ARRIS Group 224762 ADSL2+802.11b/g Ethernet Modem User Manual Administrator s Handbook V7 7 4

ARRIS Group, Inc. ADSL2+802.11b/g Ethernet Modem Administrator s Handbook V7 7 4

Users Manual

Administrator’s
Handbook
Embedded Software Version 7.7.4
Motorola Netopia
®
2200, 3300 and 7000
Series Gateways
Administrator’s Handbook
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Motorola, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to
make any derivative work (such as translation, transformation or adaptation) without written permission
from Motorola, Inc.
Motorola reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes in content from time to time
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Part Number
6161244-00-01
Copyright Acknowledgments
Because Motorola has included certain software source code in this product, Motorola includes the
following text required by the respective copyright holders:
Portions of this software are based in part on the work of the following:
Copyright (c) 1998-2005 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgment:
“This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit.
(http://www.openssl.org/)”
4. The names “OpenSSL Toolkit” and “OpenSSL Project” must not be used to endorse or promote products derived
from this software without prior written permission. For written permission, please contact openssl-
core@openssl.org.
5. Products derived from this software may not be called “OpenSSL” nor may “OpenSSL” appear in their names
without prior written permission of the OpenSSL Project.
6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following acknowledgment:
“This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project
for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/)”
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OpenSSL PROJECT
OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).
This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Original SSLeay License
/Copyright (C) 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
All rights reserved.
This package is an SSL implementation written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).
The implementation was written so as to conform with Netscape’s SSL.
This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as the following conditions are adhered to. The
following conditions apply to all code found in this distribution, be it the RC4, RSA, lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the
SSL code. The SSL documentation included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright terms except that
the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Copyright remains Eric Young's, and as such any Copyright notices in the code are not to be removed. If this
package is used in a product, Eric Young should be given attribution as the author of the parts of the library
used. This can be in the form of a textual message at program startup or in documentation (online or textual)
provided with the package.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following
acknowledgement:
“This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)”
The word 'cryptographic' can be left out if the routines from the library being used are not cryptographic
related :-).
4. If you include any Windows specific code (or a derivative thereof) from the apps directory (application code)
you must include an acknowledgement:
“This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)”
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The licence and distribution terms for any publicly available version or derivative of this code cannot be
changed. i.e. this code cannot simply be copied and put under another distribution licence [including the GNU
Public Licence.]
Portions of this software are based in part on the work of the following:
Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 WIDE Project. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY
WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
Portions of this software are based in part on the work of the following:
Copyright (C) 1990, RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved.
<<RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm>>
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it is identified as the “RSA Data Security, Inc.
MD5 Message Digest Algorithm” in all material mentioning or referencing this software or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided that such works are identified as “derived
from the RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm” in all material mentioning or referencing the
derived work.
<<RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message-Digest Algorithm>>
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it is identified as the “RSA Data Security, Inc.
MD4 Message Digest Algorithm” in all material mentioning or referencing this software or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided that such works are identified as “derived
from the RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message-Digest Algorithm” in all material mentioning or referencing the
derived work.
Administrator’s Handbook
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either the merchantability of this software or the
suitability of this software for any particular purpose. It is provided “as is” without express or implied warranty of any
kind.
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this documentation and/or software.
Portions of this software are based in part on the work of the following:
Copyright (c) 1989 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this
paragraph are duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and other materials
related to such distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed by Carnegie Mellon University.
The name of the University may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Portions of this software are based in part on the work of the following:
Copyright 2000, 2001 Shane Kerr. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR(S) ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
5
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What’s New in 7.7.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
About Motorola Netopia® Documentation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Intended Audience
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Documentation Conventions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Internal Web Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Organization
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A Word About Example Screens
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CHAPTER 2
Basic Mode Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Important Safety Instructions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
POWER SUPPLY INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
TELECOMMUNICATION INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
PRODUCT VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
NETZTEIL INSTALLIEREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
INSTALLATION DER TELEKOMMUNIKATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Setting up the Motorola Netopia® Gateway
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Microsoft Windows: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Macintosh MacOS 8 or higher or Mac OS X: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Configuring the Motorola Netopia® Gateway
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
MiAVo VDSL and Ethernet WAN models Quickstart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
PPPoE Quickstart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Set up the Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Motorola Netopia® Gateway Status Indicator Lights
. . . . . . . . 30
Home Page - Basic Mode
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Manage My Account. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Status Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Enable Remote Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Expert Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Update Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Factory Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CHAPTER 3
Expert Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Accessing the Expert Web Interface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Open the Web Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Home Page - Expert Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Administrator’s Handbook
6
Home Page - Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Toolbar
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Navigating the Web Interface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Breadcrumb Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Restart
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Alert Symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Help
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Configure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Quickstart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
How to Use the Quickstart Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Setup Your Gateway using a PPP Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
About Closed System Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
WPA Version Allowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Multiple SSIDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
WiFi Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Wireless MAC Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Use RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
WAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
PPP over Ethernet interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Advanced: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Ethernet WAN interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
WAN Ethernet and VDSL Gateways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
ADSL Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
IP Static Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
IP Static ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Pinholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Configure Specific Pinholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Planning for Your Pinholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Example: A LAN Requiring Three Pinholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Pinhole Configuration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
IPMaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Configure the IPMaps Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
FAQs for the IPMaps Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
What are IPMaps and how are they used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
What types of servers are supported by IPMaps? . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Can I use IPMaps with my PPPoE or PPPoA connection? . . . . . 87
Will IPMaps allow IP addresses from different subnets to be assigned to my Gate-
way? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
IPMaps Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Default Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Configure a Default Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Typical Network Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
NAT Combination Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
IP-Passthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
A restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Differentiated Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7
SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
UPnP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
LAN Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Ethernet Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Configuring for Bridge Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Ethernet Switching/Policy Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
VoIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Syslog Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Log Event Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Internal Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Software Hosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
List of Supported Games and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Rename a User(PC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Manual options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Automatic options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Ethernet MAC Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Clear Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Time Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Create and Change Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Use a Motorola Netopia® Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
BreakWater Basic Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Configuring for a BreakWater Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
TIPS for making your BreakWater Basic Firewall Selection . . . 143
Basic Firewall Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
IPSec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
SafeHarbour IPSec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Configuring a SafeHarbour VPN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Parameter Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Stateful Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Stateful Inspection Firewall installation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Exposed Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Stateful Inspection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Open Ports in Default Stateful Inspection Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Firewall Tutorial
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
General firewall terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Basic IP packet components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Basic protocol types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Firewall design rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Firewall Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Implied rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Example filter set page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Filter basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Example network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Example filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Administrator’s Handbook
8
Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Example 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Example 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Packet Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
What’s a filter and what’s a filter set?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
How filter sets work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Filter priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
How individual filters work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
A filtering rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Parts of a filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Port numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Port number comparisons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Other filter attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Putting the parts together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Filtering example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Filtering example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Design guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
An approach to using filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Working with IP Filters and Filter Sets
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Adding a filter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Adding filters to a filter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Viewing filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Modifying filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Deleting filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Moving filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Deleting a filter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Associating a Filter Set with an Interface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Policy-based Routing using Filtersets
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
TOS field matching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Security Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Using the Security Monitoring Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Timestamp Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Install
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Install Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Updating Your Gateway’s Motorola Netopia® Firmware Version 183
Step 1: Required Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Step 2: Motorola Netopia® firmware Image File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Install Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Use Motorola Netopia® Software Feature Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Obtaining Software Feature Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Procedure - Install a New Feature Key File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
To check your installed features: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Install Certificate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
CHAPTER 4
Basic Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Status Indicator Lights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
LED Function Summary Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Factory Reset Switch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
9
CHAPTER 5
Advanced Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Expert Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
System Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Ports: Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Ports: DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
IP: Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
DSL: Circuit Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
System Log: Entire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Network Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
CHAPTER 6
Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Starting and Ending a CLI Session
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Logging In. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Ending a CLI Session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Saving Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Using the CLI Help Facility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
About SHELL Commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
SHELL Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
SHELL Command Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
SHELL Commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
WAN Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
About CONFIG Commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
CONFIG Mode Prompt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Navigating the CONFIG Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Entering Commands in CONFIG Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Guidelines: CONFIG Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Displaying Current Gateway Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Step Mode: A CLI Configuration Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Validating Your Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
CONFIG Commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Remote ATA Configuration Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
DSL Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
ATM Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Bridging Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
DHCP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
DHCP Generic Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
DHCP Option Filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
DMT Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
DSL Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Domain Name System Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Dynamic DNS Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
IGMP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Administrator’s Handbook
10
IP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Common Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
ARP Timeout Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
DSL Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Ethernet LAN Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Additional subnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Default IP Gateway Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
IP-over-PPP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Static ARP Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
IGMP Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
IPsec Passthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
IP Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Packet Mapping Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Queue Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Basic Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Weighted Fair Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Priority Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Funnel Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Interface Queue Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
SIP Passthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
RTSP Passthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Static Route Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
IPMaps Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Network Address Translation (NAT) Default Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Network Address Translation (NAT) Pinhole Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
PPPoE /PPPoA Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Configuring Basic PPP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Configuring Port Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
PPPoE with IPoE Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Ethernet WAN platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
ADSL platforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Ethernet Port Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
802.3ah Ethernet OAM Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Command Line Interface Preference Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Port Renumbering Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Firewall Settings (for BreakWater Firewall). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
SafeHarbour IPSec Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Stateful Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Packet Filtering Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
SNMP Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
SNMP Notify Type Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
System Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Syslog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Default syslog installation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Wireless Settings (supported models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Wireless Multi-media (WMM) Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Wireless Privacy Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Wireless MAC Address Authorization Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
RADIUS Server Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
VLAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Example 1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
11
Example 2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
VoIP settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
UPnP settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
DSL Forum settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
TR-064 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
TR-069 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Backup IP Gateway Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
VDSL Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
VDSL Parameter Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
VDSL Parameters Accepted Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
CHAPTER 7
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
-----A----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
-----B----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
-----C----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
-----D----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
-----E----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
-----F----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
-----H----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
-----I----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
-----K----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
-----L----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
-----M----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
-----N----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
-----P----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
-----Q----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
-----R----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
-----S----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
-----T----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
-----U----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
-----V----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
-----W-----. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
-----X----- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
CHAPTER 8
Technical Specifications and Safety Information . . . . 343
Description
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Dimensions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Communications interfaces: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Power requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Operating temperature: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Storage temperature: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Relative storage humidity: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Software and protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Software media: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Routing: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
WAN support: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Security: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Management/configuration methods: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Diagnostics: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Agency approvals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Administrator’s Handbook
12
North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Regulatory notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
European Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Service requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Declaration for Canadian users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Important Safety Instructions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Australian Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Telecommunication installation cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
47 CFR Part 68 Information
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
FCC Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
FCC Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Electrical Safety Advisory
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Copyright Acknowledgments
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
CHAPTER 9
Overview of Major Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Wide Area Network Termination
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
PPPoE/PPPoA (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet/ATM) . . . . . . . 351
Instant-On PPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Simplified Local Area Network Setup
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
DNS Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Management
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Embedded Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Remote Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Password Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Network Address Translation (NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Motorola Netopia® Advanced Features for NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Internal Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Pinholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Default Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Combination NAT Bypass Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
IP-Passthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
VPN IPSec Pass Through. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
VPN IPSec Tunnel Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Stateful Inspection Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
SSL Certificate Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
VLANs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
13
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
What’s New in 7.7.4
New in Motorola Netopia® Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 are the following features:
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Version 3 support.
See IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)” on page 100.
TR-101 Support:
• Concurrent support for PPPoE and IPoE connections on the WAN.
See WAN” on page 67.
• Multiple LAN IP Subnet support. See “LAN” on page 49.
• Additional DHCP range support. These ranges are associated with the additional
LAN subnets on a 1-to-1 basis.
• DHCP option filtering support. Allows DHCP option data to be used to determine the
desired DHCP address range. See “DHCP Option Filtering” on page 252.
• Support for additional WAN settings to control multicast forwarding as well as if
0.0.0.0
is used as the source address for IGMP packets.
See “Advanced:” on page 69.
• Support for “unnumbered” interfaces. For IP interfaces, this allows the address to be
set to
0
and the DHCP client also to be disabled. See page 71.
PPPoE/DHCP Autosensing. See WAN” on page 67.
Wireless Multimedia Mode (WMM) support. See WiFi Multimedia” on page 62.
Firewall: ClearSailing is automatically enabled on all 2200-Series ADSL2+ platforms. (Explicit excep-
tions: bonded and VDSL2, 3341, and 3387WG.) See Firewall” on page 142.
TR-069 Remote device management is automatically enabled by default for 2200-Series Gateways.
(Explicit exceptions: bonded and VDSL2, 3341, 3387WG). See TR-069” on page 322.
Voice-over-IP (VoIP) Support using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for supported models. See VoIP” on
page 120 and VoIP CLI “VoIP settings” on page 316.
Support of VLAN ID 0 on the Ethernet WAN and support for setting p-bits on a segment/port basis; inter-
VLAN groups. See VLAN” on page 107 and CLI “VLAN Settings” on page 311.
Backup IP Gateway Support. See Backup” on page 133 and CLI “Backup IP Gateway Settings” on
page 323.
Corresponding commands have been added to the Command Line Interface (CLI). See “Command Line
Interface” on page 223.
Reset WAN port and wireless counter and CLI command to display individual Ethernet port statistics.
See reset enet [ all ]” on page 231 and “show enet [ all ]” on page 233.
CLI for Motorola Netopia® ATA Remote Management.
See Remote ATA Configuration Commands” on page 243.
Administrator’s Handbook
14
Provide Bandwidth Management using Weighted Fair Queueing.
See Queue Configuration” on page 271.
New CLI command for disabling Dying Gasp. See “DMT Settings” on page 254.
Ethernet in the First Mile Operations Administration and Maintenance (802.3ah EFM OAM) Support. See
802.3ah Ethernet OAM Settings” on page 284.
IP multicast to layer 2 unicast mapping. See “IGMP Settings” on page 257.
Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) ALG support for Video-on-Demand (VoD) Services. See “RTSP
Passthrough” on page 276.
15
About Motorola Netopia® Documentation
NOTE:
This guide describes the wide variety of features and functionality of the Motorola Netopia®
Gateway, when used in Router mode. The Motorola Netopia® Gateway may also be delivered in
Bridge mode. In Bridge mode, the Gateway acts as a pass-through device and allows the work-
stations on your LAN to have public addresses directly on the Internet.
Motorola, Inc. provides a suite of technical information for its 2200-, 3300- and 7000-series family of intel-
ligent enterprise and consumer Gateways. It consists of:
Administrator’s Handbook
Dedicated Quickstart guides
Specific White Papers
The documents are available in electronic form as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. They are viewed
(and printed) from Adobe Acrobat Reader, Exchange, or any other application that supports PDF files.
They are downloadable from Motorola’s Netopia website:
http://www.netopia.com/
Intended Audience
This guide is targeted primarily to residential service subscribers.
Expert Mode sections may also be of use to the support staffs of broadband service providers and
advanced residential service subscribers.
See “Expert Mode” on page 39.
Documentation Conventions
General
This manual uses the following conventions to present information:
Convention (Typeface) Description
bold italic
monospaced
Menu commands
bold italic sans serif
Web GUI page links and button names
Administrator’s Handbook
16
Internal Web Interface
Command Line Interface
Syntax conventions for the Netopia Gateway command line interface are as follows:
terminal Computer display text
bold terminal User-entered text
Italic Italic type indicates the complete titles of manuals.
Convention (Graphics) Description
Denotes an “excerpt” from a Web page or the visual truncation
of a Web page
Denotes an area of emphasis on a Web page
Convention Description
straight ([ ]) brackets in cmd line Optional command arguments
curly ({ }) brackets, with values sep-
arated with vertical bars (|).
Alternative values for an argument are presented in curly ({ })
brackets, with values separated with vertical bars (|).
bold terminal type
face
User-entered text
italic terminal
type face
Variables for which you supply your own values
blue rectangle or line
solid rounded rectangle
with an arrow
17
Organization
This guide consists of nine chapters, including a glossary, and an index. It is organized as follows:
Chapter 1, “Introduction” — Describes the Motorola Netopia® document suite, the purpose of, the
audience for, and structure of this guide. It gives a table of conventions.
Chapter 2, “Basic Mode Setup”Describes how to get up and running with your Motorola Netopia®
Gateway.
Chapter 3, “Expert Mode” — Focuses on the “Expert Mode” Web-based user interface for advanced
users. It is organized in the same way as the Web UI is organized. As you go through each section, func-
tions and procedures are discussed in detail.
Chapter 4, “Basic Troubleshooting” — Gives some simple suggestions for troubleshooting problems
with your Gateway’s initial configuration.
Chapter 5, “Advanced Troubleshooting” — Gives suggestions and descriptions of expert tools to use
to troubleshoot your Gateway’s configuration.
Chapter 6, “Command Line Interface” — Describes all the current text-based commands for both the
SHELL and CONFIG modes. A summary table and individual command examples for each mode is pro-
vided.
Chapter 7, “Glossary”
Chapter 8, “Technical Specifications and Safety Information”
Chapter 9, “Overview of Major Capabilities” — Presents a product description summary.
Index
A Word About Example Screens
This manual contains many example screen illustrations. Since Motorola Netopia® 2200-, 3300- and
7000-Series Gateways offer a wide variety of features and functionality, the example screens shown may
not appear exactly the same for your particular Gateway or setup as they appear in this manual. The exam-
ple screens are for illustrative and explanatory purposes, and should not be construed to represent your
own unique environment.
Administrator’s Handbook
18
19
CHAPTER 2 Basic Mode Setup
Most users will find that the basic Quickstart configuration is all that they ever need to use. This section
may be all that you ever need to configure and use your Motorola Netopia® Gateway. The following instruc-
tions cover installation in Router Mode.
This section covers:
“Important Safety Instructions” on page 20
“Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise” on page 21 (German)
“Setting up the Motorola Netopia® Gateway” on page 22
“Configuring the Motorola Netopia® Gateway” on page 25
“Motorola Netopia® Gateway Status Indicator Lights” on page 30
“Home Page - Basic Mode” on page 31
Administrator’s Handbook
20
Important Safety Instructions
POWER SUPPLY INSTALLATION
Connect the power supply cord to the power jack on the Motorola Netopia® Gateway. Plug the power supply
into an appropriate electrical outlet.
CAUTION:
Depending on the power supply provided with the product, either the direct plug-in power sup-
ply blades, power supply cord plug or the appliance coupler serves as the mains power discon-
nect. It is important that the direct plug-in power supply, socket-outlet or appliance coupler be
located so it is readily accessible.
(Sweden) Apparaten skall anslutas till jordat uttag när den ansluts till ett nätverk
(Norway) Apparatet må kun tilkoples jordet stikkontakt.
USB-powered models: For Use with Listed I.T.E. Only
TELECOMMUNICATION INSTALLATION
When using your telephone equipment, basic safety precautions should always be followed to reduce the
risk of fire, electric shock and injury to persons, including the following:
Do not use this product near water, for example, near a bathtub, wash bowl, kitchen sink or laundry tub,
in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Avoid using a telephone (other than a cordless type) during an electrical storm. There may be a remote
risk of electrical shock from lightning.
Do not use the telephone to report a gas leak in the vicinity of the leak.
PRODUCT VENTILATION
The Motorola Netopia® Gateway is intended for use in a consumer's home. Ambient temperatures around
this product should not exceed 104°F (40°C). It should not be used in locations exposed to outside heat
radiation or trapping of its own heat. The product should have at least one inch of clearance on all sides
except the bottom when properly installed and should not be placed inside tightly enclosed spaces unless
proper ventilation is provided.
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS
21
Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise
NETZTEIL INSTALLIEREN
Verbinden Sie das Kabel vom Netzteil mit dem Power-Anschluss an dem Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
Stecken Sie dann das Netzteil in eine Netzsteckdose.
Achtung:
Abhängig von dem mit dem Produkt gelieferten Netzteil, entweder die direkten Stecker-
netzgeräte, Stecker vom Netzkabel oder der Gerätekoppler dienen als Hauptspannungsunter-
brechung. Es ist wichtig, dass das Steckernetzgerät, Steckdose oder Gerätekoppler frei
zugänglich sind.
(Sweden) Apparaten skall anslutas till jordat uttag när den ansluts till ett nätverk
(Norway) Apparatet må kun tilkoples jordet stikkontakt.
USB-powered models: For Use with Listed I.T.E. Only
INSTALLATION DER TELEKOMMUNIKATION
Wenn Ihre Telefonausrüstung verwendet wird, sollten grundlegende Sicherheitsanweisungen immer befolgt
werden, um die Gefahr eines Feuers, eines elektrischen Schlages und die Verletzung von Personen, zu ver-
ringern. Beachten Sie diese weiteren Hinweise:
Benutzen Sie dieses Produkt nicht in Wassernähe wie z.B. nahe einer Badewanne, Waschschüssel,
Küchenspüle, in einem nassen Keller oder an einem Swimmingpool.
Vermeiden Sie das Telefonieren (gilt nicht für schnurlose Telefone) während eines Gewitters. Es besteht
die Gefahr eines elektrischen Schlages durch einen Blitz.
Nicht das Telefon benutzen um eine Gasleckstelle zu Melden, wenn Sie sich in der Nähe der Leckstelle
befinden.
Bewahren Sie diese Anweisungen auf
Administrator’s Handbook
22
Setting up the Motorola Netopia® Gateway
Refer to your Quickstart Guide for instructions on how to connect your Motorola Netopia® gateway to your
power source, PC or local area network, and your Internet access point, whether it is a dedicated DSL outlet
or a DSL or cable modem. Different Motorola Netopia® Gateway models are supplied for any of these con-
nections. Be sure to enable Dynamic Addressing on your PC. Perform the following:
Microsoft Windows:
Step 1. Navigate to the TCP/IP Properties Control Panel.
a. Some Windows
versions follow a
path like this:
Start menu -> Settings ->
Control Panel -> Network
(or Network and Dial-up
Connections -> Local Area
Connection -> Properties) -
> TCP/IP
[your_network_card] or
Internet Protocol [TCP/IP]
-> Properties
b. Some Windows
versions follow a
path like this:
Start menu -> Con-
trol Panel -> Net-
work and Internet
Connections -> Net-
work Connections ->
Local Area Connec-
tion -> Properties ->
Internet Protocol
[TCP/IP] -> Proper-
ties
23
c. Windows Vista is set to obtain an IP address automatically by default. You may not need to configure it at
all.
To check, open the Networking Control Panel and select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). Click
the Properties button.
The Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window should appear as shown.
If not, select the radio buttons shown above, and click the OK button.
Administrator’s Handbook
24
Macintosh MacOS 8 or higher or Mac OS X:
Step 1. Access the TCP/IP or Network control panel.
Then go to Step 2.
Step 2. Select Built-in Ethernet
Step 3. Select Configure Using DHCP
Step 4. Close and Save, if prompted.
Proceed to Configuring the Motorola Netopia® Gateway” on page 25.
a. MacOS follows a
path like this:
Apple Menu ->
Control Pan-
els -> TCP/IP
Control Panel
b. Mac OS X follows
a path like this:
Apple Menu -> System Preferences -> Network
25
Configuring the Motorola Netopia® Gateway
1. Run your Web browser application, such as Firefox or Microsoft Internet Explorer, from
the computer connected to the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
Enter http://192.168.1.254 in the Location text box.
The Admin Password page appears.
Access to your Motorola Netopia® device can be controlled through two access control accounts,
Admin or User.
The Admin, or administrative user, performs all configuration, management or maintenance operations
on the Gateway.
The User account provides monitor capability only.
A user may NOT change the configuration, perform upgrades or invoke maintenance functions.
For the security of your connection, an Admin password must be set on the Motorola Netopia® unit.
MiAVo VDSL and Ethernet WAN models Quickstart
The browser then displays the Quickstart page.
2. Click the
Connect to the Internet
button.
Administrator’s Handbook
26
Once a connection is established, your browser is redirected to your service provider’s home page or a
registration page on the Internet.
NOTE:
For MiAVo Series (3397GP) models, skip the rest of this section.
Congratulations! Your configuration is complete.
You can skip to Home Page - Basic Mode” on page 31.
27
PPPoE Quickstart
For a PPPoE connection, your browser will display a different series of web pages:
The browser then displays the Quickstart web page.
3. Enter the username and password supplied by your Internet Service Provider. Click the
Connect to the Internet
button.
Once you enter your username and password here, you will no longer need to enter them whenever you
access the Internet. The Motorola Netopia® Gateway stores this information and automatically connects
you to the Internet.
The Gateway displays a message while it configures itself.
4. When the connection succeeds, your browser will display a success message.
Once a connection is established, your browser is redirected to your service provider’s home page or a
registration page on the Internet.
5. Congratulations! Your installation is complete. You can now surf to your favorite Web
sites by typing an URL in your browser’s location box or by selecting one of your favor-
ite Internet bookmarks.
Administrator’s Handbook
28
Set up the Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway
Your Motorola Netopia® 3342N/3352N Pocket Gateway comes with its own installation wizard.
If you are using Windows 98, insert the CD.
If you are using Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows NT or Windows Vista, you don’t even need the
CD.
Follow these easy setup steps:
1. Plug the Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway into a USB port on your PC.
2. Whether you use the CD (Windows 98) or not (all other Windows versions), on Windows-based
PCs, the Motorola Netopia® Installation Wizard will launch automatically.
The Motorola Netopia® Installation Wizard will assist you to configure your PC to work with the Motorola
Netopia® pocket Gateway. Follow the on-screen instructions.
To proceed, click the
Next
button.
The Motorola Netopia® Installation Wizard performs a series of checks on your system and then will
install USB drivers for your connection.
3. Place the Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway near your PC so you can see it easily.
Make sure any cables are kept away from power cords, fluorescent lighting fixtures, and other sources
of electrical interference.
4. When the wizard prompts you, connect the RJ-11 Telephone Cable from the DSL port on the
Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway to the ADSL phone jack.
The DSL indicator light should blink for up to two minutes and then come on solid green once the device
is connected to your computer.
phone jack
Netopia Pocket Gateway/
RJ-11 phone cable
USB port
29
The Wizard displays a success message when the settings are configured.
5. The Motorola Netopia® Installation Wizard will then launch your web browser and display the
Welcome
page where you configure your Motorola Netopia® Pocket Gateway.
Administrator’s Handbook
30
Motorola Netopia® Gateway Status Indicator Lights
Colored LEDs on your Motorola Netopia® Gateway indicate the status of various port activity. Different
Gateway models have different ports for your connections and different indicator LEDs. The Quickstart
Guide accompanying your Motorola Netopia® Gateway describes the behavior of the various indicator LEDs.
Example status indicator lights
netopia
Status Indicator Lights (LEDs)
31
Home Page - Basic Mode
After you have performed the basic Quickstart configuration, any time you log in to your Motorola Netopia®
Gateway you will access the Motorola Netopia® Gateway Home Page.
You access the Home Page by typing
http://192.168.1.254
in your Web browser’s location box.
The Basic Mode Home Page appears.
VoIP-enabled Gateways also display VoIP phone information, as well.
Administrator’s Handbook
32
The Home Page displays the following information in the center section:
The links in the left-hand column on this page allow you to manage or configure several features of your
Gateway. Each link is described in its own section.
Item Description
Serial Number This is the unique serial number of your Gateway.
Software
Release
This is the version number of the current embedded software in your Gate-
way.
Warranty Date This is the date that your Gateway was installed and enabled.
Status of DSL DSL connection (Internet) is either Up or Down
Status of
Connection
‘Waiting for DSL’ is displayed while the Gateway is training. This should
change to ‘Up’ within two minutes.
‘Up’ is displayed when the ADSL line is synched and the PPPoE session is
established.
‘Down’ indicates inability to establish a connection; possible line failure.
Local WAN IP
Address
This is the negotiated address of the Gateway’s WAN interface. This
address is usually dynamically assigned.
Remote
Gateway
Address
This is the negotiated address of the remote router to which this Gateway
is connected.
Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
These are the negotiated DNS addresses.
ISP Username This is your PPPoE username as assigned by your service provider.
Ethernet Status (if so equipped) Local Area Network (Ethernet) is either Up or Down
USB Status If your Gateway is so equipped, Local Area Network (USB) is either Up or
Down
Line 1/2
Registration
If your Gateway is so equipped, voice Line 1 and/or 2 is either Idle or Con-
nected
Date & Time This is the current UTC time; blank if this is not available due to lack of a
network connection.
33
Link: Manage My Account
You can change your ISP account information for the Motorola Netopia® Gateway. You can also manage
other aspects of your account on your service provider’s account management Web site.
Click on the
Manage My Account
link. The Manage My Account page appears.
If you have a PPPoE account, enter your username, and then your new password. Confirm your new pass-
word. For security, your actual passwords are not displayed on the screen as you type. You must enter the
new password twice to be sure you have typed it correctly.
Click the
Submit
button.
If you have a non-PPPoE account, click the
OK
button.
You will be taken to your service provider’s Web site account management page.
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Link: Status Details
If you need to diagnose any problems with your Motorola Netopia® Gateway or its connection to the Inter-
net, you can run a sophisticated diagnostic tool. It checks several aspects of your physical and electronic
connection and reports its results on-screen. This can be useful for troubleshooting, or when speaking with
a technical support technician.
Click on the
Status Details
link. The Diagnostics page appears.
Click the
Run Diagnostics
button to run your diagnostic tests. For a detailed description of these tests,
see Diagnostics” on page 217.
35
Link: Enable Remote Management
This link allows you to authorize a remotely-located person, such as a support technician, to directly access
your Motorola Netopia® Gateway. This is useful for fixing configuration problems when you need expert
help. You can limit the amount of time such a person will have access to your Gateway. This will prevent
unauthorized individuals from gaining access after the time limit has expired.
Click the
Enable Rmt Mgmt
link. The Enable Remote Management page appears.
Since you’ve already has entered an Admin password, you can use that Admin password or enter a new
password. If you enter a new password, it becomes the temporary Admin password. After the time-out
period has expired, the Admin password reverts to the original Admin password you entered.
Enter a temporary password for the person you want to authorize, and confirm it by typing it again. You can
select a time-out period for this password, from 5 to 30 minutes, from the pull-down menu. Be sure to tell
the authorized person what the password is, and for how long the time-out is set. Click the
OK
button.
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Link: Expert Mode
Most users will find that the basic Quickstart configuration is all that they ever need to use. Some users,
however, may want to do more advanced configuration. The Motorola Netopia® Gateway has many
advanced features that can be accessed and configured through the Expert Mode pages.
Click the
Expert Mode
link to display the Expert Mode Confirmation page.
You should carefully consider any configuration changes you want to make, and be sure that your service
provider supports them.
Once you click the OK button you will be taken to the Expert Mode Home Page.
The Expert Mode Home Page is the main access point for configuring and managing the advanced features
of your Gateway. See Expert Mode” on page 39 for information.
37
Link: Update Firmware
NOTE:
(This link is not available on the 3342/3352 models, since firmware updates must be
upgraded via the USB host driver.
3342N/3352N models do support this feature.)
Periodically, the embedded firmware in your Gateway may be updated to improve the operation or add new
features. Your gateway includes its own onboard installation capability. Your service provider may inform
you when new firmware is available, or you can check for yourself.
Click the
Update Firmware
link. The Firmware Update Confirmation page appears.
If you click the
Continue
button, the Gateway will check a remote Firmware Server for the latest firmware
revision. If a newer version is found, your firmware will be automatically updated once you confirm the
installation.
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Link: Factory Reset
In some cases, you may need to clear all the configuration settings and start over again to program the
Motorola Netopia® Gateway. You can perform a factory reset to do this.
Click on
Factory Reset
to reset the Gateway back to its original factory default settings.
NOTE:
Exercise caution before performing a Factory Reset. This will erase any configuration changes
that you may have made and allow you to reprogram your Gateway.
39
CHAPTER 3 Expert Mode
Using the Expert Mode Web-based user interface for the Motorola Netopia® 2200-, 3300- and 7000-series
Gateway you can configure, troubleshoot, and monitor the status of your Gateway.
Accessing the Expert Web Interface
Open the Web Connection
Once your Gateway is powered up, you can use any recent version of the best-known web browsers such as
Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer from any LAN-attached PC or workstation. The procedure
is:
1. Enter the name or IP address of your Motorola Netopia® Gateway in the Web browser's
window and press Return.
For example, you would enter http://192.168.1.254.
2. If an administrator or user password has been assigned to the Motorola Netopia® Gate-
way, enter
Admin
or
User
as the username and the appropriate password and click OK.
The Basic Mode Home Page opens.
3. Click on the Expert Mode link in the left-hand column of links.
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40
You are challenged to confirm your choice.
Click OK.
The Home Page opens in Expert Mode.
41
Home Page - Expert Mode
The Home Page is the summary page for your Motorola Netopia® Gateway. The toolbar at the top provides
links to controlling, configuring, and monitoring pages. Critical configuration and operational status is dis-
played in the center section.
Home Page - Information
The Home page’s center section contains a summary of the Gateway’s configuration settings and opera-
tional status.
Summary Information
Field Status and/or Description
General Information
Hardware Model number and summary specification
Serial Number Unique serial number, located on label attached to bottom of unit
Software Version Release and build number of running Motorola Netopia® Operating System.
Product ID Refers to internal circuit board series; useful in determining which software
upgrade applies to your hardware type.
Date & Time This is the current UTC time; blank if this is not available due to lack of a
network connection.
Breakwater Firewall If the optional feature key is installed: Status of the Breakwater Firewall:
ClearSailing, SilentRunning, or LANdLocked.
Safe Harbour If the optional feature key is installed: SafeHarbour VPN IPsec Tunnel option
(if installed): either On or Off.
WAN
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Status Wide Area Network may be Waiting for DSL (or other waiting status), Up or
Down
Data Rate (Kbps) Once connected, displays DSL speed rate, Downstream and Upstream
Local Address IP address assigned to the WAN port.
Peer Address The IP address of the gateway to which the connection defaults. If doing
DHCP, this info will be acquired. If doing PPP, this info will be negotiated.
Connection Type May be either Instant On or Always On.
NAT On or Off. ON if using Network Address Translation to share the IP address
across many LAN users.
WAN Users Displays the number of users allotted and the total number available for
use.
LAN
IP Address Internal IP address of the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
Netmask Defines the IP subnet for the LAN
Default is 255.255.255.0 for a Class C device
DHCP Server On or Off. ON if using DHCP to get IP addresses for your LAN client
machines.
DHCP Leases A “lease” is held by each LAN client that has obtained an IP address through
DHCP.
Ethernet (or USB)
Status
Status of your Ethernet network connection (if supported). Up or Down.
VoIP
Line 1/2 Registration If your Gateway is so equipped, voice Line 1 and/or 2 is either Idle or Reg-
istered
43
Toolbar
The toolbar is the dark blue bar at the top of the page containing the major navigation buttons. These but-
tons are available from almost every page, allowing you to move freely about the site.
Navigating the Web Interface
Link: Breadcrumb Trail
The breadcrumb trail is built in the light brown area beneath the toolbar. As you navigate down a path within
the site, the trail is built from left to right. To return anywhere along the path from which you came, click on
one of the links.
Home Configure Troubleshoot Security Install Restart Help
Quickstart System Status Passwords Install Certificate
LAN Network Tools Firewall Install Key
WAN Diagnostics IPSec Install Software
Advanced Stateful Inspection
Packet Filter
Security Log
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Restart
Button: Restart
The Restart button on the toolbar allows you to restart the Gateway at any time. You will be prompted to
confirm the restart before any action is taken. The Restart Confirmation message explains the conse-
quences of and reasons for restarting the Gateway.
45
Link: Alert Symbol
The Alert symbol appears in the upper right corner if you make a database change; one in which a change
is made to the Gateway’s configuration. The Alert serves as a reminder that you must Save the changes
and Restart the Gateway before the change will take effect. You can make many changes on various
pages, and even leave the browser for up to 5 minutes, but if the Gateway is restarted before the changes
are applied, they will be lost. When you click on the Alert symbol, the Save Changes page appears. Here
you can select various options to save or discard these changes.
If more than one Alert is triggered, you will need to take action to clear the first Alert before you can see the
second Alert.
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Help
Button: Help
Context-sensitive Help is provided in your Gateway. The page shown here is displayed when you are on the
Home page or other transitional pages. To see a context help page example, go to Security -> Pass-
words, then click Help.
47
Configure
Button: Configure
The Configuration options are presented in the order of likelihood you will need to use them. Quickstart is
typically accessed during the hardware installation and initial configuration phase. Often, these settings
should be changed only in accordance with information from your Service Provider. LAN and WAN
settings are available to fine-tune your system. Advanced provides some special capabilities typically used
for gaming or small office environments, or where LAN-side servers are involved.
This button will not be available if you log on as User.
Link: Quickstart
How to Use the Quickstart Page. Quickstart is normally used immediately after the new hardware
is installed. When you are first configuring your Gateway, Quickstart appears first.
(Once you have configured your Gateway, logging on displays the Home page. Thereafter, if you need to use
Quickstart, choose it from the Expert Mode Configure menu.)
Setup Your Gateway using a PPP Connection.
This example screen is the for a PPP Quickstart configuration. Your gateway authenticates with the Ser-
vice Provider equipment using the ISP Username and Password. These values are given to you by your Ser-
vice Provider.
1. Enter your ISP Username and ISP Password.
2. Click Connect to the Internet.
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A brief message is displayed while the Gateway attempts to establish a connection.
3. When the connection succeeds, your browser will display your Service Provider’s
home page.
If you encounter any problems connecting, refer to the chapters “Basic Troubleshooting” on page 193 or
“Advanced Troubleshooting” on page 207.
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Link: LAN
* Enable Interface: Enables all LAN-connected computers to share resources and to connect to the WAN.
The Interface should always be enabled unless you are instructed to disable it by your Service Provider dur-
ing troubleshooting.
* IP Address: The LAN IP Address of the Gateway. The IP Address you assign to your LAN inter face must
not be used by another device on your LAN network.
* IP Netmask: Specifies the subnet mask for the TCP/IP network connected to the virtual circuit. The sub-
net mask specifies which bits of the 32-bit binary IP address represent network information. The default
subnet mask for most networks is 255.255.255.0 (Class C subnet mask.)
* Restrictions: Specifies whether an administrator can open a Web Administrator or Telnet connection to
the Gateway over the LAN interface in order to monitor and configure the Gateway. On the LAN Interface,
you can enable or disable administrator access. By default, administrative restrictions are turned off,
meaning an administrator can open a Web Administrator or Telnet connection through the LAN Interface.
• Advanced: Clicking on the Advanced link displays the Advanced LAN IP Interface page.
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IGMP Forwarding: The default setting is Disabled. If you check this option, it will enable Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) multicast forwarding. IGMP allows a router to determine which host groups
have members on a given network segment. See IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)” on
page 100 for more information.
RIP Send Mode: Specifies whether the gateway should use Routing Information Protocol (RIP) broad-
casts to advertise its routing tables to other routers on your network. You may choose from the following
protocols:
• RIP-1: Routing Information Protocol version 1
• RIP-2: RIP Version 2 is an extension of the original Routing Information Protocol (RIP-1) that expands
the amount of useful information in the RIP packets. While RIP-1 and RIP-2 share the same basic algo-
rithms, RIP-2 supports several new features, including inclusion of subnet masks in RIP packets and
implementation of multicasting instead of broadcasting (which reduces the load on hosts which do not
support routing protocols.
• RIP-1 compatibility: Compatible with RIP version 1
• RIP-2 with MD5: MD5 authentication is an extension of RIP-2 that increases security by requiring an
authentication key when routes are advertised.
• RIP MD5 Key: Secret password when using RIP-2 with MD5.
RIP Receive Mode: Specifies whether the Gateway should use Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
broadcasts to update its routing tables with information received from other routers on your network.
The protocol choices are the same as for the RIP send mode.
Proxy ARP: Specifies whether you want the Gateway to respond when it receives an address resolution
protocol for devices behind it. This is a way to make a computer that is physically located on one net-
work appear to be part of a different physical network connected to the same Gateway. It allows you to
hide a computer with a public IP address on a private network behind your Gateway, and still have the
computer appear to be on the public network “in front of” the Gateway.
Static Client Address Translation: If you check this checkbox, this feature allows a statically
addressed computer whose IP address falls outside of the LAN subnet(s) to simply plug in and get
online without any manual configuration on either the host or the Motorola Netopia® Gateway. If
enabled, statically addressed LAN hosts that have an address outside of LAN subnets will be able to
communicate via the Router’s WAN interface to the Internet. Supported static IP address values must
fall outside of the Router's LAN subnet(s).
• IP Subnets: The IP Subnets screen allows you to configure up to seven secondary subnets and their
DHCP ranges, by entering IP address/subnet mask pairs:
51
Note:
You need not use this screen if you have only a single Ethernet IP subnet.
This screen displays seven rows of editable columns. All seven row labels are always visible, regardless of
the number of subnets configured.
To add an IP subnet, select one of the rows, and click the Edit button.
Check the Enabled checkbox and click the Submit button.
The screen expands to allow you to enter subnet information.
If DHCP Server (see below) is not enabled, the DHCP Start Address and DHCP End Address fields do
not appear.
Enter the Router’s IP address on the subnet in the IP Address field and the subnet mask for the subnet
in the Netmask field.
Enter the DHCP Start Address and End Address of the subnet range in their respective fields.
Ranges cannot overlap and there may be only one range per subnet.
Click the Submit button.
When you are finished adding subnets, click the Alert icon at the upper right, and in the resulting page,
click the Save and Restart link.
To delete a configured subnet, set both the IP address and subnet mask values to 0.0.0.0, either explicitly
or by clearing each field and clicking the Submit button to commit the change.
NOTE:
All additional DHCP ranges use the global lease period value. See page 52.
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• DHCP Server: Your Gateway can provide network configuration information to computers on your LAN,
using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
If you already have a DHCP server on your LAN, you should
turn this service off.
If you want the Gateway to provide this service, click the
Server Mode pull-down menu, choose Server, then con-
figure the range of IP addresses that you would like the
Gateway to hand out to your computers.
You can also specify the length of time the computers can
use the configuration information; DHCP calls this period the lease time.
Your Service Provider may, for certain services, want to provide configuration from its DHCP servers to the
computers on your LANs. In this case, the Gateway will relay the DHCP requests from your computers to a
DHCP server in the Service Provider's network. Click the relay-agent and enter the IP address of the Service
Provider's DHCP server in the Server Address field. This address is furnished by the Service Provider.
NOTE:
The Relay-agent option only works when NAT is off and the Gateway is in router mode.
53
Wireless
(supported models)
If your Gateway is a wireless model (such as a 3347W) you can enable or disable the wireless LAN (WLAN)
by clicking the Wireless link.
Wireless functionality is enabled by default.
If you uncheck the Enable Wireless checkbox, the Wireless Options are disabled, and the Gateway will not
provide or broadcast any wireless LAN services.
SSID (Network ID): The SSID is preset to a number that is unique to your unit. You can either leave it as is,
or change it by entering a freeform name of up to 32 characters, for example “Ed’s Wireless LAN”. On client
PCs’ software, this might also be called the Network Name. The SSID is used to identify this particular wire-
less LAN. Depending on their operating system or client wireless card, users must either:
select from a list of available wireless LANs that appear in a scanned list on their client
or, if you are in Closed System Mode (see Enable Closed System Mode below), enter this name on
their clients in order to join this wireless LAN.
The pull-down menu for enabling Privacy offers four settings: WPA-802.1x, WPA-PSK, WEP - Automatic,
and Off - No Privacy. WEP-Manual is also available on the Advanced Configuration Options page. See “Pri-
vacy” on page 54.
NOTE:
On the 2200-Series Gateways, WEP-Manual privacy is enabled by default. Use the Motorola
Netopia® Installation Wizard on the accompanying Motorola Netopia® CD to generate WEP
keys for connecting wireless client computers.
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54
Privacy
Off - No Privacy provides no encryption on your wireless LAN data.
WPA-802.1x provides RADIUS server authentication support.
WPA-PSK provides Wireless Protected Access, the most secure option for your wireless network. This
mechanism provides the best data protection and access control.
The Pre Shared Key is a passphrase shared between the Router and the clients and is used to gener-
ate dynamically changing keys. The passphrase can be 8-63 characters or up to 64 hex characters. It is
recommended to use at least 20 characters for best security.
WEP - Automatic is a passphrase generator. You enter a passphrase that you choose in the Pass-
phrase field. The passphrase can be any string of words or numbers.
You can provide a level of data security by enabling WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) for encryption of net-
work data. You can enable 40-, 128-, or 256-bit WEP Encryption (depending on the capability of your cli-
ent wireless card) for IP traffic on your LAN.
55
You select a single key for encryption of outbound traffic. The WEP-enabled client must have an identical
key of the same length, in the identical slot (1 – 4) as the Gateway, in order to successfully receive and
decrypt the traffic. Similarly, the client also has a ‘default’ key that it uses to encrypt its transmissions.
In order for the Gateway to receive the client’s data, it must likewise have the identical key of the same
length, in the same slot. For simplicity, a Gateway and its clients need only enter, share, and use the
first key.
Click the Submit button. The Alert icon appears.
Click the Alert icon, and then the Save and Restart link.
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Advanced
If you click the Advanced link, the advanced 802.11 Wireless Settings page appears.
Note: This page displays different options depending on which form of Privacy or other options you have
enabled.
You can then configure:
Operating Mode: The pull-down menu allows you to select and lock the Gateway into the wireless trans-
mission mode you want. For compatibility with clients using 802.11b (up to 11 Mbps transmission) and
802.11g (up to 20+ Mbps), select Normal (802.11b + g). To limit your wireless LAN to one mode or the
other, select 802.11b Only, or 802.11g Only.
NOTE:
If you choose to limit the operating mode to 802.11b or 802.11g only, clients using the mode
you excluded will not be able to connect.
Default Channel: on which the network will broadcast. This is a frequency range within the 2.4Ghz band.
Channel selection depends on government regulated radio frequencies that vary from region to region. The
widest range available is from 1 to 14. However, in North America only 1 to 11 may be selected. Europe,
57
France, Spain and Japan will differ. Channel selection can have a significant impact on per formance,
depending on other wireless activity close to this Gateway. Channel selection is not necessary at the client
computers; the clients will scan the available channels seeking access points using the same SSID as the
client.
AutoChannel Setting: For 802.11G models, AutoChannel is a feature that allows the Motorola Netopia®
Gateway to determine the best channel to broadcast automatically.
Three settings are available from the pull-down menu: Off-Use default, At Startup, and Continuous.
Off-Use default is the default setting; the Motorola Netopia® Gateway will use the configured default
channel selected from the previous pull-down menu.
At Startup causes the Motorola Netopia® Gateway at startup to briefly initialize on the default channel,
then perform a full two- to three-second scan, and switch to the best channel it can find, remaining on
that channel until the next reboot.
Continuous performs the at-startup scan, and will continuously monitor the current channel for any
other Access Point beacons. If an Access Point beacon is detected on the same channel, the Motorola
Netopia® Gateway will initiate a three- to four-minute scan of the channels, locate a better one, and
switch. Once it has switched, it will remain on this channel for at least 30 minutes before switching
again if another Access Point is detected.
Enable Closed System Mode: If enabled, Closed System Mode hides the wireless network from the scan-
ning features of wireless client computers. Unless both the wireless clients and the Router share the same
SSID in Closed System mode, the Router’s wireless LAN will not appear as an available network when
scanned for by wireless-enabled computers. Members of the Closed System WLAN must log onto the
Router’s wireless network with the identical SSID as that configured in the router.
Closed System mode is an ideal way to increase wireless security and to prevent casual detection by
unwanted neighbors, office users, or malicious users such as hackers.
If you do not enable Closed System Mode, it is more convenient, but potentially less secure, for clients to
access your WLAN by scanning available access points. You must decide based on your own network
requirements.
About Closed System Mode
Enabling Closed System Mode on your wireless Gateway provides another level of security, since your wire-
less LAN will no longer appear as an available access point to client PCs that are casually scanning for one.
Your own wireless network clients, however, must log into the wireless LAN by using the exact SSID of the
Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
In addition, if you have enabled WEP encryption on the Motorola Netopia® Gateway, your network clients
must also have WEP encryption enabled, and must have the same WEP encryption key as the Motorola
Netopia® Gateway.
Once the Motorola Netopia® Gateway is located by a client computer, by setting the client to a matching
SSID, the client can connect immediately if WEP is not enabled. If WEP is enabled then the client must also
have WEP enabled and a matching WEP key.
Wireless client cards from different manufacturers and different operating systems accomplish connecting
to a wireless LAN and enabling WEP in a variety of ways. Consult the documentation for your particular wire-
less card and/or operating system.
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58
NOTE:
While clients may also have a passphrase feature, these are vendor-specific and may not nec-
essarily create the same keys. You can passphrase generate a set of keys on one, and manu-
ally enter them on the other to get around this.
Block Wireless Bridging: Check the checkbox to block wireless clients from communicating with other
wireless clients on the LAN side of the Gateway.
WEP - Manual allows you to enter your own encryption keys manually. This is a difficult process, but
only needs to be done once. Avoid the temptation to enter all the same characters.
Encryption Key Size #1 – #4: Selects the length of each encryption key. The longer the key, the stronger
the encryption and the more difficult it is to break the encryption.
59
Encryption Key #1 – #4: The encryption keys. You enter keys using hexadecimal digits. For 40/64bit
encryption, you need ten digits; 26 digits for 128bit, and 58 digits for 256bit WEP. Hexadecimal characters
are 0 – 9, and a – f.
Examples:
40bit: 02468ACE02
128bit: 0123456789ABCDEF0123456789
256bit: 592CA140F0A238B0C61AE162F592CA140F0A238B0C61AE162F21A09C
Use WEP encryption key (1 – 4) #: Specifies which key the Gateway will use to encrypt transmitted traffic.
The default is key #1.
You disable the wireless LAN by unchecking the Enable Wireless checkbox, clicking the Submit button, fol-
lowed by the Save and Restart link.
WPA Version Allowed
If you select either WPA-802.1x or WPA-PSK as your privacy setting, the WPA Version Allowed pull-down
menu appears to allow you to select the WPA version(s) that will be required for client connections. Choices
are:
WPA Version 1 and 2, for maximum interoperability,
WPA Version 1 Only, for backward compatibility,
WPA Version 2 Only, for maximum security.
All clients must support the version(s) selected in order to successfully connect.
Multiple SSIDs
The Multiple Wireless SSIDs feature allows you to add additional network identifiers (SSIDs or Network
Names) for your wireless network.
To enable Multiple Wireless SSIDs, click the Multiple SSIDs link.
When the Multiple Wireless SSIDs screen appears, check the Enable SSID checkbox for each SSID you
want to enable.
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The screen expands to allow you to name each additional Wireless ID, and specify a Privacy mode for each
one.
61
Privacy modes available from the pull-down menu for the multiple SSIDs are: WPA-PSK, WPA-802.1x, or
Off-No Privacy. WEP can also be selected on the additional SSIDs as long as it is not used on the primary
SSID. WEP can only be used on one SSID, so any others will not have WEP available.
These additional Wireless IDs are “Closed System Mode” Wireless IDs that will not be shown by a client
scan, and therefore must be manually configured at the client. In addition, wireless bridging between clients
is disabled for all members of these additional network IDs.
Click the Submit button.
After your first entry, the Alert icon will appear in the upper right corner of your screen. When you are
finished adding SSIDs, click the Alert icon, and Save your changes and restart the Gateway.
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WiFi Multimedia
WiFi Multimedia is an advanced feature that allows you to prioritize various types of data travelling over the
wireless network. Certain types of data that are sensitive to delays, such as voice or video, must be priori-
tized ahead of other, less delay-sensitive types, such as email.
WiFi Multimedia currently implements wireless Quality of Service (QoS) by transmitting data depending on
Diffserv priority settings. These priorities are mapped into four Access Categories (AC), in increasing order
of priority:
Background (BK),
Best Effort (BE),
Video (VI), and
Voice (VO).
It requires WiFi Multimedia (WMM)-capable clients, usually a separate feature enabled at the client network
settings, and client PC software that makes use of Differentiated Services (Diffserv). Refer to your operat-
ing system instructions for enabling Diffserv QoS..
When you click the WiFi Multimedia link the WiFi Multimedia page appears.
To enable the WiFi Multimedia custom settings, select Diffserv from the pull-down menu.
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The screen expands.
Router EDCA Parameters (Enhanced Distributed Channel Access) govern wireless data from your Gate-
way to the client; Client EDCA Parameters govern wireless data from the client to your Gateway.
NOTE:
It is not recommended that you modify these settings without direct knowledge or instructions
to do so. Modifying these settings inappropriately could seriously degrade network perfor-
mance.
AIFs: (Arbitration Interframe Spacing) the wait time in milliseconds for data frames.
cwMin: (Minimum Contention Window) upper limit in milliseconds of the range for determining initial ran-
dom backoff. The value you choose must be lower than cwMax.
cwMax: (Maximum Contention Window) upper limit in milliseconds of the range of determining final ran-
dom backoff. The value you choose must be higher than cwMin.
TXOP Limit: Time interval in microseconds that clients may initiate transmissions.
(When Operating Mode is B-only, default values are used and this field is not configurable.)
Wireless MAC Authorization
Wireless MAC Authorization allows you to specify which client PCs are allowed to join the wireless LAN by
specific hardware address. Once it is enabled, only entered MAC addresses that have been set to Allow will
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be accepted onto the wireless LAN. All unlisted addresses will be blocked, in addition to the listed
addresses with Allow disabled.
To enable Wireless MAC Authentication, click the MAC Authorization link.
When the Wireless MAC Authentication screen appears, check the Enable Wireless MAC Authorization
checkbox:
The screen expands as follows:
Click the Add button. The Authorized Wireless MAC Address Entry screen appears.
Enter the MAC (hardware) address of the client PC you want to authorize for access to your wireless LAN.
The Allow Access? checkbox is enabled by default. Unchecking this checkbox specifically denies access
from this MAC address. Click the Submit button.
Note:
When MAC Authorization is enabled, all wireless clients are blocked until their MAC addresses
65
are added to the Authorized list.
Your entry will be added to a list of up to 32 authorized addresses as shown:
You can continue to Add, Edit, or Delete addresses to the list by clicking the respective buttons.
After your first entry, the Alert icon will appear in the upper right corner of your screen. When you
are finished adding addresses to the list, click the Alert icon, and Save your changes and restart the Gate-
way.
Use RADIUS Server
RADIUS servers allow external authentication of users by means of a remote authentication database. The
remote authentication database is maintained by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
server. In conjunction with Wireless User Authentication, you can use a RADIUS server database to authen-
ticate users seeking access to the wireless services, as well as the authorized user list maintained locally
within the Gateway.
If you click the RADIUS link, the screen expands to allow you to enter your RADIUS server information.
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66
RADIUS Server Addr/Name: The default RADIUS server name or IP address that you want to use.
RADIUS Server Secret: The RADIUS secret key used by this server. The shared secret should have the
same characteristics as a normal password.
RADIUS Server Port: The port on which the RADIUS server is listening, typically, the default 1812.
Click the Submit button.
You can also configure alternate RADIUS servers from the Advanced Network Configuration page, by clicking
the Advanced link.
The Advanced Network Configuration page appears.
You access the RADIUS Server configuration screen from the Advanced Network Configuration web page, by
clicking the RADIUS Server link.
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Link: WAN
When you click the WAN link, the WAN IP configuration page appears. This page varies depending on the
WAN interface of your Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
WAN IP Interfaces: Your IP interfaces are listed.
PPP over Ethernet interface
Click the PPP over Ethernet link to configure it.
The WAN IP Interface page appears.
Enable Interface: You can disable the interface by unchecking the checkbox. However, doing so will dis-
able all ability for your LAN users to connect to the WAN using the Gateway.
Address Mapping (NAT): Specifies whether you want the Gateway to use network address translation
(NAT) when communicating with remote routers. NAT lets you conceal details of your network from remote
routers. By default, address mapping is enabled.
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Restrictions: This setting determines the types of traffic the Gateway accepts from the WAN. Admin Dis-
abled means that Gateway traffic is accepted but administrative commands are ignored. None means that
all traffic is accepted. When PPP is enabled, Admin Disabled is the default.
DHCP/PPPoE/PPPoA Autosensing:
The pull-down menu allows
you to select an autosens-
ing feature, or to disable it.
Selecting between PPPoE/
DHCP or PPPoE/PPPoA
enables automatic sensing
of your WAN connection
type. If you select PPPoE/
DHCP, the gateway
attempts to connect using
PPPoE first. If the Gateway
fails to connect after 60 seconds, it switches to DHCP. As soon as it can connect via DHCP, the Gateway
chooses and sets DHCP as its default. Otherwise, after attempting to connect via DHCP for 60 seconds,
the Gateway switches back to PPPoE. The Gateway will continue to switch back and forth in this manner
until it successfully connects. Similarly, selecting PPPoE/PPPoA causes the Gateway to attempt to con-
nect by trying these protocols in parallel, and using the first one that is successful. If you choose to disable
the feature, select Off.
ISP Username: This is the username used to authenticate your Gateway with the Service Provider's net-
work. This value is given to you by your Service Provider.
ISP Password: This is the password used to authenticate your Gateway with the Service Provider's net-
work. This value is given to you by your Service Provider.
Connection Type: The pull-down menu allows you to choose to have either an uninterrupted connection or
an as-needed connection.
Always On: This setting provides convenience, but it leaves your network permanently connected to
the Internet.
Instant On furnishes almost all the benefits of an Always On connection, but has additional security
benefits:
- Your network cannot be attacked when it is not connected.
- Your network may change address with each connection, making it more difficult to attack.
Timeout: (only appears if Instant-On Connection Type is selected) Specifies the time in seconds before dis-
connect if there is no traffic over the Internet link.
69
Advanced:
If you click the Advanced link, the Advanced WAN IP Interface configuration page appears.
Local Address: If this value is 0.0.0.0, the Gateway
will acquire its IP address from your ISP. Otherwise
this address is assigned to the virtual PPP interface.
Peer Address: Address of the server on the Service
Provider side of the ppp link. This peer will attempt to
negotiate the local IP address if IP Address =
0.0.0.0. If the remote peer does not accept the IP
address, the link will not come up.
RIP Receive Mode: Routing Information Protocol
(RIP) is needed if there are IP routers on other seg-
ments of your Ethernet network that the Motorola
Netopia® Gateway needs to recognize. Set to Off,
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 will not
accept information from either RIP-1 nor RIP-2 rout-
ers. With Receive RIP Mode set to RIP-1, the Motor-
ola Netopia® Gateway will accept routing information
provided by RIP packets from other routers that use
the same subnet mask. Set to RIP-2, Netopia
Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 will accept routing
information provided by RIP packets from other rout-
ers that use different subnet masks.
From the pull-down menu, choose Off, RIP-1, RIP-2,
RIP-1 compatibility, or RIP-2 with MD5.
RIP Receive MD5 Key: (Only appears if RIP-2 with
MD5 RIP Receive Mode is selected) The purpose of MD5 authentication is to provide an additional level of
confidence that a RIP packet received was generated by a reliable source. In other words, MD5 authentica-
tion provides an enhanced level of security that information that your PC receives does not originate from a
malicious source posing as part of your network. This field allows you to enter an MD5 encryption key of
from 1 – 16 ASCII characters for authenticating RIP receipts.
Multicast Forward: If you check this checkbox, this interface acts as an IGMP proxy host, and IGMP pack-
ets are transmitted and received on this interface on behalf of IGMP hosts on the LAN interface.
IGMP Null Source Address: If you check this checkbox, the source IP address of every IGMP packet trans-
mitted from this interface is set to 0.0.0.0. This complies with the requirements of TR-101, and removes
the need for a publicly advertised IP address on the WAN interface. This checkbox is only available if “Mul-
ticast Forward” is checked.
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LCP Settings:
Authentication: Select Off, PAP and/or CHAP, PAP only, or CHAP only from the pull-down menu. The
settings for port authentication on the Gateway must match the authentication expected by the remote sys-
tem. The username and passwords are available on the WAN IP Interfaces page.
MRU: Specifies the Maximum Receive Unit for the PPP Interface.
Magic Number: Enables or disables LCP magic number negotiation.
Protocol Compression: Specifies whether you want the Gateway to compress the PPP Protocol field when
it transmits datagrams over the PPP link.
LCP Echo Requests: Specifies whether you want your Gateway to send LCP echo requests. You should
turn off LCP echoing if you do not want the Gateway to drop a PPP link to a nonresponsive peer.
Max Failures: Specifies the maximum number of Configure-NAK messages the PPP module can send with-
out having sent a Configure-ACK message.
Max Configures: Specifies the maximum number of unacknowledged configuration requests that your
Gateway will send.
Max Terminates: Specifies the maximum number of unacknowledged termination requests that your Gate-
way will send before terminating the PPP link.
Restart Timer: The number of seconds the Gateway should wait before retransmitting a configuration or
termination request.
Click the Submit button when you are finished.
Ethernet WAN interface
Click the Ethernet WAN link to configure it.
71
The WAN IP Interface page appears.
Enable Interface: You can disable the interface by unchecking the checkbox. However, doing so will dis-
able all ability for your LAN users to connect to the WAN using the Gateway.
Obtain IP Address Automatically: Your service provider may tell you that the WAN IP Address for your
Gateway is static. In this case, disable this checkbox and enter the IP Address and IP Netmask from your
Service Provider in the appropriate fields.
IP Address: This is the IP Address from your Service Provider when using static IP addressing.
IP Netmask: This is the Netmask from your Service Provider when using static IP addressing.
NOTE:
Beginning with Firmware Version 7.7, you can now run an IPoE interface without an IP address
(“unnumbered” interface), if you un-check “Obtain IP Address Automatically” and set the IP
Address to 0.
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Address Mapping (NAT): Specifies whether you want the Gateway to use network address translation
(NAT) when communicating with remote routers. NAT lets you conceal details of your network from remote
routers. By default, address mapping is enabled.
Restrictions: This setting determines the types of traffic the Gateway accepts from the WAN. Admin Dis-
abled means that Gateway traffic is accepted but administrative commands are ignored. None means that
all traffic is accepted. Admin Disabled is the default.
Advanced:
If you click the Advanced link the Advanced WAN IP Interface configuration page appears.
RIP Receive Mode: Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
is needed if there are IP routers on other segments of
your Ethernet network that the Motorola Netopia® Gate-
way needs to recognize. Set to Off, Netopia Embedded
Software Version 7.7.4 will not accept information from
either RIP-1 nor RIP-2 routers. With Receive RIP Mode
set to RIP-1, the Motorola Netopia® Gateway will
accept routing information provided by RIP packets from
other routers that use the same subnet mask. Set to
RIP-2, Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 will
accept routing information provided by RIP packets from
other routers that use different subnet masks.
From the pull-down menu, choose Off, RIP-1, RIP-2, RIP-1 compatibility, or RIP-2 with MD5.
Enable Proxy ARP: Checking the checkbox will enable the Gateway to respond when it receives an
Address Resolution Protocol message for devices behind it.
Multicast Forward: If you check this checkbox, this interface acts as an IGMP proxy host, and IGMP pack-
ets are transmitted and received on this interface on behalf of IGMP hosts on the LAN interface.
IGMP Null Source Address: If you check this checkbox, the source IP address of every IGMP packet trans-
mitted from this interface is set to 0.0.0.0. This complies with the requirements of TR-101, and removes
the need for a publicly advertised IP address on the WAN interface. This checkbox is only available if “Mul-
ticast Forward” is checked.
IP Gateway
Enable Gateway Option: You can configure the Gateway to send packets to a default gateway if it does
not know how to reach the destination host.
Interface Type: If you have PPPoE enabled, you can specify that packets destined for unknown hosts
will be sent to the gateway being used by the remote PPP peer. If you select ip-address, you must enter
the IP address of a host on a local or remote network to receive the traffic.
Default Gateway: The IP Address of the default gateway.
Other WAN Options
PPPoE: You can enable or disable PPPoE. This link also allows configuration of NAT, admin restrictions,
PPPoE username/password, and connection type.
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WAN Ethernet and VDSL Gateways
To allow for concurrent PPPoE and IPoE support on WAN Ethernet Gateways, including VDSL units,
PPPoE with IPoE is available on the PPPoE configuration page. Checking the checkbox will provide this
concurrent support. When you enable PPPoE with IPoE, the additional WAN interface becomes available
for configuration.
NOTE:
Enabling pppoe-with-ipoe disables support for multiple PPPoE sessions.
ADSL Gateways
ATM Circuits: You can configure the ATM circuits and the number of Sessions. The IP Inter face(s)
should be reconfigured after making changes here.
Available Encapsulation types: Available Multiplexing types:
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) LLC/SNAP
PPP over ATM (PPPoA) VC muxed
RFC-1483 Bridged Ethernet
RFC-1483 Routed IP
None
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Your Motorola Netopia® ADSL Gateway supports VPI/VCI autodetection by default. If VPI/VCI autodetec-
tion is enabled, the ATM Circuits page displays VPI/VCI = 0. If you configure a new ATM VPI/VCI pair,
upon saving and restarting, autodetection is disabled and only the new VPI/VCI pair configuration will be
enabled.
VPI/VCI Autodetection consists of eight static VPI/VCI pair configurations. These are 0/35, 8/35, 0/32,
8/32, 1/35, 1/1, 1/32, 2/32. These eight VPI/VCI pairs will be created if the Gateway is configured for
autodetection. the Gateway does not establish a circuit using any of these preconfigured VPI/VCI pairs,
then you can manually enter a VPI/VCI pair in the ATM Circuits page.
PPPoE with IPoE: For ADSL Gateways, you must configure two VCCs with the same VPI/VCI settings to
provide concurrent PPPoE with IPoE support.
You must use fixed VPI/VCI values for PPPoE with IPoE. You cannot have both VPI/VCI values set to 0/0;
autodetection does not work in this mode.
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Once the VCCs have been configured,
the WAN IP Interfaces screen displays
the additional interface which you can
then configure as required.
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ATM Traffic Shaping: You can prioritize delay-sensitive data by configuring the Quality of Service (QoS)
characteristics of the virtual circuit. Click the ATM Traffic Shaping link.
You can choose UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate), CBR (Constant Bit Rate), or VBR (Variable Bit Rate) from the
pull-down menu and set the Peak Cell Rate (PCR) in the editable field.
UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) guarantees no minimum transmission rate. Cells are transmitted on a
“best effort” basis. However, there is a cap on the maximum transmission rate for UBR VCs. In a practi-
cal situation:
• UBR VCs should be transmitted at a priority lower than CBR.
• Bandwidth should be shared equally among UBR VCs.
UBR applications are non-real-time traffic such as IP data traffic.
CBR (Constant Bit Rate) guarantees a certain transmission rate (although the application may
underutilize this bandwidth). A Peak Cell Rate (PCR) characterizes CBR. CBR is most suited for real time
applications such as real time voice / video, although it can be used for other applications.
VBR (Variable Bit Rate) This class is characterized by:
• a Peak Cell Rate (PCR), which is a temporary burst, not a sustained rate, and
• a Sustained Cell Rate (SCR),
• a Burst Tolerance (BT), specified in terms of Maximum Burst Size (MBS). The MBS is the maximum
number of cells that can be transmitted at the peak cell rate and should be less than, or equal to the
Peak Cell Rate, which should be less than, or equal to the line rate.
VBR has two sub-classes:
a. VBR non-real-time (VBR-nrt): Typical applications are non-real-time traffic, such as IP data traffic. This
class yields a fair amount of Cell Delay Variation (CDV).
b. VBR real time (VBR-rt): Typical applications are real-time traffic, such as compressed voice over IP
and video conferencing. This class transmits cells with a more tightly bounded Cell Delay Variation. The
applications follow CBR.
Note:
The difference between VBR-rt and VBR-nrt is the tolerated Cell Delay Variation range and the
provisioned Maximum Burst Size.
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Class PCR SCR MBS Transmit Priority Comments
UBR X N/A N/A Low PCR is a cap
CBR X N/A N/A High PCR is a guaranteed rate
VBR X X X High PCR > SCR.
SCR is a guaranteed rate.
PCR is a cap.
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Link: Advanced
Selected Advanced options are discussed in the pages that follow. Many are self-explanatory or are dic-
tated by your service provider.
The following are typical links under Configure -> Advanced (some models offer other links):
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Link: IP Static Routes
A static route identifies a manually configured pathway to a remote network. Unlike dynamic routes, which
are acquired and confirmed periodically from other routers, static routes do not time out. Consequently,
static routes are useful when working with PPP, since an intermittent PPP link may make maintenance of
dynamic routes problematic.
When you click the Static Routes link, the IP Static Routes page appears.
You can configure as many as 32 static IP routes for the Gateway. To add a static route, click the Add but-
ton.
The IP Static Route Entry page appears.
Destination Network: Enter the IP address of the static route. It may not be 0.0.0.0.
Netmask: Enter the subnet mask for the IP network at the other end of the static route. The subnet
mask associated with the destination network must represent the same network class (A, B, or C) or a
lower class (such as a class C subnet mask or class B network number) to be valid.
Interface Type: Choose PPP (vcc1) – depending on the interface; typically vcc1 for DSL – or IP Address
from the pull-down menu to specify whether the static route is accessible through PPP or IP address.
Gateway: Enter the IP address of the gateway for the static route. The default gateway must be located
on a network connected to your Motorola Netopia® Gateway configured interface.
Metric: Specifies the hop count for the static route. Enter a number from 1 to 15 to indicate the number
of routes (actual or best guess) a packet must traverse to reach the remote network. Some metric or a
value of 1 will be used to indicate:
• The remote network is one router away and the static route is the best way to
reach it.
• The remote network is more than one router away but the static route should not
be replaced by a dynamic route, even if the dynamic route is more efficient.
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RIP Advertise: From the pull-down menu, choose how the static route should be advertised via RIP:
Split Horizon: Do not advertise route if the gateway is on the same subnet.
Always: Advertise route in all RIP messages.
Never: Do not advertise route.
Click the Submit button. The Alert icon will appear, so that you can switch to the Save Changes
page, when you are finished.
Once you save your changes, you will be returned to the IP Static Routes entry screen.
You can continue to Add, Edit, or Delete Static Routes from this screen.
When you are finished, click the Alert icon , switch to the Save Changes page, and click the Save
Changes link.
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Link: IP Static ARP
Your Gateway maintains a dynamic Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table to map IP addresses to Ether-
net (MAC) addresses. It populates this ARP table dynamically, by retrieving IP address/MAC address pairs
only when it needs them. Optionally, you can define static ARP entries to map IP addresses to their corre-
sponding Ethernet MAC addresses. Unlike dynamic ARP table entries, static ARP table entries do not time
out. The IP address cannot be 0.0.0.0. The Ethernet MAC address entry is in nn-nn-nn-nn-nn-nn (hexadeci-
mal) format.
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Link: Pinholes
Pinholes allow you to transparently route selected types of network traffic, such as FTP requests or HTTP
(Web) connections, to a specific host behind the Gateway. Creating a pinhole allows access traffic originat-
ing from a remote connection (WAN) to be sent to the internal computer (LAN) that is specified in the Pin-
hole page.
Pinholes are common for applications like multiplayer online games. Refer to software manufacturer appli-
cation documentation for specific traffic types and port numbers.
Configure Specific Pinholes. Planning for Your Pinholes. Determine if any of the service
applications that you want to provide on your LAN stations use TCP or UDP protocols. If an application does,
then you must configure a pinhole to implement port forwarding. This is accessed from the Advanced ->
Pinholes page.
Example: A LAN Requiring Three Pinholes . The procedure on the following pages describes
how you set up your NAT-enabled Motorola Netopia® Gateway to support three separate applications. This
requires passing three kinds of specific IP traffic through to your LAN.
Application 1
: You have a Web server located on your LAN behind your Motorola Netopia® Gateway and
would like users on the Internet to have access to it. With NAT “On”, the only externally visible IP address
on your network is the Gateway’s WAN IP (supplied by your Service Provider). All traffic intended for that LAN
Web server must be directed to that IP address.
Application 2
: You want one of your LAN stations to act as the “central repository” for all email for all of
the LAN users.
Application 3
: One of your LAN stations is specially configured for game applications. You want this spe-
cific LAN station to be dedicated to games.
A sample table to plan the desired pinholes is:
For this example, Internet protocols TCP and UDP must be passed through the NAT security feature and the
Gateway’s embedded Web (HTTP) port must be re-assigned by configuring new settings on the Internal
Servers page.
WAN Traffic Type Protocol Pinhole Name LAN Internal IP
Address
Web TCP my-webserver 192.168.1.1
Email TCP my-mailserver 192.168.1.2
Games UDP my-games 192.168.1.3
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TIPS for making Pinhole Entries:
1. If the port forwarding feature is required for Web services, ensure that the embedded Web
server’s port number is re-assigned PRIOR to any Pinhole data entry.
2. Enter data for one Pinhole at a time.
3. Use a unique name for each Pinhole. If you choose a duplicate name, it will overwrite the
previous information without warning.
A diagram of this LAN example is:
You can also use the LAN-side address of the Gateway, 192.168.1.x:8100 to access the web and
192.168.1.x:23 to access the telnet server.
WAN
LAN
Ethernet
Interface
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
my-webserver
my-mailserver
my-games
Gateway
NAT
NAT Pinholes
Embedded
Web Server
210.219.41.20
210.219.41.20:8100
Ethernet
Interface
Internet
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Pinhole Configuration Procedure. Use the following steps:
1. From the Configure toolbar button -> Advanced link, select the Internal Servers link.
Since Port Forwarding is required for this example, the Motorola Netopia® embedded Web server is con-
figured first.
NOTE:
The two text boxes, Web (HTTP) Server Port and Telnet Server Port, on this page refer to
the port numbers of the Motorola Netopia® Gateway’s embedded administration ports.
To pass Web traffic through to your LAN station(s), select a Web (HTTP) Port number that is greater than
1024. In this example, you choose 8100.
2. Type 8100 in the Web (HTTP) Server Port text box.
3. Click the Submit button.
4. Click Advanced. Select the Pinholes link to go to the Pinhole page.
5. Click Add. Type your specific data into the Pinhole Entries table of this page. Click Sub-
mit.
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6. Click on the Add or Edit more Pinholes link. Click the Add button. Add the next Pinhole.
Type the specific data for the second Pinhole.
7. Click on the Add or Edit more Pinholes link. Click the Add button. Add the next Pinhole.
Type the specific data for the third Pinhole.
NOTE:
Note the following parameters for the “my-games” Pinhole:
1. The Protocol ID is UDP.
2. The external port is specified as a range.
3. The Internal port is specified as the lower range entry.
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8. Click on the Add or Edit more Pinholes link. Review your entries to be sure they are cor-
rect.
9. Click the Alert icon.
10. Click the Save and Restart link to complete the entire Pinhole creation task and ensure
that the parameters are properly saved.
NOTE:
REMEMBER: When you have re-assigned the port address for the embedded Web server, you
can still access this facility.
Use the Gateway’s WAN address plus the new port number.
In this example it would be
<WAN Gateway address>:<new port number> or, in this case, 210.219.41.20:8100
You can also use the LAN-side address of the Gateway, 192.168.1.x:8100 to access the web
and 192.168.1.x:23 to access the telnet server.
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Link: IPMaps
IPMaps supports one-to-one Network Address Translation (NAT) for IP addresses assigned to servers,
hosts, or specific computers on the LAN side of the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
A single static or dynamic (DHCP) WAN IP address must be assigned to support other devices on the LAN.
These devices utilize Motorola Netopia®’s default NAT/PAT capabilities.
Configure the IPMaps Feature
FAQs for the IPMaps Feature
Before configuring an example of an IPMaps-enabled network, review these frequently asked questions.
What are IPMaps and how are they used? The IPMaps feature allows multiple static WAN IP
addresses to be assigned to the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
Static WAN IP addresses are used to support specific services, like a web server, mail server, or DNS
server. This is accomplished by mapping a separate static WAN IP address to a specific internal LAN IP
address. All traffic arriving at the Gateway intended for the static IP address is transferred to the internal
device. All outbound traffic from the internal device appears to originate from the static IP address.
Locally hosted servers are supported by a public IP address while LAN users behind the NAT-enabled IP
address are protected.
IPMaps is compatible with the use of NAT, with either a statically assigned IP address or DHCP/PPP served
IP address for the NAT table.
What types of servers are supported by IPMaps? IPMaps allows a Motorola Netopia® Gate-
way to support servers behind the Gateway, for example, web, mail, FTP, or DNS servers. VPN servers are
not supported at this time.
Can I use IPMaps with my PPPoE or PPPoA connection? Yes. IPMaps can be assigned to
the WAN interface provided they are on the same subnet. Service providers will need to ensure proper
routing to all IP addresses assigned to your WAN interface.
Will IPMaps allow IP addresses from different subnets to be assigned to my Gate-
way? IPMap will support statically assigned WAN IP addresses from the same subnet.
WAN IP addresses from different subnets are not supported.
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IPMaps Block Diagram
The following diagram shows the IPMaps principle in conjunction with existing Motorola Netopia® NAT oper-
ations:
NAT/PAT Table
143.137.50.37
143.137.50.36
143.137.50.35
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.n
192.168.1.3
192.168.1.2
...
...
Motorola Netopia® Gateway
Static IP Addresses
for IPMaps Applications
143.137.50.37
143.137.50.36
143.137.50.35
Static IP Addresses
or
DHCP/PPP Served IP Address
for Netopia’s default NAT/PAT
Capabilities
IPMaps:
One-to-One
Multiple Address Mapping
LAN stations with WAN IP traffic
forwarded by Netopia’s IPMaps
LAN stations with WAN IP traffic
forwarded by Netopia’s NAT function.
WAN Interface LAN Interface
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
192.168.1.n
.
.
.
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Link: Default Server
This feature allows you to:
Direct your Gateway to forward all externally initiated IP traffic (TCP and UDP protocols only) to a default
host on the LAN.
Enable it for certain situations:
– Where you cannot anticipate what port number or packet protocol an in-bound application might
use. For example, some network games select arbitrary port numbers when a connection is
opened.
– When you want all unsolicited traffic to go to a specific LAN host.
Configure for IP Passthrough.
Configure a Default Server. This feature allows you to direct unsolicited or non-specific traffic to a
designated LAN station. With NAT “On” in the Gateway, these packets normally would be discarded.
For instance, this could be application traffic where you don’t know (in advance) the port or protocol that
will be used. Some game applications fit this profile.
Use the following steps to setup a NAT default server to receive this information:
1. Select the Configure toolbar button, then Advanced, then the Default Server link.
2. From the pull-down menu, select Default-Server.
The NAT Server IP Address field appears.
3. Determine the IP address of the LAN computer you have chosen to receive the unex-
pected or unknown traffic.
Enter this address in the NAT Server IP Address field.
4. Click the Submit button.
5. Click the Alert button.
6. Click the Save and Restart link to confirm.
Typical Network Diagram. A typical network using the NAT Default Server looks like this:
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You can also use the LAN-side address of the Gateway, 192.168.1.x to access the web and telnet server.
NAT Combination Application. Motorola Netopia®’s NAT security feature allows you to configure a
sophisticated LAN layout that uses both the Pinhole and Default Server capabilities.
With this topology, you configure the embedded administration ports as a first task, followed by the Pin-
holes and, finally, the NAT Default Server.
When using both NAT pinholes and NAT Default Server the Gateway works with the following rules (in
sequence) to forward traffic from the Internet to the LAN:
1. If the packet is a response to an existing connection created by outbound traffic from a
LAN PC, forward to that station.
2. If not, check for a match with a pinhole configuration and, if one is found, forward the
packet according to the pinhole rule.
3. If there’s no pinhole, the packet is forwarded to the Default Server.
IP-Passthrough. Your Gateway offers an IP passthrough feature. The IP passthrough feature allows a
single PC on the LAN to have the Gateway’s public address assigned to it. It also provides PAT (NAPT) via
the same public IP address for all other hosts on the private LAN subnet. Using IP passthrough:
The public WAN IP is used to provide IP address translation for private LAN computers.
The public WAN IP is assigned and reused on a LAN computer.
WAN
LAN
Ethernet
Interface
192.168.1.3
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.1
LAN STN #3
LAN STN #2
NAT Default Server
Gateway
NAT
NAT Default
Embedded
Web Server
210.219.41.20
210.219.41.20
(Port 80 default)
NAT protected
Ethernet
Interface
Internet
Server
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DHCP address serving can automatically serve the WAN IP address to a LAN computer.
When DHCP is used for addressing the designated passthrough PC, the acquired or configured WAN
address is passed to DHCP, which will dynamically configure a single-servable-address subnet, and
reserve the address for the configured MAC address. This dynamic subnet configuration is based on the
local and remote WAN address and subnet mask. If the WAN interface does not have a suitable subnet
mask that is usable, for example when using PPP or PPPoE, the DHCP subnet configuration will default
to a class C subnet mask.
If you want to manually assign the WAN address to a LAN PC, do not check the DHCP Enable checkbox.
If you check the DHCP Enable checkbox, the screen expands.
The Host Hardware Address field displays. Here you enter the MAC address of the designated IP-
Passthrough computer.
If this MAC address is not all zeroes, then it will use DHCP to set the LAN host's address to the (config-
ured or acquired) WAN IP address.
The MAC address must be six colon-delimited or dash-delimited sets of hex digits ('0' – 'FF').
If you leave the MAC address as zeros then the first DHCP client will be assigned the WAN address.
Once configured, the passthrough host's DHCP leases will be shortened to two minutes. This allows for
timely updates of the host's IP address, which will be a private IP address before the WAN connection is
established. After the WAN connection is established and has an address, the passthrough host can renew
its DHCP address binding to acquire the WAN IP address.
A restriction. Since both the Gateway and the passthrough host will use the same IP address, new ses-
sions that conflict with existing sessions will be rejected by the Gateway. For example, suppose you are a
teleworker using an IPSec tunnel from the Gateway and from the passthrough host. Both tunnels go to the
same remote endpoint, such as the VPN access concentrator at your employer’s office. In this case, the
first one to start the IPSec traffic will be allowed; the second one – since, from the WAN, it's indistinguish-
able – will fail.
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Link: Differentiated Services
When you click the Differentiated Services link, the Differentiated Services configuration screen
appears.
Differentiated Services (Diffserv) allow your Gateway to make Quality of Service (QoS) decisions about
what path Internet traffic, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), should travel across your network. For example, you
may want streaming video conferencing to use high quality, but more restrictive, connections, or, you might
want e-mail to use less restrictive, but less reliable, connections.
VDSL and Bonded ADSL models display this screen:
Most other models display this screen:
To enable Differentiated Services, check the Enable checkbox.
(Not displayed on VDSL and Bonded ADSL models) Enter a value from 60 to 100 (percent) in the Low-
High Priority Ratio field. The default is 92.
Differentiated Services uses the low-to-high priority queue ratio to regulate traffic flow. For example, to
provide the least possible latency and highest possible throughput for high priority traffic, you could set
the ratio to 100(%). This would cause the gateway to forward low priority data only after the high priority
queue is completely empty. In practice, you should set it to something less than 100%, since the low pri-
ority traffic might have to wait too long to be passed, and consequently be subject to time-outs.
Click the Submit button.
You can then define Custom Flows. If your applications do not provide Quality of Service (QoS) control, Cus-
tom Flows allows you to define streams for some protocols, port ranges, and between specific end point
addresses.
93
To define a custom flow, click the Add button.
The Custom Flow Entry screen appears.
• Name – Enter a name in this field to label the flow.
• Protocol – Select the protocol from the pull-down
menu: TCP (default), UDP, ICMP, or Other. “Other” is
appropriate for setting up flows on protocols with non-
standard port definitions. IPSEC and PPTP are common
examples.
• Numerical Protocol – If you select “Other” protocol,
this field appears for you to provide its actual protocol
number, with a range of 0 – 255.
• Direction – Choose Outbound (default), Inbound, or
Both from the pull-down menu.
• Start Port – For TCP or UDP protocols, you can option-
ally specify a range of ports. Enter the starting port here.
• End Port – Enter the ending port here.
• Inside IP Address/Netmask – For outbound flows,
specify an IP address/netmask on your LAN. For inbound
flows, this setting is ignored. This setting marks packets
from this LAN IP host/network based on the address and
netmask information. For outbound flows, the Inside IP
Address/Netmask is the source address. If you enter a
zero IP address (0.0.0.0), the IP address/netmask fields
will be ignored.
• Outside IP Address/Netmask – If you want traffic destined for and originating from a certain WAN IP
address to be controlled, enter the IP address and subnet mask here. If you leave the default all-zeroes,
the outside address check is ignored.
For outbound flows, the outside address is the destination IP address for traffic; for inbound packets,
the outside address is the source IP address.
Note:
When setting the Inside/Outside IP Address/Netmask settings, note that a netmask value can be used
to configure for a network rather than a single IP address.
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• Quality of Service (QoS) – This is the Quality of Service setting for the flow, based on the TOS bit
information. Select Expedite, Assure, or Off (default) from the pull-down menu. The following table out-
lines the TOS bit settings and behavior:
QoS Setting TOS Bit Value Behavior
Off TOS=000 This custom flow is disabled. You can activate it by selecting one
of the two settings below. This setting allows you to pre-define
flows without actually activating them.
Assure TOS=001 Use normal queuing and throughput rules, but do not drop pack-
ets if possible. Appropriate for applications with no guaranteed
delivery mechanism.
Expedite TOS=101 Use minimum delay. Appropriate for VoIP and video applications.
Network Control TOS=111 Use highest possible priority.
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Link: DNS
Your Service Provider may maintain a Domain Name server. If you have the information for the DNS serv-
ers, enter it on the DNS page. If your Gateway is configured to use DHCP to obtain its WAN IP address, the
DNS information is automatically obtained from that same DHCP Server.
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Link: DHCP Server
Your Gateway can provide network configuration information to computers on your LAN, using the Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
If you already have a DHCP server on your LAN, you should turn this service off.
If you want the Gateway to provide this service, select Server from the Server Mode pull-down menu,
then configure the range of IP addresses that you would like the Gateway to hand out to your computers.
You can also specify the length of time the computers can use the configuration information; DHCP calls
this period the lease time.
Your Service Provider may, for certain services, want to provide configuration from its DHCP servers to the
computers on your LANs. In this case, the Gateway will relay the DHCP requests from your computers to a
DHCP server in the Service Provider's network.
Select Relay-agent and enter the IP address of the Service Provider's DHCP server in the Server Address
field. This address is furnished by the Service Provider.
NOTE:
The relay-agent option only works when NAT is off and the Gateway is in router mode.
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Link: RADIUS Server
RADIUS servers allow external authentication of users by means of a remote authentication database. The
remote authentication database is maintained by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
server. In conjunction with Wireless User Authentication, you can use a RADIUS server database to authen-
ticate users seeking access to the wireless services, as well as the authorized user list maintained locally
within the Gateway.
If you click the RADIUS link, the RADIUS Servers screen appears.
RADIUS Server Addr/Name: The default RADIUS server name or IP address that you want to use.
RADIUS Server Secret: The RADIUS secret key used by this server. The shared secret should have the
same characteristics as a normal password.
RADIUS Server Port: The port on which the RADIUS server is listening, typically, the default 1812.
Click the Submit button.
You can also configure alternate RADIUS servers from the Wireless Configuration pages. See Use RADIUS
Server” on page 65 for more information.
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Link: SNMP
When you click the SNMP link, the SNMP configuration page appears.
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) lets a network administrator monitor problems on a net-
work by retrieving settings on remote network devices. The network administrator typically runs an SNMP
management station program on a local host to obtain information from an SNMP agent. In this case, the
Motorola Netopia® Gateway is an SNMP agent. Your Gateway supports SNMP-V1, with the exception of
most sets (read-only and traps), and SNMP-V2. (For certain parts of the NPAV2TRAP.MIB – parameters under
resNatParams, resDslParams, resSecParams – set is supported.)
You enter SNMP configuration information on this page. Your network administrator furnishes the SNMP
parameters.
WARNING:
SNMP presents you with a security issue. The community facility of SNMP behaves
somewhat like a password. The community “public” is a well-known community name.
It could be used to examine the configuration of your Gateway by your service provider
or an uninvited reviewer. The information can be read from the Gateway.
If you are strongly concerned about security, you may leave the “public” community
blank.
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The Notification Type pull-down menu allows you to configure the type of SNMP notifications that will be
generated:
v1 Trap – This selection will generate notifications containing an SNMPv1 Trap Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
v2 Trap – This selection will generate notifications containing an SNMPv2 Trap PDU
Inform – This selection will generate notifications containing an SNMPv2 InformRequest PDU.
To send SNMP traps, you must add IP addresses for each trap receiver you want to have. Click the Add
button.
The IP Trap Entry screen appears.
Enter an IP Trap Entry IP address. This is the destination for SNMP trap messages, the IP address of the
host acting as an SNMP console.
Click the Submit button. Click the Alert icon, and in the resulting page, click the Save and Restart link.
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Link: IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
Multicasting is a method for transmitting large amounts of information to many, but not all, computers
over an internet. One common use is to distribute real time voice, video, and data services to the set of
computers which have joined a distributed conference. Other uses include updating the address books of
mobile computer users in the field, or sending out company newsletters to a distribution list.
Since a router should not be used as a passive forwarding device, Motorola Netopia® Gateways use a pro-
tocol for forwarding multicasting: Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).
Motorola Netopia® Gateways support IGMP Version 1, Version 2, or, beginning with Motorola Netopia®
Firmware Version 7.7, Version 3.
See the “Advanced” option in “LAN” on page 49 for more information.
IGMP “Snooping” is a feature of Ethernet layer 2 switches that “listens in” on the IGMP conversation
between computers and multicast routers. Through this process, it builds a database of where the multi-
cast routers reside by noting IGMP general queries used in the querier selection process and by listening to
other router protocols.
From the host point of view, the snooping function listens at a port level for an IGMP report. The switch
then processes the IGMP report and starts forwarding the relevant multicast stream onto the host's port.
When the switch receives an IGMP leave message, it processes the leave message, and if appropriate
stops the multicast stream to that particular port. Basically, customer IGMP messages although processed
by the switch are also sent to the multicast routers.
In order for IGMP snooping to function with IGMP Version 3, it must always track the full source filter state
of each host on each group, as was previously done with Version 2 only when Fast Leave support was
enabled.
IGMP Version 3 supports:
IGMP Source Filtering: the ability for group memberships to incorporate source address filtering. This allows
“Source-Specific Multicast” (SSM). By adding source filtering, a Gateway that proxies IGMP can more selec-
tively join the specific multicast group for which there are interested LAN multicast receivers.
These features require no user configuration on the Gateway.
To configure IGMP options available in Motorola Netopia® Gateways, click the IGMP link.
101
The IGMP page appears.
You can set the following options:
IGMP Snooping – checking this checkbox enables the
Motorola Netopia® Gateway to “listen in” to IGMP traffic.
The Gateway discovers multicast group membership for
the purpose of restricting multicast transmissions to only
those ports which have requested them. This helps to
reduce overall network traffic from streaming media and
other bandwidth-intensive IP multicast applications.
Robustness – a way of indicating how sensitive to lost
packets the network is. IGMP can recover from robustness
minus 1 lost IGMP packet. The default value is 2.
Query Interval– the amount of time in seconds between
IGMP General Query messages sent by the querier gate-
way. The default query interval is 125 seconds.
Query Response Interval – the maximum amount of
time in tenths of a second that the IGMP router waits to
receive a response to a General Query message. The
default query response interval is 10 seconds and must
be less than the query interval.
Unsolicited Report Interval – the amount of time in
seconds between repetitions of a particular computer’s initial report of membership in a group. The
default unsolicited report interval is 10 seconds.
Querier Version – Select a version of the IGMP Querier from the pull-down menu: v1, v2, or v3. The
default v3 allows for backward compatibility mode with the earlier versions, and should not need to be
changed. However, for administrative purposes you may select either v1 or v2.
Last Member Query Interval – the amount of time in tenths of a second that the IGMP gateway waits
to receive a response to a Group-Specific Query message. The last member query interval is also the
amount of time in seconds between successive Group-Specific Query messages. The default last mem-
ber query interval is 1 second (10 deci-seconds).
Last Member Query Count – the number of Group-Specific Query messages sent before the gateway
assumes that there are no members of the host group being queried on this interface. The default last
member query count is 2.
Fast Leave – Checking this checkbox enables a non-standard expedited leave mechanism. The querier
keeps track of which client is requesting which channel by IP address. When a leave message is
received, the querier can check its internal table to see if there are any more clients on this group. If
there are none, it immediately sends an IGMP leave message to the upstream querier. By default, Fast
Leave is set to Off.
Log Enable – If you check this checkbox, all IGMP messages on both the LAN and the WAN will be
logged.
Wireless Multicast to Unicast conversion – This checkbox only appears if IGMP Snooping is
enabled. If you check this checkbox, the Gateway replaces the multicast MAC-address with the physical
MAC-address of the wireless client. If there is more than one wireless client interested in the same mul-
ticast group, the router will revert to multicasting the stream immediately. When one or more wireless
clients leave a group, and the router determines that only a single wireless client is interested in the
stream, it will once again unicast the stream.
Click the Submit button. Click the Alert icon, and in the resulting page, click the Save and Restart link.
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Link: UPnP
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP™) is a set of protocols that allows a PC to automatically discover other UPnP
devices (anything from an internet gateway device to a light switch), retrieve an XML description of the
device and its services, control the device, and subscribe to real-time event notification.
By default, UPnP is enabled on the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
For Windows XP users, the automatic discovery feature places an icon representing
the Motorola Netopia® Gateway automatically in the “My Network Places” folder.
Double-clicking this icon opens the Gateway’s web UI.
PCs using UPnP can retrieve the Gateway’s WAN IP address, and automatically cre-
ate NAT port maps. This means that applications that support UPnP, and are used
with a UPnP-enabled Motorola Netopia® Gateway, will not need application layer
gateway support on the Motorola Netopia® Gateway to work through NAT.
You can disable UPnP, if you are not using any UPnP devices or applications.
Uncheck the UPnP Enabled checkbox, and click the Submit button.
The Alert icon will appear in the upper right corner of the web page. Click the Alert icon, and when
prompted, click the Save and Restart link.
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Link: LAN Management
TR-064 is a LAN-side DSL Gateway configuration specification. It is an extension of UPnP. It defines more
services to locally manage the Motorola Netopia® Gateway. While UPnP allows open access to configure
the Gateway's features, TR-064 requires a password to execute any command that changes the Gateway's
configuration.
TR-064 is enabled by default. To disable it:
Uncheck the Enabled checkbox, and click the Submit button.
The Alert icon will appear in the upper right corner of the web page. Click the Alert icon, and when
prompted, click the Save and Restart link.
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Link: Ethernet Bridge
The Motorola Netopia® Gateway can be used as a bridge, rather than a router. A bridge is a device that
joins two networks. As an Internet access device, a bridge connects the home computer directly to the ser-
vice provider’s network equipment with no intervening routing functionality, such as Network Address Trans-
lation. Your home computer becomes just another address on the service provider’s network. In a DSL
connection, the bridge serves simply to convey the digital data information back and forth over your tele-
phone lines in a form that keeps it separate from your voice telephone signals.
If your service provider’s network is set up to provide your Internet connectivity via bridge mode, you can set
your Motorola Netopia® Gateway to be compatible.
Bridges let you join two networks, so that they appear to be part of the same physical network. As a bridge
for protocols other than TCP/IP, your Gateway keeps track of as many as 512 MAC (Media Access Control)
addresses, each of which uniquely identifies an individual host on a network. Your Gateway uses this bridg-
ing table to identify which hosts are accessible through which of its network interfaces. The bridging table
contains the MAC address of each packet it sees, along with the interface over which it received the
packet. Over time, the Gateway learns which hosts are available through its WAN port and/or its LAN port.
When configured in Bridge Mode, the Motorola Netopia® will act as a pass-through device and allow the
workstations on your LAN to have public addresses directly on the internet.
NOTE:
In this mode the Motorola Netopia® is providing NO firewall protection as is afforded by NAT.
Also, only the workstations that have a public address can access the internet. This can be
useful if you have multiple static public IPs on the LAN.
Bridging per WAN is supported in conjunction with VLANs – individual WANs can be bridged to the LAN only
if the WANs are part of a VLAN. (See “VLAN” on page 107 for more information.) The capability to bridge
individual VLANs is supported only if the underlying encapsulation is RFC1483-Bridged (ether-llc).
105
Configuring for Bridge Mode
1. Browse into the Motorola Netopia® Gateway’s web interface.
2. Click on the Configure button in the upper Menu bar.
3. Click on the LAN link.
The LAN page appears.
4. In the box titled LAN IP Interface (Ethernet
100BT):
Make note of the Ethernet IP Address and subnet mask.
You can use this address to access the router in the future.
5. Click on the Advanced link in the left-hand links
toolbar.
6. Under the heading of Services, click on the Ether-
net Bridge link.
The Ethernet Bridge page appears.
The appearance of this page varies, depending on your
Gateway’s interfaces.
7. If available:
a. Check the Enable Bridging on Port selection. (This
may be Always On.)
b. Click Submit.
8. If you want the Gateway to do both bridging
and routing, check the Enable Concurrent
Bridging/Routing checkbox.
When this mode is enabled, the Gateway will appear to
be a router, but also bridge traffic from the LAN if it has
a valid LAN-side address.
9. Check the Enable System Bridge checkbox.
The window shrinks.
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b. Click Submit.
At this point you should be ready to do the final save on the configuration
changes you have made.
The yellow Alert symbol will appear beneath the Help button on the right-hand
end of the menu bar.
10. Click on the Alert symbol and you will see whether your changes
have been validated.
11. If you are satisfied with the changes you have made, click Save and Restart in the Save
Database box to Apply changes and restart Gateway.
You have now configured your Motorola Netopia® Gateway for bridging, and it will bridge all traffic across
the WAN. You will need to make configurations to your machines on your LAN. These settings must be made
in accordance with your ISP. If you ever need to get back into the Motorola Netopia® Gateway again for
management reasons, you will need to manually configure your machine to be in the same subnet as the
Ethernet inter face of the Motorola Netopia®, since DHCP server is not operational in bridge mode.
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Link: VLAN
When you click the VLAN link the VLANs page appears.
Overview
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a network of computers or other devices that behave as if they are
connected to the same wire even though they may be physically located on different segments of a LAN.
You set up VLANs by configuring the Gateway software rather than hardware. This makes VLANs very flexi-
ble. VLANs behave like separate and independent networks.
Beginning with Version 7.7.4, VLANs are now strictly layer 2 entities. They can be thought of as virtual
Ethernet switches, into which can be added: Ethernet ports, router IP interfaces, ATM PVC/VCC interfaces,
SSIDs, and any other physical port such as USB, HPNA, or MOCA. This allows great flexibility on how the
components of a system are connected to each other.
VLANs are part of Motorola’s VGx Virtual Gateway technology which allows individual port-based VLANs to
be treated as separate and distinct “channels.” When data is passed to a Motorola Netopia VGx-enabled
broadband gateway, specific policies, routing, and prioritization parameters can be applied to each individ-
ual service, delivering that service to the appropriate peripheral device with the required level of quality of
service (QoS). In effect, a single Motorola gateway acts as separate virtual gateways for each distinct ser-
vice being delivered.
Motorola’s VGx technology maps multiple local VLANs to one or more specific permanent virtual circuits
(PVCs) for DSL, or wide area network VLANs for a fiber network. VGx provides service segmentation and
QoS controls, service management, and supports delivery of triple play applications: voice for IP Telephony,
video for IPTV, and data.
Your Gateway supports the following:
Port-based VLANs - these can be used when no trunking is required
Global VLANs - these are used when trunking is required on any port member of the VLAN
- Supports 802.1q and 802.1p; both are configurable
Routed VLANs
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- WAN-side VLAN with Multiple WAN IPoE interface support and IP interface-to-VLAN binding
- LAN-side VLAN with IP interface-to-VLAN binding
- Inter-VLAN routing
Bridged VLANs - these VLANs are used to bridge traffic from LAN to WAN
Prioritization per VLAN and per port
Ethernet Switching/Policy Setup
Before you configure any VLANs, the unconfigured Gateway is set up as a router composed of a LAN switch,
a WAN switch, and a router in the middle, with LAN and WAN IP interfaces connected to their respective
switches. These bindings between Ethernet switch ports, IP LAN interface, IP WAN interface and WAN phys-
ical ports are automatically created.
When you configure any VLANs, the default bindings are no longer valid, and the system requires explicit
binding between IP interfaces and layer 2 inter faces. Each VLAN can be thought of as a layer 2 switch, and
enabling each port or interface in a VLAN is analogous to plugging it in to the layer 2 switch.
Thereafter, in order for devices to communicate on layer 2, they must be associated in the same VLAN. For
devices to communicate at layer 3, the devices must be either on the same VLAN, or on VLANs that have an
Inter-VLAN routing group enabled in common.
When configuring VLANs you must define how traffic needs to be forwarded:
If traffic needs to be bridged between LAN and WAN you can create a single VLAN that encompasses the
WAN port and LAN ports.
If traffic needs to be routed then you must define four elements:
• LAN-side VLANs
• WAN-side VLANs
• Associate IP Interfaces to VLANs
• Inter-VLAN Routing Groups: configuration of routing between VLANs is done by association of a VLAN
to a Routing Group. Traffic will be routed between VLANs within a routing group. The LAN IP Ethernet
Interface can be bound to multiple LAN VLANs, but forwarding can be limited between an Ethernet LAN
port and a WAN VLAN if you properly configure Inter-VLAN groups.
Inter-VLAN groups are also used to block routing between WAN interfaces. If each WAN IP interface is
bound to its own VLAN and if you configure a different Inter-VLAN group for each WAN VLAN then no rout-
ing between WAN IP interfaces is possible.
Example: to route between a VCC and all the LAN ports, which effectively is similar to the default config-
uration without any VLANs:
Create a VLAN named "VccWan" consisting of vcc1, ip-vcc1, routing-group 1
Create a VLAN named "Lan" consisting of eth0.1, eth0.2, eth0.3, eth0.4, ssid1, ssid2, ssid3, ssid4
(etc.), ip-eth-a, routing-group 1
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An example of multiple VLANs, using a Motorola Netopia® Gateway with VGx managed switch technology, is
shown below:
A VLAN Model Combining Bridging and Routing
To configure VLANs check the Enable checkbox.
To create a VLAN select a list item from the main VLAN page and click the Edit button.
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The VLAN Entry page appears.
Check the Enable checkbox, and enter a descriptive name for the VLAN.
You can create up to 16 VLANs, and you can also restrict any VLAN, and the computers on it, from adminis-
tering the Gateway.
VLAN Name – A descriptive name for the VLAN.
Type – LAN or WAN Port(s) can be enabled on the VLAN. You can choose a type designation as follows:
By-Port: indicates that the VLAN is port-based. Traffic sent to this port will be treated as belonging to
the VLAN, and will not be forwarded to other ports that are not within a common VLAN segment.
Global indicates that the ports joining this VLAN are part of a global 802.1q Ethernet VLAN. This VLAN
includes ports on this Router and may include ports within other devices throughout the network. The
VID in this case may define the behavior of traffic between all devices on the network having ports that
are members of this VLAN segment.
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VLAN ID – If you select Global as the VLAN Type, the VLAN ID field appears for you to enter a VID. This
must be a unique identifying number between 1 and 4094. (A VID of zero (0) is permitted on the Ether-
net WAN port only.)
Admin Restricted – If you want to prevent administrative access to the Gateway from this VLAN, check
the checkbox.
802.1p Priority Bit: If you set this from the pull-down menu to a value greater than 0, all packets of this
VLAN with unmarked priority bits (pbits) will be re-marked to this priority.
Click the Submit button.
The VLAN Port Configuration screen appears.
Port interfaces available for this VLAN are listed in the left hand column.
Displayed port interfaces vary depending on the kinds of physical ports on your Gateway, for example,
Ethernet, USB, and/or wireless.
Also, if you have multiple wireless SSIDs defined, these may be displayed as well (See Enable Multiple
Wireless IDs on page 59)
For Motorola Netopia® VGx technology models, separate Ethernet switch ports are displayed and may
be configured.
To enable any of them on this VLAN, check the associated Enable checkbox(es).
Typically you will choose a physical port, such as an Ethernet port (example: eth0.1) or a wireless SSID
(example: ssid1).
When you enable an interface, the Tag, Priority, and Promote checkboxes and an 802.1p Priority Bit
pull-down menu appear for that interface.
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Tag – Packets transmitted from this port through this VLAN must be tagged with the VLAN VID. Packets
received through this port destined for this VLAN must be tagged with the VLAN VID by the source. The
Tag option is only available on Global type ports.
Priority – Use any 802.1p priority bits in the VLAN header to prioritize packets within the Gateway’s
internal queues, according to DiffServ priority mapping rules. See “Differentiated Services” on page 92
for more information.
Promote – Write any 802.1p priority bits into the IP-TOS header bit field for received IP packets on this
port destined for this VLAN. Write any IP-TOS priority bits into the 802.1p priority bit field for tagged IP
packets transmitted from this port for this VLAN.
All mappings between Ethernet 802.1p and IP-TOS are made according to a pre-defined QoS mapping
policy. The pre-defined mapping can now be set in the CLI. See Queue Configuration” on page 271. See
also “Differentiated Services” on page 92 for more information.
802.1p Priority Bit – If you set this field to a value greater than 0, all packets received on this port with
unmarked priority bits (pbits) will be re-marked to this priority. If the port 802.1p PBit is greater than 0,
the VLAN 802.1p PBit setting is ignored.
Select an IP Interface for this VLAN if it is to be routed; otherwise leave the default. These selections
will vary depending on your IP interfaces. For example, if you have set up multiple VCCs, these will
appear in the list as ip-vcc1, ip-vcc2, and so forth.
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When you select an IP interface, the screen expands to allow you to configure Inter-Vlan-Groups.
Inter-VLAN groups allow VLANs in the group to route traffic to the others; ungrouped VLANs cannot route
traffic to each other.
Click the Submit button.
When you are finished, click the Alert icon in the upper right-hand corner of the screen, and in the
resulting screen, click the Save link.
If you want to create more VLANs, click the Advanced link (in the left-hand toolbar) and then the
VLAN link in the resulting page, and repeat the process.
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You can Edit, Clear, Enable, or Disable your VLAN entries by returning to the VLANs page, and selecting
the appropriate entry from the displayed list.
When you are finished, click the Alert icon in the upper right-hand corner of the screen, and in the
resulting screen, click the Save and Restart link.
To view the settings for each VLAN, select the desired VLAN from the list and click the Details button.
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The screen expands to display the VLAN settings.
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116
Example
The following is a simple example of how you might configure some VLANs:
You want to configure a 3347NWG-VGx Gateway with two SSIDs (see Multiple SSIDs” on page 59 for more
information) for two VLANs, allowing both access to the Internet. One SSID will be in the same VLAN as the
four ports of the Ethernet Switch, so that those two networks can communicate. The second VLAN will be
for the other SSID. The second VLAN will also be denied access to the 3347NWG-VGx web interface and tel-
net interface. This setup might be useful if you have a doctor’s office or a coffee shop, and you want to
keep your customers separated from the rest of the network.
1. In the VLANs page, check the Enable checkbox, select VLAN #1 in the VLANs list, and
click the Edit button.
2. Check the Enable checkbox, and in the VLAN Name box, enter the name you would like.
For example, call it Network A.
Since this VLAN will be for SSID1 and the Ethernet ports, leave Admin Restricted unchecked. This will
give this VLAN access to the Gateway.
3. Click the Submit button.
4. In the Port Configuration for VLAN:1 page, you add the Port Interfaces you want associ-
ated with the VLAN.
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In this case, select all the physical Ethernet ports: eth0.1 through eth0.4, and wireless ssid1. Select
ip-eth-a, the IP interface for the group. This will be Inter-Vlan-Group #1. Check the Group-1 checkbox.
These ports will be able to communicate with each other.
5. Click the Submit button.
6. In the VLAN page, select VLAN #2 in the VLANs list, and click the Edit button.
The VLAN Name must be given another unique name. For example, call it Network B.
Since this is for the second SSID that we don’t want to be given access to the Gateway, check the
Admin Restricted checkbox.
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7. Click the Submit button.
8. In the Port Configuration for VLAN: 2 page, you add the Port Interfaces you want asso-
ciated with the VLAN.
Select the ip-eth-a port interface and check the ssid2 port interface. Make this VLAN a member of
Inter-Vlan-Group Group-2.
9. Click the Submit button.
10. Next, create a VLAN to provide the Inter-Vlan-Groups access to the Internet (WAN).
For example, call it WAN VLAN.
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Check the vcc1 checkbox, select the ip-vcc1 IP interface, and check the Inter-Vlan-Group Group-1 and
Group-2 checkboxes. Members of Groups 1 and 2 will now be able to communicate with the Internet
(WAN), but not with each other.
11. Once you have finished with the configuration of the VLANs, click the Alert icon in the
upper right hand corner.
This will validate that the settings are legal for your network.
12. Click the Save and Restart link.
This will restart the Motorola Netopia® Gateway and retain the VLAN configuration.
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Link: VoIP
(supported models only)
Voice-over-IP (VoIP) refers to the ability to make voice telephone calls over the Internet. This differs from tra-
ditional phone calls that use the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). VoIP calls use an Internet pro-
tocol, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), to transmit sound over a network or the Internet in the form of data
packets. Certain Motorola Netopia® Gateway models have two separate voice ports for connecting tele-
phone handsets. These models support VoIP. If your Gateway is a VoIP model, you can configure the VoIP
features.
When you click the VoIP link, the SIP Line Entry page appears.
To enable a VoIP line, select one of the lines from the SIP Line Entry menu that corresponds to the port on
the Gateway to which your phone is connected.
Click the Edit button. In the resulting screen, check the Enable SIP checkbox.
The screen expands to display the features that you can enable for that line.
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SIP Line Entry
Registration Interval
(in secs)
Length of time the VoIP registration will be valid before it will be
renewed. Default is 1 hour.
Registrar Server Registration Server name or IP address.
Registrar Port Registration Server port. Default is 5060.
Proxy Server Proxy server name or IP address.
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When you are finished entering the required information, click the Submit button.
To configure the second voice port, return to the SIP Line Entry screen by clicking the VoIP link in the
Breadcrumb Trail.
When you are finished, click the Alert icon in the upper right corner of the page, and in the resulting
page, click the Save and Restart link.
Proxy Port Proxy server port, if required. Default is 5060.
Outbound Proxy Server Outbound Proxy server name or IP address, if required.
Outbound Proxy Port Outbound Proxy server port, if required. Default is 5060.
User Display Name Name of this phone’s user to be displayed on the Home page.
Example: “Jacob Q. Smith”
SIP User Name Registration user ID. Example: “jqsmith”
SIP User Password Registration user password.
Auth User ID The authorization ID that authenticates the user to SIP for
the specified phone. Most SIP Servers expect this to be
the User Name itself but some may use Auth User ID.
Call Features Settings
DTMF Mode Choose the Dual Tone Multi-Frequency Mode:
Inband: Sends the DTMF digits as a normal inband tone.
RFC2833: Sends the DTMF digits as an event as part of the
RTP packet header information.
Info: Sends the DTMF digits in the SIP INFO message.
Enable End of Dial Marker If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will generate an “end of
dial” (#) signal that indicates that the dialed number is complete.
Enable Call Fowarding
Unconditionally
If you check this checkbox, all calls will be forwarded to a speci-
fied number.
The Unconditional Call Fowarding Number field will appear for
you to enter the number, if enabled.
Enable Call Forwarding On
Busy
If you check this checkbox, calls will be forwarded to a specified
number if the line is busy.
The On Busy Call Fowarding Number field will appear for you
to enter the number, if enabled.
Enable Call Forwarding On
No Answer
If you check this checkbox, calls will be forwarded to a specified
number if there is no answer.
The On No Answer Call Fowarding Number field will appear for
you to enter the number, if enabled.
Enable Waiting If you check this checkbox, call waiting is enabled.
Enable Conferencing If you check this checkbox, 3-party teleconferencing is enabled.
Subscribe for Do Not Dis-
turb
If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will reject VoIP calls with-
out ringing the phone.
Subscribe for MWI If you check this checkbox, Message Waiting Indicator is enabled
when new voice mail is received.
SIP Line Entry
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The Home page for a VoIP-enabled Gateway with both phone lines registered is shown below.
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Link: System
The System Name defaults to your Gateway's factory identifier combined with its serial number. Some
cable-oriented Service Providers use the System Name as an important identification and support parame-
ter.
The System Name can be 1 – 255 characters long; it can include embedded spaces and special charac-
ters.
The Log Message Level alters the severity at which messages are collected in the Gateway's system log.
Do not alter this field unless instructed by your Support representative.
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Link: Syslog Parameters
You can configure a UNIX-compatible syslog client to report a number of subsets of the events entered in
the Gateway’s WAN Event History. Syslog sends log-messages to a host that you specify.
To enable syslog logging, click on the Syslog Parameters link.
Check the Syslog checkbox.
The screen expands.
Syslog: Enable syslog logging in the system.
Syslog Host Name/IP Address: Enter the name or the IP Address of the host that should receive sys-
log messages.
Facility: From the pull-down menu, select the Syslog facility to be used by the router when generating
syslog messages. Options are local0 through local7.
Log Violations: If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will generate messages whenever a packet is
discarded because it violates the router's security policy.
Log Access Attempts: If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will generate messages whenever a
packet attempts to access the router or tries to pass through the router. This option is disabled by
default.
Log Accepted Packets: If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will generate messages whenever a
packet accesses the router or passes through the router. This option is disabled by default.
NOTE:
Syslog needs to be enabled to comply with logging requirements mentioned in The Modular
Firewall Certification Criteria - Baseline Module - version 4.1 (specified by ICSA Labs).
For more information, please go to the following URL:
http://www.icsalabs.com/icsa/docs/html/communities/firewalls/pdf/4.1/baseline.pdf
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126
Log Event Messages
Administration Related Log Messages
1. administrative
access attempted:
This log-message is generated whenever the user attempts to access
the router's management interface.
2. administrative
access authenticated
and allowed:
This log-message is generated whenever the user attempts to access
the router's management interface and is successfully authenticated
and allowed access to the management interface.
3. administrative
access allowed:
If for some reason, a customer does not want password protection for
the management interface, this log-message is generated whenever
any user attempts to access the router's management interface and is
allowed access to the management interface.
4. administrative
access denied -
invalid user name:
This log-message is generated whenever the user tries to access the
router's management interface and authentication fails due to incor-
rect user-name.
5. administrative
access denied -
invalid password:
This log-message is generated whenever the user tries to access the
router's management interface and authentication fails due to incor-
rect password.
6. administrative
access denied - telnet
access not allowed:
This log-message is generated whenever the user tries to access the
router's Telnet management interface from a Public interface and is
not permitted since Remote Management is disabled.
7. administrative
access denied - web
access not allowed:
This log-message is generated whenever the user tries to access the
router's HTTP management interface from a Public interface and is
not permitted since Remote Management is disabled.
System Log Messages
1. Received NTP Date
and Time:
This log-message is generated whenever NTP receives Date and
time from the server.
2. EN: IP up: This log-message is generated whenever Ethernet WAN comes up.
3. WAN: Ethernet
WAN1 activated at
100000 Kbps:
This log-message is generated when the Ethernet WAN Link is up.
4. Device Restarted: This log-message is generated when the router has been restarted.
DSL Log Messages (most common):
1. WAN: Data link
activated at <Rate>
Kbps (rx/tx)
This log message is generated when the DSL link comes up.
2.WAN: Data link
deactivated
This log message is generated when the DSL link goes down.
3. RFC1483 up This log message is generated when RFC1483 link comes up.
4. RFC1483-<WAN-
instance>: IP down
This log message is generated when RFC1483 link goes down.
127
5. PPP: Channel <ID>
up Dialout Profile
name: <Profile Name>
This log message is generated when a PPP channel comes up.
6. PPP-<WAN
Instance> down:
<Reason>
This log message is generated when a PPP channel goes down. The
reason for the channel going down is displayed as well.
Access-related Log Messages
1. permitted: This log-message is generated whenever a packet is allowed to
traverse router-interfaces or allowed to access the router itself.
2. attempt: This log-message is generated whenever a packet attempts to
traverse router-interfaces or attempts to access the router itself.
3. dropped - violation
of security policy:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped by the firewall
because it violates the expected conditions.
4. dropped - invalid
checksum:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped because of invalid IP
checksum.
5. dropped - invalid
data length:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped because the IP length
is greater than the received packet length or if the length is too small
for an IP packet.
6. dropped - frag-
mented packet:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router, is dropped because it is fragmented, stateful inspection is
turned ON on the packet's transmit or receive interface, and deny-
fragment option is enabled.
7. dropped - cannot
fragment:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet traversing the
router is dropped because the packet cannot be sent without frag-
mentation, but the do not fragment bit is set.
8. dropped - no route
found:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped because no route is
found to forward the packet.
9. dropped - invalid IP
version:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped because the IP ver-
sion is not 4.
10. dropped - possi-
ble land attack:
This log-message is generated whenever a packet, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, is dropped because the packet is
TCP/UDP packet and source IP Address and source port equals the
destination IP Address and destination port.
11. TCP SYN flood
detected:
This log-message is generated whenever a SYN packet destined to
the router's management interface is dropped because the number of
SYN-sent and SYN-receives exceeds one half the number of allow-
able connections in the router.
12. Telnet receive DoS
attack - packets
dropped:
This log-message is generated whenever TCP packets destined to
the router's telnet management interface are dropped due to over-
whelming receive data.
DSL Log Messages (most common):
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128
13. dropped - reas-
sembly timeout:
This log-message is generated whenever packets, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, are dropped because of reas-
sembly timeout.
14. dropped - illegal
size:
This log-message is generated whenever packets, traversing the
router or destined to the router itself, are dropped during reassembly
because of illegal packet size in a fragment.
Access-related Log Messages
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Link: Internal Servers
Your Gateway ships with an embedded Web server and support for a Telnet session, to allow ease of use
for configuration and maintenance. The default ports of 80 for HTTP and 23 for Telnet may be reassigned.
This is necessary if a pinhole is created to support applications using port 80 or 23. See “Pinholes” on
page 82. for more information on Pinhole configuration.
Web (HTTP) Server Port: To reassign the port number used to access the Motorola Netopia® embedded
Web server, change this value to a value greater than 1024. When you next access the embedded Motorola
Netopia® Web server, append the IP address with <port number>, (e.g. Point your browser to http://
210.219.41.20:8080).
Telnet Server Port: To reassign the port number used to access your Motorola Netopia® embedded Telnet
server, change this value to a value greater than 1024. When you next access the Motorola Netopia®
embedded Telnet server, append the IP address with <port number>, (e.g. telnet 210.219.41.20 2323).
You can also use the LAN-side address of the Gateway, 192.168.1.x:8100 to access the web server and
192.168.1.x:2323 to access the telnet server. The value of 0 for an internal server port will disable that
server. You can disable Telnet or Web, but not both. If you disabled both ports, you would not be able to
reconfigure the unit without pressing the reset button.
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Link: Software Hosting
Software Hosting allows you to host internet applications when NAT is enabled. User(PC) specifies the
machine on which the selected software is hosted. You can host different games and software on different
PCs.
To select the games or software that you want to host for a specific PC, highlight the name(s) in the box on
the left side of the screen. Click the Add button to select the software that will be hosted.
To remove a game or software from the hosted list, highlight the game or software you want to remove and
click the Remove button.
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List of Supported Games and Software
Age of Empires, v.1.0 Age of Empires: The Rise of
Rome, v.1.0
Age of Wonders
Asheron's Call Baldur's Gate Battlefield Communicator
Buddy Phone Calista IP Phone CART Precision Racing, v 1.0
Citrix Metaframe/ICA Client Close Combat for Windows 1.0 Close Combat: A Bridge Too
Far, v 2.0
Close Combat III: The Russian
Front, v 1.0
Combat Flight Sim: WWII
Europe Series, v 1.0
Combat Flight Sim 2: WWII
Pacific Thr, v 1.0
Dark Reign Delta Force (Client and Server) Delta Force 2
Diablo II Server Dialpad DNS Server
Dune 2000 eDonkey 2000 eMule
F-16, Mig 29 F-22, Lightning 3 Fighter Ace II
FTP GNUtella H.323 compliant (Netmeeting,
CUSeeME)
Half Life Hellbender for Windows, v 1.0 Heretic II
Hexen II Hotline Server HTTP
HTTPS ICQ 2001b ICQ Old
IMAP Client IMAP Client v.3 Internet Phone
IPSec IPSec IKE Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast
Kali KazaA LimeWire
Links LS 2000 Mech Warrior 3 Mech Warrior 4: Vengeance
Medal of Honor Allied Assault Microsoft Flight Simulator 98 Microsoft Flight Simulator
2000
Microsoft Golf 1998 Edition, v
1.0
Microsoft Golf 1999 Edition Microsoft Golf 2001 Edition
Midtown Madness, v 1.0 Monster Truck Madness, v 1.0 Monster Truck Madness 2, v
2.0
Motocross Madness 2, v 2.0 Motocross Madness, v 1.0 MSN Game Zone
MSN Game Zone (DX7 an 8
Play)
Need for Speed 3, Hot Pursuit Need for Speed, Porsche
Net2Phone NNTP Operation FlashPoint
Outlaws pcAnywhere (incoming) POP-3
PPTP Quake II Quake III
Rainbow Six RealAudio Return to Castle Wolfenstein
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Rename a User(PC)
If a PC on your LAN has no assigned host name, you can assign one by clicking the Rename a User(PC)
link.
To rename a server, select the server from the pull-down menu. Then type a new name in the text box below
the pull-down menu. Click the Update button to save the new name.
NOTE:
The new name given to a server is only known to Software Hosting. It is not used as an identi-
fier in other network functions, such as DNS or DHCP.
Roger Wilco Rogue Spear ShoutCast Server
SMTP SNMP SSH server
StarCraft Starfleet Command StarLancer, v 1.0
Telnet TFTP Tiberian Sun: Command and
Conquer
Timbuktu Total Annihilation Ultima Online
Unreal Tournament Server Urban Assault, v 1.0 VNC, Virtual Network Comput-
ing
Westwood Online, Command
and Conquer
Win2000 Terminal Server XBox Live Games
Yahoo Messenger Chat Yahoo Messenger Phone ZNES
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Link: Backup
The purpose of Backup is to provide a recovery mechanism in the event that the primary connection fails. A
failure can be either line loss, for example by central site switch failure or physical cable breakage, or loss
of end-to-end connectivity. Detection of one of these failures causes the Gateway to switch from using the
primary DSL WAN connection to an alternate gateway on the Ethernet LAN. In the event of a loss of primary
connectivity you have the option of switching back to the primary circuit automatically once it has recovered
its connection.
A typical application would be to have a LAN connection from your Gateway to another Gateway that has, for
example, another DSL modem or Gateway connection to the Internet, and designating the second gateway
as the backup gateway. Should the primary WAN connection fail, traffic would be automatically redirected
through your alternate gateway device to maintain Internet connectivity.
When you click the Backup link, the Backup Options page
appears.
Select either manual or automatic from the pull-down menu.
If you choose manual, you will have to switch manually to your
alternate gateway in the event of a connection failure.
For fail-over purposes, choose automatic.
Manual options
If you choose manual, you can also choose Auto Recovery. If you chose Auto Recovery, enter the number
of minutes that the system should wait before it assumes that a connection has been re-established. This
allows you to be sure that the primary WAN connection is well re-established before the Gateway switches
back to it from the backup mode. Minimum value is one minute.
Check the Enable Backup Gateway checkbox.
From the pull-down menu, select the Interface
Type to which you want to direct the backup con-
nection. If you have defined multiple VCCs, you
can choose a secondary one. Otherwise, to
backup to an IP device on the LAN, choose IP
Address.
The screen expands to allow you to enter an IP
address of your Backup Gateway.
Click the Submit button; click the Alert icon,
and in the resulting page, click the
Save and Restart link.
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134
Once Backup is configured, a new field appears in the Home Page.
If your DSL WAN link fails, you can switch to your Backup Gateway by clicking the Force Backup button.
Automatic options
If you select automatic as your Backup option, the screen expands to allow you to enter additional informa-
tion.
Failure Timeout (minutes 1-10) – Enter the
number of minutes you want the system to wait
before the backup port becomes enabled in the
event of primary line failure. This allows you to be
sure the WAN connection is not merely briefly
interrupted before the gateway switches to
backup mode.
Ping Host 1 and Ping Host 2 – Select address
or name from the pull-down menu enter IP
address(es) or resolvable DNS name(s) that the
Gateway will ping.
The Gateway will ping both addresses simulta-
neously at five-second intervals, recording the
ping responses from each host. The Gateway will
proceed into backup mode only if neither of the
configured remote hosts responds.
Note:
For best results, enter an IP address and not a host name. If a host name is used it may not
be resolvable, and may keep the interface down.
While the Gateway is in backup mode, it will continue to ping both hosts via the primary interface. If
either host responds to a ping and the Auto Recovery checkbox is checked, the Gateway will revert to
the primary interface.
If you chose Auto Recovery, select Recovery Timeout (minutes1-10). Enter the number of minutes you
want the system to wait before attempting to switch back to the WAN connection. This allows you to be
sure that the WAN connection is well re-established before the gateway switches back to it from the
backup mode.
Check the Enable Backup Gateway checkbox
135
From the pull-down menu, select the Interface Type to which you want to direct the backup connection.
If you have defined multiple VCCs, you can choose a secondary one. Otherwise, to backup to an IP
device on the LAN, choose IP Address.
The screen expands to allow you to enter an IP address of your Backup Gateway.
Click the Submit button; click the Alert icon, and in the resulting page, click the
Save and Restart link.
Once Backup is configured, a new field appears in the Home Page.
For automatic mode, it should not be necessary to switch to Backup manually. However, you can force a
switch to your Backup Gateway by clicking the Force Backup button.
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Link: Ethernet MAC Override
(Only available on models with Ethernet WAN interfaces, such as the 338X-series or VDSL Gateways.)
Your Gateway comes with its own MAC (Media Access Control) address, also called the Hardware Address,
a 12 character number unique for each LAN-connected device.
Your Service Provider, particularly cable service providers, may instruct you to override the default MAC
address.
If so, check the Enable Override checkbox, and enter the new MAC address in the field provided.
137
Link: Clear Options
To restore the factory configuration of the Gateway, choose Clear Options. You may want to upload your
configuration to a file before performing this function. You can do this using the upload command via the
command-line interface. See the upload command on page 238.
Clear Options does not clear feature keys or affect the software image.
You must restart the Gateway for Clear Options to take effect.
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Link: Time Zone
When you click the Time Zone link, the Time Zone page appears.
You can set your local time zone by selecting the number of hours your time zone is distant from Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT +12 – -12) from the pull-down menu. This allows you to set the time zone for access con-
trols and in general.
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Security
Button: Security
The Security features are available by clicking on the Security toolbar button. Some items of this category
do not appear when you log on as User.
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140
Link: Passwords
Access to your Gateway may be controlled through two optional user accounts, Admin and User. When you
first power up your Gateway, you create a password for the Admin account. The User account does not
exist by default. As the Admin, a password for the User account can be entered or existing passwords
changed.
Create and Change Passwords. You can establish different levels of access security to protect
your Motorola Netopia® Gateway settings from unauthorized display or modification.
Admin level privileges let you display and modify all settings in the Motorola Netopia® Gateway (Read/
Write mode). The Admin level password is created when you first access your Gateway.
User level privileges let you display (but not change) settings of the Motorola Netopia® Gateway. (Read
Only mode)
To prevent anyone from observing the password you enter, characters in the old and new password fields
are not displayed as you type them.
To display the Passwords window, click the Security toolbar button on the Home page.
Use the following procedure to change existing passwords or add the User password for your Motorola
Netopia® Gateway:
1. Select the account type from the Username pull-down list.
Choose from Admin or User.
2. If you assigned a password to the Motorola Netopia® Gateway previously, enter your
current password in the Old Password field.
3. Enter your new password in the New Password field.
Motorola Netopia®’s rules for a Password are:
141
It can have up to eight alphanumeric characters.
It is case-sensitive.
4. Enter your new password again in the Confirm Password field.
You confirm the new password to verify that you entered it correctly the first time.
5. When you are finished, click the Submit button to store your modified configuration in
the Motorola Netopia® unit’s memory.
Password changes are automatically saved, and take effect immediately.
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Link: Firewall
Use a Motorola Netopia® Firewall
BreakWater Basic Firewall. BreakWater delivers an easily selectable set of pre-configured firewall
protection levels. For simple implementation these settings (comprised of three levels) are readily available
through Motorola Netopia®’s embedded web server interface.
BreakWater Basic Firewall’s three settings are:
ClearSailing
ClearSailing, BreakWater's default setting, supports both inbound and outbound traffic. It is the only
basic firewall setting that fully interoperates with all other Motorola Netopia® software features.
SilentRunning
Using this level of firewall protection allows transmission of outbound traffic on pre-configured TCP/UDP
ports. It disables any attempt for inbound traffic to identify the Gateway. This is the Internet equivalent
of having an unlisted number.
LANdLocked
The third option available turns off all inbound and outbound traffic, isolating the LAN and disabling all
WAN traffic.
NOTE:
BreakWater Basic Firewall operates independent of the NAT functionality on the Gateway.
Configuring for a BreakWater Setting
Use these steps to establish a firewall setting:
1. Ensure that you have enabled the BreakWater basic firewall with the appropriate fea-
ture key.
See See “Use Motorola Netopia® Software Feature Keys” on page 187. for reference.
NOTE: The firewall is now keyed on by default on the 2200-Series Gateways.
2. Click the Security toolbar button.
3. Click Firewall.
143
4. Click on the radio button to select the protection level you want. Click Submit.
Changing the BreakWater setting does not require a restart to take effect. This makes it easy to change
the setting “on the fly,” as your needs change.
TIPS for making your BreakWater Basic Firewall Selection
Basic Firewall Background
As a device on the Internet, a Motorola Netopia® Gateway requires an IP address in order to send or
receive traffic.
The IP traffic sent or received have an associated application port which is dependent on the nature of the
connection request. In the IP protocol standard the following session types are common applications:
By receiving a response to a scan from a port or series of ports (which is the expected behavior according
to the IP standard), hackers can identify an existing device and gain a potential opening for access to an
internet-connected device.
Application Select this Level Other Considerations
Typical Internet usage
(browsing, e-mail)
SilentRunning
Multi-player online
gaming
ClearSailing Set Pinholes; once defined, pinholes will be
active whenever ClearSailing is set.
Restore SilentRunning when finished.
Going on vacation LANdLocked Protects your connection while your away.
Finished online use for
the day
LANdLocked This protects you instead of disconnecting your
Gateway connection.
Chatting online or using
instant messaging
ClearSailing Set Pinholes; once defined, pinholes will be
active whenever ClearSailing is set.
Restore SilentRunning when finished.
ICMP HTTP FTP
SNMP telnet DHCP
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To protect LAN users and their network from these types of attacks, BreakWater offers three levels of
increasing protection.
The following tables indicate the state of ports associated with session types, both on the WAN side
and the LAN side of the Gateway.
This table shows how inbound traffic is treated. Inbound means the traffic is coming from the WAN into the
WAN side of the Gateway.
This table shows how outbound traffic is treated. Outbound means the traffic is coming from the LAN-side
computers into the LAN side of the Gateway.
Gateway: WAN Side
BreakWater Setting >> ClearSailing SilentRunning LANdLocked
Port Session Type --------------Port State-----------------------
20 ftp data Enabled Disabled Disabled
21 ftp control Enabled Disabled Disabled
23 telnet external Enabled Disabled Disabled
23 telnet Motorola Netopia®
server
Enabled Disabled Disabled
80 http external Enabled Disabled Disabled
80 http Motorola Netopia® server Enabled Disabled Disabled
67 DHCP client Enabled Enabled Disabled
68 DHCP server Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
161 snmp Enabled Disabled Disabled
ping (ICMP) Enabled Disabled Disabled
Gateway: LAN Side
BreakWater Setting >> ClearSailing SilentRunning LANdLocked
Port Session Type --------------Port State-----------------------
20 ftp data Enabled Enabled Disabled
21 ftp control Enabled Enabled Disabled
23 telnet external Enabled Enabled Disabled
23 telnet Motorola Netopia®
server
Enabled Enabled Enabled
80 http external Enabled Enabled Disabled
80 http Motorola Netopia® server Enabled Enabled Enabled
67 DHCP client Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
68 DHCP server Enabled Enabled Enabled
161 snmp Enabled Enabled Enabled
ping (ICMP) Enabled Enabled WAN - Disabled
LAN -
Local Address
Only
145
NOTE:
The Gateway’s WAN DHCP client port in SilentRunning mode is enabled. This feature allows
end users to continue using DHCP-served IP addresses from their Service Providers, while hav-
ing no identifiable presence on the Internet.
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Link: IPSec
When you click on the IPSec link, the IPSec configuration screen appears.
Your Gateway can support two mechanisms for IPSec tunnels:
IPSec PassThrough supports Virtual Private Network (VPN) clients running on LAN-connected comput-
ers. Normally, this feature is enabled.
You can disable it if your LAN-side VPN client includes its own NAT interoperability option.
Uncheck the Enable IPSec Passthrough checkbox.
SafeHarbour VPN IPSec is a keyed feature that you must purchase. (See “Install Key” on page 187.) It
enables Gateway-terminated VPN support.
147
SafeHarbour IPSec VPN
SafeHarbour VPN IPSec Tunnel provides a single, encrypted tunnel to be terminated on the Gateway, mak-
ing a secure tunnel available for all LAN- connected users. This implementation offers the following:
Eliminates the need for VPN client software on individual PCs.
Reduces the complexity of tunnel configuration.
Simplifies the ongoing maintenance for secure remote access.
If you have purchased the SafeHarbour IPSec feature key, the IPSec configuration screen offers additional
options.
A typical SafeHarbour configuration is shown below:
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Configuring a SafeHarbour VPN
Use the following procedure to configure your SafeHarbour tunnel.
1. Obtain your configuration information from your network administrator.
The tables “Parameter Descriptions” on page 151 describe the various parameters that may be required
for your tunnel. Not all of them need to be changed from the defaults for every VPN tunnel. Consult with
your network administrator.
2. Complete the Parameter Setup worksheet “IPSec Tunnel Details Parameter Setup Work-
sheet” on page 149.
The worksheet provides spaces for you to enter your own specific values. You can print the page for easy
reference. IPSec tunnel configuration requires precise parameter setup between VPN devices. The Setup
Worksheet (page 149) facilitates setup and assures that the associated variables are identical.
149
Table 1: IPSec Tunnel Details Parameter Setup Worksheet
Parameter Motorola Netopia®
Gateway Peer Gateway
Name
Peer Internal Network
Peer Internal Netmask
NAT Enable On/Off
PAT Address
Negotiation Method Main/Aggressive
Local ID Type IP Address
Subnet
Hostname
ASCII
Local ID Address/Value
Local ID Mask
Remote ID Type IP Address
Subnet
Hostname
ASCII
Remote ID Address/Value
Remote ID Mask
Pre-Shared Key Type HEX
ASCII
Pre-Shared Key
DH Group 1/2/5
PFS Enable Off/On
SA Encrypt Type DES
3DES
SA Hash Type MD5
SHA1
Invalid SPI Recovery Off/On
Soft MBytes 1 - 1000000
Soft Seconds 60 - 1000000
Hard MBytes 1 - 1000000
Hard Seconds 60 - 1000000
IPSec MTU 100 - 1500 (default)
Xauth Enable Off/On
Xauth Username
Xauth Password
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150
3. Be sure that you have SafeHarbour VPN enabled.
SafeHarbour is a keyed feature. See “Install Key” on page 187. for information concerning installing
Motorola Netopia® Software Feature Keys.
4. Check the Enable SafeHarbour IPSec checkbox.
Checking this box will automatically display the SafeHarbour IPSec Tunnel Entry parameters.
Enter the initial group of tunnel parameters. Refer to your Setup Worksheet and the “Parameter
Descriptions” on page 151 as required.
5. Enter the tunnel Name.
This parameter does not have to match the peer/remote VPN device.
6. Enter the Peer External IP Address.
7. Select the Encryption Protocol from the pull-down menu.
8. Select the Authentication Protocol from the pull-down menu.
9. Click Add.
The Tunnel Details page appears.
10.Make the Tunnel Details entries.
Enter or select the required settings.
Soft MBytes, Soft Seconds, Hard MBytes, and
Hard Seconds values do not have to match the
peer/remote VPN device.
Refer to your “IPSec Tunnel Details Parameter
Setup Worksheet” on page 149.)
11.Click Update.
The Alert button appears.
12.Click the Alert
button.
13.Click Save and Restart.
Your SafeHarbour IPSec VPN tunnel is fully config-
ured.
151
Parameter Descriptions
The following tables describe SafeHarbour’s parameters that are used for an IPSec VPN tunnel configura-
tion:
Table 2: IPSec Configuration page parameters
Field Description
Name The Name parameter refers to the name of the configured tunnel. This is
mainly used as an identifier for the administrator. The Name parameter is
an ASCII value and is limited to 31 characters. The tunnel name does not
need to match the peer gateway.
Peer External IP
Address
The Peer External IP Address is the public, or routable IP address of the
remote gateway or VPN server you are establishing the tunnel with.
Encryption
Protocol
Encryption protocol for the tunnel session.
Parameter values supported include NONE or ESP.
Authentication
Protocol
Authentication Protocol for IP packet header. The three parameter values
are None, Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header
(AH)
Key Management The Key Management algorithm manages the exchange of security keys in
the IPSec protocol architecture. SafeHarbour supports the standard Inter-
net Key Exchange (IKE)
Table 3: IPSec Tunnel Details page parameters
Field Description
Name The Name parameter refers to the name of the configured tunnel. This is
mainly used as an identifier for the administrator. The Name parameter is
an ASCII value and is limited to 31 characters. The tunnel name does not
need to match the peer gateway.
Peer Internal
Network
The Peer Internal IP Network is the private, or Local Area Network (LAN)
address of the remote gateway or VPN Server you are communicating with.
Peer Internal
Netmask
The Peer Internal IP Netmask is the subnet mask of the Peer Internal IP
Network.
NAT enable Turns NAT on or off for this tunnel.
PAT Address If NAT is enabled, this field appears. You can specify a Port Address Trans-
lation (PAT) address or leave the default all-zeroes (if Xauth is enabled). If
you leave the default. the address will be requested from the remote router
and dynamically applied to the Gateway.
Negotiation
Method
This parameter refers to the method used during the Phase I key
exchange, or IKE process. SafeHarbour supports Main or Aggressive
Mode. Main mode requires 3 two-way message exchanges while Aggres-
sive mode only requires 3 total message exchanges.
Local ID type If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, this option
appears. Selection options are: IP Address, Subnet, Hostname, ASCII
Local ID Address/
Value
If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, this field
appears. This is the local (Gateway-side) IP address (or Name Value, if Sub-
net or Hostname are selected as the Local ID Type).
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152
Local ID Mask If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, and Subnet as
the Local ID Type, this field appears. This is the local (Gateway-side) sub-
net mask.
Remote ID Type If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, this option
appears. Selection options are: IP Address, Subnet, Hostname, ASCII.
Remote ID
Address/Value
If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, this field
appears. This is the remote (central-office-side) IP address (or Name Value,
if Subnet or Hostname are selected as the Local ID Type).
Remote ID Mask If Aggressive mode is selected as the Negotiation Method, and Subnet as
the Remote ID Type, this field appears. This is the remote (central-office-
side) subnet mask.
Pre-Shared Key
Type
The Pre-Shared Key Type classifies the Pre-Shared Key. SafeHarbour sup-
ports ASCII or HEX types
Pre-Shared Key The Pre-Shared Key is a parameter used for authenticating each side. The
value can be ASCII or Hex and a maximum of 64 characters. ASCII is case-
sensitive.
DH Group Diffie-Hellman is a public key algorithm used between two systems to
determine and deliver secret keys used for encryption. Groups 1, 2 and 5
are supported.
PFS Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is used during SA renegotiation. When PFS
is selected, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange is required. If enabled, the PFS
DH group follows the IKE phase 1 DH group.
SA Encrypt Type SA Encr yption Type refers to the symmetric encryption type. This encryp-
tion algorithm will be used to encrypt each data packet. SA Encryption
Type values supported include DES and 3DES.
SA Hash Type SA Hash Type refers to the Authentication Hash algorithm used during SA
negotiation. Values supported include MD5 and SHA1. N/A will display if
NONE is chosen for Auth Protocol.
Invalid SPI
Recovery
Enabling this allows the Gateway to re-establish the tunnel if either the
Motorola Netopia® Gateway or the peer gateway is rebooted.
Soft MBytes Setting the Soft MBytes parameter forces the renegotiation of the IPSec
Security Associations (SAs) at the configured Soft MByte value. The value
can be configured between 1 and 1,000,000 MB and refers to data traffic
passed. If this value is not achieved, the Hard MBytes parameter is
enforced. This parameter does not need to match the peer gateway.
Soft Seconds Setting the Soft Seconds parameter forces the renegotiation of the IPSec
Security Associations (SAs) at the configured Soft Seconds value. The
value can be configured between 60 and 1,000,000 seconds. This param-
eter does not need to match the peer gateway.
Hard MBytes Setting the Hard MBytes parameter forces the renegotiation of the IPSec
Security Associations (SAs) at the configured Hard MByte value.
The value can be configured between 1 and 1,000,000 MB and refers to
data traffic passed. This parameter does not need to match the peer gate-
way.
Hard Seconds Setting the Hard Seconds parameter forces the renegotiation of the IPSec
Security Associations (SAs) at the configured Hard Seconds value. The
value can be configured between 60 and 1,000,000 seconds This parame-
ter does not need to match the peer gateway.
Table 3: IPSec Tunnel Details page parameters
153
IPSec MTU Some ISPs require a setting of e.g. 1492 (or other value). The default
1500 is the most common and you usually don’t need to change this
unless otherwise instructed. Accepted values are from 100 – 1500.
This is the starting value that is used for the MTU when the IPSec tunnel is
installed. It specifies the maximum IP packet length for the encapsulated
AH or ESP packets sent by the router. The MTU used on the IPSec connec-
tion will be automatically adjusted based on the MTU value in any received
ICMP can't fragment error messages that correspond to IPSec traffic initi-
ated from the router. Normally the MTU only requires manual configuration
if the ICMP error messages are blocked or otherwise not received by the
router.
Xauth Enable Extended Authentication (XAuth), an extension to the Internet Key
Exchange (IKE) protocol. The Xauth extension provides dual authentication
for a remote user’s Motorola Netopia® Gateway to establish a VPN, autho-
rizing network access to the user’s central office. IKE establishes the tun-
nel, and Xauth authenticates the specific remote user's Gateway. Since
NAT is supported over the tunnel, the remote user network can have multi-
ple PCs behind the client Gateway accessing the VPN. By using XAuth, net-
work VPN managers can centrally control remote user authentication.
Xauth Username/
Password
Xauth authentication credentials.
Table 3: IPSec Tunnel Details page parameters
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154
Link: Stateful Inspection
All computer operating systems are vulnerable to attack from outside sources, typically at the operating
system or Internet Protocol (IP) layers. Stateful Inspection firewalls intercept and analyze incoming data
packets to determine whether they should be admitted to your private LAN, based on multiple criteria, or
blocked. Stateful inspection improves security by tracking data packets over a period of time, examining
incoming and outgoing packets. Outgoing packets that request specific types of incoming packets are
tracked; only those incoming packets constituting a proper response are allowed through the firewall.
Stateful inspection is a security feature that prevents unsolicited inbound access when NAT is disabled. You
can configure UDP and TCP “no-activity” periods that will also apply to NAT time-outs if stateful inspection is
enabled on the interface. Stateful Inspection parameters are active on a WAN interface only if enabled on
your Gateway. Stateful inspection can be enabled on a WAN interface whether NAT is enabled or not.
Stateful Inspection Firewall installation procedure
NOTE:
Installing Stateful Inspection Firewall is mandatory to comply with Required Services Security
Policy - Residential Category module - Version 4.1 (specified by ICSA Labs)
For more information please go to the following URL:
http://www.icsalabs.com/icsa/docs/html/communities/firewalls/pdf/4.1/baseline.pdf
1. Access the router through the web interface from the private LAN.
DHCP server is enabled on the LAN by default.
2. The Gateway’s Stateful Inspection feature must be enabled in order to prevent TCP,
UDP and ICMP packets destined for the router or the private hosts.
This can be done by navigating to Expert Mode -> Security -> Stateful Inspection.
UDP no-activity time-out: The time in seconds after which a UDP session will be terminated, if there is
no traffic on the session.
TCP no-activity time-out: The time in seconds after which an TCP session will be terminated, if there
is no traffic on the session.
155
DoS Detect: If you check this checkbox, the Gateway will monitor packets for Denial of Service attacks.
Exposed Addresses: The hosts specified in Exposed Addresses will be allowed to receive inbound traf-
fic even if there is no corresponding outbound traffic. This is active only if NAT is disabled on a WAN
interface.
Stateful Inspection Options: Enable and configure stateful inspection on a WAN interface.
Exposed Addresses
You can specify the IP addresses you want to expose by clicking the Exposed addresses link.
Add, Edit, or delete exposed addresses options are active only if NAT is disabled on a WAN interface. The
hosts specified in exposed addresses will be allowed to receive inbound traffic even if there is no corre-
sponding outbound traffic.
Start Address: Start IP Address of the exposed host range.
End Address: End IP Address of the exposed host range
Protocol: Select the Protocol of the traffic to be allowed to the host range from the pull-down menu.
Options are Any, TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
Start Port: Start port of the range to be allowed to the host range. The acceptable range is from 1 -
65535
End Port: Protocol of the traffic to be allowed to the host range. The acceptable range is from 1 - 65535
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156
You can add more exposed addresses by clicking the Add more Exposed Addresses link. A list of pre-
viously configured exposed addresses appears.
Click the Add button to add a new range of exposed addresses.
You can edit a previously configured range by clicking the Edit button, or delete the entry entirely by clicking
the Delete button.
All configuration changes will trigger the Alert Icon. Click on the Alert icon.
This allows you to validate the configuration and reboot the Gateway.
Click the Save and Restart link. You will be asked to confirm your choice, and the Gateway will reboot
with the new configuration.
157
Stateful Inspection Options
Stateful Inspection Parameters are active on a WAN interface only if you enable them on your Gateway.
Stateful Inspection: To enable stateful inspection on this WAN interface, check the checkbox.
Default Mapping to Router: This is disabled by default. This option will allow the router to respond to
traffic received on this interface, for example, ICMP Echo requests.
NOTE:
If Stateful Inspection is enabled on a WAN interface Default Mapping to Router must be
enabled to allow inbound VPN terminations to the router.
TCP Sequence Number Difference: Enter a value in this field. This value represents the maximum
sequence number difference allowed between subsequent TCP packets. If this number is exceeded, the
packet is dropped. The acceptable range is 0 – 65535. A value of 0 (zero) disables this check.
Deny Fragments: To enable this option, which causes the router to discard fragmented packets on this
interface, check the checkbox.
Open Ports in Default Stateful Inspection Installation
Port Protocol Description LAN (Private)
Interface
WAN (Public)
Interface
23 TCP telnet Yes No
53 UDP DNS Yes No
67 UDP Bootps Yes No
68 UDP Bootpc Yes No
80 TCP HTTP Yes No
137 UDP Netbios-ns Yes No
138 UDP Netbios-dgm Yes No
161 UDP SNMP Yes No
500 UDP ISAKMP Yes No
520 UDP Router Yes No
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158
Firewall Tutorial
General firewall terms
Note:
Breakwater Basic Firewall (see “BreakWater Basic Firewall” on page 142) does not make
use of the packet filter support and can be used in addition to filtersets
Filter rule: A filter set is comprised of individual filter rules.
Filter set: A grouping of individual filter rules.
Firewall: A component or set of components that restrict access between a protected network and the
Internet, or between two networks.
Host: A workstation on the network.
Packet: Unit of communication on the Internet.
Packet filter: Packet filters allow or deny packets based on source or destination IP addresses, TCP or UDP
ports.
Port: A number that defines a particular type of service.
Basic IP packet components
All IP packets contain the same basic header information, as follows:
This header information is what the packet filter uses to make filtering decisions. It is important to note
that a packet filter does not look into the IP data stream (the User Data from above) to make filtering deci-
sions.
Basic protocol types
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. TCP provides reliable packet delivery and has a retransmission mech-
anism (so packets are not lost). RFC 793 is the specification for TCP.
Source IP Address 163.176.132.18
Destination IP Address 163.176.4.27
Source Port 2541
Destination Port 80
Protocol TCP
DATA User Data
159
UDP: User Datagram Protocol. Unlike TCP, UDP does not guarantee reliable, sequenced packet delivery. If
data does not reach its destination, UDP does not retransmit the data. RFC 768 is the specification for
UDP.
There are many more ports defined in the Assigned Addresses RFC. The table that follows shows some of
these port assignments.
Example TCP/UDP Ports
Firewall design rules
There are two basic rules to firewall design:
“What is not explicitly allowed is denied.”
and
“What is not explicitly denied is allowed.”
The first rule is far more secure, and is the best approach to firewall design. It is far easier (and more
secure) to allow in or out only certain services and deny anything else. If the other rule is used, you would
have to figure out everything that you want to disallow, now and in the future.
Firewall Logic
Firewall design is a test of logic, and filter rule ordering is critical. If a packet is forwarded through a series
of filter rules and then the packet matches a rule, the appropriate action is taken. The packet will not for-
ward through the remainder of the filter rules.
For example, if you had the following filter set...
Allow WWW access;
Allow FTP access;
Allow SMTP access;
Deny all other packets.
and a packet goes through these rules destined for FTP, the packet would forward through the first rule
(WWW), go through the second rule (FTP), and match this rule; the packet is allowed through.
If you had this filter set for example....
Allow WWW access;
TCP Port Service UDP Port Service
20/21 FTP 161 SNMP
23 Telnet 69 TFTP
25 SMTP
80 WWW
144 News
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160
Allow FTP access;
Deny FTP access;
Deny all other packets.
and a packet goes through these rules destined for FTP, the packet would forward through the first filter
rule (WWW), match the second rule (FTP), and the packet is allowed through. Even though the next rule is to
deny all FTP traffic, the FTP packet will never make it to this rule.
Implied rules
With a given set of filter rules, there is an Implied rule that may or may not be shown to the user. The
implied rule tells the filter set what to do with a packet that does not match any of the filter rules. An exam-
ple of implied rules is as follows:
Example filter set page
This is an example of the Motorola Netopia® filter set page:
Implied Meaning
Y+Y+Y=N If all filter rules are YES, the implied rule is NO.
N+N+N=Y If all filter rules are NO, the implied rule is YES.
Y+N+Y=N If a mix of YES and NO filters, the implied rule is NO.
161
Filter basics
In the source or destination IP address fields, the IP address that is entered must be the network address
of the subnet. A host address can be entered, but the applied subnet mask must be 32 bits
(255.255.255.255).
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 has the ability to compare source and destination TCP or UDP
ports. These options are as follows:
Example network
Example filters
Example 1
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.28
Item What it means
No Compare Does not compare TCP or UDP port
Not Equal To Matches any port other than what is defined
Less Than Anything less than the port defined
Less Than or Equal Any port less than or equal to the port defined
Equal Matches only the port defined
Greater Than or Equal Matches the port or any port greater
Greater Than Matches anything greater than the port defined
Filter Rule: 200.1.1.0 (Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.128 (Source IP Mask)
Forward = No (What happens on match)
Data
Internet
IP 200.1.1.??
Input Packet
Filter
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162
This incoming IP packet has a source IP address that matches the network address in the Source IP
Address field in Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4. This will
not
forward this packet.
Example 2
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.184.
This incoming IP packet has a source IP address that does not match the network address in the Source IP
Address field in Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4. This rule
will
forward this packet because the
packet does not match.
Example 3
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.184.
This rule does
not
match and this packet will be forwarded.
Example 4
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.104.
This rule
does
match and this packet will
not
be forwarded.
Example 5
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.96.
This rule
does
match and this packet will
not
be forwarded. This rule masks off a
single
IP address.
Filter Rule: 200.1.1.0 (Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.128 (Source IP Mask)
Forward = No (What happens on match)
Filter Rule: 200.1.1.96 (Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.240 (Source IP Mask)
Forward = No (What happens on match)
Filter Rule: 200.1.1.96 (Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.240 (Source IP Mask)
Forward = No (What happens on match)
Filter Rule: 200.1.1.96 (Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.255 (Source IP Mask)
Forward = No (What happens on match)
163
Link: Packet Filter
When you click the
Packet Filter
link the
Filter Sets
screen appears.
Security should be a high priority for anyone administering a network connected to the Internet. Using
packet filters to control network communications can greatly improve your network’s security. The Packet
Filter engine allows creation of a maximum of eight Filter Sets. Each Filter Set can consist of many rules.
There can be a maximum of 32 filter rules in the system.
WARNING:
Before attempting to configure filters and filter sets, please read and understand this entire
section thoroughly. Motorola Netopia® Gateways incorporating NAT have advanced security
features built in. Improperly adding filters and filter sets increases the possibility of loss of
communication with the Gateway and the Internet. Never attempt to configure filters unless you
are local to the Gateway.
Although using filter sets can enhance network security, there are disadvantages:
• Filters are complex. Combining them in filter sets introduces subtle interactions, increasing
the likelihood of implementation errors.
• Enabling a large number of filters can have a negative impact on performance. Processing of
packets will take longer if they have to go through many checkpoints in addition to NAT.
• Too much reliance on packet filters can cause too little reliance on other security methods.
Filter sets are
not
a substitute for password protection, effective safeguarding of passwords,
and general awareness of how your network may be vulnerable.
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4’s packet filters are designed to provide security for the Internet
connections made to and from your network. You can customize the Gateway’s filter sets for a variety of
packet filtering applications. Typically, you use filters to selectively admit or refuse TCP/IP connections from
certain remote networks and specific hosts. You will also use filters to screen particular types of connec-
tions. This is commonly called
firewalling
your network.
Before creating filter sets, you should read the next few sections to learn more about how these powerful
security tools work.
What’s a filter and what’s a filter set?
A filter is a rule that lets you specify what sort of data can flow in and out of your network. A particular filter
can be either an input filter—one that is used on data (packets) coming in to your network from the Inter-
net—or an output filter—one that is used on data (packets) going out from your network to the Internet.
A filter set is a group of filters that work together to check incoming or outgoing data. A filter set can consist
of a combination of input and output filters.
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164
How filter sets work
A filter set acts like a team of customs inspectors. Each filter is an inspector through which incoming and
outgoing packages must pass. The inspectors work as a team, but each inspects every package individu-
ally.
Each inspector has a specific task. One inspector’s task may be to examine the destination address of all
outgoing packages. That inspector looks for a certain destination—which could be as specific as a street
address or as broad as an entire country—and checks each package’s destination address to see if it
matches that destination.
A filter inspects data packets like a customs inspector scrutinizing packages.
Filter priority
Continuing the customs inspectors analogy, imagine the inspectors lined up
to examine a package. If the package matches the first inspector’s criteria,
the package is either rejected or passed on to its destination, depending on
the first inspector’s particular orders. In this case, the package is never
seen by the remaining inspectors.
If the package does not match the first inspector’s criteria, it goes to the
second inspector, and so on. You can see that the order of the inspectors in
the line is very important.
For example, let’s say the first inspector’s orders are to send along all pack-
ages that come from Rome, and the second inspector’s orders are to reject
all packages that come from France. If a package arrives from Rome, the
first inspector sends it along without allowing the second inspector to see it.
A package from Paris is ignored by the first inspector, rejected by the second
inspector, and never seen by the others. A package from London is ignored
by the first two inspectors, so it’s seen by the third inspector.
In the same way, filter sets apply their filters in a particular order. The first fil-
ter applied can forward or discard a packet before that packet ever reaches
any of the other filters. If the first filter can neither forward nor discard the
packet (because it cannot match any criteria), the second filter has a chance
to forward or reject it, and so on. Because of this hierarchical structure,
each filter is said to have a priority. The first filter has the highest priority, and the last filter has the lowest
priority.
INSPECTOR
FROM:
TO:
FROM:
TO:
FROM:
TO:
APPROVED
packet
first
filter
match?
yes
forward
discard?
to network
discard
(delete)
forward
no
to next
filter
send
or
165
How individual filters work
As described above, a filter applies criteria to an IP packet and then takes one of three actions:
Forwards the packet to the local or remote network
Blocks (discards) the packet
Ignores the packet
A filter forwards or blocks a packet only if it finds a match after applying its criteria. When no match occurs,
the filter ignores the packet.
A filtering rule
The criteria are based on information contained in the packets. A filter is simply a rule that prescribes cer-
tain actions based on certain conditions. For example, the following rule qualifies as a filter:
“Block all Telnet attempts that originate from the remote host 199.211.211.17.”
This rule applies to Telnet packets that come from a host with the IP address 199.211.211.17. If a match
occurs, the packet is blocked.
Here is what this rule looks like when imple-
mented as a filter in Netopia Embedded Software
Version 7.7.4:
To understand this particular filter, look at the
parts of a filter.
Parts of a filter
A filter consists of criteria based on packet
attributes. A typical filter can match a packet on
any one of the following attributes:
The source IP address and subnet mask
(where the packet was sent from)
The destination IP address and subnet mask
(where the packet is going)
The TOS bit setting of the packet. Certain
types of IP packets, such as voice or multime-
dia packets, are sensitive to delays introduced
by the network. A delay-sensitive packet is
identified by a special low-latency setting called
the TOS bit. It is important for such packets to
be received rapidly or the quality of service
degrades.
The type of higher-layer Internet protocol the packet is carrying, such as TCP or UDP
Port numbers
A filter can also match a packet’s port number attributes, but only if the filter’s protocol type is set to TCP
or UDP, since only those protocols use port numbers. The filter can be configured to match the following:
The source port number (the port on the sending host that originated the packet)
The destination port number (the port on the receiving host that the packet is destined for)
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166
By matching on a port number, a filter can be applied to selected TCP or UDP services, such as Telnet, FTP,
and World Wide Web. The following tables show a few common services and their associated port numbers:
Port number comparisons
A filter can also use a comparison option to evaluate a packet’s source or destination port number. The
comparison options are:
No Compare:
No comparison of the port number specified in the filter with the packet’s port number.
Not Equal To:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number cannot equal the port number specified
in the filter.
Less Than:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be less than the port number speci-
fied in the filter.
Less Than or Equal:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be less than or equal to the
port number specified in the filter.
Equal:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must equal the port number specified in the fil-
ter.
Greater Than:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be greater than the port number
specified in the filter.
Greater Than or Equal:
For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be greater than or equal
to the port number specified in the filter.
Other filter attributes
There are three other attributes to each filter:
The filter’s order (i.e., priority) in the filter set
Whether the filter is currently active
Whether the filter is set to forward packets or to block (discard) packets
Internet service TCP port Internet service TCP port
FTP 20/21 Finger 79
Telnet 23 World Wide Web 80
SMTP (mail) 25 News 144
Gopher 70 rlogin 513
Internet service UDP port Internet service UDP port
Who Is 43 TFTP 69
World Wide Web 80 who 513
SNMP 161
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Putting the parts together
When you display a filter set, its filters are displayed as rows in a table:
The table’s columns correspond to each filter’s attributes:
#: The filter’s priority in the set. Filter number 1, with the highest priority, is first in the table.
Fwd: Shows whether the filter forwards (Yes) a packet or discards (No) it when there’s a match.
Src-IP: The packet source IP address to match.
Src-Mask: The packet source subnet mask to match.
Dst-IP: The packet destination IP address to match.
Dst-Mask: The packet destination IP address to match.
Protocol: The protocol to match. This can be entered as a number (see the table below) or as TCP or
UDP if those protocols are used.
Src Port: The source port to match. This is the port on the sending host that originated the packet.
Dst Port: The destination port to match. This is the port on the receiving host for which the packet is
intended.
NC: Indicates No Compare, where specified.
Filtering example #1
Returning to our filtering rule example from above (see page 165), look at how a rule is translated into a fil-
ter. Start with the rule, then fill in the filter’s attributes:
The rule you want to implement as a filter is:
“Block all Telnet attempts that originate from the remote host 199.211.211.17.”
Protocol Number to use Full name
N/A 0 Ignores protocol type
ICMP 1 Internet Control Message Protocol
TCP 6 Transmission Control Protocol
UDP 17 User Datagram Protocol
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The host 199.211.211.17 is the source of the Telnet packets you want to block, while the destination
address is any IP address. How these IP addresses are masked determines what the final match will be,
although the mask is not displayed in the table that displays the filter sets (you set it when you create
the filter). In fact, since the mask for the destination IP address is 0.0.0.0, the address for Destination
IP address could have been anything. The mask for Source IP address must be 255.255.255.255 since
an exact match is desired.
Source IP Address = 199.211.211.17
Source IP address mask = 255.255.255.255
Destination IP Address = 0.0.0.0
Destination IP address mask = 0.0.0.0
Using the tables on page 166, find the destination port and protocol numbers (the local Telnet port):
Protocol = TCP (or 6)
Destination Port = 23
The filter should be enabled and instructed to block the Telnet packets containing the source address
shown in step 2:
Forward = unchecked
This four-step process is how we produced the following filter from the original rule:
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Filtering example #2
Suppose a filter is configured to block all incoming IP packets with the source IP address of 200.233.14.0,
regardless of the type of connection or its destination. The filter would look like this:
This filter blocks any packets coming from a remote network with the IP network address 200.233.14.0.
The 0 at the end of the address signifies any host on the class C IP network 200.233.14.0. If, for example,
the filter is applied to a packet with the source IP address 200.233.14.5, it will block it.
In this case, the mask, must be set to 255.255.255.0. This way, all packets with a source address of
200.233.14.x will be matched correctly, no matter what the final address byte is.
Note:
The protocol attribute for this filter is Any by default. This tells the filter to ignore the IP protocol
or type of IP packet.
Design guidelines
Careful thought must go into designing a new filter set. You should consider the following guidelines:
Be sure the filter set’s overall purpose is clear from the beginning. A vague purpose can lead to a faulty
set, and that can actually make your network less secure.
Be sure each individual filter’s purpose is clear.
Determine how filter priority will affect the set’s actions. Test the set (on paper) by determining how the
filters would respond to a number of different hypothetical packets.
Consider the combined effect of the filters. If every filter in a set fails to match on a particular packet,
the packet is:
Forwarded if all the filters are configured to discard (not forward)
Discarded if all the filters are configured to forward
Discarded if the set contains a combination of forward and discard filters
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An approach to using filters
The ultimate goal of network security is to prevent unauthorized access to the network without compromis-
ing authorized access. Using filter sets is part of reaching that goal.
Each filter set you design will be based on one of the following approaches:
That which is not expressly prohibited is permitted.
That which is not expressly permitted is prohibited.
It is strongly recommended that you take the latter, and safer, approach to all of your filter set designs.
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Working with IP Filters and Filter Sets
To work with filters and filter sets, begin by accessing the filter set pages.
NOTE:
Make sure you understand how filters work before attempting to use them. Read the section
“Packet Filter” on page 163.
The procedure for creating and maintaining filter sets is as follows:
1. Add a new filter set.
See Adding a filter set, below.
2. Create the filters for the new filter set.
See “Adding filters to a filter set” on page 172.
3. Associate the filter set with either the LAN or WAN interface.
See “Associating a Filter Set with an Interface” on page 176.
The sections below explain how to execute these steps.
Adding a filter set
You can create up to eight different custom filter sets. Each filter set can contain up to 16 output filters and
up to 16 input filters. There can be a maximum of 32 filter rules in the system.
To add a new filter set, click the Add button in the Filter Sets page. The Add Filter Set page appears.
Enter new name for the filter set, for example Filter Set 1.
To save the filter set, click the Submit button. The saved filter set is empty (contains no filters), but you
can return to it later to add filters (see “Adding filters to a filter set”).
NOTE:
As you begin to build a filter set, and as you add filters, after your first entry, the Alert icon
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will appear in the upper right corner of the web page. It will remain until all of your
changes are entered and validated. You need not immediately restart the Gateway until your fil-
ter set is complete. See “Associating a Filter Set with an Interface” on page 176.
Adding filters to a filter set
There are two kinds of filters you can add to a filter set: input and output. Input filters check packets
received from the Internet, destined for your network. Output filters check packets transmitted from your
network to the Internet.
Packets in Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 pass through an input filter if they originate from the WAN and
through an output filter if they’re being sent out to the WAN.
The process for adding input and output filters is exactly the same. The main difference between the two
involves their reference to source and destination. From the perspective of an input filter, your local network
is the destination of the packets it checks, and the remote network is their source. From the perspective of
an output filter, your local network is the source of the packets, and the remote network is their destination.
To add a filter, select the Filter Set Name to which you will add a filter, and click the Edit button.
Type of filter Source means Destination means
Input filter The remote network The local network
Output filter The local network The remote network
The Motorola Netopia® Router
input filter
output filter
LAN
WAN
packet
packet
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The Filter Set page appears.
Note:
There are two Add buttons in this page, one for input filters and one for output filters. In this
section, you’ll learn how to add an input filter to a filter set. Adding an output filter works
exactly the same way, providing you keep the different source and destination perspectives in
mind.
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1. To add a filter, click the Add button under Input Rules.
The Input Rule Entry page appears.
2. If you want the filter to forward packets that match its criteria to the destination IP
address, check the
Forward
checkbox.
If Forward is unchecked, packets matching the filter’s criteria will be discarded.
3. Enter the
Source IP
address this filter will match on.
You can enter a subnet or a host address.
4. Enter the
Source Mask
for the source IP address.
This allows you to further modify the way the filter will match on the source address. Enter 0.0.0.0 to
force the filter to match on all source IP addresses, or enter 255.255.255.255 to match the source IP
address exclusively.
5. Enter the
Destination IP
Address this filter will match on.
You can enter a subnet or a host address.
6. Enter the
Destination Mask
for the destination IP address.
This allows you to further modify the way the filter will match on the destination address. Enter 0.0.0.0
to force the filter to match on all destination IP addresses.
7. If desired, you can enter a TOS and TOS Mask value.
See “Policy-based Routing using Filtersets” on page 177 for more information.
8. Select
Protocol
from the pull-down menu: ICMP, TCP, UDP, Any, or the number of
another IP transport protocol (see the table on page 167).
If Protocol Type is set to TCP or UDP, the settings for port comparison will appear. These settings only
take effect if the Protocol Type is TCP or UDP.
9. From the
Source Port Compare
pull-down menu, choose a comparison method for the
filter to use on a packet’s source port number.
Then select
Source Port
and enter the actual source port number to match on (see the table on
page 166).
10. From the Destination Port Compare pull-down menu, choose a comparison method for
the filter to use on a packet’s destination port number.
Then select
Destination Port
and enter the actual destination port number to match on (see the table
on page 166).
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11. When you are finished configuring the filter, click the Submit button to save the filter in
the filter set.
Viewing filters
To display the table of input or output filters, select the Filter Set Name in the Filter Set page and click the
Add or Edit button.
The table of filters in the filtersets appears.
Modifying filters
To modify a filter, select a filter from the table and click the Edit button. The Rule Entry page appears. The
parameters in this page are set in the same way as the ones in the original Rule Entry page (see “Adding fil-
ters to a filter set” on page 172).
Deleting filters
To delete a filter, select a filter from the table and click the Delete button.
Moving filters
To reorganize the filters in a filter set, select a filter from the table and click the Move Up or Move Down
button to place the filter in the desired priority position.
Deleting a filter set
If you delete a filter set, all of the filters it contains are deleted as well. To reuse any of these filters in
another set, before deleting the current filter set you’ll have to note their configuration and then recreate
them.
To delete a filter set, select the filter set from the Filter Sets list and click the Delete button.
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Associating a Filter Set with an Interface
Once you have created a filter set, you must associate it with an interface in order for it to be effective.
Depending on its application, you can associate it with either the WAN (usually the Internet) interface or the
LAN.
To associate an filter set with the LAN, return to the Filter Sets page.
Click the Ethernet 100BT link.
The Ethernet 100BT page appears.
From the pull-down menu, select the filter set to associate with this
interface.
Click the Submit button. The Alert icon will appear in the upper right
corner of the page.
Click the Alert icon to go to the validation page, where you can save your configuration.
You can repeat this process for both the WAN and LAN interfaces, to associate your filter sets.
When you return to the Filter Sets page, it will display
your interface associations.
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Policy-based Routing using Filtersets
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 offers the ability to route IP packets using criteria other than the
destination IP address. This is called policy-based routing.
You specify the routing criteria and routing information by using IP filtersets to determine the forwarding
action of a particular filter.
You specify a gateway IP address, and each packet matching the filter is routed according to that gateway
address, rather than by means of the global routing table.
In addition, the classifier list in a filter includes the TOS field. This allows you to filter on TOS field settings
in the IP packet, if you want.
To use the policy-based routing feature, you create a filter that
forwards the traffic.
Check the Forward checkbox. This will display the Force Rout-
ing options.
Check the Force Route checkbox.
Enter the Gateway IP address in standard dotted-quad nota-
tion to which the traffic should be forwarded.
You can enter Source and Destination IP Address(es) and
Mask(s), Protocol Type, and Source and Destination Port
ID(s) for the filter, if desired.
TOS field matching
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 includes two
parameters for an IP filter: TOS and TOS Mask. Both fields
accept values in the range 0 – 255.
Certain types of IP packets, such as voice or multimedia
packets, are sensitive to latency introduced by the network. A
delay-sensitive packet is one that has the low-latency bit set in
the TOS field of the IP header. This means that if such packets
are not received rapidly, the quality of service degrades. If you
expect to route significant amounts of such traffic you can
configure your router to route this type of traffic to a gateway
other than your normal gateway using this feature.
The TOS field matching check is consistent with source and destination address matching.
If you check the Idle Reset checkbox, a match on this rule will keep the WAN connection alive by resetting
the idle-timeout status.
The Idle Reset setting is used to determine if a packet which matches the filter will cause an “instant-on”
link to connect, if it is down; or reset its idle timer, if it is already up. For example, if you wanted ping traffic
not to keep the link up, you would create a filter which forwards a ping, but with the Idle Reset checkbox
unchecked.
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Example: You want packets with the TOS low latency bit to go
through VC 2 (via gateway 127.0.0.3 – the Motorola Netopia®
Gateway will use 127.0.0.x, where x is the WAN port + 1) instead
of your normal gateway.
You would set up the filter as shown here.
NOTE:
Default Forwarding Filter
If you create one or more filters that have a matching action of forward, then action on a
packet matching none of the filters is to block any traffic.
Therefore, if the behavior you want is to force the routing of a certain type of packet and pass
all others through the normal routing mechanism, you must configure one filter to match the
first type of packet and apply Force Routing. A subsequent filter is required to match and for-
ward all other packets.
Management IP traffic
If the Force Routing filter is applied to source IP addresses, it may inadvertently block commu-
nication with the router itself. You can avoid this by preceding the Force Routing filter with a fil-
ter that matches the destination IP address of the Gateway itself.
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Link: Security Log
Security Monitoring is a keyed feature. See page 187 for information concerning installing Motorola Neto-
pia® Software Feature Keys.
Security Monitoring detects security-related events, including common types of malicious attacks, and
writes them to the security log file.
Using the Security Monitoring Log
You can view the Security Log at any time. Use the following steps:
1. Click the Security
toolbar button.
2. Click the Security Log link.
3. Click the Show link from the Security Log tool bar.
4. An example of the Security Log is shown on the next page.
5. When a new security event is detected, you will see the Alert button.
The Security Alert remains until you view the information. Clicking the Alert button will take you directly
to a page showing the log.
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The capacity of the security log is 100 security alert messages. When the log reaches capacity, subsequent
messages are not captured, but they are noted in the log entry count.
To reset this log, select Reset from the Security Monitor tool bar.
The following message is displayed.
Your Netopia Gateway has detected and successfully blocked an event that could have
compromised the security of your network.
Please refer to your customer documentation for a description of the logged event.
Number of security log entries : 5
Security alert type : Port Scan
Protocol type : TCP
IP source address : 143.137.137.14
Time at last attempt : Fri May 21 15:17:40 2004 (UTC)
Number of ports that were scanned : 9
Highest port : 1167
Lowest port : 1094
1102 1108 1094 1099 1166 1167 1151 1160 1164
Security alert type : Excessive Pings
IP source address : 143.137.137.92
IP destination address : 143.137.199.8
Number of attempts : 90
Time at last attempt : Fri May 21 17:52:22 2004 (UTC)
Security alert type : Port Scan
Protocol type : TCP
IP source address : 143.137.50.2
Time at last attempt : Fri May 21 17:51:37 2004 (UTC)
Number of ports that were scanned : 241
Highest port : 5302
Lowest port : 73
111 473 602 863 817 1994 805 395 5302 1670
(Only the first 10 ports are recorded.)
Security alert type : Port Scan
Protocol type : UDP
IP source address : 143.137.50.2
Time at last attempt : Fri May 21 17:52:43 2004 (UTC)
Number of ports that were scanned : 162
Highest port : 5236
Lowest port : 1
583 1 1471 444 4133 811 5236 650 776 1492
(Only the first 10 ports are recorded.)
Security alert type : Illegal Packet Size (Ping of Death)
IP source address : 192.168.1.3
IP destination address : 143.137.199.8
Number of attempts : 5
Time at last attempt : Fri May 21 18:05:33 2004 (UTC)
Illegal packet size : 65740
The security log has been reset.
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When the Security Log contains no entries, this is the response:
Timestamp Background
During bootup, to provide better log information and to support improved troubleshooting, a Motorola Neto-
pia® Gateway acquires the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Universal Coordinated
Time (UTC) reference signal, and then adjusts it for your local time zone.
Once per hour, the Gateway attempts to re-acquire the NIST reference, for re-synchronization or initial acqui-
sition of the UTC information. Once acquired, all subsequent log entries display this date and time informa-
tion. UTC provides the equivalent of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) information.
If the WAN connection is not enabled (or NTP has been disabled), the internal clocking function of the Gate-
way provides log timestamps based on “uptime” of the unit.
The security log is empty.
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Install
Button: Install
From the Install toolbar button you can Install new Operating System Software and Feature Keys as
updates become available.
On selected models, you can install a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL V3.0) certificate from a trusted Certifica-
tion Authority (CA) for authentication purposes. If this feature is available on your Gateway, the Install Cer-
tificate link will appear in the Install page as shown. Otherwise, it will not appear.
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Link: Install Software
(This link is not available on the 3342/3352 models, since firmware updates must be upgraded via the
USB host driver. 3342N/3352N models are upgradeable by this procedsure.)
This page allows you to install an updated release of the Motorola Netopia® Firmware.
Updating Your Gateway’s Motorola Netopia® Firmware Version. You install a new operat-
ing system image in your unit from the Install Operating System Software page. For this process, the com-
puter you are using to connect to the Motorola Netopia® Gateway must be on the same local area network
as the Motorola Netopia® Gateway.
Step 1: Required Files
Upgrading Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 requires a Motorola Netopia® firmware image file.
Background
Firmware upgrade image files are posted periodically on the Motorola Netopia® website. You can download
the latest operating system software for your Gateway by accessing the following URL:
http://www.netopia.com/support/hardware/
Be sure to download the correct file for your particular Gateway. Different Gateway models have different
firmware files. Also, be sure your ISP supports the version of firmware you want to use.
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When you download your firmware upgrade from the Motorola Netopia® website, be sure to download the
latest User Guide PDF files. These are also posted on the Motorola Netopia® website in the Documentation
Center.
Confirm Motorola Netopia® Firmware Image Files
The Motorola Netopia® firmware Image file is specific to the model and the product identification number.
1. Confirm that you have received the appropriate Motorola Netopia® Firmware Image file.
2. Save the Motorola Netopia® Firmware image file to a convenient location on your PC.
Step 2: Motorola Netopia® firmware Image File
Install the Motorola Netopia® firmware Image
To install the Motorola Netopia® firmware in your Motorola Netopia® Gateway from the Home Page use
the following steps:
1. Open a web connection to your Motorola Netopia® Gateway from the computer on your
LAN.
2. Click the Install Software button on the Motorola Netopia® Gateway
Home
page.
The Install Operating System Software window opens.
3. Enter the filename into the text box by using one of these techniques:
The Motorola Netopia® firmware file name begins with a shortened form of the version number and
ends with the suffix “.bin” (for “binary”). Example: nta760.bin
a. Click the Browse button, select the file you want, and click Open.
-or-
b. Enter the name and path of the software image you want to install in the text field.
4. Click the Install Software button.
The Motorola Netopia® Gateway copies the image file from your computer and installs it into its memory
storage. You see a progress bar appear on your screen as the image is copied and installed.
185
When the image has been installed, a success message displays.
5. When the success message appears, click the Restart button and confirm the Restart
when you are prompted.
Your Motorola Netopia® Gateway restarts with its new image.
Verify the Motorola Netopia® Firmware Release
To verify that the Motorola Netopia® firmware image has loaded successfully, use the following steps:
1. Open a web connection to your Motorola Netopia® Gateway from the computer on your
LAN and return to the Home page.
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2. Verify your Motorola Netopia® firmware release, as shown on the Home Page.
This completes the upgrade process.
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Link: Install Key
You can obtain advanced product functionality by employing a software Feature Key. Software feature keys
are specific to a Gateway's serial number. Once the feature key is installed and the Gateway is restarted,
the new feature's functionality becomes enabled.
Use Motorola Netopia® Software Feature Keys
Motorola Netopia® Gateway users obtain advanced product functionality by installing a software feature
key. This concept utilizes a specially constructed and distributed keycode (referred to as a feature key) to
enable additional capability within the unit.
Software feature key properties are specific to a unit’s serial number; they will not be accepted on a plat-
form with another serial number.
Once installed, and the Gateway restarted, the new feature’s functionality becomes available. This allows
full access to configuration, operation, maintenance and administration of the new enhancement.
Obtaining Software Feature Keys
Contact Motorola or your Service Provider to acquire a Software Feature Key.
Procedure - Install a New Feature Key File
With the appropriate feature keycode, use the steps listed below to enable a new function.
1. From the Home page, click the Install toolbar button.
2. Click Install Keys
The Install Key File page appears.
3. Enter the feature keycode in the input Text Box.
Type the full keycode in the Text Box.
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4. Click the Install Key button.
5. Click the Restart toolbar button.
The Confirmation screen appears.
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6. Click the Restart the Gateway link to confirm.
To check your installed features:
7. Click the Install toolbar button.
8. Click the list of features link.
The System Status page appears with the information from the features link displayed below. You can
check that the feature you just installed is enabled.
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Link: Install Certificate
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for transmitting private information over the Internet. SSL uses
two keys to encrypt data: a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the
recipient of the message.
Netopia Embedded Software Version 7.7.4 uses SSL certificates for TR-069 support.
SSL certificates are issued by trusted Certification Authorities (CAs). The CA digitally signs each certificate.
Each client contains a list of trusted CAs. When an SSL handshake between a server and your Gateway
occurs, the client verifies that the server certificate was issued by a trusted CA. If the CA is not trusted, a
warning will appear. Certificates installed in your Gateway and servers to which it connects verify to each
other that communications between them are encrypted and private.
Certificates are purchased from an issuing Certificate Authority, usually by your corporate IT department or
other service provider, and provided to users for secure communications.
You must obtain a certificate file before you can install it.
1. To install an SSL certificate, click the Install Certificate link.
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The Install Certificate page appears.
2. Browse to the location where you have saved your certificate and select the file, or type
the full path.
3. Click the Install Certificate button.
4. Restart your Gateway.
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193
CHAPTER 4 Basic Troubleshooting
This section gives some simple suggestions for troubleshooting problems with your Gateway’s initial config-
uration.
Before troubleshooting, make sure you have
read the Quickstart Guide;
plugged in all the necessary cables; and
set your PC’s TCP/IP controls to obtain an IP address automatically.
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Status Indicator Lights
The first step in troubleshooting is to check the status indicator lights (LEDs) in the order outlined below.
Motorola Netopia® Gateway 2210 status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
Ethernet Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
DSL Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training.
Internet
Solid green when Broadband device is connected. Flashes green for
activity on the WAN port. If the physical link comes up, but PPP or
DHCP fail, the LED turns red.
Power Ethernet DSL Internet
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 2240N/2241N status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
Ethernet Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
USB
(Model 2241N only)
Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
DSL Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training.
Internet
Solid green when Broadband device is connected. Flashes green for
activity on the WAN port. If the physical link comes up, but PPP or
DHCP fail, the LED turns red.
Power Ethernet DSLUSB Internet
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 2246N status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
DSL Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training.
Internet
Solid green when Broadband device is connected. Flashes green for
activity on the WAN port. If the physical link comes up, but PPP or
DHCP fail, the LED turns red.
Power Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 DSL Internet
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 2247NWG status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
Wireless Flashes green when there is activity on the wireless LAN. Off if driver
fails to initialize, or if wireless is disabled.
DSL Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training.
Internet
Solid green when Broadband device is connected. Flashes green for
activity on the WAN port. If the physical link comes up, but PPP or
DHCP fail, the LED turns red.
Power Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 DSLWireless Internet
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 3340(N), 3341(N), 3351(N) status indicator lights
LED Action
Ethernet Link Solid green when connected.
Ethernet Traffic Flashes green when there is activity on the LAN.
DSL Traffic Blinks green when traffic is sent/received over the WAN.
DSL Sync Blinking green with no line attached or training, solid green when
trained with the DSL line.
USB Active
(Model 3341N only)
Solid green when connected; otherwise, not lit.
PPPoE Active
(Model 3340N only)
Solid green when PPPoE is negotiated; otherwise, not lit.
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
PowerUSB ActiveDSL Traffic DSL SyncEthernet TrafficEthernet Link
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 3342/3342N, 3352/3352N status indicator lights
Special patterns:
• Both LEDs are off during boot (power on boot or warm reboot).
• When the 3342/3352 successfully boots up, both LEDs flash green once.
• Both LEDs are off when the Host OS suspends the device, (e.g. Windows standby/reboot,
device disabled, driver uninstalled, etc.)
USB:
Solid green when USB is connected
DSL:
Blinking green with no line attached or training,
otherwise, not lit
solid green when trained with the DSL line.
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway 3346(N), 3356(N) status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
DSL Sync Blinking green with no line attached or training, solid green when
trained with the DSL line.
LAN 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected; Flash green when there is activity on the
LAN.
PowerDSL SyncLAN 1, 2, 3, 4
201
Motorola Netopia® Gateway 3347W, 3347(N)WG status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
DSL Sync Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training. Flashes green for DSL traffic.
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
Wireless Link Flashes green when there is activity on the wireless LAN. Off if driver
fails to initialize, or if wireless is disabled.
PowerLAN 1, 2, 3, 4 DSL Sync Wireless Link
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Motorola Netopia® Gateway MiAVo status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
DSL
(DSL 1 & 2: ADSL2+
models only)
Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training. Flashes green for DSL traffic.
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
Wireless Flashes green when there is activity on the wireless LAN. Off if driver
fails to initialize, or if wireless is disabled.
Power
DSL
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4
Wireless
203
Motorola Netopia® Gateway 7346/56-series MiAVo status indicator lights
LED Action
Power Green when power is on. Red if device malfunctions. Flashes Red
when new embedded software is being installed.
Ethernet 1, 2, 3, 4 Solid green when connected. Flash green when there is activity on
the LAN.
DSL Solid green when trained. Blinking green when no line is attached or
when training. Flashes green for DSL traffic.
Power DSLEthernet 1, 2, 3, 4
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LED Function Summary Matrix
If a status indicator light does not look correct, look for these possible problems:
Unlit Solid Green Flashing
Green Solid Red Flashing Red
Power No power Power on N/A System failure Installing new
embedded software
USB Active No signal USB port con-
nected to PC
Activity on the
USB cable
N/A N/A
DSL Sync No signal DSL line synched
with the DSLAM
Attempting to
train with DSLAM
N/A N/A
DSL Traffic No signal N/A Activity on the
DSL cable
N/A N/A
Ethernet
Traffic
No signal N/A Activity on the
Ethernet port
N/A N/A
Ethernet Link No signal Synched with Ether-
net card
N/A N/A N/A
Internet
No signal Broadband device
is connected.
Activity on the
WAN port.
Physical link
established, but
PPP or DHCP
fails.
N/A
Wireless Wireless is
disabled.
Wireless is
enabled.
Activity on the
WLAN.
N/A N/A
LED State Possible problems
Power Unlit
1. Make sure the power switch is in the ON position.
2. Make sure the power adapter is plugged into the 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series DSL Gate-
way properly.
3. Try a known good wall outlet.
4. Replace the power supply and/or unit.
DSL
Sync Unlit
1. Make sure the you are using the correct cable. The DSL cable is the thinner standard tele-
phone cable.
2. Make sure the DSL cable is plugged into the correct wall jack.
3. Make sure the DSL cable is plugged into the DSL port on the 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series
DSL Gateway.
4. Make sure the DSL line has been activated at the central office DSLAM.
5. Make sure the 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series DSL Gateway is not plugged into a micro filter.
EN Link Unlit
Note: EN Link light is inactive if only using USB.
1. Make sure the you are using the Ethernet cable, not the DSL cable. The Ethernet cable is
thicker than the standard telephone cable.
2. Make sure the Ethernet cable is securely plugged into the Ethernet jack on the PC.
3. If plugging a 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series DSL Gateway into a hub the you may need to
plug into an uplink port on the hub, or use an Ethernet cross over cable.
4. Make sure the Ethernet cable is securely plugged into the Ethernet port on the 2200-,
3300- or 7000-series DSL Gateway.
5. Try another Ethernet cable if you have one available.
205
EN Traffic Unlit
1. Make sure you have Ethernet drivers installed on the PC.
2. Make sure the PC’s TCP/IP Properties for the Ethernet Network Control Panel is set to
obtain an IP address via DHCP.
3. Make sure the PC has obtained an address in the 192.168.1.x range. (You may have
changed the subnet addressing.)
4. Make sure the PC is configured to access the Internet over a LAN.
5. Disable any installed network devices (Ethernet, HomePNA, wireless) that are not being
used to connect to the 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series DSL Gateway.
USB
Active Unlit
Note: USB Active light is inactive if only using Ethernet.
1. Make sure you have USB drivers installed on the PC.
2. Make sure the PC’s TCP/IP Properties for the USB Network Control Panel is set to obtain
an IP address via DHCP.
3. Make sure the PC has obtained an address in the 192.168.1.x range. (You may have
changed the subnet addressing.)
4. Make sure the PC is configured to access the Internet over a LAN.
5. Disable any installed network devices (Ethernet, HomePNA, wireless) that are not being
used to connect to the 2200-, 3300- or 7000-series DSL Gateway.
DSL
Traffic Unlit Launch a browser and try to browse the Internet. If the DSL Active light still does not flash,
then proceed to Advanced Troubleshooting below.
Wireless
Link Unlit
Make sure your client PC(s) have their wireless cards correctly installed and configured.
Check your client PC(s) TCP/IP settings to make sure they are receiving an IP address from
the wireless Router.
Check the Gateway’s log for wireless driver failure messages.
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Factory Reset Switch
(not supported on some models; 3342/3342N/3352/3352N models do not have a reset switch)
Lose your password? This section shows how to reset the Motorola Netopia® Gateway so that you can
access the configuration screens once again.
NOTE: Keep in mind that all of your settings will need to be reconfigured.
If you don't have a password, the only way to access the Motorola Netopia® Gateway is the following:
1. Referring to the following diagram, find the round Reset Switch opening.
2. Carefully insert the point of a pen or an unwound paperclip into the opening.
If you press the factory default button for less than 1/2 a second, the unit will continue to run as nor-
mal.
If you press the factory default button for 1 second, when you release it, the Gateway will perform a fac-
tory reset, clear all settings and configurations, and reboot. Do not hold the button down too long (5 –
10 seconds). This will destroy any saved default settings as well.
DSL POWER
4 3 ETHERNET 2 1
RESET
ON
OFF
Power Off / On
LAN
DSL
412
3
Factory Reset Switch:
3347W/3357W
1
Power
4
USB
3
Ethernet
2
DSL On / Off
Factory Reset Switch:
3341/3351
Power Off / On
LAN
DSL
412
3
3346/3356
Factory Reset Switch:
2247NWG
2240N
2241N
2246N
Factory Reset Switch:
Push to clear all settings
Push to clear all settings
Push to clear all settings
Push to clear all settings
Factory Reset Switch:
Push to clear all settings
Factory Reset Switch: Push to clear all settings
2
3Power Off/On
LAN
DSL 41
Factory Reset Switch:
MiaVo
Push to clear all settings
207
CHAPTER 5 Advanced Troubleshooting
Advanced Troubleshooting can be accessed from the Gateway’s Web UI. Point your browser to
http://192.168.1.254
. The main page displays the device status. (If this does not make the Web UI
appear, then do a release and renew in Windows networking to see what the Gateway address really is.)
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Home Page
The home page displays basic information about the Gateway. This includes the ISP Username, Connection
Status, Device Address, Remote Gateway Address, DNS-1, and DNS-2. If you are not able to connect to the
Internet, verify the following:
Item Description
Local WAN IP Address This is the negotiated address of the Gateway’s WAN interface. This
address is usually dynamically assigned.
Remote Gateway
Address
This is the negotiated address of the remote router to which this Gate-
way is connected.
Status of Connection ‘Waiting for DSL’ is displayed while the Gateway is training. This
should change to ‘Up’ within two minutes. If not, make sure an RJ-11
cable is used, the Gateway is connected to the correct wall jack, and
the Gateway is not plugged into a micro filter.
‘No Connection’ is displayed if the Gateway has trained but failed the
PPPoE login. This usually means an invalid user name or password.
Go to Expert Mode and change the PPPoE name and password.
‘Up’ is displayed when the ADSL line is synched and the PPPoE (or
other connection method) session is established.
‘Down’ is displayed if the line connection fails.
ISP Username This should be the valid PPPoE username. If not, go to Expert Mode
and change to the correct username.
Device Address This is the negotiated address of the Gateway’s WAN interface.
This address is often dynamically assigned. Make sure this is a valid
address.
If this is not the correct assigned address, go to Expert Mode and ver-
ify the PPPoE address has not been manually assigned.
209
Device Gateway This is the negotiated address of the remote router. Make sure this is
a valid address.
If this is not the correct address, go to Expert Mode and verify the
address has not been manually assigned.
Primary DNS/
Secondary DNS
These are the negotiated DNS addresses. Make sure they are valid
DNS addresses. (Secondary DNS is optional, and may validly be blank
(0.0.0.0).)
If these are not the correct addresses, go to Expert Mode and verify
the addresses have not been manually assigned.
Serial Number This is the unique serial number of your Gateway.
Ethernet Status (if so equipped; not available on 3342/3342N/3352/3352N) This is
the status of your Ethernet connection. If you are connecting via Ether-
net, it should be Up.
USB Status This is the status of your USB connection (if equipped). If you are con-
necting via USB, it should be Up.
Software Release This is the version number of the current embedded software in your
Gateway.
Warranty Date This is the date that your Gateway was installed and enabled.
Date & Time If this is blank, you likely lack a network connection, or your NTP
server information is incorrect.
NOTE: The Home Page may also display Wireless, VoIP or Backup status depending on
model and configuration. See “Wireless” on page 53, “VoIP” on page 120, or “Backup”
on page 133 for more information.
If all of the above seem correct, then access Expert Mode by clicking the
Expert Mode
link.
Item Description
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210
Button: Troubleshoot
Expert Mode
Expert Mode has advanced troubleshooting tools that are used to pinpoint the exact source of a problem.
Clicking the Troubleshoot tab displays a page with links to System Status, Network Tools, and Diagnostics.
System Status: Displays an overall view of the system and its condition.
Network Tools: Includes NSLookup, Ping and TraceRoute.
Diagnostics: Runs a multi-layer diagnostic test that checks the LAN, WAN, PPPoE, and other connection
issues.
211
Link: System Status
In the system status screen, there are several utilities that are useful for troubleshooting.
Some examples are given in the following pages.
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212
Link: Ports: Ethernet
The Ethernet port selection shows the traffic sent and received on the Ethernet interface. There should be
frames and bytes on both the upstream and downstream sides. If there are not, this could indicate a bad
Ethernet cable or no Ethernet connection. Below is an example:
Ethernet Driver Statistics - 10/100 Ethernet
Type: 100BASET
Port Status: Link up
General:
Transmit OK : 7862
Receive OK : 4454
Tx Errors : 0
Rx Errors : 0
Rx CRC Errors : 0
Rx Frame Errors : 0
Upper Layers:
Rx No Handler : 0
Rx No Message : 0
Rx Octets : 975576
Rx Unicast Pkts : 4156
Rx Multicast Pkts : 203
Tx Discards : 0
Tx Octets : 2117992
Tx Unicast Pkts : 3789
Tx Multicast Pkts : 4073
Ethernet driver statistics - USB
Port Status: Link down
General:
Transmit OK : 0
Receive OK : 0
Tx Errors : 0
Rx Errors : 0
Tx Octets : 0
Rx Octets : 0
Ethernet driver statistics - 10/100 Ethernet
Type: 100BASET
Port Status: Link up
General:
Transmit OK : 7863
Receive OK : 4458
Tx Errors : 0
Rx Errors : 0
Rx CRC Errors : 0
Rx Frame Errors : 0
Upper Layers:
Rx No Handler : 0
Rx No Message : 0
Rx Octets : 976327
Rx Unicast Pkts : 4159
Rx Multicast Pkts : 204
Tx Discards : 0
213
Link: Ports: DSL
The DSL port selection shows the state of the DSL line, whether it is up or down and how many times the
Gateway attempted to train. The state should indicate ‘up’ for a working configuration. If it is not, check the
DSL cable and make sure it is plugged in correctly and not connected to a micro filter. Below is an example:
ADSL Line State: Up
ADSL Startup Attempts: 5
ADSL Modulation: DMT
Datapump Version: 3.22
Downstream Upstream
---------- ----------
SNR Margin: 18.6 14.0 dB
Line Attenuation: 0.4 4.0 dB
Errored Seconds: 14 3
Loss of Signal: 4 4
Loss of Frame: 0 0
CRC Errors: 0 0
Data Rate: 8000 800
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Link: IP: Interfaces
The IP interfaces selection shows the state and configuration information for your IP LAN and WAN inter-
faces. Below is an example:
IP interfaces:
Ethernet 100BT: ( up broadcast default rip-send v1 rip-receive v1 )
inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255
physical address 00-16-cb-39-a9-78 mtu 1500
PPP over Ethernet vcc1: ( up address-mapping broadcast default admin-disabled
rip-send v1 rip-receive v1 )
inet 10.1.2.34 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.1.2.1
physical address 00-15-bc-28-b8-67 mtu 1500
215
Link: DSL: Circuit Configuration
The DSL Circuit Configuration screen shows the traffic sent and received over the DSL line as well as the
trained rate (upstream and downstream) and the VPI/VCI. Verify traffic is being sent over the DSL line. If
not, check the cabling and make sure the Gateway is not connected to a micro filter. Also verify the correct
PVC is listed, which should be 0/35 (some providers use other values, such as 8/35. Check with your pro-
vider). If not go to the WAN setup and change the VPI/VCI to its correct value. Below is an example:
ATM port status : Up
Rx data rate (bps) : 8000
Tx data rate (bps) : 800
ATM Virtual Circuits:
VCC # Type VPI VCI Encapsulation
---- ---- --- ----- --------------------------
1 PVC 8 35 PPP over Ethernet (LLC/SNAP encapsulation)
ATM Circuit Statistics:
Rx Frames : 17092 Tx Frames : 25078
Rx Octets : 905876 Tx Octets : 1329134
Rx Errors : 0 Tx Errors : 0
Rx Discards : 0 Tx Discards : 0
No Rx Buffers : 0 Tx Queue Full : 0
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Link: System Log: Entire
The system log shows the state of the WAN connection as well as the PPPoE session. Verify that the
PPPoE session has been correctly established and there are no failures. If there are error messages, go
to the WAN configuration and verify the settings. The following is an example of a successful connection:
Message Log:
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 KS: Using configured options found in flash
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BOOT: Warm start v7.3r0 ----------------------------------
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 IP address server initialization complete
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 BR: Using saved configuration options
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 BR: Netopia SOC OS version 7.3.0 (build r0)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 BR: Netopia-3000/9495032 (Netopia-3000, rev 1), PID 1205
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 BR: last install status: Firmware installed successfully
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 BR: memory sizes - 2048K Flash, 8192K RAM
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BR: Starting kernel
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 AAL5: initializing service
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 ATM: Waiting for PHY layer to come up
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 POE: Initializing PPP over Ethernet service
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 POE: Binding to Ethernet (ether/vcc1)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BRDG: Configuring port (10/100BT-LAN)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BRDG: Bridge not enabled for WAN.
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BRDG: Bridging from one WAN port to another is disabled
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 BRDG: Initialization complete
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 IP: Routing between WAN ports is disabled
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 IP: IPSec client pass through is enabled
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 IP: Address mapping enabled on interface PPP over Ethernet vcc1
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 IP: Adding default gateway over PPP over Ethernet vcc1
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 IP: Initialization complete
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 IPSec: initializing service
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 IPSec: No feature key available - service disabled
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 PPP: PPP over Ethernet vcc1 binding to PPPoE
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 PPP: PPP over Ethernet vcc1 Port listening for incoming PPP connection requests
.
.
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L4 RFC1483-1 up
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 Service-Name=ANY
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 Host-Uniq 00000001
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 AC-Name=62011050058192-SMS1800
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 Service-Name=ANY
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 lcp: LCP Send Config-Request+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 MAGIC 0x2dee0000+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 lcp: LCP Recv Config-Req:+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 MRU(1492) (ACK) AUTHTYPE(c223) (CHAP) (ACK) MAGICNUMBER
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 (4403604) (ACK)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 lcp: returning Configure-Ack
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 chap: received challenge, id 1
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 chap: received success, id 1
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: IPCP Config-Request+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ADDR(0x0) DNS(0x0) DNS2(0x0) WINS(0x0) WINS2(0x0)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: IPCP Recv Config-Req:+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ADDR(143.137.199.254) (ACK)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: returning Configure-ACK
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: IPCP Config-Request+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ADDR(0x0) DNS(0x0) DNS2(0x0)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: IPCP Config-Request+
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ADDR(0x8f89c702) DNS(0x8f89320a) DNS2(0x8f898909)
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: negotiated remote IP address 143.137.199.254
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: negotiated IP address 143.137.199.2
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 ipcp: negotiated TCP hdr compression off
Mon Apr 16 10:48:22 2007 L3 NTP: Update system date & time
Mon Apr 16 10:50:02 L4 TS: "admin" logging in on serial port 0
Mon Apr 16 10:50:02 L4 TS: "Admin" completed login: Full Read/Write access
Mon Apr 16 10:50:02 L4 TS: "Admin" completed login: Full Read/Write access
217
Link: Diagnostics
The diagnostics section tests a number of different things at the same time, including the DSL line, the
Ethernet inter face and the PPPoE session.
The following table summarizes the possible results.
CODE Description
PASS The test was successful.
FAIL The test was unsuccessful.
SKIPPED The test was skipped because a test on which it depended failed, or it was not sup-
ported by the service provider equipment to which it is connected, or it does not
apply.
PENDING The test timed out without producing a result. Try running the test again.
WARNING The test was unsuccessful. The Service Provider equipment your Gateway connects to
may not support this test.
==== Checking LAN Interfaces
Check Ethernet LAN connect : PASS
Check IP connect to Ethernet (LAN) : PASS
Pinging Gateway : PASS
Check MAC-Bridge connect to Ethernet (LAN) : PASS
==== Checking DSL (WAN) Interfaces
Check DSL Synchronization : PASS
Check ATM Cell-Delineation : PASS
ATM OAM Segment Ping through (vcc1) : WARNING
*** Don't worry, your service provider may not support this test
ATM OAM End-To-End Ping through (vcc1) : WARNING
*** Don't worry, your service provider may not support this test
Check Ethernet connect to AAL5 (vcc1) : PASS
Check PPPOE connect to Ethernet (vcc1) : PASS
Check PPP connect to PPPOE (vcc1) : PASS
Check IP connect to PPP (vcc1) : PASS
Pinging Gateway : PASS
==== Checking Miscellaneous
Check DNS- Query for netopia.com : SKIPPED
Ping DNS Server Primary IP Address : SKIPPED
TEST DONE
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Link: Network Tools
Three test tools are available from this page.
NSLookup - converts a domain name to its IP address and vice versa.
Ping - tests the “reachability” of a particular network destination by sending an ICMP echo request and
waiting for a reply.
TraceRoute - displays the path to a destination by showing the number of hops and the router
addresses of these hops.
1. To use the NSLookup capability, type an address (domain name or IP address) in the
text box and click the
NSLookup
button
Example: Show the IP Address for grosso.com.
Result: The DNS Server doing the lookup is displayed in the Server: and Address: fields. If the Name
Server can find your entry in its table, it is displayed in the Name: and Address: fields.
PING: The network tools section sends a PING from the Gateway to either the LAN or WAN to verify connec-
tivity. A PING could be either an IP address (163.176.4.32) or Domain Name (www.netopia.com).
2. To use the Ping capability, type a destination address (domain name or IP address) in
the text box and click the
Ping
button.
Example: Ping to grosso.com.
Server : controller2.netopia.com
Address : 143.137.137.9
Name : www.grosso.com
Address : 192.150.14.120
219
Result: The host was reachable with four out of five packets sent.
ping www.grosso.com
Pinging 192.150.14.120 from local address 143.137.199.8 (timer gran. 100 ms)...
Ping size: 100 Ping count: 5
ICMP echo reply from 192.150.14.120, 200 ms
ICMP echo reply from 192.150.14.120, 100 ms
No ping response.
ICMP echo reply from 192.150.14.120, 100 ms
ICMP echo reply from 192.150.14.120, 100 ms
--- 192.150.14.120 ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 20% packet loss
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Below are some specific tests:
3. To use the TraceRoute capability, type a destination address (domain name or IP
address) in the text box and click the
TraceRoute
button.
Action If PING is not successful, possible causes are:
From the Gateway's Network
Tools page:
Ping the internet default gateway IP
address
DSL is down, DSL or ATM settings are incorrect; Gate-
way’s IP address or subnet mask are wrong; gateway
router is down.
Ping an internet site by IP address Gateway’s default gateway is incorrect, Gateway’s sub-
net mask is incorrect, site is down.
Ping an internet site by name DNS is not properly configured on the Gateway; config-
ured DNS servers are down; site is down.
From a LAN PC:
Ping the Gateway’s LAN IP address IP address and subnet mask of PC are not on the same
scheme as the Gateway; cabling or other connectivity
issue.
Ping the Gateway’s WAN IP address Default gateway on PC is incorrect.
Ping the Gateway’s internet default
gateway IP address
NAT is off on the Gateway and the internal IP addresses
are private.
Ping an internet site by IP address PC's subnet mask may be incorrect, site is down.
Ping an internet site by name DNS is not properly configured on the PC, configured
DNS servers are down, site is down.
221
Example: Show the path to the grosso.com site.
Result: It took 20 hops to get to the grosso.com web site.
traceroute www.grosso.com
Traceroute to 192.150.14.120 from address 143.137.199.8 (timer gran. 100 ms)...
30 hops max, 56 byte packets
1 143.137.199.254 100 ms 100 ms 0 ms
2 143.137.50.254 100 ms 0 ms 0 ms
3 143.137.137.254 100 ms 0 ms 100 ms
4 141.154.96.161 0 ms 0 ms 100 ms
5 141.154.8.13 0 ms 100 ms 0 ms
6 4.24.92.97 0 ms 100 ms 0 ms
7 4.24.4.225 100 ms 0 ms 100 ms
8 4.24.7.121 0 ms 0 ms 100 ms
9 4.24.7.113 0 ms 100 ms 0 ms
10 4.24.6.50 100 ms 0 ms 100 ms
11 4.24.10.86 0 ms 100 ms 100 ms
12 4.24.6.234 0 ms 100 ms 0 ms
13 192.205.32.153 100 ms 0 ms 100 ms
14 12.123.1.122 100 ms 0 ms 100 ms
15 12.122.2.173 100 ms 100 ms 100 ms
16 12.122.2.153 100 ms 100 ms 100 ms
17 12.122.5.149 100 ms 200 ms 100 ms
18 12.123.12.189 100 ms 100 ms 200 ms
19 12.124.32.34 100 ms 100 ms 200 ms
20 192.150.14.120 100 ms ! 100 ms ! 100 ms !
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223
CHAPTER 6 Command Line Interface
The Motorola Netopia® Gateway operating software includes a command line interface (CLI) that lets you
access your Motorola Netopia® Gateway over a telnet connection. You can use the command line interface
to enter and update the unit’s configuration settings, monitor its performance, and restart it.
This chapter covers the following topics:
“Overview” on page 224
“Starting and Ending a CLI Session” on page 226
“Using the CLI Help Facility” on page 226
“About SHELL Commands” on page 227
“SHELL Commands” on page 228
“About CONFIG Commands” on page 240
“CONFIG Commands” on page 243
CONFIG Commands
“Remote ATA Configuration Commands” on page 243 “PPPoE with IPoE Settings” on page 282
“DSL Commands” on page 245 “Ethernet Por t Settings” on page 283
“Bridging Settings” on page 246 “802.3ah Ethernet OAM Settings” on page 284
“DHCP Settings” on page 248 “Command Line Interface Preference Settings” on
page 285
“DMT Settings” on page 254 “Port Renumbering Settings” on page 286
“Domain Name System Settings” on page 255 “Security Settings” on page 287
“IGMP Settings” on page 257 “System Settings” on page 298
“IP Settings” on page 259 “Syslog” on page 301
“Queue Configuration” on page 271 “Wireless Settings (supported models)” on page 303
“IPMaps Settings” on page 277 “VLAN Settings” on page 311