for color, grayscale, and monochrome images.
You may want to experiment with these options to find an appropriate balance between file size and image quality.
The resolution setting for color and grayscale images should be 1.5 to 2 times the line screen ruling at which the file
will be printed. The resolution for monochrome images should be the same as the output device, but be aware that
saving a monochrome image at a resolution higher than 1500 dpi increases the file size without noticeably improving
image quality. Images that will be magnified, such as maps, may require higher resolutions.
Note: Resampling monochrome images can have unexpected viewing results, such as no image display. If this happens, turn
off resampling and convert the file again. This problem is most likely to occur with subsampling, and least likely with bicubic
downsampling.

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The following table shows common types of printers and their resolution measured in dpi, their default screen ruling
measured in lines per inch (lpi), and a resampling resolution for images measured in pixels per inch (ppi). For example,
if you were printing to a 600-dpi laser printer, you would enter 170 for the resolution at which to resample images.
Printer resolution

Default line screen

Image resolution

300 dpi (laser printer)

60 lpi

120 ppi

600 dpi (laser printer)

85 lpi

170 ppi

1200 dpi (imagesetter)

120 lpi

240 ppi

2400 dpi (imagesetter)

150 lpi

300 ppi

Downsample (Off) Reduces image resolutions that exceed the For Images Above value to the resolution of the output

device by combining pixels in a sample area of the image to make one larger pixel.
Average Downsampling To Averages the pixels in a sample area and replaces the entire area with the average pixel color

at the specified resolution.
Subsampling To Replaces an entire area with a pixel selected from that sample area, at the specified resolution. Causes
faster conversion time than downsampling, but resulting images are less smooth and continuous.
Bicubic Downsampling To Uses a weighted average, instead of a simple average (as in downsampling) to determine

pixel color. This method is slowest but produces the smoothest tonal gradations.
Compression/Image Quality Applies compression to color, grayscale, and monochrome images. For color and
grayscale images, also sets the image quality.
Anti-Alias To Gray Smooths jagged edges in monochrome images. Choose 2 bit, 4 bit, or 8 bit to specify 4, 16, or 256

levels of gray. (Anti-aliasing may cause small type or thin lines to look blurry.)
Note: Compression of text and line art is always on. To turn it off, set the appropriate Distiller parameter. For details, see
the SDK information on the Acrobat Developer Center at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_devcenter_en (PDF, English
only).
Policy Opens the Image Policy dialog box, where you can set processing options for Color, Grayscale, and

Monochrome images that are less than the resolutions you specify. For each type of image, enter a resolution value, and
then choose Ignore, Warn And Continue, or Cancel Job.

Fonts panel options
The Fonts options specify which fonts to embed in a PDF, and whether to embed a subset of characters used in the PDF.
You can embed OpenType®, TrueType, and PostScript fonts. Fonts that have license restrictions are listed with a lock
. If you select a font that has a license restriction, the nature of the restriction is described in the Adobe PDF
icon
Options dialog box.
Note: When you combine PDF files that have the same font subset, Acrobat attempts to combine the font subsets.
Embed All Fonts Embeds all fonts used in the file. Font embedding is required for PDF/X compliance.
Embed OpenType Fonts Embeds all OpenType fonts used in the file, and maintains OpenType font information for

advanced line layout. This option is available only if either Acrobat 7.0 (PDF 1.6) or Acrobat 8 (PDF 1.7) is selected
from the Compatibility menu in the General panel.
Subset Embedded Fonts When Percent Of Characters Used Is Less Than Specifies a threshold percentage if you want to
embed only a subset of the fonts. For example, if the threshold is 35, and fewer than 35% of the characters are used,
Distiller embeds only those characters.
When Embedding Fails Specifies how Distiller responds if it cannot find a font to embed when processing a file.

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Always Embed To embed only certain fonts, move them into the Always Embed list. Make sure that Embed All Fonts

is not selected.
Never Embed Move fonts that you do not want to embed to this list. If necessary, choose a different font folder from

the pop-up menu to display the font in the font list.
Note: Fonts that have license restrictions are listed with a lock icon. If you select a font with a license restriction, the nature
of the restriction is described in the Adobe PDF Options dialog box.
Add Name If the font you want is not in a font folder, click Add Name. Enter the name of the font, select Always Embed

List (or Never Embed List), and click Add.
Note: A TrueType font can contain a setting added by the font designer that prevents the font from being embedded in PDF
files.
Remove Removes a font from the Always Embed or Never Embed list. This action doesn’t remove the font from your
system; it removes the reference to the font from the list.

Note: Acrobat does not include the Times, Helvetica, and ZapfDingbats fonts. If you want PDF recipients to view and print
these fonts in PDFs that you create, embed the fonts.

Color panel options
Whether you’re using color management information in the PostScript file, using Distiller CSFs, or defining custom
settings, you set all color management information for Distiller on the Color panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog
box.
Settings File Lists color settings, including those used in graphics applications. The None setting lets you edit the Color

Management Policies and Working Spaces settings.
Color Management Policies Specifies how Distiller converts unmanaged color in a PostScript file when you don’t use a
Distiller color settings file. This menu is available when None is selected in the Settings File menu.

Note: Color Management Policies values may affect a PDF differently depending on the compatibility setting you choose in
the General panel.
Leave Color Unchanged Leaves device-dependent colors unchanged and preserves device-independent colors as the

nearest possible equivalent. This is a useful option for print shops that have calibrated their devices, have used that
information to specify color in the file, and are only outputting to those devices.
Tag (Or Convert) Everything For Color Management Tags color objects with an ICC profile and calibrates colors,

making them device-independent in PDFs compatible with Acrobat 4.0 (PDF 1.3) and later. Converts devicedependent color spaces in images (RGB, Grayscale, and CMYK) to device-independent color spaces (CalRGB, CalGray,
and Cie L*a*b) in Acrobat 3.0 (PDF 1.2) compatible PDFs.
Tag (Or Convert) Only Images For Color Management Tags ICC profiles in images only (not text or vector objects),

which prevents black text from undergoing any color shift when distilling Acrobat 4.0 (PDF 1.3) compatible PDFs.
Converts device-dependent color spaces in images (RGB, Grayscale, and CMYK) to device-independent color spaces
(CalRGB, CalGray, and Lab) in Acrobat 3.0 (PDF 1.2) compatible PDFs.
Convert All Colors To sRGB (or Convert Everything To CalRGB) Calibrates color, making it device-independent.

Converts CMYK and RGB images to sRGB in PDFs compatible with Acrobat 4.0 (PDF 1.3) or later. Converts CMYK
and RGB images to calibrated RGB (CalRGB) in Acrobat 3.0 (PDF 1.2) compatible PDFs. Recommended for PDFs that
will be used onscreen or with low-resolution printers.
Convert All Colors To CMYK Converts color spaces to DeviceGray or DeviceCMYK according to the options specified

in the Working Spaces menu. All Working Spaces must be specified.

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Document Rendering Intent Choose a method to map colors between color spaces. The result of any particular method

depends on the profiles of the color spaces. For example, some profiles produce identical results with different methods.
Acrobat shares four rendering intents (Perceptual, Saturation, Relative Colorimetric, and Absolute Colorimetric) with
other Creative Suite applications.
Acrobat also includes a rendering intent called Preserve, which indicates that the intent is specified in the output device
rather than in the PDF. In many output devices, Relative Colorimetric is the default intent.
Note: In all cases, intents may be ignored or overridden by color management operations that occur subsequent to the
creation of the PDF file.
Working Spaces For all Color Management Policies values other than Leave Color Unchanged, choose a working space

to specify which ICC profiles are used for defining and calibrating the grayscale, RGB, and CMYK color spaces in
distilled PDFs.
Gray Choose a profile to define the color space of all grayscale images in files. The default ICC profile for gray images

is Adobe Gray - 20% Dot Gain. Choose None to prevent grayscale images from being converted.
RGB Choose a profile to define the color space of all RGB images in files. The default, sRGB IEC61966-2.1, is

recognized by many output devices. Choose None to prevent RGB images from being converted.
CMYK Choose a profile to define the color space of all CMYK images in files. The default is U.S. Web Coated (SWOP)
v2. Choose None to prevent CMYK images from being converted.

Note: Choosing None for all three working spaces has the same effect as selecting the option Leave Color Unchanged.
You can add ICC profiles (such as ones provided by your print service bureau) by placing them in the ICCProfiles folder
in the Common folder, the Windows\System\Color folder (Windows), or the System Folder/ColorSync folder (Mac OS).
Preserve CMYK Values For Calibrated CMYK Color Spaces When selected, device-independent CMYK values are

treated as device-dependent (DeviceCMYK) values, device-independent color spaces are discarded, and PDF/X-1a
files use the Convert All Colors To CMYK value. When deselected, device-independent color spaces convert to CMYK,
provided that Color Management Policies is set to Convert All Colors To CMYK.
Preserve Under Color Removal And Black Generation Retains these settings if they exist in the PostScript file. Black
generation calculates the amount of black to use when reproducing a color. Undercolor removal (UCR) reduces cyan,
magenta, and yellow to compensate for black generation. Because UCR uses less ink, it’s suitable for uncoated stock.
When Transfer Functions Are Found Specifies how to handle transfer functions in PDFs. Transfer functions are used

for artistic effect and to correct for the characteristics of a specific output device.
Remove Deletes any applied transfer functions. Applied transfer functions should be removed, unless the PDF is to be
output to the same device that the source PostScript file was created for.
Preserve Retains the transfer functions traditionally used to compensate for dot gain or dot loss that may occur when

an image is transferred to film. Dot gain or loss occurs when the ink dots that make up a printed image are larger or
smaller than in the halftone screen.
Apply Applies the transfer function, changing the colors in the file but doesn’t keep it. This method is useful for

creating color effects in a file.
Preserve Halftone Information Retains any halftone information in files. Halftone information is intended for use with

a particular output device.

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Advanced panel options
Advanced options specify which Document Structuring Conventions (DSC) comments to keep in a PDF and how to
set other options that affect the conversion from PostScript. In a PostScript file, DSC comments contain information
about the file (such as the originating application, the creation date, and the page orientation) and provide structure for
page descriptions in the file (such as beginning and ending statements for a prologue section). DSC comments can be
useful when your document is going to print or press.
For more information, see the documents on the Adobe PDF Technology Center at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_pdftechnology_en (PDF, English only).
Note: The ASCII Format option has been removed from Distiller, but is still available as a Distiller parameter.
Allow PostScript File To Override Adobe PDF Settings Uses settings stored in a PostScript file rather than the current

PDF settings file. For more information about customizing PDF settings, see the SDK information on the Acrobat
Developer Center at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_devcenter_en (PDF, English only).
Allow PostScript XObjects PostScript XObjects store fragments of PostScript code to be used when a PDF is printed on

a PostScript printer. Use only in controlled workflows where there is no other option. Available when the Standard or
Smallest File Size is selected from the Default Settings menu.
Convert Gradients To Smooth Shades Converts blends to smooth shades for Acrobat 4.0 and later, improving quality
and reducing file size of PDFs. Distiller converts gradients from Adobe Illustrator, Adobe InDesign, Adobe FreeHand®,
CorelDraw, QuarkXPress, and Microsoft PowerPoint.
Convert Smooth Lines To Curves Reduces the amount of control points used to build curves in CAD drawings, which
results in smaller PDFs and faster onscreen rendering.
Preserve Level 2 Copypage Semantics Uses the copypage operator defined in PostScript Level 2 rather than in

Language Level 3 PostScript. If you have a PostScript file and select this option, a copypage operator copies the page. If
this option is not selected, the equivalent of a showpage operation is executed, except that the graphics state is not
reinitialized.
Preserve Overprint Settings Retains any overprint settings in files being converted to PDF. Overprint settings create
color by printing one ink on top of another ink.
Overprinting Default Is Nonzero Overprinting Prevents overprinted objects with zero CMYK values from knocking

out CMYK objects beneath them.
Save Adobe PDF Settings Inside PDF File Embeds the settings file (.joboptions) used to create the PDF as an
attachment. (To view the settings file, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Attachments in Acrobat.)
Save Original JPEG Image In PDF If Possible Processes compressed JPEG images (images that are already compressed
using DCT encoding) without recompressing them. When deselected, performance improves because only
decompression, not recompression, occurs.
Save Portable Job Ticket Inside PDF File Preserves a PostScript job ticket in a PDF. Job tickets describe the PostScript

file and can be used later in a workflow or for printing the PDF.
Use Prologue.ps and Epilogue.ps Sends a prologue and epilogue file with each job. These files can be used to add
custom PostScript code that you want to have executed at the beginning or end of every PostScript job being converted.

Sample Prologue.ps and Epilogue.ps files are located in (Windows) /Documents and Settings/All Users/Application
Data/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Distiller/Data, (Vista) /Users/All Users/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Distiller/Data, (Windows
7/8/Vista) /Users/[Username]/AppData/Roaming/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Distiller/Data or (Mac OS)/Library/Application
Support/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Distiller/Data.

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In Windows Explorer, the Application Data folder is typically hidden; to make it visible, choose Tools > Folder Options,
click the View tab, and select Show Hidden Files And Folders. For Windows 7, Start > Control Panel > Folder Options
> View > Show Hidden Files, Folders, and Drives. Or, you can type the path into the Address text box.
Note: In Acrobat Standard, Distiller processes prologue and epilogue files only if both files are present and located properly.
The two files must be used together.
Note: In Acrobat Pro, Distiller processes prologue and epilogue files only if both files are present and located properly. The
two files must be used together. If the prologue and epilogue files are at the same level as the In and Out folders of a watched
folder, they are used instead of the ones in the Distiller folder.
Process DSC Comments Maintains DSC information from a PostScript file.
Log DSC Warnings Displays warning messages about problematic DSC comments during processing and adds them to

a log file.
Preserve EPS Information From DSC Retains information for an EPS file, such as the originating application and

creation date.
Preserve OPI Comments Retains information needed to replace a For Placement Only (FPO) image or comment with

the high-resolution image located on servers that support Open Prepress Interface (OPI) versions 1.3 and 2.0. For more
information, see the OPI 2.0 specification at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_opi2spec_en (PDF, English only).
Preserve Document Information From DSC Retains document properties, such as the title, creation date, and time, in

the PDF.
Resize Page And Center Artwork For EPS Files Centers an EPS image and resizes the page to fit closely around the

image. If deselected, the page is sized and centered based on the upper left corner of the upper left object and lower
right corner of the lower right object on the page. This option applies only to jobs that consist of a single EPS file.

Standards panel options
By using Standards options, you can check document content in the PostScript file to make sure it meets standard
PDF/X1-a, PDF/X-3, or PDF/A criteria before creating the PDF. For PDF/X-compliant files, you can also require that
the PostScript file meet additional criteria by selecting options in the Standards panel. The availability of options
depends on the standard you select. You can also create a PDF/X file from a compliant PDF by using the Preflight
feature in Acrobat.
PDF/X-compliant Complies with the PDF/X standard for high-resolution print production.

Note: PDFMaker, the conversion method used to convert Microsoft Word and other application files to PDF, does not create
PDF/X-compliant files.
PDF/A-compliant Complies with the PDF/A standard for archival documents.

Note: If you set up a watched folder for creating PDF/A-compliant files in Acrobat Pro, do not add security to the folder.
The PDF/A standard does not allow encryption.
Compliance Standard Produces a report that indicates whether the file complies with the standard you select, and if
not, what problems were encountered. The .log file appears at the bottom of the dialog box.

Note: PDFs that complied with both PDF/X-1a and PDF/X-3 standards in Acrobat 6.0 default to PDF/X-1a in Acrobat XI.
When Not Compliant Specifies whether to create the PDF if the PostScript file does not comply with the requirements

of the standard.
Continue Creates a PDF even if the PostScript file does not meet the requirements of the standard, and notes these

problems in the report.
Cancel Job Creates a PDF only if the PostScript file meets the requirements of the standard, and is otherwise valid.

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Report As Error (Acrobat Pro DC) Flags the PostScript file as noncompliant if one of the reporting options is selected

and a trim box or art box is missing from any page.
Set TrimBox To MediaBox With Offsets (Acrobat Pro DC) Computes values for the trim box based on the offsets for the

media box of respective pages if neither the trim box nor art box is specified. The trim box is always as small as or
smaller than the enclosing media box.
Set BleedBox To MediaBox (Acrobat Pro DC) Uses the media box values for the bleed box if the bleed box is not

specified.
Set BleedBox To TrimBox With Offsets (Acrobat Pro DC) Computes values for the bleed box based on the offsets for the

trim box of respective pages if the bleed box is not specified. The bleed box is always as large as or larger than the
enclosed trim box. This option uses the units specified on the General panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box.
Output Intent Profile Name (Acrobat Pro DC) Indicates the characterized printing condition for which the document
has been prepared, and is required for PDF/X compliance. If a document doesn’t specify an output intent profile name,
Distiller uses the selected value from this menu. If your workflow requires that the document specify the output intent,
choose None.
Output Condition Identifier (Acrobat Pro DC) Indicates the reference name that is specified by the registry of the output

intent profile name. For more information, click the question mark next to the option.
Output Condition (Acrobat Pro DC) Describes the intended printing condition. This entry can be useful for the
intended receiver of the PDF. For more information, click the question mark next to the option.
Registry Name (URL) (Acrobat Pro DC) Indicates the web address for finding more information about the output intent
profile. The URL is automatically entered for ICC registry names. The registry name is optional, but recommended.
For more information, click the question mark next to the option.
Trapped (Acrobat Pro DC) Indicates the state of trapping in the document. PDF/X compliance requires a value of True
or False. If the document does not specify the trapped state, the value provided here is used. If your workflow requires
that the document specify the trapped state, choose Leave Undefined.

PDF compatibility levels
When you create PDFs, you need to decide which PDF version to use. You can change the PDF version by switching to
a different preset or choosing a compatibility option when you save as PDF or edit a PDF preset.
Generally speaking, unless there’s a specific need for backward compatibility, you should use the most recent version
(in this case version 1.7). The latest version will include all the newest features and functionality. However, if you’re
creating documents that will be distributed widely, consider choosing Acrobat 5.0 (PDF 1.4) or Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5)
to ensure that all users can view and print the document.
The following table compares some of the functionality in PDFs created using the different compatibility settings.
Note: Acrobat 8.0 and 9.0 also use PDF 1.7.

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Acrobat 4.0 (PDF 1.3)

Acrobat 5.0 (PDF 1.4)

Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5)

Acrobat 7.0 (PDF 1.6) and Acrobat
X (PDF 1.7)

PDFs can be opened with Acrobat PDFs can be opened with Acrobat
3.0 and Acrobat Reader 3.0 and
3.0 and Acrobat Reader 3.0 and
later.
later. However, features specific to
later versions may be lost or not
viewable.

Most PDFs can be opened with
Acrobat 4.0 and Acrobat Reader
4.0 and later. However, features
specific to later versions may be
lost or not viewable.

Most PDFs can be opened with
Acrobat 4.0 and Acrobat Reader
4.0 and later. However, features
specific to later versions may be
lost or not viewable.

Cannot contain artwork that uses
live transparency effects. Any
transparency must be flattened
prior to converting to PDF 1.3.

Supports the use of live
transparency in artwork. (The
Acrobat Distiller feature flattens
transparency.)

Supports the use of live
transparency in artwork. (The
Acrobat Distiller feature flattens
transparency.)

Supports the use of live
transparency in artwork. (The
Acrobat Distiller feature flattens
transparency.)

Layers are not supported.

Layers are not supported.

Preserves layers when creating
PDFs from applications that
support the generation of layered
PDF documents, such as
Illustrator CS and later or InDesign
CS and later.

Preserves layers when creating
PDFs from applications that
support the generation of layered
PDF documents, such as
Illustrator CS and later or InDesign
CS and later.

DeviceN color space with 8
colorants is supported.

DeviceN color space with 8
colorants is supported.

DeviceN color space with up to 31 DeviceN color space with up to 31
colorants is supported.
colorants is supported.

Multibyte fonts can be
Multibyte fonts can be
embedded. (Distiller converts the embedded.
fonts when embedding.)

Multibyte fonts can be
embedded.

Multibyte fonts can be
embedded.

40-bit RC4 security supported.

128-bit RC4 security supported.

128-bit RC4 and 128-bit AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard)
security supported.

128-bit RC4 security supported.

Share custom PDF settings
You can save and reuse your own Adobe PDF preset definitions. You can also share a custom preset by sending a copy
of the resulting file to other users. Those users can then add it to the Distiller applications installed on their own
computers.
PDF settings files have the extension .joboptions. Custom preset files are stored in the following locations.

• (Windows XP) Documents and Settings/[username]/Application Data/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings
• (Vista/Windows 7/Windows 8) Users/User/AppData/Roaming/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings
• (Acrobat Pro DC for Mac OS) User/[username]/Library/Application Support/Adobe/Adobe PDF/Settings

❖ To add a custom PDF settings file to the menu, do one of the following:

• Drag the .joboptions file onto the Distiller window.
• In Acrobat Distiller, choose Settings >Add Adobe PDF Settings, browse to the copied .joboptions file, select it,
and click Open.
The settings file appears as the selected option in the Default Settings menu.

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Compressing and downsampling images
When converting PostScript files to PDF, you can compress vector objects (such as text and line art) and compress and
downsample images. Line art is described with a mathematical equation and is usually created with a drawing program
such as Adobe Illustrator. Images—whether color, monochrome, or grayscale—are described as pixels and are created
with applications like Adobe Photoshop or by scanning. Monochrome images include most black-and-white
illustrations made by paint programs and any images scanned with an image depth of 1 bit.
When you downsample (or decrease the number of pixels), information is deleted from the image. With Distiller, you
specify an interpolation method—average downsampling, bicubic downsampling, or subsampling—to determine how
pixels are deleted. Depending on the settings you choose, compression and downsampling can significantly reduce the
size of a PDF with little or no loss of detail and precision.
When Distiller processes a file, it normally applies the compression settings to images throughout the file. However,
you can assign different compression and downsampling methods to individual images.
Varying the compression and downsampling methods within a PDF
Before you create a PDF, you can take various approaches to applying different compression and downsampling options
to the individual images that will go into that PDF:

• Use Adobe PhotoshopCC to resample and compress existing image files before using Distiller. When you are ready
to create the PDF in Distiller, be careful to deselect the compression and downsampling or subsampling options.
• Create separate PostScript files for each part of the document that you want to process differently, and use different
compression options to distill each part. Then use Distiller to merge the files into a single PDF.
• When you create color, grayscale, and monochrome images in an art application (such as Adobe Photoshop CC),
select the compression and downsampling settings that you want when you save each image from within that
application.
• Insert Distiller parameters before images in a PostScript file. You can use this technique to process every image in a
document differently. This technique is the most difficult, because it requires knowledge of PostScript
programming. For more information on using parameters, see the SDK documentation on the Acrobat Developer
Center at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_devcenter_en(English only).
Note: To apply the inserted Distiller parameters, select Allow PostScript File To Override Adobe PDF Settings on the
Advanced panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box in Distiller. This option overrides settings you selected in the Adobe
PDF dialog box.

Compression methods
Distiller applies ZIP compression to text and line art, ZIP or JPEG compression to color and grayscale images, and ZIP,
CCITT Group 3 or 4, or Run Length compression to monochrome images.

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A ZIP B JPEG C CCITT D Run Length

You can choose from the following compression methods:
ZIP Works well on images with large areas of single colors or repeating patterns, and for black-and-white images that

contain repeating patterns. Acrobat supports only 8-bit ZIP compression, which is lossless; that is, data is not removed
to reduce file size, so image quality is not affected.

Note: Adobe implementation of the ZIP filter is derived from the zlib package of Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler, whose
generous assistance we gratefully acknowledge.
JPEG Suitable for grayscale or color images, such as continuous-tone photographs. JPEG is lossy, which means that it
removes image data and may reduce image quality; however, it attempts to reduce file size with the minimum loss of
information. Because JPEG compression eliminates data, it can achieve much smaller file sizes than ZIP compression.
CCITT Available only for monochrome bitmap images. CCITT (Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy

and Telephony) compression is appropriate for black-and-white images and any images scanned with an image depth
of 1 bit. Group 4 is a general-purpose method that produces good compression for most monochrome images. Group
3, used by most fax machines, compresses monochrome images one row at a time.
Run Length Produces the best results for images that contain large areas of solid white or black.

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More Help topics
PDF/X- and PDF/A-compliant files (Acrobat Pro)
Find PostScript font names

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Chapter 3: Editing PDFs

Edit text in PDFs
Easily correct, update, and add text to PDF files. Reflow paragraphs and correct typos— without returning to your
original source document. Use the Add Text too to fill in noninteractive PDF forms.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Acrobat Reader DC, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help . And, if you're using Acrobat 8, 9, or 10, see previous versions
of Acrobat Help.

Edit text in a PDF
The Edit Text & Images tool lets you replace, edit, or add text to a PDF. You can correct typos, change fonts and typeface
size, adjust alignment, add superscripts or subscripts, and resize text or paragraphs.

You edit a PDF one page at a time. For more extensive editing or to make global formatting changes across the entire
document, edit the original document. If the original isn’t available, you can save the PDF as a Microsoft Word
document or PowerPoint presentation. Then edit, and re-create the PDF.

Edit or format text in a PDF
When you edit text, the text in the paragraph reflows within its text box to accommodate the changes. Each text box is
independent, and inserting text in one text block does not push down an adjacent text box or reflow to the next page.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

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2 Select the text you want to edit.
3 Edit the text by doing one of the following:

• Type new text to replace the selected text, or press Delete to remove it.
• Select a font, font size, or other formatting options under Format in the right hand pane. You can also use the
advanced format options, such as line spacing, character spacing, horizontal scaling, stroke width, and color.

Note: For legal reasons, you must have purchased a font and have it installed on your system to revise text using that
font.You can edit text only if the font used for that text is installed on your system. If the font isn’t installed on your
system, but is embedded in the PDF, you can change only the color or font size. If the font is neither installed or
embedded, you can't edit any of the text.
4 Click outside the selection to deselect it and start over.

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Add or remove items from a numbered or bulleted list
You can add items to a numbered or bulleted list.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

The content that is part of a single list is displayed in one bounding box, including the text and the bullets or
numbers.
2 You can add or remove items to the list at all nested levels using the same familiar controls that you use in MS Office.

For example, press Enter at the end of a list item to insert a new row. Press Backspace to remove the new row and
position the cursor back to the end of previous list item.
Upon adding or removing an item to the list, the list formatting adjusts automatically.

Add new text to a PDF
You can add or insert new text into a PDF using any of the fonts installed on the system.
1 Select Tools > Edit PDF > Add Text

.

2 Drag to define the width of the text block you want to add.
3 For vertical text, right-click the text box, and choose Make Text Direction Vertical.
4 The Add text tool intelligently detects the following text properties of text close to the point of click:

• Font name, size, and color
• Character, paragraph, and line spacing
• Horizontal scaling
These text properties are automatically applied to the text that you add at the point of click.
You can change the text properties using the options under Format in the right hand pane.
5 Type the text.
6 To resize the text box, drag a selection handle.
7 To move the text box, place the pointer over the line of the bounding box (avoid the selection handles). When the

cursor changes to Move pointer
items, press Shift as you drag.

, drag the box to the new location. To maintain alignment with the other list

Move, rotate, or resize a text box
You can move or rotate text boxes on a page. The Edit Text & Images tool outlines each text box, so it is clear what text
is affected. Edits are confined to the page. You cannot drag a text block to another page, or move or rotate individual
characters or words within a text box. However, you can copy text boxes and paste them on another page.
Resizing a text box causes the text to reflow within the new text box boundaries. It does not change the size of the text.
To change the font size, see Edit or format text in a PDF. As with other text edits, resizing is limited to the current page.
Text does not flow to the next page.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

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2 Click the text box you want to move, rotate, or resize.

3 Do any of the following:
Move Place the pointer over the line of the bounding box (avoid the selection handles). When the cursor changes

, drag the box to the desired location. Hold down the Shift key as you drag to constrain the
to Move pointer
movement vertically or horizontally.

Rotate Place the pointer just outside a selection handle. When the cursor changes to the Rotation pointer

, drag

in the direction you want it to rotate.

Resize Place the pointer over a selection handle. When the cursor changes to the Resize pointer

handle to resize the text block.

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Add, edit, or move text on noninteractive forms or when signing
Organizations sometimes provide PDF versions of their paper forms without interactive form fields (called "flat
forms"). Use the Add Text tool on the Comment toolbar to fill in non-interactive forms or to add text to documents
you need to sign. Text added with this tool is actually a comment and does not change the original PDF.

Add text to a noninteractive (flat form) PDF
1 Choose Tools > Comment > Add Text Comment

.

2 Click where you want to add text.
3 In the Add Text Comment toolbar, select the color, font, and font size for the text you want to add.
4 Type the text. Press Enter to add a second line.

Edit text in a noninteractive (flat form) PDF
To change the text properties, select the text you want to edit. Use any of the following tools in the Add Text Comment
toolbar:

• To change the text size, click the Decrease Text Size button or the Increase Text Size button. Or choose a font size
from the pop-up menu.
• To change the line spacing (leading), click the Decrease Line Spacing button or the Increase Line Spacing button.
• Choose a color from the Text Color menu.
• Choose a font from the Font menu.

Move or resize text in a noninteractive (flat form) PDF
To move or resize a text block, choose Tools > Comment > Comment List (in the right hand pane). In the comment
list, click the comment containing the text you want to move or resize. When the bounding box appears, drag the text
block or one of its corners.

• Edit images or objects in a PDF
• Edit scanned PDFs
• Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
• Edit document structure with the Content and Tags panels (Acrobat Pro)

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More Help topics

Edit images or objects in a PDF
Easily correct, update, and enhance PDF files. Resize, move, or replace images— without returning to your original
source document.

Place an image or object into a PDF
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Add Image

.

2 In the Open dialog box, locate the file you want to place.
3 Select the image file, and click Open.
4 Click where you want to place the image, or click-drag to size the image as you place it.

A copy of the image file appears on the page, with the same resolution as the original file.
5 Use the bounding box handles to resize the image, or the tools in the right hand panel under Objects to Flip, Rotate,

or Crop the image.

Move or resize an image or object
1 Select the appropriate tool depending on what you want to move:

Image: Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit
in the top left corner.

. When you hover over an image you can edit, the image icon appears

Interactive Objects: To edit form fields, buttons, or other interactive objects, choose Tools > Rich Media > Select
Object .
2 Do any of the following:

• To move the image or object, drag it to the desired location. You cannot drag images or objects to a different page
(you can cut and paste them to a new page instead). Shift-drag the object to constrain movement up or down, or
right or left.
• To resize the image or object, select it, then drag a handle. Shift-drag the handle to retain the original aspect ratio.
Note: If you select multiple objects, you can move or resize them together.

Rotate, flip, crop (clip), or replace an image
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

2 Select the image (or images).
3 Under Objects in the right hand panel, click one of the following tools:

Flips the image vertically, on the horizontal axis.

Flip Vertical

Flips the image horizontally, on the vertical axis.

Flip Horizontal

Rotate Counterclockwise
Rotate Clockwise
Crop Image

Rotates the selected image ninety degrees in the counterclockwise direction.

Rotates the selected image ninety degrees in the clockwise direction.

Crops or clips the selected image. Drag a selection handle to crop the image.

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Replace Image
Replaces the selected image with the image you choose. Locate the replacement image in the
Open dialog, and click Open.
To rotate the selected image manually, place the pointer just outside a selection handle. When the cursor changes to the
rotation pointer
, drag in the direction you want it to rotate.

Move an image or object in front or behind other elements
The Arrange options let you move an image or object in front of or behind other elements. You can push an item
forward or back just one level, or send it to the front or back of the stacking order of elements on the page.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

2 Select the object (or objects).
3 Under Objects in the right hand panel, click Arrange

and choose the appropriate option.

Alternatively, you can right-click the object (or objects), and point to Arrange and then choose the appropriate
option.
For complex pages where it is hard to select an object, you may find it easier to change the order using the Content
tab. (Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.)

Align images or objects
The Align Objects options let you precisely align multiple objects on a side - Left, Vertical Centre, Right, Top,
Horizontal Centre, and Bottom.
When you align objects relative to each other by their edges, one of the objects remains stationary. For example, the Left
option aligns the left edges of the selected objects with respect to the left edge of the leftmost object. The leftmost object
remains stationary, and the other objects are aligned relative to it.
The Horizontal Centre option aligns the selected objects horizontally through the centre of the objects, and the Vertical
Centre option aligns the selected objects vertically through the centers of the objects. The objects are aligned along a
horizontal or vertical line that represents the average of their original positions. An object can remain stationary, if it is
already aligned to the horizontal or vertical line.
Depending on the alignment option you select, objects move straight up, down, left, or right, and might overlap an
object already located there. If you see an overlap, you can undo the alignment.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

2 Select the object (or objects).
3 Under Objects in the right hand panel, click Align Objects

and choose the appropriate alignment option.

Alternatively, you can right-click the object (or objects), and point to the Align Objects option from the context
menu and then select the desired alignment option from the submenu.

Edit an image outside Acrobat
You can edit an image or graphic using another application, such as Photoshop, Illustrator, or Microsoft Paint. When
you save the image or graphic, Acrobat automatically updates the PDF with the changes. The applications that appear
in the Edit Using menu depend upon what you have installed and the type of image or graphic you have selected.
Optionally, you can specify the application you want to use.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit

.

2 Select the image or object.

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Select multiple items if you want to edit them together in the same file. To edit all the images and objects on the page,
right-click the page, and choose Select All.
3 Under Objects in the right hand panel, click Edit Using

and then choose an editor.

To choose a different editor than offered on the menu, select Open With, locate the application, and click Open.
Note: If a message asks whether to convert to ICC profiles, choose Don’t Convert. If the image window displays a
checkerboard pattern when it opens, the image data could not be read.
4 Make the desired changes in the external editing application. Keep in mind the following restrictions:

• If you change the dimensions of the image, the image may not align correctly in the PDF.
• Transparency information is preserved only for masks that are specified as index values in an indexed color
space.
• If you are working in Photoshop, flatten the image.
• Image masks are not supported.
• If you change image modes while editing the image, you may lose valuable information that can be applied only
in the original mode.
5 In the editing application, choose File > Save. The object is automatically updated and displayed in the PDF when

you bring Acrobat DC to the foreground.
Note: For Photoshop, if the image is in a format supported by Photoshop 6.0 or later, your edited image is saved back
into the PDF. However, if the image is in an unsupported format, Photoshop handles the image as a generic PDF image,
and the edited image is saved to disk instead of back into the PDF.

• Edit text in PDFs
• Edit scanned PDFs
• Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
• Edit document structure with the Content and Tags panels (Acrobat Pro)

More Help topics

Edit scanned PDFs
Scan any paper documents to PDF and easily turn them into editable PDFs.

Edit text in scanned PDFs
When you open a scanned document for editing, Acrobat DC automatically runs OCR (optical character recognition)
in the background and converts the document into editable image and text with correctly recognized fonts in the
document. Also, a prompt on upper-right corner appears showing you the recognized OCR language. It also points you
to the settings button if you want to change the OCR language.
By default, only the current page is converted to editable text instead of the entire document in one go. As you move
from one page to another, the page in focus is made editable.

To edit text in a scanned PDF
1 Open the scanned PDF file in Acrobat DC.

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2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF. Acrobat automatically applies OCR to your document and converts it to a fully editable

copy of your PDF.
A prompt on the upper-right corner appears showing you the recognized OCR language. To change the language,
click Settings in the prompt or in the right pane. For more information about the various settings, see Options for
scanned documents editingbelow.
3 Click the text element you want to edit and start typing. New text matches the look of the original fonts in your

scanned image.
4 Choose File > Save As and type a new name for your editable document.

Options for scanned documents editing
When you open a scanned document for editing, the two scan-specific options are displayed in the right pane under
Scanned Documents:

• Settings: It shows options to change OCR language, use system fonts, and make all pages editable at one go.
• Revert Page to Image (or Convert to text): It allows switching from Text to Image or Image to Text editing mode.

Settings
Use the settings to change OCR language, choose whether to use system fonts, and make all pages editable at one go.
Click Settings in the right pane under Scanned Documents. The dialog box shows the following three settings:

• OCR language: By default the OCR language is picked from default locale.
• Use System fonts: If this option is checked, during the process of scanned to editable text conversion, the converted
text is displayed in a font that is installed on the system and is a closest match to the original font in the scanned page.
• Make all pages editable: if this option is checked, then all pages of the current document will be converted to
editable text in one go. This is a relatively slower option. Use this option only if you want to edit all pages or convert
all pages to editable text.
Initially, the language is set to the default locale and the other options are disabled. Any changes to these settings remain
persistent and are applied when you enter in the edit mode (Tools > Edit PDF).

Rotate, move, delete, and renumber PDF pages
To manipulate pages in a PDF, make sure that you have permissions to edit the PDF. To check, choose File > Properties,
and then click the Security tab. Permissions appear in the Document Restrictions Summary.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Adobe Reader DC, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader DC. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help . And, if you're using Acrobat 7, 8 , 9, or X see previous
versions of Acrobat Help.

Rotate pages
You can rotate all or selected pages in a document. Rotation is based on 90° increments. You can rotate pages using the
rotate tools in the Page Thumbnails pane or using the Rotate option (described below).
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.

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2 In the secondary toolbar, specify the page range on which you want to apply the rotation.

You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number you
want to perform the operation on.
3 After specifying the page range, for Direction, select the counterclockwise 90 Degrees

or clockwise 90 Degrees

.
4 You can also apply the page rotation on a specific page by clicking the counterclockwise or clockwise rotation

buttons displayed in the page thumbnail view.

To temporarily change your view of the page, choose View > Rotate View > Clockwise or Counterclockwise. The
original page orientation is restored the next time you open the PDF.

Extract pages
Extraction is the process of reusing selected pages of one PDF in a different PDF. Extracted pages contain not only the
content but also all form fields, comments, and links associated with the original page content.
You can leave the extracted pages in the original document or remove them during the extraction process—comparable
to the familiar processes of cutting-and-pasting or copying-and-pasting, but on the page level.
Note: Any bookmarks or article threading associated with pages are not extracted.
1 Open the PDF in Acrobat DC and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Extract.

A new toolbar appears below the secondary toolbar with the commands specific to the Extract operation.

3 Specify the range of pages to extract.

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You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number you
want to perform the operation on.
4 In the new toolbar, do one or more of the following before you click Extract:

• To remove the extracted pages from the original document, select Delete Pages After Extracting.
• To create a single-page PDF for each extracted page, select Extract Pages As Separate Files.
• To leave the original pages in the document and create a single PDF that includes all of the extracted pages, leave
both check boxes deselected.
The extracted pages are placed in a new document.
Note: The creator of a PDF document can set the security to prevent the extraction of pages. To view the security settings
for a document, choose File > Properties, and select the Security tab.

Split PDFs into multiple documents
You can split one or more documents into multiple smaller documents. When splitting a document, you can specify
the split by maximum number of pages, maximum file size, or top-level bookmarks.
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Split.

A new toolbar appears below the secondary toolbar with the commands specific to the Split operation.

3 In the Split By drop-down list, select the criteria for dividing the document:
Number Of Pages Specify the maximum number of pages for each document in the split.
File Size Specify the maximum file size for each document in the split.
Top-level Bookmarks If the document includes bookmarks, creates one document for every top-level bookmark.

4 To specify a target folder for the split files and filename preferences, click Output Options. Specify the options as

needed, and then click OK.
5 (Optional) To apply the same split to multiple documents, click Split Multiple Files. In the Split Documents dialog

box, click Add Files, and choose Add Files,Add Folders, or Add Open Files. Select the files or folder, and then click
OK.

Move or copy pages
You can use page thumbnails in the Navigation pane or the Document area to copy or move pages within a document,
and copy pages between documents.

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Move or copy a page within a PDF, using page thumbnails
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.

2 Select one or more page thumbnails.
3 Do one of the following:

• To move a page, drag the page number box of the corresponding page thumbnail or the page thumbnail itself to
the new location. A bar appears to show the new position of the page thumbnail. The pages are renumbered.
• To copy a page, Ctrl-drag the page thumbnail to a second location.
Note: You can also perform the above operations in the left navigation pane by clicking the Page Thumbnails
button.

Copy a page between two PDFs, using page thumbnails
1 Open both PDFs, and display them side by side.

Note: Choose Window > Tile > Vertically to display the PDFs side by side.
2 Open the Page Thumbnails panels for both PDFs.

Note: Click the Page Thumbnails button in the left navigation pane to open the Page Thumbnail panel.
3 Drag the page thumbnail into the Page Thumbnails panel of the target PDF. The page is copied into the document,

and the pages are renumbered.

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Delete or replace pages
You can replace an entire PDF page with another PDF page. Only the text and images on the original page are replaced.
Any interactive elements associated with the original page, such as links and bookmarks, are not affected. Likewise,
bookmarks and links that may have been previously associated with the replacement page do not carry over.
Comments, however, are carried over and are combined with any existing comments in the document.
After you delete or replace pages, it’s a good idea to use the Reduce File Size command to rename and save the
restructured document to the smallest possible file size.

Delete pages, using the Delete command
Note: You cannot undo the Delete command.
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.
2 Specify the range of pages to delete.

You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number(s)
you want to delete.
3 In the secondary toolbar, click Delete Pages

, and click OK to confirm.

You cannot delete all pages; at least one page must remain in the document.
If you select Use Logical Page Numbers in the Page Display panel of the Preferences dialog box, you can enter a page
number in parentheses to delete the logical equivalent of the page number. For example, if the first page in the
document is numbered i, you can enter (1) in the Enter Page Range drop-down list, and the page is deleted.

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Delete pages, using page thumbnails
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.
2 Select a page thumbnail you want to delete and click the

icon to delete the page.

3 Alternatively, click the Page Thumbnails button in the left navigation pane to open the Page Thumbnail panel,

select the page or group of pages you want to delete.
4 Click Delete Pages

at the top of the Page Thumbnails panel.

Replace the contents of a page
1 Open the PDF that contains the pages you want to replace.
2 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
3 In the secondary toolbar, click Replace.

The Select Files With New Pages dialog box appears.
4 Select the document containing the replacement pages, and click Open.
5 Under Original, enter the pages to be replaced in the original document.
6 Under Replacement, enter the first page of the replacement page range. The last page is calculated based on the

number of pages to be replaced in the original document.
7 Click OK.

Replace pages using a page thumbnail
1 Open the PDF that contains the pages you want to replace, and then open the PDF that contains the replacement

pages.
2 In the Page Thumbnails panel of the PDF that contains the replacement pages, select a page or group of pages:

• Select the page number boxes of the page thumbnails that you want to use as replacement pages.
• Shift-click to select multiple page thumbnails. Ctrl-click to add to the selection.
• Drag a rectangle around a group of page thumbnails.
3 Ctrl+Alt+drag the selected page thumbnails onto the Pages panel of the target document. Release the mouse button

when the pointer is directly over the page number box of the first page thumbnail you want to replace so that these
pages become highlighted.
The pages you selected in the first document replace the same number of pages in the second document, starting at
the page number you selected to drop the new pages on.

Renumber pages
The page numbers on the document pages do not always match the page numbers that appear below the page
thumbnails and in the Page Navigation toolbar. Pages are numbered with integers, starting with page 1 for the first page
of the document. Because some PDFs may contain front matter, such as a copyright page and table of contents, their
body pages may not follow the numbering shown in the Page Navigation toolbar.

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You can number the pages in your document in a variety of ways. You can specify a different numbering style for group
of pages, such as 1, 2, 3, or i, ii, iii, or a, b, c. You can also customize the numbering system by adding a prefix. For
example, the numbering for chapter 1 could be 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, and so on, and for chapter 2, it could be 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, and
so on.
Using the Number Pages command affects only the page thumbnails on the Pages panel. You can physically add new
page numbers to a PDF using the headers and footers feature.
1 In the left navigation pane, click the Page Thumbnails button to open the Page Thumbnails panel.
2 Choose Page Labels from the Options menu.

3 Specify a page range. (Selected refers to pages selected in the Page Thumbnails panel.)
4 Select one of the following, and then click OK:
Begin New Section Starts a new numbering sequence. Choose a style from the pop-up menu, and enter a starting

page number for the section. Specify a Prefix, if desired.

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Extend Numbering Used In Preceding Section To Selected Pages Continues the numbering sequence from

previous pages without interruption.

More Help topics
Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
Extract component files in a PDF Portfolio
Insert one PDF into another
About tags, accessibility, reading order, and reflow
Add and edit headers and footers

Optimizing PDFs
Save using PDF Optimizer (Acrobat Pro DC)
PDF Optimizer provides many settings for reducing the size of PDF files. Some of the PDF Optimizer settings are
comparable to the settings that are available when you create a PDF file using Distiller. Whether you use all of these
settings or only a few depends on how you intend to use the files and on the essential properties a file must have. In
most cases, the default settings are appropriate for maximum efficiency—saving space by removing embedded fonts,
compressing images, and removing items from the file that are no longer needed.
Before you optimize a file, it’s a good idea to audit the file’s space usage. The space audit results may give you ideas about
where best to reduce file size. You can also reduce the size of your PDF by using the Reduce File Size command.
Note: Some methods of compression may make images unusable in a print production workflow. You should experiment
with various settings before making changes that can’t be discarded.

Open the PDF Optimizer
❖ In a single PDF, choose File > Save As Other > Optimized PDF.

Note: The PDF Optimizer isn’t available when Reflow is selected in the View menu.

Audit the space usage of a PDF (Acrobat Pro DC)
Auditing the space usage gives you a report of the total number of bytes used for specific document elements, including
fonts, images, bookmarks, forms, named destinations, and comments, as well as the total file size. The results are
reported both in bytes and as a percentage of the total file size.
1 Choose File > Save As Other > Optimized PDF. The PDF Optimizer dialog box opens.
2 Click the Audit Space Usage button at the top of the dialog box.

You can also audit space usage of a PDF in the Content pane. Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.
From the Content pane options menu
, choose Audit Space Usage.

Optimize a PDF (Acrobat Pro DC)
1 Open the PDF Optimizer dialog box (File > Save As Other > Optimized PDF).

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2 To use the default settings, choose Standard from the Settings menu, and then skip to step 6. If you change any

settings in the PDF Optimizer dialog box, the Settings menu automatically switches to Custom.
3 From the Make Compatible With menu, choose Retain Existing to keep the current PDF version, or choose an

Acrobat version. (The options available in panels vary depending on this choice.)
4 Select the check box next to a panel (for example, Images, Fonts, Transparency), and then select options in that

panel. To prevent all of the options in a panel from executing during optimization, deselect the check box for that
panel.
5 (Optional) To save your customized settings, click Save and name the settings. (To delete a saved setting, choose it

in the Settings menu and click Delete.)
6 When you are finished selecting options, click OK.
7 In the Save Optimized As dialog box, click Save to overwrite the original PDF with the optimized PDF, or select a

new name or location.
To optimize several documents at the same time, use the Output options for the Actions Wizard.

PDF Optimizer options (Acrobat Pro DC)
Use the options from the panels in the PDF Optimizer dialog box to reduce the size of a PDF.

Images panel
The Images panel of the PDF Optimizer lets you set options for color, grayscale, and monochrome image compression,
and image downsampling.

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Specify the following options, as needed:
Downsample Reduces file size by lowering the resolution of images, which involves merging the colors of original

pixels into larger pixels.
Note: Masked images and images with a size less than 16-by-16 pixels are not downsampled.
Compression Reduces file size by eliminating unnecessary pixel data. In general, JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression

give better results on images like photographs with gradual transitions from color to color. ZIP is the better choice for
illustrations with large areas of solid, flat color, or patterns made up of flat colors. For monochrome images, JBIG2
compression, which is available in PDF Optimizer but not in Distiller, and it is superior to CCITT.
Quality Available only for JPEG and JPEG 2000 formats. JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression methods are typically lossy,
a process that permanently removes some pixel data. You can apply lossy JPEG or JPEG 2000 compression to color
images at various levels (Minimum, Low, Medium, High, Maximum). For JPEG 2000 compression, you can also specify
lossless so that no pixel data is removed. Compression for monochrome images is lossless, except for JBIG2
compression, which provides both Lossy and Lossless modes of compression.
Tile Size Available only for JPEG 2000 format. Divides the image being compressed into tiles of the given size. (If the

image height or width is not an even multiple of the tile size, partial tiles are used on the edges.) Image data for each
tile is individually compressed and can be individually decompressed. The default value of 256 is recommended.
Optimize Images Only If There Is A Reduction In Size When selected, if the image setting will cause an increase in file

size, the optimization for that image is skipped.

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Fonts panel
To ensure an exact match to the source document, it’s a good idea to embed all fonts used in the document. If you don’t
need an exact match and you prefer a smaller file, you can choose not to embed fonts for roman text and East Asian
text (Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Korean, and Japanese). Text in these languages is replaced with a
substitution font when viewed on a system that does not have the original fonts. The Fonts panel of the PDF Optimizer
contains two lists for fonts: fonts that are available for unembedding, and fonts to unembed. Certain fonts aren’t
available for unembedding and don’t appear in the Fonts panel. To unembed fonts in a document, select one or more
fonts in the Embedded Fonts list, and click the Unembed button. If you don’t want to embed subsets of the embedded
fonts, deselect Subset All Embedded Fonts. To prevent unembedding for all fonts in the document, select Do Not
Unembed Any Font.

Transparency panel
If your PDF includes artwork that contains transparency, you can use presets in the Transparency panel of PDF
Optimizer to flatten transparency and reduce file size. (Flattening incorporates transparency into corresponding
artwork by sectioning it into vector-based areas and rasterized areas.) PDF Optimizer applies transparency options to
all pages in the document before applying other optimization options.
If you select the Acrobat 4.0 And Later compatibility setting, the Transparency panel is enabled and all transparency
in the file is flattened during optimization. This ensures compatibility with Acrobat 4.0 and earlier, which doesn’t
support transparency.
When you create flattening presets, they appear with the default presets in the Transparency panel.
Note: Transparency flattening cannot be undone after the file is saved.

Discard Objects panel
The Discard Objects panel lets you specify objects to remove from the PDF and lets you optimize curved lines in CAD
drawings. You can discard objects created in Acrobat DC and in other applications. Selecting an object removes all
occurrences of that object within the PDF.
In the Discard Objects area, you can select from these and other options:
Discard All Form Submission, Import And Reset Actions Disables all actions related to submitting or importing form

data, and resets form fields. This option retains form objects to which actions are linked.
Flatten Form Fields Makes form fields unusable with no change to their appearance. Form data is merged with the page

to become page content.
Discard All JavaScript Actions Removes any actions in the PDF that use JavaScript.
Discard All Alternate Images Removes all versions of an image except the one destined for on-screen viewing. Some

PDFs include multiple versions of the same image for different purposes, such as low-resolution on-screen viewing and
high-resolution printing.
Discard Embedded Page Thumbnails Removes embedded page thumbnails. This is useful for large documents, which
can take a long time to draw page thumbnails after you click the Page Thumbnails button.
Discard Document Tags Removes tags from the document, which also removes the accessibility and reflow capabilities

for the text.
Convert Smooth Lines To Curves Reduces the number of control points used to build curves in CAD drawings, which
results in smaller PDF files and faster on-screen rendering.
Detect And Merge Image Fragments Looks for images or masks that are fragmented into thin slices and tries to merge

the slices into a single image or mask.

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Discard Embedded Print Settings Removes embedded print settings, such as page scaling and duplex mode, from the

document.
Discard Embedded Search Index Removes embedded search indexes, which reduces the file size.
Discard Bookmarks Removes all bookmarks from the document.

Discard User Data panel
Use the Discard User Data panel to remove any personal information that you don’t want to distribute or share with
others. If you’re unable to find personal information, it may be hidden. You can locate hidden text and user-related
information by using the Examine Documentcommand (Tools > Redact > Remove Hidden Information).
Discard All Comments, Forms And Multimedia
Removes all comments, forms, form fields, and multimedia from the PDF.

Discard Document Information And Metadata
Removes information in the document information dictionary and all metadata streams. (Use the Save As command
to restore metadata streams to a copy of the PDF.)

Discard All Object Data
Removes all objects from the PDF.

Discard File Attachments
Removes all file attachments, including attachments added to the PDF as comments. (PDF Optimizer doesn’t optimize
attached files.)

Discard External Cross References
Removes links to other documents. Links that jump to other locations within the PDF are not removed.

Discard Private Data Of Other Applications
Strips information from a PDF document that is useful only to the application that created the document. This does
not affect the functionality of the PDF, but it does decrease the file size.

Discard Hidden Layer Content And Flatten Visible Layers
Decreases file size. The optimized document looks like the original PDF but doesn’t contain any layer information.

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Clean Up panel
The options in the Clean Up panel of the PDF Optimizer dialog box allow you to remove useless items from the
document. These items include elements that are obsolete or unnecessary for your intended use of the document.
Removing certain elements can seriously affect the functionality of the PDF. By default, only elements that do not affect
functionality are selected. If you are unsure of the implications of removing other options, use the default selections.
Object Compression Options Specifies how to apply Flate compression in the file.
Use Flate To Encode Streams That Are Not Encoded Applies Flate compression to all streams that aren’t encoded.
In Streams That Use LZW Encoding, Use Flate Instead Applies Flate compression to all content streams and images that

use LZW encoding.
Discard Invalid Bookmarks Removes bookmarks that point to pages in the document that have been deleted.
Discard Invalid Links Removes links that jump to invalid destinations.
Discard Unreferenced Named Destinations Removes named destinations that are not being referenced internally from

within the PDF document. Because this option does not check for links from other PDF files or websites, it does not fit
in some workflows.
Optimize Page Content Converts all end-of-line characters to space characters, which improves Flate compression.
Optimize The PDF For Fast Web View Restructures a PDF document for page-at-a-time downloading (byte-serving)

from web servers.

Enable Fast Web View in a PDF
Fast Web View restructures a PDF document for page-at-a-time downloading (byte-serving) from web servers. With
Fast Web View, the web server sends only the requested page, rather than the entire PDF. This option is especially
important with large documents that can take a long time to download from a server.
Check with your webmaster to make sure that the web server software you use supports page-at-a-time downloading.
To ensure that the PDF documents on your website appear in older browsers, you can also create HTML links (versus
ASP scripts or the POST method) to the PDF documents and use relatively short path names (256 characters or fewer).

Verify that an existing PDF is enabled for Fast Web View
❖ Open the PDF in Acrobat DC, and choose File > Properties. Look in the lower-right area of the Description panel

of the dialog box for the Fast Web View setting (Yes or No).

Verify the Fast Web View Preferences setting
Follow this procedure to make sure that you have Acrobat DC set up to enable Fast Web View during the PDF creation
process.
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Documents.
2 On the right side of the dialog box, under Save Settings, make sure that Save As Optimizes For Fast Web View is

selected, and click OK.

Enable Fast Web View for an existing PDF
Use this procedure after you have verified your Fast Web View Preferences setting and checked the PDF properties to
be sure that the file is not already enabled for Fast Web View.
1 Open the PDF.
2 Choose File > Save As. Select the same filename and location.

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3 When a message appears asking if you want to overwrite the existing file, click OK.

In Acrobat Pro, you can also quickly enable Fast Web View in entire folders of Adobe PDF files by using the Prepare for
Web Publishing action. See Run an Action .

More Help topics
Reduce file size by saving
Action wizard
Transparency flattening
Edit a flattener preset in the PDF Optimizer
Examine a PDF for hidden content

Setting up PDFs for a presentation
Defining initial view as Full Screen mode
Full Screen mode is a property you can set for PDFs used for presentations. In Full Screen mode, PDF pages fill the
entire screen, and the Acrobat menu bar, toolbar, and window controls are hidden. You can also set other opening
views, so that your documents or collections of documents open to a consistent view. In either case, you can add page
transitions to enhance the visual effect as the viewer pages through the document.
To control how you navigate a PDF (for example, advancing pages automatically), use the options in the Full Screen
panel of the Preferences dialog box. These preferences are specific to a system—not a PDF document—and affect all
PDFs that you open on that system. Therefore, if you set up your presentation on a system you control, you can control
these preferences.

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Define an initial view
When a user opens your PDF document or PDF Portfolio, they see the initial view of the PDF. You can set the initial
view to the magnification level, page, and page layout that you want. If your PDF is a presentation, you can set the initial
view to Full Screen mode. In Acrobat Pro you can create Action Wizards to change default settings for multiple
documents.
After you define the initial view of the PDF, you can add page transitions to selected pages or the entire document.
Acrobat supports page transitions and bullet fly-ins from PowerPoint.

Define the initial view
1 Choose File > Properties.
2 In the Document Properties dialog box, click Initial View.
3 Select the options you want, and then click OK. You have to save and reopen the file to see the effects.

Define the initial view as Full Screen mode
When setting the initial view of a PDF to Full Screen mode, you must define how the document opens.
1 Choose File > Properties.
2 In the Document Properties dialog box, select Initial View.
3 For best results, do the following:

• Choose Page Only from the Navigation Tab menu.
• Choose Single Page from the Page Layout menu.
• Set Open To Page to the page on which you want to start the presentation.
4 Select Open In Full Screen Mode to open the document without the menu bar, toolbar, or window controls

displayed. Click OK. (You have to save and reopen the file to see the effects.)
Note: Users can exit Full Screen mode by pressing Esc if their preferences are set this way. However, in Full Screen mode,
users cannot apply commands and select tools unless they know the keyboard shortcuts. You may want to set up page
actions in the document to provide this functionality.

Initial View options for document properties
The Initial View options in the Document Properties are organized into three areas: Layout And Magnification,
Window Options, and User Interface Options.
Layout And Magnification Determines the appearance of the document.

Note: Two conditions can affect page layout and magnification. 1) Someone has already set an individual PDF to a different
intial view in File > Properties. 2) You have the option Restore Last View Settings When Reopening Documents selected in
Edit > Preferences > Document category.
Navigation Tab Determines which panels are displayed in the navigation pane.
Page Layout Determines how document pages are arranged.
Magnification Sets the zoom level the document will appear at when opened. Default uses the magnification set by the

user.

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Open To Page Specifies the page that appears when the document opens.

Note: Setting Default for the Magnification and Page Layout options uses the individual users’ settings in the Page Display
preferences.
Window Options Determine how the window adjusts in the screen area when a user opens the document. These

options apply to the document window itself in relationship to the screen area of the user’s monitor.
Resize Window To Initial Page Adjusts the document window to fit snugly around the opening page, according to the

options that you selected under Document Options.
Center Window On Screen Positions the window in the center of the screen area.
Open In Full Screen Mode Maximizes the document window and displays the document without the menu bar, toolbar,

or window controls.
Show File Name Shows the filename in the title bar of the window.
Show Document Title Shows the document title in the title bar of the window. The document title is obtained from the

Description panel of the Document Properties dialog box.
User Interface Options Determine which parts of the interface—the menu bar, the toolbars, and the window controls—

are hidden.

Note: If you hide the menu bar and toolbars, users cannot apply commands and select tools unless they know the keyboard
shortcuts. You may want to set up page actions that temporarily hide interface controls while the page is in view. (See Add
actions to page thumbnails.)

Add page transitions
You can create an interesting effect that occurs each time a page advances by using page transitions.
You can also set page transitions for a group of documents using the Actions wizard in Acrobat Pro.
1 Do one of the following:

• Choose Tools > Organize Pages > More > Page Transitions.
• In the Page Thumbnails panel, select the page thumbnails you want to apply transitions to, and choose Page
.
Transitions from the options menu
2 In the Set Transitions dialog box, choose a transition effect from the Transition menu. These transition effects are

the same as those set in the Full Screen preferences.
3 Choose the direction in which the transition effect occurs. Available options depend on the transition.
4 Choose the speed of the transition effect.
5 Select Auto Flip, and enter the number of seconds between automatic page turning. If you do not select this option,

the user turns pages using keyboard commands or the mouse.
6 Select the Page Range you want to apply transitions to.

Note: If users select Ignore All Transitions in the Full Screen preferences, they do not see the page transitions.

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More Help topics
View document properties
Set the page layout and orientation

Action wizard (Acrobat Pro DC)
About Action wizards
When you apply one or more routine sets of commands to your files, you can save time and keystrokes by using an
action wizard—a defined series of commands with specific settings and in a specific order that you apply in a single
step. You can apply an action to a single document, to several documents, or to an entire collection of documents. You
can even scan documents and combine several documents into a single PDF before running an action.
Acrobat DC provides some predefined action wizards. You can also create your own actions. You can access and
manage the actions by clicking Tools > Action Wizard.
Adobe Acrobat DC also lets you export and import actions so that you can share actions with others.
Note: The actions interface and architecture replace the batch script mode available in the earlier versions of Adobe Acrobat
DC. Most of your Acrobat XI batch scripts can be imported as actions; some scripts require minor changes.

Run an action
Acrobat DC includes several simple predefined actions that you can use to streamline your work. These actions
represent common tasks that you routinely perform to prepare files for distribution. You do not have to open any of the
PDF files before you begin to run these actions.
Note: You can avoid password prompts when you run a sequence on PDFs that require passwords. Automate password
entry, or specify a security method for these files in the Action Wizard panel of the Preferences dialog box. If you select Do
Not Ask For Password, PDFs that require passwords are not processed.
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard. A list of available actions is displayed under the Actions List in the right hand pane.
2 Choose the action from the list. The right hand pane changes to display each task included in the action, as well as

any instructions provided by the author of the action.
3 Under Files To Be Processed, clickAdd Filesto select the files that you want to run the action on. You can run the

action on the currently opened file, or add more files, folders, or email attachments.
4 When all the files you want to process are listed, click Start.
5 If Acrobat prompts you, provide additional information, such as output location and settings.

A progress indicator displays the status of the currently running process or task. A check mark identifies completed
actions or tasks. On successful completion of all tasks, “Completed” status is shown in the panel.
Note: You can click Stop in the panel to stop processing an action. Acrobat saves any files that have already been processed
as defined in the action. You can click Resume to continue the Action or click the cross icon before the action name in the
RHP to exit from further processing of the action.

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Create a custom action
To make your Action easier to follow, you can group steps into panels, add divider lines, and include instructions. You
can limit the Action to specific files, all files within a folder, or let the user choose a file from various sources such as a
scanner, Web page, or Clipboard.
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.

The Action Wizard toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
Note: A list of available actions is displayed under the Actions List in the right hand pane.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click New Action.

The Create New Action dialog box is displayed.
3 To apply the action to a specific file or to all files within a folder, click the File

or Folder

under Files To Be

Processed (on the right). Navigate to the file or folder and click Open.
4 In the Choose Tools To Add pane, expand the panels, and double-click a task to add it. You can add multiple tasks.

The tasks are executed in the order in which they appear in the Action Steps To Show list on the right.
5 To predefine options for a task, click

Specify Settings.

6 To have the action prompt the user to select options, click the Prompt User check box.
7 Add other tasks as required.
8 Fine tune the action using the buttons on the right. Add a new panel grouping, instructions, or a divider line, or

move or delete items in the list.

Creates a new panel grouping at the bottom of the current set of tasks. When prompted, type the name of the panel,
and click Save.

Adds instructions below the currently selected task. When prompted, type the instructions, and click Save.

Adds a divider line below the currently selected task.

Moves the currently selected item up the list. You can move a task, instructions, a divider line, or an entire panel
grouping.

Moves the currently selected item down in the list. You can move a task, instructions, a divider line, or an entire
panel grouping.

Deletes the currently selected item. Be careful what you select. You can delete an entire panel grouping.
9 Click Save.
10 In the Save Action dialog box, enter a name and a description for the action and click Save.

Manage custom actions
Use the Manage Actions dialog box to edit, rename, copy, delete, reorder, import, or export actions.

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Edit an action
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.

The Action Wizard toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
Note: A list of available actions is displayed under the Actions List in the right hand pane.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.

The Manage Actions dialog box is displayed.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, select an action and click Edit to change the tasks or settings. You can also use

the Edit Actions dialog box to review an action, and exit without saving changes.
Note: You cannot edit the actions that are available out of the box.
4 To add tasks, expand the panels under the Choose Tools To Add pane and click a task.
5 Click Save.
6 In the Save Action dialog box, edit the description, if required, and click Save.

Rename an action
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, select an action and click Rename.

Note: You cannot rename the actions that are available out of the box.
4 In the Save Action dialog box, enter a new name and description, if required, and click Save.

Copy an action
You can duplicate an action, and you can modify the tasks in the action before you save the copy.
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, select an action and click Copy. The Save Action dialog box is displayed.
4 In the Save Action dialog box, enter the action name and description, and click Save.

A new copy of the selected action is created and added to the Select An Action list.

Delete an action
1 Choose Tools> Action Wizard.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, select an action and click Remove.

Note: You cannot delete the actions that are available out of the box.
4 In the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.

Export an action
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, select an action and click Export.

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4 In the Save As dialog box, specify the name and location of the file for saving the action. Action files have a .sequ

extension.
5 Click Save.

Import an action
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Manage Actions.
3 In the Manage Actions dialog box, click Import.

You can also double-click a .sequ file to import an action.
4 In the Open dialog box, select the action file to import and click Open. Action files have a .sequ extension.
5 In the confirmation dialog box, click OK.

Note: If an action contains JavaScript, then an alert message is displayed stating that the selected action contains
JavaScript. Click Import to continue or Cancel to abort the import process.

Create and manage custom commands
Custom commands allow you to preconfigure commands such as Watermark, and Header & footer to reduce the
amount of time each command would take to set up. This saves time for repetitive tasks.
Custom commands are single-step and applicable to current document, while actions are multi-step sequence and
applicable to multiple files.

Create a custom command
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard > New Custom Command.
2 The New Custom Command dialog displays a list of customizable commands in the left pane. Choose a command

that you want to customize.
3 Change the command label and tool tip, if you want. Also, choose whether you want to see the command-specific

options when the command is run.
4 Click Command Options. Select or specify appropriate values or options in the dialog box and then click OK.
5 Click OK to save the new custom command.

The command is displayed under the Custom Commands section in the right pane.

Run a custom command
1 Step text
2 Step text
3 Step text
4 Step text
5 Step text

Automate password entry for actions
Before you run actions on PDFs that are encrypted or password protected, you can set your digital ID to enter required
passwords automatically.

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Note: Specify a security method for these files in the Action Wizard panel of the Preferences dialog box. If you select Do
Not Ask For Password, PDFs that require passwords are not processed.
1 Open the Preferencesdialog box.
2 Choose Signatures in the Categories on the left.
3 For Identities & Trusted Certificates, click More.
4 On the left, open Digital IDs and select Digital ID Files.
5 In the list on the right, select an ID and then select the following commands from the top bar:

Login
Logs in using the specified digital ID. Type the password and click OK.
Logout
Logs out using the specified digital ID when you have finished running an action.

PDF articles
About articles
Many traditional print documents, such as magazines and newspapers, arrange text in multiple columns. Stories flow
from column to column and sometimes across several pages. While the format is effective for printed material, this type
of structure can be difficult to follow on-screen because of the scrolling and zooming required.
The article feature enables you to guide readers through material presented in multiple columns and across a series of
pages.

Define articles
You create an article by defining a series of boxes around the content in the order in which you want the content read.
The navigational path you define for an article is known as the article thread. You create a thread connecting the various
boxes, unifying them into a continuous text flow.

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Most desktop publishing programs allow you to generate article threads automatically as you convert the files to Adobe
PDF. If the file you’re viewing has articles, you can show the names of the articles on a tab and navigate easily through
them.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > More > Add Article Box. The pointer appears as a cross-hair pointer in the document

window.
2 Drag a rectangle to define the first article box. An article box appears around the enclosed text, and the pointer

changes to the article pointer.
Each article box you create has a label that consists of the article number and its sequence within the article. For
example, the first box for the first article is labeled 1-1, the second box 1-2, and so on. The boxes for the second
article in the same document are labeled 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, and so on.
3 Go to the next part of the document you want to include in the article, and draw a rectangle around that text. Repeat

until you have defined the entire article.
Note: To resize or move an article box, you must first end the article.
4 To end the article, press Enter.
5 In the Article Properties dialog box, enter the article title, subject, author, and any keywords to describe the article,

and click OK.

View and edit an article
Use the Article tool to create, display, and make changes to an article box in the PDF document.

View articles on the page
❖ Choose Tools > Edit PDF > More > Add Article Box.

View articles in the PDF
Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Articles.
1 To read an article, double-click it, or select the article and choose Read Article from the options menu

in the

Articles panel.
The first line of the article appears in the upper left corner.
2 To hide the Articles panel after the article opens, select Hide After Use in the options menu

of the Articles

panel.

Delete an article or article box
❖ In the Articles panel, do one of the following:

• To delete the entire article, select the article in the Articles panel, and press the Delete key.
• To delete only one box from an article, right-click the box, and choose Delete. In the warning message, select Box.
If you select Article, the entire article is deleted.
The remaining articles or article boxes are automatically renumbered.

Insert an article box into an article thread
1 In the Document window, select the article box that you want the new article box to follow.
2 Click the plus sign (+) at the bottom of the selected box, and click OK when prompted to drag and create a new

article box.

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3 Draw a new article box. The new box is inserted into the article flow, and all following boxes are renumbered.

Move or resize an article box
❖ Using the Article tool, select the article box, and do one of the following:

• To move the box, drag it to the new location.
• To resize the box, drag a center handle to change only height or width, or drag a corner handle to change both
dimensions.

Edit article properties
1 Using the Article tool, select the article box that you want to edit.
2 Right-click the box, and choose Properties.
3 Change the information in the Articles Properties dialog box, and click OK.

Combine two articles
1 In the document pane, select any article box in the article you want to be read first.
2 Select the plus sign (+) at the bottom of the article box, and click OK to dismiss the prompt to create a new article

box.
3 Ctrl-click an article box you want to be read next. The second article is appended to the end of the first article. All

article boxes in the piece are renumbered automatically.

Page thumbnails and bookmarks inPDFs

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About page thumbnails
Page thumbnails are miniature previews of the pages in a document. You can use page thumbnails to jump quickly to a
selected page or to adjust the view of the page. When you move, copy, or delete a page thumbnail, you move, copy, or
delete the corresponding page.
If you do not see page thumbnails in the navigation pane, try using F4 to open the navigation pane. Or choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Page Thumbnails.

Create page thumbnails
Page thumbnails increase file size, so Acrobat does not create them automatically.
Note: Acrobat no longer supports embedding and unembedding page thumbnails. However, Acrobat Distiller® provides an
alternate method of embedding page thumbnails.

Create page thumbnails
❖ Click the Page Thumbnails button on the left.

Page thumbnails appear in the navigation pane. This process may require several seconds, particularly in larger
documents. The drawing of page thumbnails may pause if you interact with the application during this process.

Resize page thumbnails
❖ In the Page Thumbnails panel, choose Reduce Page Thumbnails or Enlarge Page Thumbnails from the options

menu

. Page thumbnails revert to their default size if you close and reopen the PDF.

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Define the tabbing order
In the Page Thumbnails panel, you can set the order in which a user tabs through form fields, links, and comments for
each page.
1 Click the Page Thumbnails button on the left.
2 Select a page thumbnail, and choose Page Properties from the options menu

.

3 In the Page Properties dialog box, click Tab Order, and select the tab order:
Use Row Order Moves through rows from left to right, or right to left for pages with a right-to-left binding.
Use Column Order Moves through columns from left to right and from top to bottom, or right to left for pages with

a right-to-left binding.
Use Document Structure Moves in the order specified by the authoring application.

Note: For structured documents—PDFs that were created from desktop publishing applications or that contain tags—
it’s best to select the Use Document Structure option to match the intention of the authoring application.
If the document was created in an earlier version of Acrobat, the tab order is Unspecified by default. With this
setting, form fields are tabbed through first, followed by links and then comments ordered by row.

About bookmarks
A bookmark is a type of link with representative text in the Bookmarks panel in the navigation pane. Each bookmark
goes to a different view or page in the document. Bookmarks are generated automatically during PDF creation from
the table-of-contents entries of documents created by most desktop publishing programs. These bookmarks are often
tagged and can be used to make edits in the PDF.
Initially, a bookmark displays the page that was in view when the bookmark was created, which is the bookmark’s
destination. In Acrobat, you can set bookmark destinations as you create each bookmark. However, it is sometimes
easier to create a group of bookmarks, and then set the destinations later.
In Acrobat, you can use bookmarks to mark a place in the PDF to which you want to return, or to jump to a destination
in the PDF, another document, or a web page. Bookmarks can also perform actions, such as executing a menu item or
submitting a form.
Note: An Acrobat user can add bookmarks to a document only if the security settings allow it.

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Create a bookmark
1 Click the Bookmarks button on the left to open the Bookmarks panel.
2 Open the page where you want the bookmark to link to, and adjust the view settings.
3 Use the Select tool

to select the area of the page you want to bookmark:

• To bookmark a single image, click in the image, or drag a rectangle around the image.
• To bookmark a portion of an image, drag a rectangle around the portion.
• To bookmark text, drag to select it. The selected text becomes the label of the new bookmark. You can edit the
label.
4 Select the bookmark under which you want to place the new bookmark. If you don’t select a bookmark, the new

bookmark is automatically added at the end of the list.
5 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > More > Add Bookmark.
6 In the Bookmarks panel, type or edit the name of the new bookmark.

Edit a bookmark
In Reader, you can make bookmarks easier to read by changing their text appearance.
In Acrobat, you can change a bookmark’s attributes at any time.

Rename a bookmark
❖ Select the bookmark in the Bookmarks panel, choose Rename Bookmark in the options menu

, and type the

new bookmark name.

Wrap text in a long bookmark
❖ Click the Bookmarks button, and choose Wrap Long Bookmarks from the options menu

.

All the text of long bookmarks shows regardless of the width of the navigation pane. (This option is on when
checked, and off when not checked.)

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Change the text appearance of a bookmark
You can change the appearance of a bookmark to draw attention to it.
1 In the Bookmarks panel, select one or more bookmarks.
2 (Acrobat only) To change the color and style of the text, choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbars Items > Properties

Bar.
After you have defined a bookmark’s appearance, you can reuse the appearance settings. To do this, select the
bookmark and from the options menu
, choose Use Current Appearance As New Default.
3 To change the font size, from the options menu

, choose Text Size > [size].

Change a bookmark’s destination
1 In the Bookmarks panel, select the bookmark.
2 In the document pane, move to the location you want to specify as the new destination.
3 If necessary, adjust the view magnification.
4 Choose Set Bookmark Destination in the options menu

.

Note: The Set Bookmark Destination option is context sensitive. It appears only when you have an existing bookmark
selected.

Add an action to a bookmark
1 In the Bookmarks panel, select a bookmark.
2 From the options menu

, choose Properties.

3 In the Bookmark Properties dialog box, click Actions.
4 Choose an action from the Select Action menu, and click Add.

Delete a bookmark
❖ In the Bookmarks panel, select a bookmark or range of bookmarks, and then press Delete.

Note: Deleting a bookmark deletes any bookmarks that are subordinate to it. Deleting a bookmark does not delete any
document text.

Create a bookmark hierarchy
You can nest a list of bookmarks to show a relationship between topics. Nesting creates a parent/child relationship. You
can expand and collapse this hierarchical list as desired.

Nest one or more bookmarks
1 Select the bookmark or range of bookmarks you want to nest.
2 Drag the icon or icons directly underneath the parent bookmark icon. The Line icon

shows the position of the

icon or icons.
The bookmark is nested; however, the actual page remains in its original location in the document.

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Move bookmarks out of a nested position
1 Select the bookmark or range of bookmarks you want to move.
2 Move the selection by doing one of the following:

• Drag the icon or icons, positioning the arrow directly under the label of the parent bookmark.
• Choose Cut from the options menu
Bookmark from the options menu.

, select the parent bookmark, and then choose Paste Under Selected

Expand or collapse all top-level bookmarks
❖ From the options menu

, choose Expand Top-Level Bookmarks or Collapse Top-Level Bookmarks.

Add tagged bookmarks
Tagged bookmarks give you greater control over page content than do regular bookmarks. Because tagged bookmarks
use the underlying structural information of the document elements (for example, heading levels, paragraphs, table
titles), you can use them to edit the document, such as rearranging their corresponding pages in the PDF, or deleting
pages. If you move or delete a parent tagged bookmark, its children tagged bookmarks are moved or deleted along with
it.
Many desktop publishing applications, such as Adobe InDesign® and Microsoft Word, create structured documents.
When you convert these documents to PDF, the structure is converted to tags, which support the addition of tagged
bookmarks. Converted web pages typically include tagged bookmarks.
If your document doesn’t include tags, you can always add them in Acrobat.
1 In the Bookmarks panel, choose New Bookmarks From Structure from the options menu

. (If this option isn’t

available, the document isn’t structured.)
2 Select the structure elements you want specified as tagged bookmarks. Ctrl-click to add to the selection.

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The tagged bookmarks

are nested under a new, untitled bookmark.

More Help topics
PostScript options
About tags, accessibility, reading order, and reflow
Actiontypes
Edit tags with the Tags tab (Acrobat Pro DC)
Links and bookmarks in web pages

PDF properties and metadata
View document properties
When you view a PDF, you can get information about it, such as the title, the fonts used, and security settings. Some of
this information is set by the person who created the document, and some is generated automatically.
In Acrobat DC, you can change any information that can be set by the document creator, unless the file has been saved
with security settings that prevent changes.
1 Choose File > Properties.
2 Click a tab in the Document Properties dialog box.

Document Properties
Description Shows basic information about the document. The title, author, subject, and keywords may have been set
by the person who created the document in the source application, such as Word or InDesign, or by the person who
created the PDF. You can search for these description items to find particular documents. The Keywords section can
be particularly useful for narrowing searches.

Note that many search engines use the title to describe the document in their search results list. If a PDF does not have
a title, the filename appears in the results list instead. A file’s title is not necessarily the same as its filename.
The Advanced area shows the PDF version, the page size, number of pages, whether the document is tagged, and if it’s
enabled for Fast Web View. (The size of the first page is reported in PDFs or PDF Portfolios that contain multiple page
sizes.) This information is generated automatically and cannot be modified.
Security Describes what changes and functionality are allowed within the PDF. If a password, certificate, or security

policy has been applied to the PDF, the method is listed here.
Fonts Lists the fonts and the font types used in the original document, and the fonts, font types, and encoding used to

display the original fonts.
If substitute fonts are used and you aren’t satisfied with their appearance, you may want to install the original fonts on
your system or ask the document creator to re-create the document with the original fonts embedded in it.
Initial View (Acrobat only) Describes how the PDF appears when it’s opened. This includes the initial window size, the

opening page number and magnification level, and whether bookmarks, thumbnails, the toolbar, and the menu bar are

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displayed. You can change any of these settings to control how the document appears the next time it is opened. You
can also create JavaScript that runs when a page is viewed, a document is opened, and more.
Custom (Acrobat only) Lets you add document properties to your document.
Advanced Lists PDF settings, print dialog presets, and reading options for the document.

In the PDF settings for Acrobat, you can set a base Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for web links in the document.
Specifying a base URL makes it easy for you to manage web links to other websites. If the URL to the other site changes,
you can simply edit the base URL and not have to edit each individual web link that refers to that site. The base URL is
not used if a link contains a complete URL address.
You can also associate a catalog index file (PDX) with the PDF. When the PDF is searched with the Search PDF window,
all of the PDFs that are indexed by the specified PDX file are also searched.
You can include prepress information, such as trapping, for the document. You can define print presets for a document,
which prepopulate the Print dialog box with document-specific values. You can also set reading options that determine
how the PDF is read by a screen reader or other assistive device.

Add a description to Document Properties
You can add keywords to the document properties of a PDF that other people might use in a search utility to locate the
PDF.
1 Choose File > Properties.
2 Click the Description tab, and type the author’s name, subject, and keywords.
3 (Optional) Click Additional Metadata to add other descriptive information, such as copyright information.

Create document properties
You can add custom document properties that store specific types of metadata, such as the version number or company
name, in a PDF. Properties you create appear in the Document Properties dialog box. Properties you create must have
unique names that do not appear in the other tabs in the Document Properties dialog box.
1 Choose File > Properties, and then select Custom.
2 To add a property, type the name and value, and then click Add.
3 To change the properties, do any of the following, and then click OK:

• To edit a property, select it, change the Value, and then click Change.
• To delete a property, select it and click Delete.
To change the name of a custom property, delete the property and create a new custom property with the name you
want.

Edit document metadata
PDF documents created in Acrobat 5.0 or later contain document metadata in XML format. Metadata includes
information about the document and its contents, such as the author’s name, keywords, and copyright information, that
can be used by search utilities. The document metadata contains (but is not limited to) information that also appears
in the Description tab of the Document Properties dialog box. Document metadata can be extended and modified
using third-party products.

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The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) provides Adobe applications with a common XML framework that
standardizes the creation, processing, and interchange of document metadata across publishing workflows. You can
save and import the document metadata XML source code in XMP format, making it easy to share metadata among
different documents. You can also save document metadata to a metadata template that you can reuse in Acrobat.

View document metadata
1 Choose File > Properties, and click the Additional Metadata button in the Description tab.
2 Click Advanced to display all the metadata embedded in the document. (Metadata is displayed by schema—that is,

in predefined groups of related information.) Display or hide the information in schemas by schema name. If a
schema doesn’t have a recognized name, it is listed as Unknown. The XML name space is contained in parentheses
after the schema name.

Edit or append document metadata
1 Choose File > Properties, click the Description tab, and then click Additional Metadata.
2 Select Advanced from the list on the left.
3 To edit the metadata, do any of the following, and then click OK.

• To add previously saved information, click Append, select an XMP or FFO file, and click Open.
• To add new information and replace the current metadata with information stored in an XMP file, click Replace,
select a saved XMP or FFO file, and click Open. New properties are added, existing properties that are also
specified in the new file are replaced, and existing properties that are not in the replacement file remain in the
metadata.
• To delete an XML schema, select it and click Delete.
• To append the current metadata with metadata from a template, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac
OS) and choose a template name from the dialog box menu in the upper right corner.
Note: You must save a metadata template before you can import metadata from a template.
To replace the current metadata with a template of metadata, choose a template file (XMP) from the dialog box
menu in the upper right corner.

Save metadata as a template or file
1 Choose File > Properties, click the Description tab, and then click Additional Metadata.
2 Select Advanced from the list on the left.
3 Save the document metadata, and then click OK:

• To save the metadata to an external file, click Save and name the file. The metadata is stored as a file in XMP
format. (To use the saved metadata in another PDF, open the document and use these instructions to replace or
append metadata in the document.)
• To save the metadata as a template, choose Save Metadata Template from the dialog box menu in the upper right
corner, and name the file.

View object data and metadata
You can view the metadata information of certain objects, tags, and images within a PDF. You can edit and export
metadata for Visio objects only.

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View object metadata (Acrobat Pro)
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Edit Text & Images.
2 Select an object, right-click the selection, and choose Show Metadata. (If Show Metadata is unavailable, the image

has no metadata associated with it.)

View and edit Visio object metadata
1 Choose Tools > Measure > Object Data Tool.
2 Double-click an object on the page to show its metadata.

The Model Tree opens and shows a hierarchical list of all structural elements. The selected object’s metadata appears
as editable properties and values at the bottom of the Model Tree.
The selected object is highlighted on the page. Use the Highlight Color menu at the top of the Model Tree to choose
a different color.
3 To edit the metadata, type in the boxes at the bottom of the Model Tree.
4 To export object metadata, from the options menu, choose Export As XML > Whole Tree to export all objects in the

Model Tree, or choose Export As XML > Current Node to export only the selected object and its children. Name
and save the file.

Export Visio object metadata
1 Choose Tools > Measure > Object Data Tool.
2 Double-click an object on the page to show its metadata.
3 From the options menu

, choose one of the following:

• Choose Export As XML > Whole Tree to export all objects.
• Choose Export As XML > Current Node to export only the selected object and its children.
4 Name and save the file.

More Help topics
Choosing a security method

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Links and attachments in PDFs
Create a link
Links let you jump to other locations in the same document, to other electronic documents including attachments, or
to websites. You can use links to initiate actions or to ensure that your reader has immediate access to related
information. You can also add actions to play a sound or movie file.

Create a link using the Link tool
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit.

The pointer becomes a cross hair, and any existing links in the document, including invisible links, are temporarily
visible.
2 Drag a rectangle where you want to create a link. This is the area in which the link is active.
3 In the Create Link dialog box, choose the options you want for the link appearance.
4 Select one of the following link actions:
Go To A Page View Click Next to set the page number and view magnification you want in the current document or

in another document (such as a file attachment), and then click Set Link.
Open A File Select the destination file and click Select. If the file is a PDF, specify how the document should open

(for example in a new window or within an existing window), and then click OK.
Note: If the filename is too long to fit in the text box, the middle of the name is truncated.
Open A Web Page Provide the URL of the destination web page.
Custom Link Click Next to open the Link Properties dialog box. In this dialog box, you can set any action, such as
reading an article, or executing a menu command, to be associated with the link.

Edit a link
You can edit a link at any time. You can change its hotspot area or associated link action, delete or resize the link
rectangle, or change the destination of the link. Changing the properties of an existing link affects only the currently
selected link. If a link isn’t selected, the properties will apply to the next link you create.
You can change the properties of several links at once if you drag a rectangle to select them using the Link tool or the
Select Object tool.

Move or resize a link rectangle
1 Select the Add or Edit link tool

(Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit).

2 Move the pointer over the link rectangle so that the handles appear.
3 Do one of the following:

• To move the link rectangle, drag it.
• To resize the link rectangle, drag any corner point.

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Change the appearance of a link
1 Select the Add or Edit link tool

(Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit).

2 Double-click the link rectangle.
3 In the Appearance tab of the Link Properties dialog box, choose a color, line thickness, and line style for the link.
4 Select a highlight style for when the link is selected:
None Doesn’t change the appearance of the link.
Invert Changes the link’s color to its opposite.
Outline Changes the link’s outline color to its opposite.
Inset Creates the appearance of an embossed rectangle.

Note: The Link Type, Color, and Line Style options are not available if Invisible is selected for Appearance.
5 Select Invisible Rectangle for Link Type if you don’t want users to see the link in the PDF. An invisible link is useful

if the link is over an image.
6 Select the Locked option if you want to prevent users from accidentally changing your settings.
7 To test the link, select the Hand tool.

Note: The link properties in the Create Link dialog box apply to all new links that you create until you change the
properties. To reuse the appearance settings for a link, right-click the link whose properties you want to use as the
default, and choose Use Current Appearance As New Default.

Edit a link action
1 Select the Add or Edit link tool

(Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit).

2 Double-click the link rectangle.
3 In the Actions tab of the Link Properties dialog box, select the listed action you want to change, and click Edit.

Delete a link
1 Select the Add or Edit link tool

(Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit).

2 Select the link rectangle you want to delete.

Choose Edit > Delete, or press the Delete key.

Link to a file attachment
You can direct users to a PDF attachment by creating a link in the parent PDF document that jumps to the attachment.
Note: Don’t confuse file attachments with files that can be opened from a link. Linked documents may be stored in different
locations; file attachments are always saved with the PDF.
1 Open a PDF that contains a PDF file attachment.
2 Go to where you want to create a link. If that location is in the file attachment, click the Attachments button in the

navigation pane, select the file attachment, and click Open.
3 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit, and select the area for the link.
4 In the Create Link dialog box, set the link appearance, select Go To A Page View, and then click Next.
5 Set the page number and view magnification you want, either in the parent PDF document or in the file attachment,

and then click Set Link.

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Destinations
A destination is the end point of a link and is represented by text in the Destinations panel. Destinations enable you to
set navigation paths across a collection of PDFs. Linking to a destination is recommended when linking across
documents because, unlike a link to a page, a link to a destination is not affected by the addition or deletion of pages
within the target document.

View and manage destinations
Manage destinations from the Destinations panel in the navigation pane.

View destinations
❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Destinations. All destinations are automatically scanned.

Sort the destinations list
❖ Do one of the following:

• To sort destination names alphabetically, click the Name label at the top of the Destinations panel.
• To sort destinations by page number, click the Page label at the top of the Destinations panel.

Change or delete a destination
❖ In the Destinations panel, right-click the destination, and choose a command:

• To move to the target location, choose Go To Destination.
• To delete the destination, choose Delete.
• To reset the target of the destination to the page displayed, choose Set Destination.
• To give the destination a different name, choose Rename.

Create and link a destination
You can create a link to a destination in the same or another PDF.
1 In the target document (destination), choose View > Show/Hide >Navigation Panes > Destinations. If the document

already includes a destination that you want to link to, skip to step 5.
2 Navigate to the location where you want to create a destination, and set the desired view.
3 In the Destinations panel, choose New Destination from the options menu

, and name the destination.

4 Save the target document.
5 In the source document (where you want to create the link), choose Tools > Edit PDF > Link > Add or Edit, and

drag a rectangle to specify a location for the link.
6 In the Create Link dialog box, set the link appearance, select Go To A Page View, and then click Next.
7 In the target document, in the Destinations panel, double-click the destination.
8 Save the source document.

Add an attachment
You can attach PDFs and other types of files to a PDF. If you move the PDF to a new location, the attachments move
with it. Attachments may include links to or from the parent document or to other attachments.

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Don’t confuse attached comments with file attachments. A file attached as a comment appear in the page with a File
Attachment icon or Sound Attachment icon, and in the Comments List with other comments. (See Add comments in
a file attachment.)

1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > More > Attach File.
2 In the Add Files dialog box, select the file you want to attach, and click Open.

Note: If you attach EXE, VBS, or ZIP file formats, Acrobat warns you that it won’t open the file once attached because
the format is associated with malicious programs, macros, and viruses that can damage your computer.
3 To make the attachment viewable in Acrobat 5.0 or earlier, do one of the following:

• Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Attachments, and select Show Attachments By Default from
(selected by default).
the options menu
• Choose File > Properties, click the Initial View tab, choose Attachments Panel And Page from the Navigation Tab
menu, and click OK.
4 Save the PDF.
5 (Optional) To add a description to the attachment that helps differentiate between similar files in the Attachments

panel, select the attached file, and from the options menu
description, and then save the file.

, choose Edit Description. Edit the text of the

Open, save, or delete an attachment
You can open a PDF attachment and make changes to it—if you have permissions—and your changes are applied to the
PDF attachment.
For other types of file attachments, you have an option of opening or saving the file. Opening the file starts the
application that handles the file format of the attachment—you must have that application to open the attachment.
Note: Acrobat does not open EXE, VBS, and ZIP file formats because these formats are associated with malicious
programs, macros, and viruses that can damage your computer.
1 To open the Attachments panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Attachments.
2 In the Attachments panel, select the attachment.
3 Click the appropriate icon to open the attachment in its native application, save the attachment, or delete it:

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Search in attachments
When searching for specific words or phrases, you can include attached PDFs as well as several other file types in the
search. Windows users can search Microsoft Office documents (such as .doc, .xls, and .ppt), AutoCAD drawing file
formats (.dwg and .dwf), HTML files, and Rich Text Format (.rtf) files. Mac OS users can search Microsoft Word (.doc),
HTML, and .rtf files. Search results from attachments appear in the Results list beneath the attachment filename and
icon. Attachments in other formats are ignored by the search engine.
Note: To enable Microsoft and AutoCAD file searches, the IFilters appropriate to the file types must be installed. IFilters
are typically installed with their applications, but can also be downloaded from product websites.

Search attachments from the Attachments panel
1 To open the Attachments panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Attachments.
2 In the Attachments panel, click Search Attachments

.

3 In the Search window, type the word or phrase that you want to search for, select the results option you want, and

then click Search Attachments.

Search attachments from the Search window
Choose Edit > Advanced Search.
1 Type the word or phrase that you want to search for, and select the results option you want.
2 Click Show More Options at the bottom of the window, and then select Include Attachments.

More Help topics
Add multimedia to PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
Attachments

PDF layers
About PDF layers
You can view, navigate, and print layered content in PDFs created from applications such as InDesign, AutoCAD, and
Visio.

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You can control the display of layers using the default and initial state settings. For example, you can hide a layer
containing a copyright notice whenever a document is displayed on screen, while ensuring that the layer always prints.
In Acrobat Pro DC, you can rename, flatten, and merge layers, change the properties of layers, and add actions to layers.
You can also rearrange layers, import layers from image files and other PDFs, and lock layers to prevent them from
being hidden.
Acrobat Pro DC does not allow you to author layers that change visibility according to the zoom level. However, you
can highlight a portion of a layer that is especially important by creating a bookmark that magnifies or hides the layer
using page actions. You can also add links that let users click a visible or invisible link to navigate to or zoom in on a
layer.
To retain layers when you convert InDesign CS documents to PDF in Acrobat Pro DC, make sure that Compatibility
is set to Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5) or higher. Additionally, make sure that Create Acrobat Layers is selected in the Export
Adobe PDF dialog box.

Show or hide layers
Information can be stored on different layers of a PDF. The layers that appear in the PDF are based on the layers created
in the original application. Use the Layers panel to examine layers and show or hide the content associated with each
layer. Items on locked layers cannot be hidden.
Some layers may be organized into nested groups with a parent layer. Other layers may be in groups with no parent
layer.
Note: A lock icon in the Layers panel indicates that a layer is for information only. Locked layers can be created from
AutoCAD and Visio files.In Acrobat Standard DC, the visibility of a locked layer cannot be changed. In Acrobat Pro DC,
use the Layer Properties dialog box to change the visibility of a locked layer.

A Eye icon indicates a displayed layer B Locked layer C Hidden layer

Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Layers.
1 To hide a layer, click the eye icon. To show a hidden layer, click the empty box. (A layer is visible when the eye icon

is present, and hidden when the eye icon is absent. This setting temporarily overrides the settings in the Layer
Properties dialog box.)
Note: In a nested layer group, if the parent layer is hidden, the nested layers are automatically hidden as well. If the
parent layer is visible, nested layers can be made visible or hidden.
2 From the options menu

, choose one of the following:

List Layers For All Pages Shows every layer across every page of the document.
List Layers For Visible Pages Shows layers only on the currently visible pages.

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Reset To Initial Visibility Resets layers to their default state.
Apply Print Overrides Displays layers according to the Print settings in the Layer Properties dialog box (Prints

When Visible, Never Prints, Always Prints).
Apply Export Overrides Displays layers according to the Export settings in the Layer Properties dialog box (Exports

When Visible, Never Exports, Always Exports).
Apply Layer Overrides Displays all layers. This option affects all optional content in the PDF, even layers that are

not listed in the Layers panel. All layers are visible, regardless of the settings in the Layer Properties dialog box. You
cannot change layer visibility using the eye icon until you deselect this command. When you edit layer properties in
the Layer Properties dialog box, changes are not effective until you choose Reset To Initial Visibility in the options
menu. (Changes to the layer name are the exception; they are effective immediately.)
Note: You cannot save the view of a layered PDF by using the eye icon in the Layers panel to show and hide layers. When
you save the file, the visibility of the layers automatically reverts to the initial visibility state.
To save a different view of a layered PDF in Acrobat Pro, you must change the default state of the layers in the Layer
Properties dialog box.

Edit layer properties (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can combine the default state setting, the visibility setting, and the print setting to control when a layer is visible
and when it prints. If a layer contains a watermark, for example, you may want the layer to not show on-screen but
always to print and always to export to other applications. In this case you can set the default state to on, the initial
visibility to never visible (the image doesn’t show on-screen), and the initial print and initial export states to always
print and always export. The layer need not be listed in the Layers panel, since all the state changes are handled
automatically.
Note: The settings in the Layer Properties dialog box take effect only if Allow Layer State To Be Set By User Information is
selected in the Documents preferences. If it is not selected, Layer Properties dialog box settings, other than Layer Name and
Default State, are ignored.
1 Click the Layers button in the navigation pane.
2 Select a layer, and choose Layer Properties from the options menu

.

3 In the Layer Properties dialog box, edit the layer name or any of the following properties, and then click OK:
Intent Select View to allow the layer to be turned on or off, or select Reference to keep the layer on at all times and

permit editing of the properties. When the Reference Intent option is selected, the layer appears in italics.
Default State Defines the initial visibility state of the layer when a document is first opened or when the initial

visibility is reset. The eye icons for layers are initially shown or hidden based on this value. For example, if this value
is set to off, the eye icon for a layer is hidden when the document is first opened or when Reset To Initial Visibility
is chosen from the options menu.
Visibility Defines the on-screen visibility of the PDF layer. You can show a layer when the document is opened, you
can hide a layer when the document is opened, or you can let the default state determine whether a layer is shown
or hidden when the document is opened.
Print Determines whether a layer will print.
Export Determines whether the layer appears in the resulting document when the PDF file is exported to an

application or file format that supports layers.
Any additional properties that the creator of the layered PDF has associated with a specific layer are shown in the
box at the bottom of the Layer Properties dialog box.

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Reorder layers
You can reorder individual layers in the Layers pane. This action is useful if you want to change the order of layers in
the list, or move a layer from one layer group to another.
Note: You cannot reorder locked layers, and you cannot reorder layers in nested layer groups.
1 In the Layers navigation panel, select a layer.
2 Position the cursor to the left of the layer name, then hold down the Alt key while you drag the layer to the new

location.

Add layer navigation
You can add links and destinations to layers, allowing you to change the view of a document when the user clicks a
bookmark or link.
Note: In general, changes to layer visibility made using the eye icon in the Layers panel are not recorded in the Navigation
toolbar.

Associate layer visibility with bookmarks
1 Set the required layer properties, visibility, and magnification level for the target PDF layer in the document pane.
2 Click the Bookmarks button, and choose New Bookmark from the options menu
3 Select the new bookmark, and choose Properties from the options menu

.

.

4 In the Bookmark Properties dialog box, click the Actions tab.
5 For Select Action, choose Set Layer Visibility, click Add, and then click OK.
6 Select the bookmark label in the Bookmarks panel, and name the bookmark.

Associate layer visibility with a link destination
1 Set the required layer properties for the destination in the document pane.

Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Destinations.
The Destinations pane appears in a floating panel. You can add it to the other panels by dragging it to the navigation
pane. If the panel is collapsed, click the Destinations button to expand it.
Choose New Destination from the options menu

, and name the destination.

2 Select the Link tool

, and drag in the document pane to create a link. (Because content is added to all layers, it
doesn’t matter that you are apparently creating the link on the target layer. The link works from any layer.)

3 In the Create Link dialog box, select Custom Link and click Next.
4 Click the Appearance tab in the Link Properties dialog box, and set the appearance of the link.
5 Click the Actions tab in the Link Properties dialog box, choose Set Layer Visibility, and click Add.
6 Close the dialog boxes.

You can test the link by changing the layer settings, selecting the Hand tool, and clicking the link.

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Import layers (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can import layers from a PDF or image file into a target PDF. Supported image file formats are BMP, GIF, JPEG,
JPEG 2000, PCX, PNG, and TIFF.
1 Click the Layers button in the navigation pane.
2 Choose Import As Layer from the options menu

.

3 In the Import As Layer dialog box, click Browse and locate the file to import. If the source file is a multipage

document, enter the page number you want to import in Page Number. If the target file is a multipage document,
specify the Target Page Number in the Preview section of the dialog box.
4 Select one of the following import options:
Create New Layer Creates a single, separate layer from the source document. Enter a name for the new layer.
Add To Group Specifies the existing layer group in which to add the imported layer. This option is available only

when the target PDF contains one or more existing layer groups, and when Create New Layer is selected.
Add To Existing Layer Adds the content from the source document to an existing layer in the target document.
Select a layer from your target document. The imported content will have the same layer properties as the existing
layer in the target document. This option is available only when the target document contains layers.
Copy Layers From Source Imports the layers from the source document. This option is available only when the

source document contains layers.
5 Adjust the Position and Appearance settings as needed, and then click OK.

Merge or flatten layers (Acrobat Pro DC)
Merged layers acquire the properties of the layer into which they are merged (the target layer). Flattening PDF layers
hides any content that is not visible when the flattening operation is executed and consolidates all layers.
Note: You cannot undo either a merging or a flattening operation.

Merge layers
1 Click the Layers button, and select Merge Layers from the options menu

.

2 In the Layers To Be Merged pane, select one or more layers, and click Add.
3 To remove a layer from the center panel, select one or more layers, and click Remove.
4 In the Target Layer To Merge Into pane, select the layer into which to merge the selected layers.

Flatten layers
❖ Click the Layers button, and select Flatten Layers from the options menu

.

Editing layered content
You can select or copy content in a layered PDF document using the Select tool or the Snapshot tool. (In Acrobat Reader
DC, the PDF must include usage rights.) In Acrobat DC, you can edit content using Edit Text & Images tool. These tools
recognize and select any content that is visible, regardless of whether the content is on a selected layer.

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In Acrobat DC, if the content that you edit or delete is associated with one layer, the content of the layer reflects the
change. If the content that you edit or delete is associated with more than one layer, the content in all the layers reflects
the change. For example, if you want to change a title and byline that appear on the same line on the first page of a
document, and the title and byline are on two different visible layers, editing the content on one layer changes the
content on both layers.
You can add content, such as review comments, stamps, or form fields, to layered documents just as you would to any
other PDF document. However, the content is not added to a specific layer, even if that layer is selected when the
content is added. Rather, the content is added to the entire document.
In Acrobat DC, you can use the Merge Files Into A Single PDF command to combine PDF documents that contain
layers. The layers for each document are grouped under a separate heading in the Layers panel of the navigation pane.
You expand and collapse the group by clicking the icon in the title bar for the group.

More Help topics
Edit images or objects in a PDF

PDFs converted to web pages
Links and bookmarks in web pages
You can work with a PDF document created from web pages the same way you work with any other PDF. Depending
on how you configured Acrobat, clicking a link on a converted web page adds the page for that link to the end of the
PDF, if it isn’t already included.
Note: Remember that one web page can become multiple PDF pages. A web page is a single topic (or URL) from a website
and is often one continuous HTML page. When you convert a web page to PDF, it may be divided into multiple standardsize PDF pages.
When you first create a PDF from web pages, tagged bookmarks are generated if Create Bookmarks is selected in the
Web PageConversion Settings dialog box. A standard (untagged) bookmark representing the web server appears at the
top of the Bookmarks tab. Under that bookmark is a tagged bookmark for each web page downloaded; the tagged
bookmark’s name comes from the page’s HTML title or the URL, if no title is present. Tagged web bookmarks are
initially all at the same level, but you can rearrange them and nest them in family groups to help keep track of the
hierarchy of material on the web pages.
If Create PDF Tags is selected when you create a PDF from web pages, structure information that corresponds to the
HTML structure of the original pages is stored in the PDF. You can use this information to add tagged bookmarks to
the file for paragraphs and other items that have HTML elements.

More Help topics
About bookmarks

Geospatial PDFs

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About geospatial PDFs
A geospatial PDF contains information that is required to georeference location data. When geospatial data is imported
into a PDF, Acrobat DC retains the geospatial coordinates. With the coordinates, you can view and interact with the
PDF to find and mark location data.
Geospatial data can be either vector or raster based or a combination of both. After you import geospatial data into
Acrobat DC, you can use the data in a variety of ways:

• Find and mark location coordinates.
• Measure distance, perimeter, and area.
• Change the coordinate system and measurement units.
• Copy location coordinates to the clipboard, and then use them to show locations in several web mapping services.

Create geospatial PDFs
You can create a geospatial PDF in one of these ways:

• Opening a geospatially enabled TIFF (GeoTIFF) or JPEG 2000 file
• Georegistering a PDF map or scan of geospatial data
When you open an imported file, measurements, point position, and length are displayed in geographic coordinates,
which you can change, measure, and mark up. You can also assemble a PDF map from a variety of sources.

Open GeoTIFF and JPEG 2000 files
GeoTIFF files and JPEG 2000 files are raster images that you can import as new documents or as new layers to an
existing document. Acrobat DC preserves the geospatial coordinates embedded in the file. These files retain their
geospatial data when they are imported. If you import these files to existing documents, their coordinate system is
converted to the coordinate system of the document.
1 Choose File > Create > PDF From File.
2 Select the geospatially enabled file to import.
3 Select settings, and then click OK.

Import shapefiles
You can import a shapefile as a new layer to an existing PDF. The shapefile must overlap with the current PDF map.
Otherwise, it is not imported. If it overlaps only partially, only the part that overlaps the current PDF is imported.
A shapefile consists of several files with differing filename extensions. Acrobat requires both the SHP file and the DBF
file for importing.
1 Open a PDF map, and choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Layers.
2 Select Option on the Layer sidebar and click Import As Layer.
3 Browse to the SHP file and select it.
4 Click Settings and change the Line Properties to a solid line and the line color to blue.

Interact with geospatial PDFs
When you open a geospatially enabled PDF, you can find locations, measure distances, and add location markers. You
can also copy coordinates to the clipboard for use with a web mapping service.

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View the geospatial measuring tools by choosing Tools > Measure.
Use the Geospatial Location tool to perform these tasks:

• View latitude and longitude while the cursor is over an area containing geospatial information.
• Mark a location with a geospatial annotation.
• Search for a location in a document.

Find map locations
1 Open a geospatial PDF and choose Tools > Measure > Geospatial Location tool.
2 Right-click inside the map, and then click Find A Location.
3 Type the latitude and longitude values (degrees, minutes, seconds, or decimal) in the two text boxes, and click Find.

If at least one location is available, the location is highlighted with a blue square and the page is centered on the
highlighted location.
4 If the PDF includes more than one map, click the Next or Previous button to view additional results, if any. Multiple

locations are available in several situations:

• When a document contains multiple maps (for example, if a PDF contains a smaller map within a larger map,
such as a city within a map of a state or country). When you search for a location within the city, Acrobat DC
finds it in both the larger map and the city map.
• When a document contains multiple pages of a map (for example, if page one is a map of a country and page two
is a map of a state or city within the country).
5 (Optional) To add a comment (such as a place name or address), click the location marker, and then add the

information in the comment box.
6 To end the search, right-click inside the map. Then select Hide Location Search, to remove the search boxes.

Mark geospatial locations
1 Open a geospatial PDF and choose Tools > Measure > Geospatial Location Tool.
2 Move the mouse pointer over the document to view latitude and longitude values of areas that contain geospatial

information. Right-click inside the map, and then do one of the following:

• To find a location, click Find A Location. Type the latitude and longitude values, and click Find.
• To mark a location with geospatial information, click Mark Location.
3 (Optional) To add a comment (such as a place name or address), click the location marker, and then add the

information in the comment box.

Measure distance, perimeter, and area on maps
When you open a geospatial PDF, the Acrobat measuring tools read the geospatial information and measure distance
and area instead of page or object dimensions. Use the measurement tools to calculate distance, perimeter, and area on
any geospatially enabled PDF. As you move the mouse pointer over content in the document, snap markers are shown
that indicate that you are on a path or path end point. You can also see the latitude and longitude of your cursor location
when the mouse pointer is over geospatial content.
1 Choose Tools > Measure > Measuring Tool.
2 In the Measurement Tool display, select a measurement type: Distance

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3 Select a snap-to option:

• Snap to paths
• Snap to end points
• Snap to midpoints
• Snap to intersections
4 Do one of the following:

• If you are using the Distance tool, click where you want to start the measurement, and then drag to the end point
and click again. The distance is displayed in the lower-right corner.
• If you are using the Perimeter tool, click the map in one corner of the perimeter, and then drag to each corner.
Click at each corner and then double-click at the end point. The information window displays the perimeter size.
• If you are using the Area tool, click the map at one corner of the area, and then drag to another corner. Click
before changing directions. Double-click at the end to display the total area.
5 To finish the measurement, right-click and select Complete Measurement. Or, select Cancel Measurement.

Copy location coordinates to the clipboard for use with a web mapping service
After you find a location on a geospatial PDF, you can copy the coordinates to the clipboard. From the clipboard, you
can paste the data into a web mapping service that reads latitude and longitude coordinates.
1 Choose Tools > Measure > Geospatial Location Tool, and then right-click the location on the map and choose

Mark Location.
2 Open the location annotation and copy the location information.

Acrobat copies the data in this format: latitude then longitude, separated by a space. Paste the data into the address
bar of a web mapping service that can interpret the location data.

Change measurement units within a document
To change the type of measurement units, right-click inside the map with the Measuring tool and choose Distance Unit
or Area Unit. Then select a measurement type.

Change geospatial measuring preferences
You can change the measurement units for all geospatial PDFs in the Preferences dialog box. Click Measuring (Geo)
from the Categories section.
Enable Measurement Markup Adds a label to a geospatial measurement. When Enable Measurement Markup is

selected, choose Use Label, and then type a label for measurements.
Snap Settings Select the path parts to which you want measurements to snap to.
Display Value As Determines how latitude and longitude values are calculated. Choose Decimal to display latitude and
longitude as a decimal fraction. Choose Degrees, Minutes, Seconds to divide each degree of longitude into 60 minutes,
each of which is divided into 60 seconds.
Display Direction As Choose between Signed and Named. Named direction displays an N (north) or S (south) next to

the Latitude, and an E (east) and W (west) for Longitude.
Always Display Latitude And Longitude As WGS 1984 Select to ensure that latitude and longitude use the current

standard reference frame for earth (World Geodetic System 1984). For older maps that were drawn with an earlier grid
(such as NAD 1927), you can deselect this option to see the original values. When an older map is registered in its native

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coordinates, coordinate positions can be different from current standards used in GPS devices and web mapping
services.
Use Default Distance Unit Select the measurement unit to use.
Use Default Area Unit Area can be measured using a different unit from distance.
Don’t Show Transparency Layer In GeoTIFF And JPEG 2000 Images Raster image formats include a transparency layer

that you can choose to remove.

Export location and measurement markups
You can export geospatial location and measurement data to an FDF file. Each geospatial annotation has a GPTS entry.
The entry corresponds to the latitude and longitude for each of the annotation points. The types of information that
can be exported include the following:

• Marked locations entered by using the Geospatial Location tool
• Distance, perimeter (compound distance), and area measurements entered by using the Measurement tool over
geospatial content
Geospatial data can be exported by using the Comments List panel.
1 To export all comments, open the Comments List panel (Tools > Comment) and choose Options > Export All To

Data File.
2 To export a subset of the comments, select the comments and choose Options > Export Selected To Data File. Type

the filename and click Save. The FDF file is saved.

More Help topics
Commenting and markup tools overview
Measure the height, width, or area of objects

Applying actions and scripts to PDFs
About actions
You can cause an action to occur when a bookmark or link is clicked, or when a page is viewed. For example, you can
use links and bookmarks to jump to different locations in a document, execute commands from a menu, and perform
other actions. Actions are set in the Properties dialog box.
For bookmarks or links, you specify an action that occurs when the bookmark or link is clicked. For other items, such
as pages, media clips and form fields, you define a trigger that causes the action to occur and then define the action
itself. You can add multiple actions to one trigger.
The Locked option prevents the appearance and actions associated with an object from being accidentally changed.

Add an action to bookmarks, form fields, buttons, or clips
1 Do one of the following:

• Using the Hand tool, right-click the bookmark, and choose Properties.

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• Using the Tools > Rich Media > Select Object tool, double-click the link, media clip, or form field, and choose
Properties.
2 Click the Actions tab.
3 From the Select Action menu, select the action type to occur, and then click Add. You can add multiple actions;

actions execute in the order that they appear in the Actions list box.
4 (Optional) Select an action in the Actions tab, and use the buttons to reorder, edit, or delete the action.
5 Close the window to accept the actions.

Add actions to page thumbnails
To enhance the interactive quality of a document, you can specify actions, such as changing the zoom value, to occur
when a page is opened or closed.
1 Click the Page Thumbnails button on the left.
2 Select the page thumbnail corresponding to the page, and choose Page Properties from the options menu

.

3 Click the Actions tab.
4 From the Select Trigger menu, choose Page Open to set an action when the page opens, or choose Page Close to

set an action when the page closes.
5 Choose an action from the Select Action menu, and click Add.
6 Specify the options for the action, and click OK. The options available depend on the action selected.
7 To create a series of actions, choose another action from the menu, and click Add again. Use the Up and Down

buttons to arrange the actions in the order you want them to occur.
Note: If you set an action that switches to Full Screen view on Page Open or Page Close, the next time the same page
opens or closes, Full Screen view is turned on.

Action types
You can assign the following actions to links, bookmarks, pages, media clips, and form fields:
Execute A Menu Item Executes a specified menu command as the action.
Go To A 3D/Multimedia View Jumps to the specified 3D view.
Go To A Page View Jumps to the specified destination in the current document or in another document.
Import Form Data Brings in form data from another file, and places it in the active form.
Multimedia Operation (Acrobat 9 And Later) Executes a specified action for a multimedia object in the file (such as

playing a sound file). The multimedia object must be added to the file before you can specify an action for it.
Open A File Launches and opens a file. If you are distributing a PDF file with a link to another file, the reader needs the

native application of that linked file to open it successfully. (You may need to add opening preferences for the target
file.)
Open A Web Link Jumps to the specified destination on the Internet. You can use http, ftp, and mailto protocols to

define your link.
Play A Sound Plays the specified sound file. The sound is embedded into the PDF document in a cross-platform

format.
Play Media (Acrobat 5 Compatible) Plays the specified QuickTime or AVI movie that was created as Acrobat 5-

compatible. The specified movie must be embedded in a PDF document.

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Play Media (Acrobat 6 And Later Compatible) Plays a specified movie that was created as Acrobat 6-compatible. The
specified movie must be embedded in a PDF document.
Read An Article Follows an article thread in the active document or in another PDF document.
Reset A Form Clears previously entered data in a form. You can control the fields that are reset with the Select Fields

dialog box.
Run A JavaScript Runs the specified JavaScript.
Set Layer Visibility Determines which layer settings are active. Before you add this action, specify the appropriate layer

settings.
Show/Hide A Field Toggles between showing and hiding a field in a PDF document. This option is especially useful in

form fields. For example, if you want an object to pop up whenever the pointer is over a button, you can set an action
that shows a field on the Mouse Enter trigger and hides a field on Mouse Exit.
Submit A Form Sends the form data to the specified URL.

Trigger types
Triggers determine how actions are activated in media clips, pages, and form fields. For example, you can specify a
movie or sound clip to play when a page is opened or closed. The available options depend on the specified page
element.
You can use the following triggers for media clips and form fields (not links or bookmarks):
Mouse Up (Acrobat Pro DC) When the mouse button is released after a click. This is the most common button trigger,

because it gives the user one last chance to drag the pointer off the button and not activate the action.
Page Visible (media clips only) When the page containing the media clip is visible, regardless of whether it is the
current page. It’s possible for a page to be visible without being the current page, such as when a continuous page layout
displays pages side-by-side.
Page Invisible (media clips only) When the page containing the media clip is moved out of view.
Page Enter (media clips only) When the page containing the media clip becomes the current page.
Page Exit (media clips only) When a user leaves the page that contains the media clip.
Mouse Down When the mouse button is clicked (without being released). In most cases, Mouse Up is the preferred

trigger.
Mouse Enter When the pointer enters the field or play area.
Mouse Exit When the pointer exits the field or play area.
On Receive Focus (media clips only) When the link area receives focus, either through a mouse action or tabbing.
On Lose Focus (media clips only) When the focus moves to a different link area.

About JavaScript in Acrobat
The JavaScript language was developed by Netscape Communications as a means to create interactive web pages more
easily. Adobe has enhanced JavaScript so that you can easily integrate this level of interactivity into your PDF
documents.
You can invoke JavaScript code using actions associated with bookmarks, links, and pages. The Set Document Actions
command lets you create document-level JavaScript actions that apply to the entire document. For example, selecting
Document Did Save runs the JavaScript after a document is saved.

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Editing PDFs

Acrobat Pro DC is required to use JavaScript with forms and action wizards.
In Acrobat Pro DC, you can also use JavaScript with PDF forms and action wizard. The most common uses for
JavaScript in forms are formatting data, calculating data, validating data, and assigning an action. Field-level scripts are
associated with a specific form field or fields, such as a button. This type of script is executed when an event occurs,
such as a Mouse Up action.
To learn how to create JavaScript scripts, download the JavaScript manuals from the Adobe website. Developing
Acrobat®Applications Using JavaScript™ contains background information and tutorials, and the JavaScript™ for
Acrobat®API Reference contains detailed reference information. These and other JavaScript resources are located on the
Adobe website.

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Chapter 4: Forms

PDF forms basics
You can fill in forms using either Acrobat DC or the free Acrobat Reader DC. You can create static or interactive forms
in Acrobat DC. Interactive forms streamline the process of filling in and collecting data.

About forms
You can use Acrobat DC to create forms using one of the following methods:

• Convert an existing electronic document (for example an Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word, or Excel document) to a
PDF form.
• Scan a paper form to convert it to a PDF form.
After you convert an existing document to a PDF form, you can add fields to it to convert it to an interactive form.
An interactive form can be filled out on a computer and submitted through an Internet or local network connection.
Additional resources
For more information about forms, see http://forums.adobe.com/community/acrobat/forms.

Forms preferences
Set forms preferences to control various aspects of your interaction with form fields.
In the Preferences dialog box, select Forms on the left. The forms preferences are organized in three sections: General,
Highlight Color, and Auto-Complete.
Note: The forms preferences apply to the way the application handles open forms as you work. The preferences aren’t saved
with the PDF forms themselves.

General
Automatically Calculate Field Values Automatically performs all field calculations upon user entry.

Note: The setting for this option only applies to your current session.
Automatically adjust tab order when modifying fields Resets the tab order when you create, delete, or move form

fields.
Show Focus Rectangle Indicates which form field currently has the focus.
Show Text Field Overflow Indicator Displays a plus sign (+) in text fields that exceed the bounds specified when the

fields were created.
Always Hide Forms Document Message Bar Hides the forms document message bar by default whenever a PDF form
is opened in Acrobat Reader unless the document message bar has a Submit Form button. If the message bar has a
Submit Form button, you can’t hide the message bar.

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Show Field Preview When Creating Or Editing Form Fields Displays the appearance of a form field when you create or

edit forms.
Manage Barcode Parameters Opens a dialog box with a list of barcode items (including the Parameter Set Name,

Symbology, and Built-in status for each item). Includes New, Edit, Delete, Import, and Export buttons for working with
new or selected parameter sets.

Highlight Color
Show Border Hover Color For Fields Displays a black outline around a form field when you place the pointer over it.
Fields Highlight Color Opens a color picker for selecting the color of highlighted form fields. The highlight appears

when the Highlight Existing Fields button

on the document message bar is clicked.

Required Fields Highlight Color Opens a color picker for selecting the border color of form fields that must be filled in.
The border appears for required form fields when the Highlight Existing Fields button is selected or after you attempt
to submit the form.

Auto-Complete
Auto-Complete menu Displays three options for Auto-Complete: Off, Basic, or Advanced.
Remember Numerical Data Suggests your previously entered numerical entries when you type the same first character

into a similar field. When deselected, Auto-Complete offers suggestions only for text entries. (Available only when
Basic or Advanced is selected.)
Edit Entry List Displays current entries stored in the Auto-Complete memory. You can select and delete any entries that
you don’t want to keep for filling in future forms. (This option isn’t available if no entries are in the memory.)

Links to all forms topics
• Create and distribute forms
• PDF form field basics
• PDF barcode form fields
• PDF form field properties
• Set action buttons in PDF forms
• Publishing interactive PDF web forms
• Filling in PDF forms
• Collecting and managing PDF form data

Creating and distributing PDF forms
Easily turn a scanned paper form or a simple form made in Microsoft Word, Excel, or another application into an
intelligent PDF form. Distribute forms to recipients and track the status of replies.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Adobe Reader DC, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader DC. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help .

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Create a form from an existing document
When you convert an existing document into a PDF form, Acrobat DC automatically adds interactive form fields to
the form. You can then edit the form to add specialized form fields, such as a drop-down list, list box, or buttons.

A Certificate-based signature field B Drop-down list box C Text fields D Automatic message bar E Check boxes F Radio buttons G List box
H Buttons

1 Choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select one of the following options:
Select a file Converts an existing electronic document (for example, Word, Excel, or PDF) to an interactive PDF

form. Click Select a File to browse and locate the file.
Scan a document Scans a paper form and converts it to an interactive PDF form.

3 If you want others to sign this form, select the This document requires Signature check box.

Note: The form field auto detection is ON, by default. To change this setting, click the Change link and choose the
settings as appropriate. For more information, see Forms preferences.
4 Click Start.

Acrobat DC creates the form and opens it in the Form Editing mode. The right hand pane displays options for
editing the form. The toolbar contains form field tools for adding additional fields.

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5 Review the form fields Acrobat DC created. Add fields using the form field tools in the toolbar. Delete, resize, or

arrange the fields as needed. You can add any of the following types of form fields:
Barcodes Encode the input from selected fields and display it as a visual pattern that can be interpreted by decoding

software or hardware (available separately).
Buttons Initiate a change on the user’s computer, such as opening a file, playing a sound, or submitting data to a web
server. These buttons can be customized with images, text, and visual changes triggered by mouse actions.
Check boxes Present yes-or-no choices for individual items. If the form contains multiple check boxes, the user can

typically select as many or few of these as wanted.
Digital signature field Lets the user electronically sign a PDF document with a digital signature.
Drop-down list Let the user either choose an item from a pop-up menu or type a value. You can set a form field

property that enables the user to enter a custom value.
List boxes Display a list of options the user can select. You can set a form field property that enables the user to Shift-

click to select multiple items on the list.
Radio buttons Present a group of choices from which the user can select only one item. All radio buttons with the
same name work together as a group.
Text fields Let the user type text, such as name, address, or phone number.

For more information, see PDF form field basics.
6 To test your form, click the Preview button in the toolbar. Previewing a form allows you to view the form the same

way the form recipients will and gives you a chance to verify the form. If you are previewing a form, you can click
the Edit button to go back to the edit mode.
7 When your form is complete, click the cross button towards the right end of the toolbar to close form editing.

To distribute the form and collect responses, see Distribute PDF or web forms.

Create forms for eSign
You can convert an existing form into an eSign form or easily drag-and-drop eSign fields onto a PDF. You can send the
form out to be filled in and signed using the Adobe Document Cloud eSign service. Not all fields convert to eSign fields,
such as List Box, Dropdown, or Button fields. You can add additional eSign fields from the toolbar.
1 Open the PDF you want to convert to an eSign form.
2 Choose Tools > Prepare Form.
3 Click Start.

Acrobat DC creates the form and opens it in the Form Editing mode. The right hand pane displays options for
editing the form. The toolbar contains form field tools for adding additional fields.
4 In the right hand pane, click More and then choose Convert To eSign Form.
5 When alerted that Acrobat DC removes form fields that eSign doesn't support, click Next, and then in the

subsequent alert, click OK.
6 To add a field to the form, select its icon in the toolbar. Position the pointer where you want to place the field, and

click to insert it.

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7 Name the field and designate who is to fill it in or sign it. To set its properties, such as the border color, fill, font, and

typeface size, double-click the field.

8 To preview your changes, click Preview in the upper-right corner. Click Edit to in the upper-right corner to switch

back to the edit mode.
9 Save the form.

To distribute the form and collect responses, see Distribute eSign forms.

Enable Reader users to save form data
Ordinarily, users of Reader X and earlier can’t save filled-in copies of forms that they complete. However, you can
extend the rights of a PDF to allow these users to save form data. If you have Acrobat Pro DC, you can include
additional capabilities for Reader users, such as adding text to non-interactive forms.
Note: Unlike earlier versions of Reader, Reader XI and Acrobat Reader DC include both the Add Text tool and the ability
to save form data. Acrobat DC users can type in non-fillable forms, add comments, and digitally sign PDFs without
extending special rights.
1 Open a single PDF, or preview a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio.
2 If you are editing the form, click the cross icon next to the Preview button in the upper-right corner.
3 Choose File > Save As Other > Reader Extended PDF, and choose one of the following options:
Enable Commenting & Measuring (Acrobat Pro DC) Allows users to add comments or access the Object Data,

Measuring, and Geospatial tools.
Enable More Tools (includes form fill-in & save) Lets users save data they’ve entered in interactive or fillable forms.

For troubleshooting tips on Reader-enabling forms, see this Techical Note .

Limitations on saving filled-in forms locally
Both Acrobat Standard DC and Acrobat Pro DC allow Adobe Reader 8 or later users to fill in and save PDF forms
locally. The use of the Reader Extensions capability for local saving of PDF forms (called extended documents) is
limited in two ways:
Number of deployed extended documents An Acrobat Standard DC or Acrobat Pro DC customer can send an

extended document to an unlimited number of recipients for them to fill in. For example, an Acrobat customer can post
an empty form template on a web page that allows users to fill in and save PDF forms locally. An unlimited number of
people can access the template. However, the Acrobat customer can collect only 500 responses from the filled-in form.
This limitation includes both hardcopy (paper form submission) and electronic representations of the filled-in form.
Number of recipients of the extended document An Acrobat Standard DC or Acrobat Pro DC customer can send an
extended document to no more than 500 unique recipients. For example, an Acrobat customer belongs to an

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organization with 500 people or less. The Acrobat customer can send an unlimited number of copies of the extended
document to those 500 recipients and collect unlimited responses from the filled-in form.

Adding JavaScript to forms
The JavaScript language lets you create interactive web pages. Adobe has enhanced JavaScript so that you can easily
integrate interactivity into PDF forms. The most common uses for JavaScript in Acrobat forms are formatting,
calculating, validating data, and assigning an action. In Windows, you can also configure Adobe PDF forms to connect
directly to databases using Open Database Connection (ODBC).
Note: If you’re creating dynamic forms, keep in mind that Acrobat Reader doesn’t support some custom JavaScripts. The
form may not function properly when viewed in Acrobat Reader unless additional usage rights are added to the PDF.
Additional resources
For more information on Acrobat JavaScript, see these resources:

• JavaScript™ for Acrobat® API Reference to add interactivity to PDF forms:
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_javascript_en (PDF, English only)
• Acrobat Software Development Kit (SDK) to customize Acrobat: www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_devcenter_en
(English only)
• File paths in Acrobat JavaScript: www.acrobatusers.com/tutorials/file-paths-acrobat-javascript

Distribute (send) forms to recipients

Distribute PDF or web forms
After you create a form, you choose a method for sending it to recipients.
1 Click Distribute in the lower-right corner of the right hand pane.
2 A series of messages might appear, depending on the conditions Acrobat DC detects in your form. Respond to the

onscreen instructions as needed, and save the form.
3 Choose a distribution and collection method:
Email Collect responses in your email inbox.
Internal Server Distribute and collect responses on an internal server such as SharePoint or Network Folder. For

more information, see Specify a server.
For more information, see Choosing a distribution option for reviews and forms.
4 Click Continue and follow the onscreen instructions for distributing the form.
5 If you choose to collect responses in your email inbox, do one of the following:

• Enter the email addresses separated with a semi-colon, or click the To button to select email addresses from your
address book.
• Edit the default message.
• Select the option Collect Name & Email from Recipients To Provide Optimal Tracking. The system prompts
recipients to provide their name and email address when they submit the form. This guarantees that in Tracker,
you see exactly who has and hasn't replied, and when.
• Deselect the option if you want to receive anonymous submissions, or you don't care about that level of tracking.

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Note: If you don’t know the email addresses of your recipients, enter your own email address. The system sends you a
link to the form, which you can email to recipients as desired.
To track the status of the distributed form, click Track in the lower-right corner of the right hand pane. For more
information, see About forms tracker .

Distribute eSign forms
After you create an eSign form, you can use Adobe Document Cloud eSign service for sending it to recipients for filling
in and signing.
1 Click Send For Signatures in the lower-right corner of the right hand pane.
2 Click Ready to Send. The document is uploaded to Adobe Document Cloud.
3 Type in the email addresses of people you want to sign your document. Add a message if desired.
4 Click Send.

You receive an email from Adobe Document Cloud eSign services that your documents have been sent out for
signature to the first user. The first user also receives an email to sign the document. When the user adds his or her
signature in the Signature field, and then click the Click to sign button, the document is sent to the next user for
signature and so on.
Everyone gets a copy of the signed document, and the file is stored securely in Adobe Document Cloud.
To track the status of the eSign form, see Track documents sent for signature.

• Fill and sign PDF forms
• Send PDF documents for signature

More Help topics

Filling in PDF forms
Is the form fillable?
Not all forms are fillable. Sometimes form creators don’t convert their PDFs to interactive fillable forms. Or, they
intentionally design a form that you can fill in only by hand or with the Fill & Sign tool. These non-interactive forms
are called flat forms.

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Fill in interactive forms
An interactive form contains fields that you can select or fill in.

A Purple message bar indicates presence of fillable fields. B When clicked, shows where fillable fields exist.

1 If necessary, right-click the document, and select either the Hand Tool or the Select Tool from the pop-up menu.

The pointer changes to a different icon as you move it over a field. For example, the Hand
tool changes to an Ibeam when you can type text into the form field. Some text fields are dynamic, meaning that they automatically
resize to accommodate the amount of data you enter and can span across pages.
2 (Optional) To make form fields easier to identify, click the Highlight Existing Fields button

on the document
message bar. Form fields appear with a colored background (light blue by default), and all required form fields are
outlined in another color (red by default).

3 Click to select options, such as radio buttons. Click inside a text field to type.

Press Tab to move forward or Shift+Tab to move backward.
4 When finished, click the submit button to either send the data to a server or create an email to send the data. The

submit button can appear in the purple message bar at the top of the form or in the form content.
For troubleshooting tips on completing forms, see Troubleshooting forms .

Fill in flat forms with the Fill & Sign tools
A flat form does not have interactive fields. However, you can use the Fill & Sign tools to add text and other symbols
anywhere on the form. For instructions, see Fill out your PDF form.

Fill in flat forms in a browser
A common way to view a PDF form is in a web browser, for example, when you click a link on a website. If the form
does not contain interactive fields, you can use the Fill & Sign tools to fill out the form. Save the form on your computer,
and then open it directly in Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC. For instructions, see Fill out your PDF form.

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Options for working in forms
Key

Result

Tab or Shift+Tab

Accepts typing and moves to next field

Up/Left Arrow

Selects previous radio button in a group

Down/Right Arrow

Selects next radio button

Esc

Reject and deselect form field.

Esc (press twice)

Exits Full Screen mode

Enter or Return (single-line text field)

Accepts typing and deselects field

Enter or Return (multiline text field)

Creates paragraph return in same form field

Enter or Return (check box)

Turns check box on or off

Enter (keypad)

Accepts typing and deselects current form field

(Windows) Ctrl+Tab

Inserts tab into text field

(Mac) Alt+Tab

Inserts tab into text field

Auto-Complete forms (interactive forms only)
The Auto-Complete feature stores any entries that you type in an interactive form field. Auto-Complete then suggests
or even automatically enters responses that match your typing in other form fields. The suggestions appear in a popup menu, from which you can select a match. The Auto-Complete feature is off by default, so you must enable it in the
forms preferences if you want to use it.
To remove an entry from the Auto-Complete memory, such as a misspelled entry that you found and corrected later,
edit the list in the preferences.
Note: The forms preferences apply to the way the application handles open forms as you work. The preferences aren’t saved
with the PDF forms themselves.

Enable the Auto-Complete option
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 Select Forms on the left.
3 Under Auto-Complete, choose Basic or Advanced from the menu.

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4 Select Remember Numerical Data if you want the Auto-Complete memory to store numbers that you type into

forms.
When you select an option in the Auto-Complete menu, a description of how it affects the Auto-Complete behavior
appears in the text area below.

Delete an entry from the Auto-Complete memory
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Select Forms on the left.
3 Click Edit Entry List under Auto-Complete.
4 In the Auto-Complete Entry List dialog box, do one of the following, and then click Yes in the confirmation dialog

box:

• To remove all of the entries, click Remove All.
• To remove some of the entries, select the entries and click Remove. (Shift-click to select multiple adjacent entries;
Ctrl-click to select multiple nonadjacent entries.)

Change flat forms to fillable (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can change a flat form to fillable by either using the Prepare Form tool or by simply enabling the Fill & Sign tools.
Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC users can use the Fill & Sign tool to fill in flat forms.
Interactive form To create an interactive form, use the Prepare Forms tool. See Create a form from an existing

document.
Flat form To enable the Fill & Sign tools, choose File > Save As Other > Reader Extended PDF >Enable More Tools
(includes Form Fill-in & Save).

The tools are enabled for the current form only. When you create a different form, redo this task to enable Acrobat
Reader DC users to use the tools.

Save forms
• To save the completed form, choose File > Save As and rename the file.
• To remove extended Reader features, choose File > Save A Copy.
• To allow Reader users to save the data they typed, choose File > Save As Other > Reader Extended PDF > Enable
More Tools (Includes Form Fill-in & Save).

Print forms
1 Click the Print button

, or choose File > Print.

2 Choose a printer from the menu at the top of the Print dialog box.
3 In the Comments And Forms menu in the upper-right area of the Print dialog box, choose one of the following, and

then click OK:

• (Interactive or flat form) To print the form and the typed entries, choose Document. This option prints text
you’ve typed using the Add Text tool.
• (Interactive or flat form) To print the form, the typed entries, and any comments on the form, choose Document
And Markups. This option prints text you’ve typed using the Add Text tool.
• (Interactive form only) To print only the typed entries and not the form itself, choose Form Fields Only.

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Clear unsaved form entries
❖ Choose Tools > Prepare Forms. In the right hand pane, click More and then choose Clear Form.

• Create a form from an existing document
• Enable Reader users to save form data
• PDF Forms forum

More Help topics

Fill and sign PDF forms
Easily fill, sign, and send forms fast from your desktop, browser, or tablet device.
The Fill & Sign tool gives you an easy way to work with paper forms or PDFs that haven’t been optimized for form
filling. You can save frequently used information securely in your personal autofill collection. Next time, just drag and
drop information to complete forms faster.
Sign your form by typing or drawing your signature, or using an image. Send your completed forms to others and store
the forms securely in Adobe Document Cloud.
This document provides instructions on how to fill & sign your forms electronically from your desktop using Acrobat
DC or Acrobat Reader DC. Refer to the related links section at the bottom of this page for how to do the same using a
browser or the tablet app.

Fill out your PDF form
1 Open the PDF form that you want to fill out.
2 Choose Tools > Fill & Sign.
3 To fill or add text, click Add Text

in the toolbar. Click at the place in your document where you want to add the

text, and then start typing.

Use the field toolbar to make appropriate changes:

• To resize a field, use the font up or down button in the toolbar - the first two buttons from left.

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• To move a field, move your mouse pointer closer to field border until you see the drag handle, and then hold and
move the field as required.
• To delete a field or typed text, click the trash button.
• To convert a normal text field into comb field or vice versa, click the comb button - the second button from right.
Use Comb fields to fill or add text in continuous boxes in a line/row. The Comb field spreads the user-entered text
evenly across the width of the text field, as shown below below.

While you are typing, if the characters do not fit in each box, adjust the spacing with the grab handle where the resize
here points in the image above.
4 Fill personal data from the right hand panel. In the right hand panel, your personal information is displayed. Some

of the fields are populated for you based on your Adobe ID, which you can edit.

You can fill out the rest of the information in the right hand panel, so it is easier to add to your form. The added
information is saved automatically and made available for future use.
a. Drag and drop labels from the panel onto the form: mouse over the label exposes the drag handle on the left of
the label.

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b. Click and hold to drag out the item and drop it over the place onto the form where you want this label to appear.
Resize or move the label as appropriate.
5 Add annotations or symbols: Annotations tools are displayed in the toolbar - Crossmark, Checkmark, Circle, Line,

and Dot. You can use these annotation tools to fill in check boxes and radio buttons, as well as use the Circle to circle
text or the line to strike out text.

Click an annotation in the toolbar to select it, and then click on the form where you want to place the annotation.
(Each click will place the selected annotation at the respective location on the form.)
Resize the first annotation you place to fit the check box or radio button in the document, and the next annotations
you add will be of the same size and will fit the rest of the box/circle fields.

Sign or Initial your form
To sign a PDF form, you can type, draw, or insert an image of your handwritten signature or initials.
1 Open the PDF document or form that you want to sign.
2 Choose Tools > Fill & Sign.
3 To add text, such as your name, company, title, or date, drag and drop your personal saved information from the

right hand pane onto a form field.
Alternatively, you can use Add Text
in the toolbar. Click at the place in your document where you want to add
the text, and start typing. Use the field toolbar to make appropriate changes.
4 Click the Sign icon

in the toolbar, and then choose whether you want to add your signature or just initials.

If you have already added signatures or initials, they are displayed as options to choose from.
5 If you've already added your signature or initials, just select it from the Sign options, and then click at the place in

the PDF where you want to add your signature. Skip to the next step.
If your are signing for the first time, you see the Signature or Initials panel. Below is an example of the Signature
panel.

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Type Type your name in the field. You can choose from a small selection of signature styles; clickChange Style to

view a different style.
Draw Draw your signature in the field.
Image Browse and select an image of your signature.
Save Signature When this check box is selected, and you're signed in to Acrobat Reader DC or Acrobat DC, the

added signature is saved securely in Adobe Document Cloud for reuse.
Click Apply, and then click at the place in the PDF where you want to place the signature or initial.
6 To move the placed signature or initial, click the field to highlight it and then use the arrow keys. To resize or delete

the field, use the options in field toolbar.
If you want to use an image as your signature:

•Sign your name in black ink on a clean, blank sheet of white paper. Sign in the middle of the paper so you don't
photograph or scan the edges.
• Photograph or scan your signature. If you are taking a picture of your signature, make sure that the page is lit and
that no shadows fall across the signature.
• Transfer the photo or scan to your computer. Acrobat DC accepts JPG, JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, TIF, and BMP files.
You do not need to crop the image. Acrobat imports just the signature if the photo or scan is fairly clean.
• Send and track large files online
• Send PDF documents for signature

More Help topics

About Forms Tracker
Use Tracker to manage the forms that you have distributed or received. Tracker allows you to view and edit the location
of the response file, track which recipients have responded, add more recipients, email all recipients, and view the
responses for a form.
Track forms
1 Choose Edit > Form Options > Track.
2 In the left navigation panel, expand Forms.
3 Select a form and do one of the following:

• To view all responses for a form, click View Responses.
• To modify the location of the response file, in Responses File Location, click Edit File Location.

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• To view the original form, click Open Original Form.
• To send the form to more recipients, click Add Recipients.

More Help topics
Tracker overview
Distribute (send) forms to recipients

Collecting and managing PDF form data
When you distribute a form, Acrobat DC automatically creates a PDF Portfolio for collecting the data submitted by
users. By default, this file is saved in the same folder as the original form and is named filename_responses.

More Help topics
PDF forms basics

Collect user data
1 After a user submits a form, open the returned form.
2 In the Add Completed Form To Responses File dialog box, select one of the following:
Add To An Existing Responses File Compiles the data in the response file that was created when you used the

Distribute form wizard to send out the form. (If necessary, click Browse and locate the response file.)
Create A New Responses File Creates a new response file, using the name and location you specify.

3 The response file opens after you click OK. Each returned form added to the response file appears as a component

file of a PDF Portfolio.

Add user data to an existing response file
1 Open the response file in Acrobat DC.
2 In the left navigation panel, click Add.
3 In the Add Returned Forms dialog box, click Add File, and then locate and select the returned forms, and click

Open.
4 Repeat the previous step to add any returned forms in other folders. When finished, click OK.

When you finish, each added PDF form appears as a component file of the PDF Portfolio.

Export user data from a response file
Use this process to save all the entries in a PDF Portfolio response file to a spreadsheet or XML file.
1 In Acrobat DC, open the response file and select the data to export.
2 In the left navigation panel, click Export, and then choose Export Selected.
3 In the Select Folder To Save File dialog box, specify a name, location, and file format (CSV or XML) for the form

data, and click Save.

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Manage form data files
You can move the answers on a PDF form to and from other file formats that preserve all the data in much less space
than a full PDF.

Import form data
In some workflow scenarios, individuals submit filled-in forms as data-only files rather than as complete PDF files.
These files are not PDFs, but use another file format, such as FDF or XML. You can view the data submitted by an
individual recipient in the context of the PDF by opening the original file and importing the information in the data file.
1 In Acrobat DC, open the PDF form into which you want to import data.
2 Choose Tools > Prepare Form. In the right hand pane, choose More > Clear Form.

Note: When you import data from another file into a PDF form, the imported data replaces any information that
appeared previously in the individual form fields. However, if the imported data file contains one or more blank form
fields, importing will not clear the original data.
3 Choose More > Import Data.
4 In the Select File Containing Form Data dialog box, select a format in File Of Type corresponding to the data file

you want to import. Then locate and select that file, and click Open.
Note: Some formats are available only for specific types of PDF forms, depending on the application used to create the
form, such as Acrobat DC or Designer ES2. Data you import from a text file (.txt) must be formatted in tab-delimited
rows that form columns.

Export file data
You can save the information in a completed PDF form as a data file in another file format. Later, you can reuse the data
to fill in the form again or another form with the same fields and field names.
1 In Acrobat DC, open the completed form file.
2 In the right hand pane, choose More > Export Data.
3 In the Export Form Data As dialog box, select the format in which you want to save the form data (FDF, XFDF, XML,

or TXT). Then select a location and filename, and click Save.
Note: Some file formats are available only for specific types of PDF forms, depending on how the form was created.

Merge exported data files to a spreadsheet
If you want to compile data from forms that are not already in a data set, use the following process.
1 In the right hand pane, choose More > Merge Data Files Into Spreadsheet.
2 In the Export Data From Multiple Forms dialog box, clickAdd Files.
3 In the Select file Containing Form Data dialog box, select a file format option in File Of Type option (Acrobat Form

Data Files or All Files). Then locate the form files that you want to merge into the spreadsheet, select them, and click
Open.
4 Repeat the previous step to add form data files that are in other locations, as needed.
5 Click Export. Then select a folder and filename for the spreadsheet, and click Save.
6 In the Export Progress dialog box, click either View File Now to open the spreadsheet file or Close Dialog to return

to Acrobat DC.
Note: When returned forms are in a response file, the most efficient way to export the information into a spreadsheet is to
use the Export Data button in the left navigation panel for the PDF Portfolio response file.

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About Forms Tracker
Use Tracker to manage the forms that you have distributed or received. Tracker allows you to view and edit the location
of the response file, track which recipients have responded, add more recipients, email all recipients, and view the
responses for a form.
Track forms
1 Choose Edit > Form Options > Track.
2 In the left navigation panel, expand Forms.
3 Select a form and do one of the following:

• To view all responses for a form, click View Responses.
• To modify the location of the response file, in Responses File Location, click Edit File Location.
• To view the original form, click Open Original Form.
• To send the form to more recipients, click Add Recipients.

More Help topics
Tracker overview
Distribute (send) forms to recipients

Setting action buttons in PDF forms
More Help topics
PDF forms basics

About buttons
Buttons are most commonly associated with forms, but you can add them to any document. Buttons can open a file,
play a sound or movie clip, submit data to a web server, and much more. When deciding on how to initiate an action,
remember that buttons offer the following capabilities that links and bookmarks do not:

• A button can activate a single action or a series of actions.
• A button can change appearance in response to mouse actions.
• A button can be easily copied across many pages.
• Mouse actions can activate different button actions. For example, Mouse Down (a click), Mouse Up (releasing after
a click), Mouse Enter (moving the pointer over the button), and Mouse Exit (moving the pointer away from the
button) can all start a different action for the same button.
Buttons are an easy, intuitive way to let users initiate an action in PDF documents. Buttons can have a combination
of labels and icons to lead users through a series of actions or events by changing as the mouse is moved. For
example, you can create buttons with “Play,” “Pause,” and “Stop” labels and appropriate icons. Then you can set
actions for these buttons to play, pause, and stop a movie clip. You can select any combination of mouse behaviors
for a button and specify any combination of actions for a mouse behavior.

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Add a button to an Acrobat DC PDF form
1 Make sure you are in edit mode by selecting Tools > Prepare Form, and then select Button

in the toolbar. Your

curser becomes a cross hair.
2 On the page, click where you want to add the button to create a button with the default size. For a custom size button,

drag a rectangle to define the size of the button.
3 Double-click the button field, and then specify a name, tool tip text, and other common properties.
4 Click the Appearance tab, and then specify options to determine the button appearance on the page. Remember, if

you select a background color, you are not able to see through to any images behind the button. The text options
affect the label you specify in the Options tab, not the button name in the General tab.
Note: If Enable Right-To-Left Language Options is selected in the International panel of the Preferences dialog box, the
Appearance tab includes options for changing the digit style and text direction for buttons.
5 Click the Options tab, and select options to determine how labels and icons appear on the button.
6 Click the Actions tab. Specify options to determine what happens when the button is clicked, such as jumping to a

different page or playing a media clip.
7 Click Close.

If you’re creating a set of buttons, you can snap the object to grid lines or guides.

Add a submit button
When you distribute a form, Acrobat DC automatically checks the form. If it doesn’t find a submit button, it adds a
Submit Form button to the document message bar. Users can click the Submit Form button to send completed forms
back to you. If you don’t plan to use the Submit Form button created by Acrobat DC, you can add a custom submit
button to your form.
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Using the Button tool

, drag across the area where you want the button to appear. Double-click the button and
set options in the General and Options tabs.

3 In the Options tab, choose an option in the Layout menu for the button label, icon image, or both. Do one or both

of the following:

• Type text in the Label box to identify the button as a submit button.
• Click Choose Icon and either type the path to an image file or click Browse and locate the image file you want to
use.
4 In the Actions tab, choose Submit A Form in the Select Action menu, and then click Add.
5 In the Submit Form Selections dialog box, do one of the following:

• To collect form data on a server, type the location in the Enter a URL for this link box. For example,
http://www.[domain]/[folder]/[subfolder]/ for an Internet address or \\[server]\[folder]\[subfolder]\ for a
location on a local network.
• To collect form data as attachments to email, type mailto: followed by the email address. For example,
mailto:nobody@adobe.com.
6 Select options for Export Format, Field Selection, and Date Options, and click OK.

Note: If the data returns in FDF or XFDF format, the server URL must end with the #FDF suffix—for example,
http://myserver/cgi-bin/myscript#FDF.

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Submit Form Selections options
The following options are available in the Submit Forms Selections dialog box:
Enter a URL for this link Specifies the URL to collect the form data.
FDF Returns the user input without sending back the underlying PDF file. You can select options to include Field Data,
Comments, and Incremental Changes To The PDF.

Note: Selecting the option for incremental changes is useful for receiving digital signatures in a way that is easily read and
reconstructed by a server.
HTML Returns the form in Hypertext Markup Language.
XFDF Returns the user input as an XML file. You can include Comments with the field data or just the field data.
PDF Returns the entire PDF file with the user input.
Field Selection Specifies what fields are returned. To receive only some of the completed field data, select Only These,
click Select Fields, and select which fields to include or exclude in the Field Selection dialog box.

For example, you might use this to exclude some calculated or duplicate fields that appear in the form for the user’s
benefit but which do not add new information.
Date Options Standardizes the format for dates that the user enters.

Making buttons change appearance
A button can have a label, an icon, or both. You can change how the button appears in each mouse state (Up, Down,
and Rollover). For example, you could create a button that has a “Home” label until the pointer is moved over the
button, when it might have a “Click to return to home page” label.
You can make button icons from any file format that Acrobat DC can display, including PDF, JPEG, GIF, and other
image formats. For whichever format you select, the entire page is used, so if you want to use only a portion of a page
as an icon, you need to crop the image or page before carrying out this procedure. The smallest allowable PDF page size
is 1-by-1 inch (2.54-by-2.54 cm). If you want the icon to appear smaller than 1-by-1 inch, scale it to fit the size of the
box drawn with the button tool. Clicking Advanced in the Options tab of the Button Properties dialog box lets you
determine how a button icon is scaled to fit inside a button.

A Label only B Icon only C Icon top, label bottom D Label top, icon bottom E Icon left, label right F Label left, icon right G Label over icon

Edit a button
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select the Button field, and then do any of the following:

• To edit the properties for the button field, double-click the button.
• To change the appearance of buttons, use the appearance options in the Appearance tab of the Button Properties
dialog box.
• To align, center, or distribute the button with other form fields, or to resize or duplicate the button, right-click
the button, and then choose an option from the context menu.

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Specify Acrobat button display properties
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Double-click an existing button, and then click the Options tab in the Button Properties dialog box.
3 For Layout, choose the type of label display you want. (For information on scaling button icons, see the next

procedure.)
4 For Behavior, specify the display of the button when clicked.
5 To define the label or icon that appears on the button, do the following:

• If a label option is selected from the Layout menu, type the text in the Label box.
• If an icon option is selected from the Layout menu, click Choose Icon, click Browse, and select the file. (Click
Clear to remove the selected icon.)

Button Behavior options
None Keeps the appearance of the button the same.
Push Specifies appearances for the Up, Down, and Rollover states of the mouse. Select an option under State, and then

specify a label or icon option:
Up Determines what the button looks like when the mouse button isn’t clicked.
Down Determines what the button looks like when the mouse is clicked on the button, but before it’s released.
Rollover Determines what the button looks like when the pointer is held over the button.
Outline Highlights the button border.
Invert Reverses the dark and light shades of the button.

Scale and position buttons
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Double-click an existing button to open the Button Properties dialog box.
3 Click the Options tab, select one of the icon options from the Layout menu, and then click Advanced.

Note: The Advanced button isn’t available if you choose Label Only from the Layout menu.
4 Select an option from the When To Scale menu:
Always Scales the icon as defined regardless of its size in relation to the button size.
Never Preserves the original size of the icon; the button border crops the icon if it doesn’t fit. If Never is selected,

scale options aren’t available.
Icon Is Too Big Scales the icon as defined only if it is larger than the button.
Icon Is Too Small Scales the icon as defined only if it is smaller than the button.

5 From the Scale menu, select whether to scale the icon proportionally. If the icon is scaled nonproportionally, it may

be skewed.
6 To make sure that either the top and bottom or left and right sides of the icon are flush against the button edges,

select Fit To Bounds.

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7 To define where the icon is placed inside the button, drag the slider arrows. Icon placement is defined according to

the percentage of space preserved between the icon and the left field boundary, and between the icon and the bottom
field boundary. The default setting (50, 50) places the icon in the middle of a field. You can click Reset at any time
to revert to the default placement setting.
8 Click OK, and then click Close.

Hide an Acrobat DC button except during rollover
In some cases, you may want the button area to be invisible until the pointer moves over it. By alternately showing and
hiding a button, you can create interesting visual effects in a document. For example, when you move a pointer over a
city on a map, a detail map of the city could be displayed, and the detail map could disappear when the pointer moves
away from the city.

A Pointer not over button area B Pointer enters button area C Pointer exits button area

1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Using the Button tool

, drag across the area where you want the pop-up button to appear. For example, if the
PDF file contains a map of France, drag across the area where you want a detailed map of Paris to pop up.

3 Double-click the button, and then click the Options tab and choose Icon Only from the Layout menu.
4 Choose Push from the Behavior menu, and then choose Rollover from the State list.
5 Click Choose Icon, and then click Browse. Select the file type from the File Of Type, navigate to the location of the

image file, and then double-click the file. In this example, you would select a map of Paris. Click OK to accept the
previewed image as the button.
6 Click the Appearance tab. If needed, deselect Border Color and Fill Color, and then click Close.
7 If you are in the edit mode, click Preview. The image field you defined appears as the pointer rolls over the button

area and disappears when it exits.
If you want the image to be larger than the rollover area, or if you want the image to be in a different location than
the image button that pops up, use the Show/Hide A Field action. First, you specify an icon for the button that will
be shown and hidden. Next, you create a second button that acts as a hot spot when the mouse rolls over it. You do not
assign an icon for the appearance of the second button. Instead, you use the Actions tab to show the first button when
the pointer enters the second button, and hide the first button when the pointer exits.

Publishing interactive PDF web forms
More Help topics
PDF forms basics

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About web forms
PDF forms can be useful for submitting and collecting information over the web. This is done by providing several
button actions that perform functions similar to some HTML scripting macros. You must have a Common Gateway
Interface (CGI) application on the web server to collect and route the data to a database. Any existing CGI application
that collects data from forms (in HTML, FDF, or XML format) can be used.
Before you make your forms web-ready, make sure that your form-field names match those sets in the CGI application.
Note: CGI scripts must be built outside Acrobat DC, and their creation is not covered by the Adobe Acrobat DC product.

Add submit functionality
Use the Submit A Form action to send form data to an email address or to a web server by specifying a URL. You can
also use the submit button to send other files back to a server or database. For example, you can attach scanned images
or files to a form. The files are submitted along with the rest of the form data when you click the Submit button.
If your PDF form contains an email-based submit button, you can use the Distribute workflow to facilitate distributing
the form to others.
1 Choose Tools > Prepare Form, then select Button

in the toolbar, and create a button.

2 Double-click the button to open the Button Properties dialog box.
3 Click the Actions tab, and select Mouse Up from the Select Trigger menu.
4 Select Submit A Form from the Select Action menu, and then click Add.
5 In the Submit Form Selections dialog box, type an entry in Enter A URL For This Link:

• To send the form data to a web server, enter the destination URL.
• To send the form data to an email address, enter mailto: followed by the email address. For example, type
mailto:nobody@adobe.com.
6 Make additional changes to the available options, and then click OK to close the dialog box.

For information on the available options, see the next section.
7 Change settings on other tabs in the Button Properties dialog box as needed, and then click Close.

Submit Form Selections options
FDF Exports as an FDF file. You can select one or more of the available options: user-entered data, comments, and
incremental changes to the PDF file. The Incremental Changes To The PDF option is useful for exporting a digital
signature in a way a server can easily read and reconstruct.

Note: If the server returns data to the user in FDF or XFDF format, the server’s URL must end with the #FDF suffix—for
example, http://myserver/cgi-bin/myscript#FDF.
HTML Exports as an HTML file.
XFDF Exports as an XML file. You can choose to export the form fields data, comments, or both.
PDF The Complete Document Exports the entire PDF file that is your form. Although this creates a larger file than the

FDF option, it is useful for preserving digital signatures.
Note: If the users that fill in the PDF form are using Adobe Reader, you must choose either FDF or XFDF for the Export
Format option.
All Fields Exports all form fields even if the form fields do not contain values.

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Only These Exports only the form fields you specify by clicking Select Fields and indicating which form fields to
include and whether you want to include empty fields.
Convert Date To Standard Format Exports all form dates in a single format, regardless of how they are entered in the

form.

Add a Reset Form button
A Reset Form button clears any data a user has already entered in the form. It is like the Tools > Prepare Form > More
> Clear Form feature, which is available to you when you create and edit Acrobat DC forms. However, you can set up
your reset button so that it clears only specific fields.
1 Choose Tools > Prepare Form, then select Button

in the toolbar, and create a button.

2 Double-click the button to open the Button Properties dialog box.
3 Click the Actions tab, and select Mouse Up from the Select Trigger menu.
4 Select Reset A Form from the Select Action menu, and then click Add.
5 In the Reset A Form dialog box, do one of the following and then click OK:

• Click individual check boxes to select or deselect the fields that you want to be reset by the button.
• Select All.
The list in the Actions tab now shows Reset A Form nested under the Mouse Up action.
6 Click another tab in the Button Properties dialog box to continue defining properties for the button, or click Close.

Add an Import Data button
Use the Import Form Data action to enable users to fill out common form fields, such as name and email address, with
data imported from another form. Users can also use the Import Data button to populate common form fields with
their personal profile information. Only form fields that match are updated. The fields that do not match are ignored.
Before you create an Import Form Data action, set up a form with common information form fields from which to
export the data.
Note: The Import Form Data action searches for the data file from which to import data in different locations in Windows
than on Mac OS. In Windows, the Import Form Data action searches the Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC folder, the
current folder, the System folder, the Windows folder, My Documents\Adobe\Acrobat, and the folders that are in the PATH
statement. On Mac OS, the Import Form Data action searches the Acrobat DC or Acrobat Reader DC folder and the System
Preferences folder.
1 Choose Tools > Prepare Form, then select Button

in the toolbar, and create a button.

2 Double-click the button to open the Button Properties dialog box.
3 Click the Actions tab, and select Mouse Up from the Select Trigger menu.
4 Select Import Form Data from the Select Action menu, and then click Add.
5 Locate and select an FDF file, and click Open.
6 Click another tab in the Button Properties dialog box to continue defining properties for the button, or click Close.

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CGI export values
An export value is the information sent to a CGI application to identify a user-selected form field. You need to define
an export value only if both of the following are true:

• The data is collected electronically in a database over a company intranet or the web.
• The data is different from the item designated by the form field, or the form field is a radio button.
When defining export values, keep the following guidelines in mind:

• Use the default export value (Yes) to indicate that a check box or radio button has been selected.
• Enter an export value for drop-down lists only if you want the value to be different from the item listed—for
example, to match the name of the form field in a database. The item selected in the drop-down list is used as the
export value unless a different export value is explicitly entered in the Properties dialog box.
• Related radio buttons must have exactly the same form field name but different export values. This ensures that the
radio buttons toggle and that the correct values will be collected in the database.

More Help topics
Form fields behavior
Manage form data files
Add a button to an Acrobat PDF form

PDF barcode form fields
More Help topics
PDF forms basics

About barcodes
Barcode fields translate a user’s form entries into a visual pattern that can be scanned, interpreted, and incorporated
into a database. Barcodes are helpful when users submit the form on paper or by fax.
The advantages of using barcodes are that they save time, eliminate the need for responses to be manually read and
recorded, and bypass data-entry errors that can occur.
A typical barcode workflow includes the following phases:

• The form author makes sure that Automatically Calculate Field Values is selected in the forms preferences, and then
creates the form in Acrobat, setting up all the other fields as usual.
• The form author adds the barcode field to the form, setting up the barcode so that it captures the needed data.
• The form author enables the form for Acrobat Reader DC users (if the author wants to allow the users to save their
own filled-in copy of the form or if it contains certain barcode fields).
• The form author distributes the form to other users.
• Users fill in the form on their computers and submit it electronically or print a copy and deliver the copy to the form
distributor.

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• The received barcode data is interpreted in one of the following ways, and can then be reviewed, sorted, and used
by the form receiver:
Forms faxed to a fax server
The form receiver can use Adobe Acrobat Capture® to collect TIFF images from the fax server and place them in an
Adobe LiveCycle Barcoded Forms Decoder watched folder, if the receiver owns those products.
Forms delivered on paper
The form receiver can scan paper forms and then use an application such as LiveCycle Barcoded Forms Decoder to
decode the barcodes within those forms.
Note: Acrobat Capture and LiveCycle Barcoded Forms Decoder are stand-alone products appropriate for enterprise
workflows and are sold separately from Acrobat.

Design tips for barcodes
Issues that affect how you design and place barcodes include usability and space. As an example, the barcode size can
also limit the amount of data that can be encoded. For the best results, follow these guidelines.

• Position the barcode so that it’s unlikely to get folded when placed in an envelope, and position it far enough from
the edges of the page so that it won’t get clipped off during printing or faxing.
• Position it so that it can be easily seen and scanned. If a handheld scanner will be used, avoid barcodes wider than
4 inches (10.3 cm). Tall, narrow barcodes generally work best in this case. Also, avoid compressing the contents of
the barcode when using a handheld scanner.
• Make sure that the size of the barcode can accommodate the amount of data to encode. If the barcode area is too
small, it turns a solid gray. Be sure to test a completed form before distributing it to make sure that the barcode area
is large enough.

Create, test, and edit barcode fields
One of the ways in which you can improve a PDF form barcode is by creating custom scripts. Writing such scripts
requires a basic competency with JavaScript and a familiarity with Acrobat-specific JavaScript. For more information,
see Developing Acrobat®Applications Using JavaScript™ on www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_javascript_en (PDF, English
only). For information about basic JavaScript, see any of the many resources available on that subject.
After inserting a barcode of maximum size, changing the cell size or decode condition may cause the barcode to cross
the page borders. Avoid this behavior by selecting the appropriate cell size and decode conditions for the barcode.

Add a barcode field
1 Open the form in Acrobat DC. Open the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences), and select Forms on the left.

Then select Automatically Calculate Field Values.
2 Choose Tools > Prepare Form.
3 Click the Barcode icon

in the toolbar.

4 Drag a rectangle to define the barcode area, and then double-click the barcode field to open the Properties dialog

box.
5 In the Value tab, do one of the following:

• Select Encode Using, and then select a format (XML or Tab Delimited). Click the Pick button and select the fields
that you want to be encoded in the barcode field. If you don’t want to include the field names in the barcode data,
deselect Include Field Names.

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• Select Custom Calculation Script, click Edit, and then enter your custom JavaScript code in the JavaScript Editor
dialog box.
6 In the Options tab, do all of the following:

• Select a Symbology option: PDF417, QR Code, orData Matrix.
• Select Compress Data Before Encoding To Barcode if you want to apply this compression. Do not select this
option if a handheld scanner is used to capture data from returned forms.
• In Decode Condition, choose the type of hardware to process returned forms: Handheld Barcode Scanner, Fax
Server,Document Scanner, or Custom.
• If necessary, click Custom and enter values for X Dimension, Y/X Ratio, and Error Correction Level.
7 Make any other changes in the General and Actions tabs. Then close the Barcode Field Properties dialog box.

JavaScript code is generated automatically to encode the selected fields in the XML or Tab Delimited format. The
Barcode Field Properties dialog box closes, and the barcode for which you specified values appears on the form.
Note: If you add a new field to a form after you have created the barcode, it is not automatically included in the data
for existing barcodes. However, you can manually include additional data fields in the barcode.

Test a barcode field
1 Click the Preview button in the toolbar.
2 Fill in the form. Use sample data that represents the maximum amount of information for each field or that you

expect users to enter.
3 If the barcode field is dimmed, follow either the procedure for resizing the barcode field or for adjusting the content

data. (See the following tasks.)
4 Make sure that the barcode field area is large enough to contain all of the incoming data. To remove the sample data,

in the right hand pane, choose More >Clear Form.
5 Select File > Save.

The barcode form field is now ready for distribution.

Include additional data fields in the barcode
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Double-click the barcode field.
3 In the Value tab, do one of the following:

• If Encode Using is selected, click Pick, and select additional form fields to be encoded.
• If Custom Calculation Script is selected, click Edit, and write additional JavaScript to include the additional
fields.
After including new data fields in the barcode, be sure that the barcode area is large enough by testing sample data. If
the barcode area is dimmed, adjust the barcode size or text field properties so that the data content fits into the barcode
area.

Adjust data content to fit in a barcode field
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Double-click the barcode field, and do any of the following:

• In the Options tab, click the Custom button and enter lower values for Error Correction Level and Y/X Ratio.

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• In the Options tab, select Compress Data Before Encoding To Barcode, but only if you are using an Adobe
software decoder (available separately).
• In the Value tab, select Tab Delimited rather than XML as the data-encoding format. XML requires more barcode
area to encode information than Tab Delimited does.
• In the Options tab, select a different Symbology option.
• In the Value tab, click the Pick button, and deselect any fields that don’t need encoding. For example, don’t
include fields with redundant information.
• In the Value tab, enter a custom script that converts user-entered text to either all lowercase or all uppercase
characters during the encoding process.
Note: The National Association of Computerized Tax Processors (NACTP) guidelines, used by the United States
Internal Revenue Service and state tax agencies, recommend using all uppercase characters for 2D barcode data.
3 To minimize the amount of barcode area for containing the data, double-click the barcode field, and in the Value

tab, write a custom script that restricts data to alphanumeric characters and to a single case. (Text that is either all
uppercase or all lowercase requires less barcode area than the same text written in a mixture of uppercase and
lowercase characters.)
Consider creating additional barcode fields in the form and mapping different data to each barcode field.

Set form field navigation
If a PDF document doesn’t have a specified tab order, the default tabbing order is based on the document structure
unless the user has deselected the Tab Order option in the Accessibility preferences.
You can change the tabbing order after you create the fields. If you are in form editing mode, you can order the tabs by
document structure (default), row, or column. You can also choose the order manually by dragging and dropping fields
in the Fields panel. If you are not in the editing mode, you can change the page properties to order the tabs by row or
column. However, you can’t customize the tab order manually.

Set tabbing order in edit mode
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 In the Fields panel on the right, make sure that you have selected Sort By

> Tab Order.

3 (Optional) To view the tabbing order for the fields, in the Fields panel, choose Tab Orders

> Show Tab

Numbers.
4 Select a Tab Order option:
Order Tabs By Structure Tabs based on the document structure, and follows the order that is set up in the tagging.
Order Tabs By Row Tabs from the upper-left field, moving first left to right and then down, one row at a time.
Order Tabs By Column Tabs from the upper-left field, moving first from top to bottom and then across from left to
right, one column at a time.
Order Tabs Manually Allows you to drag and drop a field where you want it within the Fields panel. You can’t move
a field to a different page, a radio button to another group, or a field to a radio button.
Order Tabs Unspecified Specifies that no tab order is specified. The tab order is determined by the settings in the

page properties.

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Set tabbing order in Page Properties
1 If you are in the form editing mode, click the cross button towards the right in the toolbar to exit the mode.
2 Click the Page Thumbnails button

or choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes >Page Thumbnails to open

the Page Thumbnails panel.
3 Select one or more page icons, and choose Page Properties in the Options menu of the Page Thumbnails panel. You

can also righ-click and then choose Page Properties.
4 Select a Tab Order option:
Use Row Order Tabs from the upper-left field, moving first left to right and then down, one row at a time.
Use Column Order Tabs from the upper-left field, moving first from top to bottom and then across from left to right,

one column at a time.
Use Document Structure For forms with tagged fields, follows the order set up in the tagging.
Unspecified Uses the existing sequence.

5 Click OK.

More Help topics
Create a form

PDF form field properties
More Help topics
PDF forms basics

About form field properties
How a form field behaves is determined by settings in the Properties dialog box for that individual field. You can set
properties that apply formatting, determine how the form field information relates to other form fields, impose
limitations on what the user can enter in the form field, trigger custom scripts, and so on.
You can set various properties for an Acrobat DC form field, depending on the form field type. The properties for each
type of form field are selected on a series of tabs. When you change a property, it is applied as soon as you select another
property or press Enter.
All types of form fields have a General tab and an Actions tab. Other tabs appear only in specific types of form fields.
The Options tab appears for most form field types but the options available are unique to each type of form field.
Two items are available on every tab. If you select one on any tab, a check mark will appear, and the option will be
checked on all tabs. These are:
Locked
When selected, prevents any further changes to any form field properties.
Close
Closes the form field Properties dialog box. If you are changing the properties of multiple fields, you can leave the
Properties dialog box open. Click each field to change its properties.

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Note: If you select Locked on any tab, it locks all options for the field, not just the options on that tab.

Modify form field properties
You can access form field properties only when you are in editing mode. You can change the properties for multiple
form fields at a time.
1 If you are not in form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Open the Properties dialog box using one of the following methods:

• To edit a single form field, double-click it or right-click it and choose Properties.
• To edit multiple form fields, select the fields that you want to edit, right-click one of the selected fields, and
choose Properties.
3 Change the properties on each of the available tabs, as needed.

The property is changed as soon as you select another property or press Enter.
4 Click Close.

If you select form fields that have different property values, some options in the Properties dialog box are not available.
Otherwise, changes to the available options are applied to all selected form fields.
To avoid accidental changes to the form field, select Locked in the lower-left corner of the Properties dialog box before
you close it. To unlock, click the option again.

General tab for form field properties
The General tab appears for all types of form fields and includes the following options:
Name Specifies the unique name of the selected form field.
Tooltip Displays text that the hesitant user may find helpful in filling in the form field. Tooltips appear when the pointer

hovers briefly over the form field.
Form Field Specifies whether the form field can be seen, either on screen or in print. The choices are: Visible, Hidden,

Visible But Doesn’t Print, and Hidden But Printable.
Orientation Rotates the form field by 0, 90, 180, or 270 Degrees
Read Only Prevents the user from changing the form field content.
Required Forces the user to fill in the selected form field. If the user attempts to submit the form while a required field

is blank, an error message appears and the empty required form field is highlighted.

Appearance tab for form field properties
Appearance properties determine how the form field looks on the page. The Appearance tab appears for all types of
form fields except barcodes, and includes the following options:
Border Color Opens a color picker in which you can select a color swatch for the frame surrounding the field. To leave

the field without a frame, select No Color.
Line Thickness Specifies the width of the frame surrounding the form field: Thin, Medium, or Thick.
Fill Color Opens a color picker in which you can select a color swatch for the background behind the field. To leave the

field uncolored, select No Color.
note: A Fill Color choice other than No Color will block any images on the PDF page that are behind the form field.

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Line Style Alters the appearance of the frame. Select Solid, Dashed, Beveled, Inset, or Underline.
Font Size Sets the size of user-entered text or of the selection marker for radio buttons and check boxes. The choices
include Auto, various preset values, and typing in a different value. If you select Auto for a text field, as the user types,
the font size changes to fit the text in the box.
Text Color Opens a color picker in which you can select a color swatch for the text or selection marker.
Font Lists the fonts available on your computer. This option is not available for form fields that do not display text.

Note: The Enable Right-To-Left Language Options in the Language panel of the Preferences dialog box affects what appears
in the Appearance tab of the Properties dialog box. When that preference is selected, the Appearance tab includes options
for changing the digit style and text direction for text fields, drop-down list boxes, and list boxes.

Position tab for form field properties
The Position tab lets you position or size the currently selected field or fields. You can move fields to the location you
specify on the page. Use the Height and Width options to change only the size of fields. To move fields without resizing
them, choose Do Not Change Height And Width When Changing The Position.

Options tab for form field properties
The options available on this tab change according to the type of form field selected. The Options tab appears for all
form field types except digital signatures.

Barcode
The Options tab for barcode field properties contains the following:
Symbology Includes the PDF417, QR Code, and Data Matrix barcode types.

note: If your organization processes forms by multiple methods, select the method that accommodates the lowest quality
barcode images. For example, if forms will be returned by fax and mail, choose Fax Server as the decode condition to ensure
high read rates on all forms.
Compress Data Before Encoding To Barcode Specifies that data will be compressed before it is encoded. Data is
compressed with the Flat compression method. Compressed data usually requires less storage space in the barcode,
allowing more data to be stored. In general, select this option if you will use the Acrobat barcode forms decoder to
interpret the returned data. Do not select this option if you will use a handheld barcode scanner, because most of these
cannot decode compressed data.
Decode Condition The preset decode conditions represent recommended starting points that you can adjust by
clicking the Custom button.
Custom Opens a dialog box in which you can select custom processing parameters that are best for your specific

scanning and faxing hardware. (The available options vary according to barcode types.)
X Dimension Width, in mils (1 mil = 0.001 inch or 0.0254mm), of the cell.
Y/X Ratio Height/width ratio of the cell. For example, for a data cell that is twice as high as it is wide, enter 2. (Available

only for PDF417 barcodes.)
note: If you are planning to decode the barcode using a handheld laser scanner, avoid creating barcodes wider than 4 inches
(10.2 cm). Taller and narrower barcodes generally work better with handheld scanners. Barcode height and width will not
be an issue if you are using an Adobe barcode decoder (available separately).
Error Correction Level Corresponds to the level of data redundancy that is added to the barcode to correct any potential

decoding errors. Higher levels provide more redundancy and a more robust barcode that will generate more successful

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decode results. However, higher levels will also result in a larger barcode and a reduced ability to encode user-supplied
or form structure data into the barcode. A more robust barcode can reduce problems created by pen marks, poor print
quality, degradation caused by fax transmission, or folds in the document. This option is available for PDF417 and QR
Code barcodes.
Manage Barcode Parameters Enables you to save your custom barcode selections in a file. You can then export the file

and make it available to other form authors in your organization.

Check boxes
Check Box Style Specifies the shape of the marker that appears inside the check box when the user selects it: Check (the

default), Circle, Cross, Diamond, Square, or Star. This property does not alter the shape of the check box itself.
Note: The size of the marker inside the check box is determined by the size of the font you specify in the Appearance
tab.
Export Value Specifies a value to represent the item if the data will be exported. If left blank, the entry for Name in the

General tab is used as the export value.
Check Box Is Checked By Default Shows the check box selected unless the user deselects it.

Drop-down and list box
For either dropdown boxes or list boxes, you use the Options tab to create a list of items from which the user selects.
Although most of the properties on this tab are common to both these types of form fields, a few are exclusive to one
type or the other.
Item Accepts the text that you type for options that you want to appear in the menu for the field.
Add Moves the current entry in Item to the Item List.
Export Value Where you type in a value to represent the item if the data will be exported. If left blank, the entry for

Name in the General tab is used as the export value.
Item List Displays the choices that will be available in the list.

note: The highlighted item in the Item List box appears as the default selected item in the dropdown box or list box field.
To change the default item, highlight another item from the list.
Up and Down buttons Change the order in which the items are listed in the drop-down list. These buttons are not

available if Sort Items is selected.
Delete Removes the selected item from the list.
Sort Items Arranges the listed items numerically and alphabetically. A numerical sort (if applicable) is performed

before an alphabetical sort.
Allow User To Enter Custom Text (Dropdown only) Enables users to enter a value other than the ones in the list.
Check Spelling (Dropdown only) Checks the spelling of user-entered text. This option is applicable only if Allow User

To Enter Custom Text is selected.
Multiple Selection (List boxes only) Enables users to choose more than one item in the list.
Commit Selected Value Immediately Saves the value as soon as the user selects it. If this option is not selected, the value
is saved only when the user tabs out of the current field or clicks another form field. For list boxes only, this option is
not available if Multiple Selection is selected.

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Radio buttons
Create a group of radio buttons if you want the user to select only one choice among a set of choices. All the radio
buttons in a group have the same Name, but each button has a different Button Value.
Button Style Specifies the shape of the marker that appears inside the button when the user selects it: Check, Circle (the

default), Cross, Diamond, Square, or Star. This property does not alter the shape of the radio button itself.
Radio Button Choice Identifies the radio button and differentiates it from other radio buttons that have the same Name

value.
Button Is Checked By Default Sets the selection state of the button when the user first opens the form.
Buttons With The Same Name And Content Are Selected In Unison Allows single-click selection of multiple related

radio buttons. For example, if the user selects a radio button that has the same field name and selected content as
another, both radio buttons are selected.

Text Fields
Text fields accept user input, which can be alphabetic characters, numbers, or both.
Alignment Aligns the text left, right, or center within the field.
Default Value Specifies the text that appears until the user overwrites it by typing in the field. Enter the default value

by typing in this option.
Multi-line Allows more than a single-line entry in the text field.
Scroll Long Text Compensates for text that extends beyond the boundaries of the text field.
Allow Rich Text Formatting Allows users to apply styling information to the text, such as bold or italic. This might be

useful in certain text fields where such styling information is important to the meaning of the text, such as an essay.
Limit Of Characters Allows entries of up to the number of characters you specify.

Note: If you entered a default value, that value is clipped to this limit.
Password Displays the user-entered text as a series of asterisks (*). This option is available only if Check Spelling is

deselected.
Field Is Used For File Selection Allows the user to enter a file path as the field’s value when a file is submitted along with

the form. This option is available only when Scroll Long Text is the only selected option in the Options tab.
Check Spelling Checks the spelling of user-entered text.
Comb Of Characters Spreads the user-entered text evenly across the width of the text field. If a border color is specified

in the Appearance tab, each character entered in the field is separated by lines of that color. This option is available only
when no other check box is selected.

A Four text fields with a border color, using the Comb property B Text field without the Comb property

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Actions tab for form field properties
Actions properties specify any actions that you want to associate with the form field, such as jumping to a specific page
or playing a media clip. The Actions tab appears for all types of form fields and includes the following options:
Select Trigger Specifies the user action that initiates an action: Mouse Up, Mouse Down, Mouse Enter, Mouse Exit, On
Focus, or On Blur.
Select Action Specifies the event that occurs when the user triggers the action: Execute A Menu Item, Go To A
3D/Multimedia View, Go To A Page View; Import Form Data, Multimedia Operation (Acrobat 9 and later), Open A
File, Open A Web Link, Play A Sound, Play Media (Acrobat 5 Compatible), Play Media (Acrobat 6 And Later
Compatible), Read An Article, Reset A Form, Run A JavaScript, Set Layer Visibility, Show/Hide A Field, and Submit A
Form.
Add Opens a window for the selected action.
Actions Displays the list of triggers and actions that you’ve defined.
Up and down buttons Change the order in which the selected action appears listed under the trigger. (Available only

when you have defined multiple actions for the same trigger.)
Edit Opens a dialog box with specific options for the selected action.
Delete Removes the selected action or trigger-action pair.

Calculate tab for form field properties
The Calculate tab appears in the Properties dialog boxes for only text fields and dropdown boxes. Use these options to
perform mathematical operations on existing form field entries and display the result.
Value Is Not Calculated Select this if you want the user to type.
Value Is The Select this to make further options available:
Pop-up menu Lists the mathematical functions to apply to the selected fields. Choose Sum to add the values entered in

the selected fields, Product to multiply them, Average, Minimum, or Maximum.
Pick Opens a dialog box with a list of the available fields in the form that you select to add or deselect to remove from
the calculation.
Simplified Field Notation Uses JavaScript with field names and simple arithmetic signs. The Edit button opens a dialog

box in which you can write, edit, and add scripts.
Note: Field names are case-sensitive.
Custom Calculation Script Displays any custom scripts you have added for calculations. The Edit button opens a dialog

box in which you can write and add new JavaScripts.

Set the calculation order of form fields
When you define two or more calculations in a form, the order in which they are carried out is the order in which you
defined the calculations. In some cases, you may need to modify the calculation order to obtain correct results.
For example, if you wanted to use the result obtained from calculating two form fields to calculate the value of a third
form field, the first two form fields must be calculated together first to obtain the correct final results.
1 In the right hand pane, choose More > Set Field Calculation Order.

The Calculate Fields dialog box displays all calculable fields in your form and the order in which the calculations are
performed.

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2 To change the field calculation order, select the field from the list, and then click the Up or Down button as needed.

Acrobat DC automatically performs all assigned field calculations when you are creating and testing your form fields.
For convenience while you work, you can turn off automatic calculation in the forms preferences.

Signed tab for form field properties
The Signed tab is available only in the Digital Signature Properties dialog box. Selections made here determine what
happens when the user applies a digital signature to the form.
Nothing Happens When Signed This is the default.
Mark As Read-Only Prevents further changes to the digitally signed form, according to the selection in the pop-up

menu:
All Fields Prevents any changes to any form field.
All Fields Except These Allows changes only to the form fields you select by clicking the Pick button and selecting check
boxes for the fields that you want the user to be able to edit after signing.
Just These Fields Prevents changes in only the form fields you pick.
This Script Executes When Field Is Signed Activates a custom JavaScript when the user digitally signs the form. Use the
Edit button to change or create a new JavaScript action.

Format tab for form field properties
The Format tab appears in the Properties dialog box for only text form fields or dropdown form fields. The options that
are available depend on your selection in the Select Format Categorypop-up menu.
The Example of Current Format field displays a live preview of the settings.

None
No additional options are available. The input in a text or dropdown box with this property does not require any
specific formatting.

Number
Automatically imposes the selected formatting options on numeric data entries.
Decimal Places Sets the number of digits that appear to the right of the decimal point.
Separator Style Sets the placement of commas and periods.
Currency Symbol Sets the type of currency, such as Euros, Dollars, or Yen.
Symbol Location Sets the location of the currency symbol in relation to the number. This field is enabled if a currency
symbol is selected.
Negative Number Style Sets how negative numbers are displayed. You can choose Show Parentheses, Use Red Text,

neither, or both.

Percentage
Automatically imposes the selected formatting options on numeric data expressed as a percentage.
Decimal Places Sets the number of digits that appear to the right of the decimal point
Separator Style Sets the placement of commas and periods.

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Date
List includes one-, two-, and four-digit variations where d stands for the day, m stands for month, and y stands for year.

Time
List includes display variations where h stands for the hour on a 12-hour clock, H stands for the hour on a 24-hour
clock, MM stands for minutes, ss stands for the seconds, and tt stands for AM or PM.

Special
Zip Code For a five-digit U.S. postal code.
Zip Code + 4 For a nine-digit U.S. postal code.
Phone Number For a ten-digit telephone number.
Social Security Number For a nine-digit U.S. Social Security Number. Hyphens are inserted automatically after the

third and fifth digits.
Arbitrary Mask Changes the format category to Custom and makes another text field available, in which you can type

a custom format. Use this option to specify which types of characters the user can enter in any given position, and how
the data displays in the field.
A Accepts only letters (A–Z, a-z).
X Accepts spaces and most printable characters, including all characters available on a standard keyboard and ANSI

characters in the ranges of 32–126 and 128–255.
O The letter “O” accepts alphanumeric characters (A–Z, a-z, and 0–9).
9 Accepts only numeric characters (0–9).

For example, a mask setting of AAA--p#999 accepts the input BOE--p#767. A mask setting of OOOOO@XXX accepts
the input vad12@3Up.

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Custom
Makes additional options available to form designers who want to write their own JavaScripts for formatting and
keystrokes. For example, a custom script could define a new currency format or limit the user entry to specific
keystroke characters.
Custom Format Script Displays any custom scripts you have added for formats. The Edit button opens a dialog box in

which you can write and add new scripts.
Custom Keystroke Script Displays any custom scripts you have added to validate keystrokes. The Edit button opens a

dialog box in which you can write and add new scripts.
To get the JavaScript for Acrobat API Reference, see the Acrobat Developer Center at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_javascript_en (PDF, English only).

Validation tab for form field properties
The Validation tab appears only in the Text Field Properties and Dropdown box Properties dialog boxes. Validation
properties restrict entries to specified ranges, values, or characters, ensuring that users enter the appropriate data for a
specified form field.
Field Value Is Not Validated Turns off validation.
Field Value Is In Range Sets a numeric range for form fields using values you enter in either as a number or a

percentage.
Run Custom Validation Script Validates by a JavaScript that you create or provide.

More Help topics
Adding JavaScript to forms

Value tab for form field properties
The Value tab appears for barcode form fields only.
Encode Using Activates these options:
XML Encodes the data into the barcode in standard XFDF format. JavaScript script is automatically generated.
Tab Delimited Encodes the fields into the barcode as tab-delimited values. JavaScript script is automatically generated.

If the form is configured to output the data in individual XFDF or XDP files, the data must be in a tab-delimited format
with the field names in the first line. This option is also useful if you want to fit more data into a barcode or if you intend
to copy the data into database or spreadsheet tables.
Pick Opens a dialog box in which you select which user data fields will be encoded in the barcode for you to retrieve.
Include Field Names (Available only when Tab Delimited encoding is selected.) Encodes field names as the first line of
the barcode contents. The values are encoded under them.
Custom Calculation Script Displays the default script. Click the Edit button to open the JavaScript Editor dialog box,

in which you can write custom calculation scripts for your barcode.
Reference To published Form Shows the path to the PDF form. You can edit this by typing in the URL to the published
form. Later, you can re-create a digital version of the completed form by merging the form template with an instance
of user-supplied data. You can also maintain the relationship between a specific form template and its related barcode
data files. When you encode a barcode using XML values, the URL reference is encoded into the barcode and is
displayed on the form, below the barcode.

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Manage custom barcode settings
You can save, reuse, and share a set of custom settings for barcode parameters, to apply them when you create new
barcode form fields. You can make further adjustments to your custom parameter sets after you define them.
All of these processes begin by opening the barcode form field properties dialog box. To open the properties dialog box,
double-click the barcode field.

Create a new barcode parameters set
1 In the Barcode Field Properties dialog box, click the Options tab, and then click Manage Barcode Parameters.
2 Select the existing parameter set that you want to use as the basis of the new set, and click New.
3 Type a name in the Name box and a description in the Description box.
4 Select options for Symbology, X Dimension, Y/X Ratio, and Error Correction Level, and then click OK.

The newly defined parameter set appears in the list in the Manage Barcode Parameters dialog box, and all the buttons
on the right side of the dialog box become available. The new definition also appears in the Decode Condition menu
in the Options tab of the Barcode Field Properties dialog box.

Edit or delete a set of custom barcode parameters
1 In the Barcode Field Properties dialog box, click the Options tab, and then click Manage Barcode Parameters.
2 Select a custom parameter set from the list.
3 Choose the appropriate action:

• Click Edit and make the changes to the settings; then click OK.
• Click Delete. Confirm the deletion in the message that appears by clicking OK.

Export or import a set of custom barcode parameters
1 In the Barcode Field Properties dialog box, click the Options tab, and then click Manage Barcode Parameters.
2 Choose the appropriate action:

• Select a barcode parameter set from the list and click Export. Select a location and file name for the file that has
the file name extension .bps.
• Click Import, and navigate to and select the BPS file that you want to import.

Redefine form field property defaults
After you change properties for a specific type of form field, you can set those properties as the default set for that type.
For example, you can create a check box, change its properties, and then save the properties as the default values.
1 If necessary, choose Tools > Prepare Form to go to form-editing mode.
2 Right-click the form field for which you have already changed properties, and choose Use Current Properties As

New Defaults.

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Note: Changing the default properties does not change the settings for existing form fields of that type. The new defaults
apply only to new fields that you create.

More Help topics
Adding JavaScript to forms

PDF form field basics
More Help topics
PDF forms basics

Create form fields
In Acrobat DC, you create a form field by choosing one of the form tools. For each field type, you can set various options
through the form field Properties dialog box.
1 After you convert your document to a PDF form, do one of the following:

• Choose a form field from the toolbar.
• Right-click the page and select a field.
Your cursor becomes a crosshair, and displays a preview of the field.
2 On the page, click where you want to add the field to create a field with the default size. To create a field using a

custom size, drag a rectangle to define the size of the field.
3 In the Field Name box, type the name of the field and specify if you want the field to be a required field. Choose a

name that is relevant and descriptive to make organizing and collecting the data easier.
4 To display the Properties dialog box and modify any other field properties, click All Properties.

Note: If you have selected the Keep Tool Selected option
in the toolbar, the Field Name box doesn’t appear after
adding a field. Each time you click the page, a new field is added to the form. To exit this mode, press the Esc key or click
. To modify the properties of the field, double-click the field.
the Select Object Tool button
5 To test your form, click the Preview button in the toolbar. Previewing a form allows you to view the form the same

way the form recipients will and gives you a chance to verify the form. If you are previewing a form, you can click
the Edit button to go back to the edit mode.
6 When your form is complete, click the cross button towards the right end of the toolbar to close form editing.

Lay out form fields on a grid
You can use grids to help position form fields precisely on a page. You can define the grid spacing, color, and position.
You can also choose whether to have the boundaries of a form field snap to grid lines when you’re editing the form field.
Grid lines don’t print.
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Rulers & Grids > Grid.
2 To make form fields snap to the nearest grid lines when you create or move them, choose View > Show/Hide >

Rulers & Grids > Snap To Grid.

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Copy a form field
You can create copies of a form field on a single page of a PDF form. You can also copy a form field and paste it onto
other pages. When you create duplicate form fields, replicas of the original field are added to one or more other pages.
The duplicate fields are always in the same position on each page as the original. Both copies and duplicates can be
dragged to different locations on a page, but not from one page to another.
Both copies and duplicates are created with the same basic name as the original form field. Copies and duplicates pasted
using the Duplicate Across Pages command also have a number appended. All form fields with the same basic name
share the same user data and action properties. Consequently, when a user adds or edits a response to a copy or
duplicate field, the response appears in all fields with the same basic name.
If you change the properties of any one of multiple versions of a form field with the same basic name, those changes
affect only that copy of the form field. The exception is when you change an Actions listing if the trigger isn’t a mouse
action.
To prevent a duplicate or copied form field from reacting in unison with the original field, change the name of the new
form field.

Create a copy of a form field
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select the form field, and do one of the following:

• To copy the form field to the center of the current view, choose Edit > Copy, and then choose Edit > Paste.
• To copy the form field and move it to another location on the page, Ctrl-drag it.
Tip: To constrain the vertical or horizontal movement as you drag, press and hold Shift.
3 If you want the field to be automatically populated with the data the user types into the original field, leave the name

as is. If the copied field is for unique user information, rename it.

Create multiple copies of a form field on a page
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Right-click the form field and choose Create Multiple Copies.
3 In the Create Multiple Copies Of Fields dialog box, select Preview, and move the dialog box as needed so that you

can see the original field and the copies on the form page.
4 Make the selections you want to apply:

• To change the number of copies being created, enter different values in the Copy Selected Fields Down and Copy
Selected Fields Across options.
• To change the dimensions of the original field and all the copies, enter different values in the Change Width and
Change Height options.
• To move the original field and all the copies, click the Up, Down, Left, and Right buttons.
5 If you want the fields to be automatically populated with the data the user types into the original field, leave the

names as they are. If the copied fields are for unique user information, rename them.

Duplicate a form field across multiple pages
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Right-click the form field and choose Duplicate Across Pages.

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Note: The Duplicate Across Pages command isn’t available for forms with only one page.
3 Do one of the following:

• To duplicate the form field on every page in the form, select All, and click OK.
• To duplicate the form field on a limited range of pages, click the From button, and type the start and ending pages
on which you want the form field to appear. Then click OK.
Note: Including or not including the page on which the form field originally appears doesn’t affect the duplication
process. Including that page won’t create a second copy on top of the original one, and not including it won’t remove the
original form field.
4 If you want the fields to be automatically populated with the data the user types into the original field, leave the

names as they are. If the duplicate fields are for unique user information, rename them.

Select multiple form fields
Selecting multiple form fields is the first step for several tasks, such as creating copies, aligning form fields, and
adjusting the spacing between form fields.
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Do any of the following:

• To select all form fields of all types, choose Edit > Select All.
• To select a range of form fields, click the first form field in the range, and then Shift-click the last form field. All
form fields between the two form fields are selected.
• To select individual form fields in different parts of the PDF page, Ctrl-click each form field.
• To select all form fields in an area of the page, use the Select Object tool
the area.

to drag a selection marquee around

• To deselect an individual form field, Ctrl-click that field.
The field that is highlighted in dark blue and displays the border handles is the anchor. When you select multiple
form fields by clicking, the last field selected is the anchor. When you use a marquee, the form field that was created
first is the anchor. If you Ctrl-click to deselect the anchor, the form field located in the upper left of the selection
becomes the new anchor form field.

Resize and arrange form fields
After you create form fields, you can rearrange, resize, or move them to give the page a cleaner, more professional look.

Resize a form field
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select the form field that you want to resize.
3 Do any of the following:

• To resize the field manually, drag a border handle. Hold Shift and drag a corner handle to maintain the current
aspect ratio of the form field.
• To resize the field by one pixel, press Ctrl+Arrow key; to resize the fields by ten pixels, press Ctrl+Shift+Arrow
key.
• To resize to a specific dimension, right-click the field and choose Properties. Then click the Position tab, and
adjust the Width and Height values.

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Resize multiple form fields to match a selected form field
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select all the form fields that you want to resize.
3 Choose an appropriate option in the right hand pane under Match Size.

You can also right-click the form field that you want the other selected form fields to match. Choose Set Fields To
Same Size, and then select one of the following:
Height Adjusts the heights without changing the widths.
Width Adjusts the widths without changing the heights.
Both Adjust all widths and heights to match.

Move individual form fields
You can move form fields by simply dragging them. For greater precision in less time, you can use special features that
align them with each other, adjust the spacing between them, and center them on the page.
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select one or more form fields that you want to move.
3 Do one of the following:

• To move to an approximate location, drag the selected form fields to the new location.
Tip: To constrain movement to a horizontal or vertical direction, begin dragging, and then press Shift while
continuing to drag the selection.

• To move to a specific location, right-click the field and choose Properties. Then click the Position tab, and set the
Position values.
• To move either horizontally or vertically in small increments, press the arrow keys to nudge the selected form
field into position.
• To move the form field to the exact center of a page, choose Edit > Cut, navigate to the desired page, and then
choose Edit > Paste.
Note: Fields are placed in the center of the page only the first time they’re pasted. Additional pasted fields are
offset from the previously pasted field.

Align and center multiple form fields
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select two or more form fields that you want to align.
3 Click appropriate option in the right hand pane.

You can also right-click the field to which you want to align the other fields. Choose Align, Distribute Or Center,
and then choose a command as follows:

• To align a column of fields, choose Align Left, Right, or Vertical. They align respectively to the left edge, right
edge, or vertical axis (center) of the anchor form field.
• To align a row of fields, choose Align Top, Bottom, or Horizontally. They align respectively to the top edge,
bottom edge, or horizontal axis (center) of the anchor form field.
• To center the fields, choose Center Vertically, Horizontally, or Both.

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Note: When you right-click one of the selected fields, it shows the border handles, indicating that it’s the anchor form
field. The Align menu commands move the other selected form fields to line up with the edges of the anchor form field.

Adjust the spacing between form fields
In the context of laying out form fields on a page, distributing means to give a group of form fields uniform spacing,
measured from the centers of adjacent fields. The Distribute commands take precedence over the Snap To Grid
command.
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 Select the form fields that you want to adjust.
3 Choose an appropriate option in the right hand pane under Distribute.

You can also right-click any one of the selected form fields, and do one of the following:

• To distribute the fields evenly between the topmost and bottommost fields, choose Align, Distribute Or Center
>Distribute Vertically.
• To distribute the fields evenly between the leftmost and rightmost fields, choose Align, Distribute Or Center
>Distribute Horizontally.
Note: The Distribute command at the bottom in the right hand pane has a different function. Use that command
to send your form to others, who fill in the information and return the data to you.

Delete a form field
1 If you are not in the form editing mode, choose Tools > Prepare Form.
2 In the right hand pane under Fields or the page view, select the form fields that you want to delete.
3 Right-click and choose Delete, or choose Edit > Delete.

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Chapter 5: Combining files

Combine or merge files into single PDF
Create merged PDFs
Combine most file types — even rich media — into a single, organized PDF. You can merge Word, Excel, PowerPoint,
audio, video, or web pages, as well as existing PDFs. Acrobat DC lets you preview and arrange the documents and pages
before creating the file. You can delete unwanted pages and move individual pages from a document anywhere among
the pages being combined. Acrobat DC converts the pages of the various files into sequential pages of a single PDF.
1 Choose Tools > Combine Files.

The Combine Files dialog box lets you work in two different views:
Thumbnail view

Displays a preview of the pages. It lets you quickly rearrange documents and pages by dragging the thumbnail
images.
List view

Lists information about each file. It lets you sort the files by any of the fields, such as name, size, or modification date.
2 Drag files or emails directly into the Combine Files dialog box. Alternatively, choose an option from the Add Files

menu. You can add a folder of files, a web page, any currently open files, items in the clipboard, pages from a scanner,
or a file you combined previously (Reuse Files).

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A Thumbnail and list view buttons B Slider to resize thumbnails C Undo and Redo buttons D Remove Selected Items button E Plus sign
displays all pages in a document

Note: If you add a folder that contains files other than PDFs, the non-PDF files are not added.
3 As needed, do any of the following:
Rearrange pages In the Thumbnail view, drag-and-drop the file or page into position. As you drag, a blue bar
moves between pages or documents to indicate the current position.
View pages of multipage file In the Thumbnail view, click the plus sign next to the filename. Once visible, you can

move the individual pages freely among the other pages and documents. Double-click a page to close the multipage
file.
Preview pages In the Thumbnail view, hover over the page, and then click the Zoom icon.
Delete pages In the Thumbnail view, select the page or pages you want to delete, then click the Remove Selected

Items

button.

Sort files In the List view, click the column name that you want to sort by. Click again to sort in reverse order. The

order of files in the list reflects the order of the files in the combined PDF. Sorting rearranges the pages of the
combined PDF.
Move files up or down file list In the List view, select the file or files you want to move. Then click the Move Up

or Move Down

button.

4 Click Options, and select one of the file size options for the converted file:
Smaller File Size Reduces large images to screen resolution and compresses the images by using low-quality JPEG.
This option is suitable for onscreen display, email, and the Internet.

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Note: If any of the source files are already PDFs, the Smaller File Size option applies the Reduce File Size feature to
those files. The Reduce File Size feature is not applied if either the Default File Size or Larger File Size option is
selected.
Default File Size Create PDFs suitable for reliable viewing and printing of business documents. The PDF files in the
list retain their original file size and quality.
Larger File Size Creates PDFs suitable for printing on desktop printers. Applies the High Quality Print conversion
preset and the PDF files in the list retain the original file size and quality.

Note: This option may result in a larger file size of the final PDF.
5 In the Options dialog box, specify the conversion settings as needed, then click OK.
6 When you have finished arranging the pages, click Combine Files.

A status dialog box shows the progress of the file conversions. Some source applications start and close
automatically.

Insert one PDF into another
1 Open the PDF that serves as the basis of the combined file.
2 Choose Tools > Organize Pages. The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose Insert > From File.

Alternatively, you can also click in between two pages to get the Insert options.

4 Select the PDF you want to insert and click Open.
5 In the Insert Pages dialog box, specify where to insert the document (before or after the first or last page, or a

designated page). Click OK.
6 To leave the original PDF intact as a separate file, choose Save As, and type a new name for the merged PDF.

You can also add an existing file to an opened PDF. Drag the file icon directly into the Page Thumbnails panel in the
navigation pane.

Insert a clipboard selection into a PDF (Windows)
You can insert one or more pages of selected content copied from any application into an existing PDF.
1 Open the document containing the content that you want to add. Select the content, and then copy the selection (in

most applications, by choosing Edit > Copy File To Clipboard).

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2 Open the PDF that serves as the basis of the combined file.
3 Choose Tools > Organize Pages. The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
4 In the secondary toolbar, choose Insert > From Clipboard.

Alternatively, you can also click in between two pages to get the Insert options.
5 In the Insert Pages dialog box, specify where to insert the selection (before or after the first or last page, or a

designated page). Click OK.
6 To leave the original PDF intact as a separate file, choose Save As, and type a new name for the merged PDF.

Insert a web page or a blank page into a PDF
You can insert a web page into an existing PDF by choosing Tools > Organize Pages > Insert > From Web Page. In
the dialog box that appears, enter the URL of the page that you want to add.
You can also add a blank page to your PDF document by:

• Choosing Tools > Organize Pages > Insert > Blank Page.
In the Insert Pages dialog box, specify the location where you want to add the blank page.

• You can also use the Insert overlay menu to add a blank page in between to pages. Choose Tools > Organize Pages
in between the two
to get the page thumbnail view. In the page thumbnail view, click the Insert overlay icon
pages where you want to insert a blank page. From the Insert menu, select Insert Blank Page.

Placing PDFs as linked files in other documents
You can incorporate PDFs into other types of files that support Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), such as
InDesign® or Word files. These files are called OLE container documents. Later, if you edit the original PDF, the OLE
features in the container application updates the embedded file in the container document, to reflect your changes.
❖ Do one of the following:

• Choose the OLE container application’s Insert Object command or Insert Hyperlink command.
• (Windows) In Acrobat, choose Edit > Copy File To Clipboard, and then choose the Paste Special command in
the container application.

More Help topics
Convert email messages to PDFs
Adobe PDF conversion settings

Rotate, move, delete, and renumber PDF pages
To manipulate pages in a PDF, make sure that you have permissions to edit the PDF. To check, choose File > Properties,
and then click the Security tab. Permissions appear in the Document Restrictions Summary.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Adobe Reader DC, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader DC. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help . And, if you're using Acrobat 7, 8 , 9, or X see previous
versions of Acrobat Help.

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Rotate pages
You can rotate all or selected pages in a document. Rotation is based on 90° increments. You can rotate pages using the
rotate tools in the Page Thumbnails pane or using the Rotate option (described below).
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.

2 In the secondary toolbar, specify the page range on which you want to apply the rotation.

You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number you
want to perform the operation on.
3 After specifying the page range, for Direction, select the counterclockwise 90 Degrees

or clockwise 90 Degrees

.
4 You can also apply the page rotation on a specific page by clicking the counterclockwise or clockwise rotation

buttons displayed in the page thumbnail view.

To temporarily change your view of the page, choose View > Rotate View > Clockwise or Counterclockwise. The
original page orientation is restored the next time you open the PDF.

Extract pages
Extraction is the process of reusing selected pages of one PDF in a different PDF. Extracted pages contain not only the
content but also all form fields, comments, and links associated with the original page content.
You can leave the extracted pages in the original document or remove them during the extraction process—comparable
to the familiar processes of cutting-and-pasting or copying-and-pasting, but on the page level.
Note: Any bookmarks or article threading associated with pages are not extracted.
1 Open the PDF in Acrobat DC and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Extract.

A new toolbar appears below the secondary toolbar with the commands specific to the Extract operation.

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3 Specify the range of pages to extract.

You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number you
want to perform the operation on.
4 In the new toolbar, do one or more of the following before you click Extract:

• To remove the extracted pages from the original document, select Delete Pages After Extracting.
• To create a single-page PDF for each extracted page, select Extract Pages As Separate Files.
• To leave the original pages in the document and create a single PDF that includes all of the extracted pages, leave
both check boxes deselected.
The extracted pages are placed in a new document.
Note: The creator of a PDF document can set the security to prevent the extraction of pages. To view the security settings
for a document, choose File > Properties, and select the Security tab.

Split PDFs into multiple documents
You can split one or more documents into multiple smaller documents. When splitting a document, you can specify
the split by maximum number of pages, maximum file size, or top-level bookmarks.
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Split.

A new toolbar appears below the secondary toolbar with the commands specific to the Split operation.

3 In the Split By drop-down list, select the criteria for dividing the document:
Number Of Pages Specify the maximum number of pages for each document in the split.
File Size Specify the maximum file size for each document in the split.
Top-level Bookmarks If the document includes bookmarks, creates one document for every top-level bookmark.

4 To specify a target folder for the split files and filename preferences, click Output Options. Specify the options as

needed, and then click OK.
5 (Optional) To apply the same split to multiple documents, click Split Multiple Files. In the Split Documents dialog

box, click Add Files, and choose Add Files,Add Folders, or Add Open Files. Select the files or folder, and then click
OK.

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Move or copy pages
You can use page thumbnails in the Navigation pane or the Document area to copy or move pages within a document,
and copy pages between documents.

Move or copy a page within a PDF, using page thumbnails
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.

2 Select one or more page thumbnails.
3 Do one of the following:

• To move a page, drag the page number box of the corresponding page thumbnail or the page thumbnail itself to
the new location. A bar appears to show the new position of the page thumbnail. The pages are renumbered.
• To copy a page, Ctrl-drag the page thumbnail to a second location.
Note: You can also perform the above operations in the left navigation pane by clicking the Page Thumbnails
button.

Copy a page between two PDFs, using page thumbnails
1 Open both PDFs, and display them side by side.

Note: Choose Window > Tile > Vertically to display the PDFs side by side.
2 Open the Page Thumbnails panels for both PDFs.

Note: Click the Page Thumbnails button in the left navigation pane to open the Page Thumbnail panel.
3 Drag the page thumbnail into the Page Thumbnails panel of the target PDF. The page is copied into the document,

and the pages are renumbered.

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Delete or replace pages
You can replace an entire PDF page with another PDF page. Only the text and images on the original page are replaced.
Any interactive elements associated with the original page, such as links and bookmarks, are not affected. Likewise,
bookmarks and links that may have been previously associated with the replacement page do not carry over.
Comments, however, are carried over and are combined with any existing comments in the document.
After you delete or replace pages, it’s a good idea to use the Reduce File Size command to rename and save the
restructured document to the smallest possible file size.

Delete pages, using the Delete command
Note: You cannot undo the Delete command.
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.
2 Specify the range of pages to delete.

You can choose Even Pages, Odd Pages, Landscape Pages, Portrait Pages, All Pages, or enter the page number(s)
you want to delete.
3 In the secondary toolbar, click Delete Pages

, and click OK to confirm.

You cannot delete all pages; at least one page must remain in the document.
If you select Use Logical Page Numbers in the Page Display panel of the Preferences dialog box, you can enter a page
number in parentheses to delete the logical equivalent of the page number. For example, if the first page in the
document is numbered i, you can enter (1) in the Enter Page Range drop-down list, and the page is deleted.

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Delete pages, using page thumbnails
1 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the page thumbnails are displayed in the
Document area.
2 Select a page thumbnail you want to delete and click the

icon to delete the page.

3 Alternatively, click the Page Thumbnails button in the left navigation pane to open the Page Thumbnail panel,

select the page or group of pages you want to delete.
4 Click Delete Pages

at the top of the Page Thumbnails panel.

Replace the contents of a page
1 Open the PDF that contains the pages you want to replace.
2 Choose Tools > Organize Pages.

The Organize Pages toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
3 In the secondary toolbar, click Replace.

The Select Files With New Pages dialog box appears.
4 Select the document containing the replacement pages, and click Open.
5 Under Original, enter the pages to be replaced in the original document.
6 Under Replacement, enter the first page of the replacement page range. The last page is calculated based on the

number of pages to be replaced in the original document.
7 Click OK.

Replace pages using a page thumbnail
1 Open the PDF that contains the pages you want to replace, and then open the PDF that contains the replacement

pages.
2 In the Page Thumbnails panel of the PDF that contains the replacement pages, select a page or group of pages:

• Select the page number boxes of the page thumbnails that you want to use as replacement pages.
• Shift-click to select multiple page thumbnails. Ctrl-click to add to the selection.
• Drag a rectangle around a group of page thumbnails.
3 Ctrl+Alt+drag the selected page thumbnails onto the Pages panel of the target document. Release the mouse button

when the pointer is directly over the page number box of the first page thumbnail you want to replace so that these
pages become highlighted.
The pages you selected in the first document replace the same number of pages in the second document, starting at
the page number you selected to drop the new pages on.

Renumber pages
The page numbers on the document pages do not always match the page numbers that appear below the page
thumbnails and in the Page Navigation toolbar. Pages are numbered with integers, starting with page 1 for the first page
of the document. Because some PDFs may contain front matter, such as a copyright page and table of contents, their
body pages may not follow the numbering shown in the Page Navigation toolbar.

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You can number the pages in your document in a variety of ways. You can specify a different numbering style for group
of pages, such as 1, 2, 3, or i, ii, iii, or a, b, c. You can also customize the numbering system by adding a prefix. For
example, the numbering for chapter 1 could be 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, and so on, and for chapter 2, it could be 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, and
so on.
Using the Number Pages command affects only the page thumbnails on the Pages panel. You can physically add new
page numbers to a PDF using the headers and footers feature.
1 In the left navigation pane, click the Page Thumbnails button to open the Page Thumbnails panel.
2 Choose Page Labels from the Options menu.

3 Specify a page range. (Selected refers to pages selected in the Page Thumbnails panel.)
4 Select one of the following, and then click OK:
Begin New Section Starts a new numbering sequence. Choose a style from the pop-up menu, and enter a starting

page number for the section. Specify a Prefix, if desired.

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Extend Numbering Used In Preceding Section To Selected Pages Continues the numbering sequence from

previous pages without interruption.

More Help topics
Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
Extract component files in a PDF Portfolio
Insert one PDF into another
About tags, accessibility, reading order, and reflow
Add and edit headers and footers

Add headers, footers, and Bates numbering to PDFs
Headers, footers, and Bates numbering
Acrobat DC lets you add a header and footer throughout a PDF. Headers and footers can include a date, automatic page
numbering, Bates numbers for legal documents, or the title and author. You can add headers and footers to one or more
PDFs.
You can vary the headers and footers within a PDF. For example, you can add a header that displays the page number
on the right side of odd-numbered pages, and another header that displays the page number on the left side of evennumbered pages. When adding Bates numbering, you can set the number of digits, the starting number, and the prefix
or suffix to be appended to each Bates number.
You can define and save your headers and footers to reuse them later, or you can simply apply a header and footer and
forget it. After applying a header and footer, you can edit, replace, or delete it in the PDF. You can also preview headers
and footers before applying them and adjust the header and footer margins so that they don’t overlap other page
content.

Add headers and footers, with an open document
1 Open the PDF file to which you want to add the header and footer.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
Note: Formatting and other related options are displayed in the right hand pane.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose Header & Footer > Add.
4 As needed, specify the Font and Margin values.

The text properties apply to all header and footer entries that are part of this setting definition. You cannot apply
different settings to individual header or footer text boxes within the same session in the Add Header And Footer
dialog box.
To prevent overlapping, click the Appearance Options link and select Shrink Document To Avoid Overwriting The
Document’s Text And Graphics. To prevent resizing or repositioning when printing the PDF in large format, select
Keep Position And Size Of Header/Footer Text Constant When Printing On Different Page Sizes.

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5 Type the text in any of the header and footer text boxes. To insert page numbers or the current date, click in a box

and then click the corresponding buttons. To select formatting for automatic entries, click Page Number And Date
Format.
Note: You can combine text with dates and page numbers. You can also add several lines of text to an entry.
6 To specify the pages on which the header and footer appear, click Page Range Options. Then specify a page range

and choose a Subset option, as needed.
7 Examine the results in the Preview area, using the Preview Page option to see different pages of the PDF.
8 (Optional) To save these header and footer settings for future use, click Save Settings at the top of the dialog box.
9 (Optional) To apply the same settings to additional PDFs, click Apply To Multiple Files. Click Add Files, choose Add

Files or Add Open Files, and select the files. Then in the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename
preferences, and click OK.

Add headers and footers, with no document open (Windows only)
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Header & Footer > Add.
3 In the dialog box, click Add Files, choose Add Files, then select the files.

You can also add files or folders by dragging them into the dialog box.
4 Follow steps 4 through 8 in the procedure for adding headers and footers with an open document. When you have

finished setting up your headers and footers, click OK.
5 In the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences and click OK.

Update the headers and footers
Updating applies to the most recently added header and footer set.
1 Open the PDF file containing header and footer.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose Header & Footer > Update.
4 Change the settings as needed.

Add another header and footer
1 Open the PDF file containing header and footer.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose Header & Footer > Add, and then click Add New in the message that appears.

The preview shows any existing headers and footers.
4 Type text in the header and footer text boxes to add more headers and footers. As you type, the preview updates the

appearance of the complete headers and footers on the page.
5 Select new formatting options, as preferred, again noticing the updating in the preview.

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Replace all headers and footers
1 Open the PDF file containing header and footer.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose Header & Footer > Add, and then click Replace Existing in the message that

appears.
4 Specify the settings, as needed.

Note: This process applies only to headers and footers added in Acrobat 7.0 or later.

Remove all headers and footers
❖ Do one of the following:

• Open the PDF file containing header and footer. Then choose Tools > Edit PDF > Header & Footer > Remove.
• To remove headers and footers from multiple PDFs, close any open documents and choose Tools> Edit PDF>
Header & Footer > Remove. In the dialog box, click Add Files, choose Add Files, and select the files. Click OK,
and then in the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences.
Note: This process applies only to headers and footers added in Acrobat 7.0 or later.

Add a Bates numbering header or footer (Acrobat Pro DC)
Bates numbering is a method of indexing legal documents for easy identification and retrieval. Each page of each
document is assigned a unique Bates number that also indicates its relationship to other Bates-numbered documents.
Bates numbers appear as headers or footers on the pages of each PDF in the batch.
The Bates identifier is referred to as a number, but it can include an alphanumeric prefix and suffix. The prefix and
suffix can make it easier to recognize the central subject matter of the files.
Note: Bates numbering is unavailable for protected or encrypted files and some forms.

Add Bates numbering
When designating documents for Bates numbering, you can add PDFs, and any non-PDF files that can be converted
to PDF. The process converts non-PDF file types to PDF, and then adds Bates numbers to the resulting PDF.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose More > Bates Numbering > Add.
3 In the Bates Numbering dialog box, click Add Files, and choose Add Files, Add Folders, or Add Open Files. Then

select the files or folder.
Note: If you add a folder that contains files other than PDFs, the non-PDF files are not added.
If any files are password-protected, one or more messages appear, in which you must enter the correct password.
4 As needed, do any of the following in the list of files:

• To change the order in which Bates numbers are assigned, select a file, then drag it or click Move Up or Move
Down.
• To sort the list, click a column name. Click again to sort in reverse order.
5 To specify a target folder for output files and filename preferences, click Output Options. Specify the options as

needed, and then click OK.

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6 Once you have added and arranged the files as needed, click OK. Then, in the Add Header And Footer dialog box,

click to place the insertion point in the appropriate box.
7 Click Insert Bates Number. Then enter the following:

• In Number Of Digits, specify how many digits make up the Bates number, entering any number from 3 through
15. The default number is 6, which produces Bates numbers such as 000001, 000002, and so on.
• In Start Number, enter the number to assign to the first PDF on the list. The default is 1.
• In Prefix, type any text to appear before the Bates number.
• In Suffix, type any text to appear after the Bates number.
Note: For court cases involving large numbers of pages, enter a higher value in Number Of Digits. Do not use the #
character in the Prefix or Suffix text.
8 Click OK and then make any other changes to the settings, as you would for any other header and footer.

Add more documents to a Bates numbering series
Before you begin, be sure that you know the last applied Bates number in the series.
1 Follow the procedure described in the previous topic to start the Bates numbering process, selecting the files to add

to the series.
2 After you click Insert Bates Number, enter the next number in the series in Start Number. Enter the Suffix and Prefix

text that matches the rest of the series.
3 Finish changing the settings, and then click OK.

Search for Bates-numbered PDFs
1 Choose Edit > Advanced Search.
2 In the search word or phrase text field, enter all or part of the Bates number.

For example, to find a specific document when you know its Bates number, type in the complete number as the
search text. To find any documents in a Bates number series, type in a distinctive portion of the Bates series, such
as the prefix or suffix.
3 Under Where Would You Like To Search, select All PDF Documents In.
4 Click Browse For Location and specify the location.
5 Click Search.

Note: To search for Bates-numbered PDFs in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and enter all or part of the Bates
number in the Search box on the PDF Portfolio toolbar.

Remove Bates numbering
1 Open the PDF file containing bate numbers.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose More > Bates Numbering > Remove.

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Crop PDF pages
You can adjust the visible page area using the Crop Pages tool and the Set Page Boxes dialog box. Cropping pages can
help you create consistency within a PDF composed of pages of different sizes.
Note: Cropping does not reduce file size because information is merely hidden, not discarded.

Crop a page with the Crop tool
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Crop Pages.
3 Drag a rectangle on the page you want to crop. If necessary, drag the corner handles of the cropping rectangle until

the page is the size you want.
4 Double-click inside the cropping rectangle.

The Set Page Boxes dialog box opens, indicating the margin measurements of the cropping rectangle and the page
to be cropped. You can override the crop area you defined, making new selections in the dialog box before clicking
OK.
5 To apply these settings to additional pages, set the page range or click All under Page Range.
6 Click OK to crop the page or pages.

Margin Control options in the Set Page Boxes dialog box
The Set Page Boxes dialog box contains options for cropping pages. The Margin Control options are as follows:
Show All Boxes (Acrobat Pro DC) Shows the black, red, green, and blue rectangles indicating the CropBox, ArtBox,
TrimBox, and BleedBox on the preview. When two (or more) margins coincide, only a colored line appears.
CropBox Defines the boundary for the contents of a page when it’s displayed or printed.
ArtBox (Acrobat Pro DC) Defines the meaningful content of the page, including white space.
TrimBox (Acrobat Pro DC) Defines the finished dimensions of the page after trimming.
BleedBox (Acrobat Pro DC) Defines the clipping path when the page is printed professionally to allow for paper

trimming and folding. Printing marks may fall outside the bleed area.
Constrain Proportions Locks the proportions of the crop so that all margins are at the same distance.
Remove White Margins Crops the page to the artwork boundary. This option is useful for trimming the edges of
presentation slides saved as PDFs.
Set To Zero Restores the crop margins to zero.
Revert To Selection Reverts to the crop margin selected with the Crop Page tool.

Remove white margins
1 Choose Tools > Print Production.

The Print Production toolset is displayed in the right hand pane.
2 Click Set Page Boxes.

The Set Page Boxes dialog box is displayed.

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3 Under Margin Controls, select Remove White Margins.
4 To remove white margins from additional pages, set the page range or click All under Page Range.

Undo cropping
Cropping a PDF does not reduce file size because information is merely hidden, not discarded. By resetting the page
size, you can restore the page and its content to its original condition.
1 Open the Set Page Boxes dialog box by choosingCrop Pages from the options menu

in the Page Thumbnails

panel of the navigation pane.
2 Click the Set To Zero button to reset the margins to the original page dimensions.

• Edit text in PDFs
• Edit images or objects in a PDF

More Help topics

Add watermarks to PDFs
A watermark is text or an image that appears either in front of or behind existing document content, like a stamp. For
example, you could apply a “Confidential” watermark to pages with sensitive information. You can add multiple
watermarks to one or more PDFs, but you must add each watermark separately. You can specify the page or range of
pages on which each watermark appears.
Note: Unlike a stamp, a watermark is integrated into PDF pages as a fixed element. A stamp is a type of PDF comment,
which others reading the PDF can open to display a text annotation, move, change, or delete.

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Add or replace a watermark, with an open document
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Watermark > Add.
2 (Optional) To apply the watermark selectively to individual pages, click Page Range Options. Then specify a page

range and choose a Subset option, as needed.
3 Specify the watermark:

• To reuse a watermark and watermark options that you saved in an earlier session, select it from the Saved Settings
menu.
• To create a text watermark, select Text, and type the text in the box. Adjust the text formatting options as needed.
• To use an image as a watermark, select File. Then click Browse and select the image file. If the file has multiple
pages with images, specify the Page Number you want.
Note: Only PDF, JPEG, and BMP images can be used as watermarks.
4 To change the size of an image watermark, do one of the following:

• To resize the watermark in relation to the original image file size, enter a percentage in the Absolute Scale option
(in the Source area of the dialog box).
• To resize the watermark in relation to the PDF page dimensions, enter a percentage in the Scale Relative To Target
Page (in the Appearance area of the dialog box).
5 Adjust the appearance and position of the watermark, as needed.

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6 (Optional) Click Appearance Options and specify the following options:

• To specify when the watermark appears, select or deselect Show When Printing and Show When Displaying On
Screen.
• To control variations in a PDF with pages of varying sizes, select or deselect Keep Position And Size Of
Watermark Text Constant When Printing On Different Page Sizes.
7 (Optional) To apply the same settings to additional PDFs, click Apply To Multiple Files. Click Add Files, choose

Add Files or Add Open Files, and then select the files. Then in the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder
and filename preferences, and click OK.

Add or replace a watermark, with no document open (Windows only)
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Watermark > Add.
2 In the dialog box, click Add Files, choose Add Files, and then select the files.

You can also add files or folders by dragging them into the dialog box.
3 Click OK to close the Add Watermark dialog box.
4 Follow steps 2 through 6 in the procedure for adding or replacing a watermark with a document open. When you

have finished setting up your watermark, click OK.
5 In the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences and click OK.

Add or replace a watermark in component PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
1 Select one or more component PDFs in a PDF Portfolio.
2 Follow the steps in the procedure for adding or replacing a watermark with a document open.

Update a watermark
1 Open a single PDF.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Watermark > Update.
3 Make changes to the watermark, and then click OK.

Note: If you have multiple watermarks in a PDF, this procedure will update only the first watermark you added and will
discard all other watermarks. If you change your mind about updating the watermarks after you have completed this
process, immediately choose Edit > Undo Watermark.

Remove watermarks
❖ Do one of the following:

• Open a single PDF, or select one or more component PDFs in a PDF Portfolio. Then choose Tools > Edit PDF
> Watermark > Remove.
• To remove watermarks from multiple PDFs, close any open PDFs and choose Tools > Edit PDF > Watermark >
Remove. In the dialog box that appears, click Add Files, choose Add Files, and then select the files. Click OK, and
then in the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences.

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Add backgrounds to PDFs
A background appears behind text or images on the page. The background can be as simple as a solid color, or you can
use an image. You can selectively apply a background to only specific pages or page ranges in one or more PDFs. A PDF
supports only one background per page, but the backgrounds can vary from page to page.

Add, replace, or edit a background
1 Open the PDF file to which you want to add the background.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and other related options are displayed in the right hand
pane.
Note: If a message appears, telling you that the current document already has a background, click Replace Background.
If you apply the new background to a limited range of pages, the old background remains unchanged on pages outside
that range.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose More > Background > Add.
4 (Optional) To apply the background selectively to individual pages, click Page Range Options. Then specify a page

range and choose a Subset option, as needed.
5 Specify the background:

• To reuse a background and background options that you saved in an earlier session, select it from the Saved
Settings menu.
• To apply a solid color background, select From Color. Then select a color swatch or custom color from the color
.
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• To use an image, select File, then select the image file. To select a specific image in a multipage file, enter it in
Page Number.
Note: Only PDF, JPEG, and BMP files can be used as background images.
6 Adjust the appearance and position of the background, as needed.
7 (Optional) To apply the same background to additional PDFs:

a. Click Apply To MultipleFiles.
b. Click Add Files, choose Add Files or Add Open Files, and then select the files.
c. Click OK.
d. In the Output Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences, and click OK.

Update a recently edited background image
If the original image file that you are using as a background change, you can update the PDF to show the new version
of the image rather than removing the old version and readding the new one.
1 Open the PDF file to that contains the background you want to update.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose More > Background > Update.
4 Click OK, or make other changes to the background options and then click OK.

Note: This process applies only to backgrounds added in Acrobat 7.0 or later.

Remove a background from selected pages
1 Open the PDF containing the background.
2 Choose Tools > Edit PDF.

The Edit PDF toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
3 In the secondary toolbar, choose More > Background > Remove.
4 Click Yes to confirm the background removal.

Publish and share PDF Portfolios
Publish PDF Portfolios to a website (Acrobat Pro DC)
Acrobat DC can convert a PDF Portfolio to a SWF file for others to view on a website. All file navigation and video
controls are available to users with access to the website. To preview how the PDF Portfolio appears on a website, you
publish the content to the site. You can’t preview by opening the published PDF Portfolio on your local computer.
Note: You can view and extract files from a published PDF Portfolio. To edit The PDF Portfolio, open it in Acrobat DC.
1 In an open PDF Portfolio, choose File > Save PDF Portfolio As Web Site.

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2 Select a folder, or create a new one, for the saved web files. Click OK.

A new folder makes it easier to find the saved files.

3 (Optional) Edit the index.html file. For example, you can match the look of an existing website, or embed the PDF

Portfolio within an existing web page.
4 Copy the entire data folder and the index.html file to a web server. To transfer the data, you can use FTP, mount the

server as a local disk, or use some other method.
5 Note the web address (URL) of the saved HTML file.
6 In a web browser, enter the URL of the HTML page, starting with http:// or https://.

Tips for successful playback

• Install Flash Player 10.1 or later. Early versions of Flash Player cannot play back a published PDF Portfolio.
• Use Acrobat DC PDF Portfolios. You cannot publish Acrobat 9 PDF Portfolios to a website.
• Use only system fonts in the PDF Portfolio, not styled text, embedded fonts, or other installed fonts.
• View the index.html file from a web server (http:// or https://), not from your local computer.
• Avoid adding SWF file attachments or videos to your PDF Portfolio. Video playback and SWF file attachments are
not supported in a published PDF Portfolio.

Share PDF Portfolios
Share a PDF Portfolio with others by sending the file in an e-mail or by uploading it on Acrobat.com, a secure web
service. (See Sharing PDFs.)

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More Help topics
Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
Find text in multiple PDFs
Overview of PDF Portfolios
Create and customize PDF Portfolios
Working with component files in a PDF Portfolio
Merging PDFs and including other content

Working with component files in a PDF Portfolio
You can sort and preview component files in a PDF Portfolio, as well as open, edit, and save component files in their
native application. Some file types require that you install the native application on your computer.

View files in a list
In an opened PDF Portfolio, click View > Portfolio > Details. The list of component files in the PDF Portfolio is
displayed below the secondary toolbar. To sort file details by ascending and descending order, click a column name.
Click it a second time to reverse the order.

Edit file details in a list (Acrobat Pro DC)
1 In an opened PDF Portfolio, click View > Portfolio > Details.

The list of component files in the PDF Portfolio are displayed below the secondary toolbar.
2 Do any of the following in the files list pane:

• To show or hide a column in the list, right-click and choose View and select the column name.
• To sort required columns by ascending and descending order, click a column heading. Click a second time to
reverse the order
• To add or change information of a file, right-click the filename and select Edit Value and then choose the type
of information you want to update. For example, to add descriptive information about the file, right-click on the
filename, choose Edit Value > Description. In the Edit Description dialog, enter the file description.
• To add a column, right-click and choose Portfolio Properties. In the Portfolio Properties dialog box, click Add
and type the name of the column you want to add and click OK.
• To delete optional columns, open the Portfolio Properties dialog box, select the column name that you want to
delete, and then click Delete. You cannot delete required columns, such as Name, Modified, Size, and Created.
• To change the order of a column, open the Portfolio Properties dialog box, select the column name, and click
the Up or Down button. You can also drag a column in the file list pane.
• To change the order of files, see Sort, filter, and change the order of files or folders (Acrobat Pro DC).

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Add files and folders to a PDF Portfolio
You can add files and folders to an existing PDF Portfolio in either Layout (Preview) or Details (files list view) mode.
❖ In the secondary toolbar, click Add Files

and choose Add Files or Add Folder.

Alternatively, you can also add files or folders by performing any of the following methods:

• In the Layout view, right click in the left pane and choose Create Folder. Else, if you are in the Details view, then
right click in the files list pane and choose Create Folder.
• To add files from your computer, drag any files or folders into the left pane (Layout view), or files list pane
(Details view). You can also drag file or folder onto a folder to add it to your portfolio.
For best performance, keep the total number of component files at 15 or less, and the total size of all component files
under 50 MB.

Remove files and folders from a PDF Portfolio
If you delete a folder, all of the files within it are deleted from the PDF Portfolio.
❖ Select one or more files or folders in the PDF Portfolio and press Delete. Or click the Delete File icon in the

secondary toolbar.

Sort, filter, and change the order of files or folders (Acrobat Pro DC)
By default, component files are arranged and sorted alphabetically by filename. Files appear and print in this order.
You can change or customize the order in which files appear. However, files always print alphabetically.
Note: Sorting files in Layout (Preview) mode changes the order only for the current session. The next time you open the
PDF Portfolio, it appears in the sort order specified in the Portfolio Properties dialog box.
1 Open the Portfolio Properties dialog box.

Note: If you are in the Layout view, then right-click in the left pane and choose Portfolio Properties. Else, if you are in
the files list view, then right-click in the files list pane and choose Portfolio Properties.
2 In the Portfolio Properties dialog box, do any of the following:

• To change the order of the columns in the files list pane, select a column name and use the Up or Down button
to rearrange.
• To specify the order in which files appear when the PDF Portfolio is initially opened, select a column name in
the Sort By menu, then specify the Sort Order. For example, to display files according to the date they were
modified, make sure Modified is selected in the Sort By menu and then specify the Sort Order as Ascending or
Descending.
• To specify the way PDF Portfolio is displayed, select the display option from the Initial View menu.
3 Save the PDF Portfolio.

Open, edit, and save component files
You can open, edit, and save a component file in its native application, as long as the application is installed on your
computer. Any changes that you make to component files do not affect the original files outside your PDF Portfolio.
1 Do one of the following:

• In Layout (Preview) mode, right-click/Control-click the file, and choose Open File In Native Application (for
non-PDFs) or Open File (for PDFs).
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• In the upper-right corner of the Acrobat DC window, click the Open Document link.
Note: The component file opens in a separate window. If you’re viewing the PDF Portfolio in a browser, the file opens
in the stand-alone Acrobat product, outside the browser.
2 If a confirmation dialog box appears, select Open This File or Always Allow Opening Files Of This Type—if you

trust the format—and click OK.
3 Edit the file as needed, and then save the file.

Edit component filenames and descriptions in a PDF Portfolio
❖ Open the files list pane by choosing View > Portfolio > Details.

In the files list pane, do any of the following:

• To edit the displayed name of a component file, right-click the filename and choose Edit Value > Name. Enter
the new name for the component file and click OK. The updated name is displayed under in the Name column
of the files list pane.
• To edit the description of a component file, right-click the filename and choose Edit Value > Description. Enter
the description text and click OK. The updated description is displayed under the Description column of the
files list pane.

Extract component files in a PDF Portfolio
You can extract or drag files out of the PDF Portfolio window onto your computer. Extracting does not delete the file
from the PDF Portfolio.
❖ Do either of the following:

• In Layout or Details mode, right-click the component filename and select Extract From Portfolio.
• Select one or more files, and then drag them to your Desktop.

More Help topics
Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
Find text in multiple PDFs
Overview of PDF Portfolios
Create and customize PDF Portfolios
Publish and share PDF Portfolios
Merging PDFs and including other content

Create and customize PDF Portfolios

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Create PDF Portfolios (Acrobat Pro DC)
The PDF Portfolio creation process has been simplified in the current release of Acrobat Pro DC. You no longer need
the Flash Player installed on your system to create or view portfolios. You can easily create folders within your PDF
Portfolio, delete component files and folders, edit component filenames, and add and edit descriptions of component
files.
Create a basic PDF Portfolio in a few quick steps.
1 Start Acrobat DC and choose File > Create > PDF Portfolio.
2 Drag files into the Create PDF Portfolio dialog box.

Alternatively, choose an option from the Add Files menu. You can add a file, folder of files, pages from a scanner,
web page, or items in the clipboard.
3 Click Create to add the files to the PDF Portfolio.

The selected files are added to your portfolio and a toolbar along with the thumbnails of the files is displayed in the
left pane.

Note: In Windows, the Acrobat PDFMaker in Outlook and Lotus Notes can create PDF Portfolios when you convert e-mail
messages.

Add files and folders to a PDF Portfolio
Note: As you cannot change the order of files in the PDF Portfolio, it is recommended to add the files in a sequential order.
Also, if you add a folder, the files in the folder are added in the alphabetical order.
You can add content to an existing PDF Portfolio.
❖ From an open PDF Portfolio, do any of the following:

• In the left pane, click Add Files

and select Add Files, Add Folder, or Add Web Content.

• To create a folder, click the Create Folder icon

in the secondary toolbar.

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• To add files from your computer, drag any files or folders into the PDF Portfolio workspace or onto a folder,
which is available in the left pane.
For best performance, keep the total number of component files at 15 or less, and the total size of all component files
under 50 MB.

Add web content to a PDF Portfolio
You can link to websites or embed video tags. Linking to web content is useful when you want to reduce the file size of
the PDF Portfolio.
1 In the left pane, click Add Files and select Add Web Content.
2 Enter a filename and description for the web content that gets added to your PDF Portfolio. This web file links to

the web content you specify.
3 Do one of the following:

• To link to a website, select Add A Web Link, and then add the URL.
• To embed a video tag, select Add An Embed Tag, and then paste the video’s embed code. Video-sharing websites
usually include a way to copy a video’s embed code. For example, a website could include an Embed box that
shows the code and other embedding options.

Convert multimedia files in a PDF Portfolio (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can convert the following component multimedia files to PDF within a PDF Portfolio: SWF files and mp3. You can
also convert these files to PDF if they are encoded in H.264 (with AAC audio): MOV, M4V, MP4, 3GP, and 3G2. (H.264
and AAC are encoding and compression options for movies.)
1 From an open PDF Portfolio, right-click/Control-click one or more multimedia files in the PDF Portfolio and select

Convert To PDF.
2 If a dialog box appears, specify the options as needed and click OK.

Remove or extract files and folders from a PDF Portfolio
If you delete a folder, all of the files within it are deleted from the PDF Portfolio. You can also extract one or more
components from the PDF Portfolio and save them separately.

• From an open PDF Portfolio, select one or more files or folders in the PDF Portfolio and press Delete or click the
to remove the selected item from the portfolio.
Delete File icon
• If you want to extract (or save) an item from your portfolio, click the Extract From Portfolio icon
location where you want to save the selected item, and click Save.
• Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
• Find text in multiple PDFs
• Overview of PDF Portfolios
• Working with component files in a PDF Portfolio
• Publish and share PDF Portfolios
• Merging PDFs and including other content
• Convert email messages to PDFs
• Save a PDF
• Adobe PDF conversion settings

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More Help topics

Overview of PDF Portfolios
About PDF Portfolios
A PDF Portfolio contains multiple files assembled into an integrated PDF unit. The files in a PDF Portfolio can be in a
wide range of file types created in different applications. For example, a PDF Portfolio can include text documents, email messages, spreadsheets, CAD drawings, and PowerPoint presentations. The original files retain their individual
identities but are assembled into one PDF Portfolio file. You can open, read, edit, and format each component file
independently of the other component files in the PDF Portfolio.
Depending on the circumstances, PDF Portfolios offer several advantages over merging multiple files into a single PDF:
Adding and deleting Add or remove files easily, without having to find and select all the pages that originated in that

file.
Previewing Quickly preview component files without having to open them in their native applications.
Editing Change individual files within the PDF Portfolio without affecting the other files. For example, you can

renumber pages in one document without renumbering other documents in the PDF Portfolio. You can also edit nonPDF files in their native applications from within a PDF Portfolio. Any changes you make are saved to the file within
the PDF Portfolio.
Distribution Share a PDF Portfolio with others and be sure that they are getting all the component parts. Publish a PDF
Portfolio on a website for others to view.
Sorting Sort component files by categories that you can add to, delete, hide, and customize. Simply click a column

name to sort the list.
Printing Print all the PDFs in a PDF Portfolio, or selected component PDFs.
Searching Search one or all files in a PDF Portfolio. You can even search non-PDF component files.
Incorporating other formats Add non-PDF files to an existing PDF Portfolio without converting them to PDF.
Independence from source files The source files of a PDF Portfolio—even existing files you add to the PDF Portfolio—

are not changed when you create a PDF Portfolio. Changes you make to the component files within a PDF Portfolio do
not change the original files from which you created the PDF Portfolio. You can move a PDF Portfolio anywhere on
your computer or network without any risk of losing or disconnecting its components.
Reuse Include the same file in multiple PDF Portfolios.

PDF Portfolio window overview
In Acrobat DC, you create and edit PDF Portfolios, and work with component files using various elements, such as
panes, toolbars, and windows.

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A PDF Portfolio toolbar B Component files and folders in the left navigation pane C Previous and Next (arrow) buttons to scroll through
component files D Link to open the component file

• The PDF Portfolio toolbar is located immediately below the main toolbar. You can perform common tasks such as,
adding files or folders, creating a new folder, extracting component file, or deleting a component file.
• The left navigation pane lists the files and folders included in the PDF Portfolio. By default, the files and folders are
displayed alphabetically. You can change the order by configuring the sort order in the Portfolio Properties dialog
box.
• The Previous and Next buttons allow you to scroll through the files and folders included in the PDF Portfolio. A
preview of the selected file is displayed by default. However, if the component file is a non-PDF file, then a Preview
button is displayed in the document area. Clicking the Preview button allows you to view the file’s contents in the
PDF Portfolio itself.
• The Open Document link opens the selected component file for editing. If it is a PDF file, then the file is opened in
the document area where you can work on it like any other PDF document. Else, if the file is non-PDF, then it is
opened in its native application. Once you make changes in the component file and save it, the newer content is
made available in the PDF Portfolio.
• Layout (Preview mode) shows the preview of the component file in the PDF Portfolio depending on the type of file.
For information about each type of preview, see Portfolio view modes
• Details or Files mode shows the file details in a list. You can click a column name to sort by ascending and
descending order.
A PDF Portfolio is accessible when it opens in Details or Files mode. This mode provides a better reading experience
for people with disabilities—such as mobility impairments, blindness, and low vision. To open all PDF Portfolios in
Files mode, open the Preferences dialog box by choosing Edit > Preferences (Windows). In Acrobat DC only, choose
Acrobat > Preferences (Mac OS). Under Categories, select Accessibility, and then select Show Portfolios In Files
Mode.

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Portfolio view modes
You can view the component files in two different ways – Layout (or Preview) mode and Details (or Files mode). In
Layout mode, the component files list is presented in the left navigation pane, as shown in the preceding figure. In
Details mode, the component files list is presented immediately below the secondary toolbar, as shown in the following
screenshot:

In both the views, you can preview images and pages, play video and SWF files. However, in the Details view you can
also view information about a file. You can extract (move) a file to your computer. You can also open a file in its native
application (if installed on your computer). You can switch between the Layout and Details view by choosing the
desired option from the View > Portfolio menu.
The Platform preview mode is also available where a full-size preview within the document window is shown. By
default, the PDF, SWF, and HTML files are displayed in the document window. To open other file types in Platform
preview, such as e-mail portfolios, form response files, and secured PDFs, choose View > Portfolio > Preview File. To
close Platform preview, click the Close Preview (X) icon after the filename in the secondary toolbar.

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Switch between Layout, Details, and Platform Preview modes
You can switch between the Layout and Details view modes by choosing the desired option from View > Portfolio
menu.
You can also switch to the Platform Preview mode by choosing View > Portfolio > Preview File.

Other functions enabled in PDF Portfolios
These commands are available for component files in PDF Portfolios:
Reduce File Size Reduces the file size of component PDFs. For more information, see Reduce file size by saving.
Secure Portfolio With Password Adds document security to a PDF Portfolio or to component PDFs within a PDF

Portfolio. To add security to component PDFs, choose File > Portfolio Properties and select the Security tab. For more
information, see Securing documents with passwords . To add security to the entire PDF Portfolio, use the Cover Sheet
(View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet). For example, you can use the Cover Sheet to sign the PDF Portfolio parent file, or add
a password to open the PDF Portfolio. Functionality you specify in the Cover Sheet pertains to the entire collection of
component files in the PDF Portfolio.
Note: Other security features, including certificate security, are also available for PDF Portfolios and component files. For
more information, see Choosing a security method for PDFs.
Print Prints component documents. For more information, see Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio.

More Help topics
Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
Find text in multiple PDFs
Create and customize PDF Portfolios
Working with component files in a PDF Portfolio
Publish and share PDF Portfolios
Merging PDFs and including other content
PDF Portfolios and digital signatures

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Mark up text with edits
Note: In Reader, complete commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a review
workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can use text edit comments in a PDF to indicate where text should be edited in the source file. Text edit comments
do not change the actual text in the PDF. Instead, they indicate which text should be deleted, inserted, or replaced in
the source file from which the PDF was created.
Acrobat offers two basic methods to add text edit annotations: pre-select and post-select.
Pre-select or Text Correction Markup tool
Use the Select tool
, or the Text Correction Markup tool and then right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS)
on the selected text to open a menu of text editing options. After marking the text, you can also click on a text edit tool.
Post-select
Click the text edit tool and then select the text.
In Acrobat for Windows, you can export text edits directly to the Microsoft Word document that the PDF is based on
to revise the source document. To use this feature, you must use PDFMaker in Word to create the PDF. Before you
export your text edits, make sure that insertion comments use the exact text, including spaces and paragraph returns,
that you want to add. If you add extra instructional words (such as “Add the following:”), these words will have to be
deleted manually from the Word document.
In Acrobat Pro on Windows, you can export text edit comments directly to an Autodesk AutoCAD document that the
PDF is based on to incorporate your edits. To use this feature, you must use PDFMaker in AutoCAD to create the PDF.

A Selected text is struck out. B New text is added to a linked pop-up note.

Replace text
1 From the Tools > Comment toolbar, scelect Add Note to Replace Text
2 Select the text. Any selected text is crossed out and a pop-up note opens.

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3 Do one of the following:

• Type the text to be inserted or added. The insertion caret

appears.

• To indicate that a new paragraph should be added, press Enter, and then close the pop-up note without adding
appears.
text. The paragraph insertion caret

Add a note to a text edit
1 Using the Select tool, right-click a text edit.
2 Select Open Pop-Up Note from the menu.
3 Type your note in the pop-up note.

Insert text
1 From the Tools > Comment toolbar, select the Insert Text at Cursor tool

.

2 Click between the words or characters where you want to insert text.
3 Do any of the following:

• Type the text you want to insert.
• To indicate that a new paragraph should be added, press Enter, and then close the pop-up note without adding
appears.
text. The paragraph insertion caret
• To indicate that a space should be added, press the spacebar, and then close the pop-up note without adding text.
appears.
The space insertion caret

You can also indicate text edits by using the Select tool to select text, right-click the selected text, and then choose a
text edit annotation.

Delete text
1 From Tools > Comment toolbar, choose the Strikethrough tool

.

2 Select the text to mark for deletion.

Delete text markups
If markup comments are stacked, delete the comments in the Comments list: Choose Comment > Comments List, select
the comment, and press Delete.
❖ Select the markup and press Delete.

Highlight, strikethrough, or underline text
Note: In Reader only Sticky Note and Highlight tools are available. Other commenting tools are available only in PDFs that
have commenting enabled. PDFs in a review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can use the Highlight Text tool, Strikethrough Text tool, and the Underline Text tool to add comments by
themselves or in conjunction with notes.

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You can add a highlight with a note or you can cross out text or underline text by selecting the text using the Select tool,
right-clicking, and then choosing that option from the menu that appears. However, if you’re marking up a lot of text,
the specialized tools are faster and easier to use.
1 Choose Tools > Comment, and select the Highlight Text tool

Underline Text tool

, the Strikethrough Text tool

, or the

.

Note: If you want to apply more than one comment using the Strikeout Text tool or the Underline Text tool, choose Keep
Tool Selected from the Options menu after you select the tool. The Highlight Text tool stays selected after you make the
first comment.
2 Drag from the beginning of the text you want to mark up. Control-drag to mark up a rectangular area of text. This

feature is especially useful when you are marking up text in a column.
3 (Optional) To add a note, double-click the markup and add text in a pop-up note.

More Help topics
Sharing PDFs and collaborating in real time
Preparing for a PDF review
Starting a review
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Adding a stamp to a PDF
Commenting in PDFs
Managing comments
Importing and exporting comments
Approval workflows

Preparing for a PDF review
About managed PDF reviews
In a managed review, you use a wizard to set up your review, specify the document location, and invite participants.
You don’t have to import comments, enable commenting for Reader users, or manually track reviewer responses.
Note: You must have Acrobat Pro DC installed to enable commenting for Acrobat Reader DC users in managed reviews.
You cannot enable commenting for Acrobat Reader DC users using Acrobat Standard DC.
Acrobat includes two types of managed reviews: shared and email-based reviews. Each type of review has a wizard that
helps you distribute a PDF with special tools and instructions to reviewers.
The Tracker tracks all managed reviews. The Tracker provides access to the PDF file and information about the review
and its participants. Review initiators can change review deadlines, add reviewers, and end reviews from the Tracker.
The Tracker lets participants know when new comments are available, when deadlines are changed, and when
reviewers are added, even when Acrobat is closed. It also provides information about server error states.

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Note: Managed reviews cannot be conducted for PDF Portfolios.
Shared reviews
Shared reviews are the most collaborative form of review because participants can read and reply to the comments of
other participants. Comments from participants are stored in a repository on an internal server. Acrobat synchronizes
comments at regular intervals to download all the latest changes. Reviewers are notified of new comments as they are
added, and they can see and reply to comments made by other reviewers.

Note: For shared reviews, reviewers must have Acrobat 8 or later or Reader 8 or later installed to view other reviewer
comments. Reviewers using earlier versions of Acrobat must send comments in email.
Email-based reviews
Email-based reviews are ideal when reviewers either don’t have access to a common server or don’t require a
collaborative approach to reviewing documents.
In an email-based review, the initiator sends a PDF to reviewers as an email attachment. Reviewers add their comments
and return the document by using the Send Comments button in the document message bar. When receiving these
comments, the initiator can merge them into their copy of the PDF.
The primary limitation to email-based reviews is that participants can’t view other comments during the review.
Initiators can view comments only after receiving them.
Note: Participants in an email-based review must have Acrobat 6.0 or later or Reader 7.0 or later.

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Choosing a distribution option for reviews and forms
Acrobat provides several distribution options in the Send For Shared Review and Distribute Form wizard. When you
choose an option, consider the security needs for the distributed file, what servers or websites your recipients can use
to download the file, and how you want to receive comments or form data.
Internal server
You can use your own internal server location if your recipients work behind a firewall and all have access to a common
server. The server can be a network folder, a Microsoft SharePoint workspace (Windows only), or a web server folder.
You can include a link to your distributed PDF or send it as an attachment in an email message. For reviews, Acrobat
uploads published comments to the server. For forms, Acrobat stores responses on your hard drive as they are returned.
Note: Web server folders are not available for form distribution.
When you specify your own server, the wizard prompts you to save a profile with the server location and the
distribution options you chose. The next time you distribute a PDF, the saved profile is available as an option in the
wizard.
Email
The Distribute Forms wizard has an option for sending a form as an email attachment. You can send the form using
your own email client or webmail. You can also use the wizard to create an email message in which the form file is
attached. Once your recipients fill out and submit the form, the responses are returned to your mailbox. Each response
is copied into a PDF Portfolio responses file, which you can organize and export to a spreadsheet.
The Send for Shared Review wizard lets you either email a link to the pdf, or attach the pdf to the email.

Enable commenting for Reader users (Acrobat Pro DC)
By enabling commenting rights in a PDF, users of Reader 8 or later can participate in reviews of that PDF. When a PDF
with commenting rights opens in Reader, it includes a document message bar and commenting tools that are otherwise
unavailable.
When you initiate a managed review, commenting rights are automatically enabled. If you do not use a managed review
(for example, if you send a PDF directly in email), you can still enable commenting rights. Open the PDF and choose
File > Save As Other > Reader Extended PDF > Enable Commenting and Measuring.
Note: If you enable commenting for Reader in a digitally signed document, the signature is invalidated.

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Select an email application for reviews
You need either an email application and a mail server connection, or a webmail account for email-based reviews and
to send comments. Acrobat supports most email applications. If you have more than one email application installed,
you can specify which application starts when Acrobat sends a PDF. Do one of the following:

• (Windows) Double-click Internet Options in the Control Panel. In the Internet Properties dialog box, select the
Programs tab, and then select the preferred email application. Restart Acrobat to activate the change.
• (Windows) Change the MAPI settings in your email application. Acrobat and Reader use the Messaging Application
Program Interface (MAPI) to communicate with your email application. Most email applications come with MAPI
settings to handle this communication. For more information on configuring your email applications, see the email
application’s Help.
• (Mac OS) In Mail, choose Mail > Preferences, select General, and then choose the preferred email application from
the Default Email Reader menu. Restart Acrobat to activate the change. If your application isn’t listed, choose Select
from the menu and browse to the location. If you select an application that isn’t listed in the Default Email Reader
menu, Acrobat does not necessarily support it.

Specify a server
If you distribute a PDF using your own server location, you can specify a network folder, a Windows server running
Microsoft SharePoint Services, or a web server folder. Participants must have read and write access to the server you
specify. Ask your network administrator to provide a suitable server location for storing comments. No additional
software is required to set up a server.
Note: Web server folders are not available for form distribution.
If all recipients are within a local area network, network folders and SharePoint servers are the best choices for a
comment server. Network folders are generally the cheapest and most reliable. To initiate a review on a SharePoint
server, the initiator must use Windows. However, participants can use either Windows or Mac OS.
WebDAV servers (web servers that use the WebDAV protocol) are best used only if your reviewers are outside a firewall
or a local area network.

More Help topics
Sharing PDFs and collaborating in real time
Starting a review
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Adding a stamp to a PDF
Mark up text with edits
Commenting in PDFs
Managing comments
Importing and exporting comments
Approval workflows

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Starting a PDF review
Start a shared review
The shared PDF that you send includes the Annotation and Drawing Markups panels, and instructions in the
document message bar.
1 Choose Tools > Send For Comments.

The Send for Comments toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
You can also start a shared review directly from other applications that use PDFMaker, such as Microsoft Word.
Choose Adobe PDF > Convert To Adobe PDF And Send For Shared Commenting. For Office 2007/2010
applications, choose Acrobat > Create And Send For Shared Commenting.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Send For Shared Commenting.

Note: If prompted, select a PDF file that you want to send for shared review.
3 Select the way you want to collect comments from your reviewer and click Next.
4 Select how you would like to host the shared review file and specify the location.
5 Choose a delivery and collection method. You can use your own internal server. Then follow the onscreen

instructions.
6 On the email screen, specify the following settings as needed:
Delivery Method Click to specify a different delivery and collection method from the one that is currently selected.
To, Cc Enter the email addresses of your reviewers. Insert a semicolon or a return after each address. Click the To or
Cc button to select email addresses from your email application address book.
Subject, Message Preview and edit the email subject and message as needed. Acrobat saves any changes you make

and displays them the next time you send a document for review. To use the default email message, click Reset
Default Message.
Review Deadline Click to specify a different date or no deadline. After the review deadline expires, reviewers cannot

publish comments.
Note: If the review deadline expires while a reviewer has the document open in Acrobat, then the reviewer can publish
comments before closing the document.
7 Click Send.

Acrobat creates a copy of the shared review file, named [original filename]_review.pdf, in the same folder as the original
file you specified for the review.

Start an email-based review
When you start an email-based review, you send out a tracked copy of the PDF, enabling you to easily merge comments
that you receive. (Form fields in a PDF aren’t fillable during the review.) After initiating a shared review, you can also
start an email-based review with the same PDF.

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Start the review
Before you start an email-based review, make sure that your email application or webmail account is configured to work
with Acrobat.
1 Choose Tool > Send For Comments.

The Send for Comments toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 Click Send For Comments By Email.
3 If prompted, enter information in the Identity Setup dialog box.
4 Specify a PDF if it isn’t already open, and then click Next. The PDF that you specify becomes the master file. You’ll

merge comments you receive from reviewers into this file.
5 Specify reviewers by typing their email addresses. Insert a semicolon or a return between each address. Click

Address Book to select email addresses from your email application or webmail address book.
6 Preview and edit the email invitation as needed, and then click Send Invitation.
7 Select an email client to send the invite and click Continue.

A copy of the PDF is sent to the reviewers as an attachment. When this PDF attachment is opened, it presents
commenting tools and instructions.

Merge comments
After you receive comments from reviewers, you can merge the comments into the master PDF.
1 After a reviewer sends you comments, open the attached file in your email application. If the email application can’t

find the original version of the PDF, it prompts you to browse for it.
Note: It’s possible to forward comments to the initiator if you didn’t initiate the review. First merge these comments into
your copy of the PDF. Then send the comments (see Send comments in email). If you’ve sent your comments already,
the initiator receives only new comments. Merged comments retain the original author name.
2 If you initiated the review, the Merge Comments dialog box appears. Select one of the following options:
Yes Opens the master copy of the PDF and merges all comments into it. After comments are merged, save the
master PDF.
No, Open This Copy Only Opens the reviewer’s copy of the PDF with comments. If you select this option, you can
still merge comments by choosing Comments > Merge Comments Onto Master PDF.
Cancel Closes the reviewer’s PDF that contains comments.

More Help topics
Preparing for a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Managing comments
Importing and exporting comments

Commenting in PDFs

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Annotations and drawing markup tools overview
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, complete commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs
in a review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You use annotation and drawing markup tools to add comments. The commenting tools are made available in the
secondary toolbar of the Comment feature. Comments are notes and drawings that communicate ideas or provide
feedback for PDFs. You can type a text message using the Sticky Note tool. Alternatively, you can use a drawing tool to
add a line, circle, or other shape and then type a message in the associated pop-up note. Text-editing tools let you add
editing marks to indicate changes that you want in the source document. Most commenting and markup tools don’t
appear in the toolbar until you enable the Commenting feature.
Note: If you open a PDF in a browser for a shared review that has ended, the commenting tools are unavailable.
Most comments include two parts: the icon, or markup, that appears on the page, and the text message that appears in
a pop-up note when you click or double-click the icon or place the pointer over the icon.
After you add a comment, it stays selected until you click elsewhere on the page. Acrobat DC highlights a selected
comment with a blue halo to help you find the markup on the page. A wireframe with selection handles appears on
drawing markups and stamps, so that you can adjust the size and shape.
In Acrobat Pro DC, you can add tags to your comments so that readers with motion or vision limitations can read them
using assistive technologies.

Note: To see the labels along with the tool icons, right-click on the secondary toolbar and select Show All Labels.

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A Stamp B Text edit C Comment rollover (tool tip) D Sticky note

More Help topics
Add tags to comments
Commenting on 3D designs in PDFs

Show annotations and drawing markup tools
Annotations and markup tools don’t appear by default, except when you open a PDF in a managed review workflow.
1 Choose Tools > Comment to open the Comment tools in the secondary toolbar. The comments that you add to the

document are displayed in the right pane.
2 The drawing markup tools are grouped under the Drawing Tools menu. Click Drawing Tools menu and select

Expand Drawing Tools to add the drawing tools to the secondary toolbar.

Select an annotation or drawing markup tool
• Open the Comment toolbar and select the desired annotation tool.
• To select the drawing markup tool, open the Comment toolbar and click the Drawing Tools icon
desired tool from the Drawing Tools menu.

. Select the

Note: After you make an initial comment, the tool changes back to the Select tool so that you can move, resize, or edit your
comment. (The Pencil and Highlight Text tools stay selected.)

Keep an annotation tool selected
You can add multiple comments without reselecting the tool.
1 In the secondary toolbar, select the tool you want to use (but don’t use it yet).
2 Click the Keep Tool Selected icon

Commenting preferences
Commenting preferences affect both the appearance of and the way you view annotations and markups in PDFs.

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Note: A reviewer can place comments anywhere within the document frame. As a result, sometimes you need to scroll or
zoom out to see comments that are located off the page.
In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Commenting.
Font, Font Size In Windows, you can determine the font and the size of text in pop-up notes. In Mac OS, you can select

only Large, Medium, or Small settings for the font. This setting applies to all new and existing comments.
Pop-up Opacity Determines the opacity of comment pop-up notes in values from 1 to 100. When a pop-up note is open
but not selected, an opacity value of 100 makes the note opaque, while lower values make it more transparent.
Enable Text Indicators And Tooltips Shows a tool tip when you place the pointer over a comment that includes a popup note. The tool tip contains the author name, comment status, and two lines of the text. Selected by default.
Print Notes And Pop-ups Specifies that pop-up notes associated with comments, and icons for note, audio, and file

attachments print exactly as they appear on the page.
Instead of selecting this option, you can print comment text in various layouts by choosing File > Print, and clicking
Summarize Comments.
Show Lines Connecting Comment Markups To Their Pop-ups On Mouse Rollover When you place the pointer over a

comment markup (such as a highlight or a note icon), the shaded connector line appears. Selected by default.
Ensure That Pop-ups Are Visible As The Document Is Scrolled As you scroll a PDF, the pop-up notes on a given page

shift to stay in view within the document pane. Selected by default.
Automatically Open Comment Pop-ups For Comments Other Than Notes A pop-up note appears when you create a

comment using a drawing tool, the Stamp tool, or the Pencil tool.
Hide Comment Pop-ups When Comments List Is Open Helps reduce screen clutter when a page includes many

comments. Selected by default.
Automatically Open Pop-ups On Mouse Rollover When you place the pointer over a comment of any type, including
drawing markups and stamps, the pop-up note opens.
Always Use Log-in Name For Author Name Determines which name appears in the pop-up note you create. If this
option is selected, the Login Name in the Identity panel of the Preferences dialog box is used. If this option isn’t selected,
the default name you specify for Author in a comment properties dialog box is used. Selected by default.
Create New Pop-ups Aligned To The Edge Of The Document Aligns pop-up notes with the right side of the document

window, regardless of where the comment markup (such as a note icon or highlighting comment) is added. If this
option is deselected, the pop-up note appears next to the comment markup. Selected by default.
Copy Encircled Text Into Drawing Comment Pop-Ups Copies text that you circle using the drawing tools in the pop-up

note associated with the drawing markup.
Copy Selected Text Into Highlight, Cross-Out, And Underline Comment Pop-ups Copies selected text to the pop-up
note associated with text editing comments, such as those created by the Highlight Text tool.

Change the look of your comments
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, complete commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs
in a review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can change the color and appearance of comments or markups before or after you create them. You can set the new
look as the default appearance for that tool.
Note: To change how your name appears in comments, open the Preferences dialog box, select Commenting, and then
deselect Always Use Log-in Name For Author Name.

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A With note icon selected B With pop-up text selected

Change a comment’s look and set it as the default
1 After you create a comment, choose Properties from the Options menu of the pop-up note.
2 In the Properties dialog box, do any of the following, and then click OK:

• Click the Appearance tab to change such options as the color and type of icon used. The type of comment selected
determines which options are available.
• Click the General tab to change the name of the author and subject of the comment.
• Click the Review History tab to see the history of changes people have made to the status of a comment during
a review.
• Select Locked at the bottom of the Properties dialog box to prevent the comment from being edited or deleted.
• Select Make Properties Default at the bottom of the Properties dialog box to apply these properties to all
subsequent comments of this type.

Set the default look for a tool
1 After you create a comment, right-click the comment and choose Properties.
2 Set the properties as desired, and click OK.
3 Right-click the comment and choose Make Current Properties Default.

All comments you create using this tool display the properties you set. Existing comments aren’t affected, nor is the
appearance of text in pop-up notes.

Add a sticky note
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, complete commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs
in a review workflow typically include commenting rights.
The most common type of comment is the sticky note. A sticky note has a note icon that appears on the page and a popup note for your text message. You can add a sticky note anywhere on the page or in the document area.

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A Options menu B Time stamp C Text message

Add a sticky note comment
1 Select the Sticky Note tool

in the secondary toolbar, and click where you want to place the note.

2 Type text in the pop-up note. You can also use the Select tool

to copy and paste text from a PDF into the note.

Note: If you close the pop-up note, your text remains.

Edit a sticky note comment
1 Click or double-click the note icon.
2 Make changes, as needed:

• To resize the pop-up note, drag the lower-left or lower-right corner.
• To change the text formatting, choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Show Properties Bar (or press
Ctrl+E), select the text, and then select the property you want in the toolbar.
Use the Commenting panel in the Preferences dialog box to change the font size, default pop-up behavior, and other
settings for creating and viewing comments
After making the desired changes, click the minimize button in the upper-right corner of the pop-up note, or click
outside the pop-up note.

Delete a sticky note
1 Select the Sticky Note tool

, the Hand tool

, or the Select tool

.

2 Select the note icon, and press Delete.

Alternatively, double-click the note icon and choose Delete from the Options menu of the pop-up note.

Add a text comment
Use the Add Text Comment tool
to the Add Text Box tool.

to type text anywhere on the PDF page. The Add Text Comment tool is similar

1 Choose the Add Text Comment tool from the secondary toolbar.
2 Click on the page to place the cursor
3 In the Add Text Comment tools, specify the font, font size, and other text attributes.

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Add a line, arrow, or shape
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, drawing tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a review
workflow typically include commenting rights.
When selecting a drawing tool, consider the effect you want.
1 Choose Tools > Comment. In the secondary toolbar, click Drawing Tools

• The Rectangle tool
shapes.

, the Oval tool

, the Arrow tool

and select the drawing markup tool:

, and the Line tool

let you create simple

• The Cloud tool
and Polygon tool
create closed shapes with multiple segments. The Polygon Line tool
creates open shapes with multiple segments.
• The Pencil tool

creates free-form drawings, and the Pencil Eraser tool

removes the pencil markups.

To specify the line width, color, and other properties before you draw, select the desired tool, and press Ctrl+E to open
the properties toolbar. Set the desired options in the Properties toolbar.
2 Draw in the PDF:

• To create a cloud or polygon shape, click to create the start point, move the pointer, and click to create each
segment. To finish drawing the shape, click the start point, or right-click and choose Complete from the menu.
Double-click to end a polygon line.
• To draw a line, arrow, or rectangle, either drag across the area where you want the markup to appear, or click
twice: once to create the start point and once to create the end point.
• To draw a square or circle, or to draw a line that’s horizontal, vertical, or at a 45° angle, press Shift while you draw.
• To draw free-form lines using the Pencil tool
, drag where you want to begin drawing. You can release the
mouse button, move the pointer to a new location, and continue drawing. To erase parts of the drawing, select
and drag across the areas of the drawing that you want to remove.
the Pencil Eraser tool
3 To edit or resize the markup, select it and drag one of the handles to make your adjustments.
4 To add a pop-up note to the markup, select the Hand tool, and double-click the markup.
5 (Optional) Click the close button in the pop-up note. A note icon appears to the right of the markup to indicate the

presence of text in the pop-up note.
Note: To delete a drawing markup, select it and press Delete.

Group and ungroup markups
You can group two or more markups so that your comments function as a single comment. You might group markups
temporarily to move them to a new location or to modify their properties rather than editing each one individually.
Grouping also helps to distinguish your markups from other reviewers’ markups in a document review.
Note: You cannot group text edit markups.

Group markups
1 Using the Select tool or the Hand tool, select a markup.
2 Ctrl-click/Command-click to select the markups you want to group.
3 Right-click within the selection, and choose Group.

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Ungroup markups
❖ Right-click the grouped selection, and choose Ungroup.

Add comments in a text box or callout
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can use the Text Box tool
to create a box that contains text. You can position it anywhere on the page and adjust
it to any size. A text box remains visible on the document page; it doesn’t close like a pop-up note.
Text font and size are based on the system default settings.

Note: You can add comments to Japanese, Chinese, and Korean text with the Text Box tool, but you must have the Asianlanguage resource files installed. Text boxes allow for horizontal text only.
You can use the Callout tool
to create a callout text box. Callout text boxes are especially useful when you want to
single out—but not obscure—a particular area of a document. Callout text boxes have three parts: a text box, a knee
line, and an end-point line. You can resize each part by dragging a handle. The knee line can be resized in one direction
only; horizontal knee lines can be resized horizontally only; vertical knee lines can be resized vertically only. The text
box expands vertically as you type so that all text remains visible.
You can move the text box itself or together with the end-point line. The text box moves around a stationary anchor
point—the arrow on the end-point line—which is created when you first click in the PDF. You can modify the color
and appearance of the text box and add arrows or leaders to the end-point line.

Add a text box
1 Choose the Add Text Box

tool from the secondary toolbar.

2 Click in the PDF.

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3 Choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Show Properties Bar (or press Ctrl+E), and set the color, alignment,

and font attributes for the text.
4 Type the text.

Text wraps automatically when it reaches the right edge of the box.
5 (Optional) To make further changes to the text box:

• Using the Select tool or the Text Box tool, click an edge of the text box to select it, and then drag a corner to resize
it. Use the Properties toolbar to change the border and fill options.
• Double-click the text box to edit the text or change the text attributes. Drag across text to select it, and then select
options from the Properties toolbar.
6 To delete the text box, select it, and then press Delete.

You can also paste a block of text by selecting and copying the text in any application, selecting the Hand tool in
Acrobat, and choosing Edit > Paste.

Add a callout
1 Choose the Add Text Callout

tool from the secondary toolbar.

2 Click once to set the location of the end point, and click again to set the location of the text box.
3 Choose View > Show/Hide > Toolbar Items > Show Properties Bar (or press Ctrl+E), and select the color,

alignment, and font attributes for the text.
4 Type the text.

Text wraps automatically when it reaches the right edge of the box.
5 (Optional) To make further changes to the text box:

• To resize the callout, select it and drag any of the handles that appear.
• To move the text box, click inside the box and drag it.
• To move the entire callout, click either the end-point line or an edge of the text box, and drag it.
• To change the color, opacity, or line characteristics, use the Select tool to right-click the callout, choose
Properties, and select the options you want.

Add an audio comment
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can use the Record Audio Comment tool to add a prerecorded WAV or AIFF file as a comment or to record and
place an audio comment in a document. Audio attachments appear in the Comments list and can be played back on
any platform. However, the appropriate hardware and software for playing audio files must be installed.

More Help topics
Addmultimedia to PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)

Add a prerecorded audio comment
1 Choose the Record Audio

tool from the secondary toolbar.

2 Click in the PDF where you want to place the audio comment.

The Sound Records dialog box appears.

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Note: The above dialog box appears when a recording device is not configured on your system.
3 Click Browse (Windows) or Choose (Mac OS), and select the audio file you want to add.
4 (Optional) To hear the audio comment, click the Play button

. When you’re finished, click the Stop button and

then click OK.
5 Specify options in the Specify Attachment Properties dialog box, and then click OK.

Record an audio comment
Note: Before you record an audio comment, ensure that your system has a recording device installed and configured.
1 Choose the Record Audio

tool from the secondary toolbar.

2 Click in the PDF where you want to place the audio comment.

The Sound Recorder dialog box appears.

Note: The above dialog box appears when a recording device is configured on your system.
3 In the dialog box that appears, click the Record button

and then speak into the microphone. When you’ve
finished recording, click the Stop button , and then click OK.

4 Specify options in the Sound Attachment Properties dialog box, and then click OK.

Add comments in a file attachment
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
Use the Attach File tool to embed a file at a selected location in a PDF, so that the reader can open it for viewing. By
adding attachments as a comment, you can reference longer documents that can’t easily be pasted into a pop-up note
or text box. If you move the PDF to a new location, the embedded file automatically goes with it. To view an attachment,
the reader must have an application installed that can open the attachment.
Note: Be sure to use the Attach tool when attaching files for a document review. Document-level file attachments that you
from the Tools > Edit PDF > More menu aren’t tracked with other comments in a
attach using the Attach A File tool
review workflow and may cause your attached comments to be lost.
1 Choose the Attach File

tool from the Comment’s secondary toolbar.

2 Click in the PDF where you want to place the attachment.

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3 Select the file that you want to attach, and then click Open. If you’re attaching a PDF, you can highlight areas of

interest in the file using comments.
4 In the File Attachment Properties dialog box, select the settings for the file icon that appears in the PDF.

The comment attachment also appears in the Attachments tab (in the left navigation pane) with a page number
indicating its location.
Note: To delete the attachment, right-click the attached comment icon, and choose Delete.

Paste images as comments
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting tools are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
You can use the Paste Clipboard Image As Stamp Tool to add images to a PDF. You can copy most image formats from
drawing and image-editing applications, such as Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. If you want to add the image
to PDFs repeatedly, create a custom stamp of the image.
Note: The Paste Clipboard Image As Stamp Tool isn’t available until you copy an image.
1 Copy an image by doing one of the following:

• In Acrobat DC, choose Edit > Take A Snapshot

, and select an image from a PDF.

• In another application, select an image and choose Edit > Copy.
2 Open a PDF.
3 Choose Tools > Comment. In the secondary toolbar, click the Add Stamp

tool and select Paste Clipboard

Image As Stamp Tool.
4 Click in the PDF where you want the image to appear.
5 Do any of the following:

• To move the image, drag it.
• To resize the image, select it and then drag one of its handles. Press the Shift key when resizing the image to
maintain the original proportions.
• To change the image properties, right-click it and choose Properties.
• To delete the image, right-click it and choose Delete.

More Help topics
Sharing PDFs and collaborating in real time
Preparing for a PDF review
Starting a review
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Adding a stamp to a PDF
Mark up text with edits
Managing comments
Importing and exporting comments

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Approval workflows
Copy images

Sharing PDFs
Share files by email
You can share many file types, not just PDF files.
1 To email a file, do one of the following:

• Choose File > Send File.
• Click the Email icon in the toolbar.
2 In the Send Email dialog box, choose an option and then click Continue.

• Select Use Default email application to use your email software
• Select Use Webmail to use email webmail systems such as Gmail or Yahoo
Check Remember my choice to bypass this dialog box in the future.
3 Click Continue, and follow the on-screen instructions.

To add or edit email accounts, see Email account preferences.

Adobe Online Services preferences
To change your Acrobat.com account settings, open the Preferences dialog box, and under Categories, select Online
Services.
Email Address (Adobe ID) Specifies your email address associated with your Adobe ID.
Sign Out Click to sign out of your Acrobat.com account.
Manage Account Click to view and manage your account settings.
Change Password Click to clear your currently saved password and specify a new one.
Copy Me When I Send An Email Invitation using Adobe online services When selected, sends you a copy of your

initiating email for shared reviews, and form distributions.

Email account preferences
To change or add email accounts, open the Preferences dialog box, and under Categories, select Email Accounts. The
email account is used in various worflows such as send file and review. You can use an account configured through your
default email client, or use webmail accounts such as Gmail or Yahoo! Mail.
Accounts Lists all the email accounts.
Add Account Select an email account to add. For Gmail and Yahoo! enter your email address. For other accounts, you’ll

need to enter more details such as your password, and server settings.
Edit Edits the settings for other email accounts.
Make Default Click to use the selected account to use as default.

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Delete Click to delete the selected account.

Participating in a PDF review
Review a PDF
When you receive an email invitation to a PDF review, the invitation typically includes the PDF as an attachment or
provides a URL to the PDF. Alternatively, some invitations include a Forms Data Format (FDF) attachment. When
opened, an FDF file configures your review settings and opens the PDF in Acrobat.
PDFs in a review have special features, including commenting tools and a document message bar with instructions. Use
the commenting tools to add comments to the PDF and then submit them. Either publish the comments to a comment
server where others can see them, or send comments as an email attachment to the review initiator.
Note: It’s possible to receive a PDF that doesn’t include special features. If so, add your comments using tools in theTools >
Comment toolbar. Then save the PDF and send it back.
To review the PDF later, reopen it from the Tracker. Doing so ensures that your comments are added to the tracked
copy of the PDF, and that the initiator receives your comments. If you don’t send or publish your comments right away,
save the PDF before you close it to avoid losing your comments. Until the initiator receives your comments, they appear
only in your local copy of the PDF and aren’t visible to other reviewers.
If you review a PDF using Acrobat 9 or earlier, or Reader 9 or earlier, some features are not available.

Join a review
1 In your email application, open the PDF by clicking the URL or double-clicking the attachment (PDF or FDF).
2 Do one or more of the following, if prompted:

• Log in to Adobe Document Cloud with your Adobe ID and password.
• Click Connect in the Shared Review dialog box.
• Click OK in the Welcome To Shared Review window. This window shows the review deadline, participants,
whether each reviewer has made any comments, and the comment server location.
• Type your name, email address, company name, and job title.
3 Save the file to a location that you can find easily, such as the desktop.
4 Add comments to the PDF using tools in the Tools > Comment toolbar. To delete a comment, select it and press

Delete. (You can only delete the comments that you made.)
5 Do all of the following that apply:

• If you’re notified that new comments from other reviewers are available, click the message. New comments
appear in the PDF.
• To find out if new comments are available from other reviewers, click the Check For New Comments button

.

6 Submit your comments by clicking Publish Comments or Send Comments To Review Initiator in the document

message bar.
When you send comments, a PDF containing your comments is sent as an email attachment to the review initiator.
When you publish comments, your comments are saved to the comment server.

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Options in the document message bar
The options in the document message bar depend on how the initiator set up the review and whether you can access
the comment server.
Check For New Comments Prompts Acrobat to synchronize comments between the comment server and the local hard
drive. If you don’t click this button, Acrobat checks for new comments every 10 minutes if the document is open and
every hour if the document is closed.
Merge Comments Copies the comments in the open PDF to your copy. This option is available only for PDFs you

receive from reviewers in email-based reviews.
Publish Comments Available only in shared reviews. Uploads your new comments to the comment server. This button

is disabled if the review has ended.
Save An Archive Copy Available only in shared reviews, when a review has ended. Saves a copy of the document with

review comments to your hard drive.
Send Comments Creates an email message addressed to the review initiator that contains the commented PDF as an

attachment. This option is always available for reviewers in email-based reviews. It appears in shared reviews if the
reviewer has chosen to work offline or if an attempt to connect to the comment server has failed.
Status An icon that displays the connected state of the comment server. The icon appears as the last attempt successful
, the last attempt unsuccessful icon
, or the attempting to connect icon
. If you click the icon, a menu
icon
with additional options appears: Track Reviews opens the Tracker; Save As Archive Copy saves a copy of the PDF that
is no longer connected to the review; Work Offline lets you work in offline mode, in which you can make comments
but cannot publish them until you switch back to online mode. To switch to online mode, click Reconnect To Server.

Check for newly published comments
When you participate in a shared review, Acrobat DC synchronizes published comments on your local hard drive with
the comments on the server. Acrobat DC notifies you when new comments are available. Because synchronization
continues after the PDF is closed, you’ll continue to receive notifications.
Messages in the notification area inform you when new reviewers join the review, when updates occur (multiple
reviews), when deadlines change, and when synchronization attempts fail. They also inform you when a new broadcast
subscription is added in the Tracker. You can change the frequency of messages and of comment synchronization, and
you can manually trigger the synchronization process.
To view new comments in a shared review, you must be able to connect to the network where the comment server is
located. If you can’t connect, check the server status in the Tracker to determine the cause of the problem.
❖ Click the Check For New Comments button

in the document message bar.

Send comments in email
If you review a PDF offline or outside a firewall, or if you lose your connection to the comment server, you can send
your comments in an email message.
1 Choose File > Send File > Attach To Email.
2 In the Send Email dialog box, select Default Email Application, or Use Webmail and choose you webmail client from

the Selectmenu.
3 Click Continue, and follow the onscreen instructions.

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Note: If the PDF exceeds the 5-MB file-size limit, Acrobat prompts you to send your comments in a Forms Data Format
(FDF) file. The initiator can import this smaller file. To adjust the limit, open the Preferences dialog box and select
Reviewing. Then enter the new value for Send Comments As FDF For Files Greater Than [#] MB.

Publish comments from other reviewers
When you participate in a review, you can receive comments from other reviewers. For example, if a reviewer can’t
access the comment server, the reviewer can send you comments. As another example, suppose that you solicited
feedback from people who weren’t initially invited to the review. Those reviewers can return a copy of the review PDF
to you with their comments. By taking ownership of the comments, you can share them with everyone in the review.
1 Open the PDF that contains comments.
2 Do one of the following:

• Click OK when asked if you want to publish comments for this reviewer. The published comments appear in the
PDF. Your name appears in the title bar and the author’s name appears in the body of the comments, preceded
by the text On behalf of.
To hide On behalf of text, in the Preferences dialog box under Reviewing, uncheck Show “On Behalf of ” text in
comment when user takes ownership of comments in a shared review.

• Click Yes when asked if you want to merge comments, or click Merge Comments in the document message bar
and then click Send Comments. Add email addresses for other reviewers, as needed, and then click Send.
• In Acrobat or Reader, open a copy of the PDF and choose Comment > Comments List > Options > Import Data
File. Select a file with comments from reviewers. Add email addresses for other reviewers, as needed, and then
clickSend.
Only new or edited comments are published or sent.

Rejoin a review
Use the Tracker to reopen PDFs in an active review. The Tracker only displays PDFs that you’ve saved. If you didn’t save
a PDF the first time you opened it, reopen the PDF from your email application.
1 Choose View > Tracker.
2 In the Tracker, double-click the PDF.
3 Add new comments or edit existing comments. To delete a comment, select it and press Delete. (You can delete only

comments that you made.)
Acrobat DC removes deleted comments from the online PDF the next time it synchronizes comments. If you delete
comments that you sent in an earlier email message, they aren’t deleted in the initiator’s document.
4 Click Publish Comments in the document message bar.

Only new or edited comments are published or sent.

More Help topics
Commenting in PDFs
Managing comments
Importing and exporting comments
Save the PDF with comments

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Approval workflows
About approval workflows
Acrobat DC users (Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, and Korean only), can send PDFs as email
attachments for others to approve. When participants open an approval request in Acrobat (all languages), they can
approve the PDF by adding a digital identity stamp. Then, they can send the PDF to other approvers, or return the PDF
to the initiator and other appropriate participants. The initiator can track progress by choosing to be notified each time
the PDF is approved. The workflow ends when the last participant adds the final approval. If a PDF isn’t approved, the
approval workflow must be reinitiated.
Note: If you use Acrobat Pro DC to initiate the workflow, you can invite users of Reader 9 or later to participate by enabling
commenting in the
PDF.
Wizard sets up approval workflows (left); Stamps palette provides stamps for approving documents (right).

Send a PDF for approval
When you send a PDF by email for approval (Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, and Korean only),
approvers receive the PDF as an email attachment. When recipients open the PDF attachment, they can apply a digital
identity stamp from the Stamps palette and then make the appropriate selection in the document message bar.
To send a PDF for approval, use the wizard in Acrobat DC. The wizard provides on-screen instructions to help you
invite approvers, customize instructions, and send the PDF.
In Acrobat Pro DC, the wizard enables commenting in the PDF so that Acrobat Reader DC users can participate in the
approval workflow.
Before you initiate an approval workflow, make sure that your email application is configured to work with Acrobat DC.
1 To start an approval workflow, choose Share > Send By Email For Approval.
2 If prompted, enter your email address in the Identity Setup dialog box.
3 Specify a PDF, and click Next.
4 Type the email address for the first approver in the To box.
5 (Acrobat Pro DC) If you want to enable Reader users to participate or if you want to be notified of the approval status

for each participant, specify those options.
6 (Acrobat Standard DC) If you want to be notified of the approval status for each participant, specify those options.
7 (Optional) Type additional instructions for the first approver at the top of the email message.

Only the default text message and instructions are forwarded to subsequent approvers.
Note: The invitation email contains instructions to help participants complete the approval process. Avoid changing or
removing this text.
8 Click Send Invitation.

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Participate in an approval workflow
If you’re invited to participate in an approval workflow, you receive an email message that provides step-by-step
instructions for approving the attached PDF. When you open the PDF, the Stamps palette opens and the document
message bar appears at the top of the PDF. If your version of Acrobat is earlier than 7.0, you’re prompted to download
the latest version of Reader.
You can select any of the digital identity stamps in the Stamps palette to approve the document. A digital identity stamp
contains identity information that you provide, such as name, title, organization, and email address. You can use an
identity stamp in place of a signature. When you apply a stamp, it becomes part of the document page content. You can
delete your own stamp during the approval process; however, once the approval process is completed, your stamp is
locked. You can’t move or delete stamps from other participants.
You can also reject documents that don’t meet your standards.
In addition to adding digital stamps to a PDF, you can add other types of comments, including note comments, text
edits, custom stamps, and file attachments.

Approve a PDF
1 Open the PDF attachment in the approval invitation email message.

Note: If you haven’t added identity information to the stamp, you’re prompted to do so.
2 Select a stamp from the Stamps palette (Tools > Stamp > Stamps palette) . (To view all stamps, scroll or drag a

corner to resize the window.)
3 Click the document to apply your approval stamp.

Note: To delete a digital identity stamp that you’ve applied, select it and press Delete. If you select Print, Save A Copy,
or Email during the approval process, you can’t delete your stamp.
4 Do one of the following:

• To send the document to the next approver, click the Approve button in the document message bar. In the Send
To Next Approver dialog box, type the email address for the next approver in the To box, add addresses for other
recipients as appropriate, and click Send.
• To complete the approval process, click the Final Approval button in the document message bar. In the Complete
Final Approval dialog box, specify whether to send an approval notification from the Final Approval Method
menu. If you send a notification, type an email address in the To box, add addresses for other recipients as
appropriate, and click Send. If you don’t send a notification, click Complete.
If the Notify Initiator Of Approval Status Via Email option is selected, a separate email notification appears,
addressed to the initiator. Click Send to send this notification.
5 Save the PDF.

Note: If you use the Email button
in the toolbar to send the PDF, the PDF is no longer part of the workflow, and
approval options aren’t available to the recipient of that email message.

Reject a PDF
If the PDF you received in an approval request doesn’t meet the requirements for approval, use the options in the
document message bar to reject the document and return it to the initiator. If a PDF is rejected, the approval workflow
must be reinitiated.
1 Open the PDF attachment in the approval invitation email message.
2 Click the Reject button in the document message bar.

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3 In the Reject And Send Notification dialog box, type the email address for the initiator in the To box. If the Notify

Initiator Of Approval Status Via Email option is selected, a separate email message is sent to the approval initiator.
Click Send.
4 Click Send in the email message that appears.

Add or change identity information for a digital stamp
1 Choose Tools > Stamps > Stamps Palette.
2 In the Stamps palette, select Digital Identity Stamps, right-click your stamp, and choose Edit Identity.
3 In the Identity Setup dialog box, type or edit your name, title, company name, department, and email address, and

click Complete.
You can also change your identity information from the Preferences dialog box. Under Categories, select Identity.

Managing comments
View comments
The Comments list appears in the right pane of the document window. The Comments list displays all comments in a
PDF, and it provides a toolbar with common options, such as sorting, filtering, and other Options to work with
comments.

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Open the Comments list
1 Choose Tools > Comment.

The Comments toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar and the Comments list is displayed in the right pane.
2 Using the Options menu

at the top of the Comments list, do any of the following:

• Expand or collapse the comments. Click Expand All or Collapse All in the Comments list options menu. To
expand an individual comment, click the comment or click Show More link in the comment. To collapse an
individual comment, click the Show Less link in the comment.
• Import and Export comments.
• Create or Print Comment Summary.
• Export to Word or AutoCAD.
• Specify Commenting Preferences.

Sort comments
You can sort comments in the Comments list by author, page, type, date, checked state, or status by person. In a thread
of replies, only the first message is sorted, and the reply messages are sorted in the same category as the first message
in the thread.
1 Choose Tools > Comment.
2 In the Comment list, choose an option from the Sort Comments by menu

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Filter comments
You can hide or show comments based on type, reviewer (author), status, or checked state. Filtering affects the
appearance of comments in both the document window and the Comments list. When you print or summarize
comments, you can specify whether hidden comments are printed or summarized. When you hide a note comment
that has been replied to, all other replies in the thread are hidden as well.
Note: In an email-based review, hidden comments aren’t included when you send the comments to the initiator.
❖ From the Filter comments menu

in the Comments list, do one of the following:

• To clear all filters, choose Show All Comments. Alternatively, use Ctrl+8 (Windows) or Command+8 (Mac OS).
• To hide all comments, choose Hide All Comments. Alternatively, use Ctrl+Shift+8 (Windows) or
Command+Shift+8 (Mac OS).
• To filter comments, choose the categories that you want to appear. For example, if you want only sticky note
> Type > Sticky Notes so that only the sticky note
comments that you haven’t accepted to appear, choose
comments appear, and then choose
> Status > None so that only unaccepted sticky note comments appear.
• To remove a filter, choose All for hidden categories. For example, if you filtered comments so that only those by
> Reviewer > All.
a certain reviewer appear, choose
• To open all pop-up notes, right-click an annotation and choose Open All Pop-Ups. (Only available if the
Comments list is closed)
• To close all pop-up notes, right-click an annotation and choose Minimize Pop-Ups. (Only available if the
Comments list is closed)

Reply to comments
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting features are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
Replies to comments are especially useful in shared reviews, when participants can read each other’s comments. They
can also be used by review initiators to let reviewers know how their suggestions are being implemented. When one or
more reviewers reply to a comment, the set of replies is called a thread. The first two replies in a thread appear in the
pop-up note. In the Comments list, all replies are displayed. Replies are indented below the original comment. The
number of replies that a comment has received appears in a box when you place the pointer over the comment.

A Reply heading B Options menu C Reply option in Comments List

Reply in the pop-up note
1 Open the pop-up note for the comment.
2 Choose Reply from the Options menu.

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3 Type your reply in the box that appears.

Reply in the Comments list
1 Select a comment in the Comments list.
2 Click the Reply link.
3 Type your reply in the box that appears.

Delete a reply
If you delete a comment that’s been replied to, only the comment is deleted. Any replies remain in the PDF, and the
thread is maintained. The first reply is promoted to a comment.
❖ In the pop-up note, right-click the reply and choose Delete.

Set a status or check mark
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting features are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
Statuses and check marks are useful for keeping track of comments that you’ve read or that require further action. In
Windows, you can use a status or a check mark to indicate which comments you want to export to a Word document.
By setting the review status, you can show or hide a group of comments and let review participants know how you are
going to handle the comment. Once the review status is set, you cannot remove the review status display from the
comment in the Comments list, even if you change the review status to None. Check marks are for your personal use
and do not appear when others view the PDF unless you change the status of comments.

Set a status
1 Select the comment in the Comments list and right-click to show the options menu. Then choose an option from

the Set Status menu.
The review status appears in the comment along with the name of who set the review status. If another reviewer sets
the review status for that comment, both reviewers’ names and review statuses appear in the Comments list.
2 To view a comment’s history of changes, right-click the note icon, markup, or title bar of a pop-up note, and then

choose Properties. Click the Review History tab.

Flag comments with a check mark
❖ Select a comment in the Comments list and then click the check box next to the comment so that the check mark

icon

appears.

Print a comment summary
Summarizing comments is a convenient way to get a synopsis of all the comments associated with a PDF. When you
summarize comments, you can either create a PDF with comments that you can print, or you can print the summary
directly. The summary is neither associated with nor linked to the PDF that the comments are derived from.

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A Document and comments with connector lines on single page B Document and comments with connector lines on separate pages C Comments
only D Document and comments with sequence numbers

By default, Acrobat prints PDFs with any stamps that were applied. For the greatest control over how comments are
>Print With Comments Summary from the Comments list.
printed, choose
1 Filter the comments to show only those you want in the summary. (In the Comments list, click Filter Comments

and choose the categories of comments you want to show.)
2 For the greatest control over how comments are printed, choose

Alternatively, to create a separate PDF of the comments, choose

>Print With Comments Summary.
> Create Comment Summary.

3 In the Create Comment Summary dialog box, do the following:

• Choose a layout for the document and comments. The layout determines available options.
• Choose how to sort the comments.
• Specify a page range and choose whether to include pages without comments.
• Select whether you want all comments to appear in the summary or only the comments that currently appear.
4 Click Create Comment Summary.

Find a comment
Locate a comment in the Comments list by searching for a particular word or phrase.
1 Choose Tools > Comment to display the Comments list.
2 In the Search field, specify the word or phrase you want to search for.

The Comments list displays the comments that match the search criteria; the number of comments is displayed on the
panel header.

Delete comments
You cannot delete other reviewers’ comments in a shared review, nor can you delete locked comments.

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To delete all of the comments in a PDF, choose Tools > Redact > Remove Hidden Information. Then select the
Comments and markups option from the Results pane. This feature is not available in Reader.

Delete a comment
❖ Do one of the following:

• Select the comment and press Delete.
• In the Comments list, right-click on the comment you want to delete, choose Delete from the context menu.
note: Before pressing the Delete key, make sure that the comment is selected.

Unlock a comment
1 Right-click the comment and choose Properties.
2 Deselect Locked.

Spell-check all text in comments
You can spell-check the text you add in note comments and form fields. However, you cannot spell-check the text in
the underlying PDF.
1 Choose Edit > Check Spelling > In Comments and Fields. If the PDF is open in a browser, make sure that the Edit

toolbar is open, and click the Spell Check button

.

2 Click Start.
3 To change a word, do one of the following:

• Edit the selected word. To undo your change, click Undo Edit. To accept your change, click Change.
• Double-click a suggested correction.
• Select a suggested correction and then click Change. Click Change All to replace every instance of the
unrecognized word with the suggested correction.

More Help topics
Sharing PDFs and collaborating in real time
Preparing for a PDF review
Starting a review
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Adding a stamp to a PDF
Mark up text with edits
Commenting in PDFs
Importing and exporting comments
Approval workflows

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Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Tracker overview
Use the Tracker to manage document reviews and distributed forms, view the status of review and form servers, and
manage web broadcast subscriptions (known as RSS feeds). To open the Tracker, choose View > Tracker.

Latest Updates
The Latest Updates panel provides a summary of the latest changes in shared reviews, form files, and servers. If you
have no active reviews or forms, this panel provides instructions and links for creating managed reviews, creating
forms, and distributing forms. In the Latest Updates panel, you can also turn Tracker notifications on or off inside
Acrobat and, for Windows only, in the system tray.
Reviews
The Tracker shows who’s joined a shared review and how many comments they’ve published. From the Tracker, you
can rejoin a review and email the participants. If you’ve initiated reviews, you can add or change deadlines, add
reviewers, end a review, and start a new review with existing reviewers.
The left side of the Tracker shows all PDF documents in managed reviews. The information pane on the right lists the
date and time the PDF was sent and the list of invited reviewers. Links to shared PDFs provide additional information,
including the deadline (if set) and the number of comments submitted per reviewer. Deleting a link in the Tracker
deletes the PDF and all comments from the server, and permanently ends the review.
Forms
Use Tracker to manage the forms that you have distributed or received. The Tracker allows you to view and edit the
location of the response file, and track which recipients have responded. You can also add more recipients, email all
recipients, and view the responses for a form. For more information, see About Forms Tracker .
Server Status

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The Server Status shows the state of all servers being used for reviews and distributed forms. The check mark icon
next to the server name indicates that the last synchronization attempt was successful. The warning icon
indicates that the last synchronization attempt was unsuccessful. The warning icon indicates that the server is
disconnected from the network, has problems writing data to the disk, or has some other problem. Contact your
network administrator for assistance.
RSS
You can use the Tracker to subscribe to web content that uses the RSS (Really Simple Syndication) format, such as news
feeds and music channels. RSS format is compatible with XML and RDF formats.
Note: If the RSS button doesn’t appear in Tracker, open the Preferences dialog box in Acrobat DC and select Tracker. Select
Enable RSS Feeds In Tracker, and click OK. Then close and reopen Tracker.

Track reviewed PDFs
1 In the Tracker, expand the appropriate folder:
Sent Lists PDFs in reviews that you initiated. (Not available in Reader.)
Joined Contains PDFs in reviews that you’ve received. PDFs appear in this list only after you open them. If you open

a PDF from an email attachment and don’t save the PDF, the entry is removed from the Tracker when you close the
file.
Note: PDFs listed in bold contain one or more of the following updates: comments that you haven’t read yet, a deadline
update from the review initiator, and reviewers who have joined the review.
2 Select a PDF.

Information specific to the selected PDF review appears on the right. Shared reviews list deadline information,
reviewers who have joined the review, and the number of comments.

Save the PDF with comments
You can save a copy of the review PDF that contains all the comments that reviewers have published or that you’ve
imported (merged).
If the PDF is in a shared review, you can save an archive copy. The copy is no longer connected to the shared review,
and you can edit both content and comments in it.
If you want to create a copy of a shared PDF to distribute to others, use the Save As command. The resulting file includes
all comments that were published up to that point. It can be moved, copied, or renamed without affecting its connection
to the review or to the comment server.
❖ To save a copy of a review PDF with all the comments, open the file, and then do one of the following:

• For a shared review, choose File > Save As Archive Copy. Alternatively, click the Status button in the document
message bar and choose Save As Archive Copy.
• For an email-based review, choose File >Save As to save a new copy of the PDF. This most recently saved version
is now the tracked PDF. The old version is the archive copy.

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Invite additional reviewers
If you’re the review initiator, you can invite others to participate in the review. If you’re a reviewer and want other people
to participate, ask the review initiator to invite them. That way, the initiator can automatically track all participants and
receive notification when their comments are received.
1 In the Tracker, select the PDF under Sent, and then click Add Reviewers on the right.
2 Specify the email addresses of the reviewers whom you want to add. Change the message as needed and then send

the message.
Additional reviewers appear with other participants in the right pane of the Tracker.

Add or change a deadline
A review initiator can add or change a deadline in an existing review.
1 In the Tracker, select the PDF, and do one of the following:

• If the review has no deadline, click Add Deadline.
• If the review has a deadline, click Change Deadline.
2 Click Review Deadline, change the deadline as needed, and click OK.
3 Change the email recipients, subject, and message as needed, and then click Send.

End a review
A review initiator can end an existing review. Once a review has ended, participants cannot publish comments to the
server. You can change the review deadline later if you want to restart the review.
❖ In the Tracker, select the PDF and click End Review.

Start a shared review with the same reviewers from an existing review
1 In the Tracker, select a PDF and click Start New Review With Same Reviewers.
2 Follow the steps for starting a shared review.

Send a message
Sometimes during a review, you want to contact other reviewers or send them a reminder of their approaching
deadline.
1 In the Tracker, select the PDF and click Email All Reviewers.
2 In the email message, change the To and Subject boxes or the body of the email message as needed, and then click

Send.

Update your profile
Your comments identify you as the author by displaying your name—the name you provided when you joined or
started a review, or your system login. You can change the author name and other profile information at any time. If
you do, your updated profile appears only in new comments; existing comments aren’t affected.

Update your review profile
1 In the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences) under Categories, select Commenting.

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2 Deselect Always Use Log-In Name For Author Name.
3 Select Identity from the list on the left.
4 Edit your profile, making sure to include the email address that you’ll use for reviews. Click OK.

Update your profile for a shared review
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Identity.
2 Edit your profile, making sure to include a valid email address, and click OK.

Subscribe to web broadcast services
1 Click the RSS button on the left side of the Tracker.

Note: If the RSS button doesn’t appear in Tracker, open the Preferences dialog box in Acrobat DC and select Tracker.
Select Enable RSS Feeds In Tracker, and click OK. Then close and reopen Tracker.
2 Click Subscribe To RSS Feed, and then enter a web address in the URL box.

Tracker preferences
To specify settings for Tracker, in the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Tracker.
Automatically Check For New Comments And Form Data Specifies how often comments are synchronized. To disable

automatic synchronization, move the slider to the far right until the value Never appears.
Suspend The Check For New Comments And Form Data Specifies how long after review or form inactivity to stop

checking for comments or new form data.
Remove Custom Server Locations To remove a server profile, select it from the list and click Remove Server Profile.
Notifications Specifies where Tracker notifications appear.
Enable RSS Feeds In Tracker When this option is selected, an RSS category appears on the left side of the Tracker. You
can subscribe to RSS feeds from within the Tracker.
Clear All Stored Credentials Click to remove all stored credentials used for shared reviews.

• Preparing for a PDF review
• Starting a review
• Adding a stamp to a PDF
• Mark up text with edits
• Commenting in PDFs
• Managing comments
• Importing and exporting comments
• Approval workflows

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More Help topics

Send and track large files online
You can quickly send large documents, images, audio, and video files without emailing limitations, and track
downloads. The files are stored securely in Adobe Document Cloud. Recipients simply click the link to view or
download your files.

Send large files
1 Choose Tools > Send & Track, or choose Send & Track in the right hand pane when a document is open.
2 If you have already opened a document, the document is displayed under the Selected Files list.

Otherwise, click Select Files to Send, and then browse and choose one or more files.

3 If you want to add more files, click Add Files and then browse and select files.
4 Choose whether you want to send a public or personalized link.

Create Anonymous Link: A public link makes the files accessible to anyone who clicks the link.

• Click Create Link. The files are uploaded to Adobe Document Cloud, and a public link is created. You can
choose to copy the link or directly email the link as appropriate.

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Send Personalized Invitations: A personalized link to share the files with specific individuals. The detailed tracking
information is available for files sent to individuals, but not for public links.
a Enter the email address of whoever you’d like to receive the file. You can also use the Address Book link to choose

email addresses. Each recipient gets a personalized link to the file.
b The Subject and Message fields are just like the ones you use for sending an email and appear to your recipients

in the same way. Enter desired information and then click Send. Your recipients get an email notifying them that
the file is shared with them.

Track files online
You can track your shared files from the Home > Sent view. It shows all the files that you share using Send & Track.
1 In the Home > Sent view, when you choose a file, you see the available options above the file list.

Click Track Online. A preview with details of the file appears in a new browser window.

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2 From the above page, you can do the following:

• Unshare the file if you would like to prevent anyone else from viewing or downloading it. Click the Unshare icon
in the upper right corner.
• Forward files to new recipients. Click the Forward icon in the upper right corner.
• Turn email notifications on and off. Select or clear the Notify when recipients viewed check box as desired.
• See an overview of file. Click the file's thumbnail or name.
3 To see the detailed tracking information, click View Full Activity in the right hand pane. Activity for the the file

appears in a pop up window.
The detailed tracking information that you can see: when the file was previewed and by whom (for personalized
links), and also whether it was downloaded and by whom. If there was more than one file in the transaction, you
will also see which files were downloaded.

• Adobe Send & Track for Outlook

More Help topics

Importing and exporting comments

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Import Comments
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting features are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
Comments can be imported from a PDF document. You can also import comments from a Forms Data Format (FDF)
file or an XFDF file, which is an XML-based FDF file. You cannot open and view FDF files or XFDF files on their own.
1 In the document that you want to receive comments, from the Options menu

in the comments list, choose

Import Data File.
Note: To open the comments list, choose Tools > Comments.
2 Choose All Files (*.*) from the file type menu. If you know the file format of the comments you want to import,

choose it.
3 Double-click the name of the document with the comments.

The comment positioning matches that of the file from which they were imported. If comments appear out of place,
the source and recipient PDF documents are likely to be different. For example, if you import comments from a tenpage document to a two-page document, only comments from the first two pages appear.

Export comments
Note: In Acrobat Reader DC, commenting features are available only in PDFs that have commenting enabled. PDFs in a
review workflow typically include commenting rights.
If you add comments to a PDF that isn’t part of a managed review, you may need to export your comments to send them
to someone, or you may need to import comments you receive. (PDFs in a managed review workflow include special
options that let you send or publish your comments, rather than export them.)
When you export comments, you create a Forms Data Format (FDF) file that contains only comments. Consequently,
FDF files are usually smaller than PDFs. You or another reviewer can then import the comments from the FDF file into
the original PDF.

Export comments to a data file
1 From the options menu

in the comments list, choose Export All To Data File.

2 Name the file and choose Acrobat FDF Files (*.fdf) or Acrobat XFDF Files (*.xfdf) for the file type.
3 Specify a location for the file, and then click Save.

Export selected comments
Note: Exporting selected comments isn’t available in Acrobat Reader DC.
1 In the comments list, select the comments you want to export.

Note: To open the comments list, choose Tools > Comments.
2 From the options menu

in the comments list, choose Export Selected To Data File.

3 Name the file and choose Acrobat FDF Files (*.fdf) or Acrobat XFDF Files (*.xfdf) for the file type.
4 Specify a location for the file, and then click Save.

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Export comments to Word (Windows)
In some instances, reviewers make comments in a PDF that was created from a Microsoft Word document. You can
revise the original Word document by exporting these comments from the PDF. For example, text that has been
inserted, crossed out, or replaced using the text edit tools in the PDF can be deleted or transferred directly to the source
Word document. Formatting added to comments (for example, boldface text) is lost during this process and must be
added to the Word document manually.
To revise a Word document using comments, you must create a tagged PDF from the Word document. Before you
transfer text edits from the PDF, remove any extra words or information and then merge them to one PDF (if you have
comments from multiple reviewers). If you plan to import comments more than once, you may want to make a copy of
the Word document before you import the comments or comments may not be imported correctly.
1 Do one of the following:

• From the options menu

in the comments list, choose Export To Word.

• In Word, open the source document, and then choose Acrobat Comments > Import Comments From Acrobat
DC. For Word 2013, click Acrobat, and then choose Acrobat Comments >Import Comments From
AcrobatDC.
2 Read the instructions, and click OK.
3 In the Import Comments From Adobe Acrobat dialog box, select the PDF and Word files, select from the following

options, and click Continue:
Take comments from this PDF file Browse to the PDF file that contains the comments.
Place comments in this Word file Browse to the Word document to which you want to import comments.
All Comments Imports all comments.
All Comments With Checkmarks Imports only those comments marked with check marks.
Text Edits Only: Insertions, Deletions, And Replaces Imports only those comments that you’ve added using the text

edit commands in the Annotations panel.
Apply Custom Filters To Comments Imports only comments that you specify by author, type, or status.
Turn Track Changes On Before Importing Comments Shows the changes made by the imported comments in Word.

4 (Optional) If you imported text edits, click Integrate Text Edits in the Successful Import dialog box to review and

apply each edit individually. For each edit, select one of the following options:
Apply Makes the change in the document and deletes the comment bubble. If a comment appears to be empty, you

may want to integrate it to see if it’s a space or a paragraph return.
Discard Rejects the edit and deletes the comment bubble.
Next Skips to the next text edit. Text edits that are skipped or not integrated appear as bubbles in the Word

document.
Apply All Remaining Integrates all remaining text edits and deletes the comment bubbles.
Undo Last Undoes the last text edit, including any manual changes.

5 Delete comment bubbles that appear in the Word document:

• Right-click the comment bubble and choose Delete Comment.
• Choose Acrobat Comments > Delete All Comments In Document. For Word 2013 and later, this option is on
the Acrobat ribbon.

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Export comments to AutoCAD (Acrobat Pro DC on Windows)
You may have reviewers add comments to a PDF that was created from an AutoCAD drawing. If you use AutoCAD
PDFMaker to create a PDF, you can import comments into the AutoCAD drawing, rather than switch between
AutoCAD and Acrobat DC. You can import most comment types, including drawing markups, sticky notes, stamps,
and text edits.
1 Save the PDF to ensure that recently added comments are included.
2 Do one of the following:

• From the options menu
in the comments list, choose Export To AutoCAD, and then specify the PDF file
and the AutoCAD file in the Import Comments dialog box.
• In AutoCAD, choose Acrobat Markups >Import Comments From AcrobatDC.
3 In the Import Comments dialog box, specify the PDF that contains the comments, specify which comments to

import, and click Continue. If you import a custom set of comments, specify the set by making sure that only the
characteristics you want are selected. You must select at least one option in each category.
Show By Reviewer Imports comments by individual reviewers.
Show By Type Imports comments by type, such as text edits or note comments.
Show By Status Imports comments by review status.
Show By Checked State Imports comments that are checked.

All imported comments appear in the Adobe Acrobat Markups layer as custom objects that you can edit, filter, or
delete.
4 To modify an imported comment (change the status, add a check mark, or modify text), right-click the comment,

choose Acrobat Comments, and then choose an option.

More Help topics
Sharing PDFs and collaborating in real time
Preparing for a PDF review
Starting a review
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Adding a stamp to a PDF
Mark up text with edits
Commenting in PDFs
Managing comments
Approval workflows

Adding a stamp to a PDF

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Stamp a document
You apply a stamp to a PDF in much the same way you apply a rubber stamp to a paper document. You can choose from
a list of predefined stamps, or you can create your own stamps. Dynamic stamps obtain information from your
computer and from the Identity panel of the Preferences dialog box, allowing you to indicate name, date, and time
information on the stamp.
The Stamp tool appears in the secondary toolbar of the Comment tool.

A Dynamic stamp B Sign Here stamp C Standard business stamp D Custom stamp

For a tutorial on creating dynamic stamps, see Dynamic Stamp Secrets at
http://acrobatusers.com/tutorials/dynamic_stamp_secrets.

Open the Stamps palette
❖ Choose Tools > Comment > Stamps > ShowStamps Palette.

Apply a stamp
1 Select a stamp by doing one of the following:

• Click the Stamp tool. The most recently used stamp is selected.
• In the Stamps Palette, choose a category from the menu, and then select a stamp.
2 Click the document page where you want to place the stamp, or drag a rectangle to define the size and placement of

the stamp.
3 If you haven’t provided a name in the Identity preferences, the Identity Setup dialog box prompts you to do so.

Change a stamp’s location or appearance
❖ Using the Select tool or the Hand tool, do any of the following:

• To move a stamp, drag it to a new location.
• To resize a stamp, click it, and then drag a corner handle.
• To rotate a stamp, click it, move the pointer over the handle at the top of the stamp, and drag when the rotate
stamp icon appears.
• To delete a stamp, right-click the stamp and choose Delete.

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• To change the stamp’s opacity or the color of its pop-up note, right-click the stamp, and choose Properties. In the
Appearance tab, set the opacity or color.

Move a stamp to the favorites list
1 Using the Select tool or the Hand tool, select a stamp markup on the page.
2 In the secondary toolbar of the Comment tool, click the Stamp tool and choose Add Current Stamp To Favorites.

Create a custom stamp
You can create custom stamps from a number of different formats, including (but not limited to) PDF, JPEG, bitmap,
Adobe® Illustrator® (AI), Adobe® Photoshop® (PSD), and Autodesk AutoCAD (DWT, DWG) files. In Acrobat Reader
DC, create Custom stamp allows only PDF format.
Note: To add an image to a PDF one time only, simply paste the image into the document. Pasted images have the same
characteristics as other stamp comments; each includes a pop-up note and editable properties.
1 Choose Tools > Comment > Stamps > Show Stamps Palette.
2 Click Import, and select the file.
3 If the file has more than one page, scroll to the page you want, and then click OK.
4 Choose a category from the menu or type a new category name, name the custom stamp, and then click OK.

Change the name or category for a custom stamp
1 Choose Tools > Comment > Stamps > Show Stamps Palette.
2 Choose the stamp category, right-click the stamp, and choose Edit.
3 Edit the category or name of the stamp, or replace the image, and then click OK.

Delete a custom stamp
You can delete only the custom stamps that you created, not the predefined stamps. When you delete a stamp, the stamp
is removed from the Stamp tool menu, but the stamp file isn’t deleted.
1 Choose Tools > Comment > Stamps > Show Stamps Palette.
2 Choose the stamp category from the menu, right-click the custom stamp, and choose Delete.

Delete a custom stamp category
1 Choose Tools > Comment > Stamps > Custom Stamps > Manage Stamps.
2 Select the category you want to delete, and then click Delete.

Note: Deleting all stamps in a custom stamp category deletes the custom stamp category.

More Help topics
Participating in a PDF review
Tracking and managing PDF reviews
Mark up text with edits
Importing and exporting comments
Approval workflows

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Chapter 7: Saving and exporting PDFs

Saving PDFs
You can save your changes to an Adobe PDF or PDF Portfolio in the original PDF or in a copy of the PDF. You can also
save individual PDFs to other file formats, including text, XML, HTML, and Microsoft Word. Saving a PDF in text
format allows you to use the content with a screen reader, screen magnifier, or other assistive technology.
If you don’t have access to the source files that created an Adobe PDF, you can still copy images and text from the PDF
to use elsewhere. You can also export the PDF to a reusable format, or export images in a PDF to another format.
Adobe Acrobat Reader DC users can save a copy of a PDF or PDF Portfolio if the creator of the document has enabled
usage rights. If a document has additional or restricted usage rights, the document message bar under the toolbar area
describes the assigned restrictions or privileges.

Save a PDF
Use this method to save PDFs, including PDF Portfolios, and PDFs in which you have added comments, form field
entries, and digital signatures.
Note: Saving a digitally signed PDF invalidates the signature.
❖ Do one of the following:

• To save changes to the current file, choose File > Save.
• To save a copy of a PDF, choose File > Save As.
• In Acrobat Reader DC, choose File > Save As or File > Save As Other > Text.
• To save a copy of a PDF Portfolio, choose File >Save As Other > PDF Portfolio.
If you are viewing a PDF in a web browser, the Acrobat File menu is not available. Use the Save A Copy button in
the Acrobat toolbar to save the PDF.

Recover the last saved version
❖ Choose File > Revert, and then click Revert.

About the Autosave feature
The Autosave feature guards against losing your work in case of a power failure by incrementally, and at regular
intervals, saving file changes to a specified location. The original file is not modified. Instead, Acrobat creates an
autosave file of changes, which includes all the changes you made to the open file since the last automatic save. The
amount of new information that the autosave file contains depends on how frequently Acrobat saves the autosave file.
If you set the autosave interval to 15 minutes, you could lose the last 14 minutes of your work if a problem occurs.
Frequent automatic saving prevents loss of data, and is especially useful if you make extensive changes to a document,
such as by adding comments.

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You can apply autosave changes to the original files when you restart Acrobat. When you close, save manually, or revert
to the last-saved version of a file, the autosave file is deleted.
Note: If you use assistive technology, such as a screen reader, you may want to disable the Autosave feature so that you don’t
lose your place when the file is reloaded.
The Autosave feature won’t work in the following cases:

• A document that has its security changed. You must save the document to re-enable automatic saving of document
changes.
• A document created using the Web Capture feature or extracted from a larger PDF (Tools > Organize Pages >
Extract). You must save the document to enable automatic saving of changes.
• A document displayed in a web browser or incorporated into a container document that supports Object Linking
and Embedding (OLE). This document appears outside the default file system and cannot support automatic saving.

Recover lost changes
To prevent lost changes after an unexpected interruption, enable the Autosave feature, which is the default setting.

Set up automatic saving
1 In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select Documents.
2 Select Automatically Save Document Changes To Temporary File Every xx Minutes (1-99), and specify the number

of minutes.

Recover lost changes after an unexpected shutdown
1 Start Acrobat or open the file you were working on last.
2 When prompted, click Yes to open the autosave file or files. If multiple files were open, Acrobat opens all of the files

for you.
3 Save the file or files with the same names as the files you were originally working on.

Reduce file size by saving
You can sometimes reduce the file size of a PDF simply by using the Save As Other command. Reducing the size of
PDFs improves their performance—particularly when they’re being opened on the web—without altering their
appearance.
The Reduce File Size command resamples and recompresses images, removes embedded Base-14 fonts, and subsetembeds fonts that were left embedded. It also compresses document structure and cleans up elements such as invalid
bookmarks. If the file size is already as small as possible, this command has no effect.
Note: Reducing the file size of a digitally signed document removes the signature.
1 Open a single PDF, or select one or more PDFs in a PDF Portfolio.
2 Choose File > Save As Other > Reduced Size PDF.
3 Select the version compatibility that you need.

If you’re certain that all your users use Acrobat DC or Adobe Acrobat Reader DC, limiting compatibility to the latest
version can further reduce file size.
4 (Optional) To apply the same settings to multiple files, click Apply To Multiple, and add the files. Click OK, then in

theOutput Options dialog box, specify your folder and filename preferences.

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Note: The Apply To Multiple button is not available inPDF Portfolios.
To control changes and quality trade-offs, use PDF Optimizer in Acrobat Pro DC, which makes more options available.

More Help topics
Filling in forms
Participating in a PDF review
PDF Optimizer (Acrobat Pro DC)
Balancing PDF file size and quality (Acrobat Standard DC)

Convert or export PDFs to other file formats
Easily export or convert one or more PDFs to different file formats, including Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
The available formats include both text and image formats. (For a full list of conversion options, see File format options
.)
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Adobe Reader DC, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader DC. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help .

Convert PDFs to Word, RTF, spreadsheets, PowerPoint, or other formats
Note: You cannot export PDF Portfolios, or PDFs within them, to other file formats.
1 Choose Tools > Export PDF.

The various formats to which you can export the PDF file are displayed.

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You can also choose File > Export To > [File Type] to export the PDF file to a desired format.
2 Select the file format to which you want to export the PDF file and a version (or format), if available. For example,

if you choose to export the PDF file to Word format, you will get an option to export the PDF into Word Document
(.docx) or Word 97-2003 Document (.doc) version.
Note: You can configure the conversion settings by clicking the gear icon
adjacent to the selected file format.
Conversion settings can also be edited by selecting the Convert From PDF category in the Preferences dialog box.
3 Click Export. The Export dialog box is displayed.

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4 In the Export dialog box, select a location where you want to save the file.
5 Click Save to export the PDF to the selected file format.

By default, the source filename is used with the new extension, and the exported file is saved in the same folder as
the source file.
Note: When you save a PDF in an image format, each page is saved as a separate file, and each filename is appended
with the page number.

Export images in a PDF to another format
In addition to saving every page (all text, images, and vector objects on a page) to an image format using the File >
Export To > Image > [Image Type] command, you can export each image in a PDF to a separate image file.
Note: You can export raster images, but not vector objects.
1 Choose Tools > Export PDF.

The various formats to which you can export the PDF file are displayed.
2 Click Image and then choose the image file format that you want to save the images in.

3 To configure the conversion settings for the selected file format, click the gear icon

.

4 In the Export All Images As [selected file format] Settings dialog box, specify the File Settings, Color

Management, Conversion, and Extraction settings for the file type.
5 In the Extraction settings, for Exclude Images Smaller Than, select the smallest size of image to be extracted. Select

No Limit to extract all images.
6 Click OK to return to the return to the Export Your PDF To Any Format screen.
7 Select the Export All Images option to extract and save only the images from the PDF file.

Note: If you do not select the Export All Images option, all pages within the PDF are saved in the selected image file
format.
8 Click Export. The Export dialog box is displayed.

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9 In the Export dialog box, select a location where you want to save the file.
10 Click Save to save only the images from the PDF to the selected file format.

Export selections from a PDF to another format
If you need just a part of the PDF file in another format, you don’t need to convert the entire file and then extract the
relevant content. You can select text in a PDF file and save it in one of the supported formats: DOCX, DOC, XLSX, RTF,
XML, HTML, or CSV.
1 Use the Select tool and mark the content to save.
2 Right-click the selected text and choose Export Selection As.

3 Select a format from the Save As Type list and click Save.

File format options for PDF export
When you export PDFs to different file formats using the Export PDF tool, each file format includes unique conversion
settings.
If you want to use the same settings every time you convert PDFs to a particular format, specify those settings in the
Preferences dialog box. In the Convert From PDF panel, select a file format from the list and click Edit Settings. (Click
the Restore Defaults button at any time to revert to the default settings.)

Adobe PDF options (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can resave PDFs as optimized PDFs, using settings in the PDF Optimizer dialog box. The PDF Optimizer lets you
change the compatibility version of your PDFs so they can be viewed using older versions of Acrobat DC or Acrobat
Reader DC. When you change the compatibility setting, newer features may be unavailable in the PDF. For an
explanation of each compatibility setting, see PDF compatibility levels.

Image conversion settings

JPEG and JPEG 2000 options
If your PDF contains a collection of images, you can export them individually as JPEG, PNG, or TIFF files by choosing
Tools > Export PDF > Image > Export All Images.
Note that the options available depend on whether you are exporting a document to JPEG or JPEG 2000.
Grayscale/Color Specifies a compression setting that balances file size with image quality. The smaller the file, the lesser
the image quality.

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Tile Size Divides the image being compressed into tiles of the given size. (If the image height or width is not an even

multiple of the tile size, partial tiles are used on the edges.) Image data for each tile is individually compressed and can
be individually decompressed. The default value of 256 is recommended. This option is available only for JPEG 2000
format.
Format Determines how the file is displayed. Available only for JPEG format.
Baseline (Standard) Displays the image when it has fully downloaded. This JPEG format is recognizable to most web

browsers.
Baseline (Optimized) Optimizes color quality of the image and produces smaller file sizes but is not supported by all

web browsers.
Progressive (3 scans-5 scans) Downloads the image first as a low-resolution image, with incremental quality
improvements as downloading continues.
RGB/CMYK/Grayscale Specifies the type of color management to be applied to the output file and whether to embed an

ICC profile.
Note: If you use the Export To or Export All Images command on a PDF that contains JPEG and JPEG 2000 images, and
export the content to JPEG or JPEG 2000 format, the resulting image may look different when opened in Acrobat DC. This
can happen if the images have a color profile included at the page level but not inside the image data. In this case, Acrobat
DC cannot bring the page-level color profile into the resulting saved image.
Colorspace/Resolution Specifies a color space and resolution for the output file. You can let Acrobat determine these
settings automatically. To convert color images in the file to shades of gray, choose Grayscale.

Note: Higher resolutions, such as 2400 pixels per inch (ppi), are suitable only for small page sizes (up to 6.826 inches or
173.380 millimeters).

PNG options
PNG format is useful for images that will be used on the web.
Interlace Specifies if the image is interlaced. None creates an image that displays in a web browser only after
downloading is complete. Adam7 creates an image that displays low-resolution versions in a browser while the full
image file is downloading. Adam7 can make downloading time seem shorter and assures viewers that downloading is
in progress; however, it increases file size.
Filter Lets you select a filtering algorithm.
None Compresses the image without a filter. Recommended for indexed-color and bitmap-mode images.
Sub Optimizes the compression of images with even horizontal patterns or blends.
Up Optimizes the compression of images with even vertical patterns.
Average Optimizes the compression of low-level noise by averaging the color values of adjacent pixels.
Paeth Optimizes the compression of low-level noise by reassigning adjacent color values.
Adaptive Applies the filtering algorithm—Sub, Up, Average, or Paeth—best suited for the image. Select Adaptive if you

are unsure of which filter to use.
RGB/Grayscale Specifies the type of color management for the output file and whether to embed an ICC profile.
Colorspace/Resolution Specifies a color space and resolution for the output file. You can let Acrobat determine these
settings automatically. To convert color images in the file to shades of gray, choose Grayscale.

Note: Higher resolutions, such as 2400 ppi, are suitable only for small page sizes (up to 6.826 inches or 173.380 millimeters).

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TIFF options
TIFF is a flexible bitmap image format supported by virtually all paint, image-editing, and page-layout applications.
Resolution is determined automatically.
Monochrome Specifies a compression format. CCITTG4 is the default and generally produces the smallest file size. ZIP
compression also produces a small file.

Note: Some applications cannot open TIFF files that are saved with JPEG or ZIP compression. In these cases, LZW
compression is recommended.
RGB/CMYK/Grayscale/Other Specifies the type of color management for the output file.
Colorspace/Resolution Specifies a color space and resolution for the output file. You can let Acrobat determine these
settings automatically. To convert color images in the file to shades of gray, choose Grayscale.

Note: Higher resolutions, such as 2400 ppi, are suitable only for small page sizes (up to 6.826 inches or 173.380 millimeters).

Microsoft Word & RTF options
You can export a PDF to Word format (DOCX or DOC) or Rich Text Format (RTF). The following options are
available.
Retain Flowing Text
Specifies that text flow must be retained.
Retain Page Layout
Specifies that page layout must be retained.
Include Comments
Exports comments to the output file.
Include Images
Exports images to the output file.
Recognize Text If Needed
Recognizes text if the PDF contains images that contain text.
Set Language
Specifies the language setting for OCR.

HTML Web Page options
Single HTML Page Specifies that a single HTML file is created when you export to HTML. To add a navigation pane,
enable the following:

• Add Headings-based Navigation Frame
• Add Bookmarks-based Navigation Frame
Multiple HTML Pages Specifies that multiple HTML files are created when you export to HTML. Choose one of the

criteria to split the document into multiple HTML files.

• Split by Document Headings
• Split by Document Bookmarks

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Include Images Specifies if images are exported when you export a PDF as HTML.
Detect and Remove Headers and Footers Specifies if header and footer content in the PDF should be deleted and

removed from the HTML files.
Recognize Text If Needed Recognizes text if the PDF contains images that contain text.
Set Language Specifies the language setting for OCR.

Spreadsheet options
Excel Workbook Settings Specifies whether to create a Worksheet for each table or page, or the entire document.
Numeric Settings Specifies the decimal and thousands separators for numeric data. Select one of the following:

• Detect decimal and thousands separators using regional settings
• Treat the following as decimal and thousands separators. Enter or choose separators in the respective fields.
Recognize Text If Needed Recognizes text if the PDF contains images that contain text.
Set Language Specifies the language setting for OCR.

PostScript or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) options
You can export a PDF to PostScript® for use in printing and prepress applications. The PostScript file includes full DSC
(Document Structuring Conventions) comments and other advanced information preserved by Adobe Acrobat
Distiller®. You can also create an EPS file from any PDF for placement or opening in other applications. The options
available depend on whether you are converting a document to PostScript or EPS.
Note: If you are creating EPS files for separations in Acrobat Pro DC, all image color spaces should be CMYK.
Printer Description File ThePostScript Printer Description (PPD) provides the necessary information to format a
PostScript file correctly for a particular output device. Device Independent creates only composite (not colorseparated) PostScript or EPS files. Acrobat Default provides a starting point and reference for creating all types of
PostScript and restores all default settings for the conversion. Adobe PDF 7.0 is compatible with most devices. This
option is available only for PostScript (PS) format.
ASCII or Binary Specifies the output format of image data. Binary output yields smaller files, but not all workflows can

accommodate binary output.
PostScript Specifies the level of PostScript compatibility. Use Language Level 3 only if the target output device supports

it. Language Level 2 is suitable for EPS files that will be placed in another document and color-separated as part of that
document. Use Language Level 2 for EPS files that you import into Microsoft applications.
Font Inclusion Specifies the fonts to be included in the PostScript. Embedded fonts are taken from the PDF; the

referenced fonts are taken from the computer in use.
Include Comments Preserves the appearance of comments in the resulting PostScript file.
Convert True Type to Type 1 Converts TrueType fonts to Type 1 fonts in the resulting PostScript file.
Include Preview Specifies if a TIFF preview is created for the resulting EPS file. This option is not available when saving

as PostScript.
Page Range Specifies the pages you want to export. When you export files to EPS output, each page in the range is
saved as a separate EPS file.

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Text and XML options
Encoding Refers to the binary values, based on international standards, used to represent the text characters. UTF-8 is

a Unicode representation of characters using one or more 8-bit bytes per character; UTF-16 represents characters using
16-bit bytes. ISO-Latin-1 is an 8-bit representation of characters that is a superset of ASCII. UCS-4 is a Universal
Character Set coded in 4 octets. HTML/ASCII is a 7-bit representation of characters developed by ANSI.
Use Mapping Table Default uses the default character encoding defined in mapping tables, which appear in the Plugins/SaveAsXML/MappingTables folder. These mapping tables specify many characteristics of how the data is output,
including the following default character encodings: UTF-8 (Save as XML or HTML 4.0.1) and HTML/ASCII (Save as
HTML 3.2).
Generate Bookmarks Generates bookmark links to content for HTML or XML documents. Links are placed at the

beginning of the resulting HTML or XML document.
Generate Tags For Untagged Files Generates tags for files that are not already tagged, such as PDFs created using

Acrobat 4.0 or earlier. If this option is not selected, untagged files are not converted.
Note: Tags are applied only as part of the conversion process and are discarded after the conversion. This is not a method
for creating tagged PDFs from legacy files
Generate Images Controls how images are converted. Converted image files are referenced from within XML and

HTML documents.
Use Sub-Folder Specifies the folder in which to store generated images. The default is Images.
Use Prefix Specifies the prefix added to the image filenames if you have several versions of the same image file.
Filenames assigned to images have the format filename_img_#.
Output Format Specifies the final format of images. The default is JPG.
Downsample To Downsamples image files to the specified resolution. If you do not select this option, image files have
the same resolution as in the source file. Image files are never upsampled.

More Help topics
Convert PDFs to Word, RTF, spreadsheets or other formats
Export images to another format
Export selections to another format
PostScript options

Reusing PDF content

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Select and copy text and images
The Select tool
lets you select horizontal and vertical text or columns of text, images, vector objects,and tables in a
PDF. The Select tool
recognizes the type of content under the cursor and changes automatically. You can use the
Copy, Copy with Formatting, Export Selection As, and Paste commands to copy the selected text into another
application. Note the following:

• If you’re unable to select text, the text may be part of an image. In Acrobat, to export image text to text that can be
selected, choose Tools > Enhance Scans > Recognize Text > In This File.
• If the Cut, Copy, Copy with Formatting, and Paste commands are unavailable when you select text, the author of the
PDF may have set restrictions against copying text.
• If the text you copy uses a font that isn’t available on your system, the font will be substituted with a close match or
a default font.

Select text and images
1 Click the Select tool

, and hover over an empty part of the page. Alternatively, press Ctrl (Windows) or
Command (Mac OS); the pointer changes todisplay a rectangle.

2 Drag the pointer and draw a rectangle to select a part of the page.

Select a column of text
1 Using the Select tool

, move the pointer toward a column of text. When the pointer changes to a vertical bar with
a box superimposed, the Select tool is in column select mode.
You can force column select mode by pressing Alt as you drag a rectangle over the column of text.

2 Drag a rectangle over the column of text. To select text in more than one column, drag from the beginning of the

text in one column to the end of text you want to select.

Select all the text on a page
1 Choose View > Page Display > Single Page View.
2 Do one of the following:

• Choose Edit > Select All.
• Click four times in the text. This method selects all the text on the page regardless of the page layout.
Note: If you choose any other page layout, all the text in the document is selected.

Copy selected text
1 Use the Select tool

to select any amount of text on the page.

2 Copy the text:

• Choose Edit > Copy to copy the selected text to another application.

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• Right-click on the selected text, and then select Copy.
• Right-click on the selected text, and then choose Copy With Formatting.
You can paste copied text into comments and bookmarks as well as into documents authored in other
applications.

Convert selected content to other formats
You convert selected content other formats by exporting a selection. For example, you can select content and save it as
a Word document, Excel spreadsheet, comma-separated values.
1 Click the Select tool

. Press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) to create a rectangular selection.

2 Drag a rectangle over the content to copy. If you’re selecting text in columns, press Alt.

To select tables that exceed one page, try changing the page display to Single Page Continuous before selecting the
tables. (View > Page Display > Enable Scrolling)
3 Right-click the selection, and choose Export Selection As and specify a filename.
4 Depending on the nature of the content, in the Save As Type, choose one of the following:
Word Document or Word 97-2003 Saves the content as a Word file.
Excel Workbook, XML Spreadsheet, or CSV Saves the content as a table.
Rich Text Format or HTML Saves the content as an RTF or HTML file.

To copy a table in RTF, drag the selected table into an open document in the target application.
PowerPoint Saves the content as an PowerPoint (.pptx) file.

Copy images
Use the Select tool to copy and paste individual images from a PDF to the clipboard, to another application, or to a file.
If you cannot select an image because of overlapping text, open the Preferences dialog box, and under Categories, select
General. Then select Make Select Tool Select Images Before Text.
1 Using the Select tool

, do one of the following:

• To select the entire image, click the image or drag a rectangle around it.
• To select a portion of an image, hold the pointer over the image until the cross-hair icon
drag a rectangle around the portion.

appears, and then

Note: To deselect an image and start over, click outside it.
2 Copy the image:

• Choose Edit > Copy, and then choose Edit > Paste to paste the image in an open document in another
application.
• Right-click the image and choose an option to copy the image to the clipboard or to a new file.
• Drag the image into an open document in another application.

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Export objects to separate PDF
Using the Edit Object tool, you can save objects into a separate PDF.
1 Choose Tools > Print Production > Edit Object.
2 Select the object or objects.
3 Right-click the selection, and choose Save Selection As.
4 In the Save As dialog, specify where you want to save the file, name the file, then click Save.

Take a snapshot of a page
You can use the Snapshot tool to copy all selected content (text, images, or both) to the clipboard or to another
application. Text and images are copied as an image.
You can use two methods to take a snapshop: use the Select tool or use the Snapshot tools. Using the Select tool
draw a rectangle, and then right-click and choose Take a Snapshot.

,

To use the Snapshot tool, do the following:
1 Select the Snapshot tool

by choosing Edit > Take a Snapshot.

2 Do one of the following:

• Click anywhere in the page to capture the entire content displayed on the screen.
• Drag a rectangle around the text or images, or a combination of both.
• Drag a rectangle within an image to copy just a portion of the image.
Colors in the selected area are inverted momentarily to highlight the selection. The selection is copied
automatically to the clipboard when you release the mouse button. If a document is open in another application,
you can choose Edit > Paste to paste the copied selection directly into the target document.
To add the Snapshot tool to the Common Tools toolbar, right-click the toolbar and select Edit > Take Snapshot.
TheCommon Tools toolbar is located to the left of the Tools, Comment, and Share panes. See Toolbars.
You can save all the images from a PDF. See Export images in a PDF to another format. This feature isn’t available
in Reader.

More Help topics
Opening secured documents
Export images to another format

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Chapter 8: Security

Enhanced security setting for PDFs
PDFs have evolved from static pages to complex documents with features such as interactive forms, multimedia
content, scripting, and other capabilities. These features leave PDFs vulnerable to malicious scripts or actions that can
damage your computer or steal data. Enhanced security lets you protect your computer against these threats by
blocking or selectively permitting actions for trusted locations and files.
When enhanced security is enabled and a PDF tries to complete a restricted action from an untrusted location or file,
a security warning appears. The type of warning depends on the action and your version of Acrobat or Reader. (See
Security warnings .)
For technical details about enhanced security, primarily for administrators, see the documents at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.

Enable enhanced security
Acrobat and Reader X, 9.3, and 8.2 enable enhanced security by default. Adobe recommends that you enable enhanced
security if it is not already enabled, and that you bypass restrictions only for trusted content.
1 Choose Preferences.
2 From the Categories on the left, select Security (Enhanced).
3 Select the Enable Enhanced Security option.
4 (Optional—Windows only) Select Cross Domain Log File for troubleshooting problems if your workflow involves

cross-domain access using a server-based policy file.

Bypass enhanced security restrictions
With enhanced security enabled, only the files, folders, and locations that have been trusted are exempt from enhanced
security’s restrictions. You can specify trusted locations and files in several ways, depending on the action the PDF is
attempting to complete.

• Use the privileged locations feature in the Enhanced Security panel to trust files, folders, and host domains (root
URLs).
• Configure Internet access using the Trust Manager. (See URL settings .)
• For certified PDFs, trust the signer’s certificate for privileged network operations, such as networking, printing, and
file access. (See Set the trust level of a certificate.)
• Control cross-domain access using a server-based policy file. (See the Cross Domain Security document at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.)

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Specify privileged locations for trusted content
Enhanced security provides a way to specify locations for trusted content. These privileged locations can be single files,
folders, or host domains (root URLs). Content that resides in a privileged location is trusted. For example, enhanced
security normally blocks PDFs from loading data from unknown websites. If you add the data’s origin (its host domain)
to your list of privileged locations, Acrobat and Reader allow loading the data. For details, see the Enhanced Security
document at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.
1 Select Preferences > Security (Enhanced).
2 Select the Enable Enhanced Security option.
3 Specify a list of locations in the Privileged Locations section, and then click OK.

• To trust any sites you already trust in Internet Explorer, select Automatically Trust Sites From My Win OS
Security Zones.
• To add only one or two PDFs from a location, click Add File.
• To create a trusted folder for multiple PDFs, click Add Folder Path or Add Host.
• To allow data to load from a website, enter the name of the root URL. For example, enter www.adobe.com, but
not www.adobe.com/products. To trust files from secure connections only, select Secure Connections Only
(https:).

Cross-domain access
Enhanced security prevents a PDF in one host domain from communicating with another domain. This action prevents
a PDF from getting malicious data from an untrusted source. When a PDF attempts cross-domain access, Acrobat and
Reader automatically attempt to load a policy file from that domain. If the domain of the document that is attempting
to access the data is included in the policy file, then the data is automatically accessible.
For more details, see the Application Security Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.

Securing PDFs with passwords
Password security and restricting printing, editing, and copying
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDFs.
You can limit access to a PDF by setting passwords and by restricting certain features, such as printing and editing.
However, you cannot restrict saving copies of a PDF. The copies have the same restrictions as the original PDF. Two
types of passwords are available:
Document open password A Document Open password (also known as a user password) requires a user to type a

password to open the PDF.
Permissions password A permissions password (also known as a master password) requires a password to change
permission settings. Using a permissions password, you can restrict printing, editing, and copying content in the PDF.
Recipients don’t need a password to open the document in Reader or Acrobat. They do need a password to change the
restrictions you've set.

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If the PDF is secured with both types of passwords, it can be opened with either password. However, only the
permissions password allows the user to change the restricted features. Because of the added security, setting both types
of passwords is often beneficial.
Note: You cannot add passwords to a signed or certified document.

Add a password to a PDF
You can add password security to a PDF. To open the PDF, the user must enter a password.
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Encrypt with Password.
2 If you receive a prompt, click Yes to change the security.
3 Select Require A Password To Open The Document, then type the password in the corresponding field. For each

keystroke, the password strength meter evaluates your password and indicates the password strength using color
patterns.

4 Select an Acrobat version from the Compatibility drop-down menu. Choose a version equal to or lower than the

recipients’ version of Acrobat or Reader.
The Compatibility option you choose determines the type of encryption used. It is important to choose a version
compatible with the recipient's version of Acrobat or Reader. For example, Acrobat 7 cannot open a PDF encrypted
for Acrobat X and later.

• Acrobat 6.0 And Later (PDF 1.5) encrypts the document using 128-bit RC4.
• Acrobat 7.0 And Later (PDF 1.6) encrypts the document using the AES encryption algorithm with a 128-bit key
size.
• Acrobat X And Later (PDF 1.7) encrypts the document using 256-bit AES. To apply 256-bit AES encryption to
documents created in Acrobat 8 and 9, select Acrobat X And Later.
5 Select an encryption option:
Encrypt All Document Contents Encrypts the document and the document metadata. If this option is selected,

search engines cannot access the document metadata.

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Encrypt All Document Contents Except Metadata Encrypts the contents of a document but still allows search

engines access to the document metadata.
Note: The iFilter and the Find or Advance Search commands of Acrobat do not look into the PDF’s metadata even when
you select the Encrypt All Document Contents Except Metadata option. You can use a search tool that takes
advantage of XMP metadata.
Encrypt Only File Attachments Requires a password to open file attachments. Users can open the document without
a password. Use this option to create security envelopes.

6 Click OK. At the prompt to confirm the password, retype the appropriate password in the box and click OK.

Restrict editing of a PDF
You can prevent users from changing PDFs. The Restrict Editing option prohibits users from editing text, moving
objects, or adding form fields. Users can still fill in form fields, sign, or add comments.
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Protect > Restrict Editing.
2 If you receive a prompt, click Yes to change the security.
3 Type the password in the corresponding field. For each keystroke, the password strength meter evaluates your

password and indicates the password strength using color patterns.

4 Click OK, and then save the PDF to apply the restrictions.

Restrict printing, editing, and copying
You can prevent users from printing, editing, or copying content in a PDF. You can set the restrictions you want to apply
to the PDF. You change these restrictions only if you know the permissions password.
Illustrator, Photoshop, or InDesign do not have view-only modes. To open a restricted PDF in these applications, the
user must enter the permissions password.
Note: If you forget a password, you cannot recover it from the PDF. Consider keeping a backup copy of the PDF that isn’t
password-protected.
1 Open the PDF and choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Encrypt with Password.
2 If you receive a prompt, click Yes to change the security.
3 Select Restrict Editing And Printing Of The Document.

All Adobe products enforce the restrictions set by the permissions password. However, if third-party products do
not support these settings, document recipients are able to bypass some or all of the restrictions you set.

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4 Type the password in the corresponding field. For each keystroke, the password strength meter evaluates your

password and indicates the password strength using color patterns.

5 Select what the user can print from the Printing Allowed menu:
None Prevents users from printing the document.
Low Resolution (150 dpi) Lets users print at no higher than 150-dpi resolution. Printing may be slower because each
page is printed as a bitmap image. This option is available only if the Compatibility option is set to Acrobat 5 (PDF
1.4) or later.
High Resolution Lets users print at any resolution, directing high-quality vector output to PostScript and other
printers that support advanced high-quality printing features.

6 Select what the user can change from the Changes Allowed menu:
None Prevents users from making any changes to the document that are listed in the Changes Allowed menu, such
as filling in form fields and adding comments.
Inserting, Deleting, And Rotating Pages Lets users insert, delete, and rotate pages, and create bookmarks and

thumbnails. This option is only available for high (128-bit RC4 or AES) encryption.
Filling In Form Fields And Signing Existing Signature Fields Lets users fill in forms and add digital signatures. This
option doesn’t allow them to add comments or create form fields. This option is only available for high (128-bit RC4
or AES) encryption.
Commenting, Filling In Form Fields, And Signing Existing Signature Fields Lets users add comments and digital

signatures, and fill in forms. This option doesn’t allow users to move page objects or create form fields.
Any Except Extracting Pages Lets users edit the document, create and fill in form fields, and add comments and

digital signatures.
7 Choose any of the following options:
Enable Copying Of Text, Images, And Other Content Lets users select and copy the contents of a PDF.
Enable Text Access For Screen Reader Devices For The Visually Impaired Lets visually impaired users read the
document with screen readers, but doesn’t allow users to copy or extract the document’s contents. This option is
available only for high (128-bit RC4 or AES) encryption.

8 Select an Acrobat version from the Compatibility menu. Choose a version equal to or lower than the recipients’

version of Acrobat or Reader. The Compatibility option you choose determines the type of encryption used. It is
important to choose a version compatible with the recipient's version of Acrobat or Reader. For example, Acrobat 7
cannot open a PDF encrypted for Acrobat X and later.

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• Acrobat 6.0 And Later (PDF 1.5) encrypts the document using 128-bit RC4.
• Acrobat 7.0 And Later (PDF 1.6) encrypts the document using the AES encryption algorithm with a 128-bit key
size.
• Acrobat X And Later (PDF 1.7) encrypts the document using 256-bit AES. To apply 256-bit AES encryption to
documents created in Acrobat 8 and 9, select Acrobat X And Later.
9 Select what you want to encrypt:
Encrypt All Document Contents Encrypts the document and the document metadata. If this option is selected,

search engines cannot access the document metadata.
Encrypt All Document Contents Except Metadata Encrypts the contents of a document but still allows search

engines access to the document metadata.
Note: The iFilter and the Find or Advance Search commands of Acrobat do not look into the PDF’s metadata even when
you select the Encrypt All Document Contents Except Metadata option. You can use a search tool that takes
advantage of XMP metadata.
Encrypt Only File Attachments Requires a password to open file attachments. Users can open the document without
a password. Use this option to create security envelopes.

10 Click OK. At the prompt to confirm the password, retype the appropriate password in the box and click OK.

Remove password security
You can remove security from an open PDF if you have the permissions to do so. If the PDF is secured with a serverbased security policy, only the policy author or a server administrator can change it.
1 Open the PDF, then select Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Remove Security.
2 Your options vary depending on the type of password security attached to the document:

• If the document had only a Document Open password, click OK to remove it from the document.
• If the document had a permissions password, type it in the Enter Password box, and then click OK. Click OK
again to confirm the action.

Digital IDs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDF content .

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About digital IDs

What is a digital ID?
A digital ID is like an electronic driver’s license or passport that proves your identity. A digital ID usually contains your
name and email address, the name of the organization that issued it, a serial number, and an expiration date. Digital
IDs are used for certificate security and digital signatures.
Digital IDs contain two keys: the public key locks, or encrypts data; the private key unlocks, or decrypts that data. When
you sign PDFs, you use the private key to apply your digital signature. The public key is in a certificate that you distribute
to others. For example, you can send the certificate to those who want to validate your signature or identity. Store your
digital ID in a safe place, because it contains your private key that others can use to decrypt your information.
Why do I need one?
You don’t need a digital ID for most of the work you do in PDFs. For example, you don’t need a digital ID to create
PDFs, comment on them, and edit them. You need a digital ID to sign a document or encrypt PDFs through a
certificate.
How do I get one?
You can get a digital ID from a third-party provider, or you can create a self-signed digital ID.
Self-signed digital IDs
Self-signed digital IDs can be adequate for personal use or small-to-medium businesses. Their use should be limited to
parties that have established mutual trust.
IDs from certificate authorities
Most business transactions require a digital ID from a trusted third-party provider, called a certificate authority.
Because the certificate authority is responsible for verifying your identity to others, choose one that is trusted by major
companies doing business on the Internet. The Adobe website gives the names of Adobe security partners that offer
digital IDs and other security solutions. See Adobe Approved Trust List members.

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Create a self-signed digital ID
Sensitive transactions between businesses generally require an ID from a certificate authority rather than a self-signed
one.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Signatures.
2 Select Identities & Trusted Certificates and click More.
3 Select Digital IDs on the left, and then click the Add ID button

.

4 Select the option A New Digital ID I Want To Create Now, and click Next.
5 Specify where to store the digital ID, and click Next.
New PKCS#12 Digital ID File Stores the digital ID information in a file, which has the extension .pfx in Windows and

.p12 in Mac OS. You can use the files interchangeably between operating systems. If you move a file from one
operating system to another, Acrobat still recognizes it.
Windows Certificate Store (Windows only) Stores the digital ID to a common location from where other Windows

applications can also retrieve it.
6 Type a name, email address, and other personal information for your digital ID. When you certify or sign a

document, the name appears in the Signatures panel and in the Signature field.
7 Choose an option from the Key Algorithm menu. The 2048-bit RSA option offers more security than 1024-bit RSA,

but 1024-bit RSA is more universally compatible.
8 From the Use Digital ID For menu, choose whether you want to use the digital ID for signatures, data encryption,

or both.
9 Type a password for the digital ID file. For each keystroke, the password strength meter evaluates your password

and indicates the password strength using color patterns. Reconfirm your password.
You can export and send your certificate file to contacts who can use it to validate your signature.
Note: Make a backup copy of your digital ID file. If your digital ID file is lost or corrupted, or if you forget your password,
you cannot use that profile to add signatures.

Register a digital ID
To use your digital ID, register your ID with Acrobat or Reader.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.
2 Select Digital IDs on the left.
3 Click the Add ID button

.

4 Choose one of the following options:
A File Select this option if you obtained a digital ID as an electronic file. Follow the prompts to select the digital ID

file, type your password, and add the digital ID to the list.
A Roaming Digital ID Stored On A Server Select this option to use a digital ID that’s stored on a signing server. When

prompted, type the server name and URL where the roaming ID is located.
A Device Connected To This Computer Select this option if you have a security token or hardware token connected

to your computer.
5 Click Next, and follow the onscreen instructions to register your digital ID.

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Specify the default digital ID
To avoid being prompted to select a digital ID each time your sign or certify a PDF, you can select a default digital ID.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.
2 Click Digital IDs on the left, and then select the digital ID you want to use as the default.
3 Click the Usage Options button

, and choose a task for which you want the digital ID as the default. To specify
the digital ID as the default for two tasks, click the Usage Options button again and select a second option.
A check mark appears next to selected options. If you select only the signing option, the Sign icon
appears next
to the digital ID. If you select only the encryption option, the Lock icon
appears. If you select only the certifying
option, or if you select the signing and certifying options, the Blue Ribbon icon appears.
To clear a default digital ID, repeat these steps, and deselect the usage options you selected.

Change the password and timeout for a digital ID
Passwords and timeouts can be set for PKCS #12 IDs. If the PKCS #12 ID contains multiple IDs, configure the password
and timeout at the file level.
Note: Self-signed digital IDs expire in five years. After the expiration date, you can use the ID to open, but not sign or
encrypt, a document.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.
2 Expand Digital IDs on the left, select Digital ID Files, and then select a digital ID on the right.
3 Click Change Password. Type the old password and a new password. For each keystroke, the password strength

meter evaluates your password and indicates the password strength using color patterns. Confirm the new
password, and then click OK.
4 With the ID still selected, click the Password Timeout button.
5 Specify how often you want to be prompted for a password:
Always Prompts you each time you use the digital ID.
After Lets you specify an interval.
Once Per Session Prompts you once each time you open Acrobat.
Never You’re never prompted for a password.

6 Type the password, and click OK.

Be sure to back up your password in a secure place. If you lose your password, either create a new self-signed digital ID
and delete the old one, or purchase one from a third-party provider.

Delete your digital ID
When you delete a digital ID in Acrobat, you delete the actual PKCS #12 file that contains both the private key and the
certificate. Before you delete your digital ID, ensure that it isn’t in use by other programs or required by any documents
for decrypting.
Note: You can delete only self-signed digital IDs that you created in Acrobat. A digital ID obtained from another provider
cannot be deleted.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.

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2 Select Digital IDs on the left, and then select the digital ID to remove.
3 Click Remove ID, and then click OK.

Protecting digital IDs
By protecting your digital IDs, you can prevent unauthorized use of your private keys for signing or decrypting
confidential documents. Ensure that you have a procedure in place in the event your digital ID is lost or stolen.

How to protect your digital IDs
When private keys are stored on hardware tokens, smart cards, and other hardware devices that are password- or PINprotected, use a strong password or PIN. Never divulge your password to others. If you must write down your password,
store it in a secure location. Contact your system administrator for guidelines on choosing a strong password. Keep
your password strong by following these rules:

• Use eight or more characters.
• Mix uppercase and lowercase letters with numbers and special characters.
• Choose a password that is difficult to guess or hack, but that you can remember without having to write it down.
•

Do not use a correctly spelled word in any language, as they are subject to “dictionary attacks” that can crack these
passwords in minutes.

• Change your password on a regular basis.
• Contact your system administrator for guidelines on choosing a strong password.
To protect private keys stored in P12/PFX files, use a strong password and set your password timeout options
appropriately. If using a P12 file to store private keys that you use for signing, use the default setting for password
timeout option. This setting ensures that your password is always required. If using your P12 file to store private keys
that are used to decrypt documents, make a backup copy of your private key or P12 file. You can use the backed up
private key of P12 file to open encrypted documents if you lose your keys.
The mechanisms used to protect private keys stored in the Windows certificate store vary depending on the company
that has provided the storage. Contact the provider to determine how to back up and protect these keys from
unauthorized access. In general, use the strongest authentication mechanism available and create a strong password or
PIN when possible.

What to do if a digital ID is lost or stolen
If your digital ID was issued by a certificate authority, immediately notify the certificate authority and request the
revocation of your certificate. In addition, you should not use your private key.
If your digital ID was self-issued, destroy the private key and notify anyone to whom you sent the corresponding public
key (certificate).

Smart cards and hardware tokens
A smart card looks like a credit card and stores your digital ID on an embedded microprocessor chip. Use the digital
ID on a smart card to sign and decrypt documents on computers that can be connected to a smart card reader. Some
smart card readers include a keypad for typing a personal identification number (PIN).
Similarly, a security hardware token is a small, keychain-sized device that you can use to store digital IDs and
authentication data. You can access your digital ID by connecting the token to a USB port on your computer or mobile
device.

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If you store your digital ID on a smart card or hardware token, connect it to your device to use it for signing documents.

More Help topics
Delete a certificate from trusted identities
Sharing certificates with others
About digital signatures
Securing documents with certificates

Securing PDFs with certificates
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDF content .

Certificate security
Use certificates to encrypt documents and to verify a digital signature. A digital signature assures recipients that the
document came from you. Encryption ensures that only the intended recipient can view the contents. A certificate
stores the public key component of a digital ID. For more information about digital IDs, see Digital IDs.
When you secure a PDF using a certificate, you specify the recipients and define the file access level for each recipient
or group. For example, you can allow one group to sign and fill forms and another to edit text or remove pages. You can
choose certificates from your list of trusted identities, files on disk, LDAP server, or the Windows certificate store
(Windows only). Always include your certificate in the recipient list so that you can open the document later.
Note: If possible, encrypt documents using certificates from third-party digital IDs. If the certificate is lost or stolen, the
issuing authority can replace it. If a self-signed digital ID is deleted, all PDFs that were encrypted using the certificate from
that ID are inaccessible forever.

Encrypt a PDF or PDF Portfolio with a certificate
To encrypt many PDFs, use Action Wizard in Acrobat Pro DC (Tools > Action Wizard) to apply a predefined sequence.
Alternatively, edit a sequence to add the security features you want. You can also save your certificate settings as a
security policy and reuse it to encrypt PDFs.
Note: For PDF Portfolios, Action Wizard applies security to the component PDFs but not to the PDF Portfolio itself. To
secure the entire PDF Portfolio, apply security to the portfolio’s cover sheet.
1 For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF. For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio

and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Encrypt with Certificate. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the

instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
3 At the prompt, click Yes.
4 In the Certificate Security Settings dialog box, select the document components to encrypt.
5 From the Encryption Algorithm menu, choose a rate of encryption, and then click Next.

The encryption algorithm and key size are version-specific. Recipients must have the corresponding version (or
later) of Acrobat or Reader to decrypt and read the document.

• If you select 128-bit AES, recipients must have Acrobat 7 or later or Reader 7 or later to open the document.

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• If you select 256-bit AES, Adobe Acrobat 9 or later or Adobe Reader 9 or later is required to open the document.
6 Create a recipient list for the encrypted PDF. Always include your own certificate in the recipient list so that you are

able to open the document later.

• Click Search to locate identities in a directory server or in your list of trusted identities.
• Click Browse to locate the file that contains certificates of trusted identities.
• To set printing and editing restrictions for the document, select recipients from the list, and then click
Permissions.
7 Click Next to review your settings, and then click Finish.

When a recipient opens the PDF or PDF Portfolio, the security settings you specified for that person are used.

Change encryption settings
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Select Tools > Protect > More Options > Security Properties. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the

instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
3 Click Change Settings.
4 Do any of the following, and then click Next.

• To encrypt different document components, select that option.
• To change the encryption algorithm, choose it from the menu.
5 Do any of the following:

• To check a trusted identity, select the recipient, and then click Details.
• To remove recipients, select one or more recipients, and then click Remove. Do not remove your own certificate
unless you do not want access to the file using that certificate.
• To change permissions of recipients, select one or more recipients, and then click Permissions.
6 Click Next, and then click Finish. Click OK to close the Document Properties dialog box, and save the document to

apply your changes.

Remove encryption settings
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Select Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Remove Security. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the instructions for

adding panels at Task panes .
3 If prompted, type the permissions password. If you don’t know the permissions password, contact the author of the

PDF.

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Sharing certificates with others
Businesses that use certificates for secure workflows often store certificates on a directory server that participants can
search to expand their list of trusted identities.
When you receive a certificate from someone, you can add it to your list of trusted identities. You can set your trust
settings to trust all digital signatures and certified documents created with a specific certificate. You can also import
certificates from a certificate store, such as the Windows certificate store. A certificate store often contains numerous
certificates issued by different certification authorities.
For complete information on sharing certificates, see the Digital Signatures Guide (PDF) at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.
Note: Third-party security providers usually validate identities by using proprietary methods. Or, they integrate their
validation methods with Acrobat. If you use a third-party security provider, see the documentation for the third-party
provider.

Get certificates from other users
Certificates that you receive from others are stored in a list of trusted identities. This list resembles an address book and
enables you to validate the signatures of these users on any documents you receive from them.

Add a certificate from email
When a contact sends a certificate to you in email, it is displayed as an import/export methodology file attachment.
1 Double-click the email attachment, then click Set Contact Trust in the dialog box that appears.
2 Select the contact and click Import.
3 Supply any password required and click Next. Click OK to view the import details, and then click OK again.
4 Choose the location and click Next. Then click Finish.
5 Click Set Contact Trust again to see that the contact has been added to Certificates. Select the certificate to view

Details and Trust information.

• For Trust, select the options desired.
• Use This Certificate As A Trusted Root only if it is required to validate a digital signature. Once you make a
certificate a trust anchor, you prevent revocation checking on it (or any certificate in the chain).
• To allow actions that can be a security risk, click Certified Documents, and then select the options you want to
allow:
Dynamic ContentIncludes FLV and SWF files as well as external links.
Embedded High Privilege JavaScriptTrusts embedded scripts.
Privileged System OperationsIncludes networking, printing, and file access

Add a certificate from a digital signature in a PDF
You can safely add a certificate to your trusted identities from a signed PDF by first verifying the fingerprint with the
originator or the certificate.

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1 Open the PDF containing the signature.
2 Open the Signatures panel, and select the signature.
3 On the Options menu, click Show Signature Properties, and then click Show Signer’s Certificate.
4 If the certificate is self-signed, contact the originator of the certificate to confirm that the fingerprint values on the

Details tab are correct. Trust the certificate only if the values match the values of the originator.
5 Click the Trust tab, click Add To Trusted Certificates, and click OK.
6 In the Import Contact Settings dialog box, specify trust options, and click OK.

Set up Acrobat to search the Windows certificate store (Windows only)
1 Select Preferences > Signatures. For Verification, click More.
2 Select the desired options under Windows Integration, and click OK twice.

Trusting certificates from the Windows certificate store is not recommended.

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Import certificates using the Windows Certificate Wizard (Windows only)
If you use the Windows certificate store to organize your certificates, you can import certificates using a wizard in
Windows Explorer. To import certificates, identify the file that contains the certificates, and determine the file location.
1 In Windows Explorer, right-click the certificate file and choose Install PFX.
2 Follow the onscreen instructions to add the certificate to the Windows certificate store.
3 If you are prompted to validate the certificate before installing it, note the MD5 digest and SHA1 digest values

(fingerprint). Contact the originator of the certificate to confirm that the values are correct before you trust the
certificate. Click OK.

Verify information on a certificate
The Certificate Viewer dialog box provides user attributes and other information about a certificate. When others
import your certificate, they often want to check your fingerprint information against the information they receive with
the certificate. (The fingerprint refers to the MD5 digest and SHA1 digest values.) You can check certificate information
for your digital ID files or the ID files that you import.
For more information about verifying certificates, see the Digital Signatures User Guide (PDF) at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.
The Certificate Viewer dialog box provides the following information:

• Certificate validation period
• Intended use of the certificate
• Certificate data, such as the serial number and public key method
You can also check if the certificate authority has revoked the certificate. Certificates are typically revoked when an
employee leaves the company or when security is compromised in some way.

Verify your own certificate
1 Select Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.
2 Select your digital ID, and then click Certificate Details

.

Verify information on the certificate of a contact
1 Select the Signatures pane and choose. In the Options menu, select Show Signature Properties.
2 Select Show Signer’s Certificate to see details of the certificate.

Delete a certificate from trusted identities
1 Select Preferences > Signatures. In Identities & Trusted Certificates, and click More.
2 Select the certificate, and click Remove ID.

More Help topics
About digital IDs
About PDF Portfolios
Certified PDF Portfolios
Export security settings

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Opening secured PDFs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .
Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC warn you any time you try to open a URL (website) or a file attachment that uses
a disallowed file type. URLs and disallowed file types are potentially dangerous because they can transfer or run
programs, macros, or viruses that can damage your computer. Examples of disallowed file types include .exe and .zip
files.
Documents can be secured in several ways. To view the security settings of a document, choose File > Properties in
Acrobat or Reader. From the Document Properties dialog box, click the Security tab. If you have trouble opening a PDF,
or you’re restricted from using certain features, contact the author of the PDF.
Password protected A password-protected PDF either requires a password to open or a password to change or remove

restricted operations. If a document has restricted features, tools and options related to those features are dimmed.
Certified Certifying a document assures recipients that the document is authentic. Certifying signatures also include
information to allow or disallow particular actions, such as filling forms and modifying the document. When you
submit a certified form, you are assured that it is going back to the valid author. A document with a valid certificate
displays a Blue Ribbon icon . A PDF Portfolio with a valid certificate displays a Signature Badge.

Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES configured Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES (ALCRMS) lets you

manage accounts and configure security policies for your organization. ALCRMS lets you apply a policy to documents
without the need for digital signatures and certificates.

More Help topics
About Certificate signatures | Digital signatures
Securing documents with passwords
Certificate security

Removing sensitive content from PDFs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDFs.

Why redact or remove sensitive content?
Before you distribute a PDF, you may want to examine the document for sensitive content or private information that
can trace the document to you. Use the Redact tools to remove or redact sensitive images and text that are visible in a
PDF.

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Use the Remove Hidden Information feature to find and remove hidden content from a PDF. For example, if you
created the PDF, the document metadata normally lists your name as the author. You may also want to remove content
that can inadvertently change and modify the document’s appearance. JavaScript, actions, and form fields are types of
content that are subject to change.

Redact sensitive content (Acrobat Pro DC)
Redaction is the process of permanently removing visible text and graphics from a document. You use the Redact tools
to remove content. In place of the removed items, you can have redaction marks that appear as colored boxes, or you
can leave the area blank. You can specify custom text or redaction codes to appear over the redaction marks.
Note: If you want to locate and remove specific words, characters, or phrases, use the Find Text tool

instead.

1 Choose Tools> Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Mark for Redaction > Text & Images.
3 (Optional) To set the appearance of redaction marks, click Properties in the secondary toolbar. (See Change the look

of redaction marks (Acrobat Pro DC).)
4 Mark items you want to remove by doing any of the following:

• Double-click to select a word or image.
• Drag to select a line, block of text, object, or area.
• Press Ctrl as you drag to select areas of a page in a scanned document.
To preview how your redaction marks appear, hold the pointer over the marked area.
5 To apply multiple code entries to a single redaction, right-click a redaction mark and select an option. For more

information, see Apply multiple code entries to a single redaction.

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6 (Optional) To repeat a redaction mark, right-click it and choose Repeat Mark Across Pages. This feature is

convenient if a particular header, footer, or watermark appears in the same location on many pages.
7 When you have finished marking the items you want to redact, click Apply in the secondary toolbar to remove the

items, then click OK.
The items aren’t permanently removed from the document until you save it.
8 If you want to search for and remove hidden information in the document by using the Remove Hidden Information

feature, click Yesin the dialog box. Otherwise, click No.
9 Choose File > Save, and specify a filename and location. The suffix “_Redacted” is appended to the filename. If you

don’t want to overwrite the original file, save the file with a different name, at a different location, or both.

Search and remove text (Acrobat Pro DC)
Use the Find Texttool to find and remove words or phrases in one or more PDFs that contain searchable text.
Note: The Find Text tool doesn’t search secured (encrypted) PDFs.
1 Choose Tools > Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Mark For Redaction > Find Text.
3 In the Search dialog box, specify if you want to search the current PDF or all PDFs in another location.
4 Do one of the following:

• To search for only one word or phrase, choose Single Word Or Phrase and type the word or phrase in the text
field.
• To search for multiple words, select Multiple Words Or Phrase, and then click Select Words. Type each word in
the New Word Or Phrase text field and click Add. You can also import a text file with the list of words or phrases
to search for.
• To search for a pattern (for example, phone numbers, credit card numbers, email addresses, social security
numbers, or dates), click Patterns. Choose one of the available patterns. You can change the language version of
the patterns. (See Select a different language version for patterns (Acrobat Pro DC).)
5 Click Search & Remove Text.
6 In the search results, click the plus sign (+) next to the document name to see all occurrences of the word or phrase.

Then, select the occurrences you want to mark for redaction:

• To select all occurrences in the list, click Check All.
• To select individual occurrences, click the check box for each one you want to redact. Click the text next to a
check box to view the occurrence on the page.
• To mark none of the occurrences, close the Search dialog box or click New Search to start over.
• To mark whole words or partial words (characters) for redaction, select the option under Redaction Mark
Options. For partial words, select Mark Partial Word(s) For Redaction the Settings dialog box appears. In the
Settings dialog box, specify the number and location of the characters for redaction. Character redaction is
useful if you’re searching for a pattern, like credit card numbers, and want to leave part of the number visible for
identification purposes.
7 If you selected occurrences that you want to mark for redaction, click Mark Checked Results For Redaction.

The items you selected in the list are shown marked for redaction.

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Note: If you haven’t saved the file, you can select redaction marks in the document and press Delete to remove the
redaction mark. The redaction marks become permanent after you save the file.
8 To remove the marked items, click Apply in the secondary toolbar, and then click OK.

The items aren’t permanently removed from the document until you save it.
9 If you want to search for and remove hidden information in the document by using the Remove Hidden Information

feature, click Yes. Otherwise, click No.
10 Choose File > Save, and specify a filename and location. If you don’t want to overwrite the original file, save the file

with a different name, at a different location, or both.

Find and remove hidden content
Use the Remove Hidden Information feature to find and remove content from a document that you don’t want, such as
hidden text, metadata, comments, and attachments. When you remove items, additional items are automatically
removed from the document. Items that are removed include digital signatures, document information added by thirdparty plug-ins and applications, and special features that enable Adobe Reader users to review, sign, and fill PDF
documents.
To examine every PDF for hidden content before you close it or send it in email, specify that option in the Documents
preferences using the Preferences dialog box.
1 Choose Tools > Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Remove Hidden Information.

If items are found, they are listed in the Remove Hidden Information panel with a selected check box beside each
item.
3 Make sure that the check boxes are selected only for the items that you want to remove from the document. (See

Remove Hidden Information options.)
4 Click Remove to delete selected items from the file, and click OK.
5 Choose File > Save, and specify a filename and location. If you don’t want to overwrite the original file, save the file

with a different name, at a different location, or both.
The selected content is permanently removed when you save the file. If you close the file without saving it, repeat this
process, making sure to save the file.

Remove Hidden Information options
Metadata
Metadata includes information about the document and its contents, such as the author’s name, keywords, and
copyright information. To view metadata, choose File > Properties.
File Attachments
Files of any format can be attached to the PDF as an attachment. To view attachments, choose View > Show/Hide >
Navigation Panes > Attachments.
Bookmarks
Bookmarks are links with representational text that open specific pages in the PDF. To view bookmarks, choose View
> Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Bookmarks.

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Comments And Markups
This item includes all comments that were added to the PDF using the comment and markup tool, including files
attached as comments. To view comments, choose Tools > Comments.
Form Fields
This item includes Form Fields (including Signature fields), and all Actions and calculations associated with form
fields. If you remove this item, all form fields are flattened and can no longer be filled out, edited, or signed.
Hidden Text
This item indicates text in the PDF that is either transparent, covered up by other content, or the same color as the
background.
Hidden Layers
PDFs can contain multiple layers that can be shown or hidden. Removing hidden layers removes these layers from the
PDF and flattens remaining layers into a single layer. To view layers, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes >
Layers.
Embedded Search Index
An embedded search index speeds up searches in the PDF file. To determine if the PDF contains a search index, choose
Tools > Index and then click Manage Embedded Index in the secondary toolbar. Removing indexes decreases file size
but increases search time for the PDF.
Deleted Or Cropped Content
PDFs sometimes retain content that has been removed and no longer visible, such as cropped or deleted pages, or
deleted images.
Links, Actions And JavaScripts
This item includes web links, actions added by the Actions wizard, and JavaScripts throughout the document.
Overlapping Objects
This item includes objects that overlap one another. The objects can be images (composed of pixels), vector graphics
(composed of paths), gradients, or patterns.

Select a different language version for patterns (Acrobat Pro DC)
Localized patterns appear in the Search panel (Redact > Mark For Redaction > Find Text).
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 From the Categories on the left, select Documents.
3 In the Redaction area, choose a language from the Choose Localization For Search & Remove Text Patterns menu.

Then click OK.

Change the look of redaction marks (Acrobat Pro DC)
By default, thin red outlines appear around images and text you mark for redaction, and black boxes appear in place of
redacted images and text. You can set the default appearance of redaction marks before you mark items for redaction.
You can also change the look of redaction marks before you apply the redactions.

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Set the default look of all marks
1 Click Tools > Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Properties.

The Redaction Tool Properties dialog box is displayed.
3 On the Appearance tab, select options you want to change, and then click OK:

• Click the Redacted Area Fill Color icon and select a fill color from the color palette for the boxes that replace
removed items. Choose No Color to leave the redacted area blank.
• Select Use Overlay Text if you want to select the custom text or redaction code options. Select the font, size, and
text alignment.
• Select Custom Text, and type the text you want to appear in the redacted area.
• Select Redaction Code, and then either select a code within an existing set, or click Edit Code to define a new
code set or a new code. (See Create redaction codes and code sets.)
• In the Redaction Mark Appearance area, click the Outline Color icon or Fill Color icon or both. Select a color
from the color palette for the images and text you mark for redaction. Move the slider to adjust the opacity of the
color. Choose No Color to leave the selected area blank.

Properties for redaction text (Acrobat Pro DC)
Custom Text Displays text you type into the Custom Text option over the redaction mark.
Font Displays custom text in the selected font.
Font Size Displays custom text in the selected point size.
Auto-Size Text To Fit Redaction Region Resizes custom text to fit within the redacted area. When selected, this option

overrides the Font Size setting for the overlay text.
Font Color Displays custom text in the selected color, which you can change by clicking the color swatch.
Repeat Overlay Text Fills the redacted area with as many instances of the custom text as needed, without changing the

font size. For example, if you specify the letter x or a hyphen (-) as the custom text, these characters are repeated
throughout the redacted area.
Text Alignment Aligns text to the left, right, or center.

Redaction codes (Acrobat Pro DC)
Acrobat uses overlay text to overprint areas selected for redaction. One example of overlay text is a redaction code,
which consists of one or more code entries from a code set. Acrobat includes the U.S. FOIA and U.S. Privacy Act code
sets that you can use. You can use either codes or custom text to create overlay text. The difference is that redaction
codes are text entries that you can save, export, and import. One code set can contain multiple codes.
Note: Codes don’t save the current attributes for overlay text as part of the code definition, such as colors, font
characteristics, and repetition or size of text. Codes only make the overlay text itself reusable in future sessions and by other
users with whom you share code sets. You set other attributes for the code in the Redaction Tool Properties dialog box.

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Create redaction codes and code sets
1 Click Tools > Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.

2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Properties.

The Redaction Tool Properties dialog box is displayed.

3 Select Use Overlay Text.
4 Select Redaction Code.

• To add multiple code entries to a redaction code, select an entry from the Code Entries list and click Add Selected
Entry. Repeat as desired. Select Remove Selected Entry to delete a code entry present in the Redaction Code list.
• Click Edit Codes to make additional changes.
5 In the Redaction Code Editor dialog box, click Add Set.
6 (Optional) Type a new name for the set in the text field below the list of code sets, and then click Rename Set.
7 Click Add Code, and type the text that you want to appear as overlay text in the text field below the list of code

entries, and then click Rename Code.

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8 Repeat the previous step to add another code entry to that code set, or repeat the previous three steps to create

additional code sets and codes.

Edit redaction codes and code sets (Acrobat Pro DC)
1 Click Tools > Redact.

The Redact toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.

2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Properties.

The Redaction Tool Properties dialog box is displayed.
3 Select Use Overlay Text, and then select Redaction Code.
4 Select a code set from the list on the left, and click Edit Codes.
5 In the Redaction Code Editor dialog box, do any of the following:

• To remove a code set and all of the code entries within it, select an entry form the Code Set and click Remove Set.
• To export a code set to a separate XML file that you can reuse in other PDFs or share with others, select the code
set. Then click Export Set, specify a filename and location, and click Save.
• To import a previously saved code set, click Import Set, locate and select that file, and click Open.
• To rename a code set, select an entry from the Code Set, type a new name in the box below the list and click
Rename Set.
6 With the Code Set selected, select the code entry that you want to edit, and do one of the following:

• To remove a code entry, click Remove Code.
• To rename a code entry, type a new name in the box below the list and click Rename Code.

Apply multiple code entries to a single redaction
1 Right-click the redaction marker.
2 Select a Code Set from the list at the bottom of the context menu, and then select a code entry from the drop-down

menu. A check mark appears next to the code entry when the code is applied.
3 Repeat the previous steps to add another code entry to the redaction.

Hold your pointer over the redaction mark to see the code entries, each one separated by a comma.
To apply the same code to multiple redactions, set the redaction properties before you mark the content. In the secondary
toolbar, click Properties. Select Use Overlay Text, then select Redaction Code. Select a Code Set and a code entry, then
click Add Selected Entry.

Additional resources
• Using the redaction tools in legal situations: blogs.adobe.com/acrolaw/

Protected View feature for PDFs (Windows only)
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .

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Protected View provides an additional level of security. When Protected View in enabled, PDFs are displayed in a
restricted environment called a sandbox. This isolation of the PDFs reduces the risk of security breaches in areas
outside the sandbox. Adobe strongly recommends that you use Acrobat DC in Protected View if you are concerned
about security, or if you frequently interact with PDFs on the Internet.
Adobe Acrobat Reader DC includes a similar restricted environment called Protected Mode. For information about
Reader Protected Mode, see Reader Help.
When Protected View is enabled, only basic navigation is allowed. For example, you can open PDFs, scroll through
pages, and click links. You can enable Protected View in a PDF that you view in either stand-alone Acrobat DC or in a
web browser.
PDF in stand-alone Acrobat DC In Protected View, Acrobat DC displays a warning for a PDF that doesn’t originate from

a trusted location. The warning lets you decide whether to trust the document.
You can find out whether a PDF opened in a browser is in Protected View. Right-click the document in the browser and
choose Document Properties. Click the Advanced tab. When Protected View is enabled, the status says Protected Mode:
On.

Enable or disable Protected View
Unlike Protected Mode in Acrobat Reader DC, Protected View in Acrobat DC is off by default.
1 Choose Preferences.
2 From the Categories on the left, select Security (Enhanced).
3 Select the Enable Enhanced Security option.
4 Choose one of the following options:
Off Disables Protected View, if you have enabled it. Protected View is off by default.
Files From Potentially Unsafe Locations Enables Protected View and displays the warning for all files originating

from an untrusted location. Files and locations that you add to the Privileged Locations area of the Enhanced
Security panel are exempt from Protected View.
All files Enables Protected View in all PDFs that you open in either stand-alone Acrobat or in a browser.

Bypass Protected View restrictions
Choose any of these options:

• Select Off in the Enhanced Security panel of the Security (Enhanced) preferences.
• Add files, folders, and locations to the Privileged Locations area of the Enhanced Security panel. (See Specify
privileged locations for trusted content.)
Additional resources
For more information on Protected View, see the following resources:

• Protected View troubleshooting: Protected View troubleshooting.
• Application Security Guide: www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.

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More Help topics
Enhanced security
Bypassing enhanced security restrictions
Specify privileged locations for trusted content

Security warnings when a PDF opens
You sometimes see a warning when you open a PDF. The warning comes in many forms (three are shown below).

What does the warning mean?
The warning is asking whether you trust the people who sent you the PDF or the site in which the PDF is displayed.
The warning appears because the PDF content can potentially harm your computer. For example, the warning is
displayed for PDFs that can transfer or run programs and macros. It does not necessarily mean that the PDF is harmful.

What is the right action to take?
Some product features assign trust through their own Preferences panel. For example, the Trust Manager includes for
managing URL access, and Multimedia Trust (Legacy) has options for playing embedded multimedia. For features
affected when enhanced security is enabled, you can selectively allow restricted actions by using a method described in
Bypass enhanced security restrictions.
To open Preferences, choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Adobe Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences
(Mac OS).
If you know and trust the sender
If you trust the PDF or the company or individual who sent it, click the Options, Allow, or Play button. (The buttons
vary depending on the warning.) You can now view the PDF.
If you don’t know or trust the sender
If you don't trust the PDF or don't know who created it or where it came from, don't click the Options, Allow, or Play
button. Acrobat DC and Adobe Acrobat Reader DC continues to block the suspicious content or actions. To hide the
warning, click the Close or Cancel button. If you click any of the blocked content, the warning reappears.

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No Options, Allow, or Play button?
If the warning does not contain an Options, Allow, or Play button, your administrator has disabled this feature. You
cannot choose to trust or allow this content. Click the Close or Cancel button to hide the warning. You can view the
PDF, but you cannot access any of the blocked content. Contact your administrator for more information.
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .

When are security warnings displayed?
Security warnings can be displayed in the following situations:
Blacklisted JavaScript
JavaScript is a computer language in widespread use. JavaScript code can be vulnerable to attacks, and JavaScript can
be used to open websites. Adobe regularly updates the blacklist with known JavaScript vulnerabilities. If a PDF tries to
access blacklisted JavaScript, you see a message in the yellow document bar, at the top.
For administrators:

• For instructions on how to manage JavaScript execution, see the article JavaScripts in PDFs as a security risk
• For more information about the situations that trigger JavaScript warnings and blacklisted JavaScript, see
www.adobe.com/go/acroappsecurity.

Security settings updates
Adobe periodically distributes certificates for security purposes. These downloads help ensure that digitally signed
PDFs from trusted sources maintain their trusted status. If you receive an update from an unknown source, verify that
it is from a web address that you trust before proceeding. Updates from untrusted websites can create vulnerabilities on
your computer.

Accessing stream objects (XObjects)
Acrobat and Reader display a warning when a PDF attempts to access external content identified as a stream object.
For example, a URL might point to an external image. The silent transmission of data can pose a security risk as Acrobat
and Reader communicate with an external source.

Inserting data into PDFs and forms
A warning appears when an untrusted source attempts to add data to a PDF form. Although this data-injection feature
can streamline workflows in your organization, it can also be used to add malicious data into a PDF.

Silent printing
Silent printing is printing to a file or printer without your confirmation. It is a potential security risk because a
malicious file can silently print multiple times to your printer, wasting printer resources. It can also prevent other
documents from printing by keeping the printer busy.
Contact your system administrator to determine when to allow silent printing.

Web links

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In addition to visible web links in a PDF document, form fields can contain hidden JavaScript that open a page in a
browser or silently request data from the Internet.
Note: Acrobat and Reader X, 9.3, and 8.2 enable enhanced security by default. Adobe recommends that you enable
enhanced security if it is not already enabled, and bypass restrictions only for trusted content.

More Help topics
Enhanced security
Document message bar
Play multimedia
Multimedia Trust preferences

Setting up security policies for PDFs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDF content .

Types of security policies
If you often apply the same security settings to multiple PDFs, you can save your settings as a policy that you can reuse.
Security policies save time while ensuring a consistently secure workflow. Creating policies for password and certificate
security lets you reuse the same security settings for any number of PDFs. Two kinds of security policies are available:

• Organizational policies are especially useful if you want others to have access to PDFs for a limited time. Adobe
LiveCycleRights Management ES policies are stored on a server. Users must have access to the server to use these
policies. Creating these policies requires specifying the document recipients from a list on Adobe LiveCycleRights
Management ES. Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES controls access to PDFs and auditing events as defined by
the security policy. You can use Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES if your company has licensed the software
and made it available to you.
• User policies are created and applied by individuals. If you apply the same security settings to numerous documents,
you can save time by creating a user policy. Then, apply the user policy to documents. User policies for passwords
and public key certificates are stored on your local computer. With access to Adobe LiveCycleRights Management
ES, you can create a user policy that’s stored on Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES. That policy is available only
to you.

How organizational policies are authenticated
In addition to reusing security settings, policies stored on Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES enable you to expire
and revoke documents. You can also maintain accountability by auditing users who open protected documents.

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A Policies are stored on server. B Policies are applied to a PDF. C Users can open, edit, and print a document only if permitted by policy.

Setting up server-based security policies involves four main stages:
Configure the Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES The system administrator of your company or group usually

configures Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES, manages accounts, and sets up organizational policies. For more
information on configuringAdobe LiveCycleRights Management ES, see the Adobe website.
Publish a document with a security policy An author creates a PDF and applies a policy stored on Adobe LiveCycle
Rights Management ES to the PDF. The server generates a license and unique encryption key for the PDF. Acrobat
embeds the license in the PDF and encrypts it using the encryption key. The author or administrator can use this license
to track and audit the PDF.
View a document with a policy applied When users try to open the secure PDF in Acrobat 9 (or Reader 9), they must

authenticate their identities. If the user is granted access to the PDF, the PDF is decrypted and opens with the
permissions specified in the policy.
Administer events and modify access By logging in to an Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES account, the author

or administrator can track events and change access to policy-secured PDFs. Administrators can view all PDF and
system events, modify configuration settings, and change access to policy-secured PDFs.

Create a user security policy
User policies can use passwords, certificates, or Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES to authenticate documents.
The policies for password and certificate security can be stored on a local computer. Security policies created using
Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES are stored on a server. You can audit actions and change security settings
dynamically. You can use Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES if your company has licensed the software and made
it available to you.

Create a password policy
1 In Acrobat Dc, choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage Security Policies. If you don’t see the Protection panel,

see the instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
2 Click New.
3 Select Use Passwords, and then click Next.
4 Type a name and description for the policy, do one of the following, and then click Next:

• To specify passwords and restrictions whenever you apply this policy to a document, clear the Save Passwords
With The Policy option.
• To save passwords and restriction settings with the policy, select Save Passwords With The Policy.
5 Specify a compatibility setting and password options. If you selected Save Passwords With The Policy, specify the

password and restrictions. Click OK.

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6 Review the policy details, click Finish, and then click Close.

Create a certificate policy
1 In Acrobat DC, choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage Security Policies. If you don’t see the Protection panel,

see the instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
2 Click New.
3 Select Use Public Key Certificates, and then click Next.
4 Type a name and description for the policy, and specify the document components to encrypt.

Certificates must be current and have key usage that allows for encryption.
5 Determine how to enforce the policy:

• To create a policy that is associated with individual recipients, do not select Ask For Recipients When Applying
This Policy.
• To create a policy that is associated with individual documents, select Ask For Recipients When Applying This
Policy.
6 Select an encryption algorithm from the menu that is compatible with the recipients’ version of Acrobat, and click

Next.
7 Do one of the following:

• If you selected Ask For Recipients When Applying This Policy, review the policy settings and then click Finish.
• If you did not select Ask For Recipients When Applying This Policy, specify recipients by selecting digital IDs
(including your digital ID). Then click Next.
8 Click Finish.

Creating policies for secure file attachments
You can add security to one or more documents by embedding them in a security envelope and sending it as an email
attachment. This method is useful if you want to send a secure file attachment without encrypting the files. You can
embed the documents as file attachments in a security envelope, and encrypt and send the envelope to the recipients.
When the recipients open the envelope, they can extract the file attachments and save them. The saved files are identical
to the original file attachments and are no longer encrypted when saved.
For example, when you send confidential documents, including non-PDF files, you only want the recipient to view the
documents. You can embed these documents as attachments in a security envelope, encrypt the envelope, and send it
by email. Anyone can open the envelope, view its cover page, and even view a list of the contents. However, only the
recipient can view the embedded attachments and extract them.

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1 Choose Tools > Protect > More Protection > Create Security Envelope. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the

instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
2 Click Add File To Send, select the documents you want to attach, and then click Open. Click Next.
3 Select an envelope template, and click Next.
4 Select a delivery method, and click Next.
5 If an envelope policy has been created, select it or select New Policy. Then, follow the steps to create a policy.
6 Review the information and click Finish.
7 For some policies, you are asked to type the information you want displayed on the envelope. Enter enough

information to allow recipients to identify the sender of the envelope.
8 Complete the security information (password, certificate, or policy).
9 When the envelope is displayed, type the names of the recipients. Then, either click the Save or Mail icon in the

toolbar.
If you click the Mail icon, your default email program opens with the security envelope as an attachment. Type the
email addresses of the recipients, and send the email message.

Create a user security policy with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES
If you have access to Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES, you can restrict document access and rights of
individuals registered with the server. When you create a user policy usingAdobe LiveCycleRights Management ES,
you’re redirected to the AdobeLiveCycle Rights Management ES web page.
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the instructions for adding

panels at Task panes .
3 Click New.
4 Select Use The Adobe LiveCycleRights Management, and click Next.
5 On the Adobe LiveCycleRights Management web page, click Policies, and then click New.
6 Type a name and description, set the validity period, and any other options.
7 Select the users or groups, set permissions for them, and click OK.
8 Specify the document components you want to encrypt, and whether you want a watermark.
9 When you’re done, click Save at the top of the page.

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Apply security policies to PDFs
You can apply either an organization policy or a user policy to a PDF. To apply a server policy to a document, connect
to Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES. Adobe LiveCycleRights Management security policies must be stored on a
server, but PDFs to which the policies are applied need not. You can apply policies to PDFs using Acrobat, server-side
batch sequences, or other applications, such as Microsoft Outlook.
Only the policy administrator can edit or remove organizational policies. For details on editing security policies, choose
Tools > Protection > More Protection > Rights Management > Manage Account. Then click Help in the upper-right
corner.

Apply a security policy to a PDF
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 If you are using a server policy, choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage Security Policies. Select a policy. Choose

an Adobe LiveCycleRights Management policy from the list and then click Refresh.
Refreshing security policies ensures that you get the most up-to-date server policies.
3 Choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage Security Policies. Select a policy, and then click Apply To Document.

If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the instructions for adding panels at Task panes .

Apply a policy to attachments in Outlook
You can send different types of files as secure PDF attachments in Microsoft Outlook. This option is available only if
Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES is set up and available in Acrobat.
1 In Outlook, choose New Mail Message on the Home ribbon.
2 Click the Attach As Secured Adobe PDF button

on the Adobe PDF ribbon.

3 Select the file you want to attach by typing the file path or by clicking Browse.
4 Specify how you want to secure the document, and click OK.

The file is converted to PDF and encrypted using the security method you choose.
5 Complete the email message, and then click Send.

Remove a user security policy from a PDF
You can remove a security policy from a PDF if you have appropriate permissions. In general, a document owner can
remove a security policy from a PDF.
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio and choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Select Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Remove Security. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the instructions for

adding panels at Task panes .

Export security settings
1 Choose Preferences > Security > Export.
2 Choose which groups of settings you want to share and click OK.

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3 Review and modify the security settings as needed, and then click Export.
4 Select the method to use to encrypt the security settings (if desired), and then click OK.
5 Choose Recipients and click OK twice.

Sign the file.

Copy, edit, or delete a policy
1 Choose Tools > Protect > Encrypt > Manage Security Settings. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the

instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
2 From the Show menu, choose whether you want to display all policies that you have access to, user policies that

you’ve created, or organizational policies.
3 Select a policy, and then use the options you want:

Note: Options to edit or delete organizational policies aren’t available unless you have administrator rights to Adobe
LiveCycleRights Management ES. Changes to these policies can be made only on Adobe LiveCycleRights Management
ES, which opens automatically when you select an option.
Copy Use to create a policy that’s based on the settings of an existing policy.
Edit Editing a user policy that is stored on a local computer affects only documents to which the policy is applied

after the policy is edited. For user policies stored on a server, you can edit the permission settings and other options.
This option isn’t available for organizational policies.
Delete This option is not available usually for organizational policies.
Favorite If this option is selected, a star appears next to the policy. To remove a policy from the favorites, click
Favorite again. You can apply the Favorite option to multiple policies. Use this option to make a policy easier to
retrieve.

Revoke a policy-protected PDF
To restrict access to a policy-protected PDF that you made available to a group of users, you can revoke the document.
1 Do one of the following:

• For a single PDF or a component PDF in a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF and log in to Adobe LiveCycle Rights
Management ES.
• For a PDF Portfolio, open the PDF Portfolio, log in to Adobe LiveCycleRights Management, and choose View >
Portfolio > Cover Sheet.
2 Choose Tools > Protect > More Protection > Rights Management > Revoke. If you don’t see the Protection panel,

see the instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
3 From the menu on the web page, choose an option that explains why you’re revoking the document, or type a

message. If you’re replacing the revoked document, type the URL location of the new document.
4 Click OK to save your changes.

More Help topics
Securing documents with certificates
Securing documents with passwords

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Securing documents with Adobe LiveCycle Rights ManagementES
Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES

Securing PDFs with Adobe LiveCycle Rights
Management ES
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .
Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES is a server-based security system that provides dynamic control over PDFs.
Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES can be configured to run with LDAP, ADS, and other enterprise systems.
Policies provided by Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES are stored on the server and can be refreshed from the
server. Users connect to Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES to work with these policies.

Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES
Security policies are stored on a server runningAdobe LiveCycleRights Management ES, but the PDFs are not. In some
situations, users are required to connect to the server to open or continue to use PDFs to which a security policy is
applied. For information on configuring Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES, click Help on the Adobe
LiveCycleRights Management ES website after you log in to your account.

Connect to Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES
1 Choose Tools > Protect > More Protection > Security Properties. If you don’t see the Protection panel, see the

instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
2 Click Adobe LiveCycleRights Management Servers in Security Method. Click Yes and select a server.
3 Click the New button

.

4 Type a name in the Name box and the URL in the Server Name box. Add the port number, and click Connect To

This Server.
5 Type the user name and password for your account, and click OK.

View Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES policies
1 Choose Tools > Protect > More Protection > Rights Management > Manage Account. If you don’t see the

Protection panel, see the instructions for adding panels at Task panes .
The Adobe LiveCycleRights Management page opens in your web browser.
2 If prompted, type your user name and password, and click Login.
3 Click the Policies link on the page.

For more information on using Adobe LiveCycleRights Management, click the Help link in the upper right corner.

Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDFs
Security applies in two general contexts: application (software) security and content security.

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Application security involves customizing security features to protect Acrobat and Reader against vulnerabilities,
malicious attacks, and other risks. Advanced users can customize the application through the user interface. Enterprise
administrators can also configure the registry. See the following articles for details.
Content security involves the use of product features to protect the integrity of PDF content. These features safeguard
against the unwanted alteration of PDFs, keep sensitive information private, prevent the printing of PDFs, and so on.
See the following articles for details.
A related subject is digital signatures, meant to guarantee the identity of senders and recipients of PDFs. See Certificatebased signaturesfor a list of topics related to digital signatures.

More Help topics
Security warnings when a PDF opens
Enhanced security setting for PDFs
Protected View feature for PDFs (Windows only)
Allow or block links to the Internet in PDFs
Attachments as security risks in Reader and Acrobat
JavaScripts in PDFs as a security risk

More Help topics
Opening secured documents
Choosing a security method
Securing documents with passwords
Securing documents with certificates
Securing documents with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES
Setting up security policies
Digital IDs
Removing sensitive content

JavaScripts in PDFs as a security risk
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDF content .
Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC let you adjust application behavior so that JavaScript executes within your desired
level of security. This helps restrict application access to JavaScript APIs and isolates workflows that do not require
JavaScript APIs.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 From the Categories on the left, select JavaScript.
3 In the JavaScript Security panel, set options to manage JavaScript: as needed.
Enable Acrobat JavaScript Uncheck to disable JavaScript completely or restrict JavaScript through APIs.

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Enable Menu Items JavaScript Execution Privileges Enables executing JavaScript by clicking menu items. When off,

privileged JavaScript calls can be executed through the menu. Executing non-privileged JavaScript calls through
menu items is not blocked whether this box is checked or not.
Enable Global Object Security Policy Allows JavaScript globally through APIs, or trusts specific documents

containing JavaScripts.
Alternatively, you can modify your system registry settings to manage JavaScript execution.
For details, see the Application Security Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.

Choosing a security method for PDFs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat DC and PDF content .
By adding security to documents, you can limit viewing, editing, printing, and other options to only the specified users.

Choosing which type of security to use
Security features range from relatively simple measures to sophisticated systems adopted by corporations and agencies.
Which feature you choose depends on what you want to achieve. Here are some examples:

• You want only certain people to view your PDF. The easiest solution is to add a password to the PDF and send it
to your intended recipients. (See Password security and restricting printing, editing, and copying.)
• You don’t want anyone to print or edit your PDF. You can block printing and editing from the same dialog box
that you use to add a password. (See Password security and restricting printing, editing, and copying.)
• You want to assure your recipients that the PDF is really from you. The best way is to purchase a digital ID from
a certificate authority. Alternatively, you can create a self-signed digital ID if you are communicating with a group
that you trust. (See About digital IDsand Securing documents with certificates .)
• You want an organization-wide security solution for PDFs. You can devise a solution specifically for a company
handling sensitive data. Some organizations use Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES to apply a policy to
documents. The policy contains the list of recipients and their individual set of permissions. Individuals can use a
policy to apply the same security settings to numerous documents. (See Securing documents with Adobe LiveCycle
Rights Management ES .)

Security policies
A security policy enforces systematic constraints on information flow and exchange within an organization. You can
use Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES to apply a policy to documents without the need for digital signatures and
certificates. If you often apply the same security settings to PDFs, consider creating a security policy to simplify your
workflow. Different policies are useful for accommodating different requirements.
Envelope policy You can secure multiple documents by embedding them in a PDF envelope. You can encrypt

envelopes to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the contents and certify them to provide proof of origin.
Authorized recipients can open the envelope and extract the files to view them.
LiveCycle Rights Management ES policy Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES policies are stored on a server, and
users must have access to the server to use them. Creating these policies requires specifying the document recipients
from a list on Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES.
Password and certificate policies Save your password or certificate settings and reuse them to encrypt PDFs without
setting up the password or certificate for each instance.

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If you apply security settings to a PDF Portfolio in Acrobat Pro DC, including the component documents, you can
automate the steps by using Action Wizard (Choose Tools >Action Wizard).
Protection required:

Action:

Require a password to open a PDF, or copy or print its contents

Choose Tools > Protection > Encrypt > Encrypt with Password. For a
PDF Portfolio, choose View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet. Then choose
Tools > Protection > Encrypt > Encrypt With Password. If you don’t see
the Protection panel, see the instructions for adding panels at Task
panes .
If your company is signed up, you can also use Adobe LiveCycle Rights
Management ES to secure documents.
When you use Action Wizard to apply security to PDF Portfolios in
Acrobat Pro DC, the child documents are secured, but the cover sheet
is not.

Indicate that you approve of the PDF content

Sign and certify the PDF. You must obtain a digital ID to add digital
signatures. Buy a digital ID (see the Adobe website for security
partners) or create a self-signed one. See Create a self-signed digital ID.
For Asian languages, you can add an approval stamp.

Prevent forms from being tampered with

Use LiveCycle Designer to secure forms and create locking signature
fields. See the Adobe LiveCycle Designer Help.

Send secure file attachments via email

Use security envelopes. (Tools > Protection > More Protection > Create
Security Envelope.

Allow only the people you specify to view a PDF

Choose Tools > Protection > Encrypt > Encrypt With Certificate, or
apply security using Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES. You
must have certificates for users who can view the documents. If you
don’t see the Protection panel, see the instructions for adding panels
at Task panes .

Additional resources
For more information on using security features, see these resources:

• Legal Professional: blogs.adobe.com/acrolaw/
• Security Matters blog: blogs.adobe.com/security

Choosing security methods within FIPS mode (Windows)
Acrobat and Reader provide a FIPS mode to restrict data protection to Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS).
FIPS mode uses FIPS 140-2 approved algorithms using the RSA BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition (ME) 3.0.0.1
cryptographic module.
The following security options are not available in FIPS mode:

• Applying password-based security policies to documents. You can use public key certificates or Adobe
LiveCycleRights Management ES to secure the document. However, you cannot use password encryption to secure
the document.
• Creating self-signed certificates. To create a self-signed digital ID, it must be saved to the Windows certificate store.
You cannot create a self-signed digital ID that is saved to a file.
• RC4 encryption. A PDF file can only be encrypted by using the AES encryption algorithm when in FIPS mode.
• MD5 or RIPEMD160 digest methods. In FIPS mode, only the SHA-1 and SHA-2 families of digest algorithms can
be used when creating a digital signature.

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In FIPS mode, you can open and view documents that are protected with algorithms that are not FIPS compliant.
However, you can’t save any changes to the document using password security. To apply security policies to the
document, use either public key certificates or Adobe LiveCycleRights Management ES.
FIPS mode is configured in the Windows registry by a system administrator. For more information, see Digital
Signatures Guide (PDF) at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

More Help topics
Removing sensitive content
Setting up security policies
Modify form field properties (Acrobat Pro)
Run an action (Acrobat Pro)

Attachments as security risks in Acrobat Reader DC and
Acrobat DC
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .
Attachments represent a potential security risk because they can contain malicious content, open other dangerous files,
or launch applications. Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC always let you open and save PDF and FDF file
attachments. Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC recognize certain files, such as those whose names end in .bin, .exe,
and .bat, as threats. You can’t attach such files. Acrobat DC does allow you to attach files that cannot be saved or opened
from Acrobat DC, such as ZIP files. However, this practice is not recommended.
Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC maintain a white list of file types that can be opened or saved, and a black list of
file types that cannot. You are allowed to attach file types that are not on either list. However, when you open or save a
file of an “unrecognized” type, you see a dialog box asking whether you trust the file type.
For details, see the Application Security Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.

Manually add a file type to a black or white list
Administrators can modify the black or white list through the registry. Users can manually add a new file type to a black
or white list by attaching the file and then trying to open it.
1 Choose Tools > Edit PDF > Attach A File.
2 Add a file type that is not in the black or white list.
3 Right-click the file in the Attachments pane on the left and choose Open Attachment.
4 In the Launch Attachment dialog box, select one of the following options, and then click OK:
Open This File: Opens the file without changing the registry list.
Always Allow Opening Files Of This Type: Adds the file type to the white list and prevents future warnings.
Never Allow Opening Files Of This Type: Adds the file type to the black list and does not open it. You can possibly
attach a file of this type to a PDF, but you can’t open it.

Note: To restrict a file type that you permitted in the past, reset (restore) attachment permissions in the Trust Manager
Preferences.

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Reset (restore) attachment permissions
Because the list of allowed and disallowed file attachment types can grow over time, you can reset the lists to their
original state. This state can sometimes provide the highest level of security.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 From the Categories on the left, select Trust Manager.
3 In the PDF Attachments panel, click Restore. The Restore button is available only if you changed the attachment

defaults.

Allow attachments to start applications
The Trust Manager lets you control whether non-PDF attachments can start their associated applications.
1 In the Preferences dialog box, select Trust Manager from the Categories on the left.
2 Select the option Allow Opening Of Non-PDF File Attachments With External Applications. You must have the

external applications to open the files.

Allow or block links to the Internet in PDFs
Note: For a full list of articles about security, see Overview of security in Acrobat and PDF content .
Clicking any link to the Internet poses a potential security risk. Malicious websites can transfer harmful content or
silently gather data. If you are concerned about these risks, you can configure Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC to
display a warning when a PDF attempts to connect to an Internet site.
You can allow Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC to contact selected websites by adding their addresses (URLs) to
your list of trusted websites in the Trust Manager preferences. Alternatively, you can allow all URLs.
Note: If the options in the Manage Internet Access dialog box are disabled, select Custom Setting. If options are still disabled,
your product could be under an administrator’s control with those restrictions in place.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 From the Categories on the left, select Trust Manager.
3 Click Change Settings to specify the default behavior for accessing the Internet from PDFs.
4 Choose from the following options:

• To allow access to all URLs, select Allow PDF Files To Access All Web Sites.
• To restrict access to all URLs, select Block PDF Files’ Access To All Web Sites.
• To restrict access to only the URLs you specify, select Custom Setting.
• To add a website, type its URL in the Host Name text box and click Allow or Block.
• To remove a URL you no longer want to visit, select the website in the list and click Delete.
• To specify what the program should do with websites not in your custom list, select one of these options: Always
Ask, Allow Access, Block Access.
For more information, see the Application Security Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_appsecurity_en.
Note: If you open a protected PDF and receive a prompt to allow or block a URL, select Remember My Action For This Site.
This reply adds the URL to this list.

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Chapter 9: Electronic signatures

Sign PDF documents
You can sign a document to attest to its contents or approve the document. Based on the intent, you use different types
of signatures.
This document provides instructions for Acrobat DC. If you're using Acrobat Reader, see What can I do with Adobe
Reader. If you're using Acrobat XI, see Acrobat XI Help . And, if you're using Acrobat 8, 9, or 10 see previous versions
of Acrobat Help.

Sign a PDF
To sign a PDF document or form, you can type, draw, or insert an image of your handwritten signature. You can also
add text, such as your name, company, title, or the date. When you save the document, the signature and text become
part of the PDF.
1 Open the PDF document or form that you want to sign.
2 Choose Tools > Fill & Sign.
3 To add text, such as your name, company, title, or date, drag and drop your personal saved information from the

right hand pane onto a form field.
Alternatively, you can use Add Text
in the toolbar. Click at the place in your document where you want to add
the text, and start typing. Use the field toolbar to make appropriate changes.
4 Click the Sign icon

in the toolbar, and then choose whether you want to add your signature or just initials.

If you have already added signatures or initials, they are displayed as options to choose from.
5 If you've already added your signature or initials, just select it from the Sign options, and then click at the place in

the PDF where you want to add your signature. Skip to the next step.
If your are signing for the first time, you see the Signature or Initials panel. Below is an example of the Signature
panel.

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Type Type your name in the field. You can choose from a small selection of signature styles; clickChange Style to

view a different style.
Draw Draw your signature in the field.
Image Browse and select an image of your signature.
Save Signature When this check box is selected, and you're signed in to Acrobat Reader DC or Acrobat DC, the

added signature is saved securely in Adobe Document Cloud for reuse.
Click Apply, and then click at the place in the PDF where you want to place the signature or initial.
6 To move the placed signature or initial, click the field to highlight it and then use the arrow keys. To resize or delete

the field, use the options in field toolbar.
If you want to use an image as your signature:

•Sign your name in black ink on a clean, blank sheet of white paper. Sign in the middle of the paper so you don't
photograph or scan the edges.
• Photograph or scan your signature. If you are taking a picture of your signature, make sure that the page is lit and
that no shadows fall across the signature.
• Transfer the photo or scan to your computer. Acrobat DC accepts JPG, JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, TIF, and BMP files.
You do not need to crop the image. Acrobat imports just the signature if the photo or scan is fairly clean.

Send and track your signed PDFs
You can send signed PDFs to others and get notified when recipients view it using the Send & Track service. A copy of
your document is stored in Adobe Document Cloud account so that you can easily access it later. You can sign in to the
account with your Adobe ID.
❖ When the document is complete, click Send & Track in the right hand panel under Send Options. For further

instructions, see Send and track large files onlinehelp.

Get PDFs signed by others using Adobe Document Cloud eSign services
You can get documents signed by others using Send for Signature, an Adobe Document Cloud eSign service. The
service lets recipients quickly sign documents from anywhere using a web browser or mobile device.
The service keeps track of the entire process. It emails your signers that you'd like them to sign a document. Once
signed, both you and your signers receive the signed PDF in email. The signed documents are stored securely in Adobe
Document Cloud.
For more information, see Send PDF documents for signature.

• Digital IDs
• Setting up certificate-based signatures

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• Validating digital signatures
• Adobe Systems Information Assurance initiatives
• Security @ Adobe

More Help topics

Send PDF documents for signature
You can get documents signed by others using Send for Signature, an Adobe Document Cloud eSign service. The
service lets recipients quickly sign documents from anywhere using a web browser or mobile device.
The service keeps track of the entire process. It emails your signers that you'd like them to sign a document. Once
signed, both you and your signers receive the signed PDF in email. The signed documents are stored securely in Adobe
Document Cloud.

Get PDFs signed by others
Complete your edits before you sign. Changes made to the document after it is signed can invalidate the signature.
1 Open the PDF you want to have signed.
2 Click Send for Signature in the right hand panel or choose Tools > Send for Signature.
3 By default, the signature-specific fields are added at the end of a document, on the last page. If you want to add or

modify signature-specific fields in the document, continue with this step otherwise skip to the next step.
Click Prepare Form to add signature-specific fields, such as Title, Company, Date, etc.
Add information or signature fields as needed, and then click Send for Signature in the lower right corner of the
right hand panel.
4 To add more documents, click Add Files and then browse and select the documents.

Note: The Prepare Form option doesn't work if you have selected multiple documents. However, by default, the
signature-specific fields are added at the end of the combined document, on the last page. For example, if you have
selected two documents, both the documents are combined and the signature-specific fields are added on the last page
of the combined document.
5 Click Ready to Send. The document is uploaded to Adobe Document Cloud.
6 Type in the email addresses of people you want to sign your document. Add a message if desired.
7 Click Send.

You receive an email from Adobe Document Cloud eSign services that your documents have been sent out for
signature to the first user. The first user also receives an email to sign the document. When the user adds his or her
signature in the Signature field, and then clicks the Click to sign button, the document is sent to the next user for
signature and so on.
Everyone gets a copy of the signed document, and the file is stored securely in Adobe Document Cloud.

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Track documents sent for signature
You can keep track of which files are out for signature, signed, or waiting for your signature.
❖ In the Home > Sent view, click Manage Documents Sent for Signature. The Adobe Document Cloud eSign services

Manage page is displayed in a new browser window.

• Sign PDF documents

More Help topics

Certificate-based signatures
A certificate-based signature, like a conventional handwritten signature, identifies the person signing a document.
Unlike a handwritten signature, a certificate-based signature is difficult to forge because it contains encrypted
information that is unique to the signer. It can be easily verified and informs recipients whether the document was
modified after the signer initially signed the document.
To sign a document with a certificate-based signature, you must obtain a digital ID or create a self-signed digital ID in
Acrobat or Adobe Reader. The digital ID contains a private key and a certificate with a public key and more. The private
key is used to create the certificate-based signature. The certificate is a credential that is automatically applied to the
signed document. The signature is verified when recipients open the document.

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When you apply a certificate-based signature, Acrobat uses a hashing algorithm to generate a message digest, which it
encrypts using your private key. Acrobat embeds the encrypted message digest in the PDF, certificate details, signature
image, and a version of the document when it was signed.

Certifying and signing documents
The Sign > Work with Certificates panel lets you apply two types of certificate-based signatures. You can certify a
document attest to its content or approve a document with the Sign With Certificate option.
Certify Certify options provide a higher level of document control than Sign With Certificate. For documents that

require certification, you must certify the documents before others sign them. If a document has already been signed,
the Certify options are disabled. When you certify a document, you can control the types of changes other people can
make. You can certify with or without displaying a signature.
Sign With Certificate When you sign with a certificate, the signature is considered an approval signature.

Signatures made with the Certify or Sign With Certificate options comply with data protection standards specified by
the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In addition, both signature types comply with the PDF
Advanced Electronic Signature (PAdES) standard. Acrobat and Reader provide an option to change the default signing
format to a CAdES format. This option is compliant with Part 3 of the PAdES standard. The timestamp capability and
native support for long-term validation of signatures (introduced in Acrobat 9.1) is in compliance with Part 4 of the
PAdES standard. The default signing format, when set up accordingly, is compliant with Part 2 of the PAdES standard.
You can change the default signing method or format, in the Signatures panel of the Preferences dialog box. Under
Creation & Appearance, click More.

Setting up certificate-based signatures
You can expedite the signing process and optimize your results by making the following preparations in advance.
Note: Some situations require using particular digital IDs for signing. For example, a corporation or government agency
can require individuals to use only digital IDs issued by that agency to sign official documents. Inquire about the digital
signature policies of your organization to determine the appropriate source of your digital ID.

• Get a digital ID from your own organization, buy a digital ID (see the Adobe website for security partners), or create
a self-signed one. See Create a self-signed digital ID. You can’t apply a certificate-based signature without a digital id.
Note: You cannot create self-signed digital IDs from within FIPS mode.

• Set the default signing method.

• Create an appearance for your certificate-based signature. (See Create the appearance of a certificate-based
signature)

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• Use Preview Document mode to suppress any dynamic content that can alter the appearance of the document and
mislead you into signing an unsuitable document. For information about using the Preview Document mode, see
Sign in Preview Document mode .

• Review all the pages in a document before you sign. Documents can contain signature fields on multiple pages.

• Configure the signing application. Both authors and signers should configure their application environment. (See
Set signing preferences.)
For details on the full range of configuration options in enterprise settings, see the Digital Signatures Guide

• Choose a signature type. Learn about approval and certification signatures to determine the type you should choose
to sign your document. (See Signature types.)

Set signing preferences
Signing workflow preferences control what you can see and do when the signing dialog box opens. You can allow
certain actions, hide and display data fields, and change how content affects the signing process. Setting signing
preferences impacts your ability to see what you are signing. For information on the available signing preferences, see
“Signing Workflow Preferences” in the Digital Signature Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

Customizing signature workflows using seed values
Seed values offer additional control to document authors by letting them specify which choices signers can make when
signing a document. By applying seed values to signature fields in unsigned PDFs, authors can customize options and
automate tasks. They can also specify signature requirements for items such as certificates and timestamp servers. For
more information about customizing signatures using seed values, see the Digital Signature Guide (PDF) at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

Create the appearance of a certificate-based signature
You determine the look of your certificate-based signature by selecting options in the Signatures panel of the
Preferences dialog box. For example, you can include an image of your handwritten signature, a company logo, or a
photograph. You can also create different signatures for different purposes. For some, you can provide a greater level of
detail.
A signature can also include information that helps others verify your signature, such as reason for signing, contact
information, and more.

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A Text signature B Graphic signature

1 (Optional) If you want to include an image of your handwritten signature in the certificate-based signature, scan

your signature, and save it as an image file. Place the image in a document by itself, and convert the document to
PDF.
2 Right-click the signature field, and select Sign Document or Certify With Visible Signature.

You can also create an appearance using the Signature preferences: Edit > Preferences > Signatures (Windows) or
Acrobat > Preferences > Signatures (Mac OS).
3 From the Appearance menu in the Sign dialog box, select Create New Appearance.
4 In the Configure Signature Appearance dialog box, type a name for the signature you’re creating. When you sign,

you select the signature by this name. Therefore, use a short, descriptive title.
5 For Configure Graphic, choose an option:
No Graphic Displays only the default icon and other information specified in the Configure Text section.
Imported Graphic Displays an image with your certificate-based signature. Select this option to include an image of
your handwritten signature. To import the image file, click File, click Browse, and then select the image file.
Name Displays only the default signature icon and your name as it appears in your digital ID file.

6 For Configure Text, select the options that you want to appear in the signature. Distinguished Name shows the user

attributes defined in your digital ID, including your name, organization, and country.
7 For Text Properties, specify the writing direction and type of digits used, and then click OK. See also Enable right-

to-left languages.
8 (Optional) If the dialog box includes the Additional Signature Information section, specify the reason for signing

the document, the location, and your contact information. These options are available only if you set them as your
preferences in the Creation and Appearance Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences > Signatures > Creation &
Appearance > More).

Set up a roaming ID account
A roaming ID is a digital ID that is stored on a server and can be accessed by the subscriber. You must have an Internet
connection to access a roaming ID and an account from an organization that supplies roaming digital IDs.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Identities & Trusted Certificates, click More.
4 Expand Digital IDs on the left, select Roaming ID Accounts, and click Add Account.

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5 Type the name and URL for the roaming ID server, and click Next.
6 Type your user name and password or follow the directions to create an account. Click Next, and then click Finish.

Once the roaming ID is added, it can be used for signing or encryption. When you perform a task that uses your
roaming ID, you’re automatically logged in to the roaming ID server if your authentication assertion hasn’t expired.

PKCS#12 modules and tokens
You can have multiple digital IDs that you use for different purposes, particularly if you sign documents in different
roles or using different certification methods. Digital IDs are usually password protected. They can be stored on your
computer in PKCS #12 file format. Digital IDs can also be stored on a smart card, hardware token, or in the Windows
certificate store. Roaming IDs can be stored on a server. Acrobat includes a default signature handler that can access
digital IDs from various locations. Register the digital ID in Acrobat for it to be available for use.

Store certificates on directory servers
Directory servers are commonly used as centralized repositories of identities within an organization. The server acts as
an ideal location to store user certificates in enterprises that use certificate encryption. Directory servers let you locate
certificates from network servers, including Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) servers. After you locate a
certificate, you can add it to your list of trusted identities so that you don’t have to look it up again. By developing a
storage area for trusted certificates, you or a member of your workgroup can facilitate the use of encryption in the
workgroup.
For more information about directory servers, see the Digital Signature Guide (PDF) at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

Import directory server settings (Windows only)
You import directory server settings using security import/export methodology or a security settings file. Before, you
import settings in a file using import/export methodology, ensure that you trust the file provider before opening it.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Document TimeStamping, click More.
4 Select Directory Servers on the left, and then click Import.
5 Select the import/export methodology file, and click Open.
6 If the file is signed, click the Signature Properties button to check the current signature status.
7 Click Import Search Directory Settings.
8 Click OK, if prompted, to confirm your choice.

The directory server appears in the Security Settings dialog box.

Export directory server settings (Windows only)
Although it is preferable to export security settings, you can export directory settings as an import/export methodology
file. Use the file to configure the directory server on another computer.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Identity.
3 Enter your name, organization, and email address to create your profile.

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4 Under Categories, select Signatures.
5 For Document Timestamping, click More.
6 Select Directory Servers on the left, and then select one or more servers on the right.
7 Click Export, select a destination, and click Next.
8 To prove that the file came from you, click Sign, add your signature, and then click Next.
9 Do one of the following:

• To save the file, specify its name and location, and click Save.
• To send the file as an email attachment, type an email address in the To box, click Next, and then click Finish.

Note: See also Export security settings.

Add a timestamp to certificate-based signatures
You can include the date and time you signed the document as part of your certificate-based signature. Timestamps are
easier to verify when they are associated with a trusted timestamp authority certificate. A timestamp helps to establish
when you signed the document and reduces the chances of an invalid signature. You can obtain a timestamp from a
third-party timestamp authority or the certificate authority that issued your digital ID.
Timestamps appear in the signature field and in the Signature Properties dialog box. If a timestamp server is configured,
the timestamp appears in the Date/Time tab of the Signature Properties dialog box. If no timestamp server is
configured, the signatures field displays the local time of the computer at the moment of signing.
Note: If you did not embed a timestamp when you signed the document, you can add one later to your signature. (See
Establish long-term signature validation.) A timestamp applied after signing a document uses the time provided by the
timestamp server.

Configure a timestamp server
To configure a timestamp server, you need the server name and the URL, which you can obtain from an administrator
or a security settings file.
If you have a security settings file, install it and don’t use the following instructions for configuring a server. Ensure that
you obtained the security settings file from a trusted source. Don’t install it without checking with your system
administration or IT department.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Document Timestamping, click More.
4 Select Time Stamp Servers on the left.
5 Do one of the following:

• If you have an import/export methodology file with the timestamp server settings, click the Import button
Select the file, and click Open.
• If you have a URL for the timestamp server, click the New button
. Type a name, and then type the server
URL. Specify whether the server requires a user name and password, and then click OK.

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Set a timestamp server as the default
To be able to use a timestamp server to timestamp signatures, set it as the default server.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Document Timestamping, click More.
4 Select Time Stamp Servers on the left.
5 Select the timestamp server, and click the Set Default button

.

6 Click OK to confirm your selection.

Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management (ALCRM) servers
Adobe LiveCycleRights Management (ALCRM) servers let you define centralized policies to control access to
documents. The policies are stored on the ALCRM server. You require server access to use them.
ALCRM servers embed user access information in documents. Therefore, specify document recipients in ALCRM
policies. Alternatively, let the ALCRM server retrieve the list of recipients from LDAP directories.
Use ALCRM servers to set permissions for separate document tasks, for example opening, editing, and printing. You
can also define document auditing policies on ALCRM servers.

More Help topics
Digital IDs
Signing PDFs
Validating signatures
Manage trusted identities
About digital signatures and ink signatures
Digital IDs
Signing PDFs
Validating signatures
Manage trusted identities

Validating digital signatures
Set your verification preferences in advance. This helps ensure that Digital Signatures are valid when you open a PDF
and verification details appear with the signature. See Set signature verification preferencesfor details.
When Digital Signatures are validated, an icon appears in the document message bar to indicate the signature status.
Additional status details appear in the Signatures panel and in the Signature Properties dialog box.

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Setting up digital signature validation
When you receive a signed document, you may want to validate its signature(s) to verify the signer and the signed
content. Depending on how you have configured your application, validation may occur automatically. Signature
validity is determined by checking the authenticity of the signature’s digital ID certificate status and document integrity:

• Authenticity verification confirms that the signer's certificate or its parent certificates exist in the validator’s list of
trusted identities. It also confirms whether the signing certificate is valid based on the user's Acrobat or Reader
configuration.
• Document integrity verification confirms whether the signed content changed after it was signed. If content
changes, document integrity verification confirms whether the content changed in a manner permitted by the
signer.

Set signature verification preferences
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Verification, click More.
4 To automatically validate all signatures in a PDF when you open the document, select Verify Signatures When The

Document Is Opened. This option is selected by default.
5 Select verification options as needed and click OK.

Verification Behavior
When Verifying These options specify methods that determine which plug-in to choose when verifying a signature.
The appropriate plug-in is often selected automatically. Contact your system administrator about specific plug-in
requirements for validating signatures.
Require Certificate Revocation Checking To Succeed Whenever Possible ... Checks certificates against a list of

excluded certificates during validation. This option is selected by default. If you deselect this option, the revocation
status for approval signatures is ignored. The revocation status is always checked for certifying signatures.
Verification Time
Verify Signatures Using Select an option to specify how to check the digital signature for validity. By default, you
can check the time based on when the signature was created. Alternatively, check based on the current time or the
time set by a timestamp server when the document was signed.
Use Expired Timestamps Uses the secure time provided by the timestamp or embedded in the signature, even if the
signature’s certificate has expired. This option is selected by default. Deselecting this option allows discarding of
expired timestamps.
Verification Information Specifies whether to add verification information to the signed PDF. Default is to alert user
when verification information is too large.
Windows Integration specify whether to trust all root certificates in the Windows Certificates feature when

validating signatures and certified documents. Selecting these options can compromise security.
Note: It is not recommended to trust all root certificates in the Windows Certificate feature. Many certificates that are
distributed with Windows are designed for purposes other than establishing trusted identities.

Set the trust level of a certificate
In Acrobat or Reader, the signature of a certified or signed document is valid if you and the signer have a trust
relationship. The trust level of the certificate indicates the actions for which you trust the signer.

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You can change the trust settings of certificates to allow specific actions. For example, you can change the settings to
enable the dynamic content and embedded JavaScript within the certified document.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Identities & Trusted Certificates, click More.
4 Select Trusted Certificates on the left.
5 Select a certificate from the list, and click Edit Trust.
6 In the Trust tab, select any of the following items to trust this certificate:
Use This Certificate As A Trusted Root A root certificate is the originating authority in a chain of certificate
authorities that issued the certificate. By trusting the root certificate, you trust all certificates issued by that
certificate authority.
Signed Documents Or Data Acknowledges the identity of the signer.
Certified Documents Trusts documents in which the author has certified the document with a signature. You trust
the signer for certifying documents, and you accept actions that the certified document takes.

When this option is selected, the following options are available:
Dynamic content Allows movies, sound, and other dynamic elements to play in a certified document.
Embedded High Privilege JavaScript Allows privileged JavaScript embedded in PDF files to run. JavaScript files can

be used in malicious ways. It is prudent to select this option only when necessary on certificates you trust.
Privileged System Operations Allows Internet connections, cross domain scripting, silent printing, external-object
references, and import/export methodology operations on certified documents.

Note: Only allow Embedded High Privilege JavaScript and Privileged System Operations for sources you trust and work
with closely. For example, use these options for your employer or service provider.
7 Click OK, close the Digital ID and Trusted Certificate Settings dialog box, and then click OK in the Preferences

dialog box.
For more information, see the Digital Signature Guide at www.adobe.com/go/acrodigsig.

Signatures panel for digital signatures
The Signatures panel displays information about each digital signature in the current document and the change history
of the document since the first digital signature. Each digital signature has an icon identifying its verification status.
Verification details are listed beneath each signature and can be viewed by expanding the signature. The Signatures
panel also provides information about the time the document was signed, and trust and signer details.

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❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Signatures, or click the Signature Panel button in the document

message bar.
You can right-click a signature field in the Signatures panel to do most signature-related tasks, including adding,
clearing, and validating signatures. In some cases, however, the signature field becomes locked after you sign it.

Sign in Preview Document mode
When document integrity is critical for your signature workflow, use the Preview Document feature to sign documents.
This feature analyzes the document for content that may alter the appearance of the document. It then suppresses that
content, allowing you to view and sign the document in a static and secure state.
The Preview Document feature lets you find out if the document contains any dynamic content or external
dependencies. It also lets you find out if the document contains any constructs such as form fields, multimedia, or
JavaScript that could affect its appearance. After reviewing the report, you can contact the author of the document
about the problems listed in the report.
You can also use Preview Document mode outside a signing workflow to check the integrity of a document.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Creation & Appearance, click More.
4 For When Signing, select View Documents In Preview Mode, and click OK.
5 In the PDF, click the signature field and choose Sign Document.

The document message bar appears with the compliance status and options.
6 (Optional) Click View Report in the document message bar (if available) and select each item in the list to show

details. When you’re done, close the PDF Signature Report dialog box.
7 If you’re satisfied with the compliance status of the document, click Sign Document in the document message bar,

and add your digital signature.
8 Save the PDF using a different name than the original, and close the document without making any further changes.

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Certify a PDF
When you certify a PDF, you indicate that you approve of its contents. You also specify the types of changes that are
permitted for the document to remain certified. For example, suppose that a government agency creates a form with
signature fields. When the form is complete, the agency certifies the document, allowing users to change only form
fields and sign the document. Users can fill the form and sign the document. However, if they remove pages or add
comments, the document doesn’t retain its certified status.
You can apply a certifying signature only if the PDF doesn’t already contain any other signatures. Certifying signatures
can be visible or invisible. A blue ribbon icon in the Signatures panel indicates a valid certifying signature. A digital
ID is required to add the certifying digital signature.
1 Remove content that may compromise document security, such as JavaScripts, actions, or embedded media.
2 Choose Tools > Certificates to open the panel.
3 Click one of the following options:

Places a certified signature in either an exiting digital signature field (if available) or in the
location you designate.
Certify (Visible)

Certify (Not Visible)

Certifies the document, but your signature appears only in the Signatures panel.

4 Follow the onscreen instructions to place the signature (if applicable), specify a digital ID, and set an option for

Permitted Actions After Certifying.
Note: If you enabled the When Signing: View Documents In Preview Mode in the Signature preferences, click Sign
Document in the document message bar.
5 Save the PDF using a different filename than the original file, and then close the document without making

additional changes. It is a good idea to save it as a different file so that you can retain the original unsigned
document.

Timestamp a document
Acrobat provides users with the capability to add a document timestamp to a PDF without also requiring an identitybased signature. A timestamp server is required to timestamp a PDF. (See Configure a timestamp server.) A timestamp
assures the authenticity and existence of a document at a particular time. These timestamps are compliant with the
timestamp and revocation features described in Part 4 of ETSI 102 778 PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES)
standard. Users of Reader X (and later) can also timestamp a document if the document includes appropriate Reader
Enabling features.
For more information on PAdES, see blogs.adobe.com/security/2009/09/eliminating_the_penone_step_at.html
1 Open the document to which you want to add a timestamp.
2 Choose Tools > Certificates > Time Stamp.
3 In the Choose Default Timestamp Server dialog box, select a default timestamp server from the list, or add a new

default timestamp server.
4 Click Next, and then save the document with the timestamp.

Validate a digital signature
If the signature status is unknown or unverified, validate the signature manually to determine the problem and possible
solution. If the signature status is invalid, contact the signer about the problem.

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For more information about signature warnings and valid and invalid signatures, see the Digital Signature Guide at
www.adobe.com/go/acrodigsig.
You assess the validity of a Digital Signature and Timestamp by checking the Signature Properties.
1 Set your signature verification preferences. For more information, see Set signature verification preferences.
2 Open the PDF containing the signature, then click the signature. The Signature Validation Status dialog box

describes the validity of the signature.
3 For more information about the Signature and Timestamp, click Signature Properties.
4 Review the Validity Summary in the Signature Properties dialog box. The summary might display one of the

following messages:
Signature date/time are from the clock on the signer's computer The time is based on the local time on the signer’s

computer.
Signature is timestamped The signer used a Timestamp Server and your settings indicate that you have a trust

relationship with that timestamp server.
Signature is timestamped but the timestamp could not be verified Timestamp verification requires obtaining the

timestamp server's certificate to your list of trusted identities. Check with your system administrator.
Signature is timestamped but the timestamp has expired Acrobat and Reader validate a timestamp based on the
current time. This message is displayed if the timestamp signer's certificate expires before the current time. To let
Acrobat or Reader accept an expired timestamp, select Use Expired Timestamps in the Signature Verification
Preferences dialog box (Preferences > Signatures > Verification: More). Acrobat and Reader display an alert message
when validating signatures with expired timestamp.

5 For details about the signer’s certificate, such as trust settings or legal restrictions of the signature, click Show Signer’s

Certificate in the Signature Properties dialog box.
If the document was modified after it was signed, check the signed version of the document and compare it to the
current version.

Remove a digital signature
You cannot remove a digital signature unless you are the one who placed it and you have the digital ID for signing it
installed.
❖ Do one of the following:

• To remove a digital signature, right-click the signature field and choose Clear Signature.
• To remove all digital signatures in a PDF, choose Clear All Signature Fields from the options menu in the
Signatures panel. (To open the Signatures panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Signatures.)

View previous versions of a digitally signed document
Each time a document is signed using a certificate, a signed version of the PDF at that time is saved with the PDF. Each
version is saved as append-only and the original cannot be modified. All digital signatures and their corresponding
versions can be accessed from the Signatures panel.
1 In the Signatures panel, select and expand the signature, and choose View Signed Version from the Option menu

.
The previous version opens in a new PDF, with the version information and the name of the signer in the title bar.
2 To return to the original document, choose the document name from the Window menu.

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Compare versions of a signed document
After a document is signed, you can display a list of the changes made to the document after the last version.
1 In the Signatures panel, select the signature.
2 Choose Compare Signed Version To Current Version from the Option menu

.

3 When you’re done, close the temporary document.

Trust a signer’s certificate
Trusting a certificate involves adding it to the user’s trusted identity list in the Trusted Identity Manager and manually
setting its trust level. End users often exchange certificates as needed when using certificate security. Alternatively, they
add certificates directly from signatures in signed documents and then set trust levels. However, enterprises often
require employees to validate the signatures of others without performing any manual task. Acrobat trusts all
certificates for signing and certifying that chain up to a trust anchor. Therefore, administrators should preconfigure
client installations or let their end users add a trust anchor or anchors. For more information on trusting certificates,
see About certificate-based signatures.

PDF Portfolios and digital signatures
You can sign component PDFs within a PDF Portfolio, or sign the PDF Portfolio as a whole. Signing a component PDF
locks the PDF for editing and secures its content. After signing all the component PDFs, you can sign the entire PDF
Portfolio to finalize it. Alternatively, you can sign the PDF Portfolio as a whole to lock the content of all component
PDFs simultaneously.

• To sign a component PDF, see Sign PDF documents. The signed PDF is automatically saved to the PDF Portfolio.
• To sign a PDF Portfolio as a whole, sign the cover sheet (View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet). Once you sign the PDF
Portfolio as a whole, you cannot add signatures to the component documents. However, you can add more
signatures to the cover sheet.

Digital signatures on attachments to component PDFs
You can add signatures to attachments before signing the cover sheet. To apply signatures to attached PDFs, open the
PDF in a separate window. Right-click the attachment, and choose Open File from the context menu. To view
signatures on the PDF Portfolio, navigate to the cover sheet to view the document message bar and signatures pane.

Signed and certified PDF Portfolios
A properly signed or certified PDF Portfolio has one or more signatures that approve or certify the PDF Portfolio. The
most significant signature appears in a Signature Badge in the toolbar. Details of all signatures appear in the cover sheet.

• To view the name of the organization or person that signed the PDF Portfolio, hover the pointer over the Signature
Badge.
• To view details about the signature that appears in the Signature Badge, click the Signature Badge. The cover sheet
and the Signatures pane on the left open with details.

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If the PDF Portfolio approval or certification is invalid or has a problem, the Signature Badge shows a warning icon. To
view an explanation of the problem, hover the pointer over a Signature Badge with a warning icon. Different warning
icons appear for different situations.
For a list and explanation of each warning, see the DigSig Admin Guide at www.adobe.com/go/acrodigsig.

XML data signatures
Acrobat and Reader support XML data signatures that are used to sign data in XML Forms Architectures (XFA) forms.
The form author provides XML signing, validating, or clearing instructions for form events, such as button click, file
save, or submit.
XML data signatures conform to the W3C XML-Signature standard. Like PDF digital signatures, XML digital
signatures ensure integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation in documents.
However, PDF signatures have multiple data verification states. Some states are called when a user alters the PDFsigned content. In contrast, XML signatures only have two data verification states, valid and invalid. The invalid state
is called when a user alters the XML-signed content.

Establish long-term signature validation
Long-term signature validation allows you to check the validity of a signature long after the document was signed. To
achieve long-term validation, all the required elements for signature validation must be embedded in the signed PDF.
Embedding these elements can occur when the document is signed, or after signature creation.
Without certain information added to the PDF, a signature can be validated for only a limited time. This limitation
occurs because certificates related to the signature eventually expire or are revoked. Once a certificate expires, the
issuing authority is no longer responsible for providing revocation status on that certificate. Without conforming
revocation status, the signature cannot be validated.
The required elements for establishing the validity of a signature include the signing certificate chain, certificate
revocation status, and possibly a timestamp. If the required elements are available and embedded during signing, the
signature can be validated requiring external resources for validation. Acrobat and Reader can embed the required
elements, if the elements are available. The PDF creator must enable usage rights for Reader users (File > Save As Other
> Reader Extended PDF).
Note: Embedding timestamp information requires an appropriately configured timestamp server. In addition, the signature
validation time must be set to Secure Time (Preferences > Security >Advanced Preferences > Verification tab). CDS
certificates can add verification information, such as revocation and timestamp into the document without requiring any
configuration from the signer. However, the signer must be online to fetch the appropriate information.

More Help topics
Validate a timestamp certificate
Configure a timestamp server

Add verification information at signing
1 Make sure that your computer can connect to the appropriate network resources.
2 Ensure that the preference Include Signature’s Revocation Status is still selected (Preferences > Signatures > Creation

& Appearances: More). This preference is selected by default.
3 Sign the PDF.

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If all the elements of the certificate chain are available, the information is added to the PDF automatically. If a
timestamp server has been configured, the timestamp is also added.

Add verification information after signing
In some workflows, signature validation information is unavailable at signing, but can be obtained later. For example,
a company official may sign a contract using a laptop while traveling by air. The computer cannot communicate with
the Internet to obtain timestamping and revocation information to add to the signature. When Internet access is
available later, anyone who validates the signature can add this information to the PDF. All subsequent signature
validations can also use this information.
1 Ensure that your computer can connect to the appropriate network resources, and then right-click the signature in

the PDF.
2 Choose Add Verification Information.

Information and methods used to include this long term validation (LTV) information in the PDF comply with Part 4
of the ETSI 102 778 PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES) standard. For more information, see
blogs.adobe.com/security/2009/09/eliminating_the_penone_step_at.html. The command is unavailable if the
signature is invalid, or is signed with a self-signed certificate. The command is also unavailable in case the verification
time equals the current time.

More Help topics
Certificate-based signatures
Digital IDs
Signing PDFs
Manage trusted identities

Validating certificate-based signatures
Set your verification preferences in advance. This helps ensure that certificate-based signatures are valid when you open
a PDF and verification details appear with the signature. See Set signature verification preferencesfor details.
When certificate-based signatures are validated, an icon appears in the document message bar to indicate the signature
status. Additional status details appear in the Signatures panel and in the Signature Properties dialog box.

Setting up validation for certificate-based signatures
When you receive a signed document, you may want to validate its signature(s) to verify the signer and the signed
content. Depending on how you have configured your application, validation may occur automatically. Signature
validity is determined by checking the authenticity of the signature’s digital ID certificate status and document integrity:

• Authenticity verification confirms that the signer's certificate or its parent certificates exist in the validator’s list of
trusted identities. It also confirms whether the signing certificate is valid based on the user's Acrobat or Reader
configuration.
• Document integrity verification confirms whether the signed content changed after it was signed. If content
changes, document integrity verification confirms whether the content changed in a manner permitted by the
signer.

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Set signature verification preferences
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Verification, click More.
4 To automatically validate all signatures in a PDF when you open the document, select Verify Signatures When The

Document Is Opened. This option is selected by default.
5 Select verification options as needed and click OK.
Verification Behavior

When Verifying
These options specify methods that determine which plug-in to choose when verifying a signature. The appropriate
plug-in is often selected automatically. Contact your system administrator about specific plug-in requirements for
validating signatures.

Require Certificate Revocation Checking To Succeed Whenever Possible ...
Checks certificates against a list of excluded certificates during validation. This option is selected by default. If you
deselect this option, the revocation status for approval signatures is ignored. The revocation status is always checked
for certifying signatures.

Verification Time

Verify Signatures Using
Select an option to specify how to check the certificate-based signature for validity. By default, you can check the
time based on when the signature was created. Alternatively, check based on the current time or the time set by a
timestamp server when the document was signed.

Use Expired Timestamps
Uses the secure time provided by the timestamp or embedded in the signature, even if the signature’s certificate has
expired. This option is selected by default. Deselecting this option allows discarding of expired timestamps.

Verification Information Specifies whether to add verification information to the signed PDF. Default is to alert user
when verification information is too large.
Windows Integration specify whether to trust all root certificates in the Windows Certificates feature when

validating signatures and certified documents. Selecting these options can compromise security.

Note: It is not recommended to trust all root certificates in the Windows Certificate feature. Many certificates that are
distributed with Windows are designed for purposes other than establishing trusted identities.

Set the trust level of a certificate
In Acrobat or Reader, the signature of a certified or signed document is valid if you and the signer have a trust
relationship. The trust level of the certificate indicates the actions for which you trust the signer.

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You can change the trust settings of certificates to allow specific actions. For example, you can change the settings to
enable the dynamic content and embedded JavaScript within the certified document.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box.
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Identities & Trusted Certificates, click More.
4 Select Trusted Certificates on the left.
5 Select a certificate from the list, and click Edit Trust.
6 In the Trust tab, select any of the following items to trust this certificate:
Use This Certificate As A Trusted Root A root certificate is the originating authority in a chain of certificate
authorities that issued the certificate. By trusting the root certificate, you trust all certificates issued by that
certificate authority.
Signed Documents Or Data Acknowledges the identity of the signer.
Certified Documents Trusts documents in which the author has certified the document with a signature. You trust
the signer for certifying documents, and you accept actions that the certified document takes.

When this option is selected, the following options are available:
Dynamic content
Allows movies, sound, and other dynamic elements to play in a certified document.

Embedded High Privilege JavaScript
Allows privileged JavaScript embedded in PDF files to run. JavaScript files can be used in malicious ways. It is
prudent to select this option only when necessary on certificates you trust.

Privileged System Operations
Allows Internet connections, cross domain scripting, silent printing, external-object references, and import/export
methodology operations on certified documents.

Note: Only allow Embedded High Privilege JavaScript and Privileged System Operations for sources you trust and work
with closely. For example, use these options for your employer or service provider.
7 Click OK, close the Digital ID and Trusted Certificate Settings dialog box, and then click OK in the Preferences

dialog box.
For more information, see the Digital Signature Guide (PDF) at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

Signatures panel for certificate-based signatures
The Signatures panel displays information about each certificate-based signature in the current document and the
change history of the document since the first certificate-based signature. Each certificate-based signature has an icon
identifying its verification status. Verification details are listed beneath each signature and can be viewed by expanding
the signature. The Signatures panel also provides information about the time the document was signed, and trust and
signer details.

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❖ Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Signatures, or click the Signature Panel button in the document

message bar.
You can right-click a signature field in the Signatures panel to do most signature-related tasks, including adding,
clearing, and validating signatures. In some cases, however, the signature field becomes locked after you sign it.

Validate a certificate-based signature
If the signature status is unknown or unverified, validate the signature manually to determine the problem and possible
solution. If the signature status is invalid, contact the signer about the problem.
For more information about signature warnings and valid and invalid signatures, see the Digital Signature Guide (PDF)
at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.
You assess the validity of a certificate-based signature and timestamp by checking the signature properties.
1 Set your signature verification preferences. For more information, see Set signature verification preferences.
2 Open the PDF containing the signature, then click the signature. The Signature Validation Status dialog box

describes the validity of the signature.
3 For more information about the signature and timestamp, click Signature Properties.
4 Review the Validity Summary in the Signature Properties dialog box. The summary might display one of the

following messages:
Signature date/time are from the clock on the signer's computer The time is based on the local time on the signer’s

computer.
Signature is timestamped The signer used a timestamp server and your settings indicate that you have a trust

relationship with that timestamp server.
Signature is timestamped but the timestamp could not be verified Timestamp verification requires obtaining the

timestamp server's certificate to your list of trusted identities. Check with your system administrator.
Signature is timestamped but the timestamp has expired Acrobat and Reader validate a timestamp based on the

current time. This message is displayed if the timestamp signer's certificate expires before the current time. To let
Acrobat or Reader accept an expired timestamp, select Use Expired Timestamps in the Signature Verification
Preferences dialog box (Preferences > Signatures > Verification: More). Acrobat and Reader display an alert message
when validating signatures with expired timestamp.

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5 For details about the signer’s certificate, such as trust settings or legal restrictions of the signature, click Show Signer’s

Certificate in the Signature Properties dialog box.
If the document was modified after it was signed, check the signed version of the document and compare it to the
current version.

View previous versions of a digitally signed document
Each time a document is signed using a certificate, a signed version of the PDF at that time is saved with the PDF. Each
version is saved as append-only and the original cannot be modified. All certificate-based signatures and their
corresponding versions can be accessed from the Signatures panel.
1 In the Signatures panel, select and expand the signature, and choose View Signed Version from the option menu

.
The previous version opens in a new PDF, with the version information and the name of the signer in the title bar.
2 To return to the original document, choose the document name from the Window menu.

Compare versions of a signed document
After a document is signed, you can display a list of the changes made to the document after the last version.
1 In the Signatures panel, select the signature.
2 Choose Compare Signed Version To Current Version from the option menu

.

3 When you’re done, close the temporary document.

Trust a signer’s certificate
Trusting a certificate involves adding it to the user’s trusted identity list in the Trusted Identity Manager and manually
setting its trust level. End users often exchange certificates as needed when using certificate security. Alternatively, they
add certificates directly from signatures in signed documents and then set trust levels. However, enterprises often
require employees to validate the signatures of others without performing any manual task. Acrobat trusts all
certificates for signing and certifying that chain up to a trust anchor. Therefore, administrators should preconfigure
client installations or let their end users add a trust anchor or anchors. For more information on trusting certificates,
see Certificate-based signatures.

PDF Portfolios and certificate-based signatures
You can sign component PDFs within a PDF Portfolio, or sign the PDF Portfolio as a whole. Signing a component PDF
locks the PDF for editing and secures its content. After signing all the component PDFs, you can sign the entire PDF
Portfolio to finalize it. Alternatively, you can sign the PDF Portfolio as a whole to lock the content of all component
PDFs simultaneously.

• To sign a component PDF, see Sign PDF documents. The signed PDF is automatically saved to the PDF Portfolio.
• To sign a PDF Portfolio as a whole, sign the cover sheet (View > Portfolio > Cover Sheet). Once you sign the PDF
Portfolio as a whole, you cannot add signatures to the component documents. However, you can add more
signatures to the cover sheet.

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Certificate-based signatures on attachments to component PDFs
You can add signatures to attachments before signing the cover sheet. To apply signatures to attached PDFs, open the
PDF in a separate window. Right-click the attachment, and choose Open File from the context menu. To view
signatures on the PDF Portfolio, navigate to the cover sheet to view the document message bar and signatures pane.

Signed and certified PDF Portfolios
A properly signed or certified PDF Portfolio has one or more signatures that approve or certify the PDF Portfolio. The
most significant signature appears in a Signature Badge in the toolbar. Details of all signatures appear in the cover sheet.

• To view the name of the organization or person that signed the PDF Portfolio, hover the pointer over the Signature
Badge.
• To view details about the signature that appears in the Signature Badge, click the Signature Badge. The cover sheet
and the Signatures pane on the left open with details.
If the PDF Portfolio approval or certification is invalid or has a problem, the Signature Badge shows a warning icon. To
view an explanation of the problem, hover the pointer over a Signature Badge with a warning icon. Different warning
icons appear for different situations.
For a list and explanation of each warning, see the DigSig Admin Guide at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en.

XML data signatures
Acrobat and Reader support XML data signatures that are used to sign data in XML Forms Architectures (XFA) forms.
The form author provides XML signing, validating, or clearing instructions for form events, such as button click, file
save, or submit.
XML data signatures conform to the W3C XML-Signature standard. Like PDF digital signatures, XML digital
signatures ensure integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation in documents.
However, PDF signatures have multiple data verification states. Some states are called when a user alters the PDFsigned content. In contrast, XML signatures only have two data verification states, valid and invalid. The invalid state
is called when a user alters the XML-signed content.

Establish long-term signature validation
Long-term signature validation allows you to check the validity of a signature long after the document was signed. To
achieve long-term validation, all the required elements for signature validation must be embedded in the signed PDF.
Embedding these elements can occur when the document is signed, or after signature creation.
Without certain information added to the PDF, a signature can be validated for only a limited time. This limitation
occurs because certificates related to the signature eventually expire or are revoked. Once a certificate expires, the
issuing authority is no longer responsible for providing revocation status on that certificate. Without conforming
revocation status, the signature cannot be validated.

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The required elements for establishing the validity of a signature include the signing certificate chain, certificate
revocation status, and possibly a timestamp. If the required elements are available and embedded during signing, the
signature can be validated requiring external resources for validation. Acrobat and Reader can embed the required
elements, if the elements are available. The PDF creator must enable usage rights for Reader users (File > Save As Other
> Reader Extended PDF).
Note: Embedding timestamp information requires an appropriately configured timestamp server. In addition, the signature
validation time must be set to Secure Time (Preferences > Security >Advanced Preferences > Verification tab). CDS
certificates can add verification information, such as revocation and timestamp into the document without requiring any
configuration from the signer. However, the signer must be online to fetch the appropriate information.

More Help topics
Validate a timestamp certificate
Configure a timestamp server
Set signing preferences

Add verification information at signing
1 Make sure that your computer can connect to the appropriate network resources.
2 Ensure that the preference Include Signature’s Revocation Status is still selected (Preferences > Signatures > Creation

& Appearances: More). This preference is selected by default.
3 Sign the PDF.

If all the elements of the certificate chain are available, the information is added to the PDF automatically. If a
timestamp server has been configured, the timestamp is also added.

Add verification information after signing
In some workflows, signature validation information is unavailable at signing, but can be obtained later. For example,
a company official may sign a contract using a laptop while traveling by air. The computer cannot communicate with
the Internet to obtain timestamping and revocation information to add to the signature. When Internet access is
available later, anyone who validates the signature can add this information to the PDF. All subsequent signature
validations can also use this information.
1 Ensure that your computer can connect to the appropriate network resources, and then right-click the signature in

the PDF.
2 Choose Add Verification Information.

Information and methods used to include this long term validation (LTV) information in the PDF comply with Part 4
of the ETSI 102 778 PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES) standard. For more information, see
blogs.adobe.com/security/2009/09/eliminating_the_penone_step_at.html. The command is unavailable if the
signature is invalid, or is signed with a self-signed certificate. The command is also unavailable in case the verification
time equals the current time.

More Help topics
Digital IDs
Setting up digital signatures
Signing PDFs
Manage trusted identities

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Manage trusted identities
A digital ID includes a certificate with a public key and a private key. Participants in signing and certificate security
workflows exchange the public part (the certificate) of their digital ID. Once you obtain someone’s certificate and add
it to your trusted identities list, you can encrypt documents for them. There may be instances when the certificate does
not already chain up to a trust anchor that you have specified. In such cases, you can set the certificate’s trust level so
that you can validate the owner’s signature. Understanding what a trusted identity is and how trust levels are set lets you
streamline workflows and troubleshoot problems. For example, you can add trusted identities in advance and
individually set the trust for each certificate. In enterprise settings, your trusted identities list may be preconfigured.
You may also be able to search a directory server for additional certificates.

Import and export a certificate
You can export your certificate and contact data for use in signature validation and certificate security workflows. Other
users can import that data to their trusted identity list. Contact data added in this manner helps expand the number of
users that can participate in secure document workflows. See the Digital Signature Guide (PDF) at
www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en for information on exporting certificates.
1 Open the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences).
2 Under Categories, select Signatures.
3 For Identities & Trusted Certificates, click More.
4 Select Digital IDs on the left.
5 Do one of the following:

• To import an ID, click the Add ID button
• To export a certificate, click the Export button
certificate to a file.

, and follow the onscreen instructions.
, and follow the onscreen instructions to email or save the

Setting certificate trust
You build a list of trusted identities by getting digital ID certificates from signing participants and certificate security
workflows. You get this information from a server, file, or a signed document. For signing workflows, you can get this
information during the signature validation process. For certificate security workflows involving encryption, request
the information in advance. This enables you to encrypt the document with the document recipient’s public key. See
the Digital Signature Guide (PDF) at www.adobe.com/go/learn_acr_security_en for more information on setting up
certificate trust.

Adobe Approved Trust List (AATL)
The Adobe Approved Trust List (AATL) allows users to create certificate-based signatures that are trusted whenever
the signed document is opened in Acrobat 9 or Reader 9 and later. Both Acrobat and Reader access an Adobe hosted
web page to download a list of trusted root digital certificates every 30 days. Any certificate-based signature created
with a credential that can trace a relationship back to a certificate on this list is trusted. The trusted root certificates have
been verified by Adobe and other authorities to meet specific technical requirements. They represent high assurance
identity and signing credentials. The certificates include government and citizen credentials from across the world. In
addition, they include credentials from global commercial certificate authorities and qualified certification service
providers (CSPs) in Europe.
For details about this feature and why it is important for validating a signature, see the AATL web page at
www.adobe.com/security/approved-trust-list.html.

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AATL is enabled by default. The list downloads when you first open or create a signed document, or access the various
security preferences dialogs. You are asked to verify if the automatic update in the AATL is acceptable to you. Click Yes
if you want to receive the updates.
Note: Check with your administrator if your organization has turned off access to the AATL for some reason.
To verify the AATL is enabled:
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat DC/Acrobat Reader DC > Preferences.
2 From the Categories on the left, select Trust Manager.
3 Select the option Load Trusted Root Certificates From An Adobe Server.

This option allows Acrobat or Reader to automatically download trust settings from an Adobe server. These trust
settings ensure that the user or organization associated with the certificate has met the assurance levels of the Adobe
Approved Trust List program.
4 Do one of the following:

• To be prompted when new root certificates are available from Adobe, select Ask Before Updating.
• To download the latest version of the Trust List from Adobe, click Update Now.

More Help topics
Digital IDs
Setting up digital signatures
Signing PDFs
Validating signatures

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Chapter 10: Printing

Basic PDF printing tasks
Print button missing?
If you can't see the Print and Cancel buttons, your monitor is set to a low screen resolution. Acrobat DC and Acrobat
Reader DC are not designed for low-resolution displays (the minimum recommended is 1024 x 768). However, you can
work around this limitation. Do any of the following to print your document:

• Press Enter or Return.
• If a scroll bar appears on the right of the dialog box, drag the slider down to access the buttons.
(Windows) On some monitors, the Windows taskbar covers the Print button. You can hide the taskbar so it appears
only when you mouse to the bottom of the screen. Right-click the taskbar and choose Properties. In the Properties dialog
box, select Auto-hide the Taskbar, then click OK.

Common printing tasks

Print on both sides of the paper

You can print double-sided if your printer supports double-sided (duplex printing) feature.
Note: Double-sided printing is also called duplex, back to back, front and back, or two-sided printing.
The printer driver controls the options, not Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader. Check your printer documentation to see
what features your printer supports.

• In the Print dialog box, enable Print on both sides of paper, and choose an edge to Flip.

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Note: There could be a scenario when a printer actually supports duplex and this option does not appear on Print
dialog. In such cases, you may click on printer properties to directly access this option from printer preferences.

Print in black and white

You can print a color PDF in shades of gray (also known as grayscale or composite gray).

• In the Print dialog box, enable Print In Grayscale (Black And White).

Print at a different size

You can scale the page to shrink or enlarge pages when you print. You can automatically scale to fit the paper or
manually scale by percentages

• In the Print dialog box, click Size and then specify the scaling options.

Fit Reduces or enlarges each page to fit the printable area of the currently selected paper size. For PostScript® printers,
the PPD determines the printable area of the paper.

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Actual Size Prints the pages without scaling. Pages or selections that don’t fit on the paper are cropped. You can set this
option as the default using the None print preset. See Create print presets.
Shrink Oversize Pages Shrinks large pages to fit the currently selected paper size but doesn’t enlarge small pages. If an
area is selected and is larger than the printable area of the currently selected paper, it’s scaled to fit the printable area.
This option is always active during N-up printing. You can set this option as the default using the Default print preset.
See Create print presets.
Custom Scale Resizes the page by the percentage you specify.
Choose Paper Source By PDF Page Size (Windows) Uses the PDF page size to determine the output tray rather than
the page setup option. This option is useful for printing PDFs that contain multiple page sizes on printers that have
different-sized output trays.

Print posters and banners

You can print a large format document, such as a poster or banner, by splitting the page across multiple sheets of paper
(called "tiling"). The Poster option calculates how many sheets of paper are needed. You can adjust the size of the
original to best fit the paper and specify how much each "tile" overlaps. You can then piece together the tiles.

• In the Print dialog box, click Poster and then specify the tiling options.

Tile Scale Scales the pages by the amount you specify.
OverlapDetermines the amount each tile overlaps adjacent tiles.
Cut MarksAdds guide marks to each page to help you trim the overlap.
LabelsAdds the filename and page number on each "tile".
Tile Only Large Pages Applies tiling to pages that are larger than the selected paper size at the specified scale. These
pages are mapped to multiple sheets of paper.

Print multiple pages on a sheet

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You can print more than one page of a PDF onto a single sheet of paper. Printing multiple pages per sheet is also called
n-up printing (such as 2-up or 6-up). You can specify how the pages are ordered, either horizontally across the page or
in vertical columns.

Pages Per Sheet Prints a predefined number of pages, or a custom number (up to 99), horizontally and vertically. If you
select a predefined number from the menu, Acrobat automatically selects the best paper orientation.
Page Order Defines how the pages are ordered on paper. Horizontal places pages from left to right, top to bottom.
Horizontal Reversed places pages from right to left, top to bottom. Vertical places pages top to bottom, left to right.
Vertical Reversed places pages top to bottom, right to left. Both reversed options are suitable for Asian-language
documents.
Print Page Border Prints the crop box (the page boundary of PDF pages).
Note: Printing multiple pages per sheet in Acrobat is independent of the N-up printing features of printer drivers. The
Acrobat print settings don’t reflect the N-up settings of the printer drivers. Select the multple pages options either in
Acrobat or in the printer driver, but not both.

Print booklets

You can print a multipage document as a booklet. The pages are laid out two per sheet. When you collate, fold, and
staple the double-sided sheets, the result is a single book with the correct page order.

• In the Print dialog box, click Booklet and then specify the booklet options.
For more information, see Print Booklets and PDF Portfolios.

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Print comments

You can print comments either in a summary list, or in place (like sticky notes on a page).
Do one of the following:
Summary- In the Comments and Forms area, click Summarize Comments.
Drawing Markups - In the Comments and Forms area, choose Document And Markups.

Comments on the page - Follow these steps:
1 Open the Preferences dialog box, click Comments category on the left, and select Print Notes And Pop-Ups.
2 Deselect Hide Comment Pop-ups When Comment List Is Open.
3 Open the pop-up comments that you want to print.
4 Adjust their placement on the page so that they don't overlap or spill off the page.
5 Click the Print tool

.

6 In the Comments and Forms area, choose Document And Markups.

Print a portion of a page

You can print a portion of a page in a PDF. Use the Snapshot Tool (Edit > Take a Snapshot) to select just the area you
want to print. The area can be text, graphics, or both. You can print the selected area full size or resize it to fit the paper.
1 Choose Edit > Take a Snapshot
2 Draw a rectangle to select a portion of a page
3 Choose File > Print
4 In the Print dialog box, click Selected graphic.

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Print to file
You can create a device-dependent PostScript file of a document. The resulting file contains code for enabling and
controlling specific device features, making it less compatible with devices other than the target device. For better
results when creating PostScript files, use Save As Other > More Options > PostScript.

• Click the Advanced button, select Print To File, then click OK.

Options in the Print dialog box
Most options in the Acrobat Print dialog box are the same as other applications. However, some options vary depending
on the printer and what you've selected to print.

Comments & Forms
The Comments & Forms options control which visible content prints.

Document Prints the document contents and form fields.
Document And Markups Prints document contents, form fields, and comments.
Document And Stamps Prints the document, form fields, and stamps, but no other markups, such as note comments

and pencil lines.
Form Fields Only Prints interactive form fields but doesn’t print document contents.
Summarize Comments Creates a separate, printable PDF of the comments in a document. This option is unavailable
when you print from a web browser or print multiple documents in PDF Portfolios.

Pages to Print
The Pages To Print options specify the pages or range of pages to print.

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Current Page Prints the page that is visible in the current view.
Pages Specifies the range of pages to print. Use a hyphen to separate numbers in a range. Use a comma to separate
individual pages or ranges (for example, 6, 10-31, 42). How you specify the numbers depends on the Page Display
preference. If Use Logical Page Numbers is selected, you enter numbers that match the numbering on the pages. For
example, if the first page of a document is numbered iii, you enter iii to print that page.

To print from a specific page to the end of the document, enter the page with a hyphen. For example, “11-” prints page
11 to the last page of the document.
More Options Displays additional options to control which pages print.
Current View/Selected Graphic (Click More Options under Pages To Print.) Prints the area currently visible, the
selected pages, or the text and graphics copied with the Snapshot tool. The option name changes depending on if you
have selected pages or used the Snapshot tool.
Odd Or Even Pages Choose which pages to print: All Pages In Range, Odd Pages Only, or Even Pages Only. For

example, if you set the range to 2, 7–10 and choose Even Pages Only, only pages 2, 8, and 10 print.
Reverse Pages Prints pages in reverse order. If page ranges are entered, the pages print opposite of the order in which

they were entered. For example, if the Pages box shows 3–5, 7–10, selecting Reverse Pages prints pages 10–7, and then
5–3.

Orientation
Auto Portrait/Landscape Automatically selects the page orientation that best matches the content and paper. For

example, a spreadsheet could print horizontally, while a newsletter could print vertically. The Auto-Portait/Landscape
option overrides the orientation selected in Page Setup.
Additional resources
For more information on printing, see the forums on printing and prepress: acrobatusers.com/forum/printing-prepress

Print Layers
Normally, when you print a PDF that contains layers, just the content that is visible onscreen is printed. However, the
creator of a layered PDF can control what prints, regardless of its visibility onscreen. The PDF creator can require that
watermarks print or prevent the printing of confidential information. If the document is designed to print differently
from how it currently appears onscreen, a message may appear in the Print dialog box. The Preview image in the Print
dialog box always shows the page as it will print.
Note: To work with layers in Acrobat, convert the source document to PDF using a preset that preserves layers, such as
Acrobat 6 (PDF 1.5) or later.

View how layers print
1 Click the Layers icon

in the Navigation panel. (If the Layers icon is not visible, choose View > Show/Hide >
Navigation Panes > Layers.)

2 Choose Apply Print Overrides from the Options menu.

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Note: Depending on the visibility settings specified when the PDF was created, Apply Print Overrides may be
unavailable in the Options menu.

Change print settings for a layer
1 Click the Layers icon

in the navigation panel. (If the Layers icon is not visible, choose View > Show/Hide >
Navigation Panes > Layers.)

2 Expand the Layers area, select a layer, and then select Layer Properties from the Options menu

.

3 In the Layer Properties dialog box, choose one of the following from the Print pop-up menu:
Always Prints Forces the layer to print.
Never Prints Forces the layer not to print.
Prints When Visible Matches printed output to onscreen visibility.

Note: In Reader, you can open the Layer Properties dialog box, but you cannot change the settings.

Create print presets
A PDF can contain a set of print presets, a group of document-specific values that is used to set basic print options. By
creating a print preset for a document, you can avoid manually setting certain options in the Print dialog box each time
you print the document. It’s best to define print settings for a PDF at the time that you create it. However, print presets
provide a means to add basic print settings to a PDF at any time.
1 Choose File > Properties, and click the Advanced tab.
2 In the Print Dialog Presets section, set options and click OK.

The next time you open the Print dialog box, the values will be set to the print preset values. These settings are also used
when you print individual PDFs in a PDF Portfolio.
Note: To retain a print preset for a PDF, save the PDF after creating the print preset.

Print Dialog Presets
Page Scaling Prepopulates the Page Scaling menu in the Print dialog box with the option you choose:
Default Uses the application default setting, which is Shrink To Printable Area.
None Prevents automatic scaling to fit the printable area. Use this setting to preserve the scale in engineering
documents or the point size required for legal reasons.

Note: The Page Scaling menu in the Print dialog box shows additional options, but you cannot prepopulate the dialog box
with any of those options. Choose one of those options when you print.
DuplexMode For best results, the selected printer should support duplex printing if you select a duplex option.
Simplex Prints on one side of the paper.
Duplex Flip Long Edge Prints on both sides of the paper; the paper flips along the long edge.
Duplex Flip Short Edge Prints on both sides of the paper; the paper flips along the short edge.
Paper Source By Page Size Selects the option by the same name in the Print dialog box. Uses the PDF page size to

determine the output tray rather than the page setup option. This option is useful for printing PDFs that contain
multiple page sizes on printers that have different-sized output trays.
Print Page Range Prepopulates the Pages box in the Print Range section of the Print dialog box with the page ranges
you enter here. This setting is useful in a workflow where documents include both instruction pages and legal pages.

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For example, if pages 1–2 represent instructions for filling out a form, you can set up your print job to print only the
form.
Number Of Copies Prepopulates the Copies box in the Print dialog box. Choose a number from 2 to 5, or choose
Default to use the application default, which is one copy. This limitation prevents multiple unwanted copies from being
printed.

Why can’t I print my document?
Start with these troubleshooting tips
Printing problems can have various causes. To identify the issue, start with this helpful TechNote: Troubleshoot PDF
printing | Acrobat, Reader
The PDF is password protected, and printing is not allowed
If you receive a password-protected PDF, enter the designated password to print the document. Some protected
documents have restrictions that prevent you from printing, editing, or copying content in the document. If a
document has restrictions on printing, contact the PDF author.
(Windows only) Protected Mode is interfering
The default Protected Mode greatly enhances the security of Reader. To determine if Protected Mode is interfering with
printing, temporarily disable it: Right-click the document, and choose Page Display Preferences. Then click General on
the left, and deselect Enable Protected Mode At Startup. Close Reader, restart it, and try to print the document again.
Note: To ensure maximum security, when you finish printing, reselect Enable Protected Mode At Startup.

What should I do if Acrobat Reader DC is asking to save a file when a document
is printed?
In case, Adobe reader is prompting to save a file when you click on print, then click Advanced print dialog and uncheck
Print to file option.
Note:

• Make sure have selected a physical printer to print upon and not Adobe PDFXPS/Send note or any other virtual
printer.
• Print to file option was available on Print dialog itself until Acrobat 10.X versions.

What should I do to print comments available on the PDF document?
There are certain annotations (example: pop-up notes) which are available on the PDF document and the annotations
do not print by default unless you want them to be printed.
This has been intentionally designed so that such annotations do not hinder the view of the content available behind
them.
However, there may be cases when you do want them to be printed. To print the pop-up notes and other annotations:
1 Go to Edit->Preferences.
2 Click on Commenting.
3 Enable the option Print notes and pop-ups.

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Acrobat Reader DC crashes on printing / Acrobat Reader DC does not Print
after clicking Print button
This could happen due to an Adobe Acrobat installation file corruption. In order to resolve this issue, ensure you are
using the latest version of Adobe Reader/ Acrobat application.
If you are seeing this issue with the latest version:
1 Uninstall the Acrobat Reader using the Acrobat cleaner utility.
2 Re-install Adobe Reader.

More Help topics
Printing booklets and PDF Portfolios
Advanced PDF print settings
Printing color PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)

Print Booklets and PDF Portfolios
More Help topics
Basic PDF printing tasks

About booklets
Booklets are documents with multiple pages arranged on sheets of paper that, when folded, present the correct page
order. You can create 2-up saddle-stitched booklets, where two side-by-side-pages, printed on both sides, are folded
once and fastened along the fold. The first page prints on the same printed sheet as the last page. The second page prints
on the same sheet as the second-to-last page, and so on. Each page is automatically centered on the sheet, and large
pages are scaled (shrunk) to fit the printable area. When you collate, fold, and staple the double-sided pages, the result
is a single book with correct pagination.
To print booklets, your printer must support either automatic or manual duplex printing (printing on both sides of the
paper). Manual duplex printing requires two separate printing passes: one to print the front side, and another to print
the back side. To find out whether your printer supports duplex printing, check the printer manual or contact the
printer manufacturer.

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Print a booklet
1 Choose File > Print and select the printer.
2 Specify which pages to print:

• To print pages from front to back, select All.
• To divide a large booklet into smaller groupings, select Pages and specify a page range for the first grouping. Print
each page range separately.
3 Click Booklet.
4 To print certain pages on a different paper or paper stock, specify those pages using the Sheets From/To option.

Click the Properties button and select the correct paper tray and any other options as necessary.
5 Choose additional page handling options. The Preview image changes as you specify options.
Booklet Subset Determines which sides of the paper print. Choose Both Sides to automatically print both sides of
the paper (your printer must support automatic duplex printing). Choose Front Side Only to print all pages that
appear on the front side of the paper. After these pages print, flip them, choose File > Print again, and choose Back
Side Only. Depending on the printer model, you might have to turn and reorder the pages to print the back sides.

To prevent others in a shared printing environment from printing on your pages before you print the back side,
consider printing the back side pages using a different paper tray.
Auto-Rotate Pages Within Each Sheet Automatically rotates each page for the best fit in the printable area.
Sheets From Specifies the first and last sheet to print. Acrobat determines which sheets must print to accommodate

the print job. For example, if you have a 16-page document, then sheets 1 through 4 print.
Binding Determines the orientation for the binding. Choose Left for text read left-to-right; choose Left (Tall) for

paper folded on the long side, where the printable area is long and narrow. Choose Right for text read right-to-left
or for Asian-style vertical reading; choose Right (Tall) for paper folded on the long side.

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Print PDFs in a PDF Portfolio
A PDF Portfolio contains multiple documents wrapped in one PDF. You can print the component PDFs in a PDF
Portfolio individually or together. Documents print in alphabetical order, regardless of the order of files.
To rename a file or change the order of files within a PDF Portfolio, use the Details view. See Working with component
files in a PDF Portfolio.
1 Open the PDF Portfolio. To print only certain PDFs, select those PDFs.
2 Choose File > Print, and then choose one of the following:
All PDF Files Prints all the PDFs in the PDF Portfolio.
Selected PDF Files Prints the selected PDFs. This option is available only when multiple files are selected in the list
of component documents.

3 Choose applicable printing options, and click OK.

Note: You must use the native application to print any component file that is not a PDF. To open a component file in its
native application, right-click the file and choose Open File In Native Application. (The native application must be installed
for you to open the file.)

Print from the Bookmarks tab
You can print the pages associated with bookmarks directly from the Bookmarks tab. Bookmarks appear in a hierarchy,
with parent bookmarks and child (dependent) bookmarks. If you print a parent bookmark, all page content associated
with child-level bookmarks also prints.
Not all bookmarks display page content, and therefore cannot be printed. For example, some bookmarks open a file or
play a sound. If you select a mix of printable and nonprintable bookmarks, the nonprintable bookmarks are ignored.
Note: Bookmarks made from tagged content always display page content because the tagged content represents printable
elements in the document structure, such as headings and figures.
1 Open a PDF with bookmarks. If necessary, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Bookmarks so the

bookmarks appear in the navigation pane.
2 Select one or more bookmarks, and then right-click the selection.
3 Choose Print Page(s) from the menu.

Printing color PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
More Help topics
Basic PDF printing tasks

Preview how colors overprint (Acrobat Pro DC)
Overprint preview provides an onscreen simulation that approximates blending and overprinting in the colorseparated output. Overprinting effects can also be simulated when you output to a composite printing device. Both of
these methods are useful for proofing color-separated documents.

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Managing color (Acrobat Pro DC)
When you print a color-managed RGB or CMYK document, you can specify additional color management options to
keep color consistent in the output. For example, suppose the document contains a profile tailored for prepress output,
but you want to proof the colors on a desktop printer. In the Color Management panel of the Advanced Print settings
dialog box, you can temporarily convert the document’s colors to the color space of the desktop printer—the printer
profile is used instead of the current document profile when printing. In addition, you can send color data as RGB
values to printers using various RGB profiles.

About composite printing (Acrobat Pro DC)
When you print a color PDF, all of the colors used in the file print on one plate. This process is called composite printing.
The options available in the Output panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box depend on the selected printer.
Artwork that will be commercially reproduced and that contains more than a single color must be printed on separate
master plates, one for each color. This process is called color separation. If you’re creating color separations, you can
print a color or grayscale composite proof to check your work.
Consider the following issues when printing composites:

• Any overprinting options that you select print correctly only on a printer that supports overprinting. Since most
desktop printers don’t support overprinting, you can simulate the effects of overprinting by selecting Simulate
Overprinting in the Output panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box. Be aware that selecting Simulate
Overprinting converts spot colors to process colors for printing. If you intend to use a file for final output, do not
select this option.
• When you print to a black-and-white printer, a grayscale composite version of the pages is produced (unless you
select Print Color As Black in the main Print dialog box; this option prints all nonwhite color as black). If the
document contains color, visually correct grays are used to simulate that color. For example, the gray that simulates
a 20% tint of yellow is lighter than a 20% tint of black, since yellow is visually lighter than black.
Note: Remember that, like monitors, color printers vary greatly in color reproduction quality; thus, proofs from your service
provider are the best way to verify how the finished piece will look.

Print a color composite (Acrobat Pro DC)
1 Choose File > Print, and choose a printer.
2 Specify page handling options.
3 Choose Document And Stamps from the Comments And Forms menu to print all visible content.
4 Click Advanced, and select Output on the left side of the dialog box.
5 Choose a composite option from the Color menu.
6 Specify other color and output settings, and click OK.

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7 If the document contains objects with transparency settings, select an option from the Transparency Flattening

Preset menu.
8 (PostScript printing only) In the PostScript Options panel, specify options.

About separations (Acrobat Pro DC)
To produce high-quality separations, it helps to be familiar with the basics of printing, including line screens,
resolution, process colors, and spot colors.
If you are using a print service provider to produce separations, you’ll want to work closely with its experts before
beginning each job and during the process.
To reproduce color and continuous-tone images, printers usually separate artwork into four plates—one plate for each
of the cyan (C), yellow (Y), magenta (M), and black (K) portions of the image. When inked with the appropriate color
and printed in register with one another, these colors combine to reproduce the original artwork. The process of
dividing the image into two or more colors is called color separating, and the films from which the plates are created
are called the separations.

Print color separations (Acrobat Pro DC)
Acrobat supports host-based separations and in-RIP separations. The main difference between them is where the
separations are created—at the host computer (the system using Acrobat and the printer driver) or at the output device’s
RIP.
For host-based separations, Acrobat creates PostScript information for each of the separations required for the
document and sends that information to the output device. For in-RIP separations, the work of separating a file is
performed by the RIP. This method often takes less time than creating host-based separations, but it requires a
PostScript 3 output device with in-RIP separation capability. To produce in-RIP separations, you need a PPD file that
supports in-RIP separations, and any PostScript 3 output device or a PostScript Level 2 device whose RIP supports inRIP separations.

Prepare to print separations
Before you print separations, do the following:

• Calibrate your monitor. See Calibrate and profile your monitor.
• Specify whether the document contains trapping information, if known. See Declare the presence of trapping
information (Acrobat Pro DC).
• Preview separations and transparency flattening results. See Preview color separationsand Preview which areas of
artwork will be flattened.

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• Run preflight inspections using desired criteria. See Preflight profiles (Acrobat Pro DC).
Note: If you use a print service provider to produce separations, you’ll want to work closely with its experts before beginning
each job and throughout the process.

Print separations
1 Choose File > Print, and choose a printer.
2 Choose an option from the Comments and Forms menu.
3 Choose print range and page handling options.
4 Click Advanced.
5 If you created a custom printer settings file with the appropriate separation settings, choose it from the Settings

menu at the top of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box.
6 Select Output on the left, and choose an option from the Color menu:

• Choose Separations if the PPD doesn’t support in-RIP separations.
• Choose In-RIP Separations if the PPD supports in-RIP separations. Trapping options appear. From the Trapping
menu, choose Adobe In-RIP or Off. If you choose Adobe In-RIP, click Trap Presets and select a preset. Click OK.
7 Specify settings for halftone screen frequency and the angle at which the selected ink’s halftone screen is rotated.
8 If the document contains objects with transparency settings, select an option from the Transparency Flattening

Preset menu.
9 Under Ink Manager, deselect any color you don’t want to separate.

The four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) always appear at the top of the color plate list, followed
by spot colors in alphabetical order.
10 Click the Ink Manager button to modify ink settings for color separations.
11 Click Marks And Bleeds on the left, and select All Marks.
12 Click PostScript Options on the left, and select settings as needed. Click OK to close the dialog box, and then click

OK again to print the separations.

Additional resources
For more information on high-end PDF printing, see:

• Adobe PDF in the Print Production Workflow:
www.adobe.com/studio/print/pdfs/PDF_wp_A9_updates_july08.pdf.

Declare the presence of trapping information (Acrobat Pro DC)
If you are sending your PDF files to a print service provider, you can use the Document Properties dialog box to specify
whether a PDF contains trapping information. This detail can help prevent the service provider from adding potentially
conflicting trapping commands to the file. Trapping information can either be imported with other PostScript
information from the authoring application, or it can be created in Acrobat using trapping presets supported by Adobe
In-RIP Trapping.
1 Open the PDF file, and choose File > Properties.
2 Click the Advanced tab.

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3 Choose an option from the Trapped menu, and click OK.
Yes The file contains trapping information.
No The file doesn’t contain trapping information.
Unknown You don’t know whether the file contains trapping information.

Saving separations as PostScript (Acrobat Pro DC)
Depending on the prepress software available, a service provider may be able to perform such prepress activities as
trapping, imposition, separating, and OPI replacement at the output device’s RIP. Therefore, your service provider may
prefer to receive a composite PostScript file of the document optimized for in-RIP separations rather than a
preseparated PostScript file.
Saving the file as PostScript preserves the separation settings, the PPD information, and any color conversions you have
specified in the Advanced Print Setup dialog box.
For best results when generating PostScript for reuse in a print production workflow, use the Save As command rather
than the Print To File option available in the Print dialog box.

More Help topics
Understanding color management
Working with color profiles
Ink Manager overview
About flattening
Previewing output

Printing PDFs in custom sizes
More Help topics
Basic PDF printing tasks

Print an oversized document
You can print a large format document, such as a poster or banner, by splitting the page across multiple sheets of paper
(called “tiling”). The tiling option calculates how many sheets of paper are needed. You can adjust the size of the original
to best fit the paper and specify how much each “tile” overlaps. You can then piece together the tiles.?
You can also scale up a standard-sized document and print it on multiple pages.
1 Choose File > Print.
2 Click Poster.
3 (Optional) Set any of these options, referring to the Preview image to check the output results:
Tile Scale Adjusts the scaling. The scaling affects how the sections of the PDF page map to the physical sheet of

paper. (Click in the Overlap field to force the preview to redraw with the new scale value.)

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Overlap Specifies the minimum amount of duplicated information you want printed on each tile for ease in

assembly. The Overlap option uses the unit of measure specified for the document. The value should be greater than
the minimum nonprinting margins for the printer. You can specify up to half the size of the shortest side of the
document page to overlap. For example, tiles for a page that measures 11-by-17 inches (279.4mm-by-431.8mm) can
overlap up to 5.5 inches (139.7mm).
Labels Includes the PDF name, date of printing, and tile coordinate on every sheet. For example, Page 1 (1,1) means

row 1, column 1 of the first page. Tile coordinates are used for reassembling the tiles.
Cut Marks Prints marks on each corner of a tiled page for ease of assembly. Use this option in conjunction with the

Overlap option. When you specify an overlapping edge and then superimpose those edges, you can use the cut
marks to line up the tiles.
Tile Only Large Pages Tiles only oversized pages and prints standard pages as is.

Scale a document for printing
Acrobat can automatically scale a PDF to fit the paper, or you can resize pages by setting a specifc percentage.
1 Choose File > Print.
2 Click Size, and choose one of the following options:
Fit Scales small pages up and large pages down to fit the paper.
Shrink Oversize Pages Resizes only large pages to fit the paper, and prints small pages as they are.
Custom scale Resizes pages by the percentage you specify.

Note: If you don’t see a Page Scaling options, click the arrow next to the Printer menu to expose more controls in the
Print dialog box.

Advanced PDF print settings
More Help topics
Basic PDF printing tasks

About advanced print settings
If normal print settings don’t produce the results you expect, you may need to specify options in the Advanced Print
Setup dialog box. For example, if your printed output doesn’t match the document’s onscreen appearance, you may
need to try printing the document as an image (PostScript printers only). Or, if a PDF uses fonts that aren’t embedded,
you must download the fonts to the printer when you print the document.
Other advanced printing options in Acrobat Pro DC let you add printer marks to your printed output and choose how
to handle color.

Set advanced print options (Acrobat Standard)
The Advanced Print Setup dialog box is available for PostScript and non-PostScript printers.
1 In the Print dialog box, click Advanced.

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To learn more about an option, select it. A description appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
2 Set options, and then click OK.

Note: Acrobat sets the PostScript level automatically, based on the selected printer.

Set advanced print options (Acrobat Pro DC)
Print settings are preserved until you change them. When you change an option, the Settings value automatically
updates from Acrobat Default to Custom, and the new settings are preserved. You can also save custom settings using
a unique name.
1 In the Print dialog box, click Advanced.
2 If a custom printer settings file exists with the settings you want, choose it from the Settings menu. Otherwise,

choose Acrobat Default.
To learn more about an option, select it. A description of it appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
3 If normal printing doesn’t produce the desired results, select Print As Image and choose a resolution from the drop-

down list.
4 Select any of the panels on the left side of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box, and set options for either composite

or separations output.
Note: Some options in the general Print dialog box affect settings in the Advanced Print Setup dialog box. For example,
selecting the Print Color As Black option (Windows) affects color settings in Advanced Print Setup.

• Set color and other output conditions. See Output options (Acrobat Pro DC).
• Set options for printer marks. See Include marks and bleeds (Acrobat Pro DC).
• Set options for PostScript printers. See PostScript options.
Note: Acrobat sets the PostScript level automatically, based on the selected printer.

• Set options for managing color. See Color management options (Acrobat Pro DC)
5 To save the settings using a unique name, click Save As, specify a filename, and click OK.
6 Click OK to accept the settings and return to the Print dialog box.

PostScript options
Use the PostScript Options panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box to set options for a particular PostScript
printer. These options include how to handle nonresident printer fonts and whether to download Asian fonts. If a PDF
contains device-dependent settings, such as halftones and transfer functions, these settings can be sent in the PostScript
output to override the default settings in the printer. To use these options, you must be connected to a PostScript printer
or have a PostScript printer driver installed with a PPD file selected.
Font And Resource Policy Specifies how fonts and resources in the document are sent to a printer when those fonts and

resources aren’t present on the printer.
Send At Start Downloads all fonts and resources at the start of the print job. The fonts and resources remain on the

printer until the job has finished printing. This option is the fastest but uses the most printer memory.
Send By Range Downloads fonts and resources before printing the first page that uses them, and then discards them

when they are no longer needed. This option uses less printer memory. However, if a PostScript processor reorders the

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pages later in the workflow, the font downloading can be incorrect, resulting in missing fonts. This option does not
work with some printers.
Send For Each Page Downloads all fonts and resources for a given page before the page prints, and then discards the

fonts when the page has finished printing. This option uses the least printer memory.
Print Method (Acrobat Pro DC) Specifies the level of PostScript to generate for the pages. Choose the level of PostScript

appropriate for your printer.
Language (Acrobat Pro DC) Specifies the level of PostScript to generate for the pages. Choose the level of PostScript
appropriate for your printer.
Download Asian Fonts Prints documents with Asian fonts that aren’t installed on the printer or embedded in the PDF.

The Asian fonts must be present on the system.
Emit Undercolor Removal/Black Generation (Acrobat Pro DC) Black Generation calculates the amount of black to be
used when reproducing a particular color. Undercolor removal (UCR) reduces cyan, magenta, and yellow components
to compensate for the black added by the black generation. Because it uses less ink, UCR is used for newsprint and
uncoated stock.
Emit Halftones (Acrobat Pro DC) Allows you to emit the embedded halftones instead of using the halftones in the
output device. Halftone information controls how much ink is deposited at a specific location on the paper. Varying the
dot size and density creates the illusion of variations of gray or continuous color. For a CMYK image, four halftone
screens are used: one for each ink used in the printing process.
Emit Transfer Functions (Acrobat Pro DC) Emits embedded transfer functions. Transfer functions are traditionally used
to compensate for dot gain or dot loss that occurs when an image is transferred to film. Dot gain occurs when the ink
dots that make up a printed image are larger (for example, due to spreading on paper) than in the halftone screen. Dot
loss occurs when the dots print smaller. With this option, the transfer functions are applied to the file when the file is
output.
Emit Flatness (Acrobat Pro DC) allows you to use the flatness value of the PDF if the PDF already has flatness settings.
If the PDF doesn’t have any flatness settings, Acrobat controls it for the PostScript printing. The flatness value sets the
limit for how much Acrobat can approximate a curve.
Emit PS Form Objects (Acrobat Pro DC) Emits PostScript form objects for Form XObjects within the PDF. Selecting this
option reduces the overall size of the print job, but it could increase the printer memory that is used. A form XObject
is a container of graphics objects (including path objects, text objects, and sampled images) within the PDF. Form
XObjects create a single description for complex objects that can appear many times in a single document, such as
background images or company logos.
Discolored Background Correction Prevents printing problems like red boxes over graphics, or pages printing
mirrored or upside down. These problems can occur when Acrobat or Reader cannot use the default Color Rendering
Dictionaries (CRDs) on some PostScript printers.
Always Use Host Collation (Acrobat Pro DC) Specifies if you want Acrobat to always use host collation for printing

without checking the printer driver. Acrobat uses printer collation by default. Printer collation sends the print jobs
separately to the printer and allows the printer to figure out how to collate the pages. For example if you send out two
copies of a two page job, the printer receives two jobs of two pages. Host collation figures out how to collate the pages
in Acrobat and then sends that job to the printer. For example if you send out two copies of a two page job, the printer
receives a single rearranged job of four pages.
Print As Image Prints pages as bitmap images. Select this option if normal printing doesn’t produce the desired results,

and specify a resolution. This option is available only for PostScript printers.

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Downloading Asian fonts to a printer
Select the Download Asian Fonts option in the Advanced Print Setup dialog box if you want to print a PDF with Asian
fonts that aren’t installed on the printer or embedded in the document. Embedded fonts are downloaded whether or
not this option is selected. You can use this option with a PostScript Level 2 or higher printer. To make Asian fonts
available for downloading to a printer, be sure you have downloaded the fonts to your computer using the Custom or
Complete installation option during installation of Acrobat.
If Download Asian Fonts is not selected, the PDF prints correctly only if the referenced fonts are installed on the printer.
If the printer has similar fonts, the printer substitutes those. If there are no suitable fonts on the printer, Courier is used
for the text.
If Download Asian Fonts does not produce the results you want, print the PDF as a bitmap image. Printing a document
as an image may take longer than using a substituted printer font.
Note: Some fonts cannot be downloaded to a printer, either because the font is a bitmap or because font embedding is
restricted in that document. In these cases, a substitute font is used for printing, and the printed output may not match the
screen display.

Output options (Acrobat Pro DC)
Use the Output panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box to set output options.
Color Presents composite and separations options. Other options become available in the Output panel depending on

your selection in this menu. For more information about color composite and separations, see Printing color PDFs
(Acrobat Pro DC).
Flip Specifies if the orientation of the page on the media. Flip horizontal for wrong-reading documents, flip vertical to

change vertical orientation. This option is only enabled for separations and disabled for composites.
Negative Select this option to print the document reversed. For example, black appears as white on the resulting
output. This option is only enabled for separations and disabled for composites.
Screening Specifies the lines per inch (lpi) and dots per inch (dpi) combinations.
Trapping Specifies if trapping is off. Click Trap Presets to manage trapping presets.
Transparency Flattener Preset Flattens transparent objects according to the preset you choose.
Simulate Overprinting Simulates the effects of overprinting spot inks in composite output and converts spot colors to
process colors for printing; the document itself is unchanged. This option is useful for printing devices that don’t
support overprinting and is available only if you choose Composite from the Color menu. If you intend to use a file for
separations on a RIP (raster image processor) or for final output, don’t select this option.

Note: When printing to a printer that supports overprinting, make sure that this option is unselected, so the native
overprinting capabilities of the printer are used.
Use Maximum Available JPEG2000 Image Resolution Controls how resolution progression information, if present, is
used when generating PostScript. When selected, the maximum resolution data contained in the image is used. When
unselected, the resolution data is consistent with the resolution settings on the Transparency Flattening panel.
Ink Manager Modifies the way inks are treated while the current PDF is open. See Ink Manager overview.

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Specify halftone screen frequency (Acrobat Pro DC)
In commercial printing, continuous tone is simulated by dots (called halftone dots) printed in rows (called lines or line
screens). Lines are printed at different angles to make the rows less noticeable. The Screening menu in the Output
section of the Print dialog box displays the recommended sets of line screens in lines per inch (lpi), and resolution in
dots per inch (dpi), based on the currently selected PPD. As you select inks in the ink list, the values in the Frequency
and Angle boxes change, showing you the halftone screen frequency and angle for that ink.
A high line-screen ruling (for example, 150 lpi) spaces the dots closely together to create a finely rendered image on the
press; a low line-screen ruling (60 lpi to 85 lpi) spaces the dots farther apart to create a coarser image. The size of the
dots is also determined by the line screen. A high line-screen ruling uses small dots; a low line-screen ruling uses large
dots. The most important factor in choosing a line-screen ruling is the type of printing press your job will use. Ask your
service provider how fine a line screen its press can hold, and make your choices accordingly.

A 65 lpi: Coarse screen for printing newsletters and grocery coupons B 85 lpi: Average screen for printing newspapers C 133 lpi: High-quality
screen for printing four-color magazines D 177 lpi: Very fine screen for printing annual reports and images in art books

The PPD files for high-resolution imagesetters offer a wide range of possible screen frequencies, paired with various
imagesetter resolutions. The PPD files for low-resolution printers typically have only a few choices for line screens,
usually coarser screens of between 53 lpi and 85 lpi. The coarser screens, however, give optimum results on
low-resolution printers. Using a finer screen of 100 lpi, for example, actually decreases the quality of your image when
you use a low-resolution printer for final output.
Follow these steps to specify halftone screen frequency:
❖ In the Output panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box, do one of the following:

• To select one of the preset screen frequencies and printer resolution combinations, choose an option from the
Screening menu.
• To specify a custom halftone screen frequency, in the ink list, select the plate to be customized, and then enter
the lpi value in the Frequency box and a screen angle value in the Angle box.
Note: Before creating your own halftone screens, check with your print service provider for the preferred frequencies and
angles. Also, be aware that some output devices override the default frequencies and angles.

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Specify the emulsion and image exposure (Acrobat Pro DC)
Depending on the type of printing press used and how information is transferred from the film to the printing plates,
you may need to give your service provider film negatives or positives, with emulsion side up or down. Emulsion refers
to the photosensitive layer on a piece of film or paper. Typically, print service providers require negative film in the
United States and positive film in Europe and Japan. Check with your service provider to determine which emulsion
direction they prefer.
To tell whether you are looking at the emulsion side or the nonemulsion side (also referred to as the base), examine the
final film under a good light. One side appears shinier than the other. The dull side is the emulsion side; the shiny side
is the base.

A Positive image B Negative C Negative with emulsion side down

Note: The emulsion and image exposure settings in the Print dialog box override any conflicting settings in the printer
driver. Always specify print settings using the Print dialog box.
Follow these steps to specify the emulsion and exposure:
1 Select Output on the left side of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box.
2 For Color, choose Separations.
3 For Flip, select one of the following options:
None Makes no changes to the orientation of the imageable area. Type that is in the image is readable (that is, “right
reading”) when the photosensitive layer is facing you. This is the default.
Horizontal Mirrors the imageable area across a vertical axis so that it is “wrong reading.”
Vertical Mirrors the imageable area across a horizontal axis so that it is upside down.
Horizontal And Vertical Mirrors the imageable area across the horizontal and vertical axes so that it is wrong

reading. Type is readable when the photosensitive layer is facing away from you. Images printed on film are often
printed Horizontal And Vertical.
4 Select the Negative option for negative film; deselect it for positive film.

Note: The Negative option is also available if you choose In-RIP Separations from the Color menu.

Include marks and bleeds (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can place printer marks on the page to indicate the boundaries of document boxes supported by Adobe PDF, such
as trim boxes and bleed boxes. These marks are not added as page content; however, they are included in the PostScript
output.
The options in the Marks And Bleeds panel are unavailable under these circumstances:

• The PDF includes printer marks added using a different Acrobat feature, the Add Printer Marks tool.

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• The crop, bleed, and trim boxes are all the same size. The crop box is defined in the Crop Box dialog box (choose
Tools > Print Production > Set Page Boxes). If the artwork contains a bleed, make sure that the crop box is big
enough to accommodate the bleed box and other printer marks.

A Trim marks B Registration marks C Page information D Color bars E Bleed marks

1 Select Marks And Bleeds on the left side of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box.
2 Choose the printer marks you want. The marks appear in the preview on the left side of the Advanced Print Setup

dialog box.

Marks And Bleeds options
All Marks Creates all printer marks at once.
Style Determines the appearance of the marks. You can choose default InDesign marks, or marks from other
applications as listed.
Line Weight Determines the weight of the lines for trim, bleed, and registration marks.
Trim Marks Places a mark at each corner of the trim area to indicate the PDF trim box boundaries.
Bleed Marks Places a mark at each corner of the bleed box to indicate the PDF bleed box boundaries. A bleed box

defines the amount of extra area to image outside the defined page size.
Registration Marks Places marks outside the crop area for aligning the different separations in a color document.
Color Bars Adds a small square of color for each grayscale or process color. Spot colors converted to process colors are
represented using process colors. Your service provider uses these marks to adjust ink density on the printing press.
Page Information Places page information outside the crop area of the page. Page information includes the filename,

page number, current date and time, and color separation name.

Color management options (Acrobat Pro DC)
Use the Color Management panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog box to set options for printing color. For more
information about printing color, see Printing color PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC).
Color Handling Determines if color management is used and whether it happens in the application or at the printing

device.
Acrobat color management Enables you to select an ICC Profile that describes the target output device.
Printer Color Management Sends the document’s color data along with the document profile directly to the printer and

lets the printer convert the document to the printer color space. The exact results of the color conversion can vary
among printers.

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Same as Source (No Color Management) Discards all color management information and sends device color to the

printer.
Color Profile Determines the profile used for handling colors during printing.
Output Color Displays the output color based on the settings in the Output panel of the Advanced Print Setup dialog

box.
Treat grays as K-only grays Select this option to ensure that any grayscale as well as RGB graphical objects for which R,
G, B have equal values, are printed using only the black (K) when you enable color management and specify a CMYK
profile printing to a PostScript printer
Preserve Black Specifies that pure K-based CMYK colors are preserved as K-based in CMYK to CMYK conversions
that may occur when you enable color management and specify a CMYK profile printing to a PostScript printer.
Preserve CMYK Primaries Specifies that pure primary-based (C only, M only, Y only, or K only) CMYK colors are

preserved in CMYK to CMYK conversions that may occur when you enable color management and specify a CMYK
profile printing to a PostScript printer.
Apply Output Preview Settings Simulates the print space defined by the device identified in the Simulation Profile

menu of the Output Preview dialog box. (Choose Tools >Print Production > Output Preview.) This option allows you
to simulate the appearance of one device on another.

More Help topics
Embed printer marks in a PDF

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Chapter 11: Accessibility, tags, and reflow

Create and verify PDF accessibility (Acrobat Pro DC)

Acrobat DC tools make it easy to create accessible PDFs, and let you check the accessibility of existing PDFs. You can
create PDFs to meet common accessibility standards, such as Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 and
PDF/UA (Universal Access, or ISO 14289.) The simple, guided workflow lets you do the following:
Make PDFs accessible: A predefined action automates many tasks, checks accessibility, and provides instructions for
items that require manual fixes. Quickly find and fix problem areas.
Check accessibility: The Full Check tool verifies whether the document conforms to accessibility standards, such as
PDF/UA and WCAG 2.0.
Report accessibility status: The Accessibility Report summarizes the findings of the accessibility check. It contains
links to tools and documentation that assist in fixing problems.

Make PDFs accessible (Acrobat Pro DC)
The Make Accessible action walks you through the steps required to make a PDF accessible. It prompts to address
accessibility issues, such as a missing document description or title. It looks for common elements that need further
action, such as scanned text, form fields, tables, and images. You can run this action on all PDFs except dynamic forms
(XFA documents) or portfolios.
1 Choose Tools > Action Wizard.

The Action Wizard toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
Note: A list of available actions is displayed under the Actions List in the right hand pane.
2 From the Action List, click Make Accessible.

The right hand pane changes to display each task included in the Make Accessible action, as well as the instructions
to execute the action.
3 Select the files that you want to apply the Make Accessible action to. By default, the action runs on the document

that's currently open. Select Add Files to select additional files or a folder to run the action on.

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4 Click Start.
5 Follow the prompts to complete Make Accessible action.

Check accessibility of PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
A good way to check the accessibility of a document is to use tools that your readers will use. Even if you do not have
access to those tools, Adobe Acrobat DC provides an automated way to check the accessibility of a PDF file. The Full
Check feature in Acrobat DC checks a PDF for many of the characteristics of accessible PDFs. You can choose which
accessibility problems to look for and how you want the results reported.
1 Choose Tools > Accessibility.

The Accessibility toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, click Full Check.

The Accessibility Checker Options dialog box is displayed.
3 In the Report Options section, select options for how you want to view the results. You can save the results as an

HTML file on your system, or attach the results file to the document itself.
4 Select a page range if you prefer to check individual pages of a document.

When you have a large document, running a full check one page at a time can be more efficient.
5 Select one or more of the Checking Options.

6 Click Start Checking. The results are displayed in the Accessibility Checker panel on the left, which also has helpful

links and hints for repairing issues. If you created a report in step 2, the results are available in the selected folder.
Because the Full Check feature cannot distinguish between essential and nonessential content types, some issues it
reports don’t affect readability. It’s a good idea to review all issues to determine which ones require correction.
The report displays one of the following statuses for each rule check:

• Passed: The item is accessible.
• Skipped By User: Rule was not checked because it wasn't selected in the Accessibility Checker Options dialog
box.
• Needs Manual Check: The Full Check feature couldn't check the item automatically. Verify the item manually.

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• Failed: The item didn't pass the accessibility check.

In addition to Full Check, Acrobat DC provides other methods to check PDF accessibility:

•Use Reflow a PDFto quickly check the reading order.
• Use Read Out Loud to experience the document as readers who use the text-to-speech conversion tool experience it.
• Save the document as accessible text and then read the saved text file in a word-processing application. This exercise
enables you to emulate the end-user experience of readers who use a braille printer to read the document.
• Use the Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC), Order, Tags, and Content panels to examine the
structure, reading order, and contents of a PDF.

More Help topics
Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features
Accessibility preferences
Creating accessible PDFs
Standard PDF tags (Acrobat Pro)

Fix accessibility issues (Acrobat Pro DC)
To fix a failed check after running Full Check, right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the item in the Accessibility
Checker panel. Choose one of the following options from the context menu:
Fix: Acrobat either fixes the item automatically, or displays a dialog box prompting you to fix the item manually.
Skip Rule: Deselects this option in the Accessibility Checker Options dialog box for future checks of this document,

and changes the item status to Skipped.
Explain: Opens the online Help where you can get more details about the accessibility issue.
Check Again: Runs the checker again on all items. Choose this option after modifying one or more items.

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Show Report: Displays a report with links to tips on how to repair failed checks.
Options: Opens the Accessibility Checker Options dialog box, so you can select which checks are performed.

Accessibility issues

Document

Accessibility permission flag
A document author can specify that no part of an accessible PDF is to be copied, printed, extracted, commented on, or
edited. This setting could interfere with a screen reader's ability to read the document, because screen readers must be
able to copy or extract the document's text to convert it to speech.
This flag reports whether it's necessary to turn on the security settings that allow accessibility.
To fix the rule automatically, select Accessibility Permission Flag on the Accessibility Checker panel. Then, choose Fix
menu.
from the Options
Or, fix accessibility permissions manually:
1 Choose File > Properties > Security.
2 Choose No Security from the Security Method drop-down list.
3 Click OK and close the Document Properties dialog box.

If your assistive technology product is registered with Adobe as a Trusted Agent, you can read PDFs that might be
inaccessible to another assistive technology product. Acrobat recognizes when a screen reader or other product is a
Trusted Agent and overrides security settings that would typically limit access to the content for accessibility purposes.
However, the security settings remain in effect for all other purposes, such as to prevent printing, copying, extracting,
commenting, or editing text.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A), 4.1.2 Name, role, value

Image-only PDF
Reports whether the document contains non-text content that is not accessible. If the document appears to contain text,
but doesn't contain fonts, it could be an image-only PDF file.
To fix this rule check automatically, select Image-only PDF on the Accessibility Checker panel, and choose Fix from the
menu.
Options
Or, to fix this rule check manually, use OCR to recognize text in scanned images:
1 Choose Tools > Enhance Scans.

The Enhance Scans toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar.
2 In the secondary toolbar, choose Recognize Text > In This File.
3 Select the pages you want to process, the document language, and then click Recognize Text.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.1.1. Non-text content (A)

Tagged PDF
If this rule check fails, the document isn't tagged to specify the correct reading order.

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To fix this item automatically, select Tagged PDF on the Accessibility Checker panel, and then choose Fix from the
menu. Acrobat automatically adds tags to the PDF.
Options
To specify tags manually, do one of the following:

• Enable tagging in the application in which the PDF was authored, and re-create the PDF.
• Choose Tools > Accessibility > Autotag Document in Acrobat DC. The Add Tags Report appears in the navigation
pane if there are any issues. The report lists potential problems by page, provides a navigational link to each problem,
and provides suggestions for fixing them.
• Choose Tools > Accessibility > Reading Order in Acrobat DC, and create the tags tree. For more information, see
Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC).
• Open the Tags
panel and create the tags tree manually. To display the Tags panel, choose View > Show/Hide >
Navigation Panes > Tags. For more information, see Edit document structure with the Content and Tags panels
(Acrobat Pro).
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships, 1.3.2, 2.4.1, 2.4.4, 2.4.5, 2.4.6, 3.1.2, 3.3.2, 4.1.2 Name,
role, value

Logical reading order
Verify this rule check manually. Make sure that the reading order displayed in the Tags panel coincides with the logical
reading order of the document.

Primary language
Setting the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate language. This check
determines whether the primary text language for the PDF is specified. If the check fails, set the language.
To set the language automatically, select Primary Language in the Accessibility Checker tab, and then choose Fix from
menu. Choose a language in the Set Reading Language dialog box, and then click OK.
the Options
To set the language manually, do one of the following:

• Choose File > Properties > Advanced and then select a language from the drop-down list in the Reading Options
section. (If the language doesn't appear in the drop-down list, you can enter the ISO 639 code for the language in
the Language field.) This setting applies the primary language for the entire PDF.
• Set the language for all text in a subtree of the tags tree. Open the Tags
panel. Expand the Tags root and select
an element. Then choose Properties from the Options
menu. Choose a language from the Language drop-down
list. (To display the Tags panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.)
• Set the language for a block of text by selecting the text element or container element in the Content
panel.
Then, right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the text and choose Properties from the context menu and
choose a language from the Language drop-down list. (To display the Content panel, choose View > Show/Hide >
Navigation Panes > Content.)
Note: See the related WCAG section: Language of Page (Level A)

Title
Reports whether there is a title in the Acrobat application title bar.
To fix the title automatically, select Title in the Accessibility Checker tab, and choose Fix from the Options
Enter the document title in the Description dialog box (deselect Leave As Is, if necessary).

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Or, fix the title manually:
1 Choose File > Properties > Description.
2 Enter a title in the Title text box.
3 Click Initial View, and then choose Document Title from the Show drop-down list.
4 Click OK to close the Description dialog box.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 2.4 Page Titled (Level A)

Bookmarks
This check fails when the document has 21 or more pages, but doesn't have bookmarks that parallel the document
structure.
To add bookmarks to the document, select Bookmarks on the Accessibility Checker panel, and choose Fix from the
menu. In the Structure Elements dialog box, select the elements that you want to use as bookmarks, and
Options
click OK. (You can also access the Structure Elements dialog box by clicking the Options menu on the Bookmark tab
and selecting the New Bookmarks From Structure command.)
Note: See the related WCAG sections: 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (Level A), 2.4.5 Multiple Ways (Level AA)

Color contrast
When this check fails, it's possible that the document contains content that isn't accessible to people who are colorblind.
To fix this issue, make sure that the document's content adheres to the guidelines outlined in WCAG section 1.4.3. Or,
include a recommendation that the PDF viewer use high-contrast colors:
1 Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Acrobat > Preferences (Mac OS).
2 Click Accessibility.
3 Select Replace Document Colors, and then select Use High-Contrast Colors. Choose the color combination that you

want from the drop-down list, and then click OK.

Page content

Tagged content
This check reports whether all content in the document is tagged. Make sure that all content in the document is either
included in the Tags tree, or marked as an artifact.
Do one of the following to fix this rule check:

• Open the Content
panel and right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the content that you want to mark
as an artifact. Then, select Create Artifact from the context menu. (To display the Content tab, choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.)
• Tag the content by choosing Tools > Accessibility > Reading Order. Select the content, and then apply tags as
necessary.
• Assign tags using the Tags
panel. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the element in the Tags tree,
and choose Create Tag From Selection. Items such as comments, links, and annotations don't always appear in the
Tags tree. To find these items, choose Find from the Options menu. (To display the Tags panel, choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.)

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Note: See the related WCAG sections: 1.1.1 Non-text content (A), 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (Level A), 1.3.2 Meaningful
Sequence (Level A), 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (Level A), 3.1.2 Language of Parts (Level AA), 4.1.2 Name, role, value

Tagged annotations
This rule checks whether all annotations are tagged. Make sure that annotations such as comments and editorial marks
(such as insert and highlight) are either included in the Tags tree or marked as artifacts.

• Open the Content
panel, and right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the content that you want to mark
as an artifact. Then, select Create Artifact from the context menu. (To display the Content panel, choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.)
• Tag the content by choosing Tools > Accessibility > Reading Order. Select the content, and then apply tags as
necessary.
• Assign tags using the Tags
Tags.)

panel. (To display the Tags panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes >

To have Acrobat DC assign tags automatically to annotations as they're created, choose Tag Annotations from the
Options menu on the Tags panel.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (Level A), 4.1.2 Name, role, value

Tab order
Because tabs are often used to navigate a PDF, it's necessary that the tab order parallels the document structure.
To fix the tab order automatically, select Tab Order on the Accessibility Checker panel, and choose Fix from the
menu.
Options
To manually fix the tab order for links, form fields, comments, and other annotations:
1 Click the Page Thumbnails panel on the navigation pane.
2 Click a page thumbnail, and then choose Page Properties from the Options

menu.

3 In the Page Properties dialog box, choose Tab Order. Then, select Use Document Structure, and click OK.
4 Repeat these steps for all thumbnails in the document.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 2.4.3, Focus Order (Level A)

Character encoding
Specifying the encoding helps PDF viewers' present users with readable text. However, some character-encoding issues
aren't repairable within Acrobat DC.
To ensure proper encoding, do the following:

• Verify that the necessary fonts are installed on your system.
• Use a different font (preferably OpenType) in the original document, and then re-create the PDF.
• Re-create the PDF file with a newer version of Acrobat Distiller.
• Use the latest Adobe Postscript driver to create the PostScript file, and then re-create the PDF.
Note: The WCAG doesn't address Unicode character mapping.

Tagged multimedia
This rule checks whether all multimedia objects are tagged. Make sure that content is either included in the Tags tree
or marked as an artifact.

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Open the Content
panel and right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the content that you want to mark as
an artifact. Then, select Create Artifact from the context menu. (To display the Content panel, choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.)
Tag the content by choosing Tools > Accessibility > Reading Order. Select the content, and then apply tags as necessary.
Assign tags using the Tags
panel. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the element in the Tags tree, and
choose Create Tag From Selection. (To display the Tags panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.)
Note: See the related WCAG sections: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A), 1.2.1 Audio- only and Video- only (Prerecorded). (A),
1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded). (A), 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded). (A), 1.2.5 Audio
Description (Prerecorded). (AA)

Screen flicker
Elements that make the screen flicker, such as animations and scripts can cause seizures in individuals who have
photosensitive epilepsy. These elements can also be difficult to see when the screen is magnified.
If the Screen Flicker rule fails, manually remove or modify the script or content that causes screen flicker.
Note: See these related WCAG sections: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A), 1.2.1 Audio- only and Video- only (Prerecorded). (A),
1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded). (A), 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded). (A), 2.3.1 Three Flashes or
Below Threshold. (Level A)

Scripts
Content cannot be script-dependent unless both content and functionality are accessible to assistive technologies.
Make sure that scripting doesn't interfere with keyboard navigation or prevent the use of any input device.
Check the scripts manually. Remove or modify any script or content that compromises accessibility.
Note: See these related WCAG sections: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A), 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide. (Level A), 4.1.2 Name, role,
value

Timed responses
This rule check applies to documents that contain forms with JavaScript. If the rule check fails, make sure that the page
does not require timed responses. Edit or remove scripts that impose timely user response so that users have enough
time to read and use the content.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable. (Level A)

Navigation links
For URLs to be accessible to screen readers, they must be active links that are correctly tagged in the PDF. (The best
way to create accessible links is with the Create Link command, which adds all three links that screen readers require
to recognize a link.) Make sure that navigation links are not repetitive, and there is a way for users to skip over repetitive
links.
If this rule check fails, check navigation links manually and verify that the content does not have too many identical
links. Also, provide a way for users to skip over items that appear multiple times. For example, if the same links appear
on each page of the document, also include a "Skip navigation" link.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks. (Level A)

Forms

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Tagged form fields
In an accessible PDF, all form fields are tagged and are a part of the document structure. In addition, you can use the
tool tip form filed property to provide the user with information or to provide instructions.
To tag form fields, choose Tools > Accessibility > Autotag Form Fields.
Note: See the related WCAG sections: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A), 4.1.2 Name, role, value

Field descriptions
For accessibility, all form fields need a text description (tool tip).
To add a text description to a form field:
1 Select one of the Form tools, and then right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the form field.
2 Choose Properties from the context menu.
3 Click the General properties tab.
4 Enter a description of the form field in the Tooltip field.

Note: See the related WCAG sections: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A), 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (Level A), 4.1.2
Name, role, value

Alternate text

Figures alternate text
Make sure that images in the document either have alternate text, or are marked as artifacts.
If this rule check fails, do one of the following:

• Select Figures Alternate Text in the Accessibility Checker panel, and choose Fix from the Options
alternate text as prompted in the Set Alternate Text dialog box.

menu. Add

• Use the Tags panel to add alternate text for images in the PDF.
• Open the Content
panel and right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) the content that you want to mark
as an artifact. Then, select Create Artifact from the context menu. (To display the Content panel, choose View >
Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Content.)
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A)

Nested alternate text
Screen readers don't read the alternate text for nested elements. Therefore, don't apply alternate text to nested elements.
To remove alternate text from nested elements, do the following:
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.
2 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) a nested element in the Tags panel and choose Properties from the

context menu.
3 Remove both the Alternate Text and the text to which it's applied from the Object Properties dialog box, and then

click Close.
Note: See the related WCAG section: #1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A)

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Associated with content
Make sure that alternate text is always an alternate representation for content on the page. If an element has alternate
text, but does not contain any page content, there is no way to determine which page it is on. If the Screen Reader
Option in the Reading preferences is not set to read the entire document, then screen readers never read the alternate
text.
1 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) an item to check.
2 Open it in the Tags

panel. (To display the Tags panel, choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.)

3 Remove the Alternate Text from the Tags panel for any nested item that has no page content.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A)

Hides annotation
Alternate text can't hide an annotation. If an annotation is nested under a parent element with alternate text, then
screen readers don't see it.
To remove alternate text from nested elements:
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.
2 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) a nested element in the Tags panel and choose Properties from the

context menu.
3 Remove the alternate text from the Object Properties dialog box, and then click OK.

Note: See the related WCAG sections: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A), 4.1.2 Name, role, value

Other elements alternate text
This report checks for content other than figures that requires alternate text (such as multimedia, annotation, or 3D
model). Make sure that alternate text is always an alternate representation for content on the page. If an element has
alternate text but does not contain any page content, there is no way to determine which page it is on. If the Screen
Reader Options in the Reading preferences is not set to read the entire document, then screen readers don't read the
alternate text.
1 Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Tags.
2 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) a nested element in the Tags

panel and choose Properties from

the context menu.
3 Remove the alternate text from the Object Properties dialog box, and then click OK.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A)

Tables
Because table structure can be complex, it best practice to check them for accessibility manually.

Rows
This rule checks whether each TR in a table is a child of Table, THead, TBody, or TFoot.
See Correct table tags with the Tags panel.
Note: Related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

TH and TD
In a proper table structure, TH and TD are children of TR.

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See Correct table tags with the Tags panel.
Note: See related WCAG section: #1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Headers
For accessibility, it's necessary that all tables in the PDF have a header.
See Correct table tags with the Tags panel.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Regularity
To be accessible, tables must contain the same number of columns in each row, and rows in each column.
See Correct table tags with the Tags panel.
Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Summary
Table summaries are optional, but can improve accessibility.
1 Choose Tools > Accessibility > Reading Order.
2 Select the table by drawing a rectangle around it.
3 In the Touch UP Reading Order dialog box, click Table.
4 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl-click (Mac OS) Table.
5 Click Edit Table Summary.
6 Enter a summary and click OK.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Lists

List items
The check reports whether each List Item (LI) is a child of List (L). When this rule check fails, the structure of this list
is incorrect. Lists must have the following structure: A List element must contain List Item Elements. And, List Item
Elements can only contain Label Elements and List Item Body Elements.
To fix the list structure:
1 Find the list in the Accessibility Checker panel by right-clicking (Windows) or Ctrl-clicking (Mac OS) the failed

element and choosing ShowIn TagsPanel.
2 Create elements, change the types of elements, or rearrange existing elements by dragging them.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Lbl and LBody
Lists must have the following structure: A List element must contain List Item Elements. And, List Item Elements can
only contain Label Elements and List Item Body Elements. When this rule check fails, the structure of this list is
incorrect.

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To fix the list structure:
1 Find the list in the Accessibility Checker panel by right-clicking (Windows) or Ctrl-clicking (Mac OS) the failed

element and choosing Show In Tags Panel.
2 Create elements, change the types of elements, or rearrange existing elements by dragging them.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

Headings

Appropriate nesting
This rule checks nested headings. When this check fails, headings are not nested properly.
To fix the list structure:
1 Find the list in the Accessibility Checker panel by right-clicking (Windows) or Ctrl-clicking (Mac OS) the failed

element and choosing Show in Tags Panel.
2 Create elements, change the types of elements, or rearrange existing elements by dragging them.

Note: See the related WCAG section: 2.4.6 Headings and Labels. (Level AA). The order of headings is not required under
WCAG, and is only an advisory technique.

WCAG mapping to PDF/UA
WCAG 2.0

ISO 14289 -1 (File)

Techniques

1.1.1 Non-text Content. (A)

•

7.3 addresses content requiring text
alteration.

•

PDF1

•

PDF4

•

7.18.1 paragraph four addresses control
descriptions.

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Test, Sensory, and CAPTCHA
use-cases are addressed via the technical
means used.

•

7.1 paragraph 1, sentence 2 addresses
decoration.

1.2.1 Audio- only and Video- only
(Prerecorded). (A)

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Design-specific. It's necessary
that authors and developers consider this
provision and ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-media-equiv-av-only-alt

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded). (A)

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Design-specific. It's necessary
that authors and developers consider this
provision and ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-media-equiv-captions

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative
(Prerecorded). (A)

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Design-specific. It's necessary
that authors and developers consider this
provision and ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-media-equiv-audio-desc

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1.2.4 Captions (Live). (AA)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-media-equiv-real-time-captions

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded). (AA)

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Design-specific. It's necessary
that authors and developers consider this
provision and ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-media-equiv-audio-desc-only

1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded). (AAA)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

1.2.7 Extended Audio Description
(Prerecorded). (AAA)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance

1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded). (AAA)

•

7.18.6.2 addresses time-based media
alternatives. Design-specific. It's necessary
that authors and developers consider this
provision and ensure conformance.

1.2.9 Audio- only (Live). (AAA)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships. (Level A)

•

7.1 - 7.10 and 7.20 address structure and
relationships in content.

•

PDF6

•

PDF9

•

7.17 and 7.18 address structure and
relationships in annotations.

•

PDF10

•

PDF11

•

PDF12

•

PDF17

•

PDF20

•

PDF21

•

PDF3

•

7.2 paragraph two addresses the
meaningful sequence of content.

•

7.17 addresses navigation features.

•

7.18.3 addresses tab order in annotations.

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics. (Level A)

•

7.1, paragraphs 6 and 7

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-content-structure-separationunderstanding

1.4.1 Use of Color. (Level A)

•

7.1, paragraph 6

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-visual-audio-contrast-without-color

1.4.2 Audio Control. (Level A)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-visual-audio-contrast-dis-audio

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence. (Level A)

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1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum). (Level AA)

•

7.1, paragraph 6 and note 4

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-visual-audio-contrast-contrast

1.4.4 Resize text. (Level AA)

•

Not applicable

•

G142

1.4.5 Images of Text. (Level AA)

•

7.3, paragraph 6

•

PDF7

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-visual-audio-contrast-textpresentation

•

PDF3

•

PDF11

•

PDF23

•

G21

1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced). (Level AAA)

•

7.1, paragraph 6

1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio. (Level
AAA)

•

While ISO 14289 does not address this
success criterion, conformance in PDF
requires ISO 14289 conforming files and
readers. The manner in which developers
support this success criterion in PDF in not
defined in ISO 14289 or ISO 32000.

1.4.8 Visual Presentation. (Level AAA)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception). (Level
AAA)

•

7.3 paragraph 1

2.1.1 Keyboard. (Level A)

•

Not applicable

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap. (Level A)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that
developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception). (Level AAA)

•

7.19, paragraph 3

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable. (Level A)

•

7.19, paragraph three applies, but generally
this rule is design-specific. It's necessary
that developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

•

G133

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide. (Level A)

•

7.19

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-time-limits-pause

2.2.3 No Timing. (Level AAA)

•

7.19

2.2.4 Interruptions. (Level AAA)

•

7.19

2.2.5 Re- authenticating. (Level AAA)

•

Not applicable

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold. (Level
A)

•

7.1, paragraph 5

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-seizure-does-not-violate

2.3.2 Three Flashes.(Level AAA)

•

7.1, paragraph 5

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2.4.1 Bypass Blocks. (Level A)

•

Not applicable, unless the PDF includes
repetitive real content. Page content, such
as running headers and footers, must
conform with 7.8.

•

PDF9

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-navigation-mechanisms-skip

2.4.2 Page Titled. (Level A)

•

7.1, paragraphs 8 and 9

•

PDF18

2.4.3 Focus Order. (Level A)

•

7.1, paragraph 2, 7.18.1; paragraph 2, 7.18.3

•

PDF3

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context). (Level A)

•

7.18.5

•

PDF11

•

PDF13

PDFs can conform with this provision in
several ways, including outlines (7.17), links
(7.18.5), and page labels.

•

PDF2

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-navigation-mechanisms-mult-loc

2.4.5 Multiple Ways. (Level AA)

•

2.4.6 Headings and Labels. (Level AA)

•

7.4

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-navigation-mechanisms-descriptive

2.4.7 Focus Visible. (Level AA)

•

Not applicable

•

G149

•

G165

•

G195

•

PDF16

•

PDF19

•

PDF19

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-consistent-behavior-receive-focus

2.4.8 Location. (Level AAA)

•

7.4, 7.17

2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only). (Level AAA)

•

7.18.5

2.4.10 Section Headings. (Level AAA)

•

7.4

3.1.1 Language of Page. (Level A)

•

7.2, paragraph 3.

3.1.2 Language of Parts. (Level AA)

•

7.2, paragraph 3.

3.1.3 Unusual Words. (Level AAA)

•

Not addressed in ISO 14289. See ISO 320001, section 14.9.5.

3.1.4 Abbreviations. (Level AAA)

•

Not addressed in ISO 14289. See ISO 320001, section 14.9.5.

3.1.5 Reading Level. (Level AAA)

•

No Accessibility Support impact. This rule is
design-specific. It's necessary that
application or document authors consider
this provision and ensure conformance.

3.1.6 Pronunciation. (Level AAA)

•

PDF provides several mechanisms for
deploying media and other options for
pronunciation assistance. Design-specific.
It's necessary that authors and developers
consider this provision and ensure
conformance.

3.2.1 On Focus. (Level A)

•

7.18, paragraph 2

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3.2.2 On Input. (Level A)

•

7.18, paragraph 2

•

PDF15

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation. (Level AA)

•

7.1, paragraph 1, 7.17

•

PDF14

•

PDF17

•

G61

•

General Techniques:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref
/#qr-consistent-behavior-consistentfunctionality

•

PDF5

•

PDF22

•

PDF5

•

PDF10

•

PDF10

•

PDF12

3.2.4 Consistent Identification. (Level AA)

•

7.1, paragraph 1

3.2.5 Change on Request. (Level AAA)

•

7.19, paragraph 2

3.3.1 Error Identification. (Level A)

•

Design-specific. It's necessary that authors
and developers consider this provision and
ensure conformance.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (Level A)

4.1.2 Name, role, value

More Help topics
WCAG Specification
PDF/UA
Guide to understanding the WCAG Specification
PDF Techniques for WCAG
How to meet WCAG 2.0 (a PDF checklist)
Acrobat accessibility training resources
Adobe blog: WCAG 2.0 techniques for PDF

Accessibility features in PDFs
A document or application is accessible if people with disabilities, such as mobility impairments, blindness, and low
vision, can use it. Accessibility features in Acrobat DC, Acrobat Reader DC, and Adobe Portable Document Format
(PDF) enable people with disabilities to use PDF documents, with or without screen readers, screen magnifiers, and
braille printers.
Making PDFs accessible tends to benefit all users. For example, the document structure that enables a screen reader to
read a PDF out loud also enables a mobile device to reflow and display the document on a small screen. Similarly, the
preset tab order of an accessible PDF form helps all users, not just users with mobility impairments, fill the form more
easily.
Accessibility features in Acrobat DC and Acrobat Reader DC fall into two broad categories. There are features to make
the reading of PDF documents more accessible, and features to create accessible PDF documents. To create accessible
PDF documents, use Acrobat, not Reader.

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Features for accessible reading of PDFs

• Preferences and commands to optimize output for assistive software and devices, such as saving as accessible text
for a braille printer
• Preferences and commands to make navigation of PDFs more accessible, such as automatic scrolling and opening
PDFs to the last page read
• Accessibility Setup Assistant for easy setting of most preferences related to accessibility
• Keyboard alternates to mouse actions
• Reflow capability to display PDF text in large type and to temporarily present a multicolumn PDF in a single, easyto-read column.
• Read Out Loud text-to-speech conversion
• Support for screen readers and screen magnifiers
Features for creating accessible PDFs

• Creation of tagged PDFs from authoring applications
• Conversion of untagged PDFs to tagged PDFs
• Security setting that allows screen readers to access text while preventing users from copying, printing, editing, and
extracting text
• Ability to add text to scanned pages to improve accessibility
• (Acrobat Pro DC) Tools for editing reading order and document structure
• (Acrobat Pro DC) Tools for creating accessible PDF forms
Acrobat Standard DC provides some functionality for making existing PDFs accessible. Acrobat Pro DC enables you
to perform tasks, such as editing reading order, or editing document structure tags that are necessary to make some
PDF documents and forms accessible.
Additional resources
For more information about accessibility features, see these resources:

• Acrobat accessibility, overview, new features, and FAQ: www.adobe.com/accessibility/products/acrobat/
• Information and news about accessibility in Adobe products: blogs.adobe.com/accessibility/pdf/
• Creating accessible PDF documents: www.adobe.com/accessibility
• General accessibility tips: http://acrobatusers.com/forum/accessibility/

About accessible PDFs
Accessible PDFs have the following characteristics.
Searchable text
A document that consists of scanned images of text is inherently inaccessible because the content of the document is
images, not searchable text. Assistive software cannot read or extract the words, users cannot select or edit the text, and
you cannot manipulate the PDF for accessibility. Convert the scanned images of text to searchable text using optical
character recognition (OCR) before you can use other accessibility features with the document.
Alternate text descriptions (Acrobat Pro DC)

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Screen readers cannot read document features such as images and interactive form fields unless they have associated
alternate text. Screen readers can read web links; however, you can provide more meaningful descriptions as alternate
text. Alternate text and tool tips can aid many users, including users with learning disabilities.
Fonts that allow characters to be extracted to text (Acrobat Pro DC)
The fonts in an accessible PDF must contain enough information for Acrobat to extract all of the characters to text for
purposes other than displaying text on the screen. Acrobat extracts characters to Unicode text when you read a PDF
with a screen reader or the Read Out Loud feature. Acrobat also extracts characters to Unicode when you save as text
for a braille printer. This extraction fails if Acrobat cannot determine how to map the font to Unicode characters.
Reading order and document structure tags (Acrobat Pro DC)
To read a document’s text and present it in a way that makes sense to the user, a screen reader or other text-to-speech
tool requires a structured document. Document structure tags in a PDF define the reading order and identify headings,
paragraphs, sections, tables, and other page elements.
Interactive form fields (Acrobat Pro DC)
Some PDFs contain forms that a person is to fill out using a computer. To be accessible, form fields must be interactive
to let the user enter values into the form fields.
Navigational aids (Acrobat Pro DC)
Navigational aids in a PDF include links, bookmarks, headings, table of contents, and preset tab order for form fields.
Navigational aids assist users in understanding the document without reading completely through it. Bookmarks are
especially useful and can be created from document headings.
Document language (Acrobat Pro DC)
Specifying the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate language.
Security that doesn’t interfere with assistive software (Acrobat Pro DC)
Some PDF authors restrict users from printing, copying, extracting, adding comments, or editing text. The text of an
accessible PDF must be available to a screen reader. You can use Acrobat to ensure that security settings don’t interfere
with the screen reader’s ability to convert onscreen text to speech.
For more information about PDF accessibility, see www.webaim.org/techniques/acrobat/.

About tags, accessibility, reading order, and reflow
PDF tags are similar in many ways to XML tags. PDF tags indicate document structure: which text is a heading, which
content makes up a section, which text is a bookmark, and so on. A logical structure tree of tags represents the
organizational structure of the document. Therefore, tags indicate the reading order and improve navigation,
particularly for long, complex documents without changing the PDF appearance.
Assistive software determines how to present and interpret the content of the document by using the logical structure
tree. Most assistive software depends on document structure tags to determine the appropriate reading order of text.
Document structure tags let assistive software convey the meaning of images and other content in an alternate format,
such as sound. An untagged document does not have structure information, and Acrobat must infer a structure based
on the Reading Order preference setting. This situation often results in page items being read in the wrong order or not
at all.
Reflowing a document for viewing on the small screen of a mobile device relies on these same document structure tags.
Often, Acrobat tags PDFs when you create them. To determine whether a PDF contains tags, choose File > Properties,
and look at the Tagged PDF value in the Advanced pane of the Description tab.

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In Acrobat Pro DC, the logical structure tree appears on the Tags panel. It shows document content as page elements
nested at various levels.

More Help topics
Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features
Creating accessible PDFs
Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro)
Editing document structure with the Content and Tags panels(Acrobat Pro)
Keys for accessibility (Acrobat Pro)

Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro DC)
Touch Up Reading Order tool overview
The Touch Up Reading Order tool provides the easiest and quickest way to fix reading order and basic tagging
problems. When you select the Touch Up Reading Order tool, a dialog box opens that lets you see overlay highlights
that show the order of page content. Each highlighted region is numbered and highlighted with gray or colored blocks;
the number indicates the region’s placement in the page’s reading order. After you check the reading order of the page,
you can correct other, more subtle tagging issues as needed.
The Touch Up Reading Order tool is intended for repairing PDFs that were tagged using Acrobat, not for repairing
PDFs that were tagged during conversion from an authoring application. Whenever possible, return to the source file
and add accessibility features in the authoring application. Repairing the original file ensures that you don’t have to
repeatedly touch up future iterations of the PDF in Acrobat.
You use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to perform the following accessibility tasks:

• Visually check, and then repair, the reading order of page content
• Tag fillable form fields and their labels
• Add alternate text to figures and descriptions to form fields
• Fix the tagging of simple tables, and prepare complex tables for more advanced manipulation in the logical structure
tree
• Remove nonessential content, such as ornamental page borders, from the logical structure tree
To perform advanced reading order and tagging tasks, such as fixing complex tables, removing obsolete tags, and
adding alternate text to links, use the Tags panel. The panel contains an alternate set of tools and features for
manipulating PDF tags. For more information, see Edit tags with the Tags panel.

Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool
• Choose Tools > Accessibility > Touch Up Reading Order to select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.

Tips for using the Touch Up Reading Order tool
• Save the document (or a copy of it) before you use the Touch Up Reading Order tool. You can’t use Undo to reverse
changes made with this tool, so reverting to a saved document is the only way to undo such a change.

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• Choose View > Page Display > Single Page View, when using the Touch Up Reading Order tool. When you click
the Clear Page Structure button, Acrobat DC clears tags from all visible pages, even pages that are only partially
visible.
For additional tips on working with reading order, see Donna Baker’s Setting Reading Order in a PDF Document.

Touch Up Reading Order options
You can select Touch Up Reading Order options from the dialog box, from the pop-up menu that appears when you
right-click a highlighted region, or from the options menu in the Order panel. The Touch Up Reading Order tool
includes the following options:
Text Tags the selection as text.
Figure Tags the selection as a figure. Text contained within a figure tag is defined as part of the image and screen

readers don’t read it.
Form Field Tags the selection as a form field.
Figure/Caption Tags a selected figure and caption as a single tag. Any text contained in the tag is defined as a caption.
Useful for tagging photos and captions and preventing caption text from being incorrectly added to adjacent text
blocks. Figures may require alternate text.
Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, Heading 4, Heading 5, Heading 6 Tags the selection as a first, second, third, fourth,

fifth, or sixth level heading tag. You can convert heading tags to bookmarks to help users navigate the document.
Table Tags the selection as a table after the selection is analyzed to determine the location of headings, columns, and

rows.
Cell Tags the selection as a table or header cell. Use this option to merge cells that are incorrectly split.
Formula Tags the selection as a formula. Because speech software may handle formula tags differently from normal
text, you may want to add a description using alternate text.
Background Tags the selection as a background element, or artifact, removing the item from the tag tree. That way, it

doesn’t appear in the reflowed document and screen readers don’t read it.
Table Editor Automatically analyzes the selected table into cells and applies the appropriate tags. The table must be

tagged as a table before you can use the Table Editor command on it.
Show Page Content Groups Shows content elements as highlighted areas that contain numbers to indicate the reading
order. Specify the highlight color by clicking the color swatch.
Show Table Cells Highlights the content of individual table cells. Specify the highlight color by clicking the color

swatch.
Display Like Elements In A Single Block Adjacent squares with the same tag type are collapsed into a single, bigger

square with the common tag type that encompasses the original square.
Show Tables And Figures Outlines each table and figure with a crossed-out box. The box also indicates whether the
element includes alternate text. Specify the box color by clicking the color swatch.
Clear Page Structure Removes the tagging structure from the page. Use this option to start over and create a new
structure if the existing structure contains too many problems.
Show Order Panel Opens the Order tab for reordering highlighted content.
Edit Alternate Text Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a highlighted figure. Allows the user to add
or edit a text description about the figure properties that a screen reader or other assistive technology reads.

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Edit Form Field Text Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a form field. Allows the user to add or
edit a form field text description that a screen reader or other assistive technology reads.
Edit Table Summary Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a highlighted table. Allows the user to
add or edit a text description about the table properties that a screen reader or other assistive technology reads.

Check and correct reading order (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can quickly check the reading order of tagged PDFs by using the Touch Up Reading Order tool. You can also use
this tool to add alternate text to images and correct many types of tagging problems that are outlined in the report that
Acrobat generates when you add tags to a PDF.
Reading-order problems are readily apparent when you use the Touch Up Reading Order tool. Each section of
contiguous page content appears as a separate highlighted region and is numbered according to its placement in the
reading order. Within each region, text is ordered left to right and top to bottom. (You can change this order in the
Touch Up preferences.) If a single highlighted region contains two columns of text or text that won’t flow normally,
divide the region into parts that can be reordered. Because highlighted regions are rectangular, they may overlap
somewhat, especially if their page content is irregularly shaped. Unless page content overlaps or is contained within two
highlighted regions, no reading order problem is indicated. Page content should belong to no more than one
highlighted region.
You can change the reading order of the highlighted regions by moving an item in the Order panel or by dragging it on
the page in the document pane. By reordering highlighted regions on the page, you can make a figure and caption read
at the specific point that they are referenced in the text. By changing the order of a highlighted region, you effectively
change the reading order of that item without changing the actual appearance of the PDF.

Check reading order with the Touch Up Reading Order tool
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and then click Page Content Order.

Note: If highlighted regions don’t appear in the document pane, the document doesn’t contain tags.
3 Optionally, do any of the following:

• To specify a highlight color, click the color swatch, and then click the color you want.
• To highlight tables and figures, and to view alternate text for figures, select Show Tables And Figures.
4 Check the reading order of text within each highlighted region.

Zooming in can make this step easier.
5 Check the numbered order of all highlighted regions. If consecutive, numbered regions don’t follow one another,

reorder them in the Order panel.
6 Click Show Order Panel, and then select each content entry (in brackets [ ]) in the Order panel to highlight that

content region in the document pane. Use this method to find numbered regions that you can’t see or locate on the
page.

Change the reading order in the Order panel
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, click Show Order Panel.
3 In the Order panel, navigate to view a list of highlighted regions that appear in the document pane.

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4 In the Order panel, drag the tag for a highlighted region to the location you want. As you drag, a line appears to show

potential locations. After you drag an item to a new location, the highlighted regions are renumbered to show the
new reading order. You can select and move multiple, adjacent regions.

Change the reading order by dragging on the page
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and then click Page Content Order.
3 In the document pane, place the pointer over the number for the highlighted region you want to move. Thenh, drag

it to where you want it to be read. The text-insertion pointer shows target locations within the text.
When you release the highlighted region, the location of the text-insertion pointer becomes the dividing line. The
underlying highlighted region is split into two new highlighted regions. All highlighted regions are renumbered to
show the new reading order.

Edit tags with the Touch Up Reading Order tool (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to create tags in untagged PDFs or to add new tags to an existing
structure. However, this manual tagging doesn’t provide the same level of detail to the tagging structure as the Add Tags
To Document command, such as paragraphs, bulleted and numbered lists, line breaks, and hyphens. Before you clear
the existing structure, make sure that manual tagging is your only recourse.

Tag a region
1 Using the Touch Up Reading Order tool, drag within the document pane to select a region of the page that contains

one type of content (for example, a text block).
2 Do one of the following:

• To add more page content to the current selection, Shift-drag.
• To remove page content from the current selection, Ctrl-drag.
3 Click the appropriate button in the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box to specify the tag type.

Change the tag for a region
If Acrobat tags a page element incorrectly, you can change the tag type for the highlighted region.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and then click Page Content Order.
3 To select a highlighted region, do one of the following:

• Drag to select it.
• Click the number of a highlighted region.
4 Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region.

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Add or remove content from a tagged region
The Touch Up Reading Order tool always displays as few highlighted regions as possible. If content within a highlighted
region doesn’t flow properly, you may need to split a region to reorder it. Highlighted regions may also contain adjacent
page content that is unrelated or that requires a different tag type. Page content may become orphaned from related
elements, particularly if the content doesn’t fit within a rectangular shape. Use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to add
or remove content from a region, or to split a region to reorder the content.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and then click Page Content Order.
3 In the document pane, select a highlighted region.
4 Do one of the following:

• To add content to the current selection, Shift-click the content you want to add. The pointer changes to include
a plus sign (+).
• To remove content from the current selection, Ctrl-click the content you want to remove. The pointer changes
to include a minus sign (-).
5 Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region.

Split a region into two regions
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and then click Page Content Order.
3 In the document pane, drag to select a small portion of content near the boundary of the first region that you want

to create.
4 Click the Background button in the dialog box. The highlighted region splits into two regions, numbered from right

to left.
5 To correct the reading order, click Show Order Panel, and drag the new highlighted region to the correct location in

the Order panel.
6 Drag to select the first content region you created, including the Background. Then set the tag by clicking a button

in the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box.

Apply a heading tag
To help readers navigate a document and find the information they need, make sure that headings are tagged with the
appropriate level to indicate their hierarchy in the content.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool, and then select the heading text in the PDF.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, click the button corresponding to the appropriate heading tag (for

example, Heading 1, Heading 2).
After applying heading tags, you can convert the headings to bookmarks to improve navigation. For more information,
see Add tagged bookmarks.

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Remove page elements from the tag structure
When tagging a PDF, Acrobat can’t always distinguish between instructive figures and decorative page elements. Items
that visually enhance page layout, such as decorative borders, lines, or background elements, can add clutter to the
structure layout and should be removed. Therefore, Acrobat may incorrectly tag artifacts or page elements as figure
tags. You can remove artifacts and irrelevant page elements from the tag structure by redefining them with the
Background tag or by deleting their tags. If a tagged image in the document doesn’t contain useful or illustrative
information for the user, you can remove the element from the tagging structure so that it isn’t read out loud or
reflowed.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Groups, and click Page Content Order. Then,

select Show Tables And Figures.
3 Remove the page element by doing one of the following:

• In the document pane, select the page element, and then click Background in the dialog box.
• In the Order panel, select the page element, and then press Delete.

Edit tags for figures and tables (Acrobat Pro DC)
You can use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to add and edit tags and alternate text for figures and tables.

Apply a figure tag
You can select an element and define it as a figure by using the Touch Up Reading Order tool. Once you define it as a
figure, you can add alternate text to describe the figure.
1 Using the Touch Up Reading Order tool, select the figure.
2 In the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box, click Figure.
3 In the document pane, right-click the region and choose Edit Alternate Text.
4 Enter alternate text, and click OK.

Check and correct figure tags
You can use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to identify and correct tagging results for figures. Determine whether
figures include or require alternate text necessary to be read correctly with assistive technologies. Ideally, figure tags
should identify image content that is meaningful to the document as a whole, such as graphs or illustrative photographs.
If background elements that shouldn’t be read are tagged as figures, redefine them as background.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box.
2 Do any of the following:

• If a figure isn’t tagged as a figure, select the content region you want, and then click Figure or Figure/Caption in
the dialog box.
• To remove text that was incorrectly combined with a figure, drag to select the text, and click the Text button in
the dialog box.
• To include a caption that is grouped with the figure, select the figure and caption, and click the Figure/Caption
button in the dialog box.

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Check and add alternate text for figures
If you want screen readers to describe graphical elements that illustrate important concepts in a document, you must
provide the description using alternate text. Figures aren’t recognized or read by a screen reader unless you add
alternate text to the tag properties. If you apply alternate text to text elements, only the description, not the actual text,
is read.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
2 Select Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box.
3 Right-click the figure, and choose Edit Alternate Text from the pop-up menu.
4 In the Edit Alternate Text dialog box, type a new (or edit an existing) description for the figure, and then click OK.

Edit table tags and tag unrecognized tables
Tables pose a special challenge for screen readers because they present textual or numerical data to be easily referenced
visually. Content within table cells can be complex and might contain lists, paragraphs, form fields, or another table.
For best results when tagging tables, use the application that you created the document with to add tags when you create
the PDF. If a PDF isn’t tagged, you can add tags by using the Add Tags To Document command. Most tables are properly
recognized using this command; however, the command may not recognize a table that lacks clear borders, headings,
columns, and rows. Use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to determine if the table has been properly recognized and
to correct recognition problems. To add specialized formatting to tables and table cells, use the Tags panel.
You can use the Table Editor to automatically analyze a table into its components and apply the appropriate tags, but
you may still need to check and correct some of these tags manually. By viewing table tags, you can determine whether
columns, rows, and cells have been correctly identified. Tables that lack well-defined borders and rules are often tagged
incorrectly or contain adjacent page elements. You can correct poorly tagged tables by selecting and redefining them;
you can split combined cells by creating a tag for each cell.
To correct complex tagging problems for tables, you often must use the Tags panel.
1 Select the Touch Up Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures.
2 If the table isn’t clearly labeled in the document pane, drag to select the entire table, and then click Table in the dialog

box.
3 Click Show Table Cells to make sure that all cells in the table are defined as individual elements.
4 If cells don’t appear as separate elements, do one of the following:

• If one or more cells are merged, use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to select the area within a single cell, and
then click Cell in the dialog box. Repeat for each merged cell.
• If cells aren’t highlighted, the table might not use standard table formatting. Re-create the table in the authoring
application.
5 If the table contains cells that are intended to span across two or more columns, set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes

for these rows in the tag structure.

Remove or replace document structure tags (Acrobat Pro DC)
If adding tags to a PDF in Adobe Acrobat results in a tagging structure that is overly complicated or too problematic to
fix, you can use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to remove or replace the current structure. If the document contains
mostly text, you can select a page and then remove headings, tables, and other elements to create a cleaner, simpler
tagging structure.
Acrobat can retag an already tagged document after you first remove all existing tags from the tree.

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Remove all tags from a PDF
1 Open the Tags panel (View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panels > Tags) and select the root (topmost) tag, Tags.
2 In the Tags panel, select Delete Tag from the options menu.

Note: The Clear Page Structure command in the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box removes all tags from the currently
visible pages.

Replace the existing tag structure
This procedure works best in pages that contain a single column of text. If the page contains multiple columns, each
column must be selected and tagged individually.
1 Select the tool.
2 In the document pane, drag to select the entire page. The selection includes both text and nontext elements.
3 Ctrl-drag around nontext page elements, such as figures and captions, to deselect them, until only text is selected on

the page. Click Text in the Touch Up Reading Order dialog box.
4 In the document pane, select a nontext page element, such as a figure and caption, and click the appropriate button

in the dialog box to tag it. Repeat until all page content is tagged.

More Help topics
Accessibility features
Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features
Creating accessible PDFs
Editing document structure with the Content and Tags panels(Acrobat Pro)
Keys for accessibility (Acrobat Pro)

Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features
Setting accessibility preferences
Acrobat provides several preferences that help make the reading of PDFs more accessible for visually impaired and
motion-impaired users. These preferences control how PDFs appear on the screen and how they are read by a screen
reader.
Most preferences related to accessibility are available through the Accessibility Setup Assistant, which provides
onscreen instructions for setting these preferences. Some preferences that affect accessibility aren’t available through
the Accessibility Setup Assistant including preferences in the Reading, Forms, and Multimedia categories. You can set
all preferences in the Preferences dialog box.
The names shown for some preferences in the Accessibility Setup Assistant are different from the names for the same
preferences shown in the Preferences dialog box. Acrobat Help uses the names shown in the Preferences dialog box.
For more information about accessibility features, see www.adobe.com/accessibility.

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Set accessibility preferences with the Accessibility Setup Assistant
1 Start the Accessibility Setup Assistant by doing one of the following:

• Choose Tools > Accessibility > Setup Assistant.
• (Windows only) Start Acrobat for the first time while a screen reader or screen magnifier is running.
2 Choose the option that is appropriate for your assistive software and devices.

The assistant presents only preferences that are appropriate for your assistive software and devices, according to the
option that you choose.
3 Follow the onscreen instructions. If you click Cancel at any point, Acrobat uses default settings for the preferences

that the assistant sets (not recommended).

Set accessibility preferences with the Preferences dialog box
❖ Set preferences as appropriate for your assistive software and devices in various panels of the Preferences dialog box.

Accessibility preferences
Accessibility preferences in Accessibility panel
Replace Document Colors When this preference is selected, you can choose from a list of contrasting color

combinations for text and background, or you can create your own. These settings correspond to the Use High Contrast
Colors For Document Text option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Always Use Page Layout Style Corresponds to the Override Page Layout Style option in theAccessibility Setup

Assistant.
Always Use Zoom Setting Corresponds to the Override Document Zoom option in the AccessibilitySetup Assistant.
Use Document Structure For Tab Order When No ExplicitTab Order Is Specified Improves navigation of form fields and

links in documents that don’t specify a tab order.
Always Display The Keyboard Selection Cursor Select this option if you use a screen magnifier. This preference

corresponds to the Always Display The Keyboard Selection Cursor option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Always Use The System Selection Color When selected, the default selection color (blue) is overridden with a color that

the system specifies.
Show Portfolios In Files Mode When selected, shows PDF Portfolio component files and file details in a list. Files mode
provides a better reading experience for people with disabilities, such as mobility impairments, blindness, and low
vision.

Accessibility preferences in Documents panel
Automatically Save Document Changes To Temporary File Every When deselected, this preference disables the auto-

save action. Each time a PDF is saved, the screen reader or magnifier must reload the document. This preference
corresponds to the Disable Document Auto-Save option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Accessibility preferences in Forms panel
Fields Highlight Color and Required Fields Highlight Color These preferences specify what colors are used to highlight

fillable form fields. They correspond to the Field Highlight Color and Required Field Highlight Color options in the
Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Auto-Complete Enables Acrobat to automatically offer to complete some entries in form fields so that filling form fields
requires fewer keystrokes. This preference doesn’t correspond to an option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.

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Accessibility preferences in Multimedia panel

• Show Subtitles When Available
• Play Dubbed Audio When Available
• Show Supplemental Text Captions When Available
• Show Audio Description (Or Video Description, Or Descriptive Video) When Available
These preferences don’t correspond to any options in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Accessibility preferences in Page Display panel
Zoom Sets the onscreen magnification of documents and allows low-vision readers to read reflowed PDFs more easily.

This preference corresponds to the Override Document Zoom option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Smooth Text Controls anti-aliasing of text. To disable smoothing of text and make text sharper and easier to read with

a screen magnifier, choose None. This preference corresponds to the Disable Text Smoothing option in the Accessibility
Setup Assistant.
Accessibility preferences in Reading panel
Reading Order Specifies the reading order of documents. The reading order preferences also appear in the Accessibility

Setup Assistant.
Infer Reading Order From Document (Recommended) Interprets the reading order of untagged documents by using an
advanced method of structure-inference layout analysis.
Left-To-Right, Top-To-Bottom Reading Order Delivers the text according to its placement on the page, reading from left
to right and then top to bottom. This method is faster than Infer Reading Order From Document. This method analyzes
text only; form fields are ignored and tables aren’t recognized as such.
Use Reading Order In Raw Print Stream Delivers text in the order in which it was recorded in the print stream. This
method is faster than Infer Reading Order From Document. This method analyzes text only; form fields are ignored
and tables aren’t recognized as such.
Override The Reading Order In Tagged Documents Uses the reading order specified in the Reading preferences instead
what the tag structure of the document specifies. Use this preference only when you encounter problems in poorly
tagged PDFs. This preference corresponds to the Override The Reading Order In Tagged Documents option in the
Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Page Vs Document This preference determines how much of a document is delivered to a screen reader at a time. If a

PDF isn’t tagged, Acrobat may analyze the document and attempt to infer its structure and reading order. This process
can take a long time for a long document. Consider setting Acrobat to deliver only the currently visible page so that it
analyzes only a small piece of the document at a time. This consideration varies depending on the size and complexity
of the document and on the features of the screen reader. When Acrobat delivers information to a screen reader, screen
magnifier, or other assistive software, it loads information into a memory buffer that is directly available to the assistive
software. The amount of information that is delivered to the memory buffer can affect how long Acrobat takes to
perform tasks, such as opening the document, advancing to the next page, changing views, and carrying out
commands.
Only Read The Currently Visible Pages This option is usually best when you use a screen magnifier. It improves

performance by eliminating the need for the software to process parts of the document that aren’t visible. When
Acrobat sends only the currently visible pages of a PDF to the memory buffer, the assistive technology has access to
those pages only. It cannot go to another page until the next page is visible and Acrobat has sent the page information
to the memory buffer. Therefore, if this option is selected, you must use the navigation features of Acrobat, not the
features of the assistive technology, to navigate from page to page in the document. Also set theDefault Page Layout
option in preferences to Single Page if you choose to have Acrobat send only the currently visible pages to the assistive

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technology. Because Acrobat sends page information about all visible pages, the assistive technology receives
information about pages that may be only partially visible (such as the bottom of one page or the top of the next), as
well as those pages that are completely visible. If you use a page display setting other than Single Page, such as
Continuous, and then you display the next page, the technology may not correctly track which portion of a previous
page it has already read aloud. For instructions on setting the default page layout to Single Page, see Preferences for
viewing PDFs.
This option corresponds to the Only Read The Currently Visible Pages option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Read The Entire Document This option can be best if you use a screen reader that has its own navigation and search

tools and that is more familiar to you than the tools in Acrobat. This option corresponds to the Read The Entire
Document At Once option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
For Large Documents, Only Read The Currently Visible Pages This option is selected by default and is usually best if
you use a screen reader with long or complex PDFs. It allows Acrobat to deliver an entire small document but revert to
page-by-page delivery for large documents. This preference corresponds to the For Large Documents, Only Read The
Currently Visible Pages option in the Accessibility Setup Assistant.
Confirm Before Tagging Documents When selected, lets the user confirm the options that are used before Acrobat

prepares an untagged document for reading. Tagging can be a time-consuming procedure, especially for larger
documents. This preference corresponds to the Confirm Before Tagging Documents option in the Accessibility Setup
Assistant.
Read Out Loud Options Set preferences in to control volume, speed, and pitch of the voice used for Read Out Loud. You
can choose to use the default voice or any of the voices that your operating system provides. You can also use the up
and down arrows to read blocks of text. These preferences do not have corresponding options in the Accessibility Setup
Assistant.

Navigate and control the application with the keyboard
You can navigate by using the keyboard instead of the mouse. Several keyboard access features are available in Mac OS;
see the documentation for your operating system for details. In Windows, some of the keyboard shortcuts used to
navigate in Acrobat differ from the keyboard shortcuts used in other Windows applications.
When you open Acrobat within a web browser, keyboard commands are mapped to the web browser first.
Consequently, some keyboard shortcuts are not available in Acrobat or are available only after you shift the focus to the
PDF.
For information about accessibility features, see www.adobe.com/accessibility.

Enable single-key accelerators
You can select some tools and perform some actions with single-key accelerators. Most keyboard shortcuts in Acrobat
don’t require that you enable single-key accelerators.
❖ In the Preferences dialog box under Categories, select General, and then select Use Single-Key Accelerators To

Access Tools.
Note: Some screen readers do not work with Acrobat single-key accelerators.

Scroll automatically
The automatic scrolling feature makes it easier to scan through long PDFs, especially reflowed documents. You can
scroll through pages without using keystrokes or mouse actions.
Choose View > Page Display > Automatically Scroll.

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1 Do any of the following:

• To change the scrolling speed to a specific speed, press a number key (9 for fastest, 0 for slowest).
• To increase or decrease the scrolling speed, press the Up Arrow or Down Arrow key, depending on the direction
of scrolling.
• To reverse the direction of scrolling, press the minus sign (-) key.
• To jump to the next or previous page, press the Left Arrow or Right Arrow key.
To stop automatic scrolling, press Esc or choose View> Page Display >Automatically Scroll again.

Save as accessible text for a braille printer
Note: This document uses the term “braille printer” to refer to any device that is used to convert accessible text to a form
that a person with blindness or low vision can use.
You can save a PDF as accessible text to print on a braille printer. Accessible text can be imported and printed out as
formatted grade 1 or 2 braille documents by using a braille translation application. See the documentation included
with the braille translator for more information.
A text version of a PDF contains no images or multimedia objects. However, the text version of an accessible PDF
contains alternate text descriptions for such objects if they have been provided.
❖ Choose File > Export To > Text (Accessible).

Reflow a PDF
You can reflow a PDF to temporarily present it as a single column that is the width of the document pane. This reflow
view can make the document easier to read on a mobile device or magnified on a standard monitor, without scrolling
horizontally to read the text.
You cannot save, edit, or print a document while it is in Reflow view.
In most cases, only readable text appears in the reflow view. Text that doesn’t reflow includes forms, comments, digital
signature fields, and page artifacts, such as page numbers, headers, and footers. Pages that contain both readable text
and form or digital signature fields don’t reflow. Vertical text reflows horizontally.
Acrobat temporarily tags an untagged document before reflowing it. As an author, you can optimize your PDFs for
reflow by tagging them yourself. Tagging ensures that text blocks reflow and that content follows the appropriate
sequences, so readers can follow a story that spans different pages and columns without other stories interrupting the
flow.
To quickly check the reading order of a document, view it in Reflow view.
(Acrobat Pro) If the tagged PDF doesn’t reflow the way you want, see if the content order or reading order of the PDF
file contains inconsistencies. Also check the tagging process. You can use the Content pane or the Touch Up Reading
Order tool to resolve reflow problems.

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Reflow a tagged PDF
Choose View > Zoom > Reflow.
If the Page Display setting is Two Page View before you choose Reflow view, the Page Display setting automatically
becomes Single Page View when the document is reflowed. If the Page Display setting is Two Page Scrolling before you
choose Reflow view, the Page Display setting automatically becomes Enable Scrolling when the document is reflowed.

Return to unreflowed view
❖ When in Reflow view, choose View > Zoom > Reflow.

Reading a PDF with a screen reader
Acrobat supports assistive software and devices, such as screen readers and screen magnifiers, that enable visually
impaired users to interact with computer applications. When assistive software and devices are in use, Acrobat adds
temporary tags to open PDFs to improve their readability. Use the Accessibility Setup Assistant to improve how Acrobat
interacts with the types of assistive software and devices that you use. When using a screen reader, you can change your
reading settings for the current document by choosing Tools > Accessibility > Change Reading Options.
See the documentation for your assistive software or device. Or, contact the vendor for more information about system
requirements, compatibility requirements, and instructions for using this software or device with Acrobat.
For more information about using screen readers, see www.adobe.com/accessibility/pdfs/accessing-pdf-sr.pdf.

Read a PDF with Read Out Loud
The Read Out Loud feature reads aloud the text in a PDF, including the text in comments and alternate text descriptions
for images and fillable fields. In tagged PDFs, content is read in the order in which it appears in the document’s logical
structure tree. In untagged documents, the reading order is inferred, unless a reading order has been specified in the
Reading preferences.
Read Out Loud uses the available voices installed on your system. If you have SAPI 4 or SAPI 5 voices installed from
text-to-speech or language applications, you can choose them to read your PDFs.
Note: Read Out Loud isn’t a screen reader, and some operating systems don’t support it.

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Activate or deactivate Read Out Loud
You must activate Read Out Loud before you can use it. You can deactivate Read Out Loud to free system resources and
improve performance of other operations.
❖ Do one of the following:

• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Activate Read Out Loud.
• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Deactivate ReadOut Loud.
You can also use the Select Object tool to locate text. Activate Read Out Loud, and then choose Tools > Interactive
Objects >Select Object. Use the up/down and left/right arrow keys to navigate through the document. You can hear
where the Select Object tool has been placed, such as a heading or paragraph.

Read a PDF with Read Out Loud
1 Navigate to the page that you want to read.
2 Do one of the following:

• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Read This Page Only.
• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Read To End Of Document.

Read PDF form fields out loud
1 In the Reading panel of the Preferences dialog box, select Read Form Fields in the Read Out Loud Options section.
2 In the PDF form, press Tab to select the first form field.
3 Make entries and selections as needed, and then press Tab to move to the next field, repeating this step until the form

is completed. Acrobat reads the state of selected check boxes and radio buttons.
Note: Read Out Loud does not echo your keystrokes. To hear what you have typed, use a screen reader.

Interrupt reading out loud
❖ Do one of the following:

• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Pause.
• Choose View > Read Out Loud > Stop.

About operating system accessibility tools
Accessibility tools in Windows
Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8.x operating systems have built-in tools that provide increased or
alternate access to information on the computer screen. Narrator is a light version of a screen reader. Magnifier is a
screen magnification tool.
For more information on the accessibility tools in the Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8.x operating
systems, see the Microsoft accessibility website.
Accessibility tools in Mac OS
Mac OS X has built-in tools that provide increased or alternate access to information on the computer screen.
For more information on the accessibility tools in the Mac OS X operating system, see the Apple® Inc. accessibility
website.

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More Help topics
Keys for navigating a PDF
Keys for selecting tools
Keys for working with comments
Keys for general navigating
Keys for working with navigation panels
Keys for navigating the Help window
Keys for accessibility
Accessibility features

Edit document structure with the Content and Tags
panels (Acrobat Pro)
Correct reflow problems with the Content panel
Use the Content panel to correct reflow problems in a PDF that can’t be corrected by using the Touch Up Reading Order
tool. Because you can damage a PDF by editing content objects, make sure that you’re familiar with PDF structure
before you change anything. For comprehensive information about PDF structure, see the PDF Reference Sixth Edition:
Adobe Portable Document Format Version 1.7, on the PDF reference page (English only) of the Adobe website.
The Content panel provides a hierarchical view of the objects that make up a PDF, including the PDF object itself. Each
document includes one or more pages, a set of annotations (such as comments and links), and the content objects for
the page. The content objects consist of containers, text, paths, and images. Objects are listed in the order in which they
appear on the page, like tags in the logical structure tree. However, PDFs don’t require tags for you to view or change
the object structure.
Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panels > Content.
1 Expand the document name to view pages and objects.
2 Move a container or object by selecting it and doing one of the following:

• Drag it to the location you want.
• Choose Cut from the options menu, select the tag above the location you want to paste the cut tag, and choose
Paste from the options menu.
Note: Container elements can’t be pasted directly to page elements. To move a container to another page, cut the
container you want to move. Then select a container on the page you want to move the container to and choose Paste
from the options menu. Then, drag the container out one level to the location that you want.

Content panel options
In the Content panel, use the options menu or right-click an object to choose from the following options:
New Container Adds a container object at the end of the selected page or container.

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Edit Container Dictionary Specifies the dictionary for the container. Errors in this dialog box may damage the PDF.

Available only for containers that include dictionaries.
Cut Cuts and copies the selected object (not the related page content).
Paste Pastes content directly below the selected object at the same hierarchical level.
Paste Child Pastes content into the selected object as a child content item.
Delete Removes the object (not the related page content) from the document.
Find Content From Selection Searches for the object in the Content panel that contains the object selected in the

document pane.
Find Searches for unmarked (untagged) artifacts, content, comments, and links. Options allow you to search the page
or document, and to add tags to found items.
Create Artifact Defines selected objects as artifacts. Artifacts are not read by a screen reader or by the Read Out Loud
feature. Page numbers, headers, and footers are often best tagged as artifacts.
Show In Tags Panel Switches automatically to the Tags panel, and selects the tag corresponding to the content element.
Remove Artifact Removes the artifact definition from the selected object.
Highlight Content When selected, highlights appear in the document pane around content that relates to a selected

object in the Content panel.
Show Metadata Allows viewing and editing of image or object metadata.
Properties Opens the Touch Up Properties dialog box.

About the Tags panel
The Tags panel allows you to view and edit tags in the logical structure tree, or tags tree, of a PDF. In the Tags panel,
tags appear in a hierarchical order that indicates the reading sequence of the document. The first item in this structure
is the Tags root. All other items are tags and are children of the Tags root. Tags use coded element types that appear in
angle brackets (< >). Each element, including structural elements such as sections and articles, appears in the logical
structure order by type, followed by a title and the element’s content or a description of the content. Structural elements
are typically listed as containers (parent tags). They include several smaller elements (child tags) within them.
Note: For more information on logical structures, see the PDF Reference Sixth Edition: Adobe Portable Document Format
Version 1.7, on the PDF reference page (English only) of the Adobe website.
Though you can correct most tagging issues by using the Touch Up Reading Order tool, you must use the Tags panel
to address detailed tagging of tables and substructure items, such as paragraphs, lists, and sections that require multiple
languages. Add tags manually to a document in the Tags panel only as a last resort. First consider using the Add Tags
To Document command.
Note: Operations performed in the Tags panel cannot be undone with the Undo command. Save a backup copy of a
document before you begin work on it in the Tags panel.

View tags in the Tags panel
Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panels > Tags.
1 Do one of the following:

• Expand the tag for the section you want.

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• Ctrl-click the plus sign (Windows) or Option-click the triangle (Mac OS) next to the Tags root to show all tags
in the logical structure tree.

Edit tags with the Tags panel
You can edit a tag title, change a tag location, or change the tag type for an element. All page content must be tagged,
marked as an artifact, or removed from the logical structure tree.

Edit a tag title
1 In the Tags panel, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to edit.
2 To edit the title, Select the tag, choose Properties from the options menu, enter text in the Title box, and click Close.

Move a tag
1 In the Tags panel, expand the Tags root to view all tags.
2 Select the Tag icon of the element that you want to move.
3 Do one of the following:

• Drag the tag to the location you want. As you drag, a line appears at viable locations.
• Choose Cut from the options menu, and select the tag that appears above the location you want to paste the cut
tag. From the options menu, choose Paste to move the tag to the same level as the selected tag. Or choose Paste
Child to move the tag within the selected tag.

Change the element type
1 In the Tags panel, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to change.
2 Select an element and choose Properties from the options menu.
3 Choose a new element type from the Type menu, and then click Close.

Tags panel options
In the Tags panel, use the options menu or right-click a tag in the logical structure tree to choose from the following
options:
New Tag Creates a tag in the logical structure tree after the currently selected item. Specify type and title of the new tag.
Cut Removes the selected tag from its current location and puts it on the clipboard.
Paste Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, replacing the selected tag.
Paste Child Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, as a child of the selected tag.
Delete Tag Removes the selected tag.
Find Tag From Selection Searches for the tag in the Tags panel that contains the text or object selected in the document

pane.
Create Tag From Selection Creates a tag in the logical structure tree after the item selected in the document pane.
Specify type and title of the new tag.
Find Searches for artifacts, OCR suspects, and unmarked (untagged) content, comments, links, and annotations.

Options allow you to search the page or document and add tags to found items.
Change Tag To Artifact Changes selected tags to artifacts and removes the tagged content from the structure tree.
Copy Contents To Clipboard Copies all content contained within the selected tags.

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Edit Class Map Allows you to add, change, and delete the class map, or style dictionary, for the document. Class maps

store attributes that are associated with each element.
Edit Role Map Allows you to add, change, and delete role maps for the document. Role maps allow each document to

contain a uniquely defined tag set. By mapping these custom tags to predefined tags in Acrobat, custom tags are easier
to identify and edit.
Tag Annotations When selected, all new comments and form fields are added to the tag tree after the selected tag
element. Existing comments and form fields aren’t added to the tag tree. Highlight and Underline comments are
automatically associated and tagged with the text that they annotate and don’t require this option.
Document Is Tagged PDF Flags the PDF as a tagged document. Deselect to remove the flag.

Note: This option doesn’t necessarily indicate that the PDF conforms to PDF guidelines and should be used judiciously.
Highlight Content When selected, causes highlights to appear around content in the document pane when you select

the related tag in the Tags panel.
Show Metadata Opens a read-only dialog box that contains reference information about the selected tag.
Properties Opens the Touch Up Properties dialog box.

Add alternate text and supplementary information to tags
Some tagged PDFs might not contain all the information necessary to make the document contents fully accessible. For
example, if you want to make a document available to a screen reader, the PDF should contain alternate text for figures,
language properties for portions of the text that use a different language than the default language for the document,
and expansion text for abbreviations. Designating the appropriate language for different text elements ensures that the
correct characters are used when you repurpose the document and that it is spell-checked with the correct dictionary.
You can add alternate text and multiple languages to a tag from the Tags panel. (If only one language is required, choose
the language with File > Properties instead.) You can also add alternate text by using the Touch Up Reading Order tool.
Note: Keep alternate text descriptions as concise as possible.

Add alternate text to links
Screen readers can read the URLs of web links out loud, but adding meaningful alternate text to links can help users
immensely. For example, by adding alternate text you can have a screen reader tell a user to “go to the Acrobat
accessibility page of adobe.com” rather than “go to http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/solutionsacc.html.”
You add alternate text to the  tag of a link.
Note: Add alternate text only to tags that don’t have child tags. Adding alternate text to a parent tag prevents a screen
reader from reading any of that tag’s child tags.
1 In the tag tree, select the  tag for the link, and select Properties from the options menu.
2 In the Touch Up Properties dialog box, select the Tag panel.
3 Type alternate text for the link, and click Close.

Add alternate text for a figure
Choose View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panels > Tags.
1 Expand the logical structure tree to find and select the 
tag element for the image. To find a tag more easily, use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to select the figure or text near the figure in the document pane. Then, choose Find Tag From Selection from the options menu in the Tags panel. Last updated 4/7/2015 412 Accessibility, tags, and reflow 2 Choose Highlight Content from the options menu in the Tags panel to see a highlighted area in the document that corresponds to the tag. 3 Choose Properties from the options menu in the Tags panel. 4 In the Touch Up Properties dialog box, click the Tag panel. 5 For Alternate Text, type text that describes the figure. Add alternate text for an abbreviated term 1 In the Tags panel, locate the abbreviated term by doing one of the following: • Expand the tag tree as needed to see the elements that contain the abbreviation. • Use the Touch Up Text tool or the Select tool to select the abbreviation in the document, and then choose Find Tag From Selection from the options menu to locate the text in the tag tree. 2 Select the tag for that element, and choose Properties from the options menu. Note: If the abbreviation includes additional text, cut the additional text and place it in a new child tag within the same parent tag. 3 In the Touch Up Properties dialog box, select the Tag panel. 4 For Alternate Text, type the unabbreviated version of the term. 5 Click Close. Create a new child tag 1 In the Tags panel, select the parent node (the icon at the same level at which you want to create a child tag) in the Tags tree for which you want to create a child tag. Choose New Tag from the options menu. 2 Select the appropriate tag type from the Type pop-up menu, or type a custom tag type, name the tag (optional), and then click OK. Add tags to comments When you tag a PDF that includes comments, the comments are tagged as well. However, if you add comments to a PDF that’s already tagged, your comments are untagged unless you enable comment tagging first. Note: To Enable comment tagging in a PDF, in the Tags panel, choose Tag Annotations from the options menu. Comments or markups that you add to the PDF are tagged automatically. If a document contains untagged comments, you can locate them in the logical structure tree and tag them by using the Find command in the Tags panel. 1 In the Tags panel, choose Find from the options menu. 2 In the Find Element dialog box, choose Unmarked Comments from the Find pop-up menu, and click Find. 3 When the comment type appears in the Type field (for example, Text), click Tag Element, choose Annotation from the Type pop-up menu in the New Tag dialog box, and then click OK. 4 In the Find Element dialog box, click Find Next to locate and tag all comments, and then click Close. Last updated 4/7/2015 413 Accessibility, tags, and reflow Correct table tags with the Tags panel Use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to make sure that tables are tagged correctly. If you need to structure figures and text within the cells of your table, you may prefer to re-create the table in the authoring application before you convert it as an accessible PDF. Adding tags on a cell level in Acrobat is a labor-intensive procedure. Before you make any changes to table elements, use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to determine that the table is tagged correctly. Check table elements 1 In the Tags panel, expand the tags root to view a table tag. 2 Select the table tag and verify that it contains one of the following elements: • Table Rows, each of which contains Table Header , , and sections, each of which containsTable Rows. (The Table Rows contain
or Table Data cells. •
cells, cells, or both.) 3 Do one or more of the following: • If the tag for the table doesn’t contain these elements, but rows, columns, and cells appear in the table in the document pane, use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to select and define the table or individual cells. • If the table contains rows that span two or more columns, set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes for these rows in the tag structure. • Re-create the table in the authoring application, and then convert it to a tagged PDF. Set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes 1 In the Tags panel, select a or element. 2 Choose Properties from the options menu. 3 In the Touch Up Properties dialog box, click the Tag panel, and then click Edit Attribute Objects. 4 Select Attribute Objects, and then click New Item to create a new Attribute Object Dictionary. 5 Expand the new dictionary, select the Layout attribute, and then click Change Item. 6 Change the Layout value to Table. 7 Select the Attribute Object Dictionary, and click New Item. 8 In the Add Key And Value dialog box, type ColSpan or RowSpan in the Key box, enter the number of columns or rows spanned in the Value box, choose Integer from the Value Type pop-up menu, and click OK. Standard PDF tags This section describes the standard tag types that apply to tagged PDFs. These standard tags provide assistive software and devices with semantic and structural elements to use to interpret document structure and present content in a useful manner. The PDF tags architecture is extensible, so any PDF document can contain any tag set that an authoring application decides to use. For example, a PDF can have XML tags that came in from an XML schema. Custom tags that you define (such as tag names generated from paragraph styles of an authoring application) need a role map. The role map matches each custom tag to a standard tag here. When assistive software encounters a custom tag, the software can check this role map and properly interpret the tags. Tagging PDFs by using one of the methods described here generally produces a correct role map for the document. Last updated 4/7/2015 414 Accessibility, tags, and reflow Note: You can view and edit the role map of a PDF by choosing Options > Edit Role Map in the Tags panel. The standard Adobe element tag types are available in the New Tag dialog box. They are also available in the Touch Up Properties dialog box in Acrobat Pro. Adobe strongly encourages using these tag types because they provide the best results when tagged content is converted to a different format. These formats include HTML, Microsoft Word, or an accessible text format for use by other assistive technologies. Block-level elements are page elements that consist of text laid out in paragraph-like forms. Block-level elements are part of a document’s logical structure. Such elements are further classified as container elements, heading and paragraph elements, label and list elements, special text elements, and table elements. Container elements Container elements are the highest level of element and provide hierarchical grouping for other block-level elements. Document Document element. The root element of a document’s tag tree. Part Part element. A large division of a document; may group smaller units of content together, such as division elements, article elements, or section elements. Div Division element. A generic block-level element or group of block-level elements. Art Article element. A self-contained body of text considered to be a single narrative. Sect Section element. A general container element type, comparable to Division (DIV Class=“Sect”) in HTML, which is usually a component of a part element or an article element. Heading and paragraph elements Heading and paragraph elements are paragraph-like, block-level elements that include specific level heading and generic paragraph (P) tags. A heading (H) element should appear as the first child of any higher-level division. Six levels of headings (H1 to H6) are available for applications that don’t hierarchically nest sections. Label and list elements Label and list elements are block-level elements used for structuring lists. L List element. Any sequence of items of similar meaning or other relevance; immediate child elements should be list item elements. LI List item element. Any one member of a list; may have a label element (optional) and a list body element (required) as a child. LBL Label element. A bullet, name, or number that identifies and distinguishes an element from others in the same list. LBody List item body element. The descriptive content of a list item. Special text elements Special text elements identify text that isn’t used as a generic paragraph (P). BlockQuote Block quote element. One or more paragraphs of text attributed to someone other than the author of the immediate surrounding text. Caption Caption element. A brief portion of text that describes a table or a figure. Index Index element. A sequence of entries that contain identifying text and reference elements that point out the occurrence of the text in the main body of the document. TOC Table of contents element. An element that contains a structured list of items and labels identifying those items; has its own discrete hierarchy. Last updated 4/7/2015 415 Accessibility, tags, and reflow TOCI Table of contents item element. An item contained in a list associated with a table of contents element. Table elements Table elements are special elements for structuring tables. Table Table element. A two-dimensional arrangement of data or text cells that contains table row elements as child elements and may have a caption element as its first or last child element. TR Table row element. One row of headings or data in a table; may contain table header cell elements and table data cell elements. TD Table data cell element. A table cell that contains nonheader data. TH Table header cell element. A table cell that contains header text or data describing one or more rows or columns of a table. Inline-level elements Inline-level elements identify a span of text that has specific formatting or behavior. They are differentiated from blocklevel elements. Inline-level elements may be contained in or contain block-level elements. BibEntry Bibliography entry element. A description of where some cited information may be found. Quote Quote entry element. An inline portion of text that is attributed to someone other than the author of the text surrounding it; different from a block quote, which is a whole paragraph or multiple paragraphs, as opposed to inline text. Span Span entry element. Any inline segment of text; commonly used to delimit text that is associated with a set of styling properties. Special inline-level elements Similar to inline-level elements, special inline-level elements describe an inline portion of text that has special formatting or behavior. Code Code entry element. Computer program text embedded within a document. Figure Figure entry element. A graphic or graphic representation associated with text. Form Form entry element. A PDF form annotation that can be or has been filled out. Formula Formula entry element. A mathematical formula. Link Link entry element. A hyperlink that is embedded within a document. The target can be in the same document, in another PDF document, or on a website. Note Note entry element. Explanatory text or documentation, such as a footnote or endnote, that is referred to in the main body of text. Reference Reference entry element. A citation to text or data that is found elsewhere in the document. More Help topics Accessibility features Reading PDFs with reflow and accessibility features Creating accessible PDFs Last updated 4/7/2015 416 Accessibility, tags, and reflow Touch Up Reading Order tool for PDFs (Acrobat Pro) Keys for accessibility (Acrobat Pro) Creating accessible PDFs Workflow for creating accessible PDFs At a high level, the process of creating accessible PDFs consists of a few basic stages: 1 Consider accessibility before you convert a document to PDF. 2 As needed, add fillable form fields and descriptions, and set the tab order. 3 Add other accessibility features to the PDF. 4 Tag the PDF. 5 Evaluate the PDF and repair tagging problems. These stages are presented in an order that suits most needs. However, you can perform tasks in a different order or iterate between some of the stages. In all cases, first examine the document, determine its intended purpose, and use that analysis to determine the workflow that you apply. Additional resources For more information about creating accessible PDFs, see these resources: • Guide to creating accessible PDFs, General Services Administration: www.section508.gov/docs/PDFGuidanceForGovernment.pdf • Best practices: amp.ssbbartgroup.com Consider accessibility before you convert a document to PDF Whenever possible, think about accessibility when you create the source files in an authoring application, such as a word-processing or page-layout application. Typical tasks in the authoring application include adding alternate text to graphics, optimizing tables, and applying paragraph styles or other document-structure features that can be converted to tags. For more information, see Creating a tagged PDF from an authoring application. Note: If you have Acrobat Pro and intend to design PDF forms, use Adobe LiveCycle® Designer, which is dedicated to the design of interactive and static forms. LiveCycle Designer adds structure tags to forms, improving accessibility. Add fillable form fields and descriptions, and set the tab order If your PDF includes form fields, use Tools > Accessibility > Run Form Field Recognition to detect form fields and make them interactive (fillable). Use the Forms tools to create fillable form fields, such as buttons, check boxes, pop-up menus, and text boxes. When you create a field, type a description in the Tooltip box in the Properties dialog box for that field. Screen readers read this text aloud to the user. For more information, see Create form fields. You can also use the Touch Up Reading Order tool in Acrobat Pro to add descriptions to form fields. Last updated 4/7/2015 417 Accessi