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"Экономика и социум" №10(77) 2020 www.iupr.ru 1

Language learning tools (online programs and manuals) for phonetics, pronunciation ... Azimov, L.B. Economics lessons at school [Text]: textbook. manual / M .:.

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ISSN 2225-1545         77-45777  07  2011 .

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UDK 373.2 Abdirahmonova S.Sh.
Master's degree in Preschool Education from Andijan State University Ahunjanova I.J. 2nd year student
Andijan State University
THE IMPORTANCE OF FORMATION OF LIBRARY AND THE ORGANIZATION OF A SMALL LIBRARY IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THE FAMILY
Abstract: This article provides guidance on how to create reading and a small library in preschools. There is talk of the importance of early reading in the MTT and in the family.
Keywords: Reading, small library, thinking, worldview, harmonious personality, reading culture, reading, literature.
Today, in our country, on the basis of the Action Strategy for the five priority areas of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021, huge changes are taking place in all areas and sectors. In this regard, it is necessary to deepen the values and traditions in the life of society, in particular, to raise the spiritual and intellectual potential, consciousness and worldview of our people, especially the younger generation, to cultivate a harmoniously developed person living with love and devotion to the motherland and people. special attention is paid to enhancing the culture of reading, which is of incomparable importance.
In the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated September 13, 2017 No PP-3271 "On the establishment of the Commission for the development of the system of printing and distribution of book products, the promotion and promotion of reading and reading culture" Special attention is paid to the formation of reading skills, the culture of reading published books in educational institutions, especially in the preschool education system.
The school and parents have a very difficult and responsible task in shaping children's reading. To do this, parents themselves must also have a high taste and be enlightened and educated. It is well known that only when a child knows how to read a book does a book play an important role in his spiritual life. For a child to be spiritually enriched, the book must guide him to spiritual, mental, aesthetic growth. The first impulse for this is the first book read to the child in the family, the second, the child hears the reading of the father and mother and imagines the beauty of the artistic images, this first and second encounter with the book is the child's later adolescence. all spheres of spiritual life: work, play, music, children's creativity, it is necessary to cover all aspects of his life.

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In order to strengthen children's access to quality education in preschool education, as well as to inform parents, the public and the public about the importance of early childhood education and the organization of early reading in the family, the system small libraries are being established under all preschool education institutions. the child's interest in the book begins with the formation of reading in the family. As parents read fairy tales and legends that lead the child to the world of fantasy, the qualities of courage, willpower, solidarity, solidarity and kindness are perfectly formed. This process is continued until the child takes the first step into school by the parents, and after entering the primary school he begins to try to read books himself.
When forming a child's desire to read, parents should take into account the following when choosing a book:
1. Colorful pages when choosing a book; 2. The book motivates the child to choose a profession that interests him; 3. pay attention to the content of the book; 4. Consider the language in which the book is written. The following guidelines should be followed when setting up small libraries: - Provide a small library with collections of Uzbek folk tales, legends, stories and children's poetry; -each section is named after an artistic symbol: a tree, a fairy-tale character, etc., to make it easier to find books; - The books available on the bookshelf should be age-appropriate for children; - The selected books are selected based on the topics covered in the curriculum; -It is important that books not only educate children, but also give them aesthetic pleasure. Small libraries are organized with the internal capacity of the organization as well as with the involvement of sponsors and serve children. In order to develop children's reading skills, educators use a variety of methods, such as expressive reading of books, conversations about books read, looking at pictures, explaining unfamiliar words, organizing literary evenings and book exhibitions on a topic. will be used. Such methods help to develop the child's personality, his creative abilities, acquaintance with universal values as the basis of cognitive activity, the formation of creative imagination, curiosity. All of this is designed specifically for children as a model of a real library, with the goal of educating preschool children about the need to go to the library and providing them with basic skills in using information resources.
References: 1. Sh.Mirziyoyev "Strategy of actions on five priority directions of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021" T .: March 19, 2019.

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2. Sh. Mirziyoyev "On a comprehensive program of measures to develop the system of publishing and distribution of book products, increase and promote the culture of reading and reading" No. PQ-3271. Tashkent. September 13, 2017. 3. Goziyev EG. " Psychology of ontogeny "Tashkent.," Publisher "2010. 4. Sodiqova Sh. "Preschool pedagogy". "Garden of thinking" T .: 2013. 5. P. Yusupova Pedagogy of preschool education. Tashkent., "Teacher" 1993. 6. O.U. Hasanboyeva, M.X. Tojiyeva, Sh.K. Toshpolatova et al. Preschool education pedagogy. A textbook for pedagogical colleges. (Completed and revised 2nd edition). T .: «ILM ZIYO», 2011.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Abdurashidova N.A. Scientific aspirant
Tashkent State University of Economics

BENCHMARKING IS A MARKET-BASED INSTITUTION

Abstract: The article examines the active tightening of competition caused by globalization, the organization has to compete with world leaders not only in the external, but also in the domestic market. To do this, she needs to adequately assess her own strengths and weaknesses, constantly look for and find ways to enhance competitive advantages, identify and eliminate the reasons for the insufficient efficiency of her own activities, and increase her competitiveness.
Keywords: Benchmarking, business, retail trade, competitiveness, institution.

Benchmarking allows companies to improve their competitive position in the industry by learning from the experience of other market participants, which means that understanding benchmarking significantly reduces its strategic potential.
First, it is very difficult to get absolutely complete information about the working methods and technologies used by competitors in practice. Moreover, even if an enterprise has such information, it is not possible to fully produce someone's experience due to the lack of certain resources, as well as the specific characteristics of the markets and ways of organizing the business1.
Second, it is a creative component of benchmarking as a tool to help improve the organization, which is characterized by high efficiency. The research results should not be simply copied and applied to the enterprise, but the research team should be superior to them, i.e. the project results should be synergized. Exact results synergy and creative thinking allow businesses to achieve the best results through benchmarking.
A common approach applied to competitive benchmarking is to procure competing products to conduct a detailed engineering analysis of products, services, and processes. Without knowledge of the activities of competitors, it is impossible to create competitive world-class products, especially in a competitive automotive market. In practice, most of the largest foreign automakers disassemble cars produced by competitors and carefully analyze the design, comparing assembly methods, quality, and component design into parts. Packaging, applicable manuals, instructions, service life, warranties, delivery, etc. are carefully studied to provide valuable information about the advantages and disadvantages of competitors 'products and the effectiveness of their work.

1Knyazev E.A., EvdokimovaYa.Sh. Benchmarking for universities: Uchebno-metodicheskoeposobie.M .: Universitetskayakniga, Logos, 2006. - 30 p.

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Practice shows that benchmarking is used by large companies that interact with world standards and foreign partners that lead the world market. The largest corporations, including the automotive industry, are focusing their efforts on seeking and developing new management methods in search of competitive advantages. These studies are of a global nature, and the most successful solutions become separate areas of management, for which a theoretical and methodological basis is created2.
Benchmarking is a market-based institution that helps organizations solve emerging problems. Benchmarking refers to the process of continuous measurement and comparison of the methods and results of the work of an organization, its individual divisions and functions, processes, products and services produced with organizations chosen as role models in order to collect information that will help the organization in question determine the direction of its improvement and take measures to improving performance and increasing competitiveness.
Due to the high level of competition, maintaining the achievements of past years and even their slight improvement does not give results in increasing and maintaining competitiveness, therefore, organizations must regularly check the effectiveness of previous achievements, develop the ability to quickly respond to changing conditions and maintain a high degree of customer satisfaction. Consequently, benchmarking is not a one-time activity, today it should be formally established in an organization as an institution, become an integral part of the process of innovation and improvement in business.
The available information on benchmarking problems can be divided into two areas: the theoretical foundations of benchmarking based on foreign sources and the practical experience of individual companies in the use of benchmarking technologies.
General theoretical issues of competition, competitive advantages and competitiveness were reflected in the works of such foreign and domestic scientists as G.L. Azoev, G.L. Nagiyev, F. Kotler, I. M. Lifitz, M. Porter, Yu. Yu. Rubin, S. G. Svetunkov, A. Strickland, A. Thompson, R. A. Fatkhutdinov, A. Yu. Yudanov and others.
Increasing the competitiveness of organizations largely depends on the ability and quality of managing competitive advantages. It is customary to understand competitive advantage as those characteristics that create a certain superiority over its competitors for the organization producing or selling a given product. These characteristics can be different and relate both to the product and service itself, and to the peculiarities of the organization's business processes. Such superiority is relative and is determined in comparison with other organizations through benchmarking. In order to maintain and increase its competitiveness, the organization must constantly carry out adequate strategic and

2Tsybulskaya E.V. Izvestiya MGTU «MAMI»  4 (18), 2013, t. 1

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operational changes, acquire new competitive advantages, at least as fast as its competitors will copy existing ones. Without using the capabilities of the market benchmarking institution, it is extremely difficult to organize a process of continuous improvement of the organization's performance, which requires benchmarks for the performance of other organizations, as well as knowledge of the best business practices of direct competitors and industry leaders3.
The preconditions for the emergence of benchmarking and the subsequent process of its institutionalization were the processes of toughening competition in world markets along with the beginning of globalization of world trade, as a result of which the opportunities for access to information on the activities of leading world corporations have significantly expanded. Benchmarking has a history of several decades.
The event that marked the beginning of the institutional stage in the development of benchmarking was the establishment of several centers for the exchange of best practices that collect, classify and disseminate information, products and services within the framework of benchmarking. Such organizations subsequently became the main subjects of benchmarking in the world. At the current institutional stage of the development of benchmarking, it seems necessary to focus on the categorical definition of it as a market institution. The foundation of the benchmarking institute is the relationship of agreement that arises between the subjects of benchmarking in the process of sharing best practices. The concept of a consensus relationship is based on the orderly exchange of information, creating and maintaining the necessary connections and contacts with benchmarking partners.
Thus, the object of institutional interactions within the framework of the institution of benchmarking is information about best practices for doing business, which will allow organizations to increase the efficiency of their activities with minimal expenditure of organizational resources.
To increase the efficiency of management, it is necessary to implement the following measures based on interaction with the company's departments and network enterprises:
1. Coordination of work on the development of pricing policy in the enterprises of the industry in order to form the optimal pricing and cost of products;
2. Activation of regular marketing research (in conjunction with the Company's marketing services), identification of new trends and changes in the domestic and foreign markets, as well as preparation of proposals and recommendations on the production plan for the volume and range of products (services).
3. Introduction of modern information and communication technologies;
3Sidorova, E. E. Benchmarking as a function of searching for competitive advantages in the system of modern entrepreneurship / E. E. Sidorova // Youth and Economy: New Views and Solutions: Interuniversity. Sat. tr. Young Scientists / Ed. L.S. Shakhovskoy / VolGTU. - Volgograd, 2005

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References: 1. Sidorova, E. E. Benchmarking as a function of searching for competitive advantages in the system of modern entrepreneurship / E. E. Sidorova // Youth and Economy: New Views and Solutions: Interuniversity. Sat. tr. Young Scientists / Ed. L.S. Shakhovskoy / VolGTU. - Volgograd, 2005 2. Mikhailova E.A. Basics of benchmarking // Journal "Management in Russia and Abroad", 1, 2001, .134--139. 3. Knyazev E.A., EvdokimovaYa.Sh. Benchmarking for universities: Study guide. - M .: University book, Logos, 2006. ­ 208.

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UDK 037.36.78

Abdurozikov S.A. teacher of music department Tashkent State Pedagogical University

MAIN FEATURES OF MUSICAL PEDAGOGY

Abstract: This article examines the main features of music pedagogy. Key words: music, pedagogy, method, technique, music education

Music Pedagogy is a branch of pedagogical science (pedagogical discipline), engaged in the transfer of the entire complex of musicological knowledge to students, the study and development of the most effective ways, methods, forms of organization and methods of musical education and upbringing, as well as the formation and development of creative skills , experience and practical skills in various fields of musical art.
The object of musical pedagogy is the process of musical education and upbringing of a personality, and its subject should be considered the totality of all forms of organization, methods, means and other material and intangible attributes of musical education and upbringing, which add up to a holistic, unified complex of professional training and the formation of a musician's personality.
Musical pedagogy should be distinguished from individual methods of musical education and upbringing, since it is precisely a complex, holistic science, the content of which is aimed not only at developing individual musical abilities of a person and forming his knowledge, skills, and skills in the industry that the musician will choose, but and on the formation of his personality as a whole.
Musical education is the process of transferring and assimilating musical knowledge, skills and abilities provided by the curriculum. Musical education is aimed at mastering such knowledge, skills and abilities of practical musical and aesthetic activities that would correspond to a certain level of musical education. Musical education is carried out by both state institutions and non-state, or private institutions, as well as individuals. In accordance with this, musical education is divided into amateur (non-professional) and professional.
Musical education is the process of transferring and assimilating musical knowledge, skills and abilities aimed at developing and shaping musical inclinations, abilities, taste, ideals that inspire a person for practical musical and aesthetic activity. Musical education in a general pedagogical context refers to the system of compulsory educational work of a modern general education school. According to the legislative acts of many countries on education, musical education of students is implemented at school in music lessons and is included in the state (invariant) component of the content of general secondary education.
The forms of organization of musical education and upbringing are the external characteristics of the musical educational process, which are

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predetermined by the types and nature of the musical and aesthetic activity of its participants. These are practical classes (lessons), concerts, lectures, festivals, competitions, excursions, etc. General methods of musical education and upbringing are interactions between participants in the musical educational process, during which the transfer and assimilation of musical knowledge, skills, and practical musical activities and the development of personal musical and aesthetic qualities.
It is characteristic that in classical pedagogical science the categories of teaching and upbringing have their own characteristics, therefore, the definition of methods of musical training and upbringing has its own specifics, due to the complex creative nature of the educational process.
Musical pedagogy is a branch of pedagogical science (general pedagogy) that studies the features of education, training and education by means of musical art. The process of musical education and personal upbringing has a concrete historical character and takes place in accordance with the basic laws of the development of general pedagogy.
The sources for studying musical pedagogy are: 1. Musical and pedagogical experience of the past. These are institutions for the creation, accumulation and preservation of samples of musical phenomena in the history of the development of artistic culture. This should include the creative heritage of figures of musical culture, which includes the best examples of musical works, performing skills, the results of social, educational and musical pedagogical activities. 2. Contemporary musical pedagogical phenomena and research. This is, first of all, the experience of practical activities of musical educational institutions for the education and training of professional musicians, individual creative schools and private methods of musical education and upbringing. 3. Advanced scientific musical and pedagogical experience. This refers to the study and generalization of the results of scientific and experimental work of researchers in search of the most effective technologies and optimization of musical training and education. These are the results of research of research institutes, laboratories, scientists working on the improvement and improvement of solutions to the problems of musical education and upbringing. Musical pedagogy, as a branch of pedagogical science, has its own basic theoretical concepts - categories. Musical pedagogy, as a branch of pedagogical science, has its own basic theoretical concepts - categories. These categories define its theoretical basis, taking into account the specifics of the music industry: Music education is a process and result of mastering musical knowledge, abilities and skills, which indicates the appropriate level of mastering musical phenomena in the analytical-theoretical or practical performing aspects. Music education functions in the dialectical interaction of institutions for creating and accumulating the musical experience of society with the processes of transferring

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and assimilating this experience by future music specialists. Music education is regulated by the relevant legislative acts of the state, which determine its content and basic principles.
The laws of music education are objective reasons that characterize the essential connection between social and musical phenomena or processes, without which it is impossible to effectively implement musical education and upbringing. These include:
· correspondence of the content of musical education and upbringing to the level of development of the musical culture of modern society;
· dependence of the process of musical education and upbringing on the economic conditions for ensuring the development of the national music industry;
· orientation of the content of musical education and upbringing to the national musical tradition.
Literature: 1.  .      . -- .: , 1961. -- 72 . 2.  .        . -- .: , 1966. -- 58 . 3.  .        //  . -- 2007. --  1. -- . 39-43. 4.  .       //     . -- .: , 1981. 5.  .          //   - : . . -- .: . . . - . , 1985. -- . 34-51. 6.  .    -   . -- .: , 1983. -- 43 . 7.  .    //     [ ]. -- .: -XXI, 2007. -- 172 . -- ISBN 978-5-89817-1 84-1.

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UDK: 13.00.08

Abidova M.I. senior teacher of the department "Pedagogy and Psychology"
TSDI

INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO TEACHING MEDICAL TERMS FOR ESP STUDENTS

Annotation: This article discusses reconsidering the approaches that have been used so far in the search for innovative methods.
Key words: Ibn Sina, the book "Canon", term, medical terminology, innovative approach, language learning tools

The new conditions of the socio-political system and the new requirements for the development of society demanded certain changes and new decisions related to foreign languages. Sustainability of useful English, knowledge of English is important. Many students want to continue their studies abroad at universities and colleges, as it is now possible to pursue higher education abroad. At a time when new ideas in science and medicine are emerging so fast, not everything can be translated into different languages. Many articles are published in English.
The use of terminology and professional discourse used by the same professionals working in the same field is socially limited. Terms and professional skills are marked with a "special" sign in understandable dictionaries, sometimes indicating the field of application of one or another term: physicist, medical, mathematician, astronomer and so on. Each field of knowledge has its own terminology.
The study of medical terminology, like all other fields, is currently undergoing a process of reviewing the goals, methods and materials. In modern society, foreign languages are an accelerator of scientific and technological progress and a direct way of international cooperation. This is the key to successful business relations in the context of the restoration of business and economic cooperation.
Medicine is one of the oldest branches of human activity, so the terminology of medicine has long been used and is a constantly evolving term. Many new scientific concepts and terms appear in medicine, and many ancient ones undergo certain changes, which give rise to development trends and methods of their formation, as well as the laws governing the naming of languages according to the materials of English medical terminology.
The -1 centuries are truly considered to be the period of Central Asia in the history of world science. The great group of scholars who worked in Maverannahr (between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya) had a great influence

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on human development. One of the most important of these was Abu Ali Husayn ibn Abdullah ibn Sina, known in Europe as Avicenna (August 16, 0980 - June 18, 1037).
The son of the saint of Bukhara and the tax collector, later a minister, a statesman, he authored more than 450 works, of which only 274 have survived, but Avicenna's eternal fame is preserved in the 15th century. In the West, too, it was the main medical guide.
In less than 57 years, Avicenna has excelled in 29 fields of study, and his contribution to the development of medicine is hard to overestimate. According to media reports, the term "medicine" is derived from the Latin word -mad Sina (translated from the Sinai) or the abbreviated "method Sina".
Ibn Sina considers the experimental way of testing the effect of drugs to be the most reliable and offers "conditions" ensuring "purity of the experiment". His great book "Canon of Medicine" contains indications of the need to identify side effects of drugs, the presence of mutual enhancement of theirs and mutual weakening of the effect of drugs when they are administered together.
The book first outlines the theoretical foundations of medicine and the general provisions of practical medicine. It defines the concept of medicine, reveals the tasks of this science, gives the doctrine of juices and nature (temperament), a compressed anatomical sketch of the so-called "simple" organs of the human body - bones, cartilage, nerves, arteries, veins, tendons, ligaments and muscles.
Terms are words or phrases called special concepts of any special field of science, technology, art. Each term is based on a definition of the truth it defines, and its terms are a clear and concise description of the object or event. Each science works with its own term, which is the essence of the terminology of the science.
The lexical dictionary of languages is constantly updated and expanded. Various processes are observed: not only the appearance of new words, but also obsolescence. As a result, some words are transformed from a combination of active vocabulary into passive vocabulary, and vice versa. These processes contribute to the development of various fields of science, the emergence of various new objects, events, movements. The new terms here complement the limited usage phrases.
Medical terminology is a language used to communicate with physicians in a variety of medical fields. The peculiarity of the term is that it has a meaning clearly defined in its field of science, logistics semantics, the conscious agreement used, and is a member of the system of terms.
The basis of medical terminology is Greek-Latin words or terms artificially created from Greek-Latin terms; Terms are very motivational and semantically transparent.
The term should be open to readers and listeners. The best thing about medical terminology is to take into account words that are accepted by most

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experts, that are understandable to everyone, and that reflect the nature of the event or object. In medicine, the semantic meaning of terms becomes the property of a science that is defined only by explicit terms. As an example:
Abdomen - a belly. Atrium - an upper part of the heart . Bowels - intestines. Cardiovascular - heart and vascular. Gullet - esophagus. Paralysis - a condition when muscles cannot stretch or contract Pericardium - membrane that surrounds and supports the heart Trunk - a body. Vascular - referring to vessels ventricle - a lower part of the heart, and so on. Given the development of foreign language teaching and science and technology, it is necessary to reconsider the approaches that have been used so far in the search for innovative methods. Based on the teachers' explanations, they use multimedia and Internet technologies along with the new teaching models to avoid the previously used models. In addition, emphasis is placed on students learning a common language with the help of a computer. However, it should be borne in mind that multimedia technologies have certain shortcomings, and that the use of multimedia requires additional skills and abilities from the teacher. Otherwise, it will have low results. Nowadays, we can see the rapid development of technology, first of all, the computer. This, in turn, leads to better understanding and assimilation of new medical information by modern students through communication with computer sources. The use of computer technology in the process of learning a foreign language facilitates this process for students and creates a familiar environment for them. It also allows medical students to diversify their work and make it more interesting. Thanks to multimedia resources, the process of learning a foreign language can be carried out outside the classroom on a regular basis. In some cases, it is possible to learn a language and use these resources (meet online with local people, watch programs and watch movies) in a foreign language, use a variety of sites that require knowledge of a foreign language. Learning a foreign language using computer technology includes: - video clips, flash animation, websites, news, etc. such as authentic language materials; - an online environment where students can meet with local speakers in an electronic environment, text-based computer editing, social media, voice or video conferencing; - Language learning tools (online programs and manuals) for phonetics, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and sentence analysis, text-to-speech exercises, speech recognition, interactive and controlled tasks;

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- An online environment that allows teachers and students to communicate with each other;
- Game forms. There are a variety of specialized tools and manuals that provide the use of computer technology for teaching foreign languages. The following are used in foreign language teaching: course management systems (MS); interactive whiteboards; Portfolio (digital archive of students created by students); corpus (authentic language collections in oral, written, or both forms); electronic dictionaries; electronic comments (word or sentence levels, contextual translations or descriptive information); intelligent tutoring systems; grammar test programs; automatic speech recognition (ASR) and phonetic programs; virtual games; Conversations (synchronous computer communication: text or audio); social networks; blogs; Internet forums or notifications. Computer pronunciation interpretation (CPI), or automatic speech recognition (ASR), accelerates speech improvement and provides more effective control than a teacher can do. This program can help students as they practice and prepare other students and teachers to pronounce new words. Chat improves the ability to speak, expands the conversation, develops attention (in order to achieve results, students need to pay attention to what they do not know, or they know only partially), and the task of concentrating and concentrating (language). Electronic dictionaries help students complete tasks faster and increase the number of dictionary views. It may not be important for the development of powers, but it speeds up understanding. The advantage of online audio and video multimedia resources is that the student has the right to enter extracurricular classes, which expands the study time and creates opportunities for practice and independent work. Students can work on learning materials and work for them at the appropriate time. This will help them to improve their ability to listen without fear of making mistakes and to complete assignments. You need motivation and self-confidence to achieve the benefits of using computer technology. 1. Choose topics and listen to audio lessons. 2. Watch videos 3. Listen to songs in English 4. We deal with special programs. We learn grammar. 5. We test our knowledge In any test and online exercise, we provide a unique opportunity to test ourselves and discover weaknesses in grammar. Students should use these resources on a regular basis, test their knowledge, and be guided to action. We can conclude that with the help of computer-based education, students demonstrate achievements in speech, reading, comprehension, conversation,

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grammar. In addition, they provide better monitoring and evaluation of the work of medical students who are computer students.
The list of used literature: 1. Rojdestvenskaya S.V. Dissertation work of c.ph.s. Pyatigorsk, 2009 2. Abidova M.I. Study of Ibn Sina medical terms.    4 (59). 2019. 3. Abramenko L.A. Reading medical literature in English. Moscow, 2000 4. Netter.F. Human anatomy. MediMedia USA Company 2008

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Ablakulova I.K. Teaching assistent "Silk Road" international tourism university

ECO TOURISM AND ITS PROBLEMS

Annotation: Understanding the essence of the laws of nature in the formation of ecological knowledge and ecological culture in man means that man himself is a biological species of nature. It lives even when nature is destroyed. For example, if forests are cut down, air and water are poisoned, polluted, wildlife is destroyed, and so on, but man cannot live without nature. The educational value of nature in the development of human activities is understood as the properties of pure nature that awaken and form in people such moral qualities as nobility, kindness, tolerance, patriotism, majesty, gentleness. Frequent exposure to nature helps to develop human qualities. This is one of the most important qualities of ecotourism fans, as well as the fact that they are attracted to nature. The more one harms the nature of one's home, the more one becomes spiritually impoverished.
Keywords: Eco-tourism, social, mountain, Uzbekistan, Europe, nature, landscapes, economy.

Tourism as the only social reality of humanity is the largest mass movement in the world. Tourism is a journey that aims to see and know the history and natural beauties of a particular place, as well as to relax and have fun. Tourism is also an important part of consumption because people spend their savings on tourism regardless of their money. However, ecotourism comes from nature. It is a type of tourism that does not harm the natural environment or environmental resources, but helps to constantly protect and properly manage usable natural resources. Preferring safe and exotic natural locations with the locals of the event, tourists give more priority to their environmental goals than their economically and socially defined goals to comfort them. Today, nature and naturalness are integral parts of an offer that can attract people. Kirklareli is one such region. It is a natural paradise within the Kirklareli Istranca (Star) Mountains, dominated by a continental climate and in some places by a Black Sea climate, in which the beauty of tall forests and various plants. This research aims to determine the ecotourism potential of Kirklareli by reviewing data on its ecotourism riches as a natural, historical and cultural diversity.Longos includes the unique beauty of forests and various species of plants, as well as its lakes and streams of freshwater. This study aims to determine Kirqlareli's ecotourism potential by reviewing data on its ecotourism riches as a natural, historical, and cultural diversity. longos includes the unique beauty of forests and various species of plants, as well as its lakes and streams of freshwater. This study aims to determine Kirqlareli's ecotourism

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potential by reviewing data on its ecotourism riches as a natural, historical, and cultural diversity.
Currently, eco-tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism industries, according to the World Council for Tourism and Excursions and the World Tourism Organization. In other words, the share of eco-tourism in the global tourism industry is from 10% to 20%, and the revenue from eco-tourism services is 55 billion. dollars and its annual growth is 30%. Also, by 2020, eco-tourism will be one of the main strategic directions in world tourism, and, of course, these directions will enter the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The development of ecotourism in Uzbekistan not only solves the problems of our spirituality, science, culture, enlightenment, nature protection, attracting ecotourists, conservation of biological diversity, but also economic issues, socioeconomic conditions of our local people. improvement, creation of new jobs, will make a great contribution to the growth of our economy. Our country is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of eco-tourism resources, and in Central Asia, it is a country that geographically connects the countries of the world. Therefore, we have a huge potential to increase domestic and international tourism and ecotourism. Many problems in the development of ecotourism are identified only after we start developing ecotourism in our country. Currently, there are serious problems in the development of eco-tourism in the country. The first step in solving these problems is to train qualified personnel for ecotourism. The direction of eco-tourism in the world of tourism has been formed and is developing on the basis of finding ways to prevent the ecological crisis facing humanity, sustainable development and survival of mankind, conservation of nature and its resources. Stand before humanity humanity must and must solve the planet's environmental problems. From this point of view, we will contribute to the timely development of ecotourism in our country, the conservation of biodiversity, the protection of our natural resources and the prevention of international environmental crises.
As the tourism industry begins to develop, scientific research on the prospects of this important sector of the economy in the country is gradually being analyzed, the essence, traditions and strategy of ecotourism in Uzbekistan, the model of national tourism development in Uzbekistan, The results of the first important analysis on the organization and management of the national tourism business and the basics of safety in tourism have been published. In addition, Uzbekistan is preparing primary textbooks, teaching aids, important scientific literature for the development of tourism in the field of tourism.
The publication of educational and scientific literature on current issues and problems of tourism development in Uzbekistan and their solutions also means that tourism is becoming an important sector in our economy. Due to the lack of mature specialists and scientists in the practice and theory of tourism in the formation of tourism in our country, a lot of uncertainty was allowed in the beginning. Due to inexperience, the first researchers could not understand the

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origin of ecotourism and its purpose. As a result of the growing popularity of ecotourism at the international level, the organization of scientific and practical conferences dedicated to its promotion and promotion, after the intensification of vague opinions, dry recommendations, recommendations for defining the descriptions and descriptions of ecotourism in scientific collections. increased without practical justification (urban ecotourism, historical monuments ecotourism, archeological remains ecotourism, zoo ecotourism, museum ecotourism, etc.). Along with the problems in the development of ecotourism, it is clear that the growing number of uncertain information and recommendations confuses young professionals in the field of tourism education, as well as the activities of travel agencies, entrepreneurs and researchers in ecotourism.
The convenience of developing ecotourism in the world experience is that it does not require the construction of high-quality hotels for tourists. This type of tourism is a traditional form of recreation and leisure convenience is seen as a secondary issue. Ecotourism programs also focus on raising the environmental awareness and culture of tourists. There are special requirements for setting up tents and camping to see the unique landscapes. The services of highly qualified specialists and the safety of vacationers are of paramount importance. In this regard, special attention is paid to the construction of new roads leading to the picturesque natural areas of the region, the repair of existing ones. In order to expand the ranks of young professionals interested in the field, several professional colleges have launched such activities as "Tourism Services", "Hotel Services Manager", "Cooking".
It is no coincidence that today this direction of tourism is recognized not only as a source of income, but also as one of the most effective means of employment, conservation and protection of natural resources.
The large-scale work carried out under the leadership of our President is a practical manifestation of the consistent reforms aimed at raising the country's prestige in the world and promoting our national values. In European countries and Uzbekistan, eco-tourism includes visits to sites of certain value. These are places that do not experience anthropogenic impact and have been preserved in their original form.
Ecological tourism facilities can be: 1. Mountains. 2. Rivers. 3. Different types of reservoirs, including springs. 4. Forests. 5. Waterfalls. 6. Unique places that are naturally shaped and amaze with their beauty. Active ecotourism and travel in Uzbekistan include trips and excursions to such places. In most cases, there are tours. The group arrives at the designated location, after which it returns to the base overnight.

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In this case, it is very important to choose the location of the base. It should be located in the most convenient area to provide access to the maximum number of objects. Crossing a new route every day.
Pedestrians can be multi-day. To avoid inconveniences, you need to get a set of equipment for them. Accommodation is usually located in the homes of locals. To the question of what are the advantages of cultural and eco-tourism, I think:
1. Opportunity to get acquainted with nature and attractions. 2. Walking provides a load on different muscle groups, which is very rare in modern living conditions. 3. General strengthening and improvement of participants. 4. Gain useful skills that may be useful in the future. Recently, special attention is paid to eco-tourism. The desire to contribute to the development of the regions was one of the important factors. Many regions of the states are poor in traditional attractions, which does not allow them to attract tourists and investment. But in many places there are unique natural objects. Therefore, the popularization of eco-tourism allows to attract the attention of tourists to areas previously deprived of them. Manages investment in infrastructure development. There are a large number of eco-tourism facilities in the world. This was due to several factors: 1. A vast area with many climates and natural zones. 2. Poor development of many places. The easiest way to find unspoiled places in our country that might interest people. 3. Pay attention to the specificity of such objects for their subsequent preservation. 4. Creation of protected areas where any human activity is prohibited. That is why Uzbekistan is a unique place for eco-tourism. Europe and even the United States can't boast of the different areas we visit. What drives the development of eco-tourism: 1. The fatigue, gray landscapes and monotony of many people from their permanent residence in the city. 2. Struggle for the most comfortable living environment. 3. Standard tourist routes are boring, people want new things. 4. Travel to other countries is not available to everyone, especially in a difficult economic situation. This is another reason why ecotourism is slowly developing in our country. It takes a lot of time to create each route, so companies simply can't offer new options often. Of course, there are still many problems in ecotourism in our country, including the lack of advertising, the underdevelopment of a number of places, the difficulty of attracting investment. However, Uzbekistan has great prospects for the development of this area. The state has great potential, with sufficient

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financial investment, it is able to overtake Russia even Europe and the United States. Conclusion: Tourism is a social event specific to people, the largest mass movement in the world. Tourism; It is an excursion made to see the history and natural beauties of the place, to relax and unwind. Tourism is also an important phenomenon of consumption because people spend their money on tourism purposes without earning money. The main goal of an ecotourist is not environmental education, but the consumption of environmental resources. and information. Ecological resources are the properties of the natural balance of the components of the natural environment (animals, plants, soil, climate, relief, etc.) that are formed without the active influence of human activity. The main value of environmental resources is naturalness. It is these people who constantly attract tourists from cities where they feel the negative effects of polluted air and water, noise and social conflict. By consuming environmental resources, vacationers will have a health and educational impact. The second feature of eco-tourism is its sustainability. At all levels of management of the tourist complex, eco-tourism is perceived as very simple - as it is perceived by the average consumer. Stop any passer-by today and ask what ecotourism is, and he or she will answer that it's a trip to nature, a trip to a national park, or a trip to a nature museum. And it is precisely this philistine approach that has been used in defining the concept of `ecotourism' in the Law on Tourism, which is acceptable for conversations in the kitchen, but not appropriate for regulating the relationship between tourism service providers. Moreover, the narrow and already legalized interpretation of ecotourism does not allow for the existence of an alternative concept of ecotourism as a phenomenon. Thus, for ecotourism to have a real positive impact on the country's economy and social sphere, as well as for tourism to be a real priority, its concept must include three main aspects: 1) attract tourists to environmental resources focus on consumption, 2) preservation of the natural environment, 3) preservation of the traditional way of life of the population of peripheral regions.
List of references: 1. Nigmatov A., Shomurotova N. The experience of ecotourism zoning in Uzbekistan. Ecology Bulletin. j.¹2, ­Tashkent. 2007. pp. 46­54. 2. Hayitboyev R., Haydarov S., Abduhamidov S. and others. Development of tourist routes. Textbook, Samarkand, 2016, p. 180. 3. Hayitbaev R. Development of rural tourism: problems and solutions. Service log, ¹1. Samarkand, 2015, pp. 63­71. 4. Hayitbaev R. Specific features of types and areas of tourism and theoretical issues of their study. Service magazine, ¹3. Samarkand, 2015, pp. 43­48. 5. Nizamov A., Amanbayeva Z., Safarova I. Ecotourism resources and directions of Uzbekistan. - Tashkent: Science and Technology, 2014. 104-p. 6. Pardayev M.Q. Basics of ecotourism. - Tashkent: Navruz Publishing House, 2015. 95 p.

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UDK 911.2.504.064

Ahmadjonov A.I. Internship-researcher of Institute of Seismology of Academy of Scienses Republic of Uzbekistan

PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AS A RESULT OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN KASHKADARYA REGION

Abstract: It is no secret that at a time when globalization and scientifictechnological progress are at their peak and human interests are being expressed, the relationship between nature and society has become more tense than ever, and as a result a number of environmental problems are becoming more serious. Such environmental problems are also relevant for Central Asian countries, especially in Uzbekistan. This article discusses the Kashkadarya oasis located in the south-west of the country and some environmental factors that negatively affect its natural environment, including the problems of environmental pollution as a result of industrial production and measures to eliminate it.
Keywords: Kashkadarya region, environment, industrial enterprises, environmental sustainability.

Since the second half of the twentieth century, the development of demographic processes and the steady increase in world population have in turn led to a sharp increase in demand for natural resources. Today, due to scientific advances, the satisfaction of this demand by humanity armed with modern techniques and technologies, leads to the impoverishment of the natural environment and a dramatic change in the state of the landscape [1]. Undoubtedly, industrial production is one of the leading sectors among the factors that negatively affect the balance between nature and society, as well as the environment. By now we are witnessing directly that the negative consequences of the unscientific organization of environmentally unfavorable, unplanned construction of some industrial enterprises, the unscientific organization of environmental policy in them are causing serious damage to man and the natural environment that encompasses his economic activities.
The above-mentioned problems of the sharp increase in the pace and volume of interaction between man and nature are as relevant for our country as for the Central Asian states. The above-mentioned problems of the sharp increase in the pace and volume of interaction between man and nature are relevant for our country as for the Central Asian states. In particular, in Kashkadarya region, the south-west of the country, there are a number of environmental problems that have been developing since the recent past.

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In the territories of our republic, which were mainly a source of raw materials and a source of cotton supply in the former Soviet Union, including Kashkadaryo region, due to the diversion of the Kashkadarya tributaries, which are the main rivers of the region, to the developed areas in order to develop new lands and expand cotton fields, in riverbeds and irrigated lands there was an increase in groundwater levels, a sharp increase in the level of mineralization and the end result was strong salinization[3]. It was during this period that the foundation stone was laid for the drying of the Aral Sea, one of the world's greatest environmental tragedies due to the ecologically unjustified and unplanned use of the waters of the Amudarya and Syrdarya in order to develop new areas, especially in severely deserted areas. The quality of the environment in Kashkadarya region is negatively affected not only by problems in the agroindustrial, irrigation and land reclamation systems, but also by chemical wastes from industry, especially mining and oil and gas. It is known that Kashkadarya region is rich in natural resources and is the main fuel and energy base in the country, providing more than 90% of the country's natural gas condensate and oil. Industrial production is one of the most promising industries in the region, and today there are more than 3,000 small and large industrial enterprises. However, it is the industrial sector that is the main source of environmental pollution in the region.

Table 1

The amount of emissions from industrial enterprises to atmafera in

Kashkadarya region (2009-2019 yy.)[4]

Years

Size

( A thousand tons )

1

2009

127,8

2

2010

141,2

3

2011

142,5

4

2012

163,0

5

2013

167,0

6

2014

171,8

7

2015

176,3

8

2016

167,9

9

2017

165,7

10

2018

152,2

11

2019

140,4

The analysis of the data in the table shows that the amount of industrial emissions in the Kashkadarya oasis in 2019 decreased slightly compared to 2015 (176.3 thousand tons) and amounted to (140.4 thousand tons), but this figure is not satisfactory. In this regard, the region is better than only Tashkent region (379.7 thousand tons).

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There are several reasons why the environment is being polluted by industrial sectors and the pressure on nature is increasing so much. In particular, the lack of comprehensive consideration of the natural and economic characteristics of the region, the location of enterprises without environmental criteria, the obsolescence of their material and technical base, as well as the lack of transition to high technology in most enterprises were crucial in the process of nature management. Currently, the use of high technology in existing industrial enterprises in the region is only 0.1% [4]. This leads to an increase in various toxic gases and chemicals generated during the production process and the pollution of the atmosphere.
Industrial production in Kashkadarya rural districts is growing year by year. Of course, for a region with a population of about 3.5 million, such progress is gratifying. New jobs are being created through the establishment of industrial enterprises, and the level of employment of the able-bodied population is also increasing. However, as industrial production develops, the level of environmental pollution is also increasing, and this process is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed. It is important to take the following measures to optimize the current situation and reduce the damage to the natural environment through industries:
 Establishment of industrial enterprises on an environmental criteria;  Diversification of the structure of the industrial sector [2];  Increasing the production of environmentally friendly products without waste;  Introduction of natural resource-saving technologies. The above-mentioned measures will require a lot of money and time, but unless they are gradually introduced into the oasis economy, ensuring environmental sustainability in rural areas of Kashkadarya, where industrial production is growing year by year and the environment is similarly polluted, will remain an urgent problem.
Literature used: 1. Nazarov I.Q. The main problems of geography - Tashkent: "Editor", 2003. 106-110 p. 2. Federko V.N. Economic and geographical bases of improving the territorial structure of nature management in Uzbekistan. Author's abstract of the dissertation of the doctor of philosophy (phd) on geographical sciences Tashkent: 2018. 6-20 p. 3. Murodova D.S. Economic geography of Kashkadarya region - Karshi: 2007.11-24 p. 4. www.stat.uz

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UDK 81-13

Akhmadjanova M.M. master's degree of English language (linguistics)
Namangan state University

TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR USING MODERN TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS

Abstract: Learning and teaching English grammar is very complex and interesting. If you are a teacher, you will definitely need to find a convenient and fun way to teach students the grammar of this language. There should be fun teaching materials, innovative ideas, engaging and fun and great ways to teach English grammar to students. This article discusses how English grammar can be learned and taught in a variety of ways through music, exercises, games, dictation, and the like. It is said to be highly effective, especially if it is used in middle and high school students in secondary schools.
Key words: innovative techniques, English grammar, teaching materials, secondary schools, teaching methods, theoritical rules, practical tasks, media, presentation, learning grammar.

INTRODUCTION AND MAIN PART Learning grammar consist of two main stages: learning the meaning and form of each new structure and putting it into practice. Grammar is "the way a language manipulates and combines words in order to form larger units of meaning" (Ur,1988,p141). Grammar is undeniably an essential compotent of effective communication (Vijayalakshmi, 2014). We know that in many schools the teaching of English grammar is carried out in the old ways, methods, theoretical rules. Unfortunately, these are all traditional, outdated, outdated methods. The following is a comprehensive explanation, offering new and easy, convenient methods and technologies. Once the learners can imagine how/when/where they themselves might use the grammar point. In this instance, it is more likely they will give it a try on their own. Innovative Techniques of Teaching English Grammar Teaching of grammar refers to methods, i.e. systematic ways of grammar teaching, that are used to help learners develop competence in an unfamiliar grammar. The methods are comprised of the description and analysis of particular forms and structures of a language. The teaching of grammar includes teacher talk (a type of language used by the teacher for instruction in the classroom), learning aids, and practices (Mesthrie at. el., 2009: 348). Furthermore, the teaching helps learners to be aware of specific and ,,correct language properties (Ruin, 1996:99). Therefore, teaching of grammar can be defined as instructional techniques used to help learners pay attention to grammatical features. The following presents some innovative ideas that will help EFL teachers reinvent their grammar teaching methods and make their classes

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interesting. Vijayalakshmi (2014) suggests including songs and poems, music, games, and tasks in the teaching of grammar. Below you can get acquainted with new and innovative techniques of teaching and learning English grammar in secondary schools.
1.Boardwork presentations. For a quick and easy presentation of new language, the board is the obvious resource to exploit. Start by building a context. For example, a traveller's suitcase covered in stickers of places she's been provides an easy-to-establish context for the present perfect for experiences. Make sure you include on your board: the affirmative, eg a sticker saying `Mexico' elicits She's been to Mexico; the negative, eg She hasn't been to China; and question forms and short answers, egHas she been to Malaysia? Yes, she has / No she hasn't. Underline or use a different colour to highlight the structure, ie has been, contractions I've / she's / etc., and aspects of pronunciation, eg been = /bn/. See Unit 18.1 and Unit 29.7 for examples of boardwork presentations of the present continuous and present perfect continuous.
2.Using the students and you, the teacher. A direct context for language can often be found in the lives and experiences of the people in the room. Personal contexts immediately show how applicable the grammar is, and can also be more memorable than stories of people from outside the students' worlds. Throughout the book we suggest activities where students talk about themselves, their experiences, their lives, their opinions. We also suggest ways that you can use stories from your own life to present grammar, for example in Unit 24.1 we suggest that the teacher use photos of themselves when they were younger to introduce was/were. Student photos can also be a great resource. Most students will have photos on their mobile phones that they can share with each other to support any number of practice activities.
3.Using realia. Bringing objects into the classroom or using the objects you find in the classroom can help bring a grammar point to life and create a physical memory hook. Realia can be used to create a context for the target language. In Unit 7.1, for example, we suggest using such things as a bag of rice, a glass of water, a balloon and a tea bag to introduce the concept of countable and uncountable nouns. It can also provide further practice. In Unit 4.6, for example, objects that the students have brought to class provide a talking point to present and practise possessive structures.
4.Dialogue. This collaborative technique involves setting a scene and, with the students' help, writing a dialogue on the board including the language you want to focus on. In Unit 10.6, the teacher provides a framework for a dialogue between waiters and customers in a restaurant. This is a familiar situation in which the indefinite pronouns something, anything and nothing occur naturally. Students then either practise the dialogue in pairs as it is or with variations (eg different choices of food and drink, a different type of restaurant). A great way to push students towards memorising the language is to gradually erase the text, word by word, until the students are repeating the dialogue from memory.

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5.Dictation.With grammar points where the written form is already familiar to the students, but where meaning needs to be explored in more depth, a quick and effective means of introducing the language is to dictate model sentences to the class. Dictation immediately gets students working with the language and tests listening skills and spelling, as well as grammatical knowledge. It also promotes conversation management skills, such as asking to clarify and repeat: Sorry, could you say that again, please? In Unit 9.4 the teacher dictates sentences containing verbs used with and without reflexive pronouns to start exploring the differences in meaning and use. Unit 33.3 involves another basic dictation to teach the meaning of reporting verbs.
6.Dictogloss. In a dictogloss, the teacher has a text prepared to dictate to the class, but instead of dictating it slowly to ensure students write a faithful copy, they read it at a more natural speed two or more times. Prepare a text of no more than 100 words (fewer for lower-level students). Read it out first for content, and check comprehension. Then tell students to write down keywords, such as nouns and verbs, as you read it out again. Explain that even though they will not be able to write every word, they should keep writing as much as possible. Using their notes, students in pairs or small groups reconstruct the text in complete sentences. The idea is not to reproduce the text verbatim, but to focus in on certain aspects of the language used. For example, Unit 30.6 is a dictogloss activity focusing on the use of would to talk about past habits. Others can be found in Units 14.3, 34.2 and 42.7.
7.Drilling. To help students pronounce new language correctly, get them to say it repeatedly so you can check for accuracy. By experiencing the movement of the mouth as they say it, students reinforce their learning in a different way from when they write it down and see it. Simple drilling can be either choral, all students repeat the structure at the same time, or individual. A suggested order is to let students practise chorally first, but to insist on individual repetition so that you can check everyone is pronouncing it correctly. There are ways to vary drilling so that it doesn't get repetitive. Substitution drilling involves the teacher prompting students to substitute words for other words in a drilled sentence, for example:
T: He's been working at the office. S1: He's been working at the office. T: they S2: They've been working at the office. T: at home S3: They've been working at home. T: watch TV S4: They've been watching TV at home. See a simple substitution being used in Unit 9.1. Drilling can be disguised as a game, as in the circular drill in Unit 48.2, where students inadvertently `drill' each other. And although the board game in Unit 43.4 is not recognisably drilling, students need to repeat the second conditional over and over in order to win the game. 8. Songs.Another popular way of encouraging students to repeat structures as well as to make them memorable is through songs, eg If I had a million dollars

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by the Barenaked Ladies (see Unit 43.6). Choose songs that contain the target language multiple times and which contain a natural stress pattern for it, too, eg If I had a million dollars, I'd buy you a fur coat. Songs can be used to present the target language through listening tasks such as gap-fills or reordering the lines or words in the lyrics. They also offer repeated exposure to the language and, if your students enjoy singing, can also offer a chance to practise pronunciation.
9.Exploiting feedback stages.Feedback on activities is not just about seeing how many questions students got right; it is an opportunity to achieve several teaching objectives: to check understanding, correct persistent errors, share interesting information, revise rules and to draw conclusions. Other ways of exploiting this crucial stage at the end of activities include:
· reformulation: in Unit 25.2, students use questions to find out when their partners last did certain things, eg, When did you last go to the cinema? However, during feedback they must use affirmative sentences: Lorena last went to the cinema on Friday night.
· critical thinking: as well as asking students what they answered, we can also ask Why? In Unit 40.3, they are asked why they voted for their favourite slogans, for example.
· remembering/summarising: one way of carrying out feedback is to get students to work in pairs or groups to remember everybody else's answers, effectively drilling the target language.
10. Error correction.Students want and expect correction from their teacher. Choosing which mistakes to correct, when to do so and how, are complex questions. It's important, however, to remember that students who need the most correction may not be those that make the most or biggest mistakes. Lower-level or quiet, shy students may benefit from less correction so that they are not discouraged from using English, however imperfectly. We correct students in the hope that they won't keep making those mistakes. To encourage them to think about their errors, let them try out new language, listening out for errors of use. Then point out the errors and show them the corrections. Finally, let them do the activity again, this time with those common errors fresh in their minds. In a shopping roleplay in Unit 5.3, for example, students can perform the roleplay first, you correct any errors, then they swap roles and try again.
11.Using games. Using games is a very interesting method of teaching for students, in particular young ones (Danarti, 2008). They generally tend to like and play games better than sitting down to study. Traditional methods dictated for study and games to be separate but the fact remains that the students tend to be more interested in playing games rather than sitting down to study. Learning with games will usually be engaging for the students (Anburaj, 2014). The games can be utilized to learn grammar. To understand the meaning of a particular structural pattern and to use them in day to day life is a very difficult task and games can help the students overcome this difficulty. Games like scrabble, housie etc. have

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been designed for this specific purpose. These games are just based on words and help the students develop their vocabulary as well.
12.Tasks.Learning grammar can be used by assigning tasks. Introducing various tasks would provide students with exposures on the use of language in real-life situations by engaging them in doing many activities in the classroom (Anil, 2017). The advantage to task based instruction over traditional grammar instruction is that accomplishing a language task is more like real life language situations than performing grammar exercises. The tasks used in the classroom are divided into two groups as pedagogical tasks and target tasks. Pedagogical tasks are precision made classroom tasks in which learners perform communicative tasks limited to the classroom environment.
13.Media.Using other media Media helps to kindle the learning interest of learners. The computer tools like internet, audio or video clips help learners to interact or listen to the native speakers; this increases the morale of learners. Using video, audio clippings in the classroom is a stimulus for students to communicate about anything interesting Innovative Techniques of Teaching English Grammar at Secondary Schools Journal of English Teaching AdiBuana, Vol. 04 No. 02, October 2019 158 (Anil, 2017). Multimedia sources like songs, movies, TV series, magazines, newspapers play a very vital role in improving language. Such sources can be used it is very important that the students understand that fact so that they to help the students improve their language. But great precautions must be taken. They use colloquial English which is, in general, grammatically wrong and do not use that form of the language in their everyday usage. However, the students can very often engage with songs and movies. Through them, they can understand the meaning of expressions, usage of tools of the language like comparisons, personifications etc. These sources help them understand why such tools are necessary and also help them understand their usage. These innovative ideas the entire learning and the teaching process is enriched and guarantees a success in efficient learning.
CONCLUSION To conclude, English grammar has been taught through chalk and board method. It has to be taught in innovative and creative way that it will help students not just to speak and write and listen but to communicate through various engaging activities that emphasize form-meaning, mappings for day-today communication. That is the purpose of the teaching of English grammar and that is what it must be used for. Innovative methods, therefore, help in bringing a change and most of the times for the better. It helps the students learn faster and in an efficient, interesting and an interactive manner and it is the teacher's responsibility to leave the traditional methods and make way for new and better methods for the students benefit. Using innovative methodologies in teaching English grammar in the classroom will pave a positive way to students to learn the language meaningfully.

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References: 1. Anburaj, G., Christopher G, and Ming, N. (2014). Innovative Methods of Teaching English.IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 19 (8), pp. 6265. 2. Anil, B. (2017). Applying Innovative Teaching Methods in a Second Language Classroom.International Journal of Research in English Education.Danarti, D. (2008). 3. Danarti, D. (2008). 50 Games for Fun. 4. Retrieved from Vijayalakshmi, S. (2014). Innovative and Creative Means of Teaching Grammar. 5. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/ Ur, P. (1988). Grammar Practice Activities A Practice Guide for Teachers. 6. Learning teaching. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. Simpson, A. J. 7.Internet resources. Wikipedia.

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UDK 378

Akhmedova Sh.T. Senior Lecturer
of the Department of Social Sciences and Humanities Andijan State Medical Institute

MODERN TEACHING METHODS USED IN TEACHING ECONOMY

Abstract: This article examines modern teaching methods used in the education of economics.
Key words: economics, economic sciences, method, methodology, innovation

The teaching method is a way of interrelated activity of the teacher and students to achieve the goals of teaching, development and education. The correct choice of teaching methods depends on many circumstances and conditions of the educational process, the nature and content of the subject, specifically on:
- The level of knowledge and skills of the teacher. The teacher needs to know, and most importantly, to understand the essence of the method, the classification of teaching methods, the basis of this or that type of classification, to be able to apply them in various learning situations and combinations. Using one or another system of methods, diverse or complementary to each other, aimed at achieving a common goal, the teacher establishes feedback with his students, reveals the level of assimilation of knowledge and skills, determines the effectiveness of the application of methods and works on errors, if any, or simply adjustment, thereby increasing your level of professional competence. - The general goal and objectives of training, the characteristics of the subject, its topic, the planned goals and objectives of a specific lesson. - The content of the teaching material selected by the teacher. - The level of development of students, their ability and desire to learn, opportunities and age characteristics of students. - Roles of a method or a combination of teaching methods in the development of students' cognitive activity, their activity, independence and creativity. - Time. The holistic theory of teaching methods began to actively develop in the 30s of the 20th century. The methods used in economics lessons can be divided into the following groups: I - Methods of one-sided presentation of educational material (teaching): story, explanation, lecture. II - Methods of two-way presentation of material: dialogue, debate, discussion, "brainstorming", group work, business games;

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III - Methods of highlighting empirical experience (exchange of information, experience, etc.);
IV - Methods of various types of learning: problem-based, heuristic, student-centered, etc .;
V - Methods of control and feedback (conversation, consultation, testing, credit, exam, etc.).
When preparing lessons in economics at school, it is important to use active teaching methods, because they allow students to understand the practical significance of economics, to apply theoretical knowledge in this discipline in practice, to understand the structure and mechanism of functioning of some enterprises with others, etc.
According to the degree of activation of students and the nature of their educational and cognitive activities, they differ: simulation methods based on pedagogical techniques and special forms of conducting classes, in which educational, cognitive and research activities are built on the idea of future professional and practical activities and non-imitation methods that are based on real professional and practical situations.
Within the framework of a general school course in economics, it is advisable to use this type of active learning as business games. They contribute to the formation of not only professional, but also job knowledge, skills and abilities. The business game is a model substitution of two realities - production processes and processes of human activity in it.
The methodological support of a business game should include: 1) initial information about the business game; 2) the methodology for preparing and conducting a business game; 3) a set of various forms and other documentation.
List of used literature: 1. Abramova, A.I. Economic education and upbringing of students [Text]: textbook. allowance / A.I. Abramova - M .: Higher. shk., 2005.-150s. 2. Azimov, L.B. Economics lessons at school [Text]: textbook. manual / M .: Aspect - Press, 1995 - 71 p. 3. Geronimus, Yu. V. Game, model, economics [Text]: textbook. manual / Yu.V. Geronimus - M .: Pedagogy, 2003.-132s. 4. Danilov, M.A. Education in schoolchildren of independence and creative activity [Text]: textbook. allowance / M.A. Danilov - M .: Pedagogy, 2006.-137s. 5. Urakova Oysuluv Jamoliddinovna. The praise of nature and the universe in Novalis romance //EPRA International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD) Volume: 5 | Issue: 7 | July 2020..274-275 . 6. Urakova. O. J. The search for national and universal in art in the context of romanticism. Theoretical & Applied Science. 07 (87) 2020 . 29-32.

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UDK: 14.01.04

Aminova D.A. master student Leader: Ruzmetova I.A. Egamberdieva D.A. Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute

THE SEVERITY OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

nnotation: Analyzed plasma level of an inflammatory mediator lipoxin A4 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which could be used as a marker of systemic inflammation in COPD patients
Key words: Respiratory organs, lung disease, COPD, factor, bronchial gland

Respiratory diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the population worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, by 2020, COPD will rank 5th in morbidity and 3rd in the structure of mortality and will cause about 5 million deaths a year. However, according to a number of researchers, the official statistics on the incidence of COPD do not reflect the real situation, since up to 50% of cases of COPD are currently not diagnosed.
COPD is regarded as a systemic disease with multiple extrapulmonary effects, which in some cases determine the prognosis for patients. The main manifestation of COPD is a progressive impairment of the function of external respiration in an obstructive or mixed type, induced by various factors, which leads to the development of chronic inflammation, mainly in the distal parts of the respiratory tract, with the development of remodeling of the bronchial tree and reduction of pulmonary function.
Prolonged exposure to factors that have a damaging effect leads to atrophy and increasing sclerosis of the own layer of the bronchial mucosa, sclerosis of bronchial smooth muscles, atrophy and sclerosis of bronchial glands with a change in the rheological properties of bronchial secretions, which becomes more viscous and difficult to separate when coughing, which contributes to obstruction small bronchi with mucous plugs.
Activation of mediators, realized by alveolar macrophages, leads to the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive agents, which leads to the development of bronchial hyperreactivity and promotes the progression of lung damage.
The inflammatory process has a clear staging. At different stages, different endogenous mediators are involved in it. At the initiation stage, the activation of chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, etc. takes place, having an "explosive"

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character, and within a few hours the inflammation passes into the second stage the developmental stage.
The products of destruction of the pathogen, the body's own tissues and apoptotic neutrophils accumulate in the focus of inflammation. Since these products are inflammation stimulants, the 2nd stage can last as long as you like. If the process of completion of inflammation is not intense enough and the migration of neutrophils to the inflammation focus is not completely inhibited, inflammation can become chronic. To prevent such a scenario, at the stage of development of inflammation in the body, the synthesis of mediators is switched from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, or termination mediators (prostaglandin D2, resolvins, lipoxins).
In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the study of the process of completion of inflammation.
The main endogenous low-molecular-weight mediators stimulating the onset of the completion stage, the derivatives of arachidonic acid lipoxins, in particular lipoxin A4, were isolated and studied (Fig. 1).

Lipoxin A4 has the ability to inhibit the migration of neutrophils by suppressing their chemotactic activity, i.e. it is able to inhibit the processes of neutrophilic inflammation.
The study of its level in various diseases accompanied by the processes of systemic inflammation is a promising direction in the understanding of pathophysiological reactions.
The average level of the index of systemic inflammation of lipoxin A4 in the blood plasma of patients was 1.62 ± 0.09 ng / ml, while in healthy individuals it was 0.38 ± 0.75 ng / ml (p <0.05), which indicates the presence of a pronounced

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systemic inflammatory reaction in patients with COPD and the incomplete nature of the development of inflammation in the airways. At the same time, the level of lipoxin was higher in patients with COPD with stage III than with stage II (1.75 ± 0.10 ng / ml vs 1.63 ± 0.08 ng / ml), which indicates an increase in the severity of the inflammatory process with progression diseases.
When analyzing the correlations of the obtained level of lipoxin A4 in the plasma of patients with different parameters, several important strong correlations were obtained.
All obtained correlations were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. Thus, a reliably strong direct relationship between lipoxin A4 and the level of leukocytes (r = 0.66) and, in particular, peripheral blood granulocytes (r = 0.34), was shown. It is known that lipoxin A4 is generated by various types of cells, including such active participants in inflammation as neutrophilic leukocytes. Thus, their presence indicates that inflammation in the bronchial system of patients is predominantly neutrophilic, and even in the absence of an exacerbation of the disease, the level of migration of neutrophils to the focus of inflammation and their production of inflammatory mediators are increased.
A reliable direct relationship was obtained between the level of lipoxin A4 with indicators of lipid metabolism, in particular with the level of total cholesterol (r = 0.40) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.39). Previously, researchers obtained data on the hypocholesterolemic effect of arachidonic acid. An increase in the level of cholesterol in the plasma of patients with a parallel increase in the concentration of metabolic products of arachidonic acid (lipoxin A4) can be a marker of an active process of phospholipid peroxidation and disruption of the normal metabolism of arachidonic acid.
A direct relationship was found between the level of total protein and the level of lipoxin A4 (r = 0.34), which may indicate an increase in the total concentration of protein in the plasma of patients due to the constant generation of pro and anti-inflammatory protein components of inflammatory reactions.
Thus, the level of exercise tolerance shown by patients is inversely related to the severity of systemic inflammatory reactions occurring in the body, and a decrease in the activity of the inflammatory process is extremely important for the restoration of physical activity in patients.
Literature: 1. Chapman K.R., Mannino D.M., Soriano J.B. et al. Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Respir. J. 2006 2. Chuchalin A.G. Global strategy for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COPD (GOLD). M .: Atmosphere; 2007 3. Ameille J. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a poorly understood disease. Rev. Mal. Respir. 2006 4. T.A. Pertseva Anti-inflammatory therapy in COPD: possible ways of optimization. Health of Ukraine 2008;

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UDK: 13.00.08

Azimova D.S., Master of degree Uzbekistan State World Languages University (UZSWLU)

USAGE OF WEB TOOL 2 FOR SELF STUDIES AND ITS BENEFITS

Annotation: This article explains self-studies and gives some information about Web 2.0 tool. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits of Web 2.0 tool
Key words: Self-study, Web tool 2, Interaction, Communication, Collaboration

Self-study is becoming a more and more popular way to engage students with what they are learning in class. Students have the ability to access so many resources that now, learning can happen anywhere, anytime--not just in the classroom. So, what does self-study mean?
Self-studying is a learning method where students direct their own studying --outside the classroom and without direct supervision. Since students are able to take control of what (and how) they are learning, self-study can be a very valuable way for many students to learn. Self-studying is a great method students can use to enhance their learning experience, whether they are studying for a course or learning about a topic for fun. By doing self-study, students are able to go beyond simply learning what their class textbooks and instructors teach them. By practicing self-study, they are encouraged to further explore topics they are interested in, developing stronger study skills as a result. One of the major advantages of self-study is that students can take control over their own learning. Moreover, when students have control, they become even more interested in learning. For self-study Web 2.0 tool is the most suitable and profitable method.
What is Web 2.0 tool ? Web 2.0 tools can very broadly be defined as enduser applications that require dynamic interaction, social networking, or user interfacing between people and information. They almost always have accompanying websites and associated apps for smart devices. In Web 2.0 environment users decide how they want to use, interact with, and create information. In addition, users have the ability to generate and manipulate content from multiple locations in a Web 2.0 environment. Users can add images, videos, or links to other media content. Students have unlimited opportunities to individualize the content they embed in their products, and the ease of use of these tools encourages student creativity. Unlike traditional pen and paper type responses, students are not limited by their own artistic abilities, page-length, or word count limits. Students will often go beyond the basic expectations of an assignment because these tools facilitate students' creative processes. According to Thomson's opinion (2007), users not only find information on the internet, but they also create and share content. Web 2.0 technologies - such as blogs, wikis, podcasting, social bookmarking, and social networking sites - have allowed users

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to easily publish content online and to connect and network with other people from all over the world who have similar interests. The use of tags particularly enables us to collectively categorize and find content easily.
Familiar examples of Web 2.0 sites and tools include wikis and blogs (PBworks and WordPress), image and video hosting sites (Flicker and YouTube), social networking sites (Facebook and Twitter), and applications to generate Web content for education, business, and social purposes (Wikipedia, Weebly, and Instagram).
The advantages of the method is endless. One of the benefits of Web 2.0 tools is their ease of use. Most students find these tools to be intuitive and userfriendly. Because of this, there is little time wasted in learning how to use the programs. The tools facilitate interactive learning and innovative responses to assignments and assessments. Students see their ideas take shape quickly, and they are rewarded with professional-looking results. It is also easy to edit the projects as they are being developed so students tend to take more risks during the creative process. This ease of use combined with the quality of the finished products increases students' self-efficacy, and it motivates students to engage more earnestly and actively in the content of their responses.

Knowledge creation. Web 2.0 technologies enable students to "become creators of knowledge." As one noted, Web 2.0 technologies give students "the opportunity to create content themselves instead of just listening to lectures," and this supports active and student-centered learning in which students take responsibility for their learning. Web 2.0 technologies create an environment where a teacher becomes a facilitator of learning rather than a distributor of knowledge.
Ease of use and flexibility. Web 2.0 tools are easy-to-use and flexible. while some of the traditional course management systems (CMS) are too static, Web 2.0 tools remove time constraints by providing a more flexible learning environment that is not inhibited to classroom walls.
Writing and technology skills. Web 2.0 technologies help students become more proficient in writing and in the application of technology.
In addition to these four major benefits, the participants also mentioned that using Web 2.0 technologies "helps teachers understand a little more about the world of their students," and "motivates the students."
As addressed above, Web 2.0 technologies have "blurred the line between producers and consumers of content and has shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people" (Brown & Adler, 2008, p. 18). Emphasizing a participatory culture, Web 2.0 technologies encourage and enable teachers and learners to share ideas and collaborate in innovative ways. They also

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force educators to rethink the way we teach and learn and to transform our education practices so that we can support more active and meaningful learning that involves "learning to be" as well as "learning about." Learners' critical thinking skills can be enhanced through the opportunity to regularly compare their own contributions to those of their peers, and the affirmation of their relative standing in the class may be powerful motivation for learning (Hurlburt, 2008). Thus, Web 2.0 technologies has the ability to "support active and social learning, provide opportunities and venues for student publication, provide opportunities to provide effective and efficient feedback to learners, and provide opportunities to scaffold learning in the student's Zone of Proximal Development" (Hartshorne & Ajjan, 2009; Vygotsky, 1978). In addition, Web 2.0 provides numerous opportunities for social interactions and collaboration among students, teachers, subject matter experts, professionals in different fields, as well as a host of others with related interests.
The pedagogical benefits of Web 2.0 have been well documented in the literature. However, most of the existing studies on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning environments have been anecdotal in nature or in the form of case studies. Huang, Yoo, and Choi's (2008) study, for example, found that correlation exists between learning style and learners' preferences and attitudes towards using Web 2.0 technologies. Lambert and Kidd's (2008) explored the potential impact of the design of Web 2.0 environments on cognitive load. While such studies are collectively useful in providing a broader view of issues surrounding instructional uses of Web 2.0 technologies, they are limited in scope, as they address such issues within the context of one or two courses.
Today's students are "digital natives" (Prensky, 2007), and make increasing use of Web 2.0 technologies in their daily lives. In order to effective use of web 2.0 tools for instruction is the challenge of creating meaningful assignments to promote desired learning outcomes. Ill-designed assignment with no visible connection to the overall purpose of the course not only frustrates students, it decreases students' interest in using the tool, and results in little or no learning (Reynard, 2009). According to Hurlburt (2008), there are "invisible aspects" to facilitating learning in the social network environments. In addition to the visible aspect of designing effective learning environments with these tools, educators also need to serve as coach, mentor, cheerleader, as well as task master to their students when the expected learner participation does not materialize.
In a nutshell, Web 2.0 could be characterized by openness, user participation, knowledge sharing, social networking and collaboration, usercreated content, and folksonomy (Alexander, 2006; Brown & Adler, 2008; Downes, 2005; Thompson, 2007; Richardson, 2009).
References: 1. Alexander, B. (2006). Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSEReview, 41(2), 32-44.

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2. Brown, J. S. (2008). How to connect technology and passion in the service of learning. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(8), Retrieved October 2, 2008, from http://chronicle.com/article/How-to-Connect-Technology-and/24884. 3. Brown, J. S., & Adler, R. P. (2008). Minds on fire: Open education, the long tail, and l earning 2.0. EDUCAUSE Review, 43(1), 17-32. 4. Downes, S. (2005). E-learning 2.0. eLearn Magazine, Retrieved August 14, 2008, from h ttp://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?article=291&section=articles 5. Downes, S. (2004, September/October). Educational blogging, EDUCAUSE Review,39(5), 14-26.

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UDK 037.36.78

Bazarbekova Yu.A. teacher of music education Tashkent State Pedagogical University

ROLE OF MUSICAL PSYCHOLOGY IN ORGANIZATION OF MUSICAL EDUCATION

Resume: The article examines the role of musical psychology in the organization of music education.
Key words: music, psychology, education, music education, method, technique

The role of music psychology in the organization of music education Musical psychology is a scientific discipline that studies various psychological aspects of the musical language and the structure of musical works, as well as investigates the patterns of psychological perception of music and its impact on various structural components of the human psyche. Musical psychology is an interdisciplinary science, belonging both to the field of musicology and to the field of applied psychology. Therefore, developments in the field of musical psychology can, for example, include various specialized studies in the field of musical acoustics, psychoacoustics, neuropsychology of perception, psychophysiology of hearing and movement, aesthetics, cultural studies, pedagogy, etc. The main areas of research in the field of musical psychology are as follows: · psychology of musical abilities; · psychology of musical ear; · psychology of music perception; · psychology of musical creativity; · psychological aspects of musical phenomena. The problem of musical psychology as such was considered at all stages of the development of musical art, starting from the times of early antiquity. Of considerable interest from the point of view of the development of musical psychology is the Theory of Affects, which arose in the Baroque Era, the main developers of which were Johannes Quantz, Maren Mersenne, Athanasius Kircher, Johann Walter, Claudio Monteverdi, Johann Matteson, Giovanni Bononcini and Christian Spies. According to the Theory of Affects, the goal of composer's creativity is to excite affects, for the groups of which certain musical styles and other means of composer writing were assigned. According to Afanasy Kircher, the transmission of affects was not limited to any purely artisan techniques, but was a kind of magical action to control the "sympathy" "arising between man and music". In this regard, it should be noted that many composers

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of that era were specially trained in magic, including the largest of them, Claudio Monteverdi.
But it was precisely as an independent scientific discipline that musical psychology began to take shape from the middle of the 19th century. The main impetus for this was research in the field of experimental psychophysiology and the development of a scientific theory of musical and auditory perception, which is in its final form formulated in the works of Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, directly related to these studies. Helmholtz developed the resonance theory of hearing, according to which auditory sensations arise in a person due to the resonance of the internal organs of hearing in response to external influences. Another innovative idea of Helmholtz was the provision that a single sound is a kind of chord, the sound of which is based on well-defined laws of acoustics. In his "theory of consonance and dissonance, Helmholtz explained many important phenomena from the field of psychoacoustics by the occurrence of beats between partial and combination tones: the largest number of such beats is observed in dissonant intervals (seconds, tritons, septims), the smallest - in consonant intervals (octaves, fifths).
Helmholtz's research touched upon various scientific and practical issues related to the problems of perception, creativity, diagnostics of abilities, methods of musical education, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of almost all areas of musical psychology.
Many of Helmholtz's ideas were then taken up, and his developments were creatively interpreted in the works of K. Stumpf, O. Abraham, M. Meyer, E. Mach.
Karl Stumpf viewed music as a unique cultural phenomenon, and therefore the results of experiments carried out by psychologists trained in introspective analysis of consciousness (W. Wundt's school), as more trustworthy, he opposed the evidence of expert musicians.
One of the main concepts of Stumpf's psychology of sound is the "fusion" of sounds: a plurality of sounds that form a single, integral consonance in the minds of listeners. In this approach, dissonance is seen as the "individuation" of sounds from this unity.
Stumpf made the largest contribution to the study of psychological acoustics after Helmholtz. But, unlike Helmholtz, Stumpf opposed "objective methods" of research, thus declaring the idea of the impossibility of a strict distinction between physical and mental phenomena, which presupposed the need to study integral psycho-physical complexes in the field of psychoacoustics.
K. Stumpf laid the foundations for the concept of "two components of the pitch of a musical sound", according to which, with a change in one physical parameter of a sound - the frequency of its vibrations - two psychological characteristics of a sound change simultaneously - its timbre and pitch.
A significant contribution to the development of musical psychology was also made by W. Wundt (who enriched musical psychology with the use of the

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methodological tools of experimental psychophysiology), W. Kohler (who brought the fundamental principles of Gestalt psychology into musical psychology , G. Reves (thoroughly researched the phenomenon of musical giftedness) and other famous scientists.
Music psychology is of scientific and practical interest in several aspects: - in pedagogy, which deals with the education and training of musicians; - in musicology, which, first of all, is connected with the problems of reflecting reality in music and showing the process of formation of artistic meaning in a piece of music; - in the sociological and psychological, which is related to various laws of the existence of music in public consciousness; - in the psychological proper, which interests scientists from the point of view of the most general tasks of studying the human psyche, his aesthetic needs and creative manifestations. From a purely musicological point of view, the field of application of musical psychology encompasses all types of musical activity: composing music, performing music, perceiving music, musical theoretical analysis, and musical education.
Literature: 1.  .      . -- .: , 1961. -- 72 . 2.  .        . -- .: , 1966. -- 58 . 3.  .        //  . -- 2007. --  1. -- . 39-43. 4.  .       //     . -- .: , 1981. 5.  .          //   - : . . -- .: . . . - . , 1985. -- . 34-51. 6.  .    -   . -- .: , 1983. -- 43 . 7.  .    //     [ ]. -- .: -XXI, 2007. -- 172 . -- ISBN 978-5-89817-1 84-1.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_44 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Buriev J.A. Methodist of the Department of Youth Affairs
Spirituality and Enlightenment International Islamic Academy of Uzbekistan
HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF AHMAD ZAKI WALIDI'S WORK "BERUNIY"
Abstract: this article is devoted to the scientific heritage of Zaki walidi, religious, secular, natural and scientific philosophy of Abu Rayhan Beruni played an important role in the formation of philosophical thoughts of walidi.
ey words: heritage, philosophy, Islam, religion, map, civilization, people, world, history, culture, arts, nation.
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Beruni al-Khorezmi (973-1051) is one of the most famous encyclopedic geniuses not only in the Islamic world, but also in the Middle Ages.
It is widely acknowledged that Beruniy, known as Al-Ustaz, was born in 973 (362) in Qiyat (Madinah ul Khorezm, now Sheikh Abbas Wali).
Zaki al-Walidi quotes Beruniy in his book, "Tahdid nihayat al-amakin" and Saydana, in which he argues that the domination of the non-Muslims in the Islamic world is useless. In addition, in the preface to Saydana, Beruni considers that his mother tongue is a language of science, that he cannot write a book in it, and that Arabic and Persian are foreign languages. He admits that learning these languages later made it much more difficult to use these languages.
Validi also argues in this work "Beruni" [1] about the works written in the high culture of the Khorezm people and the Khorezm language, according to which the Khorezm language is an ancient language. The Khorezmians knew Persian very well. That is why they were able to speak this language fluently. Validi Beruni also translated his book "Basic Concepts from the Art of Astrology" into Arabic for the daughter of Hussein al-Khwarizmi, one of the famous people of Khorezm. (Nuruos-maniye Ktp., Nr. 2780).
Beruni disliked the Karakhanids and thought that they had invaded the Samanid land, and the travels of the Turks living in present-day Afghanistan to India were of great benefit to him as he studied their conquests and culture there. In his works, Beruni was very interested in the origin (ethnography) of the Turkic peoples.
Zaki al-Walidi said that the "autochthonous" population in the eastern part of the Mozandaran Pass in Khorasan was Turkic, that Oguzs and Pechenegs lived in the Middle and Lower Amudarya basins in BC, and that the Iraqi people came here later. Beruni notes that this was not the result of the actions of individual

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Turks, but at the same time the result of his own research. This is evident in the spelling of Turkish words in Beruni's works. (E.g. heat, sea, heat). It is clear from this that Beruni's Turk writes that he was under the influence of the Khorezmians, especially the Biscuits.
According to Validi, Beruniy was involved in almost all fields of science. Although the nickname "Beruniy" is interpreted in Samanid and Yakut languages as "stranger" and "remote place", the form "Berun" in ancient sources also means "foreign city", "stranger", "person living in a foreign city". (Somoni and Tabrizi wrote the same). Although Ali ibn Zayd al-Bayhaqi (Tatimmat sivan al-Hikma, nsr. Muhammad Safi, p. 62) referred to this word (Beruni) as the name of a city, the sources do not indicate that Khorezm was a city with this name. (Hudud al alam var. 25 a)
Only Jurjan mentions that it consisted of two cities called Andaruni and Beruni, and that Hamid Allah (Hamidullah) Qazvini (Nuzhat, nsr. Gibb, p. 179) had a neighborhood called Chah Berun between Urgench and Marv. It is understood from Beruni's opinion (Yakut, Irsad, vi, 313) that perhaps his father died in his youth because Beruni says he cannot remember it well. His mother was a woman who made a living by collecting and selling firewood. (Yakot, Irsad, vi 313). At the same time, it should be noted that Beruni came to Qiyat in his youth, met a Turkmen doctor and was brought up in the palace of Khorezmshah. Beruni's interest in science was strong from a young age. The famous scholar Abu Nasr ibn Ali was educated in the hands of the Iraqi Mansur. In any case, it is noteworthy that Abu Nasr ibn Ali, a well-known scientist and mathematician from the Beruni Khorezm dynasty, defended Mansur (see Zeki Walidi Togan, Ibn Fadlan, p. 10) and was one of his rulers. says to be at the beginning. (Irsad, vi, 312, man Kranse, Dil spharik van menelaos in der Verbesserung voh Abu Nasr Mansur b, Alib. Irak, Berlin, 1939, p. 112)
Yaqut Hamawi states, "Another teacher of Beruni is Abul Samad ibn samad al Hakim." East Khorezm was the center of the ancient Khorezm dynasty, which ruled Khorezm before the advent of Islam. Western Khorezm, with its center in Gurganch (Gurganch, Urgench), was ruled by the sons of their rival, King Mamun. Zaki al-Walidi took it from Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Iraq, the last ruler of Khorezm. It is in the course of this event that we can see that Beruni, who was engaged in the invention of astronomical instruments around Qiyat, was therefore forced to give up his career with worldly affairs, leaving his research work behind. (Zeki Velidi Togan, Sifat al ma, mora ala al Biruni, p. 59) It is clear from this that Beruni was the most trustworthy man of the ancient palace of the Khorezmshahs. But the struggles that began for the throne do not allow the scientist to continue much of his scientific work. It is known that after that he left his homeland and lived for some time in the ancient city of Ray (now Tehran). After that, until 1009, Qurus ibn Vashmgir took the young scholar under his protection in Jurjan.

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Beruni's greatest work, Monuments of Ancient Peoples, was written in 1000 at the age of 28. Beruni is very much preparing to write it. He presents this work to the ruler.
Beruni had various scientific discussions with the young scientist Ibn Sina on questions and answers on physics and philosophy of nature. The answers to these discussions of Ibn Sina are that the two pamphlets given in book form are kept in the library of the university where Walidi worked. (see Broekelmann, GAL, Sappl., I, 822) One of these pamphlets says that it is in the Faizullah Efendi Library in Istanbul at 2188, and the other is in the Inabek Library in Bursa at number 19. Al-Beruni gives information about Ibn Sina in the philosophy of nature (issues of life).
After the death of Ali ibn Ma'mun, one of the sons of Shah Ma'mun, in 1009, Beruni went to Jurjan. Beruni emphasizes that this man is the most respected ruler of the sons of Ma'mun. After the conquest of Khorezm by Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1017, Beruni and several scholars were taken to Ghazni.
It was during this period that Beruni (who was also a teacher of Ibn Sina) met the philosopher and physician Ali Sahl Isa al-Masihi. This man also served in the palace at that time and from there he went to Jurjan, that is, to Ali ibn alMa'mun. For one reason or another, he studied the Assyrian language, but also Greek (because he talked to scholars).
Walidi said Ghazni will take Mahmoud Beruni and his teachers Abu Nasr Mansur and Abdul Samad to Ghazni. According to Beruni, it is understood that he was imprisoned in the Treasury. (Abu Fazil al Bayhaki, History of Sultan Mas, ud, nsr. Morley p. 448).
According to Yaqut, Beruni and his mentor Abdul Samad will be sentenced to death and Beruni will be pardoned.
The language of science is Arabic, which is a problem in the East, and when Beruni translates Greek works, he says, of course, that work must be edited (studied) by translators. (Saydana, nsr. Mayerhof, p. 8 a). Al-Beruni's statement about the Arabic alphabet is likened to that of Rashid al-Din Tabib, who lived in the palace of the Ilkhanids in the fourteenth century.
We know that Beruni was not the first scholar to argue about some of the shortcomings of the Arabic script. Earlier, Hamza Isfahani (al-Tanbih ala hudus al-tasnif Mehmed Razwini, pp. 23, 27) explained the matter in detail, pointing out that a word written in Arabic letters can be read in more than 200 forms, even without actions (vowels).
Beruni argues that reading historical events from an economic and religious point of view is unscientific.
After the division of the Beruni cultural world into 2, i.e., eastern and western cultures, the Chinese are shown to be the creators of the eastern cultures of the Turks and the Indians. Islamic culture, on the other hand, is a successor to Western culture, which has largely surpassed Greek culture, and as a result of the

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Turks' conversion to Islam, this culture has spread to a wide range of fields, bringing the science of humanity to new heights. (Tahdid al amokim, page 245).
In his research, al-Beruni treated every religion and sect with respect. On the other hand, the treasury was persecuted as early as the days when Mahmud, like Yaqut, came to the treasury. Because the rulers liked him, they liked everything he did. Beruni's 81 years of material and spiritual life came to an end in 1051 in the Treasury.
Beruni's death is mentioned by one of his disciples, Abul Fazil al-Sarahsi, who lived 770 years on a lunar calendar on the 2nd Friday of the month of Rajab for 440 years. However, sources say that he was 80 years old at the time of writing his latest book, Kitab al-Saydana.
References: 1. Zeki Velidi Togan. Biruniy // Ibid. 1943. S.635-645. 2. Zeki Velidi Togan. The issue of the alphabet in the Turkish world. Istanbul. 1928, S.2. 3. Zeki Velidi Togan, Birunis picture of the world, mukaddime, s.III.

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UDK 37.02

Dehqonova S. teacher
Dilmurodov J. student
Namangan Engineering ­ Construction Institute

FORMATION OF SPIRITUAL EDUCATION OF YOUTH

Annotation: As we all know, the formation of the personality of the younger generation occurs under the influence of a number of factors. The most important of these factors will be directly related to its pure-mannered heritage, exemplary upbringing in the family, social environment in the neighborhoods, the importance of youth education in schools and other educational institutions.
Key words: spirituality, youth, spiritual education, spiritual heritage.

Since the first days of independence, our country has been paying great attention to the issue of the role of a person in society, especially the education of the growing younger generation. For the same purpose, the role of families in society was increased, the neighborhood management was given broad rights, radical reforms were carried out in schools, secondary vocational education and higher education systems, and these works are continuing in practice.
Today, favorable conditions are created in the leadership of our compatriots for the formation of the younger generation as a harmonious person. It should be specially noted that the organized sports fields, sports clubs, music, painting and various crafts clubs.
The educational processes in the present independent states, in particular Uzbekistan, which were part of the Union in the previous period, were based mainly on the policy of Westernization, and the specific national spirituality, customs, moral conceptions of each nation were eliminated. As a result of this, in a certain sense, there was a "emptiness" in the minds of nations, especially in the perception of self.
It is known to us that in the early years of our independence, ideological centers in some Western countries, which sought to use this ideological "emptiness", tried to fill the minds of young people with the concepts of Western upbringing that were not peculiar to our nation, which were not. It is not true that we say that these actions are completely eliminated today. Thanks to this, we believe that the education of young people is more than ever, and this topic should be one of the permanent and important issues of the day.
The main purpose of education is to enable the growing younger generation to find its strong position in society, as an educated, wise and healthy ­ minded person, which is characteristic of perfect people.

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As noted by the first president of our country Islam Karimov "....it is our main goal to educate our children from us as strong, educated and wise." The main task of education is the expression of the younger generation from finding content that corresponds to the rules of conduct adopted in our society, moral qualifications and skills, needs and aspirations.
At present, in addition to the influence of family, neighborhood, school and educational institutions in the education of the younger generation, the product of globalization processes-the factor of means of rapid information transmission and Exchange through various Internet networks-should be kept in the center of attention. It is alarming that they are entering the lives of our young people through indecent, hurtful films and various absurd games, which promote various destructive ideas in their means, poison the minds of young people.
It is also worth paying attention to the fact that in our country there are more and more mass publications, among which the level is slightly lower, "Entertainment" is light-the material that expresses the way of life, does not correspond to our national mentality from a moral point of view, also comes to the attention of young people.
In this regard, we believe that attention should also be paid to the various radio-televedenies that are currently operating, although today it has decreased for a while, unfortunately, some "side" cinema films and broadcasts, light songs, which are broadcast, are also deeply concerned about the negative impact on the minds of our young people.
Today, computer games, organized in some underground passages of the Centers of our region and districts, are almost completely isolated. However, we will witness the present day and money by some "entrepreneurs" and the fact that they have opened and are on the eve of opening computer houses near educational institutions. A person who thinks about sitting at a computer desk and seeing different fighting games while he is at school is teaching young and old children here. Who is the reason why these young people spend their valuable time playing those "games" at the time of the lesson process at school, squandering the money given by their parents? The organizers of this computer game know how to "beat" their own. But where are the class leaders coaches and teachers in the school or educational institution facing? Do they take any action by asking what students are doing where they are instead of attending the lesson?
As mentioned above, the review of "game boxes" dictates the further study of narrative and propaganda among students and young people in families, neighborhoods and educational institutions, so as to meditate in depth in this regard.
Our youth is the future of the nation, and our nation has its own mentalityan age-old educational institution. First of all, it is necessary for our generation to be brought up on the basis of western traditions, norms of morality, at the same time to be able to assimilate universal human values with a deep understanding.

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The fate of radical changes in Uzbekistan depends on the activity of each citizen. Of course, if a young generation lives as a glue, as a citizen, the society takes a step forward towards its goal. To do this, first of all, it is necessary to immerse the true essence of the National idea into the minds of young people.
There is full justification for the interpretation of the national idea as a dynamic, changing and unique strategic system that constantly develops, embodies the strategic issues of the future, unites all layers of society in a single goal. In the integration of the national idea into the consciousness of young people, it is necessary to educate young people as believers, truly Patriots, to educate them as a perfect person capable of taking full responsibility for ensuring the effectiveness of the reforms carried out. It is necessary to attach importance to its three main stages in the realization of the main goal associated with the integration of the national idea into the minds of young people.
First of all, independence is national and development-related features. The issue of thinking is mainly aimed at the comprehensive strengthening of direct independence, the implementation of radical qualitative changes in its moral and spiritual foundations.
Secondly, such concepts as national consciousness, national thinking, national pride, national pride and national heritage, which form the basis of the national idea, including mental signs, should be of paramount importance, mainly in national aspects.
Third, the national ideology is an ideology of development. It is necessary to pay serious attention to the tireless renewal of the life of society, the importance of dialectical relations among the above-mentioned concepts. The degree to which the concepts mentioned in our opinion are formed, as well as the result of the dialectical relationship between them, is a specific criterion indicating the integration of the National idea into the minds of young people. Because the further strengthening of independence is a national idea, which is considered to be the subject and object of deepening economic reforms, the full formation of human faith, high patriotic feelings, depends on how much the science of basic concepts and principles is studied by young people.
In my opinion, the ultimately positive result of any work will be directly related mainly to human activity, and the rest to his worldview. The correct and perfect worldview serves the main task in educating the younger generation as a harmonious person. Pride in our rich spiritual heritage is the key to the formation of national pride and national pride. In the study of such concepts, of course, the socio-humanitarian sciences is great. Through the study of similar disciplines, students are given the ability to form the concepts of love, loyalty to their homeland, to integrate the concepts of national pride and national pride into the minds of young people.
A person with a sense of love and loyalty to his homeland in his soul will not have the concept of betrayal of the motherland, will not join the destructive ideas, will grow up as a harmonious-generation, proud of his homeland, proud of

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his youth, able to sacrifice his soul for his homeland, spending all his efforts for the development of society. In carrying out such tasks, it is necessary that all of us refuse from one side and struggle for happiness.
References: 1. Farxodjonova N.F. HISTORY MODERNIZATION AND INTEGRATION OF CULTURE //    . ­ 2018. ­ . 3. ­ . 1315. 2. Farxodjonova N. F. MODERNIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION AS HISTORICAL STAGES OF HUMAN INTEGRATION //    . ­ 2018. ­ . 3. ­ . 16-19. 3. Dehqonova S. E. THE USING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS //Central Asian Problems of Modern Science and Education. ­ 2019. ­ . 3. ­ . 4. ­ . 313-317. 4. Dexqonova S. E. HISTORICAL FORMS AND MANIFESTATIONS: THEOLOGICAL REPRESENTATIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF RELIGIOUS VALUES //    . ­ 2017. ­ . 4. ­ . 5-8. 5. Dexqonova S., Muxiddinova X. G. RELATIONSHIP AND INTERACTION OF RIGHTS AND MORALS //    . ­ 2017. ­ . 5. ­ . 15-17. 6. Dexqonova S., Mamadaliyev S. FACTORS THAT IMPROVE IDEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT //  . ­ 2019. ­ . 6. ­ . 23-25. 7. Dexqonova S., Mamadaliyev S. FACTORS THAT IMPROVE IDEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT //  . ­ 2019. ­ . 6. ­ . 23-25. 8. Dexqonova S. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE JADIDS TO NATIONAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT //  . ­ 2020. ­ . 3. ­ . 28-31.

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UDK 374

Egamberdiyeva G. Tashkent State Pedagogical University
Uzbekistan, Tashkent

INNOVATIVE FORMS OF TEACHING IN ENGLISH LESSONS AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES

Abstract: This article discusses innovative forms of teaching in English lessons as a means of increasing the effectiveness of teaching.
Keywords: language, English, innovative method, learning efficiency

Innovative forms of education are characterized by a high communicative ability and active involvement of students in educational activities, activate the potential of knowledge and skills of speaking and listening skills, effectively develop communicative competence skills. This contributes to adaptation to modern social conditions, because society needs people who can quickly find their bearings in the modern world, are independent and proactive, who achieve success in their activities. At the heart of any innovation is creativity. Creative activity involves the development of the emotional and intellectual spheres of the individual. This is one of the main tasks of the modern educational process. Educational activity in a technical school requires the use of specific technologies that provide a solution to this problem.
These are innovative forms of education: role play, project method, ICT, critical thinking technology, multidimensional didactic technology. Technology that stimulates the interests of students and develops the desire to learn is associated with the implementation of various kinds of projects. The use of this technology makes it possible to envisage all possible forms of work in a group: individual, group, collective, which stimulate the independence and creativity of children. Techniques of critical thinking technology in English lessons teach students how to organize their activities, the ability to think, competent and meaningful reading, the ability to cooperate, etc. In the lesson, it is possible to use both mini - projects, designed for one lesson or part of it, and large projects that require a long time to complete them.
Projects can be individual and group. In the 1st year, the following project tasks were used:
1. Section 1. "Description of people", the children are offered project topics: for example, an oral description of the appearance of their classmates, their character, profession and their hobbies (for example, "I about myself" (my name, names of my parents, sisters, brothers; address; my age; birthday; my appearance; my interests)

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2. Section 2. "Description of the area." The guys make a postcard describing their hometown (name; geographical location; monuments; my favorite places.)
3. Section 7. "Cultural and national traditions, local history, customs and holidays of Great Britain." During the lesson on the topic "Travel to London," a situation was proposed: students won a ticket to London, want to learn more about the sights of the capital. Some of the children will live in an English family. They fly to London by plane. The type of the project is mixed, as it has signs of research, creative and role-playing projects.
The work on the project was carried out in several stages. in. In the first lesson, the children were offered a situation and a discussion of the main content of the future project was organized. As a result of the discussion, problems were selected, areas of work were identified, and a project plan was drawn up. Working materials were prepared for the implementation of the project: a layout of a map of London, photographs and `slide-presentations' of London sights, a draft of the London Sightseeing Guide, layouts of shop windows and cafes, and the necessary props were prepared. At the initial stage of the lesson, repetition and etiquette clichés are organized ("In the store", "In the cafe", "Asking for directions", etc.). After fixing the speech material, each group presented their message. The guys from group # 1 staged boarding a plane. The "stewardess" made the landing, welcoming the passengers, asked them to show their ticket, get into the aircraft cabin, and served them during the flight. The guys who got the role of passengers asked to drink water, juice, tea, listen to music, ordered lunch. The guys of group No. 2, upon arrival at the hotel, were sent to an English family for further accommodation. This group conducted a role-playing game "Visiting the Smith Family", using etiquette speech clichés, dialogue - questioning, and monologic statements. The members of group # 3 went to the store, and group # 4 went to have dinner in a cafe. All participants in these stages of the lesson approached the task very responsibly, especially the "weak" students. In the evening, most of the participants went to see the sights of London. Using speech clichés united in the group "Asking the Way", they asked a local resident how to get to a given attraction. Listening to the explanations of a local resident, they drew their way on the map, walked along the layout of the map of central London to the desired object. The confirmation of the correctness of the task was the appearance on the interactive board of a slide with the image of the desired attraction. All stages of the lesson were accompanied by a Power Point presentation, prepared by the joint efforts of the students and the teacher. The main objectives of such classes are practical, teacher-modeled tasks that activate listening and speaking skills.
At the end of the lesson, the results were summed up: What did the students learn in terms of language? (They know how to buy something in a store, place an order in a cafe, ask for directions.) How has their communication activity changed? (They may interact with each other and collectively politely thank, ask, offer, refuse, etc.)

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What is the project's contribution to the overall development of the student? (He can play a role, speak expressively and emotionally.)
What universal actions did the guys master? (They can independently search for the information they need.)
I use the following techniques in the classroom: "True and False Statements", "Confused logical chains", "Key terms". In the teaching materials of the author VG Timofeev "Up & up" for grades 10-11 there are enough similar tasks, so I try to use something new. For example: match the elements (beginning and end of a sentence) to each other and pair them. The techniques of this technology give the student the opportunity to express their point of view on the topic under study freely, without fear of making mistakes and being corrected, to record all statements: since any of them will be important for further work. Interactive teaching methods are especially effective when learning the grammatical aspect of the English language. Let us consider in detail several interactive learning technologies that I widely use in the classroom. For example, the technology of working in pairs or triplets, both permanent and rotary (replaceable). Group work is also not new and is well known to everyone. I often use rotational small groups in my lessons. For example, within the framework of the 1st course topic "Country Studies. Great Britain ", for several years now I have been practicing work according to the following scheme:
Stage 1 - an advance assignment, collecting information according to a specific plan about one of the four parts of the United Kingdom (ideally working with a multiple of four students, I had 12). The selection of the part is done by drawing lots.
Stage 2 - work in small groups Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, England. The guys share the information they have found, systematize it.
Stage 3 - Small group work United Kingdom. Each student brings information about his part to the entire team of the group.
Stage 4 - we compare the completed tables, supplement the material, exchange opinions, prepare mini-stories about the United Kingdom.
In an effort to improve the process of teaching foreign languages, I conduct classes using a PC. Various multimedia games help expand vocabulary, introduce you to English grammar, teach you to understand speech by ear, and write correctly. Computer programs combine color graphics, video films, music. I use such programs as "Euro Tallk", "Learn to Speak English". The fragmentary use of these programs allows to increase the motivation and interest of children in the subject. I use it when studying topics: "Numbers", "Shops and purchases", etc. These programs also provide for the control of knowledge on each topic. The guys are happy to work at the computer. Projects with Power Point presentation are carried out on almost every topic. I also use the technology of multidimensional didactic instruments (DMI), the author of which is Valeriy Emmanuilovich Steinberg, Doctor of Pedagogy. The working tools of this technology are logicalsemantic models. The children really like to independently acquire knowledge on

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the topic of the lesson. The models are multifunctional, because I use them at various stages of training: at the initial acquaintance with new material, at its consolidation, at the generalization and systematization of knowledge, their correction and control.
Literature: 1. Okoneshnikova A. Yu. Innovative forms of teaching in English lessons as a means of increasing the effectiveness of learning // Scientific and methodological electronic journal "Concept". - 2017. - T. 25. - S. 229­231. - URL: http://ekoncept.ru/2017/770564.htm. 2. , . (2018).          .  , (9), 6769. 3. Egamberdiyeva, G. (2018). ALISHER NAVOI IS A GREAT UZBEK POET.   , (9), 13-14.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Egamberdiyeva Yu.U. FarDU Master's degree in the field of educational theory primary education

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL LESSONS AND ITS IMPORTANCE

Annotation: Primary teacher needs to adopt the many new techniques of teaching in a school. These contemporary techniques are designed with much research and analysis for the development and growth of children. Most of these techniques aim to construct effective learning which has been included in the syllabus of each and every primary school. Today students are taught with these specialized techniques so that the development of cognitive abilities in children takes place.
Key words: Teachers training organizations, sensitive times of a child's life, Contemporary techniques.

INTRODUCTION The learning procedures in a school focus on motivating a child as it is the guiding force of an individual to achieving his or her goals. An aspiring educator will be able to know this by pursuing a primary teacher training course which focuses on the techniques of educating and developing children in a school. The primary level is one of the most sensitive times of a child's life and teachers will learn how to help the students when and if they face any problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Contemporary techniques that are being taught with the help of this course are totally built on the research work done by scientists and educationists. The techniques of teaching aim to help the children in perceiving the environment and its aspects at a quicker rate as compared to the approaches used in the last decade. Teachers training organizations like Institute of International Teachers Training provide this course for its candidates so that they can become expert primary educators in schools. By applying the techniques the primary teachers will create opportunities for children so that they achieve progress at a faster rate. These new approaches also develop knowledge of the variety of topics and this course helps the teacher to establish organized learning in the classroom. Primary teachers gain the proficiency of innovating in the classroom while teaching the subjects. DISCUSSIONS AND RESULTS This learning environment in a school provides education in many important areas where children's growth is necessary. These techniques are

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now used in primary schools all over the world. Teachers advance at their own pace by joining this course. Teachers learn to develop structured lesson plans for their students in a school. In case the lesson plans are not effective, the teachers will modify it by discussing the methods with the principals. The teachers in this way develop a concrete syllabus for students in a primary school.
The teaching-learning techniques in a primary institute focus on the generation of enthusiasm in students. These also help the students to understand topics wholeheartedly. The effective techniques involve developing questionnaires on several topics that lead the children towards success. Teachers will ask questions related to the environment. The primary teachers will put these questions before the students and explain it to them with proficiency. The primary teachers will design activities for kids to work in small groups who will explore the world on their own. The students will work as explorers. These techniques of teaching can be known by joining a primary teacher training course from a reputed organization.
The techniques of teaching are progress oriented and learning is a process where students receive education through the designed activities. Some of these techniques include reading of storybooks, drawing and playing to make the teaching session more interactive. The primary teacher would learn to establish an environment where there would be discipline in the class, where children behave properly. Teachers will guide the children in solving problems by themselves because in this way they will be able to learn. Sometimes teachers will also ask questions to his students to assess the performance. Teachers will instruct the students to teach themselves and find out the answers.
The teachers will analyze the topics that should be taught because in this part learning depends on organizing information and then analyzing it to drive children towards progress. Children must be helped by the teachers to engage in organizing the topics that they have learnt. This procedure of teachinglearning can be studied in details by pursuing a primary teacher training course which will help an aspiring candidate to learn about the techniques of primary education for children.
Every kid goes through the process of child development which consists of learning to walk, speak, talk, play, and many essential formative learning's. Each layer gets more complex as they grow with time. Naturally, not every child will develop the same way or speed, as each child has his/her own pace of growing and coping with things. Teachers are the ones who spend the most time with children and hence it's highly pivotal they study and understand child development.
CONCLUSION We already know by now that today a lot of techniques of primary teaching have come up and a teacher needs to implement them in the class.

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The teachers will need to gather information to help children develop many capabilities. The teacher must also motivate a child so that he or she ca n achieve success in his or her life. The teacher needs to realize the potentials of every child. As teachers, one must recognize the qualities of children and educate them in a way that they grow up to be good human beings. Therefore, one must pursue the primary teacher training course from an educational organization. The teacher must innovate while teaching to accelerate the learning process of children. Primary teachers have to be totally committed to his or her job and children must be provided with a memorable experience. Today educational organizations are also using many modern tools and technologies such as PowerPoint presentations and other audiovisual elements made for kids which fall under the purview of learning. We can also see that according to the recent research, the interactive learning process boosts children's creativity. A young mind can grasp the basic concepts easily in a primary institute with proper assistance and guidance. If you are an interested candidate then is sure to take up this course from a reputed and certified institute. Increasing the professionalism and competence was recognized as the main driving force of progress and activities leading to the goals of sustainable development. The modern education system involves the further improvement of the mechanisms for raising the competence of future specialists on the basis of a creative approach and an innovative system for putting them into practice. From this point of view, the research competence of future specialists on the basis of a creative approach is of particular importance for creating innovation, creating intellectual resources for socio-economic development through the development of cognitive and divergent thinking based on modern pedagogical processes that create new knowledge, and expanding the training opportunities for competitive personnel. The article looks into the requirements and policies for the competent teaching staff.
Reference: 1.Prengel, A. Pädagogik der Vielfalt (2nd ed.). Opladen: Leske & Budrich. Bastian, J. & Helsper, W. (2000). 2.Professionalisierung im Lehrberuf ­ Bilanzierung und Perspektiven. In J. Bastian, W. Helsper, S. Reh, S. & C. Schelle (Eds), Professionalisierung im Lehrberuf. Von der Kritik der Lehrerrolle zur pädagogischen Professionalität (167-192). Leske & Budrich. 3.Reh, S. (2004). Abschied von der Profession, von Professionalität oder vom Professionellen? Theorien und Forschungen zur Lehrerprofessionalität. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 47 (3), 358-72. 4.Senge, P. M. (1996). Die fünfte Disziplin. Kunst und Praxis der lernenden Organisation. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_59 UDK ­ 914-919

Embergenov N.J., PhD Associate Professor
Karakalpak State University Uzbekistan, Nukus
Oteuliev M.O., Doctoral Candidate Karakalpak State University Uzbekistan, Nukus Karimbaev K. Assistant teacher Karakalpak State University Uzbekistan, Nukus Madaminov X.R. Geography teacher
School No. 53 of Amudarya district Uzbekistan, Amudarya district

THE IMPORTANCE OF MINERAL RAW MATERIAL RESOURCES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND PLACEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL SECTORS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN

Abstract. The article deals with the problems of development of industries from the point of view of the region's natural resources. The main purpose of the work is the territorial organization of industrial sectors of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, and its task is to assess the resource factor of available mineral resources in the region in the development and organization of industrial sectors.
Key words: industrial branches, natural resources, natural phenomena, gross domestic product, gross territorial product, labor resources.

It is well known that natural conditions and resources on Earth are not distributed equally. This situation increases the scientific and practical significance of the science of geography and is an important factor in the economic development of all countries and determines their regional division of labor. Therefore, natural conditions and resources play an important role in the sustainable development of industrial sectors of any country, its modernization and the regional organization of productive forces. Territorial organization of industries and their rational location will create the basis for improving the living conditions of the population in the future. It was noted that the socio-economic development of any country or region depends on a number of factors, in particular, the importance of the region's mineral raw resources. The specificity of the effective use of such existing factors requires its scientific research.

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The main purpose of the work is the territorial organization of industrial sectors of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, and its task is to assess the resource factor of available mineral resources in the region in the development and organization of industrial sectors.
In this regard, the Republic of Karakalpakstan is located in the far northwestern part of Uzbekistan, relatively far from its industrial centers, with an area of 166.6 thousand km2 and a population of 1898,3 thousand people (01.01.2020). The labor force is 1065,5 thousand people, the economically active population is 782,1 thousand people and the employed population is 711,2 thousand people. These data require the creation of new jobs to ensure employment in the country. It was noted that the mineral resources in the country are sufficient for this. Therefore, it is necessary to scientifically and theoretically substantiate the relationship between the mineral resources of the region, the population (as labor resources and consumers) and factors of production, based on the effective experience of advanced research centers around the world. Despite the fact that Karakalpakstan covers 37,1% of the country's territory and 5,6% of the population, it accounts for 2,0% of consumer goods and 3,9% of industrial production (2019). In 2010, the figure was 1,8% in both sectors. It is known that in recent years in the Republic of Karakalpakstan there has been an increase in industrial production, but its level of economic development is much lower than the average economic performance of the country. Therefore, bringing the gross regional product to the level of the population will help to overcome a number of socio-economic problems in Karakalpakstan. Mineral resources are a key factor in the development of the region's industries.
On the territory of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, rich deposits of astrakhanite, basalt, bentonite, vermiculite, glaucanite, kaolin, quartz sand, quartzite, marl, mirabilite, phosphorite and other minerals have been identified. The fact that most of these deposits are located around the transport networks of Nukus-Tashkent, Kungrad-Beynov and Nukus-Chimbay creates economic convenience, which in the future will determine the possibility of building industrial enterprises for their processing in cities located near these roads. Basically, these resources play an important role in the creation and development of industrial enterprises for the production of mineral fertilizers for construction and agriculture in the region.
Mineral raw materials mirabilite are available at the Tumryuk-1 and Tumryuk-2 deposits along the Kungrad-Beynov railway and highway in Kungrad district. Its reserves amount to 6195,8 thousand tons. Beshtube (17089 tons), Kushkonottov (2723 tons) and Khojakul (11562 tons) bentonite deposits have been identified. Vermiculite at the Tebinbulak deposit in the Sultan Uvayis Mountains has reserves of category A B C1 ­ 1360,2 thousand tons, category C2 ­ 717,2 thousand tons. Astrakhanite is found in the Akkala deposits (46,051 thousand tons, thickness 1.6 m) and Kushkonottov (408,370 thousand tons, thickness 5 m). Glauconite reserves amount to 50 million tons in Krantov, 6-8

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million tons in Khojaly, 4-5 million tons in Ketmanchi, 10 million tons in ChukaiTukai, 15 million tons in Beshtuba and 10 million tons in Khojakul. There are also phosphorite reserves in the Khojakul, Khojaili, Nazarkhan and Chokai-Tukai deposits. Basalt is found in the Burkuttag, Sherzhili and Dushshybulak deposits in the Sultan Uvais mountain range. Mergel is located in Porlitov, 45 km from Chimbay. Quartz sand and kaolin are also found at the Khurshid deposit in the Amu Darya region.
The Sultanuvais ridge is located along the Nukus-Tashkent highway and the Nukus-Miskin-Uchkuduk-Tashkent railway. This makes it easier to extract and transport existing mineral resources. At the same time, the creation in the region of industrial enterprises for the processing of a part of raw materials will lead to an improvement in the regional structure of the population and employment.
In Karakalpakstan, huge reserves of mining and chemical raw materials, such as Barsa kelmes (17,8 million tons) and Karaumbet (0,8 million tons) near the city of Kungrad, have huge reserves of magnesium sulfate, rock and salt. As mentioned above, the Ustyurt Plateau is rich in oil and especially natural gas deposits. Many foreign investments have been attracted for the geological prospecting and mining of these types of raw materials.
In Karakalpakstan, huge reserves of chemical industry raw materials have been discovered in the Chimbay district Kushkhanatov, such as Barsa kelmes (17,8 million tons) and Karaumbet (0,8 million tons) near to the Kungrad.
As mentioned above, the Ustyurt Plateau is rich in oil and especially natural gas deposits. Many foreign investments have been attracted for the geological prospecting and mining of these types of raw materials. Geological prospecting has revealed oil fields in West Barsa kelmes. Thus, the search for oil and gas fields in the northern region, especially in the Usturt plain and the Aral Sea desert, will play an important role in determining the prospects for the development of industrial production in Karakalpakstan in the future.
It was noted that the chemical industry of Karakalpakstan is rich in raw material resources. These mineral resources open up vast opportunities for the development of heavy industry. It should be noted that the disproportion between the location of mineral deposits in the region and the settlements creates problems for the territorial organization of production. Therefore, the role of transport networks in the location and development of production is great. Therefore, in the future, there are great opportunities to locate the industry in settlements close to important transport routes or mines.
In conclusion, within the framework of the Action Strategy adopted by the Government for the socio-economic development of Karakalpakstan, the richness of existing natural and mineral resources in the region will allow it to increase GDP based on the development of certain industries.

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Reference:

1.  ..,  ..,  .. 

. ­ , , 2012

2.  ..     . ­ .:

, 2009.

3. 



-

  . ­ , 2020.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Ergasheva N.K. Senior teacher
Department of foreign languages in natural sciences Faculty of foreign languages Ferghana State University
Ferghana, Republic of Uzbekistan
LINGUISTICS AND LINGUISTIC DISCIPLINES
Abstract: Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves the analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguists traditionally analyze human language by observing interplay between sound and meaning. Linguistics also deals with the social, cultural, historical, and political factors that influence language, through which linguistic and language-based context is often determined. The following article looks into the different linguistic disciplines.
Key words: linguistics, phonology, phonetics, morphology, pragmatics, semantics.
INTRODUCTION The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Panini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Adhyy. The areas of study include the disciplines of semiotics (the study of direct and indirect language through signs and symbols), literary criticism (the historical and ideological analysis of literature, cinema, art, or published material), translation (the conversion and documentation of meaning in written/spoken text from one language or dialect onto another), and speech-language pathology (a corrective method to cure phonetic disabilities and dysfunction's at the cognitive level). Linguistics is often called "the science of language," the study of the human capacity to communicate and organize thought using different tools (the vocal tract for spoken languages, hands for sign languages, etc.) and involving different abstract and tactile components. Linguistics looks at: The general phenomenon of human language. Different families of languages (example: Germanic, including English, German, Dutch and Scandinavian, among others). Specific languages (example: Arabic, Mandarin and French). Communicative codes or behaviors that are not so well defined (example: the language of recent immigrants, the ways by which bilinguals choose one or another language in certain settings). Linguistics is a human science--in fact, one of the foundational disciplines in the western intellectual tradition--and may be compared with programs such as sociology, psychology or

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anthropology. As with all human sciences, there are several sub-fields in linguistics:
Phonetics (the study of how speech sounds are made) Phonology (how these sounds are organized) Morphology (how sounds are organized into units of meaning) Pragmatics (the relationship between language signs and language users) Semantics (the study of meanings themselves) Sociolinguistics (the interaction of language and people or collectives) Syntax (how units of meaning come together to create utterances) Because of its inherently cross-disciplinary nature, linguistics and linguists is often integrated into such disciplines as communications, sociology, history, literature, foreign languages, pedagogy and psychology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Syntax and morphology are branches of linguistics concerned with the order and structure of meaningful linguistic units such as words and morphemes. Syntacticians study the rules and constraints that govern how speakers of a language can organize words into sentences. Morphologists study similar rules for the order of morphemes--sub-word units such as prefixes and suffixes--and how they may be combined to form words. While words, along with critics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases. Speakers of English, a fluxional language, recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of English's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher. By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning. (Most words in modern Standard Chinese ["Mandarin"], however, are compounds and most roots are bound.) These are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of the language. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills. Studies have indicated that the presence of modification in phonology and orthography makes morphologically complex words harder to understand and that the absence of modification between a base word and its origin makes morphologically complex words easier to understand.

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Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend when they include a base word.
Languages, such as Chukchi, have words composed of many morphemes. The Chukchi word "tmeylevtptrkn", for example, meaning "I have a fierce headache", is composed of eight morphemes t--mey--lev+t-pt--rkn that may be glossed. The morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes, while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme. The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morph phonology.
Semantics and pragmatics. Semantics and pragmatics are branches of linguistics concerned with meaning. These subfields have traditionally been divided by the role of linguistic and social context in the determination of meaning. Semantics in this conception is concerned with core meanings and pragmatics concerned with meaning in context. Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicate, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology. Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors. In that respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity since meaning relies on the manner, place, time, etc. of an utterance. DISCUSSIONS AND RESULTS Phonetics and phonology Phonetics and phonology are branches of linguistics concerned with sounds (or the equivalent aspects of sign languages). Phonetics is largely concerned with the physical aspects of sounds such as their acoustics, production, and perception. Phonology is concerned with the linguistic abstractions and categorizations of sounds. Languages exist on a wide continuum of conventionalization with blurry divisions between concepts such as dialects and languages. Languages can undergo internal changes which lead to the development of sub varieties such as linguistic registers, accents, and dialects. Similarly, languages can undergo changes caused by contact with speakers of other languages, and new language varieties may be born from these contact situations through the process of language genesis. CONCLUSION Not all language contact situations result in the development of a pidgin or creole, and researchers have studied the features of contact situations that make contact varieties more likely to develop. Often these varieties arise in situations

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of colonization and enslavement, where power imbalances prevent the contact groups from learning the other's language but sustained contact is nevertheless maintained. The subjugated language in the power relationship is the substrate language, while the dominant language serves as the superstreet. Often the words and lexicon of a contact variety come from the superstreet, making it the deifier, while grammatical structures come from the substrate, but this is not always the case.
Reference: [1].Halliday, Michael A.K.; Jonathan Webster (2006). On Language and Linguistics. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-82648824-4. [2].Martinet, André (1960). Elements of General Linguistics. Studies in General Linguistics, vol. i. Translated by Elisabeth Palmer Rubbert. London: Faber. p. 15. Jakobson, Roman (1937). Six Lectures on Sound and Meaning. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 978-0-262-60010-1.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Eshboev B.T. doctoral student of the Department of Geography
Karshi State University

DESCRIPTION OF TOPONYMS RELATED TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF KASHKADARYA REGION

Abstract. The article discusses the names of places associated with the geographical location of the Kashkadarya region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The relevance of the study is to explain the address function of place names, indicating their geographical location, based on the study of place names in a particular area, based on its meaning. Using descriptive and comparative methods of scientific research, on the example of oronyms and hydronyms of Kashkadarya region, geographical analysis of place names denoting their geographical location was carried out. The study is based on toponymic dictionaries, scientific literature, reference books and more than 1,000 toponyms from a 1: 100.000 scale topographic map of the region.
Key words: names related to geographical location, head, top, bottom, middle.

Introduction. People adapt their way of life to society, in the process of assimilating nature and its components, they are given geographical names to distinguish them from each other. Of course, these names appear in a position appropriate to space and time. The given name embodies some peculiarity of the region. There are some names that refer to the location of that area relative to another area or objects. Such names are toponyms that appear depending on their geographical location.
Geographical objects with their own name in a particular place, in most cases, the location of objects on the surface relative to each other, and reflect the natural conditions of the place, in other words, some aspect of the geographica l reality in the toponym. Also, names are formed because of a specific historical event or the values, rituals, customs of a nation.
Material and methods. Geographical comparison, historical comparison, cartographic, regional analysis, descriptive-analytical, grouping methods were used to cover the topic. The study of toponyms from a geographical point of view was carried out by well-known toponymists - V.Radlov, V.Toporov, V.Bartold, G.Konkashpaev, S.Tolstov, V.Nikonov, V.Juchkevich, Y.Pospelov, E.Murzaev, A.Superanskaya, H.Hasanov, S.Karaev, P.Gulyamov and others.
The main results and their discussion. Names denoting the geographical location of a place are formed using the words head, lip, base, high, low, and others, along with the sides of the horizon (north, south, east, west, northeast, etc.). Examples of such names in Uzbekistan are Arykbashi, Bulakbashi,

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Koprikbashi, Bazarbashi, Jarbashi, Objuvbashi, Guzarbashi, Orabashi, Tarnavbashi, Saybashi, Daryobuyi, Havuzbuyi, Saylabi, Kollabi, Tepatagi, Chinartagi, Teraktagi, Darvozatagi.
In studying the names associated with a geographical place, we must focus on correctly interpreting the reason why they are called by a name that has come down to us. Because place names reflect the phonetic, lexical, morphological elements specific to the language of the people living in a particular area. Also, names from other languages are adapted to the pronunciation of the representatives of that language, or conversely, names from this language are mispronounced in the language of other peoples. As a result, the names lose their original phonetic form and are now difficult to understand or not understood at all. When researching names related to geographical location, special attention should be paid to these aspects as well.
The collection and study of names related to geographical location allows to shed light on the ancient traces of people's life in a particular area, methods of development and events that took place at different stages of development, as well as linguistic phenomena and laws specific to the language.
Names denoting the geographical location of the place also play an important role in the formation of toponyms of Kashkadarya region. Such names can be found in mountainous and foothill areas, as well as in desert and oasis areas within the territory of the region. Toponyms named according to their geographical location were named for relatively small (local) regions, most of which appeared in the form of oronyms, hydronyms, and oikonyms.
Due to its location in the Kashkadarya region, its toponyms, which have a microgeographic location relative to other objects, are also numerous. There are several oronyms in the region that represent its microgeographic location. Most of the oronyms of the region indicate the height of the relief, which is at the top of the mountain. Names such as Bogibaland (hill, Yakkabog d.)4, Sarimaydan (place, Kitab d.), Sarigorim (mountain, Dahkanabad d.), Sarikotal (mountain, Shahrisabz t.), Sarkhara (peak, Kamashi d.) indicate that they are located on top of a mountain or other form of relief. Toponyms of this type are mainly typical for most of the upper parts of the mountains, and these toponyms are named after the sign, as a target, higher than other toponyms of this type.
For the south-western branches of the Gissar mountain, the mountain slopes are more steep, and for the upper part of the mountain, the relatively flat relief is typical. This state of relief is sealed in orographic forms on the basis of geographical names. The small flat areas at the top of the high mountain are called Yukoritakcha (place, Kamashi d.), Qorasirt (mountain, Yakkabog, Kamashi d.), Arpaqori (place, Shahrisabz d.), Maidonak (mountain, square, Kamashi d.). For high mountainous areas, this type of relief is less common and appears as areas of local interest. Indigenous people effectively use such areas as pastures for

4 The word "district" is then given the letter "d." in such sentences.

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livestock and important crops in agriculture. The Chakatash peak in the Kitab district, which means "high, high peak", is visible from afar as a high, convex shape of the relief. Toponyms such as Yayloqgaza (peak, Yakkabog d.), Karavultepa (present in almost all districts) also mean steepness and height in relation to the surrounding areas.
Usually in the oronyms of mountainous areas are formed names denoting the upper part of the mountain, the upper part, toponyms denoting the distance between the mountain, the valley, as well as toponyms denoting the foot of the mountain, the bottom. In each of them, the shape of the relief determines its geographical location as a primary feature.
Some geographical names know that the mountain is in the middle of the valley, in the middle of the valley. For example, the name of the Ortadara gorge in Kamashi district means that it is located in the middle of this type of gorge, that is, it is so named because other gorges of this type exist in this area, Tangisar hill in Dehkanabad district was given this name because of its location in a narrow place, in a narrow valley, between high mountains.
In mountainous areas, along with the features that indicate that the oronyms are high, some names also mention that they are at the bottom, at the foot of the mountain. The foothills in the southern part of Qoratepa Mountain in Chirakchi district named the valley Domana. Indigenous people use the term domana at the foot of the mountain [1; 86-p]. Domana is also found in many areas. The toponym Poygadasht (area, Dehkanabad d.) Is also called by the same name because it is located at the foot of the hill, steppe.
Due to the climatic features of the region, place names are formed depending on the geographical location. In particular, the name of the hill in Dehkanabad district was Terskay, which is the reason for its name, because it is located in an area opposite to the Sun, where the sun does not shine.
The 3796-meter-high Khurasan ridge and peak of the Chakchar ridge also represent its position relative to the Sun. Khorasan bears the name of the eastern, sunny, sunny place. Mount Qiyatag in Dehkanabad district, in contrast to the name Khurasan, is a small mountain, opposite to the Sun, which receives less sunlight. The name Sariqtepa (hill, height, Dehkanabad, Kamashi, Chirakchi, etc.) in the region comes not only in the sense of height, but also in the sense of place in the north. Some oronyms are named after oykonims, i.e. Batoshtoqay (steppe, Kamashi d.) Is a place near the village of Batosh, Qamaytepa is a hill near the village of the same name, Kosontog is a mountain near the city of Kasan. Toponyms of this type determine their location in relation to settlements.
For the plains of the Kashkadarya region and the desert areas, the ruins of the fortress are a convex, visible shape for the relief of this area. Undoubtedly, the ruins of ancient castles in these areas serve as the main symbol. Such ruined hills as Qizqala (Kasbi d.), Kizkurgan (Kamashi, Dehkanabad, Chirakchi d.), Gushman (Shahrisabz d.) Represent the height of the fortress on the hill.

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Sometimes toponyms formed by geographical location are also named according to their location relative to water bodies. For example, if Darvozakam (height, Kamashi, Chirakchi d.) got this name because of the height next to the water distribution point, Labisoy (pasture, Shahrisabz d.) oqim, soy yaqinidagi yaylov bo'lgani uchun shunday nomlangan.
Hydronyms of Kashkadarya region are diverse in terms of their distribution, lexical-semantic structure and morphological structure. Some of the regional hydronyms have a sense of ownership rather than their geographical location. In particular, the names of water bodies determine their microgeographic location as a result of the fact that the river is above or below the mountain, the place where the river flows or separates, its isolation, flowing past a plant, sometimes flowing near habitats. This situation also affected the naming of water bodies.
There are many hydronyms in the region, which means that they are located in relation to the hilly forms of a mountain, hill, peak, mountain slope or other relief. Examples include the following. Azizbulak (Chirakchi d.) is a spring on a high hill, Boshbulak (Dehkanabad, Kamashi, Chirakchi d.) is a spring at the head of springs, Kullisay (Kitab, Chirakchi d.) is a stream that starts from a height, a peak. The term "kulla" is also used in the work of Boburnoma and is given in the sense of a "mountain kullasi" - a mountain peak. So, kulla - hill, mountain peak [2; 221-p]. The name Zevarbulak in Kitab district also indicates its geographical location. In Iranian, zivar - is the turning point of a river, a stream [3; 74-p]. The spring in such a place is Zavarbulak. The first component of the hydronyms Aksu (the left tributary of the Kashkadarya) and Akdahana (river basin, Kamashi d.), the term "ak" refers to the saturation of river water with snow, starting from the high part of the mountain. So Aksuv, Akdahana is a mountain river, a river that starts from the top of the mountain.
If Aygirkul (Dehkanabad, Kamashi, Yakkabog d.) means that the hill is near the height, it can be understood from its name that Gazakul (Dehkanabad d.) is a steep hill, a lake near the edge of the mountain. Gaza - is the top of the mountain, the tip of the mountain [4; 39-p]. The hydronyms Dashtarik (Kitab d.), Yovonarik (Kasbi d.) are known from the fact that the canal passes through the steppe and is a canal on the outskirts of the village. Yovon (yobon) -means steppe, plain [5; 58-p].
Some hydronyms determine their microgeographic position relative to other similar objects in terms of their location in the center, in the interval. While hydronyms such as Urtasay (well, Mubarak d.), Urtabulak (well, Mirishkor d.), Kindik (river basin, Dehkanabad d.), Kindiktepa (Shahrisabz d.), Urtakuduk (Mubarak d.) mean that they are located in the range of the same or other objects, other types of toponyms are named according to the location of some objects inside. For example, the toponyms Ichariq (Shakhrisabz d.), Inchiariq (Kasan d.), Davbulak (Chirakchi, Yakkabog, Kitab d.), Ichkaribulak (Kamashi d.) are so named within the objects of this type, in the mountain range or as a stream flowing into the castle, fortress.

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Some hydronyms also occur as a result of the addition or separation of a body of water. It is possible to understand from the study of the name of Sarvand (river basin, Kitab d.) that it is the main dam, the river starting from the upper dam, the stream, the spring along the Beshterak (spring, Kamashi d.) dam. While the toponyms Beshkul and Sarigupchak (river valley, Dehkanabad d.) are called by the same name because they start or flow from the confluence of the river, hydronyms such as Joyatak and Qayirma (channel, Shahrisabz d.) are named because they are located on the banks of a water body
The Oftobroy river in Kitab district and the Kunkormas river in Shahrisabz district are named after the Sun, while the toponyms Tersokar (river valley, Kamashi d.), Tersak (channel, Kitab d.), Chappaarik (Chirakchi d.), Chappasuv (river valley, Shahrisabz d.) are named in the opposite direction to other similar water bodies near the stream.
The names are also formed depending on where they are located at the bottom, at the foot, at the end of the mountain peak, the features starting from the height pass to the hydronyms. Such names in the region as Ohirgisay (Kamashi d.), Ohirgikishlaksay (Yakkabag d.), Kultakkuyi (well, Mirishkor d.) are such names. Also, some hydronyms express their individuality, solitude, solitude, based on their name. For example, names such as Bulakarik (Kasan d.), Yakkayolgon (well, Mirishkor d.), Yetimarik (Chirikchi d.), Gadoytopmas (well, Mubarak d.) form a separate group according to their geographical location.
Typically, most water bodies flow past settlements, but not all of them are built on the basis of the names of these settlements. The hydronyms in the region, such as Bakhrinshoh, Bakhrinarik (stream, Kamashi d.), Darkhankul (Yakkabag d.), Haramjuy (neighborhood, Karshi sity), Kelinkuyisi (well, Mubarak d.), belong to this type.
Plants grow where rivers, lakes, springs and other bodies of water are present. Sometimes these plants are also the basis for naming water bodies and indicate their geographical location relative to that plant. We can understand from the name that Chashmaimiron (spring, Dahkanabad, Chirakchi d.), Ulonbulak (Dahkanabad, d.) is a meadow, a spring in the pasture.
Many names of large irrigation facilities in Kashkada (northern) collector (Kasan, Mubarak, Mirishkor d.), Shimoliy (northern) network (collector, Mirishkor d.), Janubiy (southern) collector (Nishan, Mirishkor, Kasbi d.), Ungsohil (right-bank) and Chapsohil (left-bank) channel (Guzar and Yakkabag d.), Chap Magistral (left main) (channel, Kason d.) and the names of large hydraulic structures also differ from each other according to their geographical location. The geographical location of the water body is also reflected in the names of large rivers such as West Aksu, East Aksu, Chapsohil (left-bank) Aksu.
Conclusions. Some of the toponyms of Kashkadarya region are toponyms related to geographical location. The study of this type of toponyms allows to determine the microgeographic location of the object, as well as to observe the phenomenon of general naming of such places.

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Based on the results of the research, the following main conclusions can be made:
 the study of names related to geographical location allows to determine the general geographical features of the area;
 names related to the geographical location of a place often mean its microgeographic location;
 most of the oronyms and hydronyms, depending on the existing geographical location in the region, are named in relation to such objects and in relation to a particular landform.
References: [1]. Nafasov T. Kashkadarya Uzbek folk words. ­Tashkent, Muharrir, 2011. - 468 p. [2]. Ishakov F. A concise glossary for "Baburnama". ­Andijan, 2008. - 236 p. [3]. Nafasov T., Nafasova V. Annotated dictionary of toponyms of the Uzbek language. ­Tashkent, Yangi asr avlodi, 2007. - 82 p. [4]. Dusimov Z., Egamov X. A concise glossary of place names. ­Tashkent, Ukituvchi, 1977. - 174 p. [5]. Karaev S. Do you know the meaning of geographical names? ­Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 1970. - 191 p.

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UDK 37.036.78

Fatkhullayeva (Baygitova) M.G. Faculty of Pedagogy
Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute teacher of "Music Education and Defectology"

MUSIC EDUCATION IN GERMANY

Annotation: This article discusses music education in Germany. Key words: music, conservatory, education, music education, method, technique

Music education in Germany is as diverse as music itself. Future musicians are trained both at universities and conservatories. What should applicants know about?
Having decided on the specialized tool that must be mastered before admission, it is important to choose the appropriate type of university. Music in Germany is taught both at universities and in similar to Russian conservatories Musikhochschulen, "higher schools of music". Only the specifics of education are different: universities traditionally train future music teachers, while Musikhochschulen teaches more practical specialties as a performer, singer or conductor.
Pedagogical education can also be obtained at the conservatory, where the emphasis is on music, that is, creativity, while scientific and pedagogical approaches prevail at universities. However, in recent years, in both types of universities, the tendency is to balance these three aspects.
Students of pedagogical music faculties are characterized by a broad outlook and variety of interests, while instrumental students have a desire to thoroughly and deeply study the instrument and the art of using it.
The mere desire to study is not yet a happy ticket to the university. For admission to both the university and the conservatory, those wishing to devote themselves to music will have to first of all prove that they have the most important thing - talent. You will have to hand over the game on the main and additional instruments, as well as solfeggio, harmony and German.
The number of entrance exams is impressive, but it's actually not that difficult. First, the exams are spread over several days and correspond to the level of knowledge of a graduate of a music school in Russia. Secondly, the applicant chooses works for performance on the main and additional instruments independently and in advance. So with responsible preparation, there are chances for admission.
As for the language exam, for admission to the conservatory (Musikhochschule), foreign students need only have knowledge of the German language - at the level of the third stage of the DaF test (TestDaF Stufe3).

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Moreover, in some universities of this type, a musically gifted foreign applicant who has passed the specialty and harmony with excellent marks, but failed in German, may be allowed to retake it later.
Universities with German examinations are stricter. After all, graduatesteachers should be fluent in the language in which they will teach in the future. Therefore, foreign applicants entering the music faculties of German universities, along with specialized disciplines, also pass the DSH language exam.
The process of teaching future musicians is also structured differently in Germany. Conservative students who are focused on creativity and honing their playing skills will face one-on-one work with a professor, small group sessions and intense, sometimes grueling stage activities. In a word, everything that, at first glance, cannot be boasted by university students, classes in which, abundantly flavored with theory, are usually held in huge lecture halls.
Didactics, psychology and pedagogy, especially if studying them in a foreign language, are not always easy for foreign students. However, for all the monumental and academic nature of universities, there are many disciplines, such as composition, writing musicals or working with a choir, that require creative and innovative thinking.
As for the prospects after receiving a diploma, here you will have to rely only on yourself. By the way, according to statistics, Germany's need for teachers is growing from year to year. Graduates advise, already during their studies, to conduct an active concert activity and, if desired, try to get a job in a theater or opera orchestra.
Literature: 1.  .      . -- .: , 1961. -- 72 . 2.  .        . -- .: , 1966. -- 58 . 3.  .        //  . -- 2007. --  1. -- . 39-43. 4.  .       //     . -- .: , 1981. 5.  .          //   - : . . -- .: . . . - . , 1985. -- . 34-51. 6.  .    -   . -- .: , 1983. -- 43 . 7.  .    //     [ ]. -- .: -XXI, 2007. -- 172 . -- ISBN 978-5-89817-1 84-1.

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UDK 374.56

Gayibnazarov O.Kh. associate professor lieutenant colonel Kurbanov J.Sh.
teacher of the department Academy of the Armed Forces
Republic of Uzbekistan

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING SPECIAL MILITARY DISCIPLINES

Abstract: This article discusses innovative technologies in teaching military special disciplines
Keywords: military special disciplines, informatization, classroom or distance lecture, modern educational process

The effectiveness of the implementation of the goals and objectives of teaching military special disciplines largely determines the use of innovative, primarily information technologies.
Informatization covered all components of the educational process at the university, all types of classes and forms of knowledge control. A modern lecture - classroom or distance - is a dynamic dialogue between a teacher and students, the main tool of which is a high-quality presentation, if necessary, it can be interactive.
The experience of conducting such lectures shows that they allow you to optimally activate the perception of the material, and provide an opportunity for clarity even when studying topics that consider spatial and temporal scales, excluding visual modeling by previous means. Information technology is becoming an integral part of practical training. In many cases, virtual hands-on activities are appropriate and effective. The setting of such practical works, the introduction of information technology into a workshop on special military disciplines can be carried out with the involvement of cadets by including these tasks in the subject of term papers and theses.
The most important component of the modern educational process at the university is the independent work of cadets. It is the main way of developing self-education skills, forming a high creative potential of future military specialists. A promising form of independent work of cadets is the development of educational questions by students in the form of projects, including: posing a problem, planning a project, studying the state of the issue, formulating results and conclusions, developing a presentation, defending a project. The presentation usually involves the use of information technology. The projects and presentations developed by the cadets are "defended" in the classroom. New

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perspectives in the organization of independent work of cadets and students are opened by the creation and use of a kind of portal of electronic educational resources, which facilitates access to educational materials, allows students to flexibly, in forms and volumes appropriate to the individual situation, master these materials, diversifies and optimizes the forms of work, makes the process learning and assessment of knowledge is controlled and "transparent", and in general significantly affects the quality of the educational process.
The teacher's role is decisive, but the cadet's learning process is individualized. The teacher places on the portal an educational and methodological complex, lecture materials, including presentations, various tasks, instructions and comments on their implementation. The prospects for the use of information technologies are intensively expanding and significantly changing the educational environment, raising natural science training to a new level. At the same time, they put forward new requirements for the formation of a quality assurance system for the educational process.
Literature: 1. Urakova Oysuluv Jamoliddinovna. The praise of nature and the universe in Novalis romance // EPRA International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD) Volume: 5 | Issue: 7 | July 2020..274-275 . 2. Urakova. O. J. The search for national and universal in art in the context of romanticism. Theoretical & Applied Science. 07 (87) 2020 . 29-32. 3.   (HTML) ( ). .   «».   22  2011.  25  2012 . 4.  . .  (HTML).    (1  2006).   22  2011.  25  2012 . 5.    -  ( ).       ().   24  2011.  25  2012 . 6.  .  . ITC.UA (12  2004).   24  2011.  25  2012 . 7. .. yandex.ru.   27  2019.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_77 UDK 908

Habibullaeva M.N. Senior Lecturer
Department of Geography Andijan State University Uzbekistan, Andijan Odilov N.K. Lecturer
Department of Geography Andijan State University Uzbekistan, Andijan

USE OF LOCAL LORE ATLASES IN TEACHING THE SUBJECT "ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF UZBEKISTAN"
(ON THE EXAMPLE OF ANDIJAN REGION)

Abstract: This article is devoted to economic and social geographic sciences study of local lore atlas materialies Andijan region geographic peculiarity demonstrate in the way of Uzbekistan
Keywords: Study of local lore atlas, geog zone, Fergana sediment, Narin Karadarya geol basin, Kirtash mountain.

Introduction. Atlases of local lore play a vital position in revealing the geography of the region. The student gets acquainted with the area where he lives through local history atlases and gain a lot of fascinating information about the nature, population, economy of his country. Consequently, the kindness towards his country will upward more in students' heart. Dexterities such as respecting and honoring the benedictions of the motherland, saving the natural resources like the apple of an eye, and using them wisely will materialize.
When learning the Andijan region from the point of view of the region, special attention is paid to its geographical location. The main reason is that the natural geographical emplacement impacts on the formation and development of the nature of the region. As a result, a unique landscape will occur. There is an opportunity to get scientific erudition about the diversity of landscapes, flora and fauna, their differences from each other, the laws of location and distribution.
Body part. Andijan region is considered the "eastern gate" of the republic, as it is located in the east of the country. Andijan is located in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley, in the Naryn-Karadarya basin. Andijan region is bordered on the south by the relatively high Alay, on the northeast by the Fergana and Otoynak mountain ranges. It is surrounded by Madaniyat, Teshiktash, Southern Olamushuk, Bogishamol, Asaka, Polvontash hills and low mountains such as Khantag, Kirtash, Chilustun, Chilmayram in the north-east, east and south-east.

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The western part is connected with the Central Fergana Desert. All this data represents that the relief of Andijan region has a complex structure. Such a complex structure of relief is reflected in the formation of the nature of the region.
During the exploration of the atlas of local lore, the student firstly begins by getting acquainted with the political-administrative map. He studies the geographical location, borders and adjacent lands of the region in which he lives. It will be possible to compare with other points of our country. As a result, they will learn what features Andijan region has, its benefits over other regions.
Area expresses the term when the region is Kurgantepa (0.47 thousand km2), Ulugnor (0.42 thousand km2), Jalal-Abad (0.37 thousand km2), Andijan (0.37 thousand km2). kv) districts can be available to find out that they are the districts with the largest territory of the region and their location. On the contrary, Buloqboshi (0.18 thousand km2) and Boston (former Boz district, area 0.20 thousand km2) are the smallest districts. From the political-administrative map it can be summarized that the region itself is very small compared to the area of the districts, given that it is only about 1% of the country's land area. However, such a conclusion does not present the real picture. Thus, the need and demand for land and water resources in the region is very high. The dilemma of conservation and rational use of land and water resources has long been given great attention.
The atlas of local lore precisely represents the impacts of all natural geographical factors influencing the formation of the nature of the region. First of all, its relief is expressed with great precision, showing the change of the earth's surface from west to east, from north to south, which, as mentioned above, represents the peculiar formation of the nature of the region.
In the approach of the relief map of the atlas of local lore, it can be observed that the surface of the region rises from the west to the east. Ulugnor district, located in the west of the region, is part of the Central Fergana Desert, located at an altitude of 350-400 meters above sea level. In that part sand dunes, barkhans, takirs, salt marshes can be come across.
Andijan region rises from west to east. The highest point of the region is Mount Kirtash (1545 meters). In the east, Khantag in Khanabad is also relatively high, with the highest parts reaching 1,350 meters. It can be seen that the relative height between them is 1000 meters.
The natural map also shows the area of natural resources available in the region, from which the reader can find out what natural resources are available in the country. The rational usage of them points special attention to the discussion of their protection.
The atlas contains geological, geomorphological, magnetic field anomalies, seismic zoning maps, and through the study of these maps it answers the question of in what geological eras, in what geological periods the territory of our region was formed and appeared in thousands of years. Our region is mainly formed and developed during the fourth millennium of the Cenozoic era, during the first millennium.

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In the eastern and southern parts of the region there are also areas that appeared during the Cretaceous, Coal and Devonian periods.
While analyzing the geomorphological map, we gain data about the morphological structure of the land in the region. Orogenic zones can be observed in the region, consisting of flat, or weakly wavy, alluvial and proluvial deposits, or accumulative surfaces, or transzonal surfaces of river valleys.
If we explore the map to find the answer to the question of what voltage magnetic field anomalies can be observed in the region, it becomes clear that the strength of the magnetic anomaly in the southeastern regions of the region will be precise. If 50 Pti in the north is equal to the wave vector power of the geomagnetic field, it can be seen that this point is 200 Pti in the southeast.
According to all above, we will be able to analyze the seismic status of the region. The central parts of the region fall into the 9-point seismic zone, while the western and eastern parts fall into the 8-point zone.
As a result of the study, the following conclusions can be drawn: firstly, the student learns the natural and geographical features of the Andijan region as a result of the investigation of the materials of the local lore atlas and advance the ability to protect it; secondly, it studies the relief, the morphology of the region is perfectly learned when approached from a regional point of view, which leads to a precise understanding of the factors in the formation of the existing climate; thirdly, through regional study , learners will possess deeper knowledge, creating the basis for the rational use of natural resources; Fourth, when local lore atlases are used, the landscape, urochishe geosystems, and facies of each subregion are also more deeply studied.
References: 1. Yusupov M. Andijon viloyati. Farg'ona, 2005. ­ B. 47-54. 2. Mamajonov M. Andijon geografiyasi. Toshkent "Akademnashr", 2018. ­ B. 25-63. 3. Andijon viloyati o'quv o'lkashunoslik atlasi. Toshkent. 2015. ­ B. 3-7-9-10. 4. Abdullayev O. Farg'ona vodiysi. Namangan, 2000. ­ B. 12-34. 5. O'zbekiston Respublikasi yanada rivojlantirish bo'yicha Harakatlar strategiyasi to'g'risida. O'zbekiston Respublikasi qonun hujjatlari to'plami. 2017, 6-son, 70modda. 6. Qodirov R. farg'ona mintaqasi aholisi va mehnat resurslari. Toshkent: Navro'z. 2016. ­ B. 24-36. 7. Baratov P. O'zbekiston tabiiy geografiyasi. Toshkent, O'qituvchi, 1996. ­ B. 26-27. 8. Baratov P. Yer bilimi va o`lkashunoslik. Toshkent: O`qituvchi, 1980. 9. Saidkarimova Z.S. Maktab o`lkashunosligi (ma'ruzalar matni). Toshkent: 1999. 10. Safiullin X.Z. Gografichsko kravdani v obhobrazovatlnoy shkol. Moskva: 1979.

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UDK 037.36.78

Ibragimova X.S. teacher of music education Tashkent State Pedagogical University

THE IMPORTANCE OF MUSICAL AESTHETICS IN THE FORMATION OF MUSICAL CULTURE

Resume: This article discusses the importance of musical aesthetics in the formation of culture.
Key words: music, aesthetics, education, music education, method, culture

Musical esthetics is an art history concept introduced into scientific circulation by the German publicist, poet and musician Christian Friedrich Schubart, who first used this term in his work Ideas for the Aesthetics of Musical Art (1784).
Musical aesthetics is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that studies various aesthetic aspects of music precisely as a very specific form of art, which implies a very specialized analysis of the dialectical correlation of the general laws of sensory-figurative perception of reality with certain specific features and patterns of musical language as an operator of sound-meanings "
At present, "musical aesthetics" is understood as a scientific discipline, which in its general research orientation is close to the subject attributes of the philosophy of music, but differs from the latter in its methodological specifics: if the philosophy of music is one of the sections of aesthetics and is mainly concerned with solving the problems of ontological, epistemological and axiological character, then musical aesthetics is to a much greater extent designed to solve purely musicological problems, and therefore it must freely
And already because of its methodological orientation, musical aesthetics, as a specialized scientific discipline, should be attributed precisely to the field of musicology. [2]
Of course, this line of reasoning remains relevant also when comparing musical aesthetics with two other closely related interdisciplinary disciplines - the sociology of music and musical psychology.
History of origin and development [edit | edit code] The problem of musical aesthetics as such was considered at all stages of the development of musical art, and the deep roots of musical aesthetics go back to early antiquity, where the aesthetic and value criteria of music proposed by Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle were associated with the normative structures of intervals, modes, rhythms, etc. as a reflection of cosmic harmony and the most important ethos (ethical) qualities of a person. Musical aesthetics found fertile ground for its development in the ideological doctrine and the aesthetic concept of the Neo-Pythagoreans based on

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it, as well as the Neo-Platonists, whose ideological views were shared, among other things, by one of the largest theorists of music Boethius, whose aesthetic views laid the foundation for the medieval doctrine of three interconnected music "based on the idea of contiguity between religious symbols, states of mind and various musical elements ..
The predominance of rich numerical symbolism and various allegorical interpretations of the elements of music characteristic of the ancient period in views on musical aesthetics persists in the Middle Ages. So, for example, in the Benedictine monk Aribo Scholastic, we find a direct allegorical interpretation of the muses in terms of musical theory: one muse means the human voice, two muses - the duality of the authentic and plagal modes, or the dual division of music into heavenly and human, three muses mean three kinds sounds, four muses - four paths or four basic consonances, etc.
A great contribution to the development of musical aesthetics was made by other scholars from the monastic environment: Aurelian of Reome, Remigius of Osersky, Regino Pryumsky, Notker Zaika, Hukbald of St. from Hirschau, Magister Lambert [3], Adam Fuldsky, Martin Herbert, Dom Bedos de Sell, Dom Jumilan, Schubiger, Don Gerange, Don Potier, Don Mocchero and others.
Within the framework of the cosmo-aesthetic tradition, the Franco-Flemish music theorist of the late 13th - first half of the 14th centuries Jacob Liège, the author of the Mirror of Music (Speculum musicae, about 1330), the largest treatise in the Middle Ages, thought music. Developing the doctrine of intervals, the system of church modes and hexachords, the forms of polyphonic music, rhythm and notation, Jacob Liege endows a musical work with the status of a level in the Hierarchy of Being and a representative of the Cosmic Law. [4]
In the Renaissance, the problems of the subject embodiment of various aesthetic ideas in musical works of a particular genre (Ars nova) began to be successfully solved. In this regard, the works on the theory of music by John Tinktoris and Nikolaus Listenius are of particular value.
Of considerable interest, from the point of view of the development of musical aesthetics, is the Theory of Affects, which emerged in the Baroque Era, the main developers of which were Johannes Quantz, Maren Mersenne, Athanasius Kircher, Johann Walter, Claudio Monteverdi, Johann Matteson, Giovanni Bononcini and Christian Spies. According to the Theory of Affects, the goal of composer's creativity is to excite affects, for whose groups certain musical styles were assigned, etc.
According to the Theory of Affects, the goal of composer's creativity is to excite affects, for the groups of which certain musical styles and other means of composer writing were assigned. According to Afanasy Kircher [5], the transmission of affects was not limited to any purely artisan techniques, but was a kind of magical action to control the "sympathy" "arising between a person and music." In this regard, it should be noted that many composers of that era were specially trained in magic, including the largest of them, Claudio Monteverdi.

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Special mention should be made of the 17th century French music theorist Maren Mersenne, whose treatise "Harmonie universelle" is an example of the universal science of the 17th century, organically synthesizing the concepts of musical aesthetics with the fundamental discoveries of experimental natural science. [6]
In the Age of Enlightenment, as music was freed from purely applied functions, the understanding of musical activity as a kind of "sound imitation of reality" (mimesis) [7] was replaced by the recognition of the universality and generalization of the semantic content of musical works. Beginning from the 18th century, music is increasingly freed from conformity to those rhetorical and kinesthetic formulas that were caused by its long-term "neighborhood" with word and movement.
Thus, the musical language gained complete independence and independence, although even in this "purely musical" language, the historically passed stages of the development of music were imprinted in the form of specific life associations and emotions associated with various types of musical movement, the intonational character of thematism, visual effects, phonism intervals, etc.
Subsequently, the aesthetic concept of the expressive-emotional essence of music (which distinguishes musical art from fine art) was enriched with increasing recognition of the significance and intrinsic value in musical creativity of individualized author's ingenuity and artistic fantasy.
The Austrian music critic of the 19th century, professor of theory, history and aesthetics of music at the University of Vienna, author of the treatise "On Musically Beautiful", E. Hanslik, proceeding from the idealistic philosophy of Immanuel Kant, considered music a special form of spiritual activity, and on the basis of this ideological premise he opposed music to all other arts. Trying to combine "aesthetics of feeling" and "aesthetics of number" Hanslick set out to create "aesthetics of the sense of number". [8]
Well, in the 20th century, the criteria of the novelty of the composer's technique are brought to the fore in the musical culture of the West: to the already existing "philosophical" and "musicological" trends in musical aesthetics, the "composer" is added. This latter is in many ways close to musical criticism, which is beginning to be viewed by some musicologists as a symptom of the crisis of musical-aesthetic consciousness.
Literature: 1.  .,       , ., 1965. 2.  .,    ( .:     , . 6--7. ., 1968). 3.  . .,     . . 1989.

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4.   . , «Musurgia universalis» (   )      .

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_83 UDK 616.12­07+616.127­005.8+616.12­009.72
Irgasheva D.G. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases
Yunusova Z.V. head teacher
department of propeification of internal diseases Andijan State Medical Institute Uzbekistan, Andijan
THE VOLATILE METABOLITS OF BIOGENICAL AMINS OF EXHALED AIR OF MYOCARDIUM INFARCTION
Summary. The volatile metabolits of biogenical amins of exhaled air were studied for the first time, the functional activity of sympatic-adrenal system on the excretion of combined and free fractions of catecholamins and DOFA in daily urine was studied simultaneously. It is shown the results of the investigation on the new methods of noninvasing diagnosing of Ischemic Heart disease in this paper. This method is based on analyzes of expirating air. The results of investigation showed the possibility of the surface ionizating detector in diagnosis of Ischemic Heart disease. It was revealed the statisticly importance of difference in containing the amines in expirating air of patients ill with Ischemic Heart disease and healthy people. The advantage of this method concludes whole harmless, expressive ness and canceling the operative intervention and possibilities of mass testing, and cheap price of observation. The difference in eliminating the amines with expirating air can be stable marker for early diagnosing of the preinfarctive state.
Introduction. The great damage caused to human health by cardiovascular diseases (CVD) poses serious problems for both clinicians and public health workers [1]. As a result of epidemiological and clinical observations conducted in our country and abroad, it has been shown that among CVD in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the main causes of early disability, disability and mortality [2].
As is known, in most cases, CVD develops covertly, their clinical signs appear at a late stage. Often patients are unaware of the presence of the disease and die suddenly; very rarely, a Clinician has the opportunity to examine the patient before his cardiovascular system is seriously affected [1, 3]. It follows that only therapeutic measures can not solve the problem of death from CVD [4].
The development of coronary insufficiency is facilitated by nervous and (or) physical stress, which causes an increase in the activity of the sympatheticadrenal system (SAS). Due to the increased production of catecholamines (CA)

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by the adrenal glands and postganglionic endings of sympathetic nerves, an excess of these biologically active substances accumulates in the myocardium [5, 6, 7]. there is
a need to make significant changes to research methods, despite the fact that they are based on clinical methods [5, 8, 9].
As you know, there is a constant gas exchange between the body and the environment, the supply of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide and many organic compounds. Carbon dioxide is easy to detect, since its content in the exhaled air (BB) reaches 5%. Unfortunately, other volatile components of EXPLOSIVES have much lower concentrations ­ about 10-6 or even lower [12, 13].
Breath analysis has become a promising branch of medical technology in recent years [6, 14].
In modern medicine, the analysis of EXPLOSIVES is also used in the diagnosis of diseases of the stomach, liver, and intestines.
In available literature we found a single work devoted to the analysis of EXPLOSIVES [7, 10] and the total lack of work on the study of volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in BB CHD patients, as well as parallel and simultaneous study and qualitative evaluation of the functional state of the SAS.
Objective: to study the content of volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in EXPLOSIVES in patients with MI and the relationship of their violation with the functional activity of the SAS and to develop a new gas-analytical method for diagnosis of this pathology.
Materials and methods of research. Under our observation there were 45 male patients aged from 31 to 68 years suffering from coronary heart disease. The duration of the disease is from 3 to 20 years. The patients were hospitalized in the cardiology Department of the Andijan branch of the center for emergency care. 45 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups based on the diagnosis. 25 patients were diagnosed with IHD QMI (aged 31 to 68 years); 20 men were diagnosed with IHD NQMI (35 to 60 years). The diagnosis in all examined patients is based on data from clinical observation, laboratory analysis, and functional diagnostics. For many years ­ from 3 to 20, patients received inpatient and outpatient treatment for CHD. Our patients with acute myocardial infarction received traditional treatment.
The control group consisted of 20 patients aged 30 to 55 years. IV samples for analysis in patients with myocardial infarction were taken on the first day of admission to the hospital, on the 7th-8th day, and on the 12th-14th day of the disease. When selecting patients for the analysis of BB, respiratory pathology was excluded.
Determination of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and DOPA in daily urine was performed by the trioxyindole fluorimetric method modified by E. sh. Matlina, Z. M. Kiseleva, and I. E. Sofieva [8, 9].

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The results of clinical studies were processed using the application programs for statistical processing of Excel, as well as by the method of variation statistics according to Fischer using t-criteria of student tables. Differences between the arithmetic mean values were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. To determine the strength of the relationship between the indicators, we used correlation analysis using Excel statistical processing programs.
The results of the research. When examining QMI patients in the first days of admission to the hospital, there was an increased content of volatile amines in the BB. And if patients with NQMI on day 1 increased the level of biogenic amine metabolites by 412.1%, then patients with QMI increased by 11.8 times compared to healthy ones. On day 7-8, the content of amines in BB in QMI patients decreased to 582 27.29 10-9 g/l, which is 7.8 times higher than in healthy patients. On days 12-14, there was a significant decrease in the content of amines in IV in QMI patients to 301 17.91 10-9 g/l, which is 4 times higher than the control group.
NQMI patients were examined at admission, then on 7-8 days of stay and on 12-14 days. On the first day, there was a significant increase to 379 41 10-9 g/l of volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in the BB, which is 5.1 times higher than the control indicator (P<0.001). On day 7-8 of the disease, there was a slight decrease in biogenic amine metabolites to 301 49 10-9 g/l, which is 4 times higher than in the healthy group (P<0.001). And on 12-14 days, the level of diethylamine descends to 207 47 10-9 g/l, which is 2.7 times higher than the control level (P<0.001).
A study of QMI patients (25 people) on the first day of admission to the hospital revealed a significant increase in daily urinary excretion of catecholamines (CA) and DOPA (table 2).
There was a statistically significant increase in the excretion of free epinephrine (A) in comparison with healthy people by 1.7 times (P<0.001). Compared with the control, the excretion of conjugated A was 3.1 times higher (P<0.001). Accordingly, the coefficient of increase in the content of total A in daily urine in relation to the control value was 2.6 (P<0.001) (P<0.001). The excretion of all norepinephrine (NA) fractions was also statistically significantly higher than the control level. There was an increase in free NA in comparison with the control almost 2 times (P<0.001). The increase in conjugated NA in daily urine exceeded the control level by 2.4 times (P<0.001). Accordingly, the indicator of increased excretion of total NA was 2.2 in relation to the control (P<0.001). The excretion of free, conjugated and total dopamine (DA) in patients remained relatively lower than in healthy patients and was statistically unreliable. The excretion of free, conjugated, and total dopamine in healthy subjects was 141.4 7.6 mcg/day, 141.4 7.6 mcg/day, and 282.8 10 mcg/day, respectively (see table 3.9). The level of excretion of DOPA in patients with QMI on the 1-2 day of the disease was significantly lower (P<0.001) the rate of healthy and 23.9 to

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1.9 mg/day, and healthy excretion of DOPA amounted to 47.9 per 2 mg/day (table. 2).
The correlation coefficient between the total and volatile amines And at QMI made -0,13 that says the opposite of weak ties. When determining the correlation between diethylamine and total NA, a direct relationship was found (coefficient =+0.03), with DA ­ feedback (-0.44), and with DOPA ­ also feedback (coefficient = -0.05).
In the study of patients with NQMI, we noted a statistically significant increase in the excretion of A, NA, DA and DOPA in the daily urine.
Daily excretion of free A in patients with NQMI compared with healthy individuals increased by 22.6% (P<0.05), conjugated by 84.1% (P<0.001) and total by 52.3% (P<0.001). Daily urine excretion IN NQMI patients is statistically significantly higher than the control level. The excretion of free NA increased by 55.1% (P<0.01), conjugated by 68.5% (P<0.01) and total by 62.2% (P<0.001). The decrease in daily excretion of all DA fractions compared to healthy ones, free by 17.9% (P<0.05), conjugated by 3.3% was statistically unreliable. The level of DOPA excretion was statistically significantly reduced by 2.2 times (P<0.01).
Thus, the values obtained by us indicate a statistically significant increase in the excretion of KA, in particular NA and A, and a decrease in DOPA in the daily urine of NQMI patients.
Discussion of results. In the course of our work, we obtained interesting and important data that open up certain prospects for further research. Gasanalytical methods were used to detect volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in EXPLOSIVES and simultaneously study the daily excretion of KA in the urine of patients with MI and clinically healthy people. The results of our research led to the development of a new survey method. Our proposed method is based on the use of modern methods of physical electronics and gas analysis.
The analysis of EXPLOSIVES also provides an interesting clue to the biochemical basis of many diseases, the causes of which are still unknown. The value of information that can be obtained in the analysis of EXPLOSIVES is due to the fact that the contents of the alveoli of the lungs are separated from the blood in the capillaries only by a thin barrier ­ the alveolocapillary membrane. Volatile organic compounds can diffuse through the alveolocapillary membrane from one compartment to another, in the direction of lower vapor pressure ­ from the air to the blood, or Vice versa (M. Phillips).
The results obtained by us, taking into account the data from literature sources, indicate the need to monitor the state of SAS in patients with MI. This is not only theoretical, but also of great practical importance for the diagnosis, prediction, as well as determining the tactics of rational treatment of MI and prevention of complications.
CONCLUSIONS: 1. An additional method for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease is developed by the amine gas analyzer. Due to its high sensitivity, the amine gas

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analyzer can solve the problem of diagnosing myocardial infarction. The obtained data on the volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in the exhaled air can be used as additional diagnostic criteria.
2. A significant increase in the yield of volatile metabolites of biogenic amines with exhaled air was found in patients with myocardial infarction, especially in Q-wave myocardial infarction, which is of great interest in identifying the mechanism of development of myocardial infarction.
3. A comprehensive study of the sympathetic-adrenal system and the metabolism of biogenic amines in patients with coronary heart disease showed that acute myocardial infarction has a pronounced violation of catecholamine biosynthesis, which is manifested by an increase in urinary excretion of free and conjugated forms of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
4. A comparative analysis of the content of volatile metabolites of biogenic amines in the exhaled air with daily excretion of catecholamines in the urine revealed that in acute myocardial infarction, there is a significant increase in the output of volatile amines through the exhaled air and increased urinary excretion of catecholamines
References: 1.  ,  ,  ,  .   :            .    . 2019;3-4:187-189. 2.  ,  .         .  . 2011;1(28): 138-143. 3.  ,  ,  ,  .          ,     ,    . . . 2017; 4:32--37. 4.   . Feldsher.    ; http://www.feldsher.ru/news-view-1258.html. 5.  ,  ,  ,    .      - .  2019; 59(7):61-67. 6.   .    : / .  online; http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc/nauka_i_tehnika/ himiya/LAVUAZE_ANTUAN_LORAN. html. 7.  ,  ,  .   // .  . 2010;16,1: 23--37. 8.  .     .   . 1992; 9-10: 42-48.

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9.  ,  .          - .     . 2018; 1:114117. 10.  ,  ,  .          .     . 2017;12:78-80. 11.  ,  ,    .       -     .   . 2012;4:117-121. 12.  ,  ,  .      .   . 2012;6:179-185. 13.  .             . . 2009;2:113-119. 14.  .       -        . Journal of breath research, IOP Publishing. 2013;5:47-51.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Islomova S.T., doctor of philosophy in technical Sciences (PhD) assistant of the Department of medical chemistry Andijan state medical Institute Maxammatova S.X. assistant of the Department of medical chemistry Andijan state medical Institute
ANALYSES OF PAINT MATERIALS BY MEANS OF MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of determination of paints according to the commodity nomenclature of foreign economic activity. By means of modern analytical methods important data of paints and varnishes of rather chemical composition are received, structures, and other organoleptic, physical and chemical parameters associated with the process of production of paints and varnishes. The proposed results are needed for the proper declaration of paint products. Proper identification code of paint products will make it possible to prevent certain crimes of economic nature and to protect the safety of Uzbekistan economy.
Keywords: painting material, commodity nomenclature of foreign economic activity, customs cargo declaration, identification of paints, physicchemical parameters of paints, QD Primer, BPR Gaz, IR-spectroscopy.
Induction. After independence a number of changes has been emerged not only in other fields, but also in the customs system. Today our country is extensively developing diplomatic, commodity and collaboration relations between the world countries. The volume of export in many economical areas, including varnish and pain materials is increasing. This state's firstly that the foreign economical relations (FER) of our country are getting strong; secondly it imposes a deal of responsibility on authority organizations. In this field the state customs system has great importance. The state customs system implements the control and registration of export and import goods [1].
Issues of the subject. Proper determination of international code numbers on CN of FEA proceeding to the chemical structure of all the exporting and importing goods in international economical relations is considered one of the actual issues. Proper definition of a code of paint and varnish goods CN FEA is one of pressing problems. As a result of the analysis of the international codes of the paint and varnish goods by customs examination important data concerning a chemical compound, structures, and also other organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators connected with process of manufacture of the paint and varnish goods are obtained. To properly define a code of the paint and varnish

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goods affords the chance to warn possible crimes of economic character and to protect economic interests of consumers.
What are CN of FEA and customs cargo declaration. As it is known, each commodity as object of trade is represented in customs bodies together with the Cargo customs declaration, in which along with other columns, without fail there are columns with instructions of the international code article numbers under the Commodity nomenclature of foreign trade activities. The establishment of their cost depends on proper classification of the paint and varnish goods on the basis of objective criteria, and consequently, both well-founded charge and collection of customs payments. Proper classification of the paint and varnish goods is of great importance for increase of objectivity of customs statistics of foreign trade, at the development of a customs policy of the country and the acceptance of concrete measures on its realization in the course of customs registration, customs control of the goods [2,3].
Structure CN FEA:  ­ group;   ­ position;   ­ subposition (HS);   ­ under subposition ();    - under subposition CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States);     - under subposition (National) [3,4]. National CN of FEA. At present National CN of FTA with 10 ­ value code number is used in our Customs System. But in this classifier strategic goods has not denoted its determination economically and cannot protect the economical interests of the Republic sufficiently. Vanish-and-pain materials haven't been considered sufficiently in the scientific sources about the solution of theoretical and practical problems of the classification and certification of goods on the chemical structure [2,4].
Methods and objects: The purpose of this research: the identification of paints produced by "Uz Dong Ju Paint Co" Joint Stock Company possessing strategic importance for our country through up-to-date methods, including 1) IRspectroscopy. Suggestion new code numbers of goods on the basis of chemical structure. More than 90 % of PM exported within 2012-2015 is appropriated to the share of "Uz Dong Ju Paint CO". Paint materials exported by the company to foreign countries. In 2012-2014 paints with code number 3208109000 on practical CN of FEA produced by "Uz Dong Ju Paint Co" were exported to Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. We have studied two types of the characteristics of paint materials. 1. QD Primer. 2. BPR Gaz. QD Primer -It is included to the industrial pain group; its composition is alkyd resin; fast drying primer; used as a primer for machine parts and equipment in heavy engineering; also it is used to protect surfaces from corrosion.
BPR Gaz -Automobile paint. Its composition is alkyd resin; mixture of heat and environment stable pigments; used for bumpers of automobiles with transparent varnish; surface enamel padding providing higher and stable outward appearance.

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Used instruments - Haz Mit ID 360, perkin Elmer Spectrum Version 10.4.3, Press form Grase by specac, Agilent Tech.7890BGCSystem, ShimadzuGC-2010 Plus.
The discussion of the results Using infrared spectroscopic analysis to study the structure of two types of paint. Various organic compounds are defined coatings to establish the absorption bands in the IR spectrum. analysis findings are presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1. IR spectrums of QD Primer and BPR gaz paints
When the customs expert studies, in the IR spectrum of the sample coatings need to find a major, the most intense and well-resolved absorption bands. The table below shows the absorption region of paints.
Table 1. ANALYSIS OF PAINT MATERIAL (QD-Primer) BY MEANS OF (IR-
SPECTROSCOPY)

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Table 2. ANALYSIS OF PAINT MATERIAL (BPR Gaz) BY MEANS OF (IR-
SPECTROSCOPY)

Conclusions. IR­spectroscopy analyses allow the identification of PM; results of IR- spectroscopy analyses are appropriate to Gas-chromatography analyses; the presence of organic substances possessing polymer formation property in the composition of PM; absorption band of these substances in the proper phase has been defined; consequently the role of IR­spectroscopy and Gaschromatography analyses in the identification of PM at Customs tests and FEA affairs of Customs authorities has been demonstrated practically. In conclusion, it should be noted that the study of the classification of paints on the chemical composition, may clarify some controversial issues HS Uzbekistan. A can also be noted that the investigated paints classified code 3208109000 for Commodity Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Development of new product codes makes it possible to protect the economic interests and security of the economy of Uzbekistan in international relations.
References: 1. Islamova S. T., Xamraqulov G', Abdug'aniyev B. Classification of paints on the chemical composition. Bulletin of the Tashkent State Technical University 5. In 2015. 2.      . 2012 . -229-232. 3.  .,  ..          []:   / -2013. ­. 25-30.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Jumayev I. teacher
Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute Tashkent region

THE CONVENIENCES OF TEACHING USING AUTOCAD SOFTWARE

Annotation. The article provides a comparative analysis of the process of meaningful and effective teaching of lessons using AutoCAD, as well as the process of drawing by hand. There are also a number of guidelines and teaching methods for school students about the convenience and capabilities of AutoCAD.
Keywords: model, graphic, editor, geometric, spatial, shape, detail, straight line, angle, parallel.

It is well-known that traditional methods of developing students' spatial imagination is lacking. In today's fast-paced world of computers, spatial imagination develops more deeply when students learn to draw diagrams for schoolchildren in AutoCAD. When we draw by hand on paper, pencils, compasses and other drawing tools, we can draw a lot of drawings in AutoCAD at the same time, and the more we draw, the deeper the spatial imagination of students. which will help to improve the quality of the lessons. There are many types of graphics programs available today that can be used to create graphics and 3D models. In particular, AutoCAD, TopCAD, JCAD, 3D-MAX and many similar graphics systems are widely used in various fields of scientific and engineering activities. One of the most popular in the education system is AutoCAD. AutoCAD is also formed as a standardized system of automation of design work in many enterprises and organizations in our country and abroad. In 2002, for the first time in the history of teaching drawing in Russian schools, a CD (KOMPAS 3D LT graphics program), which is one of the components of the educational-methodical complex, was developed and put on sale. The KOMPAS 3D LT graphics program includes the KOMPAS 3D LT Learning System elearning manual, electronic versions of most of the exercises and graphics for the school drawing course textbook, and a graphic workbook for students. In addition to the forms and drawings related to exercises and graphics, the CD contains many other forms in the textbook "Drawing" by A.D. Botvinnikov and others. Of the 267 forms in the textbook, 70 are provided on SD.
It is important to note that students can master AutoCAD graphics programs relatively quickly if they have mastered computer skills and the basics of projection drawing. In most cases, 2-3 hours may be enough. But it is impossible to cover this time at the expense of drawing lessons. If the school administration considers it necessary to teach students the most popular machine graphics, it can

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be done by studying in optional, individual and group classes at the expense of time allocated to computer science or compulsory electives with sufficient time resources. possible. Let's talk about computer graphics, which is taught in the drawing course of secondary schools. Current programs and textbooks allow 2 (two) hours for this section, during which students must learn to create projections of simple geometric shapes using a graphic editor and change the spatial position and shape of a given object. It is unclear why this is necessary. In light of the above, students will not be able to learn the alphabet of computer graphics in the two hours allotted. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to suggest a method of using computers and graphics programs wisely during drawing lessons.
The following sections of computer and drawing are: Detail shape analysis; Dimensions for detail drawings; · Give students a three-dimensional form of detail. Demonstrations can be useful. 1. A computer is not only useful but also necessary in the analysis of the form of detail. On the monitor screen, students will be able to separate the detail into individual geometric objects, and if there are difficulties, the teacher or the program itself will display a similar image. 2. Shape analysis is one of the most important steps in determining the correct dimensions. So in this case, the computer is used in the same way as before. 3. The use of a computer is also a great help for students who have difficulty imagining the shape of a detail in a drawing. For example, if students have difficulty completing a graphic work on the topic of "doing the third of the two given views," they can be helped to complete the task independently by displaying a clear image of the detail on the computer. Teachers often advised such students to try to make a detail model out of plasticine or other material. If the school has an SD card for the drawing course, this is not necessary. Students can explore the three-dimensional image of a detail on a CD by looking at it from different angles. Only students will be able to draw the third view independently, without the help of a computer. Appropriate use of ATD in drawing individualizes learning and helps students to master the learning materials and speed up the learning process. But ATDs can never replace the teacher in the educational process, because independent learning can never be the only and universal way of learning. Connections. Connect straight, impenetrable and sharp corners. A junction is a junction in which one line passes from one line to another directly or through a circular arc. The school textbook provides a graphic work on

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connecting right, acute and obtuse angles, and students will need to do the following to draw it according to the rules of drawing, Picture 1.
· Two straight lines intersect to form a sharp, obtuse, and right angle. · In order to connect these angles smoothly with a circular arc, straight lines are first drawn parallel to them at a distance equal to the radius R from the given straight lines. · The drawn parallel straight lines intersect to give the center of the O-joint · Lines are drawn perpendicular to the lines given by the point O at the center of the connection. Perpendicular straight lines intersect at points n and n1. · Points n and n1 are then smoothly connected based on the radius R given by the center O found. · Performing the connections using the AutoCAD program requires the following steps. · Draw a straight line (sharp, obtuse, or right angle) with the "C line" button on the "Cherchenie" keypad, and return it with the "Esc" key. The two intersecting straight lines are formed. · Select the "Circle" button and right-click to select "RCC" from the "context menu". · The two straight lines are marked with the left mouse button, the given radius R is entered and the Enter key is pressed. The result is a circle at an angle.
Table2

Using the "Mouse" button, select the "Edit" button on the "Edit" button panel, the unwanted part of the circle with the "Enter" key.
List of used literature: 1. T.Rixsiboyev, Malikov K. Computer graphics. Toshkent-2015,132-140 p. 2. Khalimov Mokhir, Achilov Nurbek, Bekkulov Qudrat, Khojakulov Elbek, Kokiyev boburmirzo some methods of finding angle in the sciences of drawing and drawing geometry 47.

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3. Achilov n.n., kokiyev b.b., bekkulov q. Sh. Designing using the autocad program to make visible images journal of scientific and methodological education of the teacher bilim2 2020 ISSN 2181-7138 4. Kukiev, B., O`g`li, A. N. N. & Shaydulloyevich, B. Q. (2019). Technology for creating images in autocad. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 7 5. Ko'kiyev b.b. Yordamchi proyeksiyalash usuli asoschisi professor, texnika fanlari doktori stepan mitrofanovich kolotov haqida 106-b. 6. Kukiev Boburmirzo Bahodir ogli (2020). The importance of pedagogical techniques in teaching assistive design. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 8 (2) Part II, 182-185. 7. Ugli, Kukiev Boburmirzo Bahodir Problem-based learning technology in teaching auxiliary projection techniques Journal of Critical Reviews 917-921. 8. Kokiyev Boburmirzo Bahodir ogli (2020). Present-day problems of drawing science. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 8 (4), 203-205. 9. Shaydulloyevich, B. K. (2020). Increasing students' graphic literacy through teaching the sciences of drafting and descriptive geometry. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 8 (4), Part II, 75-78. 10. Achilov Nurbek Norboy o`g`li (2020). Pedagogical and psychological fundamentals of formation of space imagination and creative ability in students. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 8 (4), Part II, 38-40. 11. Achilov Nurbek Norboy o`g`li, Bekqulov Qudrat Shaydulloyevich, Ko`kiyev Boburmirzo Baxodir o`g`li & Jumayev Isroil Omandovlat o`g`li (2020). Methods of developing creative abilities in children. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 8 (10) Part II, 151-153.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Kadirov R.X. Associate Professor of Bukhara State university
Shukurov R.S. Associate Professor of Bukhara State university

ELECTIVE DISCIPLINE COURSE NATIONAL TURON AND TEACHING METHODS

Abstract: The importance of the transition from traditional to distance learning in higher education, the creation of electronic resources for modern education, and on the example of the direction of education "physical culture", the features of the organization of elective courses aimed at improving the professional skills of students are analyzed.
Key words: multimedia, elective discipline (course), electronic educational components, healthy lifestyle culture, valeology, integrated tools, professional training.

Kadirov R.X.  
Shukurov R.S.  

         

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ax aa, a aoa aaa a a

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               :
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: 1.  . .,  . .,  . .         / /   . 2014.  9 (118). . 51-68. 2. Kadirov R.X., Shukurov R.S. THE WAYS OF THE ACTIVIZATION OF THE INDEPENDENT WORKS NOF THE STUDENTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PLATFORM MOODLE 10.5958/2278 -4853.2020.00152.4. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research (AJMR) https://tarj.in 1 AJMR. ISSN: 2278-4853 Vol 9, Issue 5, May, 2020 Impact Factor: SJIF 2020 = 6.882 Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research (AJMR) https://tarj.in 2 AJMR. 24-30. 3. Shukurov R.S., Kurash turlaru va uni o'qitish metodikasi (Turon).: darslik/ Buxoro: "Sadriddin Salim Buxoriy" Durdona nashriyoti, 2020. ­ 244 b. 4.  . .       ooe    «»    //        :        . : , 2014. . 3. . 159-160.

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UDK 634.1.054

Karabayeva M.T. doctoral student
of Tashkent State Agrarian University Gafurjonova F.H. student
of Tashkent State Agrarian University Abdusattorova M.M. student
of Tashkent State Agrarian University

HOW MUCH POMEGRANATES CAN BE STORED IN THE REFRIGERATOR

Annotation: The composition of pomegranate contains a whole set of vitamins and minerals that contribute to blood formation and proper heart function. Many people stock up on this southern fruit, so it's worth learning how and where to store pomegranates at home. We will also consider the questions of which fruits should be chosen and whether pomegranate can be stored in the refrigerator. How to choose a pomegranate
Keywords: Pomegranate, pomegranate juice, freezing pomegranate, shelf life.

How much pomegranate can be stored depends on the condition of the fruit. For long-term storage, select high-quality, undamaged large-sized fruits. The color of the pomegranate skin depends on its variety. It can be very diverse: from the usual red to brown, greenish, yellow. The color of a ripe, healthy fruit is uniform and uniform, while its skin has a slightly woody structure and a little shine. There should be no rotted areas, dents and scratches on the grenade: it cannot be stored for a long time. You can understand that the fruit is fully ripe by the lid on the top of its head. In a ripe fruit, it is dry and fully open, in an unripe

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fruit it is green. The diameter of a quality pomegranate should not be less than 10 cm. And with a slight squeezing, a slight characteristic crunch should appear. When such a fruit is tapped, a "metallic" sound is heard. If the skin is moist and elastic, this is an indicator of artificial ripening of the fruit. It was removed from the branch while still green and matured in the process of laying. In terms of taste and usefulness, such a product is significantly inferior to those pomegranates that have ripened on a tree. Black rot is one of the main enemies of this fruit. Its presence can be recognized by brown spots on the surface of the peel. It is best to buy pomegranates for long-term storage in November.

Storage period The conditions and shelf life of a pomegranate are closely related. In this case, the condition and quality of the fruits themselves plays an important role. The shelf life of pomegranates in various conditions is as follows: · in natural conditions with a humidity of 30 - 40% - 7 - 9 days; · in a cool, dry basement, cellar - up to 5 months; · in a clay shell - up to 5 months; · in the lower part of the household refrigerator as a whole and in a cleaned state - 2 months and 4 days, respectively;

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Storage conditions How to store pomegranates in an apartment so that they remain juicy and do not rot? This requires a temperature within + 1C - + 10C. It is important to choose for them a dry place, closed from light, where sharp temperature drops do not occur. How to store pomegranates in the refrigerator How long can pomegranates be stored in the refrigerator? For high-quality, not rotten fruits in the peel, 50 - 60 days is far from the maximum shelf life. You just need to create the necessary conditions for them. It is best to store pomegranates in the vegetable compartment, but do not keep them in airtight bags. The inevitable formation of condensation will occur, which will provoke the process of decay and lead to the formation of mold. Each fruit is wrapped in paper or covered with a porous material that will absorb excess moisture. If the paper becomes damp, replace it with dry paper. Freezing. Storing a pomegranate in the freezer is the longest possible way. Freezing allows you to preserve the product for more than a year without significant loss of useful qualities. However, some vitamins still break down. First, you should carefully remove the grains from the fruit, select the ripe and not spoiled ones and place them in portions in bags for freezing. There are other ways to store peeled pomegranates at home, but freezing is easier and more effective than others. Balcony or cellar At + 7C - + 10C, pomegranate fruits can be stored for up to 2.5 months in conditions of moderate humidity (75 - 80%). At + 1C, the storage time increases to 5 - 7 months. At room temperature, the fruits dry out quickly and lose their juiciness after a week. · in household refrigerators and special cabinets for storing fruits and vegetables - up to 9 months. (+ 1C); · frozen - more than 12 months. You can keep your supplies in the cellar or on the glazed balcony, if it does not freeze in winter. The fruits are stored in boxes in one layer. Beforehand, each

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of them is wrapped in paper. To close them from light, use thick burlap or cardboard.
The condition of a useful product should be checked regularly. If necessary, replace the dry paper.
In clay If you fill the "crowns" of fruits with clay, they can be stored longer due to the reduction of moisture loss. The clay is calcined in the oven for disinfection, after which it is diluted with water to a state of thick sour cream and each fruit is dipped in it. After drying, the procedure is repeated. Storage of pomegranate in clay is possible up to 5 months in a dry, cool place. Peeled pomegranate Damaged or slightly spoiled fruit cannot be stored for a long time. Whole grains should be removed from it, which can be put in the refrigerator for 3 to 4 days. You can also use the shock freeze function, which helps to keep food for a very long time. To do this, the selected grains are placed in tight sealed bags and the instructions of the refrigerator are followed. The pomegranate does not tolerate repeated freezing, therefore the grains should be distributed into packages in small portions. It is not recommended to store them for more than one year.

Pomegranate juice How and how much to store pomegranate juice? Let's take a look at this question using a store-bought product with preservatives and an all-natural homemade beverage. Storage of pomegranate juice in a glass container or in a foil paper bag is possible for the period specified by the manufacturer. A freshly pressed product is best consumed immediately or, at most, within half an hour, while it contains the largest amount of vitamins and amino acids. Storing freshly squeezed pomegranate juice is possible only in the refrigerator for the next 24 hours. The container should be tightly covered with a lid to minimize contact of the drink with air. After opening the shop juice in a glass bottle, it can be stored no longer than 2 - 3 days. Conclusion. Proper storage of pomegranate fruits allows them to remain tasty and healthy for a long time. But it should be borne in mind that many people have an allergic reaction to this product. It is also not recommended for children to give it immediately in large quantities, especially if the baby is trying it for the first time. Even such a healthy fruit should be introduced into the child's diet gradually.

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References: 1. Rasulov A. Storage of vegetables, melons and potatoes. - Tashkent, 1994. 2. Shaumarov X.B. Islamov S.Ya. Technology of storage and primary processing of agricultural products. - Tashkent, 2011.

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U|DK: 13.00.01

Karimova J.Sh. Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural
Mechanization Engineers

INCREASING MOTIVATION IN ENGLISH LESSONS

Annotation: The article is devoted to the urgent problem of increasing motivation in English lessons. Various methods, ways and means of increasing motivation to the subject are considered
Key words: English, lesson, learning, motivation, student, communication, competence

For many years in the field of pedagogy and psychology, a lot of attention has been paid to the issue of motivation. It is now generally accepted that motivation plays a huge role in foreign language learning. The researchers cite evidence of declining motivation from class to class. Before starting to learn a foreign language and at the very beginning, students are highly motivated. But in the process of mastering a foreign language, the attitude of students changes, as they need to overcome various difficulties. As a result, motivation decreases, academic performance decreases, which, in turn, negatively affects motivation. Studying the problem of increasing motivation in the course of learning English is now relevant.
In the pedagogical literature, two types of motives are described in sufficient detail: internal and external. Internal - these are motives that develop under the influence of the learner's own thoughts, his experiences, aspirations, resulting in an awareness of internal necessity.
Some researchers believe that external motives are not related to the content of educational material. These include: duty, duty (the student must study the subject to get a positive assessment); appraisal.
The problem of motivation in learning arises in every school subject. Methods for its development and stimulation, taking into account the specifics of the subject, have been developed in the appropriate methods and manuals. However, the problem of motivation for learning foreign languages is especially acute. At the same time, it is noteworthy that before the moment of learning a foreign language and at the very beginning, students, as a rule, have high motivation. Almost everyone has a desire to speak a foreign language, to be able to communicate. But as soon as the process of mastering a foreign language begins, and the attitude of students changes, many are disappointed. After all, this process presupposes a period of accumulation of "building material", a stage of inevitably primitive content, overcoming various difficulties, which postpones the achievement of goals that were dreamed of. As a result, motivation decreases, counter activity disappears, the will aimed at mastering a foreign language

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weakens, and overall academic performance decreases, which, in turn, negatively affects motivation.
Motivation is primarily the result of a person's internal needs, his interests and emotions, goals and objectives, the presence of motives aimed at enhancing his activities.
Recognizing the leading role of motivation in teaching a foreign language, the teacher needs to imagine the ways and techniques of its formation in the school environment.
The novelty of the information received plays a special role in the formation of motivation. The presence of elements of search activity, cognitive motives and the emotional state of students provide them with a way out of educational activity into self-educational and creative.
As you know, interest as a motive plays an important role in teaching students a foreign language. If children are interested in learning, they easily overcome difficulties, master the material well, and develop strong speech skills and abilities.
A large role in maintaining and maintaining interest in the subject, the development of cognitive activity, the transfer of teaching from teaching to the management of independent educational and cognitive activity of students belongs to non-standard forms of the lesson. An unconventional lesson includes a wide variety of emotionally vivid, unconventional teaching methods and techniques that not only increase the motivation for teaching children, but also serve the development of certain abilities: the ability to recite poems, developing pronunciation skills, to stage a particular situation as a literary one, and life, singing in a foreign language, the ability to react and assess in conversation, communicate information about events and facts, observe speech etiquette, become widely acquainted with the traditions, customs and cultural heritage of English-speaking countries. All student activities in the classroom are subordinated to the main communicative goal of teaching English.
Studying a foreign language, it is necessary to create such conditions in educational and cognitive activities that contribute to the development of a high level of cognitive interest in the study of English in the student. An important role in increasing motivation is played by various types of work used by the teacher in the lesson: lessons-discussion of various topics; lessons-communication on the Internet (effective as an option for self-preparation); round tables; miniconferences in groups; test lessons; presentation lessons.
You can use the presentation in the educational process at different stages of the lesson and different types of lessons, depending on the goal set by the teacher. Presentations are possible in lessons of any age group, starting from elementary school. Taking into account the age characteristics of younger students, they should be made bright, funny, exciting, including riddles and games. For middle-level schoolchildren, you can include lexical and grammatical exercises, sample dialogues and texts for reading, as well as test items for training

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in the format of a unified state exam. High school students themselves know how to create presentations, which is advisable to use in project work and when completing the study of the topic.
So, recognizing the leading role of motivation in teaching English, the teacher needs to clearly understand the ways and methods of its formation in the conditions of this educational institution. When considering the problems of motivation and looking for ways to form it, it is unacceptable to simplify its understanding, because the formation of motivation is not the teacher's transfer of ready-made, externally set motives and goals of learning into the heads of students. The formation of motives is, first of all, the creation of conditions for the manifestation of internal impulses for learning, their awareness by the students themselves and the further self-development of the motivational-value sphere. At the same time, when mastering a foreign language culture, it is not at all indifferent what motives encourage the student to carry out activities.
Various methods and means are used to create adequate motivation: verbal, visual, practical, but search and research are taking the leading role today. The formation of a strong motivation for learning is facilitated by play with its active use in the classroom.
Literature: 1. Bim I.L. Profile teaching of foreign languages at the senior stage of general education school: problems and prospects: Textbook / I.L. Bim. - M .: Education, 2007 2. Bocharova L.N. Games in English lessons at primary and secondary levels of education / L.N. Bocharova // Foreign languages at school. - 1996 3. Gottlieb R.A. Social demand for knowledge of a foreign language / R.A. Gottlieb // Sociological Research. - 2009 4. Zimnyaya I.A. Educational Psychology: Textbook. - Ed. 2nd, add. and redistribution. / I.A. Winter. - M .: University book; Logos, 2008

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_110 Khasanov U.A. teacher
of the Department of "Languages" Tashkent Islamic institute named after Imam Bukhari
SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL OF DOCTOR WAHBA ZUHAYLI
Annotation: In this article the author describes the life and scientific potential and peculiarities of Dr. Wahba Zuhayli. The author mainly informs about the life of Dr. Wahba Zuhayli, the political environment of that time, his scientific legacy, as well as his contributions to Islamic jurisprudence , as well as his teachers and students.
Key words: scientific environment, Islamic jurisprudence, commentary, heritage issues of 20th century.
Dr. Wahba Zuhayli was born in 1932 in the city of "Diyar Atiyya" in Damascus. His parents were steadfast in piety and asceticism, steadfast in prayer, and exemplary to other Muslims in good manners.
The people of Diyar Atiyya, were engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry and trade where Dr. Vahba Zuhayli was born and grown-up. At the same time, the inhabitants of this city were also famous for their textiles.
Some centuries later,the region finally emerged from poverty and ignorance and achieved its high scientific progress5.
Sheikh Wahba Zuhaili's father, Mustafa Zuhaili rahmatullohi alayh, was a respected person who memorized the Book of Allah and recited Qur'an every day and night. He adhered to the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and followed it without deviating. He prayed and fasted a lot. He never stopped praying in congregation in the mosque. He was a man of high morals and generosity. He did not know what laziness was. In particular, it is from this land that mature scholars such as Dr. Wahba Zuhaili grew up, a professor who has written many works on Islamic jurisprudence.
Master Wahba Zuhaili lived in the same period and traditionally began his education with Qur'an. Near his mother's house, he completed Qur'an perfectly, along with his recitations and tajweed. Then, at the urging of his mother, he began to study in a high school. He finished school here before moving to Damascus.6
Wahba Zuhaili came to Damascus in 1946 after graduating from high school. He stayed here for fourteen years to study. He entered to the specialty "Divine Sciences" of the department of the Faculty of Sharia in Damascus. This school was the only official scientific institution in Syria at that time. The divine sciences were taught here.
5 Sayyid Lahhom. Ulama val mufakkirun. - Beirut, Dorul kutub, 2006 y. ­B. 33-34. 6 Sayyid Lahhom. Ulama val mufakkirun. - Beirut, Dorul kutub, 2006 y. ­B. 12.

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The master spent of his six years at this faculty. He finished Academic Lyceum in 1952 during six years studying at the Faculty of Sharia in Damascus.
Then, he continued his scientific studies at the Faculty of Sharia of "Azhari Sharif". In 1956, he received a diploma with honors, specializing in teaching at the Faculty of Arabic of "Azhari Sharif".7
Since then, his diploma has become a world-renowned diploma. At the same time, he continued his studies in law, and in 1957 he received a license in law from the University of "Aynush Shams".
In 1959, he received a master's degree in law from Cairo University. In 1963, he exchanged pamphlets with foreign universities and received a doctorate in Islamic law. The topic was "Complications of War in Islamic Fiqh," which was about comparing eight sects (four Sunnis, four Shiites) and general interstate law. In 1963 he was appointed a teacher in Damascus, in 1969 an assistant teacher, and in 1975 a head teacher. Till his last breath, he was engaged in teaching, writing, instruction, general and specific lectures. Of course, Wahba Zuhayli was one of the rare gifted students of his period. In order to satisfy his thirst for this knowledge and to acquire a high scientific potential, he studied the sciences such as Shari'ah, law, Arabic language and Puberty with great diligence. As a result, on February 13, 1963, he presented his doctoral dissertation to the Supreme Attestation Commision. He defended his doctoral dissertation under the scientific advice of famous scholars such as Muhammad Abu Zahra8 and Muhammad Hafiz Ghanim. Then, he was given a "First Class Career". It has been decided that doctoral degree of Wahba Zuhayli can be transferred to other universities9. More than forty generations in Syria have been taught by him. In addition, he taught fiqh, method, and tafsir to thousands of people in Libya, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Indonesia, and the east and west of the world. Dr. Wahba Zuhaili has held many positions throughout his life. Here are some of the positions he held: - Representative of the Faculty of Sharia at the University of Damascus, then Dean of it for four years (1967­1970);

7 Sayyid Lahhom. Ulama val mufakkirun. - Beirut, Dorul kutub, 2006 y. ­B. 14. 8 Muhammad Abu Zahra is a famous Egyptian scholar. He was born in 1898. He has supervised doctoral dissertations in Islamic law, tafsir, hadith, kalam, and Arabic at universities such as Cairo, Alexandria, and Azhar University, as well as at universities outside Egypt. Including Sheikh Wahba Zuhaili. He interpreted the Qur'an in three ways: The first is that it does not go beyond words and style that Arabs can understand. Second: Modern fields of knowledge do not use theories in interpreting the words of the Qur'an. The reason is that modern scientific theories are changing day by day. Third: They have carefully studied the secrets of puberty in order to better understand the Qur'an. Sheikh Abu Zahra argues that it is not right, or even impossible, to translate the Qur'an from Arabic into another language. See Imam Sadiq. Al-Ahwal-ush-personal. - Cairo. Dorul Fikir Publishing House. 1957 y. -B. 303-309. 9 Sayyid Lahhom. Ulama val mufakkirun. - Beirut, Dorul kutub, 2006 y. ­B. 16-17.

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- Chairman of the Department of Islamic Fiqh and Madhabs - Member of the Academy of Fiqh in Mecca, Jeddah, India, America and Sudan; - Chairman of the Faculty of Sharia and Law at the University of the United Arab Emirates, Department of Islamic Sharia, then Dean of it for four years; - Member of the Academy of the Research Center for Islamic Culture under the "Oli Bayt Institution" in Jordan; - Supervision of more than seventy master's and doctoral dissertations in the cities of Damascus, Beirut and Hurtum; - Organizer of the Journal of Sharia and Islamic Studies at the University of Kuwait in 1988; - Author of broadcasts "Stories in the Qur'an", "The Qur'an and Life" on Syrian radio on the basis of the interpretation of the Qur'an. - Founder of the magazine "Sharia and Law" at the University of the United Arab Emirates; - Member of the editorial board of the magazine "Islamic Program" in Damascus; The place where Dr. Wahba Zuhayli was born and grown up, and the scientific and political environment there, played an important role in his development as a great scholar. At the same time, it is necessary to mention his parents, who made an invaluable contribution to his development as a worldrenowned scholar. This is because contemporary scholars state that Dr. Wahba Zuhayli, had such a high scientific potential because of his parents. The students which Dr Wahda Zyhayli taught, also showed how highly educated and intelligent he was. The study of the life of Dr. Wahba Zuhayli will also serve as a very important guide in educating the highly intelligent young generation who we are striving to educate today.
Used Sources and publications: 1. Sheikh Abdulaziz Mansur. Translation and interpretation of the meanings of Qur'an. Tashkent Islamic University Publishing and Printing Association. 2014. 2. Sheikh Muhammad Sadiq Muhammad Yusuf. "Tafsiri Hilol". T .: Sharq NMAK. 2008 3. Dr. Wahba Zuhayli, "At-tafsir al-munir", Damascus, "Dor al-fikr", 2002. 4. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari. "Sahihul Bukhari". Bayrut. 1973. 5. Nosirov O. Yusupov M. Muhitdinov M. Rahmatullaev Yu. Nishonov A. "AnNa'ym". Arabic-Uzbek dictionary. Tashkent. 2003. 6. Bell R., Watt U. M. "Koranistika". Introduction. - Moscow St. Petersburg: Dilya, 2005. 7. Encyclopedia of Islam / New edition. V. IV. - Leiden, 1977.

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UDK 37.02

Khodjaeva M. Jizzakh State Pedagogical Institute

A GRAMMATICAL-TRANSLATIONAL STUDY OF QUALITATIVE SEMI-PREDICATIVE DEVICES IN ENGLISH

Abstract. This article is about a grammatical study of qualitative semipredicative devices in English.
Key words. grammatical device, semi-predicative device, qualitative device, linguistic unit, real communication, variety of knowledge, misunderstanding of languages.

Use of linguistic units in the context of clear and real communication is the object of pragmatic analysis. The relationship between speaker and listener is verbal communication occurs in the context of, the speech action requires the text of the dialogue - and this content in the context of communication. For communication to occur should be the environment. The environment, in turn, is social in nature the social stratum is manifested in relation to the culture of the group. This group includes various misunderstandings, spiritual ambiguity, as well as a general knowledge base that allows for the elimination of uncertainties the ability to use the rules to ensure the success of communication will have. A person who does not have such skills is not in communication can not be effective. In verbal communication, the "burden" of information is, of course, linguistic units fall on the "shoulder", but the norm of interpersonal relations, to full communication without mastering the system of national and cultural values Unable to access. So communicative activity requires a variety of knowledge of which, for example, if linguistic knowledge is related to the structure of the language system, encyclopedic knowledge reflects reality, and finally, interactive knowledge interacts rules that underlie a relationship and are common to a social group requires knowledge of the set. When it comes to "linguistic communication skills," it's the same this knowledge is implied. Interactive knowledge for communication participants preferably at the same level, because only in this case unity and mutual understanding can be achieved. In English, adjectives are one of the impersonal forms of the verb, and they are two different - I quality and II quality. The adjective I is the suffix ing at the base of the verb is made by adding, and the formation of adjective II depends on the type of verb:
If the verb is correct, add the suffix - (e) d to the stem1 , if the verb if incorrect, use the -en suffix or a way to change the sound is made with. Even the adjective form of some wrong verbs is basically I'll be fine.
1 Example: I adjective II adjective reading helped going read (red) helping gone buying bought cut
In addition to adjective verbs, adjectives or adverbs also has.

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The adjective's adjectives of quality and form are syntactic that he performs functions. On the one hand, adjectives are descriptive and like quality when the joint horse comes as a horse part of the cut, on the other hand, they are in speech become like that. For example:
1) as a qualifier: The note of rising irritation was plainly audible in Martin's voice (E. Caldwell) He knelt in silence, and in silence Caruzo laid his on the bent head (E. Caldwell). 2) as a part of the adjective compound noun The old man was tall and shadowy and stooping. (J. Steinbeck) Your people are excited and the word of your coming has traveledled all over the two valleys (J.Steinbeck). 3) as an adjective: Liza rose to her feet. Lavretsky followed her out. Going downstairs Liza suddenly stopped (H. James). If strokeed she would merely bow meekly and be grateful for them. (H. James). Adjective verb features appear in the following cases: 1) I quality has the categories of perfect and ratio.
2) to receive a filler without an adjective formed from a transitive verb you can: Then taking a pocket knife, he deftly ripped up the torn sleeve supporting the child's head against his breast, while Gemma held the injured hand (E. Caldwell). «I am happy it is you», sister Swarts said, patting Celias hand (J. Steinbeck). 3) can be defined as an adjective. His eyes dilated. She was quite still, hardly breathingig till he spoke again (E. Caldwell). There is no need to leave. - he said. Oh, but I know there is, the old man said nodding wisely (J. Steinbeck). Perfect category in adjectives. Perfect category only I are adjectives only, and the adjective is perfect and non-perfect consists of an opposition of forms. For example: reading ­ having read, being read - having been read. Non-perfect - the work done by the main verb in the adjective - represents an action that is simultaneous with the action, and the perfect adjective the action expressed by the main verb - the action that took place before the action - the action shows. For example: Reading this book, I came across, many unknown words. Having read the book, I gave it to my friend. Adjective II has only one format, so it has no the grammatical category does not exist.

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Ratio category in adjectives. I made of transitive verbs has an adjective ratio category:
Net Level: Passive Level: reading being read having read having been lead In English, adjectives are passive analytical forms, they are made by adding the adjective II to the auxiliary verb to be. Adjective II does not have a ratio category because it has one - the opposite of one is the definite and the indefinite no uniforms. The function of the adjective in speech. 1) I adjective determiner in the function: I hate you!  She cried, turning on him with eyes like glowing coals (E. Caldwell) - I don't want to see you! He shouted. And the eyes burnt like burning coals (E. Caldwell). You are asking me why a drowning man struggles for his life. (P. J. Steinbeck) . The English adjective I, which acts as a determinant, is translated into Uzbek given through adjective forms. The adjective I in the identifier function precedes the noun it identifies or may come later. The active form of the I adjective, which came before the definition, is usually it is used alone, that is, it cannot come with subordinate clauses. For example: In the deepening dusk Harry looked dawn High Street and felt at home (J. Steinbeck). But it's getting darker and darker on the main street stood up and was glad to be home (J. Steinbeck). An adjective compound that controls subordinate clauses is usually used Used after identification: Once in a while letters arrived from Alisher and Timur fighting on the front line (H. Davron). Alisher fighting on the front lines and short letters from Timur often came. (H. Davron) The hunter sipped his coflee and ate his burnt almonds with the grave and concentrated enjoyment of a cat drinking cream. (E. Caldwell). Sona to drink his coffee stretched out like a cat licking cream, a chandelier began to eat almonds with pleasure (E. Caldwell). It should be noted that the Uzbek language is a qualitative compound never comes after a horse that is being identified. In English, the passive pronoun I is always in the post-position and corresponds to the Uzbek adjective in the passive pronoun. For example: The hostel being built in our street is for University students. The dormitory being built on our street is designed for university students. The question now being discussed at the meeting is very important. The issue currently being discussed at the meeting is very important.
Perfect forms of adjective I are not used in the determinative function. Sometimes the I adjective in the determinant function (or the turnover it generates) has considerable independence in speech and is defined by adjective I. the connection between In this case, the adjective I came in the function of a separate identifier will be Highlights are usually separated by commas. For

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example: Rivera, on his knees, scrubbling, looked up, with suspended brush, his bare arm flecked with soapy, dirty water (J. London). Kneel on the floor Rivera, who was washing, raised his head, dirty water from his soaked hands drops were flowing.
Three women, chatting at the gates of a house near the small market, recognized her (A. Ismailov). Whispering in front of a door closer to Guzar standing wives recognized him from afar (A. Ismailov).
2) The adjective I is in the function of the horse part of the compound noun. The joy of the prisoners was almost overwhelming. Their speed was slow, however, because, pitfalls were somewhat common and has to be quarded against (M. Twain). The little captives do not know themselves from their joy, but they could not walk fast because there were deep lands at every step had to be careful (M. Twain).
3) As an adjective I: a) time holi. The adjective (adjective turnover) that performs the function of Knight Holi is basic action performed or performed at the same time as the verb ­ action can represent. For example: Placing the child on the chair, the hunter knelt down beside him. . . (E. Caldwell). And having spoken, he took his stand back to the fireplace (J. Galsworthy). A qualitative or qualitative turnover that has performed the function of time corresponds to adjectives or adverbs in Uzbek: Sitting still, he might have been taken for a very pretty girl masquerading in male attire (E. Caldwell). It's okay to be quiet can be thought of as a girl (E. Caldwell). Coming home from work, he would tell them about the railway or a loccmotive, imitating its whistle (A. Ismailov). After work, tells his daughters the story of the train, called the "pipip" of the train (A. Ismailov). Sometimes the adjective oborogi, which serves as a time holder and comes with while connectors: Tlie Governer, when sending into the legate his report of the arrest, had begged as a special favorite permission of this case (E. Caldwell). Martin was in very high spirits while driving through the fertile country (E. Caldwell). b) all forms of causative adjective I cause causal function can do. For example: ... but remembering that he had not seen her for three weeks, he held out his hand and said rightly: Good evening; Zita, how are you? (E. Caldwell)... and being occupied in preparations for an evening visit, it passed out of her thoughts entirely (B. S lower). c) a similar situation. An adjective used in the analogy case or adjective turnover in the Uzbek language in the form of adjective (lying + day) is correct.

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Martin stood and answered slowly, as though repeating a catechism ... (E. L E. Caldwell). Arthur stood up and said the words of the catechism replied solemnly as if repeating ... (E. Caldwell)
I am no longer a child Harry, Mary was right. As though thinking aloud she murmered... (J. Steinbeck). I'm not a little kid anymore, Lennie, Mary is right. Whispering as if he were saying it out loud he continued ... (J. Steinbeck).
g) as is. In English, adjectives and adjectives are used interchangeably When it performs its function, it is translated into Uzbek by means of: Better die standing than live bending (Proverb). Kneel down It is better to die than to live (Proverbs). Then he went on his stomack and began to eat the eartli toughing mildly while he did it (J. Steinbeck). Then he fell off the cover and stiffened he began to bite the ground. (J. Steinbeck). d) a case representing a series of actions. (adverbial modifier of circumstances). By adjective or adjective turnover is the main verb the action shown is the action that is more independent of the action. SHE IS Translation into Uzbek by the -ib form of the pronoun or personal verb forms will be done: ThoughtI thought so, - she said looking Harry up and down. (J. Steinbeck). I thought so myself, "he said, glancing at Lenny from head to toe (J. Steinbeck). What feeling, - she observed to Gedeanovsky in an undertone. A splendid - Gedeanovsky repeated, rolling up his eyes. (H. James). "Dear woman," said Marya Dmitrievna Gedeanovsky, looking up at the sky (H. James). 4) As part of the complex object I adjective: Mad Sam looked up and saw Harry approaching him (P. J. Steinbeck). The mad Sam raised his head and looked at Lenny, who was approaching him (P. Abraxams). And with Secret fear she saw Panshin riding into the courtyard (H. James). He saw Panshin entering the yard on horseback in fear of the unknown. 5) The adjective I as a part of the compound verb: Kudratullah could be heard swearing (A. Ismailov). Qudratullah heard swearing (A. Ismailov). At about ten o'clock the next morning Lavretsky was seen mounting the porch steps of Kalitin's house (H. James). The next day at ten o'clock Lavretsky They saw the keys going up to the house (H. James). 6) qualitative turnover as an introduction: Generally speaking, it would be useful to visit Britain again but I don't think that I shall be able to do so this trip to the United States. (Daily Worker). - In general, it would be useful to be in England again, but On this trip to the United States, to land in England probably not. However, some words are becoming more and more important in speech from limited lexical meaning and form came out adjectives are also not excluded from this general historical process. Their main task in science has become clarity,

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and accordingly which has a limited lexical meaning and the above the morphological form is mainly characteristic of adjectives.
So, the verb stem is an adjective with the addition of special suffixes to the base This is not to say that it is historically derived from an adjective. It is not the adjective or the adjective that is derived from the verb, but the two The category may have originated from the later stratification of the ancient.
References: 1. Narbekova, R., & Jabbarova, A. (2020). PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF TEACHING WRITING ESSAY FOR THE 1st YEAR STUDENTS AT HIGHER EDUCATION.    JSPI, 21(1).   https://science.i-edu.uz/index.php/archive_jspi/article/view/1964 2. Jabbarova, A. (2020). FACTORS OF FORMATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS.    JSPI, 1-4. 3. Jabbarova, A. (2020). SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS EXPRESSING EVALUATION.    JSPI, 1-6. 4. Jabbarov Ulugbek. (2020). Modeling the Pedagogical Experience of England as a Factor of Improving the Quality of Training Future Teachers. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(04), 6683-6693. 10.37200/IJPR/V24I4/PR2020481 5. Ulugbek A. Jabbarov. Significance of Foreign Pedagogical Experience in Preparing English Language Teachers. Eastern European Scientific Journal, 2018, 2. http://journale.auris-verlag.de/index.php/EESJ/article/view/899/973 6. Khodjayev, B. K. (2016). MODERNIZATION DIDACTIC PARAMETERS OF DEVELOPMENT HISTORICAL THINKING IN THE PUPILS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS. Wschodnioeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe, 6(4), 6-9.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Khodjieva N. EFL teacher
in Khadichai Kubro Secondary Educational Institution for female
THEOLINGUISTICS: MAIN ASSUMPTIONS
Annotation: It is impossible to imagine the emergence and development of any culture without taking into consideration the role of religion on it. Religion preceded the culture as a religious cult from the ancient times, and so it became the source, the cradle of the human culture.
Key words: humanity special position, religion as the main value.
Moreover, this integrity between religion and culture makes a common link in the history of humankind. As distinctive feature of any religion may be seen in belief (faith) in the supernatural and perfect one, that is mostly qualified as God. Along with the culture in the core of religion as the main value is seen a man. This privilege is explained by the unique spiritual nature of human being, which is mainly formed by the usage of the language. This reason from point of view of religion gave humanity special position above the other creatures that exist in the universe, as it is with the help of the language, there exist, function and reproduce certain spiritual beliefs that contain sacred meaning. Relationship of religion and language can be traced back to the whole history of linguistic investigations starting from Grammar of Panini, Arabic linguistics, ParRoyal grammar, emergence of classic and Semitic philology, exegetic and hermeneutics, lexicography and translation theory and others. In this regard, we can claim that traditionally, the problem of "language and religion" is considered in philosophy, theology (theology), religious studies, linguistics (linguoculturology, ethno linguistics, anthropolinguistics) and other sciences. Due to the importance and popularity of the religion and religious issues, as an object of the study in many disciplines as mentioned above, a new direction named Theolinguistics emerged in the field of linguistic sciences in 1981. Generally, Theolinguistics is determined as one of the linguistic directions in the framework of the established anthropocentric paradigm. This term was introduced by the Belgian linguist JeanPierre van Noppen, who focused his attention on the 27 study of the relationship between language and religious thought and practice. In his preface of collection of papers named, "Theolinguistics" van Noppen [1981] introduces Theolinguistics as "The pluridisciplinary field of investigation offered by the linguistic articulation of religious belief and thought - a notion condensed, in a Western perspective, in the neologism Theolinguistics - raises a number of issues that are, at least, far from being exhausted. The new term covers an area of interest with a history as old and respectable as Man's attempt to voice, with the means of conception and expression at his disposal, his understanding of the divine but it is

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meant to refer more specifically to the interest in language whose origins can be traced back to the turn of the century, and which was to result in the church-wide debate over religious language - a debate which gained momentum on the eve of the 'Death of God' movement and which, unabated by more recent trends on the theological scene, claimed for years a priority in theological thought." [Noppen, 1999; p 428] Another significant contribution in the emergence and popularity of the term "Theolinguistics" is an introduction of it by D. Crystal in Cambridge linguistic Dictionary in 1993 and A.Wagner's report at the annual 32nd Linguistic Colloquium, held in Kassel where he used this term. Over the past three decades, in different countries of the world (Netherlands, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, Serbia, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Slovakia, Belgium, etc.), scientists have actively studied various aspects of the language of the religious sphere. Language and religion as an object of research has entered the circle of interests of linguists in the post-Soviet space relatively recently in connection with well-known events in the late twentieth century. Several directions got their development, and many synonymous epithets appeared that nominate the object under study: religiouspreaching, church-religious, church-preaching, churchbiblical, liturgical, liturgical, sacred, etc. And although, according to many researchers, the term religious language is the most neutral, it did not acquire an unambiguous attitude to itself, which led to the use of the terms "religious discourse" [Karasik, Slyshkin] , "Religious style [Mistrik,Itskovich], "religiouspreaching style" [Golberg, Gosteeva] " religious communication " [ Rozanova]. As an example of the works done in Theolinguistics by Uzbek linguists can be regarded M.R.Galiyeva's research where she claims, that investigations focused on the linguistic study of reflection mythological-religious factors should be conducted in line with an independent interdisciplinary linguistic discipline - theolinguistics, which received various terminological notions. Within number of these notions, the term "theolinguistics" is most appropriate because of terminological appropriacy of discipline nomination, that reflects the interaction of theology and linguistic and clearly represent the direction of linguistic research; the universal nature of the term, because there is definitely no specific religious or denominational affiliation (i.e. Orthodox linguistics, Orthodox Christian cooling system); lack of stylistic and generic limitations of the term (i.e. religiousstyle preaching, religious language, liturgical language, religious style, biblical style). From the position of M.R.Galieva direction Theolinguistics is designed to study the reflection of mythological and religious consciousness in the linguisti world picture on the basis of achievements and methods of both traditional (comparative linguistics, lexicology, stylistics, grammar, etc.) and new interdisciplinary linguistic disciplines (cognitive linguistics, linguaculturology, pragmalinguistics, etc.). [Galieva, 2018] Her study of language material from the standpoint of Theolinguistics shows that multi-level units in the system of any language represent religiously marked units. In her work, she investigated the verbalization of the religious world picture at the level of lexical, phraseological and

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parameological units and text. The subject of research of Theolinguistics is the study of various aspects of the interaction of religion and language, and analysis of how language functions in religious situations, and how various manifestations of religion are reflected in language. The objects of study of Theolinguistics are: a "religious language"; religious discourse, religious lexics, semantic and stylistic aspects of religious discourse, theory of the origin of the language, description of the language of religious communication, genology of religious texts, theology of theolinguistics, language of homilies and sermons, translation of religious texts, prayers, religious vocabulary and lexicography, religious style texts, religion in the media , language of religious songs and other questions - in a word, all the phenomena associated with God, which are fixed and reflected in the language. Theolinguistics, in comparison with other synthetic branches of linguistics (sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, linguoculturography, etc.), based on one field of knowledge - science, combines ideas from disciplines belonging to different fields of knowledge. That is, linguistic representations from the sphere of science are combined with theological representations from the sphere of theology (religion). The analysis of the language, performed on the material of a religious text and provided with theological commentary, is recognized as theolinguistics. Recently, there are several approaches in linguistics to study the problems of the interrelation of religion and language. The most developed is functional-stylistic approach to the study of religious language. Many scientists underline the significance of highlighting of religious style as special functional style in the system of functional styles [Krisin, 1992; Mistrik, 1992; Proxvatilova, 2006; Wojtak, 1992; Umarkhodjaev, 2011 etc.]. Therefore, we conclude that, in fact, Theolinguistics studies include those in which linguistic units and language levels, genres, styles considered from the perspective of religious consciousness and the religious linguistic picture of the world. For fulfilling research tasks Theolinguistics uses the achievements of a number of adjacent linguistic disciplines characterized by interdisciplinary approach to the study of linguistic phenomena such as sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, communicative linguistics and, cognitive linguistics and others combining them with sub branches as general, private, synchronic and diachronic Theolinguistics.
Reference: 1.  .. : , ,  / .. ­ : VneshInvestProm, 2018.-260 c. 2.  . . -    :  . .......- ., 2002. 16-. 3.  .. -    /   .- .2.-/, 1997.-. 87- 94 4.  . .  : , , . : , 2004. 5.  ., 2012,  -    (    

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) [:]         , , . 14­22 6.  . . -      -      // . .   :  . . . ., 1996. . 135-138

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Kubayeva M.T. Samarqand veternariya meditsinasi institute
O'zbekiston, Samarqand

SAMARQAND VILOYATINING KARBONATLI O'TLOQI-BO'Z TUPROQLARI SHAROITIDA KUZGI BUG'DOY ANG'IZIDA
AYETISHTIRILGAN MOSHNING GULLASHI VA DUKKAK HOSIL QILISHGA MAKRO- VA MIKROO'G'ITLARNING TA'SIRI

nnotatsiya: Ushbu maqolada Samarqand viloyatining karbonatli otloqiboz tuproqlari sharoitida kuzgi bugdoy angizida yetishtirilgan moshning gullashi va dukkak hosil qilishga makro va mikroogitlarning tasir qilish omillari koriladi. Shuningdek maqolada kuzgi bugdoy angizida mosh yetishtirishda makroogitlar fonida molibden mikroogitidan foydalanish, xususan uruglikni molibdenning 0,05% li eritmasida ivitish, turli davrlarda 0,5 kg/ga meyorda tuproqqa qollash hamda gunchalash va gullash fazalarida barglan oziqlarntirishlar sinalgan va olingan natijalar statistik tahlil qilingan.
Kalit sozlar: ngiz, mosh, mikroelement, osish, rivojlanish, hosildorlik, hosil sifati.

Kubayeva M.T. Samarkand veternary Medical Institute
Uzbekistan, Samarkand

INFLUENCE OF MACRO - AND MICRO-ORGANISMS ON THE FLOWERING AND FORMATION OF LEGUMES OF AYETTED MOSH
IN AUTUMN BUG'DOY ANGIZI IN THE CONDITIONS OF KARBONATLI MEADOW-BURZ SOILS OF SAMARKAND REGION

Annotation: in this article, the factors affecting macro-and microorganisms on the flowering and formation of legumes of mosh grown in the autumn Anoy Angi in the conditions of karbonatli Meadow-Burz soils of Samarkand region are seen. Also in the article, the use of microbial molybdenum against the background of macro-organisms in the cultivation of mosh in autumn crops, in particular, fertilization of seeds in 0,05% molybdenum solution, application of normative soil to 0,5 kg / ha in different periods, leaf feeding in the budding and flowering phases were tested and the results obtained were statistically analyzed.
Keywords: angina, mosh, microelement, growth, development, productivity, yield quality.

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Ma'lumki, o'simlikni biologik jihatdan eng yetuk davri uning gullagan davri hisoblanadi. Tuproqda oziqa elementlari va namlik yetarlicha bo'lsa, o'simlikda ushbu jarayon maqbul tarzda kechadi, hosil elementlari ko'payadi. Lekin, o'simlikda hosil bo'lgan gullarning barchasi bir tekis changlanmaydi, changlanib ulgurgan hosil elementlarining bir qismi oziqa moddalar va namlikning yetishmasligi oqibatida to'kilib ketadi. Shunisi ahamiyatliki, o'simlik hosilini qanchalik miqdorda saqlab qolishi va to'plashi uning ekish muddatlari va me'yorlari bilan bevosita bog'liqdir (M.T.Kogay, 1966; K.Krivoruchko, 1983; M.M.Mirzovaliyev, 1987, 1988; D.K.Kasimov, U.M.Maxmaderov, M.D.Nasirova, 2001). Ayniqsa, mosh ang'izga takroriy ekin sifatida ekilganda, uning makro- va mikroo'g'itlar bilan oziqlanishiga aniqlik kiritish kelgusida moshdan yuqori va sifatli hosil olishni ta'minlab beradi.
Odatda, mosh 6-7 bo'g'in oralig'idan gullay boshlaydi, guli dastlab yuqoriga tomon ko'tarilib boradi va keyinchalik pastga tushadi. Moshning bosh poyasidan avval birinchi shoxlari pastda bo'lib, ulardan ikkinchi tartibdagi shoxlari yuzaga keladi. Lekin, moshning faqat birinchi tartibdagi shoxlaridagi gullari gullaydi. Aniqlanishicha, mosh ang'izga ekilganda ekish muddatlari va me'yorlariga bog'liq ravishda gullashi 10-15 kun davom etadi (A.P.Pilov, 1978).
Samarqand viloyatining karbonatli o'tloqi-bo'z tuproqlari sharoitida kuzgi bug'doy ang'izida mosh yetishtirilganda uning gullashi, gullarining changlanib dukkak hosil qilish makro- va mikroo'g'itlarga bog'liq ravishda o'zgarib borishi kuzatildi. Tajribadan olingan ma'lumotlar 1-jadvalda keltirildi.
Olingan ma'lumotlarga qaraganda, kuzgi bug'doy ang'iziga mosh urug'lari molibdenning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitilib ekilganda gullar va shakllangan dukkaklar soni urug'lar oddiy suvda ivitilib ekilgandagiga (nazorat) qaraganda yuqori ko'rsatkichga ega bo'ldi. Lekin, molibdenni tuproqqa berishning keyinga surilishi hamda bargdan oziqlantirilganda gullar va shakllangan dukkaklar soni kamayib bordi.
1-jadval

Ang'izda yetishtirilgan moshning gullashi va dukkaklar tugishi, bir tupda

(2018-2019 yy.)



Gullar soni, dona

Dukkaklar dona

soni,

Gullar soniga nisbatan hosil bo'lgan dukkaklar, %

1

47,8

12,3

25,7

2

51,6

13,6

26,4

3

53,7

15,4

28,7

4

52,8

15,0

28,4

5

53,0

15,1

28,5

6

51,8

14,7

28,3

Hosil bo'lgan gullardan dukkaklar tugishi tajriba variantlariga bog'liq ravishda 25,7 foizdan 28,7 foizgacha o'zgardi. Mosh ang'izga iyul oyining boshida ekilganda (1.07) tajriba variantlariga bog'liq ravishda har bir tupdagi

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gullar soni 47,8-53,7 donani tashkil etib, eng yuqori ko'rsatkich N35P70K40+urug'ni (0,05 %li Mo) ivitish+5-6 barglik fazasida (0,5 kg/ga Mo) tuproqqa qo'llash variantida aniqlandi va 53,7 donaga teng bo'ldi. N35P70K40+urug'ni (0,05 %li Mo) ivitish+shoxlanishda (0,5 kg/ga Mo) tuproqqa qo'llash variantida gullar soni nisbatan kam bo'lib, har bir tup moshda o'rtacha 52,8 donani tashkil etganligi aniqlandi. N35P70K40+urug'ni (0,05 %li Mo) ivitish+shoxlanishda (0,05 %li Mo) bargdan oziqlantirish variantida 53,0 dona, N35P70K40+urug'ni (0,05 %li Mo) ivitish+gullashda (0,05 %li Mo) bargdan oziqlantirish variantida esa 51,8 dona bo'lganligi kuzatildi. Yuqoridagilarga mutanosib holda shakllangan dukkaklar soni ham o'zgarganligi aniqlandi.
Demak, kuzgi bug'doy ang'iziga makroo'g'itlar fonida mosh urug'larini molibdenning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish hamda 5-6 barglik fazasida molibdenni 0,5 kg/ga me'yorda qo'llash o'simlikda gullar va dukkaklar ko'proq hosil bo'lishga, natijada hosildorlikning yuqori bo'lishini ta'minladi.
Kuzgi bug'doy ang'izida yetishtirilgan moshning dukkaklari va dukkaklaridagi donlarini shakllanishiga oid ma'lumotlar 3.4-jadvalda keltirilgan.
Moshda dukkaklarning shakllanishiga oid ma'lumotlarga asoslanib, shu narsani alohida ta'kidlash joizki, dukkaklar moshning yuqori va pastki yaruslarida bo'lsa-da, asosiy qismi o'rta yarusda joylashgan bo'ladi (S.Powar, C.Bhatia, 1981; BrA.Satyan, K.S.Prakash, 1988; M.Altab Hossian, M.Fazlul Karim, 1991; M.D.Nosirova, 2008).

2-jadval Kuzgi bug'doy ang'izida yetishtirilgan moshning umumiy dukkaklari soni
(bir tupda)

Tajriba variantlari

Dukkaklarning umumiy soni, dona

2015 yil 2016 yil

o'rtacha

N35P70K40 (nazorat)

(fon)+urug'ni

suvda

ivitish 9,3±0,6

9,1±0,5

9,2

Fon+urug'ni (0,05 % li Mo) ivitish

11,6±0,4 12,6±0,6

12,1

Fon+urug'ni (0,05 % li Mo) ivitish +5-6 barglikda (0,5 kg/ga Mo) tuproqqa

16,4±0,6

17,4±0,5

16,9

Fon+urug'ni (0,05 % li Mo) ivitish +shoxlanishda (0,5 kg/ga Mo) tuproqqa

14,2±0,4

15,3±0,6

14,8

Fon+urug'ni (0,05 % li Mo) ivitish +shoxlanishda (0,05 % li Mo) barg orqali

14,7±0,5

15,2±0,4

15,0

Fon+urug'ni (0,05 % li Mo) ivitish + gullashda (0,05 % li Mo) barg orqali

12,5±0,6

13,4±0,5

13,0

Olingan ma'lumotlarga qaraganda, ang'izda yetishtirilgan mosh dukkaklarining shakllanishi makro- va mikroo'g'itlarga mutanosib ravishda o'zgardi. Dukkaklar soni tajriba variantlarida o'rta hisobda har bir o'simlikda 12,3 donadan 15,4 donagacha bo'lishini ko'rsatdi. Masalan, N35P70K40(fon)+urug'ni suvda ivitish (nazorat) variantda dukkaklar soni o'rtacha 12,3 donani tashkil etgan

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bo'lsa, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish variantida 13,6 dona yoki nazorat variantga nisbatan 10,6 % ko'p bo'lishi ta'minlandi. Eng yuqori ko'rsatkich makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'ni ammoniy molibdatning0,05 %li eritmasida ivitish bilan birga 5-6 barglik fazasida ammoniy molibdatni 0,5 kg/ga me'yorda tuproqqa qo'llash variantida kuzatilib, dukkaklar soni 15,4 donani tashkil etdi yoki nazorat variantga qaraganda 25,2 %ga ko'p bo'ldi (2-jadval).
Demak, moshni kuzgi bug'doy ang'iziga ekishda, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitish bilan birgalikda o'simlikning shoxlanish fazasida ammoniy molibdatni 0,5 kg/ga me'yorda qo'llash o'simlikda dukkaklar soni oshishini ta'minlaydi.
Dukkakli ekinlarning hosildorligi don soni va donning massasi bilan ham bevosita bog'liqdir. Lekin, donlarning ko'p bo'lishi doim ham yuqori hosil yetishtirishga asos bo'lolmaydi. Chunki, donlarning soni bilan birga salmog'i ham talablar darajasida bo'lsagina, yetishtirilgan hosilning mo'l va sifatli bo'lishi ta'minlanadi (M.D.Nosirova, 2003, 2012; M.Altab Hossian, M.Fazlul Karim, 1991; S.Powar, C.Bhatia, 1981; Br.A.Satyan, K.S.Prakash, 1988; N.Ravshanova, M.Atamurodova, 2012). Shu sababli ham kuzgi bug'doy ang'izida takroriy ekin sifatida yetishtirilgan moshning dukkaklaridagi donlar soni va don massasining agrotexnologik tadbirlarga bog'liqligini o'rganish muhim ilmiy va amaliy ahamiyat kasb etadi.
Kuzgi bug'doy ang'izida yetishtirilgan moshning dukkaklaridagi don soni va 1000 dona don massasi tahlili natijalari 3-jadvalda keltirilgan.

3-jadval

Ang'izda yetishtirilgan mosh dukkaklaridagi donlar soni va 1000 dona don

massasi (2018-2018 yy.)

Takrorliklar bo'yicha dukkakdagi donlar Takrorliklar bo'yicha 1000 dona don

 soni, dona

massasi, g

I

II

III

o'rtacha I

II

III

o'rtacha

1 13,7±0,5 13,4±0,3 13,1±0,4 13,4

41,5±1,2 41,3±0,9 41,1±1,1 41,3

2 14,4±0,4 13,9±0,3 13,7±0,5 14,0

40,7±1,1 40,3±1,2 40,2±1,0 40,4

3 14,6±0,4 14,8±0,5 14,4±0,4 14,6

38,4±1,1 38,8±0,9 38,9±1,2 38,7

4 14,2±0,5 14,1±0,7 13,7±0,4 14,0

38,0±1,2 38,4±0,8 38,5±1,2 38,3

5 14,4±0,3 14,9±0,5 14,2±0,3 14,5

38,9±1,3 38,5±1,0 38,4±1,2 38,6

6 13,8±0,6 13,6±0,6 14,30,4 13,9

38,4±1,2 38,7±1,1 38,1±1,3 38,4

Tadqiqotlar natijasiga qaraganda o'simlikni faqatgina makroo'g'itlar bilan o'g'itlashga qaraganda, makroo'g'itlar fonida ammoniy molibdatni turli usullarda qo'llash bilan dukkakdagi donlar soni va salmog'i biroz o'zgarishi hisobga olindi. Masalan, N35P70K40(fon)+urug'ni suvda ivitish (nazorat) variantda dukkakdagi donlar soni o'rtacha 13,4 donani tashkil etgan bo'lsa, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish variantida 14,0 dona yoki nazorat variantga nisbatan 4,5 % ko'p bo'lishi ta'minlandi. Eng yuqori

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ko'rsatkich makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'ni ammoniy molibdatning0,05 %li eritmasida ivitish bilan birga 5-6 barglik fazasida ammoniy molibdatni 0,5 kg/ga me'yorda tuproqqa qo'llash variantida kuzatilib, dukkakdagi donlar soni 14,6 donani tashkil etdi yoki nazorat variantga qaraganda 9,0 %ga ko'p bo'ldi. Mikroo'g'itni tuproqqa qo'llash kechiktirilganda (gullashda) dukkakdagi donlar soni nisbatan kamayib, bitta o'simlikda 14,0 donani yoki nazoratga nisbatan 4,5 % ko'p bo'ldi (3.5-jadval).
Tajribada ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasini barg orqali purkash variantlarida ham dukkaklar soni ko'payishi ta'minlandi, biroq bu ko'rsatkich bo'yicha ham mikroo'g'itni tuproqqa qo'llashga qaraganda samaradorligi birmuncha kam bo'lganligi hisobga olindi. Masalan, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish bilan birgalikda shoxlanish fazasida uning 0,05 %li eritmasi barg orqali purkalgan variantda har bir dukkakda o'rta hisobda 14,5 dona don shakllangan bo'lib, nazoratga nisbatan 8,2 % ziyodligi, shuningdek, barg orqali oziqlantirishni keyinga surish, ya'ni gullash fazasida qo'llash variantida dukkakdagi donlar soni shoxlanish fazasida purkalgandagiga qaraganda biroz kamroq bo'lsa-da, har bir dukkakdagi don 13,9 donani tashkil etib, nazorat variantdagiga nisbatan 3,7 % ko'p bo'lganligi qayd etildi.
Dukkakdagi don massasini aniqlash bo'yicha o'tkazilgan tadqiqotlarda 1000 dona don massasi qo'llanilgan makro- va mikroo'g'itlarga bog'liqligini ko'rsatdi.
Tajribada makroo'g'itlar fonida ammoniy molibdatni turli usullarda qo'llash bilan 1000 dona don massasi biroz o'zgarganligi qayd qilindi. Masalan, N35P70K40(fon)+urug'ni suvda ivitish (nazorat) variantda 1000 dona don massasi o'rta hisobda 41,3 g ni tashkil etgan bo'lsa, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish variantida 40,4 g yoki nazorat variantga nisbatan 2,2 % kam bo'lishiga olib keldi. Makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'ni ammoniy molibdatning0,05 %li eritmasida ivitish bilan birga 5-6 barglik fazasida ammoniy molibdatni 0,5 kg/ga me'yorda tuproqqa qo'llash variantida 1000 dona don massasi 38,7 g ni tashkil etdi yoki nazorat variantga qaraganda 6,3 %ga kam bo'ldi. Mikroo'g'itni tuproqqa qo'llash kechiktirilganda (gullashda) 1000 dona don massasi yanada kamayib, 38,3 g ni tashkil etdi yoki nazoratga nisbatan 7,3 %ga kam bo'ldi (3-jadval).
Tajribada ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasini barg orqali purkash variantlarida ham 1000 dona don massasi kamayishi kuzatildi, shu o'rinda ta'kidlash lozimki, samaradorligi bo'yicha mikroo'g'it eritmasini barglarga purkash va tuproqqa qo'llash deyarli bir xil bo'lganligi qayd etildi. Masalan, makroo'g'itlar fonida urug'larni ammoniy molibdatning 0,05 %li eritmasida ivitib ekish bilan birgalikda shoxlanish fazasida uning 0,05 %li eritmasi barg orqali purkalgan variantda 1000 dona don massasi o'rta hisobda 38,6 g bo'lib, nazoratga nisbatan 6,5 % kamligi, shuningdek, barg orqali oziqlantirishni keyinga

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surish, ya'ni gullash fazasida qo'llash variantida 38,4 g ni tashkil etib, nazorat variantdagiga nisbatan 7,0 % kam bo'lganligi qayd etildi.
Shu o'rinda ta'kidlash kerakki, mosh urug'lari ammoniy molibdat bilan ishlov berilib ekilganda o'simlik yaxshi o'sishi, rivojlanishi, gullarning yaxshi changlanishi kuzatilib, o'simlikda ko'plab dukkaklar paydo bo'ldi, ularda o'z navbatida ko'p sonli don shakllandi. Donlar sonining ortishi esa mutanosib ravishda 1000 dona don massasiga ta'sirni o'tkazganligi tajribada qayd etildi. Dukkakdagi donlar soni va 1000 dona don massasi o'rtasidagi korrelyasion bog'liqlik o'rganilganda, 1000 dona don massasining dukkakdagi donlar soniga bog'liqligi teskari aloqada ekanligi aniqlandi. Bunda bog'liqlik analitik ifodalanishiga ko'ra to'g'ri, yo'nalishining o'zgarishiga ko'ra teskari bo'lib, regressiya tenglamasi y=a-bx, korrelyasiya koeffitsiyenti r= - 0,62, determinasiya koeffitsiyenti R2=0,38 ga tengligi aniqlandi
Foydalanilgan adabiyotlar: 1.  .         -     // . . ... . .-. . - .: 1990. - 24 . 55. 2.  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..              //       :     . - , 2007. I-. - . 122-125. 56. 3.  ..,  ..,  ..         . //  . , 2013. -  3 (27). - . 66-67. 57.  ..,  ..         . //  . , 2015. -  4 (36). - . 12-13.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Madrimova Yo. teacher
Nukus State Pedagogical Institut Teacher of Uzbek literature
faculty of Turkish languages Uzbekistan, Nukus

TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

Annotation: The stronger the skill of the translation profession, the more beautiful and clear the translated work will be delivered to the reader, and in today's article we will provide information about the achievements and shortcomings in the translation of Alisher Navoi's works.
Keywords: Alisher Navoi, ghazal, translator, Karakalpak.

Today, serious and complex changes are taking place in all spheres of society. The field of translation is no exception. The organization and analysis of the spiritual values of every nation, wherever humanity is, the sense of artistic mastery is inextricably linked with this basic art of translation. Literary scholar Naim Karimov compares the literary translation as follows: "Wherever a person lives, in any part of the globe, he needs to discover new scenes of life, to get acquainted with life on the other side of rivers, seas and even the oceans, to enjoy the sources of life there." .
The "bridge" that was built between literature in response to this human need is now called an artistic translation. Translation of Uzbek national classics occupies an important place in translation studies.
It is known that since the VII century, the Arabic language had a strong reputation in Central Asia, including modern Uzbekistan. In this language, many of our representatives have created and written. From this period onwards, works written in Arabic were translated into Persian and Turkish.
The work, translated into Turkish in 1340 at a time when Arabic was the dominant language, is the epic of Nizami Ganjavi, Khusrav and Shirin. In particular, he honored the founder of the Uzbek school of translation, Sayfi Sarayi, who translated Gulistan's work Gulistan into Turkish. Since that time, the art of translation of Turkic languages has been developing and making a small contribution to the development of Uzbek culture. If we organize the art of translation periodically, it creates the main source of Uzbek literature. It should be noted that Khusrav and Shirin (Nizami Ganjavi), Gulistan (Sadi), Shohnoma (Firdavsi), Kalila and Dimna. In particular, a number of works of Russian literature have been skillfully translated by Uzbek writers. In particular, the translations of the works of AS Pushkin, L. Tolstoy, IA Krylov are still loved and read as a means of education as the main source of educational literature.

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Especially in children's literature, these examples of translation occupy an invaluable place.
In this regard, it is necessary to emphasize the following views of Naim Karimov on translation. In other words, Oybek learned a lot in the process of translating Pushkin's works and said that he was the basis for the creation of new works in Uzbek literature. If we analyze the work of Uzbek writers on translation, it creates a strong scientific process. Naturally, this article deals with the translation (based) of Turkic languages, and in recent years in Uzbek literature this process has been waiting for the scientific, philosophical foundations of thinking, analysis. It should be noted that if we look at the history of translation of Uzbek literature into foreign languages and its organization abroad during the period of independence, we have a rich experience in this area.
Currently, our young people are translating samples of Uzbek literature into English, German, French, Chinese, Japanese and Korean. For example, Oybek's translations of Navoi and G. Gulom's Shum children's work were highly praised by the American scientist Eliza Britten. Both translated literatures have been recognized as one of the unique masterpieces of Uzbek literature.
In particular, K. Kurambayev's book "Kongil bergi sozimga" analyzes the works of A. Navoi in the Turkmen language and Turkmen literature. At the same time, in this book, B. Kerbobaev, Y. Nosir, B. Seytokov, H. Ismoilov, P. Seyidov, Sh. Ekinov named the authors who translated A. Navoi's works into Turkmen. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the comparative organization of A. Navoi's work with the literature of the Turkic peoples. In particular, in recent years there has been a process of organizing the impact of Navoi's work on the Azerbaijani, Tajik, Kazakh and Karakalpak literature.
For example, in the research and articles of such scholars as K.Maksetov, K.Mambetov, S.Akhmetov, A.Murtazayev, B.Kalimbetov, A.Pakhratdinov, K.Mambetnazarov, who have done a lot of work in Karakalpak literature, we meet the general views on the impact on Karakalpak literature. possible. Namely, looking at the influence of A.Navoi's traditions on Karakalpak literature and scientifically generalizing on the basis of the sources of translation of A.Navoi's works into Karakalpak language requires us to analyze the peculiarities and differences of literary influences and connections.
Literary scholar K. Kurambaev, in his book Translation and the Responsibility of a Translator, put it this way: There is another problem with the responsibility of a translator. It is a matter of choosing an interpreter. This issue cannot be considered as a secondary matter. Since the root of the shortcomings in the translation literature is related to the activities of the translator, it is time to increase the demand in this area. Indeed, being an interpreter requires a great deal of responsibility. In particular, there is a large translation flow in Karakalpak literature.
But here the critique of translation, the comparative analysis of translators with each other, is not enough. Recognizing the above, we would like to cite the

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example of a well-known literary scholar Sh. Ayapov in the translation of A. Navoi's works into Karakalpak. In particular, A. Navoi's work has been translated into many Turkic languages. Sh.Ayapov translated Navoi ghazals into Karakalpak language.
Original: Waiting for the moment to come out, It came to my mind, but it didn't hurt.
When the moon is as clear as snow, there are seven precautions It's not as dark as it used to be.
Translation:   ,   ,   -,   .
 , -  ?        56. The poetic content of the original is translated into black words. It is difficult for an interpreter to feel Navoi's emotions flowing. True, translating Alisher Navoi's works into another language is a complex creative work. However, using some of his ghazals, he was able to turn the content into a better form:
It doesn't make me want the little conversation I want, I don't care what anyone says to me.
In translation  ,   ,
      .
The verses in Navoi's verse have opposite meanings. In the first line, the poet says that the people I like do not talk to me, and in the second verse, Navoi says that he does not want to talk to people who want to talk to me. The translator was able to convey the feelings in the heart of the lyrical protagonist, who was able to convey the idea in the byte as the original.
It is difficult to translate the works of the great poet A. Navoi, in particular, his ghazals into another language, say, a Turkic language, as it is, and it requires a lot of work, knowledge and intelligence. To do this, he must be aware of the secrets of Navoi's sharia, even if the translator does not have an incomparable level of sharp imagery.
References: 1. Sh.Mirziyoyev. We will build our great future together with our brave and noble people Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2016. 2. Navoi. Works. 15 vols 3 vols. 1964. p.85 3. Alisher Nao'ayy. Elected. - Nökis, Karakalpakstan, 1991, p 4. A.Navoiy. Baqo guli. - Tashkent, 1991. Page 9 5. K. Kurambaev "Translation and the responsibility of the translator" - Tashkent 2007.

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www.ziyonet.uz www.ziyouz.com

Websites:

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UDK 582.26.004

Mahmudova Y.S. NAMSU educator pedagogue

ALGAE AND THEIR USEFUL PROPERTIES

Abstract: This article discusses algae and their beneficial properties. Key words: Red algae, kelp, spirulina, arame, wakame

Red algae have been widely used in oriental medicine for centuries. So, they have an anti-sclerotic effect.
Red algae are effective in treating cancer, especially breast cancer. Statistics show that the incidence of breast cancer in Japan is 83% lower than among women in Europe. Scientists have found that nutrition, and in particular the use of algae, plays a significant role in this. Investigating red algae and conducting experiments on animals, scientists at the University of Malaysia have found that these plants are 27% more effective and safer than conventional chemotherapy, which patients receive according to standard treatment programs.
Red algae are actively involved in the restoration of the physiological functions of the skin.
At present, scientists have paid close attention to the red coral algae lithothamnia. Its mineral composition includes over 30 minerals. It is especially rich in magnesium and iron, calcium carbonate. There is more iron in a kilogram of these algae than in several tons of sea water.
Calcium preparations are created from amino acids of seaweed. Moreover, what is especially valuable, this calcium is a natural product that serves the circulatory and skeletal systems of adults and children with equal success.
The use of red algae in its natural form and in the form of medical preparations improves metabolism, blood circulation processes, increases the resistance of brain tissues to hypoxia and toxic effects. Since ancient times, red algae have been used to combat parasites that have settled in human and animal organisms.
Algae is damn it, no, divinely useful: the richest set of minerals and trace elements, as well as many vitamins. It is no coincidence that Chinese healers used seaweed already in the 7th century.
Science knows about 30 thousand species of algae. Some of them have been used by humans for hundreds of centuries. From other species we extract such valuable raw materials as agar, carrageenan, iodine. Without many underwater plants, advanced pharmaceuticals and cosmetology would not exist.
Kelp has long been so popular among the people that most people know it under the name - seaweed. There are many types of kelp. The most popular are Japanese kelp, which grows in the southern regions of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk; sugary kelp and palmate, common in the Kara and White seas. In

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addition to the mass of other useful substances, kelp is especially valuable for iodine contained in algae in a very rare form - organic.
Spirulina is a microscopic spiral-shaped alga that grows in salt and fresh water. Its nutritional value was discovered many centuries ago by the Aztecs and other ancient tribes of American Indians. Spirulina was an important part of their daily diet until the 16th century. The fact is that it contains one and a half times more complete protein than soybeans. Today spirulina is processed into tablets and powders. They are added to the diet of medical nutrition of people, as well as food additives in fish and poultry farms.
Algae from Japan has appeared in our gastronomic culture. Arame is a very broad, dark brown algae with the softest flavor and crunchy texture of all algae. They are sold in dried form, thinly sliced. They are stewed along with root vegetables, they are stuffed with eggplants and artichokes. They are sometimes used in powder form as an additive to vegetable and fish dishes. Wakame contains a huge amount of calcium - 15 times more than milk! It is a long dark green or dark brown algae. They are slightly sweet and tender and even slightly resemble the taste of oysters. Most often, they are made salads with vinegar dressing or added to soups. Kombu (aka kelp, a type of kelp) is a wide and flat algae of dark olive color. They are most often added to dishes with beans and vegetables (with kombu, beans are stewed faster). A broth with a specific sea smell is cooked from them. They have a fairly strong flavor, which allows one bite of kombu to be used two or three times. If the algae is covered with a white coating, do not rinse it off. It is harmless and is responsible for the scent. Nori (aka lever) are rich in protein, phosphorus and vitamin A. Sold dried in the form of shiny, tissue paper-thin stripes from deep green to black. It is in these algae that Japanese rolls are wrapped. In addition, they are added finely to rice. If you decide to make rolls yourself, follow the instructions on the package. But sometimes the nori needs to be held over a fire before using. In Ireland, flat bread has been made from wheat flour and leyver since ancient times. Khiziki (or hijiki) - these algae with thin stems of dark brown color are similar in consistency to spaghetti. Drying, they turn black. Before use, chiziki are soaked (then their volume increases 3-5 times). These algae are rich in iron and calcium. They can be eaten raw or stewed in sweet soy sauce for a long time. The colorful red and green tohsaka algae can be a great decoration for fish dishes.
Literature: 1. Urakova Oysuluv Jamoliddinovna. The praise of nature and the universe in Novalis romance 2. //EPRA International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD) Volume: 5 | Issue: 7 | July 2020..274-275 . 3. Urakova. O. J. The search for national and universal in art in the context of romanticism. Theoretical & Applied Science. 07 (87) 2020 . 29-32.

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4. Water Plants of the World / Cook, C.D.K. (ed). -- The Hague: Dr W Junk Publishers, 1974. -- ISBN 90-6193-024-3. 5. Schenk. Biologie der Wassergewächse. -- Bonn, 1885. 6.  . .      . -- ., 1994.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Mamasoliev G.M. senior lecturer
of the Department of Economics Andijan State University

THE ROLE OF INTRODUCTION OF THE CONCEPT "ECONOMIC PRODUCTION" IN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS

Abstract. In this article, the author explores the importance of introducing the concept of "economic production" in industrial enterprises in the development of small business. The research methodology is based on the review and analysis of the scientific literature on the digital transformation of society, mobile education, educational robotics, the use of software tools for the development of thinking. The article also summarizes the specifics of developing students 'environmental thinking and lean manufacturing skills in the process of designing a mobile automated device in an environment of creative, interdisciplinary, knowledge and research activities aimed at preparing highly qualified professionals for the future economy.
Keywords: lean manufacturing, waste type, environment, waste, workspace, rational use.

Introduction. Due to the difference between the production sphere and the material sphere, approaches to the organization and management of an enterprise have a number of differences. Therefore, the application of quality management systems (QMS) and methods of increasing efficiency will depend on various factors. The problems facing the enterprises of the service sector: low productivity, high production losses, poor quality of service, constant shortage of material, human and financial resources can be solved with the help of the "lean manufacturing" system.
Literature review. Under these conditions, domestic and foreign researchers as well as M.Agranovich [1], M. Fritsch, M. Wyrwich [2], F. Gault [3], M. Janelli [4], M.Hamada, M. Hassan [5] , S.D.Karakozov, NI Ryzhova [6], Ya. Kuzminov [7], P. Sorokin, I. Froumin, A. Lavrinenko [8], N. Shmatko and others substantiate the need to change the content, methods and organizational forms of educational work. The didactic process in the era of automation and globalization should be focused on solving the problems of the country's socioeconomic development in the context of the fourth industrial revolution and the emergence of the digital economy.
As noted in their works by CE Mora-Luis, J. Martin-Gutierrez [9], the basis of the digital economy is the synthesis of the existing material production (new materials, automated design / production) and digital technologies, which

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supports the widespread use of artificial intelligence models and development of the Internet of things. According to the authors, "smart products" will be the norm in a world where intelligent computerized devices (robots), systems consisting of them, get the opportunity to interact in the preparation and deployment of automated production processes. The nature of the new industrial, or technological (digital) revolution places special demands on the highly skilled professionals of the future. E. Ya. Varshavskaya, E. S. Kotyrlo, Ya. Kuzminov, P. Sorokin, I. Froumin [10] reasonably conclude that graduates will need a high level of mathematical literacy for employment; thorough natural science and humanitarian training. The authors, when disclosing the essence of the professions of the future, focus on abilities that are called "competencies of the XXI century": fundamental theoretical knowledge, competencies in the field of technology (creativity, communication, self-organization, initiative, critical thinking, etc.).
Analysis and results. Today, the role of small business and private entrepreneurship in the economic development of the world is growing, and it is playing an important role in optimizing the market structure and providing employment. It is estimated that in post-industrial and industrial countries, this sector accounts for three-quarters of GDP and at least 80 percent of the working age population.
The development of small business and private entrepreneurship is one of the priorities in our country, which plays an important role in further increasing employment, achieving GDP growth, creating a modern business and competitive environment, and ensuring the sustainable development of the economy [12].
As the environmental situation worsened, governments in various countries began to demand that industrial companies take a responsible approach to the negative impact on the environment. Bare production allows you to reduce the resources spent to support the economy, which not only has a positive impact on the cost of the product, but also prevents many problems in the long run. To do this, instead of increasing production capacity, it is necessary to focus on more rational use of resources, while increasing the consumption of raw materials [1].
Lean Production is the concept of managing manufacturing enterprises based on continuous efforts to eliminate all types of waste (meaning "lean", "lean", "lean"). The concept is based on the principles of Toyota and allows you to organize the production of products with minimal costs in the shortest possible time, and at the same time achieve the level of quality required by the customer. In the 1950s, the creator of the Toyota production system identified 7 types of losses.

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(Figure 1)

losses as a result of
overproduction

losses as a result of unnecessary transportation

losses due to unnecessary
actions

1-picture. The main type of losses of the creator of the Toyota production system in the 50s of the twentieth century

The eighth was written by Jeffrey Licker in his book Toyota Way Development, which described it as "the unfulfilled creative potential of employees" [2,3,4]. To reduce confusion, it is enough to emphasize the aspects that you need to focus on first:
Complexity - eliminating or reducing the number of complex technological solutions because they are, as a rule, more expensive and more difficult to manage;
 Labor - reducing "unnecessary" actions of workers;  Overproduction - the production of the required amount of products for immediate delivery to the consumer, instead of loading warehouses;  Space - rational use of space due to easier placement of equipment, conveyors, workstations and reduction of storage space;  Energy - rational use of energy, energy-efficient production;  Disadvantages - minimization of defects due to a more perfect technological cycle;  Raw materials - striving for one hundred percent use of raw materials and minimization of industrial waste; all materials must be converted into the final product.  Idle time - to prevent equipment failure, production should go in a well-coordinated single flow;  Time - Eliminate equipment delays, long adjustments, or forced failures.  Transportation - the elimination of unnecessary steps to move materials, people or data that do not affect the final value;  Occupational safety - eliminating or reducing the risk to employees [12].

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Energy efficiency can be improved by efficient use of the workplace, reducing the need to transport recycled products from one department to another, and reducing the number of defects that need to be eliminated. Reducing the amount of raw materials consumed can be achieved by carefully controlling the materials, reducing the number of defects and the amount of industrial waste. If materials are used in a timely manner and not stored in a warehouse, this reduces the risk of deterioration and the associated economic losses. It also allows you to reduce warehouse inventories and occupied areas accordingly.
Lean Philosophy: Based on the principle of "waste is a lost resource", waste disposal suggests that companies reduce the amount of industrial waste that leads to higher costs.
Conclusions The implementation of this policy will be achieved through a continuous assessment of costs in all production processes, the involvement of staff in resource savings, the development of measures for the processing and reuse of materials. The key is a systematic approach and continuous improvement. Naked production also affects non-production improvements, i.e., allows:  increase supply reliability;  reduction of technological life of production;  Improving the overall quality of products. Today, the concept is shared by global industry leaders such as Ford, Boeing, Airbus, GE, Scania, Alcoa, Xerox, and hundreds of local businesses. In summary, many industries, such as machinery, are less environmentally friendly by nature, and lean technologies make environmental protection measures financially beneficial for the company itself due to energy efficiency and rational use of raw materials. The positive effect of reducing damage to the environment also avoids additional charges from producers who consume a lot of resources or have high emissions of harmful substances. Not only has naked production become a dominant trend in the global economy, but it can significantly reduce resource consumption, make industrial companies more environmentally friendly, and in addition, this strategy has become financially attractive.
References: 1. Agranovich M. Educational Resources: Saturation or Satiety? // Educational Studies Moscow. -2019. - Vol. 4. - Pp. 254-275. DOI:https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2019-4-254-275 2. Fritsch M., Wyrwich M. Regional Emergence of Start-Ups in Information Technologies: The Role of Knowledge, Skills and Opportunities // Foresight and STI Governance. - 2019. - Vol. 13 (2). -Pp. 62-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/2500-2597.2019.2.62.71 3. Gault F. User Innovation in the Digital Economy // Foresight and STI Governance. - 2019. -Vol. 13 (3). - Pp. 6-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/25002597.2019.3.6.12

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4. Janelli M. E-Learning in Theory, Practice, and Research // Educational Studies Moscow. - 2018. -no. 4. - pp. 81-98. - DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2018-4-81-98 5. Hamada M., Hassan M. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory // Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education.-2017.-Vol. 13 (1). - Pp. 35-59. https://doi.org/10.12973/ eurasia.2017.00603a 6. Karakozov S. D., Ryzhova N. I. Information and education systems in the context of digitalization of education // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and Social Sciences. - 2019. -Vol. 12 (9). - Pp. 1635-1647. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17516/1997-1370-0485 7. Kuzminov Ya., Sorokin P., Froumin I. Generic and Specific Skills as Components of Human Capital: New Challenges for Education Theory and Practice // Foresight and STI Governance. - 2019. - Vol. 13 (2). - Pp. 19-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/2500-2597.2019.2.19.41 8. Lavrinenko A., Shmatko N. Twenty-First Century Skills in Finance: Prospects for a Profound Job Transformation // Foresight and STI Governance. - 2019. Vol. 13 (2). - Pp. 42-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/2500-2597.2019.2.42.51 9. Mora-Luis C. E., Martin-Gutierrez J. The Change of Educational Processes, Learning and Teaching in Engineering Education // Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. - 2020. - Vol. 16 (3). - em1828. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/116034 10.  . .,  . .  -   :     //  . - 2019. -  2. -C. 98-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2019-2-98-128, URL:https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=38246974 11. Umarov I, Toshpulatov F. Social and economic essence and main objectives of food market. World science: problems and innovations:   XXXI  - .  4 . . 3. ­ :  «  ». ­ 2019. ­ . 121-123 12.  ..,  ..      . SCIENCE, RESEARCH, DEVELOP-MENT #13, Economy. Management. State and Law, MONOGRAFIA POKONFER-ENCYJNA.­Berlin (): 2019 y. 30.01.2019-31.01.2019. ­P. 39-41.

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UDK 81-13

Matchanova M. student
Urgench State University Rahmatullayeva Sh. student
Urgench State University Komiljonova A. student
Uzbekistan State University of World Languages

THE ROLE OF THEORY TRANSLATION IN SHORT STORY TRANSLATIONS

Abstract: This article aims to describe rhe role of theory translation not only in short stories, but also in the whole literature translation. There are some differences between translating theories from English to Uzbek and from Uzbek to English. The importance of translating theories and types of translating them is described in this article.
Key words: theory, methods, periods, morphology, differences, similarities.

The second half of the 20th century has seen the in-depth study of translation, which is sometimes called Theory of Translation, Science of Translation, Translation Linguistics, or even Translatology. It has been claimed abroad that translation studies began in 1972 with Holmes's paper presented at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics, "The Name and Nature of Translation Studies". However, unfortunately, European and American scholars seemed to have been unaware of the achievements of the Russian school of translation studies. Works by V. Komissarov, A. Shveitser, A. Fedorov and many others confirmed the status of translation studies as a discipline of its own even in the 1950s. As we see translation occurred in early ages but the theory of translation was studied in 20th century. European scientists tried to present new approaches to translation study but Russian scholars had achieved more achievements till this period.
The main concern of translation theory is to determine appropriate translation methods for the widest possible range of texts and to give insight into the translation process, into the relations between thought and language, culture and speech.
Translation is the replacement of a text in one language by a replacement of an equivalent text in a second language. Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).

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The First Period: This period concludes by Tytler's definition of good translation as, "That in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work". From the above definition, Tytler introduces three "laws": 1. The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. 2. The style and manner of writing should be of the same character with that of original. 3. The translation should have all the ease of original composition. As the first law not giving whole idea of the work will be disrespectful to the writer or speaker of original work. Besides that it causes to destroying of the right of author and it may be strange for reader also. because the tradition or national custom may be described in the work and translator should give the definition if in the nation of TL there is not such kind of tradition. "In our nationality robe and skullcap mean the condolence. But if we translate it word by word in English, it will be misunderstanding to the reader. In this condition translator should give description of the situation. The Second Period: One of the early theorists in this period is the French humanist Etienne Dolet who had propounded in 1540 a short outline of translation principles, entitled Lamaniere de bien traduire dune langue en aultre ( How to Translate Well from One Language into Another) and established five principles for the translator. 1. The translator must fully understand the sense and meaning of the original author, although he is at liberty to clarify obscurities. 2. The translator should have a perfect knowledge of both SL and TL. 3. The translator should avoid word-for-word renderings. 4. The translator should use forms of speech in common use. 5. The translator should choose and order words appropriately to produce the correct tone. The Third Period: This period, which is the shortest as it extends to less than three decades, starts with the publication of the first papers on machine translation in the 1940s, and is characterized by the introduction of structural and applied linguistics, contrastive studies in morphology and syntax among others which help the translator identify similarities and differences between NL and FL, and communication theory into the study of translation. It comprises two eras: first the pioneering era; the second the invention of the first generation of machine translation.

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Uzbek language was only inserted to Google Translator than translation programs were invented. Thus we can see only the version of Google Translator's translation.
Such kind of texts will be translated easily by translation programs. But more literary ones causes difficulty to machine. We speak about this widely, during the course paper.
The Fourth Period: The last period coexists with the third period as it has its origin in the early 1960s, and is characterized by a recourse to hermeneutic inquiries into translation and interpretation, i.e., by a revision of translation that sets the discipline in a wide frame which includes a number of other disciplines. The third period was the base of machine translation. From the middle of the 20th century the first experiments was done by American scientists. Especially, Charlz Bebbidj was the first man who did experiments related to machine translation. The translator not only faces problems with the lexical selection of a target language,but also with the interpretation of a source language text. For the good translation translator should know the types of translating theories and some problems that can be faced up. It helps both translating scientific materials and fictional ones, especially story translations.
References: 1. Austermuhl, F. 2014. Electronic Tools for Translators. Translation PracticesExplained. London and New York: Routledge. 2. Alcina, A. 2008. Translation technologies. Scope, tools and resources. Target 20(1): 79­102. 3. Boitet, C. 1988. Bernard Vauqois' contribution to the theory and practice of buildingMT systems: a historical perspective. In: Second International Conferenceon Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages. Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation.Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. 1­18.

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UDK 373.2

Mingboyeva G.M. Master's degree in "Preschool Education" AUL
Nuriddinova R.J. 53- School mother tongue and literature teacher

WAYS AND MEANS OF DEVELOPING SPEECH FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING THE ARTISTIC
SPEECH OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Abstract: This article discusses the features of speech development in preschool children, Children to speak correctly, pronounce words clearly, connect them easily and freely in the text, express their thoughts orally and in writing correctly, clearly and concisely there is talk of the importance of teaching expression.
Keywords: correct speech, pronunciation, text, oral, written, sentence, communication, need, control, language, logic, perception, mechanism, exercise, complex.

Our native language is the soul of our nation. He is our being and our wealth. It is the property of our hearts, the great symbol of our state. Preservation and development of the language means the rise of the nation. Therefore, the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan legally enshrines the status of the state language. The Uzbek language has become a symbol of the sacred state, which is protected by law, along with the flag, coat of arms and anthem of our independent state.
As noted in the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated October 21, 2019 "On measures to radically enhance the prestige and status of the Uzbek language as the state language", the Uzbek language and is one of the ancient languages.
The speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev at the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly on September 23 of this year in our native language has once again increased the prestige of our native language.
Until now, speaking at a number of internationally recognized languages has become a tradition at such important events. The speech of the head of our state in the Uzbek language brought something new to this order. A person has an invaluable gift of speech and language skills. He learns speech from an early age and improves it throughout his life: he learns voice, breathing, intonation, enriches vocabulary, immediately chooses a clear and concise word, builds sentences and texts freely, reads and learns to write.
In preschool education, children are taught to speak correctly, to pronounce words clearly, to connect them easily and freely in the text, to express their ideas

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correctly, clearly and precisely orally and in writing. It is advisable to develop in teaching, taking into account the characteristics of age.
Features of speech development of preschool children: -the child has a reaction to the voices of loved ones in the period up to one year. Smiles, laughter, screams, gestures. Preliminary demonstrations of the expressive function of speech. The whole period is about the need for communication - emotional and meaningful; desire to achieve a goal. Oral speech is rare. - by the age of three, the child develops the generalizing function of speech, the child expands words, develops thinking. There will be unity of communication and generalization. The word structure is assimilated before the sound. Speech is related to a child's practical activity - play, trying to learn about things around them. Speech is formed gradually in children, and the child grows and develops. In fact, the crucial stage in a child's speech development is between the ages of one and a half and five. Speech development is done using speech exercises. In developing these exercises, the educator focuses on specific forms of the child's mental activity: analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, identification, generalization and concretization of important features, identification of cause-and-effect relationships between events, comparisons, comparisons and opposition, decisions It is important to pay attention. Children's speech develops on the basis of adult speech. The formation of speech depends on the speech of others, speech experience, the right speech environment and education. Speech is not an innate ability, but is formed in parallel with the physical and mental development of the child throughout life. To study and understand speech disorders, it is necessary to know the normal course of speech development of the child, the peculiarities of this process, the conditions that play a major role in the successful formation of speech. The role and importance of speech development methods in the development of speech in preschool children, teaching them to think, to explain speech to others, to form children's figurative, logical, creative, abstract thinking and to prepare them for school. Therefore, every educator must have a thorough knowledge of teaching methods, be able to choose and apply the most convenient ways to develop children's speech, to improve it. At a time when science and technology are developing rapidly in our country, the responsibility of the younger generation is growing. The amount of knowledge that needs to be imparted to them is growing every year. This means that the educator chooses the most convenient way to control the complex process of teaching children from an early age to think about this or that object, toy, event, to choose the appropriate word to express the idea, to express the idea through speech. requires knowledge.

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It is important to prepare children for school and to introduce new forms of teaching them at school. Since action and speech are the main means of expressing a person's identity, it is necessary to pay attention to the physical and verbal upbringing of the child from the very beginning.
References: 1 Sh.M.Mirziyoyev. Decree "On measures to radically increase the prestige and status of the Uzbek language as the state language." 2 The concept of preschool education. T .: 2017. 3 "First Step" State Curriculum of Preschool Education Organization. ­T .: 2018. 4 F.R.Qodirova. R.M Qodirova. Methods of teaching a second language to preschool children. T.anSano-standard, 2004. 5 F.R.Qodirova. R.M Qodirova. Theory and methods of children's speech development. T., stIstiqlol, 2006. 6. Babayeva D.R. Methods of speech development T .: TDPU 2016. Textbook.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_146 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Mirzayorova S.U. 2nd year master's degree in industrial thermal energy
Faculty of Energy Karshi Institute of Engineering Economics
INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL COLD ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
Annotation: Accumulation of Natural Cold is (heat) - the use of the phenomenon of heat absorption (release) during the phase transitions of a substance. A classic example of a cold battery is the use of so-called. In the preindustrial period, "glaciers" preceded the emergence of industrial and domestic refrigerators. In the winter, ice was stored, which was stored in a heat-insulated place (cellar, basement), which later allowed food to be stored throughout the summer, gradually melting and absorbing the incoming heat. Nowadays, cold accumulators are used in household refrigerators to mitigate the temperature rise that occurs during the automatic operation of the refrigerator and, most importantly, to ensure the preservation of food in the event of a power outage.
Keywords: Natural cold, batteries, seasonal cold, geographical location, environment, compressor, active cooling.
Cold accumulators are usually flat plastic containers filled with an aqueous solution of salt (usually potassium chloride). In Stinol refrigerators, the cold batteries are equipped with a refrigerator at the same time as usual. Cold batteries are sold in stores and separately, but you can do it easier and cheaper - make them yourself. To do this, you need a cool solution of plastic bits and sodium chloride in water. Even better, if the chlorine is potassium, it will keep better in the cold because it freezes at lower temperatures. Cold batteries can help you seriously if the power goes out frequently in your area or the voltage drops so low in the evening that your refrigerator doesn't work (a common occurrence in rural areas). If your refrigerator has a very powerful compressor rustle, a cold battery will help very well - this is often the case with older Soviet refrigerators with a DHK compressor, and the XKV-6 also ruthlessly rustles. If you don't have the money to buy a new refrigerator or replace a compressor, a home-made cold battery will help you. True, it takes up space in your fridge, but it allows you to live more comfortably with your fridge. You can turn on the fridge with a cold battery in the fridge when you go to work or the workplace, and when you arrive, or even more sleepy, you can safely turn off the fridge without worrying about food safety - a cold battery does it for you does. Most importantly, don't forget to turn on the fridge again in the morning, otherwise the cold in the cold battery will run out and

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the food will deteriorate. There is one more "but" - the salt in a cold battery is very corrosive.
One of the traditional ways to reduce energy consumption is to use seasonal cold storage, which takes advantage of the geographical location of the country, which allows cold to accumulate during the winter, i.e. November, December, January, February and March due to lower ambient temperatures. . Consumption of electricity and refrigeration, which is harmful to the environment, is reduced. This article describes the size of a refrigeration unit equipped with a refrigerator and dry-cooled chargers. The estimated cost of using the device, as well as the assembly time of the components, was estimated. Seasonal cold storage battery has a number of economic and environmental advantages. The seasonal tank design is a prototype of a refrigeration machine that is smaller than a traditional tank selected for maximum power consumption per hour. This means that the actual device must be several times larger than the device used in the project. By choosing a small refrigeration unit called R-410A and less refrigerant (mainly CFC), the environment is protected from contamination with life-threatening substances.
The efficiency of the existing cooling accumulator depends on the intensity of heat exchange and the amount of energy consumption: the higher the first, the lower the second, the more efficient equipment is used. In large industrial plants operating powerful refrigeration units, even a relatively small increase in the energy efficiency of refrigeration units provides significant economic benefits. Even in the calculation stage of cooling systems, when a specific cooling supply scheme is selected for the enterprise, equipment is selected and its operating mode is determined, mechanisms to reduce the energy consumption of the system are provided.
One of the most effective ways to reduce the cost of operating and maintaining industrial refrigeration plants for businesses in temperate climates, where the low-temperature cold season lasts longer, is to use natural cold. According to recalculations, the use of naturally cold accumulators is appropriate for both medium-temperature cold devices and low-temperature units; Regardless of the method, the use of low ambient temperature reduces the energy consumption of the refrigeration unit, significantly reduces the load on the compressor units, and also increases the environmental friendliness of the operation of the refrigeration equipment. By using the accumulation of natural cold, it is possible to significantly reduce the service life of compressors, reduce the maintenance costs of screw compressors and reciprocating units, as well as the cooling system as a whole. The calculation when choosing a refrigeration machine (chiller) is based on the maximum temperature of the summer period, as high condensing temperatures and difficult operating conditions of the equipment result in high energy consumption. One of the opportunities to increase the efficiency of a refrigeration refrigerator is the ability to create artificial cooling at low outdoor temperatures using the natural circulation of this refrigerator. The

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circulation of the refrigerant is done at the expense of part of the heat energy, which is taken from the cooled body without supplying mechanical energy to the compressor due to the location of the condenser and evaporator. The compressor discharge and suction lines are connected to the shut-off valve by a bypass line, while the air-cooled condenser is located above the evaporator. Then, when the outside air temperature drops below the boiling point of the refrigerator to 7 ... 10 ° C, the compressor shuts off, the shut-off valve opens and the forced circulation of the refrigerant is replaced by natural, the refrigerant boiling in the evaporator is transferred to the air-cooled condenser. The liquid cooled under the force of gravity. if it is not possible to place the condenser on the evaporator to the evaporator, a freon pump can be used.
In the event of a natural cold, the best efficiency of using refrigerants is achieved when the temperature difference between the refrigerant and the coolant is minimal. So something called to increase the cooling capacity of the installation. regenerative cycle, in which the liquid refrigerant is additionally cooled after leaving the condenser; lowering the temperature of the refrigerator by 1 ° C can increase the efficiency of the equipment by 1%. Of course, cooling the refrigerator increases the cycle time, so its capacity is limited. Restrictions can be leveled when using an external source of heat removal up to the thermostatic cover; for this purpose, special units with the function of collecting cold are used. An industrial cold accumulator is a container-shaped cooling device filled with substances with high heat capacity. There are two types of such units:
1) an artificial cold accumulator that uses the cold released during the operation of the cooling device during periods of low heat loads;
2) a natural cold accumulator that collects environmental cold in winter. Thus, the energy efficiency of cold-storage battery coolers stems from the ability to reduce the cooling capacity of the device due to the accumulation of ice water and ice reserves, as well as operating at the highest loads with a constant temperature of ice water. Air conditioning systems in the accumulation of natural cold is an actively developing innovative segment of engineering systems of buildings, structures and autonomous structures. The size of the climate equipment market, according to the Association of Climate Industry Enterprises, is growing more than 10 times a year, 12-15% and can reach 30% under the optimistic scenario [1]. There are a number of reasons for this rapid growth. First of all, it is the growth of demands on quality of life. A healthy lifestyle is not only a personal choice, but in many cases becomes part of the employer's "corporate culture". The second is the deterioration of environmental quality due to urbanization, motorization and global climate change. Natural cold The formation of favorable environmental parameters in the home environment is the main task of life support systems. Creating a comfortable environment implies the ability to maintain individual microclimate parameters (temperature, humidity, mobility, gas composition of the air, its aerosol pollution, acoustic pressure, insulation and room lighting) in strict

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compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards and requirements. Thus, in the most general case, the air conditioning system can be considered as a single set of engineering subsystems (ventilation, heating, cooling, etc.), which ensures the maintenance of the necessary parameters of the internal environment (rooms, groups of rooms). buildings), regardless of the external climatic conditions, taking into account the architectural and construction and thermal-physical properties of the surrounding structures.
Obviously, for convenience and technical conditions, depending on the specific requirements, some subsystems may or may not exist at all, or may have limited performance and range regulation zone. A special type of climate systems are technological air conditioning systems. For many modern industries, the technological environment with the available parameters of air is the sional nature and quality and price determination products. In the future we will only talk about systems since the object of convenient air conditioning you technological air conditioner, as a rule, is a single or small batch and can manage them due to the improvement of technological processes and methods of successful development on a large scale. Regardless of the type of system, the quality of the project is determined by the range supported by the solution air conditioning control zone and the amount of capital and operating costs. Because more than 40% of all final energy is produced by mining in our country, which is consumed by life support systems, and the cost of energy sources is constantly rising, then the reduction of operating costs is a priority for air conditioning system developers. is gaining the attention of experts at the moment. To natural refrigerants such as hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, water, air. This can be predicted. The main trend of the XXI century will be the transition from synonymy to aesthetics to natural refrigerators.
In addition to work on improving thermodynamics in the accumulation of natural cold, in the development of new equipment, great attention is paid to the reduction of unnecessary technical processes, friction and losses due to increased resource operation of mechanical units. A characteristic feature of air conditioning systems is a wide annual, and the manufacturer's daily regulatory scope is the parameters of compressors and ventilation equipment to cover changes in external climatic conditions. Capacity management can be done using a reshort belt operating mode or with the use of a variable frequency drive. It is known that the suspension in the base friction units occurs and stops in start-up modes, in the same modes the minimum temperature deformations in the maximum joints, so the transition to frequency regulation is reasonable and promising. Consider that in these climate equipment the speed drive can be reduced to a few hertz.
In order to compensate for the suspension during continuous operation, the designs in these modes developed a metal selective transmission effect. VOC additives from a mixture of lubricating oils and freon on the friction bearing surface [6]. Others use friction as a means of reducing wear and heat generation in the region - this is the use of new composite materials, for example, graphitereinforced fluoroplastics roofing or bronze. The above growth trends (efficiency

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(energy) price, price, weight and dimensions) of life support systems are largely traditional. Such an evolution increases the efficiency of this way on stocks, rarely by a few percent. However, what is needed is high air conditioning systems due to lack of energy sources, which forces us to look for new ways to solve this problem. In fact, Air Conditioning in the field of creation and modernization of air conditioning systems in search of new directions to solve such design problems. The development approach clearly differs from the solutions that are effective in modernizing life support systems in new buildings, which can mean the nationalization of existing housing and office supplies.
Cooling scheme using refrigerators and fan belts is often used in the design of air conditioning systems for public buildings in the accumulation of natural cold. Refrigerators are designed to cover the maximum heat generated in the building. However, the maximum load is often short-lived and often the refrigerators operate at 40-60 percent of their maximum capacity.
References: 1. Vardiyashvili AB, Abdurahmanov AA, Vardiyashvili AA Energy saving in the use of non-traditional renewable energy sources (training manual) Karshi2012 2. Sodiqov T.A., Khayriddinov B.E. Solar energy storage. -T .: Fan, 2016. -55 p 3. Shermatov M.Sh. Fundamentals of hydrogeology and engineering geology.Tashkent: Turon Iqbol Publishing House, 2005. 4. Rismuxamedov D.A., Karimov R.Ch. Toychiev F.N. Guidelines for practical training in the field of power supply for industrial enterprises. .­ T .: ToshDTU, 2015. 8. Rasulov A.N., Rakhmonov I.U. Guidelines for practical training in the field of transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity. .­ T .: ToshDTU, 2017. 5. https://doi.org/10.5958/2249-7137.2020.00450.4

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Muhammadjonova G., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences Russian state named after I.V. Gubkin Oil and Gas University Branch "Social Sciences and Humanities" Tashkent Muzaffarova Sh. 1st year student Foreign philology of Russian philology department National University of Uzbekistan Khabibullaeva I. Uzbek language teacher Sergeli district 301 ­ school
NATIONAL-CULTURAL IN TEACHING UZBEK LANGUAGE STUDYING TEXTS ABOUT VALUES
Annotation. In this article the Russian state named after I.V. Gubkin The Tashkent branch of the University of Oil and Gas will study innovative methods of using texts on national and cultural values in teaching Uzbek to Russian-speaking students. Key words: method, intercultural approach, language proficiency, linguistics.
Many methods are used in teaching Uzbek as a foreign language. One of them is the intercultural approach, which is one of the most effective methods of language learning. The student's general ability in foreign languages and his chosen profession shows his readiness for intercultural knowledge and professional communication. From a modern point of view, the concept of "language knowledge" means not only knowledge of the lexical and grammatical units studied in the language, but also knowledge of the history, culture, customs and traditions of the country where the language is studied. To understand and use words correctly means to know their origin, to understand the situations in which they can be used, to be aware of the simplest and most necessary knowledge about the history, culture and political reality of the country where the language is studied [2,3].
In recent years, as a result of in-depth study of the Uzbek language, its comparative analysis with foreign languages, it has become possible to discover their differences and similarities, which, in turn, plays a special role in positively addressing issues of Uzbek language teaching. At all times, the relationship between language and society, the emergence, development and application of language, the social functions of language, its development and expansion, the

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culture of speech are topical issues of world linguistics. At present, the development of world linguistics is on the way to the study of the organic relationship between man and language. 10 "Literature reflects the heart of the people, the spirituality of the people. In today's complex world, it is necessary to find a way into the hearts of people, to use the influential power of literature to inspire them to noble goals,11 "he said, once again urging students to be responsible for Uzbek literature and language.
In the ancient East, the attitude to language and speech has long been the principle of evaluating them in terms of etiquette and morality. use Because when a good word has an effect, it settles in the heart. 12" Although this wisdom was recorded in the eleventh century, it is clear that it has existed since time immemorial. Created in the first half of the 1st millennium BC in the Khorezm region, the moral and philosophical essence of the "Avesto" is reflected in the sacred trinity of "good thoughts", "good words", "good deeds": "Good thoughts, good words and good deeds" I dedicate myself to good thoughts, good words, good deeds, and I turn away from all bad thoughts and bad words. " Or, every word used by Mir Alisher Navoi, the founder of the Uzbek literary language, has a unique meaning everywhere "If your nafs is worthless to the people, know that this nafs is worth more to yourself." That is, by preserving the language of a spiritual person, the mother expresses her love and devotion to the motherland.
At different stages of development, such relationships are divided into general and partial criteria according to the needs of society. After all, man's language, that is, his speech, has always been seen as a means of expressing his manners, his inner culture. Our ancestors paid special attention to the language of each person, his attitude to the language, how his speech is expressed. The love for the native language has come down to us through historical and didactic works, religious sources, examples of folklore and fiction. The Tashkent branch of the Russian State University of Oil and Gas named after IV Gubkin provides Russian-speaking students with an understanding of the linguistic norms of the Uzbek literary language. as well as its integral connection with the Uzbek national and cultural values. In the process of analysis aimed at strengthening the knowledge of office work in the state language, the analysis of texts from literature, texts and press materials, audio recordings in Uzbek and samples of oral speech collected by students is very effective. , videos about traditions are used. During the communication process, guidelines are developed and recommended for correct expression and improvement of speech.
The first etude is about greeting in Uzbek [1,656b]. In addition to text, it will be possible to explain with slides, pictures and visual aids. Greetings and greetings are a sign of respect and kindness in the Uzbek language culture. There

10 President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev's visit to the Alley of Writers. UzA, May 20, 2020. 11 Anthology of Uzbek pedagogy. "Uzbekistan", T. 1995. 189-b.
The same source, p.39. 12 A.Navoi, "Hayratul abror" "Science", T.1992.87-p.

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is a certain kind of treatment in the culture of greeting, and even today the culture of such treatment is followed. In the Uzbek language culture, acquaintance also begins with greetings. There are several ways to address the interlocutor or the person you are just seeing. In addition, sentences that are relevant to the greeting process are used. Examples of such greetings can be shown using pictures, slides, or short videos. The most common and widely used type of greeting is the following form:
- "Assalamu-alaykum!" How are you? How are you?
-Hello! How are you? This type of greeting is a form of greeting that is more neutral and, in many cases, used in a non-binding, intimate, and informal relationship. This is mainly common among more young people, and the above sentences can be found in their speech as part of their daily lives. Video lessons, lecture texts are placed on a slide, the text is displayed on the screen and attracts the student. It is very important for Uzbek language learners to understand the tolerance between peoples, the need for intercultural interaction and cooperation, the commonality of the peoples of the world. National values, various spheres of culture - everyday life, national identity, national character, religious beliefs and values play an important role in the field of intercultural communication, the perfect study of the Uzbek language.
References: 1. Visit of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev to the Alley of Writers. UzA, May 20, 2020. 2. Anthology of Uzbek pedagogy. "Uzbekistan", T. 1995. 189-b. 3. Alisher Navoi "Hayratul abror" "Science", T.1992.87-p.

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UDK 665.6/.7: 662.6/.9: 662.9 Mukhammadzhonova I. trainee applicant
Namangan Engineering and Technology Institute Uzbekistan, Namangan city Sayidmuradov M. senior lecturer
Department of Process Machines and Equipment Namangan Engineering and Technology Institute
Uzbekistan, Namangan city Xudayberduyev A.
Associate Professor Namangan Engineering and Technological Institute
Uzbekistan, Namangan city
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES FOR STUDYING PROCESSES OF COOLING HYDROCARBON VAPORS
Abstract: The article presents the results of an experimental study to study the intensification of the heat transfer process during air cooling of hydrocarbon vapors and oil distillates in tubular apparatuses and the development of recommendations for increasing the energy efficiency of industrial air and water coolers that are part of the primary oil distillation unit.
Key words: heat exchange, heat transfer intensification, air cooler, hydrocarbon vapor cooling, pressure drop, efficiency.
Introduction. Air coolers and condenser-coolers of various technological streams are widely used in the oil refining industry. The use of air coolers provides a number of operational advantages, the main of which are saving cooling water and reducing the amount of wastewater, reducing labor costs for cleaning the apparatus due to the absence of scale and scale deposition, and reducing the cost of organizing the circulating water supply of technological units [1].
In air coolers, atmospheric air is used as a refrigerant, flowing in the transverse direction around parallel rows of finned heat exchange tubes through which the cooled product moves. The movement of cooling air is carried out by pumping it with a fan, and in winter, in some cases, due to natural circulation.
The use of pipes finned along the outer surface of the air cooler is due to the need to compensate for the low heat transfer coefficient from the air side due to the developed outer surface of heat transfer [2].
Experimental setup and experimental technique. To study and establish the nature of the influence of temperature, pressure, flow rate and humidity of the vapor phase, as well as the speed and temperature of the cooling air on the efficiency of cooling hydrocarbon vapors in a tubular apparatus; we have

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assembled an experimental setup, the schematic diagram of which is shown in the

figure (Fig. 1).

4

1 2

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Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental air cooling unit: 1 - heat exchanger-condenser with finned tubes; 2 - fan; 3 and 8 - manometer; 4 and 12 -
valves; 5 - safety valve for steam; 6, 9 and 11 - thermometers; 7 - volumetric meter of distillate consumption; 10 - tube-in-tube water tube heat exchanger; 13
- measuring container for collecting distillate; 14 - steam generator; 15 volumetric gas flow meter; 16 - gas burner;
The pilot plant for air cooling of hydrocarbon vapors (Fig. 1) mainly consists of a steam generator 14, a heat exchanger-condenser with finned tubes 1, a tube-in-tube water tube heat exchanger 10, gas meters 15 and distillate 7 and measuring container 13 for collecting cooled distillate. The installation is equipped with instrumentation and shut-off valves to regulate the flow rate of heat carriers.
Heating steam is obtained in a steam generator 14 with a working volume of 27 liters by heating the initial heat carrier (water or gas condensate) to the boiling point, igniting natural gas using a burner 16. The flow rate of the gas supplied to the burner is set according to the readings of the volumetric meter 15 and is regulated by a valve 41 on the line, this sets the preset steam output of the generator.
The steam pressure in the steam generator 14 and in the heat exchangercondenser with finned tubes 1 is measured with manometers. The temperature of the hydrocarbon vapor inlet to the heat exchanger-condenser 1 is measured by mercury thermometers 6 inserted into welded oil pockets. The temperature of the hydrocarbon vapor being cooled is measured by mercury thermometers 9, which are placed in welded oil pockets.

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At the entrance of the heat exchanger-condenser, a water tube-in-tube heat exchanger 10 is installed, the temperature of the hydrocarbon distillate being cooled is measured by mercury thermometers 11 placed in welded oil pockets.
In the course of experiments, changes in the temperature of cooled hydrocarbon vapors, petroleum distillates, air and water in an experimental heat exchanger-condenser and a tubular water cooler were studied. At the same time, changes in the temperature of condensation of hydrocarbon vapors and cooling of distillates were analyzed depending on changes in temperature, flow rate and pressure of air and water.
During the experiments, the readings of the gas and distillate counter, the values of the temperature of the distillate, air and water at the control points of the apparatus included in the installation, as well as the pressure and temperature of hydrocarbon vapors in the steam generator were recorded.
During the experiments, the temperature of the liquid and vapor was measured using laboratory mercury glass thermometers of the TL-2 and TL-2M type according to TU 25-2001.003-88. The temperature of hydrocarbon vapors in the generator was measured with a manometric thermometer, and its overpressure was measured with DM05 manometers according to TU U33.2-14307481-031: 2005 and GOST 2405-88.
The main purpose of the experimental research was to study the processes of cooling hydrocarbon vapors and oil distillate fractions by air and water methods, to establish the effect of the physical properties of heat carriers and process parameters (temperature, pressure, flow rate and humidity) on the efficiency of heat transfer in the experimental air and water coolers.
This experimental setup makes it possible to conduct experiments on a comprehensive study of the cooling and heat transfer processes when heating oil and gas condensate feedstock with alternative heat carriers.
Content and results of research. The main purpose of the experimental studies was to study the cooling processes of hydrocarbon vapors and oil distillate fractions by air and water methods, to establish the influence of the physical properties of heat carriers and process parameters (temperature, pressure, flow rate and humidity) on the efficiency of heat transfer in the experimental air and water coolers.
During the experiments, we used fractions of oil and gas condensate supplied to the Bukhara oil refinery. Gas condensate used as a working fluid had a density of 751 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1.066 mm2/s.
Experiments on the study of the cooling processes of hydrocarbon vapors and oil distillate fractions were carried out at a pressure of hydrocarbon vapors of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kPa, an atmospheric temperature of 33-34 °C, its relative humidity of 56 % and a barometric pressure of 713-715 mm Hg. The volume of gas condensate poured into the steam generator was 10 liters. The air flow (cooling agent) speed was 3 m/s. The measurement of the controlled parameters of the process was carried out at each time interval equal to 2 minutes.

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In the course of experiments, changes in the temperature of cooled hydrocarbon vapors, petroleum distillates, air and water in an experimental heat exchanger-condenser and a tubular water cooler were studied. At the same time, changes in the temperature of condensation of hydrocarbon vapors and cooling of distillates were analyzed depending on changes in temperature, flow rate and pressure of air and water.
During the experiments, the readings of the gas and distillate counter, the values of the temperature of the distillate, air and water at the control points of the apparatus included in the installation, as well as the pressure and temperature of hydrocarbon vapors in the steam generator were recorded.
During the experiments, the temperature of the liquid and vapor was measured using laboratory mercury glass thermometers of the TL-2 and TL-2M type according to TU 25-2001.003-88. The temperature of hydrocarbon vapors in the generator was measured with a manometric thermometer, and its overpressure was measured with DM05 manometers according to TU U33.2-14307481-031: 2005 and GOST 2405-88. The influence of the operating parameters of the process on the efficiency of heat transfer in an air cooler was studied in the pressure range from 50 to 250 kPa.
In fig. 2 shows the curve of the change in the cooling temperature of the gas condensate vapors in the tubes of the experimental air cooler over time at a pressure of 250 kPa. It can be seen from the graph that at 250 kPa the cooling temperature of hydrocarbon vapors in the cooler proceeds with a smooth decrease in temperature to a state of equilibrium.

t,

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Fig. 2. Changes in the temperature of hydrocarbon steam over time in a tubular air cooler at P = 250 kPa.

A similar picture of the change in the rate of decrease in the temperature of the vapors was observed at other values of their pressure.

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In fig. 3. shows the curves of changes in the temperature of the distillate of gas condensate vapors over time in the experimental air cooler, at a pressure of 250 kPa. As can be seen from the figure, the temperature of the cooled distillate of the gasoline fraction rapidly decreases to 50 ° C within 100 minutes from the beginning of the experiment.

Fig. 3. Changes in the temperature of the distillate of gas condensate vapors over time in a tubular air cooler at P = 250 kPa.
The duration of the cooling process for hydrocarbon vapors and their distillates was studied in order to assess the dynamics of the process in an experimental cooling apparatus. As you can see, the developed experimental setup is characterized by good dynamic properties.
References: [1].  ..,  ..,  ..    . ­ .: , 1990. ­ 199 .: . (Kalinin E.K., Dreitser G.A., Yarkho S.A. Intensification of heat transfer in the channels. - M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1990 .-- 199 p .: ill.) [2].  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..      . ­ .:    , 1982. ­ 224 . (Gogolin A.A., Danilova G.N., Azarskov V.M., Mednikova N.M. Heat transfer intensification in refrigerating machine evaporators. - M .: Light and food industry, 1982 .-- 224 p.)

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UDK 536.27

Mukhammadzhonova I. trainee applicant
Namangan Engineering and Technology Institute Uzbekistan, Namangan city Sayidmuradov M. senior lecturer
Department of Process Machines and Equipment Namangan Engineering and Technology Institute
Uzbekistan, Namangan city Xudayberduyev A.
Associate Professor Namangan Engineering and Technological Institute
Uzbekistan, Namangan city

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING METHODS OF INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGE IN PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Abstrakt: The results of an experimental study are presented to study the intensification of the heat transfer process during air cooling of hydrocarbon vapors and oil distillates in tubular apparatuses and the development of recommendations for increasing the energy efficiency of industrial air and water cooling apparatuses that are part of the primary oil distillation unit.The intensification of heat exchange processes will lead to an increase in the productivity of the operation of oil refineries, a decrease in overall dimensions and production areas. In turn, this allows to reduce the cost of repair and operation of heat exchangers.
Key words: heat exchange processes, heat exchangers, intensification of heat exchange processes, primary oil distillation unit, cooling equipment, heat transfer agents, cooling agents.

Introduction. The technical and technological re-equipment of enterprises, the intensification of technological processes, the improvement of the existing production technology and the introduction of new, energy and resource-saving technologies for the processing of hydrocarbon raw materials are priority areas for the further accelerated development of the oil refining industry of the republic's economy.
Primary distillation plants, which are large-scale technological objects, consume a large amount of heat and electricity. Therefore, in the conditions of constant growth of tariffs for energy carriers, these installations do not always meet modern criteria for the efficiency of thermal energy use. This circumstance indicates the need to find ways to improve the efficiency of oil refineries by reducing energy costs, increasing the use of secondary energy resources,

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maximizing the use of heat recovery and optimizing the technological regime of heat exchange equipment.
With regard to the oil refining industry, heat exchangers are classified according to the method of heat transfer and by purpose. By the method of heat transfer, a distinction is made between surface heat exchangers, where heat transfer between heat carriers is carried out through the surface separating them, and mixing devices, in which heat transfer between media occurs through their direct contact. It should be noted that surface heat exchangers are mainly used at refineries, since the mixing of coolant flows in many technological stages of oil processing is excluded [2].
Heat exchangers are also classified according to the direction of movement of the coolant, design features and manufacturing method. In the direction of movement of heat carriers, heat exchangers are distinguished direct-flow, counter-flow, as well as devices with cross-flow.
Air coolers are widely used in the industry of oil refineries, in which a stream of atmospheric air is used as a cooling agent, forced by specially installed fans.
The use of devices of this type allows for significant savings in cooling water, reducing the amount of waste water, eliminates the need to clean the outer surface of the heat exchange tubes. Such devices are used as condensers and refrigerators.
The relatively low heat transfer coefficient from the side of the air flow, characteristic of these devices, is compensated by the significant ribbed outer surface of the pipes, as well as by the relatively high speeds of the air flow.
Air coolers of various types are manufactured according to the relevant standards, which provide for large ranges in terms of surface size, degree of ribbing and type of structural material used for their manufacture [2,3].
The intensity of the heat exchange process in the apparatus is determined by the ratio of the apparatus's thermal performance to the main values that characterize the driving force of the process and the size of the apparatus.
Therefore, intensification of heat exchange is an effective way to solve the problem of reducing the mass and dimensions of heat exchangers, contributes to the design of more efficient and compact devices that provide significant savings in energy, metal and labor costs. As the unit capacity of power plants increases (the main trend in their development), the absolute weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers included in the plants are increasing. The conclusion is quite obvious that at present and in the future one of the main, technically and economically most affordable and justified ways to reduce the mass and increase the efficiency of power plants is to improve heat exchangers, which can be carried out through the use of effective methods of intensifying heat transfer.
Main part. The problems of improving heat exchangers, i.e. reducing their size and weight (metal consumption), reducing the power of pumping heat carriers through the apparatus under the condition of a fixed heating capacity [4].

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In most cases of practical application of methods for intensifying heat transfer, the developers of heat exchangers, in addition to meeting the technical conditions and ensuring the specified performance characteristics of heat exchangers, pursue the following goals:
1.Increase in the thermal power of the existing heat exchanger without changing the power for pumping heat carriers (or pressure losses) at a fixed flow rate of the heat carriers.
2.Reduction of the temperature difference between the heat carriers to ensure the specified heat output with fixed dimensions of the heat exchanger.
3.Reduction of the weight and size parameters of the heat exchanger while maintaining the heat capacity of the heat exchanger and the level of pressure losses in its ducts.
4. Decrease in the power for pumping the coolant with a fixed heat power and maintaining the heat exchange surface area.
Note that goals 1, 2 and 4 correspond to the tasks of energy saving, and goal 3 is resource saving (reduction of metal consumption and cost).
Intensification techniques essentially reduce the thermal resistance of the near-wall layers during convective heat transfer in the heat exchanger, helping to increase the heat transfer coefficient with or without increasing surface area. Sixteen different methods of heat transfer enhancement have been classified by A.E. Bergles et al. [5, 6] and are divided into passive (do not require external energy supply for intensification) and active methods (require external energy supply).
In complex methods of heat transfer enhancement, any two or more of the listed methods (passive and / or active) are used simultaneously.
Tubular heat exchangers of various types and purposes account for 80-90% of the world and domestic market for heat exchangers. The main advantage of tubular heat exchangers is a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures, the ability to use in various industries and types of technical devices and technologies. In this regard, the results of testing these heat exchangers with various heat transfer intensifiers are considered below.
To date, various methods of intensifying convective heat transfer have been proposed and investigated, which can be combined into the following three main groups [4]:
1. The method of artificial turbulization of the flow in the near-wall zone of tubular heat exchangers (E.K. Kalinin, G.A. Dreitser, S.A. Yarkho and S.G. Zakirov), based on the periodic creation of small vortex zones near the wall, which are a source additional turbulization of the flow.
2. Method of swirling flow inside coiled oval pipes (VM Ievlev, Yu.V. Vilemas and BV Dzyubenko) with longitudinal and transverse flow around closepacked bundles of coiled pipes.

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3. Method of controlled separation of the boundary layer (AA Zhukauskas

and AA Shlanciauskas) in the case of transverse flow around tube bundles by

installing special turbulators on their surface.

With regard to the flow of single-phase heat carriers, flow turbulators on

the surface of pipes, rough surfaces and ribbed surfaces are used; swirling the flow

with spiral ribs, screw devices and swirlers installed at the channel inlet; mixing

gas bubbles to the liquid flow, and solid particles or liquid droplets to the gas flow;

rotation and vibration of the heat exchange surface; pulsation of the coolant flow,

impact on the flow of electrostatic fields, suction of flow from the boundary layer,

jet systems, etc.

To intensify heat transfer in air-cooled devices, pipes with external spiral

finning are used. In hot climates, to improve the heat transfer coefficient, the air

must be humidified before entering the tube bundles.

The relatively low coefficients of heat transfer from the air side compared

to the coefficients for cooled or condensed process fluids can be partially

compensated by the development of surfaces on the air side. This is done through

the use of bundles of finned tubes.

Due to the ribbing, the heat exchange surface can be increased 10-25 times

compared to the surface of smooth pipes. The degree of surface development is

optimized taking into account economic considerations and manufacturing

technology.

One of the optimization criteria is the parameter characterizing the growth

of heat transfer during finning per unit of cost, which initially increases with the

growth of the A / A surface development, but after reaching the optimal values it

starts to decrease (Fig. 1). The maximum value of this function gives the optimum

value of the degree of surface development, which increases with an increase in

the heat transfer coefficient in the pipes [2].

In the optimized parameter UA/S/C in accordance with Fig. 1, both A / S

and U depend on the degree of surface development. The parameter A / S-surface

area in contact with air per 1 m2 of the flow area of the air flow can be easily

found for the selected type of finned tubes (Fig. 1).

The heat transfer coefficient U depends on a large number of parameters

and is determined by the equality:

1 UA



1 Fa0

A



1 ai A1



Rj

Where a0 - is the average value of the variable heat transfer coefficient

from the air side; F - efficiency of ribbing; ai - coefficient of heat transfer from

the side of the coolant in the pipes; Rj -thermal resistance, including the contact

resistance between the rib and the supporting pipe, the resistance of deposits

inside the pipes, pipe walls and deposits on the outer surface of the pipes, the last

two resistances being negligible; A is the total area of the heat exchange surface

on one side.

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Figure: 1. Optimal value of finned tube surface.
A. The most common finned tubes. In fig. 2. Shows typical finned tubes for air cooled heat exchangers and various methods for attaching the fins to the tubes.
The contact resistance at the base of the fin is the limiting factor when using pipe finning.
Aluminum ribs fitted with an interference fit on a steel pipe (Fig. 2, a, i, d) have high contact resistances, which rapidly increase with increasing temperature. Therefore, their use is limited to temperatures up to 100 °C, since at higher temperatures the fastening of the fins to the pipes is weakened due to the greater thermal expansion of aluminum [3].
Ribs installed in grooves and secured as shown in fig. 2.f, are applicable up to a temperature of 350 °C, but this requires pipes with a wall thickness increased by the depth of the groove.
Ribs extruded from thin-walled aluminum pipes (Fig. 2.g) ensure good contact even when using thin-walled pipes, so that operating temperatures up to 250 °C are quite acceptable. Fastening of fins to pipes, shown in fig. 2, b, h, and, lead to lower contact resistances and are used at temperatures not exceeding the melting temperature of the solder. For a pipe with flat fins (Fig. 2, b), it is allowed to use any type of attachment to pipes of any shape and for any size of fins. For plate type fins, it is allowed to use turbulators, which increase heat transfer from the air side at low air speeds and pressure drops.
In hot-dip galvanizing, a uniform metal strip is applied to the finned pipes, which also serves as an additional protection against corrosion. Welded ribs (Fig. 2, c) are used at high temperatures (over 400 ° C), as well as in the absence of the possibility to apply the above-described fastening methods.

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Fig. 2. Various geometries and methods of fastening finned tubes: a - round ribs put on with an interference fit; b-rectangular ribs soldered to round or elliptical pipes; c-bundles of pipes with soldered or stretched rectangular ribs; z-welded single L-shaped ribs; d-superimposed on each other L-shaped ribs; e-ribs inserted into the grooves; w-ribs formed by the extrusion method; h-welded or soldered ribs; i-ribs with metal coating.
Fin efficiency and temperature distribution in finned tubes. The efficiency of the rib is estimated in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Temperature distribution in the rib (to determine the efficiency of the rib).
For flat ribs with constant thickness:
F  thX / X
here X  h(2a0 / F F )1/ 2 where h-is the rib height (often not constant); a0 -the heat transfer coefficient (changes along the rib); F - thermal conductivity of the rib material (for galvanized ribs, the thermal conductivity is selected as a combination of values for the rib material and the zinc layer); F - rib thickness (often unstable) [4].

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Thus, the chosen method of heat transfer intensification should be effective while maintaining the lowest energy costs required for a known heat exchanger (if the task is to reduce the size) or it should provide a significant reduction in the energy costs for pumping the coolant (if the overall dimensions of the heat exchanger are preserved), or reduce as required ratio and dimensions and energy costs. In addition, when choosing a method for intensifying heat transfer, it is necessary to take into account not only the efficiency of the heat transfer surface itself, but also its manufacturability during manufacture and assembly, as well as the features of the apparatus operation.
References: [1].  .  , 2 //  . .  ..  .  .. - , , 1998. 188 . (Heat transfer intensification. Uspekhi heat transfer, 2 // Ed. prof. Zhukauskas A.A. and prof. Kalinina E.K. - Vilnius, Mokslas, 1998 .- 188 p.) [2].     : .   / . ., -  . .,  . .  . .: , 1997. 352 . (Technological calculations of oil processing plants: Textbook. manual for universities / Tanatarov M.A., Akhmetshina M.N., Faskhutdinov R.A. et al. M .: Chemistry, 1997.352 p.) [3].   :  2- . . 2 / 74 .  .  . . .   .-- .: , 2007. 352 c. (Handbook on heat exchangers: In 2 t. T. 2 / S 74 Per. from English. ed. OG Martynenko et al. M .: Energoatomizdat, 2007. 352 p.) [4].  .,  .,  .               . . -  .. 2014 ., 3. 33-37 . (Sayidmurodov M., Ergashev O., Rozikova D. Experimental studies of heat transfer intensification using belt turbulators during two-phase flow movement inside horizontal pipes. Fergana. Scientific and technical journal Fer.PI 2014, no. 3. 33-37 p.)

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UDK 502.32

Muminova K.T. assistant
in Medical Biology and Histology Andijan State Medical Institute

MAIN FEATURES OF ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Abstract: The article discusses the main features of environmental education.
Key words: ecology, ecological problems, ecological education, methodology, methodology, interactive approach

Environmental education presupposes a continuous process of training, upbringing and personal development aimed at forming a system of scientific and practical knowledge and skills, as well as value orientations, behavior and activities.
The system of environmental education is based on the following principles: humanization, scientific character, integration, continuity, systematic and interconnected disclosure of global, regional and local aspects of ecology.
Environmental education plays an integrative role in the entire system of general secondary education. It performs the following pedagogical functions:
contributes to the formation and development of a single picture of the world in the minds of students;
is an essential component of the humanization of all school education; forms general educational and universal human abilities to predict one's own activities and the activities of other people; expands the possibilities of moral education in the learning process. Most prefer the mixed model, the implementation of which requires the development of the content of the training course "Ecology", the greening of traditional subjects, as well as the development of a series of workshops on environmental research. From the point of view of psychologists, the attitude to the environment is formed in the process of interaction of the emotional, intellectual and volitional spheres of the human psyche. Only in this case is a system of psychological attitudes of the individual formed. Consequently, the implementation of the tasks of environmental education requires a revision not only of the content of education, but also of the forms and methods of teaching. It is necessary to give preference to such methods, forms and methodological techniques of teaching, which will: stimulate students to constantly replenish their knowledge about the environment (lessons - business or role-playing games, lessons - conferences, seminars, conversations, student reports, disputes and quizzes).

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contribute to the development of creative thinking, the ability to foresee the consequences of nature-forming human activities (these are methods that ensure the formation of intellectual skills: analysis, synthesis, comparison, establishing causal relationships; these are also traditional methods: conversations, observations, experience, laboratory work with a predominance of the heuristic nature of cognitive student activities).
ensure the development of research skills, abilities, teach to make environmentally sound decisions and acquire new knowledge.
involve students in practical activities to solve environmental problems of local and regional importance (identification of rare and endangered species, organization of an ecological path, protection of nature from destruction, identification of risk factors in areas of residence, promotion of environmental knowledge: lectures, conversations, leaflets, drawings, posters ).
The introduction of a system of continuous environmental education requires the formation of practical skills in assessing the quality of the environment. The main contribution to the practical environmental activities of students is made by environmental research and work on assessing the state of the environment, which are an important part of the content of education and are widely introduced into the practice of environmental education of students.
Environmental research allows students to summarize the knowledge gained, apply information acquired in the study of other subjects, express their own point of view and propose solutions to this or another environmental problem.
Thus, today in our country the level of environmental education and environmental culture does not meet the requirements of reality. The tendencies for further development, of course, have been formed, but there are constraining factors that raise doubts about the possibility of large and rapid progress in this direction. In most cases, environmental education is developed by individuals, educational institutions and centers, often with very little financial support from federal education and environmental agencies. In addition, the experience of foreign colleagues is underestimated, primarily in the areas of development of regulatory support and organizational forms of work.
Here I would like to note that in the countries of America and Europe they often talk about education for sustainable development - a concept close to the concept of environmental education, but broader, since it includes related environmental, economic and social problems. It is important to emphasize that in the 1990s, school environmental education in our country followed this path.
In a number of countries, for example in Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, USA, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark and some others, environmental education is realized through "immersion in nature": classes and games are held outside buildings, certain days and weeks are allocated for projects. The main idea is to awaken a holistic emotional perception of the surrounding nature.

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In these countries, two methodological approaches dominate in the system

of environmental education, depending on the age of students: play (for children

of primary and middle grades) and naturalistic (for high school students).

In fact, a playful approach is used when working with all age groups of the

population. On its basis, many natural history courses have been built, textbooks

and workbooks have been compiled, board and computer games, and posters have

been developed. The positive aspects of this approach include simplicity and

clarity, and the negative ones are the slowdown in the development of intelligence

and a decrease in the ability to independently acquire knowledge, identified by

scientists, that is, the same problems that are caused by the excessive use of tests.

The naturalistic approach in environmental education of the European

version of education is very different from Russian practices. On the territories of

many schools there are ecological sites, where during the lessons elementary

school students study plants and animals. Often there is also a site with

meteorological instruments for observing the weather. The purpose of such

training is real interaction with objects of the environment and encouraging

students to independent research and integrated thinking. Older students study

solar installations, water purification devices, artificial reservoirs and their

inhabitants, vermicomposters, work in small botanical gardens and go on

excursions to nature reserves and national parks.

Extracurricular education is also widely developed in Europe and America.

By analogy with Russian leisure centers and organizations of additional

education, there are public educational and environmental organizations, the main

field of activity of which is field naturalistic education. Children can come to them

on their own initiative after lessons. By analogy with Russian circles, there are

clubs in which children, uniting in groups, under the guidance of an environmental

mentor, collect material and study a specific problem posed by a teacher or

scientist.

Literature:

1.  ..,  ..,  .. 



:





  //    

. ­ 2019. ­  5.;

2. , . .    

 / . . . --  :  // 

. -- 2016. --  11 (115). -- . 1543-1546

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Nazirova E.Sh., Doctor of Technical Sciences TATU
Hodjiev S. teacher TUIT

MODEL AND METHODS OF CREATING A BIBLIOGRAPHIC ELECTRONIC PLATFORM OF NATIONAL MANUSCRIPTS AND
SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

Annotation: This article is mainly about the national and foreign indexes of national and foreign articles and the model and methods of creating the biblographic electron platform of scientific publications. Basically, the national economy and their rapid development year after year are shown in this article by widely introduced diagrams.
Key words: development, cognitive assumptions can distort, hypotheses, via, interprets

INTRODUCTION The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 21th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises. Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on carefully controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported, a general theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are frequently the same from one to another. The process of the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as

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logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.
MATERIALS AND METHODS The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always in the same order. Mendeley's crowdsourced catalogue is organized around 25 research disciplines and 473 subdisciplines. This classification scheme represents a conceptual structure that not only serves to organize the bibliographic references, but is present in the arrangement of groups and profiles as well. These subject classes come from the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), a consortium of libraries assembled to reduce costs and improve access to information. Mendeley uses a peculiar criterion to assign papers to these subject classes. This process is made according to the readers of the documents. Thus a paper is not assigned to a discipline by its content, but by who its readers are. In this way a paper is classified as Mathematics if the highest percentage of its readers come from a Mathematics background. This would be correct if the paper had a large number of readers as it is logical that users would be interested in papers from their own research area. But for the majority of papers which barely reach ten readers (85 per cent), this criterion would produce a certain randomness and generate a serious problem of misclassification. This could mean, for example, that a paper published in a mathematics journal and tagged with mathematics keywords is assigned to Physics because a physicist user decided to include that reference in his or her library. Thus classification is influenced by the readers' field of study, so as many users from a discipline read a paper more likely that paper is assigned to that disciplinary group. It is not surprising therefore that the thematic distribution of papers coincides with the distribution of users, as will be seen later. To avoid this limitation and increase the findability, Mendeley also links each document with the other two most frequent disciplines of their readers. For example, a paper assigned to Mathematics could be retrieved by Physics and Computer and Information Science as well due to the second and third group of readers belong to those disciplines.

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Figure 4.1 and Table 4.3 show the percentage of retrieved, assigned and open papers by discipline, that is records that can be searched in the
Papers section
Retrieving documents by discipline, the aggregated total is 66.2 million. As we saw above, this number is arrived at because the same paper can be linked to up to three disciplines. Taking only the principal discipline, the total number of uploaded papers by the users to the public catalogue is 14.7 million documents, a percentage rather low according to the global estimate of 114 million in the system (Pimasoli, 2014). This could indicate that approximately nine out ten documents are privately managed in each user's library, a figure that is not very optimistic for the sharing of documents in Mendeley.
Reference: [1]. Prengel, A. (1995). Pädagogik der Vielfalt (2nd ed.). Opladen: Leske & Budrich. 11-17 P. [2].Bastian, J. & Helsper, W. (2000). Professionalisierung im Lehrberuf ­ Bilanzierung und Perspektiven. In J. Bastian, W. Helsper, S. Reh, S. & C. Schelle (Eds), Professionalisierung im Lehrberuf. Von der Kritik der Lehrerrolle zur pädagogischen Professionalität (167-192). Leske & Budrich. [3].Reh, S. (2004). Abschied von der Profession, von Professionalität oder vom Professionellen? Theorien und Forschungen zur Lehrerprofessionalität. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 47 (3), 358-72. [4].Senge, P. M. (1996). Die fünfte Disziplin. Kunst und Praxis der lernenden Organisation. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. [5].Davis, B. & Sumara, D.J. (2000). Curriculum forms: on the assumed shapes of knowing and knowledge. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32 (6), 821-45.

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Darling-Hammond, L. (2000) (Ed.). Studies of excellence in teacher education. Washington DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_173 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Nizamatdinov E.K. International Islamic Academy of Uzbekistan
NASAF IS A CITY OF SCIENTISTS
Annotation: This article is about the life of Islamic scholars who lived and worked in our country. In particular, it provides information on the heritage of scholars operating in Nasaf. Their scientific journeys and works are described. The information is periodically separated. This information comes from reliable sources.
Key words: Nasaf, Maveraunnahr, Temurids, science, enlightenment, religion, inheritance, works, teaching, hadith, tafsir, scholar, hadith scholar, faqih, mufassir, pious, righteous, zahid, sheikh, mashaikh, hafiz, tradition
Nasaf was one of the highest centers of science and enlightenment in Bukhara, Samarkand, Khiva and Tashkent. Nasaf scholars, like other scholars of the scientific center, had a positive impact on the scientific and social life of Movarounnahr and the Muslim world in general, creating a healthy religious and spiritual environment, the formation of the Hanafi sect and the doctrine of Moturidism. The first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov noted that more than a dozen scholars nicknamed "Nasafiy" enriched the Islamic world with their invaluable scientific heritage, raised the glory of the country and became the pride of the Uzbek people [2,4]. Therefore, it is the supreme duty of all of us to study deeply the life and scientific heritage of these ancestors, to eradicate the superstitions observed in our society, while behaving with dignity in the face of their great services. With this in mind, one of the priorities in the current era of globalization is to avoid various religious and ideological attacks and destructive ideas, and to get acquainted with the rich scientific heritage written by our ancestors.
In the words of the head of our state Shavkat Mirziyoyev: "Proper singing of Islam is a great education for our people [7]," it is not difficult to feel how important this task is.
It is no exaggeration to say that Nasafiy scholars became famous not only in Movarounnahr, but in the whole Islamic world, as the ancient city of Nasaf, one of the cities of Movarounnahr, has many aspects of knowledge and enlightenment that are not inferior to cities such as Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent. Nasaf is located in the center of the Great Silk Road and it has been constantly evolving. However, in 1219, after a six-month siege of Otrar, Genghis Khan invaded Samarkand and then made his way to Nasaf. The Mongols occupied Movarounnahr almost completely in 1220 and destroyed many towns and villages. They will kill everyone - men, women, young and old, and set fire to

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architectural monuments, mosques and madrasas, palaces and castles. In particular, many of the villages and settlements of Nasaf, mentioned by the twelfth-century scholar Samani, will be destroyed. By the end of the thirteenth century, scientific, cultural, and economic addresses had almost ceased to exist. Later, Kebekkhan (1318-1326), one of the Mongol khans, founded the city of Karshi, 12 km from the front of Nasaf. In this way, Karshi became a stronghold for the Mongols [5,359].
In the late seventh and early ninth centuries, large schools of hadith and jurisprudence emerged in Nasaf and Kesh. The science of tafsir was also established here in the ninth century, and scholars such as Ibrahim ibn Maqil Sanjani and Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Nasafi in particular took the lead in this regard. Students from different parts of the Muslim world studied in these schools. In the ninth century, Mu'adh ibn Yaqub Nasafi, Khalaf ibn Sulayman Dirizdahi, in the tenth century Asad ibn Hamdawayh Varsini, Ahmad ibn Muhammad Tadiani, Muhammad ibn Asim Ustugdadizi, Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad Astrobodi [1,226], in the eleventh century Abdulaziz ibn Muhammad Nakhshabi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad Baladi, Abu Bakr al-Nasafi in the 13th and 14th centuries, Azizuddin al-Nasafi in the 13th and 14th centuries, Lutfullah al-Nasafi alQaydani, Najmuddin Abu Hafs Umar al-Nasafi (1070-1143), Abulfazl Muhammad Burhan Nasafi (600-679 / 1201-1281), Abu Ali Hussein Nasafi (d. 424). Dozens of scholars and scholars such as 1034) became famous throughout the Islamic world. In later centuries, this scientific tradition was successfully continued.
Abu Abdur-Rahman Mu'adh ibn Ya'qub al-Nasafi was a pious and righteous scholar who lived in the ninth century. He became famous in the science of hadith, compiling mainly hadiths on asceticism, and sources say that many students learned from him.
Abu Sa'id Khalaf ibn Sulayman Dirizdahi was one of the hadith scholars. He was born in the village of Dirizdah in Nasaf. In search of knowledge, he was in the cities of Iraq, Damascus, and died in 300 / 912-3.
Abulhoris Asad ibn Hamdawayh Varsini Nasafi is known as a historian and hadith scholar. He was born in the village of Varsin in Nasaf province. He was educated by such great scholars of his time as Tufayl ibn Zayd Tamimi, Musanna ibn Ibrahim Gubdini and Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi. He had disciples in many cities of Movarounnahr. He died in 315 / 927-8.
Abu Sa'd Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad Astrobodi was educated by the great scholars of Idrisi Jurjan, Baghdad and Marv. He went to Khorasan and Iraq and memorized hadiths from many hadith scholars. According to narrations, he memorized a hundred thousand hadiths. Dhu'l-Hijjah, 406 / died in Samarkand in June 1016 [1,228]. Abu Muhammad Abdulaziz ibn Muhammad Nakhshabi was born in 1018 in the village of Ustugdodiza in Nasaf. He was called Hafiz al-Hadith because of his ability in hadith. Nakhshabi was in Iraq, Hijaz, Damascus and Egypt in search of knowledge and was educated by the great scholars of his time.

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He returned to his homeland from his scientific journey and began teaching there. He died in Nakhshab in 457/1066.
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad Baladi Nasaflik is one of the famous scholars. He was educated by such scholars as Abu al-Abbas Mustaghfir and Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn Ali Momargi. He died in 504/1111.
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Nasafi was a scholar and poet who lived in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. He wrote such works as "Lubab alalbob (The Best Mind)", "Javomi al-hikayat and lawami' ar-narration (Summary of Stories and Lightning of Narrations)". He taught in Samarkand madrassas.
Azizuddin Nasafy was one of the mystics, philosophers and poets who lived in 1240-1300. In all his works the image of the perfect man is advanced. His works such as "Zubdat al-haqqaiq (Cream of Truths)", "Maqsad al-aqsa (Supreme Purpose)", "Kashf al-haqqaiq (Revealing Truths)" are especially famous.
Fiqh Lutfullah Nasafi Fazil Kaydani, a jurist who lived in the late 13th and first half of the 14th centuries. The scholar's work "Matolib al-Musalliy" was famous. Another title of the work is `Fiqh al-Qaedani', which was taught in madrassas as one of the popular manuals in Central Asia. The scientist died in 1349.
In this way, according to tradition, until the X-XI centuries, works were written here in Arabic, and in the late XI and early XII centuries began to be written in Persian. During the Timurids, books were written in Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Nasir Muhammad, in his book Nasaf and Kesh Scholars, mentions the lives of more than fifty Nasaf scholars. According to research, in the VII-XII centuries in Movarounnahr lived more than 3,000 muhaddiths, of whom more than 1,000 worked in Samarkand, more than 600 in Bukhara and more than 400 in Nasaf, and the rest in other regions of Movarounnahr [6,14].
In conclusion, there have been individuals in the history of human development whose activities have not only transcended the boundaries of local, cultural territory, but have also crossed the boundaries of epochs and become part of a global process in the development of ideas. Their works, like all rare events, embody the most valuable aspects of past experiences, defining the scientific thought of society and the progress that spiritual culture will take in the many centuries to come. As mentioned above, Islamic Sharia in our country has developed on the basis of the Hanafi school and the teachings of Moturidi. At the same time, Hanafi scholars, followers of Imam Moturidi were formed and their activities developed. It is no exaggeration to say that the role of Nasaf scholars is very important. It is no secret that they have been diligent in transmitting Islamic knowledge to the next generation.
Based on the materials and conclusion of the article, the following suggestions can be made:
1. It is worthwhile to study the contribution of the scholars who played an important role in the formation and development of the doctrine of Moturidiya, in particular, the scholars of Nasaf.

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2. To study the scientific activity and heritage of these scholars and to show their importance in overcoming certain problems.
References: 1. Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad as-Sam'ani. al-Ansob (Nasabnoma). Translators: Abdulgafur Razzoq Bukhari, Komiljon Rakhimov. - T .: "Hilol" publishing house, 2017. 2. Karimov I.A. Speech at the solemn ceremony dedicated to the 2700th anniversary of the city of Karshi // People's speech. - T .: 2005y. ­  183. - B.4. 3. Mirziyoev Sh. We will build our great future together with our brave and noble people. The book contains speeches of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev at election meetings with voters of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent from 1 to 24 November 2016. - T .: "Uzbekistan", 2017. 4. Uvatov U. Life and legacy of Abul Mu'in al-Nasafi. - T .: "Ma'naviyat", 2003. 5. Ravshanov P. History of injection. - T .: "Yangi asr avlodi", 2006. 6. Rahimjonov D. The development of the science of hadith in Samarkand in the VII-XII centuries (based on the work of Abu Hafs an-Nasafi "al-qand fi ma'rifati ulomai Samarkand"): Tar. fan. nom. diss. - T .: TIU, 2003y. 7. www.daryo.uz From the speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev at the meeting on the development of the film industry and radical reform of the industry. 30.12.2017y.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Nizomova M.B. teacher
Karshi state university Karshi, Uzbekistan

CLASSIFICATION OF PEDAGOGICAL TERMS IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES

Abstract: The minds of those who are building the great state of the future must be imbued with a sense of ever-burning zeal for the restoration of new economic relations and the production of material goods. The main task of pedagogical schools, educational institutions, lyceums, gymnasiums, colleges, institutes and universities is to bring up a person rich in such positive qualities. Therefore, it is the duty of every person who has entered the science of pedagogy to establish pedagogical terms, to apply them, to translate and analyze the essence of the original content, as well as to link it with education and upbringing.
Keywords: pedagogical terms, education, assessment, dissertation, scientific report, punishment, state grant, state education, process portfolio.

Introduction. As the great scholar A. Avloni noted: "Education is life for us. it is a matter of death, salvation, destruction, happiness, or calamity. Indeed, the role of education is extremely important in the achievement of human life, happiness, pure human activity. It is known that the upbringing of young people is the product of our work, which is a positive result for each of us, if we can form a spirit of devotion to our national customs, traditions, immortal heritage, which are precious to us. To do this, we must first instill in the minds of young people such concepts as national pride, national consciousness, national idea, spirituality, high culture. Because without knowing and studying history, without receiving spiritual nourishment from it, it is impossible to achieve the future, the dreams of the future. Since the subject of pedagogy is a science that equips people, youth and professionals with modern laws, content, methods and tools of teaching and education, its methodological basis, goals and objectives are the harmony of personal development in the material and spiritual development of the world. laws and modern policies of the state. Education is the task of society, and it takes a definite form not only under the influence of production relations, but also under the influence of the ideas of this or that theory of education put forward in different historical periods. Represents the result of the work of rhetoricians and educators. In the past, the educational process was carried out directly by adults in labor activities, but as

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society developed, such an approach did not meet the demand. Now there are educated and experienced people. Classes became more and more organized, and gradually educational institutions emerged. In Uzbek linguistics, new steps have been taken in the study of terms, such as research on scientific terminology, professional, lexicon of the Uzbek language, as well as encyclopedias and annotated dictionaries. Ensures the enrichment and improvement of the Uzbek language, including through the introduction of universally recognized scientific, technical and socio-political terms. Pedagogy has come a long way and now includes well-formed scientific knowledge, large theoretical and practical materials, terms.
Each national language creates its own systems of scientific terminology. One of such systems is the pedagogical terminology of the Uzbek language. The work of educating the younger generation has long been formed, and therefore, although some lexicons are used as terms, modern pedagogical science and its current form , terminology appeared in the life of Uzbeks after the beginning of the XX century. So, pedagogy cannot be imagined without special terms. At the same time, it can be concluded that in the lexicon of the modern Uzbek language there is a special terminological system - pedagogical terminological system, which is used in practice. From the point of view of cognitive linguistics, the process of creating a nominative unit is studied in close connection with the processes of processing, organizing and preserving knowledge in the human brain, their reflection in linguistic forms, conceptualization and categorization. The characteristics of nomination by terms are determined during the analysis of how new terms are formed in different ways. The similarity of associations that create terms belonging to different languages is due to the universality of semantic shifts, which in turn is explained by the universality of the thought process specific to different languages. Associative relationships often take on a national character and expression, and the use of common words as pedagogical terms is one of the most common ways of creating terms in terminology.
Terms are formed on the basis of a vernacular language, which uses national means and methods of expression of special concepts, as well as the discovery of new types. By recording and regulating the professional experience of many generations, terms become an area that further enhances the role of language in human speech. For example: Terms used in pedagogical activities, punishment (Jazolash, ) the cessation of their negative appearances, the emergence of feelings of guilt and regret through a negative assessment of the character of the person.
Portfolio process (jarayon portfoliosi portfolio process,  ) ­ Demonstrates the process and level of independent application of knowledge and skills acquired by students in the implementation of educational, research, creative, information, social projects. The portfolio should reflect all stages of the project activity, pedagogical terms such as project development (planning and organization of activities), technological stage (implementation of

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activities), final stage (presentation and evaluation of results) in both Uzbek, English and other languages applied. Assessment (Baholash)- the way in which various sources are used to draw conclusions about the classification of people, objects, or programs for a specific purpose.
As the field of human knowledge expands, many new concepts begin to emerge. It is safe to say that pedagogical terminology is actively used in all aspects of the education system. Historically, there have been many educational lexemes. Thus, the roots of education in the East go back to ancient times. At the beginning of the last century, the need for pedagogical terms increased as a result of the growth of national consciousness of the peoples of Turkestan, the reform of schools and madrasas, the wider teaching of secular knowledge. . Behbudi, Shakuri, Ayni, Hamza, Munavar Qori, Avloni and others opened new Muslim schools in Russia, Crimea and Orenburg, got acquainted with their teaching methods and adapted to local conditions. As a result, textbooks and manuals for these schools were created, and for the first time in these textbooks began to form special terms related to education. The new pedagogical term includes readymade lexical meanings that already exist in the names. The ability to form new pedagogical terms depends on the internal capabilities of the language and is determined by the degree to which different word-formation methods and models have been developed. Such pedagogical terms are created in an associative semantic way. Their words can be divided into the following groups. First of all, pedagogical terms can be divided into two main groups. 1. Terms of educational theory. 2. Terms of upbringing theory. 1. Terms related to the education system, curriculum, subject of study, educational nature of education.2. Terms related to the system of education: upbringing, educator, moral education, labor education c. h. It should be noted that in English and Uzbek languages, pedagogical terms can be divided into groups. For example:
1. Names of persons whose activities are related to education: rector, vicerector, dean, teacher, class teacher.
2. There are many terms that express pedagogical concepts. Institute, pedagogy, method, practice, entrant, school, lesson, teacher, exam, book, school, etc. According to the researcher, there are more than ten thousand pedagogical terms.
3. Legislative terms are also widely used in English and Uzbek in the field of pedagogy. For example, The state and society (davlat va jamiyat) is a separate component of the National Training Program of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the management and control of the training and education system, the requirements and conditions of training. The national anthem (Davlat gimni )one of the state symbols, a ceremonial musical or musical-work, usually performed in situations provided for by special law, may be accepted to stand up during the performance and take off the hat.13

13 X.Paluanova, M.Musurmonova, K.Riskulova, Z.Kurbanniyazova. "Pedagogik atamalar ro'yhati" 16.11.2012

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The state grant (Davlat granti) - 1) performance of subsidized research or development covered by the state order. 2) paid funds allocated for financial support of scientific research, scientists, authors of works of literature and art. A grant is not a loan that must be paid. This is a gift for completing a specific task. A government grant is a state-funded university that pays for the tuition of students. The secular nature of state, municipal educational institutions (Davlat munitsipal ta'lim muassasalarining dunyoviy xarakteri) - one of the principles of state policy in the field of education. The state educational standard (Davlat ta'lim standarti) ­is adocument that defines the main state requirements for the necessary,sufficient degree of education and the volume of the training load.
The languages being compared also have abbreviations for pedagogical terms. That is, it is an abbreviation, as many people think, but a particular type of service, situation, or special attention. In our research, we have seen that such terms are also available in English and Uzbek and are widely used in pedagogy. For example:

«VIP»

Ab.

In Uzbek

In English Ab.

AKT

Axborot

Information and ICT

komunikativ

communication

texnologiyalari. technology.

AO'T Avtomatlashtirilgan Automated

ATS

o'qitish tizimi

Teaching System

BMT

Birlashgan

United Nations UNO

Millatlar Tashkiloti Organization

DTS

Davlat

ta'lim State Educational SES

standarti

Standard

IELTS Xalqaro ingliz tili International

IELTS

test tizimi

English Language

Testing System

ITI

Ilmiy tadqiqot Research

RI

institutlari

Institutes

ECTS Kridetlarni to'plash European Credit ECTS

va o'tqazishning Transfer System

Yevropa tizimi

OTM

Oliy

Ta'lim Higher

HEI

Muassasasi

Educational

Institute

UNESCO Birlashgan

United National UNESCO

Millatlar

Educstional

Tashkilotining

Scientific and

ta'lim,fan

va Cultural

madaniyat

Organization

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masalalari bo'yicha

maxsus tashkiloti

Masofaviy o'qitish Distance Learning DL

MO'

YDI Yagona Davlat The Only State TOSE

Imtixoni

Exam

The XXI century, as the information age, requires the informatization and

technologicalization of education. It is difficult to imagine the prospects of

pedagogical science and the educational process without computers and the

Internet. Therefore, every educator working in the education system requires the

process of informatization, the use of electronic networks, knowledge of computer

technology, their introduction into the educational process. it requires knowledge,

skills and competencies to work with them. Here are some examples of these

terms that are widely used in pedagogy in English and Uzbek. For example:

(ramka),(yorliq,),, -,( veb-brauzer, web

browser),Virtual doska, on-line, smart board e.t

Conclusion.

So, pedagogy cannot be imagined without special terms. It can be

concluded that in the lexicon of modern languages there is a special

terminological system - pedagogical terminological system, which is used in

practice. This, in turn, will help educators to keep pace with the times, their

adaptation and socialization to the information and computerized education

system, understanding of e-pedagogy and trends in the global education system,

socially active pedagogical activity.

List of used literature:

1. X.Paluanova, M.Musumonova, K.Riskulova, Z.Kurbanniyazova. "Pedagogik

atamalar ro'yhati"16.11.2012

2.  ..      //  

.­ : - .-, 1980. ­ . 3-9.

3. Paluanova H. The new trends in contemporary linguistics//LangLit:

AnInternational Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal (ISSN 2349-5189), IBI

Factor 2015 ­ Indexed ­ 2.4. India, 2016, Vol-2, Issue­4.

4.    . . .



"



:,

,

"./10.02.20

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UDK 911.3:33

Nosirov B.G., magistri O'zbekiston milliy universiteti

FARG'ONA VILOYATIGA IQTISODIY TAVSIF VA UNDA TURIZMNING AHAMIYATI

Annotatsiya: ushbu maqolada Farg'ona viloyatining asosiy iqtisodiy tarmoqlari, ularning 2020-yilning dastlabki yarim yilligidagi iqtisodiy faoliyati tahlil qilingan. Shuningdek viloyat iqtisodiyotida turizmning tutgan o'rni, ahamiyati hamda mavjud imkoniyatlar ko'rib chiqilgan.
Kalit so'zlar: iqtisodiyot, sanoat, qishloq xo'jaligi, investitsiya, geografik joylashuv, eksport, import, Hunarmandlar festivali.

Nosirov B.G., Magistr of the National University of Uzbekistan

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FERGANA REGION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM IN IT

Annotation: This article analyzes the main economic sectors of Fergana region, their economic activity in the first half of 2020. The role, importance and existing opportunities of tourism in the regional economy were also discussed.
Key words: economy, industry, agriculture, investment, geography, export, import, Crafts Festival.

Farg'ona viloyati O'zbekistonning sharqiy qismida joylashgan bo'lib, uzoq tarixga ega qadimiy hududlardan biridir. 1938-yil 15-yanvarda viloyat sifatida tashkil etilgan bo'lib, maydoni 6.8ming km2, aholisi 2020yil 1-oktabr holatiga ko'ra 3million 817ming kishini tashkil etmoqda. Ma'muriy jihatdan tarkibida 15ta tuman, 9ta shahar, 10ta shaharcha va 164dan ortiq qishloq fuqarolar yig'ini mavjud.
Farg'ona respublikamizning yirik sanoat markazlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Viloyatda sanoat tarmoqlarini rivojlantirish uchun qulay geografik joylashuvi, resurslar bilan ta'minlanganlik darajasi katta ahamiyatga ega. Asosiy sanoat tarmoqlari sifatida yoqilg'i energetika, kimyo, mashinasozlik, qurilish materiallari, paxta tozalash va qayta ishlash, yengil va oziq-ovqat hamda elektr energiya ishlab chiqarish tarmoqlari salmoqli ahamiyatga ega. Viloyatning eng yirik kimyo sanoati zavodlari Farg'ona va Qo'qon shahrida joylashgan "Azot" ishlab chiqarish birlashmalari, 1956-yilda tashkil etilgan Qo'qon superfosfat zavodi, shuningdek kimyoviy tolalar, furan birirkmalari zavodi shular jumlasidandir. Yoqilg'i energetika sanoatining rivojlanishi esa Farg'ona va Oltiariq neftni qayta ishlash zavodlari faoliyati bilan bog'liq. Qurilish sanoatida

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ham viloyatlar o'rtasida Farg'ona o'z o'rniga ega bo'lib, bunda Quvasoy sement zavodining ahamiyati benihoya katta. Bu zavod respublikada ishlab chiqariladigan sementning to'rtdan bir qismidan ko'prog'ini beradi. Hozirgi kunda shu sement zavodi negizida shifer, g'isht, turli chinni va shisha idish ishlab chiqarish zavodlari ishlab turibdi. Viloyatda 2019-yil yakuni bo'yicha mavjud 418ta qo'shma korxona hamda 29600ta kichik korxonalar faoliyat yuritmoqda.[1]
2020 yil yanvar-iyun oylarida Farg`ona viloyati bo`yicha yalpi hududiy mahsulot (YAHM) hajmi 16 857,3 mlrd. so`mni tashkil etdi va 2019 yilning tegishli davriga nisbatan 0,5 % ga o`sdi. 2020 yilning yanvar-iyun oylari yakunlari bo`yicha aholi jon boshiga YAHM 4 474,9 ming so`mni tashkil etib, bu ko`rsatkich o`tgan yilning shu davriga nisbatan 1,3 % ga kamayganini ko'rish mumkin. O`zbekiston Respublikasi bo`yicha YAIMni shakllantirishda Farg`ona viloyatining ko`shgan hissasi shu 6 oy hisob kitoblari bo'yicha 6,6 % ni tashkil etmoqda.
2020-yil yanvar-iyun oylari davomida 634,1 mln.dollar tashqi savdo aylanmasi amalga oshirildi. Bundan eksport ulushi 249,2 mln. dollar, import esa 384,9 mln.dollarni tashkil etdi. Bugungi kunda viloyatda 7 988 ta sanoat korxonalari faoliyat ko`rsatayotgan bo`lib, ularning hududiy tarqalishi bo'yicha dastlabki yetakchi hududlar -1358 tasi Qo`qon shahri, 953 tasi Marg`ilon shahri, 972 tasi Farg`ona shahridir. Joriy yilning yanvar-iyun oylarida viloyatda 663 ta yangi sanoat korxonalari tashkil etilgan bo`lib, ulardan 68 tasi Qo`qon shahri, 68 tasi Marg`ilon shahri, 58 tasi Farg`ona shahriga to'g'ri keladi. 2020 yil yanvariyun oylari yakunlari bo'yicha viloyat korxonalari tomonidan 9 458,2 mlrd. so`mlik sanoat mahsulotlari ishlab chiqarildi.
2020 yil dastlabki 6 oyi davomida asosiy kapitalga kiritilgan investitsiyalarning umumiy hajmi milliy valyutada 4 876,8 mlrd. so`mni yoki 2019 yilning mos davriga nisbatan o`sish sur'ati 93,2 foizni tashkil qildi. Eng ko`p kichik biznes sub'ektlari savdo tarmog`ida 1 114 ta (jami tashkil etilgan sub'ektlarning 40,9 foizi), sanoat sohasida 661 ta (24,3 foizi), qishloq, o`rmon va baliqchilik xo`jaligida 263 ta (9,7 foizi) va qurilishda 221 ta (8,1 foizi) tashkil etilgan.
Umumiy holatda 2020 yilning yanvar-may oylarida viloyatdagi jami iqtisodiyot tarmoqlaridan 345 053,6 mln.so`m miqdorda yakuniy moliyaviy natija olindi. 2019 yilning shu davriga nisbatan solishtirganimizda, foyda hajmi 2019 yil yanvar-may oylarida 494 520,6 mln. so`m foyda bilan yakunlangan, 2020 yil joriy davrda foyda 345 053,6 mln. so`mni tashkil etdi. Albatta viloyatda ishlab chiqarish jarayonlari rivojlanishi, eksport-import salohiyatiga COVID-19 pandemiyasi o'zining juda kata ta'sirini ko'rsatdi. Shu sababdan ba'zi tarmoqlarda pasayish holatlari kuzatildi, lekin qishloq xo'jaligi tarmoqlarida o'sish ko'rsatkichlari saqlanib qoldi.[2]
Farg'ona viloyati iqtisodiyotining rivojlanishi, YaIM qiymati, aholini ish bilan ta'minlanishi, infrastrukturani shakllanishida turizm o'ziga xos ahamiyatga ega. 2019-yil yakuni bo'yicha viloyatda tashrif buyuruvchilarga xizmat

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ko'rsatuvchi 7ta turistik tashkilot ro'yxatdan o'tkazilgan. 2019-yil davomida ushbu firmalar tomonidan 1557 nafar turistlarga xizmat ko'rsatilib, 170 nafar turistlar qabul qilindi, 893 nafari jo'natildi. Ushbu tashrif buyuruvchilarning 429 nafari 1kunlik tashrif buyuruvchilar bo'lsa, 634 nafari tunab qoluvchilardir.(1diagramma) Viloyatda so'nggi yillarda turistik obyektlarga alohida e'tibor ko'rsatilayotgani, Qo'qon shahrida har 2yilda 1marta hunarmandlar festivali, Marg'ilon shahrida 6-11-oktyabr kunlari An'anaviy hunarmandchilik va dizayn bo'yicha treninglar tashkil etilayotgani viloyat hududiga sayyohlarning qiziqishini oshirmoqda. Hozirda 7ta turistik firmada jami 50dan ortiq aholi ish biland band bo'lib, ularning 17nafari oliy ma'lumotli, 33 nafari o'rta malumotlilardir. Jami faoliyat yuritayotgan mutaxassislarning 14nafarini ayollar tashkil qiladi. Mutaxassislar orasida 8ta menedjer, 2ta gid va 24ta ekskursovodlar mavjud. Viloyat hududida jami 87ta joylashtirish vositalari ya'ni mehmonxonalar ro'yxatga olingan bo'lib, mehmonlarga 594 nafar hodim xizmat ko'rsatmoqda.
1-jadval

2019-yil davomida 72118ta mehmonlar joylashtirilgan bo'lib, asosan 27717 nafari ish yuzasidan viloyatga tashrif buyuruvchilardan iborat. Tashrif buyuruvchilar orasida 14nafari viloyat hududida 180-365-kun oralig'ida tunab qolgan. Viloyat hududida turizmning rivojlanishiga viloyat hududida mavjud 33ta sanatoriya ham katta ijobiy ta'sir ko'rsatmoqda. Ularda 1677ta turistlarni joylashtirish imkoniyati mavjud. Viloyat 2019-yil davomida jami 8011ta sayyohlik yo'llanmalari sotilib, undan viloyat iqtisodiyotiga jami 9489 million so'm miqdori daromad keldi. 2018-yilda esa turizmdan tushgan daromad 5109 million so'mni tashkil etgan.[3]
2019-yilda daromadlar 2018-yilga nisbatan 4380million so'mga yoki 85%ga oshganini ko'rishimiz mumkin. 2019-yil oxiri 2020-yil davomida turizmdan olinadigan daromadlar miqdoriga COVID-19 pandemiyasi juda kata

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ta'sir o'tkazdi. Turizmdan olinayotgan daromad YaHMning 0.5 foizini tashkil qilsada, kelgusi yillarda turistik infrastrukturaning yanada rivojlanishi, hukumatimiz tomonidan berilayotgan alohida e'tibor sabab bu ko'rsatkich yanada o'sishiga ishonamiz.
Foydalanilgan adabiyotlar ro'yxati: 1.wikipedia.uz 2. "Farg'ona viloyati statistik axborotnomasi". Farg'ona viloyati statistika boshqarmasi. - Farg'ona. 2020-yil 28-yanvar 3. "Farg'ona viloyati iqtisodiy va turizm bo'yicha statistik ma'lumotlari". Farg'ona. 2019-yil
Internet resurslari: https://uzbektourism.uz/ru/docs/-3141186 http://farstat.uz/uz/432-analiticheskie-materialy-uz/4083-iqtisodiy-tahlil
References: 1. wikipedia.uz 2. "Statistical bulletin of Fergana region". Fergana Regional Statistics Department. Fergana. January 28, 2020 3. "Tourism and economic Statistics of the Fergana Regional Prosecutor's Office." Fergana. 2019
Internet resources: https://uzbektourism.uz/ru/docs/-3141186 http://farstat.uz/uz/432-analiticheskie-materialy-uz/4083-iqtisodiy-tahlil

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

O`rolova M.J. student
Uzbekistan State World Languages University Isoqova D.I. student
Tashkent State Pedagogical University

DEPLETION OF THE OZONE LAYER AND ITS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES

Abstract: In this article, paramount data about the causes of ozone layer depletion is carried out. As a result of ozone layer erosion, the climate and nature of the entire planet may alter and the conditions for living organisms to live may change. Recommendations are being scrutinized to determine and analyze geological changes in the ozone layer. Humankind also have a pivotal role in happening problems that arise. These issues are named anthropogenic problems. Ozone is constantly formed from the oxygenated air in the atmosphere of our planet. The upper layers of the atmosphere are a natural space for the formation of ozone. This thesis elaborates on scientist`s views on how catastrophic this global problem is.
Key words: ozone layer, anthropogenic, ozone hole, Freon.

INTRODUCTION The relationship between nature and society intensified in the middle of the last century. The main reasons are that humans have not mastered the laws of nature well in the use of natural resources and utilized them inefficiently. Erosion of ozone layer is one of the global problems. Ozone substances have been identified by german scientist Sheynben in 1939. In the 1970s, scientists have repeatedly mentioned the depletion of ozone layer. The main reason is that the fight against to this problem is uppermost. In our first president`s work, it is given as follows "In the phase of centuries connected, the whole of humanity, the population of our country encountered a great environmental threat. Not realizing it is tantamount to condemn oneself to death". In 2006, our first President Karimov introduced the laws "On ratification at the amendment to the Monreal Protocal on ozone depleting substances (Beijing, December 3, 1993)". The presence of ozone layer in the upper part of the atmosphere was determined by the British scientist Gartli. University of California scientists Mario Molina and Frink Sherved have offered a novel method to detect ozone layer. Climate changes occurring at the moment are leading to decrease of people`s immunity and a variety of diseases.

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1. The impact of the human factor on nature. The beginning of human`s influence on nature dates to the Neolithic period. In the rudimentary stages of humans` history, their effect on nature was negligible. If they took something from nature. They returned it to nature. The didn`t disturb periodic circulation of substances in nature. Step by step, influence on nature has grown gradually. Over the 100 years, as a result of scientific technological revolution, the biogenic migration of elements under human influence has intensified. Throughout history, humanity with their labour activities has tried to take more advantage from the environment as much as possible. People have not think carefully about what the consequences of interfering with natural phenomena would be. In the next century, the impact of humans on the biosphere has been greatly intensified and has led to insidious problems. Natural resources are dwinding. The environment is polluted and poisoned by industrial, domestic waste, harmful and chemical substances. In fact that people do not have a good understanding of the laws of nature changes and thus, they lead to very tragic alterations in the external environment. The increasing impact of people on the hydrosphere and atmosphere is leading to climate changes within the biosphere. Particularly, in the next years, the amount of carbon dioxide is increasing more and more in the atmosphere. The use of fossil fuels induces to a decrease in the combustion of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide. The surface temperature of the Earth was determined to rise an average of 0,6. 2. Negative effects of ozone layer. Climate changes are causing the extent of deserts to expand, glaciers in the mountains to melt and ocean as well as sea levels to decline. There is the ozone layer in the atmosphere, its maximum concentration is 20-25 km above the Earth`s surface. The ozone is derived from the Greek word for allotropic form of odorreleasing oxygen. The ozone was first discovered in 1785 by the Dutch physicist Van Marun, when electric sparks were passed through the air produced a peculiar odor and had oxidizing properties. The ozone is in very small amounts in the air and increases as it moves away from the Earth`s surface. It is utilized in the purification of drinking water due to its oxidizing, disinfecting and bactericidal properties, and in the blenching of oil and paper as an oxidant in the food industry. The increase of nitrogen dioxide and Freon has been leading to the depletion of the ozone layer for several years. Freon is widely used as a sprayer of varnishes and paints, as a coolant in refrigerators and air conditioners. In recent years there have been causing tragic and turbulent events such as the formation of " ozone holes" due to the erotion of ozone in the atmosphere of Antarctica. The depletion of the Earth`s atmosphere in the ozone layer was first observed over Antarctica in 1895 and then Arctic in 1992. The ozone layer is thought to be the consequence of anthropogenic effects of human activities, including the widespread use of chlorinated coolants (freon), which depletes the ozone layer,in industry and in every day life. The Vienna convention for the protection of the ozone layer was

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adopted in 1985, and Monreal Protocol in 1987. In 1987, in Monreal, Canada representatives of 50 countries signed an international agreement to reduce freon production by an average of 50 percent. The expansion and proliferation of ozone layer holes are one of the most global problems of humankind. The issue was brought to the attention of the world public opinion by British scholars 25 years ago. When many people do not pay attention to the " word in the sky" the significance of the ozone layer, how important it is for our planet, has been repeatedly proven by scientists. Ozone is a very toxic substance and is nothing more than a poison from the point of view of our daily lifetime. This substance which is formed by the bombardment of oxygen by the Sun`s rays, protects from the gangerous ultraviolet rays of the Sun. That is to say, ozone layer is the Earth`s own protective shield.
3.Scientists` theories about ozone depletion. There are several theories on the reasons of decay of this layer. At first, scientists deduced that ozone would be depleted under the influence high-altitude rockets and aircrafts. They later acknowledged that the toxic gases emitted into the atmosphere by chemical plants, freons chlorofluorocarbons are the most dangerous substance of ozone. The erosition of the ozone layer has a negative impact not only on humanity, but also on natural processes. Hundred millions of tons of pollutants are released into the atmosphere every year. From this we can see that, the toxic gases emitted by man-made plants, factories and industrial enterprises are causing ozone depletion. As a result, global warming and the increase of acid rains are observed. Despite the fact that the total amount of ozone in the atmosphere is only 0,0001 percent, it increases the reach of dangerous ultraviolet rays to the Earth by 2 percent. What problems will arise as a result of this destruction not only for people, but also for nature. -As a result of layer erosion, large amount of solar radiation reach the Earth`s surface. -Mankind is diagnosed with skin cancer. Doctors say the treatment of this type of cancer is very complicated. -There is a decline in the human immune system to fight against diseases. -The eye which is the most important organ of mankind is damaged. -Productivity decreases. The trees will dry out even if care for. -Ultraviolet rays poison creatures in the world oceans and plants. CONCLUSION Whether this will lead to more negative consequences in the future. According to experts, in February, the total amount of ozone layer risk reached a low value. The erosion in 2011 led to an increase in ultraviolet radiation levels in many parts of the northern hemisphere. Further depletion of the ozone layer shortens human life. In 1994, the UN General Assembly declared September 16 as International Ozone Protection Day. On September 16, 1987, representatives of 36 countries signed the document restricting or suspending the production of ozone-depleting substances. The Earth planet is like a giant ship carrying 7,5

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billion passengers. The catastrophe of this ship is equal to a tragedy for every passenger on board. Of course, the ozone conservation is not just the job of government agencies or large companies; it is the duty of all human beings. If all humanity unites and solves this problem, we can achieve the expected result. Let`s unite for our bright future.
References: 1. Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan " On water and water use", 1993. 2. Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Nature Protection", 1992. 3. Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On protection of atmospheric air ", 1996. 4. Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone Layer, 1993. 5. National Action Plan to combat Desertification,1999.

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UDK: 08.00.05

Obidova F.Ya. senior lecturer Jizzakh polytechnic institute
Uzbekistan

GREEN INNOVATION IN BUSINESS MARKET

Abstract: This article proposes to demonstrate the desirability of a green business methodology and how it can enable organisations to discover commercially interesting innovative business opportunities while respecting the environment. Management methodologies for green business can help transform these challenges into new market opportunities.
Key words: innovation, business model, life cycle, eco-innovation, sustainable development, global markets.

Introduction The Canvas Business Model is a strategic management template tool for analysing the concepts of the business model and explains how the company is carrying it out, how value is created for customers, the company and its stakeholders. It consists of different elements such as revenues and costs, resources, activities, relationships and internal and external networks. The Green Business Model Innovation Scheme leads to a large number of diverse opportunities to change business models and increase their potential to generate systemic eco-innovation, in order to make the green growth objective of absolute decoupling of resources possible. Green business models that have gained ground must ensure energy savings for industrial companies and charge according to the energy savings achieved as a result of their installations, also have the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of toxic chemicals. Methodology Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in harmony, enabling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations to be met. Green innovation is the creation or implementation of new, or significantly improved, products (goods and services), processes, marketing methods, organizational structures leading to environmental improvements. Sustainable development is a broad concept that contains an ecological, economic and social dimension and requires substantial innovation, and green innovation is a specific tool to achieve sustainable development. Green innovation refers to innovation in technologies, products, services, organisational structures or management modes adopted by companies to achieve sustainable development. Green innovation emphasises innovation

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towards sustainability, contributing to efforts to reduce environmental burdens. Sustainable innovations are inventions that provide essential progress with regard to social, economic and ecological concerns.
To achieve a sustainable advantage in the globalised market, companies must address both technological innovation and administrative innovation, the adoption of new organisational structures or management systems, thus improving production and management processes to reduce negative environmental impacts Green innovation applies environmental scientific knowledge and technology to achieve a harmonious development of the economy and the environment in the production process These efforts include developing technologies and products that help save energy and raw materials, use energy efficiently and implement biodegradable packaging.
Green business model innovation is innovation throughout the business cycle, including the design, production, supply and end use of commercial products that can reduce the cost of energy in society and increase profits for the company at the same time. Green business innovation can be classified into three main categories: green product innovation; green process innovation; and green management innovation. Green innovation is positively associated with business competitive advantage called green core competence. The product that meets the customer demand and environmental requirement can stand out in the market for more benefits to the company. Businesses, as the most active part in the life of the city, whose green innovation is aimed at implementing green management programmes effectively to improve the environmental performance of a plant. Thus, green business model innovation can definitely lead to an eco-city.
Green business model innovation is not always due to a one-time change, aiming at ecological and economic effects, but rather the result of continuous changes or efficiency thanks to the business model in time that finally ends up being categorised as green business model innovation. Currently, there are several companies, who have implemented some methods and strategies such as cradle to cradle, sale of ecological products or services, incentive models, life cycle models among others, to create new opportunities in the market. Some of these are explained below:
Incentive Models: These are based on how a company incentivises its consumers in a way in that part or all of the value chain. Typically a company that retains ownership of a product or is paid to incentivise its functionality to produce, maintain and dispose of the product as such so that the entire value chain is environmentally friendly. However, these models use incentive schemes and change ownership structures as the company enters new markets in the value chain. Examples of these incentive models are: Functional sales, energy saving company, chemical management service, and finally the model design, build, finance, operate.
Life Cycle Models: This model can be divided into several categories with respect to which part and which part of the value chain is overshadowed by the

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model. If a company focuses on greening the entire value chain, there is a greater chance that the company's actions will be seen as green from a life cycle perspective. Green supply chain management and green procurement focus on the top of the value chain while product stewardship, extended producer responsibility and recovery management focus on the downstream value chain. One of the models commonly used in the last decade has been "cradle to cradle", in addition to the Recovery Management model, followed by "green supply chain management".
Companies design and make changes to their business model by studying the business models of other companies, further strengthening their position in the market by considering customer segments, their value proposition, profitability scheme, various activities and partner relationships, among others, to change the content of their offerings, their value chain, reduce costs and risks and increase profitability.
RESULTS Measuring the results of companies to be achieved after transforming parts of their business models or implementing new ones is not an easy task. Many companies' first attempts at green business model innovation are aimed at a limited number of product lines or initial attempts at selling services in a new way. During the testing of different ways of doing green business model innovation focus is not initially placed on how to measure results. It is difficult to isolate the specific indicators related to the results of the green innovation business model, especially if the innovation affects only one product line where the cost and revenue figures are not broken down into such detailed levels. CONCLUSION Every day more and more entrepreneurs decide to start a green business, because environmental protection is becoming more and more important for consumers. Consumers, in turn, demand products and services that not only meet the usual quality standards, but are also committed to and respectful of the planet. The most outstanding advantage of a green business is the reduction of operating costs, which can also translate into huge net benefits for your company. Analyze this topic well, as it will allow you to save a lot of money for future projects.
References: 1. Obidova, F. Ya. (2017). REFORMING OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN. Actual scientific research in the modern world, 13 (11-13), 87-90. 2. Obidova, F. Ya. (2020). SMALL BUSINESS IN THE ECONOMY. Economy and Society, (2), 264-266. 3. Umarova, Z.O., & Obidova, F. Ya. (2019). SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE ECONOMIC ZONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY. Actual scientific research in the modern world, (2-6), 53-57.

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4. Baizakova, D.F., & Obidova, F. Ya. (2018). DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS AND PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN. Modern humanities research, (3), 51-53. 5. Berdiyorov, T., & Berdiyorov, A. (2020). Long-range planning of a public transport company.   , (29). 6. Rasulova, S. G., & Obidova, F. Y. (2019). ISSUES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT. Theoretical & Applied Science, (9), 426-429.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_195 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Qayumova K.Sh. Junior Research Fellow Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan
SOURCES OF IBN AL-ASIR'S WORK "AL-KAMIL FI-T- TARIKH"
Annotation: This article focuses on the work of al-Kamil fi-t-history, which is famous for Ibn al-Asir. The eight-volume work of Ibn al-Asir relates to the genre of general historical chronicles recorded in the chronicles. The book covers the history of the Arab Caliphate and all Islamic countries from the "creation of the world" to 628 / 1230-31 and reflects the high level of Muslim chronicle history.
The article also provides information on the source foundations of Al Kamil fi-t Tarikh
Keywords: "Al-Kamil fi-t-Tarikh", "Kitab fi akhbor vuloti Khurasan", asSalami, Balazuri, Tabari, Ibn Miskawayh, "Ansab al-ashraf", "creation" of the universe
Study of human history has always been relevant. On this basis, many historians have worked to create a "perfect history." One such scholar is Ibn al'Asir. His famous work "al-Kamil fi-t-tarikh" is a great source of his time. From the point of view of source studies, it serves as an important source in the coverage of the history of many regions, in particular, Khorasan and Movaraunnahr in the XII-XIII centuries.
fi-t-Tarikh Ibn al-'Asir states that he wrote the main part of the work in Qasr Harb, where he was born and raised, where he had a large and rich library. It is also thought that Ibn al-'Asir began writing it before 595 / 1198-1199, and that the work was originally called Al-Muqtasa fi-t-tarikh and was written before 595 / 1198-1199.
Ibn al-'Asir's eight-volume work belongs to the genre of general historical chronicle recorded in the annals. The work covers the history of the Arab Caliphate and all Islamic countries from the "creation of the world" to 628 / 123031 and reflects the high level of Muslim chronicle historiography. If the famous geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi's Mujam al-buldon (Dictionary of Countries) "contains all the available information in the field of geographical literature of its time (XIII century)," his contemporaries Ibn al-'Asir's Al-Kamil fi-t-Tarikh can be called "a work that contains all the information available in the field of historical literature of its time." Ibn Khaliqan recognizes Ibn al-Asir's work as one of the best of all the famous works on the history of the Muslim world.
Volumes VII-XII of the work are of independent, special importance and cover the events that took place in the countries of the East between 924-1231, as

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well as in Movarounnahr, and are mainly manuscript sources, as well as those who are well acquainted with history. Based on the information provided and the rich and factual material collected during the author's personal observations. Even today, historians write about the events up to 628, mainly using the work of Ibn al-'Asir.
Volume XII of Al-Kamil fi-t-Tarikh, especially dedicated to the Mongol invasion, has a special value and serves as a major source in the study of the sociopolitical history of Movarounnahr and the countries of the East in the first quarter of the XIII century.
The play makes extensive use of many valuable sources, including Tabari and al-Sallami's lesser-known Kitab al-Akhbar Vuloti Khorasan (The Book of Information about the Rulers of Khorasan).
The first part of Al-Kamil fi-t-Tarikh (Volumes I-IV) contains a description of the events that took place from the "creation" of the universe to 931. They are based on the works of earlier scholars such as Balazuri, Tabari, Ibn Miskawayh, al-Sulami and others. But even in this section, there is important and valuable information that is often not found in the main sources.
For example, in 751, there was a battle on the Talas River between the Arab and Movarounnahr armies and the Chinese army, in which thousands of Chinese troops were crushed.
In addition, information about al-Sallami and his important historical work came to us only thanks to Ibn al-Asir.
Ibn al-'Asir's work is based on many written monuments and is a collection of all the historical information available in the Arab-Muslim sources of his time. The main source for Ibn al-'Asir to shed light on pre-Islamic history, which is given in the first seven volumes and covers the first three centuries of Islam, is Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310 AH / 923 CE) until 302 AH. There was a work entitled "History ar-rusul wa-l-muluk" ("History of Prophets and Kings"), which contains of the history.
Among the sources systematically used by Ibn al-'Asir is the Ansab alAshraf, written by the famous Baghdad historian Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jabir alBalazuri (d. 279/892) and published in Egypt in 1959. Ibn al-'Asir, the main source for writing the history of Khorasan and Movarounnahr from the second half of the 7th century to the middle of the 10th century was the Central Asian historian Abu al-Husayn 'Ali ibn Ahmad as-Sallami's "History of the News of Khorasan." (History of the Rulers of Khorasan), he was a close associate of the famous Samanid ruler Abu Bakr Chaghani and his son Abu Ali, and wrote his work until his death. 344/955. In addition to Ibn al-'Asir, al-Salami's work has been studied by others, including Abu Sa'id Gardizi (d. 440/1049), Abu Nasr Ali ibn Hibat Allah (d. 486/1093), better known as Ibn Makul, 'Awfi (d. 625). / around 1228), Ibn Khalliqan (died 681/1282) and Abu Hafs' Umar ibn Muhammad anNasafi (died 537/1142) in their works.

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In addition to Ibn al-'Asir as-Salami, Abu 'Abd Allah used a historical work of Muhammad ibn al-Azhar al-Ahbari (d. 325 / 936-37) that has not survived to illuminate the history of the Saffarids used. The remaining sources of Ibn al-'Asir's work are still unknown due to the lack of commentary by the author. The main significance of Ibn al-Asir's work is that it is reflected in the study of historical events written by the author from the 10th century to 628 / 1230-31. In this section, he cites numerous sequels to al-Tabari's history, as well as a number of regional chronicles.
Ibn al-'Asir's work is the first source to cover the period of the Mongol invasion, as the author was a direct witness and contemporary of the events of that time. Apart from Ibn al-Asir, only two contemporary Arabic-speaking authors, Shihab ad-din Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Nasafi, who wrote The Life of Khorezmshah Jalal ad-din Manguberdi, narrated the events surrounding the Mongol invasion. (647/1249) and Minhaj ad-din Abu 'Umar' Uthman ibn Muhammad al-Juzjani (after his death 658/1260), who wrote the famous Nasir Tables. This information in itself highlights the importance of Ibn al-Asir's chronicle in shedding light on the history of the Mongol conquest of Islamic countries, including Central Asia.
Ibn al-'Asir also mentions sources from which he received oral information. He cites a lawyer who was in Bukhara during the Mongol invasion. When the invaders brought him to Samarkand, he fled to Baghdad. Ibn al-'Asir's informants were also Khorezm merchants. Another informant of Ibn al-'Asir was Daquq, a victim of the Khorezmian army who had fled from the Mongols. Another was a Mosul soldier who was the son of the Khorezm king 'Ala' ad-din Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, one of the emirs of Takash, was in the service of the Taj ad-din. Ibn al-'Asir's informants were also among the servants of the "House of the Prophet" in Madinah, who, after returning from Khurasan, visited the palace of the Khorezmshah with Ala'ad-din Muhammad ibn Takash before his march against the Chinese. There was also a man who told Ibn al-'Asir about the meeting.
Unlike Ibn al-'Asir al-Tabari, he uses a critical approach in giving different versions of the scene, and tries to prove his point to this or that version by avoiding the phrase "Allah is All-Knowing."For example, Ibn al-'Asir gives two versions of the details of the Mongol conquest of Bukhara, but mentions the second version, which he considers more reliable.
In this sense, Ibn al-'Asir's work, despite its compilation of coverage of the events of the middle of the tenth century, retains its independent significance in the study of general and specific problems. In the second part of the work, which reflects the events that took place from the second half of the tenth century to the middle of the twelfth century, Ibn al-'Asir is a relatively little-known, partly unknown, and unpublished work. used data. This part of the work, which covers the period from the second half of the twelfth century to the middle of the thirteenth century, is the original source, and the information contained in it is original.

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References: 1.   .   (Ibn al-Asir. Tarikh kamil) In the Old Uzbek Alphabet, a group of translators 1901-1907. Khorezm. In: 824-825.1389 b 2.   .  (Ibn al-Asir. At-tarikh fi-al-kamil) ­ (Bayrut) ­ .1987 . 3. Richards D.S. Ibn al-Athir and the Later Parts of the Kamil: A Study of Aims and Methods. In: Medieval Historical Writing in the Christian and Islamic World. London, 1982, pp. 76-108. 4. ..        .   VII. .  9 . . 5. ­ .: "", 1968. ­ 757 . 5. -. - -- / . .. . ­ ., 2006.­ 360 . 6. -. "- --" (   . ) //       . ­ .: "", 2003. . 136-190. 7. .  "- --"  - //      . ­ : "", 1986. ­ .101-107. 8. Ibn al-asir, Izzaddin Ali. Al-Kamil fi at-tarix. ­ Beirut, 1987. ­ 10 G.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_199 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Qorayev Sh. Independent Researcher of Tashkent State Uzbek Language and Literature University

STORY NIGHTS IN THE PRESENCE OF AMIR TEMUR

Annotation: This article provides information on the nights of storytelling in the Middle Ages during the reign of Timur. It also mentions famous historians of the time and their works.
Keywords: historical information, works, Temur's history, strory nights, past memories

In the middle Ages, nights of revenge were held in the presence of rulers. Hundreds of stories about the lives of prophets and saints, such as "Kisas ulAnbiya", "Fourteen stories about Hazrat Ali", and "The story of Ibrahim Adham" were heard at meetings and special gatherings. According to historical sources, retaliation nights were organized in the presence of Amir Temur (1336-1405). Ibn Arabshah wrote in his History of Amir Temur: "The history of Timur's books-- the mercy of Allah and the peace of the Bulgarian prophets, the biographies of previous kings and the stories of the ancient salafs -- were constantly on the move, even when he was in a state of hadar. He also taught and listened intently. Because of the repeated reading of these stories, the constant playing of their melodies, Timur completely mastered the reins of these stories, as if "taking" the example of his own property. If the narrator made a mistake, Timur would correct him. Timur had such historians as Nizami Shami, Ibn Arabshah, Ali Yazdi. He also had many storytellers. Nevertheless, the names of many are not clear. In those days, there were many commonalities between historical books and fictionreligious stories, and it was difficult to imagine any of them without art. In this sense, there is no doubt that such works have given the great master not only knowledge and information, but also artistic pleasure.
"Temur's Statutes" gives a clear idea of the stories that Amir Temur listened to during the night of storytelling. He wrote in his diaries, "I asked the wise men about the laws and customs of the sultans who passed from Adam to Hatam and from there to the present day (until the time of Amir Temur). I memorized the instructions, attitudes, actions, and words of each of them, and I followed their good morals and good qualities. I inquired about the reasons for the decline of their countries, I avoided the things that would lead to the collapse of the state and the kingdom, and I felt the need to avoid the oppression and depravity that plague the generation, the plague that plagues the plague", he said.

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Mir Sayyid Jurjani's letter to Temur in "Temur's Statutes" contains a number of stories that Sahibkiran memorized:
- The story of Umar ibn Abdulaziz, the Umayyad caliph, when the foreigners cursed Hazrat Ali, resolved the disputes at a time when Islam was weakening, and developed the true religion;
- The story of Caliph Ma'mun ibn Harun al-Rashid, who abolished seventy-two false sects in Islam, developed the true sect, the Ahl as-Sunnah wa'lJama'ah, and declared Ali ibn Musa Ja'far as the Wali'ah and ruled the country on his advice;
- The story of the caliph Muqtadir Billah, who suppressed the conspiracy during the conquest of Makkah by Abu Tahir, killed thirty thousand pilgrims on the day of 'Arafah, and massacred the people and plundered the Islamic lands.
- The story of Izzuddawla Daylami, the ruler of the Buwayhids, who succeeded the Abbasid Caliph Muti 'Amrillah to the throne at a time when hatred and oppression were increasing in the Arab Caliphate;
- The story of Sultan Sanjar, the ruler of the Seljuks, who fought against the atheists and ignorant people in the first half of the twelfth century and developed the religion;
- The story of Ghazankhan ibn Arghunkhan ibn Hulaguhan, who developed a religion weakened by the Mongol invasion, stabilized the Sharia in the country and cities, and converted to Islam in the hands of Sheikh Ibrahim Hamawi with an army of one hundred thousand;
- The story of Uljaytu Sultan, who argued with scholars and developed the religion and Sharia.
One of the exemplary stories that attracted the attention of Sahibkiran was the story of the traitor Ibn Alqami, the minister of the Abbasid Caliphate. The treacherous minister conspired with Hulagu Khan to overthrow his ruler, Caliph Mustasim Billah. Contributing to the story is that Timur advises "the appointment of pure, noble, great people as ministers." It is also true that after listening to the story of the Iranian commander Bahrom Chubin, Sahibkiran's experience increased and he came to the appropriate conclusion. It is said that the Turkish Hakan Shaba invaded Iran with three hundred thousand soldiers. The Sassanid king Hurmuz ibn Nushirvan sent Bahrom Chubin, a soldier, with 320,000 troops to fight the Haqqan. He confronts the Hakan army, defeats him in battle, and sends all the booty to Hormuz. However, at a meeting with the king of Iran, the envious slandered the commander, saying that "Bahrom did not deliver all the booty". Hormuz, on the other hand, believes this slander and calls the hero a traitor. Bahrom sends women a veil, a shackle and a chain. Bahrom Chubin goes to the amirs, army chiefs and courtiers wearing a woman's dress with a shackle around his neck and shackles on his legs. Everyone is cursing Hormuz, who has forgotten Bahrom's services. The army formed an alliance with Bahrom, dethroned Hormuz and installed Khusrav Parviz on the throne. Hearing this story

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from Temur, Timur did not believe the rumors about his commander Amir Iygu Temur, who had defeated Uruskhan, as if he had taken the spoils like Bahrom Chubin, and rewarded him according to his merits.
Why does Amir Temur like to listen to stories? Sahibkiran Temur says about the reason for this: "I have brought closer to me the narrators of the hadiths (hadith scholars), (the Prophet, his descendants and companions) and the narrators. I could ask those stories about prophets and saints, messag es about past kings, how they came to the throne, and for what reasons their states perished. I gained experience hearing the stories and messages, deeds and words of each. I would listen to what was happening in the world and find out about the situation in the world. "Hussein Vaiz Kashifi, a scholar of the Timurid period, says that reading and listening to short stories in Futuvvatnomai Sultaniy is very useful. Because one becomes aware of the work and condition of the ancestors of the past, when one hears a strange and wonderful event, an adventure, one's mind deepens and one's eyes are opened. From this it is clear that the stories of the ancestors of the past have many benefits, and if there are events, the narrator and the reader, as well as the listener, will benefit from it"
Amir Temur, along with hadith scholars, narrators, historians, messengers and narrators, highly valued storytellers. Historically, there have been two types of storytelling, according to Futuvvatnomai Sultaniy. The first is storytelling, the second is poetry
Narrative also had its own rules and regulations. According to the encyclopedia, the narrator was a professional performer who had the ability to express or read fiction, myths, legends and epics. Storytellers recited folk tales, interesting translations, stories, "folklorized versions" of classical literature, and various battles from memory or text in a unique tone at various gatherings or special storytelling nights. The repertoire of the story was diverse in terms of genre and ideology.
There are different requirements for storytelling on story nights. First, let the narrator see the teacher, let the narrator never rise from his mind. Second, let him speak boldly with leftism; let him not show crudeness and laziness. Third, let the assembly understand what story it is accepting, and let them choose the works are most popular. However, let him keep the norm. Fourth, throughout the story, let the prose be accompanied by occasional verse, but this should be to the extent that the listener is not bored. The great masters said that in verse-narration it is the salt that is added to the food -- if it is too little, the food will be tasteless, and if it is too much, it will be salty. So the norm must be maintained. Fifth, he should not speak lies and unbelievable words so that he does not remain in the public eye. Sixth, do not say sarcastic, incomprehensible words, as this will offend the listeners. Seventh, keep the middle, even if it does not end the story quickly and overly long.
In short, Amir Temur received not only an example, but also strength and inspiration from the stories he listened to.

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List of used literature: 1. Umurov H. Literature rules. T. Uqituvchi-2002. 2. Ibn Arabshoh. History of Amir Temur. T. Ijod-1992. 3. Hayitmetov A. Uzbek literature of the Timurid period. T. Fan-1996. 4. Temur's rules. T. Uzbekistan-2014.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Kosimova M.B. master student
of Tashkent state university of uzbek language and literature
THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF THE WORK "QUTADG'U BILIG"
Annotation. This article is about the educational aspect of "Qutadgu bilig" for any reader, because of the need of didactic information for any of us.
Keywords: Education, upbringing, family, knowledge, advice, perfect human, enlitenment, kindness, language, official, politics, debate.
Qosimova M.B. II bosqich magistranti Alisher Navoiy nomidagi ToshDO`TAU
"QUTADG`U BILIG" ASARINING TA'LIMIY-TARBIYAVIY AHAMIYATI
Anotatsiya: Ushbu maqola o`quvchilarga, umuman, har bir shaxsga lozim bo`lgan didaktik yo`nalishda yaratilgan "Qutadg`u bilig" asarining tarbiyaviy ahamiyati haqida.
Kalit so`zlar: Ta'lim, tarbiya, oila, ilm, nasihat, komil inson, ma'rifat, ezgulik, til, amaldor, siyosat, munozara.
"Ta'limni tarbiyadan, tarbiyani esa ta'limdan ajratib bo`lmaydi ­ bu sharqona qarash, sharqona hayot falsafasidir"14. Ta'lim-tarbiya nafaqat ta'lim muassasalarida, balki birinchi galda oilada shakllanib boradi. Xususan, mahallada, do`stlar, qarindoshlar davrasida. Tarbiya borasida maktab va oilani bir-biriga bog`lamasdan o`rganib bo`lmaydi. Ta'lim-tarbiyaga oid yaratilgan asarlarning asosiy o`zagi insoniylik, insonni ulug`lash g`oyasi sanalgan. Bu g`oyani, ya'ni insonparvarlik g`oyasini amalga oshirishning asosiy vositalari sifatida yuksak axloqiy odatlar, insoniy munosabatlar va xislatlarni tarkib toptirishga olib keluvchi ta'lim-tarbiyani amalga oshirish muhim masala qilib qo`yilgan. Ta'limiy-axloqiy asarlarda insonning ma'naviy kamolga yetishida yuksak axloqqa ega bo`lishi ilm-fanni egallashi asosidagina amalga oshishi mumkin, degan g`oya ilgari surilgan.
O`rta asrlarda savod o`rgatish «Qur'on» va «Hadis»larni o`rganish va ulardagi ko`rsatmalarni o`zlashtirib olib bilan birga olib borilgan. Shunga ko`ra, «Qur'on» va «Hadis»lardagi pand-nasihatlar ham olimlar, ham adiblar ijodiga ta'sir etgan. Hadislarning ta'siriga sabab umuminsoniy fazilatlarga alohida urg`u

14 I.A.Karimov. "Yuksak ma'naviyat ­ yengilmas kuch", T.:2008, 62-b.

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berilgan. Ularda ilgari surilgan xislatlari: halollik, saxovat, himmat, mehruoqibat, ehson, sharm-hayo, ilm izlash, muomala qoidalari, axloq mezonlari va boshqalar o`z ifodasini topgan va sharq adabiyotiga, jumladan, ta'limiy-axloqiy asarlarga ta'sir etmay qolmagan. Bunday asarlar bizga asrlar osha meros bo`lib kelgan.
Hozirgi zamon ta'lim-tarbiyasi, istiqlol mafkurasi ana shu merosdan oziqlansa, uning eng yaxshi sahifalarini, qoidalarini qabul qilsa, o`z oldiga qo`ygan maqsad-vazifalari sharaf bilan bajarishi mumkin. Chunki ular odobnomasi, ibratnomasi oilada bolalarni har tomonlama tarbiyalash, kamolga yetkazish, ma'naviyatimizning ustivor iymon- e'tiqodlarimizning butun bo`lishligini, qadrli qadriyatlarimizning qadrlanishi garovidir. Bu borada biz, albatta, madaniy me'rosimizga o`zlarining beqiyos ulushlarini qo`shgan buyuk allomalarimiz Beruniy, Farobiy, Ibn Sino, Mahmud Koshg`ariy va boshqalar ijodini o`rganish,ularning milliy tarbiyamizga urg`u bergan asarlarini o`rganish kelajak avlod uchun katta ma'rifiy-tarbiyaviy ahamiyatga molikdir. Bu silsilada Yusuf Xos Hojibning nomini ham faxr va iftixor bilan tilga olish mumkin. Ularning har biri nafaqat o`zbek milliy ta'lim- tarbiyasiga, jahon sivilizatsiyasining rivojiga tegishli hissasini qo`shgan o`z davrining yetuk mutafakkiri, chuqur bilimli, donishmand kishisi bo`lgan. Jumladan, Yusuf Xos Hojibning "Qutadg`u bilig" asari shu yo`lda yaratilgan durdonalardan biridir. Shoir aytganiday, asar: Boshdan oxirigacha donolar so`zi, Go`yoki tizilgan marjondek o`zi.
Bizning xalqimiz shunday axloqiy-didaktik, adabiy-qomusiy asari borligidan har ancha faxrlansa arziydi. "Qutadg`u bilig" - baxt va saodatga eltuvchi bilim, ta'lim degan ma'noni bildiradi. Demak, asar nomidan ham uning pand-nasixatlari, ta'lim-tarbiyaga oid, har tomonlama komil insonni tarbiyalaydigan yetuk ma'rifiy asar ekanligi yaqqol ko`rinib turibdi. "Qutadg`u bilig" ­ XI asr so`z san'atining nodir namunasi bo`lib, unda o`z davrining ilg`or ijtimoiy-siyosiy, ma'naviy-axloqiy masalalari badiiy talqin qilingan, turkiy xalqlar tarixi, madaniyati, ilm-fani, urf-odat va an'analari, turmush tarzi, qadriyatlari xususida batafsil ma'lumot berilgan. Asarda ilgari surilgan axloqiy xislatlarni sanab o`tish olimning ta'lim-tarbiya, axloq masalalarini qay darajada chuqur bilganligi adolat, ishonch, sadoqat, xushmuomalalik, shirin so`zlik, saxovat, mardlik, xurmat va ehtirom, tadbirkorlik, aql-zakovat, xalollik, ezgulik kabi, xislatlar ulug`lanadi. "Qutadg`u bilig"da bosh masalalardan biri komil insonni tarbiyalashdir. Yusuf Xos Hojib bu asari orqali o`z tasavvurida eng komil, jamiyatning o`sha davrdagi talablariga javob bera oladigan insonni qanday ko`rgan bo`lsa, shu asosda o`z prinsiplarini bayon etadi. Mana shunday axloqiy masalalardan biri oila va farzand tarbiyasi masalasidir. Bu umuminsoniy axloqiy normaga Sharq etikasiga ahamiyat berib kelgan. Sharq xalqining ulug` an'anasini, oilaviy hayotini, turmush tarzi va tarbiya usullarini chuqur bilgan shoir mazkur muhim axloqiy muammoni o`ziga xos falsafiy talqin qiladi.

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Yusuf Xos Xojibning uqtirishicha, har bir kishi jamiyatga munosib bo`lib kamol topmog`i kerak. Buning uchun, u tug`ilgan kundan boshlab zarur tarbiyani olmog`i lozim. Farzandlar tarbiyasi nihoyatda erta boshlanmog`i shart. Shundagina ularning noo`rin xatti-harakatlariga berilishining oldi olinadi. Yusuf Xos Hojibning mazkur asari insonni har tomonlama kamolga yetkazishning barcha masalalari o`zining badiiy ifodasini topgan yirik ta'limiyaxloqiy dostondir. Olim insonni kamolga yetishi uchun quyidagilarni nazarda tutadi:
1.Aqliy kamolot-bilim va zakovat. O`quvli bo`lish. 2.Axloqiy kamolot. 3.Jismoniy kamolot. Yusuf Xos Hojib insonning kamolga yetishining yo`l-yo`riqlari, usullari, chora-tadbirlarini yuksak badiiy mahorat bilan yoritib beradi. Shuning uchun ham bu asar o`zining ilmiy, ma'rifiy, tarbiyaviy ahamiyati bilan beqiyosdir. Shuning uchun ham Yusuf Xos Hojibning "Qutadg`u bilig" dostoni turkiy xalqlar adabiyoti tarixida muhim o`rin egallagan durdona asarlardan biri deb e'tirof etiladi. Yuqorida zikr etilgan buyuk va suyuk allomalarning merosi ilmiy-nazariy jihatdan o`rganildi. Hayotning mazmuni to`g`ri tushuntirish, farzandlarga to`gri odob-axloqni o`rgatish, ezgu ishlarga odatlantirish qayd etilgan. Asarda barkamol avlod tarbiyasi va turli yomon illatlardan yiroq tutish yoki xoli qilish bo`yicha qator tarbiya metodlari, usul va vositalari mavjud. O`git-nasihat qilish, ibrato`rnak ko`rsatish, rag`batlantirish va qoralash kabi metodlarni xalqimiz asrlar davomida qo`llab kelgan bo`lib, uning quyidagi ijobiy shakllari: tushuntirish, o`rgatish, mashq qildirish, yaxshi xislat va ishlarga undash, istak bildirish, maqtash, olqish aytish, duo qilish, alqash, mukofotlash, taqdirlash, ishonch bildirish, oqlash, vasiyat qilish kabi ta'lim metodlari va vositalari yoshlar tarbiyasida muhim o`rin egallaydi. Yusuf Xos Hojibning "Qutadg`u bilig" asarida inson kamoloti masalasi markaziy masala bo`lib hisoblanadi. Mazkur asarda insonning jamiyat va hayotda tutgan o`rni, burch va vazifalari haqidagi muammolar o`ziga xos tarzda bayon etiladi. "Qutadg`u bilig"ning tadqiqotchilaridan biri B.To`xliyev ta'kidlaganidek, Yusuf Xos Hojib "Komil inson haqida gapirar ekan, kamolotning qator belgilarini ko`rsatib o`tadi. Ularning eng asosiysi alohida shaxsning o`z manfaatlari, shaxsiy istaklari doirasini yorib chiqib, boshqalar g`ami bilan yashashi, ko`pchilik manfaati uchun fidoyi bo`la bilishdir". Haqiqatdan ham asarning har bir bayti insonni tarbiyalashga, uni komillik sari yetaklashga qaratilgan. Bunda o`qituvchi mas'uliyatni his qilgan holda, asarni dars jarayonida o`quvchilarga hayot bilan bog`lab tushuntirsa, dars jarayoni, albatta, qizg`in bo`ladi. Zero, adabiyot hayot darsidir. Undagi keltirilganlarni bolalar hayotining har jabhasi bilan bog`lab o`rgatsak, nur ustiga a'lo nur bo`ladi. Tarbiya oiladan boshlanadi, to`g`ri. Lekin u ta'lim dargohida yana ham pishib, sayqallanib boradi. Bola tarbiyasida ta'lim muhiti salmoqli o`rin tutadi. Yusuf Xos Hojibning asari nafaqat o`sha davr, balki bugungi kun uchun ham chuqur ahamiyat kasb etadi. Asardagi pand-nasihatlar

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yillar davomida o`z qadr-qimmatini, ahamiyatini yo`qotmay kelmoqda. Biz insonlarga bunday didaktik masalalarni o`zida mujassam etgan asarlar doimo kerak.
Yusuf Xos Hojib ta'lim va tarbiyaning uzviy bog`liq holda bo`lishini tavsiya etadi, o`g`il bolalarning bir necha san'at turini va hunarlarni tugal o`rganmog`i lozimligini ta'kidlaydi, bu ­ularning kelajak hayotlari jamiyat rivoji uchun kerak. Yusuf Xos Hojib aqliy tarbiyaning baland mavqe tutishinieslatadi. Adib tarbiyaning barcha turlari o`zaro bilan uyg`un bo`lishini talab etadi. Shundagina insonning aqlan barkamol, jismonan yetuk, axloqiy, ma'naviy boy bo`lishiga ishonadi. Farzandlarga turli bilim va hunarlar o`rgatish, ularni go`zal axloqli qilib voyaga yetkazish ota ­ onaning burchidir. Yusuf Xos Hojib tarbiyada kattalar namunasi, ajdodlar tarbiyasi alohida ahamiyatga ega ekanini ta'kidlaydi. Asarda ilgari surilgan axloqiy xislatlar mohiyatining to`laqonli ochib berilishi olimning ta'lim-tarbiya, axloq masalalarini qay darajada chuqur bilganligidan dalolat beradi: insoniylik, rostgo`ylik, to`g`rilik, soflik, mehr-muhabbat, vafo, shafqat, muruvvat, insof, adolat, ishonch, sadoqat, xushmuomalalik, shirinso`zlik, saxovat, mardlik, himmatlilik, tavoze, hurmat va ehtirom, tadbirkorlik. Aql zakovat, halollik, ezgulik kabi xislatlar ulug`lanadi, ularga yolg`onchilik, noinsoflik, fisqu fasod, bevafolik, mehrsizlik, dag`allik, qo`pollik, baxillik, nomardlik, quvlik, hurmatsizlik, nodonlik, johillik, haromxo`rlik, ochko`zlik kabi xislatlarni qiyoslab, ezgu xislatlarning yaxshi oqibatlari va salbiy xususiyatlarning yomon oqibatlarini misollar vositasida ishonarli qilib bayon etadi.
Yusuf Xos Hojibning "Qutadg`u bilig" asarida inson kamoloti masalasi markaziy masala bo`lib hisoblanadi. Mazkur asarda insonning jamiyat va hayotda tutgan o`rni, burch va vazifalari haqidagi muammolar o`ziga xos tarzda bayon etiladi. Buyuk mutafakkir Yusuf Xos Hojib "Qutadg`u bilig" kitobining an'anaviy boshlamasidan keyinoq insonning haqiqiy baxti bilimda ekanligini bayon etadi. U ilm, zakovatning ahamiyati haqida fikr yuritish bilan birga unga alohida boblar ham bag`ishlangan. Lekin olim faqat ilm-ma'rifatning ahamiyatini ko`rsatibgina qolmaydi, u bilim va zakovatning amaliyotdagi o`rnini ham yoritadi.
Adib bilimli buyuk, uquvni ulug` deb ta'riflaydi. Chunki zakovatli inson ulug` bo`ladi, bilimli kishi buyuk bo`ladi, deb ilmli kishilarni asl toifadagi kishilarga qo`shadi. Olim ezgu ishlarning barchasi ilm tufayli amalga oshirilishini aytadi. O`sha davrdayoq olim "Bilim hatto osmon sari yo`l ochur" deb bashorat qiladi. U dunyoda odam paydo bo`libdiki, faqat bilimli kishilargina ezgu ish qilib, adolatli siyosat yurgizib kelgan, ana shu bilim va zakovati tufayli kishilar razolatdan poklanganligini ta'riflaydi. Hatto hukmdorlar ham yurtni, davlatni aql, ilm, zakovat bilan idora etsa, el-yurt farovon bo`ladi, to`q va tinch hayot kechiradi, deydi. U kuch va qurolni aql va bilimdan keyingi ikkinchi o`ringa qo`yadi.
Sechu (ya'ni har yerda ma'lum xudo) insonni yaratti, tanladi, Unga hunar, bilim va uquv berdi.

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Unga ko`ngil (ya'ni aql) berdi, tilini yo`riq (ravon) qildi, Andisha, xulq hamda go`zal fe'l ato qildi, Bilim berdi, (shu tufayli) inson bu kun ulug`likka erishdi. Uquv berdi, so`ng (shu tufayli berk) tugunlar yozildi. Yusuf Xos Hojib ilmli, ma'rifatli kishilarni qadrlash kerak, chunki ular mash'al kabi yo`lni yoritib, to`g`ri yo`l ko`rsatadi, yaxshi-yomonni farq etishni o`rgatadi, deydi. Shuning uchun olimlarni hurmat etish kerakligini ta'kidlab, ilm ahlini o`ta qadrlasa, ilmsizlarni johil kishilar deb biladi. Alloma inson hayotda qilgan ishi bilan yo yaxshi nom qoldiradi, yo yomon nom oladi, deydi. Barcha ezgulikning boshi til odobi, asar uning foyda va zararlariga bag`ishlanadi deya ta'kidlaydi. Til insonning qadr-qimmatini oshiradi yoki shu til orqali inson yuz tuban ham ketishi mumkin. Kishi ikki narsa bilan hayotda mangu qoladi: biri xushxulqlik bo`lsa, ikkinchisi yaxshi so`z, deydi. Insoniy munosabatlarning eng oliy mezoni sanalgan hurmat va ehtiromni tarkib toptirishning barcha ko`rinishlari asarda o`z ifodasini topgan. Yusuf Xos Hojib jamiyat taqdirini hal etuvchi eng ulug` mansabdorlardan tortib, oila a'zolarigacha bir-biriga bo`lgan muomala-munosabat masalalarini ham hayotiy misollar vositasida yoritadi. Yusuf Xos Hojibning amaldorlar axloqi haqidagi o`gitlari diqqatga sazovor va bu fikrlar hozirgi davrda ham qimmatli sanaladi. Allomaning beklar, hojiblar, vazirlar, saroyboshilar, elchilar, lashkarboshilar, devonboshilar, xazinadorlar, sarkotiblar kabi ko`plab amaldorlarning hatti-harakatlari, ish yuritishlari, xulqodobi haqidagi o`gitlari va yo`l-yo`riqlari har bir amaldor uchun dastur sanaladi. (Agar) dunyo beglari ichimlikka (maishatga) berilsa, El va xalqning dardlari (qismati) achchiq bo`ladi. Jahongir kishi aysh-ishratga mahliyo bo`lsa, Elini buzadi (xarob qiladi), o`zi (esa) tilamchi Bo`lib qoladi. Yusuf Xos Hojib takabburlik, mag`rurlanish, kekkayishga kamtarlik, xushsuxanlik, xushfe'llikni qarshi qo`yadi. Shuningdek, amaldorlarga xoh katta, xoh kichik bo`lsin, baland himmatlilik, muruvvatli bo`lish, samimiylik, xos fazilat ekanligini alohida ta'kidlaydi. Insonning haqiqiy boyligi uning ko`z va ko`ngil to`qligi deb baho beradi. Zero, ochko`zlik, ta'magirlik insonda poraxo`rlik kabi yomon illatning tomir otishiga olib keladi, deydi. Yusuf Xos Hojib o`z asarida davlat va huquq haqidagi qarashlari bilan ilmfan taraqqiyotiga ham munosib hissa qo`shdi. U o`rta asrlar sharoitida ilm-fan rivoji, insonparvarlik, adolat va haqiqat g`oyalarining tantanasi uchun kurashib, butun insoniyat madaniyatining rivojlanishida muhim rol o`ynadi. Bu haqida H.Boboev va Z.G`ofurovlarning quyidagi fikrlari e'tiborga molikdir: "Yusuf Xos Hojib O`rta Osiyo xalqlari ma'naviyat va ma'rifat haqida ta'limotlarining paydo bo`lishi va rivojlanishi tarixida o`ziga xos mavqega ega bo`lgan buyuk mutafakkirdir. Uning ma'naviyat-ma'rifat, odob-axloq, ta'lim va tarbiya haqida qoldirgan ilmiy-falsafiy merosi va ta'limoti O`zbekiston davlat mustaqilligi

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ma'naviy zaminlarini mustahkamlashda, milliy o`zligimizni tanishimizda, istiqlol mafkurasini shakllantirishda muhim ahamiyat kasb etmoqda"15.
Markaziy Osiyo xalqlari tarixida o`chmas iz qoldirgan jamoat va davlat arbobi, mutafakkir Yusuf Xos Hojibning siyosiy- huquqiy qarashlarini o`rganish, uning bugungi kunda ham o`z ahamiyatini yo`qotmagan g`oyalaridan milliy davlatchilikni barpo etish va mustahkamlashda tanqidiy foydalanish, ulardan ulg`ayib kelayotgan yosh avlodni xabardor qilish, o`zlikni anglash davlat siyosati darajasiga ko`tarilgan O`zbekiston Respublikasida alohida ma'naviy - ma'rifiy va amaliy ahamiyat kasb etadi16.
Mutafakkir kishilarni o`ylab oila qurishdan boshlab, farzand tarbiya etish, oilaning moddiy ta'minotini yuritishgacha bo`lgan eng ezgu zaruriy vazifalarni birma-bir bayon etadi. Yusuf Xos Hojibning o`zi kishilarga munosabatda o`rtamiyona yo`l tutishni tavsiya etadi. Shunda do`st dushmanga aylanmaydi, ezgu ishlar amalga osha boradi, deb ta'lim beradi.
"Qutadg`u bilig"da yana jumboqlarni yechish usullaridan ham foydalanilgan. Bu uslub o`quvchini asarga qiziqtiradi, uni o`qimishli qiladi. Hozirgi davrda bu muammoli ta'lim deb yuritiladi. Ammo tarbiya va ta'lim merosimizda jumboq-muammoli ta'lim o`ziga xos xususiyatga ega. Masalan, asardagi Kuntug`mish (Elig) bilan Oyto`ldi munozarasini olaylik.
Bu munozarada olim quyidagi fikrni ilgari suradi: Elig Oyto`ldiga o`rin berganda o`tirmagani, "xon yonida menga o`rin yo`q", - degan edi. Yerga koptok qo`ygani va unga o`tirgani bilan Oyto`ldi - davlat koptok kabi barqaror emas, bir joyda turmaydi, degani. Elig boqqanda ko`zini yumib olgani-davlat ham ko`r kishi kabi bo`ladi, kimga ilashsa, unga qattiq yopishib oladi, degan edi. Yuzini yashirgani esa, barcha qilmishlarim - ya'ni davlat jafo, unga ishonma, degani, deb kishi davlat va baxtga quvonib ketmasligi, ulardan quvonib, ortiqcha g`ururlanib ketmay, aksincha, o`zini ehtiyot qilishi, yig`ilgan narsalarni me'yorida sarflashi, bexud bo`lib, ichkilikka berilmasligi, narsalarni sovurmasligi kerak deb ko`rsatadi.
Demak, Yusuf Xos Hojibning mazkur asari insonni har tomonlama kamolga yetkazishda yirik ta'limiy-axloqiy asardir. Shuning uchun ham bu asar o`zining ilmiy, ma'rifiy, tarbiyaviy ahamiyatini shu paytgacha saqlab kelmoqda.
Foydalanilgan adabiyot: 1. I.A.Karimov. "Yuksak ma'naviyat ­ yengilmas kuch". - T.:2008, 62-b. 2.  ..       (  « »): ... . . . ­ , 1990. - 17 . 3.  .    « » . ­ .: , 1991.- 68 .

15 Boboev H., G`ofurov Z. O`zbekistonda siyosiy va ma'naviy-ma'rifiy ta'limotlar taraqqiyoti. ­ Toshkent: Yangi asr avlodi, 2001, 225-b. 16       - .    ­ ,  ­ 2011.

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4.      « »     , ,,.     . ­ , 2007. 5.        .    ­ ,  ­ 2011. 6. Boboev H., G`ofurov Z. O`zbekistonda siyosiy va ma'naviy-ma'rifiy ta'limotlar taraqqiyoti. ­ Toshkent.: Yangi asr avlodi, 2001, 225-b. 7. library.ziyonet.uz 8. saviya.uz

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Quldasheva N.K. teacher

STAGES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY AND ITS GLOBAL ROLE TODAY

Abstract: This paper investigates a system of dynamic incentives developed within the framework of the classic Diamond and Mirrlees (1978) disability model, but considering disability as a temporary state and rephrasing the analysis in terms of current and promised future utilities. The model therefore assumes that if disabled individuals receive benefits to the extent that able individuals are indifferent between working and not working, then the marginal utility of consumption is lower for working individuals. A comparison, based on a numerical simulation, between the dynamic incentives (DI) model and a private savings (PS) model characterised by a stationary tax-transfer policy allows the assertion that, even if the first system converges to the second system, the total utility guaranteed by the government in the DI model is greater than the total value achieved by the PS model, and in the DI model, the gap in consumption between able and disabled individuals increases not only along working histories, as in the PS model, but also across working histories.
Key words: factor, tomatoes are sown on another hectare of land, and all agrotechnical

The answers of experts and scientists to the questions of gazetkhons, which are given under the" lessons of Economics " branch, are of great interest to many.
The next question is answered by The Economist Akrom Muminov: - Economic growth is understood as an increase in the cost of direct gross domestic product (GDP) and its corresponding cost per capita. If the goal is to assess the economic potential of the country, then pictures of the growth of the GDP will be used. And the per capita GDP is used in assessing the standard of living of the population. In this case, the rate of change in the population by the rate of change in the size of the population is taken into account. If the rate of change in the size of the population is higher than the rate of change in the number of inhabitants, the well-being of the population increases. If these indicators are the same, then the standard of living of the population does not change. If the rate of change in the size of the population goes beyond the rate of change in the number of inhabitants, then there is a decrease in the standard of living of the population. In this place, it will be necessary to bring two factors that affect economic growth. They are: Extrasensory and intensive factors.

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When we say the extractive factor, it is understood that the economic growth achieved by the expansion of the land space in farming, the launch of new capacities in industry, while retaining the old form of production.
For example, an average yield of 20 tons is obtained from one hectare of tomato field. In order to double the volume of tomato production in the extractive factor, tomatoes are sown on another hectare of land, and all agrotechnical measures are carried out just like in the previous one hectare of land, as a result of which another 20 tons of harvest is obtained, the total yield is reached 40 tons. Or, in order to double the production of bread, another enterprise with the same capacity will be built in addition to the existing one. In ecstasy development, production efficiency remains unchanged, if it is carried out in pure form.
And the intensive factor of economic growth is achieved through the qualitative improvement of production volumes means of production, that is, the application of advanced technologies, the improvement of workers ' skills, as well as the effective use of existing production capacities. This factor is expressed in the increase in the quantity and quality of the product without spending excessive effort, capital, with the efficient use of the internal resources of production.
In order to double the volume of tomato production in an intensive way, it is not necessary to plant 2 hectares of land, but to apply advanced agrotechnical methods to exactly the same 1 hectare of land (drip irrigation, the use of techniques in ground handling, the use of new seeds and advanced methods of their cultivation, etc.).k) self sufficient. Or, two-time increase in bread production can be achieved by installing modern ones instead of the old techniques before, improving the skills of employees, organizing the working day effectively.
But it should also be noted that in real life, in the pure case of extrasensory and intensive factors, it will not exist separately, but in a certain harmony, in a way that is added with each other.
Modeling to generate alternative planning first follows the approach of a linear programming model with an objective of maximizing a farm's gross margin. Then alternative solutions are produced by allowing the optimal gross margin to be reduced by a certain percentage. These alternatives are important to farmers because the production goal may not be to just maximize profit, but also optimize other aspects such as minimizing risk. Finding alternative solutions allows for the farm to choose a solution that meets multiple objectives for the farm while still maintaining nearly optimal profit.
Production process planning is presented by Vitoriano et al. as a linear programming model and is designed to allow "crop production planning to be decided at the beginning of the agricultural year." The objective of the model is to minimize total cost related to agricultural production. There are two modeling approaches considered by Vitoriano et al. (2019), discrete and continuous time. The discrete time planning model was found to be best in shorter term planning horizons and the continuous time planning model was best for medium to long term planning horizons. Farmers can benefit from this model because it provides

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them with the solution of how and when to perform the tasks required for agriculture production.
Reference: [1].Abdulkadri, A. & Ajibefun, I. (2018). Developing Alternative Farm Plans for Cropping System Decision Making. Agricultural Systems, 56(4), 431-442. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from Web of Science database. [2].Ahumada, O., & Villalobos, J.R. (2019). Application of planning models in the agri-food supply chain: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 195, 1 20. Retrieved March 24, 2019, from Web of Science database. [3].Apaiah, R. & Hendrix, E.M.T. Design of a supply chain network for pea-based novel protein foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 70, 383-391. Retrieved March 30,, from Web of Science database. [4].Popp, M.P., Dillon, C.R., & Keisling, T.C. (2003). Economic and weather influences on soybean planting strategies on heavy soils. Agricultural Systems, 76, 969­984. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from Web of Science database. [5].Sheehy, J.E., Mitchell, P.L., & Ferrer, A.B. Decline in rice grain yields with temperature: Models and correlations can give different estimates. Field Crops Research, 98, 151­156. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from Web of Science database.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Rakhmanov M.A. lecturer
Department of Economics Andijan State University

LABOR MARKET FORECASTING AND INVESTMENT POLICIES REGARDING DIRECTIONS OF EDUCATION AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

Abstract: There are considers the possibility of using the Delphi method in order to develop a strategic plan for the investment policy of the region and a list of relevant competencies of graduates in order to increase the competitiveness of the region in this article.
Keywords: investment policy, of relevant competencies, the Delphi method, labor market, employment, competency-based approach, multicriteria analysis.

The development of innovative activities of the regions is an urgent task of modern regional management, as a result of which the question of competencybased approach to the preparation of university graduates with the aim of their employment in the employers' market becomes a matter of principle.
In the framework of this study, based on Foresight technologies, a methodology for the application of the Delphi method for accessing and forecasting the labor market and accordingly the competencies of graduates for the purpose of their employment was built.
As a result of the analysis of foreign countries, it was found that economies can differ in the degree of development of four types of structures in them: raw materials, industrial, post-industrial (innovative), resource.
Our task is to find out the priority areas of the economy in the region, as well as to assess the current and predicted demands of employers for the competencies of university graduates. Determining the priority areas of the economy for the purpose of employing university graduates is an urgent scientific and practical task both in our country and abroad.
Foresight studies, along with traditional ones, use creative methods developed empirically. Conventionally, they are divided into groups: providing forecast, analysis, creativity, communication [1].
The Delphi research method under consideration simultaneously supports the last three types of methods and consists of two-level (immediate, prospective) questionnaire. The step-by-step algorithm of the questionnaire closest in terms of time is presented in Figure-1.

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Figure-1. The first level algorithm.
At the 1st step, a set of economic spheres is formed for their subsequent expert evaluation.
An analysis of the region of the Republic of Uzbekistan revealed that the region is tied to two sectors ­ automotive and textile manufacturing.
In Andijan region 236 new projects have been developed with an implementation period of up to 2022, which implies the creation of 41 thousand permanent jobs in the region and the development of foreign direct investment worth $1 billion 87 million. Presumably, their implementation will increase production 4 times in the building materials industry, 2.1 times in the electrical, leather and shoe and chemical industries, 3 times in the food industry [2].
So, experts can be invited to assess the prospects of these industries for the development of Andijan region on a one-point scale in the near future (until 2022) and in the future (until 2025). The number of experts is not regulated.
At the 2nd step, a survey is conducted. At the 3rd step statistical processing is carried out and the results of a first level survey are analyzed in clasters in order to establish "feedback" with experts.
Figure-2 schematically shows the results of processing the survey of the first level.

Figure 2. First level survey analysis result.
The experts' opinion is presented in the form of a correlation of three sectors: raw materials, industrial and post-industrial. As a result, we have a 3-d model ­ coordinates with values at three points. The calculation of the coordinate values' performed as the average value of expert opinions by sectors and their percentage ratio.

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Let the point ai (xi, yi, zi) be the ratio of industries of different directions,

corresponding to the assessment of expert i where xi, yi, zi are, respectively,

according to the sectors of raw materials, industrial and post-industrial

orientation.

To divide the space from many points into groups according to the direction

of the economy, we used the cluster analysis method, which is a set of methods

that allow us to classify multidimensional observations, each of which is

described by a set of initial variables.

Cluster analysis allows us to combine clusters ­ similar objects into

scientifically based groups, to identify internal relationships between units of a

control data set.

The similarity or difference between the clusters is determined by the

metric distance between them. For example, in the industrial sector of economy,

similarities and differences between clusters are established depending on the

metric distance between them.

For two objects yi and yj, a non-negative function d(yi, yj) is called a distance

function of metric if:

1. d(yi, yj)  0, for all yi and yj from the n-dimensional Euclidean space;

2. d(yi, yj) = 0, if and only if yi = yj;

3. d(yi, yj) = d(yj, yi) ;

4. d(yi, yj)  d(yi, yk) + d(yk, yj), where yi, yj and yk are any three vectors

from an n-dimensional Euclidean space.

As a function of distance, the Euclidean distance is used, which is

calculated by the formula:

1
d(yi, yj)==1( - )22 , where p is the number of compared expert

values.

If

n

is

the

number

of

experts,

then

=

! 2!(-2)!

.

Similarly, the distance between clusters' determined by industrial and post-

industrial economies. As a result of cluster analysis, the prevailing opinion of

experts on the prospective employment sectors of future graduates is revealed.

The second level of the Foresight study is similar to the first with a difference in

the timing of the forecast ­ a prospective forecast.

Thus, the application of one of the methods of Foresight technology ­ the

Delphi method ­ in order to establish feedback with the local expert community,

which allows us to develop a strategic plan that changes the structure of the

regional economy and the list of required competencies of graduates in order to

increase the competitiveness of the region.

Conclusion

As a result of the research a forecasting methodology was developed for the

prevailing areas of education in higher education institutions using a cluster

analysis of the result of a survey conducted among employers in the public and

private sectors of the regional economy.

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Summarizing, it should be noted that this methodology enables higher educations to prepare graduates for the predicted order of employers, to conduct joint research with them to study the labor market and the required competencies of graduates.
References: 1. Yakimova E.A., Andryushenko A.N. Development of comprehensive methodology for assessing and forecasting business and regional needs in professional staff. Siberian Federal University, Institute of Business Process Management and Economics, RussiaRussian JouRnal of laboR Economics #4'2017 (October-December). 2. Pravda vostoka. [e-resource] URL: pv.uz/ru/newspapers/Pravda-vostoka#116-8-june-2019-year 3. Kadirova L.A. Studying of foreign experience of marketing research of graduates employment. International scientific review of the technical sciences, mathematics and computer sciences, 2019, Boston, USA, February 12-13, p.4050. [e-resource] URL: http://international-scientific-review-1-9-V-ISBN 978-1948507-77-6.pdf

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UDK 372.881.111.1

Razakova G.S. a teacher of English at the secondary school 1 Uchkurgan district of Namangan region

HOW CAN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS BECOME MORE CREATIVE?

Abstract: This article is devoted to the important ways of teaching foreign languages in the system of education in our country. Here are considered issues of developing creative features and how to use modern methodology oflanguage teaching of primary and secondary class students.
Keywords: foreign language, creativity, story-based methodology, characteristics of the creative process, team-building.

"... creativity is all about responding to the learners in the moment and without developing creativity we might as well be taught by robots!"
Language is the salient way of expressing our thoughts. We use language for planning our lives and exchanging our ideas. Globalization has given rise to English as a global language and learning it has become inevitable to communicate with the world. In many countries including Uzbekistan, English is a foreign language and it is a compulsory subject in our curriculum from the elementary level. In our country, though students are taught English at an early age, they cannot achieve fluency and accuracy in English which nowadays is prerequisite for higher studies, getting a decent job and above all for business. The effective way to make a learner proficient in English is to develop all the four basic language skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing. In this case,creative thinking has been recent concern among English language teaching professionals. This is very much in line with the move away from an over-reliance on methods and approaches as an answer to effective learning and towards a focus on the mental processes that lead to more effective learning of languages as well as of content.
For me, teaching is not an exclusively creative process but neither is it merely a set of repeated action sequences based on blueprints. It is based on knowledge, professional understanding, technical know-how and the personal qualities of the teacher.Helping teachers to develop their ability to think creatively, including creative thinking skills training, is not going to be enough, and the effects of this training may not be sustainable unless there is a positive culture encouraging and facilitating as well as demonstrating creativity.In training lessons trainers need to have model creative behaviors themselves by using a variety of ways of handing course input, from training games to loop input an idea-not in a relentless pursuit of fun and games but in accordance with the topic

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and focus of each session. In addition, work on team-building, generating trust among trainees, is essential from day one and needs to be followed through systematically, either with activities such as those with social activities in a school setting or a shelf-help group.
From our perspective, creativity can also involve using existing materials in novel ways to address problems in language teaching.For this, we can take story-telling method as an example for instructing and creating well-conceptual students. In every English class textbook there was given various kinds of stories which can contribute to the global development of the child. Of course, storybased lessons can lead pupils to kindnesses in their future.For being more clearly for students, teachers should use his or her creative skills and introduce stories by action games, pair work:same and different, make pencil puppets, write a group poem, book -making project, picture dictations.It is possible to introduce a methodology for story-based work that can be applied to most classroom contexts with little disruption by applying a three-stage model. This model can be activated at three different levels to plan:
A programme of work constituting a mini syllabus which can include up to 6-10 hours of work around a storybook;
Individual lesson; Activity cycles within lessons; A framework for story-based Methodology-Plan-Do-Review model In addition to those ideas, a creative lesson should involve one or more of the following: *spontaneity,*music,*colour, *variety,*fun,*humour,*movement,*personal meaning,*unpredictability,*a balance between challenge and security, relaxation and tension. As the start of class we all need to come together, settle and become mentally alert before much that is useful can happen. We can speed up this readying process by doing unusual things such as: *Listening to a recording of birdsong, doing some gentle physical exercises, singing together or enjoying the scent of pine oil. * Asking students to count from one to eight and to clap as they say each number out loud. Next, they clap eight times again but miss out actually saying the number three. Once they can do that, challenge them to miss out saying two numbers (two and six and eight) while still clapping the eight times. It takes concentration! * Giving students a puzzle that is easily solvable by doing a little work. An example is "Think of the English alphabet written in capital letters. How many letters have curved lines in them?" Students are allowed to use pencil and paper to solve this puzzle. It just gets them thinking and visualizing. * Invite students to choose a color. Give them five minutes to check their environment and list as many things they can see and think of that have color. Then share the lists.

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* Can students think of ten words beginning with the letter B? Eight hobbies beginning with P? Twelve things that make them happy?
* we can take first letter of the words: *W for wake up,*P for prolific,*M for make unusual combinations,*U for use simple generative frameworks,*C for collaborate,*S for share,*Nfor novel combinations,*V for visible,*P for physical movement,*Efor environment and emotions
Then we make words that start with these letters and then move the words around to make a memorable sentence.
We Produce More New Useful Cool Stuff if we Vary Positions in English Exercises
But we'll keep working on it and see if we can come up with some better ones!
Teachers must come with these four main characteristics of the creative process for making their classes:
*producing lots of ideas(fluency); *producing ideas of various types (flexibility); *building on and embellishing existing ideas(elaboration); *producing clever and original ideas(originality). In conclude, if we remember to include collective creativity too by working with other staff and by encouraging our students to collaborate with each other, so "taking their ideas for walks", we may surprise ourselves at how creative we all are and become!
Used literatures: 1. Alan Maley and Nick Peachey. "Creativity in the English language classroom". 2. Gail Ellis and Jean Brewster. "The Storytelling Handbook for English Language Teachers". 3."Maktab va Hayot", 2018yil, 3 ­son. 4."Umumta'limfanlarimetodikasi", 2017yil, 5-son.

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UDK 374 Rustamov M.M.
Khudaiberdieva Kh.U. Department of Biological Physics, Informatics, Medical Technology
Andijan State Medical Institute
ORGANIZATION OF TRAINING IN INFORMATICS
Abstract: This article discusses the organization of teaching in computer science.
Key words: informatics, teaching, technology, pedagogical technologies, computer technologies
Among the main tasks of modern education is the adaptation of the student to life, instilling in him the skills of self-education, the creative use of the knowledge gained. Domestic teachers are looking for ways to reform the educational process. In pedagogy, pedagogical technologies or teaching technologies are gaining increasing importance (in contrast to the traditionally distinguished pedagogical, methodological and didactic systems). The term "pedagogical technology" appeared abroad at the beginning of the 60s. last century. Since then, the journals "Pedagogical Technology" (USA, Japan), "Pedagogical Technology and the Learning Process" (England) have been published in different countries; The concept of "teaching technology" in our country appeared in the late 60s, and in the 70s it won a large number of supporters. Nowadays it has become a part of the pedagogical lexicon. However, there are big discrepancies in its understanding and use.
"Pedagogical technology is an organized, purposeful, deliberate pedagogical influence and impact on the educational process" (BT Likhachev).
"Pedagogical technology is a meaningful technique for implementing the educational process" (VP Bespalko).
"Pedagogical technology is a description of the process of achieving the planned learning outcomes" (IP Volkov).
"Pedagogical technology is a well-thought-out model of joint pedagogical activity in the design, organization and conduct of the educational process with unconditional provision of comfortable conditions for students and teachers" (VM Monakhov).
"Pedagogical technology is a systematic method of creating, applying and defining the entire process of teaching and assimilation of knowledge, taking into account technical and human resources and their interaction, which aims to optimize the forms of education" (UNESCO).
"Pedagogical technology means a systemic totality and procedure for the functioning of all personal, instrumental and methodological means used to achieve pedagogical goals" (MV Klarin).

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However, in the literature there are also such phrases as "the method of introducing the concept of an array", "the method of teaching programming", "the method of studying information technologies", etc. It is obvious that in them the concept of "technique" has a completely different meaning, close to the concepts of "algorithm", "method", "technology". As noted by I.N. Falin, in pedagogical practice, there is the use of label terms that are fixed for some technologies (the collective way of teaching, the Shatalov method, Waldorf pedagogy, etc.), which are not entirely correct from the point of view of science. However, it is not always possible to avoid terminological inaccuracies that complicate understanding . This raises the problem of separating the concepts of "methodology" and "technology".
As noted by A.V. Khutorskoy, "they distinguish between the theory of teaching 'everyone to everything' (general didactics) and the theory of teaching individual academic subjects or in certain types of educational institutions (private didactics) ... Private didactics ... consider teaching issues in relation to the relevant academic subjects, and at different levels - from children's kindergarten to secondary and high school ... Private didactics are also called teaching methods ... Their goal is to explore the patterns, ways and means of teaching, upbringing and development of students in the process of studying the corresponding academic discipline or group of disciplines ".
G.K. Selevko identifies three hierarchical levels of the concept of pedagogical technology:
- general pedagogical or general didactic level, characterizing the integral educational process (in a region, educational institution, at the stage of education), synonym
- "pedagogical system"; - a particular method or subject level, which characterizes the educational process within the framework of one subject, class, teacher, etc., a synonym is "private methodology"; - local or modular level, that is, the technology of individual elements of the educational process (the formation of concepts, the organization of control, the assimilation of new knowledge, etc.). Thus, let us take the following starting position: Theory and methodology of teaching computer science (methodology of teaching computer science) is a pedagogical science, the object of which is teaching computer science at any age level and with any organizational and methodological forms of training. As V.I. Zagvyazinsky, the problem of distinguishing between technology and methodology is quite controversial: "some scientists consider technology a form of implementation of a methodology, others believe that the concept of technology is broader than a methodology". We proceed from the fact that certain methods and technologies developed and used in teaching computer science are the subject of pedagogical science research and the object of studying the discipline "Theory and methodology of teaching computer science" ("Methods of teaching computer science").

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Speaking about the methodological system of teaching computer science, we considered it as a set of five components: goals, content, methods, organizational forms and teaching aids, which "act as the subject of the teacher's activity, organizing educational or educational process ... ". However, both the teacher and the trainees actually remain outside the system, which causes justified criticism of many researchers. It is noted that "any educational concepts and systems require a certain system of actions for their implementation. If this system is sufficiently variable and flexible, it is most often called methodical, but if it is set in a more or less rigid algorithmic sequence with the expectation of obtaining a guaranteed result, it is called technology "
The word "technology" itself comes from the Greek techne - art, craftsmanship and logos - science, law. Hence, literally "technology" is the science of craftsmanship. The main characteristic features of any technology: is a procedural category; can be represented as a set of methods for changing the state of an object; aims to design and use efficient and cost-effective processes. Thus, technology can be distinguished from methodology by the presence of such characteristics as instrumentality, that is, the presence of a rigidly defined system of prescriptions that are guaranteed to lead to the goal; reproducibility of technology; measurability and guarantee of the result. A similar interpretation of the technological approach to teaching is presented in the works of M.E. Bershadsky, I.P. Volkova, V.V. Guzeeva, M.V. Klarina, V.Yu. Pityukova, V.P. Tikhomirova, P.M. Erdniev and others. Analysis of the work of domestic and foreign authors (B.P. Bespalko, B.S.Bloom, M.V. Klarin, I. Marev, G.K.Selevko, etc.) on the problems of pedagogical technologies made it possible to identify specific features inherent in pedagogical technologies: Conceptuality (scientific base): each pedagogical technology should be inherent in reliance on a certain scientific concept, scientific justification for achieving educational goals. Consistency: pedagogical technology must have all the features of the system: the logic of the process; the interconnection of all its parts; integrity. Diagnostic targeting and performance - guaranteed achievement of goals and the effectiveness of the learning process.
Controllability: the possibility of diagnostic goal-setting; planning; designing the learning process; step-by-step diagnostics; variation by means and methods in order to correct the results. Performance-based and cost-efficient, guaranteed to achieve planned learning outcomes within a short timeframe. Reproducibility (algorithmability, designability, integrity, controllability) - the possibility of using pedagogical technology in other educational institutions of the same type, by other subjects.
Correctiveness - the possibility of constant operational feedback. A fundamentally different approach is used by V.P. Bespalko, noting that "any processes occurring under certain conditions, together with these conditions, are called systems ... Systems in which pedagogical processes are carried out are called pedagogical systems". At the same time, the structure of the pedagogical

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system appears to them as two interconnected groups: a group of elements that formulate a pedagogical task (students, educational goals, educational content), and a group of elements that form a pedagogical technology (learning processes, organization of training, teacher and / or teaching aids
Literature: 1. , . (2018).          .  , (9), 67-69. 2. Urakova Oysuluv Jamoliddinovna. The praise of nature and the universe in Novalis romance //EPRA International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD) Volume: 5 | Issue: 7 | July 2020..274-275 .

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_224 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Sabirov A.A., PhD in Medicine Department of Medical Radiology and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Andijan State Medical Institute Andijan, Uzbekistan

DETECTION OF SMALL MYOCARDIAL INJURIES AFTER PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTIONS

Summary: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the main cause of disability and premature mortality in economically developed countries. Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the most common disease today, despite the high level of development of world medicine.
Today, according to the ACC/ANA classification, complications after PCI have been studied in sufficient detail and described: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, complications at the puncture site, renal failure, allergic reaction to contrast agent; specific complications - coronary artery thrombosis, its perforation, tamponade and arrhythmias.
Key words: Cardiovascular diseases, angioplasty, myocardial revascularization, coronary artery thrombosis, cardiospecific markers, echocardiography, selective coronary angiography.

Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are currently the main cause of disability and premature mortality in economically developed countries.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the most common disease today, despite the high level of development of world medicine[1, 4].
Treatment of CHD in patients is an urgent problem at the present time. More than 3.0 million myocardial revascularization procedures are performed annually in the world. In recent years, the ratio of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) (angioplasty and stenting of the coronary arteries) and coronary bypass surgery is 2:1 in Europe, and 6:1 in the USA and Japan.
Observational studies involving a large number of patients confirm that PCI is a highly effective procedure with a low complication rate compared to other methods of myocardial revascularization. However, there are still many open questions in the problem of PCI[2, 3, 6].
Today, according to the ACC/ANA classification, complications after PCI have been studied in sufficient detail and described: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, complications at the puncture site, renal failure, allergic reaction to contrast agent; specific complications - coronary artery thrombosis, its perforation, tamponade and arrhythmias.

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The term "small myocardial injuries" (MPM) has appeared in the literature relatively recently. MPM occurs in 8-15% of cases after planned PCI and is manifested only by an increase in the level of cardiospecific markers, without clinical and electrocardiographic signs of myocardial damage[2, 3, 5].
Purpose of research. Optimize diagnostics, identify risk factors for small myocardial injuries and evaluate their impact on the long-term results of planned percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary heart disease: angina.
Materials and methods of research. The study included 45 patients with CHD: FC III-IV angina who were admitted to the Namangan cardiology center for routine PCI and coronary artery stenting, selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
The patients included in the study were divided into groups according to the level of cardiospecific markers in blood serum: the study group - 25 patients (men 13, women 12) with coronary artery disease (CHD), functional classes IIIIV after PCI, complicated by small myocardial injuries; the comparison group 20 patients (men 12, women 8) with CHD: stress angina III-IV functional classes after PCI, not complicated by MPM.
All patients with coronary artery disease (groups compare and research) received the same drug therapy, which included: bisoprolol, trombas, perindopril, atorvastatin, clopidogrel. Patients also continued to receive the recommended therapy at the outpatient stage of treatment.
During PCI and coronary artery stenting, metal stents and drug-coated antiproliferative stents were used.
During the study, General clinical research methods were used (General blood and urine analysis), biochemical blood analysis (blood analysis for blood electrolytes, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate dehydrogenase, creatinine, urea, prothrombin index, international normalized ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) and special research methods-immunochemical blood analysis (troponin T, creatine phosphokinase-MV, myoglobin). Instrumental research methods were also used: electrocardiography( ECG), daily Holter monitoring of ECG, echocardiography and selective coronary angiography.
Statistical analysis of data was performed using descriptive statistics, clustering, sample comparison, regression, frequency, and correlation analysis (Pearson correlation coefficient). Data processing was performed using application programs, version 6.0.
Research result. During the examination of patients with IHD: functional class III-IV angina pectoris subjected to PCI and coronary artery stenting, on day 1, the presence of complaints in the study group for minor discomfort behind the sternum was revealed in 3.2% of patients, while patients in the comparison group did not complain (p<0.05).
In patients with IHD of the study and comparison group after performing PCI and coronary artery stenting, there were no differences in the indicators of

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biochemical blood analysis, such as: hemoglobin, creatinine, cholesterol. However, there is an increase in the General blood test of the level of white blood cells above normal - 10,23*109/l, in patients of the study group, which is not observed in patients of the comparison group (p<0.05).

Table 1

Comparative frequency of changes in the main clinical and

instrumental signs in the study groups (in %)

Parametersunderstudy

Researchgroup

Comparisongroup

(n-25)

(n=20)

1 Complaints of minor discomfort 3,2%

wasnotobserved

behind the sternum after PCI

2 The level of white blood cells in the 10,23*109/l

6,5*109/l

blood

3 Early repolarization of the left 17,1%

wasnotobserved

ventricle of the heart on an ECG

4 Dynamics of the ST segment on the wasnotobserved

wasnotobserved

ECG

5 Dynamics of ejection fraction on wasnotobserved

wasnotobserved

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

6 Violation of global and local wasnotobserved

wasnotobserved

contractility

in

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

Instrumental data for the detection of MPM are insignificant - they include ECG signs in the form of early ventricular repolarization, which are recorded only in the study group (17.1%) after planned PCI (p<0.05) (table 1). There were no differences between the groups of patients in terms of ECHO-KG (table 1).

Table 2

Cardiospecific markers in the studied groups(ng / ml)

Parametersunderstudy

Researchgroup (n- Comparisongroup(n-

20)

25)

1 Troponin T

0,030+0,004

0,074+0,005

2 Myoglobin

70,0+2,7

95,1 38,59 ng/ml

3 KFK-MV

4,94+0,1

5,58+0,24 ng/ml

When analyzing data, the study group reported higher content of myoglobin in serum compared with the study group in 2,5 times (p<0.05).
1 day after PCI and stenting of the coronary arteries, an increase in levels of CPK-MB in the serum of patients of the study group that exceeds the comparison group in 1,7 times (p<0.05).
We obtained data on the excess of the troponin T level in the study group over the comparison group by 74 times (p<0.05).

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When considering the statistical Association of the studied cardiospecific markers of myocardial damage in the study group, it was possible to identify an average positive correlation between the levels of myoglobin and CPK-MV (R=0.7693, p=0.0001), as well as between the indicators of myoglobin and troponin T (R =0.6021, p=0.001). The data obtained indicate the presence of MPM in patients of the study group. Step-by-step regression analysis performed for cardiospecific markers of myocardial damage revealed a stable linear relationship between the studied markers and the clinical manifestations of MPM. Since myoglobin directly affects the formation of troponin T values, CPK-MV has an indirect effect on the formation of troponin T values.
Using the indicators of the troponin T level determined in the blood serum of patients with CHD after PCI and coronary artery stenting, by immunochemical examination, it is possible to determine the value of myoglobin using a linear regression equation, with further detection of the development of MPM individually in each patient.
Also, using the linear equation obtained during regression analysis, it is possible to calculate the second cardiospecific marker of myocardial damage, troponin T, based on the values of the CPK-MV indicator determined using an immunochemical examination of the blood serum of patients with CHD.
The correlation coefficient is: g = 0.53366. The obtained linear regression equations show a more important role of the relationship between the increase in cardiospecific markers, such as myoglobin, troponin T, and CPK-MV in response to the occurrence of small myocardial injuries after percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery stenting, which can serve as an algorithm for detecting this complication. On the 1st day after percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery stenting in patients with coronary heart disease at the level of troponin TO0.030 ng/ml, CPK - MV 0.10-4.94 ng/ml, myoglobin 25.0 -72.0 ng/ml, a favorable clinical course of the postoperative period is predicted without the development of small myocardial damage; and at the level of troponin T 0.030 - 0.072 ng/ml, CPK - MV 4.94-5.58 ng/ml, myoglobin 72.0 -93.6 ng/ml is predicted as an unfavorable course of the postoperative period with the development of small myocardial injuries [6]. Conclusions: Clinical peculiarities of the early postoperative period in patients with ischemic heart disease, 1 day after elective percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with the development of small myocardial damage, in contrast to the comparison group, is the presence of a slight discomfort behind the breastbone (17.1 percent), increasing levels of white blood cells (10,23 * 109/l), the syndrome of early repolarization of the left ventricle on ECG (3,2%) (p<0.05).Increased levels of cardiospecific markers in the blood serum: myoglobin (95.1±0.55 ng / ml), troponinate (0.074±0.002 ng / ml), creatine phosphokinase-MV (5.58±0.089 ng / ml) in patients with IHD: functional class III-IV stress angina after percutaneous coronary interventions, with a high

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probability indicate the development of small myocardial damage. Risk factors that allow predicting the development of small myocardial injuries after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery stenting in patients with IHD are: diffuse coronary artery damage, stenosis length greater than 24.07±1.3 mm, recanalization with coronary artery stenting, lateral branch occlusion, metal stent implantation, implantation of two or more stents, systemic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertegaemia (p<0.05).Increasing the level of cardiospecific markers, due to the development of small myocardial injuries, it adversely affects the long-term (1-year follow-up) results of percutaneous coronary intervention, leading to the return of angina (2.86%) and the need for repeated hospitalizations (5.71%).
References: 1.  ..         . .    2000;  1: . 2­5. 2.  ..                  / .. , ..  //   . - 2012. - 5. -. 5-7. 3.  ..        «  »      / .. , ..  //  . -2013. -  14. - 6. - . 283. 4. .       . - / .. , .. , .. , .. . - :  «   », 2012. - 216. 5. karasereenont P., Nuamchit T., Thaworn A. et al. Serum nitric oxide levels in patients with coronary artery disease. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2001; 84 (suppl. 3): S730 ­ S739. 6.  ..      .   2009:  9: . 5­9. 7.  ..       ., ., 1999, 209 .

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UDK: 10.02.09

Sabirova E.Sh. Lecturer
of Specialized Branch of Tashkent State University of Law

CLASSIFICATION OF LEGAL TERMS

Annotation: This article examines the legal terminology of D.I. Miloslavskaya and general terms that were created by legislators
Key words: Terminology, classification, jurisprudence, purely legal, commonly used

For a clearer description of legal terminological systems, it is necessary to develop a classification of terms in this subject area, and therefore, there is a need to choose the classification grounds. One of such grounds may be the factor of a word belonging to the sublanguage of a certain field of activity. Let us dwell on the previously developed classifications of legal terminology.
The classification developed by A.S. Pigolkin, it is carried out according to the vertical and horizontal principles. At the top of the vertical classification will be the terminology enshrined in the Basic Law and other legislative acts, that is, general legal terminology that unites terms used in all branches of law and denoting the broadest concepts.
Horizontal terminology encompasses various types of cross-industry and industry-specific terminology. Cross-sectoral terminology is the terms used in several branches of law ("liability", "significant damage", "misconduct", etc.).
A distinctive feature of the industry terminology is that it is based on subject-logical connections and relations of the corresponding concepts, reflecting the specifics of a particular sphere of legal relations. Consequently, sectoral terminology serves a special branch of legislation, that is, it forms a sectoral terminological field that does not coincide with either general legal or inter-sectoral terminological fields - broader in content and function ("transaction", "prescription of the crime", " divorce ", etc.).
We find a somewhat different classification in D.I. Miloslavskaya, who identifies the following groups of terms: commonly used; generally used, having a narrower, special meaning in a normative act; purely legal; technical. Commonly used terms are common, widespread names for objects, qualities, signs, actions, phenomena that are equally used in everyday speech, in fiction and scientific literature, in business documents, in legislation. Such terms are simple, generally understandable ("find", "mass poisoning", etc.).
The frequency of use of the terms under consideration is quite significant. Commonly used terms, however, are not always convenient. Their content is often ambiguous and allows for various interpretations. They can be used in one sense

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or in another. Therefore, the use of such terms is advisable if their meaning is obvious to everyone and does not give rise to any doubts in this context. Using commonly used terms in normative acts, the legislator must ensure their interpretation in one form or another, so that the meaning is extremely clear. Take, for example, the term "drunkenness." "A person who has committed a crime in a state of intoxication, - established by law, is not exempt from criminal liability." In practice, the question arises whether intoxication is associated with the use of only alcoholic beverages or drugs. The answer to this question is given by medical science, defining intoxication as a condition caused by the use of not only alcohol, but also drugs. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the concepts of alcoholism and drug addiction are not the same concepts. Therefore, an alcoholic and a drug addict, as an alcoholic drink and a drug, respectively, are not the same thing.
Like any other sphere of public life, jurisprudence cannot do without special terminology, which is specially developed by the legislator to regulate public relations. Special legal terms, as a rule, concisely and relatively accurately denote the concept used in jurisprudence ("plaintiff", "conviction", "penalty", "inquiry", etc.). However, their number is not so large, but despite this, they are quite often used in various documents of a legal nature. They are used to denote special concepts and only in jurisprudence.
In business documents and legislative texts, there are many such special legal terms, the meaning of which cannot always be explained solely from linguistic positions, for example, the term "legal entity". Indeed, literally, the word "person" refers to a person, and not to any organization or association. However, the use of such terms is justified, since from the point of view of their practical conventional use, they have the advantages of unambiguously defining specific legal concepts. The centuries-old tradition of their use should also be borne in mind.
Many terms that were created by the legislator and were originally purely legal, later became widespread in everyday life, in fiction, and are actively used outside of jurisprudence ("criminal", "law", "alimony", etc.). They have ceased to be proper legal, have become commonplace. In legal documentation, many terms are used, borrowed from various fields of science, technology, art, as well as professionalism. In the literature, the name "technical terms" was assigned to them (for example, "slide", "microfarada", "phonogram"). In the process of applying the rule of law in various spheres of public life, it is often impossible to do without special technical terms. It is necessary to adhere to the rule that technical terms are used in the sense that is assigned to them in the relevant branch of knowledge.
Special legal and technical terms are very convenient: they unambiguously denote the desired concept, contribute to a clearer statement of regulatory prescriptions, thereby contributing to a more correct understanding and application of the latter. In other words, they maximally condense verbal

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information, save the means of transmitting legislative thought. With the help of such terms, uniqueness, semantic concreteness, completeness of legal formulations can be achieved. It is hardly advisable to replace special terms with detailed descriptive expressions, since this would lead to cumbersome regulations and business documents, and would complicate their application.
Of course, special terms should be used within the limits of semantic and informational necessity, without overloading documents with them. For example, the use of such terms is appropriate in special-purpose regulations for a limited number of specialists and inappropriate in acts that are designed for a wide range of citizens.
There is also a similar division in the legal literature, in which three types of legal terms are distinguished:
1) common terms that are used in everyday speech and are understandable to everyone;
2) special legal terms that have a special legal content ("letter of credit", "statement of claim", etc.). Such terms are used to denote legal concepts, expressions of legal constructions, industry typing, etc .;
3) special technical legal terms that reflect the area of special knowledge, for example, safety regulations, equipment maintenance, technical solutions expertise, etc.
However, common terms can become legal. In order for special legal terms to become clear to all subjects of legal relations, the legislator uses norms that do not directly regulate public relations, but reveal the content of any legal terms. Such norms are called norms-definitions. The effectiveness of legal terms depends on how the legislator complies with a number of rules for legal terminology.
It is believed that, for the convenience of analysis, legal vocabulary can be divided into classes according to the method of concept nomination (terms, terminonyms, professionalisms). Another parameter is belonging to a certain branch of law, which gives grounds for classifying a lexeme as a general legal or branch lexicon (the meanings of branch terms can be adequately understood only in the subsystem of the corresponding branch of law). The third parameter of the classification of special vocabulary is the highlighting of realities, which are represented by toponyms, anthroponyms, appellatives and phraseological units: Old Baily - Old Bailey, Central Criminal Court, toponym by the name of the street in London where it is located; Miranda warning - the official announcement to the suspect of his rights, anthroponym by the name of the famous court case "Miranda v. Arizona" (1966); pocket veto - "pocket veto", an indirect veto of the President of the United States, an appellate (common noun).
The classification grounds for the belonging of a term to a certain class, for the method of nomination and for identifying the type of reality are relevant both for describing the terminological systems of one language and for contrastive studies. When comparing the legal terminology of the English and Russian languages, other classification features appear.

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Literature: 1. Leichik, V.M. Substantiation of the structure of the term as a linguistic sign / V.M. Leichik // Terminology. - M., 1994 2. Kolesnikova, L.V. Legal discourse as a result of the categorization and conceptualization of reality (on the material of the subject-terminological area of law ("International Private Law"): abstract of thesis ... Candidate of Philology: 02/10/19 / Kolesnikova Lilia Viktorovna. -Stavropol, 2007 3. Zemlyanaya, T.B., Pavlycheva, O.N. Factors of the formation of legal terms [Electronic resource] / .B. Zemlyanaya, O. N. Pavlycheva // Journal of Scientific and Pedagogical Information. ­ 2010

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Salimova S.F. teacher
Department of Biology Bukhara State University

GENERAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL ANIMALS FEATURES

Annotation: Vertebrates- (Vertebrata or Craniata) are a subspecies of chordates. The number of species is less than that of invertebrates; however, they play an important role in the modern biosphere. They have a highly structured, changeable habitat. They live in different layers of the ocean, in high mountains, deserts and other places. In the evolution of these animals, it is observed that their structure develops according to a single general plan. Such development has led to the emergence of forms that have improved in terms of morphological, biochemical and physiological properties, behavior and mental activity.
Keywords: Vertebrates, body structure, nervous system, digestive organs, development, biological growth.

The shape of the body is different. Aquatic lowland vertebrates. The body is divided into head, body and tail parts. They have a single back, tail and under the tail and a pair of thoracic and ventral fins. A terrestrial vertebrate in the body of the animal again a part of the neck is formed, the odd fin wings will not appear, instead of a pair of finned wings appear five-toed type structured legs will be.
Leather covers. The skin is an important organ in terms of function. Because skin participation in body defense, thermoregulation, multiplication and sensation processes reaches The skin is composed of outer epidermis and inner chin skin layers. Epidermis composed of multilayered epithelium. A circle whose life depends on the aquatic environment mucous substance in the epidermis of larvae of oral fish and amphibians secretory glands. Mucous substances affect the movement of these animals in water relieves. The outer part of the epidermis in terrestrial vertebrates layer is branched. On their skin faces are various horny products, coins, shield, feather, wool, etc. are formed. Chin leather is a hard fibrous binder made of tissue. In this tissue are the bones that cover the uncle and the bone marrow located.
Skeletons. The skeletons of vertebrates are divided into bullet skeletons, head skeletons, and divided into foot skeletons.
The skeleton of a bullet consists of a chord in the embryos of vertebrates. Chord segments does not divide. Tissue that connects the chord and the central nervous system the curtain surrounds the outside. This membrane is a skeletogenic membrane. Due to the membrane, vertebrae made of bone or bone develop. Of lightning the vertebrae are convex and the spine is not divided into

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sections. The vertebrae of fish are divided into two parts - the rib body and the tail without ribs divided into sections. The vertebrae of terrestrial vertebrates are divided into five sections: neck, chest, waist, tail, and tail. In this case, the ribs of the thoracic cavity move with the chest to form the thorax. The spine supports the entire body on one side, on the other hand, the spinal cord and internal organs serve as a protective sheath.
The skull consists of the cerebral cortex and the surface or visceral sections. Brain box protects the brain and sensory organs from mechanical impact.
In fish, the visceral skeleton is composed of uncle lattices in round mouths from the visceral arch: 1) the jaw arch 2) the sublingual arch 3) the jaw arch. On land the upper part of the jaw arch of living vertebrates to the auditory bone, the lower part again the remnants of the jaw arches become the sublingual apparatus. From round-mouthed all vertebrates except have a pair of legs and their girdle skeleton. Fish have a skeleton of two swimming wings, while terrestrial animals have five the toe will be the skeleton of the foot.
Nervous system. Nervous system of vertebrates 1) head and back to the central nervous system consisting of the brain 2) originating from the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system composed of nerves and 3) along the arch of the spine divided into the lying autonomic nervous system.
The brain is in the anterior part of the neural tube during the early stages of embryonic development comes in the form of three bubbles. Then before and after the first bubble the brain, the midbrain is formed from the second cerebral bladder, and the cerebellum from the third. At the base of the brain is the elongated brain. A total of 10-12 from the brain a pair of brains emerge.
The spine is in the shape of a lifelong reed. Its interior is gray exterior and white matter. The metamer in the spinal cord is the back of it brain nerves come out. They start with two roots, the sensory back and the driving force is the abdomen. These roots merge after leaving the spinal cord, forms spinal nerves.
The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is the brain and spinal cord is a complex system of nerves and these nerves are different from the body goes to the organs.
The autonomic nervous system is the work of the internal organs of the animal, the heart controls palpitations, bowel contractions, glandular secretions.
The sense organs are diverse and complex. Skin sensory organs consists of nerve endings that receive mechanical stimuli, such as the skin on the face and on the surface of the mucous membranes of the intestine and other organs scattered.
Lateral organs are found only in primary aquatic vertebrates specific. In round-mouthed amphibians and amphibians, these organs are located on the surface of the skin. In fish, on both sides of the body in the form of longitudinal stripes located on the side. Due to the lateral line bodies the flow rate of water to the animal and feels the direction of the movement of his body.
The auditory organ is always paired and acts as a balance organ. Round in lizards and fish it consists only of the inner ear. The inner ear is oval consists of

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a pouch and a bottom round pouch. Oval bags are round three semicircular canals in all vertebrates except vertebrates turns out. An endolymphatic canal with a closed tip emerges from the sac.
From amphibians, the middle ear is formed. Inside it is the sternum, and in mammals the outer ear appears again.
Respiratory organs. Round-mouthed, fish and amphibians. If the respiratory organs of the larvae are oppressed, the breathing of the remaining vertebrates serves as an organ. In some cases, the skin is involved in respiration
The organ of vision consists of a pair of eyelids. In front of it is the cornea. The eyeball is the center of the eyeball. Eye contact the wall is vascular, pigmented, and composed of a retina.
The olfactory organ is paired in all vertebrates except the round-mouthed will be. This organ consists of two olfactory sacs in the lower vertebrae and the nose. The inner nose, which does not connect to the medium through the nostrils through the nostrils it also connects to the oral cavity and the respiratory tract through holes or holes.
The digestive system is tubular and consists of the following parts: 1) the mouth cavity, 2) larynx - In fish, when the jaw cracks open in the larynx, on land In living vertebrates, a larynx is located in the larynx, 3) the esophagus, 4) stomach, 5) small intestine, colon and rectum, 6) posterior outlet or cloaca. Digestive glands include the liver, pancreas, and others.
References: 1. Animal Life, in 7 volumes. T. 4. 5. 6 7. - M.: "Education", 1983- 1989 2. Jupanov M. A. Life is an anthropogenic transformation in the conditions of the southern island vertebrates. Doctor of Biological Sciences (D S e) d i ss e r ta i n ya si avtoreferat !!. 3. Zoology ku ren (edited by B. S. Matveev. Acad. T. Z. Zoxidov translation) 11 vols, - T. : 1966. 4. Zoxidov T. Z Encyclopedia of Zoology. Fish and lower chordates. - T. : «Fan», 1966, 5. Zoxidov T. Z. I am in encyclopedia of zoology. Amphibians and reptiles. T. : «Fan», 1969

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UDK 372.881.111.1

Sattarova N.A. Lecturer
Termez State University Uzbekistan

THE IMPORTANCE OF READING STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPING READING SKILL OF B1 LEVEL LEARNERS

Annotation: The article attempts to investigate developing students' reading skill through the reading principles and strategies. Our other aim through this study is to suggest the "SKIMMING AND SCANNING", "TOPDOWN AND BOTTOM-UP" as an appropriate and an effective way to develop students' reading skill. Accordingly, we believe that using different types of reading techniques in the classroom make students of university learn different topical vocabulary in English and use effectively in different social situations.
Keywords: Teaching, learning, foreign, educational, intellectual, knowledge, importance, responsibility, improve, comprehension.

The main principles and strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Dealing with reading, readers will always get in touch with written language. Of course, there are so many types of written language. Brown states several types of written language. They are: non-fiction (reports, editorials, essays, articles, and references), fiction (novels, short stories, jokes, dramas, poetry), letters (personal, business), greeting cards, diaries, journals, memos (interoffice memos), messages (phone messages), announcements, newspapers, academic writing (short answer test responses, reports, essays, and papers, theses and books), forms, applications, questionnaires, directions, labels, signs, recipes, bills (and another financial statements), maps, manuals, menus, schedules (transportation information), advertisements (commercial and personal), invitations', directories (e.g., telephone, yellow pages), comic strips, and cartoons.17 Good readers tend to know the text that they read. Knowing the types of written language is helpful for them in analyzing the text that they face. That is why the teacher should provide the students as the readers a good text by considering the types of written language. Types of Reading The teacher has to know the types of reading since the types of reading are helpful as a consideration in providing students' reading material. Many experts have their own definition about types of reading Nunan (1999) states two types of reading. They are receptive reading and reflective reading. Receptive reading is

17Bamford, J. and Day, R.R. 1998. Teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, p124-141.

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the rapid, automatic reading that readers do when they read narratives. Meanwhile, reflective reading is in which readers pause often and reflect on what they have read. In other hand, Brown also mentions several types of reading. They are: 1) Perceptive: In keeping with the set of categories specified for listening comprehension, similar specification are offered here, except with some differing terminology to capture the unique of reading. Perceptive reading tasks involve attending to the components of larger stretches of discourse: letters, words, punctuation, and other graphemic symbols. Bottom-up processing is implied.
2) Selective: This category is larder an artifact of assessment formats. In order to ascertain one's reading recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse features of language within a very short stretch of language, certain typical tasks are used: picture-cued tasks, matching, true/false, multiple-choice, etc. Brief responses are intended as well. A combination of the bottom-up and top-down processing may be used.
3) Interactive: Included among the interactive reading types are stretches of language of several paragraphs to one page or more in which the reader must, in psycholinguistic sense, interact with the text. That is, reading is a process of negotiating meaning; the reader brings to the text a set of schemata for understanding it, and intake is the product of that interaction. The top-down processing is typical of such tasks, although some instances of bottom-up performance may be necessary.
4) Extensive: Extensive reading applies to texts of more than a page, up to and including professional articles, essays, technical reports, short stories, and books. The purposes of the assessment usually are to tap into a learner's global understanding of a text, as opposed to asking test-takers to "zoom in" on small details. The top-down processing is assumed for most extensive tasks.
The types of reading from different experts are exactly having the same use to be useful consideration for the teachers to provide the reading materials for the students. Teachers have to know what types of reading should be applied which match the students' characteristic.
Richards (1983) in Brown mentions several micro-skills of reading.18 They are:
1) Discriminating among the distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.
2) Retaining chunks of language of different lengths in short-term memory. 3) Processing writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose. 4) Recognizing a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance. 5) Recognizing grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.), systems, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.

18Brown, D.H. 2004. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practice. London: Pearson Education.p 35

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6) Recognizing that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
7) Recognizing cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses.
8) Recognizing the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation.
Skimming and Scanning. It means that skimming refers to looking only for the general or main ideas, and works best with non-fiction material. Skimming takes place while reading and allows you to look for details in addition to the main ideas. Scanning is another useful tool for speeding up your reading. When scanning, you look only for a specific fact or piece of information without reading everything.
General characteristics of the "TOP-DOWN and BOTTOM ­UP" approaches in teaching reading
a)Top ­ Down Approach A way to bring a wide variety of social contexts to your class is through Top ­ down approach. It is an approach in teaching reading that activates the broader knowledge of the students to understand the text in the beginning of the lesson. It uses schemata of the students as the readers to understand what the text tells about and the writer's intention inside the text. Brown states that in using top ­ down, we draw on our own intelligence and experience to understand a text. Supporting this, Nuttall , in Brown defines top ­ down processing as taking an eagle's ­ eye view of a landscape below. Then, Nuttall , in Rahman also defines the top-down approach as: We draw on our own intelligence and experience the predictions we can make, based on the schemata we have acquired to understand the text. ... We make conscious use of it when we try to see the overall purpose of the text, or get a rough idea of the pattern of the writer's argument, in order to make a reasoned guess at next step.19 The advantage of the top-down approach is that it can recall the schema of the past that the students have. By recalling that, the students are motivated to know more about the material that is discussed and the lesson can be more encouraging and attracting to the students. According to Vacca, teachers who have a top-down belief system consider reading for meaning an essential component of all reading instructional situations. They feel that the majority of reading or language arts instructional time should involve students in meaningful activities in which they read, write, speak, and listen. These teachers may also emphasize the importance of students' choosing their own reading material and enjoying the material they read. Sentences, paragraphs, and text selections are the units of language emphasized instructionally. Because recognizing each word is not considered an essential prerequisite to comprehending the passage, word errors during oral reading may not be corrected. Instead, the teacher may advocate noninterference during oral reading or
19Nuttall, C. 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. In Rahman. Md. Hamidur. 2004. An Evaluation of the Teaching of Reading Skills of English. Rajshahi: University of Rajshahi.

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encourage a student to use the context or meaning of the passage to identify unrecognized words.
The bottom ­ up is the approach in teaching reading that uses smallest part of language (like letters, words or phrases) to begin with, then it continues to broader items (like sentences and paragraphs). This approach leads the students' understanding about smallest part of language in detail in the beginning of the lesson. According to Nuttall, in Rahman, in Bottom ­ Up, the reader builds up a mea ning from the black marks on the page: recognizing letters and words, working out sentence structure.20
The good point in conducting bottom-up processing is that it can make the lesson focus on the structure and vocabulary that can be found out from the text that will be discussed. According to Morales, the emphasis on bottom-up processing helped students overcome difficulties regarding the structure and vocabulary of science texts. 21
References: 1.Azamatovna, S. N. (2020). The main goal of using feedback in the writing process. Proceeding of The ICECRS, 6, 167-169. 2.Azamatovna, S. N. (2020). TECHNOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN STUDENT. International Engineering Journal For Research & Development, 5(CONGRESS), 3-3. 3.Sattarova, N. A. (2019). THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GIVING FEEDBACK FOR WRITING. In      (pp. 114-117).

5Rahman, Md. Hamidur. 2004. An Evaluation of the Teaching of Reading Skills of English. Rajshahi: University
of Rajshahi. 6Brown, D.H. 2001. Teaching by Principles (Second Ed). London: Pearson Education.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Sarvinoz S.O. teacher
Kokand State Pedagogical Institute Mamatov I.I. teacher
Kokand State Pedagogical Institute

ART CARPET WEAVING IS ONE OF THE FORCES THAT LIFTTHE HUMAN MOOD

Annotation: This article describes in detail the art of tapestry, one of the new types of applied art, the creation of work of tapestry and its impact on the human mood, its psychological features.
Keywords: Tapestry, moving fresco, human impact, thematic range, magical works, modern world, canvases, landscape motifs, pure, autumn paintings, still life, Italy, conclusion.

Works of folk applied art have a high value not only for their decoration, beautiful forms, antiquity, but also for their deep philosophical, educational and spiritual features.
One of the new types of applied art is tapestry art. Initially he speaks a poetic language peculiar to him. At first glance, the art of tapestry is far from the contrast of the day, but it leaves a trace of time in its essence. In many works, one can easily see the reasons for concern for the preservation of our civilization, the natural world.
What sets it apart - the "living fresco"? The decisive role here is played by the texture of the woven surface, the material that provides any monumental image with an aura close to that of man. This aspect represents the main point of the "moving fresco" aesthetics. The original purpose of any fabric and genetically - tapestry - is to warm and decorate. Tapestries are like magical symbols that harmonize the surrounding space and the inner world of the person looking at them. These are original beautiful pictures "written" with strings, delivering a rich flow of information to the viewer. Tapestries radiate joy, peace, reflect the charming beauty of the world around us, these people are missing in our difficult and difficult times.
Take a look at the published reproductions presented in the catalog - first the works of the authors, in fact "good" and "different".
Tapestries fit perfectly into a modern interior. On the walls, just like the ornaments, there are beautiful paintings depicting natural landscapes, still lifes, animals and birds, their natural habitats, white snow-covered expanses, flourishing steppes, taiga and exotic forests. Fully found silhouettes, movements, postures create direct, sometimes impressive, sometimes terrifying images. Each

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picture is a poem about the beauty of the world, a symbolic image built on clear field observations.
Tapestries are easy to imagine at home; they relieve the boredom and boredom of standardizing townhouses, reminding us of the beauty of nature, pleasant memories and meditation, contemplation, a healthy rest in the bosom of nature. Whatever picture you see - the beauty, the uniqueness of the shapes and images is in front of you. This is how a tone "painted" with a color code sounds like on a canvas. The joy of life is conveyed to the viewer from the canvases Just as you can't enter the same river twice, tapestries are accepted in a new style each time. Each time the work creates a different mood. Sometimes - well: I want to ascend to heaven, and perhaps I want to find all these beauties that the master found somewhere and showed us in his works; sometimes - a little sad, but the reason for this was that through art it was possible to convey the whole air, all its worries and sorrows, darkness and light, very finely and lightly.
The play of warm, soft, wonderful colors creates a particularly uplifting mood - creating harmony with the audience, lyrically adapting it - to an enlightened mood.
Some canvases are amazing in their integrity and perfection, while others leave room for imagination. As Max Frish, a well-known classic of European literature, points out, what we want to fill them with really fascinates us
The thematic range is paintings of different genres, mainly landscape, floral, decorative motifs, figures of people, animals, birds; nature is a landscape. Landscapes, still lifes, genre landscapes in life - all of these stand out for their spontaneity and sincerity.
When we look at tapestry paintings, involuntary images float before us distant, fantastic countries, landscapes; in the bright mix of beautiful pictures we find many fantastically beautiful plants, various fairy-tale heroes, strange architectural forms. You look at these magical works - and you feel as if you are interacting with the landscape with your heart, immersed in the paradise around you, and relaxing with your soul.
The modern world is a stormy current in which man loses touch with nature - the most precious thing he has - the original. The artificial, "man-made" world created by human beings absorbs our consciousness and leaves a certain mark on our perception of the world. Most of the canvases are dedicated to the very theme of nature, which reminds man of where he came from and where he is a member. On canvases, nature is always alive, beautiful and uniquely changing and at the same time unique in its set beauty.
Landscape motifs remain a favorite for the viewer, where it serves as a reflection of some theatrical action that takes place around them, invisible at a glance. Not everyone sees this movement, but nature reveals its "secret" to a grateful audience who knows how to see it. Looking at the scenery, we feel the humidity of the air, a morning full of soft sunlight, or a warm afternoon, as well as the coolness quietly hidden under the crowns of the trees.

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Some landscapes want to be called a frozen moment for contemplation time. This allows the viewer to feel and understand the depicted silence and use the magic moment to cross the line between the two realities to see the "truth in general" and the "canvas truth" and slow down the time, movement, rhythm and self-image. found in the landscape, where the artist left a piece of the heart. The spectator is captivated by simple motifs, where a concentrated wise silence is heard.
Favorite landscape objects are edges with water. These are images of quiet rivers planted with tall trees, with their fan-shaped broad branches spread out thoughtfully; or calm reservoirs with intricate plastic of steep shores; mountain streams and twisting streams that playfully descend from scenic slopes; a demonstration of the pulsating flow of spring rain. The whole world is reflected in the image of water. As in the mirror, the clouds are reflected in the lake, and the dome of the lake temple is probably perceived as a temple of nature "Pure" nature landscapes, forest spaces, "portraits" of trees, seasonal conditions in quiet and deserted corners of nature predominate.
Autumn paintings are dominated by fiery orange and golden ocher tones. The element of pure emerald and silver pearl colors of spring is culminating in elegant and graceful landscapes. Winter has become a favorite theme with its sheer distances, the dazzling whiteness of the snow playing in the sun. Winter. Silence. And on the mountains - the endless blues of the cold winter sky with cold transparent clouds floating slowly across the horizon. Peace and glorious solemnity stem from these quietly limited rhythms. Tapestries reflect the beauty of changing nature: bad weather and bright sun, the breath of the fields, the transparency of the birch forest. Among the landscapes, the clouds occupy a special place as a symbol of loyalty and blessing. Observing and depicting them in different states of nature - on an open day, in the rain, or on the eve of an approaching thunderstorm, we discover the diverse beauty of nature in its ancient power.
And how we want to live in huts lost in the foothills. And the mountains seem to be living a life independent of us. And we must come out of these little houses and attain the glory of the mountains, they do not die, but only freeze; and do not show your power over them.
Italy is a unique country that has attracted the attention of several artist galaxies. The rhythm of the laconic planes is compositionally and colorfully balanced, which slows down the flow of time.
The portrait gallery features images of children and women that combine the deep psychology of states, the smooth expression of watercolors, a focus on limited facial expressions, and a gentle accompaniment to backgrounds.
Thus, the tapestry synthesized the features of many types of fine art. It is a manifestation of the general artistic processes taking place in culture today - the eradication of boundaries, the interpenetration and unification of different genres. Due to the richness of the problems, they are distinguished by beautiful width,

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graphic accuracy of the drawing and monumental forms. They retain the eternal distinctive features of the tapestry - decorative and poetic.
Reference: 1. Bulatov S.S. Uzbek folk applied decorative art, - T .: "Labor", 1991. 2. Bulatov. Q. Folk art. Tashkent 2000. 3. www.pedagog.uz 4. www.Ziyonet.uz 5. www.carpetart.com

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Sharipov S.Ya. associate professor Tashkent State Agrarian University
Rasulov A.A. the probationer researcher Tashkent State Agrarian University
Islomov F.Sh. student
Tashkent State Agrarian University

STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF APRICOTS IN UZBEKISTAN

Annotation: Apricot - Armeniaka vulgaris Zam. - A tree belonging to the Rosaceae family of 5-8 cm high and sometimes 17-20 m. Apricot is found in the wild in the mountainous regions of Uzbekistan at an altitude of 500-1200m above sea level.
In Uzbekistan, the selectors created The Plum Axror, Isfarak, Mirsanjami, "Kursadik" "Khurmoyi", "Navoi", "Subkhoni", "Arzami", and other varieties. According to statistics, in Uzbekistan 45% of fruits are apricots. 87% of the total fruits in the Fergana and Zarafshan valleys consist of apricots.
The trunk of the apricot tree is covered with a grayish-brown bark. The leaf is oval, rounded or heart-shaped, with an arched shape, with a stem at the base of the stem. The flowers are white or pink and are located separately in the branches. Fruits are oval-shaped, oval and rectangular, yellow, red, orange, and many other colors.
Key words: Dried apricot, antioxidants, Sap, trunk, carotenoids, solar energy, enzyme, sulfur.

Apricot fruit and glue are collected. The ripe apricot fruit is peeled off and the stones are separated from the soft peel of the fruit. Then collected stone is stung. Oil is obtained from seeds at the factories. From the place where the tree bark has cracked, the glue of apricot flows out and solidifies. This sap is collected.
Soft apricot contains up to 27% of sugar, 25% organic acids (apples, citric acid), carotene, vitamin C and RR, flavonoids, pectin, mineral, supplements, 3550% fat, emulsion enzyme. In apricot kernel of apricot, up to 8.43% is found in amygdamine glycosis.
Apricot oil is used in the preparation of some medicines - camphor, hormones, etc. - as an emulsifier in the preparation of fat emulsions, and the seeds of spicy apricots are used in the preparation of bitter almond juice. Apricot is completely contains galactose, arbinose, glucuronic acid, minerals and other substances.

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When it comes to apricots, you may be tempted to consider them as being too "ordinary" to be considered a "Superfood". Think again -- apricots are a powerful source of disease fighting agents and are one of the healthiest and most beneficial fruits available. Because of their high nutrient content, apricots address a variety of health concerns - anemia, digestion, eyes and vision, and even skin problems. The diverse and unique combination of antioxidants in apricots makes them an excellent fruit for fighting against heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Dried apricots have a greater nutritional content (especially Vitamin A and minerals) than fresh apricots due to their high concentration of nutrients. The antioxidants carotenoids and phenolics are both abundantly present in apricots. They are rich in vitamin C, potassium, calcium, iron, vitamin A, phosphorous, and contain fiber as well as essential minerals in trace amounts. According to studies, apricots are excellent sources of ß-carotene, forming 60-70% of the carotenoid that confers with the orange color on the un-blushed sides of the fruit. Additionally, the ßcarotene and lycopene found in apricots protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, which may help to fight against heart disease. Carotenoids are important not only because of the color they impart but also because they show protective activity against a variety of degenerative diseases. Apricots have been described as one of the most important dietary sources of provitamin A carotenoids ­ 250g of fresh or 30g of dried apricots (approximately one serving size) provide nearly all of the recommended daily allowance.Apricot fruit is widely used in the food industry, it is made of high quality jam, juice, peanuts, compote, cans, and it is used in the national economy.
Horticulture is an important branch of agriculture. The fruits are distinguished by their rich chemical composition, aroma, the ability to provide the body with many vitamins and minerals, and other beneficial properties. It is wellknown that the climatic conditions of the Republic of Uzbekistan have a great potential for the cultivation of fruit crops, especially of stone fruits. One of the most profitable sectors is the development of fruit production. Fruits grown in our country are highly valued in many countries around the world. Therefore, the export potential can be enhanced by increasing the volume of fruit production. In addition to the freshness of the fruit, they can be processed in different ways and enriched with fruit products in the off-season.
This means that the quality of the fruit collection can be ensured throughout the year with the provision of fruit and vegetable products to our people. It is known that in addition to the freshness of the fruit, the dried fruit is consumed not only by the people of our country, but also by many peoples of the world. Availability of relatively cheap raw materials in Uzbekistan is a good prospect for the development of agricultural processing. The sunny climate allows to dry apricot fruits in large quantities by using the sunlight in summer and autumn.
At present, one of the most pressing problems in our country is the introduction of new energy-efficient technologies in processing fruits and vegetables, and finding alternative energy sources for modernization of

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production. As we have already mentioned, the organization of efficient drying of fruit products using solar energy is one of the most energy-saving directions with the use of alternative energy sources. Our people have a rich experience in this field, and the fruits are successfully dried in the sun-dried air, with the help of sulfur smoke, as well as in various shade and semi-shade methods. Organization of apricot cultivation, temporary storage and drying can be used as a basis for the cultivation of this valuable crop and quality drying on farms.
Most of the apricots in Uzbekistan are located in the Ferghana Valley and the Zarafshan Valley, with over 500 varieties and clones of apricot in Central Asia. Since the 30s of the 20th century, more than 40 varieties of national and scientific selection have been regionalized. In Uzbekistan, there are many varieties of apricot "Ahroriy", "Subhani", "Gulungi luchchak", "Mirsanjali", "Kursodiq", "Khurmoi", "Isfarak", "Javpazak", "Ok apricot", "Navoi", "Shalakh", "Ruhi Juvanon", "Mohtobi" and many others.
Apricot is harvested at the time when its color and form is typical of its variety and the flesh is thick enough. Dry substances of the above varieties should reach 23­26% at maturity.
Berries are sorted according to their size. It removes rot, mold, crushed, insect and sickness. The fruits are also sorted by the degree of maturation, since the processing of raw materials, the soaking, smoking and drying process depend on the degree of maturation of the fruits.
The technique of dipping the raw material into a caustic soda solution is: fill the raw material in a small basket made of wire or rod and dipped in boiling solution.
Blanched and washed fruits are immediately placed in wooden containers and smoked in sulfur chambers. Smoked apricots retain their natural color and are resistant to insects. On 1 kg of fruit spend 2-2,5 g of sulfur, smoked 1-1,5 hours. In the open field, drying takes 3-4 days, then the apricots are shaded and packed into stacks, then dry for a few more days, and drying takes 8-10 days. Drying is completed when the berries are dry and the skin is undivided. 75 to 80 percent of the dried apricot has a moisture content of 15­17 percent, and they are dry. Therefore, when dried apricot are harvested, it is now dried to balance its moisture content. For this purpose, fruits from turkeys are placed in wooden boxes. Such boxes are 1.2 m long and 0.7 m wide by 0.5 m, weighing 80­100 kg. The boxes are stored indoors and lasts for 12­15 days. During this time, the fruits that are not well dried will go to dried fruits.
Preparation for leafy dried apricot is a dried apricot without stone. It is made from a large fruit, the method of its preparation is not the same as that of the other kinds of dried apricot. For example, berries are put in a smoky dry area on the turntables, where they stay for a couple of days and again in the open space. After a couple of days they turn over and take off the stalk and then the mouth is closed. The next day the trays are stacked and the fruits are dried in the shade. Further work is no different from peanut production technology.

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Preparation for the draw (dried apricot). The dried apricots are cut into two pieces. It is made of large fruits. Apricot picking - transportation, storage, sorting and washing is no different than the technology of other kinds of dried apricot. The well washed apricot is split into two parts and removed from the stem, which is done manually. Fruit bowls are kept in boiling water for 45 to 60 minutes, with the top facing to the tray and smoked with sulfur. Approximately 1.5­2 g of sulfur is used per 1 kg of fruit, the smoking lasts 45­60 minutes. Smoked fruit tray and dried on slivers. After 1/2 - 2/3 of the moisture escape, the apricot plates are overturned, and approximately 4/3 of the moisture escapes. The glauca needs to be dried for 24-30 hours in the sun, during which time it will dry out and dry in the shade. Apricot is not wrinkled and wrinkles, vitamins are well preserved and color is not changed. The fruit is dry for 5­7 days, it is considered ready if it does not break when it is caught and crushed, crumbles and chops are creamy (elastic), its moisture should not exceed 18 percent, 19-26% of the fruit from the Husky is taken from the dried apricot.
References: 1. McBean, D.McG; Wallace, J.J. Stability of Moist-pack Apricots in Storage. CSIRO Fd. Preserv. Q. 2007, 27 (2), 29­36. 2. Manolopoulou, H.; Mallidis, C. In Storage and Processing of Apricots, Proceedings of XIth Symposium on Apricot Culture, Acta Hort 488, Leuven, Belgium, 567- 576, 1999; Karayiannis, I., Eds.; 2006. 3. Chauhan, S.K.; Tyagi, S.M.; Singh, D. Pectinolytic, Liquefaction of Apricot, Plum, and Mango Pulps for Juice Extraction. International Journal of Food Properties. 2005, 4 (1), 103­109. 4. Chambroy, Y.; Souty, M.; Audergon, J.M.; Jaquemin, G.; Gomez, R-M. Research on the Suitability of Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Shelf-life and Quality Improvement of Apricot Fruit. Acta Horti. 2011, 384, 633­638. 5. Bolin, H.R.; Stafford, A.E. Effect of Processing on Provitamin A and Vitamin C in Apricots. J. of Food Sci. 1974, 39, 1034­1035.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Shukurova S.O. teacher
Karshi state university Uzbekistan, Karshi Kurbonova Sh.Sh.
Webster University in Tashkent Uzbekistan, Tashkent

ONLINE GAMES ARE BECOMING HANDY TOOLS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS TO EXPLAIN NEW VOCABULARY FOR
BOTH ADULT AND YOUNG LEARNERS

Abstract. It is undeniable that the wide spread of the Coronavirus (can be officially called COVID-19 previously known as "2019 novel coronavirus") caused innumerable replacements in how learners are taught around the world. School, high educational institution closures mandated by governments in an attempt to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational and governmental officials in Uzbekistan weighed the benefits of in-person schooling against the risks posed by COVID-19 spread. "Due to coronavirus, all higher education institutions' students, schoolchildren and children of preschool education institutions of Uzbekistan were closed on vocation starting March 16, 2020" stated at the meeting held by the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan.
Keywords: Education, school, Coronavirus, government, knowledge, learners, vocabulary, students, online platforms, distance learning.

The coronavirus pandemic sweeping around the world, posed unexpected challenges and requirements for education. In Uzbekistan, since March 16, after the detection of the first case of coronavirus infection, the traditional educational process in schools has been temporarily suspended. Students were transferred to distance learning. Virtual learning minimized the advantages of face-to-face learning as there are great limitations in interaction between the teacher and students.
One essential component in language learning is vocabulary knowledge. The importance of vocabulary can be felt in the stages where students have to convey meanings in communication. As Oxford (1990) stated "strong vocabulary knowledge will enable students to acquire and apply their knowledge in the language. Unfortunately, English teachers faced problems in the application of the methods that are for vocabulary explanations in quarantine period in Uzbekistan. The reason is that almost all teachers strongly relied on face-to-face methods that definitely magnified vocabulary basis of the students.
One feasible suggestion given to traditional teachers is to consult with professors in abroad to exchange valuable methods in teaching vocabulary

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virtually to learners. The reason is that teachers in abroad have a wide experience in virtual teaching as it has been common for decades because of high teaching technology resources and requirements of students around the developing word.
Prior to boosting new era's modern applications in teaching vocabulary online, as an author I want to highlight the weak sides of traditional vocabulary teaching method that are still been found in Uzbek classrooms. If we take, repetition, drilling and chorus as techniques, they are considered to be old methods goes to several centuries ago. Simply, making students to drill the words they learnt will definitely not give any enhancement in vocabulary knowledge. The reason is there is no any engagement or interest from the side of the learners. Harmer states (1991) "Traditional technique that was quintessential in previous era of teaching should not be used for too long or too frequently in modern teaching" (p.92). Additionally, Brown (1994) celebrates the fact that "Nowadays, thankfully, we have developed teaching practices that make only minimal- or optimal use of such drilling" (p.138).
As an author I opt the view that if drilling and another traditional teaching techniques are combines with online games they without doubt show high results in the memorization of new words in learners.
Great vocabulary Games, Apps and Sites Building vocabulary through online lessons depends on students getting early, frequent and sustained exposure to words that expand their horizons. Teachers should opt useful, time savvy apps and sites that are found to be totally learner friendly. Most applications designed to teach word definitions, uses and meanings to learners and feature tech-enabled supports, customable flashcards, adaptive instruction and clear gameplay. Teachers alternatively can craft various activities depending on their students' needs and wants. Moreover, focusing on lesson type teachers can alter the type of app or site and create more effective lessons with needed activities. The is no limit in the selection of applications as each of them serve for different purposes. Importantly, teachers can create special assessment in the vocabulary applications to check students' progress through the course. Vocabulary assessments also help to keep students' vocabulary skills on track. The demonstration of the best 2020's Vocabulary Applications 1. Kahoot. ( https://kahoot.it/) This teaching vocabulary and practicing it online platform helps teachers to engage learners in vocabulary learning. The benefits of this platform is wide as it has individual and group work features for students to compete in various online tours. Energetic sound system and background music motivate learners to be in energetic mood to find correct word choice and phrases in tests. Another good point for teachers is that there are ready test questions prepared before hand for teachers use. Teachers can make changes in them or decorate test questions with illustrative pictures or videos. 2. Quizlet (Quizlet.com) This application provides subject related quizzes, tests, flashcards and games for classroom to work in groups to practice

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vocabulary online. It is competitive online platform in which students make points to win another rival group. The features of the app such as (individual/ group work, time limit for each answer, number of points gained) can be selected by the teacher. Groups are given funny applauds and audio cheers by the app for each correct answer. This is a teacher friendly app as it has subject related ready made questions from beginner to advanced level.
3. Jeopardy This platform comes from a real show game played by American players on TV. This game can be played in groups or individually. Players should pick a category and a point value and click on the chosen bod for the hidden question. Teacher can optimize the game and add time limit for the students to give a clear answer. To check student's answer player should click the question for the second time. If the question is right player will receive promised score from the game. Next player will click "Back to Board" button to continue the game. Player with the most points wins the game.
4. Puzzle juice. This game is the combination of Tetris+Boogle+ word learning+ ultimate language fun. Puzzle juice offers learners a fun challenge in both classroom and out of it that incorporates logic and language. This app teachers word definitions, uses, synonyms, antonyms and word combinations within context.
5. Beck and Bo. Current application provides the best opportunities in vocabulary learning in context. As Nation states (2013) "teaching vocabulary in context is rather difficult in comparison with other teaching methods". Beck and Bo game platform gives learners a chance to discover real adventures online and learn new words through it. This game enhances learners' creativity and logic and definitely word basis.
Conclusion. In conclusion, online platforms and games are the requirements of todays' education in vocabulary teaching. Platforms mentioned above should replace the traditional ways of vocabulary teaching and make this process funny and enjoyable for the learners. The benefits for the teacher are uncountable as teachers can control over the program or can make various modification and change features of the program depending on students' needs and wants. Teachers will not face difficulties in assessing students' progress as each application calculates points of students and announces gained points at the end of the game. Students' motivation and enthusiasm will grow significantly as online games, websites and applications are designed specially for learners in different age groups and levels. Online vocabulary games and applications are handy tools for learners as they can check the pronunciation of the word without leaving the application. As an author I recommend above mentioned applications for Uzbek teachers to put in practice in their online lessons.
References: Brown, H.D. (1994) Teaching by Principles; An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice-Hall.

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Harmer, J. (1991) The Practice of English Language Teaching.Longman Nation (2013) Victoria University of Wellington, Susan Huston, University of Birmingham. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Newbury House.

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UDK 635.6

Sultanova G.A. Scientific researcher Abdusattorova M.M.
student Tashkent State Agrarian University
Saydullayeva M.E. student
Tashkent State Agrarian University

METHODS FOR DETERMINING GRAIN QUALITY AND PURITY INDICATORS

Abstarct: In this article discusses about methods for determining grain quality and purity indicators and their types. How do importance of grain quality and purity indicators
Keywords: organoleptic, color, smell, grain, microorganisms

Etermination of grain quality is divided into two groups: organoleptic and laboratory methods.
Organoleptic methods include assessing grain quality using the senses. This method measures parameters that cannot be determined by other methods (for example, grain color, odor, taste).
Laboratory methods include the determination of grain quality using instruments. Such qualitative indicators (moisture, contamination, damage to grain by pests, quality and quantity of wet gluten) are expressed quantitatively.
Determination of indicators of purity. The color, aroma and taste of the grain are indicators of its purity. These values may vary, so only one of them can be categorized as defective, and the grain can be returned to the receiving address. This is due to the fact that limiting the required number of indicators has a negative effect on the formation and development of grain at the plant, as well as on harvesting, sales, transportation and storage of grain. Sampling and sampling for color, odor and taste is based on DAST. I called. Color is the main and mandatory indicator when assessing the quality of grain in all agricultural products. The type, variety and uniformity of the grain are determined depending on the color. The common grain of any plant has a unique color and sometimes luster. Color describes not only the natural properties of the grain, but also its purity, as well as, to a certain extent, technological properties and nutritional benefits. Therefore, color, along with other characteristics, is the basis of grain grades. Change in grain color (darkening, dark spots, gray or green color, etc.). In many cases, as a result of the activity of microorganisms, insect damage (fleas and turtles) occurs due to improper use of grain processing methods (noncompliance with the drying procedure). Color can change during ripening and as

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a result of unfavorable weather conditions during harvest. For example, cold grain is white and has a reticulated surface, while hot grain loses its luster and has a wrinkled surface. Grains that sharply change color (rotten, moldy, charcoal) usually refer to foreign or mixed fractions of grains.
The grain color is determined by comparing the respective types of standards or samples. For most plants, color and reflection should be measured in daylight in dark glass, paper or black cloth.
Fresh grains have a unique aroma. A foreign smell indicates a deterioration in the quality of the grain. Extraneous odors in grain can arise for two reasons: as a result of absorption (sorption) from the environment of various substances vapors and gases; or as a result of decomposition of organic
The smell of warehouses is caused by prolonged poor ventilation of grain and sorption due to anaerobic respiration of intermediate grain products. This smell disappears slightly after airing, but affects the nutritional quality of the grain.
When mold is applied and develops, odors develop in wet grain at temperatures that favor the growth of microorganisms (molds). These odors are greatly reduced when the grain is passed through the grain cleaning machines. But it will not completely disappear. When used and covered with mold, the smell is strong and is transferred to processed products.
The malt smell arises from the rooting of the grain during storage. In addition, spontaneous heating of the grain produces a malt-like odor. It has been found that grain with a malt smell contains a large amount of amino compounds and slightly oxidizing substances.
The rotten smell is caused by the decomposition of carcasses and debris by pests in the warehouse. Rotten odors also appear in spontaneously heated grains.
Grains with malt, mustard and other odors are considered defective and will not be accepted at the collection point.
The smell is healthy and is felt in the crushed grain. To detect odors, approximately 100 g of grain (healthy or crushed) is inhaled into the palm of the pre-mixed medium, and the senses are used to detect the presence of foreign odors on the grain.
To enhance the smell, the grains are poured into a glass, poured with hot water (temperature 60­70 ° C) and covered with a glass. After 2-3 minutes, the water is drained and the smell of heated grain is felt. For the same purpose, the grain can be steamed for 2-3 minutes. The grain is heated on a grate over boiling water, then a clean sheet of paper is sprayed with water and a smell is detected. Heating the grain and evaporation of moisture in it causes the adsorption of odorous substances.
Taste. Healthy grains have a unique flavor similar to that of this crop, and are often sweet or slightly sweet.
A change in the taste of grain is often accompanied by the falling of a lump (baskets) or part of bitter plants and sivers (bitter taste of wormwood) into the

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nest, germination of grain (sweet taste) and the development of microorganisms (unpleasant putrid taste, sourness, etc.).
The taste is determined by the freshly ground grain. To do this, about 100 g of grain is separated from the average sample, cleaned of impurities, ground in a laboratory mill and chewed 2 g. Rinse your mouth thoroughly before and after each test. Determination of grain taste is carried out when it is not possible to accurately determine the degree of grain purity by other organoleptic parameters.
References: 1. Grain and guava- rootstock growth and development. S.G. Bharat 2. Grain Grading Procedures. Washington D.C. October 2013 3.Internet sources

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_255 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Tshmatova G.A. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases
Primkulova G.N. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases Andijan State Medical Institute Uzbekistan, Andijan
AGE-SPECIFIC APARAMETERS OF THE HEART IN PATIENTS WITH COMBINED MITRAL DEFECT
Abstract: Using ultrasound examination with age-related features significantly expands the possibility of studying intimate mechanisms of functioning of the heart in normal and pathological cases. it would allow to establish many age-related patterns of disorders not only during systole, but also in diastole in various diseases of the cardiovascular system, indicate the initial signs of development of cardiac failure, objective estimating the role of several compensatory mechanisms, influencing different functional tests, which has invaluable importance for practical medicine.
Key words: Age-related features of cardiac echoparameters, combined mitral defect, diameter of aortal ring.
It is known that the frequency of heart damage in rheumatism (A.V. Zuiyumanov et al., 2013) is in the first place (44%), mitral valve damage is in the second place ­ aortic valves (20%). According to some authors (L. A. Bokeria A.V. Sandrikov et al., 2007), this defect occurs in 50% of patients with various heart defects. A number of scientists note that there is a link between age and diseases. With age, the adaptive capabilities of the body decrease, resistance to harmful effects decreases, vulnerabilities in the self-regulation system are created, and mechanisms of susceptibility to age-related pathology are formulated (V. V. Frolkis, 1986, V. M. Dilman, 1987). Thus, the frequency of acquired defects in men under 30 years of age is 3.9%, in men and women 10.3%, in 30-39 years, respectively, 5.6% and 14.0%, 41-49 years-8.4% and 18.4%, 50-54 years-5.0 % and 11.8% (Yu.a. Vlasov, 1985) in this regard, we have studied the echoparameters of the heart in this pathology, since they represent a certain clinical value.
Purpose of research. The aim of the study was to determine aparametric of the heart in combined mitral defect in the age aspect.

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Material and methods of research. The material of the study was practically healthy people and patients with combined mitral defect (CMD) aged from 20 to 49 years.
The materials were studied at 5-year intervals, according to the recommendations (O. A. Vlasova 1985). The ultrasonic device "Aloka SSD ­ 630 (Japan) with frequency characteristics of sensors 3-3.5 MHz was used. To assess the echocardiographic parameters of the heart, we performed standard measurements (according to V. V. Mitkov, 1996). The obtained digital data were processed by the variational-statistical method (according to B. A. Nikityuk, 1985).
Results and discussion. The results of the study showed that the diameter of the aortic ring in patients with combined mitral defect (CMP) in comparison with the control group, in all age periods, narrows especially noticeably at the age of 25-29 years (2.3±0.05 to 1.69±0.08 cm) 40-44 years (2.4±0.7 to 2.6±0.2 cm )
The data showed that in patients with CMP, compared with the control, in all age periods, the diameter of the aortic opening increases, especially the most intensively increases in 40-44 years (from 2.78±0.2 to 3.1±0.1 cm).
The length of the left ventricle (LV) during diastole in patients with ILC in almost all ages increased, compared to control, while the greatest in the 35-39, 20-24, 30-34, 25-29 (from 6.3±0.3 mm 7.0±0.3 cm; from 6.6±0.2 to 6,8±0,6 cm; from 6.9±0.3 to 7,3±0,19 cm; from 6.7±03 to 7.2±0.2 cm) at age 45-49 are somewhat smaller and only at the age of 40-44 years, long left ventricle during diastole remains almost unchanged.
LV length during systole, compared with the control, significantly increases in patients with CMP aged 20-24 years (from 4.95±0.4 to 6.9±0.6 cm), 35-39 years (from 5.1±0.2 to 7.2±0.2 cm) and significantly at the age of 25-29 years (from 5.1±0.35 to 6.2±0.2 cm), 45-49 years (from 5.7±0.3 to 6.9±0.2), and in other age periods significantly less.
The width of the left ventricle during diastole in patients with CMP is most expanded at the age of 35-39, 20-24, 30-34 years (respectively: from 3.6±0.1 to 6.0±0.35 cm; from 3.95±0.4 to 6.0±0.3 cm; from 4.2±0.2 to 5.8±0.3 cm), in two cases 25-29 and 45-49 years less noticeably (respectively: +1.3, +1.23 cm), and in one case at the age of 40-44 years, the width decreases. At the same time, the LV width during systole in patients with CMP in all age groups, compared with the control, increases, especially significantly in 20-24, 30-34 and 35-39 years (respectively: from 3.35±0.3 to 4.8±0.18 cm; from 3.2±0.3 to 5.3±0.2 cm; from 5.3±0.3 cm).
The length of the left atrial LP during diastole, in comparison with the control, increases most in 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44 years (respectively: from 4.2±0.3 to 5.7±0.1 cm; from 4.15±0.2 to 4.6±0.2 cm; from 3.75±0.3 to 5.1±0.2 cm), and in other age groups slightly less. At the same time, the length of the LP during systole in patients with CMP expands most at the age of 30-34, 35-39 years

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(from 3.1±0.1 to 4.8±0.1 cm and from 3.45±0.1 to 4.0±0.2 cm), and in other age periods the growth is slightly less.
The width of the LP during diastole in patients with CMP, compared with the control group, increases most in 35-39 years (from 3.15±0.2 to 3.7±0.3 cm), at the ages of 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 45-49 years, slightly less, and only at the age of 25-29 years, the width of the LP during diastole remains unchanged. At the same time, the width of the LP during systole in all studied ages, in comparison with the control, expands, especially in 35-39 years (from 2.7±0.25 to 3.15±0.2 cm), and in other age periods the growth is significantly less.
The length of the right ventricle (RV) during diastole in patients with CMP, compared with the control group, increases most in 40-44 and 30-34 years (from 5.0±0.3 to 7.6±0.3 cm and from 5.5±0.2 to 6.9±0.3 cm), and in other ages slightly less. However, at the age of 45-49 years, this length, on the contrary, is shortened by an average of 1.4 cm.
Studies have shown that, in three age periods (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years), the length of the pancreas during systole decreases (from 4.1±0.2 to 6.0±0.3 cm; from 4.0±0.3 to 5.2±0.2 cm and from 4.3±0.2 to 5.5±0.3 cm, and in other age periods increases (from + 0.21 to + 0.87 cm).
The width of the pancreas during systole, compared with the control group, at the age of 25-29, 30-34 and 45-49 years expands (from 3.1±0.3 to 3.55±0.3 cm; from 2.95±0.25 cm and 2.8±0.2 to 4.9±0.6 cm), and in other age periods this width narrows (on average from 0.2 to 0.5 cm).
The length of the right atrium during diastole in all studied age periods expands, especially significantly in 30-34 and 40-44 years (from 4.35±0.3 to 5.5±0.1 cm and from 4.35±0.4 to 6.7±0.3 cm), and in other ages it is slightly less.
The length of the PP during systole in patients is most extended at the ages of 30-34 and 40-44 years (from 3.65±0.1 cm to 4.9±0.1 cm and from 3.6±0.3 to 5.25±0.2 cm, respectively), and in other ages it decreases and becomes less than in the control (by 0.3-0.4 cm).
The width of the PP during diastole in patients with CMP most intensively changes at the age of 20-24, 30-34 and 35-39 years (from 3.48±0.2 cm to 4.7±0.3 cm, respectively; from 3.65±0.3 to 4.5±0.3 cm and from 3.7±0.2 to 4.65±0.2 cm), and in other age periods does not change significantly (up to 0.1 cm).
Width of PP during systole from 20 to 34 years increased (on average from 0.18 to 0.42 cm), especially in the age of 35-39 years (from 3,35±0.2 to 4.7±0,35 cm), and aged 40 to 49 years ­ even less than in controls (average from 0.3 to 0.7 cm)
Discussion. Studies have shown that the length and width of the LV, LP, during diastole and systole in almost all studied ages with CMP is greater than in the control. As for the length and width of the LP in CMP at the age of 20 to 29 years is almost the same, in 30-49 years more. Length of RV during systole at the age of 20-24 are the same, 25-44 years ( ), 45-49 years is less than (0.1 cm) than

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in controls, and during systole in the age of 20-44 years (from 0.4 to 2.0 cm), 4549 years identical regulation.
The width of the pancreas during diastole and systole at the age of 20-24 years is almost the same as the norm, in 25 to 34 years with CMP less (0.3-0.47 and 0.18-0.41 cm), and in other ages more (up to 1.5 cm).
Length of PP during diastole in the age of 20-29 years is nearly identical to the control, while in the other studied ages (up to 2.1 cm ) at systole in age from 20 to 44 years (0.2 to 0.25 cm), and 40-44 years ­ less (0.4 cm),
The width of the PP in diastole and systole in CMC in almost all studied ages is greater (from 0.1 to 0.7 cm) than the control.
Comparing our data with literature sources, we can note that the increase in the size of the LV and RV in CMP during diastole is more variable than in systole, which is consistent with clinical studies (V. A. Sandrikov et al., 2007). We fully agree with the views of N. M. Muharlyamov (1997), who noted that the anteriorposterior size of the LP increases sharply (up to 11 cm) with CMC. Our data are close to those of A. G. Avtandilov et al.(2001). These authors found that the length and width of the LV during diastole and systole are almost 1.5 times larger in CMP compared to mitral valve prolapse. Noted by V. E. Sinitsina et al. (1989) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (increases from 16 to 54 years), the LP diameter is 40.2±1.4 mm, the LV diastolic size is 48.1±1.1 mm, and the systolic size is 40.2±1.4 mm, smaller than ours. Since these authors combined patients aged 16 to 54 years in one group.
Conclusions. 1) the length and width of the LV during diastole and systole in CMP in all studied ages is greater than the control. 2) the length and width of the LP in CMP at the age of 20-29 years are almost the same with the control, 30-49 years more. 3) the length and width of the left ventricle during diastole in CMP at the age of 20-24 years are identical with the control, in 25-44 years more (up to 1.5 cm), in 45-49 years less (up to 1.0 cm ), and in systole at 20-44 years more ( 0.4 2.0 cm), in 45-49 years is identical with the control. 4) the length of the PP in diastole with CMP in 20-24 years is the same as the control, and in other ages it is longer (up to 2.0 cm), and in systole from 2044 years more (by 0.2 - 2.5 cm), in 45-49 years less (up to 0.4 cm). The width of the PP in diastole and systole in all studied ages is greater (from 0.1 to 0.7 cm) than in the control.
Literatures: 1. .., ...              . //-, , 2001. --41. 9 - 56-59. 2. ..,   . -, , 1985 - 20-25

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3. ..    ­ ., 1987-169. 4. .., .., ...          ,     . //    -2013. -3 - 98. 5. .., .., ..,  .   « »       . //    -2013. -3 - 98-99. 6. .., .., ..  .        . //    -2013. -3 - 54-63. 7. ...    .-, , 1996. -1 - 322-331 8. ...   . //  . - . 1997 - 235. 9. .. -  . // -,   . 1985 - 528-532. 10. .., .., ..  .                . //    -2007. -1 - 44-53. 11. .., .., ..  .      . // , -, , 1989. --61. 4 - 51-54. 12. ...     . //  ­, -1986. -8. - 50-53.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Tohirova D.M. student
Samarkand state institute of foreign languages Aminova N.R.
head of the office department Samarkand state institute of foreign languages
Odilov B.O. teacher of the German language Samarkand state institute of foreign languages

PECULIARITIES OF GASTRONOMIC TOURISM AND POTENTIAL TO GROWTH IN UZBEKISTAN

Abstract: This article aims to introduce gastronomic tourism as an expanding trend in tourism on a global basis. Uzbek cuisine and regions of the country specialized to prepare particular type of dish as the manifestations of gastronomic tourism are discussed as well. Also article depicts the main Uzbek dish ­ plov, differences in preparing this food among regions.
Keywords: gastronomic tourism, cuisine, regions, tasting, sustainable, itinerary, food chain, food delivery.

Gastronomic tourism refers to trips made to destinations where the local

food and beverages are the main motivating incentives for travel. The word

"gastronomy" comes from the Greek word "gazter" (stomach) and "nomos" (law).

However, the meaning of this word is deeper than this narrow definition in a

dictionary. The goal of the gastronomy is primarily to provide people with the

highest quality nutrition services that do not adversely affect human health. The

culture of the baking service has a non-hygienic effect on the environment and

offers

a

pleasant

feeling.

Although different terms such as "nutrition tourism", "gastronomic

tourism", "gastro-tourism", "wine tourism", "food tourism" and "gourmet

tourism" are used in most gastronomic references, this term is known as

"dependent on the taste of food and drink" for tourism descriptions. Gastronomic

tourism depends on the specific features of the food, and it shows the local status

of

a

particular

region

or

state.

Gastronomic species play a key role in tourists' impressions of the region

by introducing a particular region's food and culture and shows the characteristics

of the region. As an example of Turkey as one of the gastronomic tourism

destinations, it is world-renowned for its dishes such as kebabs and donut kebabs.

Recent studies have shown that the taste and diversity of Turkish cuisines are a

major factor in attracting foreign tourists. Turkey ranks fifth in the world in terms

of foreign surnames. In addition, Turkey takes third place on organized tours and

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trips to get the taste of Turkish cuisine, and tourists who come to this point think Turkish cuisine is delicious, attractive, rich and delicious.
Gastronomic events, festivals, various courses, master classes, museums, and other things are important in preserving the gastronomic value of the area. Gastronomic tourism is developed with the systemic relationship of regions food, tourism, and culture with each other. Therefore, with this factor, gastronomies preserve historical and cultural treasures and leave them unchanged to the next generation. Many studies have been made in Uzbekistan in this regard. Particular attention is paid to gastronomic tourism in the field of service and education in the higher educational institutions of the country, as well as in food and service research institutes. But there are still many things to do.
Uzbekistan is a very convenient country for the development of gastronomic tourism. The existing opportunities and conditions are reflected in the country's cultural and historical heritage. Oriental sweets also make a special impression on tourists. Kokand curry, hawthorn, baklava, chak-chak, folding, and dish are also one of the favorite sweets. Public festivals reveal the diversity of our national dishes. For example, Navruz: sumalak, ko'ksomsa, chuchvara and manty, which are made at our national holiday, are important not only for foreigners but also for the local population. Every year, the International Festival "Silk and Spices", which is held in Bukhara, also plays an important role for attracting tourists and contributes to the development of gastronomic tourism.
Looking at global level, the International Culinary Tourism Association predicts that the rate of gastronomic tourists will grow rapidly in the coming years. In the UK, food tourism is estimated to be worth nearly $8 billion each year. International culinary tourism seems less significant than its domestic counterpart. Whilst consumers take food into consideration when deciding where to take a holiday, it is not usually the main consideration. The growth in popularity of ethnic cuisines like Thai, Indian, North African, Mexican and Chinese as well as Uzbek countries is attributable to a significant degree to of gastronomic tourism. Food and drink festivals constitute the sole instance where the decision to travel is taken solely on the grounds of the gastronomic experiences offered. Whilst this segment is growing, at present there are estimated to be no more than a million international culinary tourists travelling each year. Potential for Growth Culinary tourism is a growth segment, and typically gastronomic tours are increasingly being combined with other activities such as cultural tours, cycling, walking, etc. With consumers being increasingly aware of the benefits (economic, environmental and health related) of local produce, there is an increased desire to try local dishes, foodstuffs and drink. This has led to the emergence of local food and drink festivals, as well as increased interest in local markets. Growth in this niche market is expected to be strong over the next 5-10 years, although from a comparingly small base, so volumes will still be small. Gastronomic consumers are chiefly couples that have above-average income, are usually professionals and are aged from 30 to 50. This correlates closely to the demographics of the cultural

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tourist. The International Culinary Tourism Association states that on average,

food travellers spend around $1,200 per trip, with over one-third (36% or $425)

of their travel budget going towards food-related activities. Those considered to

be "deliberate" food travellers (i.e. where culinary activities are the key reason for

the trip) tend to spend a significantly higher amount of their overall travel budget

(around

50%)

on

food-related

activities.

Today gastronomic tourism is playing a vital role in tourism sphere.

Because each tourist who visit in a particular destination wants to try to eat

national local food and see national cuisine. Uzbekistan national dishes and Uzbek

cuisine have already been liked by most visitors from all over the world. Uzbek

cuisine is renowned globally as national and well-developed aspect of the

Uzbekistan culture and Uzbek people. It is one of the most savoury and

mouthwatering in tastes cuisine in Central Asia. Situated on the caravan routes of

the Great Silk Road, Uzbekistan has been assimilating the most interesting and

original receipts of food from wide range of countries. Every meal of Uzbekistan

has its own traditional way of cooking, and one dish has a lot of methods of

preparing throughout the country. The main items of Uzbek cuisine which attract

lots of tourists are plov, soup (Sho'rva), kazan kebab, khanum, samsa, lagman,

manti, dolma, beshbarmak, yakhna, shashlik, yubka, halim and others. Plov is the

symbol of uzbek hospitality, padishah of uzbek dastarkhan. It is prepared in every

Uzbek family. Even some families have created their own timetable of cooking

palov with regular intervals, for example in Tashkent hardly any Thursday goes

without plov. In various regions of Uzbekistan, people have their own techniques

of cooking. In Samarkand people put meat, carrot, rice in several layers and steam

it. All ingredients of plov are roasted at the beginning In Tashkent's kitchens. The

ceremony to certify the inclusion of plov within the UNESCO took place on

February 3rd 2017 in Tashkent Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage

of Humanity. The Association of Cooks of Uzbekistan declared plov as the zenith

of traditions of national pride. On 8 September 2017, within the frames of the

"Uzbegim" festival of traditional culture, the world record on cooking the biggest

plov was set and this plov was recorded in the Guinness World Records' Book.

The unprecedented event was hold on the Sayilgoh street, Tashkent. The record-

breaking dish was around 8 tonnes. Over 50 well-known cooks worked in

harmony from across the entire country to prepare the record dish using all the

ingredients at reasonable sufficiency. Guests from all over the world sampled

plov. Most part of the meal was distributed to the residents of Tashkent. In

Tashkent tourists can find more than 17 kinds of plov. The recipes and techniques

differ largely. Historical region Samarkand will make jaws drop with the

opportunity to taste boiled chickpeas with meat served on Samarkand bread called

"Galaosiyo". The region of Jizzakh is renowned for its samsa which can weigh

over 500 g. Just for the record, this type of samsa, is recorded as the most delicious

not only in Uzbekistan, but also beyond the country's borders. Nearly passenger

travelling through the highways, has a stop in Jizzakh to try samsa. Kazan kabob

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is cooked in 10 regions, in addition to Fergana, where it is most highly popular and the recipes in every region are all different. Andijan will delight tourists with delicious lagman. Its noodle strips can grow to nearly 600 meters in the preboiling. If tourists visit Namangan, they do never let the chance of trying soup in a jug-shorva fly away. Amazingly, this dish can be kept under heat for a whole day. Bukhara's plov oshi sufi has its remarkable place among other dishes. Oshi sufi is boiled at first and only then cooked in a copper pan known as a kazan. Navoi. Dolma, beloved for its tasty meat and rice filling, can be found in Navoi. In the Kashkadarya region you can stimulate our saliva by just enjoying Chiyali yakhna, a delicacy made of pressed meat. This dish is considered as main parts of parties and daily life as well, as locals are occupied especially with breading cattle, provision of meat is hardly out of reach. Surkhandarya is rich in secrets and one of them is a recipe more than a 100 years old-chupancha, made from roast lamb. The cuisine in Khorezm is famous not only its unique taste, but also for the dedicated work of the cooks. Ijjon, tar-tar made of meat, is chopped by axe and knife for several hours nonstop. Karakalpakstan. People in Karakalpakstan creative approach to cooking beshbarmak and tuxumbarak (egg shells). Nowadays, Uzbekistan tour operators are working under preparing gastronomic maps for the tourists to create them more flexibility during their travel around the country. Also, there is a book named "365 Days of Sun" which helps tourists to choose what to eat here in our country judging from their own tastes. All unique food is fundamental to the development of gastronomy tourism in Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan is also rich in an abundance of vegetables, fruits and berries. Uzbek melons are rightly considered to be the most easily melting in the mouths in the world ­ this is the result of a unique combination of dry soil, poor watering and a high number of sunny days per year. Each type of tourism develops on the basis of the available opportunities in the region. Especially, gastronomic tourism will be improved based on the lifestyle and national values of the local population and that is why Uzbek culinary is considered as "Large C" of our nation. But we still do not have the full potential of our country. At the same time, overwhelming part of the population does not have an idea of the essence of gastronomic tourism. If you take countries such as France, Turkey, Japan, Italy, and China, most of the tourists come to these countries to eat their food. We also have to find ways to make our national cuisine more widely available, using the possible potential at our disposals. Tourstic agency made an analysis of the most popular directions of gastronomic tourism in CIS countries among Russian tourists. The analysis was done due to the fact that gastronomic tourism in the CIS countries is one of the fastest growing trend. The top 5 CIS countries popular for gastronomic tourism among Russians include Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Furthermore, Uzbekistan became the winner in the "Discovery of the Year" according National Geographic Traveler Awards 2019 for the best tourist destinations. Uzbekistan won the first place in the nomination of "Gastronomic

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tourism", with 34% of respondents voted for Uzbekistan; Italy and Azerbaijan

scored

21%

and

17%

respectively.

In the course of thinking about great strides in gastronomic tourism

Uzbekistan, sustainability challenges incurred in food tourism from the

perspective of a food researcher should be considered. It explores essential key

features that may influence future business trends in food tourism the world over,

including those of future expectations of tourists. Food resources in gastronomy

or culinary tourism include food products and local cuisines gathering under the

umbrella term of food agriculture. The concept of supply chain management of a

restaurant and food factory requires effective food distribution systems involving

growers, raw material suppliers, local food factories, wholesalers, distributors,

retailers and consumers. Gastronomy is a fashionable trend, a hobby for

overwhelming majority. People seek to experience food in the same vein that they

seek out other elements of large and little Cs like art, music and architecture.

Linking gastronomy and tourism also provides a platform for the promotion of

cultures through their cuisine. This not only assists in destination branding, but

also helps to promote sustainable tourism through preserving valuable cultural

heritage, empowering and nurturing pride amongst communities, and enhancing

intercultural communication. Through a visit to a food festival, cooking class or

farm-to-table dining experience, tourists garner a better sense of local values and

traditions. 2017 has been designated by the United Nations as the International

Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. It is now more important than ever

for destinations to maximize the potential of gastronomy tourism to ensure

economic growth, social inclusion, cultural and environmental preservation, and

mutual understanding. Yet, to fulfil this potential, destinations must adapt by

understanding and forecasting demand, creating networks with all local

stakeholders and develop adequate products and marketing strategies. Support is

also required to foster skilled human capital. UNWTO Ailiate Members

Programme mentions how gastronomy tourism can be a driver for the modern

tourist hungry to create authentic yet memorable experiences and a pillar of

sustainable tourism. As there is a risk of allowing excessive exposure of the

traditional techniques and ingredients, which may lead to new dishes that do not

have any ties to the values and traditions of the Uzbek cuisine, in which case, the

preservation of the gastronomic heritage could be more and more complex issue.

Moreover, there are several issues and challenges with regards to the increasing

demand for food tourism, surrounding: food tourism policy, food loss and waste,

the anti-consumption of food, well-being, overeating, lack of `good practice' in

culinary and gastronomy tourism, portion sizes, the protection of indigenous

cuisines, and special food consumption and others.

Irrespective of the above drawbacks, Culinary experiences play an

increasingly crucial role in social life, with shifting tastes shaping consumer

preferences and service offerings across the globe. In response, food tourism has

flourished, with the wider hospitality and tourism embracing tourists' desire to

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consume the traditional, new, and unheard culinary heritage available at the destinations that they visit. Here, the mobility of different cultures and their associated culinary traditions hold the power to influence how eating values in host societies are transformed and reorganised. Thus, food tourism, food-related activities, and culinary experiences and attractions have been characterised as services worthy of promotional focus by tourism marketers. To this end, food tourism is perceived as significant, providing multiple benefits to local economies and contributing to local service development in the process. Therefore, before getting down to seriously to boost this type of tourism, consumer welfare and food anti-consumption, future trends, food wastage and loss, food quality and food security, the experiential pleasure, critical perspective, omnivorousness and overeating, globalisation, taste, the role of cuisine in promoting regional tourism, religiosity and special food consumption, food service ecosystems, food festivals, destination foodscapes, the application of technology and innovative food tourism development, foodservice and food tourism education, local food and the sustainable tourism experiences shall be ensured and deeply discussed in assigned levels.
In summary, the evidence that our country is one of the leading countries in the tourism industry can be achieved through the development of all areas of tourism, in particular gastronomic tourism. Even it is worth claiming that gastronomic tourism is a priority. It has not only the nourishment but also the factors that reflect the national traditions. As for gastronomic opportunities, Uzbekistan is rich in diverse cultural and recreational resources. However, sustainability challenges should be taken into consideration so as to prevent adverse effects.
The list of used literature: 1. Ellis, A., Park, E., Kim, S., & Yeoman, I. (2018). What is food tourism? Tourism Management, 68, 250- 263. 2. Flemmen, M., Hjellbrekke, J., & Jarness, V. (2018). Class, culture and culinary tastes: Cultural distinctions and social class divisions in contemporary Norway. Sociology, 52(1), 128-149. Guillemin, I., Marrel, A., Arnould, B., Capu. 3. Hennion, A. (2007). Those things that hold us together: Taste and sociology. Cultural Sociology, 1 (1), 97­114. 4. Hogg, M.K., Banister, E.N., & Stephenson, C.A. (2009). Mapping symbolic (anti-) consumption. Journal of Business Research, 62, 148-159. Jafari, A., Taheri, B., & vom Lehn, D. (2013). Cultural consumption, interactive sociality, and the museum. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (15-16), 17291752. 5. Kim,Y.G., Eves, A. & Scarles, C. (2009). Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 423- 431.

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UDK 81-13

Topilova M.A. teacher
school 23 Besharik district Uzbekistan, Fergana

INTERACTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT SCHOOL

Abstract: The article discusses interactive methods of teaching English. The possibility of using some of these methods and techniques in English lessons is described. Interactive learning method increases motivation in learning English, the learning process becomes more interesting and entertaining.
Keywords: interactive methods, training, communication motivation, interest, skills.

Currently, information and communication technologies are widely used in the education system, as well as in other industries. Conducting classes with the use of new pedagogical technologies requires the teacher to have the highest intellectual ability. Education can be transformed only when the teacher can accurately identify the interests of students, correctly direct them on the path to achieving the goal. The teacher's use of interactive methods in their classes contributes to the development of a real environment of competition and cooperation.
Interactive learning is a specific form of organization of cognitive activity, which aims to create a comfortable learning environment in which each student feels comfortable, confident, considers himself successful, intelligent and believes in himself. The essence of interactive learning is that the learning process takes place under the condition of constant, active positive interaction of all students. When the teacher and student are equal.
Next, we will try to reveal some of the interactive methods. Role-playing is a speech, game and educational activity at the same time. From the point of view of students, role - playing is a game activity in which they act in different roles. For the teacher, the goal of the game is the formation and development of speech skills and abilities of students. The role-playing game is manageable, its educational character is clearly understood by the teacher. Since role-playing is based on interpersonal relationships, it causes a need for communication, stimulates interest in participating in it in a foreign language, i.e. it performs a motivational and motivational function. Role-playing is largely determined by the choice of language tools, contributes to the development of speech skills and abilities, and allows students to model communication in various speech situations. In other words, it is an exercise for mastering skills and abilities in the context of interpersonal communication. In this regard, the role-playing

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game provides a learning function. There are a huge number of forms of roleplaying games in English lessons: presentations, interest clubs, interviews, correspondence trips, round tables, press conferences, excursions, fairy tales, reports, etc. As the results of training show, the use of role-playing games in foreign language lessons contributes to positive changes in students ' speech both in qualitative terms (a variety of dialogical units, initiative of speech partners, emotionality of utterance) and in quantitative terms (correctness of speech, volume of utterance, pace of speech).
"The effectiveness of this technology is obvious because the project has become one of the most active forms of interactive learning and development of communication skills in English lessons. This method is aimed at developing active independent thinking of the child and teaches him not just to remember and reproduce the knowledge that he receives, but to be able to apply it in practice. Working on a project requires a high level of individual and collective responsibility for each project development task. Technology "working in a group".
Group work provides an opportunity for all students to participate in the work, as it allows them to practice collaboration and interpersonal skills, which makes it one of the most popular strategies. All this is often impossible in a large team. This is an integral part of many interactive methods, such as mosaics, debates, public hearings, and almost all types of simulations.
Technology "Mosaic". The text of the information is divided into chunks. Individual pieces of information are served to students in a scattered form. The task is to collect the full text of the information. Each student reads their own piece, and then make up the full text, based on what they heard.
The "Sociological survey" technology aims to collect information on the proposed topic and involves the movement of students throughout the class. They get sheets with questions and tasks written on them. Alternatively, it is possible to propose the following assignment: Find out what movies you like to watch your classmates. Ask as many guys as you can. In this case, the question "What films do you like to see?" is worked out, the answer to which often causes difficulties for students, since it requires a complete answer. Snowball technology"
This technique is well used for the development of speech and memory of younger students. The student names the item and passes the baton to the neighbor, who comes up with a second word related to the same group of items, and calls two words in order. The next student names two words and adds their own, and so on.
You can work out vocabulary on the following topics:" Toys"(I have a teddy bear, a doll, a dog...)," Clothes "(I have a shirt, a sweater,...)," Fruits and vegetables " (I like oranges, bananas, apples .).
Advantages of using interactive learning methods: - activate all students; fun and interesting;
- increases motivation to learn;

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- allows you to diversify the forms of work in the classroom; - allow you to apply your knowledge in practice; -teach independent work; - develop mental activity; - develop the ability to work in a team; - allow you to identify different points of view; - foster a culture of communication; - facilitate the perception of new material; - stimulate cognitive activity; - increase self-esteem and satisfaction from their work; - they teach you to listen, understand, and respond to the other person. Thus, the essence of interactive learning is that the learning process is organized in such a way that almost all students are involved in the process of learning, they have the opportunity to understand and reflect on what they know and think. Joint activity of students in the process of learning, mastering the educational material means that everyone makes their own special individual contribution, there is an exchange of knowledge, ideas, and methods of activity. All of the above technologies are not used in isolation. There is an active process of their integration. Integrated learning technology is fundamental in English lessons. Integrated lessons do not differ from traditional lessons in types and forms. These are lessons in the formation of skills and abilities, lessons in their development, lessons in their application in practice, and lessons in control and verification. The difference is that all types and forms of integrated lessons imply a fairly large information block in the lesson itself or independent work on solving a problem. Based on my experience, I can say that studying the material in small blocks does not lead to the formation of a knowledge system. The process of conscious, deep assimilation of the material slows down. Integrated learning technology allows you to make the process of learning English more effective. Here, this technology is implemented through the use of various methods and forms of work. Before proceeding to their description, I want to note that my main task as a teacher, I see in teaching children the skills to independently extract the necessary information, analyze the knowledge obtained and apply it to solve new problems. To do this, I use several methods described below in my work. The teacher should not stop there. It must constantly develop, engage in self-education, so that the knowledge received by students meets the requirements of modern society and education, including. Information and communication technologies offer great opportunities for teachers who are looking for additional tools to solve their professional tasks.
References: 1. Polat E. S. "New pedagogical and information technologies in the education system: Educational settlement for students of pedagogical universities". - M.: Izdat. center "Academy", 2000. - P. 272. 2. Farxodjonova N.F. Problemi primeneniya innovatsionnix texnologiy v obrazovatel'nom protsesse na mejdunarodnom urovne //Mejdunarodnaya

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konferentsiya. Innovatsionnie tendentsii, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i pravovie problemi vzaimodeystviya v mejdunarodnom prostranstve.-2016.-S. ­ . 58-61. 3. Farxodjonova N.F. HISTORY MODERNIZATION AND INTEGRATION OF CULTURE //    . ­ 2018. ­ . 3. ­ . 13-15. 4. Numonjonov S. D. Innovative methods of professional training //ISJ Theoretical & Applied Science, 01 (81). ­ 2020. ­ . 747-750.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Turakulova O.N. teacher
the Foreign Languages chair Denau entrepreneurship and pedagogy institute
Uzbekistan, Surkhandarya

FEATURES OF MEDICAL TERMINOLOGIES IN TAJIK, UZBEK AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES

Annotation :This article deals with such general linguistic problems as the structure of the word, lexical system, phraseological system of the Uzbek , English and Tajik languages. Nomination of concepts in terms of medicine system of terminology in the form of a substantive word, i.e. in the form of a noun takes place in all three languages. On the whole they have similarities on the ways of lexical substantive nomination in the form of simple noun, affixation derivation, compound word and on semantics derivation
Key words : terminoly, terms , expression, noun, medicine , disease, sickness

Most words in the Uzbek , Tajik and Russian languages are characterized by polysemy, but there are some words that, by the nature of their use, should be unambiguous. The ambiguity will prevent them from fulfilling their main function. In physics, chemistry, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, politics, art, etc. we need words-names that would be perceived by everyone and always the same. These words are called terms.
The word "term" comes from the Latin "terminus" (border, limit). Linguists give different definitions to this concept. Here are some of them. Term (from Latin terminus - limit, border) is a word or phrase that is the name of a certain concept of some field of science, technology, art, etc. Terms serve as specialized, restrictive designations characteristic of this sphere of objects, phenomena, their properties and relationships.
In contrast to the words of general vocabulary, which are often polysemous and have an emotional connotation, the terms within the scope of application are unambiguous and devoid of expression. (From Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia) The term, occupying an appropriate place in the microsystem, is in fixed subordinate, generic links with other terms of this microsystem. Moreover, hyponymic gradations can be in the first, second, etc. steps. Generic relations are best revealed by compound terms that are nominal phrases, then there are those in which names are involved as components nouns, or attributive-nominal, where some of components are adjectives or participles. When combining compound terms into nests, lexical basis serves as a generic term - word. The prevailing mass of components terms -- two-word combinations. There are also verbose

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compound terms. Constant part of a compound term, core word, - noun - expresses a generic concept, and variable parts in Uzbek, Tajik and English languages adjectives or nouns ­ possess defining, specifying, limiting function, that express species concepts, variable features, for example:   () - aseptic peritonitis, to'g'ri ichak yallig'lanishi -   - hemorrhagic peritonitis, safro yallig'lanishi-   bile/biliary peritonitis, shilliq qavatning yallig'lanishi-    - fecal peritonitis and so on.;
arterial bosim oshishi -   - arterial / systemic hypertension, gemodinamik arterial bosim ko'tarilishi -    - hemodynamic arterial / systemic hypertension, bosim ko'tarilish jarayonining harakatsizligi -    - congestive arterial / systemic hypertension,    - neurogenic symptomatic arterial / systemic hypertension and etc.
Along with compound terms, actually merging with them played an important role by compound and derived words composed of international root and affixial morphemes of ancient Greek
and Latin languages. These terminological means are accepted to call terminological elements (gastro-, gastro-, me-, cardio, angio-, -oma and etc.). The British call the termelements such as gastro- (root morpheme + connecting vowel -o) combining forms. Term elements are involved in the formation of terms of a wide variety microsystems. In the English medical dictionary, their share is exclusively great. Has acquired a special acuity for medical terminology the problem of synonyms. Until now, there is no complete theoretical clarity as to what should be considered synonyms in terminology. Without going into the essence of discussions on in this regard, it is advisable to recognize as synonyms only such linguistic formations, own-language and foreign-language words and phrases that, differing in their sound complexes, expressed within the framework of the corresponding microsystem identical concept. For a specialist, especially in conditions foreign language communication, it is extremely important to get correct landmarks in synonymous relationships. In the medical terminology synonyms occupy a very noticeable area. Sometimes the same concept is expressed by ten or more synonyms. Even some of the most important medical concepts have several synonyms; for example, the concept of omos, varam (tumor) is indicated by the terms tumour, mass, growth, swelling, neoplasm, formation, blastoma. A number of synonyms express the concept «,«,-kasal, bemor, betob,-disease, illness, sickness, ailment, disorder, trouble, distress, disturbance.

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Given this "synonymous hypertrophy", the most the optimal sample is only the most viable, then there are English that have sufficient practical application synonyms with which have been harmonized equally viable Tajik and Uzbek synonyms.
It is more difficult to navigate in synonyms that differ in their internal form. For instance:   ,     - qizilo'ngachning tug'ma axalaziyasi, tug'ma kardiospazm, - congenital achalasia of the esophagus, congenital cardiospasm,   ,     - qizilo'ngach plevriti, yiringli plevrit pleurisy esophagus, suppurative pleurisy. qizilo'ngachning tug'ma axalaziyasi.
Here are examples from literature with using these terminals: I suggest that abdominal pain is secondary to acute pleurisy. Menimcha, qorin og'rig'i peritonitning ikkilamchi yallig'lanishi alomatidir.   ,        . I suspect that you have congenital heart trouble. Sizda tug'ma yurak kasalligini bor deb o'ylayman.       . This article draws attention to the use of eponyms - names derived from doctors' own names, scientists, literary characters. For instance: () -Esmarx bog'lamlariEsmarch's tourniquet;  - koxer iskanjasi, Kocher's clamp; -- Pechet kasalligi Paget's diseases and so on . If any anatomical structure is indicated synonymous terms with the existing group traditional eponym, then it is he who is used as producing basis in the names of diseases affecting this structure. For instance:    ,  ,   , qinning katta bezi, Bartolinning oshqozon osti bezi, oshqozon osti bezi , oshqozon osti bezi Bartolin, bartolinit - greater/Bartholin's gland, inflammation of Bartholin's gland, bartholinitis. The situation is different with synonyms of general literary English, especially with professional words reduced character. So, for example, when a doctor communicates with a patient, the probability the use of the terms "tympanitis", "flatulence" is rare compared with words and combinations such as "swelling, bloating belly ". The doctor will ask the patient whether he has pain under spoon ", and not" in the epigastric region "," does he have constipation or stool retention ", not" constipation ". There are purely professional English speech turnovers that are difficult to build on your own, since they differ in the specificity of verbal content, selecting

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words and using their meaning. For instance:   - qon topshirish blood donation;      ­yshirin homilani oldirish - back-street abortion;  ­xotira susayishi- spoty memory, defect memory;   ­a'zoi badanning og'rishi- pains all round your middle;    ­ go'dakni yo'rgaklamoq-to dress a child;     ­ bomorni mahkam bog'lash- to keep the patients nostrils closed;    ­yarani bog'lash- to pack the wound;    ­mushak og'riqlarini tekshirish - to control a muscle spasm;     ­ orqaga tashlash- throw the head back;      ­hech qanday kasallik alomati topilmaganthere is no history.Professional spoken language of medicine in a huge degree stereotyped, idiomatic, has speech stamps (cliché)
We are going to give some examples :     ­ ochiq hushdan ketish - open anesthesia;    · ­o'pkadan tovush kelishi- pleural friction rub;  «» "gallop" rhythm;  ""   ­quruq haroratning oshishi "dry" heat;  «» - "cor bovinum";   ... birir sabab tufayli operatsiya qilish - operation for...;      ­ hayotni saqlash uchun operatsiya - life-saving operation;    -hushga kelish - come out from anesthesia;      ­o'pkani tozalamoq - the lungs are clear;     ­ kasallikni xurujini to'xtash-kasllikni nazoratga olish ­to control'check/arrest/stop an attack of a disease;      - to apply/use pneumothorax;     ­aralashtirmoq churra - churrani kamaytirish; chabira bodoka - splintni rulon bilan mahkamlash. to reduce a hernia;      - deviation of the differential count to the left;     ­ mahkam bog'lash - to fix the splint with a roller. As a result of the influence of Latin, Greek and Arabic languages Uzbek , English and Tajik medical terminology has in its composition from 50% to 60% of borrowings.Since ancient times, Latin has been an international scientific language and has not lost its meaning until recently. Medicine, philology, pharmacy, biology, chemistry, veterinary medicine, zoology, botany, physiology, engineering and many other branches the sciences widely use Latin-Greek terms. On them the vast majority of those published in many countries were founded medical dictionaries. It is for this reason that some of the Latin words served as the basis for the formation of Uzbek, English and Tajik medical terminology. So, for instanse , pest gives such kind of meanings:

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«()» come from Latin - pestis - «  o'lim

bilan yakun topadigan kasallik­ from Latin perdo - « »; farcy -

«»- from Latin farcio - « »; gout - «» - from latin

gutta - «» and so on .

A number of terms also come from French (jaundice - "zardparvin" from

the French jeundisse - "casalia zardcha (Old French jalue - zard, which used to be

borrowed from Latin: galbus - "zard") "; goitre · "chogar (from Latin gutter, guttar

· "gulu") "; grippe - "zuk" from French la grippe - "khuruchi zuk, shamolhury

(Old French griffe - "lunch bo nohunho" from Latin grips - "Griffin (sagi

darozmui shikory)", from the Greek grips - "Kachshuda") "), Dutch, Italian,

Indian dialects, Malay Sinhalese and other languages.

Summarizing the above, we can conclude that modern medical

terminology is heterogeneous in its origin. Along with the native Uzbek , Tajik

and English words (insignificant = 8%), there are terms of Greek and Latin origin

(= 71%), which became international. Some of these terms are borrowed directly

from Greek and Latin (= 18%) while others (= 21%)) - from European languages,

mainly through

French. Most of this group (= 52%) make up the names of diseases.

Bibliograhpy:

1. TIBBIY TERMINLAR IZOHLI LUG'ATI . Azimjon Qosimov I-II-III jildlar

Toshkent. Abu ali ibn Sino nomidagi tibbiyot nashriyoti 2003

2.  ..      //  

.­ : - .-, 1980. ­ . 3-9.

3. Paluanova H. The new trends in contemporary linguistics//LangLit:

AnInternational Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal (ISSN 2349-5189), IBI

Factor 2015 ­ Indexed ­ 2.4. India, 2016, Vol-2, Issue­4.

4.   . . .

"



:,

,

"./10.02.20

5.      

        10.02.01, 

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UDK: 08.00.05

Umarova Z.O. senior lecturer Jizzakh polytechnic institute
Uzbekistan

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

Annotation: Jizzakh is a region that does not cease to amaze us; the tourist routes discover the natural and cultural richness of a territory in which the diversity of the landscape, the tradition and hospitality make it an ideal place for tourism. This research presents an exploratory study of a tourist cluster in the central region of the Jizzakh, benefiting small and medium sized companies that offer specialized services.
Key words: tourism cluster, strategic planning, growth in SMEs

Introduction An alternative to create attraction to tourism through a tourist network, since tourism is considered as the voluntary movement of individuals to diverse spaces to places of rest, recreation or culture, which is generated by and for the people, consists of seeking bases for the integration of tourism, as well as planning strategies to achieve sustainable cultural tourism development. The diversity of flora and fauna species in the Jizzakh, Zomin district contains 15 mammal species, 45 bird species, 25 reptiles. For this reason, the aim is to attract intellectual tourism, to begin to generate behaviours and habits in the community and personnel that provide the service. The aim of this research is to create a tourist park and analyse the marketing strategies of management and their relationship to create a position for SMEs in the tourism sector, with the aim of developing business networks in this sector. Marketing strategies are instruments by which a business unit hopes to achieve its marketing objectives. The major concern of marketers is to find those parameters that lead to success and to achieve positioning in the mind of the consumer (product or service). Most people easily remember a good service and even recommend it, but they are very difficult to forget when it leaves a trace of bad service. Here lies the importance of this study, in achieving the positioning looking for the necessary strategies measuring the quality of the service provided. This paper seeks to present a synthetic account of the state of the art, considering that the analysis and measurement of the concept of market orientation is one of the research topics recognised as being of greatest interest within marketing. Marketing strategies allow us to order our ideas by carrying out strategic planning that classifies the most convenient situations in a given time in order to foresee the results.

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However, the marketing strategies on which the research focuses are: product, price, distribution, advertising, promotion and sales strategies.
Promotion and advertising strategies will be analysed in greater depth, since promotion is a very important marketing element for an organisation - or several - with regard to its products and services. And on the other hand there is advertising, which refers to any announcement that is intended for the public with the purpose of promoting the sale of goods and services.
Problem definition One of the fundamental aspects of this study is the decrease in tourism in the region of Jizzakh, due to the insecurity and the current negative news from the media. How can universities, businesses and the tourism sector (government) be involved through a tourism park, benefiting SMEs and the community in general? Objective of the research The objective of this study is to present an analysis and a reflection on the creation of a tourist park in the region of Jizzakh, benefiting the community in general together with the government and the business sector, promoting a greater rapprochement between them in such a way that their reciprocity contributes to the strengthening of the tourist sector. Research questions Who are the beneficiaries of investing in a tourist park in the region of Jizzakh? How can the economy in the Centre region be increased? What are the tourist offers in the municipality of Jizzakh, Uzbekistan? Contextual framework Centre of the city: Jizzakh Number of sub municipalities of Jizzakh region: 12 Area: 21200 km2. Population: 1,382,00 inhabitants. Population distribution: 65% urban and 35% rural; Sector of activity that contributes most to the state's GDP: manufacturing industries. The production of machinery and equipment stands out. To meet these challenges, companies need to strengthen their marketing strategies or develop new ones. Stanton (2007) defines strategy as an overall plan of action by which an organization seeks to meet its objectives. Fisher and Mirror (2004) consider the following strategies to be the most important for being a competitive company: Product strategies. Pricing strategies. Distribution strategies. Advertising strategies. Promotion strategies.

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According to Stanton (2007), the product encompasses both tangible and intangible attributes (colour, price, manufacturer's prestige, etc.) that the buyer accepts as offering satisfaction to his wishes and needs.
Kotler (2007) provides a general classification of products: Consumer products: a product that a final consumer acquires for his or her own personal use. Consumer products include: Convenience products. Consumer products that are often purchased, immediately and with a minimum of effort in comparison and purchase; for example: soap, newspaper. Products to buy. Consumer products that the customer, in the process of selection and purchase, usually compares in terms of quality, price and style; for example clothing, furniture. Specialty products. A consumer product with unique characteristics or brand identification, for which an important group of buyers is willing to make a special purchase effort. For example a car. Not searched products. A consumer product that the consumer does not know about or that he or she knows about but does not normally intend to buy. For example, life insurance. Conclusions The people who live in the municipality of Jizzakh are waiting for the agency of Tourism to help them strategically to attract tourism, since one of the activities of this nature is strong in this community, by obtaining a place within the "Zomin is second Switzerland " and being declared a magical town. When identifying the failures, both interact in a similar way; finally it was determined that the foundations found will allow to establish a strategic plan related to the marketing of services. The municipality presented evidence to be designated as a magic power in March 2025, thus increasing tourism by 40%. The tourism park will help increase tourism and benefit the small and medium sized tourism sector such as hotels, restaurants, spas, supermarkets, consumer goods and the community in general by increasing the employment sector through a Silk road tourism university (propose tourism park project by Jizzakh), service business sector and government (creation of tours of the municipality); On the other hand, the creation of a service cluster is suggested, as entrepreneurs from the hotel zone, restaurants, spas are interested in being part of this service cluster, thus benefiting the Jizzakh regions.
References: [1] Obidova, F. Ya. (2017). REFORMING OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN. Actual scientific research in the modern world, 13 (11-13), 87-90. [2] Obidova, F. Ya. (2020). SMALL BUSINESS IN THE ECONOMY. Economy and Society, (2), 264-266. [3] Umarova, Z.O., & Obidova, F. Ya. (2019). SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE ECONOMIC ZONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL

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ECONOMY. Actual scientific research in the modern world, (2-6), 53-57. [4] Baizakova, D.F., & Obidova, F. Ya. (2018). DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS AND PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN. Modern humanities research, (3), 51-53. [5] Berdiyorov, T., & Berdiyorov, A. (2020). Long-range planning of a public transport company.   , (29). [6] Rasulova, S. G., & Obidova, F. Y. (2019). ISSUES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT. Theoretical & Applied Science, (9), 426-429.

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UDK 372.857

Usmonova N.I. biology teacher of secondary school 18 Republic of Uzbekistan, Bukhara district

THE ROLE OF ICT IN TEACHING BIOLOGY AT SCHOOL

Annotation: This article is about how to reflect on the role of ICT in the teaching of biology at school. The role of ICT is explained by the fact that biology is a research science that studies the interaction of living things with the environment.
Keywords: Biology, activity, textbook, diagram, science, planet, ecology, existence

Biology is the study of the interaction of living things with the environment. It is difficult to understand the parts of all organs and their functions when studying with the help of a textbook with one-dimensional images. Imagine a virtual presentation that depicts the activities of each organ. Such presentations are very convenient for students and they can remember for a long time. To make the teaching of biology more effective Students should be encouraged to develop and use ICT during their studies. Biology teachers can use a variety of software and other tools, such as MS word, MS Excel, MS POWER Point, Flash, Movie Maker, to create effective ICT for teaching. ICT encourages students and increases their interest in science. ICT helps students prepare for future activities. ICT is a new educational tool of the XXI century. ICT opens up new opportunities for learning and teaching. For the professional development of teachers, ICT allows them to introduce new methods of teaching in their subjects, to apply new approaches, to implement ideas and develop new skills. ICT allows you to use your rhesus wisely. By rationally managing and controlling the learning process, ICT saves time and money, saves the process of preparation for lessons and makes the learning process interesting and meaningful for students. ICT is for students of different ages, teachers of different levels. The rapid growth of information technology in the XXI century has intensively and significantly affected the positive and negative impact of information systems on personal development and their risks and dangers not as a social problem, but as an environmental problem, as well as the upbringing of the younger generation. Researcher AA Jurin described the main details in his research about this. Nowadays, the balance between the human and the information base is based on both positive and negative relationships. At present, according to some statistics, this figure is 70% worldwide, and in the future it is projected to rise to 85%. The organization of seminars, symposiums, conferences on the problems of processing of information received and transmitted on the planet, on the one hand, encourages members of

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the scientific and didactic community to think more deeply, on the other hand, analyzes the quality and level of information sent, received and adapted provides us with the results of research aimed. The modern teacher's teaching methods must be very different from the teachers who worked 10-15 years ago and their teaching methods. Today, the teacher must be able to use the capabilities of computers and ICT, as well as the Internet. Use of educational programs, digital educational resources and information sources to find the necessary information and to choose the most suitable for solving scientific problems, from the media, as well as scanners, digital cameras, video cameras, digital microscopes, projection equipment I think it is necessary to know how to use them. We consider the positive contribution to the international requirements for the improvement of biological education in the Russian Federation to the introduction of innovative options for the use of innovative and information technologies in the improvement of biological education, based on their basic experience and research results. It is a requirement of the time that modern specialists should know about information technology and skills.
References: 1. AT Gafurov Biological educational technologies.-T.Teacher. 2. JO Tolipova AT Gafurov Methods of teaching biology. 3. Educational-methodical manual - "Knowledge" 2004

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Utaeva I.B. Teacher of English language and
literature department Gulistan State University

INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO TEACH ENGLISH

Annotation: This article provides information on innovative approaches to the rapid and effective teaching of English, the use of innovative methods of language acquisition, current innovations in this area.
Keywords: foreign language skills, modern teaching methods, elementary, intermediate, advanced, Harmer's idea, teaching mechanism, oral reading techniques, question-answer exercises, "Hot points" game, Talk (English speaking practice) program, Daily English program, Learn English (English master) program, How to speak real English program.

Today, the ability to learn foreign languages is becoming an integral part of professional education. Specialists in various fields have a high rate of cooperation with foreign partners, so they have a high demand for language learning. In modern society, foreign languages are becoming an important part of vocational education. Such knowledge is first acquired by people in schools, colleges, high schools, and later in institutes, training courses, or by familiarizing themselves with basic information sets that help them learn a foreign language independently. Today there is a large collection of teaching materials for people with different levels of language skills. Success in achieving this goal depends on the practical methods and skills of teachers. The ability to use information technology and modern teaching methods helps to quickly grasp new material. By combining different methods, the teacher will be able to solve specific curricula. In this regard, teachers and students need to become familiar with modern methods of teaching foreign languages. As a result, they develop the skills to choose the most effective ways to achieve their goals. Using a variety of teaching and learning methods can be effective. Teaching takes place in small steps and is based on the student's existing knowledge system.
As time goes on, there is more and more innovation in every field. There are also different styles of language teaching. When teaching English, it is best to use step-by-step instructions, depending on the age and level of the learner. Students are divided into groups based on elementary education, intermediate education, and advanced education. A special program will be developed by the teacher for each stage.
At the initial stage, the emphasis is on pronunciation. According to Harmer, the first requirement for those who know the native language during the conversation is pronunciation. At the beginning of the learning process, the

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teacher should focus on the student's pronunciation. Although grammar and vocabulary are important, it is useless if the speaker mispronounces them. Native speakers can also understand speech with grammatical errors if the speaker pronounces the words correctly. Therefore, in teaching, the emphasis is on pronunciation. In this case, the use of different audios of native speakers gives good results. The teacher should teach the correct pronunciation of letters and words during the lesson. There is also a strong emphasis on oral and reading skills in the early stages. If we look at the types of speech activities in foreign language teaching, the following tasks should be performed in their teaching:
a) Create a reading mechanism; b) Improving oral reading techniques; c) Teach them to understand what they are reading.
At the elementary level, the emphasis is on reading aloud. Reading texts are also becoming more and more complex, from the simplest to the simplest. However, it should be noted that although the work in the early stages is mainly focused on the development of oral skills, it does not solve the problem of developing oral speech in English. He is only in the process of preparing to work on a real speech. In addition, reading words beautifully and fluently will increase a student's love of learning the language. In addition, students will be introduced to The Present indefinite Tense, The Past indefinite Tense. , Are required to be familiar with verb tenses such as The Future indefinite Tense and to be able to use verb forms vividly in these tenses. Students will learn that nouns are used in the singular and the plural, that suffixes "s" or "es" are added to the third person singular form of a verb in the present indefinite tense, and that interrogative, negative, and imperative forms of sentences are also taught at an early stage. during the study period.
At the intermediate stage of teaching English, the focus should be on using techniques that help to increase thinking, speaking, and initiative in reading and understanding larger texts. Students will be given homework assignments. Exercises to check the comprehension of the text are given and can be expressed as follows:
Answer the question on the text Samarkand:  Why Samarkand is called like this?  Where is the ancient centre of the city?  How many population is there? Question-answer exercises are used to strengthen the student's speech, improve memory, and repeat. New words from the text are memorized. Questioning and answering will help you to memorize the words and use them in your speech. In addition, a variety of games in the classroom can increase a student's interest in language learning and speed up learning. In the Hot Ball game, students form a circle and say one of the new words to the ball. Participants do

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not repeat each other's words, are expelled from the game if they repeat or stop speaking. That's the way to play.
In the middle stage, grammar is taught in more depth than in the first stage, and students are given exercises and tests based on the rules of grammar. Computer and phone language learning programs are also great for elementary and middle school language learning. Examples include Talk (English speaking practice), Daily English, Learn English (English master), How to speak real English. These programs are designed to include all sections of reading, listening, and testing. Recording new words on a phone dictaphone is another great way to listen in your spare time. Also, showing more English subtitles and cartoons is an effective way to teach the language.
At the higher level, independent work plays a special role, especially in a foreign language. The requirements for this course are different from those of the previous stages. The lesson is no longer based on oral speech, because at this stage most of the language material is studied passively (receptively). That is, reading comprehension plays a key role. Texts are also large in size, and language material is complex. Reading, speaking, listening exercises are held regularly. A separate day is set for Reading, a separate day for Speaking, and a separate day for Listening. Homework is also more complex than previous steps. Speaking lessons include a 2-minute talk with a topic. Alternatively, text cards will be distributed to students. Each student gives their opinion on the topic on the card of their choice. The speech requires the use of previously used phrases, phrases, introductory words, new words, synonyms. Homework can be used to prepare additional text topics using the press, periodicals, media, and online materials. Students will be interested to learn about interesting research and scientific discoveries.
Modern language teaching is aimed at shaping a more cultured individual who has the skills to self-analyze and systematize new knowledge. Innovative methods are an integral part of modernizing the entire system. With this in mind, teachers can become acquainted with the most advanced approaches and then combine them and use them in their work to achieve significant growth in the education system. Many organizations are moving to a new level, using multimedia capabilities to send and receive information. The use of computers and other devices determines the success of the entire learning process. Adequate attention should be paid to the development of speaking skills and social resilience in educational training. In addition, the success of any lesson in education depends in many ways on the proper organization of the lesson. The lesson should be based on the creative collaboration of teacher and student. Only then will students be able to think independently and develop their will.
References: 1. Johnson K. E. The Sociocultural Turn and Its Challenges for Second Language Teacher Education. // TESOL Quarterly., - London., 2006. 2. Harmer J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. - London., 2001.

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3. Jalolov J. Methods of teaching foreign languages. - Tashkent., 2012. 4. Bekmuratova U. B. "The use of innovative technologies in teaching English." Tashkent - 2012. 5. Otaboyeva M. R. The use of modern innovative technologies in foreign language teaching and its effectiveness / M. R. Otaboyeva. - Text: neposredstvenny,  // Young uchenyy. - 2017. 6. N. Q. Xatamova, M. N. Mirzayeva. "Interactive methods used in English lessons" (methodical manual), Navoi, 2006. 7. M. Kholdorova, N. Fayziyeva, F. Rixsittilayeva. "Use of assistance in foreign language teaching ". Tashkent: Tashkent State Pedagogical University named after Nizami, 2005 8. O. Hoshimov, I. Yakubov. " Methodology of teaching English" (textbook) Tashkent: Sharq Publishing House, 2003 9. Muminova F. M. The use of modern innovative technologies in teaching English / F. M. Muminova. - Text: neposredstvennyy // Molodoy uchenyy. - 2020. 10.www.jspi.uz. 11. www.britishcouncil.uz.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_285 UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9
Valiyeva Z.S. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases
Isakova D.Z. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases Andijan State Medical Institute Uzbekistan, Andijan
IMMUNE STATUS AND PROCESSES OF LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION
Summary: According to modern concepts, lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a constantly occurring physiological process that, when intensified, is involved in the development of a number of pathologies. It has been established that activation of LPO processes is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system [2]. Lipid peroxides play an important role in the body: lipoperoxides are an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins E, progesterone; they are involved in the hydroxylation of the cholesterol core; they are necessary for activating a number of membrane processes and regulating membrane permeability.
Key words: cardiovascular diseases, lipid peroxidation, immune status, low-dialdehyde.
Introduction. The enormous damage caused to human health by cardiovascular diseases (CVD) poses serious challenges to both clinicians and public health professionals. In many countries of the world, heart and artery diseases, in particular hypertension, are the cause of death for more than one third of the population [1].
According to modern concepts, lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a constantly occurring physiological process that, when intensified, is involved in the development of a number of pathologies. It has been established that activation of LPO processes is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system [2]. Lipid peroxides play an important role in the body: lipoperoxides are an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins E, progesterone; they are involved in the hydroxylation of the Sterol core of cholesterol; they are necessary for activating a number of membrane processes and regulating membrane permeability.
However, peroxides in high concentrations also have a number of pathological effects on the cell: they have a damaging effect on-SH and amino groups, inactivate a number of enzymes, destroy vitamins, ubiquinone, steroid

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hormones, and change the permeability of cell membranes. Literature data indicate the presence of complex relationships between the processes of LPO and the state of the immune status [2,3]. In pathology, this balance is disturbed, most often in the direction of increasing free radical oxidation and reducing antioxidant protection, and, as a result, there is a change in the immune system. data indicate the presence of complex relationships between these components of homeostasis [3,4]. the mechanism of action of immunogenesis includes a negative inotropic effect, heart remodeling, violation of endothelium-dependent dilatation of arterioles, increased apoptocardiomyocytes and peripheral muscle cells [2,3,5]. Increased activity of POL stimulates the production of IL-6, TNF-. Almost every pathological process is characterized by activation of POL, which is manifested by the accumulation of primary (hydroperoxides, diene conjugates) and secondary POL products (MDA, pentane, etc.), as well as a sharp decrease in the body's antioxidant defense
In response to pathological changes in the myocardium and peripheral tissues, there is a violation of the functions of the receptors, which is manifested by their overstimulation, which in turn leads to hyperactivation of the SAC POL, closing the vicious circle[2,6,7].
The aim of the study: To study disorders of the LPO processes and immune status in patients with GB.
Research materials and methods: we observed 45 patients aged 30 to 65 years suffering from GB. 45 patients were randomized into 3 groups based on the diagnosis. 15 patients were diagnosed with GB; 15- GB+IHD. Stable angina, FC II; in the remaining 15 patients with GB complicated by a hypertensive crisis. The control group consisted of 10 relatively healthy individuals aged 20-45 years. The diagnosis in all examined patients is based on data from clinical observation, laboratory analysis, and functional diagnostics, taking into account risk factors.
The method of V. B. Gavrilov, A. R. Gavrilova, and A. M. Mazhul (1987) was used to determine the activity of POL. The content of POL products was judged by the content in the blood serum of their secondary product ­ malonovodialdehyde (MDA), determined by the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. For determination of immunoglobulins in blood plasma, the method of radial immunodiffusion in gel in the Mancini modification was used.
The concentration of interleukin-6 was determined by a similar method of solid-phase enzyme Immunoassay using the test systems of Cytokine LLC (Saint Petersburg, Russia) on the Human enzyme immunoassay analyzer (Germany).
Research results: the results of studies showed that in patients of group I with GB, the MDA level was 6.81±0.33 NML/l, which is 99.1% higher than the control. This fact is particularly clear when analyzing the level of fluorescent POL products.
In group II patients with GB+IHD, the MDA level was slightly higher, amounting to 8.4±0.63 nmol/l, which is 145.6% higher than the control, and 29.0% higher than in group I.

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In the third group, the level of MDA was much higher than in other groups of subjects and amounted to 9.4±0.65. The state of the immune status was also studied in PARALLEL. The levels of interleukin-6 in patients with GB and GB+IHD did not differ significantly, while in patients with GB+ha the indicator was 118.4±5.9 Pkg/ml. In the control group, the IL-6 index was 26.6±1.2 Pkg/ml.
Discussion of results: Biological effects of interleukin-6 involvement in the development of inflammatory and immune responses, as well as in the regulation of intersystem interactions. Provides the relationship between the autonomic and immune systems[9,11, 12]. Studies have shown an increase in the blood content of IL-6 in patients with GB, which is correlated with the severity of clinical manifestations and the activity of POL processes.
Currently, it is known that the accumulation of POL products occurs in a number of pathological conditions [3, 8, 12]. These are known to include conditions that are accompanied by activation of the immune status, in which there is a sharp increase in free-radical SEX. Activation of free-radical peroxide processes underlies the pathogenesis of many diseases of internal Organs, including GB [4,7]. the degree of lipid peroxidation is directly proportional to the severity of the pathological process in the coronary arteries.The data indicate a strained immune system in arterial hypertension and especially in the presence of complications.
Conclusion. Thus, the "immunocytokine" model of CHD pathogenesis does not contradict the neurohumoral theory, but complements our understanding of the mechanisms of HD development. The involvement of immune inflammatory mediators in the disease scheme expands the "base of therapeutic intervention" and opens up new prospects for improving the effectiveness of treatment. Ways to influence the cytokine link are already being seriously discussed. And it is possible that soon anti-cytokine drugs will become as common a means of treating patients with cardiovascular diseases as anti-anginal tablets, cardiac glycosides and I-ACE.
A comprehensive study of the processes of POL and the state of the immune system in patients with GB showed that in a hypertensive crisis, there is a pronounced violation of POL, which is expressed by an increased content of MDA. When combined with stable angina, there is a slight increase in the MDA content compared to other groups.Lipid peroxides play an important role in the body: lipoperoxides are an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of prostoglandins E, progesterone. Peroxides in high concentrations have a pathological effect on the cell: they have a damaging effect and disrupt the basic functions of cells, change the permeability of cell membranes.
References: 1.  ..,  ..,  ..      :    ?  . 2009,  1, . 13-17. 2.  ..,  ..,  ..    

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. //.. 2006, 6, . 10-15. 3.  ..,  ..,  ..              . // . 2005,  3, . 67-70. 4.  ..    // ., 2012;  5, . 80-85. 5.  ..,  ..        . .. 2004,  5,  4-7. 6.  ..        .// .. ­  , 2004. - 5.-  4-7. 7.  ..,  ..  . //    «  ».:   « », 2010, 96 . 8. Libby P. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes. // Circulation. ­ 2011. - 104. ­ . 365­372. 9. Uzui H., Harpf A., Liu M. et al. Increased expression of membrane type 3matrix metalloproteinase in human atherosclerotic plaque: role of activated macrophages and inflammatory cytokines //Circulation. ­ 2012. - 106. ­ .3024­3030. 10.  ..,  ..  ..  .                 . //. ­  , 1991.-8. - 41-44. 11.  ..,  ..,  ..  .          . //.-. . . ­  , 2003. - 1. -. 16. 12. Ogilvie R.l, Burgess E.D, Gisson JR,. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society Consensus Conference. 3: V Pharmacologic treatment of essential hypertension. Can McdAsso.cj. 2013; 149:575-584.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Xakimova N.N. academic staff Bukhara Engineering Technological Institute Uzbekistan, Bukhara city

EVALUATION OF KINEMATIC AND GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF DISC KNIVES OF MOBILE SUTTER CUTTING MACHINES

Annotation: In the processing branches of the agro - industrial complex, at the sewing enterprises, disc knives are used shyly. The main advantages of circular knives are their comparative simplicity of design and ease of use. Circular knives provide high-quality material processing due to high cutting speeds. Knives of this shape are convenient for sharpening and sanitizing directly in the machine.
Key words: agro ­ industrial, forces and unbalanced forces, low cutting quality

INTRODUCTION

Along with this, a significant drawback of disc knives, which often leads to

low cutting quality, is their significant thickness. This factor increases the

compression and friction of the product, which affects the amount of waste and

rejects, and an increase in the roughness of the cut surface. An attempt to decrease

the thickness of the circular knives and increase the cutting speed, as a rule, leads

to a decrease in their stability and rigidity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Evaluation of the indicated phenomena A scientifically substantiated

resolution of the stated contradiction is possible through a comprehensive analysis

and evaluation of the mechanics of cutting with circular knives. A flat disc knife

can be schematically considered a thin ring of variable thickness with the

following support device. The sedan disc is rigid along the inner contour, and free

along the outer contour. The corresponding moment of loss of stability by the

knife disk and flat form of equilibrium can be called critical:



=

3 12 1-µ2

+

f(111) D-d

(1)

Where: E is the modulus of elasticity of the knives material, µ Poisson's

ratio, S is the thickness of the knives, P_ P_n are the tangential and normal

components of the cutting force, respectively, df is the diameter of the flanges of

the knives, C is the ratio of the diameter of the flanges to the diameter of the

knives.

The condition for stable operation of the circular knife can be written in the

following form:

"    (2)

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where: P_ (l) ^ "is the component of the cutting force on the blade in the direction of the product movement,  is the angle that depends on the mutual arrangement of cutting and feed mechanisms.
Then the minimum required knife thickness is: S  12 1-µ2- " (3).
111
Taking into account the specific values of the parameters of circular knives used for cutting materials, we take in accordance with the tabular data
111=0,1 (4) The calculations show that the normal component of the total arising during cutting is comparable to P at small S. Therefore, the loss of stability of the flat shape of the balance of the circular knife from forces is possible when cutting food materials with thin knives (S <1.0 mm). At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that, due to the initial imperfections, the disk bends already at low values of the force P. Cutting forces and unbalanced forces in the "knife shaft - support" system can cause resonance vibrations when the knife speed increases. Despite the relatively small value, under certain conditions they can cause significant lateral vibrations of the knives, i.e. their dynamic instability, leading to the shear leaving and the emergence of the risk of destruction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Experimental studies of circular knives showed that their critical rotation frequency can be determined by the formula:
= 60  (2 - )-0,5-1 (5) f- natural vibration frequency of the circular knife
= 2,5*100,5SR-2 A (6) S,R- respectively the thickness and radius of the knife; - number of nodal diameters, , ­ constant coefficients selected depending on . Experiments have shown that when  0,2;=2.  =567; =2,3. Thus, the choice of kinematic and geometric parameters of circular knives used in machines for cutting materials and semifinished products should be made not from the point of view of the transition of the disk to the plastic state (1), but according to the values of the critical force, which causes the loss of the flat form of stability and the critical rotation frequency leading to resonant fluctuations. CONCLUSION The choice of the optimal characteristics of the circular knives can be carried out according to the existing volume. In this case, the value of the normal component Pp of the total cutting force P is preliminarily calculated. Since the force on the blade Pl is equal to 70-90% P, for the control of the calculations, we will assume that the resulting difference compensates for the initial imperfections of the disk shape. we restore the perpendicular to the intersection with the straight line corresponding to the selected value of R. Then, on the ordinate axis, we find

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the knife thickness S, which satisfies condition (1). After that, we determine the

maximum allowable cutting speed;

 =

Dn 60

(7)

This technique ensures the selection of the minimum possible knife

thickness and maximum cutting speed, which is a necessary condition for high-

quality cutting of materials and semi-finished products.

Reference:

1.  ..,  ..    .- .,

2013

2.  ..    

. - ., 2003.- 192.

3.  ..   . - , «»,

2004. - 216.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Xakimova N.N. academic staff Bukhara Engineering Technological Institute Uzbekistan, Bukhara city

USE OF SEWING CUTTING MACHINES

Annotation: High quality cut is one of the main factors. determining the competitiveness of garment industry products. An important place in solving this problem belongs to the preparatory cutting production of garment enterprises, in particular, the processes of cutting materials, which largely determine the quality of manufactured garments, their labor intensity and material consumption.
Key words: cutting, tool, versatility of cutting, effective work

INTRODUCTION Cutting textile material by sawing, for example, stationary cutting band machines is the most common at sewing enterprises (about 75-804 manufactures) due to the simplicity of the cutting tool, the ability to cut a large number of canvases at the same time and, most importantly, the versatility of cutting. Therefore, for effective work, three main conditions must be met. The first is high-quality, reliable equipment. The second is highly qualified sewing specialists. And, finally, the last condition is a well-developed "technological" chain of the entire sewing process. Among the most actively developing classes of sewing equipment, the following are distinguished: automated and computerized machines; automated lines for the production of clothing; automated cutting devices. Correctly selected cutting equipment will help to solve problems related to the quality of cutting, reducing material losses, as well as time. Draw frames are easy-to-use and high-performance equipment that provides high accuracy of cutting from different types of textile materials (cotton fabrics, knitwear, artificial fabrics, insulation, etc.) laid in multi-layer up to 200 mm thick, and for some insulation materials up to 300 mm. The maximum and minimum thickness of the cut layer depends on the type of material. MATERIALS AND METHODS In stationary cutting machines, the executive tool is a zero in the form of an endless (closed) steel strip with its sharpening along one edge. The belt knife is pulled over the belt pulleys of the machine. Depending on the number of pulleys, machines are divided into two, three and four-pulley. At present, enterprises use stationary double-sheave machine GL5 (Fig. 1), three-sheave machine RL4 (Fig. 2.), four-sheave machines RL6, RL630, RL10001 (Fig. 3).

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Fig -1 Fig-2 Fig-3
Modern stationary cutting machines are equipped with special devices designed for microswitches, many of which provide the following functions:
-regulation of the tension of the tape of the knife during cutting; -catching the blade in case of breakage, which prevents workers from getting injuries on their hands; - sharpening of the knife during the cutting process, for which the grinder is switched on and off with the appropriate pedal; regulation of the speed of movement of the knife, which is required when cutting DISCUSSIONS In modern stationary cutting equipment, reliable operation and high quality of cutting are ensured, without vibration. Additional equipment operations: vacuuming system (suction of debris and chain mail gloves (for operator safety). Disadvantages of stationary draw frames: 1) manual movement of packs of parts on the machine table; 2) deflection of the blade on turns. First drive to fatigue workers. Band knives are widely used in the sewing industry, very convenient equipment for cutting fabrics. CONCLUSION The advantages of such cutting equipment include the convenience of using high productivity, a very even and precise edge. The ability to cut out details of complex configurations. Such knives can be seen 4 both in private sewing enterprises and in huge industries, since they are widespread. Thus, modern cutting equipment will increase the productivity of sewing production, thereby minimizing manual labor.
Reference: 1.  .JI. "         " . . . , , 2005, - 211. 2. ..       .

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UDK 372.881.111.1

Xamraxonova S.J. 2-year master's degree
Pedagogical Institute Chirchik state of Tashkent region

THE LINGUOCULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE WORLD AND ITS REFLECTION IN LANGUAGE

Annotation. Language is the most important way to shape a person's knowledge of the world. Demonstrating the objective world in the process of activity, the person describes the results of cognition in words.
Keywords. Linguoculturology, anthropocentric paradigm, modern terminology, language phenomenon.

By the end of the twentieth century, linguistics began to assume that "language is not only connected with culture, but also a means by which it grew out of culture and expressed it." At the same time, language is a means of creating, developing, preserving (in the form of texts) and an integral part of culture. Because language creates the material and spiritual works of culture. Based on this idea, linguoculturology, formed over thousands of years, emerged as a new, specialized branch of science in the 1990s. Linguoculturology is a product of the anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics, which has been evolving over the last decade. By the beginning of the 21st century, linguoculturology has become one of the leading fields in world linguistics. Linguoculturology is the study of folk culture that is reflected and strengthened in language and discourse. It primarily studies the myths, legends, customs, traditions, rituals, customs, symbols, etc. of a particular culture. These concepts are cultural in nature and are reinforced in language in the form of everyday and ritual interactions. According to V. N. Telia, linguoculturology primarily studies living communicative processes and the relationship of the language expressions used in them with the mentality of the people in synchronous movement. Linguoculturology is the study of language as a cultural phenomenon, and the interrelated language and culture are its subject. Consequently, V.N. Telia writes: "Linguoculturology is the study of the human, more precisely, the cultural factor in man. This means that the Center for Linguoculturology is a set of achievements inherent in the anthropological paradigm of man as a cultural phenomenon. "1 According to GG Slishkin, "Linguoculturology focuses on the human factor, more specifically on the cultural factor in man. The fact that the center of linguoculturology is a cultural phenomenon shows that the science of man belongs to an anthropological paradigm. " "2. N. Alefirenko describes lingvoculturology as follows: Linguoculturology is closely connected with linguistics and cultural studies, it has a synthesizing property; - The main focus of linguoculturology is on cultural

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evidence interpreted in language; - Linguoculturology is a branch of linguistics, so the results of its research can be used in the teaching of native and foreign languages; - The main directions of linguocultural research: a) linguistic personality; b) language is a system of semiotic embodiment of cultural values.
Historically, the idea of the linguistic landscape of the world has been based on the ideas of Wilhelm von Humboldt and Neo-Humboldt on the internal form of language, as well as the hypothesis of linguistic relativity or the linguistic determinism of Edward Sephir and Benjamin Worf. defines the world around us depends on the language in which thinking is done.
V. von Humboldt was the first to focus on the national structure of language and thought. He asserted that "different languages are a unique organ of thought and perception for a nation" (V. von Humboldt 1985: 324). V. von Humboldt sees language as an "intermediate world" between thought and reality, while language embodies a separate national worldview. The scientist emphasizes the difference between the concepts of "intermediate world" (German: Zvischenwelt) and "worldview" (German: Weltbild). Humboldt's "intermediate world" is a static product of linguistic activity that determines a person's perception of reality. Its unity is a "spiritual object" - a concept. The worldview is a moving, dynamic being that is constantly changing because it is really created by language interference. Its unity is the act of speech (W. von Humboldt 1984: 48). Thus, language plays a major role in shaping both concepts: "Language is the organ that shapes thought, so it plays a leading role in shaping the human personality, shaping the system of concepts in it, passing on the accumulated experience to generations" (V. von Humboldt ) 1985: 78).
The term "linguistic landscape of the world" (Weltbild or Weltbild der Sprache in German) was coined by the German linguist Leo Weisgerber. Recognized as the most influential representative and leader in the field of linguistics, this expert emphasized the active role of language in human thought and practice, saying that "language is not a product of activity (Ergon), but activity (Energy)" (Humboldt 1984: 70)) developed by L. Weisgerber proposed an "energetic" approach to language learning, which involves discovery in the language of power, so that it actively influences both the cognitive and practical activities of its speakers. A similar approach to language learning involves studying the effects of language. In modern terminology, this can be interpreted as an approach to the study of the cognitive and pragmatic functions of language. L. Weisgerber identified these functions not from the linguistic landscape of the whole world, but from one of its aspects - idiotic (i.e., a real existing character system used in some society, at some time, and in some space), this is a clear implementation. language features in general). However, language integrates a view of not only the world, but the whole world into its component. In other words, an image of the world structured in a particular language is a synthesis of general knowledge about the world with idiots. The source of the first is objective reality, the source of the second is a national view of it. Using the category

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"Worten der Welt", L. Weisgerber commented on an "energetic" approach to the study of the lexical landscape of the world, which literally means "deceiving the world". The ungodliness of the world (in other words, verbal discourse) involves dividing reality into specific parts through words. Languages differ not only in the number of words they contain, but also in their internal forms. And this, in turn, means that not only do all languages divide the world into the same segments between different languages, but there is a quantitative symmetry that differs from each other in terms of quality. Leo Weisgerber also tried to solve the problem of the ratio of scientific and linguistic images of the world. Here he followed in the footsteps of the German philosopher and culturologist Ernst Kassirer, who believed that the work of a scientist, as well as to achieve it, should liberate the language he understood as the object of his research. E. Cassirer wrote: "philosophical knowledge is first and foremost compelled by the chains of language and myth, which must remove the witnesses of human imperfection before it can turn thoughts into pure ether." (Cashier). The cashier acknowledged the superiority of linguistic consciousness over scientific consciousness. However, he acknowledged this only in the early stages of the scientist's work, which focused on the study of a particular subject. Thus, he wrote, " the starting point of all theoretical knowledge is the world formed by language: neither the naturalist, nor the historian, nor even the philosopher sees objects as language first presents them." It is important to pay attention to the word "in the beginning" here, as well as to emphasize that every scientist should try to overcome the power over his or her research consciousness. In his words, "scientific knowledge nurtured through linguistic concepts cannot attempt to abandon them because it requires necessity and universality, which languages may and may not be compatible as carriers of different worldviews" (Kasserer), Kassirer Tilda explained the idea that many ideas about a fortified world are unacceptable in science.
References: 1.Hojer H. Linguistic and cultural changes //Language.24. Balt. ­p. 143. 2.Lado R. Linguistics across cultures. - Univ, of Michigan Press, 1957,­p.130. 3. Fries Ch. Preparation of Teaching Materials, Practical Grammars, and Dictionaries, Especially for Foreign Languages //Proceedings of the VIII Inti/ Congress of linguistics. - Oslo, 1958 ,p. 290 - 310.

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9 Yetmisheva D.G. Higher teacher
Fergana region is a regional center for retraining and advanced training of public educators
COMPETENT APPROACHES OF TEACHERS IN TECHNOLOGY
Annotation: In recent years, the quality of education has significantly changed. If, previously, the university's major aim was that of providing students with certain types of knowledge that they were expected to apply later, universities today focuses primarily on `life skills'. Our aim is to teach students to obtain knowledge by themselves and to work in ways that enable them to come up with new ideas. Generating new ideas is a key tenet of modern society. We need professionals who are culturally competent, talented, innovative and creative problem-solvers, skilled and critical thinkers.
Key words: Teachers training organizations, sensitive times of a child's life, Contemporary techniques.
INTRODUCTION In recent years, the quality of education has significantly changed. If, previously, the university's major aim was that of providing students with certain types of knowledge that they were expected to apply later, universities today focuses primarily on `life skills'. Our aim is to teach students to obtain knowledge by themselves and to work in ways that enable them to come up with new ideas. Generating new ideas is a key tenet of modern society. We need professionals who are culturally competent, talented, innovative and creative problem-solvers, skilled and critical thinkers. New technologies give an opportunity to encourage critical thinking. We must provide students with skills that will help them work collaboratively and sensitively in a team, become decision-makers, plan and manage their time effectively, listen to one another and choose the right communication strategy at the right time. Thereby, we have come to understand that, to meet these new teaching requirements, we need 21st -century skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS There currently is an abundant knowledge-base to inform us that in schools teachers play the critical role in student learning and achievement. Research reveals that how teachers instruct and these interactions with students are the cornerstone around which to build effective schools. A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience. Four groupings of these competencies can help organize and simply for teachers what they need to master to maximize their performance:

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classroom management, instructional delivery, formative assessment, and personal competencies. These four categories also provide the essential core around which decision makers can construct teacher preparation, teacher hiring, teacher development, and teacher and school evaluations.
DISCUSSIONS AND RESULTS It has been more than six months since the introduction of quarantine due to coronavirus in our country, and the suspension of all educational institutions. Currently, students are taking classes remotely via television and the Internet. In fact, the classes planned for higher education universities are organized in the form of distance video lessons. In this process, the State Inspectorate for Quality Control in Education participates not as a supervisory body, but as a partner organization. Necessary recommendations are given with the involvement of qualified specialists to improve the quality of the prepared video lessons. For nearly two years, about fifty video lessons were filmed by the inspectorate in preparation for the international PISA survey. Currently, these video lessons are also being broadcast. When we discussed the issue of distance learning, our foreign partners noted that in many countries, the educational process is organized for students of higher education institutions through the Internet, but due to lack of Internet and technical capabilities, many problems arise. is growing. Since this is the first time in our country, it is natural that in video lessons, in general, there are problems in the organization of distance learning. Currently, the State Inspectorate for Quality Control in Education is improving the system, receiving suggestions and recommendations from international experts on the organization of distance learning, improving its quality and efficiency. It is important to ensure the quality of education, even if it is remote. In some developed countries, online surveys are now being conducted to monitor the quality of distance learning. The State Inspectorate for Quality Control in Education, in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Education and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education, monitors the organization of distance learning. A special inspection bot has been launched in the process to strengthen broad public oversight and make it easier for parents. Through it, parents provide information and suggestions on the quality of distance learning in schools and higher education institutions, its organization, as well as problems and challenges in the regions. At the same time, with partner ministries and local governments, the factors that negatively affect the quality of distance education are being eliminated. It is difficult to control that students are taught through video lessons in every room. In this regard, the regular training on TV channels places a responsibility not only on teachers and coaches, but also on parents. At the meeting held by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev on 25 August, it was noted that, depending on the situation, it is

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necessary to review the workload and programs, to pay more attention to the development of practical skills in higher education.
CONCLUSION We already know by now that today a lot of techniques of primary teaching have come up and a teacher needs to implement them in the class. The teachers will need to gather information to help children develop many capabilities. The teacher must also motivate a child so that he or she can achieve success in his or her life. The teacher needs to realize the potentials of every child. As teachers, one must recognize the qualities of children and educate them in a way that they grow up to be good human beings. Therefore, one must pursue the primary teacher training course from an educational organization. The teacher must innovate while teaching to accelerate the learning process of children. Primary teachers have to be totally committed to his or her job and children must be provided with a memorable experience. Today educational organizations are also using many modern tools and technologies such as PowerPoint presentations and other audiovisual elements made for kids which fall under the purview of learning. We can also see that according to the recent research, the interactive learning process boosts children's creativity. A young mind can grasp the basic concepts easily in a primary institute with proper assistance and guidance. If you are an interested candidate then is sure to take up this course from a reputed and certified institute. Increasing the professionalism and competence was recognized as the main driving force of progress and activities leading to the goals of sustainable development. The modern education system involves the further improvement of the mechanisms for raising the competence of future specialists on the basis of a creative approach and an innovative system for putting them into practice. From this point of view, the research competence of future specialists on the basis of a creative approach is of particular importance for creating innovation, creating intellectual resources for socio-economic development through the development of cognitive and divergent thinking based on modern pedagogical processes that create new knowledge, and expanding the training opportunities for competitive personnel. The article looks into the requirements and policies for the competent teaching staff.
Reference: 1. Teacher competence in higher education. The chapter from book. Retrieved in February.2012.from http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/24676/1/Unit6.pdf. 2. Competence (human resources). Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia website. Retrieved.in.February.2012.from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competence_%28human_resources%29. 3. Diagram of teaching. Macmillan publisher website. Retrieved in January 2012 from

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http://www.mindseries.net/upload/assets/4/assets/3996/2950b6162255a6a6c6c8 75b0346f8 d9c4e408e99/Spode_Diagram_graphic.pdf. 4. Shmelev, A. G. Psychodiagnosis of personnel characteristics. Saint-Peterburg, 2002

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UDK 004.02:004.5:004.9

Yo'ldashaliyev I. National Guard of the Republic of Uzbekistan
teacher at the Fergana Training Center

DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS OF SPECIAL MILITARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Annotation: The strategic direction of the development of the education system in society is the intellectual and moral development of man on the basis of purposeful independent activity in various fields. In our country, as well as in the developed countries of the world, the promotion of independent education is an important direction in the process of education reform. The study of the phenomenon of educating the professional competence of the educator has found little expression in the work of a number of scholars. These authors put forward the idea that professional competence - along with the qualities of reliability characterizes the pedagogical culture of the teacher as a professional-individual phenomenon.
Keywords: Military skills, professional competence, individual event, professional activity, military training, psychological training.

Introduction: The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, "On the Fundamentals of State Youth Policy in the Republic of Uzbekistan" and "On Education" "On General Military Obligation and Military Service" Understanding the content and essence of the Law "On Defense", "National Program of Personnel Training", Presidential decrees and government decisions on youth activities, the legal and educational framework governing the relationship of man to another person, society and the environment. Teachers must have political and legal knowledge and culture to ensure the acquisition of knowledge on topical issues of public policy, which includes the following criteria:
In turn, the concept of professional competence, as noted by VA Slasten, represents the unity of theoretical and practical readiness of the teacher to carry out pedagogical activities and characterizes his professional formation. Diagnosis of professional competence Essential characteristics of professional development should include diagnostic, communicative, managerial and projective training groups. The cognitive activity of the educator is largely determined by the complexity, dynamics, non-standardity of the studied objects, the influence of the boundaries that separate social phenomena, their search, uncertainty, which implies observation, the ability to model the inner world of the interlocutor [1]. In this case, the features of self-regulation are characterized by the need to improve their knowledge and skills, the ability to strictly coordinate their actions towards

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other people. In the works devoted to the study of the professional competence of the teacher, it is distinguished by the following types:
Special training ability - a sufficiently high level of professional activity, the ability to design their future professional development;
- Competence of social upbringing - mastery of joint professional activity, cooperation, as well as the methods of professional communication adopted in this book, social responsibility for the results of their professional career.
The main part: The military-pedagogical process is an organized and purposeful activity aimed at forming the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities of military listeners, combat and spiritual qualities of the personality of combat and military teams. The military-pedagogical process is a complex social phenomenon that involves military training and education, which are inextricably linked.
Military training is the process of imparting military knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for practical activities, as well as the preparation and coordination of military teams (units, units, components) to perform combat operations (combat missions). . Military education is the deliberate, organized and systematic formation of the qualities necessary for the performance of military duty. In the process of training and education, the development of military listeners is carried out, that is, mental and physical activity is improved in accordance with the requirements of military specialization, psychological training is carried out, which forms the military and emotional stability and internal preparation for combat operations. Demonstrates the ability to cope with the difficulties and difficulties associated with military service, both in war and in peacetime, as well as in dangerous situations in a rapidly changing environment, long-term psychological stress. In essence, training is a social process that is unique to society as a whole and to the Armed Forces. In general, teaching is the primary method of obtaining information, an experienced person - a purposeful, organized, systematic and systematic process of acquiring knowledge, skills and abilities under the guidance of teachers.
The process of military training thus refers to the purposeful, interrelated activities of the coach (commander, supervisor, instructor) called the teacher and the listener (subordinates) called the teacher. By the nature of teaching, it means the management of students' knowledge and practical activities and includes the following functions:
motivation to learn; describe the content of the studied material; organization of students' educational activities; knowledge, skills control. The basis of the process of acquiring knowledge is the practical application of knowledge, as a result of which the military listeners fully master it. To do this, military listeners must be specially trained to apply knowledge in practice, to form in them methods of mental and practical action. In each lesson, students need to

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make sure that the theoretical knowledge they acquire is the basis of their practical activities, and that practical activities provide them with concrete material for the conscious acquisition of theoretical knowledge and are a necessary condition for mastering it. The process of military training thus refers to the purposeful, interrelated activities of the coach (commander, supervisor, instructor) called the teacher and the listener (subordinates) called the teacher. By the nature of teaching, it means the management of students' knowledge and practical activities and includes the following functions:
motivation to learn; describe the content of the studied material; organization of students' educational activities; The most important part of military training theory is the principles of training. Under Learning Principles It is common to understand applied pedagogical rules that reflect the laws of the military pedagogical process and determine students 'performance in equipping students with knowledge, skills, and abilities. Each of the principles reflects the specific features of the learning process. Therefore, the successful solution of learning problems is possible only on the basis of the implementation of the whole system of principles in close contact with each other. Therefore, a deep understanding of the essence of the principles of training in the relationship by each officer, the implementation of their requirements in practice is the most important condition of military pedagogical activity. Competence - the ability to do something effectively, to perform according to the standards applicable to a particular profession. In Secondary and Higher Education in Europe [4], this is done as follows: Learning: - be able to benefit from the experience; -organize and place the interconnectedness of the acquired knowledge; -organize the application of personal knowledge; - be able to solve problems; - voluntary education; That is, in my opinion, if it is applied to the military audience, along with its educational potential, their personal individuality will develop. I believe that the quality of education has improved if interactive education has been implemented not only on the basis of instructions given by the teacher, but also taking into account their own interests and views. Research: -search for various information; -ask around; -consultation of experts; -receipt of information; - be able to work with documents and classify them;

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I think that requires a military audience to work on themselves. This is similar to the BBB method. Performs the third stage of the method of thought in the form of "I knew", "I knew", "I want to know". I mean, I want to know. This leads to the development of the military listener's ability to search for answers to questions that are abstract to him and want to gain a broader understanding. Military listeners are asked questions about interactive technologies, documents and books, as well as their peers in the military, which leads to the formation of communication with others.
Think: -Organize the relationship between past and present events; a critical approach to one or another part of the process of social development; - overcoming difficulties; - to take a position in debates and to have one's own opinion; -read and pay attention to the important political and environmental aspects of the process; -social skills related to health and the environment I think this aspect helps military listeners understand the comparison of the present and the past, the concept of the unity of society and people. I believe that the very essence of education, I think, is to include the military in the whole of society and the people, and to be an integral part of it. Evaluation; -Evaluation of masterpieces of art and literature; I think it is necessary to evaluate this attitude in relation to martial arts, the formation and essence of Uzbek martial arts, to explain to military listeners the criteria for the formation of martial arts from the time of Amir Temur to the present day. Collaborate - group work and cooperation; - ability to make decisions; - ability to resolve conflicts and disagreements; -agreement; - conclusion and execution of contracts; I think every military listener is an integral part of their military. In doing so, it ensures solidarity from the common soldier to the general. We can see that if the cooperation is carried out in harmony with each other, it will ensure its integrity. The concept of cooperation means to be united, to ensure solidarity in any situation, to reach an agreement and to solve problems. Settle down: -introduction to the project; -feeling of responsibility; -contribute to the group and the team; -expression of consensus;

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- be able to organize their work; - ability to work with computing devices; Get used to it - Ability to use new information and communication technologies; -prove conciseness in the face of frequent changes; - to show his strength and perseverance in the face of difficulties; -making new decisions; This, in all areas of competent education, emphasis is placed on the role of the individual's experience, his or her active position, level of readiness for action, and the demands of the sociocultural community. - To identify the specifics of the formation of professional competence in future teachers of military education, to study the ideas of Central Asian thinkers on the formation of a culture of communication. - Improving the formation of professional competence of future teachers of military education, the study of factors in the formation of professional culture of military education specialists, based on new pedagogical technologies. - To study the possibility of applying the factors of formation of professional competence in future teachers of military education in the teaching of professional, pedagogical-psychological and other disciplines. - Development of methodological recommendations for the formation of professional competence of future teachers of military education and their implementation in practice. Information and methodological support plays an important role in the formation of professional competence in the training of teachers of military education [3]. The distance learning system and the effective use of teaching aids are key factors in shaping the professional competence of future teachers in improving the quality and effectiveness of education. The distance education system is used when there are problems in the implementation of the traditional education system or when conditions require this process. This process allows for the adequate use of modern technology to increase the effectiveness of education in a given environment. Distance learning is a form of education based on information and telecommunication technologies, such as distance and full-time education, which includes the best traditional and innovative methods, teaching aids and forms. Distance learning is an education system based on new information technologies, telecommunication technologies and technical means. It is a system that requires the learner to practice more independently, providing the learner with a learning environment and communication with the teacher based on certain standards and educational rules. In this case, the flow process does not depend on when and where the learner is. Distance education is an educational complex based on the means of distance learning, which provides educational services to all segments of the population and foreign students using a special information environment. So, distance learning is a process in a distance learning complex.

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Distance learning and distance learning have their own characteristics, pedagogical system, needs and goals. In my opinion, distance learning has a wide range of opportunities for military students to learn and work on themselves, including the opportunity for military students to use a wide range of pedagogical technologies, not just one lecture, to expand their knowledge and skills in the formation of individuals.
Distance learning - the relationship between a student and a teacher based on the purpose, content, method, organizational forms and teaching methods Internet technology or other interactive methods and components of all learning processes at a certain distance from each other. I think there will be no interruption of communication between the military teacher and the military audience, and the military listeners will lose the ability to refrain from asking questions during the lesson, and the military listener will be able to ask the questions that arise in the training. This requires a great deal of attention and responsibility from the military instructor. Distance learning system is a system of education based on the conditions of distance learning. Like all education systems, distance learning has its own structure, purpose, content, methods, tools and organizational forms. Pedagogical technologies of distance learning are a set of teaching methods and techniques that provide the educational process of distance learning based on the selected teaching concept. In my opinion, in traditional education, a teacher would be limited to a small amount of knowledge, while in distance education, a military teacher could provide other interactive methods and information in addition to the skills he or she already has.
Changes in the modern information system force the teacher to improve their skills and improve their professional skills, which means that they have to improve their professional competence. The main purpose of modern education is the adaptation of society, the state, the individual to modern education, the education of a comprehensively developed person. In the formation of professional competence of a teacher of military education, the pedagogical and technical-technological problem situation is noted as a set of conditions that allow to create a pedagogical process. Pedagogical conditions not only create this process, but also determine its current state. The formation of the professional competence of a teacher of military education is carried out gradually, through the integration of pedagogical disciplines, ie didactic synthesis and the solution of pedagogical and problem-solving tasks at the level of interdisciplinary communication. As a military education teacher prepares for a lesson, she thinks about how to present new material using a variety of methods and techniques. It selects objects of work taking into account the individual characteristics of students, their experience, physical development and other factors that affect labor productivity. As you know, modern production is developing very fast. military weapons, technological processes are constantly improving. To a certain extent, this should be reflected in military education. This means that future teachers need to constantly monitor developments in science and technology, keep their learners

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informed, and work on their skills. In the training and education of future military education teachers, we can include the following types of skills:
- teaching skills; - ability to use modern teaching methods; - parenting skills; - The quality of the human factor; - the ability to objectively assess and control knowledge; in the control of pedagogical activity of the teacher of military education on the following aspects: a) education - to determine the purposefulness of educational work, its scientific basis and the correct choice of its content; (b) Determining the quality of the results of labor and professional activities, the stages of development, the level of development and the direction of the future; should pay attention to these. I think that the character of the military audience and the priority actions in education, the formation of labor and professional character depends primarily on the teachers of military education. Only if they can plan it properly will full-blooded education take precedence over military education. In terms of the requirements for the level of professional training of graduates, competence refers to the ability of students to apply a set of knowledge, skills and methods of activity in a specific situation. In pedagogical higher education institutions, basic competencies are defined at the level of educational blocks and academic disciplines for each stage of education. In determining the order of basic competence, the essence of social and personal experience in accordance with the main objectives of professional pedagogical education is vital in the process of organizing professional activity in a social society. From this point of view, the basic competence is divided into: holistic - meaningful, socio cultural, educational - cognitive, information, communicative, socially active, self-improvement. The professional development of a military education teacher is as follows: pedagogical system, process and outcome. Social rules are reflected as important bases in assessing the level of professional formation, and they, in turn, are recorded in the context of the State Education Standard. In assessing the performance of the education system, it is possible to distinguish its effectiveness and key indicators related to the development of the pedagogical system. In the scientific work of R.A. Hamrokulov it was determined that the following aspects and directions of communication culture should be formed in the formation of professional competence of future teachers of military education [5]: - The relationship between military educators and future military leaders; - a greeting between future military leaders; - attitude in the process of socially useful work; - Relationships in the classroom;

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- formation of behavioral skills of future military leaders; - elements of formal relations in the process of public works formation; - Relationships between colleagues. The impact of national values on the formation of the professional competence of military education trainees is enormous. As important forms of social consciousness, they influence the activities of students in their consciousness, behavior, and behavior, and also increase their value in the learning process, in the extracurricular educational process. I think that's what military education is all about. I believe that the priority of education and the formation of individuality in many respects depends on it. Because the development of a professional competitor is a creative development, the ability of the teacher to adapt and manage changes in the environment, the ability to react quickly, the socio-economic and spiritual development of the process depends on the professional level of the teacher. Conclusion: In my opinion, the main problem in changing the education system is the relationship between the military teacher and the military education teacher in professional competence, the meaningful course of the lesson during the course. I think it's important to prioritize education. Based on the above, it should be noted that military education should have the following skills in the formation of professional competence of students: Use of interactive methods, manuals in the classroom, in distance learning; Creating a culture of communication between military teachers and military listeners in systematic education; At the beginning and end of the experiment, it was convinced that criteria need to be developed during the research period in order to determine the professional competence of the students. Taking into account the study of sources on the subject, observation of student activities, the situation at different stages of experimental work, the following criteria, the following criteria determine the level of formation of professional competence in future military education teachers: It was decided that it is possible to evaluate on the basis of criteria: 1. Be able to understand the essence of basic concepts such as professional competence and pedagogical skills. 2. Understand that an important condition of professional competence is the requirement of the period. 3. The need to form professional competence. 4. To be able to organize practical actions for the formation of professional competence. 5. Ability to fully demonstrate professional competence. I think that the above can create a basis for the formation of professional competence of military students, and at the same time improve the quality of education. I believe that achieving quality education requires the cooperation of

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bilateral relations, which requires the formation of a culture of communication from military educators and the inquisitiveness of military listeners.
Reference: 1.H. Jorayev. Preparing young people for the call. T., «Sharq», 2004. Shooting preparation (tutorial). T., «Sharq», 2004. 2.Sh.Sharipov, N.Muslimov, M.Ismailova: "Pedagogy of vocational education". Methodical manual. - T. 2005 y. 3.A.Yu. Sotvoldiev. "Organization of pre-service military education and its methods". T; "Communicator". 2010. Pages. 3,6,7,9 4.S.S. Gulomov. X.R. Raimov. and others. "Quality and aspects of education". T; "Science and Technology". 2004. Pages. 9. 5.Muslimov.N.A. Theoretical and methodological bases of professional 6.formation of a teacher of military education: Ped. fanl. Ph.D. ... diss. T .: 2007. - 349 p. 7.www.presss-service.uz 8.www.gov.uz 9.www.uza.uz 10.www.ziyonet.uz 11.High school of pedagogy and psychology. - Rostov on Don: Phoenix, 1998. C. 544. 12.Mixeeva N. F. Yazykovoe obrazovanie v natsionalno-kulturnom nasledii Rossii: istoricheskie traditsii, sovremennost, vzglyady v budushchee. - Moscow: APK and PRO, 2001. - p. 220. 13.Kichenko A. A. Methods of teaching professionally-oriented inoyazychnomu obshcheniyu studentov posredstvom multimediynyx presentations (English language, specialization of jurisprudence): diss. ... cand. ped. science. - Moscow, 2010. - p. 13

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 616.61-036.12-08.874  ..
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Abdilkhaeva Z.A. Independent applicant for the Department of GP 2
Andijan State Medical Institute
OPTIMIZATION OF NUTRITIVE SUPPORT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Resume: Nutritional status is an important factor in morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease, especially in the terminal stage. Among the many factors that adversely affect outcomes in these patients, protein-energy malnutrition (PEW) plays a leading role. Thus, nutritional status in terms of outcomes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is of strategic importance.
Key words: chronic kidney disease, medical nutrition, low-protein diet, ketosteril, soy proteins.
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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Abdujabbarov Sh.A. 2nd year master's student
Of the faculty of history Department of world history National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek
HISTORICAL, RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FORMATION OF MODERN EDUCATION IN
THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Abstract: this article analyzes the historical, religious and philosophical factors that influence the formation of modern education in the Republic of Korea. Special attention is paid to the development of the higher education system.
Keywords: Education, upbringing, system, higher education, Korean, Confucianism, national, Buddhism, missionary work, historical.
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22 Historic factors influencing Korean higher education. Korean Studies series No.17 / Jeong-kyu, Lee. Jimoondang International, 2000. 17p.

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26 A Study of the Development of Contemporary Korean Higher Education / Jeong-kyu, Lee, 2000. 17p.

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27 Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education / Kibaek Lee. Palais, 2006. 236p.

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28 A New History of Korea / Kibaek Lee. Palais, 2005. 141p.
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29 The Korean National Commission for UNESCO / Kwangho Kim. KNCU, 2009. 13p.

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30 The Korean National Commission for UNESCO / Kwangho Kim. KNCU, 2009. 13p.

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34 Korean Higher Education: Its Development, Aspects and Prospect / John C. Weidman, Namgi Park. KCUE, 2002.

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  ,    ,   .
 ,    ,   ,      ,       .  ,                ,     .   ,            .              .  ,       -  ,            .  ,             ,           .
   ,            - , ,  ,       ,   .
 : 1. Historic factors influencing Korean higher education. Korean Studies series No.17 / Jeong-kyu, Lee. Jimoondang International, 2000. 2. Korean Taoism and Shamanism / Chai-Shin Yu. Asian Humanities Press, 2001. 3. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education / Kibaek Lee. Palais, 2006. 4. The Korean National Commission for UNESCO (KNCU) / Woo-Jin Cho. Korean Survey, 2000. 5. A Study of the Development of Contemporary Korean Higher Education / Jeong-kyu, Lee, 2000. 6. A New History of Korea / Kibaek Lee. Palais, 2005. 7. The Korean National Commission for UNESCO / Kwangho Kim. KNCU, 2009. 8. The Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea. Handbook of Educational Statistics, 2000. 9. Korean Education. / Kim, J. KEDI Institute Press, 2001. 10. Korean Higher Education: Its Development, Aspects and Prospect / John C. Weidman, Namgi Park. KCUE, 2002.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Akabirov L.I. Scientific applicant Bukhara Engineering Technological Institute Uzbekistan, Bukhara Gafurov K.Kh., Candidate of Technical Sciences Associate Professor Bukhara Engineering Technological Institute Uzbekistan, Bukhara Majidov K.H., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Professor Bukhara Engineering Technological Institute
Uzbekistan, Bukhara

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RESEARCH OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL VARIETIES OF PUMPKIN
Abstract: The paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of local varieties of pumpkin fruits. The following local pumpkin varieties were selected as objects of research: palov kadu, nutmeg, winter table, Kashgar. The average content of the mass fraction of dry substances in pumpkin samples was determined. Pumpkin sample solids contain relatively large amounts of invert sugar and starch. Modern research methods were used to analyze and assess the physicochemical characteristics of pumpkin. The average content of the mass fraction of dry substances in the studied pumpkin varieties was determined.
Key words: pumpkin, quality indicators, chemical composition, invert sugar, starch, use.
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: 13.00.08

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Akbaeva X.B. Senior lecturer
TFI

USE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF DISTANCE LEARNING OF STUDENTS

Annotation: This article examines the features of the organization of distance education, the form of distance interaction between a teacher and a student in the educational environment Moodle
Key words: Distance learning, modern technologies, learning process, student, Moodle system

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Aminova D.A. Master student Leader: Ruzmetova I.A. Egamberdieva D.A. Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute
CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
Annotation: This article discusses chronic obstructive disease and its spread. Work and research on systemic pathology
Key words: Pathology, COPD, dissemination, heart failure, cardiovascular disease
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 00 ­ 336.02

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Arsenova E.A. student
supervisor: Klepikov N.V., Ph. D. associate Professor
Syktyvkar state University named after Pitirim Sorokin
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BUDGETS OF THE SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SUBJECTS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT)
Abstract: the article analyzes the structure of revenue sources of the budget of the North-Western Federal district for 2019. Analysis of methods for forming the revenue and expenditure parts of municipal budgets of the Russian Federation is necessary to study the process of budget formation, as well as to identify certain patterns and prevent problems in budget execution.
Keywords: subjects of the North-Western Federal district, revenue sources of the budget, budget, tax revenues, gratuitous receipts.

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Arslanov V. N. student
Research supervisor: Rakhmatullin Yu. Ya., . e. n. Bashkir state University, Ufa

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF ENSURING THE ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

Abstract: the article deals with the main problems of ensuring economic security, the system of internal and external threats to the national security of the Russian Federation and measures to overcome them.
Key words: economic security, threats to economic security, internal and external threats.

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-      ;
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 : 1.     12.05.2009 537 «       2020 »  . [ ]. -  : http://base.garant.ru/195521.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Arhiptsev A.V.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING PERSONAL RESPIRATORY AND VISUAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT FOR FIREFIGHTERS

A component analysis of the complex criterion of relative overall benefit with a detailed analysis of the algorithm for selecting personal protective equipment is presented. The General scheme of the algorithm implementation the choice of remedy with the aim of further equipment (re) units of EMERCOM of Russia.

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2.             / ..  [ .] //    : , . 2018. No 2. . 49­54. 3.  ..,  ..,  ..               //    : , . 2015. No 3. . 31­36. 4.  ..,  ..,  ..       -  // .-. . « .. -   ». 2013. No 2. . 29­35. 5.  ..      ,        . .: , .-. .-.  . ., 1994. 78 . 6.  27.301­95.   .  .  .  . .:  - , 2002. 13 . 7.   53255­2009.  .         .   .  .   . . .: , 2009. 42 . 8.      : .   22  2008 . No 123-.   .-  «». 9.  ..,  ..     -             // « -      », 2018.

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www.iupr.ru 365

 005.95/.96

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Archakova Yu.R. student of the Faculty of Economics and Management
Department of Personnel Management Transbaikal state university

THE IMPORTANCE OF A PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AN ORGANIZATION

Abstract: The article examines the essence of the main regulatory approaches to personnel management. The functions and tasks of the organization's personnel management system are considered. The factors influencing the managerial potential depending on the strategic objectives of the organization are revealed.
Key words: personnel management, organization, management, HR manager, management functions.

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www.iupr.ru 366

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 : 1.  ..    / . . . ­ : -, 2016. ­ 678 . 2.  :  /  . . . , . . . ­ : , 2018. ­ 554 .

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www.iupr.ru 369

 62-503.56

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Axmedov R. Academician, Academy of Sciences Turon Namangan engineering-construction institute
Uzbekistan, Namangan Muydinov S. Teacher
Namangan engineering-construction institute

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www.iupr.ru 370

Uzbekistan, Namangan Soginboeva U. Researcher
Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan Muhitdinova Sh. Researcher
Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan
IMPROVING THE TRAINING SYSTEM FOR ROAD INDUSTRY SPECIALISTS
Abstract: The article proposes ways of solving problems aimed at increasing the role of higher education in the labor market in the field of road facilities, improving communication and integration between the institute and road enterprises, improving the quality of education for training competitive specialists who play an important role in improving the quality of design, construction and road maintenance, development of automated software for transparent monitoring of labor resources in conjunction with other resources in the environment of the geographic information system.
Key words: training system; road structures; higher education; training of competitive specialists; automated software; communication and integration; transparency; monitoring; labor resources; economic losses.
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6.           ­    .
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www.iupr.ru 378

 004.02:004.5:004.9 DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_379
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Akhrorova L.I., Candidate of Philology Deputy for Spiritual and Educational Work
Director of the Academic lyceum under Jizzakh State Pedagogical institute
THE TRUTH THAT EVERYONE KNEW BUT NO ONE SPEAKED (REFLECTIONS ON TAGAY MURAD'S "FIELDS OF MY FATHER")
Annotation: The article analyzes the novel "Fields left by my father" by the Uzbek folk writer Togay Murad, which has a unique style and content. It includes the reasons of the tragedy that happened to a person loyal to the ideals of the communistic system of the state, system where religious education is prohibited. In addition to this it shows the advantages and disadvantages of a cotton farmer's collective image who does not know his rights, is not interested in the surrounding society, and does not even care about his own health, which is the result of a direct social impact on the fate and behavior of a person.

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www.iupr.ru 379

Key words: Togay Murad, novel, Uzbek prose, Russian empire and the tragedies of the Soviet era, the image of an unhappy person who does not know his rights.
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     .     ....
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 : 1.  . ,  , 6-, . .     , . 1971. 323-324-. 2. .. ""  .  . ­ : "" -  , 2018. ­ 702 . 4.  .  . ­ : "" -  , 2018. ­ 702 . 5.  .,  .,  .  . ­ : Akademnashr, 2010. ­ 397 . 7.  . "  " 1994 . 8.  . "       " togaymurod.uz 9..  . "  " togaymurod.uz 10.  . 2 . 1-.  . ­ : , 1978. ­ 416 . 11. . 2 . 2-. - . ­ : , 1978. ­ 416 . 12.    .  . 1-. ­ : , 1991. ­ 384 .

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www.iupr.ru 387

 616.15-08:616.831  ..
     
      
:       -     .       68     .        (16-28 ).        ,  ,      .           .
 :  , .
Bakhritdinov Z.P. Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Andijan State Medical Institute
INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTERNAL OTITIS WITH HIRUDOTHERAPY
Resume: The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of hirudotherapy in patients with otitis externa pathology. The functional activity of the auditory nerve was studied in 68 patients with otitis externa pathology. For two weeks the patients underwent hirudotherapy (16-28 leeches). As a result of the treatment, an increase in the functional activity of the organ, the normalization of hydrodynamics, and positive shifts in general and local hemodynamics were noted. The results obtained make it possible to recommend hirudotherapy in the complex treatment of patients with external otitis media.
Key words: otitis externa, hirudotherapy.
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www.iupr.ru 388

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 .       .
 : 1. ..      // . :  III  .-. . «    »: . . ., 2014. - . 168. 2. ..       // . . 2014. -  1(8). - . 25 28. 3. ..  ..       // . . 2013. -  6. - . 49 51. 4. ..             //      /   .-. . . , 2012. - .76 - 79. 5.Mion O. de Mello J.F., Lessa M.M. et al. The Role of Rhinitis in chronic otitis media // Otolaryngol. Head Week Surg., 2013. 128. - 1. - p. 27 -31. 6.Yuki H., Fischman W. H. Purification and characterization of leech hyaluronic acid endo b-glucurinidase // J. Biol. Chem. - 2003. - Vol. 238. -P. 1877- 1879. 7. Zwislocki J. Normal function of the middle ear and its measurement // Aydiology. 2008. - Vol. 21. - P. 4 - 14.

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www.iupr.ru 391

 617.55-001-073.4/8  .  ..
        
    
:           ,         .                  .
 :  ,  .
Bekmuratova S. Khakimov N.S. Department of Oncology and Medical Radiology Andijan State Medical Institute
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY ORGANS
Resume: The data on echosemiotics of closed injuries of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs, data on the informative value of ultrasound examination in identifying such injuries are presented. The important role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and choice of treatment tactics for patients with closed abdominal and retroperitoneal injuries has been shown.
Key words: abdominal trauma, ultrasound diagnostics.
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www.iupr.ru 392

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   ,            .
 : 1.  . .            : . . .... . . -- , 2004. -- 22 . 2.       ,   /  . . . . -- ., 2006. 3.  . .,  . .,  . .  . //    . -- 2007. --  4--5. -- . 90--94. 4.   :  ; .  ;  . . .  .. -- .; --, 2007. -- 256 . 5.  .   /  ; .  .;  . . .  .. -- .: , 2009. -- 560 . 6.  . .,  . .,  . .       // . -- 2006. --  4. -- . 42--45. 7. Vicki E. Noble, Bret Nelson, A. Nicolas Sutingeo. Manual of Emergency and Critical Care ultrasounde. -- Cambridg, 2009. -- P 41--43.

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 336.6

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Benkovskaya O.G. Master's student
Togliatti State University Russia, Togliatti

FEATURES OF ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL RESULTS AT TRADING ENTERPRISES

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the financial results of trade enterprises, the substantiation of new directions and indicators of analysis, allowing a more detailed assessment of the factors of profit formation.
Key words: financial result, profit, income, expenses, distribution costs.

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www.iupr.ru 396

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6. , ..     / .. , .. . ­ .:   , 2018. ­ 248 . 7. , .. ,            / ., , ..  //     . 2017.  16 (195). . 29­32. 8. , ..     . .: ­, 2018. ­ 615 .

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 616.85/616-053.2  ..
  3    
   
          - 
:        ,       .               ,      .      .   H.D. Ogden  H.G. Wolff     85%    . 79-83 .  100 000     .      14    2 ,      4  ,    7 .
 :  ,  ,  .
Bobozhonova S.Yu. 3rd year Master's student at the Department of Pediatric Neurology Andijan State Medical Institute
CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF VOLTAGE HEADACHE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH NEUROSOMATIC
DISEASES
Resume: Headache is one of the most common complaints that patients present at a doctor's appointment. In recent decades, the problem of headache has come to the fore not only in neurology, but also in other areas of medicine. Data on the prevalence of cephalalgias are highly variable. According to research by H.D. Ogden and H.G. Wolff headache occurs in 85% of individuals in the general population. 79-83 thousand out of 100,000 population suffer from headaches every year. The prevalence of headache in 14-year-old children is about 2 times, and according to some sources, 4 times higher than in 7-year-old children.
Key words: headache, adolescence, neurosomatic pathology.

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www.iupr.ru 402

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Boltaev B.H. applicant
Research Institute of agricultural Economics Boltaev Kh. Kh., candidate of agricultural Sciences
associate Professor RAE Termez branch of the Tashkent state agrarian University
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZERS AND INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGY OF FINE FIBER COTTON CULTIVATION
Annotation. The research established for raising economical efficiency making finefibre and getting crop on the level of 35-40 and more s/g necessary to put on the 1 g azote ­ 250-300, phosphore 150-200 and potassium 125-150 kg. Here at this allows to get by intensive technology from each hectare up to 6,18 cotton wool, and 233,3 up to 437,8 roubles for 1 ga.

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Cost effectiveness here at consists by intensive technology in sovhoz name after Lenin from 36,0 up to 40% on usual technology average 27,6%.
Key words: base, experimental, water fuller, irresistibility, expedience, compensation progressive, balanced.
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 004.02:004.5:004.9  .. 
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Boltaeva F.T. student
of the Faculty of preschool and primary education Bukhara State University Esanov J. student Bukhara State University
THE ROLE OF THE MAHALLA IN THE UPBRINGING OF THE YOUNGER GENERATION
Abstract: The Article is devoted to the role of ward in the socio-cultural life of the Uzbek people. It also shows the main functions of the ward in the modern society of Uzbekistan.
Keywords: ward, family, education, culture, relationship, craft, function, tasks.
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Budykin M.V. Master's student Togliatti State University Russia, Togliatti

LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF STATE HR POLICY IN THE RF

Resume: The article examines the regulatory legal framework in the system of staffing and personnel management in the civil service, as well as the priority directions of the formation of the civil service personnel.
Key words: personnel policy, civil service, legal framework.

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Vokhidov A.K. Senior Lecturer Department of Economics
ASU

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES ARE AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE PRINTING INDUSTRY

nnotation. This article discusses the implementation of digital technologies to improve the efficiency of the printing industry

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            ,    .      «        »  11.08.2017 .  -5148[2],      2  2019   -5653 «          » [5],      2  2019 .  -4151 «            » [6].       « »   .               16.03.2020 .  -4640 «         » [7],  ,   1  2020      (   )   ()       ;  1  2020      ,         .
        ,      ,       «         »  28.04.2020.  -4699 [8],      ,           2023   2 ,                  ,    2020-2021              .
                  ,      ,         ,     .

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 : [1].    «  ­ 2030». https://regulation.gov.uz/uz/document/10574. [2].  ..    -      . //    . ­ ., 2019. 1. ­. 29-30. [3].          25.01.2020.  « »  25.01.2020. [4]. «               2017­ 2021   «  ,    ».      02.03.2020.  -5953. [5]. «          ».      2  2020   -5653. [6]. «            ».      2  2019 .  -4151. [7]. «         ».      16.03.2020 .  -4640. [8]. «         »      28.04.2020.  -4699. (https://lex.uz/docs/4800661). [9].  ..,  .      / World science: problems and innovations:   XXXI  - .  4 . . 3. ­ :  «  ». ­ 2019. ­ . 118-120

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 338.364
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Glushkov G. E. senior lecturer the Department of ATEP Taras Shevchenko state University branch in Rybnitsa Morarenko E. V.
laboratory the Department of ATEP Taras Shevchenko state University branch in Rybnitsa
PROCESS EQUIPMENT OF AUTOMATED PRODUCTION
Annotation: The main process equipment of automated production is considered in the article.
Keywords: automated production, technological equipment, labor productivity, hard automation.
             .          .       ,     .     ,           :

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5. , ..   :  / .. . ­ .: , 2006.

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Glushkov G. E. senior lecturer the Department of ATEP Taras Shevchenko state University branch in Rybnitsa Cherbulenko A. V. senior laboratory assistant the Department of ATEP Morarenko E. V.
laboratory the Department of ATEP

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Taras Shevchenko state University branch in Rybnitsa
EFFICIENCY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF TRAINING OF TRINING OF FUTURE ENGINEERS: THEORETICAL ASPECT
Annotation: the Manager at all levels of the organization's management system acts as a knowledgeable person, since it is he who determines the purposefulness of the team, recruitment, psychological climate and other aspects of the company's activities. Leadership -- the ability to influence individuals and groups to work toward the goals of the organization.
One of the most important characteristics of a Manager's activity is the management style.
The article considers the theoretical aspect of the concept of the effectiveness of the organization of training of engineers, as well as reveals modern approaches to management styles in industrial and other enterprises, presents the most common and acceptable management styles in educational management.
Keywords: management, engineer, effectiveness of training organization, authoritarian, democratic and liberal styles, paternalism, opportunism, fascism, prescription, persuasion, cooperation, delegation.
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Golikov E. N. student
Scientific supervisor: M. G. Krutalevich, candidate of economic Sciences Orenburg state University

INNOVATION IN THE FIELD OF CULTURE IN ORENBURG REGION

Abstract: the article examines the innovative activity of the state in the sphere of culture; reviews innovative projects in the sphere of culture of the Orenburg region, provides examples of other countries, identifies problems of innovation and ways to solve them. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that the younger generation is losing interest in the culture of their region and country. In order to arouse interest in culture among generation Z, it is necessary to introduce more modern technologies in this area, to increase its attractiveness.
Keywords: innovation, innovation, culture, cultural policy, modern technologies, Orenburg region.

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 616.74-009.54  ..  ..  ..  ..
      
    
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Gulomjonov K.D. Gofurov K.S. Kobilov Sh.M.
Abdukodirov U.T. Department of Pediatric Neurology
Andijan State Medical Institute
FEATURES OF THE TREATMENT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE DYSTROPHY
Resume: Hereditary neuromuscular diseases represent the largest group of genetically heterogeneous hereditary diseases of the nervous system, characterized by an extraordinary diversity of nosological forms and pronounced clinical polymorphism
Muscular dystrophies are hereditary, progressive diseases of the muscular system that arise from defects in one or more genes necessary for normal muscle structure and function.

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Progressive muscular dystrophies are hereditarily determined and very common diseases of the neuromuscular system.
Key words: neuromuscular diseases, muscular dystrophy, childhood, hereditary diseases.
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     MRS    .
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 : 1. ..,  ..,  .., - ..,  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..     ( ) // . 2014. 14. . 854-862. 2. .., . ..  . .: -, 2007. 720 . 2. Sewry C.A. Muscular dystrophies: an update on pathology and diagnosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2010. vol. 120, no 3. . 343-358. 3. ..,  ..,  ..       //     . 2011.  5. . 46-50. 4. ..,  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..                 //   . 2006. 2. . 45-50. 8.  ...,  ..,  ..       //  . 2013. 2. . 10-17. 5.  ..,  ..,  ..  -     ,  

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   //   . 2009. 4. . 9-19. 6.  ..,  .,  ..  - .   / .  . ..   .. , . . ..   .. .  , 2016. 392 . 7. Belayew A. Cascade of gene activation in Landouzy Dejerine muscular dystrophy. Bull Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 2010. vol. 165, no. 1-2. . 87-95; discussion pp. 95-97. 8. Collins J., Bönnemann C.G. Congenital muscular dystrophies: toward molecular therapeutic interventions. Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep. 2010. vol. 10, no. 2. . 83-91. 9.Jacqueline M. The identification of Landouzy-Dejerine disease: an investigative history. Neuromuscul Disord. 2011. vol. 21, no. 4. . 291-297. DOI: 10.1016/j.nmd.2011.01.003. 10.Matthews E., Brassington R., Kuntzer T., Jichi F., Manzur A.Y. Corticosteroids for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2016. vol. 5, no. 5. . CD003725. 11. Petnikota H, Madhuri V, Gangadharan S, Agarwal I, Antonisamy B. Retrospective cohort study comparing the efficacy of prednisolone and deflazacort in children with muscular dystrophy: A 6 years' experience in a South Indian teaching hospital. Indian J. Orthop. 2016. vol. 50, no. 5. . 551-557.

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 616.216.1-002-036.11  .  ..
        
    
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Dadazhonova O. Khakimov N.S.
Department of Oncology and Medical Radiology Andijan State Medical Institute
ULTRASOUND DISEASE DIAGNOSTICS SINTERS
Resume: The diagnosis of inflammatory pathology of the paranasal sinuses (SNP) and the choice of further therapeutic measures are based on clinical examination and X-ray data. In most cases, only ultrasound diagnostics is sufficient to solve the diagnostic problem.
Remaining the leading method in the diagnosis of SNP diseases, traditional radiography does not always allow to fully assess the nature, volume and localization of the pathological process, especially in the cells of the ethmoid labyrinth and the main sinuses. This research method gives from 50 to 74.9% of erroneous data, which negatively affects the choice of treatment methods, its timing and results.
Key words: diagnostics, ultrasound method, paranasal sinus.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA
Resume: This article examines the characteristics of the education system in the Republic of Kalmykia.
Key words: education, education system, problems of the education system.
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Dusbekov T.M. Senior Lecturer Faculty of Architecture and Construction Termez State University

USE OF TRADITIONAL METHODS TO INCREASE SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AND INCREASE YIELD

Abstract: The use of traditional methods of increasing yields, crop rotations, effective irrigation, correct application of mineral fertilizers, correct agronomic methods, prevention of the spread of various pests, fast work of biological laboratories and the use of chemical elements increase yields. makes him rise. Fulfillment of the above requirements will increase the yield of agricultural crops to 60-65%.
Key words: Crop rotation, efficient use of irrigation, correct application of mineral fertilizers, correct agricultural practices.

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Elovenko D. A. student
B. B. Gorodovikov Kalmyk state University Russian Federation, Elista
Research supervisor: Slobodchikova I. V., Ph. D. in Economics associate Professor
MECHANISMS OF SOCIAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION
Abstract: the Russian Federation has developed a stable model of support for the population. Its activities are aimed at equalizing social inequality among the population. The bodies responsible for implementing social policy are legislative, Executive, local self-government and other bodies. They implement the policy in accordance with legal acts, including the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: politics, social sphere, state, support, legal acts.
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Esbasinova N.P. TSDI
Uzbekistan

THE ROLE OF SELF-LEARNING IN TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Annotation: The article examines the issue of students' independent work as the basis for teaching a foreign language in the context of the modern educational paradigm
Key words: Educational process, discipline "Foreign language", independent work of students, educational competence, project method

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Zhaibergenova Zh.B. Abdirashitova G.S.
Department of Faculty and Hospital Therapy Medical Institute of Karakalpakstan
REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION
Resume: The article describes the characteristics of a differentiated program of physical rehabilitation of hypertensive patients at the polyclinic stage, and evaluates its effectiveness. The inclusion of all elements of gymnastics in classes, the use of therapeutic swimming, autogenous training, dosed walking, therapeutic massage helps to normalize heart rate, lower blood pressure, improve overall health and increase the physical performance of patients.
Key words: hypertension, remedial gymnastics, physical rehabilitation.
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11. ..,  ..      :    . Consilium Medicum 2007; 5: 19-24. 12.    -   [] /  . . . . - .: -, 2010. - 304 . 13..     (   ).  . .. , .. .  2010. 14. ..,  ..  . : - 2008. 15.Roy B.A. Exercise and Hypertension. American Council on Exercise. Fitness symposium 2011. 16.Wickwire P. J. Acute heart rate, blood pressure, and RPE responses during Super Slow Vs. traditional machine resistance training protocols using small muscle group exercises / P. J. Wickwire, R. J. Mclester, J. M. Green, R. T. Crews //Strength Cond Res. ­ 2009. ­ Vol. 23, N 1. ­ . 72­79.

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Zhalilov B.S. senior teacher Dekhkanov G.
assistant Namangan Engineering Technological Institute
Republic of Uzbekistan, Namangan city

ENSURING THE FOOD SECURITY OF THE COUNTRY IS A CURRENT CHALLENGE TODAY

Annotation: The paper discusses food security, which is now becoming increasingly important in the world, creates the necessary conditions to ensure food security of the country's population and takes specific targeted measures.

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Zemlyakova S. N., Ph. D. associate Professor
Don state agrarian University

FEATURES OF TAX ACCOUNTING IN THE PATENT SYSTEM IN RETAIL TRADE

Abstract: the article discusses the features of the application of the patent system by small businesses in retail trade, examines aspects of the legal framework, provides a list of activities subject to PSN, and gives practical recommendations for calculating the cost of a patent.
Keywords: patent, patent system of taxation, tax code of the Russian Federation.

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Zoteeva K. student 3 course Department of Economic Theory and Management Moscow Pedagogical State University Russia, Moscow

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISES ON THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Abstract: The article is devoted to assessing the state of the construction industry in the context of the crises of 2008 and 2020.
Key words: construction industry, construction, crisis.

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  «» ,  , .  
     «»
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Ivanova L.A., Candidate of pedagogic sciences Associate Professor
at the Department of Management and Economics and Mathematics "TISBI" University in Naberezhnye Chelny
Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Naberezhnye Chelny
DEVELOPING A MARKETING STRATEGY MICRO-ENTERPRISES OOO «RELEASE»
Annotation: For effective company management, provision the volume of production and consumer goods, the markets, to ensure the attractiveness of the manufacturing products, strong and unstoppable company operation and as the result to achieve positive economic results and consequently ensure the market competitiveness, any company must develop and implement its own unique development plan and marketing development strategy.
Key words: marketing strategy, microenterprise, strategy passport, development roadmap.
  ,         ,     .    ,

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www.iupr.ru 486

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 : ­       
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 : 1. , ..  :  ,     / .. . ­ [ ] ­  : http://www.galyautdinov.ru,  ­   07.02.2018 . 2. , ..,  ..        / .. , .. . ­ [ ] ­  : http://www.novainfo.ru,  ­   24.11.2016 . 3. , ..        / .. . ­ [ ] ­  : http://www.ippnou.ru,  ­   25.05.2017 .

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_496  004.02:004.5:004.9
 ..     
 ..          , 
       
:              .   50    30-55 ,     3 : I () ­    ­ 15 , II ­    ­ 18 , III  ­         ­ 32 .    ,   ,           , ,    - ,   .  ,     ,          ,   .
 :  , , ,  , 
Irgasheva D.G. assistant department of propeification of internal diseases
Kasimova N.D. assistant professor department of propeification of internal diseases Andijan State Medical Institute Andijan, Uzbekistan
PURINE METABOLISM AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

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www.iupr.ru 496

Summary: The aim of this work was to study the state of purine metabolism and microalbuminuria in patients with metabolic syndrome. We examined 50 patients aged 30-55 years, who were randomized into 3 groups: I (control) ­ healthy individuals t ­ 15 people, II ­ patients with arterial hypertension ­ 18 people, group III ­ patients with arterial hypertension in combination with metabolic syndrome ­ 32 people. The results of the studies showed that the concentration of UA in the blood significantly correlated with the severity of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, triglyceridemia and glycemia - parameters that reflect the state of IR. Thus, the data obtained indicate that hyperuricemia is a metabolic disorder and one of the components inherent in the metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia, microalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, insulin resistance
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  .   50     30

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 55 ,          .     18   (34,7%)  32  (65,3%)     30  55 ,      3 : I () ­     25-40  ­ 15 ; II ­    ­ 18    30-59 ; III  ­    ­32   30-59 .
     : 1.     ()   :  ()/ ()2.   ,    ,    24,9. 2.        ()        .    :    80. 3.           (), ,     (), ,    (),   (    - «Reflotron-Roch»),   ( ).                  Stat Fax Awarenes technology INC (),    Hospitex diagnostics s.r.l. ().            l,         t- .          <0,05.
  .           (31,5%),  (30,0%)   (28,4%),     ( ­ 10,1%).            .         .           .        ()        ().     I  78,8±1,14 ,  II- 80,3±0,46,    C-102,5+±1,5 . ( -1).            1,9%, ..    .          24,3±0,7 2,   II-     26,7±1,32.        4,9%,    .       32,6±0,8 2,  

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    35%,  II-   28,6%.     ,          .           ,  ,   .
    0,45 /     52,6% ,  ,   37,1% ,   .
C           ,           3  .      ,    :    -  22,2% :     50,7% .        ,     ,    ,   .          ..  ,          .          ,           (       )   ,        .           ,               ,      ,                    .           ,    ,   ,   ,    0,45 /  . ,        ,     (- = 3,76, <0,05).
        52,6% ,  ,      . ,            :       22,2%,           - 68,6% -    .  ,   ,           , ,    - ,   .

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 ,     ,          ,   .
  26     .    .        (): 1 ­ ­   :      30 /; 2 ­   :      30-300 /; 3 ­  -    (),               (      110 /).   ,         22,4% ,    ­  75,2% .
         80,1% .         :     ­     (<30 /),   II    30-300 /,   III ­ IV   .      .   III    1,47±0,7 /,   IV  ­ 2,7±1,9 /.
 ,        -  ,      .   ,                      .            ,     ,        , ..       ,     ,    ,     (,  ,  ,   ,   )     [2,5,7,12,13].   , ,           .     3,    , ,    III ,      II .              30,4%,     -  47,8%.    III      71%,  II   44,4%.    II       53,8%,    III    99,7%     .   II   III     

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.         

  8,8%,   I  III  ­ 46,6%.    

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1.  ..  ..,  ..,  ..

     . //

-  . 2014  ,  6,.  316-323.

2.  ..,  ..,  ..,  .. 

       

     . // .

-. . 2008. .30-31.

3.  ..,  ..    

 ? // .    1. 2011

. 1-9

4.  ..,  ..,  ..,  .  

        . .

. 1999; 6:  53-56.

5.  ..,  ..,  ..   - -

 /     - .

  . 2012; 10:  431-436.

6.  ..,  ..    .

  . . . SHARHLAR, 2004,  27-40.

7.  ..,  ..,  ..  . 

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      . ; 12:  37-41. 8.  ..        - . .   2006,  4  91-95 9. Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott M. A., Raskin P. The treatment of hypertension in 10. Bleyer A.J. et al. Renal manifest factions of a mutation in the uromodium (Tamm Horsfall protein) gene. Amer J kidney Dis. 2013;42: 20-26. 11. De Leeuw, Birkenhager W.H.        . Neth J. Med. 2009; 47:  199-204. 12. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcome's in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet 2015; 355:  253. 13. Filer .IS Lent in resistance and obesity: Presented at the.60 th scientific sessions of the American diabetes association. June 13, 2016; San-Antonio, Texas. 14. Ford E.S., Ciles W.H., Dietr W.H. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome amond US adults. JAMA 2012; 287: P.356-359. 15. Lakka HM. Laaksonen DE. Lakka  et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men JAMA 2012; 288:  2709-2716. 16. Malik F.S., Lavie C.J., Mehra M.R. et al. Renin-angiotensin system; Genes to bedside. Amer Heart J. 2015; 134:  514-526

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www.iupr.ru 502

 544.169.667  ..,      (PhD)    
     ..
       
       
:                 .       .
 :  , ,    (), , , , ,  ,    .
Islomova S.T., doctor of philosophy in technical Sciences (PhD)
assistant of the Department of medical chemistry Andijan state medical Institute Ubaydullayev K.T.
assistant of the Department of medical chemistry Andijan state medical Institute
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CAR PAINTS WITH CLASSIFICATION FEATURES
Abstract: On the basis of chemical composition and structure of car paints proposed new code numbers according to the Commodity Nomenclature of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The results are necessary for the proper declaration of goods.
Keywords: car paint, identification, composition of paint materials, expert operation, goods, classifications, infrared spectroscopy, foreign economic activity, goods nomenclature of foreign economic activity Republic of Uzbekistan.
        ,            

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www.iupr.ru 503

    (  )  ,      ,        .
     (  )        ,         ,   ,  ,       ,     ,       [1].
         .              [2].
 .   ,          «-  ».
.              Uz Paint Co (    ).     (Perkin Elmer Spectrum  10.4.3),     .        [2,3].   -        .  ,           ­ [3,5].
    .1,2,3,4.

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1-. ­  Solid 12 U 2-. ­  BPR GCM

3-. ­  QT

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,   1- (1.)   ;  2-

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;  4- (4.)  ,  , 

 CHCl3.

  3.     .

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 1.

 

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3

QT



 



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       (-).    ,        ,           .
    ,      3208 90 910 1  3208 90 910 9     .                .
          ,          .
 Solid - 3208 90 910 10;  Bamper - 3208 90 910 11;
 QThane - 3208 90 910 12; 4. Metallic - 3208 90 910 13

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www.iupr.ru 506

 : 1. Islamova S, Hamraqulov M.G, Hamraqulov G. Identification and classification of goods 32 groups of the commodity nomenclature of foreign economic activity of the Republic of Uzbekistan// «     »   . 2015 7-8. . 46-52. 2. Islamova S. T., Xamraqulov G', Abdug'aniyev B. Classification of paints on the chemical composition. //Bulletin of the Tashkent State Technical University 3. In 2015. P. 51-55 3.  64-15769172-012-2014.  .  .. . 1-6 4.  19007-73.         paint work materials. method for determination of drying tine and degree. . 1-5. 5.  ..     .  1987. 5-25-.

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www.iupr.ru 507

 677.08.022.484.2  ..
   « »  -   , . 
       
:    -    ,   ,       , -       .          ,   -    ,          .       ,          ,         .
 : , , , , , , , , , , , , .
Ismailov N. T. senior lecturer of the Department "Higher mathematics" of the Namangan engineering-technological Institute Republic of Uzbekistan, the city of Namangan
MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATING THE DEFORMATION PROCESSES OF TEXTILE SHELL TECHNOLOGY
Annotation: Using the method of causal relationships of the binary information theory, the dependency problems are solved, the main dependencies between the design parameters of the equipment, the physico-mechanical parameters of the feedstock and the desired product properties are established. Empirical dependencies are obtained regarding the nature and mechanism of relationships between factors for calculating the deformation processes of textile shell technology, which allowed us to construct a theory for controlling and predicting the behavior of the system. The evaluation methods and methods used

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www.iupr.ru 508

in the work allow expanding the information database in relation to these indicators and use them in the manufacture of fabrics and yarns with desired properties.
Keywords: raw materials, yarn, fabric, quality, properties, structure, parameters, research, design, analysis, synthesis, design, modeling.
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,  , , .

G12 = g12; G19 = g19 + g12  g29; G13=g13+g19g93+g12g29g93+g12g23; G110 = g110+ g12  g210 + g19  g910 + g13  g310 + g12  g29  g910 + + g12  g29  g93  g310 + g19 g93 g310+ g12  g29  g93 g310; G1213 = g1213     , 



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Y1=5,41-0,14X1+0,63X2-0,15X9

2 

Y2=0,94+0,02X1+1,21X9-1,72X 1X9 Y3 = 1,66 - 0,03X1- 0,84X2 + 0,03X 1X2

Y4=19,32-0,12X1+0,87X2+1,82X3-0,42X1X3+0,15X32-3,12X10

3

 

Y1=5,21+0,11X1 -0,14X 1X2+0,15X2-0,42X11 -0,43X 9X11
Y3 = 2,75 - 0,02X1 - 0,64X2 + 0,02X 1X2 Y4=18,10+1,52X2+0,78X1X2+30X22+0,35X11-0,75X62+0,52X72

4

 Y1=1,3+0,15X6+0,08X7 +0,01X8 -0,89 X12 +1,21X11



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5

 Y1=15,40+1,28X1 +0,75X2 -0,89X4 +1,31X8



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 : [1].  ..,       -  /    3 ­ . 1. ­2001.- [.194]. [2]. . . ,  . .         /  5. ­ 2001. ­ [.41]. [3].          , . 1 ­ . 1. ­2001.- [.11]. [4].             . . ­ 2 (12). ­ 2006. ­ [. 173]. [5].        /   6. ­ 2006. ­ [.240]. [6].  . .,        . . , 2, 2003. [.75]. [7].  ..,  .,        / . ­ 1 (8). ­ 2004. ­ [. 197]. [8].          / 6. - 2002 ­ [. 107]. [9].           /    . -2000. - 3. ­ [. 306]. [10].  ..,  ..,           / . ­ 4. ­ 2000. ­ [. 147] [11].  ..  ..  «»        .  5 (134), 1, 2020 . 58  [12].  ..  ..  «»        .  5 (134), 1, 2020 . 58 

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 338.1  ..
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Kalinov A.I. undergraduate program Public Administration Kalmyk state University named after B.B. Gorodovikov
Elista
INFORMATION SECURITY AS A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DIGITAL ECONOMY
Abstract: the Digital economy is rapidly replacing the old way of life in all spheres of modern society. Private life and workplaces are being transformed, and new professions and interaction tools are emerging. In the era of such largescale transformations, the problem of information security in organizations, institutions, and authorities is becoming increasingly relevant.
Keywords: digital economy, information security, public administration, national security.
   ,          ,    .      203  09.05.2017 «         2017­2030 »   ­ 

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www.iupr.ru 518

 ,          ,                     , , , , ,    .1
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                « ,      »  27.07.2006 149-,      ,       05.12.2016 . 646,   «   »,      28.07.2017 . 1632-.
  ,          :  ­ «digital economy»,  ­ « »   ­ « ».  

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     ,          (   )    .       .4
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1.          2017-2030 :   .   09.05.2017  203 2.       :   .  28.07.2017  1632- 3.  ..,  ..           //     . 2020.  1 (391). . 209-218. 4.      . URL: https://iecp.ru/articles/item/411822-proyekt-informatsionnaya-bezopasnost-vmire-tsifrovoy-ekonomiki 5.  ..,  ..,  ..  :   //  . 2016.  7 (141). C. 90­91. 6.  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..       //   . ­ 2018. ­  11-1. ­ . 65-71; URL: http://top-technologies.ru/ru/article/view?id=37239 7.  ..          //  :  .    X  -

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www.iupr.ru 521

. :  « ,   » (). 2019. .58-62. 8.  ..          //  :  .    X  - . :  « ,   » (). 2019. .58-62. 9.  ..           //  :     .  I  -     . . 2019. . 525-530.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., ... 
      
  «»      
.        . ,   ,        . ,    ,       .      .       ,   ,           .
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Kamilova N. A., Ph. D. associate Professor
Samarkand Institute of Economics and service Republic of Uzbekistan
INTERPRETATION OF THE CONCEPT OF "POVERTY" AND IMPROVING THE WELL-BEING OF THE POPULATION OF
UZBEKISTAN
Abstract. The problem of poverty has been of concern to human society since ancient times. But, despite this, humanity has not been able to solve this problem. And, paradoxically, poverty continues to be an inherent feature of any society. Poverty is multidimensional in nature and causes. It cannot be defeated by increasing benefits, creating jobs, providing access to credit for starting a business, or improving housing conditions.
Keywords. Poverty, social inequality, minimum need, absolute concept of poverty, international poverty line, national poverty line, cost of living, the level of well-being.
       . ,   ,        . ,

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www.iupr.ru 523

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54            24  2020 . //www. uza.uz.

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       ,     ,    ,         ,      .      ,         ,      .                  (.1).
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58         (  ). //www.dx.doi.org. 59    1  2018 .    . 60      «Focus Economics».

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.  ,         10-13  .
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 : 1.  (  ). ­.:  , 2010. 2. .. . ­: , 1989.

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Karayeva K.N. Uzbekistan State University of World Languages
Tashkent, Uzbekistan

ON THE DIDACTIC BASIS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the problems of the application of didactic laws and principles in the organization of the process of teaching a foreign language, as well as the study and research of the application of didactic principles set forth in the program documents.
Key words: communicative, multilingual, multicultural, competence, linguodidactics.

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www.iupr.ru 530

                   . ,                .                         .    , , , ,      ,    .      ­         ,  [2-4].
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( )  XVIII     ,                  :
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4)   ­   ,  ,          .
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            , ,        ,                         [5].
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       .           .   ,  ­ ,     ,  ,                   ,    , ,     .

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www.iupr.ru 534

: 1. CEFR ­ Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning. Teaching. Assesment. Strasburg -2001. 2. Jalolov J. Chet til oqitish metodikasi. "O'qituvchi" nashriyot ­ matbaa ijodiy uy./ Toshkent - 2012, 123b. 3.  .,  .  ­ . "", 2006. 4. Ibragimov X., Abdullayeva Sh. Pedagogika nazariyasi. Toshkent. 2008. 5.  ..      .    ­ 3- .- : . 2001. 160.

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www.iupr.ru 535

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Karimov M.A. teacher
Andijan State University

ROLE OF INVESTMENT IN INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

Annotation. Taking into account the significant role of light industry in ensuring economic growth, employment of the population and raising its standard of living in the new geopolitical conditions, the leading world countries pay special attention to the development of this industry and provide it with significant investment support.
Keywords. light industry, the real sector of the economy, foreign investors, high-tech, state support.

                              .
   90-                        .     --         ,    ,         .

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www.iupr.ru 536

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                .  80           , , 

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        .       -2687 «        -   2017 - 2019 »  21  2016                900  .                   .
        3 ,   -  1,5 ,   -  2

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www.iupr.ru 538

, -  -  3 , -  -  2 .             70 .                           ,       .
,           ,        ,             .
 : 1.      -2687 «           2017 -- 2019 »  21  2016 . 2.  . .      - , 2008. - 528 . 3.  ..           . //    . ­ ., 2019. 1. ­. 29-35.

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www.iupr.ru 539

 372.83

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Kozimzhonova I.F. Agranovskiy M.L.
Muminov R.K. Saliev M.M.
Department of Psychiatry and Narcology Andijan State Medical Institute

NTEGRATED APPROACH IN PREVENTION OF SUICIDES AND SUICIDAL RISKS OF MINORS

Resume: In recent years, the problem of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents has attracted close attention of researchers in various specialties psychiatry, psychology, anthropology, sociology, forensic science and others. This is due to the steady increase in the suicidal activity of young people in the second half of the 20th century. According to WHO materials, suicide as a cause of death has come to one of the first places in the world. Suicides in persons under the age of 25 constitute approximately 19% of the total number of suicides.
Key words: suicide, prevention, suicidal risk, adolescence.

. ,    (2008),      1  ,  10--20   

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www.iupr.ru 540

   [5,8].              ,            [2,9].
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       (2019-2020.)            «   » (   ­ 10 F60.3),          15-17.
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     ,    «  », «   », «  ».
 58,4%      15-17    ,           ,     ,   ,    « ».     15%       ,  5%    (, )   .    (, )    10% .
     25% .      66,7% .     50% ,        ,     .
        «   » :  ,    , ,     ,  ,  ,    ,      ,       ,  , , ,  ,  , ,      .     .
      ,          ,    ,        .
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 «  », «   », «  ».
        ,   ,      ,   ,    « ».
 : 1. . .,  . .,  . .  .    ,   // i i ii. ­ 2015. ­ . 13, . 4. ­ . 43--46. 2. . .          //    . ­ 2008. ­  1. ­ . 38--40. 3. . .,  . .  :    . ­ , 2018. ­ 178 . 4. . .,  . . -       (  ) //  . ­ 2010. ­  1. ­ . 14--18. 5. . .,  . .       //   . ­ 2011. ­  4. ­ . 41--44. 6.Gaynes, B. N., West S. L. et al. Preventive services task force. Screening for suicide risk in adults: a summary of the evidence for the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force // Annals of Internal Med. ­ 2014. ­ V. 140. ­ P. 822--835. 7.Saha S., Chant D., McGrant J. A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: Is the differential mortality gap worsening over time? // Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. ­ 2017. ­ V. 64. ­ P. 1123--1131. 8.Wasserman D., Wasserman C. Suicidology and suicide prevention. A global perspective / D. Wasserman et al. (eds.). ­ Oxford : University Press, 2009. ­ 872 p. 9.Yip P. S., Liu K. Y. et al. Suicide rates in China during a decade of rapid social changes // Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. ­ 2015. ­ V. 40. ­ P. 792--798. 10..Yousaf U., Christensen M. L., Engholm G. et al. Suicides among Danish cancer patients 2000--2009 // Brit. J. Cancer. ­ 2015. ­ V. 92. ­ P. 995-- 1000.

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 616.89 ­ 008.441.44  ..  ..  ..  ..
       
        
   
:        -  .   ,             ,    ,  ,  ,            .
 :  ,  ,  , .
Kozimzhonova I.F. Agranovskiy M.L.
Muminov R.K. Azimova G.A. Department of Psychiatry and Narcology Andijan State Medical Institute
CLINICAL TYPOLOGY OF THE PERSONALITY OF PATIENTS WITH INCOMPLETE SUICIDES AND ALGORITHM FOR PREVENTING REPEATED SUICIDAL ACTIONS
Resume: Suicide continues to be one of the most pressing medical and social problems of mankind. At the same time, despite a significant number of concepts and models of suicidal behavior developed in different years, ideas about its causes, mechanisms of formation, clinical manifestations, connections with the state of mental and somatic health continue to remain controversial and controversial.
Key words: incomplete suicide, personality changes, suicidal actions, prevention.

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www.iupr.ru 544

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-       (90,2%)          ,    . -   (9,8%)       .
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    - (47,3%).     (24,6%)  - (21,1%).      (43,3%)  - (30,0%),      (9,7%).   (18,7%),    ,    .
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  ,    -         .
        ,    .
 : 1.  ..         //  . 2004. - 12(17).-. 91-96. 2. . .,  H. .,  . .  .    ,   //   . 2005.- . 13. - . 4. -. 43-46. 3. .. -           //   . 2009. -  6. - . 39-45. 4. . .        «»        // . . . . . .-., 2005.-25 . 5. . .     : . . . -. . . ., 2008. - 46 . 6. . .             //  XV   . .:  «-», 2010. - . 343. 7. . .,  . .  :   //  . 2006. -  2. -. 103-115. 8.Besnier N., Gavaudan G., Navez A. et al. Clinical features of suicide occurring in schizophrenia (I). Risk-factors identification // Encephale. -2009. Vol. 35,  2. - P. 176-181. 9.Galfalvy H., Huang Y. Y., Oquendo M. A. et al. Increased risk of suicide attempt in mood disorders and TPH1 genotype // J. Affective Disorders. 2009. Vol. 115,  3 - P. 331-338. 10.Pompili M., Serafini G., Innamorati M. et al. Suicidal behavior and alcohol abuse // Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 2010. - Vol. 7,  4. -P. 1392-1431. 11. Zhang J., McKeown R. E., Hussey J. R. et al. Low HDL cholesterol is associated with suicide attempt among young healthy women: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey // J. Affective Disorders. 2005. - Vol. 89,  1-3. - P. 25-33.

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 631.333.5

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:              ,   ,       .  ,     450 ,   -560 ,        ,      .
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Komilov N.M. Adxamov B.V.

BASE ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE DISC SOFTENER OF THE COMBINED MACHINE, WHICH CAN BE PROCESSED INTO A RANGE OF TOC

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www.iupr.ru 550

Annotation: The article presents the results of a theoretical study on the basis of the diameter of the disc softener discs of the combined machine, the curvature of the working surface, the direction of movement and the mounting angles relative to the seam. It was determined that the diameter of the disc is 450 mm, the curvature of the working surface is 560 mm, mainly due to the condition of cutting off the remains of the plant, which can be seen as a disc softener.
Keywords: combined Machine, disk, parameter, softener.
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till.­ , 2010.­60 . 3.  .,  .   .­: , 2009.­504 . 4.  ..,  ..  . ­ :      , 2014.­236 . 5.  198-75   . . 1975. 6.  ..   . ­, 1972. ­ 182 7. M.A.EI-Shazly, M.M.Morad, M.M. Ali, K.I. Wasfy. Optimization of disk plow performance under egyptian conditions // Misr Journal of Agriculture Engineering.­ Misr, 2008 25(1). pp. 15-37.

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www.iupr.ru 554

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Kubaeva Sh.T. Samarkand State University Uzbekistan, Samarkand City

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www.iupr.ru 555

COGNITIVE INNOVATION AS THE BASIS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Annotation: This article discusses the unique nature of human thinking. The example of reforms in the society of Uzbekistan emphasizes the features, specifics and role of cognitive innovations in development. The qualities of the process of innovative development are shown, the importance of cognitive innovation is revealed. The change in thinking is explained by the fact that the growth of industrial relations and the acceleration of economic development are becoming an integral process.
Key words: Uzbekistan, society, cognitive innovation, innovative development, thinking, economic development, reform, innovation.
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 004.02:004.5:004.9  .. 
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Kudrya Yu.S. student
Scientific adviser: Suharnikova M.A., Ph.D. D. associate professor
RSAU-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazeva
STATE BUDGET MANAGEMENT
This article will consider the basic concepts related to the state budget, aspects of the distribution of budgetary funds; analyzed the reasons for the budget deficit.
Key words: budget, deficit, surplus, income, expenses.
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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Kuziboeva G.S. 2nd year student Faculty of Uzbek Philology Tashkent State University of Uzbek Language and Literature named after Alisher Navai
THE LITERAL ANALYSES OF THE SHORT STORIES OF O. HENRY
Abstract: The below given paper aims to analyze the short stories of.O.Henry from literal point of view along with the appropriate examples.
Key words: Short stories, devices, tales, literature
Language is so great potential, that one can be surprised by its functions and acts. Language is never simple, yet thereis a widening gulf between the everyday language that we are in on daily basis and the language of literature whose function is worlds apart from those which are used for its own sake as a communication. Language of literature is quite unique and enigmatic, figurative, many-edged sword that can be used for different actions.And for these reasons the literature has always attracted people and thrived through this. Apart from this living nurture of literature, the creator of it also does loads to make its own literature blossom and become prevalent in many dimensions of culture. Among this kind of creators short story writer O. Henry occupies deeply-rooted tree, as we can refer to elaborate actuality of the writer metaphorically. English literature followers are highly influenced by the works of the writer and they choose hardly country and culture. No physical border can hamper readers to comprehend the direct or indirect messages that the writer was going to let out. The English literature stands at the crucial turn in terms of the amount of the contribution to

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the development of the genre of short story. The genre has seen stylistic revolution of the devices by the stories of O. Henry making the short story turn to mature, fully elaborated genre.
The figurative language used in the short stories of O. Henry The works of William Sydney Porter (O.Henry) is hardlymind-numbing. By comprehending the figurative language, the readers can never be puzzled, in complete contrast their mindset will be as thankful as their stomach, as the messages behind the short stories of O. Henry are food for thought. Here it should be mentioned that the more they are read, the more nurture the explorer can discover and consume. No other short -story writer can compare to O.Henry in terms of the abundance of the social, culturaland moral messages. He mainly wrote about reversal of fate, findings of adventures and outings, chronic yearnings of mankind. The lexicon of O. Henry is so straightforward, however arranged fantastically in due course and in due order. His words are conventionally wellestablished even though the writer tried at his optimum to use common vocabulary but relevant combinations of them enable to hide colossal potential. At most cases they are hardly in harmony with our conceptualizations about how we use these words in daily lifestyle. There is no word used in vain, every word is used for special purpose. O. Henry's style is often described as "smile with tears " (oxymoron-literal style which refers to the combinations of words that have opposite, incongruous or very different meanings) it refers to the puns and cunning occurances and maltreatment of the words and twisted method of his devices. The devices like these can occur in Uzbek literature as well, in particular in short stories by A.Qahhor (in stories namely, "Thief", "The patient") and Said Ahmad (in stories like "Qorako'zmajnun" this refers to a utterances devoted to a dog and "Qochoq") The constant readers of this writer are lucky to be presented with variety of unprecedented and unexpected and unheard endings. The endings are typical of his writing. Here it would be fair to mention the endings of the short stories such as"The gift of the Magi" and "The Last leaf".They end with sudden churning and upheaval of events. The following offers analyses of the ending of this type. The main male and female characters of" The gift of the Magi" Jim and Della, recently married couples are troubled not to have enough money to buy gifts to their significant other, without any choices they have to sell their own most precious possessions for presents for their soul mates selflessly. Jim sold his valuable gold watch to buy comb for his sweetheart, while Della sold her beloved hair to buy gold chain for his valentine. This plot and attractive title maintain the interest and delight of the reader till the last line of the story. Furthermore, " The last leaf " also drags the attention of readers with not only the mind-blowing ending but also the thorough development of the plot. The story called "The last leaf" deals with a young woman Johnsy suffering from pneumonia who has lost her hope for the future feeling herself as nobody in the middle of the nothing. She firmly believes she is likely to die when the ivy vine outside her window loses its last leaf. The story puts every reader in hesitation whether the tree is helping by

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holding its last leaf resistently. It is not revealed that the last leaf was Behrman's great masterpiece-he painted the last leaf before the night it felluntil the last line. Hither to the ending the attention is kept undividedly and anxiously. These two are the one aspect of his literature, yet there are many factors that prove the uniqueness of his literature. They are the figurative and stylistic devices used abundantly
The figurative devices of several stories O. Henry Pleonasm refers to using more words than necessary to denote mere sense (From Latin word pleonasmus­ to be excessive) redundancy; Simile refers to the skill of comparison of something or somebody unlike by using words like or as (f.e cheeks like roses);Hyperbola is the device that exaggerates the elements of the descriptions beyond belief (f.e her face was yellow as gold); Repetition is a kind of device to emphasize the tension which includes the repetition of words more than once in a sentence or in a single utterance; Euphemism refers to a mild or pleasant phrase that is used instead ofone that is unpleasant or offensive (From Latin word euphemos-sounding good); Personification refers to the practice of representing a thing or idea as a person in literature. Here in the following you are presented with bunch of these devices in writings O.Henry. Her eyes were shining brightly, but her face had lost its color. (The gift of the Magi) Personification. Actually, she has lost brightness of her face but in the sentence the face is taken as the action performer. If a queen had lived in the rooms near theirs, Delia would washed her hair there the queen could see it. Delia knew her hair was more beautiful than any queen's jewel and gifts. (The gift of the Magi) Hyperbola. Here the physical beauty is exaggerated by words jewel and gift and say explicitly that the queen even could have been envious of her hair. Jim knew that no king had anything so valuable.(The gift of The Magi) Hyperbola. Here hyperbola deals with the same function as the previous example. The value of the item in Jim's possession is even more expensive than any other king's. So now Delia's beautiful hair fell about her, shining like a falling stream of brown water. It reached below her knee. it almost made itself into a dress for her. The gift of the Magi) Here the personification is really expressive along with the metaphor used (hair-dress), the writer allows the hair shine and act like stream of water. Oh, the next two hours seemed to fly. (The gift of the Magi) Here the personification is used to personify certain amount of time (two hours) to fly as living creature. With her short hair, she looked like a schoolboy.(The gift of the Magi) Here the hero is said to be alike to schoolboy. Similes can be based the quality, amount, the action. This simile is based on the quality (short) I look like a girl who sings and dances for money (The gift of the Magi)In this sentence the lyric hero

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says to be alike to a girl on the base of the performance that she does (sings and dances).
Then she heard his step in the hall and her face lost color for a moment. (The gift of the Magi) personification is used to personify the faceof girl.
He was as quite as a hunting dog when it is near a bird. (The gift of the Magi) Thewriter here uses simile based on quality (quiteness). The usage of the hunting dog serves to highlight the level of quality.
It was not anger, nor surprise, nor anything she had been ready for. (The gift of the Magi) Repetition as a stylistic device has a crucial role to emphasize the whole meanings of the sentence. Here the words not, nor, nor accounts for repetition.
You don't know what anice ­ what abeautiful nice gift I got for you (The gift of the Magi) Repetition here happens with usage of the word whattwice. It serves as the device that reveals the great delight of the hero.
Maybe the hairs of my head could be counted, but no one could ever count my love for you. (The gift of the Magi)Hyperbola can be explained with this very salient example. As all we know counting hair is hard to belief. One can never count his hair in reality. The infiniteness of the love of the hero is compared with the number of hair, even the amount of hair is overtaken by the rate of love he has. The gold seemed to shine softly as if with her own warm and loving spirit. (The gift of the Magi)Here we can analyze several examples of personification. Gold is item that can shine. But the qualities of shining processare like humans'. Warmness and love and spirit are characteristics of human transferred to the qualities of objects here.
His light green eyes looked out from a gray face on which there was still a little food. (Two Thanksgiving day gentlemen). Here the writer created a good example of personification. The write could have written as he looked out of...yet, he wrote as His green eyes looked...If he had written simply and directly the expressiveness would had been lost. And the writing wouldhad been of little value.
It seemed to him that his dinner had included all the turkey and all the other food in the whole world. (Two Thanksgiving day gentlemen) it is the utmost example of hyperbola. The action of sentence is far from reality, it can only be imagined. Here hyperbola gives a hint about the abundance of the dinner table. That was a thing that old gentlemen was trying to make into a tradition. (Two Thanksgiving day gentlemen) Here we can find pleonasm (Using more words than expected). The beginning of the sentence that was a thingis pleonasm. The function of pleonasm here to highlight the part of the sentence.
In order to build a tradition, we must do the same thing again and again for a long time. (Two Thanksgiving day gentlemen). Here Repetition with the word againservesto show the quantityof the action and the complaint about therepetition of the performance of the verb do.

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If you will come with me, my man, I will give you a dinner that will surely make your body as thankful as your mind. (Two thanksgiving day gentlemen).Here can be analyzed examples of two differentstylistic devices: Personification and simile. That the body is said to be identical to mind is simile. And Personification is built on the word thankful. Thankfulness is related to emotions of human.
His face was getting older every year, but his clothes were very clean and fresh. (Two Thanksgiving day gentlemen) Here the writer tried to soften the message by using softer words. It is called in literature as euphemism.
Suppose a painter had some painting materials for which he had not paid. Suppose he had no money. Suppose a man came to get the money. (The last leaf).Repetition of the verb supposeis never redundant. It carries special purpose of multiplying the reaction.
They discovered the same kind of art, the same kind of food, the same kind of clothes. (The last leaf). Repetition here emphasizes the monotonousness of items.
The cold breath of window had already touched it. (The last leaf).Here the stylistic device personification occurs relevantly. Personifications here are based on the words breath and touched. Taking breath is something typical of animated things, however the window have possessed the breath seemingly.
She said that she was afraid that Johnsy would indeed sail down, down like the leaf. (The last leaf). That fading of a person is expressed with the falling of leaf is simile. The repletion of the word downis for stress boom.
The most lonely thing in the world is soul when it is preparing to go on its far journey. The ties thatheld her to friendship and to earth were breaking, one by one.(The last leaf) It seems from this sentence the soul can head for travel leaving its shelter-body. Here it is personification carefully chosen.
His shoes and his clothes were wet and cold as cold as ice (The last leaf).It is easy tofind element of simile. The words like as, like, as though are the elements of simile.
But there was the red light of a fire, and a noise as if Cupid might be making his arrows.(Hearts and crosses) Here we can face very inherent way of building simile. It is the usage of obvious to all word Cupid(the angel of love) in an appopriate way. His action is inserted to express the case of the sky.
All above -mentioned devices proves that O. Henry is an expert at using more than one techniques simultaneously. This can only belong to few writers on the island of literature. Furthermore, he uses all the expressions to readers' surprise, unexpectedly. And for those who are learning the foreign language through literature the collections O.Henry serve as an exciting way. An extra bonus in learning a language is that stories are rooted in culture.(Judith Kay) These writings will always be the role-model writings for the upcoming new trends in literature.

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References: 1. "Short stories of O. Henry" "The gift of the Magi " page 1, "Two thanksgiving day gentlemen" page 7, "The last leaf" page 12, " The caliph, cupid and the clock" page 78 2. Current Garcia "A study of the short stories of O. Henry." 3. * "Discovering fiction" page XIX

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  .C.
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Legotina E. C. Togliatti State University Russian Federation, Tolyatti
COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL LAW CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY, ROBBERY AND EXTORTION AS CRIMES AGAINST
PROPERTY
The article analyzes the criminal law norms that characterize such crimes against property as robbery, robbery and extortion. The author also outlines the features of the qualification of these criminal acts.
Keywords: criminal liability, crime, robbery, extortion, robbery, objective and subjective signs of crimes.
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    162         ,    ,     ,        ,            .     ,            ,         115  112    .          162  ,    ,       .                ,         ,       ­   «»    162     111   [6].
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   .     ,            ,             .       ,  ,   .            ()             ,          .                ,   161, 162  163  .            .
 : 1.   44-959/2017      . 2.  ..,  .. : -   / .. , ..  //      . ­ 2014. ­  18. ­ . 187-190 3.  ..      :  : . . ... -/, 2006. ­ 24 . 4.    (   12.12.1993  ,      01.07.2020) ,          14.03.2020 N 1-,    4  2020  (    03.07.2020 N 445) //  -   http://www.pravo.gov.ru, 04.07.2020. 5.  ..   : . ­ .: , -, 2013. ­ 327 . 6.       ,   :        27  2002 .  29 ( .  23 2010 .  31) //     . ­ 2010. ­  12 7.       :       17  2015   56 //    . ­ 2015. ­  9 8.       :       17  2015   56 //    . ­ 2015. ­  9. 9.      13  1996 .  63 ­  (.  31.07.2020) //   . ­ 1996. ­  25. ­ . 2954

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10.  ..       //      . ­ 2016. ­  34. ­ . 216-220. 11.  ..       //    . ­ 2009. ­ 1 (10). ­ . 258. 12.  .. -   //    . ­ 2019. ­  4. ­ . 98102.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Malakhova E.Y. Tolyatti State University Russian Federation, Tolyatti
REGULATORY AND LEGAL REGULATION OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL SUPERVISION (CONTROL) IN THE SAMARA
REGION
Abstract: the article analyzes the legal regulation of state environmental supervision (control) in the Samara region. The author also outlines the features of environmental supervision in the Samara region.
Keywords: ecology, state environmental supervision, Constitution of the Russian Federation, Samara region, state power, state policy
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    22  2004 .  370:     30  2004 .  400 ( .  16.04.2015). ­ URL: http://www.pravo.gov.ru 4.  ..        - .         . ­ : -   . .. , 2018. 53 .

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 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Malkhasyan E.A. Russia, Sochi

FEATURES OF ASSESSING THE BUSINESS REPUTATION OF A HEALTH RESORT ORGANIZATION

Abstract: the article discusses the features of assessing the business reputation of the organization of the sanatorium and resort sphere; assessment methods and the main stages of building a business reputation management system for the organization of the sanatorium and resort sphere.
Key words: business reputation, organization of sanatorium-resort sphere, the evaluation of goodwill, the stages of building business reputation.

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 : 1.  . .   ;  - ., 2016. - 256 c. 2.  ..   :     / ..  //  . -- 2019. --  10-1 (24). -- . 126-128. 3.       ; LAP Lambert Academic Publishing - ., 2015. - 316 c. 4.  ..        / ..  //  . -- 2018. --  1 (9). -- . 394-399. 5.  .. ,       / ..  // : , , , . -- 2017. --  3. -- . 219­222.

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 796.09 92.02.21  ..
      
         
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Mamazhonova O.S. Department of Normal Physiology
Andijan State Medical Institute
RELATIONSHIP OF SECRETARY ACTIVITIES OF SALIVIAN AMYLASE AND GASTROMES IN HUMAN
Resume: The gastrointestinal tract is a single integral system, where the activities of the higher and lower departments are functionally interconnected. Salivary amylases, being at the beginning of the digestive system, subtly react with the amount and quality of secretions to the slightest shifts in the external and internal environment of the body.
Of particular interest is the study of the relationship in the activity of various organs and systems of the body under the action of various factors, among which a special place is occupied by functional activity.
Key words: salivary amylase, stomach.
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 : 1., .., , .., , .., , .,            // . . 2016. -. 32. - .8791. 2.  ..      //    . ­ 2019. ­  5-1. ­ . 4-6; 3., ..         // ,   . 2013. -  2. - .37 - 40. 4., JI.H.         //    .- 2014. 3. -- . 149 -- 153. 5.Holmes, M.C. Early life stress can programme our health // J. Neuroendocrinol. -2011. 13,  2. - P. 111-112. 6.Yil Sofia, Alvar, de Leon Sergio Ponde, Nenjivar, Marta, Robles-Diaz, Yuillermo, Romero, Yuadalupe, Garsia Escamilla, Rosa Maria. Niveles de alat  asat en una poblacion de donadores altruistas // Rev. invest, clin. 2008. - 40. - N3. - P. 271-275. 7.Yoshikazee, Kaji, Ariyoshe, Kyoko, Tsuda, Yasuo, Kanaya, Shozo, Fiejio, Takehiko, Kuwabara, Hizoshi // Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, and Occup. Physiol. 2009. -59. -N3. - P. 221-226.

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8.Zhu, J.X., Wu, X.Y., Owyang, C., Li ,Y. Intestinal serotonin acts as a paracrine substans to mediate vagal signal transmission evoked by luminal factors in the rat // J. Physiol. 2011. - 530,  3. - P.431 - 442.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Maripova G.Z. teacher
EFFECTIVE WAYS TO USE TEXT TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILLS
Abstract : There are teaching of integration of foreign language skills in this article. Different methods of using text for increasing of students' speaking skills are spoken. The process working with text and its results are defecated in this article.
Keywords: speaking skills, independent thinking, ability development, vocabulary development, grammar rules, creative thinking.

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www.iupr.ru 591

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     ,     -  ,                 ,           .             .
 : 1. .., .. .     .  . , 2012. 2. .  , .  , . .    (  -   ).-. "" , 2009 -160 .

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 004.02:004.5:004.9

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Maseeva M.K. Lecturer
Uzbek and Russian languages

USING THE MODULAR SYSTEM IN TEACHING RUSSIAN TO MEDICAL STUDENTS

Annotation: The article discusses the most effective methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language in a medical University. These are information technologies, game and communication methods, the method of teaching as an educational research, as well as the method of projects. These methods promote the acquisition of experience of independent solutions to various tasks: a personal and professional nature. The article highlights and studies in detail the main features and principles of project-oriented learning.
Keywords: Russian as a foreign language ( RKI), medical students, project method, project, project activity, project passport, information technology, business games, presentations.

                  ,          ,

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www.iupr.ru 595

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 : 1.  ..,  ..     .­ .:  , 1990.­ 268 . 2.  ..          // . . .­ 1986.­ 1.­. 31­38. 3.  ..   - ,     -   //       . 2016.  11. . 1208-1212

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Maxkamov D.I. Associate Professor Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan
Inoyatov Q. M. Associate Professor Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan Abdurazakov M.A.
Trainee-teacher

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Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan Uktamov S.M. Trainee-teacher
Namangan engineering-construction institute Uzbekistan, Namangan
MECHANOACTIVATION OF MINERAL POWDER INGREDIENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF
COMPOSITIONS FOR SEALING MASTICS AND ASPHALT CONCRETE COATINGS OF AUTOMOBILE ROADS
Abstract: The report presents the results of studies on the mechanical activation of mineral powder ingredients and their effect on the physical and mechanical properties of oligomer-bitumen compositions for sealing expansion joints and cracks in asphalt concrete pavements of roads, bridges and airfields.
Keywords: Composition, mineral powder ingredients, mechanical activation, sealing mastic, oligomer, bitumen, expansion joints, cracks, asphalt concrete.
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      ,                      ,  ,      -   ,        .
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 : 1.  . .  .       //:  «  . ­ 2012. 2. Sobirov A. B. et al. Study of composition and technology of highly filled composite polymeric materials for asphalt roads, which can be used in hot climates and increasing their operation life. European polymer congress in 2011 //XII congress of the specialized group of polymers.,//Congress program, june. ­ 2011. 3. Makhkamov Dilshod Ismatillayevich, Inoyatov Qaxramon Muydinovich, Abdurazakov Mirzokhid Abdurakhmonxujayevich, O'ktamov Sardor Makhmudjanovich. Use of mechanically activated components in road construction. An international multidisciplinary research journal //Vol. 10, issue 5, may 2020. p.1558-1566 India. 4. Negmatov, S., Inoyatov, K., Oblakulov, L., Bozorboyev, S., Sobirov, B., Rakhmonov, B., Lisenko, A. Research And Development Of Technologies Of Obtaining The Mechanically Activated Powder Based On Natural Ingredients And Dune Sand For Production Of Sealing Composite Cements And Composite Materials For Various Purposes //International Porous and Powder Materials Symposium and Exhibition, PPM. ­ 2013. ­ . 3-6. 5. Ergashev M., Mamajonov M., Kholmirzayev M. Automation and modulation of highways in gis software //    . ­ 2020. ­ . 5. ­ . 9-14.

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www.iupr.ru 607

6. Mukhammadyusuf Ergashev, Valisher Abdurakhimov //The use of basic gps stations, which are situated in Namangan, in the field of automobile roads // "  " 5(72) 2020.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_609 : 616.233-003.7-007.272-+616.31-053.36
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Mirzakarimova D.B., Ph.D. docent department of Infectious Diseases
Yusupova Sh.K., Ph.D. docent
department of Hospital Therapy and Endocrinology Bektashev I.B. student 6-year medical faculty
Andijan State Medical Institute Uzbekistan, Andijan

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www.iupr.ru 609

CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS IN INFECTIOUS CHILDREN (CITOMEGALOVIRUS)
Summary: The article is dedicated to the problem of acute bronchitis in children. The relevance of this problem is obvious: according to conservative estimates, more than 150 million cases of bronchiolitis are registered annually.713% of these cases require hospital treatment and 1-3%-hospitalization in an ICU. The most common etiologic factor is the virus-respiratory synsytial (the vast majority of cases-60-80%)cytomegalovirus, influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenovirus, coronavirus are also important agents. A number of factors can cause the evolution of bronchiolitis in 0-2 years-old children. Premature infants, children with bronchopulmonarydysplasia, bottle-fed children, and patients with congenital malformations and immunodeficiencies undergo bronchiolitis especially hard.
Key words: cytomegalovirus, influenza, cytomegalovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, radiograph, acute bronchiolitis.
.   -         ,         .       150    . 713%      1-3%     [2].    ,   3-4   100          1-2   100     [3].   -   ,  60-80%    -  [8].     , , , .        ,  ,  , ,  .          ,  ,      , .       ,   ( , , ,   ,  , ), ,   [7].
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5.   .    

   :  .2-

.  . 2013.452 .

6. American Akademy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Diagnosis and

Management of Bronchiolitis. Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis.

Pediatrics.2006.P.1774-1793.

7. Behrman R.E., Kliegman R.M., Nelson W.E. Textbook of pediatrics. 16 th

edition. London. Elsevier Saunders. 2000.

8. Hall W.J., Hall C.B. Chest.1979.V.76.4. P. 458.

9. Ralston S.L.,Lieberthal A.S.,Meissner H.C.,Alverson B.K.:American

Academy

of

Pediatrics.Clinical

Practice

Guideline:The

Diagnosis,Management,and Prevention of Bronchiolitis Pediatrics Vol.134 No.5

November 1. 2016.P. 1474-1502.

10. Ralston S.L.,Lieberthal A.S.,Meissner H.C.,Alverson B.K.:American

Academy

of

Pediatrics.Clinical

Practice

Guideline:The

Diagnosis,Management,and Prevention of Bronchiolitis Pediatrics Vol.134 No.5

November 1.2016.P.1474-1502.

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Misirov Sh.Sh. Associate Professor of «Natural Sciences» Academy of the Armed forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Turabov M.T. head of the cycle of the Department "Technical support"
Lieutenant Colonel
THE NEED TO USE SIMULATORS IN THE TRAINING OF MILITARY SPECIALISTS
Abstract: Based on the results of the analysis of world scientific information resources, the authors conclude that it is necessary to use simulators in the training of military specialists.
Keywords: training complex, military equipmen, training of cadets, military education, training of officers, computer training.
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   LOGOS Ltd     ,  -72, -90S, T-80U, T-62, T-55;   -3, -2, -60, -70, -80, -90.      .   

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 ,     .             .          ,    ,   ,   .          80%         .   ­   ,         (, ,   ) [4].
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 : 1. . . .   -    -      .//    . - 2019. -  3 (31). 2.       -2./. ., .. , .. , .. , .. , .. . - https://docplayer.ru/71403002. 1919. (  10.12.2019). 3.      .            [ ] ­  : http://www.ntutc.ru, . (  17.09.2019). 4. Computer Training Systems for Russians armored vehicles [ ] ­  : http://logos.mephi.ru, . (  10.10.2019). 5.  ..,  ..,  ..       . ­ : , 2017.
:     -  "        (-2)".

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: 10.01.03

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Muxanova M.G. Uzbek language teacher Academic Lyceum TashPMI

LIFE OF ABDULLAH KADIRI AND HIS WORKS

Annotation: This article examines the literary activity of A. Kadiri and his contribution to the genre of romanticism
Key words: A. Kadiri, works, literature, Uzbek literature, romanticism

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 : 1. , .     .  /  , . . . -- :  //  . -- 2014 2. https://arboblar.uz/ru/people/kadyri-abdulla 3. . :      . NAVOI.BIZ   . http://navoi.biz/news/2015-0410-538

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Nadirov D. Khakimov N.S. Department of Oncology and Medical Radiology Andijan State Medical Institute

STUDY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME BASED ON ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC DATA

Resume: The metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by the presence of tissue insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, primary arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as abdominal obesity and hyperuricemia in one patient, is not accidentally of great interest to researchers. The clinical lecture presents data on various variants of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its prevalence in the population. Diagnostic criteria for MS and an algorithm for examining patients are given.
Key words: metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; hyperinsulinemia; impaired glucose tolerance; arterial hypertension; dyslipidemia; obesity; hyperuricemia.

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www.iupr.ru 623

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  
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Ning Zingjing student 1 year master's degree Institute of Social and Humanitarian Education Moscow State Pedagogical University
Russia, Moscow
THE PRECARIOUS STATUS OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL STRATEGY
Abstract: At the same time as the operating environment of enterprises is rapidly changing, they are also putting forward financial strategies for sustainable development. This article first presents the financial concept of sustainable development and its theoretical basis, the meaning of financial strategy and the relationship between them, analyzes the fragile state of the financial strategy of an enterprise and offers basic ideas on how to build a sustainable financial strategy.
Key words: the financial concept of sustainable development and its theoretical basis
1.         .

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www.iupr.ru 626

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  
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, 
    
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Ning Zingjing student 1 year master's degree Institute of Social and Humanitarian Education Moscow State Pedagogical University
Russia, Moscow
STATE OF THE FINANCIAL STRATEGY OF MODERN ENTERPRISES
Abstract: Currently, the implementation of the strategy of sustainable development of corporate governance is the loudest slogan for enterprises. This article analyzes the current state of corporate finance strategies and proposes a selection of sustainable corporate finance strategies and funding guarantees. The strategy has a definite positive meaning.
The keywords: financial strategies and financing guarantees.
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www.iupr.ru 630

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65  ,  .         .   , 2010, (5): 39. 66 ,  .         .   , 2010, (5): 39. 67 Ren  .       [].  , 2006, (125): 104 ~ 105. [..]

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    ,           ,    DuPont       ,                       ,        P / E           .    ,        ,         ,   ,     ,               ;        ,               .
5.      
              ,     ,              .      .       ,                 .         .68
 : 1.  .       [ .    , 2004, (5): 77-78. [Z K]. 2.  ,  .          .   , 2010, (5): 39. 3.Ren  .       [].  , 2006, (125): 104 ~ 105. [..] 4.  .          [J.] Development Research, 2006, (11): 83-85.

68 .           [J.] Development Research, 2006, (11): 83-85.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_632  004.02:004.5:004.9
 .. 
    .. 
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:    ,               ,           ,      .              .
 : , , , , ,  .
Nurmatov H. V. assistant
department of forensic medicine Tojiboeva N.L. assistant
department of pathological physiology Usmonova S.O. assistant
department of pathological physiology

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Saidjonova F.L. assistant
department of pathological anatomy Andijan State Medical Institute
Babaeva G.L. assistant
at the department of languages Andijan Institute of Mechanical Engineering
Uzbekistan, Andijon
PREVENTION OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER
Summary: Our research has shown that VTE is one of the most serious complications in patients with oncopathology and determines the course of the disease, requires dynamic monitoring of hemodynamic parameters and timely administration of both pharmacological and mechanical means of preventing thrombosis. Preventing the development of VTE is one of the important steps to increase the survival rate of cancer patients.
Key words: thromboembolism, oncologists, prevention, autopsies, hypocoagulation, standard prevention.
 .     (American Society of Clinical Oncology, ASCO),                  ,     [1,2].
      ,   ,       ,      .    ,             61% ,          [9-11].    Clagett G.P., Reisch J.S. ,       ,    ,           ,    ( ) [12].         ,      .       

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www.iupr.ru 634

  (),    (dalteparin),  (enoxaparin),  (tinzaparin).         SCO    [5, 6].         40   5000   1    .            ,        .       (   30 /),  ,    <50     ( 70 )  .  ,           ,        [6].  ,    NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network)         (   30 /)   20 ,   2      [12].
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   ,       . I ­  (74 ),          (46 ),          .     , ,  ,       ,         ,                    -  .
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  .       120  ,   46           , 

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            .
  I                ,         .        , , .   (28 )       ,  .  6       . 3         .
    , ,         I                   (2±0,25  ),    - 3±0,4   .            ,   5±0,1    .  3±0,1        7±0,2           .     ,     3±0,25         7±0,2   -    .
          , ,  , , ,    - , - .
:  ,    ,        .              ,           ,      .              .
 : 1. Agnelli G., Bolis G., Capussotti L. et al. (2006) A clinical outcome-based prospective study on venous thromboembolism after cancer surgery: The RISTOS project. Ann. Surg., 243: 89-95. 2. Agnelli G., Berggvist D., Cohen A.T. (2005) Randomized clinical trial of postoperative fondaparinux versus perioperative dalteparin for prevention of

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venous thromboembolism in high-risk abdominal surgery. Br. J. Surg., 92: 1212-1220. 3. Agnelli G. (2008) A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study on nadroparin for prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: the PROTECHT study. Program and abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology; December 5­9; San Francisco, California. Abstract 6. 4. Alikhan R., Cohen A.T., Combe S. et al. (2003) Prevention of venous thromboembolism in medical patients with enoxaparin: a subgroup analysis of the MEDENOX study. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis, 14: 341-346. 5. Alikhan R., Cohen A.T., Combe S. et al. (2004) Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness: analysis of the MEDENOX Study. Arch Intern Med., 164: 963-968. 6. American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline: Recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2007; 25: 5490-5505. 7. Kakkar A.K., Levine M., Pinedo H.M. et al. (2003) Venous thrombosis in cancer patients: insights from the FRONTLINE survey. Oncologist, 8: 381­388. 8. Bennett C.L., Angelotta C., Bergqvist D. et al. (2002) Duration of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism with enoxaparin after surgery for cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 346: 975-980. 9. Bern M.M., Lokich J.J., Wallach S.R. et al. (1990) Very low doses of warfarin can prevent thrombosis in central venous catheters: a randomized prospective trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 112: 423-428. 10. Blom J.W., Doggen C.J., Osanto S., Rosendaal F.R. (2005) Malignancies, prothrombotic mutations, and risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA, 293: 715-722. 11. Chew H.K., Wun T., Harvey D.J. et al. (2007) Incidence of venous thromboembolism and impact on survival in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol., 25: 70-76. 12. Clagett G.P., Reisch J.S. (1988) Prevention of venous thromboembolism in general surgical patients: results of meta-analysis. Ann. Surg., 208: 227-240. 13. Efficacy and safety of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in elective cancer surgery: a double-blind randomized multicentre trial with venographic assessment -- ENOXACAN Study Group. Br. J. Surg. 1997; 84: 1099-1103.

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: 816.161.1:378

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Parpieva M.S. Russian language teacher
TSDI

METHODS OF TEACHING MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE CLASSES OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

Annotation: This article deals with the problems of studying medical terminology in the lessons of the Russian language
Key words: Terminology, medicine, language, Russian language, homonym, suffix, methodology

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"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 639

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 : 1.  ..       .:  «», 2007. 2.  ..   . ., 1985. 3.  ..   (- ). ., 1996. 4.  ..,  ..           //          :  19 . .-. . : , 2017

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 33

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, -

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:         ,        .      ,         .           .
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Pisareva A.V. student
Scientific adviser: Kolovangin P.M. SZIU RANEPA
Russia, Saint-Petersburg

ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY

Resume: The article presents the main reasons for the shadow economy of the EU countries, as well as the main indicators of the development of the shadow economy. The article also lists the main factors that contribute to the growth of the shadow economy and the degree of their influence. Measures to combat the expansion of the shadow economy in the European Union have also been identified.
Key words: shadow economy, shadow economy, structure of the shadow economy, personal income tax

     ,   .       ,                 ,      .

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www.iupr.ru 642

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                  [5].

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           35-52%.

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          ,      .
 : 1. Ured Directia Nationala Anticoruptie // [ ]. URL: http://www.pna.ro ( : 26.10.2020) 2.  .  .         . [.  . .. ]. .:   , 2012. 336 . 3.  ..,  ..,  .. -    .    . 2016.  1.  2. . 36-49. 4. World Economic Forum // [ ]. URL: https://www.weforum.org/ ( : 26.10.2020) 5.  ,  ..     :    :  / . , .. . :   «», 2019. 178  6. Schneider F. The Shadow Economy in Europe, 2020 // [Prognose zur Entwicklung der Schattenwirtschaft in Deutschland]. URL: http://www.iaw.edu/index.php/aktuelles-detail/902 ( : 26.10.2020)

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-657

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:      .   ,    ,  ,  .      - .          .
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Podskrebaylina E.A undergraduate
Of Rostov State University Of Economics (Rinh) Russia, Rostov-on-don

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF INVENTORY ACCOUNTING

Abstract: the article considers the problems of inventory accounting. Defines the complexity of accounting related to the abundance of suppliers, product names, and material values. The analysis of existing systems of inventory accounting is carried out. The article explores possible solutions to the above problems by implementing a computer program.
Keywords: inventory, accounting program, collective responsibility, accounting system, document management

                ,     , , , .                  .                ,     ,   [1].

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www.iupr.ru 648

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"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 649

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        ,   «»    .
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   ,   ,          .       ,      ,              [4,5].
 : 1. . . .   : . . ­ 8- ., .  . ­ . :  «», 2004. ­ 608 . 2. , . .,  . .,  . .  : . . ­ .: -, 2004. ­ 160 . 3. , . .   : . ­ . :-, 2003. ­ 304 . 4.  , . .  : . . ­ . :  «  », 2004. ­ 288 . 5.     «      » (   3.12.1998 .  562)

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www.iupr.ru 650

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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:    ..    ,      ,             .
 : ,  ,  

Polatov M. lecturer
Termez State University

INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES BY STUDYING THE OPTIMAL
SOLUTION OF SANDLESS CONCRETE COMPOSITION

Annotation: At the initiative of President Sh.M.Mirziyoyev, in the regions of our country that have the development and future of our state, many large-scale construction and construction works are being carried out with the involvement of large construction companies of the republic.
Keywords: companies, construction material, the height

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           ,        ,         .          .      ,    .    ,      

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                ,        .    :                         .                  (.1).

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 10-20  38,2%;  5:  5-10  70%;  10-20  30%;  ,               ,     4-  ,      ,     ,     . .
 : 1.  .    -: , 2011 . 107. 2. .    - 27006-86. 3.  ..,  ..     -:  . , 2013  147- 207. 4.  -:   7473-94. 5.  ..  .  . , 2006. 233 .

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 338.24.021.8

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Prilukov S.A. 2nd year master's Student
Vyatka state University Russia, Kirov Grishina E. N.
Department of economic Sciences associate Professor of Vyatka state agricultural Academy
Russia, Kirov

ECONOMIC STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN THE KIROV REGION

bstract: the article examines the current state of industrial enterprises in the Kirov region in modern economic conditions. The activity of individual industrial companies and their development prospects are considered.
Keywords: GDP, industrial production, industry.

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www.iupr.ru 655

.              [2].
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      .
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«».      «»              .
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 : 1., . .        /  . 2016.  4. C. 47-60. 2. ..             //   . 2017. 2 (88). 3.    . -2018 [ ] -  : https://fedpress.ru/article/2010026 4.  [ ] /      . ­  : www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/ rosstat/ru/statistics/enterprise/industrial

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 323.22/.28

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:          .  ,         ,     2019-2020 ,     - ,          .
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Rabadanov A.A. student of group GMU-1312 Ural Institute of Management - branch of RANEPA

THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Annotation: The article is devoted to the practical implementation of the national policy on the territory of the Russian Federation. In addition, the author described specific examples of national and interethnic events held in the territory in 2019-2020, as well as proposed recommendations of a socio-political nature that would reduce the potential for conflict of interethnic interaction in modern Russia.
Key words: national policy, national question, interethnic relations, national question, prevention of extremism.

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www.iupr.ru 661

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                 19.12.2012 .  1666 «          2025 » [2]      20.04.2014 .  259 «           » [3].      ,        ( )      ( ).
        ,                ,          .   ,    ,  ,    , .
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www.iupr.ru 662

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   ,         .
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 : 1.  1.    . [ ] URL: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm (  10.11.18).

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2.           2025 :     19  2012 .  1666.   .-  «». 3.            :     20  2014 .  259 ( .  24  2016 .).       .   .-  «».

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www.iupr.ru 665

: 13.00.02

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Rakhimova K.N. assistant professor Teacher of the Uzbek language at the Department of «Languages» Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers

EFFICIENCY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING THE UZBEK LANGUAGE BASED ON INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

Annotation: This article examines the place, role and effectiveness of the use of interactive technologies and tools in the study of the Uzbek language and literature.
Key words: Language, interactive technology, method, education, information, Uzbek language

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www.iupr.ru 666

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 : 1.  . .,  . .,  . ..  . .        : . . . , 2000. 2.  . .        

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   . // - «», 2006. 3.  . .     // XIV   -  «  ». , 2012.

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DOI 10.46566/2225-1545_2020_77_670  - 338
 ..      
     
        
:               .   -  -     .          .
 :   ,  ,  ,  ,  , ,  ,  .
Rakhmanov B.B. doctoral student of the Department of economic and social geography
of the faculty of geography and natural resources of NUUz
INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE OF TASHKENT ECONOMIC REGION
Abstract: The article considers the main and derived factors of formation and development of industry in the Tashkent economic region. It also describes the formation of the industrial industry in connection with the physical and economic-geographical features of the economic region. Data on the industrial and territorial structure of the economic region's industry are analyzed.
Key words: factors of production location, main factors, derivative factors, redundant factors, scarce factors, industry, industrial hub, production infrastructure.
.          

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www.iupr.ru 670

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71 -     / .. .. . ­ .  2013. - 107. 72  .. - . - . ­ .: , 1983. ­ 350 ., . 232

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www.iupr.ru 674

          ,     ,       ,  ,    ,   -   ,        ,    -     ,        .
 : 1.  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..,  ..       // Proceedings of the XXII International Scientic and Practical Conference International Trends in Science and Technology, February 28, 2020 Warsaw, Poland. .51-56. 2.  ..   . ­ : , . , 1986. ­ 304 c. 3.  ..,  ..         .  . ­ .: , 2005 ­ 173 c. 4.  ..  . . .: , 2014 ­ 404 c. 5.    .  . ­ .: , 2018. ­ 256 . 6.      7  2017   4947 «         2017-2021 ». 7. https://sez.gov.uz (-           ).

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www.iupr.ru 675

 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
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Rashidova M.A. 2nd year graduate student
Faculty of History Department of World History National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek
REPRESENTATION OF STATE AND POWER IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Annotation: This article presents an analysis of the state and power in the Ottoman Empire, which includes territories that had their own special state structure, administrative institutions, regular troops and diplomatic relations.
Key words: Ottoman Empire, power, territorial expansion, modernization, didactic treatises, Byzantine state.
  722      .       (1299-1923 )     .      ,          ,       .       60     ,          ,     - .      

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 676

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 : 1. .. :       .     2012.--111-115 2. ..  . . 3.    .:   , 1962. -- 591 .

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www.iupr.ru 679

 364.2 10.47.31

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.    ­              .   ­      ,     .
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Rossel A. S. Ural Institute of management - branch of Ranepa

MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF ORPHANAGES AND NURSING HOMES

Annotation. The aim of the presented work is to study the management of innovative transformation of social institutions using the example of orphanages and nursing homes. Research methodology - analysis of scientific literature on a given problem, as well as practical national experience.
Key words: transformation, innovation, social sphere, nursing homes, orphanages.

          ,     .           .          .      ,   ,   2025 .      60     14,9%.       ,         2025 .   28%.     2025 .      60      23,9%.         

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. . .  . - : . . -, 2017. - . 2. -. 12-16. 2. , . .    :     (    «  ») / . .  //   ,     : . . . /    .  ; - ,   .    . -. : , 2015. - . 1120. 3. , .      / . . . : . , 2014. - 232 . 4.                 29  2016 . - .  . -  : http://govemment.ru/info/25638/ 5. , . . :  , , ,     / . . . -. : .  «», 2014. - 520 . 6. , . .     -     / . . , . .  //  . -2017.> 2. - . 43-55. 7.                20152017 . - .  . -  : https://rosmintrud.rU/ministry/about/reports/2 8. , . .        / . .  //   :     . - 2015 - 2 (15). - . 96-102. 9. , . . -        / . .  //   -      . -2018. - . 9, . 1. - . 133-138. 10. , . .   / . .  //  . - 2017. - 11. - . 164-170. - DOI: 10.7868/S0132162517110186.

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www.iupr.ru 686

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .. 
      , . 
        :   
.             .        .
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Rustamova D.D. Associate Professor of the Andijan Institute of Agriculture and Agrotechnology Uzbekistan, the city of Andijan
ACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION ACTIVITIES AT THE CURRENT STAGE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Annotation. The article highlights the role of factors in the development of innovative activity at the present stage of economic development. The experience of developed countries in this area is also being studied.
Keywords. Innovation, innovation efficiency, country competitiveness, research management system, commercialization of research results.
             .    , «          XXI     ,          »73. ,   ,         ,    ,      - ,      
73  ..       .  : http:www.innovation.uz/docs/FORMINC_NIS.pdf

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www.iupr.ru 687

     .      
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  1992-2018 .                             (    ,  2018 . -   ),       -   .
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 ...»75.         ,         - .
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75 National Innovation systems: A corporative analysis / ed. by R. Nelson. N.Y.: /oxford University press, 1993. P-14. 76  .,  .,  .     . . : , 1997.

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    ...»82.       
    -  ()   ,   ,      .      ,  , , ,                   .        ,   ,       .
 : 1.  ..       .  : http:www.innovation.uz/docs/FORMINC_NIS.pdf 2.  .            .  : httpy/Uzsc[ence.uz/ru/linkpagesAiew/id/2. 3. National Innovation systems: A corporative analysis / ed. by R. Nelson. N.Y.: /oxford University press, 1993. - P-14. 4.  .,  .,  .     . . : , 1997. 5.  ..  ..     .    . - .: . - 1984. 6.  .            . uzscience.uz/ru/linkpages/view/id/2.   10.08.2016 7.  .,  .      ?//  . - 6. - 2010. - .28.

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: 10.02.20

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Sagatova Sh.B. TSDI, Uzbekistan

LANGUAGE GAME IN ARTISTIC TEXT: PROBLEMS OF INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION (ON THE MATERIAL OF
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE)

Annotation: This article examines a language game and examines the problems of translation of a speech game based on the novel by M. Yu. Lermontov "A Hero of Our Time" and its translations
Key words: Translation, artistic text, language game, game effect

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                   .           , , , , ,     .        

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 696

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               . , «   . .  "  "     ,         ».  . . , «     ,      ,      ,       ». ,  . .            . « »      ,           ,     .             . .  «  ».

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 697

                 -        ,    , , ,      .
1. «- » - "Yes, sir, exactly", "Yes, sir, I am" 2. «.   ;        - ".that night there was an alarm, and out we went to the front, half seas over" 2) ".very night there was an alarm. So, we showed up before the ranks on the gay side"  (  -) --     «», «»,      «»  «»  ,     .          "sir".      ,    , : 1. «... ()   » - black as coal, black as pitch 2. «.()   » - pale as a sheet, white as a sheet  «  »        .               «  »   .  .   .          "as black as coal",     .    .    ,   ,             . ,   «»   «»,        «», ,           .    «» .   .    ,   "love"      , ,  ,  ,    ("like"),  . ,      .  ,      -     ,     .          ,      ,        .

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 698

 :

1.  . .    [ ] / 

. . . . . V. URL: http://www.vgbelinsky.ru/texts/books/13-

5/titles/ ( : 30.09.2019).

2.  . .   . .: , 2015 

3.  . .   . .:  -

, 1998 

4.  . .   « » //

-







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  (. , 23-24  2018 .). , 2018 

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www.iupr.ru 699

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., ...  
  

      

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, .

Saidova S. M., Ph. D. associate Professor
Andijan agricultural Institute

AESTHETIC EDUCATION OF STUDENTS IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE LESSONS

Abstract: The article talks about the meaning and role of aesthetic education for young people, gives a definition of aesthetic education. It is mentioned that aesthetic education is a specific means of solving the education of a new person in a new society.
Key words: art, pleasure, nature, beauty, imagination, observation, aesthetics, education, natural science, discipline.

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          ,   .      ­  ,        .
       (     )  ,  

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 700

,            ­  .
..       .     ,         ,             .         ,     .           ,                     ,   .
         ,     ,         .
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                   .               ,   ,  «», «», «  «»»,»,   , ,   « »    « », «  », « », «  », « »  .. .
      ,           ,    ,    ,       .
           .             , ,     , 

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 701

         .
   ,       .       ,  , ,     , , ,     ­                   ,  ,   ,  .          ,      ,  ,     .
  ,     .
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     ,    ­   ,       .
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      .  :
1.  JI. .      . 2.    ,  308,1998, . 110-112.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 702

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., ...  
  
       
:     ,            ,      .
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Saidova S. M., Ph. D. associate Professor
Andijan agricultural Institute
THE MEANING OF PROVERBS AND SAYINGS IN THE STUDY OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Abstract: The article says that the study of proverbs and sayings will increase and expand students' knowledge of the world, will contribute to moral and aesthetic education.
Key words: proverbs, sayings, partisans, ditties, wealth, content.
                   .
              ,          ,     .
             ,   ;     ,    ­ , ,    .
       ,        ,          .
    ,  :

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 703

  ­      ,          ­      ,       ­     ,       ,  ­    ,   .

   : 1.      ,      . 2.   ,        . 3.      .

 : 1.    ,    . 2.    ­    . 3.   ,  ­ . 4.  ,    . 5.   ­  . 6.     .

  : 1.  ,  . 2.     ,     . 3.      . 4.     . 5.   ,  . 6.  ,   . 7.  ,    . 8.    .

        ,

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  , 

Ko'p so'zning o'zi yaxshi, So'zning



o'zi yaxshi

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Avvalo o'yla, keyin so'yla

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  ,   

Yaxshi so'z bilan ilonn inidan chikadi

     Yomon so'z bilan musulmon dinidan

chikadi

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     ,  

    .

        

.

 :

1. JI. .      .

2.    ,  308,1998, . 110-112.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 705

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., ...  
  
    
:   ,          .       ,          .
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Saidova S. M., Ph. D. associate Professor
Andijan agricultural Institute
QUESTIONS OF REGIONAL STUDIES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
Abstract: The article says that the linguistic and cultural direction provides intercultural ties and relationships between people. It is expedient to study texts with regional geographic information, in addition, the inclusion of regional geography in colloquial speech is of great importance.
Key words: country, linguistic and cultural, illustrations, dialogue, study, culture.
     ,       ­      .
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           ­   ,    .   ,        ,        «- »  .    ,       . ,     

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 706

 ,     , ..            .           ,  ,  ,  .            .  ..     : « ­   ».          ,         .
                . ,      .
      .     ,     ,         ,   ,     .      , ,        ,      .         (, ).          - , :       .
            ,    ,     .     «»  «».            ,     .         .
,        .    .     .
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        ,           ().           .        .

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 707

 : 1. JI. .      . 2.    ,  308,1998, . 110-112.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 708

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., ...  
  
       
:              .        ,     .
 : , , , , , , .
Saidova S. M., Ph. D. associate Professor
Andijan agricultural Institute
INTERESTING GAMES AND TASKS WHEN LEARNING RUSSIAN
Abstract: The article discusses the role of entertaining games and tasks of various kinds for the development of speech. Since all this will help to develop cognitive independence, individual capabilities and abilities of students.
Key words: game, terminology, plants, agriculture, flowers, trees, vegetables.
I  ­     .                 .  ,                     .
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     , ,          .     

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 709

 ,     .
1. : ,    «».      :   , ,  , .
 (, , , , ,   ..);   (, , , ,   ..);  (, , , , , ,   ..);  (, , , , ,   ..). 2.     «».              ,  ,  .    ,    .          -. , ,         .     .      .   23- .   ,        . 3.     .        ,   .   ,       . 4. -: 1.     (), 2.      (), 3.    (, ), 4. ,   (), 5.    « »? (), 6.     ? ( ), 7.    ? (  ), 8.      (, ), 9.   .( ), 10.      (), 11.   .(), 12.   .(),

5.     :

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www.iupr.ru 710

-

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6.    . :  

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1.  JI. .      .

2.    ,  308,1998, . 110-112.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 711

 006.015.5  .., ... 
  «     » , .   ..  
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:                 .  ,  ,             .         .    ,         .
 : ,  ,  ,  ,   .
Sekletova N.N., k.p. associate
FGOBU in "Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics» Russia, Samara Kuvaeva E.N. Art Teacher
FGOBU in "Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics» Russia, Samara Kondratev A.I. master's student
FGOBU in "Volga State University of Telecommunications

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www.iupr.ru 712

and Informatics» Russia, Samara
TESTING AS A KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT TOOL
Abstract: the article in the article focuses on ensuring that the assimilation of acquired knowledge is monitored in a remote format. The emphasis is on the fact that the creation of an objective system of assessment of the quality of knowledge is the main task in the field of education. Different attitudes on the part of teachers to the testing system are presented. Attention is drawn to the fact that the tests are a means of establishing feedback with students.
Keywords: testing, distance learning, quality of education, level of knowledge, assimilation of educational material.
CoViD -19        .         ,        ,          .    ,     ,        ,  .
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            .         .
         .     - .           .         .            .
      ,   ,       .             .        ,        .
      . -  ,   -           .[1]  

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www.iupr.ru 713

,               ,          .   ,              .
    ,          ,   ,       ,    ,            .[2]
   ,          .       ?      ?
       : ,   .[2]
     . -      ; -    ; -      ; -         ; -                .             ,     «»   .  -         ,       ,      .           ,      .  ,   ,         ,         .
 : 1.  .       [ ]: .  . ­  :

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 714

https://mel.fm/blog/viktoriya-kuznetsova/73604-o-vryedye-attyestatsiy-vobshchyeobrazovatyelnoy-shkolye, . ­ .  . 2.  ..      . [ ]: .  . ­  : https://nsportal.ru/shkola/raznoe/library/2012/08/19/test-kak-instrumentotsenivaniya-kachestva-znaniy, . ­ .  .

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 715

 004.02:004.5:004.9  .., . . 
  «   »    , .   ..  2       , .   :  ..
         
:                .
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Seliverstova N.I., candidate of social Sciences associate Professor of the Department of State and municipal
management Orenburg state University
Russia, Orenburg Arbatova M. I.
2nd year student Institute of management Orenburg state University
Russia, Orenburg research supervisor: Seliverstova N. I.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN STATE AUTHORITIES AND THE POPULATION AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL
Abstract: This article examines the modern model of legal regulation of interaction between state authorities and the population at the regional level.
Keywords: interaction, public authorities, population, legal regulation, legal gap.
        .     

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www.iupr.ru 716

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       ,      

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 717

          ,      « ».
                  ,       ,            ,                 ,        .
 ,                  24.10.2011  861 «      ,          ( )».          «      ()»,          .
                   ,         .     -    «»      , ,  - ,      -      .
    ,  ,   ,      .           29.12.2014  2769 «    »,            - ,        ,             .
          

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 718

     ,    ,          .
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"  " 10(77) 2020

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3     24.10.2011 N 861 (.  18.11.2019)

«    ,

      

  ( )» [ ] ­

 : http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_120963/

4     29.12.2014 N 2769- (. 

18.10.2018) «    »

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:

http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_173678/

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  . ., . . 
  «   »    , .   ..  2       , .   :  ..
         

:               .
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Seliverstova N.I., candidate of social Sciences associate Professor of the Department of State and municipal
management Orenburg state University
Russia, Orenburg Arbatova M. I.
2nd year student Institute of management Orenburg state University
Russia, Orenburg research supervisor: Seliverstova N. I.
MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF INTERACTION OF STATE AUTHORITIES WITH THE POPULATION
Abstract: this article examines the possibility of applying innovations in the sphere of interaction between public authorities and the population on the example.
Keywords: innovations, interaction, interaction of state authorities and the population, legal regulation, legal gap.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 721

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       :   (. 22);   (. 23);    ,     ,     ,       ,    (. 24);   (. 25);            ,    ,      ,   .
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"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 724

4 , ..         / .. . ­ :   . 2017.  1 (20). . 35. 5 , ..         //      / .. . ­ : -, 2017. ­ 135 . 6 , ..    / ... ­ .: .  «», 2016. ­ 315 . 7 , ..     :      / . . . ­ : , 2017. ­ 200 . 8 , ..     / . . . ­ : , 2016. ­ 300 .

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 725

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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:          «  ».            .
 : , , ,  , 

Semyonov A.

THE WORK INCENTIVES OF EMPLOYEES DISTANCE POWER SUPPLY RUSSIAN RAILWAYS

Annotation: This article is devoted to the study of the organization of labor incentives for employees of the Chita Energy Supply Distance enterprise. The analysis of the dynamics of the main indicators of the use of personnel of the organization and factors of labor stimulation.
Keyworlds: stimulation, personnel, motivation, payment of labor, remuneration

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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2019.  36449 .             1848 .  5%.
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 : 1.          : . . / .. , .. , ..   . - .:  «-      », 2017. 238 . 2.      12.07. 2019 .   06/22.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 731

 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
    , . 
         
:          
 :    , ,  , .
Serova A. S. Tolyatti state University Russian Federation, Tolyatti
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REFORM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: the article analyzes the main directions of value-added tax reform Keywords: value added tax, administration, legal administration, tax.
   ( - )   . 57,        [1].
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      9172/12 [6]         ,  

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 : 1.    (   12.12.1993  ,      01.07.2020) ,          14.03.2020 N 1-,    4  2020  (    03.07.2020 N 445) //  -   http://www.pravo.gov.ru, 04.07.2020. 2.     ( ):    31.07.1998  146- //     03.08.1998  31 . 3824 3.     ( ):    05.08.2000 N 117- (.  01.05.2019) //     07.08.2000  32 . 3340 4.      ,        -  1  2015 :      8  2015 .  -4­3/5880 5.               :

"  " 10(77) 2020

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   28  2013 . N 134- (. 29.07.2017) //      1  2013 .  26 . 3207 6.     27.08.2012  -9172/12    4065914/11-99-293 7.             :   03.08.2018  303- (.  30.10.2018) //  . - 2018. - 32( I). - . 5096. 8.         :         03.07.2018  03-07-11/45885 9.             :    -     13.01.2012  03-07-11/08 //    . 2012. - 5. 10.          :         05.02.2018  03-03-06/1/6340 11.   -             :         05.06.2018  03-0709/38397 12.           :        23.01.2017  03-07-11/2832 13.        -,             :         30.12.2014  03-07-11/68585 14.            ,   01.01.2019:          10.09.2018  03-07- 11/64576 15.       , ,       :  05.04.2013  44- (. 12.05.2019)//   . - 2013. - 14. - . 1652. 16.     ,                     ,           ,  

"  " 10(77) 2020

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             :     19.12.2013  1186 (.  19.05.2015) 17.         01.01.2019 :     10.09.2018  4-3/17537 18.      31.08.2009  40/6905-09    40-33682/08-129-108 19.   -   04.07.2012    27-12527/2011 20.       22.03.2012   82-11474/2011

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 739

 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
  2      
   , . 
         :
 
:         .      ,            .
 :  ,   ,  , ,  .
Sidorova O. V. 2nd year master's student Department of state and municipal administration Orenburg state University
Russia, Orenburg
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE STATE SOCIAL POLICY IN THE SPHERE OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT: SOCIAL ASPECT
Annotation: The article is devoted to the topic of innovative technologies in the field of youth employment. The current situation in the social sphere of Russia is largely determined by the social policy of the state.
Keywords: youth employment, state social policy, youth policy, innovation, innovative technologies.
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         . ,           ,  

"  " 10(77) 2020

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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              ,         ,         -.
 : 1   :    12  1993  //  [ ]. ­  : http://www.consultant.ru 2 , . .  .      :  / . . . ­  : -, 2019. ­ 544 c. 3 , . .       : -  / . . . ­  : -, 2017. ­ 182 . 4 . . .        / . . . ­  : , 2016. ­ 175 . 5 , . .  -      :      / . . . ­  : , 2015. ­ 180 . 6 , . .   / . . . ­  : , 2015. ­ 212 . 7 , . .     / . . , . . , . . . ­  :   , 2016. ­ 556 c. 8 , . .      / . . . ­ : , 2016. ­ 158 . 9     29.11.2014 N 2403- «           2025 ». ­   : http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420237592 10         2025 . ­  : http://www.vmo.rgub.ru/files/project-937-2.pdf

"  " 10(77) 2020

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 01

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        «»

:             «».   .  ,   .    ,    .
 . , , , , , , ,  ,  .

Sogomonyan M.R. master's student
of the Department of personnel management Zabaykalsky state University

MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION OF THE STAFF OF THE STATE CADASTRAL ASSESSMENT DEPARTMENT
"ZABGEOINFORMTSENTR"

Annotation: The article explores the concept of employee adaptation using the example of the department of state cadastral assessment "ZabGeoInforCenter". Definitions of adaptation are considered. The functions performing the adaptation process are considered. The work presents the stages contained in the adaptation system.
Keyword. Adaptation, personnel, institution, efficiency, motivation, mentoring, certification, adaptation program, adaptation management.

       ,    .        ­  ,     ,      .           ,           .

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 753

        .  ­           ,         .
. .                    . [1]
          ,       :
1.    ; 2.      ; 3.      ; 4.    ; 5.  ; 6.   ; 7.         .     . -,  ,          .         ,       . -,   ,        ,     .   ,      .                   ( ­ )    " - ".     03.07.2016 . 237- «   »,    1  2017 ,         ,     ,  ,  " - " ( ­).              ,       22 .

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www.iupr.ru 754

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www.iupr.ru 755

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 : 1.   «   »  03.07.2016 237-. 2. , . .   9- ., . ­ .: , 2011. ­ 224. 3.  .       . //  . ­ 2014. - 3. ­ . 82-86. 4.  . .      / .. , .. . ­ .: , 2013. ­ 315.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 756

 591.816, 530.1, 316

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:            ,         .
 :   ,  , , , .

Soloviev A. S. Russia, Rostov-on-don

BASIC METRIC IDENTITY ON BINARY CORRESPONDENCES IN THE CLIFFORD ALGEBRA

Abstract: a connection is established between metric relations based on the Clifford algebra and elements of quantum mechanics, which are proposed to solve the problem in the theory of statistical indices.
Keywords: basic metric identity, average values, measure, quality, quantity.

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(2)

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() =  = 2 = (  ) + ().

(3)

"  " 10(77) 2020

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(9)

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  = .

(10)

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  y  Mx,    z Zx 

   (),    

22 = 2 + 2.

(11)

     = 2    =  

 = .     Az   

"  " 10(77) 2020

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 = (A2 + B2),  = ei,  =   , 0    2, (14)


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www.iupr.ru 759

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1.  ..      //.,

, 1989.

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3.  .       //.,

  , 1990.

4.  ..      . .: ,

2011.

5.  ..       //

, 2018, . 25, 7, . 23-30.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 760

: 311.14, 530.145

 .. , . --

      

:                     .
 :   ,  ,  ,  , , .

Soloviev A. S. Russia, Rostov-on-don

A BASIC METRIC IDENTITY IN THE THEORY OF INDEX STATISTICS

Abstract: we propose a theory for constructing statistical indices based on the evaluation of the action in phase space with the wave interpretation of the state of the observed on the example of the Laspeyres index.
Keywords: basic metric identity, average values, measure, quality, quantity.

                 [1, . 15],   ,     ()      ,        ,        , ..            ,      .
 ­        x1  x2        X      ,       .       , ,      ,      x = 1x1 + 2x2 (1, 2 ­  ),           [2].

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 761

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 763

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    .

 :

1.  ..    //., 2007.

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  , 1990.

4.  ..      . .: ,

2011.

5.  ..       //

, 2018, . 25, 7, . 23-30.

6.  ..     

    //"  ", 10(77),

2020.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 764

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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      "" .   ..
  . -18    
  "" . 

      ( 
 «»)

:        «»,   ,   .        ,          ,    ,    ,        .
 : , , ,  ,  ,   ,   .

Stelmashenko O.V. Associate Professor of the Department of Human Resources Management
Faculty of Economics and Management, ZabGU Chita
Astrakhantseva I.V. Magistrate of UPmz-18 group Faculty of Economics and Management, ZabGU
Chita

FEATURES OF THE MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEM OF A MODERN RUSSIAN ORGANIZATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE «ROSDENGI» COMPANY)

The article discusses the system of personnel motivation of the company "RosDengi", analyzes it, describes the methods used. As a result of the study of

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 765

the organization's motivation system, it was revealed that the company's management uses traditional methods of motivating and stimulating employees, providing comfortable working conditions, striving to form a team of like-minded people, and taking care of the leisure of its employees outside of working hours.
Keywords: personnel, motivation, organization, team work, motivation methods, economic methods of motivation, moral and psychological methods of motivation.
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1.  ..  :   /.. .  :  «», 2016 .  . 372. 2.  ..  :       :   / .. . : -, 2008 .  . 138.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 766

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3.  ..    [ ].   :http://www.lib.tpu.ru/fulltext/c/2014/C47/V2/101.pdf (  07.09.2020).

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 767

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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   ,    

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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 004.02:004.5:004.9

 ..   " "
      "" .   ..
  . -18    
  "" . 

         «»

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 :  , ,  ,  , , , «», .

Stelmashenko O.V. Associate Professor of the Department of Human Resources Management
Faculty of Economics and Management ZabGU Chita
Astrakhantseva I.V. Magistrate of UPmz-18 group Faculty of Economics and Management
ZabGU Chita

ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPANY'S PERSONNEL ON THE EXAMPLE OF CERTIFICATION OF INSTALLERS OF THE WINDOW
PLANT «ALUKOM»

This article describes the procedure for certification of installers of the window plant «Alukom», describes its stages, analyzes the effectiveness, reveals positive and negative aspects. The authors present the results of assessing the quality of the work of the company "Alukom" by the clients of the organization.

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 771

Keywords: personnel assessment, certification, stages of certification, certification tasks, employees, installers, Alukom, glass structures.
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1.  ..    :   / .. .  -: , 2009 .  . 10.

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www.iupr.ru 772

  200 , 30  (15%)      .            ,     2017           6  (20 %),  (80 %)     (. 1).              .

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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6. , . .   / . . . --  :  //  . -- 2019. --  39 (277). -- . 44-46. 7. «» [ ] /    Enin_V.   : https://sunwindows.ru/ (   01.10.2020).

"  " 10(77) 2020

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 004.031.2

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Suleymanova Sh.A. assistant
Tashkent state technical University named after Islam Karimov

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF
ENTERPRISES

Abstract: The main reasons leading to the decline in productivity and bankruptcy of industrial enterprises are given. These include: moral and physical condition, high power consumption; low intellectual level of workers and employees; incomplete automation, equipment, their decentralized control, etc. The necessary tasks to be solved leading to an increase in the productivity of industrial enterprises are given: providing industrial enterprises with modern automated intelligent equipment, information telecommunication systems, with a central dispatch center, etc. Instead, the necessity of applying the innovative international standard MRP / ERP system, dedicated to the planning of

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 777

production processes, is given, the functions and advantages of the systems included in these systems are given
Keywords: Corporation, System, Management, Productivity, Centralization, Intelligent system, MRP system, ERP system, Productivity, Quality.
 .                     .
     2035 ,     .. ,   ,       50     .      ,       .
           ,     . ,            .         -   .  ;   ;     ;         ;  ,         .
  .         :       ;           ;  microEXM,       ,        ;   ,       ;     -,      , ,  ,  .          , , -    MRR / ERR;   MRR / ERR    . .     

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 778

           MRP / ERP.      :[4.46-48] MPS (Master Planning Scheduling)   ; MRP (Material Requirement Planning) -      ; MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning) -   ; ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) -    : CSRP (Customer Synchronized Resource Planning)   ,   ; ERP II (Enterprise Resource and Relationship Processing)        [3.C215-216,4.46-48,]
            ,         .
     ,       ,       ,   ERP,       mySAP ERP, MySAP All-in-One SAP BusinessOne  SAP AG  Oracle EBusiness Suite, JD Edwards  PeopleSoft Enterprise  Oracle.          (SMB)   Microsoft   Microsoft Dynamics AX (Axapta)  NAV (Navision).       infor:COM, MAX+, SSA ERP LN (Baan)  SyteLine   Infor..
    ,   ERP    ERP,   SAP ERP,  SAP All-in One  SAP Business One,  SAP AG  Oracle EBusiness Svlte, SD Edwards  People Soft Enterprise Oracle.        Microsoft   Microsoft Dynamics AX (Axapta)  NAV (Navision).
  MRP   Bill Of Material (BOM),    ,         , ,   ..    ( )  .       ,            .      , MRP  , « »   ,        .     , BOM 

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www.iupr.ru 779

   MRP                     ,        MRPII.
  ,               ,      ,   ,   ,  ,      .
        ,      () .     , ,  ,      .              .    ,               ,     .
    ,          ,  ,     .    MRP II .
 MRP/ERP      (ERP ­)  .   ,     ERP-  ,              17 %,         7 %,       30%      60%.
.     ,      .             MRP II,            KMC, ERP, CSRP  ERP II.        .
 : 1. ..      MRP II. 2- . ­. 2005. 2. ..,  ..,  ..,  ..   .    . ­. 2012. 3. ..,  ..,  ..     . . ­. 2019.

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www.iupr.ru 780

 53

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 -18   
, 

   

:         ,  , .              .                  .   ,         ,    ,              .           ,       ,     .                    .
 : , ,  , , .

Surzhitskaya L.I. master's student 2nd year Zabaikalsky state University
Russia, Chita

PLACE OF STAFF ASSESSMENT AND CERTIFICATION

Abstract: The article considers the essence and description of the need for personnel certification, its essence, types. The main task of the company's management is to evaluate the effectiveness of the staff and determine the prospects for its development. The novelty of the chosen topic is due to the growing awareness of the value of human resources in the organization and the need for intensive work with personnel. It is quite rightly noted that labor resources play a primary role in the production process, it depends on them how

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 781

effectively the means of production are used at the enterprise and how successfully the enterprise as a whole operates. In this regard, there is a need to conduct a comprehensive certification of personnel, which allows you to determine the level of compliance with the position, possession of the necessary knowledge and skills. Modern theory and practice of human resource management has a wide range of methods for assessing the employee's compliance with the position and performance of the staff.
Key words: certification, assessment, human resources strategy, the procedure, the potential.

     

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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        ,    ,                .   ,          ,   ,            .                        .  ,   ,             [1,.86].
        ,            .       

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 783

    ,       [33,.29].
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        ;
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"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 784

 ,      ,     .    ,   ,       .                   .         .       ,       .   ,   ,       ,  ,      [22,.34].
               - ,               .                  [28,.29].
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            .   ,           .             ,      ,         ,       .          

"  " 10(77) 2020

www.iupr.ru 785

    ,      - .
 : 1.  .,  / . .  ­ : , 2014. ­ 583 . 2.  ..   ,     -                .   / .. .  - : , 2013. ­ 327 . 3.  ..   : . . / .. .­ :  , -  , 2012. - 71-72 . 4.  ..   . -  2, ./ .. . -- :      - XXI , 2012. ­ 316 . 5.  ..   . / .. . - , , 2011. ­ 228 . 6.   .           :   //    . ­ 2015. - 4. ­ 16 . 7.   ..                  //   : ,       /  . .. . ­ , 2015. ­ . 35 ­ 38. 8.  . . :     -  : . . / .. . - , 2012. ­ 96 . 9.  . .    :       / .. .  - : , 2012. ­ 496 . 10.   ..   . , 2013.. ­ 502 . 11.   ..             .         , 2013 .,  2. ­ 10 . 12.   ..         //

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        . ­ 2014. -6. ­ 65 . 13.  .  . / .. .­ : -, 2012. ­15 . 14.   .. .   . / .. . - : , 2012. ­ 69 . 15.  ..,  ..,   .. : . . . - : -, 2012.662 . 16.  ..      :         .  2-  . ­ 5-  ., . ­ : , 2013. ­ 99 . 17.  ..  :    ./ .. . - ._.: «. », 2014, ­ 45 . 18.  .,  .             . //        , 2015.,  2. ­ 15 . 19.   ..              (1992-1999 ): , , . / .. . - , , 2016. ­ 58 . 20.   . . ,   . . ,   . .    . .: , 2012, ­ 11 . 21.  ..   :    . ­ 5-. ..   . .-: . 2014. - 720 . 22.  ..       :    ./ .. .-- ., 2013.-- 96 . 23.   ., Assessment Centers ­      //   . 12.01.2015. ­ 20 . 24.  ..   . / .. . , 2012. ­ 118 . 25.  ..,  ..         . / .. . - : , - 2015. ­ 315 . 26.   ..         ./ .. . - : -  , 2014. ­76 .

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27.  .., . . .      . / .. . ­ , 2011. ­ 113 . 28. Kotler F. Fundamentals of marketing. / F. Kotler. - Moscow, 2012. -534 p. 29. Krasnostanova organizations M. B. Assessment Center for indicators of managers. Experience in implementation of results in the Russian reporting of the company, exercises and case studies./ M. B. Krasnoshtanova.- Moscow, 2014. ­ 58 p. 30. Litvintseva, H. A. psychological activities tests for indicators of business changes in people. / N. A. Litvintseva. - Moscow, 1996­ 85 p. 31. Maslov E. V. Management activities with personnel of the enterprise": Teaching activities manual/Under. edited by P. V. Helicova.- M.: Infra organizations - M; Novosibirsk: 2015. ­ 79 p. 32. Shekshnya S. V. personnel management of a modern organization / S. V. shekshnya.­ Moscow: 2015. ­ 355 p. 33. Shlender P. E. personnel management: Textbook. / P. E. Shlender.-Moscow: UNITY, 2014. ­ 320 p.

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www.iupr.ru 788

 334.021

 ..      
, . 

         

:            ,     .
 :  ,  ,   .

Surkova N.A. Master's student Togliatti State University Russia, Togliatti

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUSINESS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Resume: The article examines the directions of the development of the system of state support for small business in the Russian Federation, and also provides statistical data.
Key words: small business, state support, development of small business.

            .               .         ,                ,     .       ,           ,    .        ,         .   1     

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www.iupr.ru 789

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"  " 10(77) 2020

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     , :  ;   ,     ;      ;  ;     ;   ;      ;    ;     .                 .
 ,  ,    ,           .  ,   ,       ,     ,  - .         .
 : 1. , ..      []/ , . // . 2016. 2 (72). -  : https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/aktualnye-voprosyfinansirovaniya-malogo-predprinimatelstva. 2. , ..        [] /, .., , . . //    .  .  . 2018. 1 (7). [ ].  : https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-gosudarstvennoy-podderzhk. 3.       [ ]. ­  : https://rosstat.gov.ru/

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 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
    , . 
  -   
: -        ,   ,     -      ,     ,    .
 : , -,  ,  , .
Surkova D.A. Tolyatti State University Russian Federation, Tolyatti
IMPROVING INTERNET MARKETING AT THE ENTERPRISE
Abstract: Internet marketing allows you to reduce the cost of advertising and staff who are engaged in sales, and with the help of the Internet marketing service, you can easily monitor the company's activities, identify weaknesses and strengths, and quickly make decisions.
Keywords: marketing, Internet marketing, social networks, corporate website, promotion.
       ,      .                ,   ,     .         -,         .  ,  ,  ,    ,          ,            ,                  ,     

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   IT.     .            ,           ,     ,     (SEO),   (SEM), -,  ,  ,  ,    ,    ,    ,    ,     ,  ,  , ,       .
-                         [1].
                                    ,   .
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,    ,     ,   Facebook, YouTube, ,    . .        ,           ,   ,   .
     -   ,         .       , 

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          ,       .
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             ,

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 ,       ,   ,         .  ,                [4].
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 : 1)  . . -.    . ­ . : , 2018. ­ 114 . 2)  . .     ,      : .-. . ­ . :   , 2019. ­ 224 . 3)  . .      : Novainfo.ru. ­ 2020. ­ . 17. ­ . 148­151. 4)  .      / . . ­ .:  , 2019. 5)  . .   -:       . ­  :    , 2019. ­ 102 .

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 616.329-089.168.1-071.1  ..
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:       .         ,          - .
                 : ,   - ,   ,     .
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Suyunov D.M. Madazimov M.M. Department of Faculty and Hospital Surgery Andijan State Medical Institute
PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC TACTICS FOR BILIARY PANCREATITIS IN ELDERLY
Resume: The problem of pancreatitis in the elderly is discussed. The aging process inevitably affects the course of pancreatic diseases, modifies their clinical picture and therapeutic approaches in the older age group.
Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis in the elderly is a complex problem due to a number of additional circumstances: polymorbidity, changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs, atypical course of the disease, the need to avoid polypharmacy, etc.

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The article reveals the features of an elderly patient, the knowledge of which ensures the timely diagnosis and adequacy of treatment, avoids complications and improves the quality of life of patients.
Key words: advanced age, biliary pancreatitis, pancreas.
.                  ,   ,  2025 .  15 %    [6].      60   16 % [2].              .          (-, , ),   ­  ,      .     ­  ,   ,     60 .
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        20%    10    50% -  20 ,    11,9%. 15­20%     ,     ,  --        [10].

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                ,         [1].  60%       [8].  ,          ,  .
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   .     , ,     .   ­ ,     .   ­         -    .
     12,7%,  ­ 87,3%;       13,7%  86,3% .        51­70  (  ­ 51,4%,   ­ 57,3%).   60      39,7%,   ­ 45,6%.     70      11,7%,  ­ 15,2%.
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 -,    .     -  7 .
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            ,     .
            40 % ,    25 %.         ­  19  100 %.
                 : ,    ,   ,     .      -     ,  -      .
 : 1.  ..       //       »: . . . -- -, 2010. -- . 62-64. 2.  ..       // . . . -- 2009. --  3 (5). -- . 1-8. 3. De Waele B., Wanmiero B. et al. Impact of bode overweight and class, I, II and III obesity on the out come of acute biliary pancreatitis // Pancreas. -- 2006. -- Vol. 32. -- P. 343-345. 4. Fracchia M., Pellegrino S., Secreto P. et al. Billiary lipid composition in cholesterol micrilitiasis // Gut. -- 2001. -- Vol. 48. -- P. 702-706. 5. Harodt P.D., Betz L., Kraus A. et al. Pathological pancreatic exocrine function and duct morphology in patients with cholelitiasis // Dig. Dis. Sci. -- 2001. -- Vol. 46. -- P. 53-56. 6. Makary M.A., Dunsan M.D., Hanon P.D. et al. The role of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the management of patients with gallstone pancreatitis // Ann. Surg. -- 2005. -- Vol. 241. -- P. 119-124. 7. Pauletzki J., Althaus R.. Holl J. et al.              // Gastroenterology. -- 1996. -- Vol. 111. -- P. 765-771. 8. Sumita R., Sugiura N., Abe A. et al. Lomg-term evaluation of extracorporal shjsk-wavel inthotripsy for cyjlesterol gallstones // J.Gastrornterol. Hepatol.-2001. -- Vol. 16. -- P. 93-99. 9. Testoni H.A., Caporuscio S., Bagnolo F. et al. Idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis: Long-term results after ERCP, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or ursodeoxycyolic acid treatment // Am. J. Gastroenrerol. -- 2000. -- Vol. 95. -- P. 1702-1707. 10. Veneman N.G., Buskens E., Besselink M.G.H. et al. Small gallstones are associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis: Potential benefits of prophylactic cholecystectomy? // Am. J. Gastroenterol. -- 2005. -- Vol. 100. -- P. 2540-2550.

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11. Tomida S., Abei M, Yamaguvhi T. et al. Long-term ursodeoxycholic acid therapy is associated with reduced risk of biliary pain and acute cholecystitis in patients with gallbladder stones: a cohort analysis // Hepatology -- 1999. -- Vol. 30. -- P. 6-13.

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 379.85

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Tohirova D.M. student
of Samarkand state institute of foreign languages Ismoiljonova N.E. student
of Uzbekistan state world languages university Nosirov B.G., Magistr
of the National University of Uzbekistan

TOURISM IN UZBEKISTAN

Abstract: the following article discusses the development of tourism in Uzbekistan.
Keyword: Culture, Museum, Uzbektourism, tourist product, WTO, UN, UNESCO

  ,       ,    ,   . ,      , ,   ,      , ,   ,       .          «».     

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www.iupr.ru 804

 «    «»  27  1992   -447.
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8  1995         «   ».        ,     .
 1998        «     »  346,     .
            ,         ,          , 15  1999        «          2005 ».      

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     ,           .
            .   :
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   () ­        .    1975    .    .  ­     ,             ,      .   ­ ,  «-      »,        , , , .     «».        .
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-       .  ,   : , , , .  ­  ,       2 .   4     .         .     « ».

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www.iupr.ru 806

 : 1. Ellis, A., Park, E., Kim, S., & Yeoman, I. (2018). What is tourism? Tourism Management, 68, 250- 263. 2. Hennion, A. (2007). Those things that hold us together: Taste and sociology. Cultural Sociology, 1 (1), 97­114. 3. Hogg, M.K., Banister, E.N., & Stephenson, C.A. (2009). Mapping symbolic (anti-) consumption. Journal of Business Research, 62, 148-159. Jafari, A., Taheri, B., &vom Lehn, D. (2013). Cultural consumption, interactive sociality, and the museum. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (15-16), 17291752.

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 334.7  ..,    
         , .   ..   2   «»    , . 
        
:        ,     .      ,           
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Troyanskaya M.A., doctor of Economics associate Professor
head of the Department of state and municipal administration Orenburg state University Russia, Orenburg Savinkova A.V. 2nd year master's student faculty "Sala» Orenburg state University Russia, Orenburg
MODERN PROBLEMS OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AND WAYS TO SOLVE THEM
Annotation: The article is devoted to the study of issues and problems of small business that impede the development of business in Russia. The relevance of the topic of this article is due to the fact that the development of small business requires the development of comprehensive state support for small business.
Keywords: state support, taxation, economics, entrepreneurship, small business.

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www.iupr.ru 808

     .                  .  ,                 .
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   2020,      ­      .         ,       :              .
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            ,          .           :

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www.iupr.ru 809

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www.iupr.ru 810

     . -  ,     , ,  .
 ,          ,       .          ,   .   ,        ,     -   .
        ,            - .   ,        ,        .
 : 1   «        »  24.07.2007 N 209-. ­   : http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_52144/ 2 , ..   -     :  / . . . ­ : -, 2019. ­ 544 c. 3 , . .    / . . . ­ : , 2019. ­ 417 . 4 , . .         //      / .. . ­ : -, 2017.  1. . 35. 5 , . .     / . . , . . . ­ : , 2018. ­ 352 c.

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www.iupr.ru 811

 - 331.08  ..
      
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Tugusheva A.B. master's student Department of State and Municipal management Orenburg State University Russia, Orenburg Aralbayeva G.G., PhD in economics associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal management Orenburg State University Russia, Orenburg

PERSONNEL POLICY AS A TOOL OF IMPROVEMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Abstract: This article is devoted to the implementation of personnel policy in municipalities, improving the work with personnel as a factor in increasing the efficiency of municipal management. The necessity of forming a highly professional personnel corps of the municipal service, optimizing the management of its development is substantiated.
Keywords: personnel policy, employer, personnel potential, professional development, personnel management.

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www.iupr.ru 812

  ,  , ,  - ,      ,        -     .        .
        .     ,   ,     .               [1].
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    ,    .            ,    .   :     ,     ; ; ;        ;    . [2].
      ,   -        ,          .                   1          .         .  ,  «»     (   100 ).  « »     ,     2500  [3].

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www.iupr.ru 813

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 : 1  ..,  ..       /.., .. //. . . ­ 2020. ­  19. - . 76-81. ­ [ ]. ­ 

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www.iupr.ru 815

:https://www.elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_44075876_68790261.pdf

( : 28.10.2020).

2  ..,  ..   / .. ,

..  //  :   ­ .

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.384-385 ­ [ ]. ­  :

https://www.elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_39196435_63751656.pdf

(

: 28.10.2020).

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https://www.elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_39196435_63751656.pdf

(

: 29.10.2020).

4  ..      

  / .. // 

 . ­ 2016. ­ 2 (17). ­ [ ]. ­ 

: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/razvitie-kadrovogo-potentsiala-kak-

instrument-povysheniya-effektivnosti-mestnogo-samoupravleniya

(

: 29.10.2020).

5  ..    

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... (.,  2011 .) ­ .2. ­ : ,

2011 ­ .65-68. ­ [ ]. ­  :

https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/9/617/ ( : 29.10.2020).

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www.iupr.ru 816

 004.02:004.5:004.9  ..
    
 
    ( )   
                   .           .          .
         ,    .         ,     .    ,     ,   .
              ,    ,      .
   ,  , ,  , ,  .
Uzakova K. E. teacher
Nukus branch of Navoi state mining Institute
THE PROBLEM THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES (ENGLISH) IN MINING INSTITUTES
Annotation: In the article is examined communicative teaching of English in technical Institutes of higher and feature of language as an instrument of communication by an important world trend. Given importance of English as an instrument of communication is in the collaboration of world co-operation. The role and importance of English is explained for the specialists of mining Institute.
English becomes more claimed not only in the whole world but also in Uzbekistan. Many companies of Uzbekistan very actively work on international markets, closely co-operating with foreign partners. Wishing that their

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employees, applying on serious quarry growth, owned English. Knowledge of technical English will allow the students of this institute to walk up the most high level in a professional plan, will promote them as a specialist, able possibility to work with foreign colleagues.
Key words: mining operations, open engineering, mine, useful minerals, conveyor, the slaughter of mine
          ,   .
                 .            ,    , .       .      ­    . ,     -           ,          ,       .
 ,    ,   ,       ,     .     ,   ,  .  ,     ,    -   .
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                     .    -mining operations,   -open engineering, mine-,  -useful minerals, -conveyor,  -the slaughter of mine, -quarry, -silos, -well,  -the explosion of a substance,   -emulsion explosives,  -front face,  -the horizontal bottom,  -dead end face,  -mega Pascal, -macadam's, -rod,  -rotary excavator SBS-125, -facet,granites, -diorite, -basalt, -diabase, -andesite, -trachyte, -gravel's, --

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www.iupr.ru 818

bulldozer Ripper, -autodumper, -gravel, -lime, -portlandsement 
   ,              (hard skills),    (soft skills),     ,   ,   ,   ,    .
      ,             .         :  , , ,  ,    ,  . -         .     ,     ,            .           - ,     ,     .
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   : ,      -  -  (   , ,     .),  ( , ,  )   ; ,        (.. , ..   .) -  ( ,   .)   .    .. :     - ;     - ;

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www.iupr.ru 819

       .
      . , ,          ,      .       , ,        .         ,    ,           -  , ,   ,  ,       .
      «»   :                                 .
     ,      -, -,        : , , ,  ,     .              ,   ,    .
   ,                      .
- ,      ,           ,  ,    .
        ,  . ,              ,        .
         .

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 : 1. «        »  ..  : 2019 : 86-89 2. «       »     :   :  .. 2019 : 90-94 3. «,   » :   :  ISBN: 978-5-6042843-6-0  : 2019  :   : 62 :    "" () 4. - .. «       .   »

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www.iupr.ru 821

 78

 ..     


      

:      ,  ,  -    ,  -  ,   .           ,   ,     .
 : , , , ,  .

Umurzakov B.N. Head teacher
Department of Music Education Navoi State Pedagogical Institute

ROLE OF ART AND MUSIC IN THE FIELD OF PEDAGOGY

Annotation: In this article I want to say that music, art are an integral part of human life, music is an ancient genre that arose before humans. Below I would like to describe people and their interest in literature, art and music, their role in our life.
Keywords: Education, Music, Art, Music, Pedagogical.

              .  ,        . ,          , -,       ,  ,    ,    .   -        .  ,     ,   .
  -    ,       ,        .

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www.iupr.ru 822

  -          .       ,        ,        .
            ,                     -  .
        ,                  .                .
,  -       ,         .        .           .    ,      -  ,       ,            .        ;      ;     ;    ,      «  »  «   »   .
           .               ,      ,      .
         ,         ,     , ,  ,  , ,  ,   , ,   .         ,   

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www.iupr.ru 823

        ,    ,         .          ,       .
  ,  -  ,       - ,            .       ,    ,           .    ,    ,    .       .                .           .      : «   -     , , ,   ».             ,     .
      .          ,     ,      .            ,       ,        ,        .
      ,   ,   ,          .      ,         .     ,     ,              .     ,  .
           ,     ,    ,     .       ,   ,      ,  .   

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    ,   ,       .  ,    ,   :    ,    ,     ,   ,     ,    ;  ,  ,          ,      ,       .
     ,    ,      .  ,      ,      ,    ;  ,        ,         .
 : 1. Ziyo.uz 2. ., .., .. «   » ( 2014).

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www.iupr.ru 825

 338

 ..  3   «»
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Fisunova D.I. student 3 year faculty of Tourism Belgorod State University Russia, Belgorod Lukhanina A.S. master's student 2 year Institute for cross-cultural communication and international relations Belgorod State University Russia, Belgorod Scientific adviser: Yasenok S.N. associate professor Belgorod State University

ROLE OF INTERNAL PLANNING IN A MARKET RELATIONSHIP

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www.iupr.ru 826

Annotation: The purpose of this article is to determine the role of intrafirm planning in the conditions of market relations. The problem of the economic nature of intrafirm planning is studied, and the differences in plans and planning in general before and after the transition to a market economy are revealed.
Key words: intrafirm planning, market relations, market economy, rational use of resources, business strategy.
            - ,       .
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           :           ,              ,       ,           ,                  [2].
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    ,        ,        .         ,        .     ,           ,      ,        ,      

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www.iupr.ru 827

     .              ,      .   « »        .              ,             .        ,       ,    ,     [3].
   «      »     ,  :  ,         ,    ,   ,   ,    .    ,  ,           ,       ,          ,     .         ,  ,        ,        ,      .   « »      ,  « » ­    .  ,              ,        .
 ,    ,     ,               ,     ,         ,   ,       [4].
 : 1.  ..      : . . ­ .: , 2001.

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www.iupr.ru 828

2.  .. "   ", ­. : , 2000. 3.  ..         //     . 2006. No 4(9). . 647-651. 4.  ..        //    . - .  « ». 2000. No 2. . 81-86.

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www.iupr.ru 829

 004.02:004.5:004.9

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:      ,          .
 :  ,  ,    ,  ,  ,  .

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:               .
 :  ,  ,  ,   ,  ,  ,  .

Xaqnazarova S.A. Senior teacher

THE PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE IN THE WORK OF ABDULLA SHER

Annotation: The article examines the work of Abdullah Sher and reflects his deep views on life and philosophical observations.
Key words: philosophical observation, deep insight, meaning of life, love for the Motherland, international simplicity, natural landscapes, life experience.

-   -    .          ,         ,     .     -  ,   .
            .     

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www.iupr.ru 830

             .
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       .   
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                   .    - 

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www.iupr.ru 831

  ,         .        ,     ,    -         ,       .
     ,     ;               ,         .  -        -           . .    ,  ,      -        .    ,               :
  - :  -,  .  ,    
                   .             ,  -            . .        ,       .
       .    
   .   
    . , ,                .       ,     ,        

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www.iupr.ru 832

 .               ,   .
   ,    .             ,        "   "     .  : «   ,   ,   ?» ­  . ,  :      ,    .  ,   ". [2.17]            ,   ,   ,    .  :  ,     .  :  , --    !
: 1.   "  "  "   "  2013   14  2.  . "    ".   . 2015  5 . 3.   "" ,   , 2016  5 

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www.iupr.ru 833

: 616.248-053.2  ..  ..  ..
 ..         
       
:              .  102     12  18     .         ,    - .             , -      ,      .
 :  , ,   ,  .
Khankeldieva Kh.K. Mirzaeva Z.U.
Sokhibova M.D. Bakhavadinova Z.M. Department of Hospital and Emergency Pediatrics Andijan State Medical Institute
FEATURES OF A VEGETATIVE STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
Resume: The results of the study of the initial autonomic status and autonomic regulation in patients with bronchial asthma are presented. The study involved 102 children aged 12 to 18 years in the phase of exacerbation of the disease. Vegetative status with moderate severity of the disease was characterized by sympathicotonia, high vegetative reactivity of the hypersympathic-tonic type. In adolescents with a severe course of bronchial asthma, there is a pronounced imbalance of autonomic regulation, characterized by a decrease in the tone of the

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sympathetic section at rest, an asymptomatic variant of the response to orthostatic load.
Key words: bronchial asthma, children, autonomic nervous system, autonomic status.
.      ()   ,        .          (10­15%).       , ""    ­    ,       ,         (Braback L.-2010 ).
    .  - ,    ()           ,      ­          .
  ­      .          .              ( . .- 2005).
   ,    ( . .- 2000).          ,        ,     .         ,        . 1981  ..  ,     ,     -   .      (  ,  ,  )  ,             ( . .- 2005).                      ,  ,        .

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www.iupr.ru 835

          ,            ,                .
                  .              ( ..,  ..,  .. - 2003).
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     ­   , ,          .

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www.iupr.ru 836

          ,   ­         .
     ,    ,        ­     .      ,    ,    ,      ,                  .
 .                  .
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    4    (53,7%  10,4% ).
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2.  ..     /   . - .:    (), 2015. - 529 c. 3.  ..  : , , . ­ .: , 2000. ­ 752 . 4. ..    .    ( .  . .). , 2005. 5.  ..,  ..,  ..          // . ­ 2003. ­  4. ­ . 32­36. 6.  .., ..,  ..               //    . ­ 2005. ­  5. ­ . 85­87. 7.Braback L. Changes in prevalence and severity of asthma among schoolchildren in a Swedish district between 1985 and 1995/ L. Braback, J. Appelbérg, U. Jansson, L. Kalvesten//Acta Paediatr. 2010. - V.89. - P. 465-170.

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: 556.531(575)  ..,     (DSc)  ..,    
-      , 
          
 
:      -       .     2015-2017 .        : , - ,    ,     .
 : - ,  ,    ,   .
Khozhamuratova R.T., PhD in Geography Doctoral student (DSc)
Chembarisov E.I., Doctor of Geographical Sciences Professor
Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation and Water Problems Uzbekistan, Tashkent
THE USE OF DRAINAGE WATER FOR IRRIGATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN AND
DRAINAGE OF IRRIGATION WATER
Annotation: The article deals with the problems of using collectordrainage waters for irrigation in the conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Therefore, the authors during 2015-2017. field studies were carried out on the cultivation of salt-tolerant crops: sorghum, Sorghum-Sudan grass, African millet in areas located on the drained bottom of the Aral Sea.
Key words: collector-drainage waters, the amount of mineralization, the dried bottom of the Aral Sea, salt-tolerant agricultural crops.
      -     

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     ,    ,       -4947  7  2017  «       ».   3.3.  :      ,      ,       ,    -   ..... [1,2].
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. 1.

        
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  ,     ,         :   ,   0,98 %     (0,20-0,40 ),        0,35-0,27 % .            180  295 .      7,58  11,02 /,

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     --

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