# Casio Graphing Calculator Calculators And Translators Classpad330Plus Users Manual ClassPad 330 PLUS_Software_Eng

### CLASSPAD330PLUS to the manual df552c66-4575-4408-aa4e-07dc73f78b54

### CP330PLUSver310_Soft CP330PLUSver310_Soft_EN ClassPad 330 PLUS | Calculators | Manuals | CASIO

2015-01-21

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E ClassPad 330 PLUS ClassPad OS Version 3.10 Software User’s Guide CASIO Education website URL http://edu.casio.com ClassPad website URL http://edu.casio.com/products/classpad/ Access the URL below and register as a user. http://edu.casio.com/dl/ 1 Contents Contents About This User’s Guide ClassPad Keypad and Icon Panel .....................................................................0-1-1 On-screen Keys, Menus, and Other Controllers ................................................0-1-2 Page Contents ....................................................................................................0-1-3 Chapter 1 Getting Acquainted 1-1 General Guide ....................................................................................... 1-1-1 General Guide ....................................................................................................1-1-2 Using the Stylus .................................................................................................1-1-4 1-2 Turning Power On and Off ................................................................... 1-2-1 Turning Power On .............................................................................................1-2-1 Turning Power Off .............................................................................................1-2-1 Resume Function ..............................................................................................1-2-1 1-3 Using the Icon Panel ............................................................................. 1-3-1 1-4 Built-in Applications ............................................................................ 1-4-1 Starting a Built-in Application..............................................................................1-4-2 Application Menu Operations .............................................................................1-4-2 1-5 Built-in Application Basic Operations ................................................. 1-5-1 Application Window ...........................................................................................1-5-1 Using a Dual Window Display ............................................................................1-5-1 Using the Menu Bar ............................................................................................1-5-3 Using the O Menu ..........................................................................................1-5-4 Using Check Boxes ............................................................................................1-5-6 Using Option Buttons..........................................................................................1-5-7 Using the Toolbar ...............................................................................................1-5-8 Interpreting Status Bar Information ....................................................................1-5-9 Pausing and Terminating an Operation .............................................................1-5-9 1-6 Input ....................................................................................................... 1-6-1 Using the Soft Keyboard ....................................................................................1-6-1 Input Basics .......................................................................................................1-6-3 Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations ................................................................1-6-8 1-7 Variables and Folders .......................................................................... 1-7-1 Folder Types.......................................................................................................1-7-1 Variable Types ...................................................................................................1-7-2 Creating a Folder ...............................................................................................1-7-4 Creating and Using Variables .............................................................................1-7-5 Assigning Values and Other Data to a System Variable ..................................1-7-10 Locking a Variable or Folder.............................................................................1-7-10 Rules Governing Variable Access ....................................................................1-7-11 20110901 2 Contents 1-8 Using the Variable Manager ................................................................. 1-8-1 Variable Manager Overview ...............................................................................1-8-1 Starting Up the Variable Manager ......................................................................1-8-1 Variable Manager Views.....................................................................................1-8-2 Exiting the Variable Manager ............................................................................1-8-2 Variable Manager Folder Operations .................................................................1-8-3 Variable Operations ............................................................................................1-8-7 1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings ........................................... 1-9-1 Specifying a Variable ..........................................................................................1-9-2 Initializing All Application Format Settings ..........................................................1-9-3 Application Format Settings................................................................................1-9-4 Chapter 2 Using the Main Application 2-1 Main Application Overview .................................................................. 2-1-1 Starting Up the Main Application ........................................................................2-1-1 Main Application Window ...................................................................................2-1-1 Main Application Menus and Buttons .................................................................2-1-3 Using Main Application Modes ...........................................................................2-1-4 Accessing ClassPad Application Windows from the Main Application ...............2-1-5 Accessing the Main Application Window from Another ClassPad Application ..........................................................................................................2-1-6 2-2 Basic Calculations ................................................................................ 2-2-1 Arithmetic Calculations and Parentheses Calculations ......................................2-2-1 Using the e Key ..............................................................................................2-2-2 Omitting the Multiplication Sign ..........................................................................2-2-2 Using the Answer Variable (ans) ........................................................................2-2-2 Assigning a Value to a Variable..........................................................................2-2-4 Calculation Error .................................................................................................2-2-4 Calculation Priority Sequence ............................................................................2-2-5 Calculation Modes ..............................................................................................2-2-6 2-3 Using the Calculation History .............................................................. 2-3-1 Viewing Calculation History Contents.................................................................2-3-1 Re-calculating an Expression .............................................................................2-3-2 Deleting Part of the Calculation History Contents ..............................................2-3-4 Clearing All Calculation History Contents ...........................................................2-3-4 2-4 Function Calculations........................................................................... 2-4-1 2-5 List Calculations ................................................................................... 2-5-1 Inputting List Data...............................................................................................2-5-1 Using a List in a Calculation ...............................................................................2-5-3 Using a List to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables .............................2-5-4 2-6 Matrix and Vector Calculations ............................................................ 2-6-1 Inputting Matrix Data ..........................................................................................2-6-1 Performing Matrix Calculations...........................................................................2-6-4 Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables .........................2-6-6 20110401 3 Contents 2-7 Specifying a Number Base ................................................................... 2-7-1 Number Base Precautions..................................................................................2-7-1 Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculation Ranges ..........................2-7-1 Selecting a Number Base ...................................................................................2-7-3 Arithmetic Operations .........................................................................................2-7-4 Bitwise Operations..............................................................................................2-7-5 Using the baseConvert Function (Number System Transform) ..........................2-7-5 2-8 Using the Action Menu ......................................................................... 2-8-1 Abbreviations and Punctuation Used in This Section .........................................2-8-1 Example Screenshots.........................................................................................2-8-2 Displaying the Action Menu ................................................................................2-8-3 Using the Transformation Submenu ...................................................................2-8-3 Using the Advanced Submenu ...........................................................................2-8-8 Using the Calculation Submenu .......................................................................2-8-12 Using the Complex Submenu ...........................................................................2-8-19 Using the List-Create Submenu .......................................................................2-8-21 Using the List-Calculation Submenu ................................................................2-8-24 Using the Matrix-Create Submenu ...................................................................2-8-31 Using the Matrix-Calculation Submenu ............................................................2-8-33 Using the Vector Submenu...............................................................................2-8-38 Using the Equation/Inequality Submenu .........................................................2-8-42 Using the Assistant Submenu ..........................................................................2-8-47 Using the Distribution and Inv. Distribution Submenus ....................................2-8-48 Using the Financial Submenu...........................................................................2-8-57 Using the Command Submenu ........................................................................2-8-64 2-9 Using the Interactive Menu ................................................................. 2-9-1 Interactive Menu and Action Menu .....................................................................2-9-1 Interactive Menu Example ..................................................................................2-9-1 Using the “apply” Command ...............................................................................2-9-4 2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications ........................................................................................ 2-10-1 Opening Another Application’s Window ...........................................................2-10-1 Closing Another Application’s Window .............................................................2-10-2 Using the Graph Window $ and 3D Graph Window % ..............................2-10-2 Using a Graph Editor Window (Graph & Table: !, Conics: *, 3D Graph: @, Numeric Solver: 1) ...............................................................2-10-4 Using the Stat Editor Window ( ...................................................................2-10-5 Using the Geometry Window 3 ....................................................................2-10-9 Using the Sequence Editor Window & ........................................................2-10-11 2-11 Using Verify ......................................................................................... 2-11-1 Starting Up Verify .............................................................................................2-11-1 Verify Menus and Buttons ................................................................................2-11-2 Using Verify ......................................................................................................2-11-3 2-12 Using Probability ................................................................................ 2-12-1 Starting Up Probability ......................................................................................2-12-2 Probability Menus and Buttons .........................................................................2-12-2 Using Probability...............................................................................................2-12-4 2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application .................................... 2-13-1 20110401 4 Contents Chapter 3 Using the Graph & Table Application 3-1 Graph & Table Application Overview................................................... 3-1-1 Starting Up the Graph & Table Application.........................................................3-1-1 Graph & Table Application Window ....................................................................3-1-1 Graph & Table Application Menus and Buttons..................................................3-1-2 Graph & Table Application Status Bar ................................................................3-1-7 Graph & Table Application Basic Operations .....................................................3-1-7 3-2 Using the Graph Window ...................................................................... 3-2-1 Configuring View Window Parameters for the Graph Window ...........................3-2-1 Viewing Graph Window Coordinates ..................................................................3-2-5 Scrolling the Graph Window ...............................................................................3-2-6 Panning the Graph Window................................................................................3-2-6 Zooming the Graph Window ...............................................................................3-2-7 Other Graph Window Operations .....................................................................3-2-10 3-3 Storing Functions ................................................................................. 3-3-1 Using Graph Editor Sheets .................................................................................3-3-1 Specifying the Function Type .............................................................................3-3-2 Storing a Function ..............................................................................................3-3-3 Using Built-in Functions ......................................................................................3-3-5 Saving the Message Box Expression to the Graph Editor Window ....................3-3-5 Editing Stored Functions ....................................................................................3-3-6 Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions ...............................................................3-3-7 Graphing a Stored Function ...............................................................................3-3-7 Saving Graph Editor Data to Graph Memory....................................................3-3-14 3-4 Using Table & Graph ............................................................................. 3-4-1 Generating a Number Table ...............................................................................3-4-1 Editing Number Table Values .............................................................................3-4-4 Deleting, Inserting, and Adding Number Table Lines .........................................3-4-5 Regenerating a Number Table ...........................................................................3-4-6 Generating a Number Table and Using It to Draw a Graph ...............................3-4-7 Saving a Number Table to a List ........................................................................3-4-8 Generating a Summary Table ............................................................................3-4-9 Making the Graph Editor Window the Active Window ......................................3-4-15 3-5 Modifying a Graph................................................................................. 3-5-1 Modifying a Single Graph by Changing the Value of a Coefficient (Direct Modify) ....................................................................................................3-5-1 Simultaneously Modifying Multiple Graphs by Changing Common Variables (Dynamic Modify)................................................................................................3-5-4 3-6 Using the Sketch Menu......................................................................... 3-6-1 Sketch Menu Overview.......................................................................................3-6-1 Using Sketch Menu Commands .........................................................................3-6-1 3-7 Using Trace ............................................................................................ 3-7-1 Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ...........................................................3-7-1 Linking Trace to a Number Table .......................................................................3-7-3 Generating Number Table Values from a Graph ................................................3-7-4 3-8 Analyzing a Function Used to Draw a Graph ..................................... 3-8-1 G-Solve Menu Overview.....................................................................................3-8-1 Using G-Solve Menu Commands .......................................................................3-8-2 20110401 5 Contents Chapter 4 Using the Conics Application 4-1 Conics Application Overview............................................................... 4-1-1 Starting Up the Conics Application .....................................................................4-1-1 Conics Application Window ................................................................................4-1-1 Conics Application Menus and Buttons ..............................................................4-1-2 Conics Application Status Bar ............................................................................4-1-4 4-2 Inputting Equations ............................................................................. 4-2-1 Using a Conics Form to Input an Equation .........................................................4-2-1 Inputting an Equation Manually ..........................................................................4-2-3 Transforming a Manually Input Equation to a Conics Form ...............................4-2-3 4-3 Drawing a Conics Graph ...................................................................... 4-3-1 Drawing a Parabola ............................................................................................4-3-1 Drawing a Circle .................................................................................................4-3-4 Drawing an Ellipse ..............................................................................................4-3-5 Drawing a Hyperbola ..........................................................................................4-3-6 Drawing a General Conics..................................................................................4-3-8 4-4 Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ............................................ 4-4-1 Using Trace ........................................................................................................4-4-1 4-5 Using G-Solve to Analyze a Conics Graph ......................................... 4-5-1 Displaying the G-Solve Menu .............................................................................4-5-1 Using G-Solve Menu Commands .......................................................................4-5-2 Chapter 5 Using the 3D Graph Application 5-1 3D Graph Application Overview .......................................................... 5-1-1 Starting Up the 3D Graph Application ................................................................5-1-1 3D Graph Application Window............................................................................5-1-1 3D Graph Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................5-1-2 3D Graph Application Status Bar........................................................................5-1-4 5-2 Inputting an Expression ....................................................................... 5-2-1 Using 3D Graph Editor Sheets ...........................................................................5-2-1 Storing a Function ..............................................................................................5-2-2 5-3 Drawing a 3D Graph .............................................................................. 5-3-1 Configuring 3D Graph View Window Parameters ..............................................5-3-1 3D Graph Example .............................................................................................5-3-3 5-4 Manipulating a Graph on the 3D Graph Window ................................ 5-4-1 Enlarging and Reducing the Size of a Graph .....................................................5-4-1 Switching the Eye Position .................................................................................5-4-1 Rotating the Graph Manually ..............................................................................5-4-2 Rotating a Graph Automatically ..........................................................................5-4-3 Initializing the Graph Window .............................................................................5-4-3 5-5 Other 3D Graph Application Functions............................................... 5-5-1 Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ...........................................................5-5-1 Inserting Text into a 3D Graph Window..............................................................5-5-1 Calculating a z-value for Particular x- and y-values, or s- and t-values ..............5-5-2 Using Drag and Drop to Down a 3D Graph ........................................................5-5-3 20110401 6 Contents Chapter 6 Using the Sequence Application 6-1 Sequence Application Overview.......................................................... 6-1-1 Starting up the Sequence Application ................................................................6-1-1 Sequence Application Window ...........................................................................6-1-1 Sequence Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................6-1-2 Sequence Application Status Bar .......................................................................6-1-6 6-2 Inputting an Expression in the Sequence Application ...................... 6-2-1 Inputting Data on the Sequence Editor Window .................................................6-2-1 Inputting Data on the Sequence RUN Window ..................................................6-2-1 6-3 Recursive and Explicit Form of a Sequence ...................................... 6-3-1 Generating a Number Table ...............................................................................6-3-1 Graphing a Recursion.........................................................................................6-3-3 Determining the General Term of a Recursion Expression ................................6-3-5 Calculating the Sum of a Sequence ...................................................................6-3-6 6-4 Using LinkTrace .................................................................................... 6-4-1 6-5 Drawing a Cobweb Diagram................................................................. 6-5-1 Chapter 7 Using the Statistics Application 7-1 Statistics Application Overview........................................................... 7-1-1 Starting Up the Statistics Application..................................................................7-1-2 Stat Editor Window Menus and Buttons .............................................................7-1-3 Stat Editor Window Status Bar ...........................................................................7-1-4 7-2 Using Stat Editor ................................................................................... 7-2-1 Basic List Operations..........................................................................................7-2-1 Inputting Data into a List .....................................................................................7-2-4 Editing List Contents...........................................................................................7-2-7 Sorting List Data .................................................................................................7-2-8 Controlling the Number of Displayed List Columns ............................................7-2-9 Clearing All Stat Editor Data ...............................................................................7-2-9 7-3 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph ........................................... 7-3-1 Using the SetGraph Menu ..................................................................................7-3-1 Configuring StatGraph Setups............................................................................7-3-2 7-4 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data........................................... 7-4-1 Normal Probability Plot (NPPlot) ........................................................................7-4-1 Histogram Bar Graph (Histogram) ......................................................................7-4-2 Med-Box Plot (MedBox) .....................................................................................7-4-2 Normal Distribution Curve (NDist) ......................................................................7-4-3 Broken Line Graph (Broken)...............................................................................7-4-4 7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data........................................... 7-5-1 Drawing a Scatter Plot and xy Line Graph .........................................................7-5-1 Drawing a Regression Graph (Curve Fitting) .....................................................7-5-2 Graphing Previously Calculated Regression Results .........................................7-5-4 Drawing a Linear Regression Graph ..................................................................7-5-5 Drawing a Med-Med Graph ................................................................................7-5-6 Drawing Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Regression Graphs ..............................7-5-7 Drawing a Logarithmic Regression Graph..........................................................7-5-9 Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·eb · x) ...................................7-5-10 Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·bx)......................................7-5-11 20110401 7 Contents Drawing a Power Regression Graph ( y = a·xb) ................................................7-5-12 Drawing a Sinusoidal Regression Graph ( y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d) .....................7-5-13 c Drawing a Logistic Regression Graph (y = 1 + a·e–b·x) ........................................7-5-14 Overlaying a Function Graph on a Statistical Graph ........................................7-5-15 7-6 Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar ...................................... 7-6-1 7-7 Performing Statistical Calculations ..................................................... 7-7-1 Viewing Single-variable Statistical Calculation Results ......................................7-7-1 Viewing Paired-variable Statistical Calculation Results ......................................7-7-4 Viewing Regression Calculation Results ............................................................7-7-5 Residual Calculation ...........................................................................................7-7-5 Copying a Regression Formula to the Graph & Table Application .....................7-7-6 7-8 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations .................. 7-8-1 Statistics Application Calculations ......................................................................7-8-1 Program Application Calculations.......................................................................7-8-1 7-9 Tests ....................................................................................................... 7-9-1 Test Command List ............................................................................................7-9-2 7-10 Confidence Intervals ........................................................................... 7-10-1 Confidence Interval Command List ..................................................................7-10-2 7-11 Distributions ........................................................................................ 7-11-1 Distribution Command List ...............................................................................7-11-3 7-12 Statistical System Variables ............................................................... 7-12-1 Chapter 8 Using the Geometry Application 8-1 Geometry Application Overview .......................................................... 8-1-1 Starting Up the Geometry Application ................................................................8-1-3 Geometry Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................8-1-3 8-2 Drawing Figures .................................................................................... 8-2-1 Using the Draw Menu .........................................................................................8-2-1 Inserting Text Strings into the Screen ..............................................................8-2-18 Attaching an Angle Measurement to a Figure ..................................................8-2-19 Displaying the Measurements of a Figure ........................................................8-2-22 Displaying the Result of a Calculation that Uses On-screen Measurement Values...............................................................................................................8-2-25 Using the Special Shape Submenu ..................................................................8-2-27 Using the Construct Submenu..........................................................................8-2-30 Transformation Using a Matrix or Vector (General Transform) ........................8-2-37 8-3 Editing Figures ...................................................................................... 8-3-1 Selecting and Deselecting Figures .....................................................................8-3-1 Moving and Copying Figures ..............................................................................8-3-3 Pinning an Annotation on the Geometry Window ...............................................8-3-4 Specifying the Number Format of a Measurement .............................................8-3-5 Using the Measurement Box ..............................................................................8-3-6 20110401 8 Contents 8-4 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance ....................................... 8-4-1 Configuring View Window Settings.....................................................................8-4-1 Selecting the Axis Setting ...................................................................................8-4-2 Toggling Integer Grid Display On and Off ..........................................................8-4-3 Zooming..............................................................................................................8-4-3 Using Pan to Shift the Display Image .................................................................8-4-6 8-5 Working with Animations ..................................................................... 8-5-1 Using Animation Commands ..............................................................................8-5-1 8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications ................ 8-6-1 Drag and Drop ....................................................................................................8-6-1 Copy and Paste ..................................................................................................8-6-5 Dynamically Linked Data ....................................................................................8-6-5 8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files ................................................ 8-7-1 File Operations ...................................................................................................8-7-1 Folder Operations ...............................................................................................8-7-4 Chapter 9 Using the Numeric Solver Application 9-1 Numeric Solver Application Overview ................................................ 9-1-1 Starting Up the Numeric Solver Application .......................................................9-1-1 Numeric Solver Application Window...................................................................9-1-1 Numeric Solver Menus and Buttons ...................................................................9-1-1 9-2 Using Numeric Solver ........................................................................... 9-2-1 Chapter 10 Using the eActivity Application 10-1 eActivity Application Overview.......................................................... 10-1-1 Starting Up the eActivity Application.................................................................10-1-1 eActivity Application Window ...........................................................................10-1-1 eActivity Application Menus and Buttons..........................................................10-1-2 eActivity Application Status Bar ........................................................................10-1-4 eActivity Key Operations ..................................................................................10-1-4 10-2 Creating an eActivity .......................................................................... 10-2-1 Basic Steps for Creating an eActivity ...............................................................10-2-1 Managing eActivity Files ...................................................................................10-2-3 10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity ......................................................... 10-3-1 Inserting a Text Row.........................................................................................10-3-1 Inserting a Calculation Row ..............................................................................10-3-3 Inserting an Application Data Strip ...................................................................10-3-5 Strip Help Text ................................................................................................10-3-14 Moving Information Between eActivity and Applications ................................10-3-15 Inserting a Geometry Link Row ......................................................................10-3-17 10-4 Working with eActivity Files............................................................... 10-4-1 Opening an Existing eActivity ...........................................................................10-4-1 Browsing the Contents of an eActivity ..............................................................10-4-2 Editing the Contents of an eActivity ..................................................................10-4-2 Expanding an Application Data Strip ................................................................10-4-2 Modifying the Data in an Application Data Strip ...............................................10-4-3 Saving an Edited eActivity ................................................................................10-4-3 20110401 9 Contents 10-5 Transferring eActivity Files ................................................................ 10-5-1 Transferring eActivity Files between Two ClassPad Units ...............................10-5-1 Transferring eActivity Files between a ClassPad Unit and a Computer ...........10-5-2 Chapter 11 Using the Presentation Application 11-1 Presentation Application Overview ................................................... 11-1-1 Starting Up the Presentation Application ..........................................................11-1-2 Presentation Application Window .....................................................................11-1-2 Presentation Application Menus and Buttons ...................................................11-1-3 Screen Capture Precautions ............................................................................11-1-4 11-2 Building a Presentation ...................................................................... 11-2-1 Adding a Blank Page to a Presentation ............................................................11-2-2 11-3 Managing Presentation Files ............................................................. 11-3-1 11-4 Playing a Presentation........................................................................ 11-4-1 Using Auto Play ................................................................................................11-4-1 Using Manual Play............................................................................................11-4-2 Using Repeat Play ............................................................................................11-4-3 11-5 Editing Presentation Pages................................................................ 11-5-1 About the Editing Tool Palette ..........................................................................11-5-1 Entering the Editing Mode ................................................................................11-5-1 Editing Operations ............................................................................................11-5-3 Using the Eraser ...............................................................................................11-5-7 11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences ............................................. 11-6-1 11-7 Presentation File Transfer .................................................................. 11-7-1 Chapter 12 Using the Program Application 12-1 Program Application Overview .......................................................... 12-1-1 Starting Up the Program Application ................................................................12-1-1 Program Loader Window ..................................................................................12-1-1 Program Editor Window....................................................................................12-1-3 12-2 Creating a New Program .................................................................... 12-2-1 General Programming Steps ............................................................................12-2-1 Creating and Saving a Program .......................................................................12-2-1 Running a Program ..........................................................................................12-2-5 Pausing Program Execution .............................................................................12-2-6 Terminating Program Execution .......................................................................12-2-6 Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values ..........................12-2-7 Using Subroutines ............................................................................................12-2-8 12-3 Debugging a Program ......................................................................... 12-3-1 Debugging After an Error Message Appears....................................................12-3-1 Debugging a Program Following Unexpected Results .....................................12-3-1 Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One ......................................12-3-2 Searching for Data Inside a Program ...............................................................12-3-5 12-4 Managing Files .................................................................................... 12-4-1 Renaming a File ...............................................................................................12-4-1 Deleting a Program...........................................................................................12-4-1 Changing the File Type ....................................................................................12-4-2 20110401 10 Contents 12-5 User-defined Functions ...................................................................... 12-5-1 Creating a New User-defined Function ............................................................12-5-1 Executing a User-defined Function ..................................................................12-5-3 Editing a User-defined Function .......................................................................12-5-4 Deleting a User-defined Function .....................................................................12-5-4 12-6 Program Command Reference .......................................................... 12-6-1 Using This Reference .......................................................................................12-6-1 Program Application Commands ......................................................................12-6-2 Application Command List ..............................................................................12-6-15 12-7 Including ClassPad Functions in Programs ..................................... 12-7-1 Including Graphing Functions in a Program ....................................................12-7-1 Using Conics Functions in a Program ..............................................................12-7-1 Including 3D Graphing Functions in a Program................................................12-7-2 Including Table & Graph Functions in a Program.............................................12-7-2 Including Recursion Table and Recursion Graph Functions in a Program .......12-7-3 Including List Sort Functions in a Program .......................................................12-7-3 Including Statistical Graphing and Calculation Functions in a Program ...........12-7-4 Chapter 13 Using the Spreadsheet Application 13-1 Spreadsheet Application Overview ................................................... 13-1-1 Starting Up the Spreadsheet Application..........................................................13-1-1 Spreadsheet Window .......................................................................................13-1-1 13-2 Spreadsheet Application Menus and Buttons.................................. 13-2-1 13-3 Basic Spreadsheet Window Operations ........................................... 13-3-1 About the Cell Cursor .......................................................................................13-3-1 Controlling Cell Cursor Movement....................................................................13-3-1 Navigating Around the Spreadsheet Window ...................................................13-3-2 Hiding or Displaying the Scrollbars...................................................................13-3-4 Selecting Cells ..................................................................................................13-3-5 Using the Cell Viewer Window .........................................................................13-3-6 13-4 Editing Cell Contents .......................................................................... 13-4-1 Edit Mode Screen .............................................................................................13-4-1 Entering the Edit Mode .....................................................................................13-4-2 Basic Data Input Steps .....................................................................................13-4-3 Inputting a Formula...........................................................................................13-4-4 Inputting a Cell Reference ................................................................................13-4-6 Inputting a Constant .........................................................................................13-4-8 Using the Fill Sequence Command ..................................................................13-4-9 Cut and Copy..................................................................................................13-4-11 Paste ..............................................................................................................13-4-11 Specifying Text or Calculation as the Data Type for a Particular Cell ............13-4-13 Using Drag and Drop to Copy Cell Data within a Spreadsheet ......................13-4-14 Using Drag and Drop to Obtain Spreadsheet Graph Data .............................13-4-16 Recalculating Spreadsheet Expressions ........................................................13-4-17 Importing and Exporting Variable Values .......................................................13-4-21 Searching for Data in a Spreadsheet .............................................................13-4-26 Sorting Spreadsheet Data ..............................................................................13-4-29 20110401 11 Contents 13-5 Using the Spreadsheet Application with the eActivity Application........................................................................................... 13-5-1 Drag and Drop ..................................................................................................13-5-1 13-6 Statistical Calculations ....................................................................... 13-6-1 13-7 Cell and List Calculations .................................................................. 13-7-1 Spreadsheet [List-Calculation] Submenu Basics..............................................13-7-1 Cell Calculation and List Calculation Functions................................................13-7-4 13-8 Formatting Cells and Data.................................................................. 13-8-1 Standard (Fractional) and Decimal (Approximate) Modes ...............................13-8-1 Plain Text and Bold Text ..................................................................................13-8-1 Text and Calculation Data Types .....................................................................13-8-1 Text Alignment..................................................................................................13-8-2 Number Format ................................................................................................13-8-2 Changing the Width of a Column......................................................................13-8-3 13-9 Graphing .............................................................................................. 13-9-1 Graph Menu......................................................................................................13-9-1 Graph Window Menus and Toolbar ................................................................13-9-11 Basic Graphing Steps .....................................................................................13-9-13 Regression Graph Operations (Curve Fitting) ................................................13-9-15 Other Graph Window Operations ...................................................................13-9-16 Chapter 14 Using the Differential Equation Graph Application 14-1 Differential Equation Graph Application Overview .......................... 14-1-1 Differential Equation Graph Application Features ............................................14-1-1 Starting Up the Differential Equation Graph Application...................................14-1-2 Differential Equation Graph Application Window ..............................................14-1-2 Differential Equation Editor Window Menus and Buttons .................................14-1-4 Differential Equation Graph Window Menus and Buttons ................................14-1-6 Differential Equation Graph Application Status Bar ..........................................14-1-8 14-2 Graphing a First Order Differential Equation.................................... 14-2-1 Inputting a First Order Differential Equation and Drawing a Slope Field ..........14-2-1 Inputting Initial Conditions and Graphing the Solution Curves of a First Order Differential Equation .......................................................................14-2-3 Configuring Solution Curve Graph Settings......................................................14-2-4 14-3 Graphing a Second Order Differential Equation .............................. 14-3-1 Drawing the Phase Plane of a Second Order Differential Equation .................14-3-1 Inputting Initial Conditions and Graphing the Solution Curve of a Second Order Differential Equation ..................................................................14-3-2 14-4 Graphing an Nth-order Differential Equation ................................... 14-4-1 Inputting an Nth-order Differential Equation and Initial Conditions, and then Graphing the Solutions .....................................................................................14-4-1 14-5 Drawing f(x) Type Function Graphs and Parametric Function Graphs.................................................................................................. 14-5-1 Drawing an f (x) Type Function Graph ..............................................................14-5-1 Drawing a Parametric Function Graph .............................................................14-5-2 20110401 12 Contents 14-6 Configuring Differential Equation Graph View Window Parameters ........................................................................................... 14-6-1 Configuring Differential Equation Graph View Window Settings ......................14-6-1 Differential Equation Graph View Window Parameters ....................................14-6-2 14-7 Differential Equation Graph Window Operations ............................. 14-7-1 Graph Zooming and Scrolling ...........................................................................14-7-1 Configuring and Modifying Initial Conditions ....................................................14-7-1 Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates .........................................................14-7-5 Graphing an Expression or Value by Dropping it into the Differential Equation Graph Window...................................................................................14-7-6 Chapter 15 Using the Financial Application 15-1 Financial Application Overview ......................................................... 15-1-1 Starting Up the Financial Application................................................................15-1-1 Financial Application Menus and Buttons.........................................................15-1-2 Configuring Default Financial Application Settings ...........................................15-1-4 Financial Application Pages .............................................................................15-1-5 Financial Calculation Screen Basics ................................................................15-1-6 Variables...........................................................................................................15-1-7 15-2 Simple Interest .................................................................................... 15-2-1 Simple Interest Fields .......................................................................................15-2-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-2-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-2-2 15-3 Compound Interest ............................................................................. 15-3-1 Compound Interest Fields ................................................................................15-3-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-3-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-3-3 15-4 Cash Flow ............................................................................................ 15-4-1 Cash Flow Fields ..............................................................................................15-4-1 Inputting Cash Flow Values ..............................................................................15-4-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-4-4 15-5 Amortization ........................................................................................ 15-5-1 Amortization Fields ...........................................................................................15-5-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-5-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-5-4 15-6 Interest Conversion............................................................................. 15-6-1 Interest Conversion Fields ................................................................................15-6-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-6-2 15-7 Cost /Sell/Margin.................................................................................. 15-7-1 Cost/Sell/Margin Fields ....................................................................................15-7-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-7-1 15-8 Day Count ............................................................................................ 15-8-1 Day Count Fields ..............................................................................................15-8-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-8-1 15-9 Depreciation ........................................................................................ 15-9-1 Depreciation Fields ...........................................................................................15-9-1 Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-9-3 20110401 13 Contents 15-10 Bond Calculation............................................................................... 15-10-1 Bond Calculation Fields ..................................................................................15-10-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ..........................................15-10-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-10-4 15-11 Break-Even Point .............................................................................. 15-11-1 Break-Even Point Fields .................................................................................15-11-1 Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ..........................................15-11-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-11-3 15-12 Margin of Safety ................................................................................ 15-12-1 Margin of Safety Fields ...................................................................................15-12-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-12-1 15-13 Operating Leverage .......................................................................... 15-13-1 Operating Leverage Fields .............................................................................15-13-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-13-1 15-14 Financial Leverage ............................................................................ 15-14-1 Financial Leverage Fields...............................................................................15-14-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-14-1 15-15 Combined Leverage .......................................................................... 15-15-1 Combined Leverage Fields.............................................................................15-15-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-15-1 15-16 Quantity Conversion ......................................................................... 15-16-1 Quantity Conversion Fields ............................................................................15-16-1 Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-16-2 15-17 Performing Financial Calculations Using Commands................... 15-17-1 Financial Application Setup Commands .........................................................15-17-1 Financial Calculation Commands ...................................................................15-17-1 Chapter 16 Configuring System Settings 16-1 System Setting Overview ................................................................... 16-1-1 Starting Up the System Application ..................................................................16-1-1 System Application Window .............................................................................16-1-1 System Application Menus and Buttons ...........................................................16-1-2 16-2 Managing Memory Usage ................................................................... 16-2-1 Memory Usage Sheets .....................................................................................16-2-1 Deleting Memory Usage Data ..........................................................................16-2-3 16-3 16-4 16-5 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-11 Using the Reset Dialog Box ............................................................... 16-3-1 Initializing Your ClassPad ................................................................... 16-4-1 Specifying the Display Language ...................................................... 16-5-1 Specifying the Font Set ...................................................................... 16-6-1 Specifying the Alphabetic Keyboard Arrangement ......................... 16-7-1 Viewing Version Information .............................................................. 16-8-1 Registering a User Name on a ClassPad .......................................... 16-9-1 Specifying the Complex Number Imaginary Unit ........................... 16-10-1 Assigning Shift Mode Key Operations to Hard Keys ..................... 16-11-1 20110401 14 Contents Appendix 1 2 3 4 5 Character Code Table............................................................................ α-1-1 System Variable Table ........................................................................... α-2-1 Command and Function Index............................................................. α-3-1 Graph Types and Executable Functions ............................................. α-4-1 Error Message Table ............................................................................. α-5-1 20110401 0 0-1-1 About This User’s Guide About This User’s Guide This section explains the symbols that are used in this user’s guide to represent keys, stylus operations, display elements, and other items you encounter while operating your ClassPad. ClassPad Keypad and Icon Panel 2 Icon panel smMrSh 3 Cursor key Keyboard ON/OFF Clear = 1 Keypad ( ) , (–) x y z 7 4 1 0 8 5 2 . ^ 9 6 3 EXP ÷ + EXE 1 Keypad ClassPad keypad keys are represented by illustrations that look like the keys you need to press. Example 1: Key within text Press the k to show the soft keyboard. Example 2: A series of key operations c2+3-4+10E When you see something like the above, simply press the keys in the indicated sequence, from left to right. 2 Icon panel An operation that requires tapping an icon on the icon panel is indicated by an illustration of the icon. Example 1: Tap m to display the application menu. Example 2: Tap to cancel an ongoing operation. 3 Cursor key Operation of the cursor key is represented by arrow buttons that indicate which part of the cursor key you need to press: f, c, d, e. Example 1: Use d or e to move the cursor around the display. Example 2: dddd The above example means that you should press d four times. 20060301 0-1-2 About This User’s Guide On-screen Keys, Menus, and Other Controllers 4 Menu bar 5 Toolbar Tabs 6 Soft keyboard 4 Menu bar Menu names and commands are indicated in text by enclosing them inside of brackets. The following examples show typical menu operations. Example 1: Tap the O menu and then tap [Keyboard]. Example 2: Tap [Analysis], [Sketch], and then [Line]. 20110401 0-1-3 About This User’s Guide 5 Toolbar Toolbar button operations are indicated by illustrations that look like the button you need to tap. Example 1: Tap $ to graph the functions. Example 2: Tap ( to open the Stat Editor window. 6 Soft keyboard Key operations on the soft keyboards that appear when you press the k key are indicated by illustrations that look like the keyboard keys. You can change from one keyboard type to another by tapping one of the tabs along the top of the soft keyboard. Example 1: baa/gw Example 2: ) Ngce*fw Important! • If a procedure in this User’s Guide requires use of a soft keyboard, press the k key to display the soft keyboard. The k key operation is not included as one of the procedure steps. For more details about how to input data on the ClassPad, see “1-6 Input”. Page Contents Three-part page numbers are centered at the top of each page. The page number “1-4-2”, for example, indicates Chapter 1, Section 4, page 2. Note Display examples shown in this User’s Guide are intended for illustrative purposes only. The text, values, menus and buttons shown in the screen shots, and other details shown in this User’s Guide may be slightly different from what actually appears on your ClassPad screen. 20060301 Chapter Getting Acquainted 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 General Guide Turning Power On and Off Using the Icon Panel Built-in Applications Built-in Application Basic Operations Input Variables and Folders Using the Variable Manager Configuring Application Format Settings 20060301 1 1-1-1 General Guide 1-1 General Guide Front Side 1 @ 2 3 s m M r S h 6 7 8 Keyboard Clear = ( 9 ) , (–) Back ON/OFF x 7 4 1 0 y z 8 5 2 . ÷ ^ 9 쎹 6 3 − + EXP EXE 4 5 0 # $ 20110901 ! 1-1-2 General Guide General Guide The numbers next to each of the items below correspond to the numbers in the illustration on page 1-1-1. Front 1 Touch screen The touch screen shows calculation formulas, calculation results, graphs and other information. The stylus that comes with the ClassPad can be used to input data and perform other operations by tapping directly on the touch screen. 2 Stylus This stylus is specially designed for performing touch screen operations. The stylus slips into a holder on the right side of the ClassPad for storage when it is not in use. For more information, see “Using the Stylus” on page 1-1-4. 3 Icon panel Tapping an icon executes the function assigned to it. See “1-3 Using the Icon Panel” for details. 4 o key Press this key to toggle ClassPad power on and off. See “1-2 Turning Power On and Off” for details. 5 c key • Pressing this key while inputting data clears all of the data you have input up to that point. For details, see “Input Basics” on page 1-6-3. • Pressing the c key while a calculation operation is in progress interrupts the calculation. For details, see “Pausing and Terminating an Operation” on page 1-5-9. 6 Cursor key (fcde) Use the cursor key to move the text cursor, selection highlighting, and other selection tools around the display. 7 k key Press this key to toggle display of the soft keyboard on and off. For details, see “Using the Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1. 8 K key • Pressing this key while inputting numeric, expression, or text data deletes one character to the left of the current cursor position. For details, see “Input Basics” on page 1-6-3. • Pressing the K key while a calculation operation is in progress pauses the calculation. For details, see “Pausing and Terminating an Operation” on page 1-5-9. 20060301 1-1-3 General Guide 9 Keypad Use these keys to input the values and operators marked on them. See “1-6 Input” for details. 0 E key Press this key to execute a calculation operation or enter a return. Side ! 3-pin data communication port Connect the data communication cable here to communicate with another ClassPad unit or a CASIO Data Analyzer. See “Chapter 2 – Performing Data Communication” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide for details. @ 4-pin mini USB port Connect the data communication cable here to exchange data with a computer. You can connect to a CASIO projector and project ClassPad screen contents. See “Chapter 2 – Performing Data Communication” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide for details. Back # Battery compartment Holds the four AAA-size batteries, or four nickel-metal hydride batteries that power the ClassPad. For details, see “Power Supply” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. $ RESTART button Press this button to reset the ClassPad. For details, see “Performing the RAM Reset Operation” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. 20110901 1-1-4 General Guide Using the Stylus Most value and formula input, command executions, and other operations can be performed using the stylus. k Things you can do with the stylus Tap Drag • This is equivalent to clicking with a mouse. • To perform a tap operation, tap lightly with the stylus on the ClassPad’s touch screen. • Tapping is used to display a menu, execute an on-screen button operation, make a window active, etc. • This is equivalent to dragging with a mouse. • To perform a drag operation, hold the tip of the stylus on the touch screen as you move the stylus to another location. • Dragging is used to change the setting of a slider or some other on-screen controller, to move a formula, etc. Important! • Be sure that you do not misplace or lose the stylus. Keep the stylus in the holder on the right side of the ClassPad whenever you are not using it. • Do not allow the tip of the stylus to become damaged. Using a stylus with a damaged tip to perform touch screen operations can damage the touch screen. • Use only the stylus that comes with your ClassPad or some other similar instrument to perform touch screen operations. Never use a pen, pencil or other writing instrument, which can damage the touch screen. 20110901 1-2-1 Turning Power On and Off 1-2 Turning Power On and Off Turning Power On You can turn on the ClassPad either by pressing the o key or by tapping the touch screen with the stylus. • Turning on the ClassPad displays the window that was on the display when you last turned it off. See “Resume Function” below. • Note that you need to perform a few initial setup operations when you turn on the ClassPad the first time after purchasing it. For details, see “Getting Ready” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. Turning Power Off To turn off the ClassPad, hold down the o key for about two seconds, or until the ending screen appears. For details about the ending screen, see “Specifying the Ending Screen Image” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. Important! The ClassPad also has an Auto Power Off feature. This feature automatically turns the ClassPad off when it is idle for a specified amount of time. For details, see “Auto Power Off” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. Resume Function Any time the ClassPad powers down (because you turn off power or because of Auto Power Off), the Resume function automatically backs up its current operational status and any data in RAM. If you turn ClassPad power back on, the Resume function restores the backed up operational status and RAM data. 20110901 1-3-1 Using the Icon Panel 1-3 Using the Icon Panel The icon panel of seven permanent icons is located below the touch screen. Tapping an icon executes the function assigned to it. The table below explains what you can do with the icon panel icons. Function When you want to do this: Tap this icon: Display the O menu to configure settings, switch to the application menu, etc. See “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. s Display the application menu See “1-4 Built-in Applications” for details. m Start the Main application See “Chapter 2 – Using the Main Application” for details. M Resize the currently active window (when there are two windows displayed) so it fills the entire display, or return to the dual window display again See “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. r Swap the upper window and lower window (when there are two windows displayed) See “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. S Capture the currently displayed screen for transfer to a computer or for use with the ClassPad’s presentation application See “Chapter 11 – Using the Presentation Application” and “Chapter 2 – Performing Data Communication” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. h Perform the same operation as a computer’s ESC key The actual operation performed when this icon is tapped depends on the application you are currently using. Tip Tapping the s icon while the application menu is on the screen will display a menu that you can use to perform the following operations. • Move an icon (page 1-4-3) • Swap two icons (page 1-4-4) • Adjust touch panel alignment (page 1-4-4) 20110401 1-4-1 Built-in Applications 1-4 Built-in Applications Tapping m on the icon panel displays the application menu. The table below shows the icon menu names of the built-in applications, and explains what you can do with each application. To perform this type of operation: Select this icon: See Chapter: • General calculations, including function calculations • Matrix calculations • Computer Algebra System J 2 • Access the eActivity function A 10 • Create a list • Perform statistical calculations • Draw a statistical graph I 7 • Input data into a spreadsheet • Manipulate spreadsheet data • Graph spreadsheet data R 13 • Register a function and create a table of solutions by substituting different values for the function’s variables • Draw a graph T 3 • Graph the 3D function z = f(x,y) D 5 • Draw geometric figures • Build animated figures G 8 • Draw the graph of a conics section C 4 • Draw vector fields and solution curves to explore differential equations 14 • Obtain the value of any variable in an equation, without transforming or simplifying the equation N 9 • Perform sequence calculations • Solve recursion expressions H 6 • Perform simple interest, compound interest, and other financial calculations F 15 • Register a file name in the programming area • Input a program or run a program p 12 • Create and run a presentation using ClassPad application window P 11 20060301 1-4-2 Built-in Applications To perform this type of operation: Select this icon: See Chapter: • Control the optionally available EA-200 Data Analyzer. U • Exchange data with another ClassPad, a computer, or another device B See Chapter 2 in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. Y 16 • Clear the memory • Adjust contrast • Configure other system settings See the separate E-Con User’s Guide. Starting a Built-in Application Perform the steps below to start a built-in application. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu. Scroll up button Scrollbar Scroll down button Application Menu (2) If you cannot see the icon of the application you want on the menu, tap the scroll buttons or drag the scroll bar to bring other icons into view. (3) Tap an icon to start its application. Tip • You can also start the Main application by tapping M on the icon panel. See “1-3 Using the Icon Panel” for details. Application Menu Operations The following describes the various types of operations you can perform while the application menu is on the display. • Starting an application See “Starting a Built-in Application” above. 20110901 1-4-3 Built-in Applications • Displaying applications according to group (Additional Applications, All Applications) See “Using Application Groups” below. • Moving or swapping icons See “Moving an Icon” below, and “Swapping Two Icons” on page 1-4-4. • Deleting an application See “Deleting an Application” on page α-2-1 in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. k Using Application Groups You can use application groups to specify the type of applications that appear on the application menu. To select an application group, tap the box in the upper right of the application menu, and then select the group you want from the list that appears. To display these icons: Select this application group: Add-in applications only Additional All applications All Add-in applications above built-in applications Add-ins First Tip • Nothing appears on the application menu if you select the “Additional” group while there are no add-in applications installed on the ClassPad. k Moving an Icon You can use the procedure below to move an icon to a different location on the application menu. 20110401 1-4-4 Built-in Applications u ClassPad Operation (1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu. (2) Tap at the top left of the application menu. • This opens a menu of setting options. (3) Tap [Move Icon]. (4) Tap the icon you want to move (J in this example). • This selects the icon. (5) Tap the icon that you want the first icon to follow (C in this example). • This moves the icon. k Swapping Two Icons Perform the following steps to swap two icons on the application menu. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu. (2) Tap at the top left of the application menu. • This opens a menu of setting options. (3) Tap [Swap Icon]. (4) Tap one of the icons. • This selects the icon. (5) Tap the other icon (the one you want to swap with). • This swaps the icons. k Adjusting Touch Panel Alignment Perform the following steps to align the touch panel. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu. (2) Tap at the top left of the application menu. • This opens a menu of setting options. (3) Tap [Touch Panel Alignment]. • This displays the Touch Panel Alignment screen. (4) Use the stylus to tap the center of each of the four crosses as they appear on the screen. • Tapping the center of the fourth cross completes touch panel alignment and returns you to the application menu. • When aligning your ClassPad try to tap the exact center of each cross. 20060301 1-5-1 Built-in Application Basic Operations 1-5 Built-in Application Basic Operations This section explains basic information and operations that are common to all of the built-in applications. Application Window The following shows the basic configuration of a built-in application window. } } Menu bar Toolbar Application window Soft keyboard (page 1-6-1) } Status bar Using a Dual Window Display Many applications split the display between an upper window and a lower window, each of which shows different information. The sample screenshot below is from the Conics application, which uses the upper window for input of expressions, and the lower window for graphing. Upper window Lower window 20060301 1-5-2 Built-in Application Basic Operations When using two windows, the currently selected window (the one where you can perform operations) is called the “active window”. The menu bar, toolbar, and status bar contents are all applicable to the active window. The active window is indicated by a thick boundary around it. u To switch the active window While a dual window is on the display, tap anywhere inside the window that does not have a thick boundary around it to make it the active window. • Note that you cannot switch the active window while an operation is being performed in the current active window. u To resize the active window so it fills the display While a dual window is on the display, tap r. This causes the active window to fill the display. To return to the dual window display, tap r again. u To swap the upper and lower windows While a dual window is on the display, tap S. This causes the upper window to become the lower window, and vice versa. Swapping windows does not have any affect on their active status. If the upper window is active when you tap S for example, the window will remain active after it becomes the lower window. Tip • When you tap r button while a dual window is on the display, the currently active window will fill the display, but the other (inactive) window does not close. It remains open, hidden behind the active window. This means you can tap S to bring the hidden window forward and make it the active window, and send the current active window to the background. u To close the active windows While a dual window is on the display, tap at to top right corner of the window to close the active window, which causes the other (inactive) window to fill the display. Tip • When the close ( reason. ) button is dimmed, it means that the active window cannot be closed for some 20060301 1-5-3 Built-in Application Basic Operations Using the Menu Bar The menu bar appears along the top of the window of each application. It shows the menus that you can access for the currently active window. } Menu bar Tapping the menu bar menu displays its commands, options, and settings from which you can choose the one you want. Some menu items have a single selection as shown in Example 1, below, while other menu items display a submenu of selections from which you can choose as shown in Example 2. Example 1: Choosing the [Edit] menu’s [Copy] item u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap [Edit]. (2) Tap [Copy]. • This displays the contents of the [Edit] menu. • This performs a copy operation. Example 2: Choosing [lim], which is on the [Calculation] submenu of the [Action] menu. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap [Action]. (2) Tap [Calculation]. • This displays the contents of the [Action] menu. (3) Tap [lim]. • This displays the contents of the [Calculation] submenu. • This inputs “lim(”. 20101001 1-5-4 Built-in Application Basic Operations Using the O Menu The O menu appears at the top left of the window of each application, except for the System application. You can access the O menu by tapping s on the icon panel, or by tapping the menu bar’s O menu. k O Menu Items The following describes all of the items that appear on the O menu. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 Tapping [Variable Manager] starts up the Variable Manager. See “1-8 Using the Variable Manager” for details. 2 Tapping [View Window] displays a dialog box for configuring the display range and other graph settings. For details, see the explanations for the various applications with graphing capabilities (Graph & Table, Conics, 3D Graph, Statistics, etc.) 3 Tapping a menu selection displays a dialog box for configuring the corresponding setup settings. See “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings” for details. 4 Tapping [Default Setup] returns all settings to their initial defaults (except for the current folder setting). See “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings” for details. 5 This area shows a list of all of the windows that can be accessed from the current application (Graph & Table application in this example). Tapping a menu selection displays the corresponding window and makes it active. For details, see “Using the O Menu to Access Windows” on page 1-5-5. 6 Tap [Keyboard] to toggle display of the soft keyboard on and off. 7 Tapping [Close] closes the currently active window, except in the following cases. • When only one window is on the display • When the currently active window cannot be closed by the application being used You cannot, for example, close the Graph Editor window from the Graph & Table application. 20060301 1-5-5 Built-in Application Basic Operations k Using the O Menu to Access Windows Most ClassPad applications support simultaneous display of two windows. When two windows are on the display, the one with a thick selection boundary around it is the active window. The displayed menu and toolbar are the ones for the currently active window. You can use the O menu to change the active window and to display the window you want. u Window Selection Example (Graph & Table) e e (1) Graph window is active. (2) Tap O and then [Graph Editor]. (3) Graph Editor window becomes active. e e (4) Tap O and then [Stat Editor]. (5) Stat Editor window appears and becomes active. 20060301 1-5-6 Built-in Application Basic Operations Using Check Boxes A check box shows the current status of a dialog box option that can be turned on or off. An option is turned on (selected) when its check box has a check mark inside it. An option is turned off when a check box is cleared. Tapping a check box toggles the option on (checked) and off (cleared). Option turned on Option turned off Check boxes also appear on menus. Menu check boxes operate the same way as dialog box check boxes. Option turned on Option turned off 20060301 1-5-7 Built-in Application Basic Operations Using Option Buttons Option buttons are used on dialog boxes that present you with a list of options from which you can select only one. A black option button indicates the currently selected option, while the buttons of the options that are not selected are white. Tap “Français”. This selects “Français” and deselects “English”. Option buttons also appear on menus. Menu option buttons operate the same way as dialog box option buttons. 20060301 1-5-8 Built-in Application Basic Operations Using the Toolbar The toolbar is located directly underneath the menu bar of an application window. It contains the buttons for the currently active window. } Toolbar k Toolbar Buttons Normally, you tap a button to execute the command assigned to it. Some buttons, however, have a down arrow v next to them. Tapping the arrow displays a list of options from which you can select. List of options k Toggling between Multiple Toolbars With some applications, not all of the buttons can fit on a single toolbar. When this happens, the buttons that cannot fit are placed onto a second toolbar. When there are two toolbars, each of them has an arrow button on the far right. Toolbar 1 has a u button while toolbar 2 has a t button. Tapping an arrow button toggles between the two toolbars. Tap here to toggle Tip • The explanations in this manual make no distinction between toolbar 1 and toolbar 2. button in the above example) you will be Even if a button is located on toolbar 2 (like the ”. instructed simply to “tap 20060301 1-5-9 Built-in Application Basic Operations Interpreting Status Bar Information The status bar appears along the bottom of the window of each application. Status bar 1 2 3 1 Information about current application Tip • You can change the configuration of a setting indicated in the status bar by tapping it. Tapping “Cplx” (indicating complex number calculations) while the Main application is running will toggle the setting to “Real” (indicating real number calculations). Tapping again will toggle back to “Cplx”. For information about application-specific information that appears in the status bar, see the sections in this manual that describes each application. 2 Battery level indicator ....................... full ....................... medium ....................... low 3 This indicator flashes between and while an operation is being performed. appears here to indicate when an operation is paused. Important! • Be sure to replace batteries as soon as possible whenever the battery level indicator shows (medium). • Replace batteries immediately whenever the battery level indicator shows (low). At this level, you will not be able to perform data communication or other functions. • The following message indicates that batteries are about to die. Replace batteries immediately whenever this message appears. Batteries are extremely low! Replace batteries immediately! • See the separate Hardware User’s Guide for details about replacing batteries. Pausing and Terminating an Operation Many of the built-in applications provide operations to pause and terminate (break) expression processing, graphing, and other operations. k Pausing an Operation Pressing the K key while an expression processing, graphing, or other operation is being performed pauses the operation. Pressing K again resumes the operation. 20110401 1-5-10 Built-in Application Basic Operations Example: To pause a graphing operation and then resume it u ClassPad Operation (1) Use the Graph & Table application to draw a graph. • For details about graphing, see “Chapter 3 – Using the Graph & Table Application”. (2) While the graph is being drawn, press the K key. • This pauses the draw operation and displays the right side of the status bar. on Draw is paused at the point where K is pressed. (3) To resume the operation, press the K key again. • This resumes the draw operation, which continues until the graph is complete. k Terminating an Operation (Break) Pressing the c key while an expression processing, graphing, or other operation is being performed terminates the operation. Example: To terminate a graphing operation u ClassPad Operation (1) Use the Graph & Table application to draw a graph. • For details about graphing, see “Chapter 3 – Using the Graph & Table Application”. (2) While the graph is being drawn, press the c key. • This terminates the draw operation and displays the Break dialog box, indicating the Break state. Break dialog box (3) To exit the Break state, tap the [OK] button. • This returns the ClassPad to its status before you started the graphing operation. 20060301 1-6-1 Input 1-6 Input You can input data on the ClassPad using its keypad or by using the on-screen soft keyboard. Virtually all data input required by your ClassPad can be performed using the soft keyboard. The keypad keys are used for input of frequently used data like numbers, arithmetic operators, etc. Using the Soft Keyboard The soft keyboard is displayed in the lower part of the touch screen. A variety of different special-purpose soft keyboard styles help to take much of the work out of data input. u To display the soft keyboard When the soft keyboard is not on the touch screen, press the k key, or tap the O menu and then tap [Keyboard]. This causes the soft keyboard to appear. Press k. The soft keyboard appears. • Pressing the k key again hides the soft keyboard. • The icon panel’s r icon is disabled while the soft keyboard is on the display. For details about r, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. 20060301 1-6-2 Input k Soft Keyboard Styles There are four different soft keyboard styles as described below. • Math (mth) Keyboard Pressing k will display the keyboard that you last displayed while working in that application. If you quit the application and go into another application, then the 9 (default) soft keyboard appears. You can use the math (mth) keyboard to input values, variables, and expressions. Tap each lower button to see additional characters, for example tap -. For more information, see “Using the Math (mth) Keyboard” on page 1-6-8. • Alphabet (abc) Keyboard Use this keyboard to input alphabetic characters, Greek characters, and other characters, as well as logical symbols and other numeric symbols. Tap one of the buttons along the bottom of the keyboard to see additional characters, for example, tap n. For more information, see “Using the Alphabet (abc) Keyboard” on page 1-6-10. • Catalog (cat) Keyboard This keyboard provides a scrollable list that can be used to input built-in functions, built-in commands, system variables, and user-defined functions. Tap a command to select it and then tap it again to insert it. Selecting an item from the Form list changes the available commands. For more information, see “Using the Catalog (cat) Keyboard” on page 1-6-13. • 2D Keyboard This keyboard displays various templates for natural input of fractions, exponential values, matrices, differential and integral calculus expressions, etc. Note that natural input is available in most ClassPad applications. Natural input cannot be used in the geometry measurement box or when entering data into a list. For more information, see “Using the 2D Keyboard” on page 1-6-15. Tip • 2D math symbols are easy to use. Just tap the image of the symbol you would like to use and it will appear in your application. • 2D math symbols can be used in most applications. 20090601 1-6-3 Input k Selecting a Soft Keyboard Style Tap one of the tabs along the top of the soft keyboard (9, 0, (, or )) to select the keyboard style you want. Tap here. To display the 2D keyboard Input Basics This section includes a number of examples that illustrate how to perform basic input procedures. All of the procedures assume the following. • The Main application is running. For details, see “Starting a Built-in Application” on page 1-4-2. • The soft keyboard is displayed. For details, see “Using the Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1. k Inputting a Calculation Expression You can input a calculation expression just as it is written, and press the E key to execute it. The ClassPad automatically determines the priority sequence of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and parenthetical expressions. • Before starting any calculation, be sure to clear the ClassPad by pressing c. See Chapter 2 for more information about inputting expressions. • Use the z or - key to input the minus sign before a negative value. Example 1: To simplify –2 + 3 – 4 + 10 u ClassPad Operation Using the keypad keys cz2+3-4+10E Using the soft keyboard Tap the keys of the math (mth) keyboard or the 2D keyboard to input the calculation expression. c9-c+d-e+baw When the soft keyboard is not on the touch screen, press the k key, or tap the O menu and then tap [Keyboard]. This causes the soft keyboard to appear on the display. 20090601 1-6-4 Input Example 2: To simplify 2 (5 + 4) ÷ (23 × 5) u ClassPad Operation Using the keypad keys c2(5+4)/(23*5)E Using the soft keyboard Tap the keys of the math (mth) keyboard or the 2D keyboard to input the calculation expression. c9 (or )) c(f+e)/(cd*f)w Tip • As shown in Example 1 and Example 2, you can input simple arithmetic calculations using either the keypad keys or the soft keyboard. Input using the soft keyboard is required to input higher level calculation expressions, functions, variables, etc. k Editing Input The following are the different techniques you can use to edit your input. u To change something right after you input it When the cursor is located at the end of your input, press K to delete the character or operator you want to edit. Example: To change the expression 369 × 3 to 369 × 2 (1) c369*3 (2) K (3) 2 Tip • Or, drag your stylus across 3 to select it and input 2. 20060301 1-6-5 Input u To delete an unneeded key operation Use d and e to move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of the key operation you want to delete, and then press K. Each press of K deletes one command to the left of the cursor. Example: To change the expression 369 × × 2 to 369 × 2 (1) c369**2 (2) dK Tip • You can move the cursor without using the cursor key by tapping at the destination with the stylus. This causes the cursor to jump to the location where you tap. u To correct a calculation expression Use d and e to move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of the location you want to correct, and then press K. Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60) (1) Use the mathematics (mth) keyboard to input “cos(60)”. c9Tcga) Tapping the T key causes it to change to I and displays a key set for inputting trigonometric functions. (2) Move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of “cos(”. ddd (3) Delete “cos(”. KKKK (4) Input “sin(”. s (5) Tap I to return to the initial math (mth) key set. See “Using the Math (mth) Keyboard” on page 1-6-8 for details. Tip • Or, drag your stylus across “cos(” to select it and input “sin(”. After you make all of the changes you want, press E to calculate the result. To continue inputting the calculation, press e to move the cursor to the end of the calculation, and input what you want. 20060301 1-6-6 Input u To insert new input into the middle of an existing calculation expression Use d or e to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input, and then input what you want. Example: To change 2.362 to sin(2.362) (1) c9c.dgx (2) dddddd (3) Ts Tip • You can move the cursor without using the cursor key by tapping at the destination with the stylus. This causes the cursor to jump to the location where you tap. u To replace a range of input with new input After you drag the stylus across the range of input that you want to replace, enter the new input. Example: To replace the “234” of “1234567” with “0”. (1) Input “1234567”. c1234567 (2) Drag the stylus across “234” to select it. (3) Input “0”. 0 Tip • You can perform d and K key operations by pressing the corresponding keypad key or soft key. 20060301 1-6-7 Input k Using the Clipboard for Copy and Paste You can copy (or cut) a function, command, or other input to the ClassPad’s clipboard, and then paste the clipboard contents at another location. u To copy characters (1) Drag the stylus across the characters you want to copy to select them. (2) On the soft keyboard, tap G. • This puts a copy of the selected characters onto the clipboard. The selected characters are not changed when you copy them. Tip • You can also copy characters by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Copy]. u To cut characters (1) Drag the stylus across the characters you want to cut to select them. (2) On the soft keyboard, tap . • This moves the selected characters onto the clipboard. Cutting causes the original characters to be deleted. Tip • Performing a copy or cut operation causes the clipboard contents to be replaced by the newly copied or cut characters. • You can also cut characters by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Cut]. u To paste the clipboard contents (1) Move the cursor to the location where you want to paste the clipboard contents. (2) On the soft keyboard, tap H. • This pastes the clipboard contents at the current cursor location. Tip • The clipboard contents remain on the clipboard after you paste them. This means you can paste the current contents as many times as you like. • You can also paste the clipboard contents by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Paste]. 20060301 1-6-8 Input u Copying and pasting in the message box The “message box” is a 1-line input and display area under the Graph window (see Chapter 3). Message box You can use the two buttons to the right of the message box to copy the message box contents (G button), or to paste the clipboard contents to the message box (H button). Copy and paste are performed the same way as the copy and paste operations using the soft keyboard. Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations As explained in “Using the Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1, there are four soft keyboard types: the math (mth) keyboard, the alphabet (abc) keyboard, the catalog (cat) keyboard, and the 2D math (2D) keyboard. This section provides more detailed information about soft keyboard operations and the various key sets available with each soft keyboard. • All of the explanations in this section start from the initial key set of each keyboard. k Using the Math (mth) Keyboard The math (mth) keyboard is for inputting calculation expressions and numeric expressions. In addition to the initial math (mth) key set, you can also select from among four other key sets named T (trigonometry), - (calculus), K (option), and V (variable). u Initial math (mth) keyboard key set If you stay in the same application, the keyboard that you used last will appear when you press the k key. 20060301 1-6-9 Input u T key set Tapping the T key displays keys for inputting trigonometric functions, and changes the T softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between T and the default 9 keyboard. Tapping the = (hyperbolic) key switches to a key set for inputting hyperbolic functions. Tap the = key again to return to the regular T key set. ←=→ u - key set Tapping the - key displays keys for inputting differential and integral calculus expressions, permutations, etc., and changes the - softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between - and the default 9 keyboard. Tip • Tapping the key inputs the “solve” function, while tapping the key inputs the “dSolve” function. See pages 2-8-43 and 2-8-44 for information about these functions. • For information about each of functions or symbols, see “2-4 Function Calculations”. u K key set Tapping the K key displays keys for inputting “<”, “≠”, and other special operators, and changes the K softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between K and the default 9 keyboard. Tip • Tapping the function. key inputs the “rSolve” function. See page 6-3-5 for information about this • For information about each of the functions and symbols, see “2-4 Function Calculations”. 20060301 1-6-10 Input u V key set Tapping the V key displays keys for inputting single-character variables, and changes the V softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between V and the default 9 keyboard. Tapping the E key switches to a key set for inputting upper-case singlecharacter variables. ←E→ Tip • As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single character like “a” or “x”. Each character you input on the V keyboard is treated as a singlecharacter variable. To input multiple-character variable names like “ab” or multiple-character strings, you must use the alphabet (abc) keyboard. For more information, see “Using Singlecharacter Variables” on page 1-6-12. • For information about the D key that appears in the lower right of all of the math (mth) keyboard key sets, see “Using the Answer Variable (ans)” on page 2-2-2. k Using the Alphabet (abc) Keyboard In addition of the initial alphabet (abc) key set, you can also select from among three other key sets, within alphabet (abc), named M (character symbols), n (mathematics symbols), and S (extra symbols). u Initial alphabet (abc) keyboard key set This keyboard is for inputting lower-case alphabetic characters. Tap L to shift the keyboard or E to caps lock the keyboard when you want to input upper-case characters. • Note that the initial alphabet (abc) keyboard uses the qwerty key arrangement, which is similar to a computer keyboard. You can also change to an azerty or qwertz arrangement. See “16-7 Specifying the Alphabetic Keyboard Arrangement”. 20110401 1-6-11 Input u M key set Use the M key set to input Greek characters, Cyrillic characters, and accented characters. Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to additional keys. Tapping E caps locks the keyboard for input of upper-case characters. • Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set. u n key set This key set contains some of the mathematical expression symbols that are also available on the math (mth) keyboard. Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to additional keys. • Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set. u S key set Use this key set to input punctuation and symbols. Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to additional keys. • Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set. 20060301 1-6-12 Input k Using Single-character Variables As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single character like “a” or “x”. Input of single-character variable names is subject to different rules than input of a series of multiple characters (like “abc”). u To input a single-character variable name Any character you input using any one of the following techniques is always treated as a single-character variable. • Tapping any key in the math (mth) keyboard’s V key set (page 1-6-10) • Tapping any key in the 2D keyboard’s V key set (page 1-6-17) • Tapping the X, Y, Z or [ key to the left of the 9 key of the math (mth) keyboard or 2D keyboard • Pressing the x, y, or Z keypad key If you use the above key operations to input a series of characters, each one is treated as a single-character variable. Inputting A, B, C, for example, is treated as the mathematical expression a × b × c, and not as the characters “abc”. Tip • The single-character variables described above make it possible for you to perform calculations as they appear in your textbook. Example 1: 9VABCw Example 2: 2xyE Tip • When you input a single-character variable, its name appears on the display as an italicized bold character. This is simply to let you know that the letter is a single-character variable name. 20060301 1-6-13 Input u To input a series of multiple characters A series of multiple characters (like “list1”) can be used for variable names, program commands, comment text, etc. Always use the alphabet (abc) keyboard when you want to input a series of characters. Example: 0abcw You can also use the alphabet (abc) keyboard to input single-character variable names. To do so, simply input a single character, or follow a single character with a mathematical operator. Example: 0a*b+cw Tip • A single-character variable you input using the alphabet (abc) keyboard is identical to a singlecharacter variable you input using the math (mth) keyboard. k Using the Catalog (cat) Keyboard The “Form” menu of the catalog keyboard lets you select one of the following five categories: [Func] (built-in functions on pages 2-4-2 and 2-8-1), [Cmd] (built-in commands and operators on pages 1-7-4 and 12-6-1), [Sys] (system variables on page α-2-1), [User] (user-defined functions on page 12-5-1), and [All] (all commands, functions, etc.). After selecting a category, you can choose the item you want from the alphabetized list that appears on the catalog (cat) keyboard. Tip • Note that user-defined variables and user-defined programs cannot be input using the catalog (cat) keyboard. Use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) instead. • A user-defined function must be stored in the “library” folder to appear in the catalog (cat) keyboard list when the [User] category is selected. 20110401 1-6-14 Input u Catalog (cat) keyboard configuration This is an alphabetized list of commands, functions, and other items available in the category currently selected with “Form”. Tap the down button and then select the category you want ([Func], [Cmd], [Sys], [User], or [All]) from the list that appears. Tapping a letter button displays the commands, functions, or other items that begin with that letter. Tap this key to input the item that is currently selected in the alphabetized list. u To use the catalog (cat) keyboard Example: To input the built-in “Plot” command (1) Tap ( to display the catalog (cat) keyboard. (2) Tap the “Form” down arrow button v and then select [Cmd] from the list of categories that appears. (3) Tap the u button in the lower right corner until the P key is visible. (4) Tap P. (5) In the alphabetized list, tap “Plot”. (6) Tap [INPUT] to input the command. Tip • Instead of tapping [INPUT] in step (6), you could also tap the command you selected in step (5) a second time to input the command. 20060301 1-6-15 Input k Using the 2D Keyboard The 2D keyboard provides you with a number of templates that let you input fractions, exponential values, nth roots, matrices, differentials, integrals, and other complex expressions as they appear in your textbook. It also includes a V key set that you can use to input single-character variables like the ones you can input with the math (mth) keyboard. u Initial 2D keyboard key set This key set lets you input fractions, exponential values, nth roots, etc. as they appear in your textbook. Tip • For information about each function or symbol, see “2-4 Function Calculations”. • Use the 1 key to input the piecewise function template. See page 2-4-12 for more information. key to input the simultaneous equations template. See page 2-8-43 for more • Use the information. u - key set Tapping the - key displays a keyboard like the one shown below, which has a I key in place of the - key. Tapping I returns to the initial 2D keyboard. The following are the mathematical expressions you can input with this 2D keyboard. To input this: Matrix templates Use these keys: For more information, see: 6, 7, 8 “Matrix and Vector Calculations” on page 2-6-1. Limit template “lim” under “Using the Calculation Submenu” on page 2-8-15. Sum template “Σ” under “Using the Calculation Submenu” on page 2-8-15. 20090601 1-6-16 Input To input this: Use these keys: For more information, see: “Π” under “Using the Calculation Submenu” on page 2-8-15. Sum of product template Differential coefficient template Integration template u ADV , P “diff” under “Using the Calculation Submenu” on page 2-8-13. “∫” under “Using the Calculation Submenu” on page 2-8-14. key set Tapping the place of the ADV ADV key displays a keyboard like the one shown below, which has a I key in key. Tapping I returns to the initial 2D keyboard. The following are the mathematical expressions you can input with this 2D keyboard. To input this: Use these keys: For more information, see: Fourier transform template “fourier” under “Using the Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-9. Inverse Fourier transform template “invFourier” under “Using the Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-9. Laplace transform template “laplace” under “Using the Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-8. Inverse Laplace transform template “invLaplace” under “Using the Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-8. Gamma function “Gamma Function” on page 2-4-18. Delta function “Dirac Delta Function” on page 2-4-16. nth-delta function “nth Delta Function” on page 2-4-16. Heaviside function “Heaviside Unit Step Function” on page 2-4-17. 20090601 1-6-17 Input u V key set Tapping the V key displays keys for inputting single-character variables, and changes the V softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between V and the initial 2D keyboard. Tapping the E key switches to a key set for inputting upper-case single-character variables. ←E→ Tip • As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single character like “a” or “x”. Each character you input on the V keyboard is treated as a singlecharacter variable. You cannot use the V keyboard to input multiple-character variable names like “ab” or multiple-character strings. You must use the alphabet (abc) keyboard when you want to input a multiple-character string. For more information, see “Using Single-character Variables” on page 1-6-12. • For information about the D key that appears in the lower right of all of the 2D keyboard key sets, see “Using the Answer Variable (ans)” on page 2-2-2. • Note that natural input is available in most applications of the ClassPad. Natural input cannot be used in the geometry measurement box or when entering data into a list. u To use the 2D keyboard for natural input Example 1: To input 1 + 3 5 7 (1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application. (2) Press the c key. (3) Press the k key, and then tap ) to display the 2D keyboard. (4) Tap N and then tap b to input the numerator. (5) Tap the input box of the denominator to move the cursor there, or press c and then tap f. (6) Press e to move the cursor to the right side of 1/5. • Instead of using e to move the cursor, you could also tap with the stylus at the cursor destination. (7) Tap +. (8) Tap N, and then repeat steps (4) through (6) to input 3/7. (9) After everything is the way you want, press E. 20060301 1-6-18 Input Tip • If you want your ClassPad to evaluate a calculation expression and display a result in the eActivity application, you must input the calculation in a calculation row. See “Inserting a Calculation Row” on page 10-3-3. n Example 2: To input k=1 k2 (1) Tap ) to display the 2D keyboard and then tap -. (2) Tap . Initially, the cursor appears here. (3) In the input box below Σ, input “k=1”. Vkeb (4) Tap with the stylus to move the cursor to the other input locations and input the required information. In the input box above Σ, tap L. (5) Input the part of the expression that comes to the right of Σ. kIJ c (6) After everything is the way you want, press E. 1 Example 3: To input ∫ 0 (1– x2) ex dx (1) Tap ) to display the 2D keyboard and then tap -. (2) Tap P. Initially, the cursor appears in the input box to the right of ∫. (3) Input the part of the expression that comes to the right of ∫. (b-XJ ce) QXeeX • Or you can use 2D math symbols to enter the expression. 20060301 1-6-19 Input (4) Tap with the stylus to move the cursor to the other input locations to enter the limits of integration. In the input box above ∫, tap b. In the input box below ∫, tap a. (5) After everything is the way you want, press E. 20060301 1-7-1 Variables and Folders 1-7 Variables and Folders Your ClassPad lets you register text strings as variables. You can then use a variable to store a value, expression, string, list, matrix, etc. A variable can be recalled by a calculation to access its contents. Variables are stored in folders. In addition to the default folders that are provided automatically, you can also create your own user folders. You can create user folders as required to group variables by type or any other criteria. Folder Types Your ClassPad stores variables in one of four types of folders described below. Description Folder Type “system” Folder This is one of the ClassPad’s reserved folders, which is provided by default. It is used for storage of system variables, which are predefined variables used by ClassPad applications and other system operations. Some examples of system variables are “list1” through “list6”, View Window parameters “xmin” and “xmax”, etc. A system variable can be accessed by any application simply by specifying the applicable variable name. “library” Folder Also a ClassPad reserved folder, the “library” folder can be used for storing user-created variables. Variables stored in the “library” folder can be accessed without specifying a path, regardless of the current folder setting (see next page). “main” Folder The “main” folder is also a ClassPad reserved folder, and acts as the default current folder. While the “main” folder is the current folder, all variables created by ClassPad application operations are stored here when you do not specify a path for variable storage. User Folder This is a folder created and named by you. You can make a user folder the current folder, move variables to a user folder, etc. You can also delete and rename a user folder as required. You can have up to 87 user folders in ClassPad memory at one time. Tip • You cannot put a folder inside of another folder. • You can view the contents of a folder using the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1). Note, however, that you cannot open the “system” folder for viewing. • The “system” folder contents are listed within the ( page of the keyboard when “Sys” is selected for “Form”. 20060301 1-7-2 Variables and Folders k Current Folder The current folder is the folder where the variables created by applications (excluding eActivity) are stored and from which such variables can be accessed. The initial default current folder is the “main” folder. You can also select a user folder you created as the current folder. For more information about how to do this, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on page 1-8-3. Variable Types ClassPad variables can be broadly grouped into three types: general variables, system variables, and local variables. Variable Type Description General Variables A general variable is one you create using any name you want. Unless you specify otherwise when you are creating it, a general variable is stored in the current folder. You can use the same name for multiple variables, as long as each of them is stored in a different folder. General variables can be deleted, renamed, etc. System Variables System variables are pre-defined reserved variables used by ClassPad applications and other system operations. They are stored in the “system” folder. System variables can be accessed without specifying the folder name, and can even be accessed from another folder. Since system variable names are reserved words, they cannot be renamed. Whether you are allowed to delete or change the contents of a system variable depends on each variable. • For the names of and detailed information about system variables, see the “System Variable Table” on page α-2-1. Local Variables A local variable is a variable that is temporarily created by a defining function, program, or other operation for a particular purpose. A local variable is deleted automatically when execution of the program or user-defined function that created it is complete. You can create a local variable by including the “Local” command in a program. Any variable specified as the argument of a program or a user-defined function is automatically treated as a local variable. 20110401 1-7-3 Variables and Folders k Variable Data Types ClassPad variables support a number of data types. The type of data assigned to a variable is indicated by a data type name. Data type names are shown on the Variable Manager variable list, and on the Select Data dialog box that appears when you are specifying a variable in any ClassPad application. The following table lists all of the variable data type names and explains the meaning of each. Data Type Name EXPR STR LIST MAT PRGM* EXE* TEXT* FUNC* PICT* Data Type Real number, complex number or expression data String data List data created using the Statistics application, Main application, etc. Matrix data created using the Main application, etc. General program Edit prohibited program Text data User-defined function Image data • ClassPad image data includes graph image data saved using the Store function, image data captured using the Presentation application, and picture data transferred from the computer. GMEM* Graph memory data saved using the Graph & Table application • For more information, see “Saving Graph Editor Data to Graph Memory” on page 3-3-14. GEO* Geometry application data MEM* General-purpose data OTHR Data other than that described above * Protected variable types Some data types are protected. A variable whose data type is protected cannot be overwritten with another variable, which protects variable contents from being inadvertently altered. Data types whose names are marked with an asterisk in the above table are protected. Tip • Note that whether or not a data type is protected is determined by the system. You cannot change the protection status of a data type. • Even when a variable is a protected data type, you can rename, delete, or move it. To disable these operations, you need to lock the variable. For more information, see “Locking a Variable or Folder” on page 1-7-10. • The elements of the LIST data type can contain EXPR or STR type data only. The elements of the MAT data type can contain EXPR type data only. 20110901 1-7-4 Variables and Folders Creating a Folder You can have up to 87 user folders in memory at the same time. This section explains how to create a user folder and explains the rules that cover folder names. You can create a folder using either the Variable Manager or the “NewFolder” command. k Creating a folder using the Variable Manager On the Variable Manager window, tap [Edit] and then [Create Folder]. For more information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. k Creating a folder using the “NewFolder” command In the Main application or in a program, execute the “NewFolder” command. Example: To create a new folder named “Test” u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main application. (2) Display the catalog (cat) keyboard, and then input the “NewFolder” command. a. In the [Form] menu, select [Cmd]. b. Tap u and the [N] to display the first command that starts with the letter “N”. c. In the command list, tap “NewFolder” to select it. d. Tap [INPUT]. “NewFolder” command (3) Following the “NewFolder” command you just input, enter “Test”. 0L T e s t 20060301 1-7-5 Variables and Folders (4) Tap w to execute the command. • The message “done” appears on the display to let you know that command execution is complete. Tip • You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a folder you create. For more information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. • For information about commands you can use to perform folder operations, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. k Folder Name Rules The following are the rules that apply to folder names. • Folder names can be up to 8 bytes long. • The following characters are allowed in a folder name. Upper-case and lower-case unaccented characters (character codes 65 to 90, 97 to 122) Upper-case and lower-case accented characters (character codes 257 to 416, 513 to 672) Subscript characters (character codes 480 to 491, 496 to 512, 737 to 746, 752 to 766) Numbers (character codes 48 to 57) Underscore (character code 95) • Folder names are case-sensitive. For example, each of the following is treated as a different folder name: abc, Abc, aBc, ABC. • A reserved word (system variable names, built-in function names, command names, etc.) cannot be used as a folder name. • A number, subscript characters or the underscore (_) cannot be used as the first character of a folder name. Creating and Using Variables This section explains how to create a new variable (general variable), and provides a simple sample calculation that illustrates how to use a variable. k Variable Name Rules The rules for naming variables are identical to those that cover folder names. For more information, see “Folder Name Rules” above. 20060301 1-7-6 Variables and Folders k Single-character Variable Precautions Your ClassPad supports the use of single-character variables, which are variables whose names consist of a single character like “a” or “x”. Some ClassPad keys (x, y, Z keypad keys, math (mth) soft keyboard X, Y, Z, [ keys, V key set keys, etc.) are dedicated single-character variable name input keys. You cannot use such a key to input a variable name that has more than one character. For example, pressing the keypad keys x and y in succession is interpreted by the ClassPad as the multiplication expression “x × y”, and not as the characters “xy”. In order to input a variable name made up of two or more characters, use the alphabet (abc) keyboard. For more information, see “Using Single-character Variables” on page 1-6-12. k Creating a New Variable The most common way to create a new variable is assigning a value or expression to the applicable variable name. Use the variable assignment key (W) to assign data to a variable. Assign key This key is included on the math (mth) and 2D soft keyboards. The following is an example of assignment to a variable while “main” is specified as the current folder. Example: To create a new variable named “eq1” and assign the expression 2x + 1 to it The following assumes that there are no variables named “eq1” or “x” currently in the “main” folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application. (2) Press k to display the soft keyboard, and then perform the following key operation. 9cX+bW 0eqbw • This creates a variable named “eq1” in the current folder (the “main” folder in this example), and assigns the expression 2x + 1 to it. 20060301 1-7-7 Variables and Folders Tip • As shown in the above example, assigning something to a variable with a name that does not yet exist in the current folder causes a new variable with that name to be created. If a variable with the specified name already exists in the current folder, the contents of the existing variable are replaced with the newly assigned data, unless the existing variable is protected. For more information about protected variables, see “Protected variable types” on page 1-7-3. • To store the newly created variable in a folder other than the current folder, specify the variable name as follows:\ . • You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a variable you create. For more information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. k Variable Usage Example The following example uses the variable we created in the example under “Creating a New Variable” on page 1-7-6. Example: To copy the variable “eq1” and then paste it into the following two equations: eq1 + x – 2 and eq1 × 2 u ClassPad Operation (1) First, check the current contents of variable “eq1”. 0eqbw (2) Copy the variable by dragging the stylus across “eq1” and then tapping G, or tap [Edit] [Copy]. • Copy and paste comes in handy when you need to input the same variable into multiple expressions. You can also drag “eq1” to another line. (3) Perform the key operation below to input and execute the first expression: eq1 + x – 2. H (or [Edit] [Paste]) 9+X-cw (4) Perform the key operation below to replace the current contents of “eq1” with the list {1, 2, 3}. 9{b,c,d}W Hw (5) Perform the key operation below to input and execute the second expression: eq1 × 2 H9*cw 20060301 1-7-8 Variables and Folders k “library” Folder Variables Variables in the “library” folder can be accessed without specifying a path name, regardless of the current folder. Example: To create and access two variables, one located in the “library” folder and one located in another folder u ClassPad Operation (1) With “main” specified as the current folder (the default), perform the following operation to create a variable named “eq1” and assign the indicated list data to it. {1, 2, 3} S eq1w (2) Keeping “main” specified as the current folder, perform the following operation to create a variable named “eq2” in the “library” folder, and assign the indicated list data to it. {4, 5, 6} S library \ eq2 w Specifies the “library” folder. (3) Check the contents of the two variables. eq1 w eq2 w Since variable “eq2” is stored in the “library” folder, you do not need to indicate a path to access it. (4) Change the current folder specification to “Test”. • Use the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) or the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) to change the current folder specification. (5) Perform the following operations to view the contents of variables “eq1” and “eq2”. eq1 w Since this key operation does not access the “main” folder, the variable name (“eq1”) is displayed without showing the variable contents. main\eq1 w Specifying the path to the “main” folder where “eq1” is located displays the contents of the variable. 20060301 1-7-9 Variables and Folders eq2 w Since variable “eq2” is stored in the “library” folder, you do not need to indicate a path to access it. Tip • Specifying a variable name that exists in both the current folder and the “library” folder causes the variable in the current folder to be accessed. For details about the variable access priority sequence and how to access variables in particular folders, see “Rules Governing Variable Access” on page 1-7-11. • You can use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) to move existing variables from the “main” folder or a user folder to the “library” folder, or from the “library” folder to other folders. k Using Stat Editor to Create a LIST Variable Stat Editor makes creation of LIST variables (variables that contain list data) quick and easy. This capability really comes in handy when you need to perform a calculation (statistical calculations, etc.) that involves a large number of LIST variables. Stat Editor appears as the initial screen when you start up the Statistics application. You can also access the Stat Editor window from the Main, Graph & Table, and eActivity applications. 1 2 Input a variable name like “list_t” into the title cell at the top of the list on the Stat Editor window (1), and then input values into the list (2). This creates a LIST variable with the name list_t that is assigned the contents of the list of data (2). The above example creates a LIST variable named “list_t” and assigns it the list data “{12, 24, 36}”. Tip • For details about using Stat Editor, see “7-2 Using Stat Editor”. 20060301 1-7-10 Variables and Folders Assigning Values and Other Data to a System Variable As its name suggests, a system variable is a variable that is created and used by the system (page 1-7-5). Some system variables allow you to assign values and other data to them, while some system variables do not. For more information about which variables allow you to control their contents, see the “System Variable Table” on page α-2-1. Locking a Variable or Folder Locking a variable or folder protects against inadvertently deleting it or changing its contents. You can unlock a locked variable or folder to re-enable deletion and data assignment. • Locking a variable disables the following operations on it: delete, overwrite, rename, and move (to another folder). • Locking a folder makes it impossible to delete or rename the folder. Tip • In terms of ClassPad variables, “lock” is completely different from “protect”. For more information about “protect”, see “Variable Data Types” on page 1-7-3. You can lock and unlock a variable or folder using either the Variable Manager or commands. u To lock or unlock a variable or folder using the Variable Manager In the Variable Manager, select the folder or variable you want to lock or unlock and then tap [Edit] - [Lock] or [Edit] - [Unlock]. For more information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. u To lock or unlock a variable or folder using commands In the Main application or in a program, execute one of the commands described below. To do this: Lock a variable Unlock a variable Lock a folder Unlock a folder Use this command syntax: Lock Unlock LockFolder UnlockFolder For information about commands, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. 20110401 1-7-11 Variables and Folders Rules Governing Variable Access Normally, you access a variable by specifying its variable name. The rules in this section apply when you need to reference a variable that is not located in the current folder or to access a variable that has the same name as one or more variables located in other folders. k Variable Search Priority Sequence Specifying a variable name to access a variable, searches variables in the following sequence. (1) Local Variables (2) Current Folder Variables (3) “library” Folder Variables • Multiple variables with the same name can exist simultaneously as a local variable, as a variable in the current folder, and as a variable in the “library” folder. In this case, the ClassPad searches folders according to the sequence shown above and accesses the first instance of the variable that it finds. If you want to access such a variable when it occurs lower in the above priority sequence, you need to specify the folder name along with the variable name as shown in “Specifying a Variable in a Particular Folder” below. • If a variable you specify cannot be found, it is treated as an “undefined variable”. • Note that the “system” folder is not included in the above variable search. When accessing a variable in the system folder, you need to specify the variable name only, without specifying the folder name. Tip • Local variables exist only as long as the program or user-defined function for which it was created in being executed. • When a variable search is required during a subroutine called by a program or user-defined function, the local variable search range includes only the local variables of the subroutine currently being executed. • For information about programs and user-defined functions, see Chapter 12. • Only local variables and current folder variables are searched in the case of an operation that stores variable data or a command that performs an operation on a variable (like “DelVar”). Normally, “library” folder variables are not searched. If you want to include “library” folders in the search, you need to specify the “library” folder as the variable location as explained below. k Specifying a Variable in a Particular Folder You can access a variable located inside the “main” folder, “library” folder, or a particular user folder by specifying the folder name along with the variable name. Use the following syntax when specifying a folder name: \ Example: To specify variable “abc” located in the “main” folder main\abc 20060301 1-8-1 Using the Variable Manager 1-8 Using the Variable Manager The Variable Manager is a tool for managing user variables, programs, user functions, and other types of data. Though this section uses only the term “variables”, the explanations provided here also refer to the other types of data that can be managed by the Variable Manager. Variable Manager Overview This section explains how to start up and exit the Variable Manager. It also provides information about the configuration of the Variable Manager. With the Variable Manager you can: • Create, delete, rename, lock, and unlock folders for storing variables, and configure current folder settings. • Delete, copy, rename, move, lock, unlock, search for variables, and view the contents of variables. Starting Up the Variable Manager To start up the Variable Manager, tap O, and then tap [Variable Manager]. • Starting up the Variable Manager initially displays the folder list, which is described on the next page. 20060301 1-8-2 Using the Variable Manager Variable Manager Views The Variable Manager uses two views, a folder list and a variable list. • The folder list always appears first whenever you start up the Variable Manager. Current folder Number of variables contained in the folder Folder names Folder List • Tapping a folder name on the folder list selects it. Tapping the folder name again displays the folder’s contents; a variable list. Folder name Number of variables contained in the folder Variable names Variable data types (page 1-7-3) and sizes (bytes) Variable List • To close the variable list and return to the folder list, tap [Close]. Exiting the Variable Manager To exit the Variable Manager, tap the [Close] button. 20060301 1-8-3 Using the Variable Manager Variable Manager Folder Operations This section describes the various folder operations you can perform using the Variable Manager. k Specifying the Current Folder The “current folder” is the folder where the variables created by applications (excluding eActivity) are stored and from which such variables can be accessed. The initial default current folder is the “main” folder. You can also select a folder you created yourself as the current folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. Current folder (2) Tap the [Current] down arrow button. On the list that appears, select the folder that you want to specify as the current folder. (3) Tap [Close] to close the folder list. k Creating a New Folder You can use the following procedure to create up to 87 folders, as you need them. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager, which causes the folder list to appear. (2) On the folder list, tap [Edit] and then [Create Folder]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a folder name. (3) Enter the folder name, and then tap [OK]. • This creates the new folder and returns to the folder list. • Normally, a folder name can contain up to eight bytes. If your folder name includes 2-byte characters, you may not be able to input eight characters for the folder name. For details about folder names, see page 1-7-5. Tip • An error message appears and your folder is not created if there is already a folder with the same name you input. Tap [OK] to close the error message dialog box, and then specify a different name for the folder you are creating. 20060301 1-8-4 Using the Variable Manager k Selecting and Deselecting Folders The folder operations you perform are performed on the currently selected folders. The folders that are currently selected on the folder list are those whose check boxes are selected (checked). You can use the following operations to select and deselect folders as required. To do this: Do this: Select a single folder Select the check box next to the folder name. Deselect a single folder Clear the check box next to the folder name. Select all the folders in the list Tap [All] and then [Select All]. Deselect all the folders in the list Tap [All] and then [Deselect All]. Tip • If no check box is currently selected on the folder list, any folder operation that is performed affects the folder whose name is currently highlighted on the list. If any folder check box is currently selected, only that folder is affected by a folder operation, and the folder whose name is highlighted on the list is not affected. • Selecting the check box of a folder causes the check boxes of all of the variables inside of it also to become selected. • When renaming a folder, only the folder whose name is highlighted on the folder list is renamed. Other folders whose check boxes are selected are not affected. k Deleting a Folder Warning! Before deleting a folder, make sure you no longer need any of the variables contained inside it. It is probably a good idea to first delete the variables you don’t need and move the variables you do need to another folder, and then delete the empty folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Open the folder you want to delete and check its contents. • Make sure you no longer need any of the variables in the folder. If any of the variables are locked, unlock them. • After checking the contents of the folder, close it to return to the folder list. (3) Select the check box next to the folder you want to delete. • You can select and delete multiple folders, if you want. (4) On the folder list, tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. (5) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the folder or [Cancel] to exit the dialog box without deleting the folder. 20060301 1-8-5 Using the Variable Manager Tip • You cannot delete the “library” folder or the “main” folder. • If no check box is currently selected on the folder list, the folder whose name is currently highlighted on the list is deleted when you tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. • An error message appears and the folder is not deleted if any one of the following conditions exists. • The folder is locked. • Any variable inside the folder is locked. • There are still variables inside the folder. k Renaming a Folder You can use the following procedure to change the name of an existing folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Tap the name of the folder you want to rename so it is highlighted. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a new folder name. (4) Input the new folder name. (5) When the name is the way you want, tap [OK] to save it, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the rename procedure. Tip • When renaming a folder, only the folder whose name is highlighted on the folder list is renamed. Other folders whose check boxes are selected are not affected. • A folder that is locked cannot be renamed. k Locking and Unlocking a Folder A folder cannot be deleted or renamed while it is locked. Lock any folder that you want to protect against accidental deletion. u To lock a folder (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to lock. • If you want to lock multiple folders, select all of their check boxes. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Lock]. • This locks the currently selected folder, and adds a b icon to the left of its name to indicate that it is locked. u To unlock a folder (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to unlock. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Unlock]. 20060301 1-8-6 Using the Variable Manager k Inputting a Folder Name into an Application Perform the procedure below when you want to input the name of a folder displayed on the Variable Manager window into the application from which you started up the Variable Manager. u ClassPad Operation (1) In the Main application, Graph & Table application, or some other application, move the cursor to the location where you want to input the folder name. (2) Start up the Variable Manager to display the list of folders. (3) Tap the folder whose name you want to input, so the name is highlighted. (4) Tap [INPUT]. • This exits the Variable Manager and inputs the name of the folder you selected in step (3) into the application at the current cursor position. 20060301 1-8-7 Using the Variable Manager Variable Operations This section explains the various operations you can perform on the Variable Manager variables. k Opening a Folder Perform the steps below to open a folder and display the variables contained inside it. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Tap the name of the folder you want to open so it is highlighted, and then tap it again. • This opens the folder and displays a variable list showing its contents. (3) To return to the folder list, tap [Close]. k Opening the “library” Folder Note that the procedure you need to use to open the “library” folder is different from the procedure for opening other folders. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) Tap [View] and then [“library” Folder]. • This opens the “library” folder and displays a variable list showing its contents. (3) To return to the folder list, tap [Close]. Tip • You can also open the “library” folder (by tapping [View] and then [“library” Folder]) while the variable list is on the display. k Displaying a List of a Particular Type of Variable You can use the variable list to produce a list of a particular type of variable only. u ClassPad Operation (1) In the Variable Manager, open any folder to display a variable list of its contents. (2) Tap [View] and then [Variable Type]. • This displays the Variable Type dialog box for specifying the variable data type. 20060301 1-8-8 Using the Variable Manager (3) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the data type from the list that appears. • To display variables for all data types, select [All]. • For details about data type names and variables, see “Variable Data Types” on page 1-7-3. (4) After selecting the data type you want, tap [OK] to apply it or [Cancel] to exit the selection dialog box without changing the current setting. Tip • Returning to the folder list or exiting the Variable Manager causes the data type to change to the initial default setting, which is [All]. • Performing this operation clears the check boxes for all of the variables inside the applicable folder. k Selecting a Variable Before you can copy, delete, or perform any other operation on a variable, you must first select it. u To select or deselect a variable (1) In the Variable Manager, open any folder to display a variable list of its contents. (2) Perform one of the operations described below to select or deselect a variable. To do this: Do this: Select a single variable Select the check box next to the variable name. Deselect a single variable Clear the check box next to the variable name. Select all the variables in the list Tap [All] and then [Select All]. Deselect all the variables in the list Tap [All] and then [Deselect All]. Tip • If no check box is currently selected on the variable list, any variable operation that is performed affects the variable whose name is currently highlighted on the list. If any variable check box is currently selected, only that variable is affected by a variable operation, and the variable whose name is highlighted on the list is not affected. • The selected/deselected status of a variable is retained, even when you return from the variable list to the folder list. Exiting the Variable Manager or changing the data type selection, however, causes all variables to be deselected. • When renaming a variable, only the variable whose name is highlighted on the variable list is renamed. If other variables are selected (checked), they will not be affected. 20060301 1-8-9 Using the Variable Manager k Deleting a Variable Perform the following steps when you want to delete a variable. u ClassPad Operation (1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to delete and display the variable list. (2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to delete. • To delete multiple variables, select all of their check boxes. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. (4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the selected variable or [Cancel] to cancel the delete operation. Tip • If no check box is selected on the variable list, the variable whose name is currently highlighted on the list is deleted when you tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. • If the currently selected variable is locked, an error message appears and the variable is not deleted. k Copying and Moving a Variable You can use the procedure below to copy or move a variable to another folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to copy or move, and display the variable list. (2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to copy or move. • To copy or move multiple variables, select all of their check boxes. (3) Perform the copy operation or the move operation. To do this: Perform this operation: Copy the variable Tap [Edit] and then [Copy]. Move the variable Tap [Edit] and then [Move]. • This causes a dialog box for selecting the destination folder to appear. (4) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the destination folder from the list that appears. (5) When the destination folder you want is selected, tap [OK] to perform the copy or move operation, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the procedure. 20060301 1-8-10 Using the Variable Manager Tip • If no check box is currently selected on the variable list, the variable whose name is currently highlighted on the list is copied or moved. • If a variable with the same name already exists in the destination folder, the variable in the destination folder is replaced with the one that you are copying or moving. • An error message appears and the variable is not copied or moved if a variable with the same name already exists in the destination folder and that variable is locked or protected. • A variable that is locked cannot be moved. k Renaming a Variable Perform the following steps when you want to rename a variable. u ClassPad Operation (1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to rename and display the variable list. (2) Tap the name of the variable you want to rename so it is highlighted. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a new variable name. (4) Input the new variable name. (5) When the name is the way you want, tap [OK] to save it, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the rename procedure. Tip • When renaming a variable, only the variable whose name is highlighted on the variable list is renamed. Other variables whose check boxes are selected are not affected. • A variable that is locked cannot be renamed. k Locking and Unlocking a Variable A locked variable cannot be deleted, moved, or renamed. A locked variable also cannot be overwritten by a variable with the same name being moved or copied into its folder. Lock any variable that you want to protect against accidental deletion. u To lock a variable (1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to lock and display the variable list. (2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to lock. • If you want to lock multiple variables, select all of their check boxes. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Lock]. • This locks the currently selected variable, and adds a b icon to the left of its name to indicate that it is locked. 20060301 1-8-11 Using the Variable Manager u To unlock a variable (1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to unlock and display the variable list. (2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to unlock. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Unlock]. k Searching for a Variable You can use the following procedure to search the “main” folder or a user defined folder for a particular variable name. Note that you cannot search the “library” folder. u ClassPad Operation (1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list. (2) On the folder list, tap [Search] and then [Search]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a search string. (3) Enter the variable name you want to find and then tap [OK]. • An exclamation point ( ) appears in front of all folders containing a variable name that matches the name in your search. Tip • The message “Not Found” appears on the display if a match cannot be found. • The exclamation point ( ) remains on the folder list until you exit the Variable Manager or perform another search operation. Also note that the exclamation point ( ) remains in front of the folder name, even if you delete or rename the found variable. 20060301 1-8-12 Using the Variable Manager k Viewing the Contents of a Variable You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a particular variable. u ClassPad Operation (1) Open the folder that contains the variable whose contents you want to view and display on the variable list. (2) Tap the name of the variable whose contents you want to view so it is highlighted, and then tap it again. • This displays a dialog box that shows the contents of the variable. Example of EXPR variable contents (3) To close the dialog box, tap [OK]. Tip • You can use this procedure to display the contents of the following variable types only: EXPR, STR, LIST, MAT, FUNC, PRGM, TEXT, PICT. 20060301 1-8-13 Using the Variable Manager k Inputting a Variable Name into an Application Perform the procedure below when you want to input the name of a variable from the Variable Manager window into the application from which you started up the Variable Manager. u ClassPad Operation (1) In the Main application, Graph & Table application, or some other application, move the cursor to the location where you want to input the variable name. (2) Start up the Variable Manager to display the folder list. (3) Find the name of the folder that contains the variable whose name you want to input, and tap it twice. (4) Tap the variable whose name you want to input, so its name is highlighted. (5) Tap [INPUT]. • This exits the Variable Manager and inputs the name of the variable you selected in step (4) into the application at the current cursor position. • In this example, the variable is located in a folder (bio) that is not the current folder, so the folder name needs to be specified (bio\ list02). If the variable is located in the current folder, you do not need to specify the folder name (list02). 20060301 1-9-1 Configuring Application Format Settings 1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings The O menu includes format settings for configuring the number of calculation result display digits and the angle unit, as well as application-specific commands. The following describes each of the settings and commands that are available on the O menu. To do this: Select this O menu command: Specify folder for variables, and to configure number format, angle, and other basic settings for all built-in applications Basic Format Configure Graph window and graph drawing settings for Graph & Table, Conics, and other graphing applications Graph Format Configure 3D Graph window and graph drawing settings for the 3D Graph application 3D Format Configure number format and angle settings for Geometry application Geometry Format Configure Fourier transform and FFT settings Advanced Format Configure Financial application settings Financial Format Configure Presentation application settings Presentation Configure Communication application settings Communication Return all [Setup] menu settings to their initial default values (except for the current folder setting specified on Basic Format dialog box) Default Setup Tip • For more details about the structure and content of the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. u ClassPad Operation (1) Open any application (except the System application). (2) Tap O. (3) Tap the menu command you want: Basic Format, Graph Format, 3D Format, Geometry Format, Advanced Format, Financial Format, Presentation, or Communication. • To configure Graph Format settings, for example, tap O and then [Graph Format]. This displays the Graph Format dialog box. • Some setup dialog boxes contain multiple tabbed sheets like the Graph Format dialog box. Tap the tab for the sheet that contains the settings you want to configure. (4) Use the dialog box to configure the settings you want. • For details about the settings you can configure on each of the dialog boxes, see “Application Format Settings” on page 1-9-4. • Some settings require specification of a variable. For more information, see “Specifying a Variable” on the next page. (5) To close a dialog box and apply its settings, tap [Set]. To close a dialog box without applying its settings, tap [Cancel] or the button in the upper right corner of the dialog box. 20060301 1-9-2 Configuring Application Format Settings Specifying a Variable Certain settings require that you specify variables. If you specify a user-stored variable when configuring the setting of such an item, you must specify the folder where the variable is stored and the variable name. Example: To use [Table Variable] on the [Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box for configuring a user variable u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap O, or tap s on the icon panel, and then tap [Graph Format]. • This displays the Graph Format dialog box. (2) Tap the [Special] tab. (3) Tap the [Table Variable] down arrow button. • This displays a list of variables. (4) On the list, tap “Select List Name…”. • This displays the Select Data dialog box for selecting a variable. Variable type Select the folder where the variable is stored. Specify the variable name. 20060301 1-9-3 Configuring Application Format Settings (5) Use the Select Data dialog box to specify the folder where the variable is saved, and then specify the variable name. • The sample dialog box in step (4) shows selection of the list variable named “ab”, which is located in the folder named “main”. (6) Tap [OK]. • This closes the Select Data dialog box. This line shows the \ specified in step (5) (“main\ab” in this case). This box indicates that “main\ab” is selected for Table Variable. (7) Tap [Set] to save your settings. Initializing All Application Format Settings Perform the following procedure when you want to return all application format settings to their initial defaults. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap O, or tap s on the icon panel, and then tap [Default Setup]. (2) In response to the “Reset Setup Data?” message that appears, tap [OK] to initialize all settings or [Cancel] to cancel the reset operation. • If you tap [OK], the settings are initialized and then a dialog box appears on the display. • For details about the initial default setting for each item, see “Application Format Settings” on page 1-9-4. Tip • Initializing the application format settings does not affect the current folder setting on the Basic Format dialog box. For details about the current folder, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on page 1-8-3. 20060301 1-9-4 Configuring Application Format Settings Application Format Settings This section provides details about all of the settings you can configure using the application format settings. The following two points apply to all of the dialog boxes. • Some settings involve turning options on or off. Selecting a check box next to an option (so it has a check mark) turns it on, while clearing the check box turns it off. • Other settings consist of a text box with a down arrow button on the right. Tap the down arrow button to display a list of available settings, and then tap the setting you want. Important! • Settings that are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following tables are the initial defaults. k Basic Format Dialog Box Use the Basic Format dialog box to configure basic settings for calculations, cells, and other parameters. u Current Folder To specify this folder as the current folder: Select this setting: main main* A user-defined folder Any other setting • [Current Folder] settings can also be configured using the Variable Manager. For more information, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on page 1-8-3. 20101001 1-9-5 Configuring Application Format Settings u Number Format To specify this type of numeric value display format: Auto exponential display for values less than 10–2 and from 1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode) Auto exponential display for values less than 10–9 and from 1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode) Fixed number of decimal places Fixed number of significant digits Select this setting: Normal 1* Normal 2 Fix 0 – 9 Sci 0 – 9 u Angle To specify this angle unit: Radians Degrees Grad Select this setting: Radian* Degree Grad u Advanced To do this: Perform complex number calculations (Complex mode) Perform real number calculations (Real mode) Display results as a decimal (Decimal mode)*1 Leave calculation results as expressions (Standard mode)*1 Turn off auto simplification of expressions (Assistant mode)*2 Turn on auto simplification of expressions (Algebra mode)*2 Specify descending order (e.g. x2 + x + 1) for the calculation result expression Specify ascending order (e.g. 1 + x + x2) for the calculation result expression Specify that variables in Complex Mode calculation should be treated as real numbers • With this setting, re(a+bi)=a and im(a+bi)=b. Specify that variables in Complex Mode calculation should be treated as complex numbers Divide total population on its center point between upper and lower groups, with the median of the lower group Q1 and the median of the upper group Q3 Make the value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest to 1/4 Q1 and the value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4 and nearest to 3/4 Q3 20101001 Do this: Select the [Complex Format] check box. Clear the [Complex Format] check box.* Select the [Decimal Calculation] check box. Clear the [Decimal Calculation] check box.* Select the [Assistant] check box. Clear the [Assistant] check box.* Select the [Descending Order] check box.* Clear the [Descending Order] check box. Select the [Variable is Real] check box. Clear the [Variable is Real] check box.* Select the [Q1, Q3 on Data] check box. Clear the [Q1, Q3 on Data] check box.* 1-9-6 Configuring Application Format Settings *1 Executing 1 ÷ 2 in the Decimal mode produces a result of 0.5, while the Standard mode produces a result of 1 . 2 *2 Executing x2 + 2x + 3x + 6 E in the Assistant mode produces a result of x2 + 2 • x + 3 • x + 6, while the Algebra mode produces a result of x2 + 5 • x + 6. Important! The Assistant mode is available in the Main application and eActivity application only. k Graph Format Dialog Box Use the Graph Format dialog box to configure settings for the Graph window and for drawing graphs. Basic Tab u Axes To do this: Select this setting: Turn on display of Graph window axes On* Turn on display of Graph window axes along with maximum and minimum value of each axis Number Turn off display of Graph window axes Off u Other settings To do this: Do this: Turn on display of Graph window grid Select the [Grid Points] check box. Turn off display of Graph window grid Clear the [Grid Points] check box.* Turn on display of Graph window axis labels Select the [Labels] check box. Turn off display of Graph window axis labels Clear the [Labels] check box.* Turn on display of graph controller arrows during graphing Select the [G-Controller] check box. 20101001 1-9-7 Configuring Application Format Settings To do this: Do this: Turn off display of graph controller arrows during graphing Clear the [G-Controller] check box.* Draw graphs with plotted points Select the [Draw Plot] check box. Draw graphs with solid lines Clear the [Draw Plot] check box.* Turn on display of function name and function Select the [Graph Function] check box.* Turn off display of function name and function Clear the [Graph Function] check box. Turn on display of Graph window pointer coordinates Select the [Coordinates] check box.* Turn off display of Graph window pointer coordinates Clear the [Coordinates] check box. Turn on display of leading cursor during graphing Select the [Leading Cursor] check box. Turn off display of leading cursor during graphing Clear the [Leading Cursor] check box.* Draw multiple graphs simultaneously Select the [Simul Graph] check box. Draw multiple graphs one-by-one Clear the [Simul Graph] check box.* Turn on display of coordinates of Graph window pointer and its derivative on number table display Select the [Derivative/Slope] check box. Turn off display of coordinates of Graph window pointer and its derivative on number table display Clear the [Derivative/Slope] check box.* Special Tab u Background To do this: Select this setting: Turn off Graph window background display Off* Select an image to be used as Graph window background u Cell Width Pattern To specify this row width for stat editor and data table displays: 2 cells 3 cells 4 cells Select this setting: 2 Cells 3 Cells* 4 Cells u Table Variable To specify this source for table data: Select this setting: Table input Table input* List data list1 through list6 Select list data to be used as source for table data 20101001 1-9-8 Configuring Application Format Settings u Summary Table To specify this source for summary table data: Select this setting: View Window View Window* List data list1 through list6 Select list data to be used as source for summary table data

u Summary Table f ’’(x) To do this: Select this setting: Turn on display of second derivative for summary tables On* Turn off display of second derivative for summary tables Off u Stat Window Auto To do this: Do this: Configure Statistics application View Window settings automatically Select the [Stat Window Auto] check box.* Configure Statistics application View Window settings manually Clear the [Stat Window Auto] check box. k 3D Format Dialog Box Use the 3D Format dialog box to configure settings for the 3D Graph window and for drawing 3D graphs. For full details about the 3D Graph application, see Chapter 5. u Coordinates To do this: u Axes Select this setting: Display coordinate values using rectangular coordinates Rectangular* Display coordinate values using polar coordinates Polar Turn off display of coordinates Off 20101001 To do this: Select this setting: Display axes normally On Display box type coordinate axes Box Turn off display of axes Off* 1-9-9 Configuring Application Format Settings u Labels To do this: Select this setting: Turn on display of Graph window axis labels On Turn off display of Graph window axis labels Off* u Background To do this: Select this setting: Turn off Graph window background display Off* Select an image to be used as the Graph window background

• The above is the same as the [Background] setting on the Graph Format dialog box. u G-Controller To do this: Do this: Turn on display of graph controller arrows during graphing Select the [G-Controller] check box. Turn off display of graph controller arrows during graphing Clear the [G-Controller] check box.* • The above is the same as the [G-Controller] setting on the Graph Format dialog box. k Geometry Format Dialog Box Use the Geometry Format dialog box to configure settings for the Geometry application. Tip • The information that appears in the preview area at the bottom of the dialog box shows a preview of the Geometry application window, based on the settings configured in upper half of the dialog box. 20101001 1-9-10 Configuring Application Format Settings u Number Format To specify this type of numeric value display format on the Geometry window: Select this setting: Auto exponential display for values less than 10–2 and from 1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode) Normal 1 Auto exponential display for values less than 10–9 and from 1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode) Normal 2 Fixed number of decimal places Fix 0 – 9 Fixed number of significant digits Sci 0 – 9 • The initial default [Number Format] setting is Fix 2. u Measure Angle To specify the angle unit for the measurement box: Select this setting: Radian Radian Degree Degree* Grad Grad u Function Angle To specify the angle unit for graphing: Select this setting: Radian Radian* Degree Degree Grad Grad u Axes To set the initial Graph window axes condition when opening the Geometry application: Select this setting: Turn on display of Graph window axes On Turn on display of Graph window axes along with maximum and minimum value of each axis Number Turn off display of Graph window axes Off* u Integer Grid To set the initial condition of integer grid when opening the Geometry application: Do this: Turn on display of integer grid Select the [Integer Grid] check box. Turn off display of integer grid Clear the [Integer Grid] check box.* 20101001 1-9-11 Configuring Application Format Settings k Advanced Format Dialog Box Use the Advanced Format dialog box to configure settings for Fourier transform and FFT settings. u Fourier Transform To do this: Select this setting: Specify following formula for Fourier transform: Pure Math* Specify following formula for Fourier transform: Modern Physics Specify following formula for Fourier transform: Classical Physics Specify following formula for Fourier transform: Probability Specify following formula for Fourier transform: Signal Processing u FFT To do this: Select this setting: Specify Pure Math for FFT scaling constant Pure Math Specify Signal Processing for FFT scaling constant Signal Processing* Specify Data Analysis for FFT scaling constant Data Analysis u Assume positive real To do this: Do this: Assume variables for Fourier calculation are positive reals Select the [Assume positive real] check box.* Allow complex numbers as variables for Fourier calculation Clear the [Assume positive real] check box. 20101001 1-9-12 Configuring Application Format Settings k Financial Format Dialog Box Use the Financial Format dialog box to configure settings for the Financial application. Basic Tab u Days in Year To do this: Select this setting: Specify a 360-day year 360 days Specify a 365-day year 365 days* u Payment Date To do this: Select this setting: Specify beginning of period for the payment date Beginning of period Specify end of period for the payment date End of period* u Date Format To do this: Select this setting: Specify day/month/year as the date format DD/MM/YYYY Specify month/day/year as the date format MM/DD/YYYY* Specify year/month/day as the date format YYYY/MM/DD u Automatically copy common fields to new calculation To do this: Do this: When changing to another calculation type, automatically copy the contents of all fields in the current calculation whose names match the names of fields in the new calculation Select the [Automatically copy common fields to new calculation] check box. When changing to another calculation type, clear all fields Clear the [Automatically copy common fields to new calculation] check box.* 20110401 1-9-13 Configuring Application Format Settings Special Tab u Odd Period To do this: Select this setting: Specify compound interest for odd (partial) months Compound (CI) Specify simple interest for odd (partial) months Simple (SI) Specify no separation of full and odd (partial) months Off* u Compounding Frequency To do this: Select this setting: Specify once a year compounding Annual* Specify twice a year compounding Semi-annual u Bond Interval To do this: Select this setting: Use a number of payments as term for bond calculations Term* Use a date as term for bond calculations Date u Profit Amount/Ratio To do this: Select this setting: Use amount (PRF) for break-even point calculations Amount (PRF)* Use profit ratio (r%) for break-even point calculations Ratio (r%) u Break-Even Value To do this: Select this setting: Use quantity for break-even point calculations Quantity* Use sales amount for break-even point calculations Sales 20060301 1-9-14 Configuring Application Format Settings k Presentation Dialog Box Use the Presentation dialog box to configure settings for the Presentation application. For full details about the Presentation application, see Chapter 11. To do this: Do this: Send hard copy data to an external device Select “Outer Device” for [Screen Copy To].* Save hard copy data internally as Presentation data Select “P1: **” through “P20: **” for [Screen Copy To]. Specify the page change speed for Auto Play Specify a [Play Speed] value from 1 (fastest) to 10 (slowest). Capture the upper half of the window when h is tapped Select the [Half Screen Capturing] check box. Capture the entire window when h is tapped Clear the [Half Screen Capturing] check box.* Turn on repeat playback of files Select the [Repeat] check box. Turn off repeat playback of files Clear the [Repeat] check box.* Turn on page number display during playback and editing Select the [Page Number] check box.* Turn off page number display during playback and editing Clear the [Page Number] check box. • The initial default [Play Speed] setting is 4. ** will show the name of the presentation file. 20060301 1-9-15 Configuring Application Format Settings k Communication Dialog Box Use the Communication dialog box to configure communication settings. For full details about the Communication application, see Chapter 2 in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. u Screen Copy To To do this with hard copy data generated by tapping h: u Cable Type Select this setting: Send hard copy data to an Outer external device Device* Save hard copy data internally as Presentation data To use this type of cable for data communication: Select this setting: 3-pin cable 3pin cable USB cable USB cable* P1 - P20 u Speed (3Pin) u Wakeup Enable To specify this data rate for 3-pin communication: Select this setting: 9,600 bps 9600 bps 38,400 bps 38400 bps 115,200 bps 115200 bps* 20110401 To do this: Select this setting: Turn on the wakeup function (page 2-3-2 in the separate Hardware User’s Guide) On* Turn off the wakeup function Off Chapter Using the Main Application The Main application is a general-purpose numerical and mathematical calculation application that you can use to study mathematics and solve mathematical problems. You can use the Main application to perform general operations from basic arithmetic calculations, to calculations that involve lists, matrices, etc. The Main application also provides you with an [Action] menu and [Interactive] menu from which you can select approximately 120 different commands for working with mathematical expressions. 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 Main Application Overview Basic Calculations Using the Calculation History Function Calculations List Calculations Matrix and Vector Calculations Specifying a Number Base Using the Action Menu Using the Interactive Menu Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications 2-11 Using Verify 2-12 Using Probability 2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application 20060301 2 2-1-1 Main Application Overview 2-1 Main Application Overview This section provides information about the following. • Main application windows • Modes that determine how calculations and their results are displayed • Menus and their commands Starting Up the Main Application Use the following procedure to start up the Main application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap J. This starts the Main application and displays the work area. Main Application Window Starting up the Main application displays a large white work area. Menu bar The [Action] menu and [Interactive] menu are for executing mathematical expressions. Toolbar Work area Use this area for inputting operations and commands. ClassPad also uses this area to output calculation results. Status bar This area shows the current mode settings for the Main application. 20060301 2-1-2 Main Application Overview • Basic Main application operations consist of inputting a calculation expression into the work area and pressing E. This performs the calculation and then displays its result on the right side of the work area. Input expression Calculation result • Calculation results are displayed in natural format, with mathematical expressions appearing just as they do in your textbook. You can also input expressions in natural format using the ) soft keyboard. • The Main application also has a calculation history feature, which saves up to 30 calculation expressions you input and their calculated results. As long you do not clear the record, this information is available for later recall. This way you can recall a past calculation, make changes to it, and recalculate. 20090601 2-1-3 Main Application Overview Main Application Menus and Buttons This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the Main application. • For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. Menu Commands To do this: Select this menu item: Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone Cut the selected character string and place it onto the clipboard Copy the selected character string and place it onto the clipboard Edit - Undo/Redo Edit - Cut Edit - Copy Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor position in the work area Edit - Paste Select the entire row (input expression or value, or result) where the cursor is located in the work area Edit - Select All Delete the input expression and its result where the cursor is located in the work area Edit - Delete Clear variables that contain numbers, list and matrices Edit - Clear All Variables Clear all work area contents (calculation history) Insert a command into the work area (page 2-8-1) Edit - Clear All Action Execute an Interactive command for the expression selected in the work area (page 2-9-1) Interactive Button Functions Tap this button: To do this: Toggle calculation result display between the Standard mode and Decimal mode u Recalculate the equation just for the current line where the cursor is currently located 7 Output an input expression as-is* 0 Switch between binary, octal, decimal or hexadecimal number bases during normal calculation (page 2-7-3) < Access ClassPad application windows from the Main application (page 2-1-5) ! * Normally, inputting and executing an expression like ∫ (x × sin(x), x) integrates x × sin(x) and displays the result sin(x) – x × cos(x). Tapping 0 displays ∫ (x × sin(x), x) as-is, in a natural math format without performing any calculation. 20060301 2-1-4 Main Application Overview Using Main Application Modes The Main application has a number of different modes that control how calculation results are displayed, as well as other factors. The current mode is indicated in the status bar. k Status Bar Mode Indicators 1 2 3 4 Settings that are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following tables are initial defaults. Status Bar Indicator Location Assist Assistant mode: Does not automatically simplify expressions. Alg Algebra mode: Automatically simplifies expressions. 1 Decimal 2 3 4 Description Setting On Assistant Off* Decimal mode: Converts result to a decimal (approximate value). On Decimal Standard mode: Displays result in exact Calculation form (fractional format). If a result cannot Standard be displayed in exact form, however, it will be displayed as a decimal approximation. Cplx Complex mode: For complex number calculations. Real Real mode: For real number calculations. Rad Radian mode: Angles displayed in radians. Deg Degree mode: Angles displayed in degrees. Gra Grad mode: Angles displayed in grads. Status Complex Format Off* On Off* Radian* Angle Degree Grad • You can tap a mode name in the status bar to change it, or use the O menu’s [Basic Format] command to change the setting of each mode. For details about these settings, see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”. • For details about the calculations and result displays produced in each of the above modes, see “Calculation Modes” on page 2-2-6. 20060301 2-1-5 Main Application Overview Accessing ClassPad Application Windows from the Main Application Tapping the down arrow button on the toolbar displays a palette of 15 icons that you can use to access certain windows of other ClassPad applications. Tapping the ( button, for example, splits the display into two windows, with the Stat Editor window of the Statistics application in the lower window. Main application work area • For details about swapping the positions of the two windows, activating a window, closing a window, etc, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. Stat Editor window The following table displays the application you can access with each of the buttons. Tap this button: See Chapter: Graph & Table application Graph window Graph & Table application Graph Editor window 3D Graph application 3D Graph window 3D Graph application 3D Graph Editor window Conics application Conics Graph window Conics application Conics Editor window Geometry application Geometry window Spreadsheet application window Statistics application Stat Editor window $ ! % @ ^ * 3 Q ( 3 3 5 5 4 4 8 13 7 Differential Equation application Differential Equation Editor window Financial application window A 14 I 15 Probability window P Numeric Solver application Numeric Solver window Sequence application Sequence Editor window 1 & Verify window W See “2-12 Using Probability”. 9 6 See “2-11 Using Verify”. To display this window: 20060301 2-1-6 Main Application Overview • You can perform drag and drop operations with expressions between the Main application work area and the currently displayed window. For example, you could drag an expression from the Main application work area to the Graph window, and graph the expression. For details, see “2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications”. • For details about how to use each type of window, see the chapter for the appropriate application. Accessing the Main Application Window from Another ClassPad Application Some ClassPad applications allow you to access the Main application window by tapping O and then [Main]. In the Statistics application and some other applications, you can also access the Main application window by tapping the ~ button. The following are examples of what you can do after opening the Main application window within another application. • Using the Main application window as a calculator to perform a simple calculation • Using drag and drop to copy expressions and values between windows Example: To drag an expression from the Graph Editor window to the Main application work area For full details about individual operations, see the chapters that cover each application. Tip • You cannot access the Main application window from the Geometry, Presentation, Spreadsheet, Financial, Communication, or System application. • You can access the Geometry application from the Main application. 20060301 2-2-1 Basic Calculations 2-2 Basic Calculations This section explains how to perform basic mathematical operations in the Main application. Arithmetic Calculations and Parentheses Calculations • You can perform arithmetic calculations by inputting expressions as they are written. All of the example calculations shown below are performed using the 9 soft keyboard, unless noted otherwise. • To input a negative value, tap - or - before entering the value. • The order of operations is followed when a calculation consists of mixed arithmetic operations (multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction). • The example calculations are all performed using the Decimal mode. Using the Standard mode causes results to be displayed as fractions. For details about the Decimal mode and Standard mode, see “Status Bar Mode Indicators” on page 2-1-4. Calculation Key Operation 23 + 4.5 – 53 = –25.5 cd+e.f-fdw 56 × (–12) ÷ (–2.5) = 268.8 fg*(-bc)/(-c.f)w (2 + 3) × 102 = 500 (c+d)Ecw 1 + 2 – 3 × 4 ÷ 5 + 6 = 6.6 b+c-d*e/f+gw 100 – (2 + 3) × 4 = 80 baa-(c+d)*ew 2 + 3 × (4 + 5) = 29 c+d*(e+f)w (7 – 2) × (8 + 5) = 65 (h-c)*(i+f)w 6 = 0.3 4×5 g/(e*f)w or (1 + 2i) + (2 + 3i) = 3 + 5i (b+ci)+(c+di)w (2 + i) × (2 – i ) = 5 (c+i)*(c-i)w ) Ngce*fw Tip • For details about the calculations and result displays produced in each mode, see “Calculation Modes” on page 2-2-6. • To toggle a result between decimal and fractional format, tap u before pressing E. 20060301 2-2-2 Basic Calculations Using the e Key Use the e key to input exponential values. You can also input exponential values using the E key on the 9 and ) keyboards. Examples: 2.54 × 103 = 2540 c.feedw 1600 × 10–4 = 0.16 bgaaE-ew Omitting the Multiplication Sign You can omit the multiplication sign in any of the following cases. • In front of a function Examples: 2sin (30), 10log (1.2) • In front of a constant or variable Examples: a π, 2ab, 3ans • In front of an open parenthesis Examples: 3(5 + 6), (a + 1)(b – 1) Note that you must use a multiplication sign when the expression directly in front of the open parenthesis is a literal variable. Example: ab (3 + b) must be written ab × (3 + b). Otherwise, your input is considered to be in function notation ( f (x)). • In front of the e key or E key (See “Using the e Key” above.) • In front of a matrix or list Examples: a {1, 2, 3}, 3 [[1, 2] [3, 4]] Using the Answer Variable (ans) Any time you execute a calculation in the Main application work area, the last result is assigned automatically to a variable named “ans” (answer). You can even recall current “ans” variable contents and input them into another calculation by tapping the D key as shown below. Example: 123 + 456 = 579 bcd+efgw 789 – 579 = 210 hij-Dw 210 ÷ 7 = 30 /hw* * Starting a calculation expression with +, −, ×, ÷, or ^ operator will cause the “ans” variable to be inserted automatically to the left of the operator, even if you do not tap the D key. For more information, see “Performing Continuous Calculations” on page 2-2-3. 20060301 2-2-3 Basic Calculations Tip • The “ans” variable is a system variable. For details about system variables, see “1-7 Variables and Folders”. • Since “ans” is a variable name, you can specify the “ans” variable by inputting [a][n][s] on the 0 (alphabet) keyboard, or by tapping the D key on the 9 or the ) keyboard. • The “ans” variable stores the result of your last or most recent calculation. • The work area maintains a calculation history of the calculations you perform (page 2-3-1). Any instance of the “ans” variable in the calculation history contains the result of the calculation immediately prior to that instance. You can use “ans” as many times as you want in calculations, as long as you remember that the value or expression assigned to each “ans” variable in the calculation history is determined by the calculation immediately preceding it. • Using the “ans” variable in a calculation results in an error if the previous calculation produced an error display or after a program produces the “done” message on the display. • The format of the calculation result value assigned to the “ans” variable depends on the Basic Format dialog box [Number Format] setting (page 1-9-5). The following illustrates the format used when “Fix2” is selected for the [Number Format] setting. approx (1/3) w 0.33 ans × 3 w 0.99 See “Standard Mode and Decimal Mode” on page 2-2-6. k Performing Continuous Calculations Answer memory also lets you use the result of one calculation as one of the arguments in the next calculation. Example: 1 ÷ 3 = 1÷3×3= cb/dw (Continuing)*dw Continuous calculations can be used with +, –, ×, ÷, and ^. 20060301 2-2-4 Basic Calculations Assigning a Value to a Variable Besides using the variable assignment key (W, page 1-7-6), you can also use the syntax shown below in the Main application and eActivity application to assign a value to a variable. Syntax: Variable: = value Example: Assign 123 to variable x u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 9X0L:9=bcd (2) w Important! “:=” can be used only in Main and eActivity. It can NOT be used in a program. In the Program application, you must use W to store a value to a variable. Calculation Error An error message dialog box, like the one shown below, appears when there is a problem with the syntax of an input expression or value, when the number of decimal places of a calculation result in the Standard mode (page 2-2-6) exceeds a specified range, etc. Tap [OK] to close the dialog box and return to the calculation. Tip • The text of the error message dialog box depends on the type of error that occurred. For details, see the “Error Message Table” on page -5-1. • If you perform a calculation that is mathematically undefined (such as division by zero), the message “Undefined” appears in place of the calculation result, without display of an error message. 20110401 2-2-5 Basic Calculations Calculation Priority Sequence Your ClassPad automatically performs calculations in the following sequence. 1 Commands with parentheses (sin(, diff(, etc.) 2 Factorials (x!), degree specifications (o, r ), percents (%) 3 Powers 4 π, memory, and variable multiplication operations that omit the multiplication sign (2π, 5A, etc.) Command with parentheses multiplication operations that omit the multiplication sign (2 3, etc.) ×,÷ 5 +, –, (–) 6 Relational operators (=, ≠, <, >, <, >) 7 and 8 or, xor 9 with ( | ) Example: 2 + 3 × (log (sin(2π2)) + 6.8) = 22.07101691 (In Algebra mode, Decimal mode, Radian mode.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tip • Expressions in parentheses are given priority. • In cases where a series of calculations in the same expression includes more than one of the operators 4 through 9 that are the same priority sequence level, the same level operations are performed from left to right. A series of power calculations 3 (example: 5^2^3) is performed from right to left (5^(2^3)). 20060301 2-2-6 Basic Calculations Calculation Modes The Main application has a number of different modes, as described under “Using Main Application Modes” on page 2-1-4. The display format of calculation results depends on the currently selected Main application mode. This section tells you which mode you need to use for each type of calculation, and explains the differences between the calculation results produced by each mode. • All of the following calculation examples are shown using the Algebra mode only. k Standard Mode and Decimal Mode The Standard mode displays calculation results in mathematical expression format whenever possible, while the decimal mode converts calculation results to a decimal form. When the Decimal mode is selected, you can control the use of exponential notation with the [Number Format] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-5). u Examples of Decimal mode and Standard mode result displays Expression Decimal Mode Result Standard Mode Result 12.5 25 2 100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666... 16.66666667 50 3 2 + 2 = 3.414213562... 3.414213562 2+ 2 3.52 ÷ 3 + 2.5 = 6.583333333... 6.583333333 79 12 π = 3.1415926535... 3.141592654 π sin (2.1π) × 5 = 1.5450849718... 1.545084972 5·( 5 − 1 ) 4 50 ÷ 4 = 12.5 • The Decimal mode results in the above table show what would appear on the display when “Normal 1” is selected for the [Number Format] setting on the Basic Format dialog box. 20060301 2-2-7 Basic Calculations u Using the u Button to Toggle between the Standard Mode and Decimal Mode You can tap u to toggle a displayed value between Standard mode and Decimal mode format. Note that tapping u toggles the format of a displayed value. It does not change the current Standard mode/Decimal mode setting. Example 1: Tapping u while the ClassPad is configured for Standard mode (Normal 1) display Expression 100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666... ClassPad Operation Displayed Result baa/gu (Switches to Decimal mode format.) 16.66666667 u (Switches back to Standard mode format.) 50 3 Example 2: Tapping u while the ClassPad is configured for Decimal mode (Normal 1) display Expression ClassPad Operation Displayed Result 9c)+cu 2 + 2 = 3.414213562... (Switches to Standard mode format.) 2+ 2 u (Switches back to Decimal mode format.) 3.414213562 u Number of Decimal Places, Number of Significant Digits, Normal Display Settings The [Number Format] settings on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) specify the number of decimal places, the number of significant digits, and the normal display setting for Main application Decimal mode calculation results. The following shows how calculation results appear under each setting. Expression Normal 1 50 ÷ 4 = 12.5 Normal 2 Fix 3 Sci 3 12.5 12.5 12.500 1.25E + 1 16.66666667 16.66666667 16.667 1.67E + 1 1 ÷ 600 = 0.00166666... 1.666666667E –3 0.00166666666 0.002 1.67E – 3 2.5E + 10 2.5E + 10 2.50E + 10 100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666... 11 10 ÷ 4 = 2.5E + 10 2.5E + 10 • The allowable range for the number of decimal places is Fix 0 to Fix 9, and the range for the number of significant digits is Sci 0 to Sci 9. For details about the [Number Format] settings, see “Basic Format Dialog Box” on page 1-9-4. k Complex Mode and Real Mode The Complex mode is for complex number calculations, while the Real mode is limited to calculations within the range of real numbers. Performing a calculation in the Real mode that produces a result that is outside the range of real numbers causes an error (Non-Real in Calc). 20090601 2-2-8 Basic Calculations u Examples of Complex mode and Real mode calculation results Expression 3 Complex Mode 2 solve (x – x + x – 1 = 0, x) Real Mode {x = –i, x = i, x = 1} {x = 1} 3·i ERROR: Non-Real in Calc i + 2i 3 i)(⬔(2,45°)) (1 + ' ⬔(4,105) ERROR: Non-Real in Calc Tip • You can select “ i ” or “ j ” for the imaginary unit. See “Specifying the Complex Number Imaginary Unit” on page 16-10-1. • If the expression includes ⬔(r,), calculation results should be ⬔(r,) form. k Radian Mode, Degree Mode and Grad Mode You can specify radians, degrees or grads as the angle unit for display of trigonometric calculation results. u Examples of Radian mode, Degree mode and Grad mode calculation results Expression Radian Mode Degree Mode Grad Mode π 4 sin sin (45) 2 2 sin (45) sin (50) sin (50) 2 2 sin (π/4) 2 2 sin (45) sin (50) sin ( ) π 4 ( ) Important! Regardless of the currently selected angle unit setting, a calculation that includes an imaginary number power exponent (such as: eπi) is performed using radians as the angle unit (eπi = −1). k Assistant Mode and Algebra Mode The Algebra mode automatically simplifies mathematical expressions produced by calculations. No simplification is performed in the Assistant mode. In the Assistant mode, you can view intermediate results as well, which allows you to see the steps that lead to a particular result as shown in the “expand” example below. u Examples of Assistant mode and Algebra mode calculation results Expression Assistant Mode Algebra Mode x2 + 2x + 3x + 6 x2 + 2 · x + 3 · x + 6 x2 + 5 · x + 6 expand ((x+1)2) x2 + 2 · x · 1 + 12 x2 + 2 · x + 1 x+1 2 x + 1 (When 1 is assigned to x) Important! The Assistant mode is available in the Main application and eActivity application only. 20110401 2-3-1 Using the Calculation History 2-3 Using the Calculation History The Main application work area calculation history can contain up to 30 expression/result pairs. You can look up a previous calculation, edit, and then re-calculate it, if you want. Viewing Calculation History Contents Use the scroll bar or scroll buttons to scroll the work area window up and down. This brings current calculation history contents into view. Scroll bar Scroll button You can use the cursor keys to move to an input expression/calculation result within the calculation history window. Tip • After the number of expression/result pairs reaches 30, performing a new calculation causes the oldest calculation currently in the calculation history memory to be deleted. 20060301 2-3-2 Using the Calculation History Re-calculating an Expression You can edit a calculation expression in the calculation history and then re-calculate the resulting expression. Tapping w re-calculates the expression where the cursor is currently located, and also re-calculates all of the expressions below the current cursor location. Example 1: To change the expression “ans × 2” to “ans × 3” in the example below, and then re-calculate u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap to the right of the expression “ans × 2” to locate the cursor there. (2) Delete “2” and input “3”. Kd (3) Tap w. • This re-calculates the expression where the cursor is located, and all the expressions underneath it. Re-calculated Important! Remember that re-calculation is performed starting from the current cursor location. If, after performing the first two steps of the above procedure, you move the cursor to the end of “ans + 6” in line 3 of the calculation history and then tap w, only line 3 is re-calculated. Not re-calculated (because it is above the cursor location) Re-calculated If you edit multiple expressions in the calculation history, always make sure that the cursor is located in the uppermost line that you edited before you tap w. 20060301 2-3-3 Using the Calculation History Example 2: To change from the Standard mode to the Decimal mode (page 2-2-6), and then re-calculate u ClassPad Operation (1) Move the cursor to the location from which you want to re-calculate. • In this example, we will tap the end of line 2 to locate the cursor there. (2) Tap “Standard” on the status bar to toggle it to “Decimal”. (3) Tap w. • This recalculates all of the expressions starting from the cursor position, and displays the results using Decimal mode format. Re-calculated Tip • You can also change to Decimal mode by tapping s on the icon panel and then tapping [Basic Format]. Select the “Decimal Calculation” check box and then tap [Set]. • To re-calculate only a single specific line, tap D. Tapping D re-calculates the calculation where the cursor is currently located only. It does not affect anything in calculation history that comes before or after the line. • To re-calculate all of the expressions in the calculation history, locate the cursor in the top line, and then tap w. 20060301 2-3-4 Using the Calculation History Deleting Part of the Calculation History Contents You can use the following procedure to delete an individual two-line expression/result unit from the calculation history. u ClassPad Operation (1) Move the cursor to the expression line or result line of the two-line unit you want to delete. (2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. • This deletes the expression and result of the two-line unit you selected. Important! Even if the result of the deleted two-line unit has an effect on subsequent calculations, the affected calculations are not updated automatically following the deletion. When you want to update everything in the calculation history following the deleted unit, move the cursor to a line that is above the one you deleted and then tap w. For details about re-calculation, see page 2-3-2. Clearing All Calculation History Contents Perform the following procedure when you want to clear the entire calculation history currently in the Main application work area. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap [Edit] and then [Clear All]. (2) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK] to clear calculation history contents, or [Cancel] to cancel. 20060301 2-4-1 Function Calculations 2-4 Function Calculations This section explains how to perform function calculations in the Main application work area. • Most of the operators and functions described in this section are input from the 9 (math) and ( (catalog) keyboard. The actual keyboard you should use to perform the sample operations presented here is the one indicated by a mark or by button names* (“TRIG”, “MATH”, “Cmd”, etc.) in one of the columns titled “Use this keyboard”. * For more information about these buttons, see “Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations” (page 1-6-8). • You do not need to input the closing parenthesis that comes immediately before an E key operation. All of the calculation examples in this section omit the closing parentheses before E. The following example calculations are all performed using the Decimal mode. Using the Standard mode causes results to be displayed as fractions. For details about the Decimal mode and Standard mode, see “Status Bar Mode Indicators” on page 2-1-4. k Angle Conversion (°, r ) The first two examples below use “Degree” (indicated by “Deg” in the status bar) as the angle unit setting. The final example uses “Radian” (indicated by “Rad” in the status bar) as the angle unit setting. Note that using the wrong angle unit setting will make it impossible to produce correct calculation results. u To change the angle unit setting (1) On the O menu, tap [Basic Format]. (2) Tap the [Angle] down arrow button, and then select [Radian], [Degree] or [Grad]. For more information about this operation, see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”. Problem Use this keyboard: 2D Operation mth abc cat Convert 4.25 radians to degrees. = 243.5070629 TRIG MATH Cmd 4.25 Rw 47.3° + 82.5rad = 4774.20181° TRIG MATH Cmd 47.3 + 82.5 Rw How many radians is 243.5070629°? = 4.249999999 TRIG MATH Cmd Change the [Angle] setting to “Radian”, and then input 243.5070629 *w. Tip • You can also change the angle unit setting by tapping the current setting (Rad, Deg, or Gra) on the status bar. Each tap will cycle through the available settings. 20060301 2-4-2 Function Calculations k Trigonometric Functions (sin, cos, tan) and Inverse Trigonometric Functions (sin–1, cos–1, tan–1) The first four examples below use “Degree” (indicated by “Deg” in the status bar) as the angle unit setting. The final example uses “Radian” (indicated by “Rad”). For details about these settings, see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat Operation 2D sin63° = 0.8910065242 TRIG Func s 63 w 2 · sin45° × cos65° = 0.5976724775 TRIG Func 2*s 45 )*c 65 w Can be omitted. cosec30° = 1 =2 sin30° TRIG Func 1/s30w or )N 1c 9 s 30 w TRIG sin–10.5 =30° (Determine x for sinx = 0.5.) cos(( π ) rad) = 0.5 3 Func S 0.5 w “.5” can also be used. TRIG Func Change the [Angle] setting to “Radian”. c7 /3 w or c)N 7c 3 w Tip • The angle unit setting you specify remains in effect until you change it. • To move between entry boxes in a 2D math symbol you can use the cursor keys or tap inside a box. 20060301 2-4-3 Function Calculations k Logarithmic Functions (log, ln) and Exponential Functions (e, ^, k Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D ) Operation log1.23 (log101.23) = 0.08990511144 Func l 1.23 w or )V 10 e 1.23 w ln90 (loge90) = 4.49980967 Func I 90 w or )V0ne e 90 w log39 = 2 Func l 3 , 9 w or )V 3 e 9 w 101.23 = 16.98243652 MATH Cmd 10 { 1.23 w e4.5 = 90.0171313 MATH Func e 4.5 w or )Q 4.5 w (–3)4 = (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) = 81 MATH Cmd (- 3 ){ 4 w –34 = – (3 × 3 × 3 × 3) = –81 MATH Cmd -3{4w MATH Cmd 123 {( 1 / 7 w or )% 7 e 123 w MATH Cmd 2 + 3 * 64 {( 1 / 3 )- 4 w or ) 2 + 3 *% 3 e 64 e- 4 w 7 1 — 7 123 (= 123 ) = 1.988647795 2+3× 3 64 – 4 = 10 Can be omitted. Tip • ^ and have a higher calculation priority sequence than × and ÷. 20060301 2-4-4 Function Calculations k Hyperbolic Functions (sinh, cosh, tanh) and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions (sinh–1, cosh–1, tanh–1) Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation sinh3.6 = 18.28545536 TRIG Func =1 3.6 w cosh1.5 – sinh1.5 = 0.2231301601 TRIG Func =2 1.5 )-11.5 w e–1.5 = 0.2231301601* 20 ) 15 = 0.7953654612 TRIG cosh–1 ( Solve for x given tanh(4x) = 0.88. MATH Func Func e - 1.5 w =@ 20 / 15 w or =@)N 20 c 15 w TRIG Func =# 0.88 )/ 4 w or )N9=# –1 tanh 0.88 4 = 0.3439419141 0.88 )c 4 w x= * This problem checks whether coshx sinhx = ex. Solving the problem above this one (cosh1.5 – sinh1.5) and comparing it with this problem’s solution shows that they are equal. 20060301 2-4-5 Function Calculations k Other Functions (%, sRound) Problem , x2, x –1, x!, abs, ⬔, signum, int, frac, intg, fRound, Use this keyboard: mth abc cat Operation 2D What is 12% of 1500? 180 SMBL Cmd 1500 * 12 &w What percent of 880 is 660? 75% SMBL Cmd 660 / 880 &w What value is 15% greater than 2500? 2875 SMBL Cmd 2500 *( 1 + 15 & What value is 25% less than 3500? 2625 SMBL Cmd 3500 *( 1 - 25 & 2 + 5 = 3.65028154 Func 9 2 )+ 9 5 w or )5 2 e+5 5 w (3 + i) = 1.755317302 + 0.2848487846i Func (–3)2 = (–3) × (–3) = 9 Cmd (- 3 )xw –32 = –(3 × 3) = –9 Cmd - 3 xw 1 = 12 1 1 – 3 4 Cmd Change to the Complex mode (“Cplx” indicated on the status bar). 9 3 +0w or )5 3 +0w ( 3 X- 4 X)Xw or )N 1 cN 1 c 3 e-N 1c4w 8! (= 1 × 2 × 3 × … × 8) = 40320 What is the absolute value of the common logarithm of 3 ? 4 3 ⎜log ( )⎟ = 0.1249387366 4 8⬔40° × 5⬔35° ⬔(8,40) × ⬔(5,35) CALC SMBL Cmd Func 8 w $l 3 / 4 w or )4 V 10 eN 3c4w OPTN Change to the Degree mode (“Deg” indicated on the status bar). ~ 8 , 40 )*~ 5 , 35 )w OPTN 20110401 2-4-6 Function Calculations Use this keyboard: Problem mth abc What is the sign of –3.4567? –1 (signum returns –1 for a negative value, 1 for a positive value, “Undefined” for A 0, and for an ⎜A⎟ imaginary number.) What is the integer part of –3.4567? CALC cat 2D Operation Func [signum] - 3.4567 w Func - 3.4567 w –3 What is the decimal part of –3.4567? –0.4567 Func [frac] - 3.4567 w What is the greatest integer less than or equal to –3.4567? –4 Func [intg] - 3.4567 w What is –3.4567 rounded to two decimal places? –3.46 Func [fRound] - 3.4567 , 2 w What is –34567 rounded to four significant digits? –34570 Func [sRound] - 34567 , 4 w* * To round to 10 digits, specify “0” for the second argument. k Random Number Generator (rand, randList, randNorm, randBin, RandSeed) • The ClassPad random number generator can generate truly random numbers (nonsequential random numbers) and random numbers that follow a particular pattern (sequential random numbers). Using the “randList” function, you can generate a list whose elements contain random numbers. There are nine different patterns for generation of sequential random numbers. Use the “RandSeed” command to switch between non-sequential and sequential random number generation, and to select the sequential random number generation pattern. u ClassPad Operation (1) Use the “RandSeed” command to configure random number generation settings, if required. (2) Use the “rand”, “randList”, “randNorm”, or “randBin” function to generate the random numbers. 20090601 2-4-7 Function Calculations u “rand” Function • The “rand” function generates random numbers. If you do not specify an argument, “rand” generates 10-digit decimal values 0 or greater and less than 1. Specifying two integer values for the argument generates random numbers between them. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation Generate random numbers between 0 and 1. Func [rand] w Generate random integers between 1 and 6. Func [rand] 1 , 6 w u “randList” Function Syntax: randList(n [, a, b]) Function: • Omitting arguments “a” and “b” returns a list of n elements that contain decimal random values. • Specifying arguments “a” and “b” returns a list of n elements that contain integer random values in the range of “a” through “b”. Description: • “n” must be a positive integer. • The random numbers of each element are generated in accordance with “RandSeed” specifications, as with the “rand” function. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation Generate a list of three elements that contain decimal random values. Func [randList] 3 w Generate a list of five elements that contain random values in the range of 1 through 6. Func [randList] 5, 1, 6 w u “randNorm” Function The “randNorm” function generates a 10-digit normal random number based on a specified mean and standard deviation values. Syntax: randNorm(, [, n]) Function: • Omitting a value for “n” (or specifying 1 for “n”) returns the generated random number as-is. • Specifying a value for “n” returns the specified number of random values in list format. 20090601 2-4-8 Function Calculations Description: • “n” must be a positive integer, and “ ” must be greater than 0. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation Randomly produce a body length value obtained in accordance with the normal distribution of a group of infants less than one year old with a mean body length of 68cm and standard deviation of 8. Func [randNorm] 8 , 68 w Randomly produce the body lengths of five infants in the above example, and display them in a list. Func [randNorm] 8 , 68 , 5 w u “randBin” Function The “randBin” function generates binomial random numbers based on values specified for the number of trials n and probability P. Syntax: randBin(n, P [, m]) Function: • Omitting a value for “m” (or specifying 1 for “m”) returns the generated random number asis. • Specifying a value for “m” returns the specified number of random values in list format. Description: • “n” and “m” must be positive integers. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation Randomly produce the number of heads that can be expected in accordance with binomial distribution for five coin tosses where the probability of heads is 0.5. Func [randBin] 5 , 0.5 w Perform the same coin toss sequence described above three times and display the results in a list. Func [randBin] 5 , 0.5 , 3 w 20090601 2-4-9 Function Calculations u “RandSeed” Command • You can specify an integer from 0 to 9 for the argument of this command. 0 specifies nonsequential random number generation. An integer from 1 to 9 uses the specified value as a seed for specification of sequential random numbers. The initial default argument for this command is 0. • The numbers generated by the ClassPad immediately after you specify sequential random number generation always follow the same random pattern. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D Operation Generate sequential random numbers using 3 as the seed value. Cmd [RandSeed] 3 w Generate the first value. Generate the second value. Generate the third value. Func [rand] w [rand] w [rand] w Tip • Random values generated by these commands are pseudo random values. • The arguments a and b of “rand(a,b)” and “randList(n,a,b)” must be integers, subject to the following conditions. a ,, [ ) ] or piecewise( , , , [ ) ] Use the 2D keyboard (1) to input “piecewise” function according to the syntax shown below. , or , , Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc For the expression 0 > x (x = variable), return 1 when x is 0 or less, and 2 when x is greater than 0 or undefined. For the expression 1 > x (x = variable), return 1 when x is 1 or less, and 2 when x is greater than 1. Operation cat 2D Func [piecewise] 0 5 X, 1 , 2w or 1 1 c 2 ef 0 5 X w 1 1 c 2 ef 1 5 X c1 20090601 Xw 2-4-13 Function Calculations k Angle Symbol (∠) Use this symbol to specify the coordinate format required by an angle in a vector. You can use this symbol for a vector only. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc OPTN Convert the polar coordinates r = 2 , θ = π /4 to rectangular coordinates. [1, 1] cat 2D Func Operation Change the [Angle] setting to “Radian”. [toRect] [9 2 ), 7/ 4 )]w k Derivative Symbol (’) A single derivative symbol indicates the first derivative of an equation in the format: ’. Problem Solve the differential equation y’ = x. {y = 0.5 · x2 + const (1)} Use this keyboard: mth abc cat 2D CALC SMBL Cmd Operation [dSolve] Y ,Yw =X,X Important! The “dSolve” function can solve differential equations up to three degrees, so a maximum of three derivative symbols (y’’’) can be used. Executing a “dSolve” calculation that has more than three derivative symbols will result in an Invalid Syntax error. k Primality Test (isPrime) The “isPrime” function determines whether the number provided as the argument is prime (returns TRUE) or not (returns FALSE). The syntax of the “isPrime” function is shown below. isPrime(Exp/List[ ) ] • Exp or all of the elements of List must be integers. Problem Use this keyboard: mth abc Determine whether the numbers 51 and 17 are prime. (isPrime({51, 17}) cat Func 20090601 2D Operation [isPrime] { 51 , 17 })w 2-4-14 Function Calculations k Equal Symbols and Unequal Symbols (=, ≠, <, >, , >) You can use these symbols to perform a number of different basic calculations. Use this keyboard: Problem mth To add 3 to both sides of x = 3. x+3=6 abc cat Operation 2D (X= 3 )+ 3 w MATH Cmd Subtract 2 from both sides OPTN MATH Cmd of y < 5. y–2<3 (Y 5 )- 2 w Tip • In the “Syntax” explanations of each command under “2-8 Using the Action Menu”, the following operators are indicated as “Eq/Ineq”: =, ≠, <, >, <, >. Whether or not the “Eq/Ineq” operators include the “≠” operator is specified for each command by a separate note. • An expression that contains multiple equation or inequality operators cannot be input as a single expression. For output expressions, an expression can be output with multiple operators only in the case of inequality operators that are facing in the same direction (example: –1< x <1). Example: solve(x2 – 1 < 0, x) w {–1 < x < 1} k “with” Operator ( | ) The “with” (I) operator temporarily assigns a value to a variable. You can use the “with” operator in the following cases. • To assign the value specified on the right side of | to the variable on the left side of | • To limit or restrict the range of a variable on the left side of | in accordance with conditions provided on the right side of | The following is the syntax for the “with” (I) operator. Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat|Eq/Ineq/List/(and operator) You can put plural conditions in a list or connected with the “and” operator on the right side. “≠” can be used on the left side or the right side of |. Use this keyboard: Problem mth abc cat 2D Operation OPTN SMBL Evaluate x2 + x + 1 when 13 x = 3. Cmd X{ 2 +X+ 1 UX =3w OPTN SMBL For x2 – 1 = 0, determine the value of x when x > 0. {x = 1} Cmd [solve] X{ 2 - 1 = 0 0w ,X)UX OPTN SMBL Cmd $X)UX Determine the value of abs (x) when x >0. x 20090601 0w 2-4-15 Function Calculations k Solutions Supported by ClassPad (TRUE, FALSE, Undefined, No Solution, ∞, const, constn) Solution Description Example TRUE Output when a solution is true. judge (1 = 1) w FALSE Output when a solution is false. judge (1 < 0) w Undefined Output when a solution is undefined. 1/0 w No Solution Output when there is no solution. solve (abs (x) = –1, x) w ∞ Infinity lim (1/x2, x, 0) w const Constant displayed as const(1) when any value that is a constant is included in the solution. In the case of multiple constants, they are indicated as const(1), const(2), and so on. dSolve (y = x, x, y) w {y = 0.5·x2 + const (1)} constn Constant displayed as constn(1) when the solution includes any integer value that is a constant. In the case of multiple constants, they are indicated as constn(1), constn(2), and so on. Change the [Angle] setting to “Degree”. solve (sin (x) = 0, x) w {x = 180·constn (1)} 20090601 2-4-16 Function Calculations k Dirac Delta Function “delta” is the Dirac Delta function. The delta function evaluates numerically as shown below. δ(x) = { 0,δ(xx),≠x0= 0 Non-numeric expressions passed to the delta function are left unevaluated. The integral of a linear delta function is a Heaviside function. Syntax: delta(x) x : variable or number Examples: k nth Delta Function The nth-delta function is the nth differential of the delta function. Syntax: delta(x, n) x : variable or number n : number of differentials Examples: 20090601 2-4-17 Function Calculations k Heaviside Unit Step Function “heaviside” is the command for the Heaviside function, which evaluates only to numeric expressions as shown below. 0, x < 0 1 H(x) = ,x=0 2 1, x > 0 Any non-numeric expression passed to the Heaviside function will not be evaluated, and any numeric expression containing complex numbers will return undefined. The derivative of the Heaviside function is the Delta function. Syntax: heaviside(x) x : variable or number Examples: 20090601 2-4-18 Function Calculations k Gamma Function The Gamma function is called “gamma” on the ClassPad. Γ(x) = ∫0 +∞ x–1 –t t e dt For an integer n the gamma is evaluated as shown below. Γ(n) = – 1) !, n > 0 { (nundefined ,n<0 The gamma is defined for all real numbers excluding zero and negative integers. It is also defined for all complex numbers where either the real or imaginary part of the complex number is not an integer. Gamma of a symbolic expression returns unevaluated. Syntax: gamma(x) x : variable or number Examples: 20110901 2-5-1 List Calculations 2-5 List Calculations This section explains how to input data using the Main application or Stat Editor, and how to perform basic list calculations. Inputting List Data You can input list data from the work area or on the Stat Editor window. k Inputting List Data from the Work Area Example: To input the list {1, 2, 3} and assign it to LIST variable “lista”. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main application. (2) Press k to display the soft keyboard. (3) Next, perform the following key operation. 9{b,c,d}W 0listaw Tip • For information about assigning data to a variable, see “Creating and Using Variables” on page 1-7-5. • You can also create a list using commands in the [List-Create] group on the [Action] menu. For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. 20060301 2-5-2 List Calculations k LIST Variable Element Operations You can recall the value of any element of a LIST variable. When the values {1, 2, 3} are assigned to “lista”, for example, you can recall the second value in the “lista”, when you need it. You can also assign a value to any element in a list. When the values {1, 2, 3} are assigned to “lista”, for example, you can replace the second value with “5” to end up with {1, 5, 3}. After performing the procedure under “Inputting List Data from the Work Area”, perform the following operation. u ClassPad Operation (1) Recall the value of the second element of LIST variable “lista”. 0lista9[c]w (2) Assign “5” to the second element of LIST variable “lista”. fW0lista9[c]w Tip • You can also perform the above operations on the “ans” variable (page 2-2-2) when it contains LIST data. Example: {1, 2, 3, 4} w D[c]w {1, 2, 3, 4} 2 k Inputting List Data Using the Stat Editor Window Tapping ( displays the Stat Editor window, which you can then use to input list data. List data input this way is assigned to a LIST variable, so you can access it by specifying the applicable variable name. For more information about using the Stat Editor window to create a list, see “7-2 Using Stat Editor”. 20060301 2-5-3 List Calculations Using a List in a Calculation You can perform arithmetic operations between two lists, between a list and a numeric value, or between a list and an expression, equation, or inequality. List Numeric Value Expression Equation Inequality List Numeric Value Expression Equation Inequality = List k List Calculation Errors • When you perform an arithmetic operation between two lists, both of the lists need to have the same number of cells. An error will occur if they do not. • An error will also occur whenever an operation between any two cells of the two lists results in an error. k List Calculation Example Example: Perform the operation list3 × {6, 0, 4} when list3 contains {41, 65, 22} u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 0listd9*{g,a,e} (2) w Tip • List operations (extraction of list maximum and minimum, calculation of list total, etc.) can also be performed using the commands in the [List-Calculation] group of the [Action] menu. For more information, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. 20060301 2-5-4 List Calculations Using a List to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables Use the procedure in this section when you want to use a list to assign various different values to multiple variables. Sintaxis: List with Numbers S List with Variables Example: Assign the values 10, 20, and 30, to variables x, y, and z respectively u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 9{ba,ca,da}W{X,Y,Z} (2) w Tip • You can perform this operation using a matrix that has a single row and multiple columns, or multiple rows and a single column. For details see “Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables” on page 2-6-6. 20060301 2-6-1 Matrix and Vector Calculations 2-6 Matrix and Vector Calculations This section explains how to create matrices in the Main application, and how to perform basic matrix calculations. Tip • Since a vector can be viewed as 1-row by n-column matrix or n-row by 1-column matrix, this section does not include explanations specifically about vectors. For more information about vector-specific calculations, see the explanations about the applicable [Action] menu items in “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. Inputting Matrix Data You can use the 9 (math) keyboard to input matrix values in a single line in the work area, or the ) keyboard to input matrix values using an actual on-screen matrix. k Inputting Matrix Values with the 9 Keyboard Example: To input the matrix 1 2 and assign it to the variable “mat1” 3 4 u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application. (2) Press k to display the soft keyboard. (3) Next, perform the following key operation. 9[[b,c][d,e]]W 0matbw Tip • For information about assigning data to a variable, see “Creating and Using Variables” on page 1-7-5. 20060301 2-6-2 Matrix and Vector Calculations k Matrix Variable Element Operations 1 2 3 4 is assigned to matrix “mat1”, for example, you can recall the element located at row 2, column 1. You can also assign a value to any element in a matrix. For example, you could assign the 1 5 value “5” to the element at row 1 column 2 in “mat1”, which produces the matrix . 3 4 You can recall the value of any element of a MATRIX variable. When the data After performing the procedure under “Inputting Matrix Values with the 9 Keyboard”, perform the following operation. u ClassPad Operation (1) Recall the value in row 2, column 1 of MATRIX variable “mat1”. 0matb9[c,b]w ↑ ↑ Row Column (2) Assign “5” to the element at row 1, column 2 of MATRIX variable “mat1”. fW0matb9[b,c]w Tip • You can also perform the above operations on the “ans” variable (page 2-2-2) when it contains MATRIX data. 1 3 Example: [[b,c][d,e]]w D[c,b]w 3 20060301 2 4 2-6-3 Matrix and Vector Calculations k Inputting Matrix Values with the ) Keyboard The 6, 7, and 8 keys of the ) keyboard make matrix value input quick and easy. To do this: Tap this 2D key: Create a new 1-row × 2-column matrix 6 Create a new 2-row × 1-column matrix 7 Create a new 2-row × 2-column matrix 8 Add a column to the currently displayed matrix 6 Add a row to the currently displayed matrix 7 Add both a row and column to the currently displayed matrix 8 Example: To input the matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 and assign it to the variable “mat2” u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap )- to display the - keyset of the ) keyboard, and then perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 6 (Creates a 1-row × 2-column matrix.) bec 6 (Adds one column to the matrix.) d 7 (Adds one row to the matrix.) eefeg (2) Perform the key operation below to assign the matrix to the variable named “mat2”. eW 0matcw 20060301 2-6-4 Matrix and Vector Calculations Tip • In step (1) of the above procedure, we added rows and columns as they became necessary. Another way to accomplish the same result would be to add rows and columns to create a blank matrix of the required dimensions, and then start data input. You could create a 2-row × 3-column matrix by tapping 6, 6, 7, or 6, 8. In either case, you could also tap the buttons in reverse of the sequence shown here. • You can also create matrices using the commands of the [Matrix-Create] group on the [Action] menu. For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. Performing Matrix Calculations This section provides examples of how to perform the most basic types of matrix calculations. k Matrix Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division Example 1: 1 2 1 1 + 2 2 3 1 u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 9 [[b,b][c,b]]+ [[c,d][c,b]] (2) Tap w. Example 2: 1 2 1 1 × 2 2 3 1 u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap ), -, 8, and then input the values for the first matrix. (2) Tap the area to the right of the input matrix or press the cursor e key to move the cursor to the right of the input matrix. Next, tap *. 20060301 2-6-5 Matrix and Vector Calculations (3) Tap 8, and then input the values for the second matrix. (4) Tap w. Example 3: To multiply the matrix 1 3 2 4 by 5 u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 9[[b,c][d,e]]*f (2) Tap w. Tip • Note that when adding or subtracting two matrices, they both must have the same number of rows and the same number of columns (the same dimensions). An error occurs (Invalid Dimension Error) when the two matrices have different dimensions. • When multiplying two matrices, the number of columns in the matrix to the left of the multiplication sign (×) must be the same as the number of rows in the matrix to the right of the multiplication sign. An error occurs (Invalid Dimension Error) when you attempt to multiply two matrices that do not satisfy the above conditions. • Multiplication is assumed if you do not include any operator between two matrices. [[1, 2] [3, 4]] [[2, 2] [2, 2]] for example, is treated as [[1, 2] [3, 4]] × [[2, 2] [2, 2]]. 20060301 2-6-6 Matrix and Vector Calculations k Raising a Matrix to a Specific Power Example: To raise 1 3 2 4 to the power of 3 Use the procedures described under “Matrix Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division” on page 2-6-4 to input the calculation. The following are the screens that would be produced by each input method. Input using the 9 keyboard Input using the ) keyboard Tip • You can perform matrix calculations using the commands of the [Matrix-Calculation] group on the [Action] menu. For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. • You can raise only a square matrix to a specific power. An error occurs when you try to raise a non-square matrix to a specific power. Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables Use the procedure in this section when you want to use a matrix to assign various different values to multiple variables. Syntax: Matrix with Numbers → Matrix with Variables (The matrix can be one line with multiple columns, or multiple lines with one column.) Example: Assign the values 10, 20, and 30, to variables x, y, and z respectively u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. )s7bacca7daeW 7XcY7Z (2) w Tip • You can also perform this operation using a list. For details see “Using a List to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables” on page 2-5-4. 20060301 2-7-1 Specifying a Number Base 2-7 Specifying a Number Base While using the Main application, you can specify a default number base (binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal) or you can specify a number base for a particular integer value. You can also convert between number bases and perform bitwise operations using logical operators (not, and, or, xor). Note that while a default number base is specified, you can input integers only. Number Base Precautions Note the following limitations, which all apply while a default number base (binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal) is specified in the Main application. • You cannot use scientific functions, or [Action] or [Interactive] menu commands. • Except for Ans (Answer Memory variable), you cannot use variables. • You can input integers only. An error (Invalid syntax ERROR) will occur if you try to input a non-integer value (like 1.5 or 2). • If a calculation produces a non-integer result (with a decimal part), the calculator will cut off the decimal part automatically. For example, the calculation 5 ÷ 2 while decimal is selected as the number base is 2. • An error message is displayed if you try to enter a value that is invalid for the speicfied number base. The following shows the numerals that can be used in each number system. Binary: 0, 1 Octal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Hexadecimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculation Ranges • The following are the display capacities for each of the number bases. Number Base Display Capacity Binary 32 digits Octal 11 digits Decimal 10 digits Hexadecimal 8 digits • Negative binary, octal, and hexadecimal values are produced using the two's complement of the original value. 20101001 2-7-2 Specifying a Number Base • The following are the calculation ranges for each of the number bases. Binary Values: Positive: 0 x 01111111111111111111111111111111 Negative: 10000000000000000000000000000000 x 11111111111111111111111111111111 Octal Values: Positive: 0 x 17777777777 Negative: 20000000000 x 37777777777 Decimal Values: Positive: 0 x 2147483647 Negative: −2147483648 x −1 Hexadecimal Values: Positive: 0 x 7FFFFFFF Negative: 80000000 x FFFFFFFF 20060301 2-7-3 Specifying a Number Base Selecting a Number Base Specifying a default number base in the Main application will apply to the current line (expression/result pair), and to all subsequent lines until you change the default number base setting. Use the number toolbar’s base buttons to specify the number base. u To select the number base for the line where the cursor is located (1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button. • This displays a palette of number base buttons. Normal Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal (2) Tap the button that corresponds to the number base you want to use. • To select binary, for example, tap . • The currently selected number base is indicated in the status bar. (3) Execute the calculation. • When you press E to execute the calculation, the number base you selected in step 2 is also applied automatically to the next line. You can continue using the same number base in the next line or change to another number base. Important! • A line for which a number base is not specified is called a “normal calculation line.” To return a line to a normal calculation line, tap < in step 2 of the above procedure. • Calculation results produced by a line for which a number base is specified are followed by one of the suffixes listed below, to indicate its number system. Number System Suffix Binary b Octal o Decimal d Hexadecimal h 20060301 2-7-4 Specifying a Number Base • Whenever you input a value into a line for which a number base is specified, the input value is converted automatically to the specified number base. Performing the calculation 19+1 in a line for which Hex (Hexadecimal) is specified as the number base, both the 19 and 1 are interpreted as hexadecimal values, which produces the calculation result 1Ah. The “h” is the suffix indicating hexadecimal notation. u To specify a number base for an input value You can input the following suffixes to specify the number base of a value as you input it: [b] (binary), [o] (octal), [d] (decimal), and [h] (hexadecimal). You can specify a number base for an input value only when a default number base (besides normal) is selected Tip • For actual operation examples, see Example 3 under “Arithmetic Operations” below. Arithmetic Operations You can use the following operators when performing binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal values: +, −, ×, ÷, ^. You can also use parenthetical expressions. Example 1: To calculate 101112 + 110102 (1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap . (2) Perform the following key operation. babbb+bbabaw Example 2: To calculate (118 + 78)2 (1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap . (2) Perform the following key operation. (bb+h){cw Example 3: Perform the calculation 12310 + 10102 so it produces a hexadecimal result (1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap (2) Perform the following key operation using the soft keyboard. 0bcdd9+0bababw 20060301 . 2-7-5 Specifying a Number Base Bitwise Operations The logical operators listed below can be used in calculations. Operator and Description Returns the result of a bitwise product. or Returns the result of a bitwise sum. xor Returns the result of a bitwise exclusive logical sum. not Returns the result of a complement (bitwise inversion). Examples 1, 2, and 3 use Bin (binary) as the number system. Example 4 uses Hex (hexadecimal). Example 1: 10102 and 11002 = 10002 0babapandpbbaaw Example 2: 10112 or 110102 = 110112 0babbporpbbabaw Example 3: 10102 xor 11002 = 1102 0babapxorpbbaaw Example 4: not (FFFF16) = FFFF000016 0not(ffffw Using the baseConvert Function (Number System Transform) The baseConvert function lets you convert a number in one base (number system) to its equivalent in another base. Important! • The baseConvert function works for positive integers only. • The baseConvert function cannot be used in a line for which a particular number base is specified. It can be used in a normal calculation line only. Syntax: baseConvert (Number, Current base, Expected base) • Number must be a positive integer consisting of digits 0 to 9 and/or A to F. • The current base and expected base can be any whole number from 2 to 16. Examples: 20060301 2-8-1 Using the Action Menu 2-8 Using the Action Menu The [Action] menu helps to make transformation and expansion functions, calculus functions, statistical functions, and other frequently used mathematical menu operations easier to use. Simply select the function you want, and then enter expressions or variables in accordance with the syntax of the function. Tip • Unless specifically indicated otherwise, all of the explanations in this section are performed using the following modes: Algebra mode, Standard mode, Complex mode, Radian mode, Descending Order. • You can use the [Interactive] menu to select most of the commands that are included on the [Action] menu. Selecting a command on the [Action] menu will simply input the function for that command. With the [Interactive] menu selecting a command will display a dialog box that prompts for input of the command’s arguments (when necessary). This means that the [Interactive] menu eliminates the need to remember details about the syntax of a function. For details about using the [Interactive] menu, see page 2-9-1. Abbreviations and Punctuation Used in This Section The following are the meanings of the abbreviations and punctuation used in the syntax descriptions in this section. When you see this: Exp Eq Ineq List Mat [ ] { } It means this: Expression (Value, Variable, etc.) Equation Inequality List Matrix You can omit the item(s) inside the brackets. Select one of the items inside the braces. Some of the syntaxes in the following explanations indicate the following for parameters: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat These abbreviations mean that you can use any of the following as a parameter: expression, equation, inequality list, or matrix. 20080201 2-8-2 Using the Action Menu Example Screenshots The screenshots below show examples of how input and output expressions appear on the ClassPad display. In some cases, the input expression and output expression (result) may not fit in the display area. If this happens, tap the left or right arrows that appear on the display to scroll the expression screen and view the part that does not fit. When the input expression does not fit: Displayed expression Complete expression When the output expression does not fit: Displayed expression Complete expression All of the screenshots in this section show the “complete expression” version. 20080201 2-8-3 Using the Action Menu Displaying the Action Menu Tap [Action] on the menu bar to display the submenus shown below. The following explains the functions that are available on each of these submenus. Using the Transformation Submenu The [Transformation] submenu contains commands for expression transformation, like “expand” and “factor”. u approx Function: Transforms an expression into a numerical approximation. Syntax: approx (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To obtain the numerical value of 2 Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][approx] (Number Format: Normal 1) Example: To obtain the numerical value of 920 Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][approx] (Number Format: Normal 1) • For information about the internal operations and the number of digits of a displayed value, see page 2-2-7. 20101001 2-8-4 Using the Action Menu u simplify Function: Simplifies an expression. Syntax: simplify (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To simplify (15 3 + 26)^(1/3) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][simplify] Example: To simplify cos(2x) + (sin(x))2 (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][simplify] u expand Function: Expands an expression. Syntax: expand (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] expand (Exp,variable [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. • If you specify a variable, Exp is decomposed into partial fractions, with respect to the variable. Example: To expand (x + 2)2 Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expand] 1 Example: To decompose (x4 – 1) into partial fractions, with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expand] u factor Function: Factors an expression. Syntax: factor (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List /Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To factor x2 4x + 4 Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][factor] 20060301 2-8-5 Using the Action Menu u rFactor Function: Factors an expression up to its roots, if any. Syntax: rFactor (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To factor x2 3 Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][rFactor] u factorOut Function: Factors out an expression with respect to a specified factor. Syntax: factorOut (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat, Exp [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To factor “a” out ax2 + bx + c Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][factorOut] u combine Function: Transforms multiple fractions into their common denominator equivalents and reduces them, if possible. Syntax: combine (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform and reduce (x + 1)/(x + 2) + x(x + 3) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][combine] u collect Function: Rearranges an expression with respect to a specific variable. Syntax: collect (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [,Exp] [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To rearrange x2 + ax + bx with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][collect] • “x” is the default when you omit “[,Exp]”. 20080201 2-8-6 Using the Action Menu u tExpand Function: Employs the sum and difference formulas to expand a trigonometric function. Syntax: tExpand(Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To expand sin (a + b) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][tExpand] u tCollect Function: Employs the product to sum formulas to transform the product of a trigonometric function into an expression in the sum form. Syntax: tCollect (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform cos(a) × cos(b) into an expression in the sum form Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][tCollect] u expToTrig Function: Transforms an exponent into a trigonometric or hyperbolic function. Syntax: expToTrig (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform eix into a trigonometric function (Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expToTrig] u trigToExp Function: Transforms a trigonometric or hyperbolic function into exponential form. Syntax: trigToExp (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform coshx into exponential form Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][trigToExp] u toFrac Function: Transforms a decimal value into its equivalent fraction value. Syntax: toFrac (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform 5.28 into its equivalent fraction value Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][toFrac] 20080201 2-8-7 Using the Action Menu u propFrac Function: Transforms a decimal value into its equivalent proper fraction value. Syntax: propFrac (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform 1.2 into its equivalent proper fraction value Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][propFrac] Example: To divide x 2 by (x – 1) Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][propFrac] u dms Function: Transforms a DMS format value into its equivalent degrees-only value. Syntax: dms (Exp/List-1 [,Exp/List-2][,Exp/List-3] [ ) ] Example: To transform (3, 5, 6) (= 3q 5’ 6”) into its equivalent degrees-only value Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][dms] • Zero is the default when you omit [,Exp/List-2] or [,Exp/List-3][ ) ]. u toDMS Function: Transforms a degrees-only value into its equivalent DMS format value. Syntax: toDMS (Exp/List [ ) ] Example: To transform 3.085 degrees into its equivalent DMS format value Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][toDMS] 20080201 2-8-8 Using the Action Menu Using the Advanced Submenu u solve For information about solve, see page 2-8-43. u dSolve For information about dSolve, see page 2-8-44. u taylor Function: Finds a Taylor polynomial for an expression with respect to a specific variable. Syntax: taylor (Exp/List, variable, order [,center point] [ ) ] Example: To find a 5th order Taylor polynomial for sin(x ) with respect to x = 0 (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Advanced][taylor] • Zero is the default when you omit “[,center point]”. u laplace, invLaplace “laplace” is the command for the Laplace transform, and “invLaplace” is the command for the inverse of Laplace transform. ∞ ∫0 L[ f(t)] (s)= f(t)e–stdt Function: The Laplace Transform is called “laplace” on the ClassPad. The inverse of Laplace Transform is called “invLaplace” on the ClassPad. Syntax: laplace(f(t), t, s) f(t) -- expression t -- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed s -- parameter of the transform invLaplace(L(s), s, t) L(s) -- expression s -- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed t -- parameter of the transform 20101001 2-8-9 Using the Action Menu ClassPad supports transform of the following functions. sin(x), cos(x), sinh(x), cosh(x), xn, x, ex, heaviside(x), delta(x), delta(x, n) ClassPad does not support transform of the following functions. tan(x), sin– 1(x), cos– 1(x), tan– 1(x), tanh(x), sinh– 1(x), cosh– 1(x), tanh– 1(x), log(x), ln(x), 1/x, abs(x), gamma(x) Laplace Transform of a Differential Equation The laplace command can be used to solve ordinary differential equations. ClassPad does not support System of Differential Equations for laplace. Syntax: laplace(diff eq, x, y, t) diff eq -- differential equation to solve x -- independent variable in the diff eq y -- dependent variable in the diff eq t -- parameter of the transform Lp means F(s)=L[f(t)] in the result of transform for a differential equation. An example using Laplace to solve a differential equation: x’ + 2x = e–t where x(0) = 3 u fourier, invFourier Function: “fourier” is the command for the Fourier Transform, and “invFourier” is the command for the inverse Fourier Transform. Syntax: fourier(f(x),x,w,n) invFourier(f(w),w,x,n) f(x) -- expression x -- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed with w -- parameter of the transform n -- 0 to 4, indicating Fourier parameter to use (optional) ClassPad supports transform of the following functions. sin(t), cos(t), log(t), ln(t), abs(t), signum(t), heaviside(t), delta(t), delta(t,n), eti ClassPad does not support transform of the following functions. tan(t), sin– 1(t), cos– 1(t), tan– 1(t), sinh(t), cosh(t), tanh(t), sinh– 1(t), cosh– 1(t), tanh– 1(t), gamma(t), t , et 20080201 2-8-10 Using the Action Menu The Fourier Transform pairs are defined using two arbitrary constants a, b. ⏐b⏐ F(ω) = f(t) = (2π ∫–∞ f(t)eibωt dt )1–a ⏐b⏐ (2π ∞ )1+a ∞ ∫–∞ F(ω)e–ibωt dω The values of a and b depend on the scientific discipline, which can be specified by the value of n (optional fourth parameter of Fourier and invFourier) as shown below. n (optional) a b Modern Physics Definition of the Fourier Integral 2• 0 0 1 ∞ ∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx • • 2• Pure Math ∞ π 1 1 –1 ∫–∞ e–ω x i • f(x)dx 2 1 1 ∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx Probability ∞ ∞ Classical Physics 3 –1 1 • • • • ∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx • • 2•π Signal Processing 4 0 –2*π ∞ ∫–∞ e–2 π ω x i • f(x)dx • • • • Tip • The Advanced Format dialog box can be used to configure settings related to the Fourier Transform, such a Fourier Transform definition, etc. For details, see “Advanced Format Dialog Box” on page 1-9-11. 20080201 2-8-11 Using the Action Menu u FFT, IFFT Function: “FFT” is the command for the fast Fourier Transform, and “IFFT” is the command for the inverse fast Fourier Transform. 2n data values are needed to perform FFT and IFFT. On the ClassPad, FFT and IFFT are calculated numerically. Syntax: FFT( list ) or FFT( list, m) IFFT( list ) or IFFT( list, m) • Data size must be 2n for n = 1, 2, 3, ... • The value for m is optional. It can be from 0 to 2, indicating the FFT parameter to use. m = 0 Signal Processing m = 1 Pure Math m = 2 Data Analysis The Fourier Transform is defined as the following: ∞ f(x) = ∫–∞ F(k)e2πikx dk ∞ F(k) = ∫–∞ f(x)e–2πikx dx Some authors (especially physicists) prefer to write the transform in terms of angular frequency ω ≡ 2πν instead of the oscillation frequency ν . However, this destroys the symmetry, resulting in the transform pair shown below. ∞ ∫–∞ h(t)e–iωt dt H(ω) = F [h(t)] = ∞ 1 h(t) = F –1[H(ω)] = 2π ∫–∞ H(ω)eiωt dω To restore the symmetry of the transforms, the convention shown below is sometimes used. g(y) = F [ f(t)] = f(t) = F –1[ ∞ 1 2π g(y)] = ∫–∞ f(t)e–iyt dt 1 2π ∞ ∫–∞ g(y)eiyt dy 20080201 2-8-12 Using the Action Menu In general, the Fourier transform pair may be defined using two arbitrary constants a and b as shown below. F(ω) = f(t) = ⏐b⏐ (2π )1–a ⏐b⏐ (2π ∞ )1+a ∫–∞ f(t)eibωt dt ∞ ∫–∞ F(ω)e–ibωt dω Unfortunately, a number of conventions are in widespread use for a and b. For example, (0, 1) is used in modern physics, (1, –1) is used in pure mathematics and systems engineering, (1, 1) is used in probability theory for the computation of the characteristic function, (–1, 1) is used in classical physics, and (0, –2π) is used in signal processing. Tip • The Advanced Format dialog box can be used to configure Fast Fourier Transform settings. For details, see “Advanced Format Dialog Box” on page 1-9-11. Using the Calculation Submenu The [Calculation] submenu contains calculus related commands, such as “diff” (differentiation) and “ ” (integration). 20101001 2-8-13 Using the Action Menu u diff Function: Differentiates an expression with respect to a specific variable. Syntax: diff(Exp/List[,variable] [ ) ] diff(Exp/List,variable,order[,a] [ ) ] • “a” is the point for which you want to determine the derivative. • “order” = 1 when you use the following syntax: diff(Exp/List [,variable][ ) ]. The default variable is “x” when “variable” is omitted. Example: To differentiate x6 with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff] Example: To find the second derivative of x6 with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff] Example: To find the second derivative of x6 with respect to x at x = 3 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff] u impDiff Function: Differentiates an equation or expression in implicit form with respect to a specific variable. Syntax: impDiff(Eq/Exp/List, independent variable, dependent variable) Example: To find y’ using implicit differentiation Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff] Example: To find y” given y’ = −x/y Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff] Example: To find y’ for a list of equations Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff] Important! The derivative symbol (’) cannot be used in the argument of “impDiff(”. Trying to use a derivative symbol would result in a Wrong Argument Type error. 20090601 2-8-14 Using the Action Menu u∫ Function: Integrates an expression with respect to a specific variable. Syntax: (Exp/List[,variable] [ ) ] (Exp/List, variable, lower limit, upper limit [,tol ] [ ) ] • “x ” is the default when you omit [,variable]. • “tol ” represents the allowable error range. • This command returns an approximate value when a range is specified for “tol ”. • This command returns the true value of a definite interval when nothing is specified for “tol ”. If the true value cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an approximate value along with tol =1E – 5. Example: To integrate x with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][ ] Example: To integrate 1 x × ln(x) with respect to x between x = 1 and x = 2 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][ ] Example: To integrate 2x 2 + 3x + 4 with respect to x between x = 1 and x = 5, with an allowable error range of 1E – 4 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][ ] 20080201 2-8-15 Using the Action Menu u lim Function: Determines the limit of an expression. Syntax: lim (Exp/List, variable, point [,direction] [ ) ] Example: To determine the limit of e –x as x approaches ∞ Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim] Example: To determine the limit of 1/x as x approaches 0 from the right Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim] Example: To determine the limit of 1/x as x approaches 0 from the left Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim] • This function returns the limit from the left when “direction” < 0, the limit from the right when “direction” > 0, and the limit from both sides (left and right) when “direction” = 0 or when the direction is omitted. uΣ Function: Evaluates an expression at discrete variable values within a range, and then calculates a sum. Syntax: Σ(Exp/List, variable, lower value, upper value [ ) ] Example: To calculate the sum of x 2 as the value of x changes from x = 1 through x =10. Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][Σ] uΠ Function: Evaluates an expression at discrete variable values within a range, and then calculates a product. Syntax: Π(Exp/List, variable, lower value, upper value [ ) ] Example: To calculate the product of x 2 as the value of x changes from x = 1 through x=5 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][Π] 20080201 2-8-16 Using the Action Menu u rangeAppoint Function: Finds an expression or value that satisfies a condition in a specified range. Syntax: rangeAppoint (Exp/Eq/List, start value, end value [ ) ] • When using an equation (Eq) for the first argument, input the equation using the syntax Var = Exp. Evaluation will not be possible if any other syntax is used. Example: To find the expression(s) in the list {x = π, x = 2π, x = 3π} that belong(s) to the closed range 0 < x < 5 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation] [rangeAppoint] Example: To find the “n” that satisfies the condition 0 < n × π < 5 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][rangeAppoint] u mod Function: Returns the remainder when one expression is divided by another expression. Syntax: mod ({Exp/List} -1, {Exp/List} -2 [ ) ] Example: To determine the remainder when 26 is divided by 3 (26mod3) Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][mod] u tanLine Function: Returns the right side of the equation for the tangent line (y = ‘expression’) to the curve at the specified point. Syntax: tanLine (Exp/List, variable, variable value at point of tangency [ ) ] Example: To determine the function of the line tangent to y = x 3 at x = 2 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][tanLine] u normal Function: Returns the right side of the equation for the line normal (y = ‘expression’) to the curve at the specified point. Syntax: normal (Exp/List, variable, variable value at point of normal [ ) ] Example: To determine the function of the line normal to y = x 3 at x = 2 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][normal] u arcLen Function: Returns the arc length of an expression from a start value to an end value with respect to a specified variable. Syntax: arcLen (Exp/List, variable, start value, end value [ ) ] 3 — Example: To determine the arc length for y = x 2 from x = 0 to x = 4 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][arcLen] 20080201 2-8-17 Using the Action Menu u fMin Function: Returns the minimum point in a specific range of a function. Syntax: fMin(Exp[,variable] [ ) ] fMin(Exp,variable,start value,end value[,n] [ ) ] • “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”. • Negative infinity and positive infinity are the default when the syntax fMin (Exp [,variable] [ ) ] is used. • “n” is calculation precision, which you can specify as an integer in the range of 1 to 9. Using any value outside this range causes an error. • This command returns an approximate value when calculation precision is specified for “n”. • This command returns a true value when nothing is specified for “n”. If the true value cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an approximate value along with n = 4. • Discontinuous points or sections that fluctuate widely can adversely affect precision or even cause an error. • Inputting a larger number for “n” increases the precision of the calculation, but it also increases the amount of time required to perform the calculation. • The value you input for the end point of the interval must be greater than the value you input for the start point. Otherwise an error occurs. Example: To find the minimum point of x 2 – 1 with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin] Example: To find the minimum point of x2 – 1 with respect to x, when 2 < x < 3 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin] Example: To find the minimum point of x 3 – 6x with respect to x, when –2 < x < 2 and n = 1 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin] 20080201 2-8-18 Using the Action Menu u fMax Function: Returns the maximum point in a specific range of a function. Syntax: fMax(Exp[,variable] [ ) ] fMax(Exp,variable,start value,end value[,n] [ ) ] • “x ” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”. • Negative infinity and positive infinity are the default when the syntax fMax (Exp [, variable] [ ) ] is used. • “n” is calculation precision, which you can specify as an integer in the range of 1 to 9. Using any value outside this range causes an error. • This command returns an approximate value when calculation precision is specified for “n”. • This command returns a true value when nothing is specified for “n”. If the true value cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an approximate value along with n = 4. • Discontinuous points or sections that fluctuate widely can adversely affect precision or even cause an error. • Inputting a larger number for “n” increases the precision of the calculation, but it also increases the amount of time required to perform the calculation. • The value you input for the end point of the interval must be greater than the value you input for the start point. Otherwise an error occurs. Example: To find the maximum point of –x 2 + 1 with respect to x Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax] Example: To find the maximum point of –x2 + 1, when 2 < x < 5 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax] Example: To find the maximum point of x 3 – 6x with respect to x, when –2 < x < 2 and n = 1 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax] u gcd Function: Returns the greatest common denominator of two expressions. Syntax: gcd (Exp/List-1, Exp/List-2 [ ) ] Example: To obtain the greatest common denominator of x + 1 and x2 – 3x – 4 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][gcd] 20080201 2-8-19 Using the Action Menu u lcm Function: Returns the least common multiple of two expressions. Syntax: lcm (Exp/List-1, Exp/List-2 [ ) ] Example: To obtain the least common multiple of x 2 – 1 and x2 + 2x – 3 Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lcm] u denominator Function: Extracts the denominator of a fraction. Syntax: denominator (Exp/List [ ) ] Example: To extract the denominator of the fraction (y – 2)/(x + 1) Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][denominator] u numerator Function: Extracts the numerator of a fraction. Syntax: numerator (Exp/List [ ) ] Example: To extract the numerator of the fraction (y – 2)/(x + 1) Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][numerator] Using the Complex Submenu The [Complex] submenu contains commands that relate to calculations that involve complex numbers. u arg Function: Returns the argument of a complex number. Syntax: arg (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the argument of complex 2 + i (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Complex][arg] 20110501 2-8-20 Using the Action Menu u conjg Function: Returns the conjugate complex number. Syntax: conjg (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real mode). Example: To obtain the conjugate of complex number 1 + i Menu Item: [Action][Complex][conjg] u re Function: Returns the real part of a complex number. Syntax: re (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real mode). Example: To obtain the real part of complex number 3 – 4i Menu Item: [Action][Complex][re] u im Function: Returns the imaginary part of a complex number. Syntax: im (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real mode). Example: To obtain the imaginary part of complex number 3 – 4i Menu Item: [Action][Complex][im] u cExpand Function: Expands a complex expression to rectangular form (a + bi). Syntax: cExpand (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. • The variables are regarded as real numbers. Example: To expand cos–1(2) (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Complex][cExpand] u compToPol Function: Transforms a complex number into its polar form. Syntax: compToPol (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. • When the argument is Mat (Matrices), calculation can be performed using the Radian angle unit only. 20110901 2-8-21 Using the Action Menu Example: To transform 1 + i into its polar form Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToPol] Radian mode Degree mode Grad mode u compToTrig Function: Transforms a complex number into its trigonometric/hyperbolic form. Syntax: compToTrig (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform 1 + i into its trigonometric form (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToTrig] u compToRect Function: Transforms a complex number into its rectangular form. Syntax: compToRect (⬔(r,) or r · e^( · i) form [ ) ] Example: To transform a complex number into its rectangular form. Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToRect] Using the List-Create Submenu The [List-Create] submenu contains commands that are related to creating lists. 20110901 2-8-22 Using the Action Menu u seq Function: Generates a list in accordance with a numeric sequence expression. Syntax: seq (Exp, variable, start value, end value [,step size] [ ) ] Example: To generate a list in accordance with the expression x2 + 2x when the start value is 1, the end value is 5, and the step size is 2 Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][seq] • “1” is the default when you omit “[,step size]”. • The step size must be a factor of the difference between the start value and the end value. u augment Function: Creates a new list by appending one list to another. Syntax: augment (List-1, List-2 [ ) ] Example: To combine list {1, 2} and list {3, 4} Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][augment] u fill Function: Replaces the elements of a list with a specified value or expression. This command can also be used to create a new list whose elements all contain the same value or expression, or a new list in which the frequency of each element in the first list is determined by the corresponding element in the second list. Syntax: fill (Exp/Eq/Ineq, number of elements [ ) ] fill (Exp/Eq/Ineq, List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Syntax: fill (List, List [ ) ] Example: To create a list consisting of four identical elements (2) Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill] Example: To replace the elements of the list {1, 2, 3} with 3 Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill] Example: To create a list in which the frequencies of a, b and c are 1, 2 and 3, respectively Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill] 20080201 2-8-23 Using the Action Menu u subList Function: Extracts a specific section of a list into a new list. Syntax: subList (List [,start number] [,end number] [ ) ] Example: To extract the second through the fourth elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][subList] • The leftmost element is the default when you omit “[,start number]”, and the rightmost element is the default when you omit “[,end number]”. u shift Function: Returns a list in which elements have been shifted to the right or left by a specific amount. Syntax: shift (List [,number of shifts] [ ) ] • Specifying a negative value for “[,number of shifts]” shifts to the right, while a positive value shifts to the left. Example: To shift the elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} to the left by three Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][shift] • Right shift by one (–1) is the default when you omit “[,number of shifts]”. u rotate Function: Returns a list in which the elements have been rotated to the right or to the left by a specific amount. Syntax: rotate (List [,number of rotations] [ ) ] • Specifying a negative value for “[,number of rotations]” rotates to the right, while a positive value rotates to the left. Example: To rotate the elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} to the left by two Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][rotate] • Right rotation by one (–1) is the default when you omit “[,number of rotations]”. u sortA Function: Sorts the elements of the list into ascending order. Syntax: sortA (List [ ) ] Example: To sort the elements of the list {1, 5, 3} into ascending order Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][sortA] 20080201 2-8-24 Using the Action Menu u sortD Function: Sorts the elements of the list into descending order. Syntax: sortD (List [ ) ] Example: To sort the elements of the list {1, 5, 3} into descending order Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][sortD] u listToMat Function: Transforms lists into a matrix. Syntax: listToMat (List-1 [, List-2, ..., List-N] [ ) ] Example: To transform the lists {3, 5} and {2, 4} into a matrix Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][listToMat] u matToList • For information abot matToList, see page 2-8-33. Using the List-Calculation Submenu The [List-Calculation] submenu contains commands related to list calculations. 20101001 2-8-25 Using the Action Menu u min Function: Returns the minimum value of an expression or the elements in a list. Syntax: min (Exp/List-1[, Exp/List-2] [ ) ] Example: To determine the minimum values of the elements in list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min] Example: To compare each element of list {1, 2, 3} with the value 2, and produce a list whose elements contain the lesser value of each comparison Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min] Example: To compare the elements of list {1, 2, 3} and list {3, 1, 2}, and produce a list whose elements contain the lesser value of each comparison Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min] u max Function: Returns the maximum value of an expression or the elements of a list. Syntax: max (Exp/List-1[, Exp/List-2] [ ) ] Example: To determine the maximum value of the elements in list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max] Example: To compare each element of list {1, 2, 3} with the value 2, and produce a list whose elements contain the greater value of each comparison Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max] Example: To compare the elements of list {1, 2, 3} and list {3, 1, 2}, and produce a list whose elements contain the greater value of each comparison Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max] 20060301 2-8-26 Using the Action Menu u mean Function: Returns the mean of the elements in a list. Syntax: mean (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the mean of the elements in list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mean] Example: To determine the mean of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective frequencies are {3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mean] u median Function: Returns the median of the elements in a list. Syntax: median (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the median of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][median] Example: To determine the median of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective frequencies are {3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][median] u mode Function: Returns the mode of the elements in a list. Syntax: mode (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the mode of the elements in the list {1, 1, 2, 2, 2} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mode] Example: To determine the mode of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective frequencies are {3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mode] • If there are multiple modes, they are returned in a list. 20060301 2-8-27 Using the Action Menu u Q1 Function: Returns the first quartile of the elements in a list. Syntax: Q1 (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the first quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q1] Example: To determine the first quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4}, whose respective frequencies are {4, 3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q1] u Q3 Function: Returns the third quartile of the elements in a list. Syntax: Q3 (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the third quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q3] Example: To determine the third quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4}, whose respective frequencies are {4, 3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q3] u percentile Function: Finds the nth percentile point in a list. Syntax: percentile ( list, number ) u stdDev Function: Returns the sample standard deviation of the elements in a list. Syntax: stdDev (List [ ) ] Example: To determine the sample standard deviation of the elements in the list {1, 2, 4} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][stdDev] 20101001 2-8-28 Using the Action Menu u variance Function: Returns the sample variance of the elements in a list. Syntax: variance (List [ ) ] Example: To determine the sample variance of the elements in the list {1, 2, 4} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][variance] u dim Function: Returns the dimension of a list. Syntax: dim (List [ ) ] Example: To determine the dimension of the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][dim] u sum Function: Returns the sum of the elements in a list. Syntax: sum (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the sum of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sum] Example: To determine the sum of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective frequencies are {3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sum] u prod Function: Returns the product of the elements in a list. Syntax: prod (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ] • “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”. Example: To determine the product of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][prod] Example: To determine the product of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective frequencies are {3, 2, 1} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][prod] 20060301 2-8-29 Using the Action Menu u cuml Function: Returns the cumulative sums of the elements in a list. Syntax: cuml (List [ ) ] Example: To determine the cumulative sums of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][cuml] u Alist Function: Returns a list whose elements are the differences between two adjacent elements in another list. Syntax: Alist (List [ ) ] Example: To generate a list whose elements are the differences between two adjacent elements in the list {1, 2, 4} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Alist] u percent Function: Returns the percentage of each element in a list, the sum of which is assumed to be 100. Syntax: percent (List [ ) ] Example: To determine the percentage of each element in the list {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][percent] u polyEval Function: Returns a polynomial arranged in the descending order of powers, so coefficients correspond sequentially to each element in the input list. Syntax: polyEval (List [,Exp/List] [ ) ] Example: To create a second degree polynomial with the coefficients {1, 2, 3} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][polyEval] • “x” is the default when you omit “[,Exp/List]”. 20060301 2-8-30 Using the Action Menu u sequence Function: Returns the lowest-degree polynomial that represents the sequence expressed by the input list. When there are two lists, this command returns a polynomial that maps each element in the first list to its corresponding element in the second list. Syntax: sequence (List-1[, List-2] [,variable] [ ) ] • “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”. Example: To determine a polynomial for a sequence expressed by the list {3, 5, 7, 9} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sequence] Example: To determine a polynomial that maps each element in the list {1, 3, 5, 7} to its corresponding element in the list {0, –1, 2, –3}. Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sequence] u sumSeq Function: Finds the lowest-degree polynomial that represents the sequence expressed by the input list and returns the sum of the polynomial. When there are two lists, this command returns a polynomial that maps each element in the first list to its corresponding element in the second list, and returns the sum of the polynomial. Syntax: sumSeq (List-1[, List-2] [,variable] [ ) ] • “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”. Example: To determine the sum of a polynomial for a sequence expressed by the list {3, 5, 7, 9} Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sumSeq] Example: To obtain the polynomial that maps the elements in the list {9, 7, 4, 1} to its corresponding elements in the list {0, 4, 6, 5}, and return the sum of the polynomial. Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sumSeq] 20060301 2-8-31 Using the Action Menu Using the Matrix-Create Submenu The [Matrix-Create] submenu contains commands related to creation of matrices. u trn Function: Returns a transposed matrix. Syntax: trn (Mat [ ) ] Example: To transpose the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][trn] u augment Function: Returns a matrix that combines two other matrices. Syntax: augment (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ] Example: To combine the two matrices [[1, 2] [3, 4]] and [[5, 6] [7, 8]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][augment] u ident Function: Creates an identity matrix. Syntax: ident (natural number [ ) ] Example: To create a 2 × 2 identity matrix Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][ident] 20101001 2-8-32 Using the Action Menu u fill Function: Creates a matrix with a specific number of rows and columns, or replaces the elements of a matrix with a specific expression. Syntax: fill (Exp, number of rows, number of columns [ ) ] fill (Exp, Mat [ ) ] Example: To create a 2 × 3 matrix, all whose elements are 2 Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][fill] Example: To replace all of the elements of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] with 3 Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][fill] u subMat Function: Extracts a specific section of a matrix into a new matrix. Syntax: subMat (Mat [,start row] [,start column] [,end row] [,end column] [ ) ] • “1” is the default when you omit “[, start row]” and “[, start column]”. • The last row number is the default when you omit “[, end row]”. • The last column number is the default when you omit “[, end column]”. Example: To extract the section from row 2, column 2, to row 3, column 3 from the matrix [[1, 4, 7] [2, 5, 8] [3, 6, 9]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][subMat] u diag Function: Returns a one-row matrix containing the elements from the main diagonal of a square matrix. Syntax: diag (Mat[ ) ] Example: To extract the diagonal elements of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][diag] u listToMat • For information about listToMat, see page 2-8-24. 20060301 2-8-33 Using the Action Menu u matToList Function: Transforms a specific column of a matrix into a list. Syntax: matToList (Mat, column number [ ) ] Example: To transform column 2 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] into a list Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][matToList] Using the Matrix-Calculation Submenu The [Matrix-Calculation] submenu contains commands that are related to matrix calculations. u dim Function: Returns the dimensions of a matrix as a two-element list {number of rows, number of columns}. Syntax: dim (Mat [ ) ] Example: To determine the dimensions of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][dim] u det Function: Returns the determinant of a square matrix. Syntax: det (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the determinant of the matrix [[1, 2] [4, 5]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][det] 20101001 2-8-34 Using the Action Menu u norm Function: Returns the Frobenius norm of the matrix. Syntax: norm (Mat [ ) ] Example: To determine the norm of the matrix [[1, 2] [4, 5]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][norm] u rank Function: Finds the rank of matrix. The rank function computes the rank of a matrix by performing Gaussian elimination on the rows of the given matrix. The rank of matrix A is the number of non-zero rows in the resulting matrix. Syntax: rank (Matrix) u ref Function: Returns the row echelon form of a matrix. Syntax: ref (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the row echelon form of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][ref] u rref Function: Returns the reduced row echelon form of a matrix. Syntax: rref (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the reduced row echelon form of the matrix [[2, –1, 3, 19] [1, 1, –5, –21] [0, 4, 3, 0]] Menu Item: [Action] [Matrix-Calculation][rref] u eigVl Function: Returns a list that contains the eigenvalue(s) of a square matrix. Syntax: eigVl (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the eigenvalue(s) of the matrix [[3, 4] [1, 3]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][eigVl] 20060301 2-8-35 Using the Action Menu u eigVc Function: Returns a matrix in which each column represents an eigenvector of a square matrix. • Since an eigenvector usually cannot be determined uniquely, it is standardized as follows to its norm, which is 1: When V = [x1, x2, ..., xn], (⎥ x1⎥ 2 + ⎥ x 2⎥ 2 + .... + ⎥ xn⎥ 2 ) = 1. Syntax: eigVc (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the eigenvector(s) of the matrix [[3, 4] [1, 3]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][eigVc] u LU Function: Returns the LU decomposition of a square matrix. Syntax: LU (Mat, lVariableMem, uVariableMem [ ) ] Example: To obtain the LU decomposition of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] [7, 8, 9]] • The lower matrix is assigned to the first variable L, while the upper matrix is assigned to the second variable U. Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][LU] To display the lower matrix Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][L][EXE] To display the upper matrix Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][U][EXE] 20060301 2-8-36 Using the Action Menu u QR Function: Returns the QR decomposition of a square matrix. Syntax: QR (Mat, qVariableMem, rVariableMem [ ) ] Example: To obtain the QR decomposition of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] • The unitary matrix is assigned to variable Q, while the upper triangular matrix is assigned to variable R. Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][QR] To display the unitary matrix Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][Q][EXE] To display the upper triangular matrix Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][R][EXE] u swap Function: Swaps two rows of a matrix. Syntax: swap (Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ] Example: To swap row 1 with row 2 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][swap] u mRow Function: Multiplies the elements of a specific row in a matrix by a specific expression. Syntax: mRow (Exp, Mat, row number [ ) ] Example: To multiply row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] by x Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][mRow] 20060301 2-8-37 Using the Action Menu u mRowAdd Function: Multiplies the elements of a specific row in a matrix by a specific expression, and then adds the result to another row. Syntax: mRowAdd (Exp, Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ] Example: To multiply row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] by x, and then add the result to row 2 Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][mRowAdd] u rowAdd Function: Adds a specific matrix row to another row. Syntax: rowAdd (Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ] Example: To add row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] to row 2 Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowAdd] u rowDim Function: Returns the number in rows in a matrix. Syntax: rowDim (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the number of rows in the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowDim] u rowNorm Function: Calculates the sums of the absolute values of the elements of each row of a matrix, and returns the maximum value of the sums. Syntax: rowNorm (Mat [ ) ] Example: To calculate the sums of the absolute values of the elements in each row of the matrix [[1, –2, 3] [4, –5, –6]], and obtain the maximum value of the sums Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowNorm] u colDim Function: Returns the number of columns in a matrix. Syntax: colDim (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the number of columns in the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4] [5, 6]] Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][colDim] 20060301 2-8-38 Using the Action Menu u colNorm Function: Calculates the sums of the absolute values of the elements of each column of a matrix, and returns the maximum value of the sums. Syntax: colNorm (Mat [ ) ] Example: To calculate the sums of the absolute values of the elements in each column of the matrix [[1, –2, 3][4, –5, –6][–7, 8, 9]], and obtain the maximum value of the sums Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation] [colNorm] Using the Vector Submenu The [Vector] submenu contains commands that are related to vector calculations. • A vector is handled as a 1 × N matrix or N × 1 matrix. • A vector in the form of 1 × N can be entered as [……] or [[……]]. Example: [1, 2], [[1, 2]] • Vectors are considered to be in rectangular form unless ∠() is used to indicate an angle measure. 20101001 2-8-39 Using the Action Menu u augment Function: Returns an augmented vector [Mat-1 Mat-2]. Syntax: augment (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ] Example: To augment vectors [1, 2] and [3, 4] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][augment] u fill Function: Creates a vector that contains a specific number of elements, or replaces the elements of a vector with a specific expression. Syntax: fill (Exp, Mat [ ) ] fill (Exp, 1, number of columns [ ) ] Example: To replace the elements of the vector [1, 2] with x Menu Item: [Action][Vector][fill] Example: To create a 1 × 3 (1 row, 3 columns) vector, all of whose elements are “3” Menu Item: [Action][Vector][fill] u dim Function: Returns the dimension of a vector. Syntax: dim (Mat [ ) ] Example: To determine the dimension of the vector [1, 2, 3] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][dim] • The vector [1, 2, 3] is handled as a 1 × 3 matrix. u unitV Function: Normalizes a vector. Syntax: unitV (Mat [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only. Example: To normalize the vector [1, 3, 5] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][unitV] 20060301 2-8-40 Using the Action Menu u angle Function: Returns the angle formed by two vectors. Syntax: angle (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only. Example: To determine the angle formed by vectors [1, 2] and [3, 4] (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Vector][angle] u norm Function: Returns the norm of a vector. Syntax: norm (Mat [ ) ] Example: To obtain the norm of the vector [1, 2, 3] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][norm] u crossP Function: Returns the cross product of two vectors. Syntax: crossP (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only (N = 2, 3). • A two-element matrix [a, b] or [[a], [b]] is automatically converted into a three-element matrix [a, b, 0] or [[a], [b], [0]]. Example: To obtain the cross product of the two vectors [1, 3, 5] and [2, 4, 6] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][crossP] u dotP Function: Returns the dot product of two vectors. Syntax: dotP (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only. Example: To obtain the dot product of the two vectors [1, 3, 5] and [2, 4, 6] Menu Item: [Action][Vector][dotP] 20060301 2-8-41 Using the Action Menu u toRect Function: Returns an equivalent rectangular form [x y] or [x y z]. Syntax: toRect (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only (N = 2, 3). • This command returns “x” when “natural number” is 1, “y” when “natural number” is 2, and “z” when “natural number” is 3. • This command returns a rectangular form when you omit “natural number”. Example: To transform the polar form [ 2 , ∠(π/4)] into an equivalent rectangular form (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toRect] u toPol Function: Returns an equivalent polar form [r∠]. Syntax: toPol (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × 2 or 2 × 1 matrix only. • This command returns “r” when “natural number” is 1, and “θ ” when “natural number” is 2. • This command returns a polar form when you omit “natural number”. Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 2] into its equivalent polar form Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toPol] u toSph Function: Returns an equivalent spherical form [ ρ ∠ ∠φ ]. Syntax: toSph (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × 3 or 3 × 1 matrix only. • This command returns “ρ ” when “natural number” is 1, “ ” when “natural number” is 2, and “φ ” when “natural number” is 3. • This command returns a spherical form when you omit “natural number”. Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 1, 1] into its equivalent spherical form (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toSph] 20060301 2-8-42 Using the Action Menu u toCyl Function: Returns an equivalent cylindrical form [r∠θ z]. Syntax: toCyl (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ] • This command can be used with a 1 × 3 or 3 × 1 matrix only. • This command returns “r” when “natural number” is 1, “θ ” when “natural number” is 2, and “z” when “natural number” is 3. • This command returns a cylindrical form when you omit “natural number”. Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 1, 1] into an equivalent cylindrical form (in the Radian mode) Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toCyl] Using the Equation/Inequality Submenu The [Equation/Inequality] submenu contains commands that are related to equations and inequalities. 20101001 2-8-43 Using the Action Menu u solve Function: Returns the solution of an equation or inequality. Syntax: solve(Exp/Eq/Ineq [,variable] [ ) ] • For this syntax, “Ineq” also includes the ⫽ operator. • “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”. solve(Exp/Eq,variable[, value, lower limit, upper limit] [ ) ] • This syntax does not support “Ineq”, but the ⫽ operator is supported. • “value” is an initially estimated value. • This command is valid only for equations and ⫽ expressions when “value” and the items following it are included. In that case, this command returns an approximate value. • A true value is returned when you omit “value” and the items following it. When, however, a true value cannot be obtained, an approximate value is returned for equations only based on the assumption that value = 0, lower limit = –∞, and upper limit = ∞. solve({Exp-1/Eq-1, ..., Exp-N/Eq-N}, {variable-1, ..., variable-N} [ ) ] • When “Exp” is the first argument, the equation Exp = 0 is presumed. Example: To solve ax + b = 0 for x Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve] Example: To solve simultaneous linear equations 3x + 4y = 5, 2x – 3y = –8 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve] You also could input the simultaneous equations shown in this example using the 2D keyboard key. The following shows the required input syntax. Exp-1/Eq-1 Exp-N/Eq-N variable-1, ..., variable-N • The following shows the required key operation to input this example using the key. d≈+eY=fcc≈-dY=-i e≈,Yw • To input simultaneous equations with three or more unknowns, press the key when the cursor is in the Exp-N/Eq-N input field. Each press of will add one more line for input of an equation. 20090601 2-8-44 Using the Action Menu Note For the solution, the solve function returns an expression or value for the expression (Exp/Eq) input as its argument. The message “More solutions may exist” will appear on the display when a value is returned as the solution, because there may be multiple solutions. The solve function can return a maximum of 10 solutions in the case of values. Example: To solve cos (x) = 0.5 for x (initial value: 0) Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve] (Angle unit setting: Deg) u dSolve Function: Solves first, second or third order ordinary differential equations, or a system of first order differential equations. Syntax: dSolve(Eq, independent variable, dependent variable [, initial condition-1, initial condition-2][, initial condition-3, initial condition-4][, initial condition-5, initial condition-6] [ ) ] dSolve({Eq-1, Eq-2}, independent variable, {dependent variable-1, dependent variable-2} [, initial condition-1, initial condition-2, initial condition-3, initial condition-4] [ ) ] • If you omit the initial conditions, the solution will include arbitrary constants. • Input all initial conditions equations using the syntax Var = Exp. Any initial condition that uses any other syntax will be ignored. Example: To solve a differential equation y’ = x, where y = 1 when x = 0. Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][dSolve] Example: To solve the system of first order differential equations y’ = y + z, z’ = y – z, where “x” is the independent variable, “y” and “z” are the dependent variables, and the initial conditions are y = 3 when x = 0, and z = 2 – 3 when x = 0 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][dSolve] u rewrite Function: Moves the right side elements of an equation or inequality to the left side. Syntax: rewrite(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To move the right side elements of x + 3 = 5x – x2 to the left side Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][rewrite] 20090601 2-8-45 Using the Action Menu u exchange Function: Swaps the right-side and left-side elements of an equation or inequality. Syntax: exchange(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To swap the left-side and right-side elements of 3 > 5x – 2y Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][exchange] u eliminate Function: Solves one equation with respect to a variable, and then replaces the same variable in another expression with the obtained result. Syntax: eliminate(Eq/Ineq/List-1, variable, Eq-2 [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To transform y = 2x + 3 to x =, and substitute the result into 2x + 3y = 5 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][eliminate] u absExpand Function: Divides an absolute value expression into formulas without absolute value. Syntax: absExpand(Eq/Ineq [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To remove the absolute value from ⎜2x – 3 ⎜ = 9 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][absExpand] u andConnect Function: Combines two equations or inequalities into a single expression. Syntax: andConnect(Eq/Ineq-1, Eq/Ineq-2 [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To rewrite x > –1 and x < 3 into a single inequality Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][andConnect] u getRight Function: Extracts the right-side elements of an equation or inequality. Syntax: getRight(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To extract the right side elements of y = 2x2 + 3x + 5 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][getRight] 20090601 2-8-46 Using the Action Menu u getLeft Function: Extracts the left-side elements of an equation or inequality. Syntax: getLeft(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To extract the left side elements of y = 2x2 + 3x + 5 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][getLeft] u and Function: Returns the result of the logical AND of two expressions. Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 and Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2 • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To obtain the result of the logical AND of x2 > 1 and x < 0 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][and] u or Function: Returns the result of the logical OR of two expressions. Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 or Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2 • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To obtain the result of the logical OR of x = 3 or x > 2 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][or] u xor Function: Returns the logical exclusive OR of two expressions. Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 xor Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2 • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To obtain the logical exclusive OR of x < 2 xor x < 3 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][xor] u not Function: Returns the logical NOT of an expression. Syntax: not(Exp/Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To obtain the logical NOT of x = 1 Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][not] 20090601 2-8-47 Using the Action Menu Using the Assistant Submenu The [Assistant] submenu contains two commands related to the Assistant mode. • Note that the following commands are valid in the Assistant mode only. For more information on the Assistant mode see “Assistant Mode and Algebra Mode” on page 2-2-8. u arrange Function: Collects like terms and arranges them in descending order, starting with the term that contains the smallest coefficient. Syntax: arrange (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To arrange 2x + 3 – 5x + 8y in the sequence of its variables Menu Item: [Action][Assistant][arrange] u replace Function: Replaces the variable in an expression, equation or inequality with the value assigned to a variable using the “store” command. Syntax: replace (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To replace s in the expression 3x + 2s, when the expression 2x + 1 is assigned to s Menu Item: [Action][Assistant][replace] u invert Function: Inverts two variables in an expression. Syntax: invert (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List [,variable-1, variable-2] [ ) ] • Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator. Example: To invert x and y in the expression 2x = y Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][invert] • x and y are inverted when variables are not specified. 20101001 2-8-48 Using the Action Menu u Clear_a_z Function: Clears all single-character variable names (a-z and A-Z) in the current folder. Using the Distribution and Inv. Distribution Submenus The [Distribution] and [Inv. Distribution] submenus include functions related to each type of statistical calculation distribution probability. Note The functions on the [Distribution] and [Inv. Distribution] submenus perform the same calculations as the Distribution commands that are available in the Statistics application and the Main, eActivity, and Program applications. For information about the numeric expressions used in calculations, the meanings of the variables used in the syntaxes of the functions presented in this section, and the system variables that store the values obtained as calculation results, see the “Distribution Command List” on pages 7-11-3 to 7-11-26. Also see the “Distribution Command List” for information about how to use Distribution commands in the Statistics application and the required syntax when using Distribution commands within other applications. Specifying Arguments within the Distribution Function You can specify either values or list data for any of the arguments within the Distribution function. The normPDf function (page 2-8-49) syntax (normPDf(x, , )) that returns normal probability density can be used to perform the calculations shown below. The “Number Format” setting is “Fix 2” for all calculation results. normPDf(1, 1, 0) = 0.24 normPDf({1, 2}, 1, 0) = {0.24, 0.05} normPDf(1, {1, 2}, 0) = {0.24, 0.18} 20101001 2-8-49 Using the Action Menu normPDf({1, 2},{1, 2}, 0) = {0.24, 0.12} normPDf({1, 2},{1, 2},{1, 0}) = {0.40, 0.12} The following explains how to specify list data in arguments and how calculation results are output. (a) Specifying list data for a single argument • Basically, you can specify any list you like, but the each of the elements in the list must be in accordance with the conditions required by the argument of the function being used. • Calculation is performed on each element within the list and results are output as shown below. normPDf(x, {1, 2}, ) = { , } (b) Specifying list data for multiple arguments • In this case, all of the lists must have the same number of elements. Otherwise an Invalid Dimension error will occur. • Calculation is performed on each element within the list and results are output as shown below. normPDf({x1, x2}, {1, 2}, ) = { , } Assignment of List Data Calculation Results to Variables Using the list data in the argument of the Distribution function causes calculation results to be output as list data, which is assigned as-is to the “ans” variable. In addition to the “ans” variable, calculations that use the Distribution function causes calculation results also to be assigned to certain system variables. For example, the normal probability density variable returned by normPDf is assigned to system variable prob. Only the last element of the list data will be assigned to a system variable as a calculation result. For information about which calculation result is assigned to which variable, see the “Calculation Result Output” item for each command in “7-11 Distributions” (pages 7-11-3 to 7-11-25). u normPDf Function: Returns the normal probability density for a specified value. Syntax: normPDf(x[,σ , μ)] • When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used. Example: To determine the normal probability density when x = 37.5, σ = 2, μ = 35 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][normPDf] For more information, see “Normal Probability Density” on page 7-11-3. 20090601 2-8-50 Using the Action Menu u normCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a normal distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Syntax: normCDf(lower value, upper value[,σ , μ)] • When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used. Example: To determine the normal probability density when lower bound value = −∞, upper bound value = 36, σ = 2, μ = 35 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][normCDf] For more information, see “Normal Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-4. u invNormCDf Function: Returns the boundary value(s) of a normal cumulative distribution probability for specified values. Syntax: invNormCDf([tail setting, ]area value[,σ , μ)] • When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used. • “tail setting” displays the probability value tail specification, and Left, Right, or Center can be specified. Enter the following values or letters to specify: Left: −1, “L”, or “l” Center: 0, “C”, or “c” Right: 1, “R”, or “r” When input is skipped, “Left” is used. • When one argument is omitted (resulting in three arguments), Tail=Left. • When two arguments are omitted (resulting in two arguments), Tail=Left, μ =0. • When three arguments are omitted (resulting in one argument), Tail=Left, σ =1, μ =0. • When “tail setting” is Center, the lower bound value is returned. Example: To determine the upper bound value when tail setting = Left, area value = 0.7, σ = 2, μ = 35 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invNormCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Normal Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-5. u tPDf Function: Returns the Student-t probability density for a specified value. Syntax: tPDf(x, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the Student-t probability density when x = 2, df = 5 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][tPDf] For more information, see “Student-t Probability Density” on page 7-11-6. 20090601 2-8-51 Using the Action Menu u tCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a Student-t distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Syntax: tCDf(lower value, upper value, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the Student-t distribution probability when lower value = 1.5, upper value = ∞, df = 18 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][tCDf] For more information, see “Student-t Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-7. u invTCDf Function: Returns the lower bound value of a Student-t cumulative distribution probability for specified values. Syntax: invTCDf(prob, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.0754752, df = 18 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invTCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Student-t Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-8. u chiPDf Function: Returns the χ2 probability density for specified values. Syntax: chiPDf(x, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the χ2 probability density when x = 2, df = 4 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][chiPDf] For more information, see “2 Probability Density” on page 7-11-9. u chiCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a χ2 distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Syntax: chiCDf(lower value, upper value, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the χ2 probability when lower value = 2.7, upper value = ∞, df =4 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][chiCDf] For more information, see “χ2 Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-10. u invChiCDf Function: Returns the lower bound value of a χ2 cumulative distribution probability for specified values. Syntax: invChiCDf(prob, df [ ) ] Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.6092146, df = 4 20090601 2-8-52 Using the Action Menu Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invChiCDf] For more information, see “Inverse χ2 Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-10. u fPDf Function: Returns the F probability density for a specified value. Syntax: fPDf(x, n:df, d:df [ ) ] Example: To determine the F probability density when x = 1.5, n:df = 24, d:df = 19 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][fPDf] For more information, see “F Probability Density” on page 7-11-11. u fCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability of an F distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Syntax: fCDf(lower value, upper value, n:df, d:df [ ) ] Example: To determine the F distribution probability when lower value = 1.5, upper value = ∞, n:df = 24, d:df = 19 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][fCDf] For more information, see “F Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-12. u invFCDf Function: Returns the lower bound value of an F cumulative distribution probability for specified values. Syntax: invFCDf(prob, n:df, d:df [ ) ] Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.1852, n:df = 24, d:df = 19 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invFCDf] For more information, see “Inverse F Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-13. u binomialPDf Function: Returns the probability in a binomial distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Syntax: binomialPDf(x, numtrial value, pos [ ) ] Example: To determine the binomial probability when x = 5, numtrial value = 3, pos = 0.63 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][binomialPDf] For more information, see “Binomial Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-14. 20090601 2-8-53 Using the Action Menu u binomialCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a binomial distribution that the success will occur between specified lower value and upper value. Syntax: binomialCDf(lower value, upper value, numtrial value, pos [ ) ] Example: To determine the binomial cumulative probability when lower value = 2, upper value = 5, numtrial value = 3, pos = 0.63 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][binomialCDf] For more information, see “Binomial Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-15. u invBinomialCDf Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a binomial cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Syntax: invBinomialCDf(prob, numtrial value, pos [ ) ] Important! When executing the invBinomialCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using *prob). The invBinomialCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears showing both values. The calculation results of invBinomialCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed values. Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.609, numtrial value = 5, pos = 0.63 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invBinomialCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Binomial Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-16. 20090601 2-8-54 Using the Action Menu u poissonPDf Function: Returns the probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Syntax: poissonPDf(x, [ ) ] Example: To determine the Poisson probability when x = 10, = 6 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][poissonPDf] For more information, see “Poisson Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-17. u poissonCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will occur between specified lower value and upper value. Syntax: poissonCDf(lower value, upper value, [ ) ] Example: To determine the Poisson cumulative probability when lower value = 2, upper value = 3, = 2.26 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][poissonCDf] For more information, see “Poisson Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-18. u invPoissonCDf Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a Poisson cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Syntax: invPoissonCDf(prob, [ ) ] Important! When executing the invPoissonCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using *prob). The invPoissonCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears showing both values. The calculation results of invPoissonCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed values. 20090601 2-8-55 Using the Action Menu Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.8074, = 2.26 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invPoissonCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Poisson Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-19. u geoPDf Function: Returns the probability in a geometric distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Syntax: geoPDf(x, pos [ ) ] Example: To determine the geometric probability when x = 6, pos = 0.4 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][geoPDf] For more information, see “Geometric Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-20. u geoCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a geometric distribution that the success will occur between specified lower value and upper value. Syntax: geoCDf(lower value, upper value, pos [ ) ] Example: To determine the geometric probability when lower value = 2, upper value = 3, pos = 0.5 Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][geoCDf] For more information, see “Geometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-21. u invGeoCDf Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a geometric cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Syntax: invGeoCDf(prob, pos [ ) ] Important! When executing the invGeoCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using *prob). The invGeoCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears showing both values. 20090601 2-8-56 Using the Action Menu The calculation results of invGeoCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed values. Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.875, pos = 0.5 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invGeoCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Geometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-22. u hypergeoPDf Function: Returns the probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Syntax: hypergeoPDf(x, n, M, N [ ) ] Example: Determine the hypergeometric probability when x = 1, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20. Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][hypergeoPDf] For more information, see “Hypergeometric Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-23. u hypergeoCDf Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the success will occur between specified lower value and upper value. Syntax: hypergeoCDf(lower value, upper value, n, M, N [ ) ] Example: Determine the hypergeometric cumulative distribution when lower value = 0, upper value = 1, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20. Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][hypergeoCDf] For more information, see “Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-24. u invHypergeoCDf Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a hypergeometric cumulative distribution for specified values. Syntax: invHypergeoCDf(prob, n, M, N [ ) ] Important! When executing the invHypergeoCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using *prob). The invHypergeoCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears showing both values. 20090601 2-8-57 Using the Action Menu The calculation results of invHypergeoCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed values. Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.3, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20 Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invHypergeoCDf] For more information, see “Inverse Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-25. Using the Financial Submenu The [Financial] submenu contains commands that are related to financial calculations. 20101001 2-8-58 Using the Action Menu Simple Interest For the meaning of each argument, see “Simple Interest” (page 15-2-1). u simpInt Function: Returns the interest based on simple interest calculation. Syntax: simpInt (n,I%,PV) Example: simpInt (120,5,−10000) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Simple Interest][simpInt] u simpFV Function: Returns the total of principal and interest based on simple interest calculation. Syntax: simpFV (n,I%,PV) Example: simpFV (1825,6,−300) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Simple Interest][simpFV] Compound Interest • P/Y and C/Y can be omitted for all compound interest calculations. When they are omitted, calculations are performed using P/Y=1 and C/Y=1. • If you perform a calculation that uses a compound interest function (cmpdFV, cmpdIR, cmpdN, cmpdPmt, cmpdPV), the argument(s) you input and the calculation results will be saved to the applicable variables (n, I%, PV, etc.). If you perform a calculation that uses any other type of financial calculation function, the argument and calculation results are not assigned to variables. • For the meaning of each argument, see “Compound Interest” (page 15-3-1). u cmpdFV Function: Returns the final input/output amount or total principal and interest. Syntax: cmpdFV (n,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: cmpdFV (4,6,−1000,0,1,1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdFV] u cmpdIR Function: Returns the annual interest. Syntax: cmpdIR (n,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y) Example: cmpdIR (4,−1000,0,120,1,1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdIR] 20110401 2-8-59 Using the Action Menu u cmpdN Function: Returns the number of compound periods. Syntax: cmpdN (I%,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y) Example: cmpdN (6,−1000,0,120,1,1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdN] u cmpdPmt Function: Returns equal input/output values (payment amounts for installment payments, deposit amounts for savings) for a fixed period. Syntax: cmpdPmt (n,I%,PV,FV,P/Y,C/Y) Example: cmpdPmt (4,6,−1000,120,1,1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdPmt] u cmpdPV Function: Returns the present value (loan amount for installment payments, principal for savings). Syntax: cmpdPV (n,I%,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y) Example: cmpdPV (4,6,0,120,1,1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdPV] Cash Flow (Investment Appraisal) For the meaning of each argument, see “Cash Flow” (page 15-4-1). u cashIRR Function: Returns the internal rate of return. Syntax: cashIRR (Cash) Example: list1 = {−1000,100,200,300,400,500} cashIRR (list1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashIRR] 20101001 2-8-60 Using the Action Menu u cashNFV Function: Returns the net future value. Syntax: cashNFV (I%,Cash) Example: list1 = {0,100,200,300,400,500} cashNFV (10,list1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashNFV] u cashNPV Function: Returns the net present value. Syntax: cashNPV (I%,Cash) Example: list1 = {0,100,200,300,400,500} cashNPV (10,list1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashNPV] u cashPBP Function: Returns the payback period. Syntax: cashPBP (I%,Cash) Example: list1 = {−1000,100,200,300,400,500} cashPBP (10,list1) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashPBP] Amortization For the meaning of each argument, see “Amortization” (page 15-5-1). u amortBal Function: Returns the remaining principal balance following payment PM2. Syntax: amortBal (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: amortBal (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortBal] 20101001 2-8-61 Using the Action Menu u amortInt Function: Returns the interest paid for payment PM1. Syntax: amortInt (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: amortInt (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortInt] u amortPrn Function: Returns the principal and interest paid for payment PM1. Syntax: amortPrn (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: amortPrn (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortPrn] u amortSumInt Function: Returns the total principal and interest paid from payment PM1 to PM2. Syntax: amortSumInt (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: amortSumInt (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortSumInt] u amortSumPrn Function: Returns the total principal paid from payment PM1 to PM2. Syntax: amortSumPrn (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y) Example: amortSumPrn (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortSumPrn] 20101001 2-8-62 Using the Action Menu Interest Conversion For the meaning of each argument, see “Interest Conversion” (page 15-6-1). u convEff Function: Returns the interest rate converted from the nominal interest rate to the effective interest rate. Syntax: convEff (n,I%) Example: convEff (4,3) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Interest Conversion][convEff] Note: When I% is EFF, this command returns APR. u convNom Function: Returns the interest rate converted from the effective interest rate to the nominal interest rate. Syntax: convNom (n,I%) Example: convNom (6,5) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Interest Conversion][convNom] Note: When I% is APR, this command returns EFF. Cost/Sell/Margin For the meaning of each argument, see “Cost/Sell/Margin” (page 15-7-1). u priceCost Function: Returns the cost based on a specified selling price and margin. Syntax: priceCost (Sell,Margin) Example: priceCost (100,60) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceCost] u priceSell Function: Returns the selling price based on a specified cost and margin. Syntax: priceSell (Cost,Margin) Example: priceSell (40,60) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceSell] 20101001 2-8-63 Using the Action Menu u priceMargin Function: Returns the margin based on a specified cost and selling price. Syntax: priceMargin (Cost,Sell) Example: priceMargin (40,100) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceMargin] Day Count For the meaning of each argument, see “Day Count” (page 15-8-1). u dayCount Function: Returns the number of days from a specified d1 to specified d2. Syntax: dayCount (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2) Example: dayCount (3,21,2005,6,28,2005) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][dayCount] Bond Calculation For the meaning of each argument, see “Bond Calculation” (page 15-10-1). u bondPriceDate Function: Returns in list form bond prices based on specified conditions. Syntax: bondPriceDate (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2,RDV,CPN,YLD) = {PRC,INT,CST} Example: bondPriceDate (6,1,2004,12,15,2006,100,3,4) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondPriceDate] u bondPriceTerm Function: Returns in list form bond prices based on specified conditions. Syntax: bondPriceTerm (N,RDV,CPN,YLD) = {PRC,INT,CST} Example: bondPriceTerm (5,100,3,4) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondPriceTerm] 20110401 2-8-64 Using the Action Menu u bondYieldDate Function: Returns the yield based on specified conditions. Syntax: bondYieldDate (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2,RDV,CPN,PRC) Example: bondYieldDate (6,1,2004,12,15,2006,100,3,−97.61645734) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondYieldDate] u bondYieldTerm Function: Returns the yield based on specified conditions. Syntax: bondYieldTerm (N,RDV,CPN,PRC) Example: bondYieldTerm (5,100,3,−95.54817767) Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondYieldTerm] Using the Command Submenu u Define Function: Creates a user-defined function. For more information, see “Define” on page 12-6-9 and “Creating a User-defined Function Using the Define Command” on page 12-5-2. u DispStat Function: Displays previous statistical calculation results. For more information, see “DispStat” on page 12-6-28 and “To explore statistical data” on page 12-7-5. u Clear_a_z Function: Clears all single-character variables. For more information, see “Clear_a_z” on page 2-8-48. u DelVar Function: Deletes a specified variable. For more information, see “DelVar” on page 12-6-39. u Clear All Variables Function: Clear variables that contain numbers, list and matrices. 20110401 2-9-1 Using the Interactive Menu 2-9 Using the Interactive Menu The [Interactive] menu includes most of the commands that are on the [Action] menu. Selecting a command on the [Action] menu will simply execute the command. With the [Interactive] menu, on the other hand, selecting a command will display a dialog box prompting input of the arguments required by the command’s syntax (when necessary). The following are the differences between the [Interactive] menu and [Action] menu. Interactive Menu and Action Menu • With the [Action] menu, you select a command to input a function into the work area. • With the [Interactive] menu, you drag the stylus across existing input in the work area and then select a command. This encloses the highlighted expression with the command and opens a dialog box if more arguments are needed. • When you select an [Interactive] menu item without highlighting an expression first, a dialog box will open prompting you for the necessary arguments. • When a command requires multiple arguments, a dialog box appears prompting you for the arguments with the [Interactive] menu. • The [Interactive] menu has an “apply” command while the [Action] menu does not. • The “DispStat”, “Clear_a_z,” and “DelVar” commands of the [Action] menu’s [Command] submenu are not included on the [Interactive] menu. Tip • Operation of the following [Interactive] menu commands is identical to the same commands on the [Action] menu. [Transformation], [Advanced], [Calculation], [Complex], [List-Create], [List-Calculation], [MatrixCreate], [Matrix-Calculation], [Vector], [Equation/Inequality], [Assistant], Define • For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. Interactive Menu Example The following example shows how to use the [Transformation]-[factor] command from both the [Interactive] menu and the [Action] menu. Example: To factorize the expression x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1 u To factorize from the Interactive menu (1) In the work area, input the expression you want to factorize (x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1). (2) Drag the stylus across the expression to select it. (3) Tap [Interactive], [Transformation], and then [factor]. • This factorizes the selected expression. 20060301 2-9-2 Using the Interactive Menu u To factorize from the Action menu (1) Tap [Action], [Transformation], and then [factor]. • This inputs “factor(” into the work area. (2) Input the expression you want to factorize (x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1). (3) Tap w. • This factorizes the selected expression. • Though the above two procedures are quite different, they both produce the same result. [Interactive] menu operations come in handy in the following cases. • When you want to use a command on an expression you are calculating • When you want to use a command that requires multiple arguments When you use the [Interactive] menu to access a command that requires multiple arguments or if you access a command without first highlighting an expression, the dialog box that appears shows the number of arguments, the contents of each argument, and the input sequence. This lets you perform your input without worrying about command syntax. The following procedure shows an example of using the [Interactive] menu when three arguments need to be specified. Example: To obtain the definite integral of x2 + 2x, 1 s x s 2 u ClassPad Operation (1) In the work area, input the expression ( x2 + 2x). (2) Drag the stylus across the expression to select it. (3) Tap [Interactive], [Calculation], and then [ ∫ ]. • This displays the ∫ dialog box. 20060301 2-9-3 Using the Interactive Menu (4) On the dialog box, tap “Definite integral” to select it. • This displays boxes for specifying the variable and the lower limit and the upper limit. (5) Input the required data for each of the following three arguments. Variable: x Lower: 1 Upper: 2 (6) Tap [OK]. • This performs the calculation and displays the solution. Tip • You can execute a command on the Interactive menu without selecting an expression in the work area. On the dialog box that appears, enter the expression you can to perform into the “Expression” box. Dialog box when an expression is selected in the work area when you tap [Interactive] [Calculation] - [∫]. Dialog box when no expression is selected. 20060301 2-9-4 Using the Interactive Menu Using the “apply” Command The “apply” command is included on the [Interactive] menu only. You can use this command to execute only a specific part of an expression and display its result. Example: To calculate the result of diff(sin(x),x) × cos(x) + sin(x) × diff(cos(x),x), and then calculate only part of the expression Note • This procedure assumes that your ClassPad is configured with the following mode settings: Algebra, Complex, Radian, Descending Order. u ClassPad Operation (1) Input the example calculation provided above and execute it. • For details about differential calculations, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. (2) Drag the stylus across “diff(sin(x),x)” to select it. (3) Tap [Interactive] and then [apply]. • This executes the part of the calculation you selected in step (2). The part of the calculation that is not selected (× cos(x) + sin(x) × diff(cos(x),x)) is output to the display as-is. 20060301 2-10-1 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications 2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications You can access the windows of other ClassPad applications from the Main application and perform copy, paste, and other operations between them. This section explains how to access the windows of other applications from the Main application, and provides examples of the various operations you can perform between them. Important! • For details about the windows produced by each ClassPad application, see the chapter that covers the application. All of the explanations in this section assume that you are already familiar with the operations in the other ClassPad applications. Opening Another Application’s Window Use the following procedure to access the window of another application from the Main application window. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button. • This displays a palette of application icons. Graph 3D Graph Conics Graph Geometry Stat Editor Financial Numeric Solver Verify Graph Editor 3D Graph Editor Conics Editor Spreadsheet Differential Equation Editor Probability Sequence Editor (2) Tap the button that corresponds to the window you want to display. • This causes the window that corresponds to the button you tap to appear in the lower window. 20060301 2-10-2 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications Closing Another Application’s Window u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap anywhere inside of the window you would like to close. (2) Tap the S button in the upper right corner, or tap O and then [Close]. • The Main application work area expands to fill the entire display. Tip • Even if you used the icon panel r icon to expand the lower window to fill the entire display, tapping O and then [Close] closes it and returns to the work area window. • Nothing happens if you tap O and then [Close] while the work area window is active. • For more information about enlarging one of the windows on a dual window display to fill the entire display (r), swapping the contents of the upper window and lower window (S), making a window active, and other window operations, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. Using the Graph Window $ and 3D Graph Window % Dragging a function from the work area to the Graph window $ graphs it in the format of y = f(x). Dragging a function from the work area to the 3D Graph window % graphs it in the format of z = f(x, y). Example: To execute the expression factor(x2 – 1) in the work area, and then graph x2 – 1 u ClassPad Operation (1) Input “factor (x2 – 1)” into the work area, and then tap w. (2) Tap $ to display the Graph window in the lower window. 20060301 2-10-3 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications (3) Drag the stylus across “x^2 – 1” in the work area to select it. (4) Drag the selected expression to the Graph window. • This graphs y = x2 – 1. This graph reveals that the x-intercepts are x = ±1. Tip • As can be seen in the above example, a graph can be drawn when you drop an expression in the form of f (x) into the Graph window. In the case of the 3D Graph window, the expression must be in the form of f (x,y). • For more information about the Graph window, see Chapter 3. For more information about the 3D Graph window, see Chapter 5. 20060301 2-10-4 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications Using a Graph Editor Window (Graph & Table: !, Conics: *, 3D Graph: @, Numeric Solver: 1) You can copy expressions by dragging them between the work area window and the Graph Editor, Conics Editor, 3D Graph Editor, and Numeric Solver windows. Example: To copy an expression in the work area by dragging it to the Graph Editor window u ClassPad Operation (1) On the work area window, tap ! to display the Graph Editor window in the lower window. • If you already have some functions input in the Graph & Table application, those functions will be displayed on the Graph Editor window. (2) In the work area, drag the stylus across the expression you want to copy so it is selected. (3) Drag the selected expression to the location on the Graph Editor window where you want to copy it. • This makes the Graph Editor window active and copies the expression to the location where you dropped it. 20060301 2-10-5 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications (4) Press E to register the expression. • The copied expression is displayed in natural format, with the check box next to it selected. • You could now tap $ to graph the function. Tip • For more information about the Graph Editor window, see Chapter 3. For more information about the Conics Graph Editor window, see Chapter 4. For more information about the 3D Graph Editor window, see Chapter 5. For more information about the Numeric Solver window, see Chapter 9. Using the Stat Editor Window ( You can use the Stat Editor window to create new LIST variables and edit existing LIST variables. You can also use the Stat Editor window to display the contents of a LIST variable created using the work area by specifying the LIST variable’s name. k Example List Operation The following are the general steps for using the Stat Editor. The steps indicated in parentheses refer to the steps under “ClassPad Operation” below. 1. Display the Stat Editor (step (1)) and input data for two LIST variables named “list1” and “list2” (step (2)). 2. On the work area window, perform calculations that use “list1” and “list2” (steps (3) and (4)). 3. Use the work area to assign numbers to a variable and create a new LIST variable (steps (5) and (6)). 4. Display the Stat Editor window and recall the LIST variable you created (steps (7), (8) and (9)). 20060301 2-10-6 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications u ClassPad Operation (1) On the work area window, tap ( to display the Stat Editor window in the lower window. (2) Input the following list data into the lists named “list1” and “list2”. list1 = {1, 2, 3} list2 = {4, 5, 6} (3) Make the work area window active, and then perform the following calculation: list1 + list2 S list3. • You could also input “list3:=list1+list2” to produce the same result. 20060301 2-10-7 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications (4) Tap the Stat Editor window to make it active. • Here you can see that list3 contains the result of list1 + list2. (5) Tap the work area window to make it active. (6) Perform the operation {12, 24, 36}⇒test, which assigns the list data {12, 24, 36} to the LIST variable named “test”. 20060301 2-10-8 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications (7) Tap the Stat Editor window to make it active. (8) Scroll the screen to the right until the blank list to the right of “list6” is visible. (9) Tap the blank cell next to “list6”, input “test”, and then tap w. • This displays the list data {12, 24, 36}, which is assigned to the variable named “test”. • At this point you can perform list editing operations like append, delete, edit, etc. Tip • list1 through list6 are LIST type system variables. For more information, see “1-7 Variables and Folders”. • For information about inputting and editing list data using the Stat Editor, see Chapter 7. 20090601 2-10-9 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications Using the Geometry Window 3 When there is a Geometry window on the display, you can drag values and expressions to the Geometry window to draw the graph or figure of the value or expression. You can also drag a figure from the Geometry window to the work area, which displays the corresponding expression or value. k Dragging an Expression from the Work Area to the Geometry Window Example: To input the expressions x2/52 + y2/22 = 1 and x2 + y2 = 1 in the work area, and then drag them to the Geometry window u ClassPad Operation (1) Input the two expressions into the work area. (2) Tap 3 to display the Geometry window in the lower window. • The Geometry window that initially appears is blank. (3) Drag the stylus across x2/52 + y2/22 = 1 in the work area to select it. (4) Drag the selected expression to the Geometry window. • An ellipse appears in the Geometry window. 20060301 2-10-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications (5) Drag the stylus across x2 + y2 = 1 in the work area to select it. (6) Drag the selected expression to the Geometry window. • A circle appears in the Geometry window. Tip • The following table shows the types of expressions you can drop into the Geometry window. Dropping this into the Geometry window: Linear equation in x and y Equation of circle in x and y Displays this: An infinite line Equation of ellipse in x and y A circle An ellipse Equation of hyperbola in x and y A hyperbola 2-dimensional vector (2 rows × 1 column format) Equation y = f(x) A point A curve 2 × n matrix, n > 3 A polygon (each column represents a vertex of the polygon) n × 2 matrix, n > 3 An open polygon • When the expression is not recognized, Geometry displays it as text. 20060301 2-10-11 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications k Dragging a Figure from the Geometry Window to the Work Area The following shows what happens when you drag a figure from the Geometry window to the work area. Displays this: Coordinates as a vector (2 × 1 matrix) Equation of the line An ordered pair (head of vector assuming the tail is at the origin) Dropping this into the work area: Point Line Vector Corresponding equation 2 × n matrix n × 2 matrix Simultaneous equations for the pair Line Pair A point and its image under a transformation Matrix expression for the transformation Circle, Arc, Ellipse, Function, or Curve Polygon Open Polygon (Created by Animation) Point Circle A point and its image Tip • For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8. Using the Sequence Editor Window & Displaying the Sequence Editor window from the Main application makes it possible for you to perform the same operations you can perform in the Sequence application. You can also use drag and drop to copy expressions between the work area and the Sequence Editor window. Tip • For information about Sequence Editor operations and other Sequence application operations, see Chapter 6. 20060301 2-11-1 Using Verify 2-11 Using Verify Verify provides you with a powerful tool to check whether your numeric or algebraic manipulations are correct. Verify will assist you in simplifying an expression by verifying whether or not the expression you entered is equivalent to your original expression. If it is, you will get a pleasant response; if not, you will need to correct your mistake before continuing. You can access Verify within the Main application or the eActivity application. In the Main application, you can save Verify sessions in ClassPad memory and reopen the session for future use. Verify sessions can also be saved within an eActivity. For more information on saving an eActivity, see “10-2 Creating an eActivity”. Important! • Most Verify operations are the same in both the Main application and the eActivity application. Starting Up Verify Use the following procedure to start up Verify. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button. (2) On the icon palette that appears, tap W. Left-side expression Right-side expression 20090601 2-11-2 Using Verify Verify Menus and Buttons This section provides basic information about Verify menus, commands, and buttons. Tip • O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. k File Menu To do this: Select this File menu item: Discard the current window contents and create a new file New Open an existing file Open Save the current window contents to a file Save k Edit Menu To do this: Select this Edit menu item: Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone Undo/Redo Cut the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard Cut Copy the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard Copy Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen Paste Select the entire row where the cursor is located Select All Delete the entire row where the cursor is located Delete Clear the Verify window Clear All k Action Menu For information about Action menu commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”. Important! Some Action menu commands are not useful in Verify, but for ease of use Verify’s Action menu is identical to the Action menus in the Main application and the eActivity application. 20060301 2-11-3 Using Verify k Verify Buttons To do this: Tap this Verify button: Clear the Verify window (same as the Clear All command) E Open or save a file (Main application only) R Specify the complex number calculation range for Verify T Specify the real number calculation range for Verify Y Specify the positive real number calculation range for Verify U Verify the equation starting from the first line Verify the equation starting from the current line Using Verify The following examples show the basic steps for using Verify. Important! • In Verify, you can press E or tap with the stylus to move the cursor between lines. • A message will appear to let you know whether or not the calculation result is valid. Example 1: To factor 50 completely u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button. (2) On the icon palette that appears, tap W. (3) Input 50 and tap w. 20060301 2-11-4 Using Verify (4) Following the equal sign (=), input 25 × 3 and tap w. (5) Tap [OK] to close the error dialog that appears. (6) Change 25 × 3 to 25 × 2 and tap w. (7) Following the next equal sign (=), input 5 × 5 × 2 and tap w. Example 2: To rewrite x2 + 1 in factored form (1) Tap the left most toolbar icon E to begin a new Verify session. (2) Tap [OK] to clear the window. (3) Tap the down arrow on the toolbar and select T. (4) Input x^2 + 1 and press E. (5) Input (x + i )(x – i ) and press E. 20060301 2-12-1 Using Probability 2-12 Using Probability You can use Probability to simulate the following. • The die faces that will appear when a single die is thrown a specified number of times (1 Die) • The sum of the data of dice faces that will appear when a pair of dice is shown a specified number of times (2 Dice +) • The product of the data of dice faces that will appear when a pair of dice is shown a specified number of times (2 Dice `) • When any number of balls labeled A, B, C, D, E, and F are placed into a box, data about how many times each ball will be drawn within a specified number of draws (Container) You can specify any integer from 1 to 20 as the number of die faces. Probability dialog box when 1 Die is selected Probability dialog box when Container is selected You can access Probability in the Main application or the eActivity application. From either application, you can save Probability sessions in ClassPad memory and reopen the session for future use. Probability sessions also can be inserted into an eActivity. For more information, see “10-2 Creating an eActivity”. Important! Most Probability operations are the same in both the Main application and the eActivity application. 20060301 2-12-2 Using Probability Starting Up Probability Use the following procedure to start up Probability. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button. (2) On the icon palette that appears, tap P. • This will display an initial Probability dialog box like the one shown below. You can use this dialog box to try the probability emulation. (3) Tap [OK]. • This will execute the probability emulation using the default setup (1 Die, Number of trials: 1, Number of faces: 6 ). Trial information Trial result Probability Menus and Buttons This section provides basic information about Probability menus, commands, and buttons. Tip • O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. k File Menu To do this: Select this File menu item: Discard the current window contents and create a new file New Open an existing file Open Save the current window contents to a file Save 20060301 2-12-3 Using Probability k Edit Menu Select this Edit menu item: To do this: Copy the currently selected object (trial information or trial result) and Copy place it onto the clipboard Display the Probability dialog box and try the probability emulation (the trial result will be added to the end of the current file) Add Delete the currently selected trial data Delete Clear the Probability window (and display the Probability dialog box) Clear All k Display Menu To do this: Select this Display menu item: Show the selected result distribution table format Distribution Show the selected result as a list data format Sample Data Tip • Under initial default settings, trial results are shown in distribution table format. Selecting distribution table results and selecting [Sample Data] on the [Display] menu will change them to list data format. Conversely, selecting table results and selecting [Distribution] on the [Display] menu will change them to distribution table format. Distribution Table Format List Data Format k Probability Buttons Select this Probability button: To do this: Discard the current window contents and create a new file E Display the Probability dialog box and try the probability emulation P Open an existing file R 20060301 2-12-4 Using Probability Using Probability The following examples show the basic steps for using Probability. Example 1: To obtain the sum data when a two six-sided die are thrown 50 times u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button. (2) On the icon palette that appears, tap P. • This displays the Probability dialog box. (3) Tap the button next to “2 Dice +” to select it. (4) Enter 50 into the “Number of trials” box. • Leave the value in the “Number of faces” box at it intial default value (6). (5) Tap [OK]. • The result will appear in the Probability window. 20060301 2-12-5 Using Probability Example 2: To obtain the product data when a two six-sided die are thrown 150 times (This example assumes you are continuing from Example 1.) (1) Tap P to display the Probability dialog box. (2) Tap the button next to “2 Dice `” to select it. (3) Enter 150 into the “Number of trials” box. • Leave the value in the “Number of faces” box at it initial default value (6). (4) Tap [OK]. • The result will appear in the Probability window. Example 3: After putting 10 A-balls, 2- B-balls, and 30 C-balls into a box, determine how many times each type of ball will be drawn when there is a total of 50 draws. Each time a ball is drawn, it should be replaced into the box before the next draw. (This example assumes you are continuing from Example 2.) (1) Tap P to display the Probability dialog box. (2) Tap the button next to “Container” to select it. 20060301 2-12-6 Using Probability (3) Configure the following settings on the dialog box. • Replace: Yes (Indicates the ball is replaced before the next draw. If the ball is not replaced, select “No”.) • A: 10, B: 20, C: 30 (Leaver other letters set to zero.) • Number of trials: 50 (4) Tap [OK]. • The result will appear in the Probability window. 20060301 2-13-1 Running a Program in the Main Application 2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application You can run a program in the Main application or the eActivity application. Syntax: Folder name\Program name(parameter) • You do not need to specify the folder name if the program you want to run is in the current folder. If you leave ClassPad configured with its initial default settings, the current folder for both the Program application and the Main application is the “main” folder, so you normally do not need to specify a folder name. • Unless you change it, the current folder of the eActivity application is the “eAct” folder, so you always need to specify the folder name. If you want to run a program that is in the “main” folder, input “main\Program name(parameter)”. Important! If the program command “Pause” is used in a program, it is ignored when the program is called from Main or eActivity. Program Main application 20090601 eActivity application 2-13-2 Running a Program in the Main Application Example: To run the program named OCTA that we created and stored under “Creating and Saving a Program” (page 12-2-1) from the Main application, and determine the surface area and of a regular octahedron with a side length of 20 cm u ClassPad Operation (1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area. 0EOCTA9() (2) Tap E. (3) Enter 20 and then tap [OK]. • This will run OCTA and display the results in the program output window. Program output window (4) To close the program output window, tap anywhere inside it and then tap the S button in upper right corner. 20060301 Chapter 3 Using the Graph & Table Application The Graph & Table application allows you to input and graph rectangular coordinate equations (or inequalities), polar coordinate equations, and parametric expressions. After you graph an expression, you can zoom in or out, and move a pointer along the graph, displaying its coordinates as you go. You can also perform various graph-based analytical operations to determine the points of intersect of two graphs, and to determine the maximum, minimum, point of inflection, and definite integral for a particular range of a parabola or other figure. You can even generate number tables and summary tables for functions that you input. 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 Graph & Table Application Overview Using the Graph Window Storing Functions Using Table & Graph Modifying a Graph Using the Sketch Menu Using Trace Analyzing a Function Used to Draw a Graph 20060301 3-1-1 Graph & Table Application Overview 3-1 Graph & Table Application Overview This section describes the configuration of the Graph & Table application windows and provides basic information about its menus and commands. Starting Up the Graph & Table Application Use the following procedure to start up the Graph & Table application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap T. This starts the Graph & Table application and displays the Graph Editor window and the Graph window. Graph & Table Application Window When you start up the Graph & Table application, two windows appear on the display: the Graph Editor window and the Graph window. Graph Editor window Line numbers Graph window Message box • A Graph Editor sheet can contain up to 20 functions. You can have up to 100 functions stored in the Graph Editor at one time. Functions stored in the Graph Editor can be graphed on the Graph window. • The Graph window and Table window have a message box along the bottom that can display expressions and values, or be used for input and editing. 20060301 3-1-2 Graph & Table Application Overview You can also use a function on the Graph Editor window to generate a number table or a summary table. Number tables and summary tables are displayed in a Table window. Table window Graph & Table Application Menus and Buttons This section explains the operations you can perform using the Graph & Table application menus and buttons. • For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. k Graph Editor Window Menus and Buttons Tap this button: To do this: Or select this menu item: Cut the selected character string and place it onto the clipboard — Edit - Cut Copy the selected character string to the clipboard — Edit - Copy Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor position in the Graph Editor window — Edit - Paste Select the entire expression you are editing — Edit - Select All Clear all of the expressions from the Graph Editor window — Edit - Clear All Input a rectangular coordinate type function d Type - y= Type Input a polar coordinate type function f Type - r= Type Input a parametric function g Type - ParamType Input an X equality h Type - x= Type 20060301 20070301 3-1-3 Graph & Table Application Overview To do this: Input a rectangular coordinate type inequality Input an X inequality Tap this button: Or select this menu item: j Type - y> Type l Type - y< Type ' Type - yt Type X Type - ys Type k Type - x> Type ; Type - x< Type Z Type - xt Type C Type - xs Type Input two functions in a list and shade between them Type - ShadeType Save all of the expressions on the Graph Editor window — GMem - Store Recall batch saved data to the Graph Editor window — GMem - Recall Display the Dynamic Graph dialog box (page 3-5-4) — a - Dynamic Graph Display the Draw Shade dialog box (page 3-3-12) — a - Draw Shade Use a built-in function for input — a - Built-In Specify “AND Plot” as the inequality plot setting — a - Inequality Plot and Specify “OR Plot” as the inequality plot setting — a - Inequality Plot or Delete all of the expressions on the active sheet — a - Sheet Clear Sheet Return all sheet names to their initial defaults — a - Sheet Default Name Graph the selected function(s) $ — Generate a summary table for the selected function 4 — Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph window settings 6 O - View Window Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings 8 — Generate a table for the selected function # — Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) — 20060301 O - Variable Manager 3-1-4 Graph & Table Application Overview k Graph Window Menus and Buttons Tap this Or select this button: menu item: To do this: Cut the character string selected in the message box and place it onto the clipboard — Edit - Cut Copy the character string selected in the message box to the clipboard — Edit - Copy Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor position in the message box — Edit - Paste Select all of the text in the message box — Edit - Select All Clear all of the Graph window contents — Edit - Clear All Enlarge the part of the screen bounded by a box Q Zoom - Box Specify a zoom factor — Zoom - Factor Zoom in by the zoom factor — Zoom - Zoom In Zoom out by the zoom factor — Zoom - Zoom Out Configure View Window y-axis parameters and redraw the graph so it fills the graph screen along the y-axis R Zoom - Auto Return a graph to its original size — Zoom - Original Adjust View Window x-axis values so they are identical to the y-axis values — Zoom - Square Round coordinate values displayed using Trace (page 3-7-1) — Zoom - Round Make the value of each dot equal 1, which makes all coordinate values integers — Zoom - Integer Return View Window parameters to their settings prior to the last zoom operation — Zoom - Previous — Zoom Quick Initialize — Zoom - Quick Trig — Zoom - Quick log(x) — Zoom - Quick e^x — Zoom - Quick x^2 — Zoom - Quick –x^2 — Zoom Quick Standard Perform a quick zoom operation (page 3-2-9) 20060301 3-1-5 Graph & Table Application Overview Tap this Or select this button: menu item: To do this: Display the coordinates at a particular point on a graph Insert a point, graphic, or text into an existing graph (page 3-6-1) = Analysis - Trace — Analysis - Sketch Obtain the root (x-intercept) of a graph Y Analysis - G-Solve Root Obtain the maximum value of a graph U Analysis - G-Solve Max Obtain the minimum value of a graph I Analysis - G-Solve Min Obtain the maximum value in the range displayed on the Graph window — Analysis - G-Solve fMax Obtain the minimum value in the range displayed on the Graph window — Analysis - G-Solve fMin Obtain the y-intercept of a graph — Analysis - G-Solve y-Intercept Obtain the point of intersection for two graphs — Analysis - G-Solve Intersect Obtain the y-coordinate for a given x-coordinate — Analysis - G-Solve y-Cal Obtain the x-coordinate for a given y-coordinate — Analysis - G-Solve x-Cal Obtain the definite integral for a particular range — Analysis - G-Solve ∫dx Obtain the point of inflection — Analysis - G-Solve Inflection Obtain the distance between two points — Analysis - G-Solve Distance Obtain the volume of a solid of revolution — Analysis - G-Solve π ∫ (f (x))2 dx Modify a graph by changing the value of a coefficient — Analysis - Modify Save a graph as image data (page 3-2-10) — a - Store Picture Recall the image of a graph (page 3-2-10) — a - Recall Picture Display the Dynamic Graph dialog box (page 3-5-4) — a - Dynamic Graph Display the Draw Shade dialog box (page 3-3-12) — a - Draw Shade Use a built-in function template to input a function for graphing • Note that built-in functions are graphed automatically and cannot be used for input on the Graph Editor window. — a - Built-In 20060301 3-1-6 Graph & Table Application Overview Tap this Or select this button: menu item: To do this: Specify “AND Plot” as the inequality plot setting — a - Inequality Plot and Specify “OR Plot” as the inequality plot setting — a - Inequality Plot or Re-draw a graph — a - ReDraw Make the Graph Editor window active ! — Generate a number table for an existing graph # — Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph window settings 6 O - View Window Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings 8 — Pan the Graph window T — Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) Generate a summary table for an existing graph — O - Variable Manager 4 — k Table Window Menus and Buttons Tap this Or select this button: menu item: To do this: Cut the character string selected in the message box and place it onto the clipboard — Edit - Cut Copy the character string selected in the message box to the clipboard — Edit - Copy Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor position in the message box — Edit - Paste Select all of the text in the message box — Edit - Select All Clear all of the Table window contents — Edit - Clear All Delete a line from a table — T-Fact - Delete Insert a line into a table — T-Fact - Insert Add a line after the currently selected line — T-Fact - Add Draw a connect type graph using a generated table $ Graph - G-Connect Draw a plot type graph using a generated table ! Graph - G-Plot Save the contents of a table to a list — a - Table to List Re-generate a table based on current table settings — a - ReTable Delete the displayed table — a - Delete Table Move the pointer to the location on a graph that corresponds to the value selected in a table — a - Link 20060301 3-1-7 Graph & Table Application Overview Tap this Or select this button: menu item: To do this: Make the Graph Editor window active ! Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph window settings 6 Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings 8 Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) — — O - View Window — O - Variable Manager Graph & Table Application Status Bar The status bar at the bottom of the Graph & Table application shows the current angle unit setting and [Complex Format] setting (page 1-9-5). Angle unit Real mode If you see this: It means this: Rad The angle unit setting is radians. Deg The angle unit setting is degrees. Gra The angle unit setting is grads. Cplx The Complex (complex number calculation) mode is selected. Real The Real (real number calculation) mode is selected. Graph & Table Application Basic Operations This section explains how to input a function on the Graph Editor window and then graph it on the Graph window. These are the most basic operations you can perform with the Graph & Table application. k Function Storage and Graphing Example This example shows how to input two functions on Sheet 1 of the Graph & Table application, and then draw their graphs. Tip • The Graph Editor window has five sheets, named Sheet 1 through Sheet 5, for input of expressions. For more information, see “Using Graph Editor Sheets” on page 3-3-1. 20060301 3-1-8 Graph & Table Application Overview Example 1: To input the function y = 3x2 on Sheet 1 and graph it u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap T. • This starts the Graph & Table application. (2) In the Graph Editor window, tap the input box immediately to the right of line number y1. • This locates the cursor in the input box for line y1. Cursor (3) Input the expression. 3x{2E • Pressing E stores the expression you input and puts a check mark into the check box to the left of line number y1. When a line number has a check mark next to it, it means that the expression is currently selected for graphing. When you input an expression, the line style that will be used for the graph will appear here. See page 3-3-8 for information about configuring line settings. Hint: Tap the line that is circled above! 20060301 3-1-9 Graph & Table Application Overview (4) Tap $. • This graphs the expression. The expression is displayed in the message box while the graph is being drawn. Tip • The Graph window message box is for both input and output. It displays information about the function and other information. You can also use it to edit the function, which causes the graph to change shape. Details about the information that appears in the message box and how to use the message box are covered on page 1-6-8. 20060301 3-1-10 Graph & Table Application Overview Example 2: To input the function r = 3sin2θ into line 2 of Sheet 1 and graph it In Example 1, we graphed a rectangular expression in the form of y = f(x). You can also input polar coordinate expressions, inequalities, and other types of functions for graphing as well. In this example, we input and graph the polar coordinate expression r = 3sin2θ. Note that the following sample procedure assumes that you have already completed the steps for Example 1. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap anywhere inside of the Graph Editor window to make it active. (2) Tap the down arrow next to “y =”, or on the menu tap [Type]. On the list that appears, tap “r =”. • This causes the line numbers next to any line on the Graph Editor window that does not contain an expression to change from “y” to “r” (r2, r3, etc.). The line numbers of lines that already contain expressions do not change. (3) Tap the input box to the right of line number r2 and input the expression. k9dTsc8)w • Tapping w stores the expression you input and puts a check mark into the check box to the left of line number r2. When a line number has a check mark next to it, it means that the expression is currently selected for graphing. 20060301 3-1-11 Graph & Table Application Overview (4) Tap $. • Since there are check marks next to both “y1” and “r2”, both expressions are graphed. 20060301 3-2-1 Using the Graph Window 3-2 Using the Graph Window This section explains Graph window operations, including configuring display settings, scrolling, zooming the image, and more. Configuring View Window Parameters for the Graph Window The View Window dialog box lets you specify the maximum and minimum values for each axis, the space between the marks on each axis (the scale), and other graph display parameters. Before drawing a graph, be sure to first configure View Window parameters to ensure proper display of the graph. u To configure View Window parameters (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6, or tap O and then [View Window]. • This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap the “2D” option button so the option is selected. (4) Configure View Window parameters required for the type of graph you want to draw. • Press c to move the cursor and then input an appropriate value for each parameter. Rectangular Coordinates Use this item: xmin xmax xscale xdot ymin ymax yscale ydot To configure this View Window parameter: x-axis minimum value x-axis maximum value x-axis marker spacing Value of each dot on the x-axis y-axis minimum value y-axis maximum value y-axis marker spacing Value of each dot on the y-axis 20060301 3-2-2 Using the Graph Window • You can also use the rectangular coordinate View Window dialog box to select x-log graph, y-log graph, or xy-log graph. To select this type of graph: x-log graph Do this: Select the x-log check box. • This automatically sets “xdot” and “xscale” to “Auto”. y-log graph Select the y-log check box. • This automatically sets “ydot” and “yscale” to “Auto”. xy-log graph Select the x-log check box and the y-log check box. This automatically sets “xdot”, “xscale”, “ydot”, and “yscale” to “Auto”. Polar Coordinates and Parametric Coordinates Use this item: t θ min t θ max t θ step To configure this View Window parameter: Minimum value of tθ Maximum value of tθ Step size of tθ (5) After all the parameters are the way you want, tap [OK]. Tip • When you tap [OK] after changing View Window dialog box settings while the Graph window is active, the graph is redrawn automatically using the new View Window settings. • If the Graph window is not active, tapping [OK] closes the View Window dialog box without redrawing the graph. To redraw the graph in this case, tap $ on the Graph Editor window. 20060301 3-2-3 Using the Graph Window u View Window parameter precautions • An error occurs if you input 0 for t step. • An error also occurs if you input a value that is out of range for a parameter, if you input a minus sign only, or if you perform any other illegal input. • An error occurs if ymin is greater than or equal to the ymax. The same is also true for the xmin and xmax. If the value you specify for t min is greater than the value you specify for t max, the t step setting is automatically changed to a negative value. • When the View Window setting produces an axis that does not fit on the display, the scale of the axis is indicated on the edge of the display closest to the origin. • Changing the xmin (ymin) or xmax (ymax) value automatically changes the xdot (ydot) value, while changing the xdot (ydot) value automatically changes the xmax (ymax) value. u To initialize View Window parameters (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap [Memory] and then [Initial]. This initializes View Window parameters to the values noted below. xmin = –7.7 xmax = 7.7 xscale = 1 xdot = 0.1 ymin = –3.8 ymax = 3.8 yscale = 1 ydot = 0.1 t min = 0 tmax = 6.28318530717 t step = 0.05235987755 u To initialize the View Window for an angle unit (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap [Memory] and then [Trigonometric]. This initializes View Window parameters in accordance with the angle unit, as shown below. (Setup: Radian) xmin = –9.4247779607 xmax = 9.42477796076 xscale = 1.57079632679 xdot = 0.12239971377 ymin = –1.6 ymax = 1.6 yscale = 0.5 ydot = 0.04210526315 t min = 0 t max = 6.28318530717 t step = 0.05235987755 (Setup: Degree) xmin = –540 xmax = 540 xscale = 90 xdot = 7.01298701298 ymin = –1.6 ymax = 1.6 yscale = 0.5 ydot = 0.04210526315 t min = 0 t max = 360 t step = 3 20060301 3-2-4 Using the Graph Window u To standardize the View Window (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap [Memory] and then [Standard]. This applies the standard View Window parameters shown below. xmin = –10 xmax = 10 xscale = 1 xdot = 0.12987012987 ymin = –10 ymax = 10 yscale = 1 ydot = 0.26315789473 t min = 0 t max= 6.28318530717 tstep = 0.05235987755 u To auto configure View Window parameters (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap [Memory] and then [Auto]. This causes View Window parameters to be configured automatically in accordance with the function on the Graph Editor window. • When multiple expressions are selected for graphing, the one with the lowest numbered line is used for auto setting of View Window parameters. Tip • Initializing or standardizing View Window parameters causes polar/parametric coordinate values t min, t max, and t step to be adjusted automatically in accordance with the currently selected angle unit. In the Degree mode, for example, the following settings are configured: t min = 0, t max = 360, t step = 3 k Using View Window Memory You can store your custom View Window settings for later use. u To save the current View Window setup (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. (3) On the View Window dialog box, configure the parameters you want. (4) Tap [Memory] and then [Store]. This displays a dialog box for inputting a name for the View Window setup. (5) Enter the name and then tap [OK]. 20060301 3-2-5 Using the Graph Window u To recall a setup from View Window memory (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box. (3) Tap [Memory] and then [Recall]. This displays a list of names of the View Window setups you have stored in memory. (4) Select the name of the setup you want, and then tap [OK]. Tip • Recalling a View Window setup causes the current View Window parameters to be replaced by the parameters of the recalled setup. Viewing Graph Window Coordinates Tapping and holding a point on Graph window with the stylus will display the coordinates at that location in the status bar. Coordinate 20060301 3-2-6 Using the Graph Window Scrolling the Graph Window After drawing a graph, you can use either of the two operations to scroll it up, down, left, or right. • Tap the graph controller arrows at the edges of the Graph window. • Use the cursor key. Graph controller arrows Tip • Display of the graph controller arrows is turned off under initial default settings. Use the Graph Format dialog box to turn them on, if you want. For more information, see “Application Format Settings” on page 1-9-4. • You can also use the graph controller arrows and cursor key to change the configuration of a graph. For details, see “3-5 Modifying a Graph”. Panning the Graph Window Placing the stylus against the Graph window and dragging causes the window to scroll automatically in the direction you drag. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the Graph window to make it active. (2) Tap T. (3) Holding the stylus anywhere against the Graph window, drag it in the direction you want. • This causes the Graph window to scroll automatically in accordance with the dragging. After T is tapped While panning (4) When the Graph window shows the area you want, remove the stylus from the display. • This causes the graph to be redrawn on the Graph window. 20060301 3-2-7 Using the Graph Window Zooming the Graph Window Your ClassPad provides you with a wide selection of zoom commands that you can use to enlarge or reduce an entire graph or a specific area of a graph. k Zoom Commands The Graph window’s [Zoom] menu contains the zoom commands described in the table below. Description Zoom Command Box With “box zoom”, you draw a selection boundary around the area you would like to enlarge. This causes the selected area to be enlarged so it fills the entire graph display. Factor Zoom In Zoom Out “Factor zoom” lets you specify a zoom factor for enlarging or reducing a graph. Use the [Factor] command to configure zoom factor settings, the [Zoom In] command to zoom in, and the [Zoom Out] command to zoom out. Auto Original Square Round “Auto zoom” automatically configures View Window y-axis values and redraws the graph so it fills the Graph window along the y-axis. Return a graph to its original View Window settings Executing this command adjusts View Window x-axis values so that they are identical to the y-axis values. Round View Window settings (xmin, xmax, xdot) to an appropriate number of decimal places and redraw the graph. Integer This command makes the value of each dot equal 1, which makes all coordinate values integers. Previous Performing a zoom operation changes View Window parameter values. Execute this command to return View Window parameters to their settings prior to the last zoom operation. Quick Initialize Quick Trig Quick log (x) Quick e^x Quick x^2 Quick –x^2 Quick Standard These seven quick zoom commands cause the graph to be redrawn using preset View Window parameter values (page 3-2-9). 20060301 3-2-8 Using the Graph Window u To use box zoom Example: To use box zoom to enlarge part of the graph y = (x + 5)(x + 4)(x + 3) (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) On the Graph Editor window, input y = (x + 5)(x + 4)(x + 3). • For details about how to input an expression, see “Function Storage and Graphing Example” on page 3-1-7 and “3-3 Storing Functions”. (3) Tap $ to graph the functions. (4) Tap [Zoom] and then [Box], or tap Q. (5) On the Graph window, drag the stylus to draw a selection boundary around the area you want to enlarge. (6) Remove the stylus from the display and the area within the selection boundary expands to fill the entire Graph window. Box Zoom Result u To use factor zoom Example: To enlarge the graphs of the following two expressions, by a factor of 5 in both directions, to determine whether they come into contact with each other y1 = (x + 4)(x + 1)(x – 3) y2 = 3x + 22 (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) On the Graph Editor window, input y1 = (x + 4)(x + 1)(x – 3) and y2 = 3x + 22. • For details about how to input an expression, see “Function Storage and Graphing Example” on page 3-1-7 and “3-3 Storing Functions”. (3) Tap 6 to display the View Window, and then configure it with the following parameters. xmin = –8, xmax = 8, xscale = 1 ymin = –30, ymax = 30, yscale = 5 • See “To configure View Window parameters” on page 3-2-1. (4) Tap $ to graph the functions. (5) Tap [Zoom] and then [Factor]. • This displays a dialog box for configuring x- and y-axis zoom factor settings. 20060301 3-2-9 Using the Graph Window (6) Input 5 for both the xFactor and yFactor, and then tap [OK]. (7) Tap T, and then use the stylus to drag the screen image so the part you want to zoom is in the center of the screen. (8) Tap [Zoom] and then [Zoom In]. Factor Zoom Result k Using Quick Zoom The seven quick zoom commands draw a graph using preset built-in View Window parameter values. Command Quick Initialize Quick Trig Quick log (x) Quick e^x Quick x^2 Quick –x^2 Quick Standard xmin –7.7 –12.1 (–3.85π) –2 –2.2 –7.7 –7.7 –10 View Window Parameter Values xmax xscale ymin ymax 7.7 1 –3.8 3.8 12.1 1.570 –2.1 2.1 (3.85π) (π/2) 13.4 2.2 7.7 7.7 10 2 1 2 2 1 –3.8 –1.4 –10 –66 –10 yscale 1 3.8 9 66 10 10 1 1 1 5 5 1 The applicable set of View Window parameter values is applied as soon as you select a quick zoom command on the Graph window’s [Zoom] menu. Tip • Any View Window parameter that is not shown in the above table is unchanged when you execute a quick zoom command. • When the angle unit setting is degrees, Quick Trig configures the following values. xmin = –540, xmax = 540, xscale = 90 ymin = –1.6, ymax = 1.6, yscale = 0.5 20101001 3-2-10 Using the Graph Window k Using Other Zoom Menu Commands The [Auto], [Original], [Square], [Round], [Integer], and [Previous] zoom commands are executed as soon as you tap one of them on the Graph window’s [Zoom] menu. For information about what each command does, see “Zoom Commands” on page 3-2-7. Tip • For auto zoom, you can tap the R button instead of using the [Zoom] - [Auto] menu command. • With Integer Zoom, tap T and then use the stylus to drag the screen image so the part you want to zoom is in the center of the screen. Other Graph Window Operations This section explains how to save a screenshot of the Graph Window, how to redraw a graph, how to make the Graph Editor Window the active window. k Saving a Screenshot of a Graph Use the following procedures to save a screenshot of a graph as image data for later recall. u To save a screenshot of a graph (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Draw the graph you want to save. (3) Tap a and then [Store Picture]. This displays a dialog box for inputting a name for the screenshot. (4) Enter the name and then tap [OK]. u To recall a screenshot of a graph (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) Tap the Graph window to make it active. (3) Tap a and then [Recall Picture]. This displays a list of names of graph images you have stored in memory. (4) Select the name of the image you want, and then tap [OK]. 20060301 3-2-11 Using the Graph Window k Redrawing a Graph Use the following procedure to redraw a graph when necessary. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the Graph window to make it active. (2) Tap a and then [ReDraw]. • While the Graph Editor window is active, you can redraw the graph by tapping $. Important! • Use the a - [ReDraw] command to redraw a graph that you drew by dragging an expression from another window to the Graph window (see “2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications”), or a graph you modified using some Sketch menu (see “3-6 Using the Sketch Menu”). After deleting the redrawn graph, you can redraw the graph of the expression selected on the Graph window by tapping [Analysis], [Sketch], and then [Cls]. k Making the Graph Editor Window the Active Window While the Graph window is active, you can make the Graph Editor window the active window by tapping anywhere inside of it, by tapping !, or by tapping Oand then [Graph Editor]. 20060301 3-3-1 Storing Functions 3-3 Storing Functions Use the Graph Editor window to store a Graph & Table application function. This section covers Graph Editor operations, and explains how to store functions. Using Graph Editor Sheets The Graph Editor window has five tabbed sheets named Sheet 1 through Sheet 5, each of which can contain up to 20 functions. You can have up to 100 functions stored in the Graph Editor at one time. You can graph up to 20 functions simultaneously, as long as all of the functions are on the same sheet. k Selecting a Sheet Use the operations described below to change from one sheet to another. Tap the tab of the sheet you want to select. The currently selected sheet is the “active” sheet. Tap here to scroll the tabs so the ones that do not fit on the current window come into view. k Renaming a Sheet Initially, the fives sheets are assigned default names from Sheet 1 through Sheet 5. You can use these sheet names as they are, or you can perform the steps below to rename a sheet. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the tab of the sheet you want to rename so that sheet becomes active. (2) Tap the tab of the active sheet again. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a sheet name. (3) Enter up to 8 bytes for the sheet name, and then tap [OK]. 20060301 3-3-2 Storing Functions k Returning Sheets to Their Default Names The procedure below returns the sheet names to their initial default names (Sheet 1 through Sheet 5). u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the Graph Editor window to make it active. (2) Tap a, [Sheet], and then [Default Name]. • This returns the currently active sheet to its default name. k Initializing a Sheet The following procedure initializes a sheet, which clears all of its functions and renames the sheet to its default name. u ClassPad Operation (1) If the sheet you want to initialize is not active, tap its tab. (2) Tap a, [Sheet], and then [Clear Sheet]. (3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK] to initialize the sheet or [Cancel] to cancel the operation. • For details about editing and deleting individual functions, see “Editing Stored Functions” on page 3-3-6. • You can delete all expressions on all of the sheets by tapping [Edit] and then [Clear All]. For more information, see “Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions” on page 3-3-7. Specifying the Function Type When storing a Graph & Table application function, the first thing you need to do is specify the function type. The following table lists all of the function types that you can select. y= r= xt/yt = x= y> y< y≤ y≥ x> x< x≤ x≥ Rectangular coordinate expression Polar coordinate expression Parametric expressions X = expression ya Two functions in a list with shading between them Inequality 20060301 3-3-3 Storing Functions u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) On the Graph Editor window, tap the down arrow next to “y =”, or tap [Type]. (3) On the list that appears, tap the function type you want to select. Storing a Function This section presents a number of examples that illustrate how to store a Graph & Table application function. u To store a rectangular coordinate function (Y=) Example: To store the rectangular coordinate function y = 2x 2 – 5 in line number y1 (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [y=Type] to specify a rectangular coordinate expression. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y1”, and then input the expression: 2x{ 2-5. (3) Press E to store the expression. u To store a polar coordinate equation (r=) Example: To store the polar coordinate equation r = 5sin3 in line number r 2 (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [r=Type] to specify a polar coordinate expression. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “r 2”, and then input the expression: k9fTsd8). (3) Tap w to store the expression. u To store parametric functions Example: To store the parametric functions below in line numbers xt3/yt3 xt = 3sint yt = 3cost (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [ParamType] to specify parametric expressions. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “xt3”, and then input the x-expression: k9dTst)w. (3) Tap the box to the right of line number “yt3”, and then input the y-expression: 9dct)w. 20060301 3-3-4 Storing Functions u To store an x = equation Example: To store x = 3y in line x4 (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [x=Type] to specify an x = equation. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “x4”, and then input the equation: 3y. (3) Press E to store the equation. u To store an inequality Example: To store the inequality y > x2 – 2x – 6 in line y5 (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [y>Type] to specify an inequality expression. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y5”, and then input the expression: x{2-2x-6. (3) Press E to store the expression. u To store a shade type (y a) Example: To store f(x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = –x2 + 1, –1 < x < 1 in line y6 (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [ShadeType] to specify a shade type expression. (2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y6”, and then input the expression: k9{X{c-b,-X{c+b}KUb$X$b (3) Press E to store the expression. Tip • An error message appears if you enter an expression that does not fit the function type. Either input the new function into a different line or delete the current function and then change the type before re-inputting the function. • You can change the equality/inequality sign of an x-type (x =, x>, x<, xt, xs) or y-type (y =, y>, y<, yt, ys, ShadeType) expression after you input it. Simply tap the current equality/ inequality sign. On the Type dialog box that appears, select the sign you want and then tap [OK]. 20060301 3-3-5 Storing Functions Using Built-in Functions Your ClassPad is pre-programmed with the commonly used functions listed below. You can recall a built-in function, save it to an Graph Editor sheet, assign values to its coefficients, and graph the results. y = a·x + b y = a·x^2 + b·x + c y = a·x^3 + b·x^2 + c·x + d y = a·sin (b·x + c) + d y = a·cos (b·x + c) + d y = a·tan (b·x + c) + d y = a·log (b·x + c) + d y = a·ln (b·x + c) + d y = a·e^(b·x + c) + d y = a^(b·x + c) + d y = a /(b·x + c) + d u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap T. (2) On the Graph Editor window, select the sheet and the line where you want to store the built-in function. (3) Tap a and then [Built-In]. (4) On the menu that appears, tap the built-in function you want to select. • This displays a dialog box for assigning values to the coefficients. The actual coefficients that appear (a through d) depend on the built-in function you selected. (5) Assign values to each coefficient. (6) Tap [OK]. Saving the Message Box Expression to the Graph Editor Window You can save the expression currently displayed in the Graph window message box to the Graph Editor window. This capability comes in handy when you want to save an expression that appears in the message box while you are using the sketch function (see “3-6 Using the Sketch Menu”). Note • The following are the steps you should perform after an expression is stored in the message box of the Graph window. 20060301 3-3-6 Storing Functions u To save an expression from the message box to the Graph Editor window (1) Tap the Graph window to make it active. (2) Perform a Trace operation (see “3-7 Using Trace”) or any other operation that causes the message box to appear. (3) Tap inside the message box to select the entire expression or drag the stylus across the part of the expression you want to select. (4) Tap G. (5) Tap the Graph Editor window to make it active. (6) Select the sheet and tap the line where you want to save the expression, which moves the cursor there. (7) Tap [Edit] and then [Paste]. (8) Press E to store the expression. Tip • You can also drag the expression from the message box to the Graph Editor window. In this case, you must drop the expression into a line on the Graph Editor window that does not already contain an expression. Editing Stored Functions u To edit a function 1 Example: To edit the function y = x2 – — x3 stored in line y2 of the Graph Editor to 3 2 3 2 — y=x – 3 x (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap line y2. 1 (2) Tap the area immediately to the right of the numerator of — so the cursor is located 3 there. (3) Press K and then 2 to edit the fraction. (4) Press E to store the edited version of the function. u To delete a function (1) On the Graph Editor window, select the sheet that contains the function you want to delete. (2) Tap the function you want to delete so the cursor is located anywhere inside it. (3) Tap [Edit] and then [Select All]. (4) Press K. • This deletes the selected function. 20060301 3-3-7 Storing Functions Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions Use the following procedure to delete all of the expressions on all Graph Editor sheets, and initialize all of the sheet names. (1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All]. (2) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete all expressions and initialize sheet names. To cancel the operation without deleting or initializing anything, tap [Cancel]. Graphing a Stored Function You can select multiple functions and graph them simultaneously, as long as all of the functions are on the same sheet. You can turn graphing of each function on or off, and even specify the line style to be used for each function. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the tab of the sheet that contains the functions you want to graph to make it active. • If the functions you want to graph are on Sheet 2, for example, tap the [Sheet2] tab. (2) Select the check boxes of all the functions you want to graph, and clear the check boxes of all the functions you do not want to graph. • See “Specifying the Function You Want to Graph” on page 3-3-8 for more information. (3) You can tap the current line style given to specify another style, if you want. • See “Specifying the Graph Line Style” on page 3-3-8 for more information. (4) Tap $ to graph. 20060301 3-3-8 Storing Functions k Specifying the Function You Want to Graph On the Graph Editor window, you can select one or more functions for graphing by selecting their check boxes. The functions whose check boxes are cleared are not graphed. • This check box is selected, so the function next to it will be graphed when you tap $. If you do not want to graph this function, tap the check box to clear it. • Each time you tap a check box, it toggles between being selected (checked) and cleared (unchecked). Check box k Specifying the Graph Line Style You can specify one of the six line styles shown below for each function on the Graph Editor window. Normal ........................ Thick ........................... Broken Thick ............... Square Plot Type ........ Cross Plot Type .......... Dot Plot Type .............. Line style area The currently selected line style appears in the line style area next to each function. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the line style next to the function whose line style you want to specify. This displays the Graph Plot Type dialog box. (2) Select the line style you want, and then tap [OK]. • A preview of the line style you select appears in the line style area next to the function. • To graph the function using the selected line style, tap $. Tip • For an inequality region, the selected line style is used as the shading pattern. 20060301 3-3-9 Storing Functions k Quick Graphing of an Expression Using Drag and Drop You can use the following procedure to graph a single function, even when you have multiple functions selected on the Graph Editor window. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap the tab of the sheet that contains the function you want to graph to make it active. (2) Drag the function you want to graph to the Graph window. Tip • The above drag and drop procedure can be used to graph a function, regardless of whether the function’s check box is selected or cleared. • When you quick graph a function using drag and drop, the function is always treated as a “y=” expression, regardless of the graph type specified for the function. • Up to 30 of the graphs you draw in the Graph window are stored in memory as you draw them. This includes graphs drawn from Graph Editor window functions, graphs drawn using the Sketch functions (Tangent, Normal, Inverse), and graphs drawn using the drag and drop operation described above. Though you can draw more than 30 graphs at one time, any graphs after the 30th are not stored in memory. • All of the Graph window graphs that are currently stored in memory are redrawn when you scroll the Graph window or tap the [ReDraw] command on the a menu. Since only 30 graphs are stored in memory, anything drawn after the 30th graph is not redrawn. Keep this limitation in mind when you draw a large number of graphs at the same time. k Overlaying Two Inequalities in an AND Plot / OR Plot Use the following procedure to overlay two inequalities in an AND Plot or OR Plot which are described below. • AND Plot With an AND Plot, only the parts of the inequalities that overlap are shaded. • OR Plot With an OR Plot, the inequalities are overlaid as they are. Example: To graph the inequalities y < x2, y < x + 1 u ClassPad Operation (1) Store y < x2 in line y1 and y < x + 1 in line y 2. (2) On the a menu, tap [Inequality Plot]. Select [and] or [or] on the submenu that appears. 20060301 3-3-10 Storing Functions (3) Tap $. AND Plot OR Plot 20060301 3-3-11 Storing Functions k Shading the Region Bounded by Two Expressions You can shade the region bounded by two expressions by specifying [ShadeType] as the function type and then inputting the expressions in the syntax shown below. Syntax: ya {lower function f(x), upper function g(x)} | A < x < B The value of B must be greater than A. • A < x < B can be omitted. • A < x < B can be replaced with x > A. • A < x < B can be replaced with x < B. Example: To graph f(x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = –x2 + 1, –1 < x < 1 u ClassPad Operation (1) On the Graph Editor Window, tap [Type] and then [ShadeType]. (2) Store ya{ x2–1, –x2+1} | –1 Standard Decimal 3 It means this: The angle unit setting is radians. The angle unit setting is degrees. The angle unit setting is grads. Statistics View Window settings are configured automatically. Statistics View Window settings need to be configured manually. Standard mode: Displays result in exact form (fractional format). Decimal mode: Converts result to a decimal (approximate value). Tip • The 1 and 3 settings can be changed by tapping the status bar. • The 2 setting can be changed only on the [Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box under s (see page 1-9-6). 20060301 7-2-1 Using Stat Editor 7-2 Using Stat Editor Lists play a very important role in ClassPad statistical calculations. This section provides an overview of list operations and terminology. It also explains how to use the Stat Editor, a tool for creating and maintaining lists. Basic List Operations This section provides the basics of list operations, including how to start up the Statistics application, how to open a list, and how to close a list. It also tells you about list variables and how to use them. k What is a list? A list is a type of data array that makes it possible to manipulate multiple data items as a group. A list has one column and can contain up to 9,999 rows. You can display up to 99 lists on the Stat Editor window. List operations are performed using the Stat Editor window, which appears whenever you start up the Statistics application. Lists are treated as variables, and like variables, are stored in a folder in the memory and can be manipulated using the Variable Manager. If a list is cleared from the display, it still exists in memory as a variable and can be recalled when needed. Note • See “Inputting Data into a List” for information about data input (page 7-2-4). k Using List Variables The list name is located in the cell at the top of each list. List variable names can be used inside of calculation formulas, just like any other variable name. The initial default Stat Editor window shows six lists (columns), named list1 through list6. 20060301 7-2-2 Using Stat Editor k Creating a List A list starts out with an initial default name like list1, list2, list3, etc. The Stat Editor allows you to generate list data (list variables) quickly and easily. Note • The Stat Editor window has six default list variables, named “list1” through “list6”. These lists are system variables that are defined by the system. For more information about system variables, see “Variable Types” on page 1-7-2. • The list name can be changed from its default name, “list1” through “list6”, to a name that you specify. u To create a list (1) On the Stat Editor window, tap the list name cell at the top of the list you want to name. This selects the list name cell. (2) Enter up to eight bytes for the list name you want, and then press E. • You cannot use any ClassPad reserved words as list variable names. You also cannot specify a list name that is already used by another list. Tip • If you enter a list name that is already used for another list, tapping w displays the contents of that list. The data of the existing list replaces data you have input on the Stat Editor window. • Entering a list name without specifying a folder stores the variable name in the current folder. To store the variable name in another folder, specify the folder name along with the list name. To store the variable name of a list named “a” in a folder named “abc”, for example, enter the following for the list name: abc\a. For information about creating a variable, see “Creating a New Variable” on page 1-7-6. k Navigating Around the Stat Editor Window The following describes the different techniques you can use to navigate around the Stat Editor window and select the cell you want. u To select a cell Use the cursor key to move the highlighting up, down, left, and right. The Stat Editor window scrolls automatically whenever the highlighting reaches a cell at the edge of the window. You can also select a particular cell by tapping it with the stylus. 20060301 7-2-3 Using Stat Editor u To jump to the first or last line of a list (1) Select any cell in the list. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit]. (3) Select one of the following commands to perform the type of operation you want. To do this: Move the cursor to line 1 of the list Move the cursor to the line following the last line that contains data • If your list contains 14 entries, then the cursor will move to the 15 entry. • If your list contains 9999 entries (the maximum allowed), then the cursor will move to line 9999. Select this command: Jump to Top Jump to Bottom k Opening a List Lists are saved in files under their list (variable) names. This means you can close a list and re-open it later when you need it. There are two different methods you can use to open a list: using the [Open List] command and inputting the name of the list in the list name cell of a column. u To open an existing list using the “Open List” command (1) On the Stat Editor window, select any cell in the column where you want the list you will open to appear. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Open List]. (3) In the “list=” box that appears, enter the variable name of the list you want to open, and then tap w. Tip • If you enter a variable name that does not match the names of any of the existing lists in step (3), a new list is created using that name. u To open an existing list by inputting its name in the list name cell (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list name cell of the column where you want the list you will open to appear. (2) Enter the variable name of the list you want to open. (3) Tap w to open the list. 20060301 7-2-4 Using Stat Editor k Closing a List Closing a list saves it under its current list (variable) name. There are two different methods you can use to close a list: using the [Close List] command, and clearing the list name from its list name cell. u To close a list using the “Close List” command (1) On the Stat Editor window, select any cell of the list you want to close. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Close List]. • The selected list disappears from the display and is replaced by all blanks. • At this time, the “list=” box also appears. To open another list, enter its name into the “list=” box, and then tap w. Tip • This above operation clears the list from the display only. The list is still stored as a list variable in memory, and can be opened when you need it again. u To close a list by clearing its list name (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list name cell of the column of the list you want to close. (2) Tap the “list=” box at the bottom of the Stat Editor window. (3) Press the c key so the list (variable) name is cleared. (4) Tap w. Inputting Data into a List Use the procedures in this section to input data and expressions into a list. u To input a single data item (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the cell where you want to input the data item. • Use the cursor key to move the highlighting, or tap the cell with the stylus. Line number where data is being input String input Input data Cell where data is being input 20060301 7-2-5 Using Stat Editor (2) Input the data you want. To input a value • Use the input keypad or soft keyboard that appears when you press k. You can also access the soft keyboard by tapping O Menu. To input a mathematical expression • Use the soft keyboard that appears when you press k. • When the “Decimal Calculation” check box is not selected (unchecked) on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4), any mathematical expression you input is stored as-is. • When the “Decimal Calculation” check box is selected, the mathematical expression is converted to a value before it is stored. Input of 1/2, for example, is converted to 0.5. To input a string • Enclose text in quotation marks to make it a string. To input quotation marks, press k to display the soft keyboard, tap the 9 tab, and then tap K. For more information about strings, see page 12-6-41. (3) Press E to store the data in the cell. • Selecting a cell that already contains data replaces the existing data with the new data. Tip • You can also input a variable name as list data. In this case, pressing E in step (3) causes either of the following to happen. Inputting this type of variable: Causes this to appear in the cell: Defined variable Variable contents (right aligned for value or left aligned for expression) Undefined variable Variable name • You need to assign a name to a list before you can input data. Trying to input data into an unnamed list will cause the cursor to jump automatically to the list name cell at the top of that list. For information on how to name lists, see “Creating a List” on page 7-2-2. • To convert an expression in a cell to a value, select the cell and then tap 9. • Note that statistical calculations and graphing can be performed only using a list that contains numeric values or mathematical expressions that can be converted into numeric values. An error occurs if you try to perform a statistical calculation or draw a graph using a list that contains a string or a non-convertible mathematical expression. • You cannot edit list data while the b icon is displayed in the “Cal ” line. 20060301 7-2-6 Using Stat Editor u To batch input a set of data Example: To input the values 1, 2, and 3 into list1 (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the “Cal” cell of the list where you want to input the data (list1 in this example). (2) Enter {1,2,3}. • To input braces ({}), press k to display the soft keyboard, and then tap the 9 tab. (3) Tap w. Tip • Separate values by commas. Do not input a comma following the last value. Incorrect: {34,53,78,} Correct: {34,53,78} u To input calculation results into a cell Example: To multiply the value of each cell in list1 by two and input the results in list2 (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the “Cal” cell of the list where you want to input the calculation results (list2 in this example). (2) In the “Cal=” box, enter the calculation formula (list1×2 in this example). (3) Press E to perform the calculation. The values in each cell of list1 are doubled, and the results are input into list2. 20060301 7-2-7 Using Stat Editor Editing List Contents Use the procedures in this section to delete and insert elements, to clear data, and to sort data. u To delete a list cell (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the cell you want to delete. (2) Tap [Edit]. (3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete], and then tap [Cell] on the submenu that appears. • This deletes the cell and shifts all of the cells below it upwards. Tip • You can also delete a cell by selecting it and then pressing the c key. • Note that deleting a cell does not affect the cells in other lists. If the position of the cell you are deleting or the cells underneath it are aligned with certain cells of another list, deleting the cell will cause misalignment of the cells underneath it when they shift upwards. u To delete all of the data in a list (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list whose data you want to delete. (2) Tap [Edit]. (3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete]. On the submenu that appears, tap [Column]. (4) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the list data, or [Cancel] to cancel the delete operation. • Tapping [OK] deletes all the data from the list, and leaves the empty list in memory. u To delete a list from memory (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list you want to delete. (2) Tap [Edit]. (3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete]. On the submenu that appears, tap [List Variable]. (4) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the list, or [Cancel] to cancel the delete operation. • Tapping [OK] deletes the list from memory. u To insert a cell into a list (1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list cell where you want to insert a new cell. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Insert Cell]. • This inserts a cell at the current highlighted location, shifting all the cells below it downwards. The new cell contains the word “Undefined”. 20060301 7-2-8 Using Stat Editor Tip • Note that inserting a cell does not affect the cells in other lists. If you insert a cell in a list that is aligned with another list, the lists will become misaligned when the cells underneath are shifted downwards. Sorting List Data You can use the procedures in this section to sort the data of a list in ascending or descending order. Note that the location of the highlighting does not have any affect on a sort operation. u To sort a single list (1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Sort(Ascending)] or [Sort(Descending)]. (2) In response to the “How Many Lists?” prompt that appears, select 1 and then tap [OK]. (3) In response to the “Select List Name” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button and then select the name (variable name) of the list you want to sort. (4) Tap [OK] to sort the data. u To sort multiple lists on a base list (1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Sort(Ascending)] or [Sort(Descending)]. (2) In response to the “How Many Lists?” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button and then specify the number of lists you want to sort. (3) Tap [OK]. (4) In response to the “Select Base List” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button and then select the name (variable name) of the list on which you want the sort to be based. (5) Tap [OK]. (6) In response to the “Select Second List” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button and then select the name (variable name) of the second list to be sorted. (7) Tap [OK]. (8) Repeat steps (6) and (7) as many times as necessary to specify all of the lists to be sorted. • Tapping [OK] after selecting the final list executes the actual sort operation. 20060301 7-2-9 Using Stat Editor Controlling the Number of Displayed List Columns You can use the following procedures to control how many list columns appear on the Statistics application window. You can select 2, 3, or 4 columns. u To specify the number of columns for the list display On the Stat Editor window, tap S (two columns), D (three columns) or F (four columns) to specify the width. You will need to tap the arrow button on the right end of the toolbar to see the icons. Tip • You can also specify the number of display cells using the [Cell Width Pattern] setting on the [Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box (page 1-9-6). • When you have the Stat Editor window displayed along with a second window, you can make the Stat Editor window active and then tap the r button on the icon panel to expand the Stat Editor window to fill the entire display. For more information, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1. Clearing All Stat Editor Data Use the following procedure to initialize the Stat Editor and clear all currently displayed data. Following this procedure, the Stat Editor shows six empty lists, named list1 through list6. Warning! • Performing the following procedure clears all the data from Stat Editor window list1 through list6 and any additional lists currently in memory. u To clear all stat editor data (1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All]. (2) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to clear the all list data or [Cancel] to cancel the clear operation. • After you tap [OK], the Stat Editor window shows six empty lists (three lists visible on the ClassPad display at a time), named list1 through list6. 20060301 7-3-1 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph 7-3 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph Before drawing a statistical graph, you need to first configure its “StatGraph setup” using the [SetGraph] menu. The StatGraph setup allows you to configure parameters to control the graph type, the lists that contain a graph’s data, the type of plot markers to be used, and other settings. Up to nine StatGraph setups, named StatGraph1, StatGraph2, and so on, can be stored in memory for later recall. Using the SetGraph Menu Tapping [SetGraph] on the Stat Editor window menu bar displays a menu like the one shown below. The following describes what you can do with each of the [SetGraph] menu items. See the following pages for details about performing each type of operation. When you want to do this: Do this: Display a dialog box for specifying the graph Tap [Setting…]. type and data list for each StatGraph setup Select the check box next to the StatGraph setup you want to graph. This can also be Select a StatGraph setup for graphing achieved by tapping [Setting...] and scrolling through StatGraph1 through StatGraph9. Overlay a function graph on a statistical graph Select the check box next to [Graph Function]. Turn off function graph overlay Graph the results of the last regression calculation you performed Clear the check box next to [Graph Function]. Select the check box next to [Previous Reg]. 20060301 7-3-2 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph When you want to do this: Turn off graphing of the last regression calculation results Do this: Clear the check box next to [Previous Reg]. Have Statistics View Window settings configured automatically Tap [Stat Window Auto] and then select [On]. Configure Statistics View Window settings manually Tap [Stat Window Auto] and then select [Off]. Configuring StatGraph Setups Use the procedure below to display the Set StatGraphs dialog box and configure the nine StatGraph setups. u To display the Set StatGraphs dialog box (1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…]. • This displays the Set StatGraphs dialog box. Tabs • There are tabs named 1 through 9, correspond to StatGraph1 through StatGraph9. (2) Tap the tab for the StatGraph setup whose configuration you want to change. (3) Configure the StatGraph setup settings you want as described below, and then tap [Set]. This will apply the settings for all nine StatGraphs. • To exit the Set StatGraphs dialog box without changing any settings, tap [Cancel] instead of [Set]. 20060301 7-3-3 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph u Draw To do this: Draw the graph using the StatGraph setup of the current tab Not draw the graph using the StatGraph setup of the current tab Select this option: On Off u Type Tap the down arrow button, and then select the graph type from the list that appears. To draw this type of graph: Scatter plot xy line graph Normal probability plot Histogram Med-box plot Normal distribution curve Broken line graph Linear regression graph Med-Med graph Quadratic regression graph Cubic regression graph Quartic regression graph Logarithmic regression graph Exponential regression graph (y = a.eb.x) Exponential regression graph (y = a.bx) Power regression graph Sinusoidal regression graph Logistic regression graph Select this option: Scatter xyLine NPPlot Histogram MedBox NDist Broken LinearR MedMed QuadR CubicR QuartR LogR ExpR abExpR PowerR SinR LogisticR u XList Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the list (list1 through list6, or a list name you assigned) that you want to use for x-axis data. • You need to specify only an XList in the case of single-variable statistics (page 7-4-1). The initial default [XList] setting is “list1”. u YList Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the list (list1 through list6, or a list name you assigned) that you want to use for y-axis data. • Specify a YList in addition to an XList in the case of paired-variable statistics (page 7-5-1). The initial default [YList] setting is “list2”. 20060301 7-3-4 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph u Freq Tap the down arrow button, and then select the frequency setting from the list that appears. To do this: Plot each data value once Specify a list whose values indicate the frequency of each data value Select this option: 1 list1 — list6 (or a list name you assigned) • The initial default frequency setting is 1. Specifying a list that causes each data value to be plotted five times helps to improve the appearance of scatter plots. • A list of frequency values can contain non-zero integers and decimal values. In the case of a MedBox, or MedMed graph, however, a frequency list can contain positive integers only. Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical calculations. u Mark Tap the down arrow button, and select the shape you want to use for the plot points of a scatter diagram (Scatter), xy line graph (xyLine), or normal probability plot (NPPlot). Mark Name square cross ldot dot Mark Tip • The default graph setting for all nine StatGraph setups is a scatter plot (Scatter). 20060301 7-4-1 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data 7-4 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data Single-variable data is data that consists of a single value. If you are trying to obtain the average height of the members of a single class, for example, the single variable would be height. Single-variable statistics include distributions and sums. You can produce any of the graphs described below using single-variable data. Before trying to draw any of the graphs described below, configure the graph setup using the procedures under “Configuring StatGraph Setups” on page 7-3-2. Normal Probability Plot (NPPlot) The normal probability plot plots data against a theoretical normal distribution using a scatter plot. If the scatter plot is close to a straight line, then the data is approximately normal. A departure from the straight line indicates a departure from normality. k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4) • [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be plotted. • [Mark] specifies the shape of the plot mark. 20060301 7-4-2 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data Histogram Bar Graph (Histogram) A histogram shows the frequency (frequency distribution) of each data class as a rectangular bar. Classes are on the horizontal axis, while frequency is on the vertical axis. k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4) • [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed. • [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data. Tap [OK]. e A dialog box like the one shown above appears before the graph is drawn. You can use this dialog box to change the start value (HStart) and step value (HStep) of the histogram, if you want. The initial HStart and HStep values on the Set Interval dialog box are set in accordance with the Stat Window Auto setting. When On is selected for Stat Window Auto, appropriate values for the graph data are input automatically. When Off is selected, the values that were displayed the last time the Set Interval dialog box was displayed are input automatically. Med-Box Plot (MedBox) This type of graph is often called a “Box and Whisker” graph. It lets you see how a large number of data items are grouped within specific ranges. minX Label minX Q1 Meaning minimum First Quartile Med Median Q3 maxX Third Quartile maximum Q1 Med Q3 maxX Description The data’s smallest value The median between minX and Med The median of all the data values. If you have 13 values, for example, this is the value at position seven (six values left and right). The median between maxX and Med The data’s largest value • The lines from minX to Q1, and from Q3 to maxX are called “whiskers”. 20090601 7-4-3 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4) • [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be plotted. • [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data. • If [Show Outliers] box is checked, “outlier” square symbols are shown instead of “whisker” lines where a data value is relatively large or small compared to the other data values. Figure. Do not show Outliers Figure. Show Outliers Tip • When specifying a list of frequency values, make sure that the list contains positive integers only. Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical calculations. Normal Distribution Curve (NDist) The normal distribution curve is graphed using the following normal distribution function. y= 1 2 π σn e – ( x–x ) 2 2σn 2 k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4) • [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed. • [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data. 20060301 7-4-4 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data Broken Line Graph (Broken) In the broken line graph, lines connect the pointers that fall at the center of each histogram bar. k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4) • [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed. • [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data. Tap [OK]. e A dialog box like the one shown above appears before the graph is drawn. You can use this dialog box to change the start value (HStart) and step value (HStep) of the histogram, if you want. 20060301 7-5-1 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data 7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data With paired-variable statistical data there are two values for each data item. An example of paired-variable statistical data would be the change in size of an iron bar as its temperature changes. One variable would be temperature, and the other variable is the corresponding bar size. Your ClassPad lets you produce any of the graphs described in this section using paired-variable data. Before trying to draw any of the graphs described below, configure the graph setup using the procedures under “Configuring StatGraph Setups” on page 7-3-2. Drawing a Scatter Plot and xy Line Graph Use the procedure below to plot a scatter diagram and then connect the dots to produce an xy line graph. Example: Input the paired-variable data shown below. Next, plot the data on a scatter diagram and then connect the dots to produce an xy line graph. list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 u ClassPad Operation (1) m I (2) Input the data shown above. (3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G. (4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the scatter plot settings shown below, and then tap [Set]. Draw: On Type: Scatter XList: list1 YList: list2 (5) Tap y to plot the scatter plot. (6) Tap the List window to make it active. (7) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G. (8) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the xy line graph settings shown below, and then tap [Set]. Draw: On Type: xyLine XList: list1 YList: list2 20060301 7-5-2 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data (9) Tap y to draw the xy line graph. Scatter diagram xy line graph Drawing a Regression Graph (Curve Fitting) Use the procedures below to input paired-variable statistical data. Next perform regression using the data and then graph the results. Note that you can draw a regression graph without performing the regression calculation. Example 1: Input the paired-variable data shown below and plot the data on a scatter diagram. Next, perform logarithmic regression on the data to display the regression parameters, and then draw the regression graph. list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 u ClassPad Operation (1) m I (2) Input the data shown above. (3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G. (4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the settings shown below, and then tap [Set]. Draw: On Type: Scatter XList: list1 YList: list2 (5) Tap y to plot the scatter diagram. 20101001 7-5-3 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data (6) Tap [Calc] [Logarithmic Reg]. (7) Tap [OK]. (8) Tap [OK] ". Tip • You can perform trace (page 3-7-1) on a regression graph. Trace scroll, however, is not supported when a scatter diagram is displayed. 20060301 7-5-4 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Example 2: Input the paired-variable data shown below (which is the same data as Example 1), and then draw the regression graph without performing regression calculation. list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 u ClassPad Operation (1) m I (2) Input the data shown above. (3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G. (4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the settings shown below, and then tap [Set]. Draw: On Type: LogR XList: list1 YList: list2 (5) Tap y to graph. Graphing Previously Calculated Regression Results Performing the following procedure graphs the last set of regression results you calculated. Use this procedure when you want to perform statistical calculations without graphing first, and then graph the results. u ClassPad Operation (1) [SetGraph] (2) On the menu that appears, select the [Previous Reg] check box. (3) Tap the Graph window or y to graph the last set of regression results you calculated. Tip • Calculated regression results are stored in memory whenever you perform a regression calculation from the Stat Editor menu or from the Statistical Graph [Calc] menu. • The [Previous Reg] check box described in step (2) above is selected automatically whenever you perform a regression calculation from the Stat Editor menu or from the Statistical Graph [Calc] menu. 20060301 7-5-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Drawing a Linear Regression Graph Linear regression uses the method of least squares to determine the equation that best fits your data points, and returns values for the slope and y-intercept. The graphic representation of this relationship is a linear regression graph. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Linear Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph] [Setting…], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: LinearR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the linear regression model formula. y = a·x + b a: b: r: r2 : MSe : regression coefficient (slope) regression constant term (y-intercept) correlation coefficient coefficient of determination mean square error • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ (y – (a·x + b)) i i 2 i=1 20090601 7-5-6 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Drawing a Med-Med Graph When you suspect that the data contains extreme values, you should use the Med-Med graph (which is based on medians) in place of the linear regression graph. Med-Med graph is similar to the linear regression graph, but it also minimizes the effects of extreme values. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [MedMed Line] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: MedMed Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the Med-Med model formula. y = a·x + b a : Med-Med graph slope b : Med-Med graph y-intercept Tip • When specifying a list of frequency values, make sure that the list contains positive integers only. Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical calculations. 20060301 7-5-7 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Drawing Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Regression Graphs You can draw a quadratic, cubic, or quartic regression graph based on the plotted points. These graphs use the method of least squares to draw a curve that passes the vicinity of as many data points as possible. These graphs can be expressed as quadratic, cubic, and quartic regression expressions. The following procedure shows how to graph a quadratic regression only. Graphing the cubic and quartic regressions are similar. u ClassPad Operation (Quadratic Regression) Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Quadratic Reg] [OK] [OK] ". • For cubic regression tap [Cubic Reg] and for quartic regression tap [Quartic Reg] instead of [Quadratic Reg]. From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: QuadR • For cubic regression select [CubicR] and for quartic regression tap [QuartR] instead of [QuadR]. Tap y to draw the graph. The following are the model formulas for each type of regression. Quadratic Regression Model Formula: y = a·x2 + b·x + c a: b: c: r2 : MSe : quadratic regression coefficient linear regression coefficient regression constant term (y-intercept) coefficient of determination mean square error • MSe = 1 n–3 n Σ (y – (a·x i i 2 + b·xi+ c))2 i=1 20060301 7-5-8 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Cubic Regression Model Formula: y = a·x3 + b·x2 + c·x + d a: b: c: d: r2 : MSe : cubic regression coefficient quadratic regression coefficient linear regression coefficient regression constant term (y-intercept) coefficient of determination mean square error • MSe = 1 n–4 n Σ (y – (a·x + b·x + c·x +d )) 3 i i 2 i i 2 i=1 Quartic Regression Model Formula: y = a·x4 + b·x3 + c·x2 + d·x + e a: b: c: d: e: r2 : MSe : quartic regression coefficient cubic regression coefficient quadratic regression coefficient linear regression coefficient regression constant term (y-intercept) coefficient of determination mean square error • MSe = 1 n–5 n Σ (y – (a·x + b·x i 4 i 3 i + c·xi2 + d·xi + e))2 i=1 20060301 7-5-9 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Drawing a Logarithmic Regression Graph Logarithmic regression expresses y as a logarithmic function of x. The normal logarithmic regression formula is y = a + b · ln(x). If we say that X = ln(x), then this formula corresponds to the linear regression formula y = a + b·X. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Logarithmic Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: LogR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the logarithmic regression model formula. y = a + b·ln(x) regression constant term a: regression coefficient b: correlation coefficient r: 2 coefficient of determination r : MSe : mean square error • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ (y – (a + b·ln (x ))) i i 2 i=1 20060301 7-5-10 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data b·x Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·e ) Exponential regression can be used when y is proportional to the exponential function of x. The normal exponential regression formula is y = a · eb·x. If we obtain the logarithms of both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a) + b·x. Next, if we say that Y = ln(y) and A = In(a), the formula corresponds to the linear regression formula Y = A + b·x. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Exponential Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. · On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: ExpR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the exponential regression model formula in this case. y = a · eb·x a: b: r: r2 : MSe : regression coefficient regression constant term correlation coefficient coefficient of determination mean square error 1 • MSe = n–2 n Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + b·x )) i i i=1 20060301 2 7-5-11 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data x Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a· b ) Exponential regression can be used when y is proportional to the exponential function of x. The normal exponential regression formula in this case is y = a·b x. If we take the natural logarithms of both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a) + (ln(b)) · x. Next, if we say that Y = ln(y), A = ln(a) and B = ln(b), the formula corresponds to the linear regression formula Y = A + B·x. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [abExponential Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: abExpR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the exponential regression model formula in this case. y = a·b x regression coefficient a: regression constant term b: correlation coefficient r: coefficient of determination r2 : MSe : mean square error • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + (ln (b)) . x )) i i i=1 20060301 2 7-5-12 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data b Drawing a Power Regression Graph ( y = a·x ) Power regression can be used when y is proportional to the power of x. The normal power b regression formula is y = a · x . If we obtain the logarithms of both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a) + b · ln(x). Next, if we say that X = ln(x), Y = ln(y), and A = ln(a), the formula corresponds to the linear regression formula Y = A + b·X. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Power Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: PowerR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the power regression model formula. y = a·xb regression coefficient a: regression power b: correlation coefficient r: 2 coefficient of determination r : MSe : mean square error • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + b·ln (x ))) i i i=1 20060301 2 7-5-13 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Drawing a Sinusoidal Regression Graph ( y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d) Sinusoidal regression is best for data that repeats at a regular fixed interval over time. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Sinusoidal Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: SinR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the sinusoidal regression model formula. y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ (y – (a·sin (b·x i i + c) + d ))2 i=1 Tip • Make sure that “Radian” is selected for the [Angle] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) before drawing a sinusoidal regression graph. The graph cannot be drawn correctly when the [Angle] setting is “Degree”. • Certain types of data may cause calculation to take a long time. This is normal and does not indicate malfunction. 20060301 7-5-14 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data c Drawing a Logistic Regression Graph ( y = 1 + a·e–b·x ) Logistic regression is best for data whose values continually increase over time, until a saturation point is reached. u ClassPad Operation Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window. From the Graph window Tap [Calc] [Logistic Reg] [OK] [OK] ". From the List window Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G. On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the setting shown below, and then tap [Set]. Type: LogisticR Tap y to draw the graph. The following is the logistic regression model formula. y= c 1 + a·e–b·x • MSe = 1 n–2 n Σ i=1 yi – C 1 + a·e–b·xi 2 Tip • Certain types of data may cause calculation to take a long time. This is normal and does not indicate malfunction. 20060301 7-5-15 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data Overlaying a Function Graph on a Statistical Graph You can overlay an existing statistical graph with any type of function graph. Example: Input the two sets of data shown below, and plot the data on a scatter plot. Next, overlay the scatter plot with the graph of y = 2 · ln(x). list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 u ClassPad Operation (1) m I (2) Input the data shown above. (3) Tap [SetGraph][Setting...]. (4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the settings shown below, and then tap [Set]. Draw: On Type: Scatter XList: list1 YList: list2 (5) Tap y to draw the graph. (6) Tap the List window to make it active, and then tap !. (7) Input the following function into line y1: 2 × ln(x). (8) Tap O and then [Close] to close the Graph Editor window. (9) Tap [SetGraph] on the menu bar. On the menu that appears, select the [Graph Function] check box. (10) Tap y to draw the graph. Tip • After drawing a function graph, you can perform trace and other functions. 20060301 7-6-1 Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar 7-6 Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar The following describes the operations you can perform using the toolbar on the Statistical Graph window. To do this: Display the Stat Editor window Tap this button: Display the Graph Editor window Redraw the displayed graph Display the View Window dialog box Start a trace operation Display the Set StatGraphs dialog box Display the Main application work area window Start a box zoom operation Enlarge the display image (zoom in) Reduce the display image (zoom out) Pan the window Toggle the [Stat Window Auto] setting between auto and manual 20060301 ( ! " 6 = G ~ Q W E T s 7-7-1 Performing Statistical Calculations 7-7 Performing Statistical Calculations You can perform statistical calculations without drawing a graph by tapping [Calc] on the menu bar and selecting [One-Variable] or [Two-Variable]. Viewing Single-variable Statistical Calculation Results Besides using a graph, you can also use the following procedure to view the single-variable statistics parameter values. u To display single-variable calculation results (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [One-Variable]. (2) On the dialog box that appears, specify the [XList] name and select the [Freq] setting (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4). (3) Tap [OK]. • This displays the Stat Calculation dialog box with the single-variable statistical calculation results described below. You can use the scrollbar to scroll the results. o : sample mean Σx : sum of data Σx : σx: sum of squares population standard deviation sx : sample standard deviation n: minX : sample size minimum Q1 : first quartile Med : median Q3 : third quartile maxX : maximum Mode : mode* 2 ModeN : number of data mode items ModeF : data mode frequency * If “Mode = ModeStat” is shown on the Stat Calculation dialog box, it means that solutions are stored in the “ModeStat” system variable. To view the solutions, tap any list name cell on the Stat Editor window, input “ModeStat”, and then tap w. This will display the “ModeStat” system variable contents in the list. 20090601 7-7-2 Performing Statistical Calculations • You can use the [Q1, Q3 on Data] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) to select the Q1 and Q3 calculation methods. For details, see “Calculation Methods for Q1 and Q3” below. k Calculation Methods for Q1 and Q3 Q1 and Q3 can be calculated in accordance with the [Q1, Q3 on Data] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) as described below. u Unchecked: (default) With this calculation method, processing depends on whether the number of elements n in the population is an even number or odd number. When the number of elements n is an even number: Using the center point of the total population as the reference, the population elements are divided into two groups: a lower half group and an upper half group. Q1 and Q3 then become the values described below. Q1 = {median of the group of Q3 = {median of the group of n 2 n 2 Center Point 1 2 3 items from the bottom of the population} items from the top of the population} Center Point Center Point 4 6 5 7 8 4+5 = Median 2 6+7 = Q3 2 2+3 = Q1 2 When the number of elements n is an odd number: Using the median of the total population as the reference, the population elements are divided into two groups: a lower half group (values less than the median) and an upper half group (values greater than the median). The median value is excluded. Q1 and Q3 then become the values described below. n–1 items from the bottom of the population} Q1 = {median of the group of 2 n–1 Q3 = {median of the group of items from the top of the population} 2 • When n = 1, Q1 = Q3 = population center point. 20101001 7-7-3 Performing Statistical Calculations Center Point 1 2 Center Point 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Median 2+3 = Q1 2 7+8 = Q3 2 u Checked: Q1, Q3 on Data The Q1 and Q3 values for this calculation method are described below. Q1 = {value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest to 1/4} Q3 = {value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4 and nearest to 3/4} The following shows an actual example of the above. (Number of Elements: 10) Data Value Frequency Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency Ratio 1 1 1 1/10 = 0.1 2 1 2 2/10 = 0.2 3 2 4 4/10 = 0.4 4 3 7 7/10 = 0.7 5 1 8 8/10 = 0.8 6 1 9 9/10 = 0.9 7 1 10 10/10 = 1.0 • 3 is the value of whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest to 1/4, so Q1 = 3. • 5 is the value of whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4 and nearest to 3/4, so Q3 = 5. Reference Point (0.25) 0.1 0.2 1 2 Reference Point (0.75) 0.4 3 3 4 4 Q1 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 4 5 6 7 Q3 20101001 7-7-4 Performing Statistical Calculations Viewing Paired-variable Statistical Calculation Results Besides using a graph, you can also use the following procedure to view the paired-variable statistics parameter values. u To display paired-variable calculation results (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Two-Variable]. (2) On the dialog box that appears, specify the [XList] name and [YList] name, and select the [Freq] setting (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4). (3) Tap [OK]. • This displays the Stat Calculation dialog box with the paired-variable statistical calculation results described below. You can use the scrollbar to scroll the results. o: sample mean of sample XList data Σx : sum of XList data Σx2 : sum of squares of XList data σx : population standard deviation of XList data sx : sample standard deviation of XList data n: sample size p: sample mean of sample YList data Σy : sum of YList data Σy : sum of squares of YList data σy : population standard deviation of YList data sy : sample standard deviation of YList data Σxy : sum of products of XList and YList data 2 minX : minimum of XList data maxX : maximum of XList data minY : minimum of YList data maxY : maximum of YList data 20101001 7-7-5 Performing Statistical Calculations Viewing Regression Calculation Results To view regression calculation results, tap [Calc] on the menu bar and then tap the type of calculation results you want. To view these calculation results: Linear regression Med-Med Quadratic regression Cubic regression Quartic regression Logarithmic regression Exponential regression (y = a·eb·x) Exponential regression (y = a·bx) Power regression Sinusoidal regression Logistic regression Tap this option: Linear Reg MedMed Line Quadratic Reg Cubic Reg Quartic Reg Logarithmic Reg Exponential Reg abExponential Reg Power Reg Sinusoidal Reg Logistic Reg • You can also use the [DispStat] option to display the last calculated statistical results. For details about regression calculation results, see “7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data”. Residual Calculation Residual calculation calculates the distance (residual) between the regression model and an actual plotted point (y-coordinates) during regression calculations. u ClassPad Operation (1) m I (2) Input the data you want into a list. (3) Tap [Calc] and then [Linear Reg]. (4) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Copy Residual] down arrow button, and then select [On] or the list into which you want to copy the residual values. • Values assigned to the “residual” system variable shows the vertical distances between actually plotted points and the regression model. • A positive value indicates a plot that is higher than the regression model, while a negative value indicates a plot that is lower. • Whenever the [Copy Residual] setting is configured as described above, the ClassPad automatically assigns residual data to a system variable named “residual” when you perform a regression calculation. You can use the following procedure to view the current “residual” system variable values. 20101001 7-7-6 Performing Statistical Calculations u To view “residual” system variable values (1) (2) (1) Tap here. (2) Tap here, and enter “residual”. • To input lower-case alpha characters, tap the soft keyboard’s 0 tab. (3) Tap w. Copying a Regression Formula to the Graph & Table Application You can use the following procedure to copy the calculated result of a regression formula to the Graph & Table application. There you can use Graph functions to edit and graph the formula, and perform other operations. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the List window menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Linear Reg]. (2) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Copy Formula] down arrow button, and then select the Graph & Table line number (y1 through y20) to which you want to copy the formula. (3) Tap [OK]. • This copies the calculated regression expression to the line (y1 through y20) you selected. 20101001 7-8-1 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations 7-8 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations You can use a wizard to perform test, confidence interval and distribution calculations in the Statistics application or write a program in the Program application. In the Statistics application, you can perform the calculations using the wizard that you launch by tapping [Calc] on the menu bar. The following is a general overview of the steps that are involved. Statistics Application Calculations 1. Tap [Calc] and then tap [Test], [Interval] or [Distribution]. 2. Select the calculation type and data type, then input the necessary values and conditions. 3. Execute the calculation and display its results. 4. Graph the results, if you want. • You cannot graph interval calculations and inverse distribution calculations. Selecting the [Help] check box of each wizard will display the description of the commands, values and calculation results. For more details and examples, see “7-9 Tests”, “7-10 Confidence intervals” and “7-11 Distributions”. Program Application Calculations 1. Use statistical commands to build the necessary expressions and write them into a program. 2. Write the “DispStat” command into the program. • The “DispStat” is a command for displaying statistical calculation results. Statistical calculation results cannot be displayed unless the program includes a “DispStat” command. 3. Save the program. 4. Run the program. 20060301 7-8-2 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations k Example 1: 1-Sample ZTest condition : ≠ 0 : 0 :3 o : 24.5 n : 48 u ClassPad Operation (1) m p (2) Tap O. (3) On the New File dialog box that appears, configure the settings as described below. Type: Program(Normal) Folder: Select the name of the folder where you want to save the program you are creating. Name: Enter a file name for the program. Example: ztestone (4) Tap [OK]. (5) Input commands and values for the statistical expression, and then tap w. (6) Input the “DispStat” command, and then tap w. (7) Tap { to save the program. (8) Tap ). (9) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the name of the file you input in step (3). (10) Tap p. 20060301 7-8-3 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations k Example 2: Two-Way ANOVA The values in the table below are measurement results that show how the durability of a metal product is affected by changes in heat treatment time (A) and temperature (B). Experiments were conducted twice under each condition. Time A1 Time A2 Temperature B1 113, 116 133, 131 Temperature B2 139, 132 126, 122 Perform analysis of variance on the null hypotheses listed below, using a 5% level of significance. H0 : Change in time does not affect durability. H0 : Change in treatment temperature does not affect durability. H0 : Changes in time and treatment temperature do not affect durability. Use the ClassPad Two-Way ANOVA test to test the above hypotheses. Input the following measurement data into the indicated lists. This data is from the table above. list1 (FactorList(A)) = {1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2} list2 (FactorList(B)) = {1,1,2,2,1,1,2,2} list3 (DependentList) = {113,116,139,132,133,131,126,122} u ClassPad Operation (1) m p (2) Tap O. (3) On the New File dialog box that appears, configure the settings as described below. Type: Program(Normal) Folder: Select the name of the folder where you want to save the program you are creating. Name: Enter a file name for the program. Example: hyp (4) Tap [OK]. (5) Input commands and values for the statistical expression, and then tap w. (6) Input the “DispStat” command, and then tap w. (7) Tap { to save the program. (8) Tap ). (9) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the name of the file you input in step (3). 20060301 7-8-4 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations (10) Tap p. The above results indicate that altering the time is not significant, altering the temperature is significant, and interaction between time and temperature is highly significant. 20060301 7-9-1 Tests 7-9 Tests The following is a list of tests, and a description of what each one tests for. Test Name Z Test Description The Z Test provides a variety of different tests based on standard deviation based tests. They make it possible to test whether or not a sample accurately represents the population when the standard deviation of a population (such as the entire population of a country) is known from previous tests. 1-Sample Z Test Tests a single sample mean against the known mean of the null hypothesis when the population standard deviation is known. The normal distribution is used for the 1-sample Z test. 2-Sample Z Test Tests the difference between two means when the standard deviations of the two populations are known. The normal distribution is used for the 2-sample Z test. 1-Prop Z Test Tests a single sample proportion against the known proportion of the null hypothesis. The normal distribution is used for the 1-Prop Z test. 2-Prop Z Test Tests the difference between two sample proportions. The normal distribution is used for the 2-prop Z test. t Test Used instead of the Z Test when the population standard deviation is unknown. 1-Sample t Test Tests a single sample mean against the known mean of the null hypothesis when the population standard deviation is unknown. The t distribution is used for the 1-sample t test. 2-Sample t Test Tests the difference between two means when the standard deviations of the two populations are unknown. The t distribution is used for the 2-sample t test. Linear Regression t Test Tests the linear relationship between the paired variables (x, y). The method of least squares is used to determine a and b, which are the coefficients of the regression formula y = a + bx. The p-value is the probability of the sample regression slope (b) provided that the null hypothesis is true, β = 0. The t distribution is used for the linear regression t test. χ2 Test 2-Sample F Test Tests the independence of two categorical variables arranged in matrix form. The χ2 test for independence compares the observed matrix to the expected theoretical matrix. The χ2 distribution is used for the χ2 test. Tests the ratio between sample variances of two independent random samples. The F distribution is used for the 2-sample F test. 20060301 7-9-2 Tests Test Name Description ANOVA Tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple populations are equal. One-Way ANOVA Tests the ratio between the variation in sample means of several populations compared to variation among the units within the individual samples in a single factor experiment. The F distribution is used for the one-way ANOVA test. Two-Way ANOVA Tests the ratio between the variation among the levels compared to variation within the treatments in a two factor experiment. The F distribution is used for the two-way ANOVA test. The following pages explain how to perform various statistical calculations based on the above principles. Further details about statistical theory and terminology can be found in any standard statistics textbook. Tip • Always make sure you insert one space between a command and its parameters. In the following examples, spaces are indicated as shown below. Command: OneSampleZTest ↑ Indicates a space. Test Command List k Z Test 1-Sample Z Test Menu: [Test]-[One-Sample ZTest] Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to a population mean when population standard deviation is known. A 1-Sample Z Test is used for normal distribution. Z= o— o : sample mean 0 : assumed population mean : population standard deviation n : sample size 0 n Definition of Terms condition : 0 : : List : Freq : o: n: population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<”specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.) assumed population mean population standard deviation ( > 0) data list frequency (1 or list name) sample mean sample size (positive integer) 20060301 20070301 7-9-3 Tests Calculation Result Output ≠0: z: p: o: sx : n: test condition z value p-value sample mean sample standard deviation (Displayed only for list format.) sample size Example Mean : 131 Sample size : 10 Population standard deviation : 19 Assumed population mean : 120 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (2) Select [One-Sample ZTest] and [Variable], and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select the condition [>] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. u Program, eActivity or Main Application Command: OneSampleZTest Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) “ condition”, 0 value, value, List, Freq (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) “ condition”, 0 value, value, o value, n value Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) OneSampleZTest “≠”,0,1,list1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) OneSampleZTest “>”,120,19,131,10 20090601 7-9-4 Tests 2-Sample Z Test Menu: [Test]-[Two-Sample ZTest] Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to the population mean of two populations when the standard deviations of the two populations are known. A 2-Sample Z Test is used for normal distributions. Z= o1 — o2 2 2 2 n1 + n2 1 o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data 1 : population standard deviation of sample 1 2 : population standard deviation of sample 2 n1 : size of sample 1 n2 : size of sample 2 Definition of Terms 1 condition : population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is less than sample 2, “>” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2). 1 : population standard deviation of sample 1 (1 > 0) 2 : population standard deviation of sample 2 (2 > 0) List(1) : list where sample 1 data is located List(2) : list where sample 2 data is located Freq(1) : frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name) Freq(2) : frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name) sample mean of sample 1 data o1 : size of sample 1 (positive integer) n1 : sample mean of sample 2 data o2 : : size of sample 2 (positive integer) n2 Calculation Result Output 1 ≠ 2: z: p: o1: o2: sx1: sx2: n1 : n2 : test condition z value p-value sample mean of sample 1 data sample mean of sample 2 data sample standard deviation of sample 1 (Displayed only for list format.) sample standard deviation of sample 2 (Displayed only for list format.) size of sample 1 size of sample 2 20090601 7-9-5 Tests Example Sample A 40 23.16 65.43 Size Standard deviation Mean Sample B 45 18.51 71.87 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (2) Select [Two-Sample ZTest] and [Variable], and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select the 1 condition [≠] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoSampleZTest Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) “1 condition”, 1 value, 2 value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) “1 condition”, 1 value, 2 value, o1 value, n1 value, o2 value, n2 value Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) TwoSampleZTest “≠”,1,1,list1,list2,1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) TwoSampleZTest “≠”,23.16,18.51,65.43,40,71.87,45 1-Prop Z Test Menu: [Test]-[One-Prop ZTest] Description: This command tests whether successes achieve a fixed proportion. A 1-Prop Z Test is used for normal distribution. p0 : expected sample proportion n : sample size ) Z= x n — p0 p0 1 − p0) n 20060301 7-9-6 Tests Definition of Terms Prop condition : sample proportion test condition (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.) expected sample proportion (0 < p0 < 1) p0 : sample value (integer, x > 0) x: sample size (positive integer) n: Calculation Result Output Prop≠0.5 : test condition z: z value p: p-value estimated sample proportion pˆ : sample size n: Example Data : 13 Sample size : 100 Expected proportion : 20% • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (2) Select [One-Prop ZTest] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select Prop condition [≠] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OnePropZTest Command Syntax “Prop condition”, p0 value, x value, n value Input Example: OnePropZTest “≠”,0.2,13,100 2-Prop Z Test Menu: [Test]-[Two-Prop ZTest] Description: This command compares the propor tion of successes for two populations. A 2-Prop Z Test is used for normal distribution. Z= x1 n1 — x2 n2 x1 x2 n1 n2 ˆp p(1 — p ) 1 + 1 n1 n2 20060301 : data value of sample 1 : data value of sample 2 : size of sample 1 : size of sample 2 : estimated sample proportion 7-9-7 Tests Definition of Terms p1 condition : sample proportion test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2.) data value (integer, x1 > 0) of sample 1 size of sample 1 (positive integer) data value (integer, x2 > 0) of sample 2 size of sample 2 (positive integer) x1 : n1 : x2 : n2 : Calculation Result Output p1>p2 : z: p: pˆ 1 : pˆ 2 : pˆ : n1 : n2 : test condition z value p-value estimated proportion of sample 1 estimated proportion of sample 2 estimated sample proportion size of sample 1 size of sample 2 Example Data1 : 220 , sample size : 400 Data2 : 184 , sample size : 400 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (2) Select [Two-Prop ZTest] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select p1 condition [>] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoPropZTest Command Syntax “p1 condition”, x1 value, n1 value, x2 value, n2 value Input Example: TwoPropZTest “>”,220,400,184,400 20090601 7-9-8 Tests k t Test 1-Sample t Test Menu: [Test]-[One-Sample TTest] Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to a population mean when population standard deviation is unknown. A 1-Sample t Test is used for t distribution. t= o— o : sample mean 0 sx 0 : assumed population mean sx : sample standard deviation n : sample size n Definition of Terms condition : 0 : List : Freq : o: sx : n: population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.) assumed population mean data list frequency (1 or list name) sample mean sample standard deviation (sx > 0) sample size (positive integer) Calculation Result Output ≠ 11.3 : t: p: o: sx : n: test condition t value p-value sample mean sample standard deviation sample size Example 1 (calculation with list) List : { 330, 240, 260, 390, 400, 360, 200, 180, 300 } Assumed population mean : 250 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [One-Sample TTest] and [List], and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select the condition [≠] and input 0 250. (5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. 20090601 7-9-9 Tests (7) To display the graph, tap $. Example 2 (calculation with parameter) Standard deviation : 80.6 Mean : 295.6 Sample size : 9 Assumed population mean : 250 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (2) Select [One-Sample TTest] and [Variable], and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select the condition [≠] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OneSampleTTest Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) “ condition”, 0 value, List, Freq (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) “ condition”, 0 value, o value, sx value, n value Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) OneSampleTTest “≠”,250,list1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) OneSampleTTest “≠”,250,295.6,80.6,9 20090601 7-9-10 Tests 2-Sample t Test Menu: [Test]-[Two-Sample TTest] Description: This command compares the population means of two populations when population standard deviation is unknown. A 2-Sample t Test is used for t distribution. t= o1 — o2 sx12 s o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data 2 x2 n1 + n2 sx1 : sample standard deviation of sample 1 sx2 : sample standard deviation of sample 2 n1 : size of sample 1 n2 : size of sample 2 This formula is applicable when the population standard deviations of the two populations are not equal. The denominator is different when the population standard deviations are equal. The t distribution degrees of freedom df and sp differ according to whether the population standard deviations of the two populations are equal. When the two population standard deviations are equal (pooled) df = n1 + n2 – 2 sp = (n1–1)sx12 +(n2–1)sx22 n 1 + n2 – 2 When the two population standard deviations are not equal (not pooled) df = C= 1 C (1–C )2 + n1–1 n2–1 2 sx12 n1 sx12 sx22 n1 + n2 Definition of Terms 1 condition : sample mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2.) List(1) : list where sample 1 data is located List(2) : list where sample 2 data is located Freq(1) : frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name) Freq(2) : frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name) Pooled : On or Off sample mean of sample 1 data o1 : sx1 : sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0) size of sample 1 (positive integer) n1 : : sample mean of sample 2 data o2 sx2 : sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0) size of sample 2 (positive integer) n2 : 20090601 7-9-11 Tests Calculation Result Output 1 ≠ 2 : t: p: df : o1 : o2 : sx1 : sx2 : sp : n1 : n2 : test condition t value p-value degrees of freedom sample mean of sample 1 data sample mean of sample 2 data sample standard deviation of sample 1 sample standard deviation of sample 2 Pooled sample standard deviation (Displayed only when pooling is turned on.) size of sample 1 size of sample 2 Example list1 : {−8522, 316, −9001, 6470, 8956, 4348, 8571, 2142, −7139, 9925, 1260} list2 : {176, 5498, 4830, 9457, 6486, 9607, −8334, −1771, 7919, −2997} • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [Two-Sample TTest] and [List], and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select the 1 condition [<]. (5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1], Freq(2) [1] and Pooled [Off]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. (7) To display the graph, tap the $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoSampleTTest Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) “1 condition”, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1), Pooled condition (On or Off) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. * “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) “1 condition”, o1 value, sx1 value, n1 value, o2 value, sx2 value, n2 value, Pooled condition (On or Off) * “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”. 20090601 7-9-12 Tests Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) TwoSampleTTest “<”,list1,list2,1,1,Off Syntax 2 (parameter format) TwoSampleTTest “≠”,107.5,0.78,10,97.5,0.65,12,Off Linear Regression t Test Menu: [Test]-[Linear Reg TTest] Description: This command treats two groups of data as paired variables (x, y). The method of least squares is used to determine the most appropriate pair for the a, b coefficients of the regression formula y = a + b.x. It also determines the correlation coefficient and t value, and calculates the strength of the relationship between x and y. n b= Σ(x – o)( y – p) i=1 n Σ(x – o) a = p – b.o 2 t=r n–2 1 – r2 i=1 a : regression constant term (y-intercept) b : regression coefficient (slope) n : sample size (n > 3) r : correlation coefficient r2 : coefficient of determination Definition of Terms & ρ condition : test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies lower onetail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.) XList : x-data list YList : y-data list Freq : frequency (1 or list name) Calculation Result Output ≠ 0 &ρ ≠ 0 : t: p: df : a: b: se : r: r2 : test condition t value p-value degrees of freedom regression constant term (y-intercept) regression coefficient (slope) standard error of estimation correlation coefficient coefficient of determination 20090601 7-9-13 Tests Example list1 : { 38, 56, 59, 64, 74 } list2 : { 41, 63, 70, 72, 84 } • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [Linear Reg TTest] and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select the & ρ condition [≠]. (5) Select XList [list1], YList [list2] and Freq [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. (7) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: LinRegTTest Command Syntax “ & ρ condition”, XList, YList, Freq (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Input Example LinRegTTest “≠”,list1,list2,1 2 k χ Test 2 χ Test Menu: [Test]-[χ2 Test] Description: This command tests hypotheses concerning the proportion of samples included in each of a number of independent groups. The χ2 Test command is used in the case of dichotomous variables, which are variables that have only two possible values (such as “yes” or “no”). Expected Frequencies k Σx × Σx ij Fij = i=1 ij j=1 k ΣΣ x ij i=1 j=1 (xij – Fij)2 Fij i=1 j=1 k χ2 = ΣΣ Definition of Terms Observed matrix: name of matrix containing observed values (positive integers in all cells for 2 × 2 and larger matrices; positive real numbers for one row matrices) 20060301 7-9-14 Tests Calculation Result Output 2 2 χ : χ value p : p-value df : degrees of freedom Example a= 11 68 3 9 23 5 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) J (2) Input the matrix and assign it to variable a. (3) m I (4) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (5) Select [χ2 Test] and then tap [Next >>]. (6) Input matrix a in the Matrix dialog box. (7) Tap [Next >>]. (8) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: ChiTest Command Syntax Observed matrix Input Example: ChiTest matrixa Tip • The minimum size of the matrix is 1 × 2. An error occurs if the matrix has only one row. • The result of the expected frequency calculation is stored in the system variable named “Expected”. 20090601 7-9-15 Tests 2 χ GOF Test Menu: [Test]-[χ2 GOF Test] Description: This command tests whether the frequency of sample data fits a certain distribution. For example, it can be used to determine conformance with normal distribution or binomial distribution. k χ2 = Σ i (Oi − Ei )2 Ei Contrib = (O1 − E1 )2 (O2 − E2 )2 ... (Ok − Ek )2 E1 E2 Ek Oi : The i-th element of the observed list Ei : The i-th element of the expected list Definition of Terms Observed list : name of list containing observed counts (all cells positive integers) Expected list : name of list that is for saving expected frequency df : degrees of freedom Calculation Result Output χ : p: df : Contrib : 2 χ value p-value degrees of freedom name of list specifying the contribution of each observed count 2 Example list1 = {1,2,3}, list2 = {4,5,6}, df = 1 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) J (2) Input the list1 and list2. (3) m I (4) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (5) Select [χ2 GOF Test] and then tap [Next >>]. (6) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2] and input df 1. (7) Tap [Next >>]. (8) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: ChiGOFTest Command Syntax Observed list, Expected list, df Input Example: ChiGOFTest list1, list2, 1 Tip • The calculation results χ2, p, df, and Contrib are stored in the system variables named “χ2value”, “prob”, “df”, and “Contrib” respectively. 20090601 7-9-16 Tests k 2-Sample F Test 2-Sample F Test Menu: [Test]-[Two-Sample FTest] Description: This command tests hypotheses concerning the ratio of the population variance of two populations. A 2-Sample F Test uses F distribution. F= sx12 sx22 Definition of Terms 1 condition: population standard deviation test conditions (“≠” specifies twotail test, “<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2.) List(1) : list where sample 1 data is located List(2) : list where sample 2 data is located Freq(1) : frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name) Freq(2) : frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name) sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0) sx1 : size of sample 1 (positive integer) n1 : sx2 : sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0) size of sample 2 (positive integer) n2 : Calculation Result Output 1 ≠ 2 : F: p: o1 : o2 : sx1 : sx2 : n1 : n2 : test condition F value p-value sample mean of sample 1 data (Displayed only for list format.) sample mean of sample 2 data (Displayed only for list format.) sample standard deviation of sample 1 sample standard deviation of sample 2 size of sample 1 size of sample 2 Example list1 : { 7, −4, 18, 17, −3, −5, 1, 10, 11, −2, −3 } list2 : { −1, 12, −1, −3, −3, 3, −5, 5, 2, −11, −1, −3 } • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [Two-Sample FTest] and [List], and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select the 1 condition [≠]. (5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1] and Freq(2) [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. (7) To display the graph, tap $. 20101001 7-9-17 Tests uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoSampleFTest Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) “1 condition”, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) “1 condition”, sx1 value, n1 value, sx2 value, n2 value Input Example Syntax 1 (list format) TwoSampleFTest “≠”,list1,list2,1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) TwoSampleFTest “≠”,1.94,10,2.12,15 k ANOVA One-Way ANOVA Menu: [Test]-[One-Way ANOVA ] Description: This command tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple populations are equal. It compares the mean of one or more groups based on one independent variable or factor. Definition of Terms FactorList(A): list where levels of Factor A are located DependentList: list where sample data is located Calculation Result Output A df : A MS : A SS : AF: Ap: Errdf : ErrMS : ErrSS : df of Factor A MS of Factor A SS of Factor A F value of Factor A p-value of Factor A df of error MS of error SS of error df : SS : MS : degrees of freedom sum of squares mean square 20090601 7-9-18 Tests Example list1 : { 7, 4, 6, 6, 5 } list2 : { 6, 5, 5, 8, 7 } list3 : { 4, 7, 6, 7, 6 } • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1], [list2] and [list3] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [One-Way ANOVA] and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select Lists [list1], [list2] and [list3]. (5) Tap [Next >>]. (6) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OneWayANOVA Command Syntax FactorList(A), DependentList Input Example list1:{1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3} list2:{7,4,6,6,5,6,5,5,8,7,4,7,6,7,6} OneWayANOVA list1,list2 Two-Way ANOVA Menu: [Test]-[Two-Way ANOVA ] Description: This command tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple populations are equal. It examines the effect of each variable independently as well as their interaction with each other based on a dependent variable. Definition of Terms FactorList(A) : list where levels of Factor A are located FactorList(B) : list where levels of Factor B are located DependentList : list where sample data is located Calculation Result Output A df : A MS : A SS : AF: Ap: B df : B MS : B SS : BF: Bp: df of Factor A MS of Factor A SS of Factor A F value of Factor A p-value of Factor A df of Factor B MS of Factor B SS of Factor B F value of Factor B p-value of Factor B 20090601 7-9-19 Tests AB df : AB MS : AB SS : AB F : AB p : df of Factor A × Factor B MS of Factor A × Factor B SS of Factor A × Factor B F value of Factor A × Factor B p-value of Factor A × Factor B Note that “AB df ”, “AB MS ”, “AB SS ”, “AB F ”, and “AB p” are not displayed if there are no repeated data pairs. Errdf : df of error ErrMS : MS of error ErrSS : SS of error df : SS : MS : degrees of freedom sum of squares mean square Example Factor A1 Factor A2 Factor B1 14.5, 11, 10.8, 14.3, 10 (list1) 21, 18.5, 15.2, 17.9, 21.6 (list3) Factor B2 16.5, 18.4, 12.7, 14, 12.8 (list2) 43.2, 35.2, 28.7, 41.3, 47.1 (list4) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] through [list4] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test]. (3) Select [Two-Way ANOVA] and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Select Data Table type [2x2]. (5) Select Data Table lists [list1] through [list4]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoWayANOVA Command Syntax FactorList(A), FactorList(B), DependentList Input Example list1:{1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2} list2:{1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2} list3:{14.5,11,10.8,14.3,10,16.5,18.4,12.7,14,12.8, 21,18.5,15.2,17.9,21.6,43.2, 35.2,28.7,41.3,47.1} TwoWayANOVA list1,list2,list3 20090601 7-10-1 Confidence Intervals 7-10 Confidence Intervals A confidence interval is a range of values that has a specified probability of containing the parameter being estimated. A confidence interval that is too broad makes it difficult to get an idea of where the parameter (actual value) is located. A narrow confidence interval, on the other hand, limits the parameter range and makes it possible to obtain highly accurate results. The commonly used confidence levels are 68%, 95% and 99%. Raising the confidence level broadens the confidence interval. Conversely, lowering the confidence level narrows the confidence interval, but it also creates the risk that parameters will be missed. With a confidence interval of 95%, for example, there is a 5% probability that a parameter will not be within the interval. The following is a list of confidence intervals and a description of what each obtains. Description Confidence Interval Name Z Confidence Interval 1-Sample Z Interval 2-Sample Z Interval 1-Prop Z Interval 2-Prop Z Interval Calculates the confidence interval for the population mean based on a sample mean and known population standard deviation. Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between population means based on the difference between sample means when the population standard deviations are known. Calculates the confidence interval for the population proportion based on a single sample proportion. Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between population proportions based on the difference between two sample proportions. t Confidence Interval 1-Sample t Interval Calculates the confidence interval for the population mean based on a sample mean and a sample standard deviation when the population standard deviation is not known. 2-Sample t Interval Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between population means based on the difference between sample means and sample standard deviations when the population standard deviations are not known. k General Confidence Interval Precautions If you input a C-Level (confidence level) value in the range of 0 < C-Level < 1, the value you input is used. To specify a C-Level of 95%, for example, input “0.95”. 20060301 7-10-2 Confidence Intervals Confidence Interval Command List k Z Confidence Interval 1-Sample Z Interval Menu: [Interval]-[One-Sample ZInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the population mean when the population standard deviation is known. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. Lower = o – Z α σ 2 n Upper = o + Z α σ 2 n α is the significance level, and 100 (1 – α)% is the confidence level. When the confidence level is 95%, for example, you would input 0.95, which produces α = 1 – 0.95 = 0.05. Definition of Terms C-Level : : List : Freq : o: n: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) population standard deviation ( > 0) list where sample data is located frequency of sample (1 or list name) sample mean sample size (positive integer) Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : o: sx : n: interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) sample mean sample standard deviation (Displayed only for list format.) sample size Example 1 (calculation with list) list1 : { 299.4, 297.7, 301, 298.9, 300.2, 297 } Population standard deviation : 3 Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (3) Select [One-Sample ZInt] and [List], and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Input values. (5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. 20090601 7-10-3 Confidence Intervals Example 2 (calculation with parameter) Mean : 300 Sample size : 6 Population standard deviation : 3 Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (2) Select [One-Sample ZInt] and [Variable], and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OneSampleZInt Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) C-Level value, value, List, Freq (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) C-Level value, value, o value, n value Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) OneSampleZInt 0.95,3,list1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) OneSampleZInt 0.95,3,300,6 2-Sample Z Interval Menu: [Interval]-[Two-Sample ZInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the difference between population means when the population standard deviations of two populations are known. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%. Lower = (o1 – o2) – Z α 2 σ12 σ22 o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data + n1 n2 o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data Upper = (o1 – o2) + Z α 2 σ1 σ + n1 n2 2 20090601 2 2 1 : population standard deviation of sample 1 2 : population standard deviation of sample 2 n1 : size of sample 1 n2 : size of sample 2 7-10-4 Confidence Intervals Definition of Terms C-Level : 1 : 2 : List(1) : List(2) : Freq(1) : Freq(2) : o1 : n1 : o2 : n2 : confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) population standard deviation of sample 1 (1 > 0) population standard deviation of sample 2 (2 > 0) list where sample 1 data is located list where sample 2 data is located frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name) frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name) sample mean of sample 1 data size of sample 1 (positive integer) sample mean of sample 2 data size of sample 2 (positive integer) Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : o1 : o2 : sx1 : sx2 : n1 : n2 : interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) sample mean of sample 1 data sample mean of sample 2 data sample standard deviation of sample 1 (Displayed only for list format.) sample standard deviation of sample 2 (Displayed only for list format.) size of sample 1 size of sample 2 Example list1 : { 154, 109, 137, 115, 140 } , population standard deviation : 15.5 list2 : { 108, 115, 126, 92, 146 } , population standard deviation : 13.5 Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (3) Select [Two-Sample ZInt] and [List], and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Input values. (5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1] and Freq(2) [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoSampleZInt Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) C-Level value, 1 value, 2 value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) C-Level value, 1 value, 2 value, o1 value, n1 value, o2 value, n2 value 20090601 7-10-5 Confidence Intervals Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) TwoSampleZInt 0.95,15.5,13.5,list1,list2,1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) TwoSampleZInt 0.95,1,1.5,418,40,402,50 1-Prop Z Interval Menu: [Interval]-[One-Prop ZInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval of the proportion of successes in a population. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%. Lower = nx – Z α 2 1 x x n n 1– n x Upper = n + Z α 2 1 x x n n 1– n Definition of Terms C-Level: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) data (0 or positive integer) x: sample size (positive integer) n: Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : ˆp : n: interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) estimated sample proportion sample size Example Data : 2048 Sample size : 4040 Significance level : 1% ( = confidence level : 99%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (2) Select [One-Prop ZInt] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. 20090601 n: sample size x: data 7-10-6 Confidence Intervals uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OnePropZInt Command Syntax C-Level value, x value, n value Input Example: OnePropZInt 0.99,2048,4040 2-Prop Z Interval Menu: [Interval]-[Two-Prop ZInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval of the difference between the proportions of successes of two populations. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%. x x Lower = n1 – n2 – Z α 1 2 2 x1 x2 x2 x1 n1 1– n1 n2 1– n2 + n1 n2 x x Upper = n1 – n2 + Z α 1 2 2 x1 x2 x2 x1 n1 1– n1 n2 1– n2 + n1 n2 Definition of Terms C-Level: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) data value (integer, x1 > 0) of sample 1 x1 : size of sample 1 (positive integer) n1 : data value (integer, x2 > 0) of sample 2 x2 : size of sample 2 (positive integer) n2 : Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : pˆ 1 : pˆ 2 : n1 : n2 : interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) estimated proportion of sample 1 estimated proportion of sample 2 size of sample 1 size of sample 2 20090601 n1, n2 : sample size x1, x2 : data 7-10-7 Confidence Intervals Example Data1 : 49, sample size : 61 Data2 : 38, sample size : 62 Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (2) Select [Two-Prop ZInt] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoPropZInt Command Syntax C-Level value, x1 value, n1 value, x2 value, n2 value Input Example: TwoPropZInt 0.95,49,61,38,62 k t Confidence Interval 1-Sample t Interval Menu: [Interval]-[One-Sample TInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the population mean when the population standard deviation is unknown. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%. α 2 sx n Upper = o+tn – 1 α 2 sx n Lower = o– tn – 1 Definition of Terms C-Level : List : Freq : o: sx : n: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) list where sample data is located frequency of sample (1 or list name) sample mean sample standard deviation (sx > 0) sample size (positive integer) 20090601 7-10-8 Confidence Intervals Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : o: sx : n: interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) sample mean sample standard deviation sample size Example list1 : { 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 } Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (3) Select [One-Sample TInt] and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Input value. (5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: OneSampleTInt Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) C-Level value, List, Freq (or 1) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) C-Level value, o value, sx value, n value Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) OneSampleTInt 0.95,list1,1 Syntax 2 (parameter format) OneSampleTInt 0.95,66.3,8.4,12 2-Sample t Interval Menu: [Interval]-[Two-Sample TInt] Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the difference between two population means when the population standard deviations are unknown. The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions. The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%. 20090601 7-10-9 Confidence Intervals When the two population standard deviations are equal (pooled) Lower = (o1 – o2)– tn +n 1 2 –2 Upper = (o1 – o2)+ tn +n 1 2 –2 α 2 sp2 n1 + n1 2 1 α 2 sp2 n1 + n1 2 1 When the two population standard deviations are not equal (not pooled) α 2 sx12 sx22 n1 + n2 Upper = (o1 – o2)+ tdf α 2 1 df = 2 2 C + (1–C) n1–1 n2–1 sx12 sx22 n1 + n2 Lower = (o1 – o2)– tdf C= sx12 n1 sx12 sx22 + n2 n1 Definition of Terms C-Level : List(1) : List(2) : Freq(1) : Freq(2) : Pooled : o1 : sx1: n1 : o2 : sx2 : n2 : confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) list where sample 1 data is located list where sample 2 data is located frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name) frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name) On or Off sample mean of sample 1 data sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0) size of sample 1 (positive integer) sample mean of sample 2 data sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0) size of sample 2 (positive integer) Calculation Result Output Lower : Upper : df : o1 : o2 : sx1 : sx2 : sp : n1 : n2 : interval lower limit (left edge) interval upper limit (right edge) degrees of freedom sample mean of sample 1 data sample mean of sample 2 data sample standard deviation of sample 1 sample standard deviation of sample 2 pooled sample standard deviation (Displayed only when pooling is turned on.) size of sample 1 size of sample 2 20090601 7-10-10 Confidence Intervals Example list1 : { 12.207, 16.869, 25.05, 22.429, 8.456, 10.589 } list2 : { 11.074, 9.686, 12.064, 9.351, 8.182, 6.642 } Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%) • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor. (2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval]. (3) Select [Two-Sample TInt] and then tap [Next >>]. (4) Input value. (5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1], Freq(2) [1] and Pooled [Off]. (6) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TwoSampleTInt Command Syntax Syntax 1 (list format) C-Level value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1), Pooled condition (On or Off) * “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”. * “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”. Syntax 2 (parameter format) C-Level value, o1 value, sx1 value, n1 value, o2 value, sx2 value, n2 value, Pooled condition (On or Off) * “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”. Input Example: Syntax 1 (list format) TwoSampleTInt 0.95,list1,list2,1,1,Off Syntax 2 (parameter format) TwoSampleTInt 0.95,80.4,2.07,30,84.2,1.96,35,On 20101001 7-11-1 Distributions 7-11 Distributions Though there are a number of different types of distributions, the one most commonly used is the “Normal Distribution”, which is an essential type of distribution for statistical calculations. Other types of distributions include the Poisson distribution and geometric distribution. The type of distribution used depends on the type of data being handled. The shape of a distribution makes it possible to determine trends in data somewhat. You can specify a value and calculate the probability that any data value from the distribution is, for example, less than the specified value. In other words, you can determine what percent from the bottom that data value occurs within the distribution. The following is a list of distributions and the description of what each one calculates. Distribution Name Normal Distribution Normal Probability Density Description Calculates the normal probability density for a specified value. Normal Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability of a normal distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Inverse Normal Cumulative Distribution Calculates the boundary value(s) of a normal cumulative probability distribution for specified values. t Distribution Student-t Probability Density Calculates the Student-t probability density for a specified value. Student-t Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability of a Student-t distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Inverse Student-t Cumulative Distribution Calculates the lower bound value of a Student-t cumulative probability distribution for specified values. χ2 Distribution χ2 Probability Density Calculates the χ2 probability density for a specified value. χ2 Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability of a χ2 distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Inverse χ2 Cumulative Distribution Calculates the lower bound value of a χ2 cumulative probability distribution for specified values. F Distribution F Probability Density Calculates the F probability density for a specified value. F Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability of an F distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound. Inverse F Cumulative Distribution Calculates the lower bound value of an F cumulative probability distribution for specified values. 20080201 20060301 7-11-2 Distributions Description Distribution Name Binomial Distribution Binomial Distribution Probability Calculates the probability in a binomial distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Binomial Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability in a binomial distribution that the success will occur on or before a specified trial. Inverse Binomial Cumulative Distribution Calculates the minimum number of trials of a binomial cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Poisson Distribution Poisson Distribution Probability Poisson Cumulative Distribution Calculates the probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Calculates the cumulative probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will occur on or before a specified trial. Inverse Poisson Cumulative Calculates the minimum number of trials of a Poisson cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Distribution Geometric Distribution Geometric Distribution Probability Calculates the probability in a geometric distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Geometric Cumulative Distribution Calculates the cumulative probability in a geometric distribution that the success will occur on or before a specified trial. Inverse Geometric Cumulative Distribution Calculates the minimum number of trials of a geometric cumulative probability distribution for specified values. Hypergeometric Distribution Hypergeometric Distribution Probability Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution Calculates the probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the success will occur on a specified trial. Calculates the cumulative probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the success will occur on or before a specified trial. Inverse Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution Calculates the minimum number of trials of a hypergeometric cumulative probability distribution for specified values. 20090601 7-11-3 Distributions Distribution Command List Important! Though list data can be used within the argument of the Distribution function (page 2-8-48), list data cannot be used in the argument of the Statistics Wizard operations described here or in operations that use the Distribution command in the applications. For details about using list data within the Distribution function, see “Specifying Arguments within the Distribution Function” (page 2-8-48). k Normal Distribution Normal Probability Density Menu: [Distribution]-[Normal PD] Description: This command calculates the probability density of normal distribution from a specified x value. Normal probability density is used for normal distribution. f (x) = 1 e– 2π σ (x – μμ)2 ( > 0) 2σ 2 Definition of Terms x : data value : population standard deviation ( > 0) : population mean Specifying = 1 and = 0 produces standard normal distribution. Calculation Result Output prob : normal probability density Example Data : 37.5 Population standard deviation : 2 Population mean : 35 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Normal PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. 20090601 7-11-4 Distributions uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: NormPD Command Syntax x value, value, value Input Example: NormPD 37.5,2,35 Normal Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Normal CD] Description: This command calculates the probability of normal distribution data falling between a and b. dx a : lower bound (Lower) b : upper bound (Upper) Definition of Terms Lower : Upper : : : lower bound upper bound population standard deviation ( > 0) population mean Calculation Result Output prob : normal distribution probability p z Low : standardized lower limit z value z Up : standardized upper limit z value Example Upper bound : 36 (lower bound : −∞) Population standard deviation : 2 Population mean : 35 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Normal CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. 20090601 7-11-5 Distributions uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: NormCD Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, value, value Input Example: NormCD −∞,36,2,35 Inverse Normal Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Normal CD] Description: This command calculates the cumulative probability in a normal distribution based on lower and upper bounds. This command returns the upper and lower bound of integration values that satisfy the equations below. Tail:Left Tail:Right Tail:Center Upper bound is returned. Lower bound is returned. Lower bound and upper bound are returned. + = 2 Definition of Terms Tail setting: probability value tail specification (L (Left), R (Right), C (Center)) Area : probability value (0 < Area < 1) : population standard deviation ( > 0) : population mean Calculation Result Output inverse cumulative normal distribution x1InvN: Upper bound when Tail:Left Lower bound when Tail:Right or Tail:Center x2InvN: Upper bound when Tail:Center Example Tail : Left Probability : 0.7 Population standard deviation : 2 Population mean : 35 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse Normal CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Select Tail setting [Left] and input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. 20090601 7-11-6 Distributions uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvNormCD or InvNorm Command Syntax “Tail setting”, Area value, value, value Input Example: InvNorm “L”,0.7,2,35 k t Distribution Student- t Probability Density Menu: [Distribution]-[Student-T PD] Description: This command calculates t probability density from a specified x value. 2 – x df + 1 1+ df 2 f (x) = π .df df Γ 2 Γ df+1 2 Definition of Terms x : data value df : degrees of freedom (df > 0) Calculation Result Output prob : Student-t probability density Example Data : 2 Degrees of freedom : 5 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Student-T PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. 20090601 7-11-7 Distributions uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TPD Command Syntax x value, df value Input Example: TPD 2,5 Student- t Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Student-T CD] Description: This command calculates the probability of the Student-t distribution data falling between a and b. df + 1 2 p= df Γ 2 π .df Γ b 2 a x 1+ df – df+1 2 dx Definition of Terms Lower : lower bound Upper : upper bound degrees of freedom (df > 0) df : Calculation Result Output prob : Student-t distribution probability p t Low : lower bound value you input t Up : upper bound value you input Example Lower bound : 1.5 (upper bound : ∞) Degrees of freedom : 18 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Student-T CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. 20090601 a : lower bound (Lower) b : upper bound (Upper) 7-11-8 Distributions uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: TCD Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, df value Input Example: TCD 1.5,∞,18 Inverse Student-t Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse T CD] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the t cumulative distribution. ∞ This command returns the lower bound of integration value that satisfies the equation above. Definition of Terms prob : t cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1) df : degrees of freedom (df > 0) Calculation Result Output xInv : inverse t cumulative distribution Example Probability : 0.0754752 Degrees of freedom : 18 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse T CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvTCD Command Syntax prob value, df value Input Example: InvTCD 0.0754752,18 20090601 7-11-9 Distributions k χ Distribution 2 χ2 Probability Density Menu: 2 [Distribution]-[χ PD] Description: This command calculates the probability density of χ distribution from a specified x value. 2 f (x) = 1 df Γ 2 1 2 df 2 df –1 – x2 e x 2 Definition of Terms x : data value df : degrees of freedom (positive integer) Calculation Result Output 2 prob : χ probability density Example Data : 2 Degrees of freedom : 4 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. 2 (2) Select [χ PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: ChiPD Command Syntax x value, df value Input Example: ChiPD 2,4 20060301 7-11-10 Distributions χ2 Cumulative Distribution [Distribution]-[χ CD ] 2 Menu: Description: This command calculates the probability of χ distribution data falling between a and b. 2 p= 1 df Γ 2 1 2 df 2 b df –1 – x2 e x 2 a : lower bound (Lower) b : upper bound (Upper) dx a Definition of Terms Lower : lower bound Upper : upper bound degrees of freedom (positive integer) df : Calculation Result Output 2 prob : χ distribution probability p Example Lower bound : 2.7 (upper bound : ∞) Degrees of freedom : 4 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. 2 (2) Select [χ CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: ChiCD Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, df value Input Example: ChiCD 2.7,∞,4 Inverse χ Cumulative Distribution 2 Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse χ CD] 2 Description: This command calculates the inverse of the χ cumulative distribution. ∞ 2 This command returns the lower bound of integration value that satisfies the equation above. 20090601 7-11-11 Distributions Definition of Terms prob : χ cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1) df : degrees of freedom (positive integer) 2 Calculation Result Output xInv : inverse χ cumulative distribution 2 Example Probability : 0.6092146 Degrees of freedom : 4 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. 2 (2) Select [Inverse χ CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvChiCD Command Syntax prob value, df value Input Example: InvChiCD 0.6092146,4 k F Distribution F Probability Density Menu: [Distribution]-[F PD] Description: This command calculates the probability density of F distribution from a specified x value. n+d 2 f (x) = n d Γ Γ 2 2 Γ n d n 2 x n –1 2 1+ n.x – n+d 2 d Definition of Terms data value x: n:df : degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer) d:df : degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer) Calculation Result Output prob : F probability density 20060301 7-11-12 Distributions Example Data : 1.5 Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24 Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [F PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: FPD Command Syntax x value, n:df value, d:df value Input Example: FPD 1.5,24,19 F Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[F CD] Description: This command calculates the probability of F distribution data falling between a and b. n+d 2 p= n d Γ Γ 2 2 Γ n d n 2 b x a n –1 2 . 1 +n x d – n+d 2 dx a : lower bound (Lower) b : upper bound (Upper) Definition of Terms Lower : Upper : n:df : d:df : lower bound upper bound degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer) degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer) Calculation Result Output prob : F distribution probability p 20080201 20060301 7-11-13 Distributions Example Lower bound : 1.5 (upper bound : ∞) Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24 Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [F CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: FCD Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, n:df value, d:df value Input Example: FCD 1.5,∞,24,19 Inverse F Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse F CD] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the F cumulative distribution. ∞ This command returns the lower bound of integration value that satisfies the equation above. Definition of Terms prob : F cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1) n:df : degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer) d:df : degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer) Calculation Result Output xInv : inverse F cumulative distribution 20090601 7-11-14 Distributions Example Probability : 0.1852 Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24 Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse F CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvFCD Command Syntax prob value, n:df value, d:df value Input Example: InvFCD 0.1852,24,19 k Binomial Distribution Binomial Distribution Probability Menu: [Distribution]-[Binomial PD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a binomial distribution will be a given x value. For example, it determines the probability of x successes when the probability of success p-trial is performed n times. f (x) = nCxpx(1–p)n – x (x = 0, 1, ·······, n) Definition of Terms x: specified trial (integer from 0 to n) Numtrial : number of trials n (integer, n > 0) probability of success p (0 < p < 1) pos : Calculation Result Output prob : binomial probability 20090601 p : probability of success (0 < p < 1) n : number of trials 7-11-15 Distributions Example Trials : 5 Specified trial : 3 Probability of success : 0.63 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Binomial PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: BinomialPD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax x value, Numtrial value, pos value Input Example: BinomialPD 3,5,0.63 Binomial Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Binomial CD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a binomial distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound values. For example, it can be used to determine the probability a test with a success probability of 0.5 (50%) that is performed ten times will be successful at least three times but no more than five times. Definition of Terms Lower : Upper : Numtrial : pos : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer) upper bound (Lower < Upper integer) number of trials n (integer, n > 1) probability of success p (0 < p < 1) Calculation Result Output prob : binomial cumulative probability 20090601 7-11-16 Distributions Example Trials : 5 Lower bound : 2 Upper bound : 3 Probability of success : 0.63 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Binomial CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command: BinomialCD Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, Numtrial value, pos value Input Example: BinomialCD 2,3,5,0.63 Inverse Binomial Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Binomial CD] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the binomial cumulative distribution. m Σ x =0 This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above. Definition of Terms prob : binomial cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1) Numtrial : number of trials n (integer, n > 0) pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1) Calculation Result Output xInv : *xInv : inverse binomial cumulative distribution recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of rounding error.) • To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For example, if the probability is 0.61, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.60. The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one. 20090601 20091101 7-11-17 Distributions Example Binomial cumulative probability : 0.61 Trials : 5 Probability of success : 0.63 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse Binomial CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvBinomialCD Command Syntax prob value, Numtrial value, pos value Input Example: InvBinomialCD 0.609,5,0.63 k Poisson Distribution Poisson Distribution Probability Menu: [Distribution]-[Poisson PD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a Poisson distribution will be a given x value. e– x f (x) = x! (x = 0, 1, 2, ···) Definition of Terms x: : specified trial (integer, x > 0) mean ( > 0) Calculation Result Output prob : Poisson probability 20090601 : mean ( > 0) 7-11-18 Distributions Example Specified trial : 10 Mean : 6 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Poisson PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: PoissonPD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax x value, value Input Example: PoissonPD 10,6 Poisson Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Poisson CD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a Poisson distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound values. Definition of Terms Lower : Upper : : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer) upper bound (Lower < Upper integer) mean ( > 0) Calculation Result Output Poisson cumulative probability prob : 20090601 7-11-19 Distributions Example Lower bound : 2 Upper bound : 3 Mean : 2.26 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Poisson CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: PoissonCD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, value Input Example: PoissonCD 2,3,2.26 Inverse Poisson Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Poisson CD] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the Poisson cumulative distribution. m Σ x =0 This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above. Definition of Terms prob : : Poisson cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1) mean ( > 0) Calculation Result Output xInv : *xInv : inverse Poisson cumulative distribution recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of rounding error.) • To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For example, if the probability is 0.99999, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.99998. The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one. 20090601 7-11-20 Distributions Example Poisson cumulative probability : 0.8074 Mean : 2.26 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse Poisson CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvPoissonCD Command Syntax prob value, value Input Example: InvPoissonCD 0.8074,2.26 k Geometric Distribution Geometric Distribution Probability Menu: [Distribution]-[Geometric PD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a geometric distribution will be a given x value. f (x) = p(1– p)x – 1 (x = 1, 2, 3, ···) Definition of Terms x : specified trial (positive integer) pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1) Calculation Result Output prob : geometric probability 20090601 p : probability of success (0 < p < 1) 7-11-21 Distributions Example Specified trial : 6 Probability of success : 0.4 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Geometric PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: GeoPD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax x value, pos value Input Example: GeoPD 6,0.4 Geometric Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Geometric CD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a geometric distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound values. Definition of Terms Lower : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer) Upper : upper bound (Lower < Upper integer) pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1) Calculation Result Output prob : geometric cumulative probability 20090601 7-11-22 Distributions Example Lower bound : 2 Upper bound : 3 Probability of success : 0.5 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Geometric CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: GeoCD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, pos value Input Example: GeoCD 2,3,0.5 Inverse Geometric Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Geo CD] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the geometric cumulative distribution. m Σ x =1 This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above. Definition of Terms prob : geometric cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1) pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1) Calculation Result Output xInv : inverse geometric cumulative distribution *xInv : recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of rounding error.) • To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For example, if the probability is 0.875, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.874. The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one. 20090601 7-11-23 Distributions Example Geometric cumulative probability : 0.875 Probability of success : 0.5 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse Geo CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvGeoCD Command Syntax prob value, pos value Input Example: InvGeoCD 0.875,0.5 k Hypergeometric Distribution Hypergeometric Distribution Probability Menu: [Distribution]-[Hypergeometric PD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a hypergeometric distribution will be a given x value. prob = M Cx ×N–M Cn–x C N n Definition of Terms x: n: M: N: specified trial (integer) number of trials from population (0 < n integer) number of successes in population (0 < M integer) population size (n < N, M < N integer) Calculation Result Output prob : hypergeometric probability 20090601 7-11-24 Distributions Example Specified trial: 1 Number of trials from population: 5 Number of successes in population: 10 Population size: 20 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Hypergeometric PD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: HypergeoPD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax x value, n value, M value, N value Input Example: HypergeoPD 1,5,10,20 Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Distribution]-[Hypergeometric CD] Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a hypergeometric distribution will fall between given lower bound and upper bound values. Upper prob = ∑ M i=Lower Ci ×N–M Cn–i C N n Definition of Terms Lower : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer) Upper : upper bound (Lower < Upper integer) n: number of trials from population (0 < n integer) M: number of successes in population (0 < M integer) N: population size (n < N, M < N integer) Calculation Result Output prob: hypergeometric cumulative probability Example Lower bound: 0 Upper bound: 1 Number of trials from population: 5 Number of successes in population: 10 Population size: 20 20090601 7-11-25 Distributions • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Hypergeometric CD] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. (5) To display the graph, tap $. uProgram, eActivity or Main Application Command: HypergeoCD Graphing may take a long time when the absolute value of the argument is large. Command Syntax Lower value, Upper value, n value, M value, N value Input Example: HypergeoCD 0,1,5,10,20 Inverse Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution Menu: [Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Hypergeometric] Description: This command calculates the inverse of the hypergeometric cumulative distribution. X prob H ∑ M i=0 Ci ×N–M Cn–i C N n This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of X (Σ upper bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above. Definition of Terms prob : n: M: N: hypergeometric cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1) number of trials from population (0 < n integer) number of successes in population (0 < M integer) population size (n < N, M < N integer) Calculation Result Output xInv : inverse hypergeometric cumulative distribution *xInv : recalculation value (Displayed only when there is the possibility of rounding error.) • To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad also obtains the result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For example, if the probability is 0.3, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.29. The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one. 20090601 7-11-26 Distributions Example Hypergeometric cumulative probability: 0.3 Number of trials from population: 5 Number of successes in population: 10 Population size: 20 • Statistics Wizard Operation (1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution]. (2) Select [Inverse Hypergeometric] and then tap [Next >>]. (3) Input values. (4) Tap [Next >>]. • Program, eActivity or Main Application Command: InvHypergeoCD Command Syntax prob value, n value, M value, N value Input Example: InvHypergeoCD 0.3,5,10,20 20090601 7-12-1 Statistical System Variables 7-12 Statistical System Variables Performing a statistical calculation, graphing operation, or other operation causes calculation results to be assigned to pre-arranged system variables. For more information, see the “System Variable Table” on page α-2-1. 20110401 Chapter Using the Geometry Application The Geometry application allows you to draw and analyze geometric figures. You can draw a triangle and specify values to change the size of its sides so they are 3:4:5, and then check the measurement of each of its angles. Or you can draw a circle and then draw a line that is tangent to a particular point on the circle. The Geometry application also includes an animation feature that lets you watch how a figure changes in accordance with conditions you define. 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 Geometry Application Overview Drawing Figures Editing Figures Controlling Geometry Window Appearance Working with Animations Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications Managing Geometry Application Files 20060301 8 8-1-1 Geometry Application Overview 8-1 Geometry Application Overview The Geometry application provides you with the following capabilities. • The [Draw] menu provides commands for drawing points, lines, polygons, regular polygons, circles, ellipses, and other geometric figures. You can also draw functions. Once drawn, a figure can be moved or edited as required. See “Using the Draw Menu” on page 8-2-1 for more information about this menu. • The [Draw] menu also includes a [Construct] submenu (page 8-2-30) and a [Special Shape] submenu (page 8-2-27). You can use items in the [Construct] submenu to add a midpoint, draw a perpendicular bisector from a given point, create other geometric constructions and even test geometric theorems. The [Special Shape] submenu allows you to draw special figures, such as parallelograms, rectangles, kites and many others. 20060301 8-1-2 Geometry Application Overview • Tapping the toolbar’s right arrow button displays a measurement box. The measurement box displays information for the items that are selected on the window. For example, you can view the coordinates of a point, the length and slope of a line segment, the size of an angle, etc. You can also use the measurement box to change measurements, and to fix measurements so they cannot be changed by other operations. • The Animation feature makes it possible to see how a figure changes when a moving point and its related figures are subjected to certain conditions. A point can move along a line or curve, and can be anywhere along a line segment, the vertex of a triangle, or the center point of a circle. 20060301 8-1-3 Geometry Application Overview Starting Up the Geometry Application Use the following procedure to start up the Geometry application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap G. This causes a blank Geometry application window to appear. Use this area to draw the figures you want. Tip • If you left figures on the Geometry window the last time you exited the Geometry application, those figures will appear the next time you start it up. Geometry Application Menus and Buttons This section describes the configuration of the Geometry application windows and provides basic information about its menus and commands. Tip • O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. • The View Window (O - [View Window]) and Geometry Format (O - [Geometry Format]) contain settings that are unique to the Geometry application. For details, see “Configuring View Window Settings” on page 8-4-1. 20060301 8-1-4 Geometry Application Overview k File Menu To do this Discard the current window contents and create a new file Open an existing file Save the current window contents to a file Select this File menu item: New Open Save k Edit Menu To do this: Undo or redo the last operation Clear all settings fixed with the measurement box Show hidden objects Toggle polygon shading on and off Hide the currently selected object Show hidden names Hide the selected name Make the lines of the selected figure thicker Make the lines of the selected figure thinner Pin an annotation position on the Geometry window Unpin an annotation on the Geometry window Select this Edit menu item: Undo/Redo Clear Constraints Show All Shade On/Off Properties - Hide Properties - Show Name Properties - Hide Name Properties - Thicker Properties - Thinner Properties - Pin Properties - Unpin Specify the number format for each measurement used in the Geometry window Properties - Number Format Display the Animate submenu (page 8-5-1) Animate Cut the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard Cut Copy the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard Copy Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen Select all objects on the screen Delete the currently selected object Clear the screen Paste Select All Delete Clear All 20060301 8-1-5 Geometry Application Overview k View Menu Tap this button: To do this: Or select this View menu item: Start a box zoom operation G Q Activate the pan function for dragging the Graph window with the stylus T Pan Enlarge the display image W E R q Zoom In Toggle Axes Toggle snapping to the nearest integer coordinate point on and off — Integer Grid Turn the Animation toolbar on and off — Animation UI Select a segment, line, or part of a figure (page 8-3-1) Reduce the size of the display image Adjust the size of the display image so it fills the display Turn display of axes and coordinate values on and off Select Zoom Box Zoom Out Zoom to Fit k Draw Menu To do this: Draw a figure (page 8-2-1) Insert a value or text connected with a displayed figure into the display (page 8-2-18) Select this Draw menu item: Point Line Segment Infinite Line Ray Vector Circle Arc Ellipse - Axes Ellipse - Foci Hyperbola Parabola Function - f (x) Function - Polar Function - Parametric Polygon Text Attached Angle Measurement Expression Display a submenu for drawing a figure of specially shaped figures (page 8-2-27) Special Shape Display a submenu for geometric constructions (page 8-2-30) Construct 20060301 8-1-6 Geometry Application Overview k Toolbar Button The operation described below is available from the toolbar only. To do this: Do this: Activate Toggle Select (page 8-3-2) Tap i and then tap a figure. Tapping a button highlights it, indicating that the button’s function is turned on. k About the Measurement Box Tapping the u button to the right of the toolbar takes you to the measurement box. Tap t to return to the normal toolbar. Normal toolbar Measurement box For more information about the measurement box, see “Using the Measurement Box” on page 8-3-6. k About the Geometry Format Dialog Box Settings for the Geometry application can be configured on the Geometry Format dialog box which appears when you tap O and then [Geometry Format]. See “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings” for more information. 20060301 8-2-1 Drawing Figures 8-2 Drawing Figures This section explains how to use the Geometry application to draw various types of figures. It also explains how to use the geometric construction tools to investigate theorems and properties in Geometry. Using the Draw Menu The [Draw] menu makes it easy to draw a variety of different figures. Each [Draw] menu command is also available on the toolbar. [Draw] menu commands These [Draw] menu commands correspond to the toolbar shown below. Toolbar Point Infinite Line Vector Arc Ellipse Foci Parabola Polygon Line Segment Ray Circle Ellipse Axes Hyperbola Function 20060301 8-2-2 Drawing Figures Tip • Use [Edit] - [Clear All] to clear the screen after experimenting with a draw operation. u To draw a line segment using the menu command (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Line Segment]. • This highlights the line segment button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the screen where you want the line segment to begin, and a point will be drawn, and then tap the point where you want it to end. 20060301 8-2-3 Drawing Figures u To draw a line segment using the toolbar (1) Tap the second down arrow on the toolbar. This opens the [Draw] menu’s icon palette. (2) Tap the line segment button on the toolbar to highlight it. (3) Tap the screen where you want the line segment to begin. This plots a point. (4) Tap the beginning point again and, without lifting the stylus, drag to draw the line. Or you could just tap the ending point. (5) When the line segment is the way you want, remove the stylus from the screen. u To plot a point (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Point]. • This highlights the point button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the location on the screen where you want to plot a point. • This plots the point. 20060301 8-2-4 Drawing Figures u To add a labeled point to an existing line You can use the following procedure to add a labeled point to an existing line, to a side of an n-gon, to the periphery of a circle or ellipse, etc. (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Point]. • This highlights the point button on the toolbar. (2) Drag the stylus on the screen towards the line where you want to add the labeled point. • This selects the line, which is indicated by “k”. (3) Drag the stylus to the location on the line where you want to add a labeled point, and then lift the stylus from the screen. u To draw an infinite line (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Infinite Line]. • This highlights the infinite line button on the toolbar. (2) Tap two points on the screen through which you want the infinite line to pass. • You could also tap one point and then drag to the second point. 20060301 8-2-5 Drawing Figures u To draw a ray Example: To draw a ray and then determine its y = f(x) linear equation by dropping the ray into the Main or eActivity application window (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Ray]. • This highlights the ray button on the toolbar. (2) Tap two points on the screen. • You could also tap one point and then drag to the second point. (3) On the Icon panel, tap M to start up the Main application (4) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list that appears, tap 3. • This opens the Geometry application and displays the line drawn in the step (2), above. (5) Use the stylus to select ray AB and drop it into the Main application window. • This displays a linear equation as shown here. 20060301 8-2-6 Drawing Figures u To draw a vector (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Vector]. • This highlights the vector button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the point where you want the vector to start, and then its end point. • You could also tap one point, and then drag to the vector end point. u To draw a circle (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Circle]. • This highlights the circle button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the point where you want the center of the circle to be, and then tap a second point anywhere on the circle’s circumference. • You could also tap the center point, and then drag to the second point. u To draw an arc (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Arc]. • This highlights the arc button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the point where you want the center of the arc to be, and then tap a second point to designate where you want the arc to start. (3) Tap a third point, which is where you want the arc to end. 20060301 8-2-7 Drawing Figures u To draw a function Example: To draw y(x) = x2 – 1 (1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [f(x)]. • This causes the Function dialog box and a soft keyboard to appear. (2) Input the function. (3) Tap [OK] to draw it. 20060301 8-2-8 Drawing Figures u To draw a polar equation graph Note In this example the [Function Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is set to “Radian”. See page 1-9-10 for more information. (1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [Polar]. • This displays the Function dialog box and a soft keyboard as shown here. (2) Input the equation “r= ” here and then tap [OK]. • This displays a polar equation graph as shown here. 20080201 20060301 8-2-9 Drawing Figures Tip • You can drag a polar curve from the Geometry window and drop it into a Main or eActivity window. Or, for example, you can drag the equation r = f() from the Main or eActivity window and drop it into the Geometry window as shown below. u To draw a parametric equation graph Note In this example the [Function Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is set to “Degree”. See page 1-9-10 for more information. (1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [Parametric]. • This displays the Function dialog box and a soft keyboard. 20060301 8-2-10 Drawing Figures (2) Input the following expressions and values: xt = cos(t), yt = sin(t), tmin = 0, tmax = 360 (3) Tap [OK]. • This displays a parametric equation graph as shown here. Tip • You can display equations such as (x(t), y(t)) on the Geometry window by dragging the graph and dropping it into the Main or eActivity window where it will appear as a matrix. 20101001 8-2-11 Drawing Figures u To draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Axes] command Note When you draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Axes] command, you need to specify the following three elements: center point, Point 1 and Point 2. Point 1 defines the minor axis (nearest point on the edge from the center point) and Point 2 defines the major axis (farthest point on the edge from the center point). Center Point ..... A Point ................ B Point ................C When AC is shorter than AB, Point 1 becomes the major axis and Point 2 becomes the minor axis. (1) Tap [Draw], [Ellipse], and then [Axes]. • This highlights the ellipse axes button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the point you want to specify as the center point. (3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 1 (minor axis). • This causes a line to appear between the center point and Point 1. • Instead of tapping, you could drag the stylus from the center point to Point 1, viewing the line that is drawn as you do. (4) Tap or drag to the point you want to specify as Point 2 (major axis). • This causes the ellipse to appear. 20060301 8-2-12 Drawing Figures u To draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Foci] command Note An ellipse is the locus of points, the sum of whose distances from two fixed points (called foci) is a constant. An ellipse drawn using the [Ellipse] - [Foci] command is drawn in accordance with this definition. When you draw an ellipse with the [Foci] command, you need to specify three different points: two foci (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point anywhere on the ellipse (Point 3). Point 1 ............. A Point 2 ............. B Point 3 .............C (1) Tap [Draw], [Ellipse], and then [Foci]. • This highlights the ellipse foci button on the toolbar. (2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify as the foci of the ellipse (Point 1 and Point 2). • This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2. • Instead of tapping two points as described above, you could also specify the two foci by tapping to define Point 1 and then dragging the stylus across the screen to Point 2. 20060301 8-2-13 Drawing Figures (3)Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3. • This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws the ellipse. • Instead of tapping the screen to specify Point 3, you could also drag the stylus on the display. As soon as you tap and hold the stylus on the screen, the line connecting Point 1 and Point 2 will bend to show the distance from the foci to the location of the stylus, as shown below. Move the stylus to the location where you want Point 3 to be and then remove it. This will cause the ellipse to be drawn. Drag 20060301 8-2-14 Drawing Figures u To draw a hyperbola Note A hyperbola is the locus of points, the difference of whose distances from two fixed points (called foci) is a given value. A hyperbola drawn using the [Hyperbola] command is drawn in accordance with this definition. When you draw a hyperbola with the [Hyperbola] command, you need to specify three different points: two foci (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point anywhere on the hyperbola (Point 3). Point 1 ............. A Point 2 ............. B Point 3 .............C (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Hyperbola]. • This highlights the hyperbola button on the toolbar. (2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify as the foci of the hyperbola (Point 1 and Point 2). • This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2. • Instead of tapping two points as described above, you could also specify the two foci by tapping to define Point 1 and then dragging the stylus across the screen to Point 2. 20060301 8-2-15 Drawing Figures (3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3. • This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws the hyperbola. • Instead of tapping the screen to specify Point 3, you could also drag the stylus on the display. As soon as you tap and hold the stylus on the screen, the line connecting Point 1 and Point 2 will bend to show the distance from the foci to the location of the stylus, as shown below. Move the stylus to the location where you want Point 3 to be and then remove it. This will cause the hyperbola to be drawn. Drag 20060301 8-2-16 Drawing Figures u To draw a parabola Note A parabola is the locus of points equidistant from a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix). A parabola drawn using the [Parabola] command is drawn in accordance with this definition. When you draw an parabola with the [Parabola] command, you need to specify three different points: a line to define the directrix (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point for the focus. Point 1 ............. A Point 2 ............. B Point 3 .............C (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Parabola]. • This highlights the parabola button on the toolbar. (2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify the directrix (Point 1 and Point 2). • This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2. (3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3. • This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws a parabola in relation to it and the directrix. 20060301 8-2-17 Drawing Figures u To draw a polygon (1) Tap [Draw] and then [Polygon]. • This highlights the polygon button on the toolbar. (2) Tap the point from which you want the polygon to start. (3) Sequentially tap each of the vertices of the polygon. (4) Finally, tap the start point again to complete the polygon. 20060301 8-2-18 Drawing Figures Inserting Text Strings into the Screen You can insert text strings into the screen while working on the Geometry application window. u To insert a text string into a screen (1) Tap [Draw] and [Text]. • This displays the Text dialog box and a soft keyboard. (2) Input the text you want on the dialog box. • You can input alphanumeric characters, and you can use the 2D keyboard to input numeric expressions (see “Using the 2D Keyboard” on page 1-6-15). (Alphanumeric Input) (Numeric Expression Input Using the 2D Keyboard) (3) Tap [OK] to insert the text into the screen. 20090601 8-2-19 Drawing Figures Drag and Drop Text on the Geometry window can be dragged to the Main or eActivity window. You can also drop text from these application windows into the Geometry window. Attaching an Angle Measurement to a Figure The measurement of an angle formed by two sides of a figure can be attached to the figure as shown here. To do so, tap [Attached Angle] on the [Draw] menu. 20060301 8-2-20 Drawing Figures u To attach an angle measurement to a figure Example: To attach the measurement of angle A in the triangle ABC (1) Draw the triangle. (2) Tap G. Next, tap side AB and then side AC to select them. (3) Tap [Draw] and then [Attached Angle]. • This attaches the angle measurement to the figure. Tip • The two sides of a figure actually forms four angles, numbered through in the illustration shown here. After attaching an angle measurement using the [Attached Angle] command, you can drag it to the position of any one of the other three angles as shown in the examples below. 20060301 8-2-21 Drawing Figures Example: To drag the angle measurement attached to interior angle A of triangle ABC to its exterior supplementary angle (Dragging to the supplementary angle of the opposite angle of A) (Dragging to the opposite angle of A) Tip • You can display more than one attached angle. To do this in the above example, first drag the initial attached angle to the exterior position and then repeat steps 1 through 3 under “To attach an angle measurement to a figure” on page 8-2-20. 20101001 8-2-22 Drawing Figures Displaying the Measurements of a Figure You can display measurements on the Geometry application window. The measurements change dynamically as you manipulate the figure. A List of [Measurement] Submenu Commands on the [Draw] Menu Names of Commands Meanings of Each Command Angle Angle between two lines Supplementary Angle Supplementary angle of extended lines Area Area of selected figure Circumference Circumference of selected figure Coordinates Coordinates of selected point Direction Direction of line or vector Equation Equation of selected curve Length Distance between two points, or length of line Radius Radius of circle Slope Slope of line or vector Note There are three ways to display measurements while you work on the Geometry application window. The following examples show you each method. Method 1: Selecting [Measurement] from the [Draw] menu (1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC. (2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar. • This displays the measurement box, which indicates the specified angle. 20060301 8-2-23 Drawing Figures (3) Tap [Draw], [Measurement], and then [Angle]. • This shows the angle measurement on the screen. Method 2: Selecting the value in the measurement box and dropping it directly into the Geometry application window (1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC. (2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar. • This displays the measurement box, which indicates the specified angle. 20060301 8-2-24 Drawing Figures (3) Select (highlight) value in the measurement box and drop it into the screen below. • This displays the specified angle measurement on the screen as shown below. Method 3: Tapping the measurement icon button to the left of the measurement box (1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC. (2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar. • This displays the measurement box, which indicates the specified angle. (3) Tap the Q button on the far left of the measurement box. • This displays the specified angle measurement on the screen as shown here. 20060301 8-2-25 Drawing Figures Displaying the Result of a Calculation that Uses On-screen Measurement Values You can use the [Expression] command and the commands on the [Measurement] submenu to perform calculations using the angle value, line length, surface area, and other measurement values attached to a figure, and display the result on the Geometry window. u To display the result of a calculation that uses on-screen measurement values Example: With line segment AB and line segment CD (point C being on AB) drawn on the display as shown here, calculate the sum of attached angles DCB and ACD, and display the result on the screen. (57.72+122.28 = 180.00) u ClassPad Operation Steps (1) through (5) draw the figure shown above. The procedure from step (6) performs the calculation using the on-screen measurement values. (1) Tap [Draw] - [Line Segment] and then draw line segment AB. • See “To draw a line segment using the menu command” on page 8-2-2. (2) Draw line segment CD so that point C lies on line segment AB. (3) Tap G. (4) Select line segment AB and line segment CD, and then tap [Draw] - [Attached Angle]. • This displays the attached angle for ACD. (5) Tap attached angle ACD and drag it inside of angle DCB. • This moves the attached angle to angle DCB. (6) Select line segments AB and CD again, and then tap [Draw] - [Attached Angle]. • This displays the attached angle for ACD. (7) Tap [Draw] - [Expression]. • This displays an “EXPR=” object. 20060301 8-2-26 Drawing Figures (8) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar. This will display the measurement box. • The above will also display numeric labels for each measurement currently on the screen. Numeric labels (9) Now you can use the numeric labels to specify measurement values in the calculation you input in the measurement box. • To input a measurement value in the measurement box, input the at sign (@) followed by the numeric label of the value. To input value [1], for example, you would input “@1”. • Since we want to calculate the sum of angles DCB ([1]) and ACD ([2]) here, you would input the following: @1+@2. (10) After inputting the calculation expression, press E. • The calculation result is displayed to the right of “EXPR=”. Tip In steps (8) and (9) above, you also can input the numeric label of a displayed measurement value into the measurement box by tapping the label. Tapping [1], for example, will input “@1” into the measurement box. 20060301 8-2-27 Drawing Figures Using the Special Shape Submenu The [Special Shape] submenu allows you to draw specially shaped figures automatically. Simply select the type of figure you want from the menu, and then touch the screen with the stylus to draw it. Or, touch the screen with your stylus and drag to create a box indicating the size of the figure you would like to draw. Each of the [Special Shape] submenu figures is also available on the toolbar. [Draw] – [Special Shape] [Special Shape] submenu Toolbar Isosceles Triangle Trapezoid Parallelogram Rhombus Regular n-gon Triangle Equilateral Triangle Kite Rectangle Square 20060301 8-2-28 Drawing Figures u To draw a triangle (1) Tap [Draw], [Special Shape], and then [Triangle]. • This highlights the triangle button on the toolbar. (2) Perform either of the following two operations to draw the triangle. • Tap the screen with the stylus. This automatically draws the acute triangle you selected. • Place the stylus on the screen and drag diagonally in any direction. This causes a selection boundary to appear, indicating the size of the triangle that will be drawn. The triangle is drawn when you release the stylus. Tapping the screen with the stylus Dragging with the stylus u To draw a regular polygon (1) Tap [Draw], [Special Shape], and then [Regular n-gon]. • This highlights the regular n-gon button on the toolbar, and displays the n-gon dialog box. (2) Enter a value indicating the number of sides of the polygon, and then tap [OK]. 20060301 8-2-29 Drawing Figures (3) Perform either of the following two operations to draw the regular polygon. • Tap the screen with the stylus. This automatically draws the polygon you selected. • Place the stylus on the screen and drag diagonally in any direction. This causes a selection boundary to appear, indicating the size of the polygon that will be drawn. The polygon is drawn when you release the stylus. 20060301 8-2-30 Drawing Figures Using the Construct Submenu The [Construct] submenu provides you with the means to study various geometric theorems. In addition to tools for constructing a perpendicular bisector, perpendicular line, angle bisector, midpoint, intersection, parallel lines and a tangent to a curve, you can also translate, rotate, reflect, dilate, or transform a figure. Each of the [Construct] submenu figures is also available on the toolbar. [Draw] – [Construct] [Construct] submenu Toolbar Perpendicular Intersection Parallel Reflection Rotation General Transform Perpendicular Bisector Midpoint Angle Bisector Tangent to Curve Translation Dilation Tip • The following procedures include steps that require selection of a line segment or other figures. For details about selecting figures, see “8-3 Editing Figures”. 20060301 8-2-31 Drawing Figures u To construct a perpendicular bisector (1) Draw a line segment. (2) Tap G, and then select the line segment. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Perp. Bisector]. • This draws a perpendicular bisector through your line segment. u To construct an angle bisector (1) Draw two line segments so they form an angle. (2) Tap G, and then select both line segments. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Angle Bisector]. • This bisects the angle. 20060301 8-2-32 Drawing Figures u To construct a midpoint (1) Draw a line segment. (2) Tap G, and then select the line segment. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Midpoint]. • This adds a midpoint to the segment. u To construct the point of intersection of two lines (1) Draw two lines that intersect. (2) Tap G, and then select both lines. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Intersection]. • This adds the point of intersection. (4) Try selecting the point of intersection and dragging it. Tip • The point(s) of intersection of two circles or of a line and a circle can be constructed in the same manner. 20060301 8-2-33 Drawing Figures u To construct a perpendicular line that passes through a specified point on a line (1) Draw a line segment or an infinite line. (2) Draw a point on the line through which you want the perpendicular line to pass. (3) Tap G, and then select the point and the line. (4) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Perpendicular]. • This draws a line that through the point you selected, which is perpendicular to the line where is the point is located. • Try selecting the point of intersection and dragging it. u To construct a line parallel to another line through a specified point (1) Draw a line and a point that is not on the line. (2) Tap G, and then select the line and the point. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Parallel]. • The parallel line button is displayed on the toolbar, and a line passing through the selected point is drawn parallel to the selected line. 20060301 8-2-34 Drawing Figures u To construct a tangent to a curve through a specified point (1) Draw a curve, such as an ellipse. (2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Tangent to Curve]. • This highlights the tangent to a curve button on the toolbar. (3) Tap the point of tangency on the curve. • This draws the tangent. u To translate a line segment by inputting a vector (1) Draw a line segment (AB), and then select it. (2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Translation]. • This displays the Translation dialog box. (3) Enter the vector for the translation. 20060301 8-2-35 Drawing Figures (4) Tap [OK]. • This translates line segment AB in accordance with the vector value you input, and draws line segment A’B’. u To translate a line segment by selecting a vector (1) Draw a line segment (AB), and a vector to use in the translation. Next, select the line segment. (2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Translation]. • This displays the Translation dialog box. (3) Tap [Select Vector]. (4) Tap the vector on the screen. • This translates line segment AB in accordance with the vector you selected, and draws line segment A’B’. u To rotate a line segment (1) Draw a line segment, and then select it. (2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Rotation]. • This highlights the rotate button on the toolbar. (3) Tap the screen once to select the center of rotation. • This displays the Rotation dialog box. (4) Specify the angle of rotation in degrees. (5) Tap [OK] to rotate the line segment. 20060301 8-2-36 Drawing Figures u To reflect a line segment with respect to a specified line of symmetry (1) Draw a line segment. (2) Draw a line to use as the line of symmetry. (3) Tap G, and then select the line segment. (4) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Reflection]. • This highlights the reflection button on the toolbar. (5) Tap the line of symmetry. • This reflects the line segment you drew in step (1) about the line of symmetry. 20060301 8-2-37 Drawing Figures u To dilate a line segment toward a specified center point (1) Draw a line segment, and then select it. (2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Dilation]. • This highlights the dilation button on the toolbar. (3) Tap the center of dilation. • This displays the Dilation dialog box. (4) Specify the dilation scale factor. (5) Tap [OK]. Transformation Using a Matrix or Vector (General Transform) General Transform lets you input a matrix and/or vector to transform a figure. The result of the transformation is drawn as a separate figure. For example, if you transform line segment AB, the line segment A’B’ will be drawn. You can perform the following types of transformations with General Transform. • Matrix Transformation: x-axis/y-axis symmetry, rotation, enlargement, reduction, etc. • Vector Transformation: Vertical and horizontal parallel displacement k General Transform Example In this example draw triangle ABC and then draw triangle A’B’C’, which is symmetrical to ABC about the x-axis. Next, we will draw triangle A’’B’’C’’ by performing a parallel displacement on triangle A’B’C’ of 1 unit along the x- and y-axis. 20060301 8-2-38 Drawing Figures Tip • All of the steps in the procedure below are performed using the Geometry application only. You can also use the Main application or eActivity application to perform matrix calculations and obtain the same transformation. You can drag a figure from Geometry to Main, which transforms values (matrix) and performs calculation, and drag the values (matrix) obtained as a result from Main to Geometry to draw the transformed figure. After performing the following procedure, see “Transform Example Using the Main Application” (page 8-2-40). If you need to, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap q to turn on coordinate display in the Geometry window. • You can skip this step if you want, but turning on coordinate display helps you see how coordinates are changed by the transform operations. (2) Draw triangle ABC, and then select its three sides. (3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [General Transform]. • This displays the Transform dialog box. (4) Since we want a triangle that is symmetrical about the x-axis to the original triangle, input [[1, 0], [0, –1]]. 20060301 8-2-39 Drawing Figures (5) Tap [OK]. • This draws triangle A’B’C’, which is symmetrical to triangle ABC about the x-axis. (6) Tap anywhere outside of the triangles to deselect the currently selected triangle. Next, select triangle A’B’C’. (7) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [General Transform]. (8) Now, to perform parallel displacement on triangle A’B’C’ by 1 unit along the x- and y-axis, input [1, 1]. 20060301 8-2-40 Drawing Figures (9) Tap [OK]. • This performs the parallel displacement and draws triangle A’’B’’C’’. Note • In the above example, we performed the transformation and the parallel displacement operations separately. You could also perform both operations at the same time, if you want. To do so, input both the matrix [[1, 0], [0, –1]] and the vector [1, 1] in step (4), and then tap [OK]. This will produce the result shown in step (9). k Transform Example Using the Main Application It might be easier to understand how General Transform works if you use the Main application (or eActivity application) in combination with the Geometry application. This makes it possible to perform the following types of operations. (a) In the Geometry application, you can select a point on the figure obtained using General Transform and the corresponding point on the original figure (for example, point A on the original figure and point A’ on the transformed figure), drag them to the Main application, and display the transformation expression in the Main application. (b) You can select a triangle in the Geometry application and drag it to the Main application to convert the triangle to a matrix (2-row × 3-column matrix that shows three vertices). Conversely, you can drag a 2-row × 3-column matrix input (or produced by a calculation) in the Main application to the Geometry application and draw the applicable triangle. Here we will show actual examples of (a) and (b). Tip • All of the above operations can also be performed using the eActivity application instead of the Main application. • For information about how to access the Geometry application from the Main application and about the different operations you can perform between them, see “2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications”. 20060301 8-2-41 Drawing Figures k (a) Operation Example The following procedure assumes that the results produced by the procedure under “General Transform Example” on page 8-2-37 are still on the Geometry application window. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap J to start up the Main application. (2) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list that appears, tap 3. • This opens the Geometry application and displays triangles ABC, A’B’C’, and A’’B’’C’’ on the Geometry window. (3) Select points A and A’. (4) While both points are selected, drag point A (or point A’) to the cursor position in the Main application work area. • This displays the expression that transformed the coordinates of point A to the coordinates of point A’. Observe this area of the expression. This corresponds to the matrix values you input when executing General Transform. 20060301 8-2-42 Drawing Figures (5) After clearing the Main application work area, try repeating steps (3) and (4) for points A’ and A’’. • This displays the expression that transformed the coordinates of point A’ to the coordinates of point A’’. Observe this area of the expression. This corresponds to the vector values you input when executing General Transform. Important! • This operation is valid only when a point in the original figure and the corresponding point in the transformed figure are selected in the Geometry application. Nothing is displayed when you select points A and A’’ in the above procedure and drag them to the Main application work area. k (b) Operation Example u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap J to start up the Main application. (2) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list that appears, tap 3. • This opens the Geometry application. (3) On the Geometry window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All]. • This clears the Geometry window. (4) Draw a triangle on the Geometry window. • After drawing a triangle, you can use the measurement box (page 8-3-6) to adjust the coordinates of points A, B, and C. That will make the following steps easier. 20060301 8-2-43 Drawing Figures (5) Select the triangle and drag it to the cursor location in the Main application work area. • This inputs a matrix that shows the coordinates of the triangle’s three vertices into the work area. (6) Here, try multiplying by the matrix [[–1, 0], [0, 1]] to transform the matrix obtained above to a form that is symmetrical about the y-axis. Execute the calculation as shown in the screenshot below. 20060301 8-2-44 Drawing Figures (7) Select the matrix obtained as the calculation result, and drag it to the Geometry window. • This draws a triangle that is symmetrical to the original triangle about the y-axis. 20060301 8-3-1 Editing Figures 8-3 Editing Figures This section provides details about moving, copying, and deleting Geometry application figures. Selecting and Deselecting Figures Before you can execute certain editing commands, you must first select the figure you want to edit. There are two figure selection modes: Select and Toggle Select, each of which is described below. k Using Select Tap G on the toolbar. This causes the button to become highlighted, indicating that Select is enabled. Select allows you to select as many figures as you would like, and then move, copy, paste, or perform other operations on the selection as a single entity. • To select side BC of the triangle, tap it. • Tapping point D selects it, leaving side BC of the triangle selected, too. • To deselect all of the figures, tap anywhere on the screen where there are no figures. Tip • When Select is enabled, you can drag the currently selected figures to move them around the display. For more information, see “Moving and Copying Figures” on page 8-3-3. 20060301 8-3-2 Editing Figures k Using Toggle Select Tap on the toolbar. This causes the button to become highlighted, indicating that Toggle Select is enabled. Toggle Select allows you to select and deselect figures. For example, if you have multiple figures selected, Toggle Select will allow you to deselect a single part of the selection. Tapping the part again will turn the selection back on. Tip • You cannot move figures around the window while Toggle Select is enabled. Also, the currently selected figure does not become deselected if you tap an area of the window where there is no figure. To move what you currently have selected, simply change to the regular Select mode. 20060301 8-3-3 Editing Figures Moving and Copying Figures It is easy to move figures or copy and paste figures in Geometry. u To move a figure (1) Draw a figure. (2) Tap G, and then select the figure. (3) Drag the figure to move it to the location you want. (4) Remove the stylus from the screen. Tip • Note that a selection boundary appears around the figure when you drag it. u To copy a figure (1) Draw a figure, and then select it. (2) Tap [Edit], and then [Copy]. (3) Tap anywhere on the screen to deselect the figure. (4) Tap [Edit], and then [Paste]. (5) Drag the pasted figure to the location you want. 20060301 8-3-4 Editing Figures Pinning an Annotation on the Geometry Window You can pin an annotation on the Geometry window using the Pin function. By default, annotations are ‘Unpinned’, so they pan or zoom along with the Geometry window. Pinning an annotation fixes its position on the screen so it is always displayed in the same location on the Geometry window. Example: To pin text at a particular location on the Geometry window (1) Select (highlight) the text on the Geometry window. (2) Tap [Edit], [Properties], and then [Pin]. (3) When text is pinned, it maintains its position as shown here even when the window is panned. 20060301 8-3-5 Editing Figures Specifying the Number Format of a Measurement You can specify the number format for each measurement on the Geometry window. Example: To specify zero decimal places for measurement values on the Geometry window (1) Select (highlight) the measurement(s). (2) Tap the [Edit], [Properties], and then [Number Format]. • This displays the Number Format dialog box as shown here. (3) Select the number format you want by tapping it. Since we want to specify zero decimal places, we will select “Fix 0” here. • For the meaning of each number format name, see “Number Format” on page 1-9-5. 20060301 8-3-6 Editing Figures (4) Tap [OK]. • This will display the measurement value(s) you selected in the step 1 using the specified number format. Tip The initial default number format setting for measurement values is “Fix 2”. Using the Measurement Box Tapping the u button to the right of the toolbar displays the measurement box. Tap t to return to the normal toolbar. Normal toolbar Measurement box You can use the measurement box to perform the following operations. View the measurements of a figure Displaying the measurement box and selecting a figure displays combinations of the following measurements, depending on the type of object you select: coordinates, distance, slope, direction, equation, radius, circumference, area, perimeter, angle, tangency, congruence, incidence, or point on curve. Specify a measurement of a figure After you display the measurement box, you can select part of a figure and then change numeric values for the applicable measurement. You can specify the coordinates of a point, the length of a line segment (distance between endpoints), the angle formed by two lines, etc. Fix a measurement of a figure After you display the measurement box, you can select part of a figure and then fix the applicable measurement. You can fix the coordinates of a point, the length of a line segment, the angle formed by two lines, etc. Name a figure After you display the measurement box, you can select part or all of a figure and then give it a name or change the existing name. You can name a point, line segment, circle, attached angle, etc. 20060301 8-3-7 Editing Figures k Viewing the Measurements of a Figure The type of information that appears in the measurement box depends on the figure that is currently selected on the display. If a line segment is selected, for example, the measurement box shows the distance, slope, angle from the x-axis, and the equation for that line. You can specify the type of information you want to view by tapping the down arrow button to the left of the measurement box, and then tapping the appropriate icon on the icon palette that appears. The following table describes the information that appears when you tap each icon, and explains when each icon is available for selection. Icon Icon Name This icon appears when this Tapping this icon is selected: displays: Lockable T Coordinates A single point t Distance/ length Two points on one figure or two Distance between two different figures, or a single line points, length of a line segment or vector segment or a vector Slope Single line, line segment, or vector Slope of the line, line segment or vector Yes Direction Single line, line segment, or vector Direction angle of the line (angle of inclination) Yes Equation Any single line or line segment, Function of the figure vector, circle, arc, ellipse or any (using rectangular coordinates) other figure (parabola, etc.) drawn by a function Y O Coordinates of the point Yes Yes Yes 5 Equation edit Single parabola or any other figure drawn by a function Equation of the figure in the function editing dialog box. No ] Radius Single circle or arc Radius of circle or arc Yes Circumference Single circle, arc or ellipse Length of the circumference Yes Perimeter Single polygon Sum of the lengths of the sides No Area Any three points, a single circle, arc, ellipse, or polygon Area 3 E 20060301 No 8-3-8 Editing Figures Icon Icon Name This icon appears when this Tapping this icon is selected: displays: Two line segments Q t Angle K Tangency e Congruence Two line segments Two circles or arcs, or a line and circle Angle and its supplement formed by the line segments Yes Whether two items are tangent Yes Whether line segments are the same length Yes Incidence Point and a line, arc, circle or a vector Point on curve Point and a function, curve, or ellipse F Rotation angle Two points created by [Rotation] Angle of rotation Two points (like Point A and Point A’) on a figure created by [Dilation] Scale of dilation 2 Scale of dilation Text icon An object that includes text or an object that can be named Editable text used to name the selected image 6 u Lockable Whether a point is on the line/curve Yes *1 *1 No *1 The value in the measurement box is always locked while this tool is selected. You can use the measurement box to determine certain measurements. In the first example below, three points are selected on the screen and the measurement box shows the area of the triangle formed by them. The second example shows how to view the measurements of a line segment. u To display the area of a triangular area You can use the measurement box to display the area of a triangle formed by any three points you select on the display. Example: To use the parallelogram ABCD, in which sides AD and BC are parallel, to determine the areas of the triangles formed by side AD and point B, and side AD and point C (1) Draw the parallelogram. • If you need to, select [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example. (2) Tap u on the toolbar to display the measurement box. 20080201 20060301 8-3-9 Editing Figures (3) Select points A, D, and B. • This causes the area of the triangle ADB to appear in the measurement box. (4) Tap anywhere outside of the parallelogram to deselect the current points, and then select points A, D, and C. • This causes the area of the triangle ADC to appear in the measurement box. The above procedure shows that the areas of the two triangles are the same. u To view the measurements of a line segment (1) Draw a line segment. (2) Tap u on the toolbar to display the measurement box. (3) Select the line segment. • This displays the length of the line segment. 20060301 8-3-10 Editing Figures (4) Tap the down arrow next to the measurement box to cycle through other measurements. • In the case of the line segment, for example, you can view its length, slope, direction, and equation. k Specifying a Measurement of a Figure The following example shows how to specify an angle of a triangle. u To specify the angle of a triangle (1) Check to make sure the [Measure Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is set to “Degree” (see page 1-9-10 for more information). (2) Draw the triangle. • If you need to, select [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example. (3) Tap u on the toolbar to display the measurement box. (4) Select side AB and then select side BC. • This displays the measure of angle B in the measurement box. (5) Input the value you want to specify for angle B into the measurement box and press E. • In this example, we input 90, which makes angle B 90 degrees. 20060301 8-3-11 Editing Figures k Fixing a Measurement of a Figure By “fixing a measurement” we mean that a constraint is placed on the figure. For example, if we fix (constrain) a point to a circle and move the circle, the point will also move. The following example shows how to fix the size of an angle of a triangle. u To fix the measure of an angle of a triangle (1) Draw the triangle. (2) Select side AB and then select side BC. (3) Input 90 into the measurement box, and then select the check box to the right of it. • This fixes the measure of angle B at 90 degrees. A highlighted check box indicates the measurement is fixed (constrained). k Changing a Label or Adding a Name to an Element You can change the name of a point, or add a name to each element as explained in the following example. u ClassPad Operation (1) Select (highlight) a point. Tap the down arrow to the right of icon palette on measurement box and then u. • This displays the current name of point A in the measurement box. The displayed name is highlighted so it can be edited. 20060301 8-3-12 Editing Figures (2) Input a new name (“Center”) in the measurement box. (3) Tap E or the check box to the right side of measurement box. • This displays the changed name on the screen as shown here. 20060301 8-4-1 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance 8-4 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance This section provides information about how to control the appearance of the Geometry application window by scrolling or zooming, and by showing or hiding axes and the grid. Configuring View Window Settings You can use the following procedures to configure settings that control the appearance of the Geometry application window. Tap O, and then [View Window] to display the View Window dialog box. The View Window dialog box allows you to configure the x-axis range of values. The ymid value is used to center the Graph window vertically. For example, if we set ymid = 2, then the y-axis will appear 2 units below the center of the Graph window. Note • The following are the allowable ranges for the indicated View Window parameters. −1 × 106 < xmin < 1 × 106 −1 × 106 < xmax < 1 × 106 −1 × 106 < ymid < 1 × 106 xmax − xmin > 1 × 104 20101001 8-4-2 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance Selecting the Axis Setting Tap q, or tap [View] and then [Toggle Axes] to cycle through the four settings shown below. Axes off, values off Axes on, values off Axes on, values on Axes on, values on and grid on Tip • You can also turn on the Integer Grid by tapping [View] and then [Integer Grid]. See page 8-4-3 for more information. 20060301 8-4-3 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance Toggling Integer Grid Display On and Off You can toggle integer grid display on and off by tapping [View] and then [Integer Grid]. The [Integer Grid] command on the [View] menu has a check mark next to it while integer grid display is turned on. Grid off Grid on Zooming The Geometry application provides you with a selection of zoom commands that you can use to enlarge or reduce an entire display image or a specific area of a figure. Tip • The screenshots in this section all use the “Axes on, values on” setting described under “Selecting the Axis Setting” on page 8-4-2. u To use Zoom Box Example: To use zoom box to enlarge part of a circle (1) Draw a circle. (2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom Box], or tap Q. (3) Drag the stylus on the screen to draw a selection boundary around the area you want to enlarge. 20060301 8-4-4 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance (4) Remove the stylus from the display and the area within the selection boundary expands to fill the entire Graph window. u To use Zoom In and Out Example 1: To zoom in on a circle (1) Draw a circle. (2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom In], or tap W. • This enlarges the circle. Example 2: To zoom out on a circle (1) Draw a circle. (2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom Out] or tap E. • This reduces the size of the circle. 20060301 8-4-5 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance u To use Zoom to Fit (1) Draw the figure or figures you want. • If what you are drawing does not fit on the display, scroll the image as you draw it. • For information about scrolling the screen, see “Using Pan to Shift the Display Image” on page 8-4-6. (2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom to Fit], or tap R. • This enlarges or reduces the figure so it fills the display. Tip • You can also perform the Zoom In, Zoom Out, and Zoom to Fit operations by pressing ClassPad keys as described below. To do this: Press this key: Zoom In + Zoom Out - Zoom to Fit = 20060301 8-4-6 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance Using Pan to Shift the Display Image Panning makes it easy to shift the display image by dragging with the stylus. Tip • The screenshot in this section uses the “Axes on, values on” setting described under “Selecting the Axis Setting” on page 8-4-2. u To use Pan Example: To pan the image of a circle (1) Draw a circle. (2) Tap [View] and then [Pan], or tap T. (3) Place the stylus on the screen and drag in the direction you want to shift the image of the circle. Tip • You can also scroll the window using the cursor keys. 20060301 8-5-1 Working with Animations 8-5 Working with Animations An animation consists of one or more point/curve pairs, in which the curve can be a line segment, circle, ellipse, or function. You build an animation by selecting a point/curve pair, and then adding it to an animation. Using Animation Commands You can build and run an animation either by executing menu commands or by using the animation toolbar that appears when you tap [View] and then [Animation UI]. [Edit] – [Animate] [Animate] submenu [View] – [Animation UI] } Animation toolbar Add Animation Trace Go (repeat) Stop Replace Animation Go (once) Go (to and fro) Tip • Most of the procedures in this section are performed using the [Animate] submenu. • All of the [Animate] menu commands can be accessed from the animation toolbar, except for [Edit] - [Animate] - [Edit Animations]. • To close the animation toolbar and return to the normal toolbar, tap the = button on the right side of the animation toolbar, or tap [View] and then [Animation UI]. 20060301 8-5-2 Working with Animations u To add an animation and run it (1) Plot a point and draw an arc. Or, you could draw a circle, ellipse, line segment, or function instead of an arc. (2) Select the point and arc. (3) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation]. (4) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)], [Go (repeat)], or [Go (to and fro)]. Point A moves along arc CD. (5) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Stop] to stop the animation. • You can also stop the animation by tapping 20060301 on the icon panel. 8-5-3 Working with Animations Tip • You can repeat the above procedure to create multiple points that move simultaneously. Try this: • Draw a line segment and plot another point. • Select the line segment and the point. • Repeat steps (3) and (4) on page 8-5-2. Notice that both animations go at the same time! • To start a new animation, perform the procedure under “To replace the current animation with a new one” on page 8-5-4. Or, tap [Edit], [Animate] and then [Edit Animations]. On the dialog box that appears tap [Remove]. u To animate a point around a circle (1) Plot a point and draw a circle, and then select them. (2) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation]. 20060301 8-5-4 Working with Animations (3) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)]. • This causes the point to travel around the circumference of the circle. u To replace the current animation with a new one (1) Select the point and curve for the new animation. (2) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Replace Animation]. • This discards the currently set animation and sets up an animation for a new point and curve set. Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)] to see your new animation. u To trace a locus of points Tip • Using trace leaves a trail of points when the animation is run. (1) Draw a line segment AB and plot point C, which is not on line segment AB. (2) Plot point D, which should also not be on line segment AB, but should be on the same side of the line segment as point C. (3) Draw a line segment that connects point D with point C. (4) Draw another line segment that connects point D with line segment AB. This is line segment DE. (5) Tap the right arrow button to display the measurement box. 20060301 8-5-5 Working with Animations (6) Select line segments AB and DE, enter 90 in the measurement box, and tap the check box next to the measurement box. • This fixes the angle between AB and DE at 90 degrees. (7) Select only line segments DE and DC, and then tap the down arrow next to the measurement box. (8) Tap the e icon, and then select the check box to the right of the measurement box. • This makes line segments DE and DC congruent in length. A highlighted check box indicates the measurement is fixed (constrained). (9) Select point E and line segment AB. (10) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation]. (11) Tap the screen to deselect the currently selected items. (12) Select point C. (13) Select the check box to the right of the measurement box. • This fixes the position of point C. (14) Select point D. 20060301 8-5-6 Working with Animations (15) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Trace]. • This should cause a parabola to be traced on the display. Note that line segment AB is the directrix and point C is the focus of the parabola. (16) With point D still selected, tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)]. u To edit an animation (1) While the animation you want to edit is on the display, tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Edit Animations]. • This displays the animation editing window in the lower window. The upper window contains the animation that we just completed in “To trace a locus of points”. See page 8-5-4 for information about specifying the trace point. (2) Edit the animation following the procedure below. Steps This setting specifies how many steps point E takes to move along line segment AB. The initial default value is 20. Animations • The “E” under “Animations” indicates that point E is the point moved by the animation. When you are building multiple animations, a list of all applicable points appears here. • Tapping [Remove] deletes the applicable animation. • “t0” and “t1” specify the range of movement of point E on line segment AB. The initial default values are t0 = 0 and t1 = 1. • During animation, the length of AB is considered to be one unit. The default values specify that movement of point E is from start point A (point where length equals 0) up to end point B (point where length equals 1). • Changing the value of t0 to 0.5, for example, causes point E to move from the middle of line segment AB to point B. • Changing the value of t0 to −1, causes point E to begin at a point outside line segment AB (in this case, at a point a distance equivalent to the length of line segment AB) and ending with point B. 20060301 8-5-7 Working with Animations Traces This item shows the specified trace point. Tapping [Remove] cancels the trace point setting. (3) While the lower window is active, tap O and then [Close] to close the animation editing window. u To view an animation table (1) Draw a triangle and a line segment above the triangle. (2) Tap the right arrow button to display the measurement box. (3) Select the line segment and the vertex point closest to the line. Measurement box (4) Tap the down arrow next to the measurement box. (5) Tap the 6 icon, and then select the check box to the right of the measurement box. • This connects the segment and vertex point. 20060301 8-5-8 Working with Animations (6) With the line and vertex point still selected, tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation]. (7) Now, select only one side of the triangle. (8) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)]. (9) Tap # next to the measurement box. • While the animation is running, the lower window shows the table for the length of the side you selected. (10) Try selecting another side and running the animation again to view the table for that side. Or, select another side and tap #. (11) Select all three sides of the triangle and run the animation again. • The table that appears in the lower window will show how the area of the triangle changes while the animation runs. 20060301 8-6-1 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications 8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications You can display the Geometry application from within the eActivity or Main application. This is a great feature that allows you to visualize the relationship between Algebra and Geometry. You can, for example, drag a figure from the Geometry window to the eActivity window to see its corresponding mathematical expression. This section describes how to do this and other useful things. Drag and Drop When you open Geometry within another application, you can drag and drop information between the two application windows. Example 1: To drag a circle from the Geometry window to the eActivity window u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap A to start the eActivity application. (2) From the eActivity menu, tap [Insert], [Strip] and then [Geometry]. • This inserts a Geometry data strip, and displays the Geometry window in the lower half of the screen. Geometry data strip Geometry window • For details about Geometry data strips, see “Inserting an Application Data Strip” on page 10-3-5. (3) Draw a circle on the Geometry window. 20060301 8-6-2 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications (4) Select the circle and drag it to the first available line in the eActivity window. • This inserts the equation of the circle in the eActivity window. (5) You can now experiment with the data in the eActivity window. Tip • Try modifying the radius of the circle in the eActivity window. Highlight your modified equation, then drag it into the Geometry window. 20060301 8-6-3 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications Example 2: To drag two sides of a triangle from the Geometry window to the Main window u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main application. (2) Tap 3 to display the Geometry window in the lower half of the screen. Geometry window (3) Draw a triangle on the Geometry window. (4) Select two sides of the triangle and drag them to the Main window. • This inserts the equations of the sides in the Main window. 20060301 8-6-4 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications (5) Press E. • Notice that the solution is the same as the coordinates of point A. • To show the coordinates of A, just select point A. Its coordinates will be displayed in the status bar. Tip • Try using this drag and drop method to find the point of intersection of two lines. This is a great way to find the solution to a system of equations. • To view a fractional result as a decimal, tap the input row and then u. • The information that appears when you drop a figure into another application depends on the figure you are dragging. Many of the possible outcomes are listed in the table below. Geometric Figure Drag and drop into another application transforms to: Support for drag and drop into a Geometry Link row* in an eActivity yes Line Segment An Ordered Pair Linear Equation Infinite Line Ray Linear Equation Linear Equation yes yes An Ordered Pair (head of vector, assuming the tail is at the origin) Equation of a Circle no Equation of a Circle Equation of an Ellipse yes Point Vector Circle Arc Ellipse Function (y=f (x)) Two Lines Polygon Open Polygon created by Animation Pairs of points related by a transformation Equation of the Function System of Equations Matrix Containing each Vertex Point Matrix Containing each Vertex Point Expression Showing Point Relationship yes yes yes yes no no no no * For details about a Geometry Link row, see “Dynamically Linked Data” on page 8-6-5 and “Inserting a Geometry Link Row” on page 10-3-17. 20080201 20060301 8-6-5 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications • When the Geometry application cannot determine what is dropped into it, the dropped data is displayed as text. Copy and Paste In addition to drag and drop, you can also copy figures or columns from an animation table, and paste them into another application. Dynamically Linked Data Another nice feature of the ClassPad is the ability to create a dynamic link between a geometric figure and its equation in the eActivity window. When a geometric figure is dynamically linked to an equation, you will notice a link symbol ( ) in front of the equation in the eActivity window. Changing the graph in the Geometry window will automatically update the linked data in the eActivity window. Also, changing the data in the eActivity window will update the graph in the Geometry window. Note that this feature is available only within the eActivity application. Example of dynamically linked data For information on how to create a dynamic link between a geometric figure and its equation in the eActivity window, see “Inserting a Geometry Link Row” on page 10-3-17. 20060301 8-7-1 Managing Geometry Application Files 8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files This section covers file management operations such as save, open, delete, rename, move, etc. Tip • You can also use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) to manage Geometry application files. File Operations u To save a file (1) Tap [File] and then [Save]. • This displays the Files dialog box. File name edit box (2) Tap the name of the folder where you want to save the file so it is selected. (3) In the file name edit box, input up to 8 bytes for the file name. (4) Tap [Save]. 20090601 8-7-2 Managing Geometry Application Files u To open an existing file (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Open the folder that contains the file you want to open. (3) Tap the name of the file you want to open so it is selected, and then tap [Open]. u To search for a file (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Tap [Search]. • This displays the Search dialog box. (3) Enter the file name you want to find and then tap [Search]. • File names that match the one you enter become highlighted on the display. Tapping [Open] opens the highlighted file. • To search for the next occurrence of the file name, tap [Search] again and then tap [Next] on the Search dialog box. 20060301 8-7-3 Managing Geometry Application Files u To save a file under a different name (1) Tap [File] and then [Save]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Tap the name of the folder where you want to save the file so it is selected. (3) Input up to 8 bytes for the new name under which you want to save the file. (4) Tap [Save]. u To delete a file (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Select the check box next to the file you want to delete. • You can select multiple files for deletion, if you want. • Selecting a check box next to a folder name automatically checks the boxes for all files inside that folder. (3) Tap [File] and then [Delete]. (4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the file(s) or [Cancel] to cancel. (5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel]. Tip • Selecting a folder in the above procedure deletes the folder and all of its contents. Note, however, that the “main” folder cannot be deleted, even if you check it. 20060301 8-7-4 Managing Geometry Application Files u To rename a file (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Tap the name of the file you want to rename so it is selected. (3) Tap [File] and then [Rename]. • This displays the Rename dialog box. (4) Enter the new file name. (5) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to rename the file or [Cancel] to cancel. (6) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel]. u To move a file to another folder (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Select the check box next to the file you want to move. • To move multiple files, select all of their check boxes. (3) Tap [File] and then [Move]. • This causes a dialog box for selecting the destination folder to appear. (4) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the destination folder from the list that appears. (5) Tap [OK]. (6) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel]. Folder Operations u To create a new folder (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Tap [File] and then [Create Folder], or tap {. • This displays the Create Folder dialog box. (3) Enter up to 8 bytes for the folder name. (4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to create the folder or [Cancel] to cancel. (5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel]. 20060301 8-7-5 Managing Geometry Application Files u To delete a folder Warning! Deleting a folder also deletes all files inside of it. Please double-check to make sure you no longer need the contents of a folder before deleting it. (1) Tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to delete. • You can select multiple folders for deletion, if you want. • Selecting a check box next to a folder name automatically selects the check boxes for all of the files inside that folder. (3) Tap [File] and then [Delete]. (4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the folder or [Cancel] to cancel. (5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel]. Tip • You cannot delete the “main” folder. u To rename a folder Use the procedure under “To rename a file” on page 8-7-4 to rename a folder. Simply select a folder instead of a file. 20060301 Chapter Using the Numeric Solver Application This chapter provides information about the functions of the Numeric Solver application, referred to as NumSolve, and explains how to perform Numeric Solver procedures. Numeric Solver lets you obtain the value of any variable in an equation without the need to transform or simplify the equation. 9-1 9-2 Numeric Solver Application Overview Using Numeric Solver 20060301 9 9-1-1 Numeric Solver Application Overview 9-1 Numeric Solver Application Overview This section describes the configuration of the Numeric Solver application windows and provides basic information about Numeric Solver menu and commands. Starting Up the Numeric Solver Application Use the following procedure to start up the Numeric Solver application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap N. Numeric Solver Application Window Starting up Numeric Solver application displays the window shown below. Input equations here. Variable list Numeric Solver Menus and Buttons This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the Numeric Solver window. • For information about Format related items on OMenu, see “Application Format Settings” on page 1-9-4. k O Menu To do this: Make the Num Solver window active Make the Graph Editor window active Make the 3D Graph Editor window active Make the Main application active 20060301 Select this O menu item: NumSolve Graph Editor 3D Graph Editor Main 9-1-2 Numeric Solver Application Overview k aMenu To do this: Clear all 1-character input variables (a through z) Initialize the upper boundary and lower boundary Change the convergence range Select this a menu item: Clear a–z Initialize Bound Convergence Important! • Performing “Clear a-z” operation clears all 1-character variables, regardless of variable data type. Programs and functions with file names from “a” through “z” are also cleared. k Toolbar The toolbar provides you with easy access to the Main application, 3D Graph Editor, Graph Editor, and, of course, Solve. k Dragging an Expression from the Other Application to the Numeric Solver Window You can drag expression and equations from the Main application window or Graph Editor window and drop them into the Numeric Solver window. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the Graph Editor window, input the equation x3 + 4·x2 + x – 2. (2) Tap the equation to the right of “y1=”. Next, tap [Edit] and then [Select All]. (3) Drag the equation x3 + 4·x2 + x – 2 to the “Equation:” cursor position. Numeric Solver window Graph Editor window 20060301 9-2-1 Using Numeric Solver 9-2 Using Numeric Solver Numeric Solver lets you obtain the value of any variable in an equation, without the need to transform or simplify the equation. Example: t is the time it would take for an object thrown straight up with initial velocity v to reach height h. Use the formula below to calculate the initial velocity v for a height of h = 14 meters and a time of t = 2 seconds. Gravitational acceleration is g = 9.8 m/s2. h = vt – 1/2 gt2 u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap N. • This starts up the Numeric Solver application. (2) k 9 V (3) Input the equation as it is written, and then tap w. h=vt-(b/c)gt{cw • If you do not input an equal sign (=), the ClassPad assumes that the entire expression is on the left side of the equal sign and that the right side is zero. Inputting more than one equal sign causes an error. (4) On the list of expression variables that appears, enter values for the variables you want. bewawcwj.iw You can also specify upper and lower limit values for the solution. • An error occurs if there is no solution within the range of values you specify. (5) Select the variable for which you want to solve (so the button next to the variable becomes ). 20060301 9-2-2 Using Numeric Solver (6) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu. • The [Left–Right] value shows the difference between the left side and right side results. Tip • Numeric Solver solves functions by calculating approximations based on Newton’s method. This means that solutions may include errors that are not actual solutions. The accuracy of solutions can be determined by viewing the [Left–Right] value. The closer the [Left–Right] value is to zero, the more accurate the results. • If ClassPad judges that the displayed results are not converging sufficiently, it displays the message “Did not converge. Do you wish to continue a calculation?” Tap [Yes] to continue, or [No] to cancel the calculation. Example: Solve the equation 86 = 56.01205897 log(61− x) • In this example, the initial convergence value is 1E−13. This is the default setting of the ClassPad unit. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap N. (2) k 9 (3) Input the equation as written, then tap w. 86=56.0bc05897l6b-X)w • The variable x is automatically selected because it is the only variable in the equation. (4) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu. • This completes the procedure. If the software is unable to converge to a solution, steps (5) through (8) apply. (5) The error message appears. Tap [OK]. 20060301 20070301 9-2-3 Using Numeric Solver (6) Tap a then [Convergence]. (7) Enter 10 and then tap [OK]. (8) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu. • The software is now able to converge to a solution. 20060301 Chapter Using the eActivity Application An eActivity is both a documentation tool, and a student notebook. As a documentation tool, a teacher can create electronic examples and practice problems with accompanying text, mathematical expressions, 2D and 3D graphs, geometric drawings, and tables. eActivities provide the student the means to explore problems, document their learning and problem solving by entering notes, and share their learning by saving their work to a file. 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 eActivity Application Overview Creating an eActivity Inserting Data into an eActivity Working with eActivity Files Transferring eActivity Files eActivity Data Download Center A variety of eActivity files are available for download at the CASIO Website. Visit the URL below for more information. http://edu.casio.com/products/classpad/ • After you download an eActivity file, you will need to transfer it from your computer to your ClassPad. See the instructions provided at the CASIO Website for more information. 20060301 20110901 10 10-1-1 eActivity Application Overview 10-1 eActivity Application Overview The eActivity application lets you input and edit text, mathematical expressions, and ClassPad application data, and save your input in a file called an “eActivity”. The techniques you will use are similar to those of a standard word processor, and they are easy to get used to. Starting Up the eActivity Application Use the following procedure to start up the eActivity application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap A. This starts the eActivity application and displays the eActivity window. eActivity Application Window The eActivity application can be used to create a file called an “eActivity”. A basic eActivity can contain text along with application data, which is embedded as a row or a strip. A row can be a “Text Row”, a “Calculation Row”, or a “Geometry Link”. A strip can be an “application data strip” (Main, Geometry, Graph & Table, Conics, Sequence, and so on). Creating an eActivity is as simple as typing in text and adding application data using the toolbar. eActivity window eActivity window Expanded graph window Graph strip Expand button Example eActivity Windows 20060301 10-1-2 eActivity Application Overview eActivity Application Menus and Buttons This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and toolbar buttons of the eActivity application. • For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4. k File Menu To do this: Select this File menu item: Start a new eActivity Open an existing eActivity Save the current eActivity to a file Load the original file again New Open Save Reload k Edit Menu To do this: Select this Edit menu item: Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone Cut the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard Copy the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen Select all rows and strips on the display Delete the contents of the line where the cursor is located Clear variables that contain numbers, lists and matrices Clear the eActivity window Undo/Redo Cut Copy Paste Select All Delete Line Clear All Variables Clear All 20060301 10-1-3 eActivity Application Overview k Insert Menu Tap this button To do this: — — — Insert a calculation row Insert a text row Insert a Geometry-linked data row Insert an application data strip Add help text to the currently selected strip Or select this Insert menu item: Calculation Row Text Row Geometry Link $ Strip - Graph ! % Strip - Graph Editor @ ^ Strip - 3D Graph Editor * Strip - Conics Editor 3 Strip - Geometry Q Strip - Spreadsheet y Strip - Stat Graph ( Strip - Stat Editor O Strip - DiffEqGraph A Strip - DiffEqGraph Editor I Strip - Financial P Strip - Probability 1 Strip - NumSolve & Strip - Sequence Editor r Strip - Picture _ Strip - Notes ~ Strip - Main W Strip - Verify — Strip - 3D Graph Strip - Conics Graph Add Strip Help k Action Menu To do this: Insert a command (page 2-8-1) Do this: Tap [Action]. 20060301 10-1-4 eActivity Application Overview k Other Buttons The operations described below are available from the toolbar only. There are no corresponding menu commands for these buttons. To do this: Tap this button: Open the Files dialog box (page 10-2-2) { Toggles a calculation result between standard (fractional result) and decimal (approximate result) u Recalculate the equation just for the current line where the cursor is currently located D Bold the text that is currently selected B Converts a text row to a calculation row u Converts a calculation row to a text row < eActivity Application Status Bar The information that appears in the eActivity application status bar is same as the Main application status bar information. See “Using Main Application Modes” on page 2-1-4. eActivity Key Operations In the eActivity application, the cursor key, K key, and E key operate differently than they do in other modes. Cursor Key • The cursor key moves the cursor around the eActivity window. • Though you can always move the cursor up and down, you may not always be able to move it left and right. The left and right cursor key operations move the cursor left and right in the current row, but for the most part they cannot be used to move the cursor between rows of different types. • Up and down cursor operations move the cursor between rows, regardless of type. K Key • Pressing the K key deletes the character to the left of the current cursor position. E Key • Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a text row inserts a carriage return and adds a new line. • Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a calculation row re-calculates the expression of the current calculation row as well as all of the calculation rows below the current row. • Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a Geometry Link row re-calculates the data in the link and updates the corresponding graph in the Geometry window. 20060301 10-1-5 eActivity Application Overview Tip When the shift operation is assigned to the ClassPad z key, you can select a range of characters with the left and right cursor keys. Simply press the ClassPad z key and then press e or d. Each press of the cursor key will select (highlight) the next character in the applicable direction. Example: If the cursor is currently located between the “c” and “1” in “abc123”, press z and then e e e will select 123. For information about assigning key operations to the ClassPad’s hard keys, see page 16-11-1. 20110401 10-2-1 Creating an eActivity 10-2 Creating an eActivity This provides a general overview of eActivity operations, from starting up the eActivity application to saving an eActivity file. It also presents precautions you need to keep in mind when managing eActivity files. Basic Steps for Creating an eActivity The following are the basic steps you need to perform when creating an eActivity. Detailed information about each step is provided in the other sections of this chapter. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap A to start the eActivity application. • This displays the eActivity window as it appeared the last time it was used. • If you are already in the eActivity application and there is data on the display, tap [File] and then [New]. Note that [New] clears data from the display without saving it. (2) On the eActivity window, insert the text, expressions, application data, and other data you want to include in the eActivity. • There are four types of data you can insert into an eActivity: text rows, calculation rows, Geometry Link rows, and application data strips. For details about inserting each type of data, see “10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity”. 20060301 10-2-2 Creating an eActivity (3) After the eActivity is the way you want, tap [File] and then [Save]. • This displays the Files dialog box. Tap here to create a new folder. This is a list of folders and files. Select the name of the folder where you want to save the eActivity file by tapping it. Enter up to 20 characters for the eActivity file name. (4) After selecting a folder and entering a file name, tap [Save] to save the eActivity. Warning! • If you do not save the eActivity you are creating before tapping m on the icon panel to display the application menu or before tapping M to display the Main application, the unsaved eActivity data may be deleted. 20090601 10-2-3 Creating an eActivity Managing eActivity Files This section covers file management operations like save, open, delete, rename, move, etc. Performing one of these operations displays a Files dialog box like the ones shown below. The buttons that appear in the dialog box depend on the operation you performed to display the Files dialog box. Tap [File] and then [Save]. (Includes [Save] button.) Tap [File] and then [Open]. (Includes [Open] button.) Tap {. (Includes [Save] and [Open] buttons.) The operations you can perform on the Files dialog box are identical to those of the Geometry application Files dialog box, except that eActivity file names can contain up to 20 characters (bytes). For details, see “8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files”. Important! • eActivity files are stored in a memory area that is separate from that used for storing other types of data (variable data, Geometry data, Presentation data, etc.) Because of this, you cannot access eActivity files data using the Variable Manager. You have to use the eActivity application to perform eActivity file management operations. • ClassPad Manager has a function for locking and unlocking eActivity files. If you transfer a locked file from ClassPad Manager to your ClassPad, you will be able to open the file on your ClassPad but you will not be able to overwrite it with an edited version. To save edits to a locked file, save the file under a different name. 20111001 10-3-1 Inserting Data into an eActivity 10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity The following describes the four types of data you can insert into an eActivity. Text Row A text row can be used to insert text data and mathematical expression text in natural format. You can also bold the text in a text row. Application data strip The application data strip lets you display a window from a ClassPad application (Main, Graph & Table, Geometry, etc.) and use the window to create data, which is inserted into the eActivity. Calculation Row Use the calculation row to insert any of the calculation operations that are available in the Main application. Geometry Link Row Use this row to insert data that is linked with a Geometry window figure. Inserting a Text Row Text rows make it possible to display and edit text directly in the eActivity window. Text rows can contain multiple lines, as well as mathematical expressions. A mathematical expression contained in a text row is not evaluated. Pressing E, while in the Text Input mode, will advance you to the next line without displaying results. Tip • You can also use the ) soft keyboard to input mathematical expressions into a text row. u To select the input mode (1) On the eActivity window toolbar, tap the fifth button from the left (u / <) to toggle the input mode between Text Input and Calculation Input. u button indicates the Text Input mode is selected. 20060301 10-3-2 Inserting Data into an eActivity Tip • The toolbar button for switching between input modes appears as u while the cursor is located while the cursor is located in a calculation row. in a text row, and u To insert a Text Row (1) Tap to change a row to the Text Input mode. • If the cursor is located in a line that already contains input data, place the cursor at the end of the line, tap [Insert] and then [Text Row]. This inserts a text row on the next line. (2) Use the soft keyboard or keypad keys to input the text you want. • You can use the alphabet (abc) keyboard to input alphabetic characters. • Use the other keyboards to input mathematical expressions, commands, etc. Note that any mathematical expressions or commands you input into a text row are treated as text. They are not executed. • When the text that is input into a text row is too long to fit within the width of the screen, it will wrap automatically to the next line. However, if you are using the 2D soft keyboard to input an expression into a text row using natural display, your input will not wrap to the next line if it does not fit. Instead, the expression will run off the side of the display. Arrows (] ') will appear on the display to indicate when there is something running off the left or right side of the display. 20060301 10-3-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity u To bold text (1) Drag the stylus across the range of text you want to bold so it is selected (highlighted). (2) Tap B. again. (3) To unbold text, select it and then tap ← → Important! • You cannot bold numeric expressions of a natural display expression that you input with the 2D soft keyboard. Inserting a Calculation Row Calculation rows let you perform calculations in an eActivity. When you input a mathematical expression, the output expression (result) appears, right justified, in the next line. An eActivity that contains only calculation rows looks very much like the Main application window. Note that you can edit the input expression, but not the output expression (result). You can also copy, paste, drag and drop input and output expressions. Both the input and output rows scroll independently in a horizontal direction. Tip • If the input expression of a calculation row is not a valid expression, the row will contain only the input expression, without an output expression. u To select the input mode (1) On the eActivity window toolbar, tap the fifth button from the left (u / <) to toggle the input mode between Text Input and Calculation Input. button indicates the Calculation Input mode is selected. This mark is displayed at the head of the line while the Calculation Input mode is selected. 20060301 10-3-4 Inserting Data into an eActivity Tip • The toolbar button for switching between input modes appears as u while the cursor is located while the cursor is located in a calculation row. in a text row, and u To insert a Calculation Row (1) Tap u to change a row from the Text Input mode to the Calculation Input mode. • If the cursor is located in a line that already contains input data, place the cursor at the end of the line, tap [Insert] and then [Calculation Row]. This inserts a calculation row on the next line. (2) Use the soft keyboard or keypad keys to input the mathematical expression you want. • Mathematical expression input techniques are identical to those in the Main application. See Chapter 2 for more information. (3) Press E after inputting an expression to display its result. Line 1: Expression you input Line 2: Result • If you want to input an expression without displaying its result, do not press E. Instead, tap [Insert] and then [Text Row] to input a text row. Or you could change the while the cursor is in current row from a calculation row to a text row by tapping the row. Important! • If you edit the expression in an existing calculation row and then press E, all of the expressions following the line you edited are re-calculated and their results are refreshed. Even mathematical expressions you originally input into the eActivity without calculating their results are calculated, and their results appear. 20060301 10-3-5 Inserting Data into an eActivity Changing “10 S b” to “20 S b” in the example below and pressing E causes all of the expressions under “20 S b” to be re-calculated. • Press E. • Tap to the right of “10”. • Press K twice, and then input “20”. u To run a program in the eActivity application You can use an eActivity application calculation row to specify a program name, and execute the program. For more information, see “2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application.” Inserting an Application Data Strip An application data strip can be used to embed data from other ClassPad applications into an eActivity. An application data strip contains the elements shown below. Title You can enter a title, if you want. 20060301 Expand button Tap here to display the application data in the lower window. 10-3-6 Inserting Data into an eActivity k Inserting an Application Data Strip into an eActivity Tap the [Insert] menu or the right most toolbar down arrow button, and then select the command or button that corresponds to the type of application data you want to insert. To insert this type of application data: Select this [Insert] menu item: Graph & Table application Graph window data Strip - Graph Or tap this button: $ Graph & Table application Graph Editor window data Strip - Graph Editor ! 3D Graph application 3D Graph window data Strip - 3D Graph % 3D Graph application 3D Graph Editor window data Strip - 3D Graph Editor @ Conics application Conics Graph window data Strip - Conics Graph ^ Conics application Conics Editor window data Strip - Conics Editor * Geometry application Geometry window data Strip - Geometry 3 Spreadsheet window data Strip - Spreadsheet Q Statistics application Statistical Graph window data Strip - Stat Graph y Statistics application Stat Editor window data Strip - Stat Editor ( Differential Equation application Differential Equation Strip - DiffEqGraph Graph window data O Differential Equation application Differential Equation Strip - DiffEqGraph Editor Graph Editor window data A Financial application window data Strip - Financial I Probability window*1 data Strip - Probability P NumSolve application Numeric Solver window data Strip - NumSolve Sequence application Sequence Editor window data Strip - Sequence Editor 1 & Picture Viewer window*2 Strip - Picture r Notes window*2 Strip - Notes _ Main application work area window data Strip - Main ~ Strip - Verify W 1 Verify window* data *1 The Probability window and Verify window can be used with the eActivity application and Main application. For more information see “2-11 Using Verify” and “2-12 Using Probability”. *2 The Picture Viewer window and Notes window can be used with the eActivity application only. 20060301 10-3-7 Inserting Data into an eActivity Example 1: To insert a Geometry data strip u ClassPad Operation (1) From the eActivity menu, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Geometry]. • This inserts a Geometry data strip, and displays the Geometry window in the lower half of the screen. Geometry data strip Geometry window (2) On the Geometry window, draw the figure you want. • For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8. (3) After you finish performing the operation you want on the Geometry window, tap S, or tap O and then [Close] to close the Geometry window and return to the eActivity window. 20060301 10-3-8 Inserting Data into an eActivity (4) Tap the title box of the Geometry data strip and enter the title you want. • If you want to input more data into the eActivity, tap the next line or use the [Insert] menu to select the type of strip you want to insert next. Example 2: To insert a Graph data strip u ClassPad Operation (1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Graph]. • This inserts a Graph data strip, and displays the Graph window in the lower half of the screen. Graph data strip Graph window 20060301 10-3-9 Inserting Data into an eActivity (2) On the Graph window, draw the graph you want. • Tap the ! button to display the Graph & Table application’s Graph Editor window, enter a function to graph, and then graph the function. For details about inputting functions on the Graph Editor window and graphing functions, see Chapter 3. Tap $. Display the Graph Editor window and input the function. Graph the function. (3) After you finish performing the operation you want on the Graph window, tap S, or tap O and then [Close] to close the Graph window. You will also need to tap the Graph Editor window, and then select O then [Close] to return to the eActivity window. (4) Tap the title box of the Graph data strip and enter the title you want. • If you want to input more data into the eActivity, tap the next line or use the [Insert] menu to select the type of row or strip you want to insert next. 20060301 10-3-10 Inserting Data into an eActivity Example 3: To use Notes in an eActivity Notes is a simple text editing tool for taking notes or including in-depth explanations within an eActivity. You can use Notes to store information for later use, or as a place to jot down ideas. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Notes]. • This inserts a Notes strip and displays the Notes window in the lower half of the screen. (2) Enter text you want in the Notes window. • You can use the Edit menu and toolbar to perform following operations while the Notes window is on the display. To do this: Select this Edit menu item: Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone Undo/Redo Or tap this button: — Bold a range of selected text — B Unbold a range of selected text — M Cut the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard Cut r Copy the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard Copy t Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen Paste y Select all text on the Notes window Select All — Clear all text from the Notes window Clear All — Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) 20060301 — 5 10-3-11 Inserting Data into an eActivity (3) After you finish entering text, you can close the Notes window by tapping S, or tapping O and then [Close]. Tip • You can use the Notes window to enter notes, homework assignments, in-depth details, etc. • All information you enter is treated as text. • When inputting text into a Notes window, the cursor will jump down to the beginning of the next line when the right edge of the current line is reached. • The Notes application is available only in eActivity. Example 4: To use the Picture Viewer with eActivity You can use Picture to display a bitmap image (PICT data type) in an eActivity. You can also save displayed images with a different name. Tip • For details about data whose data type is PICT, see “Variable Data Types” on page 1-7-3. 20060301 20070301 10-3-12 Inserting Data into an eActivity u ClassPad Operation (1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Picture]. • This will insert a Picture strip and display the Picture window in the lower half of the display. (2) Tap [File] - [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. The Files dialog box displays only data whose data type is PICT. (3) On the Picture window, tap the name of the PICT data you want to view. 20060301 10-3-13 Inserting Data into an eActivity (4) Tap [Open]. • This will display the PICT data you selected in the Picture window. A scroll bar will appear along the bottom of the window if the PICT data does not fit. • You can use the File menu and toolbar to perform following operations while the Picture window is on the display. To do this: Select this File Or tap this menu item: button: Open a bitmap (PICT data type) image Open – Save an open bitmap image Save R (5) After performing all the operations you want, tap the S button in upper right corner to close the Picture window. (6) Tap the title box of the Picture strip and enter the title you want. 20060301 10-3-14 Inserting Data into an eActivity Strip Help Text You can add help text to any strip. A strip that has help text is indicated by a button. Tapping a button will display the help window along with the application window. Help window Applicaiton window u To add help text to a strip (1) Tap the title box of the strip to which you want to add help text. (2) Tap [Insert] - [Add Strip Help]. • A help window appears in the upper half of the display, while the application that was called from the strip appears in the lower half of the display. 20060301 10-3-15 Inserting Data into an eActivity (3) Input the help text into the help window. • The operations you can perform while inputting help text are the same as those you use for eActivity notes. For more information, see “Example 3: To use Notes in an eActivity” on page 10-3-10. (4) After inputting all the text you want, tap the S button in upper right corner to close the help window. • The strip will now have a button. u To delete help text from a strip (1) Tap the title box of the strip whose help text you want to delete. (2) Tap [Insert] - [Remove Strip Help]. • This will delete the help text and cause the button to disappear. Moving Information Between eActivity and Applications An eActivity is like an interactive notebook or textbook that allows you to explore the world of mathematics right on the page. You can take almost any expression from an eActivity page and send it to another application. You can also take information from an application and insert it into an eActivity page. k Cut, Copy, and Paste You can cut, copy, or paste text or mathematical expressions between the eActivity and any other application. You can also cut, copy, and paste text and mathematical expressions inside an eActivity. Depending on the application, you can cut or copy, and paste text and mathematical expression data into an eActivity. For example, you can copy a line in the Geometry measurement box and paste it into an eActivity as an expression. 20060301 10-3-16 Inserting Data into an eActivity k Drag and Drop You can drag and drop text or mathematical expressions between eActivity and other applications. You can also drag and drop within an eActivity. Depending on the application, you can drag text and mathematical expressions from an eActivity to another application window. For example, you can drag an equation from the eActivity directly onto a graph window. (1) Graph strip is expanded in the lower window. (2) Expression is selected in the eActivity. (3) Expression has been dragged into the graph window. Tip • For details about what you can drag and drop between the eActivity window and Geometry window, see “8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications”. 20060301 10-3-17 Inserting Data into an eActivity Inserting a Geometry Link Row A Geometry Link row dynamically links data in the Geometry window with the corresponding data in an eActivity. You can display lines and figures drawn in Geometry as values and mathematical expressions in a Geometry Link row. Dragging a line or figure from the Geometry window to a Geometry Link row in an eActivity converts the line or figure to its mathematical expression. This expression is interlinked with its Geometry window figure, so modifying one causes a corresponding change in the other. Example of inserting a Geometry Link row Modifying the equation in a Geometry Link updates the figure in the Geometry window. Conversely, changing the shape, position, or some other parameter of the figure on the Geometry window updates the equation in the Geometry Link. u To input a Geometry Link row Example: To drag one side of a triangle drawn on the Geometry window and link it to an eActivity (1) Open the eActivity application. Next, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Geometry] to insert a Geometry strip. (2) On the Geometry window that appears in the lower half of the screen, draw a triangle. • For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8. (3) Tap the eActivity window just below the Geometry strip. • This makes eActivity the active window. 20060301 10-3-18 Inserting Data into an eActivity (4) Tap [Insert] and then [Geometry Link]. • This inserts a Geometry Link row in the next line. Geometry Link row Symbol (5) Tap the Geometry window to make it active. (6) Tap one side of the triangle to select it, and then drag it to the link symbol in the eActivity window. • This inputs the equation of the line that represents the side of the triangle into the link. • Modifying the equation in the Geometry Link row and pressing E causes a corresponding change in the Geometry window (lower right screenshot). • The example below shows how the isosceles triangle ABC (CA = BC) changes when the equation in the Geometry Link row is changed from y = 1.91x + 0.983 to y = x + 2. • Drag the stylus across 1.91x + 0.983. • Input x + 2. • Press E. Tip • Dragging a line or figure from the Geometry window to a text row or calculation row in an eActivity also converts the figure to its value or equation. In this case, however, data in the text row or calculation row is not interlinked with the Geometry window figure. • Pressing E after changing data in a Geometry Link updates the corresponding figure in the Geometry window. • Changing the figure in the Geometry window will cause the linked data in an eActivity to update accordingly. 20060301 10-4-1 Working with eActivity Files 10-4 Working with eActivity Files You can perform basic file operations on eActivity files. You can open previously saved files, edit an existing file, and save a file under a new name. Opening an Existing eActivity Perform the following steps to open an existing eActivity file. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the eActivity window, tap [File] and then [Open]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) Select the name of the eActivity file you want to open by tapping it. (3) Tap [Open]. • This opens the eActivity you selected in step (2). 20060301 10-4-2 Working with eActivity Files Browsing the Contents of an eActivity • When you first open an eActivity, its data appears on the window starting from line 1. Use the scroll bar to scroll the window contents if necessary. • To view the contents of an application data strip in the eActivity, tap the expand button (which is the icon in the data strip). For more information, see “Expanding an Application Data Strip” below. Expand button Editing the Contents of an eActivity To edit an eActivity, you can use the same procedures that you used when you created it. For more information, see “10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity”. Expanding an Application Data Strip Tapping the expand button of an application data strip expands the application data in the lower window. The expand button of a data strip is highlighted to indicate that it is expanded in the lower window. Indicates Example 1 is expanded. 20060301 Indicates Example 2 is expanded. 10-4-3 Working with eActivity Files Modifying the Data in an Application Data Strip Modifying application data on an application window in the lower eActivity window causes the eActivity data to be modified as well. If you change the equation in the eActivity Graph window, for example, the new graph will become the data of the eActivity. This means that when you save and then reopen an eActivity file, tapping the application data strip’s expand button again will cause the new graph to be displayed. Saving an Edited eActivity As with any other file, there are two ways to save an edited eActivity: resaving the original eActivity with the newly edited eActivity, or saving the edited data under a different file name as a new eActivity, without changing the originally opened eActivity. u To replace the original eActivity file with the newly edited version (1) On the eActivity window, tap [File] and then [Save]. • This displays the Files dialog box. Current eActivity file name (2) Tap [Save] without changing the displayed file name. • This causes the original eActivity file to be replaced by the newly edited version. 20090601 10-4-4 Working with eActivity Files u To save an edited eActivity under a different name (1) On the eActivity window, tap {, or tap [File] and then [Save]. • This displays the Files dialog box. (2) If you want, tap the name of the folder where you want the new eActivity file to be saved. (3) Tap the file name input box, and input the new file name you want to use. (4) When everything is the way you want, tap [Save]. • This saves the eActivity as a new file under the file name you specified. 20060301 10-5-1 Transferring eActivity Files 10-5 Transferring eActivity Files Note the following precautions when using the ClassPad’s data communication function to transfer eActivity files with another ClassPad unit or a computer. Transferring eActivity Files between Two ClassPad Units k Transferring eActivity Files to Another ClassPad Unit To transfer an eActivity file to another ClassPad unit, the receiving unit must support all of the following types of application data strips.* Application Data Strips Graph, Graph Editor, 3D Graph, 3D Graph Editor, Conics Graph, Conics Editor, Geometry, Spreadsheet, Stat Graph, Stat Editor, DiffEqGraph, DiffEqGraph Editor, Financial, Probability, NumSolve, Sequence Editor, Picture Viewer, Notes, Main, Verify *For details about application data strips, see “Inserting an Applicaiton Data Strip” on page 10-3-5. Important! • If you transfer an eActivity file to a ClassPad unit that does not support all of the application data strips listed above, the receiving ClassPad unit will not be able to open the file. • Do not transfer eActivity files to a ClassPad unit that does not support all of the application data strips listed above. • The functions of this ClassPad unit are different from the functions of a ClassPad unit that does not support all of the application data strips listed above. Because of this their eActivity files are incompatible with each other. Do not transfer eActivity files between two ClassPad units that are equipped with different application data strips. 20060301 10-5-2 Transferring eActivity Files k Transferring eActivity Files from Another ClassPad Unit To transfer an eActivity file from another ClassPad unit, your ClassPad unit must support all of the application data strips that are supported by the sending unit. Important! • If you transfer an eActivity file from a ClassPad unit that supports application data strips that are not supported by this ClassPad unit, your will not be able to open the file. • Do not transfer eActivity files from another ClassPad unit if your ClassPad unit does not support all of the application data strips of the sending unit. • The functions of this ClassPad unit are different from the functions of a ClassPad unit that supports application data strips not supported by this unit. Because of this their eActivity files are incompatible with each other. Do not transfer eActivity files between two ClassPad units that are equipped with different application data strips. Transferring eActivity Files between a ClassPad Unit and a Computer You can transfer eActivity files between ClassPad and a computer. For details, see “Transferring Data between ClassPad and a Computer” (page 2-5-1) in the separate Hardware User’s Guide. 20110901 Chapter Using the Presentation Application The Presentation application lets you capture screenshots of other application windows. Screenshots can be used in the classroom or for other presentations simply by connecting the ClassPad to a CASIO Projector. 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7 Presentation Application Overview Building a Presentation Managing Presentation Files Playing a Presentation Editing Presentation Pages Configuring Presentation Preferences Presentation File Transfer 20110901 11 11-1-1 Presentation Application Overview 11-1 Presentation Application Overview The Presentation application lets you capture screenshots produced by the ClassPad, and arrange them into a “presentation” that you can play back. With this application you can build and play a presentation, and edit the contents of a presentation. A presentation, for example, can show how to obtain intermediate and final results of calculation operations. Specifically, the Presentation application can be used as follows. • A teacher can use Presentation to create materials that explain mathematical concepts, and distribute them to students. • A student can use Presentation as a tool to present reports, assignments, and projects. • Students and teachers can use Presentation to store ClassPad screenshots for later reference. ... Sample Presentation 20060301 11-1-2 Presentation Application Overview Starting Up the Presentation Application Use the following procedure to start up the Presentation application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap P. Presentation Application Window Tapping P on the application menu starts the Presentation application and displays its initial screen. File name Disable button Number of pages File list File number Soft keyboard Initial Screen • Selecting [Disabled] will cause the [Screen Copy To] setting on the Presentation and Communication dialog boxes to change automatically to [Outer Device]. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”. • Files are numbered P1 through P20. These numbers are fixed and cannot be changed. When creating a new presentation file, you can input the file name you want. • The soft keyboard is automatically displayed when you open the Presentation application. 20090601 11-1-3 Presentation Application Overview Presentation Application Menus and Buttons This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the Presentation application’s initial screen. k Initial Screen Menu Commands and Buttons Tap this button: To do this: Or select this menu item: Delete the presentation file whose option button is currently selected (page 11-3-1) – Edit - Delete Delete all presentation files (page 11-3-1) – Edit - Delete All Enter the Editing mode and display the editing tool palette (page 11-5-1) 0 Tools Start auto play (page 11-4-1) 6 Play - AutoPlay Start manual play (page 11-4-2) 7 Play - ManualPlay Insert a white screen at the end of the selected presentation file (page 11-2-3) – a - White Screen Append PICT data to the end of the selected presentation file (page 11-2-3) – a - Add 20060301 11-1-4 Presentation Application Overview Screen Capture Precautions Note the following precautions when capturing screens for a presentation. • The operation that is performed when you tap h depends on the current [Screen Copy To] setting as described below. When the [Screen Copy To] setting is this: Tapping h does this: Outer Device Sends the screenshot to an external device. P1 - P20 Adds the screenshot to the presentation file. To change the [Screen Copy To] setting, tap O, and then [Presentation] or [Communication]. For more information, see “Presentation Dialog Box” on page 1-9-14. • Tapping h will capture either the full screen or half the screen, depending on how you have Presentation preferences configured. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”. • Screen capture is disabled when any of the following conditions exists. • While a calculation, graph draw, or similar operation is in progress • While a data communication operation is in progress • While the stylus (or your finger or other object) is in contact with the screen • In addition to the conditions detailed above, screen capture may be disabled by other operations that have a higher priority than screen capture. • The status bar is not included in screen captures when [Screen Copy To] setting is “P1” - “P20”. 20060301 11-2-1 Building a Presentation 11-2 Building a Presentation Presentations are created by capturing screenshots that are produced by the applications of the ClassPad. Before actually beginning to capture the screenshots, it is important to carefully think about and plan the type of information you want to include in your presentation so that your screenshots display the information that you want. This is not to say, however, that you must create a perfect presentation the first time around. You can always change the sequence of pages or edit a pages at any time. u To create a new presentation (1) On the application menu, tap P to start the Presentation application. (2) On the file list, tap the line (P1 through P20) where you want to store the new presentation file. • This causes a cursor to appear on the line you tap. (3) Enter up to eight bytes for the presentation file name, and then tap w. • Check to make sure that the file name you just input is selected (button is on). (4) Tap m to display the application menu, and then start the application whose screens you want to capture. (5) Perform the required operations in the application to display the screen you want to capture. 20060301 11-2-2 Building a Presentation (6) With the screen you want to capture on the display, tap h. • The currently displayed screen is captured as soon as you tap h. Its image is added to the pages of the presentation file you selected in step (3). • If the capture is successful, “ ” appears in the status bar for about one second. (7) Repeat steps (5) and (6) to capture other screens as required. • Note that you can change to other applications as required. (8) After capturing all of the images you want, tap m to display the application menu, and then tap P to return to the Presentation application. This value shows how many pages (images) you have captured and added to the presentation. • Even after you return to the Presentation application, you can restart screen capture to add more pages. To do so, simply return to step (4) of this procedure. (9) To check the current contents of the presentation, tap 6. • This starts auto play, which scrolls through the pages of the new presentation automatically. For more information, see “Using Auto Play” on page 11-4-1. Adding a Blank Page to a Presentation Perform the procedure on page 11-2-3 when you want to add a blank page to the end of a presentation. After adding a blank page, you can put text on it or move it to another location inside the presentation. You can use blank pages to indicate the end of a presentation, to separate a presentation into sections, or to insert commentary text. 20060301 11-2-3 Building a Presentation u To insert a blank page into a presentation (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation file into which you want to insert the blank page, so it is selected. This file is selected Button (2) Tap a and then [White Screen]. • This inserts a blank page as the final page of the presentation file you selected in step (1), and increases the number of pages for the presentation by one. Tip • For information about inserting text and moving the blank page, see “11-5 Editing Presentation Pages”. u To append PICT data to the end of a presentation (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation file where you want to append the PICT data so it is selected. (2) Tap a and then [Add]. • This displays the Select Data dialog box. (3) On the Select Data dialog box, select the folder where the PICT data you want to insert is stored, and specify the name of the date. (4) Tap [OK]. • This closes the Select Data dialog box and appends the PICT data to the end of the presentation. Tip • If the size of the PICT data is different from the ClassPad display size, the upper left corner of the PICT data is aligned with the upper left corner of the ClassPad display, and any data that does not fit is cut off. 20060301 11-3-1 Managing Presentation Files 11-3 Managing Presentation Files After you create a presentation file, you can rename it or delete it. u To rename a presentation file (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the name of the file you want to rename so it is selected. (2) Press e. • This causes a cursor to appear to the right of the last character of the file name. (3) Change the file name. • A file name can be up to eight bytes long. (4) After the file name is the way you want, tap w. u To delete a single presentation file (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the name of the file you want to delete so it is selected. (2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. (3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK]. • This deletes the file you selected in step (1). u To delete all presentation files (1) Display the Presentation application initial screen. (2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete All]. (3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK]. • This deletes all of the presentation files. • A presentation file is actually a user folder, so presentation files appear as folders on the Variable Manager folder list. Variable Manager Folder List Presentation File List For details about using the Variable Manager, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. 20060301 11-3-2 Managing Presentation Files Important! • PICT format image data files (PICT data type variables) captured with the h icon are stored in folder that is created when you create a Presentation file. • The “Presystm” folder (whose contents you can view with the Variable Manager) contains files for managing presentations. Normally, you should never edit or delete the “Presystm” folder or any of its contents. If these files are damaged or deleted, they will be restored when you run the presentation. 20060301 11-4-1 Playing a Presentation 11-4 Playing a Presentation This section explains the various methods you can use to play a presentation. Using Auto Play With auto play, the pages of the presentation are scrolled automatically at a fixed interval. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation file you want to play, so it is selected. Button This file is selected (2) Tap 6, or tap [Play] and then [AutoPlay]. • This starts auto play, which displays the pages of the presentation in sequence. Current page number Total number of pages (3) When playback reaches the final page it stops, and then the Presentation application initial screen appears. • To stop an auto play operation part way through, tap the c key. 20060301 on the icon panel or press 11-4-2 Playing a Presentation Tip • You can configure Presentation preferences to specify the page change speed and to turn page number display in the status bar on or off. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”. • You can also configure auto play so it repeats when the final page of a presentation is reached. For more information, see “Using Repeat Play” on page 11-4-3. Using Manual Play With manual play, you control when page change operations are performed during presentation play. Manual play lets you scroll forward or back through presentation pages, and you can display a pointer on a page. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation file you want to play, so it is selected. (2) Tap 7, or tap [Play] and then [ManualPlay]. • This starts manual play, which displays the first page of the presentation. Page scroll buttons (3) You can perform the following operations while a manual play operation is in progress. When you want to do this: Do this: Advance to the next page Tap the page scroll button or press the c cursor key Return to the previous page Tap the page scroll button or press the f cursor key Display a round pointer Hold or drag the stylus on the screen 20060301 11-4-3 Playing a Presentation (4) Tapping while the final page of the presentation is displayed causes the message “End of Files” to appear in the status bar. while the message “End of Files” is in the status bar exits the manual • Tapping play operation and displays the Presentation initial screen. Tapping while “End of Files” is in the status bar returns you to the final page of the presentation and continues the manual play operation. Tip • You can turn display of the page number in the status bar on and off. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”. Using Repeat Play Repeat play causes auto play to restarts the presentation from the beginning each time the final page of a presentation is reached. Use the Presentation dialog box (page 11-6-1) to turn repeat play on or off. The initial default setting is repeat play off. The following describes how repeat play works for auto play. k Repeat Auto Play • When the final page of the presentation is reached, the presentation is restarted from the first page. • The presentation continues playing until you tap on the icon panel or press the c key to stop it. 20060301 11-5-1 Editing Presentation Pages 11-5 Editing Presentation Pages This section explains how to use the Editing mode of the Presentation application to modify the pages of an existing presentation. About the Editing Tool Palette An editing tool palette appears on the display whenever you enter the Editing mode. The following describes how to use the editing tool palette. Tap this tool button: To do this: Move the currently displayed page one page back 8 Move the currently displayed page one page forward 9 Delete the currently displayed page e Copy the currently displayed page t Paste a copied page into the location before the currently displayed page y Delete the lower half of the screen - Insert text into a page u Draw a straight line on a page i Draw an arrow on a page o Use the eraser } Save a page after editing it { Exit the Editing mode and return to the Presentation application initial screen = Entering the Editing Mode Perform the following steps to enter the Editing mode when you want to edit the pages of an existing presentation. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation file you want to edit, so it is selected. (2) Tap 0, or tap [Tools]. • This enters the Editing mode and displays the editing tool palette and page scroll buttons. Page 1 of the presentation file you selected in step (1) appears first. 20060301 11-5-2 Editing Presentation Pages Editing tool palette Page scroll buttons (3) Use the editing tool palette buttons to edit the pages. • For details about editing operations, see “Editing Operations” on page 11-5-3. • You can drag the editing tool palette and page scroll buttons to any location on the display. Simply use the stylus to drag the handle of the palette or buttons. Handle u To exit the Editing mode On the editing tool palette, tap =, or tap on the icon panel, or press c to exit the Editing mode and return to the Presentation application initial screen. 20060301 11-5-3 Editing Presentation Pages Editing Operations This section provides details about the page editing operations you can perform with the Presentation application’s editing tool palette. u To move a page (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to move. (3) Tap 8 to move the currently displayed page back one page, or tap 9 to move it forward one page. • The illustrations below show the effect of tapping 8 or 9 while page C of a fivepage presentation file is selected. A B C D E A B 8 A C B A B D E C E E C 9 D E A B 8 C C D 9 D E A B D u To delete a page (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to delete. (3) Tap e. (4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the page or [Cancel] to cancel. • This deletes the currently displayed page and then displays the following page. Deleting the final page of a presentation displays the page preceding the deleted page. 20060301 11-5-4 Editing Presentation Pages u To copy and paste a page (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to copy, and then tap t. • This copies the currently displayed page to the clipboard. (3) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page that you want to follow the copied page. • The illustrations below show the effect of copying page E of a five-page presentation file and pasting it between pages B and C. A A B B C E D C E D E (4) Tap y. • This pastes the page at the location in front of the currently displayed page. u To insert text into a page (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page into which you want to insert text, and then tap u. • This displays a text input dialog box along with a soft keyboard. (3) Enter the text and then tap [OK]. • In this example we input the text “full-screen”. (4) Place the stylus on the screen and hold it there. • This causes the text you input in step (3) to appear at the location where you are pointing with the stylus. (5) Drag the text to the location you want, and then lift the stylus from the screen. Inserted text 20060301 11-5-5 Editing Presentation Pages (6) To save the result of the text insert operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the confirmation dialog box that appears. u To clear the bottom half of the screen (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page whose bottom half you want to clear. (3) Tap -. • This clears the bottom half of the displayed page. (4) To save the result of the operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the confirmation dialog box that appears. 20060301 11-5-6 Editing Presentation Pages u To draw a straight line or an arrow on a page (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page on which you want to draw a straight line or arrow. (3) Tap i if you want to draw a line or o if you want to draw an arrow. (4) Tap the point where you want one end of the line segment or arrow to be, and then tap the point where you want the other end to be. • A line segment or arrow appears between the points you tapped. • If you are drawing an arrow, the arrow head appears on the end you specify last. Example of an arrow (5) To save the result of the draw operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the confirmation dialog box that appears. 20060301 11-5-7 Editing Presentation Pages Using the Eraser The eraser allows you to erase parts of an image, text, arrows, or lines you have added to a page. u To erase part of a page with the eraser (1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1). (2) Use the page scroll arrows to display the page that contains the figures you want to erase. (3) Tap }. Important! • Whenever the } tool button is selected, dragging the stylus across the screen erases a 3 × 3-pixel area (centered on the stylus). (4) Drag the eraser across the screen to erase the figures you want. (5) To save the result of the erase operation, tap {, and then tap [OK] on the confirmation dialog box that appears. 20060301 11-6-1 Configuring Presentation Preferences 11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences You can use the procedure below to configure various Presentation application preferences. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap O, and then [Presentation]. • This displays the Presentation dialog box. (2) Use the Presentation dialog box to configure the preferences you want. To do this: Do this: Send hard copy data generated by tapping Select [Outer Device].* h to an external device Save hard copy data internally as Presentation data Select “P1: **” through “P20: **” for [Screen Copy To]. Specify the page change speed for Auto Play Specify a [Play Speed] value from 1 (fastest) to 10 (slowest). Capture the upper half of the screen when h is tapped Select the [Half Screen Capturing] check box. Capture the entire screen when h is tapped Clear the [Half Screen Capturing] check box.* Turn on repeat playback of files during Auto Play Select the [Repeat] check box. Turn off repeat playback of files during Auto Play Clear the [Repeat] check box.* Turn on page number display during playback and editing Select the [Page Number] check box.* Turn off page number display during playback and editing Clear the [Page Number] check box. • Items marked with an asterisk (*) are initial defaults. The initial default [Play Speed] setting is 4. • Selecting [Disabled] on the Presentation application initial screen will cause the [Screen Copy To] to change automatically to [Outer Device]. ** will show the name of the presentation file. (3) To close the dialog box and apply its settings, tap [Set]. To close the dialog box without button in the upper right corner of the dialog applying its settings, tap [Cancel] or the box. To restore all the settings on the dialog box to their initial defaults, tap [Default]. 20060301 11-6-2 Configuring Presentation Preferences Tip • The following examples show the area of the screen that is captured when you tap h while the [Half Screen Capturing] check box is selected. The captured areas are indicated by the thick boundaries in each example. Sample Screenshot Captured Image Data Sample Screenshot Captured Image Data 20060301 11-7-1 Presentation File Transfer 11-7 Presentation File Transfer A presentation file is actually a kind of user folder (called a “presentation folder”) that contains the images that make up the presentation. This folder may be transferred to another ClassPad unit or a computer in order to play the presentation. Caution • A presentation created with Version 3.0 of the ClassPad software cannot be played on a ClassPad or a computer that is running an earlier version. 20060301 Chapter Using the Program Application The Program application comes in handy when you need to perform the same calculation a number of times. You can create programs that automate graphing and other operations. 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6 12-7 Program Application Overview Creating a New Program Debugging a Program Managing Files User-defined Functions Program Command Reference Including ClassPad Functions in Programs 20060301 12 12-1-1 Program Application Overview 12-1 Program Application Overview The Program application consists of a Program Editor for inputting and editing programs, and a Program Loader for loading and executing existing programs. Starting Up the Program Application Use the following procedure to start up the Program application. u ClassPad Operation On the application menu, tap p. This starts the Program application and displays the Program Loader window. Program Loader Window Use the Program Loader window to recall and run existing programs. u To display the Program Loader window On the application menu, tap p to start up the Program application. The Program Loader window appears when you start up the Program application. 20060301 12-1-2 Program Application Overview k Program Loader Window Menus and Buttons Tap this button: Or select this menu item: Display the Program Loader window — O - Program Loader Display the Program Editor window P _ O - Program Editor To do this: Display the Program Output window Display the Text File Contents window — Display the Main application work area window Display the Program Editor window Create a new file Open an existing file Clear the screen ~ P O ~ — Run a program Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) 20060301 p 5 O - Program Output O - Text File Contents O - Main Edit - Open Editor Edit - New File Edit - Open File Edit - Clear All Run - Run Program O - Variable Manager 12-1-3 Program Application Overview Program Editor Window You can use the Program Editor window to input a new program or to edit an existing program. You can also use the Program Editor window to input and edit user-defined functions. u To display the Program Editor window (1) On the application menu, tap p to start up the Program application. (2) On the window that appears, tap P, or tap O and then [Program Editor]. File name Parameter variables This box can be used to specify variable names used in user-defined functions or programs. For details, see “Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values” on page 12-2-7. File type N: Program file T: Text file F: User-defined function file 20090601 12-1-4 Program Application Overview k Program Editor Window Menus and Buttons The following describes the menu and button operations you can perform on the Program Editor window. To do this: Tap this button: Display the Program Loader window ) Display the Program Editor window — _ Display the Program Output window Or select this menu item: O - Program Loader O - Program Editor O - Program Output Display the Text File Contents window — O - Text File Contents Display the Main application work area window — O - Main Close the currently active window — O - Close O ~ { Edit - New File Save a file under a new name — Edit - Save As Close a file — Edit - Close File Convert a file to a program file — Edit - Mode Change - 'Normal Convert a file to a text file — Edit - Mode Change - 'Text Convert a file to an edit prohibited program file — Edit - Compress Create a new file Open an existing file Save a file Edit - Open File Edit - Save File Put a selection onto the clipboard and delete the original r Edit - Cut Put a selection onto the clipboard without affecting the original t Edit - Copy Paste the clipboard contents y Edit - Paste — Select everything on the screen Edit - Select All Search for a newly specified text string e Edit - Search - New Search Search again for a previously specified text string r Edit - Search - Search Next Jump to the beginning of a program — Edit - Search - Jump to Top Jump to the end of a program — Edit - Search - Jump to Bottom Clear the contents of the Program Editor window Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) — Edit - Clear All 5 20060301 O - Variable Manager 12-1-5 Program Application Overview To do this: Input a command from the [Ctrl] menu • For details about each command, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. Select this submenu item: Ctrl - : Ctrl - ⇒ Ctrl - Jump Ctrl - If Ctrl - For Ctrl - Do Ctrl - While Ctrl - Switch Input a command from the [I/O] menu • For details about each command, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. Select this menu item: — — Lbl, Goto If, Then, ElseIf, Else, IfEnd For, To, Step, Next Do, LpWhile While, WhileEnd Switch, Case, Default, SwitchEnd Ctrl - Control Skip, Return, Break, Stop, Wait, Pause Ctrl - Logic =, ≠, <, >, s, t, and, or, xor, not Ctrl - Misc I/O - Input ’, ”, Define Input, InputStr, InputFunc, GetKey, GetPen I/O - Output Print, Locate, Message, PrintNatural I/O - Display DispText, DispFTable, DispSmryTbl, DispSeqTbl, DispDfrTbl, DispQutTbl, DispDQTbl, DispFibTbl, DispListEditor, DispStat I/O - Draw DrawGraph, DrawShade, DrawFTGCon, DrawFTGPlot, DrawSeqCon, DrawSeqPlt, DrawSeqEtrCon, DrawSeqEtrPlt, DrawConics, Draw3D, DrawStat I/O - Sketch Plot, PlotChg, PlotOff, PlotOn, plotTest, PxlChg, PxlOff, PxlOn, pxlTest, Distance, Line, Circle, Horizontal, Vertical, TangentLine, NormalLine, Inverse, Text I/O - Clear Cls, ClrText, ClrGraph I/O - Communication OpenComPort38k, CloseComPort38k, Send38k, Receive38k, SendVar38k, GetVar38k 20090601 12-1-6 Program Application Overview To do this: Select this submenu item: Select this menu item: Input a command from the [Misc] menu • For details about each command, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. Misc - Statistics(1) StatGraph, StatGraphSel, Scatter, xyLine, NPPlot, Histogram, MedBox, ModBox, NDist, Broken, LinearR, MedMed, QuadR, CubicR, QuartR, LogR, ExpR, abExpR, PowerR, SinR, LogisticR Misc - Statistics(2) Square, Cross, Ldot, Dot, DefaultListEditor Misc - Graph&Table(1) GraphType, GTSelOn, GTSelOff, SmryTSelOn, ViewWindow, LogP, CallUndef, ZFactor, ZAuto, PTCross, PTDot, PTNormal, PTSquare, PTBrokenThck, PTThick, SheetActive, SheetName, ClearSheet Misc - Graph&Table(2) StoGMem, StoPict, StoVWin, RclGMem, RclPict, RclVWin Misc - Sequence SeqSelOn, SeqSelOff, SeqType Misc - 3D Graph SelOn3D, SheetName3D, SheetActive3D, ViewWindow3D, ClearSheet3D Misc - Variable NewFolder, DelFolder, LockFolder, UnlockFolder, GetFolder, SetFolder, MoveVar, CopyVar, Rename, DelVar, Clear_a_z, Lock, Unlock, GetType, Local Misc - String ChrToNum, ExpToStr, NumToChr, NumToStr, StrJoin, StrCmp, StrInv, StrLeft, StrLen, StrLwr, StrMid, StrRight, StrRotate, StrShift, StrSrc, strToExp, StrUpr, # 20090601 12-1-7 Program Application Overview To do this: Input a command from the [Misc] menu • For details about each command, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”. Select this submenu item: Misc - Setup(1) Select this menu item: On, Off, DefaultSetup, SetStandard, SetDecimal, SetReal, SetComplex, SetDegree, SetGrad, SetRadian, SetNormal, SetFix, SetSci Misc - Setup(2) SetDrawCon, SetDrawPlt, SetSimulGraph, SetDispGCon, SetAxes, SetBG, SetCoord, SetDeriv, SetFunc, SetGrid, SetLabel, SetLeadCursor, SetTVariable, TableInput, SetSmryTable, VWin, SetSmryTableQD Misc - Setup(3) SetStatWinAuto, SetCellWidth, SetSequence, StepDisp, Set∑disp, SetAxes3D, Box, SetCoordOff3D, SetCoordPol3D, SetCoordRect3D, SetLabel3D 20090601 12-2-1 Creating a New Program 12-2 Creating a New Program This section explains the steps you need to perform in order to create a new program. General Programming Steps The following are the general steps for creating and running a program. 1. Open a new file. • Tap O, or select the [Edit] menu and then [New File]. 2. Input a name and tap [OK]. 3. Input the expressions and commands that make up the program. 4. Input display commands as required into the program. If you do not include display commands in your program, calculation results will not appear on the display. 5. Save the program. 6. Display the Program Loader window by tapping ). 7. Run the program by tapping p, or by selecting the [Run] menu and then [Run Program]. Creating and Saving a Program Example: To create a program named “OCTA” that calculates the surface areas (cm2) and volumes (cm3) of three regular octahedrons, the lengths of whose sides are 7, 10, and 15 cm The following formulas calculate the surface area S and volume V of a regular octahedron for which the length of side A is known. S = 2 3 A2, A 20060301 V= 2 3 A 3 12-2-2 Creating a New Program u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then p. (2) Tap O, or tap [Edit] and then [New File]. (3) Configure the settings for the new file as described below. • Leave the [Type] setting as “Program(Normal)”. • Tap the [Folder] down arrow button and then select the name of the folder where you want to save the program file. • In the [Name] box, use the soft keyboard to input up to eight bytes for the program file name. (4) Tap [OK]. (5) Input the necessary expressions and commands. • Each mathematical expression and command must be followed either by a carriage return or colon (:). u To input the “SetDecimal” command On the menu bar, tap [Misc], [Setup(1)] and then [SetDecimal]. u To input the “Input” and “Print” commands On the menu bar, tap [I/O] and then select the command you want to input. [I/O] [Input] [Input] [I/O] [Output] [Print] u To input the variable name “A” On the soft keyboard 0 tab, tap E and then A. u To input a carriage return Tap w or press E. Inputting a carriage return causes the cursor to move to the beginning of the next line. No carriage return symbol appears on the display. u To input values and symbols On the soft keyboard 9 tab, tap the value or symbol you want. 20060301 12-2-3 Creating a New Program (6) After the program is the way you want, tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File] to save it. • To run this program see “Running a Program” on page 12-2-5. • If a message appears when you try to save the program, make the necessary corrections and try again. For details about making corrections to a program, see “12-3 Debugging a Program”. Tip • The file name you input in step (3) of the above procedure is subject to the same rules as folder names. For more information, see “Folder Name Rules” on page 1-7-5. • Tapping [Cancel] in step (3) of the above procedure returns you to the Program Editor window. • To input a program and save it without running it, perform the above procedure up to step (6), and then tap [Edit] and then [Close File]. • When you close a program containing changes since you last saved the file, a dialog box appears asking if you would like to save your changes. • If the “WARNING! Save changes?” dialog box appears, perform one of the operations described below. To do this: Tap this button: Save and close the program Yes Close the program without saving No Return to the Program Editor window without saving the program Cancel Tapping [Yes] or [No] causes the message “No File” to appear on the display. • You can use a calculation result obtained within a program in another calculation by using the S command to assign the result to a variable. Then simply include the variable name in subsequent calculations. Note that calculation results produced within programs are not stored in Ans memory. 20060301 12-2-4 Creating a New Program k Specifying the File Type Tapping O or tapping [Edit] and then [New File] on the Program Editor window displays the dialog box shown above. Tap the [Type] down arrow button and then select one of the options described below from the list of options that appears. To specify this type of file: Program file Text file User-defined function file Select this option: Program(Normal) Program(Text) Function Tip • For information about text files, see “Using Text Files” below. • For information about user-defined functions, see page 12-5-1. • Program files can be converted to text files, and vice versa. For more information, see “12-4 Managing Files”. k Using Text Files • Running a text file from the Program Loader window displays the contents of the file. • Inserting a text file name inside a program causes the contents of the text file to be displayed when execution reaches the name. Example: File Name: “CAUTION” Program that displays contents of “CAUTION” file 20060301 12-2-5 Creating a New Program Running a Program The following procedure shows how to run the sample program we input under “Creating and Saving a Program” on page 12-2-1. u ClassPad Operation (1) Display the Program Loader window. • From the Program Editor window, tap ), or tap O and then [Program Loader]. • From another application, tap m and then p. • This causes the Program Loader window to appear. (2) Tap the [Folder] down arrow button, and then select the name of the folder you want. (3) Tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the name of the file you input in step (3) of the example on page 12-2-2. (4) Tap p, or tap [Run] and then [Run Program] to run the program. (5) Input a side length of 7 and tap [OK] twice. 7 [OK] [OK] (6) Tap the Program Loader window and repeat steps (4) and (5) for sides of length 10 and 15. p10 [OK] [OK] p15 [OK] [OK] Tip • In step (4) of the above procedure, you can specify parameters before running the program. For more information, see “Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values” on page 12-2-7. • You can run a program from the Main application or the eActivity application. For more information, see “2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application.” 20060301 12-2-6 Creating a New Program Pausing Program Execution You can specify where execution of a program should pause by including either a Pause command or a Wait command inside the program. k Using the Pause Command A Pause command causes program execution to pause when it reaches that point. To resume program execution, tap the button on the right side of the status bar (which will also cause the button to disappear). Example k Using the Wait Command The syntax of the Wait command is: Wait . When program execution reaches the Wait command, it pauses for the specified number of seconds and then resumes automatically. If you do not specify a value for the number of seconds, execution remains paused until you tap the screen or press a key. Tip • To input the Pause or Wait command, tap [Ctrl] on the menu bar, tap [Control], and then select the command you want. Terminating Program Execution Pressing c while a program is running terminates the program. Tip • Pressing c does not terminate the program if program execution is already paused by the Pause command (indicated by on the status bar). In this case, tap to resume program execution, and then press c. 20060301 12-2-7 Creating a New Program Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values If you input the names of variables used in a program into the parameter variable box when inputting or editing a program on the Program Editor window, you will be able to input values for the variables on the Program Loader window when you run the program. Example Parameter variable box Indicates variables named “A” and “B” are used within the program. When running the program, inputting values for “A” and “B” calculates the total of the two values. Program Input Parameter value input box Inputting 1, 2 before running the program assigns A = 1 and B = 2. Executing the program produces the result A + B = 1 + 2 = 3. Program Loader window Tip • When running a program that includes parameter variables, be sure to correctly specify the values of the parameters. An error will occur if the number of values you input is not consistent with the number of parameter variables. 20060301 12-2-8 Creating a New Program k Local Variables A local variable is a variable that can be created temporarily and used in a program. Use the Local command to create a local variable. Syntax: Local ( indicates a space.) Example: Local abc The above creates a local variable named “abc”. Tip • Local variables are deleted automatically after execution of a program is complete. • Note that local variables are stored in their own special folder, so local variable names do not affect the names of other variables in ClassPad memory. Because of this, you do not need to worry if you assign a local variable a name that is already being used by another type of variable. • Variables that are specified as parameter variables within a program are automatically treated as local variables. Variables created with the Define command are also automatically treated as local variables. Using Subroutines Including the name of another program file inside of a program causes execution to jump to the specified program file. The program that execution jumps from is called the “main program”, while the program to which execution jumps is called a “subroutine”. When program execution returns to the main program, it resumes from the point immediately after the command that jumped to the subroutine. Tip • Note that any program can be a subroutine. The thing that makes any program a subroutine is being jumped to from another program. Main Program A Subroutines D D() C() C E I E() I() J() Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 J Level 4 Subroutines can be used in a variety of ways to help make calculations easier. Let’s say you have a formula that needs to be calculated more than once in a program, or that needs to be calculated by a number of different programs. Simply store the formula as a separate program file (subroutine), and then you can jump to the program file that contains the formula whenever you need it. 20060301 12-2-9 Creating a New Program Example 1: Jumping to a subroutine without assigning values to the subroutine’s parameter variables Main Program Input A Input B Sub1( ) ← Jumps to subroutine program “Sub1” Print C Subroutine (Program Name: “Sub1”) A+B S C Return Example 2: Jumping to a subroutine while assigning values to the subroutine’s parameter variables • In this example, the main program assigns values to parameter variable “E” in a subroutine named “Sub1”, and to parameter variables “F” and “G” in a subroutine named “Sub2”. Main Program Input A Input B Sub1(A) ← Assigns the value of main program variable “A” to the parameter variable (E) in subroutine “Sub1”, and then jumps to subroutine “Sub1”. Print C Sub2(A,B) ← Assigns the values of main program variables “A” and “B” to the parameter variables (F and G) in subroutine “Sub2”, and then jumps to subroutine “Sub2”. Print D Subroutine Program 1 (Program Name “Sub1”) E × 2 S C ← Requires input of variable name E into the parameter variable box. Return Subroutine Program 2 (Program Name “Sub2”) F + G S D ← Requires input of variable names F and G into the parameter variable box. Return Tip • The subroutine does not need to be located in the current folder. To specify a subroutine named “Sub1” that is located in a folder named “f1”, for example, you would specify “f1\Sub1( )”. 20060301 12-3-1 Debugging a Program 12-3 Debugging a Program A programming error that causes a program to behave in a manner not intended by the writer of the program is called a “bug”. Finding and eliminating such errors is called “debugging the program”. Any of the following conditions can indicate that your program has a bug and requires debugging. • If an error message appears when you try to save the program • If an error message appears when you try to run the program • When a program produces some abnormal or unexpected result Debugging After an Error Message Appears When an error occurs, a dialog box appears to explain the cause of the error. Carefully read the text of the error message and then tap its [OK] button. This closes the dialog box and positions the cursor on at the location where the error occurred. Make the necessary corrections in accordance with the explanation provided by the error message. Tip • If the cause of the error cannot be specified for some reason, tapping [OK] on the error message dialog box displays the Program Loader window, without positioning the cursor at the location of the error. • In the case of a program for which editing is prohibited (a program for which “EXE” is indicated as the variable data type), tapping [OK] on the error message dialog box displays the Program Loader window, without positioning the cursor at the location of the error. Debugging a Program Following Unexpected Results If execution of a program produces unexpected or abnormal results, carefully read through the program and correct errors as required. The following commands can come in handy when debugging a program to locate unexpected results. To do this: Move the cursor to the beginning of the program Move the cursor to the end of the program 20060301 Execute this command: Edit - Search - Jump to Top Edit - Search - Jump to Bottom 12-3-2 Debugging a Program Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One You can use the procedure described below to recall an existing program, modify it, and then run the result as a new program. This helps reduce key input requirements. The following shows how to modify the “OCTA” program we created on page 12-2-1 to handle tetrahedrons. Example: To create a program named “TETRA” that calculates the surface areas (cm2) and volumes (cm3) of three regular tetrahedrons, the lengths of whose sides are 7, 10, and 15 cm A The following formulas calculate the surface area S and volume V of a regular tetrahedron for which the length of one side A is known. S = 3 A2, V= 2 3 A 12 The following is the program required for this example. Length of One Side A ..........Input A Surface Area S ....................Print approx( (3) × A^2) Volume V ............................Print approx( (2) ÷ 12 × A^3) The following is the “OCTA” program (page 12-2-1). Length of One Side A ..........Input A Surface Area S ....................Print approx(2 × Volume V ............................Print approx( (3) × A^2) (2) ÷ 3 × A^3) A comparison of the two programs indicates that the following modifications of the “OCTA” program will produce a program that performs the calculations required by this example. • Delete “2×” (underlined with a wavy line above). • Change 3 to 12 (underlined with double lines above). u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap p. (2) Tap ~, or tap [Edit] and then [Open File]. 20060301 12-3-3 Debugging a Program (3) Select the program you want to open and edit, as described below. For this setting: Type Do this: Tap the down arrow button, and then select “Program(Normal)”. Folder Tap the down arrow button, and then select the folder that contains the program you want to edit. Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the program you want to open (OCTA). Name (4) Tap [OK]. (5) Edit expressions and commands as required. a. Change 2 × b. Change (3) × A^2 to (2)/3 × A^3 to (3) × A^2 (2)/12 × A^3 c. Delete Pause u To delete data Use the cursor key to move the cursor to the data you want to delete, and then press K. Or, highlight the data you want to delete and press K. u To input data Use the cursor key or stylus to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert data, and then use the soft keyboard or the keypad to make the changes you want. (6) Save the new program. u To retain the original program and save the new program under a different name • Tap [Edit] and then [Save As]. • Use the soft keyboard to type the name you want to assign to the new program into the [Name] box. • Tap [OK]. u To replace the original program with the new program • Tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File]. 20060301 12-3-4 Debugging a Program (7) After saving the program, tap ), or tap O and then [Program Loader] to display the Program Loader window. (8) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the name of the file you input in step (6) (TETRA). (9) Tap p, or tap [Run] and then [Run Program]. • This runs the program. (10) Input 7 for the length of side A and tap [OK] twice. 7 [OK] [OK] (11) Repeat steps (9) and (10) for sides of length 10 and 15. p10 [OK] [OK] p15 [OK] [OK] Tip • To edit a program and save it without running it, perform the above procedure up to step (7), and then tap [Edit] and then [Close File]. If the “WARNING! Save changes?” dialog box appears, perform one of the operations described below. To do this: Save and close the program Tap this button: Yes Close the program without saving No Return to the Program Editor window without saving the program Cancel Tapping [Yes] or [No] causes the message “No File” to appear on the display. 20060301 12-3-5 Debugging a Program Searching for Data Inside a Program You can search for data inside a program by specifying a keyword. Example: To search for the letter “A” within the “OCTA” program u ClassPad Operation (1) From the Program Editor window, select the program you want to search (“OCTA” in this example). (2) Tap [Edit], [Search], and then [New Search]. Or, tap to scroll the toolbar and tap e. • This displays a dialog box for inputting the search keyword. (3) Enter the data you want to find and then tap [OK]. • This causes the cursor to appear in front of the data you specified (“A” in this example). (4) Tap [Edit], [Search], and then [Search Next]. Or, tap to scroll the toolbar and tap r. • This causes the cursor to appear in front of the next instance of the data you specified (“A” in this example). (5) Repeat step (4) as many times as you want. Tip • The message “Not Found” appears if the keyword you specify does not exist in the program. • The keyword you specify for [New Search] remains in effect until you close the Program Editor window. Executing the [Search Next] command when there is no keyword specified by [New Search] causes the error message “No word is specified” to appear. 20060301 12-4-1 Managing Files 12-4 Managing Files Renaming a File Use the following procedure when you want to change the name of a file. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap 5 to display the Variable Manager. • This displays a list of folders. • You may need to tap the icon and scroll the toolbar to see the 5 icon. (2) Tap the name of the folder that contains the file you want to rename. • This displays all of the files/variables in the folder. (3) Tap the name of the file you want to rename. (4) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting a file name. (5) Enter the new file name and then tap [OK]. (6) Tap [Close] twice to close the Variable Manager. Tip • See “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. Deleting a Program The following procedure deletes a program file name, which also deletes the program. u ClassPad Operation (1) Tap 5 to display the Variable Manager. • This displays a list of folders. (2) Tap the name of the folder that contains the file you want to delete. • This displays all of the files/variables in the folder. (3) Select the check box next to the file you want to delete. • You can select one file or multiple files for deletion. (4) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete]. (5) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the selected file, or [Cancel] to cancel the operation without deleting anything. (6) Tap [Close] twice to close the Variable Manager. Tip • Be sure to close a file before you try to rename or delete it. Trying to rename or delete an open file will cause an error. • See “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”. 20060301 12-4-2 Managing Files Changing the File Type You can use the following procedures to change the file type. u To change a program file to a text file While a program file is open, tap [Edit], [Mode Change], and then ['Text]. u To change a text file to a program file While a text file is open, tap [Edit], [Mode Change], and then ['Normal]. Tip • Note that the above operations are not possible while a user-defined function is open. u To change an editable file to an edit prohibited program file (1) Open the program file you want to make edit prohibited. (2) Tap [Edit] and then [Compress]. • This displays a dialog box for inputting the backup file name. The backup file is a copy of the original (editable) file, which you can keep on hand if you have trouble changing an edit prohibited program file back to an editable file. (3) Enter the backup file name and then tap [OK]. • This saves two copies of the file. One is an edit prohibited program file under the name of the original (editable) file. The other is an editable backup file, which is created under the name you specify in step (3), above. Original File (editable): sample Specified File Name: sample2 Resulting Files: sample (non-editable) sample2 (editable) • An edit prohibited program file cannot be opened from the Program Editor window. • Edit prohibited program files are displayed in the Variable Manager as “EXE” type files. • Tapping [Cancel] instead of [OK] in step (3) quits the procedure without changing the file type. 20060301 12-5-1 User-defined Functions 12-5 User-defined Functions ClassPad lets you configure calculation operations as user-defined functions, which can then be used inside of numeric expressions just like its built-in functions. User-defined functions can also be called up in other applications. • The Program Editor window is used for creating user-defined functions. • User-defined functions are stored in ClassPad memory as “Function” type variables. Naming, storage, and folder rules are identical to those for user variables. Creating a New User-defined Function This procedure is identical to that for storing a program. • Anything you enter on the Program Editor window is stored as a user variable. Example • Function Name: f4 • Expression: x × (x + 1) × (x – 2) u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap p. (2) Tap O, or tap [Edit] and then [New File]. (3) On the screen that appears, configure the settings described below. For this setting: Type Folder Name Do this: Tap the down arrow button and then select “Function”. Tap the [Folder] down arrow button and then select the name of the folder where you want to save the user-defined function. Enter up to eight bytes for the user-defined function name. (4) After everything is the way you want, tap [OK]. (5) Input the expression you want. 20060301 12-5-2 User-defined Functions • Input user-defined function arguments as parameter variables. For more information about parameter variables, see page “Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values” on page 12-2-7. Parameter variable (6) After the function is the way you want, tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File] to save it. Tip • A user-defined function can contain only a single mathematical expression. An error “Invalid in a Function or Current Expression” occurs if a user-defined function contains multiple expressions, or is followed by a carriage return. • A user-defined function cannot contain any command. k Creating a User-defined Function Using the Define Command The procedure below describes how to create a user-defined function by executing the Define command from the Main application. Syntax: Define [ \ ] ([ [, ...]]) = • Items inside of brackets ([ ]) can be skipped. • indicates a space. u ClassPad Operation (1) On the application menu, tap J. (2) Press k, and then tap the ( (catalog) tab. (3) On the catalog (cat) keyboard that appears, tap the [Form] down arrow button, and then select [Cmd]. (4) Scroll the list of commands until the Define command is visible, and then tap Define to select it. (5) Tap [INPUT] to input the Define command. (6) Input the function you want to define. Example 1: Define folder1 \ f1(x) = 2x + 1 (where folder1 is an existing folder) Example 2: Define f2(x, y) = 2x + 3y + 1 Example 3: Define sen(x) = sin (x) (7) Tap w to store the function. 20060301 12-5-3 User-defined Functions Tip • You can include up to 99 arguments in a function. • If you do not specify a folder, the function is stored in the current folder. • A function defined using the Define command can contain only a single expression. You cannot link multiple expressions or commands using colons (:) or carriage returns. Executing a User-defined Function The following is the syntax for executing a user-defined function. ([ [, ...]]) The following shows an example of how to perform a manual calculation in the Main application. Example: The following is a function created under “Creating a New User-defined Function” on page 12-5-1. f4 (x) = x × (x + 1) × (x – 2) Tip • You can use the following steps to recall user-defined functions stored in the “library” folder using the catalog (cat) keyboard. For more information about the “library” folder, see “1-7 Variables and Folders”. 1. Press k. 2. Tap the ( (catalog) tab. 3. On the catalog (cat) keyboard, tap the [Form] down arrow button, and then select [USER]. 4. Scroll the list of functions until the function you want is visible, and then tap the function name you want. 5. Tap [INPUT]. 20060301 12-5-4 User-defined Functions Editing a User-defined Function To edit an existing user-defined function, use the same procedures as those described under “Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One” on page 12-3-2. Editing procedures are the same, regardless of whether you originally created the function using the Define command or Program Editor. Deleting a User-defined Function To delete an existing user-defined function, use the same procedure as the one described under “Deleting a Program” on page 12-4-1. The delete procedure is the same, regardless of whether you originally created the function using the Define command or Program Editor. 20060301 12-6-1 Program Command Reference 12-6 Program Command Reference Using This Reference The following table shows the conventions that are used in the descriptions of this section. If you see something like this: A boldface word, like Input It means this: The boldface word is a command. This indicates a space. Always make sure you input one space between a command and its parameters. Example: GetKey { } You need to select one of the multiple options enclosed inside the braces ({ }). When inputting the command, do not include the braces. [ ] Anything inside brackets ([ ]) is optional. You can input the item inside the brackets or omit it. When inputting the command, do not include the brackets. … The term to the left of ellipsis (…) can be input more than once or repeated. 10 10 + 20 A "AB" This is a constant. This is an arithmetic expression. This is a variable. This is a character string. You should input what is described inside the angle brackets (< >). When inputting the command, do not include the angle brackets. Tip • In addition to program commands, this section also includes descriptions of the following functions. • pxlTest( • plotTest( • strToExp( 20060301 12-6-2 Program Command Reference Program Application Commands k Program Notation (Carriage Return) Function: Performs a carriage return operation. Description In Program Editor, tap the w button to input a carriage return. • The carriage return can be used in a user program. It cannot, however, be used in a manual calculation performed in the Main application. ’ (Comment) Function: Any text following this symbol is not executed. You can use this command to include comment text in your program. Description Any line that starts with the comment symbol (’) is treated as comment text, which is skipped during program execution. : (Multi-statement Command) Function: Use this command to link a series of statements into a multi-statement (on a single line). Description The multi-statement command can be used in a user program. It cannot, however, be used in a manual calculation performed in the Main application. 20060301 12-6-3 Program Command Reference k Input GetKey Syntax: GetKey Function: This command assigns the code number of the last key pressed to the specified variable. Description • This command assigns the code number of the last key pressed to the specified variable. The following shows a list of available code numbers. Key Key Code Code 0 48 ( 40 1 49 ) 41 2 50 , 44 3 51 z 45 4 52 x 60856 5 53 y 60857 6 54 Z 60858 7 55 { 94 8 56 E 13 9 57 f 28 . 46 c 29 e 147 d 30 + 43 e 31 - 45 k * 60944 / 47 o 145 = 61 c 12 K (Back Space) • 0 is assigned to the variable if no key was pressed. 20060301 144 8 12-6-4 Program Command Reference GetPen Syntax: GetPen , Function: This command assigns the coordinates of the point tapped on the screen to a specified variable. Description This command assigns the x-coordinate (horizontal axis) to and the y-coordinate (vertical axis) to . The coordinates at the point in the upper left corner of the screen are (1, 1), and coordinate values are specified in the range of 1 to 160 for the x-coordinate and 1 to 240 for the y-coordinate. Input Syntax: Input [," "[," "]] Function: When program execution reaches the Input command, the user is prompted for input of a value, which is assigned to the specified variable. Description • If you do not specify anything for " ", the prompt “ ?” appears by default. • The text specified for " " is used as the input dialog box title. • The Input command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that contains the text string indicated by " " and an input box. A text string enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for " ". • Specifying a long text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is displayed in the dialog box. • When the dialog box appears, input a value into the input box and then tap [OK]. This closes the dialog box, assigns the input value to the applicable variable and resumes program execution. • Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution. • During execution of the Input command, program execution is paused for input of data. While a program is paused, you can input individual mathematical expressions only. You cannot input commands or multiple expressions joined by colons (:). 20060301 12-6-5 Program Command Reference InputFunc Syntax: InputFunc ( [, …]) [," "[," "]] Function: When program execution reaches the InputFunc command, the user is prompted to input the contents of the user-defined function. Example: InputFunc v(v0, t), "To define function v0(m/s), t(sec)", "define function" Description • If you do not specify anything for " ", the prompt “ ?” appears by default. • The text specified for " " is used as the input dialog box title. • The InputFunc command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that contains the text string indicated by " " and an input box. The dialog box that appears is identical to the Input command dialog box. A text string enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for " ". • Specifying a very long display text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is displayed in the dialog box. • When the dialog box appears, input an expression into the input box and then tap [OK]. This closes the dialog box, assigns the input expression to the applicable variable and resumes program execution. • Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution. InputStr Syntax: InputStr [," "[," "]] Function: When program execution reaches the InputStr command, the user is prompted for input of a string, which is assigned to a variable. Description • The InputStr command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that contains the text string indicated by " " and an input box. The dialog box that appears is identical to the Input command dialog box. A text string enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for " ". • Specifying a long display text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is displayed in the dialog box. • When the dialog box appears, input a string into the input box and then tap [OK]. This closes the dialog box, assigns the input string to the applicable variable and resumes program execution. • Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution. • The text specified for " " is used as the input dialog box title. • If you do not specify anything for " ", the prompt “ ?” appears by default. 20060301 12-6-6 Program Command Reference k Output About the Program Output window The “Program Output window” shows text displayed by program execution. The term “Program Output window” does not include dialog boxes displayed by Message and other commands. • Only one Program Output window can be stored at a time. Executing the ClrText command or using Program Loader to execute a text file clears the currently stored Program Output window. • The Program Output window can be displayed by tapping O and then [Program Output], or by tapping _ on the Program Loader window. The Program Output window also appears whenever the DispText command is executed in a program. ClrText Syntax: ClrText Function: This command clears text from the Program Output window. DispText Syntax: DispText Function: This command displays the Program Output window. Description: You can use this command to re-display the Program Output window following display of the Graph window, Table window, or other window. Example: To re-display the Program Output window after it has been cleared by a graphing operation or some other operation GraphType "y=" Define y1(x) = (x) GTSelOn 1 ViewWindow –7.7, 7.7, 1, –3.8, 3.8, 1 0 S FStart 10 S FEnd 1 S FStep ClrText ← Initializes the Program Output window. Print "y1(x) = (x)" ← Displays the graph expression on the Program Output window. Print "Tap Continue button." ← Tells user what to do to continue program execution after reading the message. Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow user to read Program Output window message. DrawGraph ← Draws the graph. DispFTable ← Displays the table. Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow for graph and table editing. Program Output window is not displayed at this time. DispText ← Re-displays the Program Output window. Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow user to read Program Output window message. 20060301 12-6-7 Program Command Reference Locate Syntax 1: Locate , , Syntax 2: Locate , , " " Function: This command displays the result of the specified expression or the specified text string at the specified coordinates on the display screen. Description • The coordinates of the point at the upper left corner of the effective area of the Locate command are (1, 1), and coordinate values can be specified in the range of 1 to 290 for the x-coordinate and 1 to 290 for the y-coordinate. Note, however, that the actual dot count of the ClassPad screen is 160 × 240. • An expression result is displayed as a single line. Message Syntax: Message " " [," "] Function: This command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box containing the text specified by " ". The text is positioned flush top left. The text specified for " " is used as the dialog box title. Description • Text strings enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or variable names can be specified for " " and " ". • Tapping [OK] closes the dialog box and resumes program execution. • Tapping [Cancel] terminates program execution. Print Syntax 1: Print Syntax 2: Print " " Function: This command displays the result of the specified expression or the specified text string. Description An expression result is displayed as a single line. When the result is a long expression, fraction, or string, it may not fit on the display. In such a case, use the PrintNatural command instead. 20060301 12-6-8 Program Command Reference PrintNatural Syntax: PrintNatural [," "] Function: This command pauses program execution and displays the result of the specified expression in natural format. Description • A text string enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for " ". • Tapping [OK] closes the dialog box and resumes program execution. Tapping [Cancel] terminates program execution. k Program Execution # Syntax: # Function: This command specifies a string variable whose string is a variable name. Example 1: When the content of variable exp1 is π and the content of variable str1 is “exp1”, sin(#str1) calculates sin(π). Example 2: To cause a folder to be created during program execution: InputStr name, "Foldername" NewFolder #name S { { } } Syntax 1: " " Syntax 2: " " S S Syntax 3:

S Function: With this command, the content of the expression on the left is evaluated, and the result is assigned to the item on the right. 20060301 12-6-9 Program Command Reference Break Syntax: Break Function: This command terminates a loop and causes execution to advance to the next command following the loop process. Description • Break terminates a loop and causes execution to advance to the next command following the loop process. • Break can be used inside of a For, Do, While, or Switch process. Define Syntax: Define [ \ ] ([ [, ...]]) = • Items inside of brackets ([ ]) can be skipped. Function: Creates a user-defined function. Description: See page 12-5-2. Do~LpWhile Syntax: Do [ ] … LpWhile is a condition that evaluates to true or false. Function: The specified statements are repeated as long as the condition is true. Description • The statements between Do~LpWhile are repeated as long as the condition is true. When the condition becomes false, execution jumps to the next command after the LpWhile command. • Since the condition comes after LpWhile, the condition is not evaluated until the end of the loop is reached. • You can use a multi-statement command (:) in place of the carriage return to separate statements. • It is always a bad idea to use the Goto command to exit a Do~LpWhile loop. Not only is it poor programming, it can cause problems due to improper termination of internal processes used by the loop operation. 20060301 12-6-10 Program Command Reference For~To~(Step~)Next Syntax: For S To [Step ] [ ] … Next is the initial value, is the end value, and is the step. Function Anything between the For command and the Next command is repeated for a count starting with the initial value of the control variable and ending when the control variable reaches the end value. Each pass causes the value of the control variable to be changed by the value specified by the step value. The loop is terminated whenever the control variable value exceeds the end value. Description • 1 is used for the step if a step value is not specified. • The initial value can be less than the end value, as long as a positive value is specified for the step. In this case, the value of the control value is increased by the step with each pass. • The initial value can be greater than the end value, as long as a negative value is specified for the step. In this case, the value of the control value is decreased by the step with each pass. • You can use a multi-statement command (:) in place of the carriage return to separate statements. • It is always a bad idea to use the Goto command to exit a For~Next loop. Not only is it poor programming, it can cause problems due to improper termination of internal processes used by the loop operation. Goto~Lbl Syntax: Goto