Casio Graphing Calculator Calculators And Translators Classpad330Plus Users Manual ClassPad 330 PLUS_Software_Eng

CLASSPAD330PLUS to the manual df552c66-4575-4408-aa4e-07dc73f78b54

CP330PLUSver310_Soft CP330PLUSver310_Soft_EN ClassPad 330 PLUS | Calculators | Manuals | CASIO

2015-01-21

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E

ClassPad 330 PLUS
ClassPad OS Version 3.10

Software
User’s Guide

CASIO Education website URL

http://edu.casio.com
ClassPad website URL

http://edu.casio.com/products/classpad/
Access the URL below and register as a user.

http://edu.casio.com/dl/

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Contents

Contents
About This User’s Guide
ClassPad Keypad and Icon Panel .....................................................................0-1-1
On-screen Keys, Menus, and Other Controllers ................................................0-1-2
Page Contents ....................................................................................................0-1-3

Chapter 1 Getting Acquainted
1-1 General Guide ....................................................................................... 1-1-1
General Guide ....................................................................................................1-1-2
Using the Stylus .................................................................................................1-1-4

1-2 Turning Power On and Off ................................................................... 1-2-1
Turning Power On .............................................................................................1-2-1
Turning Power Off .............................................................................................1-2-1
Resume Function ..............................................................................................1-2-1

1-3 Using the Icon Panel ............................................................................. 1-3-1
1-4 Built-in Applications ............................................................................ 1-4-1
Starting a Built-in Application..............................................................................1-4-2
Application Menu Operations .............................................................................1-4-2

1-5 Built-in Application Basic Operations ................................................. 1-5-1
Application Window ...........................................................................................1-5-1
Using a Dual Window Display ............................................................................1-5-1
Using the Menu Bar ............................................................................................1-5-3
Using the O Menu ..........................................................................................1-5-4
Using Check Boxes ............................................................................................1-5-6
Using Option Buttons..........................................................................................1-5-7
Using the Toolbar ...............................................................................................1-5-8
Interpreting Status Bar Information ....................................................................1-5-9
Pausing and Terminating an Operation .............................................................1-5-9

1-6 Input ....................................................................................................... 1-6-1
Using the Soft Keyboard ....................................................................................1-6-1
Input Basics .......................................................................................................1-6-3
Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations ................................................................1-6-8

1-7 Variables and Folders .......................................................................... 1-7-1
Folder Types.......................................................................................................1-7-1
Variable Types ...................................................................................................1-7-2
Creating a Folder ...............................................................................................1-7-4
Creating and Using Variables .............................................................................1-7-5
Assigning Values and Other Data to a System Variable ..................................1-7-10
Locking a Variable or Folder.............................................................................1-7-10
Rules Governing Variable Access ....................................................................1-7-11

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1-8 Using the Variable Manager ................................................................. 1-8-1
Variable Manager Overview ...............................................................................1-8-1
Starting Up the Variable Manager ......................................................................1-8-1
Variable Manager Views.....................................................................................1-8-2
Exiting the Variable Manager ............................................................................1-8-2
Variable Manager Folder Operations .................................................................1-8-3
Variable Operations ............................................................................................1-8-7

1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings ........................................... 1-9-1
Specifying a Variable ..........................................................................................1-9-2
Initializing All Application Format Settings ..........................................................1-9-3
Application Format Settings................................................................................1-9-4

Chapter 2 Using the Main Application
2-1 Main Application Overview .................................................................. 2-1-1
Starting Up the Main Application ........................................................................2-1-1
Main Application Window ...................................................................................2-1-1
Main Application Menus and Buttons .................................................................2-1-3
Using Main Application Modes ...........................................................................2-1-4
Accessing ClassPad Application Windows from the Main Application ...............2-1-5
Accessing the Main Application Window from Another ClassPad
Application ..........................................................................................................2-1-6

2-2 Basic Calculations ................................................................................ 2-2-1
Arithmetic Calculations and Parentheses Calculations ......................................2-2-1
Using the e Key ..............................................................................................2-2-2
Omitting the Multiplication Sign ..........................................................................2-2-2
Using the Answer Variable (ans) ........................................................................2-2-2
Assigning a Value to a Variable..........................................................................2-2-4
Calculation Error .................................................................................................2-2-4
Calculation Priority Sequence ............................................................................2-2-5
Calculation Modes ..............................................................................................2-2-6

2-3 Using the Calculation History .............................................................. 2-3-1
Viewing Calculation History Contents.................................................................2-3-1
Re-calculating an Expression .............................................................................2-3-2
Deleting Part of the Calculation History Contents ..............................................2-3-4
Clearing All Calculation History Contents ...........................................................2-3-4

2-4 Function Calculations........................................................................... 2-4-1
2-5 List Calculations ................................................................................... 2-5-1
Inputting List Data...............................................................................................2-5-1
Using a List in a Calculation ...............................................................................2-5-3
Using a List to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables .............................2-5-4

2-6 Matrix and Vector Calculations ............................................................ 2-6-1
Inputting Matrix Data ..........................................................................................2-6-1
Performing Matrix Calculations...........................................................................2-6-4
Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables .........................2-6-6

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2-7 Specifying a Number Base ................................................................... 2-7-1
Number Base Precautions..................................................................................2-7-1
Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculation Ranges ..........................2-7-1
Selecting a Number Base ...................................................................................2-7-3
Arithmetic Operations .........................................................................................2-7-4
Bitwise Operations..............................................................................................2-7-5
Using the baseConvert Function (Number System Transform) ..........................2-7-5

2-8 Using the Action Menu ......................................................................... 2-8-1
Abbreviations and Punctuation Used in This Section .........................................2-8-1
Example Screenshots.........................................................................................2-8-2
Displaying the Action Menu ................................................................................2-8-3
Using the Transformation Submenu ...................................................................2-8-3
Using the Advanced Submenu ...........................................................................2-8-8
Using the Calculation Submenu .......................................................................2-8-12
Using the Complex Submenu ...........................................................................2-8-19
Using the List-Create Submenu .......................................................................2-8-21
Using the List-Calculation Submenu ................................................................2-8-24
Using the Matrix-Create Submenu ...................................................................2-8-31
Using the Matrix-Calculation Submenu ............................................................2-8-33
Using the Vector Submenu...............................................................................2-8-38
Using the Equation/Inequality Submenu .........................................................2-8-42
Using the Assistant Submenu ..........................................................................2-8-47
Using the Distribution and Inv. Distribution Submenus ....................................2-8-48
Using the Financial Submenu...........................................................................2-8-57
Using the Command Submenu ........................................................................2-8-64

2-9 Using the Interactive Menu ................................................................. 2-9-1
Interactive Menu and Action Menu .....................................................................2-9-1
Interactive Menu Example ..................................................................................2-9-1
Using the “apply” Command ...............................................................................2-9-4

2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other
Applications ........................................................................................ 2-10-1
Opening Another Application’s Window ...........................................................2-10-1
Closing Another Application’s Window .............................................................2-10-2
Using the Graph Window $ and 3D Graph Window % ..............................2-10-2
Using a Graph Editor Window (Graph & Table: !, Conics: *,
3D Graph: @, Numeric Solver: 1) ...............................................................2-10-4
Using the Stat Editor Window ( ...................................................................2-10-5
Using the Geometry Window 3 ....................................................................2-10-9
Using the Sequence Editor Window & ........................................................2-10-11

2-11 Using Verify ......................................................................................... 2-11-1
Starting Up Verify .............................................................................................2-11-1
Verify Menus and Buttons ................................................................................2-11-2
Using Verify ......................................................................................................2-11-3

2-12 Using Probability ................................................................................ 2-12-1
Starting Up Probability ......................................................................................2-12-2
Probability Menus and Buttons .........................................................................2-12-2
Using Probability...............................................................................................2-12-4

2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application .................................... 2-13-1
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Chapter 3 Using the Graph & Table Application
3-1 Graph & Table Application Overview................................................... 3-1-1
Starting Up the Graph & Table Application.........................................................3-1-1
Graph & Table Application Window ....................................................................3-1-1
Graph & Table Application Menus and Buttons..................................................3-1-2
Graph & Table Application Status Bar ................................................................3-1-7
Graph & Table Application Basic Operations .....................................................3-1-7

3-2 Using the Graph Window ...................................................................... 3-2-1
Configuring View Window Parameters for the Graph Window ...........................3-2-1
Viewing Graph Window Coordinates ..................................................................3-2-5
Scrolling the Graph Window ...............................................................................3-2-6
Panning the Graph Window................................................................................3-2-6
Zooming the Graph Window ...............................................................................3-2-7
Other Graph Window Operations .....................................................................3-2-10

3-3 Storing Functions ................................................................................. 3-3-1
Using Graph Editor Sheets .................................................................................3-3-1
Specifying the Function Type .............................................................................3-3-2
Storing a Function ..............................................................................................3-3-3
Using Built-in Functions ......................................................................................3-3-5
Saving the Message Box Expression to the Graph Editor Window ....................3-3-5
Editing Stored Functions ....................................................................................3-3-6
Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions ...............................................................3-3-7
Graphing a Stored Function ...............................................................................3-3-7
Saving Graph Editor Data to Graph Memory....................................................3-3-14

3-4 Using Table & Graph ............................................................................. 3-4-1
Generating a Number Table ...............................................................................3-4-1
Editing Number Table Values .............................................................................3-4-4
Deleting, Inserting, and Adding Number Table Lines .........................................3-4-5
Regenerating a Number Table ...........................................................................3-4-6
Generating a Number Table and Using It to Draw a Graph ...............................3-4-7
Saving a Number Table to a List ........................................................................3-4-8
Generating a Summary Table ............................................................................3-4-9
Making the Graph Editor Window the Active Window ......................................3-4-15

3-5 Modifying a Graph................................................................................. 3-5-1
Modifying a Single Graph by Changing the Value of a Coefficient
(Direct Modify) ....................................................................................................3-5-1
Simultaneously Modifying Multiple Graphs by Changing Common Variables
(Dynamic Modify)................................................................................................3-5-4

3-6 Using the Sketch Menu......................................................................... 3-6-1
Sketch Menu Overview.......................................................................................3-6-1
Using Sketch Menu Commands .........................................................................3-6-1

3-7 Using Trace ............................................................................................ 3-7-1
Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ...........................................................3-7-1
Linking Trace to a Number Table .......................................................................3-7-3
Generating Number Table Values from a Graph ................................................3-7-4

3-8 Analyzing a Function Used to Draw a Graph ..................................... 3-8-1
G-Solve Menu Overview.....................................................................................3-8-1
Using G-Solve Menu Commands .......................................................................3-8-2
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Chapter 4 Using the Conics Application
4-1 Conics Application Overview............................................................... 4-1-1
Starting Up the Conics Application .....................................................................4-1-1
Conics Application Window ................................................................................4-1-1
Conics Application Menus and Buttons ..............................................................4-1-2
Conics Application Status Bar ............................................................................4-1-4

4-2 Inputting Equations ............................................................................. 4-2-1
Using a Conics Form to Input an Equation .........................................................4-2-1
Inputting an Equation Manually ..........................................................................4-2-3
Transforming a Manually Input Equation to a Conics Form ...............................4-2-3

4-3 Drawing a Conics Graph ...................................................................... 4-3-1
Drawing a Parabola ............................................................................................4-3-1
Drawing a Circle .................................................................................................4-3-4
Drawing an Ellipse ..............................................................................................4-3-5
Drawing a Hyperbola ..........................................................................................4-3-6
Drawing a General Conics..................................................................................4-3-8

4-4 Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ............................................ 4-4-1
Using Trace ........................................................................................................4-4-1

4-5 Using G-Solve to Analyze a Conics Graph ......................................... 4-5-1
Displaying the G-Solve Menu .............................................................................4-5-1
Using G-Solve Menu Commands .......................................................................4-5-2

Chapter 5 Using the 3D Graph Application
5-1 3D Graph Application Overview .......................................................... 5-1-1
Starting Up the 3D Graph Application ................................................................5-1-1
3D Graph Application Window............................................................................5-1-1
3D Graph Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................5-1-2
3D Graph Application Status Bar........................................................................5-1-4

5-2 Inputting an Expression ....................................................................... 5-2-1
Using 3D Graph Editor Sheets ...........................................................................5-2-1
Storing a Function ..............................................................................................5-2-2

5-3 Drawing a 3D Graph .............................................................................. 5-3-1
Configuring 3D Graph View Window Parameters ..............................................5-3-1
3D Graph Example .............................................................................................5-3-3

5-4 Manipulating a Graph on the 3D Graph Window ................................ 5-4-1
Enlarging and Reducing the Size of a Graph .....................................................5-4-1
Switching the Eye Position .................................................................................5-4-1
Rotating the Graph Manually ..............................................................................5-4-2
Rotating a Graph Automatically ..........................................................................5-4-3
Initializing the Graph Window .............................................................................5-4-3

5-5 Other 3D Graph Application Functions............................................... 5-5-1
Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates ...........................................................5-5-1
Inserting Text into a 3D Graph Window..............................................................5-5-1
Calculating a z-value for Particular x- and y-values, or s- and t-values ..............5-5-2
Using Drag and Drop to Down a 3D Graph ........................................................5-5-3

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Chapter 6 Using the Sequence Application
6-1 Sequence Application Overview.......................................................... 6-1-1
Starting up the Sequence Application ................................................................6-1-1
Sequence Application Window ...........................................................................6-1-1
Sequence Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................6-1-2
Sequence Application Status Bar .......................................................................6-1-6

6-2 Inputting an Expression in the Sequence Application ...................... 6-2-1
Inputting Data on the Sequence Editor Window .................................................6-2-1
Inputting Data on the Sequence RUN Window ..................................................6-2-1

6-3 Recursive and Explicit Form of a Sequence ...................................... 6-3-1
Generating a Number Table ...............................................................................6-3-1
Graphing a Recursion.........................................................................................6-3-3
Determining the General Term of a Recursion Expression ................................6-3-5
Calculating the Sum of a Sequence ...................................................................6-3-6

6-4 Using LinkTrace .................................................................................... 6-4-1
6-5 Drawing a Cobweb Diagram................................................................. 6-5-1

Chapter 7 Using the Statistics Application
7-1 Statistics Application Overview........................................................... 7-1-1
Starting Up the Statistics Application..................................................................7-1-2
Stat Editor Window Menus and Buttons .............................................................7-1-3
Stat Editor Window Status Bar ...........................................................................7-1-4

7-2 Using Stat Editor ................................................................................... 7-2-1
Basic List Operations..........................................................................................7-2-1
Inputting Data into a List .....................................................................................7-2-4
Editing List Contents...........................................................................................7-2-7
Sorting List Data .................................................................................................7-2-8
Controlling the Number of Displayed List Columns ............................................7-2-9
Clearing All Stat Editor Data ...............................................................................7-2-9

7-3 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph ........................................... 7-3-1
Using the SetGraph Menu ..................................................................................7-3-1
Configuring StatGraph Setups............................................................................7-3-2

7-4 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data........................................... 7-4-1
Normal Probability Plot (NPPlot) ........................................................................7-4-1
Histogram Bar Graph (Histogram) ......................................................................7-4-2
Med-Box Plot (MedBox) .....................................................................................7-4-2
Normal Distribution Curve (NDist) ......................................................................7-4-3
Broken Line Graph (Broken)...............................................................................7-4-4

7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data........................................... 7-5-1
Drawing a Scatter Plot and xy Line Graph .........................................................7-5-1
Drawing a Regression Graph (Curve Fitting) .....................................................7-5-2
Graphing Previously Calculated Regression Results .........................................7-5-4
Drawing a Linear Regression Graph ..................................................................7-5-5
Drawing a Med-Med Graph ................................................................................7-5-6
Drawing Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Regression Graphs ..............................7-5-7
Drawing a Logarithmic Regression Graph..........................................................7-5-9
Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·eb · x) ...................................7-5-10
Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·bx)......................................7-5-11
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Drawing a Power Regression Graph ( y = a·xb) ................................................7-5-12
Drawing a Sinusoidal Regression Graph ( y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d) .....................7-5-13
c
Drawing a Logistic Regression Graph (y = 1 + a·e–b·x) ........................................7-5-14
Overlaying a Function Graph on a Statistical Graph ........................................7-5-15

7-6 Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar ...................................... 7-6-1
7-7 Performing Statistical Calculations ..................................................... 7-7-1
Viewing Single-variable Statistical Calculation Results ......................................7-7-1
Viewing Paired-variable Statistical Calculation Results ......................................7-7-4
Viewing Regression Calculation Results ............................................................7-7-5
Residual Calculation ...........................................................................................7-7-5
Copying a Regression Formula to the Graph & Table Application .....................7-7-6

7-8 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations .................. 7-8-1
Statistics Application Calculations ......................................................................7-8-1
Program Application Calculations.......................................................................7-8-1

7-9 Tests ....................................................................................................... 7-9-1
Test Command List ............................................................................................7-9-2

7-10 Confidence Intervals ........................................................................... 7-10-1
Confidence Interval Command List ..................................................................7-10-2

7-11 Distributions ........................................................................................ 7-11-1
Distribution Command List ...............................................................................7-11-3

7-12 Statistical System Variables ............................................................... 7-12-1

Chapter 8 Using the Geometry Application
8-1 Geometry Application Overview .......................................................... 8-1-1
Starting Up the Geometry Application ................................................................8-1-3
Geometry Application Menus and Buttons .........................................................8-1-3

8-2 Drawing Figures .................................................................................... 8-2-1
Using the Draw Menu .........................................................................................8-2-1
Inserting Text Strings into the Screen ..............................................................8-2-18
Attaching an Angle Measurement to a Figure ..................................................8-2-19
Displaying the Measurements of a Figure ........................................................8-2-22
Displaying the Result of a Calculation that Uses On-screen Measurement
Values...............................................................................................................8-2-25
Using the Special Shape Submenu ..................................................................8-2-27
Using the Construct Submenu..........................................................................8-2-30
Transformation Using a Matrix or Vector (General Transform) ........................8-2-37

8-3 Editing Figures ...................................................................................... 8-3-1
Selecting and Deselecting Figures .....................................................................8-3-1
Moving and Copying Figures ..............................................................................8-3-3
Pinning an Annotation on the Geometry Window ...............................................8-3-4
Specifying the Number Format of a Measurement .............................................8-3-5
Using the Measurement Box ..............................................................................8-3-6

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8-4 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance ....................................... 8-4-1
Configuring View Window Settings.....................................................................8-4-1
Selecting the Axis Setting ...................................................................................8-4-2
Toggling Integer Grid Display On and Off ..........................................................8-4-3
Zooming..............................................................................................................8-4-3
Using Pan to Shift the Display Image .................................................................8-4-6

8-5 Working with Animations ..................................................................... 8-5-1
Using Animation Commands ..............................................................................8-5-1

8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications ................ 8-6-1
Drag and Drop ....................................................................................................8-6-1
Copy and Paste ..................................................................................................8-6-5
Dynamically Linked Data ....................................................................................8-6-5

8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files ................................................ 8-7-1
File Operations ...................................................................................................8-7-1
Folder Operations ...............................................................................................8-7-4

Chapter 9 Using the Numeric Solver Application
9-1 Numeric Solver Application Overview ................................................ 9-1-1
Starting Up the Numeric Solver Application .......................................................9-1-1
Numeric Solver Application Window...................................................................9-1-1
Numeric Solver Menus and Buttons ...................................................................9-1-1

9-2 Using Numeric Solver ........................................................................... 9-2-1

Chapter 10 Using the eActivity Application
10-1 eActivity Application Overview.......................................................... 10-1-1
Starting Up the eActivity Application.................................................................10-1-1
eActivity Application Window ...........................................................................10-1-1
eActivity Application Menus and Buttons..........................................................10-1-2
eActivity Application Status Bar ........................................................................10-1-4
eActivity Key Operations ..................................................................................10-1-4

10-2 Creating an eActivity .......................................................................... 10-2-1
Basic Steps for Creating an eActivity ...............................................................10-2-1
Managing eActivity Files ...................................................................................10-2-3

10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity ......................................................... 10-3-1
Inserting a Text Row.........................................................................................10-3-1
Inserting a Calculation Row ..............................................................................10-3-3
Inserting an Application Data Strip ...................................................................10-3-5
Strip Help Text ................................................................................................10-3-14
Moving Information Between eActivity and Applications ................................10-3-15
Inserting a Geometry Link Row ......................................................................10-3-17

10-4 Working with eActivity Files............................................................... 10-4-1
Opening an Existing eActivity ...........................................................................10-4-1
Browsing the Contents of an eActivity ..............................................................10-4-2
Editing the Contents of an eActivity ..................................................................10-4-2
Expanding an Application Data Strip ................................................................10-4-2
Modifying the Data in an Application Data Strip ...............................................10-4-3
Saving an Edited eActivity ................................................................................10-4-3
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10-5 Transferring eActivity Files ................................................................ 10-5-1
Transferring eActivity Files between Two ClassPad Units ...............................10-5-1
Transferring eActivity Files between a ClassPad Unit and a Computer ...........10-5-2

Chapter 11 Using the Presentation Application
11-1 Presentation Application Overview ................................................... 11-1-1
Starting Up the Presentation Application ..........................................................11-1-2
Presentation Application Window .....................................................................11-1-2
Presentation Application Menus and Buttons ...................................................11-1-3
Screen Capture Precautions ............................................................................11-1-4

11-2 Building a Presentation ...................................................................... 11-2-1
Adding a Blank Page to a Presentation ............................................................11-2-2

11-3 Managing Presentation Files ............................................................. 11-3-1
11-4 Playing a Presentation........................................................................ 11-4-1
Using Auto Play ................................................................................................11-4-1
Using Manual Play............................................................................................11-4-2
Using Repeat Play ............................................................................................11-4-3

11-5 Editing Presentation Pages................................................................ 11-5-1
About the Editing Tool Palette ..........................................................................11-5-1
Entering the Editing Mode ................................................................................11-5-1
Editing Operations ............................................................................................11-5-3
Using the Eraser ...............................................................................................11-5-7

11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences ............................................. 11-6-1
11-7 Presentation File Transfer .................................................................. 11-7-1

Chapter 12 Using the Program Application
12-1 Program Application Overview .......................................................... 12-1-1
Starting Up the Program Application ................................................................12-1-1
Program Loader Window ..................................................................................12-1-1
Program Editor Window....................................................................................12-1-3

12-2 Creating a New Program .................................................................... 12-2-1
General Programming Steps ............................................................................12-2-1
Creating and Saving a Program .......................................................................12-2-1
Running a Program ..........................................................................................12-2-5
Pausing Program Execution .............................................................................12-2-6
Terminating Program Execution .......................................................................12-2-6
Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values ..........................12-2-7
Using Subroutines ............................................................................................12-2-8

12-3 Debugging a Program ......................................................................... 12-3-1
Debugging After an Error Message Appears....................................................12-3-1
Debugging a Program Following Unexpected Results .....................................12-3-1
Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One ......................................12-3-2
Searching for Data Inside a Program ...............................................................12-3-5

12-4 Managing Files .................................................................................... 12-4-1
Renaming a File ...............................................................................................12-4-1
Deleting a Program...........................................................................................12-4-1
Changing the File Type ....................................................................................12-4-2
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12-5 User-defined Functions ...................................................................... 12-5-1
Creating a New User-defined Function ............................................................12-5-1
Executing a User-defined Function ..................................................................12-5-3
Editing a User-defined Function .......................................................................12-5-4
Deleting a User-defined Function .....................................................................12-5-4

12-6 Program Command Reference .......................................................... 12-6-1
Using This Reference .......................................................................................12-6-1
Program Application Commands ......................................................................12-6-2
Application Command List ..............................................................................12-6-15

12-7 Including ClassPad Functions in Programs ..................................... 12-7-1
Including Graphing Functions in a Program ....................................................12-7-1
Using Conics Functions in a Program ..............................................................12-7-1
Including 3D Graphing Functions in a Program................................................12-7-2
Including Table & Graph Functions in a Program.............................................12-7-2
Including Recursion Table and Recursion Graph Functions in a Program .......12-7-3
Including List Sort Functions in a Program .......................................................12-7-3
Including Statistical Graphing and Calculation Functions in a Program ...........12-7-4

Chapter 13 Using the Spreadsheet Application
13-1 Spreadsheet Application Overview ................................................... 13-1-1
Starting Up the Spreadsheet Application..........................................................13-1-1
Spreadsheet Window .......................................................................................13-1-1

13-2 Spreadsheet Application Menus and Buttons.................................. 13-2-1
13-3 Basic Spreadsheet Window Operations ........................................... 13-3-1
About the Cell Cursor .......................................................................................13-3-1
Controlling Cell Cursor Movement....................................................................13-3-1
Navigating Around the Spreadsheet Window ...................................................13-3-2
Hiding or Displaying the Scrollbars...................................................................13-3-4
Selecting Cells ..................................................................................................13-3-5
Using the Cell Viewer Window .........................................................................13-3-6

13-4 Editing Cell Contents .......................................................................... 13-4-1
Edit Mode Screen .............................................................................................13-4-1
Entering the Edit Mode .....................................................................................13-4-2
Basic Data Input Steps .....................................................................................13-4-3
Inputting a Formula...........................................................................................13-4-4
Inputting a Cell Reference ................................................................................13-4-6
Inputting a Constant .........................................................................................13-4-8
Using the Fill Sequence Command ..................................................................13-4-9
Cut and Copy..................................................................................................13-4-11
Paste ..............................................................................................................13-4-11
Specifying Text or Calculation as the Data Type for a Particular Cell ............13-4-13
Using Drag and Drop to Copy Cell Data within a Spreadsheet ......................13-4-14
Using Drag and Drop to Obtain Spreadsheet Graph Data .............................13-4-16
Recalculating Spreadsheet Expressions ........................................................13-4-17
Importing and Exporting Variable Values .......................................................13-4-21
Searching for Data in a Spreadsheet .............................................................13-4-26
Sorting Spreadsheet Data ..............................................................................13-4-29

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13-5 Using the Spreadsheet Application with the eActivity
Application........................................................................................... 13-5-1
Drag and Drop ..................................................................................................13-5-1

13-6 Statistical Calculations ....................................................................... 13-6-1
13-7 Cell and List Calculations .................................................................. 13-7-1
Spreadsheet [List-Calculation] Submenu Basics..............................................13-7-1
Cell Calculation and List Calculation Functions................................................13-7-4

13-8 Formatting Cells and Data.................................................................. 13-8-1
Standard (Fractional) and Decimal (Approximate) Modes ...............................13-8-1
Plain Text and Bold Text ..................................................................................13-8-1
Text and Calculation Data Types .....................................................................13-8-1
Text Alignment..................................................................................................13-8-2
Number Format ................................................................................................13-8-2
Changing the Width of a Column......................................................................13-8-3

13-9 Graphing .............................................................................................. 13-9-1
Graph Menu......................................................................................................13-9-1
Graph Window Menus and Toolbar ................................................................13-9-11
Basic Graphing Steps .....................................................................................13-9-13
Regression Graph Operations (Curve Fitting) ................................................13-9-15
Other Graph Window Operations ...................................................................13-9-16

Chapter 14 Using the Differential Equation Graph Application
14-1 Differential Equation Graph Application Overview .......................... 14-1-1
Differential Equation Graph Application Features ............................................14-1-1
Starting Up the Differential Equation Graph Application...................................14-1-2
Differential Equation Graph Application Window ..............................................14-1-2
Differential Equation Editor Window Menus and Buttons .................................14-1-4
Differential Equation Graph Window Menus and Buttons ................................14-1-6
Differential Equation Graph Application Status Bar ..........................................14-1-8

14-2 Graphing a First Order Differential Equation.................................... 14-2-1
Inputting a First Order Differential Equation and Drawing a Slope Field ..........14-2-1
Inputting Initial Conditions and Graphing the Solution Curves of a
First Order Differential Equation .......................................................................14-2-3
Configuring Solution Curve Graph Settings......................................................14-2-4

14-3 Graphing a Second Order Differential Equation .............................. 14-3-1
Drawing the Phase Plane of a Second Order Differential Equation .................14-3-1
Inputting Initial Conditions and Graphing the Solution Curve of a
Second Order Differential Equation ..................................................................14-3-2

14-4 Graphing an Nth-order Differential Equation ................................... 14-4-1
Inputting an Nth-order Differential Equation and Initial Conditions, and then
Graphing the Solutions .....................................................................................14-4-1

14-5 Drawing f(x) Type Function Graphs and Parametric Function
Graphs.................................................................................................. 14-5-1
Drawing an f (x) Type Function Graph ..............................................................14-5-1
Drawing a Parametric Function Graph .............................................................14-5-2

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14-6 Configuring Differential Equation Graph View Window
Parameters ........................................................................................... 14-6-1
Configuring Differential Equation Graph View Window Settings ......................14-6-1
Differential Equation Graph View Window Parameters ....................................14-6-2

14-7 Differential Equation Graph Window Operations ............................. 14-7-1
Graph Zooming and Scrolling ...........................................................................14-7-1
Configuring and Modifying Initial Conditions ....................................................14-7-1
Using Trace to Read Graph Coordinates .........................................................14-7-5
Graphing an Expression or Value by Dropping it into the Differential
Equation Graph Window...................................................................................14-7-6

Chapter 15 Using the Financial Application
15-1 Financial Application Overview ......................................................... 15-1-1
Starting Up the Financial Application................................................................15-1-1
Financial Application Menus and Buttons.........................................................15-1-2
Configuring Default Financial Application Settings ...........................................15-1-4
Financial Application Pages .............................................................................15-1-5
Financial Calculation Screen Basics ................................................................15-1-6
Variables...........................................................................................................15-1-7

15-2 Simple Interest .................................................................................... 15-2-1
Simple Interest Fields .......................................................................................15-2-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-2-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-2-2

15-3 Compound Interest ............................................................................. 15-3-1
Compound Interest Fields ................................................................................15-3-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-3-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-3-3

15-4 Cash Flow ............................................................................................ 15-4-1
Cash Flow Fields ..............................................................................................15-4-1
Inputting Cash Flow Values ..............................................................................15-4-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-4-4

15-5 Amortization ........................................................................................ 15-5-1
Amortization Fields ...........................................................................................15-5-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-5-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-5-4

15-6 Interest Conversion............................................................................. 15-6-1
Interest Conversion Fields ................................................................................15-6-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-6-2

15-7 Cost /Sell/Margin.................................................................................. 15-7-1
Cost/Sell/Margin Fields ....................................................................................15-7-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-7-1

15-8 Day Count ............................................................................................ 15-8-1
Day Count Fields ..............................................................................................15-8-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ............................................15-8-1

15-9 Depreciation ........................................................................................ 15-9-1
Depreciation Fields ...........................................................................................15-9-1
Calculation Formulas ........................................................................................15-9-3
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15-10 Bond Calculation............................................................................... 15-10-1
Bond Calculation Fields ..................................................................................15-10-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ..........................................15-10-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-10-4

15-11 Break-Even Point .............................................................................. 15-11-1
Break-Even Point Fields .................................................................................15-11-1
Financial Application Default Setup for Examples ..........................................15-11-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-11-3

15-12 Margin of Safety ................................................................................ 15-12-1
Margin of Safety Fields ...................................................................................15-12-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-12-1

15-13 Operating Leverage .......................................................................... 15-13-1
Operating Leverage Fields .............................................................................15-13-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-13-1

15-14 Financial Leverage ............................................................................ 15-14-1
Financial Leverage Fields...............................................................................15-14-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-14-1

15-15 Combined Leverage .......................................................................... 15-15-1
Combined Leverage Fields.............................................................................15-15-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-15-1

15-16 Quantity Conversion ......................................................................... 15-16-1
Quantity Conversion Fields ............................................................................15-16-1
Calculation Formulas ......................................................................................15-16-2

15-17 Performing Financial Calculations Using Commands................... 15-17-1
Financial Application Setup Commands .........................................................15-17-1
Financial Calculation Commands ...................................................................15-17-1

Chapter 16 Configuring System Settings
16-1 System Setting Overview ................................................................... 16-1-1
Starting Up the System Application ..................................................................16-1-1
System Application Window .............................................................................16-1-1
System Application Menus and Buttons ...........................................................16-1-2

16-2 Managing Memory Usage ................................................................... 16-2-1
Memory Usage Sheets .....................................................................................16-2-1
Deleting Memory Usage Data ..........................................................................16-2-3

16-3
16-4
16-5
16-6
16-7
16-8
16-9
16-10
16-11

Using the Reset Dialog Box ............................................................... 16-3-1
Initializing Your ClassPad ................................................................... 16-4-1
Specifying the Display Language ...................................................... 16-5-1
Specifying the Font Set ...................................................................... 16-6-1
Specifying the Alphabetic Keyboard Arrangement ......................... 16-7-1
Viewing Version Information .............................................................. 16-8-1
Registering a User Name on a ClassPad .......................................... 16-9-1
Specifying the Complex Number Imaginary Unit ........................... 16-10-1
Assigning Shift Mode Key Operations to Hard Keys ..................... 16-11-1

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Contents

Appendix
1
2
3
4
5

Character Code Table............................................................................ α-1-1
System Variable Table ........................................................................... α-2-1
Command and Function Index............................................................. α-3-1
Graph Types and Executable Functions ............................................. α-4-1
Error Message Table ............................................................................. α-5-1

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0-1-1
About This User’s Guide

About This User’s Guide
This section explains the symbols that are used in this user’s guide to represent keys, stylus
operations, display elements, and other items you encounter while operating your ClassPad.

ClassPad Keypad and Icon Panel
2 Icon panel
smMrSh

3 Cursor key
Keyboard

ON/OFF
Clear

=
1 Keypad

(
)

,
(–)

x

y

z

7
4
1
0

8
5
2
.

^
9
6
3
EXP

÷

+
EXE

1 Keypad
ClassPad keypad keys are represented by illustrations that look like the keys you need to
press.
Example 1: Key within text
Press the k to show the soft keyboard.
Example 2: A series of key operations
c2+3-4+10E
When you see something like the above, simply press the keys in the indicated sequence,
from left to right.
2 Icon panel
An operation that requires tapping an icon on the icon panel is indicated by an illustration of
the icon.
Example 1: Tap m to display the application menu.
Example 2: Tap

to cancel an ongoing operation.

3 Cursor key
Operation of the cursor key is represented by arrow buttons that indicate which part of the
cursor key you need to press: f, c, d, e.
Example 1: Use d or e to move the cursor around the display.
Example 2: dddd
The above example means that you should press d four times.
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About This User’s Guide

On-screen Keys, Menus, and Other Controllers
4 Menu bar
5 Toolbar

Tabs

6 Soft keyboard

4 Menu bar
Menu names and commands are indicated in text by enclosing them inside of brackets.
The following examples show typical menu operations.
Example 1: Tap the O menu and then tap [Keyboard].

Example 2: Tap [Analysis], [Sketch], and then [Line].

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About This User’s Guide

5 Toolbar
Toolbar button operations are indicated by illustrations that look like the button you need to
tap.
Example 1: Tap $ to graph the functions.
Example 2: Tap ( to open the Stat Editor window.
6 Soft keyboard
Key operations on the soft keyboards that appear when you press the k key are
indicated by illustrations that look like the keyboard keys.
You can change from one keyboard type to another by tapping one of the tabs along the top
of the soft keyboard.
Example 1: baa/gw
Example 2: ) Ngce*fw

Important!
• If a procedure in this User’s Guide requires use of a soft keyboard, press the k key to
display the soft keyboard. The k key operation is not included as one of the procedure
steps. For more details about how to input data on the ClassPad, see “1-6 Input”.

Page Contents
Three-part page numbers are centered at the top of each
page. The page number “1-4-2”, for example, indicates
Chapter 1, Section 4, page 2.

Note
Display examples shown in this User’s Guide are intended for illustrative purposes only.
The text, values, menus and buttons shown in the screen shots, and other details shown
in this User’s Guide may be slightly different from what actually appears on your ClassPad
screen.

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Chapter

Getting Acquainted
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9

General Guide
Turning Power On and Off
Using the Icon Panel
Built-in Applications
Built-in Application Basic Operations
Input
Variables and Folders
Using the Variable Manager
Configuring Application Format Settings

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1

1-1-1
General Guide

1-1 General Guide
Front

Side

1

@
2

3
s m M r S h

6
7
8

Keyboard

Clear

=
(

9

)

,
(–)

Back

ON/OFF

x
7
4
1
0

y

z
8
5
2
.

÷

^
9

쎹

6
3

−
+

EXP

EXE

4
5

0

#
$

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!

1-1-2
General Guide

General Guide
The numbers next to each of the items below correspond to the numbers in the illustration on
page 1-1-1.

Front
1 Touch screen
The touch screen shows calculation formulas, calculation results, graphs and other
information. The stylus that comes with the ClassPad can be used to input data and perform
other operations by tapping directly on the touch screen.
2 Stylus
This stylus is specially designed for performing touch screen operations. The stylus slips
into a holder on the right side of the ClassPad for storage when it is not in use. For more
information, see “Using the Stylus” on page 1-1-4.
3 Icon panel
Tapping an icon executes the function assigned to it. See “1-3 Using the Icon Panel” for
details.
4 o key
Press this key to toggle ClassPad power on and off. See “1-2 Turning Power On and Off” for
details.
5 c key
• Pressing this key while inputting data clears all of the data you have input up to that point.
For details, see “Input Basics” on page 1-6-3.
• Pressing the c key while a calculation operation is in progress interrupts the
calculation. For details, see “Pausing and Terminating an Operation” on page 1-5-9.
6 Cursor key (fcde)
Use the cursor key to move the text cursor, selection highlighting, and other selection tools
around the display.
7 k key
Press this key to toggle display of the soft keyboard on and off. For details, see “Using the
Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1.
8 K key
• Pressing this key while inputting numeric, expression, or text data deletes one character to
the left of the current cursor position. For details, see “Input Basics” on page 1-6-3.
• Pressing the K key while a calculation operation is in progress pauses the calculation.
For details, see “Pausing and Terminating an Operation” on page 1-5-9.

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General Guide

9 Keypad
Use these keys to input the values and operators marked on them. See “1-6 Input” for
details.
0 E key
Press this key to execute a calculation operation or enter a return.

Side
! 3-pin data communication port
Connect the data communication cable here to communicate with another ClassPad unit or
a CASIO Data Analyzer. See “Chapter 2 – Performing Data Communication” in the separate
Hardware User’s Guide for details.
@ 4-pin mini USB port
Connect the data communication cable here to exchange data with a computer. You can
connect to a CASIO projector and project ClassPad screen contents. See “Chapter 2 –
Performing Data Communication” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide for details.

Back
# Battery compartment
Holds the four AAA-size batteries, or four nickel-metal hydride batteries that power the
ClassPad. For details, see “Power Supply” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide.
$ RESTART button
Press this button to reset the ClassPad. For details, see “Performing the RAM Reset
Operation” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide.

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General Guide

Using the Stylus
Most value and formula input, command executions, and other operations can be performed
using the stylus.

k Things you can do with the stylus

Tap

Drag

• This is equivalent to clicking with a mouse.
• To perform a tap operation, tap lightly with the
stylus on the ClassPad’s touch screen.
• Tapping is used to display a menu, execute an
on-screen button operation, make a window
active, etc.

• This is equivalent to dragging with a mouse.
• To perform a drag operation, hold the tip of the
stylus on the touch screen as you move the
stylus to another location.
• Dragging is used to change the setting of a
slider or some other on-screen controller, to
move a formula, etc.

Important!
• Be sure that you do not misplace or lose the stylus. Keep the stylus in the holder on the
right side of the ClassPad whenever you are not using it.
• Do not allow the tip of the stylus to become damaged. Using a stylus with a damaged tip to
perform touch screen operations can damage the touch screen.
• Use only the stylus that comes with your ClassPad or some other similar instrument to
perform touch screen operations. Never use a pen, pencil or other writing instrument, which
can damage the touch screen.

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Turning Power On and Off

1-2 Turning Power On and Off
Turning Power On
You can turn on the ClassPad either by pressing the o key or by tapping the touch
screen with the stylus.
• Turning on the ClassPad displays the window that was on the display when you last turned
it off. See “Resume Function” below.
• Note that you need to perform a few initial setup operations when you turn on the ClassPad
the first time after purchasing it. For details, see “Getting Ready” in the separate Hardware
User’s Guide.

Turning Power Off
To turn off the ClassPad, hold down the o key for about two seconds, or until the ending
screen appears. For details about the ending screen, see “Specifying the Ending Screen
Image” in the separate Hardware User’s Guide.

Important!
The ClassPad also has an Auto Power Off feature. This feature automatically turns the
ClassPad off when it is idle for a specified amount of time. For details, see “Auto Power Off”
in the separate Hardware User’s Guide.

Resume Function
Any time the ClassPad powers down (because you turn off power or because of Auto Power
Off), the Resume function automatically backs up its current operational status and any data
in RAM. If you turn ClassPad power back on, the Resume function restores the backed up
operational status and RAM data.

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Using the Icon Panel

1-3 Using the Icon Panel
The icon panel of seven permanent icons is located below the touch screen.
Tapping an icon executes the function assigned to it.
The table below explains what you can do with the icon panel icons.

Function
When you want to do this:

Tap this icon:

Display the O menu to configure settings, switch to the application
menu, etc.
See “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4.

s

Display the application menu
See “1-4 Built-in Applications” for details.

m

Start the Main application
See “Chapter 2 – Using the Main Application” for details.

M

Resize the currently active window (when there are two windows
displayed) so it fills the entire display, or return to the dual window
display again
See “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1.

r

Swap the upper window and lower window (when there are two
windows displayed)
See “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1.

S

Capture the currently displayed screen for transfer to a computer or for
use with the ClassPad’s presentation application
See “Chapter 11 – Using the Presentation Application” and
“Chapter 2 – Performing Data Communication” in the separate
Hardware User’s Guide.

h

Perform the same operation as a computer’s ESC key
The actual operation performed when this icon is tapped depends on
the application you are currently using.

Tip
Tapping the s icon while the application menu is on the screen will display a menu that you can
use to perform the following operations.
• Move an icon (page 1-4-3)
• Swap two icons (page 1-4-4)
• Adjust touch panel alignment (page 1-4-4)

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Built-in Applications

1-4 Built-in Applications
Tapping m on the icon panel displays the application menu.
The table below shows the icon menu names of the built-in applications, and explains what
you can do with each application.
To perform this type of operation:

Select this icon:

See Chapter:

• General calculations, including function calculations
• Matrix calculations
• Computer Algebra System

J

2

• Access the eActivity function

A

10

• Create a list
• Perform statistical calculations
• Draw a statistical graph

I

7

• Input data into a spreadsheet
• Manipulate spreadsheet data
• Graph spreadsheet data

R

13

• Register a function and create a table of solutions by
substituting different values for the function’s variables
• Draw a graph

T

3

• Graph the 3D function z = f(x,y)

D

5

• Draw geometric figures
• Build animated figures

G

8

• Draw the graph of a conics section

C

4

• Draw vector fields and solution curves to explore
differential equations

14

• Obtain the value of any variable in an equation,
without transforming or simplifying the equation

N

9

• Perform sequence calculations
• Solve recursion expressions

H

6

• Perform simple interest, compound interest,
and other financial calculations

F

15

• Register a file name in the programming area
• Input a program or run a program

p

12

• Create and run a presentation using ClassPad
application window

P

11

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1-4-2
Built-in Applications

To perform this type of operation:

Select this icon:

See Chapter:

• Control the optionally available EA-200
Data Analyzer.

U

• Exchange data with another ClassPad,
a computer, or another device

B

See Chapter 2 in the separate
Hardware User’s Guide.

Y

16

• Clear the memory
• Adjust contrast
• Configure other system settings

See the separate E-Con
User’s Guide.

Starting a Built-in Application
Perform the steps below to start a built-in application.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu.
Scroll up button

Scrollbar

Scroll down button

Application Menu
(2) If you cannot see the icon of the application you want on the menu, tap the scroll
buttons or drag the scroll bar to bring other icons into view.
(3) Tap an icon to start its application.

Tip
• You can also start the Main application by tapping M on the icon panel. See “1-3 Using the Icon
Panel” for details.

Application Menu Operations
The following describes the various types of operations you can perform while the
application menu is on the display.
• Starting an application
See “Starting a Built-in Application” above.
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Built-in Applications

• Displaying applications according to group (Additional Applications, All Applications)
See “Using Application Groups” below.
• Moving or swapping icons
See “Moving an Icon” below, and “Swapping Two Icons” on page 1-4-4.
• Deleting an application
See “Deleting an Application” on page α-2-1 in the separate Hardware User’s Guide.

k Using Application Groups
You can use application groups to specify the type of applications that appear on the
application menu.
To select an application group, tap the box in the upper right of the application menu, and
then select the group you want from the list that appears.
To display these icons:

Select this application group:

Add-in applications only

Additional

All applications

All

Add-in applications above built-in applications

Add-ins First

Tip
• Nothing appears on the application menu if you select the “Additional” group while there are no
add-in applications installed on the ClassPad.

k Moving an Icon
You can use the procedure below to move an icon to a different location on the application
menu.

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1-4-4
Built-in Applications

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu.
(2) Tap

at the top left of the application menu.

• This opens a menu of setting options.
(3) Tap [Move Icon].
(4) Tap the icon you want to move (J in this example).
• This selects the icon.
(5) Tap the icon that you want the first icon to follow (C in this example).
• This moves the icon.

k Swapping Two Icons
Perform the following steps to swap two icons on the application menu.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu.
(2) Tap

at the top left of the application menu.

• This opens a menu of setting options.
(3) Tap [Swap Icon].
(4) Tap one of the icons.
• This selects the icon.
(5) Tap the other icon (the one you want to swap with).
• This swaps the icons.

k Adjusting Touch Panel Alignment
Perform the following steps to align the touch panel.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the icon panel, tap m to display the application menu.
(2) Tap

at the top left of the application menu.

• This opens a menu of setting options.
(3) Tap [Touch Panel Alignment].
• This displays the Touch Panel Alignment screen.
(4) Use the stylus to tap the center of each of the four crosses as they appear on the
screen.
• Tapping the center of the fourth cross completes touch panel alignment and returns
you to the application menu.
• When aligning your ClassPad try to tap the exact center of each cross.

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

1-5 Built-in Application Basic Operations
This section explains basic information and operations that are common to all of the built-in
applications.

Application Window
The following shows the basic configuration of a built-in application window.

}
}

Menu bar
Toolbar

Application window

Soft keyboard (page 1-6-1)

}

Status bar

Using a Dual Window Display
Many applications split the display between an upper window and a lower window, each
of which shows different information. The sample screenshot below is from the Conics
application, which uses the upper window for input of expressions, and the lower window for
graphing.

Upper window

Lower window

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

When using two windows, the currently selected window (the one where you can perform
operations) is called the “active window”. The menu bar, toolbar, and status bar contents are
all applicable to the active window. The active window is indicated by a thick boundary around
it.

u To switch the active window
While a dual window is on the display, tap anywhere inside the window that does not have a
thick boundary around it to make it the active window.
• Note that you cannot switch the active window while an operation is being performed in the
current active window.

u To resize the active window so it fills the display
While a dual window is on the display, tap r. This causes the active window to fill the
display. To return to the dual window display, tap r again.

u To swap the upper and lower windows
While a dual window is on the display, tap S. This causes the upper window to become the
lower window, and vice versa. Swapping windows does not have any affect on their active
status. If the upper window is active when you tap S for example, the window will remain
active after it becomes the lower window.

Tip
• When you tap r button while a dual window is on the display, the currently active window will
fill the display, but the other (inactive) window does not close. It remains open, hidden behind the
active window. This means you can tap S to bring the hidden window forward and make it the
active window, and send the current active window to the background.

u To close the active windows
While a dual window is on the display, tap
at to top right corner of the window to close the
active window, which causes the other (inactive) window to fill the display.

Tip
• When the close (
reason.

) button is dimmed, it means that the active window cannot be closed for some

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Using the Menu Bar
The menu bar appears along the top of the window of each application. It shows the menus
that you can access for the currently active window.

} Menu bar

Tapping the menu bar menu displays its commands, options, and settings from which you
can choose the one you want. Some menu items have a single selection as shown in
Example 1, below, while other menu items display a submenu of selections from which you
can choose as shown in Example 2.
Example 1: Choosing the [Edit] menu’s [Copy] item

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap [Edit].

(2) Tap [Copy].

• This displays the contents of the
[Edit] menu.

• This performs a copy operation.

Example 2: Choosing [lim], which is on the [Calculation] submenu of the [Action] menu.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap [Action].

(2) Tap [Calculation].

• This displays the contents of the
[Action] menu.
(3) Tap [lim].

• This displays the contents of the
[Calculation] submenu.

• This inputs “lim(”.
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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Using the O Menu
The O menu appears at the top left of the window of each application, except for the
System application.
You can access the O menu by tapping s on the icon panel, or by tapping the menu
bar’s O menu.

k O Menu Items
The following describes all of the items that appear on the O menu.
1
2

3

4
5
6
7

1 Tapping [Variable Manager] starts up the Variable Manager. See “1-8 Using the Variable
Manager” for details.
2 Tapping [View Window] displays a dialog box for configuring the display range and other
graph settings. For details, see the explanations for the various applications with graphing
capabilities (Graph & Table, Conics, 3D Graph, Statistics, etc.)
3 Tapping a menu selection displays a dialog box for configuring the corresponding setup
settings. See “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings” for details.
4 Tapping [Default Setup] returns all settings to their initial defaults (except for the current
folder setting). See “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings” for details.
5 This area shows a list of all of the windows that can be accessed from the current
application (Graph & Table application in this example). Tapping a menu selection displays
the corresponding window and makes it active. For details, see “Using the O Menu to
Access Windows” on page 1-5-5.
6 Tap [Keyboard] to toggle display of the soft keyboard on and off.
7 Tapping [Close] closes the currently active window, except in the following cases.
• When only one window is on the display
• When the currently active window cannot be closed by the application being used
You cannot, for example, close the Graph Editor window from the Graph & Table
application.
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Built-in Application Basic Operations

k Using the O Menu to Access Windows
Most ClassPad applications support simultaneous display of two windows. When two
windows are on the display, the one with a thick selection boundary around it is the active
window. The displayed menu and toolbar are the ones for the currently active window.
You can use the O menu to change the active window and to display the window you want.

u Window Selection Example (Graph & Table)

e

e

(1) Graph window is active.

(2) Tap O and then
[Graph Editor].

(3) Graph Editor window
becomes active.

e

e

(4) Tap O and then
[Stat Editor].

(5) Stat Editor window
appears and becomes
active.

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Using Check Boxes
A check box shows the current status of a dialog box option that can be turned on or off. An
option is turned on (selected) when its check box has a check mark inside it. An option is
turned off when a check box is cleared.
Tapping a check box toggles the option on (checked) and off (cleared).

Option turned on

Option turned off

Check boxes also appear on menus. Menu check boxes operate the same way as dialog box
check boxes.

Option turned on

Option turned off

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Using Option Buttons
Option buttons are used on dialog boxes that present you with a list of options from which
you can select only one. A black option button indicates the currently selected option, while
the buttons of the options that are not selected are white.

Tap “Français”.

This selects “Français” and
deselects “English”.

Option buttons also appear on menus. Menu option buttons operate the same way as dialog
box option buttons.

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Using the Toolbar
The toolbar is located directly underneath the menu bar of an application window. It contains
the buttons for the currently active window.

}

Toolbar

k Toolbar Buttons
Normally, you tap a button to execute the command assigned to it. Some buttons, however,
have a down arrow v next to them. Tapping the arrow displays a list of options from which
you can select.

List of options

k Toggling between Multiple Toolbars
With some applications, not all of the buttons can fit on a single toolbar. When this happens,
the buttons that cannot fit are placed onto a second toolbar. When there are two toolbars,
each of them has an arrow button on the far right. Toolbar 1 has a u button while toolbar 2
has a t button. Tapping an arrow button toggles between the two toolbars.

Tap here to toggle

Tip
• The explanations in this manual make no distinction between toolbar 1 and toolbar 2.
button in the above example) you will be
Even if a button is located on toolbar 2 (like the
”.
instructed simply to “tap

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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Interpreting Status Bar Information
The status bar appears along the bottom of the window of each application.

Status bar

1

2 3

1 Information about current application

Tip
• You can change the configuration of a setting indicated in the status bar by tapping it. Tapping
“Cplx” (indicating complex number calculations) while the Main application is running will toggle
the setting to “Real” (indicating real number calculations). Tapping again will toggle back to “Cplx”.
For information about application-specific information that appears in the status bar, see the
sections in this manual that describes each application.

2 Battery level indicator
....................... full
....................... medium
....................... low
3 This indicator flashes between and while an operation is being performed.
appears here to indicate when an operation is paused.

Important!
• Be sure to replace batteries as soon as possible whenever the battery level indicator shows
(medium).
• Replace batteries immediately whenever the battery level indicator shows
(low). At this
level, you will not be able to perform data communication or other functions.
• The following message indicates that batteries are about to die. Replace batteries
immediately whenever this message appears.
Batteries are extremely low!
Replace batteries immediately!
• See the separate Hardware User’s Guide for details about replacing batteries.

Pausing and Terminating an Operation
Many of the built-in applications provide operations to pause and terminate (break)
expression processing, graphing, and other operations.

k Pausing an Operation
Pressing the K key while an expression processing, graphing, or other operation is being
performed pauses the operation. Pressing K again resumes the operation.
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Built-in Application Basic Operations

Example: To pause a graphing operation and then resume it

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Use the Graph & Table application to draw a graph.
• For details about graphing, see “Chapter 3 – Using the Graph & Table Application”.
(2) While the graph is being drawn, press the K key.
• This pauses the draw operation and displays
the right side of the status bar.

on

Draw is paused at the point
where K is pressed.

(3) To resume the operation, press the K key again.
• This resumes the draw operation, which continues
until the graph is complete.

k Terminating an Operation (Break)
Pressing the c key while an expression processing, graphing, or other operation is being
performed terminates the operation.
Example: To terminate a graphing operation

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Use the Graph & Table application to draw a graph.
• For details about graphing, see “Chapter 3 – Using the Graph & Table Application”.
(2) While the graph is being drawn, press the c key.
• This terminates the draw operation and displays the Break dialog box, indicating the
Break state.

Break dialog box

(3) To exit the Break state, tap the [OK] button.
• This returns the ClassPad to its status before you started the graphing operation.

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Input

1-6 Input
You can input data on the ClassPad using its keypad or by using the on-screen soft
keyboard.
Virtually all data input required by your ClassPad can be performed using the soft keyboard.
The keypad keys are used for input of frequently used data like numbers, arithmetic
operators, etc.

Using the Soft Keyboard
The soft keyboard is displayed in the lower part of the touch screen. A variety of different
special-purpose soft keyboard styles help to take much of the work out of data input.

u To display the soft keyboard
When the soft keyboard is not on the touch screen, press the k key, or tap the O
menu and then tap [Keyboard]. This causes the soft keyboard to appear.

Press k.

The soft
keyboard
appears.

• Pressing the k key again hides the soft keyboard.
• The icon panel’s r icon is disabled while the soft keyboard is on the display.
For details about r, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on page 1-5-1.

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Input

k Soft Keyboard Styles
There are four different soft keyboard styles as described below.
• Math (mth) Keyboard
Pressing k will display the keyboard that you last
displayed while working in that application. If you quit the
application and go into another application, then the 9
(default) soft keyboard appears.
You can use the math (mth) keyboard to input values,
variables, and expressions. Tap each lower button to see
additional characters, for example tap -. For more
information, see “Using the Math (mth) Keyboard” on page
1-6-8.
• Alphabet (abc) Keyboard
Use this keyboard to input alphabetic characters, Greek
characters, and other characters, as well as logical symbols
and other numeric symbols. Tap one of the buttons along
the bottom of the keyboard to see additional characters, for
example, tap n. For more information, see “Using the
Alphabet (abc) Keyboard” on page 1-6-10.
• Catalog (cat) Keyboard
This keyboard provides a scrollable list that can be used
to input built-in functions, built-in commands, system
variables, and user-defined functions. Tap a command to
select it and then tap it again to insert it. Selecting an item
from the Form list changes the available commands. For
more information, see “Using the Catalog (cat) Keyboard”
on page 1-6-13.
• 2D Keyboard
This keyboard displays various templates for natural input
of fractions, exponential values, matrices, differential and
integral calculus expressions, etc. Note that natural input
is available in most ClassPad applications. Natural input
cannot be used in the geometry measurement box or when
entering data into a list. For more information, see “Using
the 2D Keyboard” on page 1-6-15.

Tip
• 2D math symbols are easy to use. Just tap the image of the symbol you would like to use and it
will appear in your application.
• 2D math symbols can be used in most applications.

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Input

k Selecting a Soft Keyboard Style
Tap one of the tabs along the top of the soft keyboard (9, 0, (, or )) to select
the keyboard style you want.
Tap here.

To display the 2D
keyboard

Input Basics
This section includes a number of examples that illustrate how to perform basic input
procedures. All of the procedures assume the following.
• The Main application is running.
For details, see “Starting a Built-in Application” on page 1-4-2.
• The soft keyboard is displayed.
For details, see “Using the Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1.

k Inputting a Calculation Expression
You can input a calculation expression just as it is written, and press the E key to execute
it. The ClassPad automatically determines the priority sequence of addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, and parenthetical expressions.
• Before starting any calculation, be sure to clear the ClassPad by pressing c.
See Chapter 2 for more information about inputting expressions.
• Use the z or - key to input the minus sign before a negative value.
Example 1: To simplify –2 + 3 – 4 + 10

u ClassPad Operation
Using the keypad keys
cz2+3-4+10E
Using the soft keyboard
Tap the keys of the math (mth) keyboard or the 2D keyboard to input the calculation
expression.
c9-c+d-e+baw
When the soft keyboard is not on the touch screen, press the k key, or tap the O
menu and then tap [Keyboard]. This causes the soft keyboard to appear on the display.
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Input

Example 2: To simplify 2 (5 + 4) ÷ (23 × 5)

u ClassPad Operation
Using the keypad keys
c2(5+4)/(23*5)E
Using the soft keyboard
Tap the keys of the math (mth) keyboard or the 2D keyboard to input the calculation
expression.
c9 (or )) c(f+e)/(cd*f)w

Tip
• As shown in Example 1 and Example 2, you can input simple arithmetic calculations using either
the keypad keys or the soft keyboard. Input using the soft keyboard is required to input higher
level calculation expressions, functions, variables, etc.

k Editing Input
The following are the different techniques you can use to edit your input.

u To change something right after you input it
When the cursor is located at the end of your input, press K to delete the character or
operator you want to edit.
Example: To change the expression 369 × 3 to 369 × 2
(1) c369*3
(2) K
(3) 2

Tip
• Or, drag your stylus across 3 to select it and input 2.

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Input

u To delete an unneeded key operation
Use d and e to move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of the key
operation you want to delete, and then press K. Each press of K deletes one
command to the left of the cursor.
Example: To change the expression 369 × × 2 to 369 × 2
(1) c369**2
(2) dK

Tip
• You can move the cursor without using the cursor key by tapping at the destination with the
stylus. This causes the cursor to jump to the location where you tap.

u To correct a calculation expression
Use d and e to move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of the location
you want to correct, and then press K.
Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60)
(1) Use the mathematics (mth) keyboard to input “cos(60)”.
c9Tcga)
Tapping the T key causes it to
change to I and displays a key set
for inputting trigonometric functions.

(2) Move the cursor to the location immediately to the right of “cos(”.
ddd
(3) Delete “cos(”.
KKKK
(4) Input “sin(”.
s
(5) Tap I to return to the initial math (mth) key set. See “Using the Math (mth)
Keyboard” on page 1-6-8 for details.

Tip
• Or, drag your stylus across “cos(” to select it and input “sin(”.

After you make all of the changes you want, press E to calculate the result. To continue
inputting the calculation, press e to move the cursor to the end of the calculation, and input
what you want.

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Input

u To insert new input into the middle of an existing calculation expression
Use d or e to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input, and
then input what you want.
Example: To change 2.362 to sin(2.362)
(1) c9c.dgx
(2) dddddd
(3) Ts

Tip
• You can move the cursor without using the cursor key by tapping at the destination with the
stylus. This causes the cursor to jump to the location where you tap.

u To replace a range of input with new input
After you drag the stylus across the range of input that you want to replace, enter the new
input.
Example: To replace the “234” of “1234567” with “0”.
(1) Input “1234567”.
c1234567
(2) Drag the stylus across “234” to select it.
(3) Input “0”.
0

Tip
• You can perform d and K key operations by pressing the corresponding keypad key or soft
key.

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Input

k Using the Clipboard for Copy and Paste
You can copy (or cut) a function, command, or other input to the ClassPad’s clipboard, and
then paste the clipboard contents at another location.

u To copy characters
(1) Drag the stylus across the characters you
want to copy to select them.
(2) On the soft keyboard, tap G.
• This puts a copy of the selected characters onto
the clipboard.
The selected characters are not
changed when you copy them.

Tip
• You can also copy characters by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Copy].

u To cut characters
(1) Drag the stylus across the characters you want to
cut to select them.
(2) On the soft keyboard, tap

.

• This moves the selected characters onto
the clipboard.

Cutting causes the original
characters to be deleted.

Tip
• Performing a copy or cut operation causes the clipboard contents to be replaced by the newly
copied or cut characters.
• You can also cut characters by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Cut].

u To paste the clipboard contents
(1) Move the cursor to the location where you want to
paste the clipboard contents.
(2) On the soft keyboard, tap H.
• This pastes the clipboard contents at the current
cursor location.

Tip
• The clipboard contents remain on the clipboard after you paste them. This means you can paste
the current contents as many times as you like.
• You can also paste the clipboard contents by tapping the [Edit] menu and then tap [Paste].

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Input

u Copying and pasting in the message box
The “message box” is a 1-line input and display area under the Graph window (see Chapter 3).

Message box

You can use the two buttons to the right of the message box to copy the message box
contents (G button), or to paste the clipboard contents to the message box (H button).
Copy and paste are performed the same way as the copy and paste operations using the
soft keyboard.

Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations
As explained in “Using the Soft Keyboard” on page 1-6-1, there are four soft keyboard types:
the math (mth) keyboard, the alphabet (abc) keyboard, the catalog (cat) keyboard, and the
2D math (2D) keyboard. This section provides more detailed information about soft keyboard
operations and the various key sets available with each soft keyboard.
• All of the explanations in this section start from the initial key set of each keyboard.

k Using the Math (mth) Keyboard
The math (mth) keyboard is for inputting calculation expressions and numeric expressions. In
addition to the initial math (mth) key set, you can also select from among four other key sets
named T (trigonometry), - (calculus), K (option), and V (variable).
u Initial math (mth) keyboard key set
If you stay in the same application, the keyboard that you used last will appear when you
press the k key.

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Input

u T key set
Tapping the T key displays keys for inputting trigonometric functions, and changes the
T softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between T and the default 9
keyboard. Tapping the = (hyperbolic) key switches to a key set for inputting hyperbolic
functions. Tap the = key again to return to the regular T key set.

←=→

u - key set
Tapping the - key displays keys for inputting differential and integral calculus expressions,
permutations, etc., and changes the - softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle
between - and the default 9 keyboard.

Tip
• Tapping the
key inputs the “solve” function, while tapping the
key inputs the “dSolve”
function. See pages 2-8-43 and 2-8-44 for information about these functions.
• For information about each of functions or symbols, see “2-4 Function Calculations”.

u K key set
Tapping the K key displays keys for inputting “<”, “≠”, and other special operators, and
changes the K softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between K and the default
9 keyboard.

Tip
• Tapping the
function.

key inputs the “rSolve” function. See page 6-3-5 for information about this

• For information about each of the functions and symbols, see “2-4 Function Calculations”.

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Input

u V key set
Tapping the V key displays keys for inputting single-character variables, and changes
the V softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between V and the default 9
keyboard. Tapping the E key switches to a key set for inputting upper-case singlecharacter variables.

←E→

Tip
• As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single
character like “a” or “x”. Each character you input on the V keyboard is treated as a singlecharacter variable. To input multiple-character variable names like “ab” or multiple-character
strings, you must use the alphabet (abc) keyboard. For more information, see “Using Singlecharacter Variables” on page 1-6-12.
• For information about the D key that appears in the lower right of all of the math (mth) keyboard
key sets, see “Using the Answer Variable (ans)” on page 2-2-2.

k Using the Alphabet (abc) Keyboard
In addition of the initial alphabet (abc) key set, you can also select from among three
other key sets, within alphabet (abc), named M (character symbols), n (mathematics
symbols), and S (extra symbols).
u Initial alphabet (abc) keyboard key set
This keyboard is for inputting lower-case alphabetic characters. Tap L to shift the keyboard
or E to caps lock the keyboard when you want to input upper-case characters.

• Note that the initial alphabet (abc) keyboard uses the qwerty key arrangement, which is
similar to a computer keyboard. You can also change to an azerty or qwertz arrangement.
See “16-7 Specifying the Alphabetic Keyboard Arrangement”.

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Input

u M key set
Use the M key set to input Greek characters, Cyrillic characters, and accented characters.
Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to additional keys. Tapping E caps locks the keyboard
for input of upper-case characters.

• Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set.
u n key set
This key set contains some of the mathematical expression symbols that are also available
on the math (mth) keyboard. Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to additional keys.

• Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set.
u S key set
Use this key set to input punctuation and symbols. Tap the J and K buttons to scroll to
additional keys.

• Tap I to return to the initial alphabet (abc) key set.

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Input

k Using Single-character Variables
As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single
character like “a” or “x”. Input of single-character variable names is subject to different rules
than input of a series of multiple characters (like “abc”).

u To input a single-character variable name
Any character you input using any one of the following techniques is always treated as a
single-character variable.
• Tapping any key in the math (mth) keyboard’s V key set (page 1-6-10)
• Tapping any key in the 2D keyboard’s V key set (page 1-6-17)
• Tapping the X, Y, Z or [ key to the left of the 9 key of the math (mth) keyboard or
2D keyboard
• Pressing the x, y, or Z keypad key
If you use the above key operations to input a series of characters, each one is treated as a
single-character variable. Inputting A, B, C, for example, is treated as the mathematical
expression a × b × c, and not as the characters “abc”.

Tip
• The single-character variables described above make it possible for you to perform calculations
as they appear in your textbook.

Example 1: 9VABCw

Example 2: 2xyE

Tip
• When you input a single-character variable, its name appears on the display as an italicized bold
character. This is simply to let you know that the letter is a single-character variable name.

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Input

u To input a series of multiple characters
A series of multiple characters (like “list1”) can be used for variable names, program
commands, comment text, etc. Always use the alphabet (abc) keyboard when you want to
input a series of characters.
Example: 0abcw

You can also use the alphabet (abc) keyboard to input single-character variable names.
To do so, simply input a single character, or follow a single character with a mathematical
operator.
Example: 0a*b+cw

Tip
• A single-character variable you input using the alphabet (abc) keyboard is identical to a singlecharacter variable you input using the math (mth) keyboard.

k Using the Catalog (cat) Keyboard
The “Form” menu of the catalog keyboard lets you select one of the following five categories:
[Func] (built-in functions on pages 2-4-2 and 2-8-1), [Cmd] (built-in commands and operators
on pages 1-7-4 and 12-6-1), [Sys] (system variables on page α-2-1), [User] (user-defined
functions on page 12-5-1), and [All] (all commands, functions, etc.). After selecting a
category, you can choose the item you want from the alphabetized list that appears on the
catalog (cat) keyboard.

Tip
• Note that user-defined variables and user-defined programs cannot be input using the catalog (cat)
keyboard. Use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) instead.
• A user-defined function must be stored in the “library” folder to appear in the catalog (cat)
keyboard list when the [User] category is selected.

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Input

u Catalog (cat) keyboard configuration
This is an alphabetized list of commands,
functions, and other items available in the
category currently selected with “Form”.

Tap the down button and then select the
category you want ([Func], [Cmd], [Sys],
[User], or [All]) from the list that appears.

Tapping a letter button displays the
commands, functions, or other items that
begin with that letter.

Tap this key to input the item that is
currently selected in the alphabetized list.

u To use the catalog (cat) keyboard
Example: To input the built-in “Plot” command
(1) Tap ( to display the catalog (cat) keyboard.
(2) Tap the “Form” down arrow button v and then select [Cmd] from the list of categories
that appears.
(3) Tap the u button in the lower right corner until the P key is visible.

(4) Tap P.

(5) In the alphabetized list, tap “Plot”.

(6) Tap [INPUT] to input the command.

Tip
• Instead of tapping [INPUT] in step (6), you could also tap the command you selected in step (5) a
second time to input the command.

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Input

k Using the 2D Keyboard
The 2D keyboard provides you with a number of templates that let you input fractions,
exponential values, nth roots, matrices, differentials, integrals, and other complex
expressions as they appear in your textbook.
It also includes a V key set that you can use to input single-character variables like the
ones you can input with the math (mth) keyboard.
u Initial 2D keyboard key set
This key set lets you input fractions, exponential values, nth roots, etc. as they appear in your
textbook.

Tip
• For information about each function or symbol, see “2-4 Function Calculations”.
• Use the 1 key to input the piecewise function template. See page 2-4-12 for more information.
key to input the simultaneous equations template. See page 2-8-43 for more
• Use the
information.

u - key set
Tapping the - key displays a keyboard like the one shown below, which has a I key in
place of the - key. Tapping I returns to the initial 2D keyboard.

The following are the mathematical expressions you can input with this 2D keyboard.
To input this:
Matrix templates

Use these keys: For more information, see:
6, 7, 8

“Matrix and Vector Calculations” on
page 2-6-1.

Limit template

“lim” under “Using the Calculation
Submenu” on page 2-8-15.

Sum template

“Σ” under “Using the Calculation
Submenu” on page 2-8-15.

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Input

To input this:

Use these keys: For more information, see:
“Π” under “Using the Calculation
Submenu” on page 2-8-15.

Sum of product template
Differential coefficient template
Integration template
u

ADV

,
P

“diff” under “Using the Calculation
Submenu” on page 2-8-13.
“∫” under “Using the Calculation
Submenu” on page 2-8-14.

key set

Tapping the
place of the

ADV
ADV

key displays a keyboard like the one shown below, which has a I key in
key. Tapping I returns to the initial 2D keyboard.

The following are the mathematical expressions you can input with this 2D keyboard.
To input this:

Use these keys: For more information, see:

Fourier transform template

“fourier” under “Using the Advanced
Submenu” on page 2-8-9.

Inverse Fourier transform
template

“invFourier” under “Using the
Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-9.

Laplace transform template

“laplace” under “Using the Advanced
Submenu” on page 2-8-8.

Inverse Laplace transform
template

“invLaplace” under “Using the
Advanced Submenu” on page 2-8-8.

Gamma function

“Gamma Function” on page 2-4-18.

Delta function

“Dirac Delta Function” on page 2-4-16.

nth-delta function

“nth Delta Function” on page 2-4-16.

Heaviside function

“Heaviside Unit Step Function” on
page 2-4-17.

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Input

u V key set
Tapping the V key displays keys for inputting single-character variables, and changes the
V softkey to I. You can tap this key to toggle between V and the initial 2D keyboard.
Tapping the E key switches to a key set for inputting upper-case single-character
variables.

←E→

Tip
• As its name suggests, a single-character variable is a variable name that consists of a single
character like “a” or “x”. Each character you input on the V keyboard is treated as a singlecharacter variable. You cannot use the V keyboard to input multiple-character variable names
like “ab” or multiple-character strings. You must use the alphabet (abc) keyboard when you want
to input a multiple-character string. For more information, see “Using Single-character Variables”
on page 1-6-12.
• For information about the D key that appears in the lower right of all of the 2D keyboard key
sets, see “Using the Answer Variable (ans)” on page 2-2-2.
• Note that natural input is available in most applications of the ClassPad. Natural input cannot be
used in the geometry measurement box or when entering data into a list.

u To use the 2D keyboard for natural input
Example 1: To input 1 + 3
5
7
(1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application.
(2) Press the c key.
(3) Press the k key, and then tap ) to display the 2D keyboard.
(4) Tap N and then tap b to input the numerator.

(5) Tap the input box of the denominator to move the
cursor there, or press c and then tap f.
(6) Press e to move the cursor to the right side of 1/5.
• Instead of using e to move the cursor, you could
also tap with the stylus at the cursor destination.
(7) Tap +.

(8) Tap N, and then repeat steps (4) through (6) to
input 3/7.
(9) After everything is the way you want, press E.
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Input

Tip
• If you want your ClassPad to evaluate a calculation expression and display a result in the eActivity
application, you must input the calculation in a calculation row. See “Inserting a Calculation Row”
on page 10-3-3.

n
Example 2: To input
k=1

k2

(1) Tap ) to display the 2D keyboard and then tap -.
(2) Tap

.
Initially, the cursor
appears here.

(3) In the input box below Σ, input “k=1”.
Vkeb

(4) Tap with the stylus to move the cursor to the other
input locations and input the required information.
In the input box above Σ, tap L.
(5) Input the part of the expression that comes to the right of Σ.
kIJ

c

(6) After everything is the way you want, press E.
1

Example 3: To input

∫ 0 (1– x2) ex dx

(1) Tap ) to display the 2D keyboard and then tap -.
(2) Tap P.

Initially, the cursor appears in the
input box to the right of ∫.

(3) Input the part of the expression that comes to the right of ∫.
(b-XJ ce)
QXeeX
• Or you can use 2D math symbols to enter the
expression.

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Input

(4) Tap with the stylus to move the cursor to the other input locations to enter the
limits of integration.
In the input box above ∫, tap b.
In the input box below ∫, tap a.

(5) After everything is the way you want, press E.

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Variables and Folders

1-7 Variables and Folders
Your ClassPad lets you register text strings as variables. You can then use a variable to
store a value, expression, string, list, matrix, etc. A variable can be recalled by a calculation
to access its contents.
Variables are stored in folders. In addition to the default folders that are provided
automatically, you can also create your own user folders. You can create user folders as
required to group variables by type or any other criteria.

Folder Types
Your ClassPad stores variables in one of four types of folders described below.

Description

Folder Type
“system” Folder

This is one of the ClassPad’s reserved folders, which is provided by
default. It is used for storage of system variables, which are predefined variables used by ClassPad applications and other system
operations.
Some examples of system variables are “list1” through “list6”, View
Window parameters “xmin” and “xmax”, etc. A system variable can be
accessed by any application simply by specifying the applicable
variable name.

“library” Folder

Also a ClassPad reserved folder, the “library” folder can be used for
storing user-created variables. Variables stored in the “library” folder
can be accessed without specifying a path, regardless of the current
folder setting (see next page).

“main” Folder

The “main” folder is also a ClassPad reserved folder, and acts as the
default current folder. While the “main” folder is the current folder, all
variables created by ClassPad application operations are stored here
when you do not specify a path for variable storage.

User Folder

This is a folder created and named by you. You can make a user
folder the current folder, move variables to a user folder, etc. You can
also delete and rename a user folder as required. You can have up to
87 user folders in ClassPad memory at one time.

Tip
• You cannot put a folder inside of another folder.
• You can view the contents of a folder using the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1). Note, however,
that you cannot open the “system” folder for viewing.
• The “system” folder contents are listed within the ( page of the keyboard when “Sys” is
selected for “Form”.

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Variables and Folders

k Current Folder
The current folder is the folder where the variables created by applications (excluding
eActivity) are stored and from which such variables can be accessed. The initial default
current folder is the “main” folder.
You can also select a user folder you created as the current folder. For more information
about how to do this, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on page 1-8-3.

Variable Types
ClassPad variables can be broadly grouped into three types: general variables, system
variables, and local variables.

Variable Type

Description

General Variables

A general variable is one you create using any name you want.
Unless you specify otherwise when you are creating it, a general
variable is stored in the current folder. You can use the same name
for multiple variables, as long as each of them is stored in a different
folder. General variables can be deleted, renamed, etc.

System Variables

System variables are pre-defined reserved variables used by
ClassPad applications and other system operations. They are stored
in the “system” folder. System variables can be accessed without
specifying the folder name, and can even be accessed from another
folder. Since system variable names are reserved words, they cannot
be renamed. Whether you are allowed to delete or change the
contents of a system variable depends on each variable.
• For the names of and detailed information about system variables,
see the “System Variable Table” on page α-2-1.

Local Variables

A local variable is a variable that is temporarily created by a defining
function, program, or other operation for a particular purpose. A local
variable is deleted automatically when execution of the program or
user-defined function that created it is complete. You can create a
local variable by including the “Local” command in a program. Any
variable specified as the argument of a program or a user-defined
function is automatically treated as a local variable.

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Variables and Folders

k Variable Data Types
ClassPad variables support a number of data types. The type of data assigned to a variable
is indicated by a data type name. Data type names are shown on the Variable Manager
variable list, and on the Select Data dialog box that appears when you are specifying a
variable in any ClassPad application. The following table lists all of the variable data type
names and explains the meaning of each.

Data Type Name
EXPR
STR
LIST
MAT
PRGM*
EXE*
TEXT*
FUNC*
PICT*

Data Type
Real number, complex number or expression data
String data
List data created using the Statistics application, Main application, etc.
Matrix data created using the Main application, etc.
General program
Edit prohibited program
Text data
User-defined function
Image data
• ClassPad image data includes graph image data saved using the
Store function, image data captured using the Presentation
application, and picture data transferred from the computer.

GMEM*

Graph memory data saved using the Graph & Table application
• For more information, see “Saving Graph Editor Data to Graph
Memory” on page 3-3-14.

GEO*

Geometry application data

MEM*

General-purpose data

OTHR

Data other than that described above

* Protected variable types
Some data types are protected. A variable whose data type is protected cannot be
overwritten with another variable, which protects variable contents from being inadvertently
altered. Data types whose names are marked with an asterisk in the above table are
protected.

Tip
• Note that whether or not a data type is protected is determined by the system. You cannot
change the protection status of a data type.
• Even when a variable is a protected data type, you can rename, delete, or move it. To disable
these operations, you need to lock the variable. For more information, see “Locking a Variable or
Folder” on page 1-7-10.
• The elements of the LIST data type can contain EXPR or STR type data only. The elements of
the MAT data type can contain EXPR type data only.

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Variables and Folders

Creating a Folder
You can have up to 87 user folders in memory at the same time. This section explains how
to create a user folder and explains the rules that cover folder names.
You can create a folder using either the Variable Manager or the “NewFolder” command.

k Creating a folder using the Variable Manager
On the Variable Manager window, tap [Edit] and then [Create Folder]. For more information,
see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.

k Creating a folder using the “NewFolder” command
In the Main application or in a program, execute the “NewFolder” command.
Example: To create a new folder named “Test”

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main
application.
(2) Display the catalog (cat) keyboard, and then input the “NewFolder” command.
a. In the [Form] menu, select [Cmd].
b. Tap u and the [N] to display the first command that starts with the letter “N”.
c. In the command list, tap “NewFolder” to select it.
d. Tap [INPUT].
“NewFolder”
command

(3) Following the “NewFolder” command you just input, enter “Test”.
0L T e s t

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Variables and Folders

(4) Tap w to execute the command.
• The message “done” appears on the display to let you know that command execution
is complete.

Tip
• You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a folder you create. For more
information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.
• For information about commands you can use to perform folder operations, see “12-6 Program
Command Reference”.

k Folder Name Rules
The following are the rules that apply to folder names.
• Folder names can be up to 8 bytes long.
• The following characters are allowed in a folder name.
Upper-case and lower-case unaccented characters (character codes 65 to 90, 97 to 122)
Upper-case and lower-case accented characters (character codes 257 to 416, 513 to 672)
Subscript characters (character codes 480 to 491, 496 to 512, 737 to 746, 752 to 766)
Numbers (character codes 48 to 57)
Underscore (character code 95)
• Folder names are case-sensitive.
For example, each of the following is treated as a different folder name: abc, Abc, aBc,
ABC.
• A reserved word (system variable names, built-in function names, command names, etc.)
cannot be used as a folder name.
• A number, subscript characters or the underscore (_) cannot be used as the first character
of a folder name.

Creating and Using Variables
This section explains how to create a new variable (general variable), and provides a simple
sample calculation that illustrates how to use a variable.

k Variable Name Rules
The rules for naming variables are identical to those that cover folder names. For more
information, see “Folder Name Rules” above.

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Variables and Folders

k Single-character Variable Precautions
Your ClassPad supports the use of single-character variables, which are variables whose
names consist of a single character like “a” or “x”. Some ClassPad keys (x, y, Z
keypad keys, math (mth) soft keyboard X, Y, Z, [ keys, V key set keys, etc.) are
dedicated single-character variable name input keys. You cannot use such a key to input a
variable name that has more than one character.
For example, pressing the keypad keys x and y in succession is interpreted by the
ClassPad as the multiplication expression “x × y”, and not as the characters “xy”. In order to
input a variable name made up of two or more characters, use the alphabet (abc) keyboard.
For more information, see “Using Single-character Variables” on page 1-6-12.

k Creating a New Variable
The most common way to create a new variable is assigning a value or expression to the
applicable variable name. Use the variable assignment key (W) to assign data to a variable.
Assign key
This key is included on the math
(mth) and 2D soft keyboards.

The following is an example of assignment to a variable while “main” is specified as the
current folder.
Example: To create a new variable named “eq1” and assign the expression 2x + 1 to it
The following assumes that there are no variables named “eq1” or “x” currently in
the “main” folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application.
(2) Press k to display the soft keyboard, and then perform the following key operation.
9cX+bW 0eqbw
• This creates a variable named “eq1” in the current folder (the “main” folder in this
example), and assigns the expression 2x + 1 to it.

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Variables and Folders

Tip
• As shown in the above example, assigning something to a variable with a name that does not
yet exist in the current folder causes a new variable with that name to be created. If a variable
with the specified name already exists in the current folder, the contents of the existing variable
are replaced with the newly assigned data, unless the existing variable is protected. For more
information about protected variables, see “Protected variable types” on page 1-7-3.
• To store the newly created variable in a folder other than the current folder, specify the variable
name as follows: \.
• You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a variable you create. For more
information, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.

k Variable Usage Example
The following example uses the variable we created in the example under “Creating a New
Variable” on page 1-7-6.
Example: To copy the variable “eq1” and then paste it into the following two equations:
eq1 + x – 2 and eq1 × 2

u ClassPad Operation
(1) First, check the current contents of variable “eq1”.
0eqbw
(2) Copy the variable by dragging the stylus across “eq1” and then tapping G, or tap [Edit]
[Copy].

• Copy and paste comes in handy when you need to input the same variable into
multiple expressions. You can also drag “eq1” to another line.
(3) Perform the key operation below to input and execute the first expression:
eq1 + x – 2.
H (or [Edit] [Paste]) 9+X-cw
(4) Perform the key operation below to replace the current contents of “eq1” with the list
{1, 2, 3}.
9{b,c,d}W Hw
(5) Perform the key operation below to input and execute the second expression:
eq1 × 2
H9*cw

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Variables and Folders

k “library” Folder Variables
Variables in the “library” folder can be accessed without specifying a path name, regardless
of the current folder.
Example: To create and access two variables, one located in the “library” folder and one
located in another folder

u ClassPad Operation
(1) With “main” specified as the current folder (the default), perform the following operation
to create a variable named “eq1” and assign the indicated list data to it.
{1, 2, 3} S eq1w
(2) Keeping “main” specified as the current folder, perform the following operation to create
a variable named “eq2” in the “library” folder, and assign the indicated list data to it.
{4, 5, 6} S library \ eq2 w
Specifies the “library” folder.

(3) Check the contents of the two variables.
eq1 w

eq2 w

Since variable “eq2” is stored in the
“library” folder, you do not need to
indicate a path to access it.

(4) Change the current folder specification to “Test”.
• Use the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) or the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)
to change the current folder specification.
(5) Perform the following operations to view the contents of variables “eq1” and “eq2”.
eq1 w

Since this key operation does not access the
“main” folder, the variable name (“eq1”) is
displayed without showing the variable contents.

main\eq1 w

Specifying the path to the “main” folder
where “eq1” is located displays the
contents of the variable.

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Variables and Folders

eq2 w

Since variable “eq2” is stored in the
“library” folder, you do not need to
indicate a path to access it.

Tip
• Specifying a variable name that exists in both the current folder and the “library” folder causes
the variable in the current folder to be accessed. For details about the variable access priority
sequence and how to access variables in particular folders, see “Rules Governing Variable
Access” on page 1-7-11.
• You can use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) to move existing variables from the “main” folder
or a user folder to the “library” folder, or from the “library” folder to other folders.

k Using Stat Editor to Create a LIST Variable
Stat Editor makes creation of LIST variables (variables that contain list data) quick and easy.
This capability really comes in handy when you need to perform a calculation (statistical
calculations, etc.) that involves a large number of LIST variables.
Stat Editor appears as the initial screen when you start up the Statistics application. You can
also access the Stat Editor window from the Main, Graph & Table, and eActivity applications.
1
2

Input a variable name like “list_t” into the title cell at the top of the list on the Stat Editor
window (1), and then input values into the list (2). This creates a LIST variable with the
name list_t that is assigned the contents of the list of data (2). The above example creates a
LIST variable named “list_t” and assigns it the list data “{12, 24, 36}”.

Tip
• For details about using Stat Editor, see “7-2 Using Stat Editor”.

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Variables and Folders

Assigning Values and Other Data to a System Variable
As its name suggests, a system variable is a variable that is created and used by the system
(page 1-7-5). Some system variables allow you to assign values and other data to them,
while some system variables do not. For more information about which variables allow you to
control their contents, see the “System Variable Table” on page α-2-1.

Locking a Variable or Folder
Locking a variable or folder protects against inadvertently deleting it or changing its contents.
You can unlock a locked variable or folder to re-enable deletion and data assignment.
• Locking a variable disables the following operations on it: delete, overwrite, rename, and
move (to another folder).
• Locking a folder makes it impossible to delete or rename the folder.

Tip
• In terms of ClassPad variables, “lock” is completely different from “protect”. For more information
about “protect”, see “Variable Data Types” on page 1-7-3.

You can lock and unlock a variable or folder using either the Variable Manager or commands.

u To lock or unlock a variable or folder using the Variable Manager
In the Variable Manager, select the folder or variable you want to lock or unlock and then
tap [Edit] - [Lock] or [Edit] - [Unlock]. For more information, see “1-8 Using the Variable
Manager”.

u To lock or unlock a variable or folder using commands
In the Main application or in a program, execute one of the commands described below.

To do this:
Lock a variable
Unlock a variable
Lock a folder
Unlock a folder

Use this command syntax:
Lock 
Unlock 
LockFolder 
UnlockFolder 

For information about commands, see “12-6 Program Command Reference”.

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Variables and Folders

Rules Governing Variable Access
Normally, you access a variable by specifying its variable name. The rules in this section
apply when you need to reference a variable that is not located in the current folder or to
access a variable that has the same name as one or more variables located in other folders.

k Variable Search Priority Sequence
Specifying a variable name to access a variable, searches variables in the following
sequence.
(1) Local Variables
(2) Current Folder Variables
(3) “library” Folder Variables
• Multiple variables with the same name can exist simultaneously as a local variable, as
a variable in the current folder, and as a variable in the “library” folder. In this case, the
ClassPad searches folders according to the sequence shown above and accesses the first
instance of the variable that it finds. If you want to access such a variable when it occurs
lower in the above priority sequence, you need to specify the folder name along with the
variable name as shown in “Specifying a Variable in a Particular Folder” below.
• If a variable you specify cannot be found, it is treated as an “undefined variable”.
• Note that the “system” folder is not included in the above variable search. When accessing
a variable in the system folder, you need to specify the variable name only, without
specifying the folder name.

Tip
• Local variables exist only as long as the program or user-defined function for which it was created
in being executed.
• When a variable search is required during a subroutine called by a program or user-defined
function, the local variable search range includes only the local variables of the subroutine
currently being executed.
• For information about programs and user-defined functions, see Chapter 12.
• Only local variables and current folder variables are searched in the case of an operation that
stores variable data or a command that performs an operation on a variable (like “DelVar”).
Normally, “library” folder variables are not searched. If you want to include “library” folders in the
search, you need to specify the “library” folder as the variable location as explained below.

k Specifying a Variable in a Particular Folder
You can access a variable located inside the “main” folder, “library” folder, or a particular
user folder by specifying the folder name along with the variable name. Use the following
syntax when specifying a folder name:
\
Example: To specify variable “abc” located in the “main” folder
main\abc

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Using the Variable Manager

1-8 Using the Variable Manager
The Variable Manager is a tool for managing user variables, programs, user functions, and
other types of data. Though this section uses only the term “variables”, the explanations
provided here also refer to the other types of data that can be managed by the Variable
Manager.

Variable Manager Overview
This section explains how to start up and exit the Variable Manager. It also provides
information about the configuration of the Variable Manager.
With the Variable Manager you can:
• Create, delete, rename, lock, and unlock folders for storing variables, and configure current
folder settings.
• Delete, copy, rename, move, lock, unlock, search for variables, and view the contents of
variables.

Starting Up the Variable Manager
To start up the Variable Manager, tap O, and then tap [Variable Manager].
• Starting up the Variable Manager initially displays the folder list, which is described on the
next page.

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Using the Variable Manager

Variable Manager Views
The Variable Manager uses two views, a folder list and a variable list.
• The folder list always appears first whenever you start up the Variable Manager.

Current folder

Number of variables contained
in the folder

Folder names

Folder List
• Tapping a folder name on the folder list selects it. Tapping the folder name again displays
the folder’s contents; a variable list.

Folder name

Number of variables contained
in the folder

Variable names

Variable data types (page 1-7-3)
and sizes (bytes)

Variable List
• To close the variable list and return to the folder list, tap [Close].

Exiting the Variable Manager
To exit the Variable Manager, tap the [Close] button.

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Using the Variable Manager

Variable Manager Folder Operations
This section describes the various folder operations you can perform using the Variable
Manager.

k Specifying the Current Folder
The “current folder” is the folder where the variables created by applications (excluding
eActivity) are stored and from which such variables can be accessed. The initial default
current folder is the “main” folder.
You can also select a folder you created yourself as the current folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.

Current folder

(2) Tap the [Current] down arrow button. On the list that appears, select the folder that
you want to specify as the current folder.
(3) Tap [Close] to close the folder list.

k Creating a New Folder
You can use the following procedure to create up to 87 folders, as you need them.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager, which causes the folder list to appear.
(2) On the folder list, tap [Edit] and then [Create Folder].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a folder name.
(3) Enter the folder name, and then tap [OK].
• This creates the new folder and returns to the folder list.
• Normally, a folder name can contain up to eight bytes. If your folder name includes 2-byte
characters, you may not be able to input eight characters for the folder name. For details
about folder names, see page 1-7-5.

Tip
• An error message appears and your folder is not created if there is already a folder with the same
name you input. Tap [OK] to close the error message dialog box, and then specify a different
name for the folder you are creating.

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Using the Variable Manager

k Selecting and Deselecting Folders
The folder operations you perform are performed on the currently selected folders. The
folders that are currently selected on the folder list are those whose check boxes are selected
(checked). You can use the following operations to select and deselect folders as required.
To do this:

Do this:

Select a single folder

Select the check box next to the folder name.

Deselect a single folder

Clear the check box next to the folder name.

Select all the folders in the list

Tap [All] and then [Select All].

Deselect all the folders in the list

Tap [All] and then [Deselect All].

Tip
• If no check box is currently selected on the folder list, any folder operation that is performed
affects the folder whose name is currently highlighted on the list. If any folder check box is
currently selected, only that folder is affected by a folder operation, and the folder whose name is
highlighted on the list is not affected.
• Selecting the check box of a folder causes the check boxes of all of the variables inside of it also
to become selected.
• When renaming a folder, only the folder whose name is highlighted on the folder list is renamed.
Other folders whose check boxes are selected are not affected.

k Deleting a Folder
Warning!
Before deleting a folder, make sure you no longer need any of the variables contained
inside it. It is probably a good idea to first delete the variables you don’t need and move the
variables you do need to another folder, and then delete the empty folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Open the folder you want to delete and check its contents.
• Make sure you no longer need any of the variables in the folder. If any of the
variables are locked, unlock them.
• After checking the contents of the folder, close it to return to the folder list.
(3) Select the check box next to the folder you want to delete.
• You can select and delete multiple folders, if you want.
(4) On the folder list, tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
(5) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the folder
or [Cancel] to exit the dialog box without deleting the folder.

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Using the Variable Manager

Tip
• You cannot delete the “library” folder or the “main” folder.
• If no check box is currently selected on the folder list, the folder whose name is currently
highlighted on the list is deleted when you tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
• An error message appears and the folder is not deleted if any one of the following conditions
exists.
• The folder is locked.
• Any variable inside the folder is locked.
• There are still variables inside the folder.

k Renaming a Folder
You can use the following procedure to change the name of an existing folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Tap the name of the folder you want to rename so it is highlighted.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a new folder name.
(4) Input the new folder name.
(5) When the name is the way you want, tap [OK] to save it, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the
rename procedure.

Tip
• When renaming a folder, only the folder whose name is highlighted on the folder list is renamed.
Other folders whose check boxes are selected are not affected.
• A folder that is locked cannot be renamed.

k Locking and Unlocking a Folder
A folder cannot be deleted or renamed while it is locked. Lock any folder that you want to
protect against accidental deletion.

u To lock a folder
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to lock.
• If you want to lock multiple folders, select all of their check boxes.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Lock].
• This locks the currently selected folder, and adds a b icon to the left of its name to
indicate that it is locked.

u To unlock a folder
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to unlock.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Unlock].

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Using the Variable Manager

k Inputting a Folder Name into an Application
Perform the procedure below when you want to input the name of a folder displayed on
the Variable Manager window into the application from which you started up the Variable
Manager.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) In the Main application, Graph & Table application,
or some other application, move the cursor to the
location where you want to input the folder name.

(2) Start up the Variable Manager to display the list of
folders.

(3) Tap the folder whose name you want to input, so the name is highlighted.
(4) Tap [INPUT].
• This exits the Variable Manager and inputs the
name of the folder you selected in step (3) into the
application at the current cursor position.

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Using the Variable Manager

Variable Operations
This section explains the various operations you can perform on the Variable Manager
variables.

k Opening a Folder
Perform the steps below to open a folder and display the variables contained inside it.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Tap the name of the folder you want to open so it is highlighted, and then tap it again.
• This opens the folder and displays a variable list showing its contents.
(3) To return to the folder list, tap [Close].

k Opening the “library” Folder
Note that the procedure you need to use to open the “library” folder is different from the
procedure for opening other folders.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) Tap [View] and then [“library” Folder].
• This opens the “library” folder and displays a variable list showing its contents.
(3) To return to the folder list, tap [Close].

Tip
• You can also open the “library” folder (by tapping [View] and then [“library” Folder]) while the
variable list is on the display.

k Displaying a List of a Particular Type of Variable
You can use the variable list to produce a list of a particular type of variable only.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) In the Variable Manager, open any folder to display a variable list of its contents.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Variable Type].
• This displays the Variable Type dialog box for
specifying the variable data type.

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Using the Variable Manager

(3) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the data type from the
list that appears.
• To display variables for all data types, select [All].
• For details about data type names and variables, see “Variable Data Types” on page
1-7-3.
(4) After selecting the data type you want, tap [OK] to apply it or [Cancel] to exit the
selection dialog box without changing the current setting.

Tip
• Returning to the folder list or exiting the Variable Manager causes the data type to change to the
initial default setting, which is [All].
• Performing this operation clears the check boxes for all of the variables inside the applicable
folder.

k Selecting a Variable
Before you can copy, delete, or perform any other operation on a variable, you must first
select it.

u To select or deselect a variable
(1) In the Variable Manager, open any folder to display a variable list of its contents.
(2) Perform one of the operations described below to select or deselect a variable.
To do this:

Do this:

Select a single variable

Select the check box next to the variable name.

Deselect a single variable

Clear the check box next to the variable name.

Select all the variables in the list

Tap [All] and then [Select All].

Deselect all the variables in the list Tap [All] and then [Deselect All].

Tip
• If no check box is currently selected on the variable list, any variable operation that is performed
affects the variable whose name is currently highlighted on the list. If any variable check box is
currently selected, only that variable is affected by a variable operation, and the variable whose
name is highlighted on the list is not affected.
• The selected/deselected status of a variable is retained, even when you return from the variable
list to the folder list. Exiting the Variable Manager or changing the data type selection, however,
causes all variables to be deselected.
• When renaming a variable, only the variable whose name is highlighted on the variable list is
renamed. If other variables are selected (checked), they will not be affected.

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Using the Variable Manager

k Deleting a Variable
Perform the following steps when you want to delete a variable.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to delete and display the variable
list.
(2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to delete.
• To delete multiple variables, select all of their check boxes.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
(4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the
selected variable or [Cancel] to cancel the delete operation.

Tip
• If no check box is selected on the variable list, the variable whose name is currently highlighted
on the list is deleted when you tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
• If the currently selected variable is locked, an error message appears and the variable is not
deleted.

k Copying and Moving a Variable
You can use the procedure below to copy or move a variable to another folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to copy or move, and display the
variable list.
(2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to copy or move.
• To copy or move multiple variables, select all of their check boxes.
(3) Perform the copy operation or the move operation.
To do this:

Perform this operation:

Copy the variable

Tap [Edit] and then [Copy].

Move the variable

Tap [Edit] and then [Move].

• This causes a dialog box for selecting the destination
folder to appear.
(4) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the destination folder
from the list that appears.
(5) When the destination folder you want is selected, tap [OK] to perform the copy or
move operation, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the procedure.

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Using the Variable Manager

Tip
• If no check box is currently selected on the variable list, the variable whose name is currently
highlighted on the list is copied or moved.
• If a variable with the same name already exists in the destination folder, the variable in the
destination folder is replaced with the one that you are copying or moving.
• An error message appears and the variable is not copied or moved if a variable with the same
name already exists in the destination folder and that variable is locked or protected.
• A variable that is locked cannot be moved.

k Renaming a Variable
Perform the following steps when you want to rename a variable.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to rename and display the variable
list.
(2) Tap the name of the variable you want to rename so it is highlighted.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a new variable name.
(4) Input the new variable name.
(5) When the name is the way you want, tap [OK] to save it, or tap [Cancel] to cancel the
rename procedure.

Tip
• When renaming a variable, only the variable whose name is highlighted on the variable list is
renamed. Other variables whose check boxes are selected are not affected.
• A variable that is locked cannot be renamed.

k Locking and Unlocking a Variable
A locked variable cannot be deleted, moved, or renamed. A locked variable also cannot be
overwritten by a variable with the same name being moved or copied into its folder. Lock any
variable that you want to protect against accidental deletion.

u To lock a variable
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to lock and display the variable
list.
(2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to lock.
• If you want to lock multiple variables, select all of their check boxes.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Lock].
• This locks the currently selected variable, and adds a b icon to the left of its name to
indicate that it is locked.

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Using the Variable Manager

u To unlock a variable
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable you want to unlock and display the variable
list.
(2) Select the check box next to the variable you want to unlock.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Unlock].

k Searching for a Variable
You can use the following procedure to search the “main” folder or a user defined folder for a
particular variable name. Note that you cannot search the “library” folder.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Start up the Variable Manager and display the folder list.
(2) On the folder list, tap [Search] and then [Search].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a search string.
(3) Enter the variable name you want to find and then tap
[OK].
• An exclamation point ( ) appears in front of all
folders containing a variable name that matches
the name in your search.

Tip
• The message “Not Found” appears on the display if a match cannot be found.
• The exclamation point ( ) remains on the folder list until you exit the Variable Manager or
perform another search operation. Also note that the exclamation point ( ) remains in front of the
folder name, even if you delete or rename the found variable.

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Using the Variable Manager

k Viewing the Contents of a Variable
You can use the Variable Manager to view the contents of a particular variable.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Open the folder that contains the variable whose contents you want to view and
display on the variable list.
(2) Tap the name of the variable whose contents you want to view so it is highlighted, and
then tap it again.
• This displays a dialog box that shows the contents of the variable.

Example of EXPR variable contents

(3) To close the dialog box, tap [OK].

Tip
• You can use this procedure to display the contents of the following variable types only: EXPR,
STR, LIST, MAT, FUNC, PRGM, TEXT, PICT.

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Using the Variable Manager

k Inputting a Variable Name into an Application
Perform the procedure below when you want to input the name of a variable from the
Variable Manager window into the application from which you started up the Variable
Manager.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) In the Main application, Graph & Table application, or
some other application, move the cursor to the location
where you want to input the variable name.

(2) Start up the Variable Manager to display the folder list.

(3) Find the name of the folder that contains the variable whose name you want to input,
and tap it twice.
(4) Tap the variable whose name you want to input, so its name is highlighted.
(5) Tap [INPUT].
• This exits the Variable Manager and inputs the
name of the variable you selected in step (4) into the
application at the current cursor position.
• In this example, the variable is located in a folder
(bio) that is not the current folder, so the folder name
needs to be specified (bio\ list02). If the variable
is located in the current folder, you do not need to
specify the folder name (list02).

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Configuring Application Format Settings

1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings
The O menu includes format settings for configuring the number of calculation result
display digits and the angle unit, as well as application-specific commands. The following
describes each of the settings and commands that are available on the O menu.
To do this:

Select this O
menu command:

Specify folder for variables, and to configure number format, angle,
and other basic settings for all built-in applications

Basic Format

Configure Graph window and graph drawing settings for Graph &
Table, Conics, and other graphing applications

Graph Format

Configure 3D Graph window and graph drawing settings for the 3D
Graph application

3D Format

Configure number format and angle settings for Geometry
application

Geometry Format

Configure Fourier transform and FFT settings

Advanced Format

Configure Financial application settings

Financial Format

Configure Presentation application settings

Presentation

Configure Communication application settings

Communication

Return all [Setup] menu settings to their initial default values (except
for the current folder setting specified on Basic Format dialog box)

Default Setup

Tip
• For more details about the structure and content of the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on
page 1-5-4.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Open any application (except the System application).
(2) Tap O.
(3) Tap the menu command you want: Basic Format, Graph Format, 3D Format, Geometry
Format, Advanced Format, Financial Format, Presentation, or Communication.
• To configure Graph Format settings, for example, tap O and then [Graph Format].
This displays the Graph Format dialog box.
• Some setup dialog boxes contain multiple tabbed sheets like the Graph Format
dialog box. Tap the tab for the sheet that contains the settings you want to configure.
(4) Use the dialog box to configure the settings you want.
• For details about the settings you can configure on each of the dialog boxes, see
“Application Format Settings” on page 1-9-4.
• Some settings require specification of a variable. For more information, see
“Specifying a Variable” on the next page.
(5) To close a dialog box and apply its settings, tap [Set]. To close a dialog box without
applying its settings, tap [Cancel] or the
button in the upper right corner of the dialog
box.
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Configuring Application Format Settings

Specifying a Variable
Certain settings require that you specify variables. If you specify a user-stored variable when
configuring the setting of such an item, you must specify the folder where the variable is
stored and the variable name.
Example: To use [Table Variable] on the [Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box for
configuring a user variable

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap O, or tap s on the icon panel, and then tap [Graph Format].
• This displays the Graph Format dialog box.
(2) Tap the [Special] tab.
(3) Tap the [Table Variable] down arrow button.
• This displays a list of variables.

(4) On the list, tap “Select List Name…”.
• This displays the Select Data dialog box for selecting a variable.

Variable type
Select the folder where
the variable is stored.
Specify the variable name.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

(5) Use the Select Data dialog box to specify the folder where the variable is saved, and
then specify the variable name.
• The sample dialog box in step (4) shows selection of the list variable named “ab”,
which is located in the folder named “main”.
(6) Tap [OK].
• This closes the Select Data dialog box.

This line shows the \
specified in step (5) (“main\ab”
in this case).
This box indicates that “main\ab”
is selected for Table Variable.

(7) Tap [Set] to save your settings.

Initializing All Application Format Settings
Perform the following procedure when you want to return all application format settings to
their initial defaults.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap O, or tap s on the icon panel, and then tap [Default Setup].
(2) In response to the “Reset Setup Data?” message that appears, tap [OK] to initialize all
settings or [Cancel] to cancel the reset operation.
• If you tap [OK], the settings are initialized and then a dialog box appears on the
display.
• For details about the initial default setting for each item, see “Application Format
Settings” on page 1-9-4.

Tip
• Initializing the application format settings does not affect the current folder setting on the Basic
Format dialog box. For details about the current folder, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on
page 1-8-3.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

Application Format Settings
This section provides details about all of the settings you can configure using the application
format settings.
The following two points apply to all of the dialog boxes.
• Some settings involve turning options on or off. Selecting a check box next to an option (so
it has a check mark) turns it on, while clearing the check box turns it off.
• Other settings consist of a text box with a down arrow button on the right. Tap the down
arrow button to display a list of available settings, and then tap the setting you want.

Important!
• Settings that are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following tables are the initial defaults.

k Basic Format Dialog Box
Use the Basic Format dialog box to configure basic settings for calculations, cells, and other
parameters.

u Current Folder
To specify this folder as the current folder:

Select this setting:

main

main*

A user-defined folder

Any other setting

• [Current Folder] settings can also be configured using the Variable Manager. For more
information, see “Specifying the Current Folder” on page 1-8-3.

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1-9-5
Configuring Application Format Settings

u Number Format
To specify this type of numeric value display format:
Auto exponential display for values less than 10–2 and from 1010
or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode)
Auto exponential display for values less than 10–9 and from 1010
or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode)
Fixed number of decimal places
Fixed number of significant digits

Select this setting:
Normal 1*
Normal 2
Fix 0 – 9
Sci 0 – 9

u Angle
To specify this angle unit:
Radians
Degrees
Grad

Select this setting:
Radian*
Degree
Grad

u Advanced
To do this:
Perform complex number calculations
(Complex mode)
Perform real number calculations (Real mode)
Display results as a decimal (Decimal mode)*1
Leave calculation results as expressions
(Standard mode)*1
Turn off auto simplification of expressions
(Assistant mode)*2
Turn on auto simplification of expressions
(Algebra mode)*2
Specify descending order (e.g. x2 + x + 1) for
the calculation result expression
Specify ascending order (e.g. 1 + x + x2) for
the calculation result expression
Specify that variables in Complex Mode
calculation should be treated as real numbers
• With this setting, re(a+bi)=a and im(a+bi)=b.
Specify that variables in Complex Mode
calculation should be treated as complex
numbers
Divide total population on its center point
between upper and lower groups, with the
median of the lower group Q1 and the median
of the upper group Q3
Make the value of element whose cumulative
frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest
to 1/4 Q1 and the value of element whose
cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4
and nearest to 3/4 Q3
20101001

Do this:
Select the [Complex Format] check
box.
Clear the [Complex Format] check box.*
Select the [Decimal Calculation]
check box.
Clear the [Decimal Calculation]
check box.*
Select the [Assistant] check box.
Clear the [Assistant] check box.*
Select the [Descending Order]
check box.*
Clear the [Descending Order] check box.
Select the [Variable is Real] check box.

Clear the [Variable is Real] check box.*

Select the [Q1, Q3 on Data] check box.

Clear the [Q1, Q3 on Data] check box.*

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Configuring Application Format Settings

*1 Executing 1 ÷ 2 in the Decimal mode produces a result of 0.5, while the Standard mode
produces a result of 1 .
2
*2 Executing x2 + 2x + 3x + 6 E in the Assistant mode produces a result of x2 + 2 • x + 3 • x + 6,
while the Algebra mode produces a result of x2 + 5 • x + 6.

Important!
The Assistant mode is available in the Main application and eActivity application only.

k Graph Format Dialog Box
Use the Graph Format dialog box to configure settings for the Graph window and for drawing
graphs.

Basic Tab
u Axes
To do this:

Select this setting:

Turn on display of Graph window axes

On*

Turn on display of Graph window axes along with maximum
and minimum value of each axis

Number

Turn off display of Graph window axes

Off

u Other settings
To do this:

Do this:

Turn on display of Graph window grid

Select the [Grid Points] check box.

Turn off display of Graph window grid

Clear the [Grid Points] check box.*

Turn on display of Graph window axis labels

Select the [Labels] check box.

Turn off display of Graph window axis labels

Clear the [Labels] check box.*

Turn on display of graph controller arrows during
graphing

Select the [G-Controller] check box.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

To do this:

Do this:

Turn off display of graph controller arrows during
graphing

Clear the [G-Controller] check box.*

Draw graphs with plotted points

Select the [Draw Plot] check box.

Draw graphs with solid lines

Clear the [Draw Plot] check box.*

Turn on display of function name and function

Select the [Graph Function] check box.*

Turn off display of function name and function

Clear the [Graph Function] check box.

Turn on display of Graph window pointer
coordinates

Select the [Coordinates] check box.*

Turn off display of Graph window pointer
coordinates

Clear the [Coordinates] check box.

Turn on display of leading cursor during graphing

Select the [Leading Cursor] check box.

Turn off display of leading cursor during graphing

Clear the [Leading Cursor] check box.*

Draw multiple graphs simultaneously

Select the [Simul Graph] check box.

Draw multiple graphs one-by-one

Clear the [Simul Graph] check box.*

Turn on display of coordinates of Graph window
pointer and its derivative on number table display

Select the [Derivative/Slope] check box.

Turn off display of coordinates of Graph window
pointer and its derivative on number table display

Clear the [Derivative/Slope] check box.*

Special Tab
u Background
To do this:

Select this setting:

Turn off Graph window background display

Off*

Select an image to be used as Graph window background



u Cell Width Pattern
To specify this row width for stat editor and data table
displays:
2 cells
3 cells
4 cells

Select this setting:
2 Cells
3 Cells*
4 Cells

u Table Variable
To specify this source for table data:

Select this setting:

Table input

Table input*

List data

list1 through list6

Select list data to be used as source for table data



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Configuring Application Format Settings

u Summary Table
To specify this source for summary table data:

Select this setting:

View Window

View Window*

List data

list1 through list6

Select list data to be used as source for summary table data



u Summary Table f ’’(x)
To do this:

Select this setting:

Turn on display of second derivative for summary tables

On*

Turn off display of second derivative for summary tables

Off

u Stat Window Auto
To do this:

Do this:

Configure Statistics application View Window
settings automatically

Select the [Stat Window Auto] check box.*

Configure Statistics application View Window
settings manually

Clear the [Stat Window Auto] check box.

k 3D Format Dialog Box
Use the 3D Format dialog box to configure settings for
the 3D Graph window and for drawing 3D graphs.
For full details about the 3D Graph application,
see Chapter 5.

u Coordinates
To do this:

u Axes
Select this
setting:

Display coordinate values
using rectangular
coordinates

Rectangular*

Display coordinate values
using polar coordinates

Polar

Turn off display of
coordinates

Off

20101001

To do this:

Select this
setting:

Display axes normally

On

Display box type
coordinate axes

Box

Turn off display of axes

Off*

1-9-9
Configuring Application Format Settings

u Labels
To do this:

Select this setting:

Turn on display of Graph window axis labels

On

Turn off display of Graph window axis labels

Off*

u Background
To do this:

Select this setting:

Turn off Graph window background display

Off*

Select an image to be used as the Graph
window background



• The above is the same as the [Background] setting on the Graph Format dialog box.

u G-Controller
To do this:

Do this:

Turn on display of graph controller arrows
during graphing

Select the [G-Controller] check box.

Turn off display of graph controller arrows
during graphing

Clear the [G-Controller] check box.*

• The above is the same as the [G-Controller] setting on the Graph Format dialog box.

k Geometry Format Dialog Box
Use the Geometry Format dialog box to configure settings for the Geometry application.

Tip
• The information that appears in the preview area at
the bottom of the dialog box shows a preview of the
Geometry application window, based on the settings
configured in upper half of the dialog box.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

u Number Format
To specify this type of numeric value display format on
the Geometry window:

Select this setting:

Auto exponential display for values less than 10–2 and from
1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode)

Normal 1

Auto exponential display for values less than 10–9 and from
1010 or greater (when you are in the Decimal mode)

Normal 2

Fixed number of decimal places

Fix 0 – 9

Fixed number of significant digits

Sci 0 – 9

• The initial default [Number Format] setting is Fix 2.

u Measure Angle
To specify the angle unit for the measurement box:

Select this setting:

Radian

Radian

Degree

Degree*

Grad

Grad

u Function Angle
To specify the angle unit for graphing:

Select this setting:

Radian

Radian*

Degree

Degree

Grad

Grad

u Axes
To set the initial Graph window axes condition when
opening the Geometry application:

Select this setting:

Turn on display of Graph window axes

On

Turn on display of Graph window axes along with maximum
and minimum value of each axis

Number

Turn off display of Graph window axes

Off*

u Integer Grid
To set the initial condition of integer grid when
opening the Geometry application:

Do this:

Turn on display of integer grid

Select the [Integer Grid] check box.

Turn off display of integer grid

Clear the [Integer Grid] check box.*

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Configuring Application Format Settings

k Advanced Format Dialog Box
Use the Advanced Format dialog box to configure
settings for Fourier transform and FFT settings.

u Fourier Transform
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify following formula for Fourier transform:

Pure Math*

Specify following formula for Fourier transform:

Modern Physics

Specify following formula for Fourier transform:

Classical Physics

Specify following formula for Fourier transform:

Probability

Specify following formula for Fourier transform:

Signal Processing

u FFT
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify Pure Math for FFT scaling constant

Pure Math

Specify Signal Processing for FFT scaling constant

Signal Processing*

Specify Data Analysis for FFT scaling constant

Data Analysis

u Assume positive real
To do this:

Do this:

Assume variables for Fourier calculation are positive reals

Select the [Assume positive
real] check box.*

Allow complex numbers as variables for Fourier calculation

Clear the [Assume positive
real] check box.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

k Financial Format Dialog Box
Use the Financial Format dialog box to configure
settings for the Financial application.

Basic Tab
u Days in Year
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify a 360-day year

360 days

Specify a 365-day year

365 days*

u Payment Date
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify beginning of period for the payment date

Beginning of period

Specify end of period for the payment date

End of period*

u Date Format
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify day/month/year as the date format

DD/MM/YYYY

Specify month/day/year as the date format

MM/DD/YYYY*

Specify year/month/day as the date format

YYYY/MM/DD

u Automatically copy common fields to new calculation
To do this:

Do this:

When changing to another calculation type,
automatically copy the contents of all fields in
the current calculation whose names match the
names of fields in the new calculation

Select the [Automatically copy common
fields to new calculation] check box.

When changing to another calculation type,
clear all fields

Clear the [Automatically copy common
fields to new calculation] check box.*

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Configuring Application Format Settings

Special Tab
u Odd Period
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify compound interest for odd (partial) months

Compound (CI)

Specify simple interest for odd (partial) months

Simple (SI)

Specify no separation of full and odd (partial) months

Off*

u Compounding Frequency
To do this:

Select this setting:

Specify once a year compounding

Annual*

Specify twice a year compounding

Semi-annual

u Bond Interval
To do this:

Select this setting:

Use a number of payments as term for bond calculations

Term*

Use a date as term for bond calculations

Date

u Profit Amount/Ratio
To do this:

Select this setting:

Use amount (PRF) for break-even point calculations

Amount (PRF)*

Use profit ratio (r%) for break-even point calculations

Ratio (r%)

u Break-Even Value
To do this:

Select this setting:

Use quantity for break-even point calculations

Quantity*

Use sales amount for break-even point calculations

Sales

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Configuring Application Format Settings

k Presentation Dialog Box
Use the Presentation dialog box to configure settings
for the Presentation application. For full details about the
Presentation application, see Chapter 11.

To do this:

Do this:

Send hard copy data to an external device

Select “Outer Device” for [Screen Copy To].*

Save hard copy data internally as
Presentation data

Select “P1:**” through
“P20:**” for [Screen Copy To].

Specify the page change speed for Auto
Play

Specify a [Play Speed] value from 1 (fastest)
to 10 (slowest).

Capture the upper half of the window when
h is tapped

Select the [Half Screen Capturing] check
box.

Capture the entire window when h is
tapped

Clear the [Half Screen Capturing] check
box.*

Turn on repeat playback of files

Select the [Repeat] check box.

Turn off repeat playback of files

Clear the [Repeat] check box.*

Turn on page number display during
playback and editing

Select the [Page Number] check box.*

Turn off page number display during
playback and editing

Clear the [Page Number] check box.

• The initial default [Play Speed] setting is 4.
**  will show the name of the presentation file.

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Configuring Application Format Settings

k Communication Dialog Box
Use the Communication dialog box to configure
communication settings. For full details about the
Communication application, see Chapter 2 in the separate
Hardware User’s Guide.

u Screen Copy To
To do this with hard
copy data generated by
tapping h:

u Cable Type
Select this
setting:

Send hard copy data to an Outer
external device
Device*
Save hard copy data
internally as Presentation
data

To use this type of
cable for data
communication:

Select this
setting:

3-pin cable

3pin cable

USB cable

USB cable*

P1 - P20

u Speed (3Pin)

u Wakeup Enable

To specify this data rate
for 3-pin communication:

Select this
setting:

9,600 bps

9600 bps

38,400 bps

38400 bps

115,200 bps

115200 bps*

20110401

To do this:

Select this
setting:

Turn on the wakeup
function (page 2-3-2 in
the separate Hardware
User’s Guide)

On*

Turn off the wakeup
function

Off

Chapter

Using the Main
Application
The Main application is a general-purpose numerical and mathematical
calculation application that you can use to study mathematics and
solve mathematical problems. You can use the Main application to
perform general operations from basic arithmetic calculations, to
calculations that involve lists, matrices, etc.
The Main application also provides you with an [Action] menu and
[Interactive] menu from which you can select approximately 120
different commands for working with mathematical expressions.
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10

Main Application Overview
Basic Calculations
Using the Calculation History
Function Calculations
List Calculations
Matrix and Vector Calculations
Specifying a Number Base
Using the Action Menu
Using the Interactive Menu
Using the Main Application in Combination with
Other Applications
2-11 Using Verify
2-12 Using Probability
2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application
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2-1-1
Main Application Overview

2-1 Main Application Overview
This section provides information about the following.
• Main application windows
• Modes that determine how calculations and their results are displayed
• Menus and their commands

Starting Up the Main Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Main application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap J.
This starts the Main application and displays the work area.

Main Application Window
Starting up the Main application displays a large white work area.
Menu bar
The [Action] menu and
[Interactive] menu are for
executing mathematical
expressions.

Toolbar
Work area
Use this area for inputting
operations and commands.
ClassPad also uses this
area to output calculation
results.
Status bar
This area shows the current
mode settings for the Main
application.

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2-1-2
Main Application Overview

• Basic Main application operations consist of inputting a calculation expression into the work
area and pressing E. This performs the calculation and then displays its result on the right
side of the work area.

Input
expression
Calculation
result

• Calculation results are displayed in natural format, with mathematical expressions
appearing just as they do in your textbook. You can also input expressions in natural format
using the ) soft keyboard.
• The Main application also has a calculation history feature, which saves up to 30 calculation
expressions you input and their calculated results. As long you do not clear the record, this
information is available for later recall. This way you can recall a past calculation, make
changes to it, and recalculate.

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Main Application Overview

Main Application Menus and Buttons
This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the
Main application.
• For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4.
Menu Commands

To do this:

Select this
menu item:

Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone
Cut the selected character string and place it onto the clipboard
Copy the selected character string and place it onto the clipboard

Edit - Undo/Redo
Edit - Cut
Edit - Copy

Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor position in
the work area

Edit - Paste

Select the entire row (input expression or value, or result) where the
cursor is located in the work area

Edit - Select All

Delete the input expression and its result where the cursor is located
in the work area

Edit - Delete

Clear variables that contain numbers, list and matrices

Edit - Clear All
Variables

Clear all work area contents (calculation history)
Insert a command into the work area (page 2-8-1)

Edit - Clear All
Action

Execute an Interactive command for the expression selected in the
work area (page 2-9-1)

Interactive

Button Functions

Tap this button:

To do this:
Toggle calculation result display between the Standard mode and
Decimal mode

u

Recalculate the equation just for the current line where the cursor is
currently located

7

Output an input expression as-is*

0

Switch between binary, octal, decimal or hexadecimal number bases
during normal calculation (page 2-7-3)

<

Access ClassPad application windows from the Main application
(page 2-1-5)

!

* Normally, inputting and executing an expression like ∫ (x × sin(x), x) integrates x × sin(x)
and displays the result sin(x) – x × cos(x). Tapping 0 displays ∫ (x × sin(x), x) as-is, in a
natural math format without performing any calculation.

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Main Application Overview

Using Main Application Modes
The Main application has a number of different modes that control how calculation results are
displayed, as well as other factors. The current mode is indicated in the status bar.

k Status Bar Mode Indicators

1

2

3

4

Settings that are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following tables are initial defaults.

Status Bar
Indicator
Location
Assist

Assistant mode: Does not automatically
simplify expressions.

Alg

Algebra mode: Automatically simplifies
expressions.

1

Decimal
2

3

4

Description

Setting

On
Assistant
Off*

Decimal mode: Converts result to a
decimal (approximate value).

On

Decimal
Standard mode: Displays result in exact
Calculation
form (fractional format). If a result cannot
Standard
be displayed in exact form, however, it will
be displayed as a decimal approximation.
Cplx

Complex mode: For complex number
calculations.

Real

Real mode: For real number calculations.

Rad

Radian mode: Angles displayed in radians.

Deg

Degree mode: Angles displayed in
degrees.

Gra

Grad mode: Angles displayed in grads.

Status

Complex
Format

Off*

On
Off*
Radian*

Angle

Degree
Grad

• You can tap a mode name in the status bar to change it, or use the O menu’s [Basic
Format] command to change the setting of each mode. For details about these settings,
see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”.
• For details about the calculations and result displays produced in each of the above modes,
see “Calculation Modes” on page 2-2-6.

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2-1-5
Main Application Overview

Accessing ClassPad Application Windows from the Main Application
Tapping the down arrow button on the toolbar displays a palette of 15 icons that you can
use to access certain windows of other ClassPad applications. Tapping the ( button, for
example, splits the display into two windows, with the Stat Editor window of the Statistics
application in the lower window.

Main application
work area

• For details about swapping the
positions of the two windows,
activating a window, closing a
window, etc, see “Using a Dual
Window Display” on page 1-5-1.

Stat Editor window

The following table displays the application you can access with each of the buttons.

Tap this
button:

See Chapter:

Graph & Table application Graph window
Graph & Table application Graph Editor window
3D Graph application 3D Graph window
3D Graph application 3D Graph Editor window
Conics application Conics Graph window
Conics application Conics Editor window
Geometry application Geometry window
Spreadsheet application window
Statistics application Stat Editor window

$
!
%
@
^
*
3
Q
(

3
3
5
5
4
4
8
13
7

Differential Equation application Differential Equation Editor
window
Financial application window

A

14

I

15

Probability window

P

Numeric Solver application Numeric Solver window
Sequence application Sequence Editor window

1
&

Verify window

W

See “2-12 Using
Probability”.
9
6
See “2-11 Using
Verify”.

To display this window:

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2-1-6
Main Application Overview

• You can perform drag and drop operations with expressions between the Main application
work area and the currently displayed window. For example, you could drag an expression
from the Main application work area to the Graph window, and graph the expression. For
details, see “2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications”.
• For details about how to use each type of window, see the chapter for the appropriate
application.

Accessing the Main Application Window from Another ClassPad
Application
Some ClassPad applications allow you to access the Main application window by tapping
O and then [Main]. In the Statistics application and some other applications, you can also
access the Main application window by tapping the ~ button.
The following are examples of what you can do after opening the Main application window
within another application.
• Using the Main application window as a calculator to perform a simple calculation
• Using drag and drop to copy expressions and values between windows
Example: To drag an expression from the Graph Editor window to the Main application work
area

For full details about individual operations, see the chapters that cover each application.

Tip
• You cannot access the Main application window from the Geometry, Presentation, Spreadsheet,
Financial, Communication, or System application.
• You can access the Geometry application from the Main application.

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2-2-1
Basic Calculations

2-2 Basic Calculations
This section explains how to perform basic mathematical operations in the Main application.

Arithmetic Calculations and Parentheses Calculations
• You can perform arithmetic calculations by inputting expressions as they are written. All of
the example calculations shown below are performed using the 9 soft keyboard, unless
noted otherwise.
• To input a negative value, tap - or - before entering the value.
• The order of operations is followed when a calculation consists of mixed arithmetic
operations (multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction).
• The example calculations are all performed using the Decimal mode. Using the Standard
mode causes results to be displayed as fractions. For details about the Decimal mode and
Standard mode, see “Status Bar Mode Indicators” on page 2-1-4.
Calculation

Key Operation

23 + 4.5 – 53 = –25.5

cd+e.f-fdw

56 × (–12) ÷ (–2.5) = 268.8

fg*(-bc)/(-c.f)w

(2 + 3) × 102 = 500

(c+d)Ecw

1 + 2 – 3 × 4 ÷ 5 + 6 = 6.6

b+c-d*e/f+gw

100 – (2 + 3) × 4 = 80

baa-(c+d)*ew

2 + 3 × (4 + 5) = 29

c+d*(e+f)w

(7 – 2) × (8 + 5) = 65

(h-c)*(i+f)w

6
= 0.3
4×5

g/(e*f)w or

(1 + 2i) + (2 + 3i) = 3 + 5i

(b+ci)+(c+di)w

(2 + i) × (2 – i ) = 5

(c+i)*(c-i)w

) Ngce*fw

Tip
• For details about the calculations and result displays produced in each mode, see “Calculation
Modes” on page 2-2-6.
• To toggle a result between decimal and fractional format, tap u before pressing E.

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2-2-2
Basic Calculations

Using the e Key
Use the e key to input exponential values. You can also input exponential values using the
E key on the 9 and ) keyboards.
Examples: 2.54 × 103 = 2540
c.feedw
1600 × 10–4 = 0.16
bgaaE-ew

Omitting the Multiplication Sign
You can omit the multiplication sign in any of the following cases.
• In front of a function
Examples: 2sin (30), 10log (1.2)
• In front of a constant or variable
Examples: a π, 2ab, 3ans
• In front of an open parenthesis
Examples: 3(5 + 6), (a + 1)(b – 1)
Note that you must use a multiplication sign when the expression directly in front of the
open parenthesis is a literal variable. Example: ab (3 + b) must be written ab × (3 + b).
Otherwise, your input is considered to be in function notation ( f (x)).
• In front of the e key or E key (See “Using the e Key” above.)
• In front of a matrix or list
Examples: a {1, 2, 3}, 3 [[1, 2] [3, 4]]

Using the Answer Variable (ans)
Any time you execute a calculation in the Main application work area, the last result is
assigned automatically to a variable named “ans” (answer). You can even recall current “ans”
variable contents and input them into another calculation by tapping the D key as shown
below.
Example: 123 + 456 = 579

bcd+efgw

789 – 579 = 210

hij-Dw

210 ÷ 7 = 30

/hw*

* Starting a calculation expression with +, −, ×, ÷, or ^ operator will cause the “ans”  
variable to be inserted automatically to the left of the operator, even if you do not tap
the D key. For more information, see “Performing Continuous Calculations” on
page 2-2-3.

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2-2-3
Basic Calculations

Tip
• The “ans” variable is a system variable. For details about system variables, see “1-7 Variables
and Folders”.
• Since “ans” is a variable name, you can specify the “ans” variable by inputting [a][n][s] on the
0 (alphabet) keyboard, or by tapping the D key on the 9 or the ) keyboard.
• The “ans” variable stores the result of your last or most recent calculation.
• The work area maintains a calculation history of the calculations you perform (page 2-3-1). Any
instance of the “ans” variable in the calculation history contains the result of the calculation
immediately prior to that instance. You can use “ans” as many times as you want in calculations,
as long as you remember that the value or expression assigned to each “ans” variable in the
calculation history is determined by the calculation immediately preceding it.
• Using the “ans” variable in a calculation results in an error if the previous calculation produced an
error display or after a program produces the “done” message on the display.
• The format of the calculation result value assigned to the “ans” variable depends on the Basic
Format dialog box [Number Format] setting (page 1-9-5). The following illustrates the format used
when “Fix2” is selected for the [Number Format] setting.
approx (1/3) w

0.33

ans × 3 w

0.99

See “Standard Mode and Decimal Mode” on page 2-2-6.

k Performing Continuous Calculations
Answer memory also lets you use the result of one calculation as one of the arguments in
the next calculation.
Example: 1 ÷ 3 =
1÷3×3=
cb/dw
(Continuing)*dw

Continuous calculations can be used with +, –, ×, ÷, and ^.

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2-2-4
Basic Calculations

Assigning a Value to a Variable
Besides using the variable assignment key (W, page 1-7-6), you can also use the syntax
shown below in the Main application and eActivity application to assign a value to a variable.
Syntax: Variable: = value
Example: Assign 123 to variable x

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
9X0L:9=bcd
(2) w

Important!
“:=” can be used only in Main and eActivity. It can NOT be used in a program. In the Program
application, you must use W to store a value to a variable.

Calculation Error
An error message dialog box, like the one shown below, appears when there is a problem
with the syntax of an input expression or value, when the number of decimal places of a
calculation result in the Standard mode (page 2-2-6) exceeds a specified range, etc. Tap [OK]
to close the dialog box and return to the calculation.

Tip
• The text of the error message dialog box depends on the type of error that occurred. For details,
see the “Error Message Table” on page -5-1.
• If you perform a calculation that is mathematically undefined (such as division by zero), the
message “Undefined” appears in place of the calculation result, without display of an error
message.

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2-2-5
Basic Calculations

Calculation Priority Sequence
Your ClassPad automatically performs calculations in the following sequence.
1 Commands with parentheses (sin(, diff(, etc.)
2 Factorials (x!), degree specifications (o, r ), percents (%)
3 Powers
4 π, memory, and variable multiplication operations that omit the multiplication sign (2π, 5A,
etc.)
Command with parentheses multiplication operations that omit the multiplication sign (2 3,
etc.)
×,÷
5 +, –, (–)
6 Relational operators (=, ≠, <, >, <, >)
7 and
8 or, xor
9 with ( | )
Example: 2 + 3 × (log (sin(2π2)) + 6.8) = 22.07101691 (In Algebra mode, Decimal mode,
Radian mode.)
1
2
3
4
5
6

Tip
• Expressions in parentheses are given priority.
• In cases where a series of calculations in the same expression includes more than one of the
operators 4 through 9 that are the same priority sequence level, the same level operations are
performed from left to right. A series of power calculations 3 (example: 5^2^3) is performed from
right to left (5^(2^3)).

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2-2-6
Basic Calculations

Calculation Modes
The Main application has a number of different modes, as described under “Using Main
Application Modes” on page 2-1-4. The display format of calculation results depends on the
currently selected Main application mode. This section tells you which mode you need to
use for each type of calculation, and explains the differences between the calculation results
produced by each mode.
• All of the following calculation examples are shown using the Algebra mode only.

k Standard Mode and Decimal Mode
The Standard mode displays calculation results in mathematical expression format whenever
possible, while the decimal mode converts calculation results to a decimal form. When the
Decimal mode is selected, you can control the use of exponential notation with the [Number
Format] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-5).

u Examples of Decimal mode and Standard mode result displays
Expression

Decimal Mode Result

Standard Mode Result

12.5

25
2

100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666...

16.66666667

50
3

2 + 2 = 3.414213562...

3.414213562

2+ 2

3.52 ÷ 3 + 2.5 = 6.583333333...

6.583333333

79
12

π = 3.1415926535...

3.141592654

π

sin (2.1π) × 5 = 1.5450849718...

1.545084972

5·( 5 − 1 )
4

50 ÷ 4 = 12.5

• The Decimal mode results in the above table show what would appear on the display when
“Normal 1” is selected for the [Number Format] setting on the Basic Format dialog box.

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2-2-7
Basic Calculations

u Using the u Button to Toggle between the Standard Mode and Decimal
Mode
You can tap u to toggle a displayed value between Standard mode and Decimal mode
format.
Note that tapping u toggles the format of a displayed value. It does not change the current
Standard mode/Decimal mode setting.
Example 1: Tapping u while the ClassPad is configured for Standard mode (Normal 1)
display
Expression

100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666...

ClassPad Operation

Displayed Result

baa/gu
(Switches to Decimal mode format.)

16.66666667

u (Switches back to Standard mode
format.)

50
3

Example 2: Tapping u while the ClassPad is configured for Decimal mode (Normal 1)
display
Expression

ClassPad Operation

Displayed Result

9c)+cu
2 + 2 = 3.414213562... (Switches to Standard mode format.)

2+ 2

u (Switches back to Decimal mode format.)

3.414213562

u Number of Decimal Places, Number of Significant Digits, Normal Display
Settings
The [Number Format] settings on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) specify the
number of decimal places, the number of significant digits, and the normal display setting
for Main application Decimal mode calculation results. The following shows how calculation
results appear under each setting.
Expression

Normal 1

50 ÷ 4 = 12.5

Normal 2

Fix 3

Sci 3

12.5

12.5

12.500

1.25E + 1

16.66666667

16.66666667

16.667

1.67E + 1

1 ÷ 600 = 0.00166666... 1.666666667E –3

0.00166666666

0.002

1.67E – 3

2.5E + 10

2.5E + 10

2.50E + 10

100 ÷ 6 = 16.6666666...
11

10 ÷ 4 = 2.5E + 10

2.5E + 10

• The allowable range for the number of decimal places is Fix 0 to Fix 9, and the range for
the number of significant digits is Sci 0 to Sci 9. For details about the [Number Format]
settings, see “Basic Format Dialog Box” on page 1-9-4.

k Complex Mode and Real Mode
The Complex mode is for complex number calculations, while the Real mode is limited to
calculations within the range of real numbers. Performing a calculation in the Real mode
that produces a result that is outside the range of real numbers causes an error (Non-Real in
Calc).
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2-2-8
Basic Calculations

u Examples of Complex mode and Real mode calculation results
Expression
3

Complex Mode

2

solve (x – x + x – 1 = 0, x)

Real Mode

{x = –i, x = i, x = 1}

{x = 1}

3·i

ERROR: Non-Real in Calc

i + 2i
3 i)(⬔(2,45°))
(1 + '

⬔(4,105)

ERROR: Non-Real in Calc

Tip
• You can select “ i ” or “ j ” for the imaginary unit. See “Specifying the Complex Number Imaginary
Unit” on page 16-10-1.
• If the expression includes ⬔(r,), calculation results should be ⬔(r,) form.

k Radian Mode, Degree Mode and Grad Mode
You can specify radians, degrees or grads as the angle unit for display of trigonometric
calculation results.

u Examples of Radian mode, Degree mode and Grad mode calculation results
Expression

Radian Mode

Degree Mode

Grad Mode
π
4

sin

sin (45)

2
2

sin (45)

sin (50)

sin (50)

2
2

sin (π/4)

2
2

sin (45)
sin (50)

sin

( )

π
4

( )

Important!
Regardless of the currently selected angle unit setting, a calculation that includes an
imaginary number power exponent (such as: eπi) is performed using radians as the angle unit
(eπi = −1).

k Assistant Mode and Algebra Mode
The Algebra mode automatically simplifies mathematical expressions produced by
calculations. No simplification is performed in the Assistant mode. In the Assistant mode,
you can view intermediate results as well, which allows you to see the steps that lead to a
particular result as shown in the “expand” example below.

u Examples of Assistant mode and Algebra mode calculation results
Expression

Assistant Mode

Algebra Mode

x2 + 2x + 3x + 6

x2 + 2 · x + 3 · x + 6

x2 + 5 · x + 6

expand ((x+1)2)

x2 + 2 · x · 1 + 12

x2 + 2 · x + 1

x+1

2

x + 1 (When 1 is assigned to x)
Important!

The Assistant mode is available in the Main application and eActivity application only.
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2-3-1
Using the Calculation History

2-3 Using the Calculation History
The Main application work area calculation history can contain up to 30 expression/result
pairs. You can look up a previous calculation, edit, and then re-calculate it, if you want.

Viewing Calculation History Contents
Use the scroll bar or scroll buttons to scroll the work area window up and down. This brings
current calculation history contents into view.

Scroll bar

Scroll button

You can use the cursor keys to move to an input expression/calculation result within the
calculation history window.

Tip
• After the number of expression/result pairs reaches 30, performing a new calculation causes the
oldest calculation currently in the calculation history memory to be deleted.

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2-3-2
Using the Calculation History

Re-calculating an Expression
You can edit a calculation expression in the calculation history and then re-calculate the
resulting expression. Tapping w re-calculates the expression where the cursor is currently
located, and also re-calculates all of the expressions below the current cursor location.
Example 1: To change the expression “ans × 2” to “ans × 3” in the example below, and then
re-calculate

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap to the right of the expression “ans × 2” to locate the cursor there.
(2) Delete “2” and input “3”.
Kd
(3) Tap w.
• This re-calculates the expression where the cursor is located, and all the expressions
underneath it.

Re-calculated

Important!
Remember that re-calculation is performed starting from the current cursor location. If, after
performing the first two steps of the above procedure, you move the cursor to the end of
“ans + 6” in line 3 of the calculation history and then tap w, only line 3 is re-calculated.
Not re-calculated
(because it is above the
cursor location)
Re-calculated

If you edit multiple expressions in the calculation history, always make sure that the cursor is
located in the uppermost line that you edited before you tap w.

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2-3-3
Using the Calculation History

Example 2: To change from the Standard mode to the Decimal mode (page 2-2-6), and then
re-calculate

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Move the cursor to the location from which you want to re-calculate.
• In this example, we will tap the end of line 2 to locate the cursor there.
(2) Tap “Standard” on the status bar to toggle it to “Decimal”.
(3) Tap w.
• This recalculates all of the expressions starting from the cursor position, and displays
the results using Decimal mode format.

Re-calculated

Tip
• You can also change to Decimal mode by tapping s on the icon panel and then tapping [Basic
Format]. Select the “Decimal Calculation” check box and then tap [Set].
• To re-calculate only a single specific line, tap D. Tapping D re-calculates the calculation
where the cursor is currently located only. It does not affect anything in calculation history that
comes before or after the line.
• To re-calculate all of the expressions in the calculation history, locate the cursor in the top line,
and then tap w.

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2-3-4
Using the Calculation History

Deleting Part of the Calculation History Contents
You can use the following procedure to delete an individual two-line expression/result unit
from the calculation history.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Move the cursor to the expression line or result line of the two-line unit you want to
delete.
(2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
• This deletes the expression and result of the two-line unit you selected.

Important!
Even if the result of the deleted two-line unit has an effect on subsequent calculations, the
affected calculations are not updated automatically following the deletion. When you want to
update everything in the calculation history following the deleted unit, move the cursor to a
line that is above the one you deleted and then tap w. For details about re-calculation, see
page 2-3-2.

Clearing All Calculation History Contents
Perform the following procedure when you want to clear the entire calculation history
currently in the Main application work area.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap [Edit] and then [Clear All].
(2) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK] to clear calculation
history contents, or [Cancel] to cancel.

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2-4-1
Function Calculations

2-4 Function Calculations
This section explains how to perform function calculations in the Main application work area.
• Most of the operators and functions described in this section are input from the 9 (math)
and ( (catalog) keyboard. The actual keyboard you should use to perform the sample
operations presented here is the one indicated by a  mark or by button names* (“TRIG”,
“MATH”, “Cmd”, etc.) in one of the columns titled “Use this keyboard”.
* For more information about these buttons, see “Advanced Soft Keyboard Operations” (page
1-6-8).
• You do not need to input the closing parenthesis that comes immediately before an E
key operation. All of the calculation examples in this section omit the closing parentheses
before E.
The following example calculations are all performed using the Decimal mode. Using the
Standard mode causes results to be displayed as fractions. For details about the Decimal
mode and Standard mode, see “Status Bar Mode Indicators” on page 2-1-4.

k Angle Conversion (°, r )
The first two examples below use “Degree” (indicated by “Deg” in the status bar) as the
angle unit setting. The final example uses “Radian” (indicated by “Rad” in the status bar) as
the angle unit setting. Note that using the wrong angle unit setting will make it impossible to
produce correct calculation results.

u To change the angle unit setting
(1) On the O menu, tap [Basic Format].
(2) Tap the [Angle] down arrow button, and then select [Radian], [Degree] or [Grad].
For more information about this operation, see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
2D

Operation

mth

abc

cat

Convert 4.25 radians to
degrees.
= 243.5070629

TRIG

MATH

Cmd

4.25 Rw

47.3° + 82.5rad = 4774.20181°

TRIG

MATH

Cmd

47.3 + 82.5 Rw

How many radians is
243.5070629°?
= 4.249999999

TRIG

MATH

Cmd

Change the [Angle] setting
to “Radian”, and then input
243.5070629 *w.

Tip
• You can also change the angle unit setting by tapping the current setting (Rad, Deg, or Gra) on
the status bar. Each tap will cycle through the available settings.

20060301

2-4-2
Function Calculations

k Trigonometric Functions (sin, cos, tan) and Inverse Trigonometric
Functions (sin–1, cos–1, tan–1)
The first four examples below use “Degree” (indicated by “Deg” in the status bar) as the
angle unit setting. The final example uses “Radian” (indicated by “Rad”). For details about
these settings, see “1-9 Configuring Application Format Settings”.

Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

Operation

2D

sin63° = 0.8910065242

TRIG

Func

s 63 w

2 · sin45° × cos65°
= 0.5976724775

TRIG

Func

2*s 45 )*c 65 w
Can be omitted.

cosec30° =

1
=2
sin30°

TRIG

Func

1/s30w or
)N 1c
9 s 30 w

TRIG
sin–10.5 =30°
(Determine x for sinx = 0.5.)
cos((

π
) rad) = 0.5
3

Func

S 0.5 w
“.5” can also be used.

TRIG

Func

Change the [Angle] setting to
“Radian”.
c7 /3 w or
c)N 7c 3 w

Tip
• The angle unit setting you specify remains in effect until you change it.
• To move between entry boxes in a 2D math symbol you can use the cursor keys or tap inside a
box.

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2-4-3
Function Calculations

k Logarithmic Functions (log, ln) and Exponential Functions (e, ^, k
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

)

Operation

log1.23 (log101.23) =
0.08990511144



Func



l 1.23 w or
)V 10 e 1.23 w

ln90 (loge90) = 4.49980967



Func



I 90 w or
)V0ne
e 90 w

log39 = 2



Func



l 3 , 9 w or
)V 3 e 9 w

101.23 = 16.98243652



MATH Cmd



10 { 1.23 w

e4.5 = 90.0171313



MATH Func



e 4.5 w or
)Q 4.5 w

(–3)4 = (–3) × (–3) × (–3) ×
(–3) = 81



MATH Cmd



(- 3 ){ 4 w

–34 = – (3 × 3 × 3 × 3) = –81



MATH Cmd



-3{4w



MATH Cmd



123 {( 1 / 7 w or
)% 7 e 123 w



MATH Cmd



2 + 3 * 64 {( 1 /
3 )- 4 w or ) 2 +
3 *% 3 e 64 e- 4 w

7

1
—
7

123 (= 123 )
= 1.988647795

2+3×

3

64 – 4 = 10

Can be omitted.

Tip
• ^ and





have a higher calculation priority sequence than × and ÷.

20060301

2-4-4
Function Calculations

k Hyperbolic Functions (sinh, cosh, tanh) and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
(sinh–1, cosh–1, tanh–1)
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

sinh3.6 = 18.28545536

TRIG

Func

=1 3.6 w

cosh1.5 – sinh1.5
= 0.2231301601

TRIG

Func

=2 1.5 )-11.5
w

e–1.5 = 0.2231301601*



20
)
15
= 0.7953654612

TRIG

cosh–1 (

Solve for x given
tanh(4x) = 0.88.

MATH

Func
Func



e - 1.5 w
=@ 20 / 15 w or
=@)N 20 c
15 w

TRIG

Func

=# 0.88 )/ 4 w or
)N9=#

–1

tanh 0.88
4
= 0.3439419141

0.88 )c 4 w

x=

* This problem checks whether coshx  sinhx = ex. Solving the problem above this one
(cosh1.5 – sinh1.5) and comparing it with this problem’s solution shows that they are equal.

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2-4-5
Function Calculations

k Other Functions (%,
sRound)
Problem

, x2, x –1, x!, abs, ⬔, signum, int, frac, intg, fRound,
Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

Operation

2D

What is 12% of 1500? 180

SMBL Cmd

1500 * 12 &w

What percent of 880 is 660?
75%

SMBL Cmd

660 / 880 &w

What value is 15% greater
than 2500?
2875

SMBL Cmd

2500 *( 1 + 15 &

What value is 25% less than
3500?
2625

SMBL Cmd

3500 *( 1 - 25 &

2 + 5 = 3.65028154



Func



9 2 )+ 9 5 w or
)5 2 e+5 5 w

(3 + i) = 1.755317302
+ 0.2848487846i



Func



(–3)2 = (–3) × (–3) = 9



Cmd

(- 3 )xw

–32 = –(3 × 3) = –9



Cmd

- 3 xw

1
= 12
1
1
–
3
4



Cmd



Change to the Complex mode
(“Cplx” indicated on the status
bar).
9 3 +0w or
)5 3 +0w

( 3 X- 4 X)Xw
or
)N 1 cN 1 c
3 e-N
1c4w

8! (= 1 × 2 × 3 × … × 8)
= 40320
What is the absolute value
of the common logarithm of
3
?
4
3
⎜log ( )⎟ = 0.1249387366
4
8⬔40° × 5⬔35°
⬔(8,40) × ⬔(5,35)

CALC SMBL Cmd


Func

8


w

$l 3 / 4 w or
)4 V 10 eN
3c4w

OPTN Change to the Degree mode
(“Deg” indicated on the status
bar).
~ 8 , 40 )*~ 5 ,
35 )w

OPTN

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2-4-6
Function Calculations

Use this keyboard:

Problem

mth

abc

What is the sign of
–3.4567?
–1
(signum returns –1 for a
negative value, 1 for a
positive value, “Undefined” for
A
0, and
for an
⎜A⎟
imaginary number.)
What is the integer part of
–3.4567?

CALC

cat

2D

Operation

Func

[signum] - 3.4567 w

Func

- 3.4567 w

–3

What is the decimal part of
–3.4567?
–0.4567

Func

[frac] - 3.4567 w

What is the greatest integer
less than or equal to
–3.4567?
–4

Func

[intg] - 3.4567 w

What is –3.4567 rounded to
two decimal places?
–3.46

Func

[fRound] - 3.4567 , 2
w

What is –34567 rounded to
four significant digits?
–34570

Func

[sRound] - 34567 , 4
w*

* To round to 10 digits, specify “0” for the second argument.

k Random Number Generator (rand, randList, randNorm, randBin, RandSeed)
• The ClassPad random number generator can generate truly random numbers (nonsequential random numbers) and random numbers that follow a particular pattern (sequential
random numbers). Using the “randList” function, you can generate a list whose elements
contain random numbers. There are nine different patterns for generation of sequential
random numbers. Use the “RandSeed” command to switch between non-sequential and
sequential random number generation, and to select the sequential random number
generation pattern.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Use the “RandSeed” command to configure random number generation settings, if
required.
(2) Use the “rand”, “randList”, “randNorm”, or “randBin” function to generate the random
numbers.

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2-4-7
Function Calculations

u “rand” Function
• The “rand” function generates random numbers. If you do not specify an argument, “rand”
generates 10-digit decimal values 0 or greater and less than 1.
Specifying two integer values for the argument generates random numbers between them.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

Generate random numbers
between 0 and 1.

Func

[rand] w

Generate random integers
between 1 and 6.

Func

[rand] 1 , 6 w

u “randList” Function
Syntax: randList(n [, a, b])
Function:
• Omitting arguments “a” and “b” returns a list of n elements that contain decimal random
values.
• Specifying arguments “a” and “b” returns a list of n elements that contain integer random
values in the range of “a” through “b”.
Description:
• “n” must be a positive integer.
• The random numbers of each element are generated in accordance with “RandSeed”
specifications, as with the “rand” function.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

Generate a list of three
elements that contain
decimal random values.

Func

[randList] 3 w

Generate a list of five
elements that contain
random values in the range
of 1 through 6.

Func

[randList] 5, 1, 6 w

u “randNorm” Function
The “randNorm” function generates a 10-digit normal random number based on a specified
mean  and standard deviation  values.
Syntax: randNorm(,  [, n])
Function:
• Omitting a value for “n” (or specifying 1 for “n”) returns the generated random number as-is.
• Specifying a value for “n” returns the specified number of random values in list format.

20090601

2-4-8
Function Calculations

Description:
• “n” must be a positive integer, and “ ” must be greater than 0.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

Randomly produce a body
length value obtained in
accordance with the normal
distribution of a group of
infants less than one year
old with a mean body length
of 68cm and standard
deviation of 8.

Func

[randNorm] 8 , 68 w

Randomly produce the body
lengths of five infants in the
above example, and display
them in a list.

Func

[randNorm] 8 , 68 , 5
w

u “randBin” Function
The “randBin” function generates binomial random numbers based on values specified for
the number of trials n and probability P.
Syntax: randBin(n, P [, m])
Function:
• Omitting a value for “m” (or specifying 1 for “m”) returns the generated random number asis.
• Specifying a value for “m” returns the specified number of random values in list format.
Description:
• “n” and “m” must be positive integers.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

Randomly produce the
number of heads that can be
expected in accordance with
binomial distribution for five
coin tosses where the
probability of heads is 0.5.

Func

[randBin] 5 , 0.5 w

Perform the same coin toss
sequence described above
three times and display the
results in a list.

Func

[randBin] 5 , 0.5 , 3 w

20090601

2-4-9
Function Calculations

u “RandSeed” Command
• You can specify an integer from 0 to 9 for the argument of this command. 0 specifies nonsequential random number generation. An integer from 1 to 9 uses the specified value as
a seed for specification of sequential random numbers. The initial default argument for this
command is 0.
• The numbers generated by the ClassPad immediately after you specify sequential random
number generation always follow the same random pattern.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

Generate sequential random
numbers using 3 as the
seed value.

Cmd

[RandSeed] 3 w

Generate the first value.
Generate the second value.
Generate the third value.

Func

[rand] w
[rand] w
[rand] w

Tip
• Random values generated by these commands are pseudo random values.
• The arguments a and b of “rand(a,b)” and “randList(n,a,b)” must be integers, subject to the
following conditions.
a, ,  [ ) ]
or
piecewise(, , ,
 [ ) ]
Use the 2D keyboard (1) to input “piecewise” function according to the syntax shown
below.
, 

or
, 
, 
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

For the expression 0 > x
(x = variable), return 1 when
x is 0 or less, and 2 when x
is greater than 0 or
undefined.
For the expression 1 > x
(x = variable), return 1 when
x is 1 or less, and 2 when x
is greater than 1.

Operation

cat

2D

Func



[piecewise] 0 5 X, 1 ,
2w
or
1 1 c 2 ef 0 5 X
w



1 1 c 2 ef 1 5 X
c1

20090601

Xw

2-4-13
Function Calculations

k Angle Symbol (∠)
Use this symbol to specify the coordinate format required by an angle in a vector.
You can use this symbol for a vector only.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

OPTN
Convert the polar
coordinates r = 2 ,
θ = π /4 to rectangular
coordinates.
[1, 1]

cat

2D

Func

Operation
Change the [Angle] setting to
“Radian”.
[toRect] [9 2 ),
7/ 4 )]w

k Derivative Symbol (’)
A single derivative symbol indicates the first derivative of an equation in the format:
’.
Problem
Solve the differential
equation y’ = x.
{y = 0.5 · x2 + const (1)}

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

cat

2D

CALC SMBL Cmd

Operation
[dSolve] Y
,Yw

=X,X

Important!
The “dSolve” function can solve differential equations up to three degrees, so a maximum of
three derivative symbols (y’’’) can be used. Executing a “dSolve” calculation that has more
than three derivative symbols will result in an Invalid Syntax error.

k Primality Test (isPrime)
The “isPrime” function determines whether the number provided as the argument is prime
(returns TRUE) or not (returns FALSE). The syntax of the “isPrime” function is shown below.
isPrime(Exp/List[ ) ]
• Exp or all of the elements of List must be integers.
Problem

Use this keyboard:
mth

abc

Determine whether the
numbers 51 and 17 are
prime.
(isPrime({51, 17})

cat
Func

20090601

2D

Operation
[isPrime] { 51 , 17
})w

2-4-14
Function Calculations

k Equal Symbols and Unequal Symbols (=, ≠, <, >, , >)
You can use these symbols to perform a number of different basic calculations.
Use this keyboard:

Problem

mth


To add 3 to both sides of
x = 3.
x+3=6

abc

cat

Operation

2D

(X= 3 )+ 3 w

MATH Cmd

Subtract 2 from both sides
OPTN MATH Cmd
of y < 5.
y–2<3

(Y

5 )- 2 w

Tip
• In the “Syntax” explanations of each command under “2-8 Using the Action Menu”, the following
operators are indicated as “Eq/Ineq”: =, ≠, <, >, <, >. Whether or not the “Eq/Ineq” operators
include the “≠” operator is specified for each command by a separate note.
• An expression that contains multiple equation or inequality operators cannot be input as a single
expression. For output expressions, an expression can be output with multiple operators only in
the case of inequality operators that are facing in the same direction (example: –1< x <1).

Example: solve(x2 – 1 < 0, x) w

{–1 < x < 1}

k “with” Operator ( | )
The “with” (I) operator temporarily assigns a value to a variable. You can use the “with”
operator in the following cases.
• To assign the value specified on the right side of | to the variable on the left side of |
• To limit or restrict the range of a variable on the left side of | in accordance with conditions
provided on the right side of |
The following is the syntax for the “with” (I) operator.
Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat|Eq/Ineq/List/(and operator)
You can put plural conditions in a list or connected with the “and” operator on the right side.
“≠” can be used on the left side or the right side of |.
Use this keyboard:

Problem

mth

abc

cat

2D

Operation

OPTN SMBL
Evaluate x2 + x + 1 when
13
x = 3.

Cmd

X{ 2 +X+ 1 UX
=3w

OPTN SMBL
For x2 – 1 = 0, determine
the value of x when x > 0.
{x = 1}

Cmd

[solve] X{ 2 - 1 = 0
0w
,X)UX

OPTN SMBL

Cmd

$X)UX

Determine the value of
abs (x) when x >0.

x

20090601

0w

2-4-15
Function Calculations

k Solutions Supported by ClassPad (TRUE, FALSE, Undefined, No Solution, ∞,
const, constn)
Solution

Description

Example

TRUE

Output when a solution is true.

judge (1 = 1) w

FALSE

Output when a solution is false.

judge (1 < 0) w

Undefined

Output when a solution is undefined.

1/0 w

No Solution

Output when there is no solution.

solve (abs (x) = –1, x) w

∞

Infinity

lim (1/x2, x, 0) w

const

Constant displayed as const(1) when any
value that is a constant is included in the
solution. In the case of multiple constants,
they are indicated as const(1), const(2),
and so on.

dSolve (y = x, x, y) w
{y = 0.5·x2 + const (1)}

constn

Constant displayed as constn(1) when the
solution includes any integer value that is
a constant. In the case of multiple
constants, they are indicated as constn(1),
constn(2), and so on.

Change the [Angle] setting to
“Degree”.
solve (sin (x) = 0, x) w
{x = 180·constn (1)}

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2-4-16
Function Calculations

k Dirac Delta Function
“delta” is the Dirac Delta function. The delta function evaluates numerically as shown below.
δ(x) =

{ 0,δ(xx),≠x0= 0

Non-numeric expressions passed to the delta function are left unevaluated. The integral of a
linear delta function is a Heaviside function.
Syntax: delta(x)
x : variable or number
Examples:

k nth Delta Function
The nth-delta function is the nth differential of the delta function.
Syntax: delta(x, n)
x : variable or number
n : number of differentials
Examples:

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2-4-17
Function Calculations

k Heaviside Unit Step Function
“heaviside” is the command for the Heaviside function, which evaluates only to numeric
expressions as shown below.
0, x < 0
1
H(x) =
,x=0
2
1, x > 0
Any non-numeric expression passed to the Heaviside function will not be evaluated, and any
numeric expression containing complex numbers will return undefined. The derivative of the
Heaviside function is the Delta function.
Syntax: heaviside(x)

x : variable or number
Examples:

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2-4-18
Function Calculations

k Gamma Function
The Gamma function is called “gamma” on the ClassPad.
Γ(x) =

∫0

+∞ x–1 –t
t e

dt

For an integer n the gamma is evaluated as shown below.
Γ(n) =

– 1) !, n > 0
{ (nundefined
,n<0

The gamma is defined for all real numbers excluding zero and negative integers. It is also
defined for all complex numbers where either the real or imaginary part of the complex
number is not an integer.
Gamma of a symbolic expression returns unevaluated.
Syntax: gamma(x)

x : variable or number
Examples:

20110901

2-5-1
List Calculations

2-5 List Calculations
This section explains how to input data using the Main application or Stat Editor, and how to
perform basic list calculations.

Inputting List Data
You can input list data from the work area or on the Stat Editor window.

k Inputting List Data from the Work Area
Example: To input the list {1, 2, 3} and assign it to LIST variable “lista”.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main application.
(2) Press k to display the soft keyboard.
(3) Next, perform the following key operation.
9{b,c,d}W
0listaw

Tip
• For information about assigning data to a variable, see “Creating and Using Variables” on page
1-7-5.
• You can also create a list using commands in the [List-Create] group on the [Action] menu. For
information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

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2-5-2
List Calculations

k LIST Variable Element Operations
You can recall the value of any element of a LIST variable. When the values {1, 2, 3} are
assigned to “lista”, for example, you can recall the second value in the “lista”, when you need
it.
You can also assign a value to any element in a list. When the values {1, 2, 3} are assigned
to “lista”, for example, you can replace the second value with “5” to end up with {1, 5, 3}.
After performing the procedure under “Inputting List Data from the Work Area”, perform the
following operation.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Recall the value of the second element of LIST variable “lista”.
0lista9[c]w

(2) Assign “5” to the second element of LIST variable “lista”.
fW0lista9[c]w

Tip
• You can also perform the above operations on the “ans” variable (page 2-2-2) when it contains
LIST data.
Example: {1, 2, 3, 4} w
D[c]w

{1, 2, 3, 4}
2

k Inputting List Data Using the Stat Editor Window
Tapping ( displays the Stat Editor window, which you can then use to input list data. List
data input this way is assigned to a LIST variable, so you can access it by specifying the
applicable variable name.
For more information about using the Stat Editor window to create a list, see “7-2 Using Stat
Editor”.

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2-5-3
List Calculations

Using a List in a Calculation
You can perform arithmetic operations between two lists, between a list and a numeric value,
or between a list and an expression, equation, or inequality.

List
Numeric Value
Expression
Equation
Inequality

List
Numeric Value
Expression
Equation
Inequality

=

List

k List Calculation Errors
• When you perform an arithmetic operation between two lists, both of the lists need to have
the same number of cells. An error will occur if they do not.
• An error will also occur whenever an operation between any two cells of the two lists results
in an error.

k List Calculation Example
Example: Perform the operation list3 × {6, 0, 4} when list3 contains {41, 65, 22}

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
0listd9*{g,a,e}
(2) w

Tip
• List operations (extraction of list maximum and minimum, calculation of list total, etc.) can
also be performed using the commands in the [List-Calculation] group of the [Action] menu.
For more information, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

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2-5-4
List Calculations

Using a List to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables
Use the procedure in this section when you want to use a list to assign various different
values to multiple variables.
Sintaxis: List with Numbers S List with Variables
Example: Assign the values 10, 20, and 30, to variables x, y, and z respectively

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
9{ba,ca,da}W{X,Y,Z}
(2) w

Tip
• You can perform this operation using a matrix that has a single row and multiple columns, or
multiple rows and a single column. For details see “Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to
Multiple Variables” on page 2-6-6.

20060301

2-6-1
Matrix and Vector Calculations

2-6 Matrix and Vector Calculations
This section explains how to create matrices in the Main application, and how to perform
basic matrix calculations.

Tip
• Since a vector can be viewed as 1-row by n-column matrix or n-row by 1-column matrix, this
section does not include explanations specifically about vectors. For more information about
vector-specific calculations, see the explanations about the applicable [Action] menu items in
“2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

Inputting Matrix Data
You can use the 9 (math) keyboard to input matrix values in a single line in the work
area, or the ) keyboard to input matrix values using an actual on-screen matrix.

k Inputting Matrix Values with the 9 Keyboard
Example: To input the matrix

1 2

and assign it to the variable “mat1”

 3 4

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap J to start the Main application.
(2) Press k to display the soft keyboard.
(3) Next, perform the following key operation.
9[[b,c][d,e]]W
0matbw

Tip
• For information about assigning data to a variable, see “Creating and Using Variables” on page
1-7-5.

20060301

2-6-2
Matrix and Vector Calculations

k Matrix Variable Element Operations
1 2
3 4
is assigned to matrix “mat1”, for example, you can recall the element located at row 2,
column 1.
You can also assign a value to any element in a matrix. For example, you could assign the
1 5
value “5” to the element at row 1 column 2 in “mat1”, which produces the matrix
.
3 4
You can recall the value of any element of a MATRIX variable. When the data

After performing the procedure under “Inputting Matrix Values with the 9 Keyboard”,
perform the following operation.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Recall the value in row 2, column 1 of MATRIX variable “mat1”.
0matb9[c,b]w
↑
↑
Row Column

(2) Assign “5” to the element at row 1, column 2 of MATRIX variable “mat1”.
fW0matb9[b,c]w

Tip
• You can also perform the above operations on the “ans” variable (page 2-2-2) when it contains
MATRIX data.

1
3

Example: [[b,c][d,e]]w  
D[c,b]w

3

20060301

2
4

2-6-3
Matrix and Vector Calculations

k Inputting Matrix Values with the ) Keyboard
The 6, 7, and 8 keys of the ) keyboard make matrix value input quick and easy.
To do this:

Tap this 2D key:

Create a new 1-row × 2-column matrix

6

Create a new 2-row × 1-column matrix

7

Create a new 2-row × 2-column matrix

8

Add a column to the currently displayed matrix

6

Add a row to the currently displayed matrix

7

Add both a row and column to the currently displayed matrix

8

Example: To input the matrix

1

2

3

4

5

6

and assign it to the variable “mat2”

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap )- to display the - keyset of the ) keyboard, and then perform the
key operation below in the Main application work area.
6 (Creates a 1-row × 2-column matrix.)
bec

6 (Adds one column to the matrix.)
d

7 (Adds one row to the matrix.)
eefeg

(2) Perform the key operation below to assign the matrix to the variable named “mat2”.
eW 0matcw

20060301

2-6-4
Matrix and Vector Calculations

Tip
• In step (1) of the above procedure, we added rows and columns as they became necessary.
Another way to accomplish the same result would be to add rows and columns to create a blank
matrix of the required dimensions, and then start data input. You could create a 2-row × 3-column
matrix by tapping 6, 6, 7, or 6, 8. In either case, you could also tap the buttons in
reverse of the sequence shown here.
• You can also create matrices using the commands of the [Matrix-Create] group on the [Action]
menu. For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

Performing Matrix Calculations
This section provides examples of how to perform the most basic types of matrix calculations.

k Matrix Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division
Example 1:

1
2

1
1

+

2
2

3
1

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
9 [[b,b][c,b]]+
[[c,d][c,b]]
(2) Tap w.

Example 2:

1
2

1
1

×

2
2

3
1

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap ), -, 8, and then input the values for the first matrix.

(2) Tap the area to the right of the input matrix or press the cursor e key to move the
cursor to the right of the input matrix. Next, tap *.

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Matrix and Vector Calculations

(3) Tap 8, and then input the values for the second matrix.

(4) Tap w.

Example 3: To multiply the matrix

1
3

2
4

by 5

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
9[[b,c][d,e]]*f
(2) Tap w.

Tip
• Note that when adding or subtracting two matrices, they both must have the same number
of rows and the same number of columns (the same dimensions). An error occurs (Invalid
Dimension Error) when the two matrices have different dimensions.
• When multiplying two matrices, the number of columns in the matrix to the left of the multiplication
sign (×) must be the same as the number of rows in the matrix to the right of the multiplication
sign. An error occurs (Invalid Dimension Error) when you attempt to multiply two matrices that do
not satisfy the above conditions.
• Multiplication is assumed if you do not include any operator between two matrices.
[[1, 2] [3, 4]] [[2, 2] [2, 2]] for example, is treated as [[1, 2] [3, 4]] × [[2, 2] [2, 2]].

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Matrix and Vector Calculations

k Raising a Matrix to a Specific Power
Example: To raise

1
3

2
4

to the power of 3

Use the procedures described under “Matrix Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication,
and Division” on page 2-6-4 to input the calculation.
The following are the screens that would be produced by each input method.

Input using the 9 keyboard

Input using the ) keyboard

Tip
• You can perform matrix calculations using the commands of the [Matrix-Calculation] group on the
[Action] menu. For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.
• You can raise only a square matrix to a specific power. An error occurs when you try to raise a
non-square matrix to a specific power.

Using a Matrix to Assign Different Values to Multiple Variables
Use the procedure in this section when you want to use a matrix to assign various different
values to multiple variables.
Syntax: Matrix with Numbers → Matrix with Variables
(The matrix can be one line with multiple columns, or multiple lines with one
column.)
Example: Assign the values 10, 20, and 30, to variables x, y, and z respectively

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
)s7bacca7daeW
7XcY7Z
(2) w

Tip
• You can also perform this operation using a list. For details see “Using a List to Assign Different
Values to Multiple Variables” on page 2-5-4.
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Specifying a Number Base

2-7 Specifying a Number Base
While using the Main application, you can specify a default number base (binary, octal,
decimal, hexadecimal) or you can specify a number base for a particular integer value.
You can also convert between number bases and perform bitwise operations using logical
operators (not, and, or, xor). Note that while a default number base is specified, you can
input integers only.

Number Base Precautions
Note the following limitations, which all apply while a default number base (binary, octal,
decimal, hexadecimal) is specified in the Main application.
• You cannot use scientific functions, or [Action] or [Interactive] menu commands.
• Except for Ans (Answer Memory variable), you cannot use variables.
• You can input integers only. An error (Invalid syntax ERROR) will occur if you try to input a
non-integer value (like 1.5 or 2).
• If a calculation produces a non-integer result (with a decimal part), the calculator will cut off
the decimal part automatically. For example, the calculation 5 ÷ 2 while decimal is selected
as the number base is 2.
• An error message is displayed if you try to enter a value that is invalid for the speicfied
number base. The following shows the numerals that can be used in each number system.
Binary: 0, 1
Octal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Decimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Hexadecimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F

Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculation Ranges
• The following are the display capacities for each of the number bases.
Number Base

Display Capacity

Binary

32 digits

Octal

11 digits

Decimal

10 digits

Hexadecimal

8 digits

• Negative binary, octal, and hexadecimal values are produced using the two's complement
of the original value.

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Specifying a Number Base

• The following are the calculation ranges for each of the number bases.
Binary Values:
Positive: 0 x 01111111111111111111111111111111
Negative: 10000000000000000000000000000000 x
11111111111111111111111111111111
Octal Values:
Positive: 0 x 17777777777
Negative: 20000000000 x 37777777777
Decimal Values:
Positive: 0 x 2147483647
Negative: −2147483648 x −1
Hexadecimal Values:
Positive: 0 x 7FFFFFFF
Negative: 80000000 x FFFFFFFF

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Specifying a Number Base

Selecting a Number Base
Specifying a default number base in the Main application will apply to the current line
(expression/result pair), and to all subsequent lines until you change the default number base
setting. Use the number toolbar’s base buttons to specify the number base.

u To select the number base for the line where the cursor is located
(1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button.
• This displays a palette of number base buttons.

Normal
Binary
Octal
Decimal
Hexadecimal

(2) Tap the button that corresponds to the number base you want to use.
• To select binary, for example, tap

.

• The currently selected number base is indicated in the status bar.

(3) Execute the calculation.
• When you press E to execute the calculation, the number base you selected in
step 2 is also applied automatically to the next line. You can continue using the same
number base in the next line or change to another number base.

Important!
• A line for which a number base is not specified is called a “normal calculation line.” To
return a line to a normal calculation line, tap < in step 2 of the above procedure.
• Calculation results produced by a line for which a number base is specified are followed by
one of the suffixes listed below, to indicate its number system.
Number System

Suffix

Binary

b

Octal

o

Decimal

d

Hexadecimal

h

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Specifying a Number Base

• Whenever you input a value into a line for which a number base is specified, the input value

is converted automatically to the specified number base. Performing the calculation 19+1 in
a line for which Hex (Hexadecimal) is specified as the number base, both the 19 and 1 are
interpreted as hexadecimal values, which produces the calculation result 1Ah. The “h” is
the suffix indicating hexadecimal notation.

u To specify a number base for an input value
You can input the following suffixes to specify the number base of a value as you input it: [b]
(binary), [o] (octal), [d] (decimal), and [h] (hexadecimal).
You can specify a number base for an input value only when a default number base (besides
normal) is selected

Tip
• For actual operation examples, see Example 3 under “Arithmetic Operations” below.

Arithmetic Operations
You can use the following operators when performing binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal
values: +, −, ×, ÷, ^. You can also use parenthetical expressions.
Example 1: To calculate 101112 + 110102
(1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap

.

(2) Perform the following key operation.
babbb+bbabaw

Example 2: To calculate (118 + 78)2
(1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap

.

(2) Perform the following key operation.
(bb+h){cw

Example 3: Perform the calculation 12310 + 10102 so it produces a hexadecimal result
(1) Tap the down arrow button next to the < button, and then tap
(2) Perform the following key operation using the soft keyboard.
0bcdd9+0bababw

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2-7-5
Specifying a Number Base

Bitwise Operations
The logical operators listed below can be used in calculations.
Operator
and

Description
Returns the result of a bitwise product.

or

Returns the result of a bitwise sum.

xor

Returns the result of a bitwise exclusive logical sum.

not

Returns the result of a complement (bitwise inversion).

Examples 1, 2, and 3 use Bin (binary) as the number system. Example 4 uses Hex
(hexadecimal).
Example 1: 10102 and 11002 = 10002
0babapandpbbaaw
Example 2: 10112 or 110102 = 110112
0babbporpbbabaw
Example 3: 10102 xor 11002 = 1102
0babapxorpbbaaw
Example 4: not (FFFF16) = FFFF000016
0not(ffffw

Using the baseConvert Function (Number System Transform)
The baseConvert function lets you convert a number in one base (number system) to its
equivalent in another base.

Important!
• The baseConvert function works for positive integers only.
• The baseConvert function cannot be used in a line for which a particular number base is
specified. It can be used in a normal calculation line only.
Syntax: baseConvert (Number, Current base, Expected base)
• Number must be a positive integer consisting of digits 0 to 9 and/or A to F.
• The current base and expected base can be any whole number from 2 to 16.
Examples:

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Using the Action Menu

2-8 Using the Action Menu
The [Action] menu helps to make transformation and expansion functions, calculus functions,
statistical functions, and other frequently used mathematical menu operations easier to use.
Simply select the function you want, and then enter expressions or variables in accordance
with the syntax of the function.

Tip
• Unless specifically indicated otherwise, all of the explanations in this section are performed using
the following modes: Algebra mode, Standard mode, Complex mode, Radian mode, Descending
Order.
• You can use the [Interactive] menu to select most of the commands that are included on the [Action]
menu. Selecting a command on the [Action] menu will simply input the function for that command.
With the [Interactive] menu selecting a command will display a dialog box that prompts for input of
the command’s arguments (when necessary). This means that the [Interactive] menu eliminates
the need to remember details about the syntax of a function. For details about using the [Interactive]
menu, see page 2-9-1.

Abbreviations and Punctuation Used in This Section
The following are the meanings of the abbreviations and punctuation used in the syntax
descriptions in this section.

When you see this:
Exp
Eq
Ineq
List
Mat
[ ]
{ }

It means this:
Expression (Value, Variable, etc.)
Equation
Inequality
List
Matrix
You can omit the item(s) inside the brackets.
Select one of the items inside the braces.

Some of the syntaxes in the following explanations indicate the following for parameters:
Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat
These abbreviations mean that you can use any of the following as a parameter: expression,
equation, inequality list, or matrix.

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Using the Action Menu

Example Screenshots
The screenshots below show examples of how input and output expressions appear on the
ClassPad display.
In some cases, the input expression and output expression (result) may not fit in the display
area. If this happens, tap the left or right arrows that appear on the display to scroll the
expression screen and view the part that does not fit.
When the input expression does not fit:

Displayed expression

Complete expression

When the output expression does not fit:
Displayed expression

Complete expression

All of the screenshots in this section show the “complete expression” version.

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Using the Action Menu

Displaying the Action Menu
Tap [Action] on the menu bar to display the submenus shown below.

The following explains the functions that are available on each of these submenus.

Using the Transformation Submenu
The [Transformation] submenu contains commands for expression transformation, like
“expand” and “factor”.

u approx
Function: Transforms an expression into a numerical approximation.
Syntax: approx (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To obtain the numerical value of

2

Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][approx]
(Number Format: Normal 1)
Example: To obtain the numerical value of 920
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][approx]
(Number Format: Normal 1)
• For information about the internal operations and the number of digits of a displayed
value, see page 2-2-7.
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Using the Action Menu

u simplify
Function: Simplifies an expression.
Syntax: simplify (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To simplify (15 3 + 26)^(1/3)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][simplify]

Example: To simplify cos(2x) + (sin(x))2 (in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][simplify]

u expand
Function: Expands an expression.
Syntax: expand (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
expand (Exp,variable [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
• If you specify a variable, Exp is decomposed into partial fractions, with respect to the
variable.
Example: To expand (x + 2)2
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expand]

1
Example: To decompose (x4 – 1) into partial fractions, with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expand]

u factor
Function: Factors an expression.
Syntax: factor (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List /Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To factor x2  4x + 4
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][factor]

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Using the Action Menu

u rFactor
Function: Factors an expression up to its roots, if any.
Syntax: rFactor (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To factor x2  3
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][rFactor]

u factorOut
Function: Factors out an expression with respect to a specified factor.
Syntax: factorOut (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat, Exp [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To factor “a” out ax2 + bx + c
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][factorOut]

u combine
Function: Transforms multiple fractions into their common denominator equivalents and
reduces them, if possible.
Syntax: combine (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform and reduce (x + 1)/(x + 2) + x(x + 3)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][combine]

u collect
Function: Rearranges an expression with respect to a specific variable.
Syntax: collect (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [,Exp] [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To rearrange x2 + ax + bx with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][collect]
• “x” is the default when you omit “[,Exp]”.

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Using the Action Menu

u tExpand
Function: Employs the sum and difference formulas to expand a trigonometric function.
Syntax: tExpand(Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To expand sin (a + b)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][tExpand]

u tCollect
Function: Employs the product to sum formulas to transform the product of a trigonometric
function into an expression in the sum form.
Syntax: tCollect (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform cos(a) × cos(b) into an expression in the sum form
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][tCollect]

u expToTrig
Function: Transforms an exponent into a trigonometric or hyperbolic function.
Syntax: expToTrig (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform eix into a trigonometric function (Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][expToTrig]

u trigToExp
Function: Transforms a trigonometric or hyperbolic function into exponential form.
Syntax: trigToExp (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform coshx into exponential form
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][trigToExp]

u toFrac
Function: Transforms a decimal value into its equivalent fraction value.
Syntax: toFrac (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform 5.28 into its equivalent fraction value
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][toFrac]

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Using the Action Menu

u propFrac
Function: Transforms a decimal value into its equivalent proper fraction value.
Syntax: propFrac (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform 1.2 into its equivalent proper fraction value
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][propFrac]

Example: To divide x 2 by (x – 1)
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][propFrac]

u dms
Function: Transforms a DMS format value into its equivalent degrees-only value.
Syntax: dms (Exp/List-1 [,Exp/List-2][,Exp/List-3] [ ) ]
Example: To transform (3, 5, 6) (= 3q 5’ 6”) into its equivalent degrees-only value
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][dms]

• Zero is the default when you omit [,Exp/List-2] or [,Exp/List-3][ ) ].

u toDMS
Function: Transforms a degrees-only value into its equivalent DMS format value.
Syntax: toDMS (Exp/List [ ) ]
Example: To transform 3.085 degrees into its equivalent DMS format value
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][toDMS]

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Using the Action Menu

Using the Advanced Submenu

u solve
For information about solve, see page 2-8-43.

u dSolve
For information about dSolve, see page 2-8-44.

u taylor
Function: Finds a Taylor polynomial for an expression with respect to a specific variable.
Syntax: taylor (Exp/List, variable, order [,center point] [ ) ]
Example: To find a 5th order Taylor polynomial for sin(x ) with respect to x = 0 (in the
Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Advanced][taylor]

• Zero is the default when you omit “[,center point]”.

u laplace, invLaplace
“laplace” is the command for the Laplace transform, and “invLaplace” is the command for
the inverse of Laplace transform.

∞

∫0

L[ f(t)] (s)=

f(t)e–stdt

Function:
The Laplace Transform is called “laplace” on the ClassPad.
The inverse of Laplace Transform is called “invLaplace” on the ClassPad.
Syntax: laplace(f(t), t, s)
f(t) -- expression
t -- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed
s -- parameter of the transform
invLaplace(L(s), s, t)
L(s) -- expression
s
-- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed
t  -- parameter of the transform
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Using the Action Menu

ClassPad supports transform of the following functions.
sin(x), cos(x), sinh(x), cosh(x), xn, x, ex, heaviside(x), delta(x), delta(x, n)
ClassPad does not support transform of the following functions.
tan(x), sin– 1(x), cos– 1(x), tan– 1(x), tanh(x), sinh– 1(x), cosh– 1(x), tanh– 1(x), log(x), ln(x), 1/x,
abs(x), gamma(x)
Laplace Transform of a Differential Equation
The laplace command can be used to solve ordinary differential equations. ClassPad does
not support System of Differential Equations for laplace.
Syntax: laplace(diff eq, x, y, t)
diff eq -- differential equation to solve

x -- independent variable in the diff eq
y -- dependent variable in the diff eq
t -- parameter of the transform
Lp means F(s)=L[f(t)] in the result of transform for a differential equation.
An example using Laplace to solve a differential equation:

x’ + 2x = e–t where x(0) = 3

u fourier, invFourier
Function: “fourier” is the command for the Fourier Transform, and “invFourier” is the
command for the inverse Fourier Transform.
Syntax: fourier(f(x),x,w,n)
invFourier(f(w),w,x,n)
f(x) -- expression
x

-- variable with respect to which the expression is transformed with

w

-- parameter of the transform

n

-- 0 to 4, indicating Fourier parameter to use (optional)

ClassPad supports transform of the following functions.
sin(t), cos(t), log(t), ln(t), abs(t), signum(t), heaviside(t), delta(t), delta(t,n), eti
ClassPad does not support transform of the following functions.
tan(t), sin– 1(t), cos– 1(t), tan– 1(t), sinh(t), cosh(t), tanh(t), sinh– 1(t), cosh– 1(t), tanh– 1(t),
gamma(t), t , et

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Using the Action Menu

The Fourier Transform pairs are defined using two arbitrary constants a, b.

⏐b⏐

F(ω) =

f(t) =

(2π

∫–∞ f(t)eibωt dt

)1–a

⏐b⏐
(2π

∞

)1+a

∞

∫–∞ F(ω)e–ibωt dω

The values of a and b depend on the scientific discipline, which can be specified by the
value of n (optional fourth parameter of Fourier and invFourier) as shown below.

n (optional)

a

b

Modern Physics

Definition of the Fourier
Integral

2•
0

0

1

∞

∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx
• •

2•
Pure Math

∞

π

1

1

–1

∫–∞ e–ω x i • f(x)dx

2

1

1

∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx

Probability

∞

∞

Classical Physics
3

–1

1

• •

• •

∫–∞ eω x i • f(x)dx
• •

2•π
Signal Processing
4

0

–2*π

∞

∫–∞ e–2 π ω x i • f(x)dx
• • • •

Tip
• The Advanced Format dialog box can be used to configure settings related to the Fourier
Transform, such a Fourier Transform definition, etc. For details, see “Advanced Format Dialog
Box” on page 1-9-11.

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Using the Action Menu

u FFT, IFFT
Function: “FFT” is the command for the fast Fourier Transform, and “IFFT” is the
command for the inverse fast Fourier Transform.
2n data values are needed to perform FFT and IFFT. On the ClassPad, FFT and IFFT are
calculated numerically.
Syntax: FFT( list ) or FFT( list, m)
IFFT( list ) or IFFT( list, m)
• Data size must be 2n for n = 1, 2, 3, ...
• The value for m is optional. It can be from 0 to 2, indicating the FFT parameter to use.

m = 0 Signal Processing
m = 1 Pure Math
m = 2 Data Analysis
The Fourier Transform is defined as the following:

∞

f(x) = ∫–∞ F(k)e2πikx dk
∞

F(k) = ∫–∞ f(x)e–2πikx dx
Some authors (especially physicists) prefer to write the transform in terms of angular
frequency ω ≡ 2πν instead of the oscillation frequency ν .
However, this destroys the symmetry, resulting in the transform pair shown below.

∞

∫–∞ h(t)e–iωt dt

H(ω) = F [h(t)] =

∞

1

h(t) = F –1[H(ω)] =

2π

∫–∞ H(ω)eiωt dω

To restore the symmetry of the transforms, the convention shown below is sometimes
used.

g(y) = F [ f(t)] =
f(t) = F

–1[

∞

1
2π

g(y)] =

∫–∞ f(t)e–iyt dt

1
2π

∞

∫–∞ g(y)eiyt dy

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Using the Action Menu

In general, the Fourier transform pair may be defined using two arbitrary constants a and
b as shown below.

F(ω) =

f(t) =

⏐b⏐
(2π

)1–a

⏐b⏐
(2π

∞

)1+a

∫–∞ f(t)eibωt dt
∞

∫–∞ F(ω)e–ibωt dω

Unfortunately, a number of conventions are in widespread use for a and b. For example,
(0, 1) is used in modern physics, (1, –1) is used in pure mathematics and systems
engineering, (1, 1) is used in probability theory for the computation of the characteristic
function, (–1, 1) is used in classical physics, and (0, –2π) is used in signal processing.

Tip
• The Advanced Format dialog box can be used to configure Fast Fourier Transform settings. For
details, see “Advanced Format Dialog Box” on page 1-9-11.

Using the Calculation Submenu
The [Calculation] submenu contains calculus related commands, such as “diff” (differentiation)
and “ ” (integration).

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Using the Action Menu

u diff
Function: Differentiates an expression with respect to a specific variable.
Syntax: diff(Exp/List[,variable] [ ) ]
diff(Exp/List,variable,order[,a] [ ) ]
• “a” is the point for which you want to determine the derivative.
• “order” = 1 when you use the following syntax: diff(Exp/List [,variable][ ) ]. The default
variable is “x” when “variable” is omitted.
Example: To differentiate x6 with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff]

Example: To find the second derivative of x6 with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff]

Example: To find the second derivative of x6 with respect to x at x = 3
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][diff]

u impDiff
Function: Differentiates an equation or expression in implicit form with respect to a
specific variable.
Syntax: impDiff(Eq/Exp/List, independent variable, dependent variable)
Example: To find y’ using implicit differentiation
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff]

Example: To find y” given y’ = −x/y
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff]

Example: To find y’ for a list of equations
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][impDiff]

Important!
The derivative symbol (’) cannot be used in the argument of “impDiff(”. Trying to use a
derivative symbol would result in a Wrong Argument Type error.

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Using the Action Menu

u∫
Function: Integrates an expression with respect to a specific variable.
Syntax:  (Exp/List[,variable] [ ) ]
 (Exp/List, variable, lower limit, upper limit [,tol ] [ ) ]
• “x ” is the default when you omit [,variable].
• “tol ” represents the allowable error range.
• This command returns an approximate value when a range is specified for “tol ”.
• This command returns the true value of a definite interval when nothing is specified
for “tol ”. If the true value cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an
approximate value along with tol =1E – 5.
Example: To integrate x with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][  ]

Example: To integrate

1

x × ln(x) with respect to x between x = 1 and x = 2

Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][  ]

Example: To integrate 2x 2 + 3x + 4 with respect to x between x = 1 and x = 5, with an
allowable error range of 1E – 4
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][  ]

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Using the Action Menu

u lim
Function: Determines the limit of an expression.
Syntax: lim (Exp/List, variable, point [,direction] [ ) ]
Example: To determine the limit of e –x as x approaches ∞
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim]

Example: To determine the limit of 1/x as x approaches 0 from the right
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim]
Example: To determine the limit of 1/x as x approaches 0 from the left
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lim]
• This function returns the limit from the left when “direction” < 0, the limit from the right
when “direction” > 0, and the limit from both sides (left and right) when “direction” = 0 or
when the direction is omitted.

uΣ
Function: Evaluates an expression at discrete variable values within a range, and then
calculates a sum.
Syntax: Σ(Exp/List, variable, lower value, upper value [ ) ]
Example: To calculate the sum of x 2 as the value of x changes from x = 1 through x =10.
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][Σ]

uΠ

Function: Evaluates an expression at discrete variable values within a range, and then
calculates a product.
Syntax: Π(Exp/List, variable, lower value, upper value [ ) ]

Example: To calculate the product of x 2 as the value of x changes from x = 1 through
x=5
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][Π]

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Using the Action Menu

u rangeAppoint
Function: Finds an expression or value that satisfies a condition in a specified range.
Syntax: rangeAppoint (Exp/Eq/List, start value, end value [ ) ]
• When using an equation (Eq) for the first argument, input the equation using the syntax
Var = Exp. Evaluation will not be possible if any other syntax is used.
Example: To find the expression(s) in the list {x = π, x = 2π, x = 3π} that belong(s) to the
closed range 0 < x < 5
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation]
[rangeAppoint]
Example: To find the “n” that satisfies the condition 0 < n × π < 5
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][rangeAppoint]

u mod
Function: Returns the remainder when one expression is divided by another expression.
Syntax: mod ({Exp/List} -1, {Exp/List} -2 [ ) ]
Example: To determine the remainder when 26 is divided by 3 (26mod3)
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][mod]

u tanLine
Function: Returns the right side of the equation for the tangent line (y = ‘expression’) to
the curve at the specified point.
Syntax: tanLine (Exp/List, variable, variable value at point of tangency [ ) ]
Example: To determine the function of the line tangent to y = x 3 at x = 2
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][tanLine]

u normal
Function: Returns the right side of the equation for the line normal (y = ‘expression’) to the
curve at the specified point.
Syntax: normal (Exp/List, variable, variable value at point of normal [ ) ]
Example: To determine the function of the line normal to y = x 3 at x = 2
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][normal]

u arcLen
Function: Returns the arc length of an expression from a start value to an end value with
respect to a specified variable.
Syntax: arcLen (Exp/List, variable, start value, end value [ ) ]
3
—

Example: To determine the arc length for y = x 2 from x = 0 to x = 4
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][arcLen]

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Using the Action Menu

u fMin

Function: Returns the minimum point in a specific range of a function.

Syntax: fMin(Exp[,variable] [ ) ]
fMin(Exp,variable,start value,end value[,n] [ ) ]
• “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”.
• Negative infinity and positive infinity are the default when the syntax fMin (Exp [,variable]
[ ) ] is used.
• “n” is calculation precision, which you can specify as an integer in the range of 1 to 9.
Using any value outside this range causes an error.
• This command returns an approximate value when calculation precision is specified for
“n”.
• This command returns a true value when nothing is specified for “n”. If the true value
cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an approximate value along with
n = 4.
• Discontinuous points or sections that fluctuate widely can adversely affect precision or
even cause an error.
• Inputting a larger number for “n” increases the precision of the calculation, but it also
increases the amount of time required to perform the calculation.
• The value you input for the end point of the interval must be greater than the value you
input for the start point. Otherwise an error occurs.
Example: To find the minimum point of x 2 – 1 with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin]

Example: To find the minimum point of x2 – 1 with respect to x, when 2 < x < 3
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin]
Example: To find the minimum point of x 3 – 6x with respect to x,
when –2 < x < 2 and n = 1
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMin]

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Using the Action Menu

u fMax
Function: Returns the maximum point in a specific range of a function.
Syntax: fMax(Exp[,variable] [ ) ]
fMax(Exp,variable,start value,end value[,n] [ ) ]
• “x ” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”.
• Negative infinity and positive infinity are the default when the syntax fMax (Exp [,
variable] [ ) ] is used.
• “n” is calculation precision, which you can specify as an integer in the range of 1 to 9.
Using any value outside this range causes an error.
• This command returns an approximate value when calculation precision is specified for
“n”.
• This command returns a true value when nothing is specified for “n”. If the true value
cannot be obtained, however, this command returns an approximate value along with
n = 4.
• Discontinuous points or sections that fluctuate widely can adversely affect precision or
even cause an error.
• Inputting a larger number for “n” increases the precision of the calculation, but it also
increases the amount of time required to perform the calculation.
• The value you input for the end point of the interval must be greater than the value you
input for the start point. Otherwise an error occurs.
Example: To find the maximum point of –x 2 + 1 with respect to x
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax]
Example: To find the maximum point of –x2 + 1, when 2 < x < 5
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax]
Example: To find the maximum point of x 3 – 6x with respect to x,
when –2 < x < 2 and n = 1
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][fMax]

u gcd
Function: Returns the greatest common denominator of two expressions.
Syntax: gcd (Exp/List-1, Exp/List-2 [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the greatest common denominator of x + 1 and x2 – 3x – 4
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][gcd]

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Using the Action Menu

u lcm
Function: Returns the least common multiple of two expressions.
Syntax: lcm (Exp/List-1, Exp/List-2 [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the least common multiple of x 2 – 1 and x2 + 2x – 3
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][lcm]

u denominator
Function: Extracts the denominator of a fraction.
Syntax: denominator (Exp/List [ ) ]
Example: To extract the denominator of the fraction (y – 2)/(x + 1)
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][denominator]

u numerator
Function: Extracts the numerator of a fraction.
Syntax: numerator (Exp/List [ ) ]
Example: To extract the numerator of the fraction (y – 2)/(x + 1)
Menu Item: [Action][Calculation][numerator]

Using the Complex Submenu
The [Complex] submenu contains commands that relate to calculations that involve
complex numbers.

u arg
Function: Returns the argument of a complex number.
Syntax: arg (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the argument of complex 2 + i (in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][arg]

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Using the Action Menu

u conjg
Function: Returns the conjugate complex number.
Syntax: conjg (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real
mode).
Example: To obtain the conjugate of complex number 1 + i
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][conjg]

u re
Function: Returns the real part of a complex number.
Syntax: re (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real
mode).
Example: To obtain the real part of complex number 3 – 4i
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][re]

u im
Function: Returns the imaginary part of a complex number.
Syntax: im (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• An inequality with the “⫽” (not equal to) relation symbol is also included (only in the Real
mode).
Example: To obtain the imaginary part of complex number 3 – 4i
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][im]

u cExpand
Function: Expands a complex expression to rectangular form (a + bi).
Syntax: cExpand (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
• The variables are regarded as real numbers.
Example: To expand cos–1(2) (in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][cExpand]

u compToPol
Function: Transforms a complex number into its polar form.
Syntax: compToPol (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
• When the argument is Mat (Matrices), calculation can be performed using the Radian
angle unit only.

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Using the Action Menu

Example: To transform 1 + i into its polar form
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToPol]

Radian mode

Degree mode

Grad mode

u compToTrig
Function: Transforms a complex number into its trigonometric/hyperbolic form.
Syntax: compToTrig (Exp/Eq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform 1 + i into its trigonometric form (in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToTrig]

u compToRect
Function: Transforms a complex number into its rectangular form.
Syntax: compToRect (⬔(r,) or r · e^( · i) form [ ) ]
Example: To transform a complex number into its rectangular form.
Menu Item: [Action][Complex][compToRect]

Using the List-Create Submenu
The [List-Create] submenu contains commands that are related to creating lists.

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Using the Action Menu

u seq
Function: Generates a list in accordance with a numeric sequence expression.
Syntax: seq (Exp, variable, start value, end value [,step size] [ ) ]
Example: To generate a list in accordance with the expression x2 + 2x when the start
value is 1, the end value is 5, and the step size is 2
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][seq]
• “1” is the default when you omit “[,step size]”.
• The step size must be a factor of the difference between the start value and the end
value.

u augment
Function: Creates a new list by appending one list to another.
Syntax: augment (List-1, List-2 [ ) ]
Example: To combine list {1, 2} and list {3, 4}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][augment]

u fill
Function: Replaces the elements of a list with a specified value or expression. This
command can also be used to create a new list whose elements all contain the
same value or expression, or a new list in which the frequency of each element
in the first list is determined by the corresponding element in the second list.
Syntax: fill (Exp/Eq/Ineq, number of elements [ ) ]
fill (Exp/Eq/Ineq, List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Syntax: fill (List, List [ ) ]
Example: To create a list consisting of four identical elements (2)
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill]

Example: To replace the elements of the list {1, 2, 3} with 3
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill]
Example: To create a list in which the frequencies of a, b and c are 1, 2 and 3, respectively
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][fill]

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Using the Action Menu

u subList
Function: Extracts a specific section of a list into a new list.
Syntax: subList (List [,start number] [,end number] [ ) ]
Example: To extract the second through the fourth elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][subList]
• The leftmost element is the default when you omit “[,start number]”, and the rightmost
element is the default when you omit “[,end number]”.

u shift
Function: Returns a list in which elements have been shifted to the right or left by a
specific amount.
Syntax: shift (List [,number of shifts] [ ) ]
• Specifying a negative value for “[,number of shifts]” shifts to the right, while a positive
value shifts to the left.
Example: To shift the elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} to the left by three
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][shift]
• Right shift by one (–1) is the default when you omit “[,number of shifts]”.

u rotate
Function: Returns a list in which the elements have been rotated to the right or to the left
by a specific amount.
Syntax: rotate (List [,number of rotations] [ ) ]
• Specifying a negative value for “[,number of rotations]” rotates to the right, while a
positive value rotates to the left.
Example: To rotate the elements of the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} to the left by two
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][rotate]
• Right rotation by one (–1) is the default when you omit “[,number of rotations]”.

u sortA
Function: Sorts the elements of the list into ascending order.
Syntax: sortA (List [ ) ]
Example: To sort the elements of the list {1, 5, 3} into ascending order
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][sortA]

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Using the Action Menu

u sortD
Function: Sorts the elements of the list into descending order.
Syntax: sortD (List [ ) ]
Example: To sort the elements of the list {1, 5, 3} into descending order
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][sortD]

u listToMat
Function: Transforms lists into a matrix.
Syntax: listToMat (List-1 [, List-2, ..., List-N] [ ) ]
Example: To transform the lists {3, 5} and {2, 4} into a matrix
Menu Item: [Action][List-Create][listToMat]

u matToList
• For information abot matToList, see page 2-8-33.

Using the List-Calculation Submenu
The [List-Calculation] submenu contains commands related to list calculations.

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Using the Action Menu

u min
Function: Returns the minimum value of an expression or the elements in a list.
Syntax: min (Exp/List-1[, Exp/List-2] [ ) ]
Example: To determine the minimum values of the elements in list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min]
Example: To compare each element of list {1, 2, 3} with the value 2, and produce a list
whose elements contain the lesser value of each comparison
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min]
Example: To compare the elements of list {1, 2, 3} and list {3, 1, 2}, and produce a list
whose elements contain the lesser value of each comparison
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][min]

u max
Function: Returns the maximum value of an expression or the elements of a list.
Syntax: max (Exp/List-1[, Exp/List-2] [ ) ]
Example: To determine the maximum value of the elements in list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max]

Example: To compare each element of list {1, 2, 3} with the value 2, and produce a list
whose elements contain the greater value of each comparison
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max]

Example: To compare the elements of list {1, 2, 3} and list {3, 1, 2}, and produce a list
whose elements contain the greater value of each comparison
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][max]

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Using the Action Menu

u mean
Function: Returns the mean of the elements in a list.
Syntax: mean (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the mean of the elements in list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mean]

Example: To determine the mean of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective
frequencies are {3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mean]

u median
Function: Returns the median of the elements in a list.
Syntax: median (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the median of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][median]

Example: To determine the median of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective
frequencies are {3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][median]

u mode
Function: Returns the mode of the elements in a list.
Syntax: mode (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the mode of the elements in the list {1, 1, 2, 2, 2}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mode]

Example: To determine the mode of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective
frequencies are {3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][mode]

• If there are multiple modes, they are returned in a list.

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Using the Action Menu

u Q1
Function: Returns the first quartile of the elements in a list.
Syntax: Q1 (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the first quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q1]

Example: To determine the first quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4}, whose
respective frequencies are {4, 3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q1]

u Q3
Function: Returns the third quartile of the elements in a list.
Syntax: Q3 (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the third quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q3]

Example: To determine the third quartile of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3, 4}, whose
respective frequencies are {4, 3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Q3]

u percentile
Function: Finds the nth percentile point in a list.
Syntax: percentile ( list, number )

u stdDev
Function: Returns the sample standard deviation of the elements in a list.
Syntax: stdDev (List [ ) ]
Example: To determine the sample standard deviation of the elements in the list {1, 2, 4}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][stdDev]

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Using the Action Menu

u variance
Function: Returns the sample variance of the elements in a list.
Syntax: variance (List [ ) ]
Example: To determine the sample variance of the elements in the list {1, 2, 4}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][variance]

u dim
Function: Returns the dimension of a list.
Syntax: dim (List [ ) ]
Example: To determine the dimension of the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][dim]

u sum
Function: Returns the sum of the elements in a list.
Syntax: sum (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the sum of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sum]
Example: To determine the sum of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective
frequencies are {3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sum]

u prod
Function: Returns the product of the elements in a list.
Syntax: prod (List-1[, List-2] [ ) ]
• “List-2” specifies the frequency of each element in “List-1”.
Example: To determine the product of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][prod]

Example: To determine the product of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}, whose respective
frequencies are {3, 2, 1}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][prod]

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Using the Action Menu

u cuml
Function: Returns the cumulative sums of the elements in a list.
Syntax: cuml (List [ ) ]
Example: To determine the cumulative sums of the elements in the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][cuml]

u Alist
Function: Returns a list whose elements are the differences between two adjacent
elements in another list.
Syntax: Alist (List [ ) ]
Example: To generate a list whose elements are the differences between two adjacent
elements in the list {1, 2, 4}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][Alist]

u percent
Function: Returns the percentage of each element in a list, the sum of which is assumed
to be 100.
Syntax: percent (List [ ) ]
Example: To determine the percentage of each element in the list {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][percent]

u polyEval
Function: Returns a polynomial arranged in the descending order of powers, so
coefficients correspond sequentially to each element in the input list.
Syntax: polyEval (List [,Exp/List] [ ) ]
Example: To create a second degree polynomial with the coefficients {1, 2, 3}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][polyEval]

• “x” is the default when you omit “[,Exp/List]”.

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Using the Action Menu

u sequence
Function: Returns the lowest-degree polynomial that represents the sequence expressed
by the input list. When there are two lists, this command returns a polynomial
that maps each element in the first list to its corresponding element in the
second list.
Syntax: sequence (List-1[, List-2] [,variable] [ ) ]
• “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”.
Example: To determine a polynomial for a sequence expressed by the list {3, 5, 7, 9}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sequence]

Example: To determine a polynomial that maps each element in the list {1, 3, 5, 7} to its
corresponding element in the list {0, –1, 2, –3}.
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sequence]

u sumSeq
Function: Finds the lowest-degree polynomial that represents the sequence expressed
by the input list and returns the sum of the polynomial. When there are two
lists, this command returns a polynomial that maps each element in the first
list to its corresponding element in the second list, and returns the sum of the
polynomial.
Syntax: sumSeq (List-1[, List-2] [,variable] [ ) ]
• “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”.
Example: To determine the sum of a polynomial for a sequence expressed by the list
{3, 5, 7, 9}
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sumSeq]

Example: To obtain the polynomial that maps the elements in the list {9, 7, 4, 1} to
its corresponding elements in the list {0, 4, 6, 5}, and return the sum of the
polynomial.
Menu Item: [Action][List-Calculation][sumSeq]

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Using the Action Menu

Using the Matrix-Create Submenu
The [Matrix-Create] submenu contains commands related to creation of matrices.

u trn
Function: Returns a transposed matrix.
Syntax: trn (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To transpose the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][trn]

u augment
Function: Returns a matrix that combines two other matrices.
Syntax: augment (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ]
Example: To combine the two matrices [[1, 2] [3, 4]] and [[5, 6] [7, 8]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][augment]

u ident
Function: Creates an identity matrix.
Syntax: ident (natural number [ ) ]
Example: To create a 2 × 2 identity matrix
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][ident]

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Using the Action Menu

u fill
Function: Creates a matrix with a specific number of rows and columns, or replaces the
elements of a matrix with a specific expression.
Syntax: fill (Exp, number of rows, number of columns [ ) ]
fill (Exp, Mat [ ) ]
Example: To create a 2 × 3 matrix, all whose elements are 2
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][fill]

Example: To replace all of the elements of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] with 3
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][fill]

u subMat
Function: Extracts a specific section of a matrix into a new matrix.
Syntax: subMat (Mat [,start row] [,start column] [,end row] [,end column] [ ) ]
• “1” is the default when you omit “[, start row]” and “[, start column]”.
• The last row number is the default when you omit “[, end row]”.
• The last column number is the default when you omit “[, end column]”.
Example: To extract the section from row 2, column 2, to row 3, column 3 from the matrix
[[1, 4, 7] [2, 5, 8] [3, 6, 9]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][subMat]

u diag
Function: Returns a one-row matrix containing the elements from the main diagonal of a
square matrix.
Syntax: diag (Mat[ ) ]
Example: To extract the diagonal elements of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][diag]

u listToMat
• For information about listToMat, see page 2-8-24.

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Using the Action Menu

u matToList
Function: Transforms a specific column of a matrix into a list.
Syntax: matToList (Mat, column number [ ) ]
Example: To transform column 2 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] into a list
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Create][matToList]

Using the Matrix-Calculation Submenu
The [Matrix-Calculation] submenu contains commands that are related to matrix calculations.

u dim
Function: Returns the dimensions of a matrix as a two-element list {number of rows,
number of columns}.
Syntax: dim (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To determine the dimensions of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][dim]

u det
Function: Returns the determinant of a square matrix.
Syntax: det (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the determinant of the matrix [[1, 2] [4, 5]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][det]

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Using the Action Menu

u norm
Function: Returns the Frobenius norm of the matrix.
Syntax: norm (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To determine the norm of the matrix [[1, 2] [4, 5]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][norm]

u rank
Function: Finds the rank of matrix.
The rank function computes the rank of a matrix by performing Gaussian
elimination on the rows of the given matrix. The rank of matrix A is the
number of non-zero rows in the resulting matrix.
Syntax: rank (Matrix)

u ref
Function: Returns the row echelon form of a matrix.
Syntax: ref (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the row echelon form of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][ref]

u rref
Function: Returns the reduced row echelon form of a matrix.
Syntax: rref (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the reduced row echelon form of the matrix [[2, –1, 3, 19] [1, 1, –5, –21]
[0, 4, 3, 0]]
Menu Item: [Action]
[Matrix-Calculation][rref]

u eigVl
Function: Returns a list that contains the eigenvalue(s) of a square matrix.
Syntax: eigVl (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the eigenvalue(s) of the matrix [[3, 4] [1, 3]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][eigVl]

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Using the Action Menu

u eigVc
Function: Returns a matrix in which each column represents an eigenvector of a square
matrix.
• Since an eigenvector usually cannot be determined uniquely, it is standardized as
follows to its norm, which is 1:
When V = [x1, x2, ..., xn], (⎥ x1⎥ 2 + ⎥ x 2⎥ 2 + .... + ⎥ xn⎥ 2 ) = 1.
Syntax: eigVc (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the eigenvector(s) of the matrix [[3, 4] [1, 3]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][eigVc]

u LU
Function: Returns the LU decomposition of a square matrix.
Syntax: LU (Mat, lVariableMem, uVariableMem [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the LU decomposition of the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] [7, 8, 9]]
• The lower matrix is assigned to the first variable L, while the upper matrix is assigned to
the second variable U.
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][LU]
To display the lower matrix
Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][L][EXE]

To display the upper matrix
Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][U][EXE]

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Using the Action Menu

u QR
Function: Returns the QR decomposition of a square matrix.
Syntax: QR (Mat, qVariableMem, rVariableMem [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the QR decomposition of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]]
• The unitary matrix is assigned to variable Q, while the upper triangular matrix is
assigned to variable R.
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][QR]

To display the unitary matrix
Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][Q][EXE]

To display the upper triangular matrix
Menu Item: [VAR][CAP][R][EXE]

u swap
Function: Swaps two rows of a matrix.
Syntax: swap (Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ]
Example: To swap row 1 with row 2 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][swap]

u mRow
Function: Multiplies the elements of a specific row in a matrix by a specific expression.
Syntax: mRow (Exp, Mat, row number [ ) ]
Example: To multiply row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] by x
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][mRow]

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Using the Action Menu

u mRowAdd
Function: Multiplies the elements of a specific row in a matrix by a specific expression,
and then adds the result to another row.
Syntax: mRowAdd (Exp, Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ]
Example: To multiply row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] by x, and then add the result to row 2
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][mRowAdd]

u rowAdd
Function: Adds a specific matrix row to another row.
Syntax: rowAdd (Mat, row number-1, row number-2 [ ) ]
Example: To add row 1 of the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4]] to row 2
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowAdd]

u rowDim
Function: Returns the number in rows in a matrix.
Syntax: rowDim (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the number of rows in the matrix [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowDim]

u rowNorm
Function: Calculates the sums of the absolute values of the elements of each row of a
matrix, and returns the maximum value of the sums.
Syntax: rowNorm (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To calculate the sums of the absolute values of the elements in each row of the
matrix [[1, –2, 3] [4, –5, –6]], and obtain the maximum value of the sums
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][rowNorm]

u colDim
Function: Returns the number of columns in a matrix.
Syntax: colDim (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the number of columns in the matrix [[1, 2] [3, 4] [5, 6]]
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation][colDim]

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Using the Action Menu

u colNorm
Function: Calculates the sums of the absolute values of the elements of each column of a
matrix, and returns the maximum value of the sums.
Syntax: colNorm (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To calculate the sums of the absolute values of the elements in each column of
the matrix [[1, –2, 3][4, –5, –6][–7, 8, 9]], and obtain the maximum value of the
sums
Menu Item: [Action][Matrix-Calculation]
[colNorm]

Using the Vector Submenu
The [Vector] submenu contains commands that are related to vector calculations.

• A vector is handled as a 1 × N matrix or N × 1 matrix.
• A vector in the form of 1 × N can be entered as [……] or [[……]].
Example: [1, 2], [[1, 2]]
• Vectors are considered to be in rectangular form unless ∠() is used to indicate an angle
measure.

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u augment
Function: Returns an augmented vector [Mat-1 Mat-2].
Syntax: augment (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ]
Example: To augment vectors [1, 2] and [3, 4]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][augment]

u fill
Function: Creates a vector that contains a specific number of elements, or replaces the
elements of a vector with a specific expression.
Syntax: fill (Exp, Mat [ ) ]
fill (Exp, 1, number of columns [ ) ]
Example: To replace the elements of the vector [1, 2] with x
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][fill]

Example: To create a 1 × 3 (1 row, 3 columns) vector, all of whose elements are “3”
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][fill]

u dim
Function: Returns the dimension of a vector.
Syntax: dim (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To determine the dimension of the vector [1, 2, 3]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][dim]
• The vector [1, 2, 3] is handled as a 1 × 3 matrix.

u unitV
Function: Normalizes a vector.
Syntax: unitV (Mat [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only.
Example: To normalize the vector [1, 3, 5]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][unitV]

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Using the Action Menu

u angle
Function: Returns the angle formed by two vectors.
Syntax: angle (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only.
Example: To determine the angle formed by vectors [1, 2] and [3, 4] (in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][angle]

u norm
Function: Returns the norm of a vector.
Syntax: norm (Mat [ ) ]
Example: To obtain the norm of the vector [1, 2, 3]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][norm]

u crossP
Function: Returns the cross product of two vectors.
Syntax: crossP (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only (N = 2, 3).
• A two-element matrix [a, b] or [[a], [b]] is automatically converted into a three-element
matrix [a, b, 0] or [[a], [b], [0]].
Example: To obtain the cross product of the two vectors [1, 3, 5] and [2, 4, 6]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][crossP]

u dotP
Function: Returns the dot product of two vectors.
Syntax: dotP (Mat-1, Mat-2 [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only.
Example: To obtain the dot product of the two vectors [1, 3, 5] and [2, 4, 6]
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][dotP]

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Using the Action Menu

u toRect
Function: Returns an equivalent rectangular form [x y] or [x y z].
Syntax: toRect (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × N or N × 1 matrix only (N = 2, 3).
• This command returns “x” when “natural number” is 1, “y” when “natural number” is 2,
and “z” when “natural number” is 3.
• This command returns a rectangular form when you omit “natural number”.
Example: To transform the polar form [ 2 , ∠(π/4)] into an equivalent rectangular form
(in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toRect]

u toPol
Function: Returns an equivalent polar form [r∠].
Syntax: toPol (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × 2 or 2 × 1 matrix only.
• This command returns “r” when “natural number” is 1, and “θ ” when “natural number” is 2.
• This command returns a polar form when you omit “natural number”.
Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 2] into its equivalent polar form
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toPol]

u toSph
Function: Returns an equivalent spherical form [ ρ ∠ ∠φ ].
Syntax: toSph (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × 3 or 3 × 1 matrix only.
• This command returns “ρ ” when “natural number” is 1, “ ” when “natural number” is 2,
and “φ ” when “natural number” is 3.
• This command returns a spherical form when you omit “natural number”.
Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 1, 1] into its equivalent spherical form
(in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toSph]

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Using the Action Menu

u toCyl
Function: Returns an equivalent cylindrical form [r∠θ z].
Syntax: toCyl (Mat [,natural number] [ ) ]
• This command can be used with a 1 × 3 or 3 × 1 matrix only.
• This command returns “r” when “natural number” is 1, “θ ” when “natural number” is 2,
and “z” when “natural number” is 3.
• This command returns a cylindrical form when you omit “natural number”.
Example: To transform the rectangular form [1, 1, 1] into an equivalent cylindrical form
(in the Radian mode)
Menu Item: [Action][Vector][toCyl]

Using the Equation/Inequality Submenu
The [Equation/Inequality] submenu contains commands that are related to equations and
inequalities.

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Using the Action Menu

u solve
Function: Returns the solution of an equation or inequality.
Syntax: solve(Exp/Eq/Ineq [,variable] [ ) ]
• For this syntax, “Ineq” also includes the ⫽ operator.
• “x” is the default when you omit “[,variable]”.
solve(Exp/Eq,variable[, value, lower limit, upper limit] [ ) ]
• This syntax does not support “Ineq”, but the ⫽ operator is supported.
• “value” is an initially estimated value.
• This command is valid only for equations and ⫽ expressions when “value”
and the items following it are included. In that case, this command returns
an approximate value.
• A true value is returned when you omit “value” and the items following it.
When, however, a true value cannot be obtained, an approximate value is
returned for equations only based on the assumption that value = 0, lower
limit = –∞, and upper limit = ∞.
solve({Exp-1/Eq-1, ..., Exp-N/Eq-N}, {variable-1, ..., variable-N} [ ) ]
• When “Exp” is the first argument, the equation Exp = 0 is presumed.
Example: To solve ax + b = 0 for x
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve]

Example: To solve simultaneous linear equations 3x + 4y = 5, 2x – 3y = –8
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve]

You also could input the simultaneous equations shown in this example using the 2D
keyboard
key. The following shows the required input syntax.
Exp-1/Eq-1
Exp-N/Eq-N

variable-1, ..., variable-N

• The following shows the required key operation to input this example using the

key.

d≈+eY=fcc≈-dY=-i
e≈,Yw

• To input simultaneous equations with three or more unknowns, press the
key when
the cursor is in the Exp-N/Eq-N input field. Each press of
will add one more line for
input of an equation.
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Note
For the solution, the solve function returns an expression or value for the expression
(Exp/Eq) input as its argument. The message “More solutions may exist” will appear on
the display when a value is returned as the solution, because there may be multiple
solutions.
The solve function can return a maximum of 10 solutions in the case of values.
Example: To solve cos (x) = 0.5 for x (initial value: 0)
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][solve]

(Angle unit setting: Deg)

u dSolve
Function: Solves first, second or third order ordinary differential equations, or a system of
first order differential equations.
Syntax: dSolve(Eq, independent variable, dependent variable [, initial condition-1, initial
condition-2][, initial condition-3, initial condition-4][, initial condition-5, initial
condition-6] [ ) ]
dSolve({Eq-1, Eq-2}, independent variable, {dependent variable-1, dependent
variable-2} [, initial condition-1, initial condition-2, initial condition-3, initial
condition-4] [ ) ]
• If you omit the initial conditions, the solution will include arbitrary constants.
• Input all initial conditions equations using the syntax Var = Exp. Any initial condition that
uses any other syntax will be ignored.
Example: To solve a differential equation y’ = x, where y = 1 when x = 0.
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][dSolve]

Example: To solve the system of first order differential equations y’ = y + z, z’ = y – z,
where “x” is the independent variable, “y” and “z” are the dependent variables,
and the initial conditions are y = 3 when x = 0, and z = 2 – 3 when x = 0
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][dSolve]

u rewrite
Function: Moves the right side elements of an equation or inequality to the left side.
Syntax: rewrite(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To move the right side elements of x + 3 = 5x – x2 to the left side
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][rewrite]
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u exchange
Function: Swaps the right-side and left-side elements of an equation or inequality.
Syntax: exchange(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To swap the left-side and right-side elements of 3 > 5x – 2y
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][exchange]

u eliminate
Function: Solves one equation with respect to a variable, and then replaces the same
variable in another expression with the obtained result.
Syntax: eliminate(Eq/Ineq/List-1, variable, Eq-2 [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To transform y = 2x + 3 to x =, and substitute the result into 2x + 3y = 5
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][eliminate]

u absExpand
Function: Divides an absolute value expression into formulas without absolute value.
Syntax: absExpand(Eq/Ineq [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To remove the absolute value from ⎜2x – 3 ⎜ = 9
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][absExpand]

u andConnect
Function: Combines two equations or inequalities into a single expression.
Syntax: andConnect(Eq/Ineq-1, Eq/Ineq-2 [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To rewrite x > –1 and x < 3 into a single inequality
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][andConnect]

u getRight
Function: Extracts the right-side elements of an equation or inequality.
Syntax: getRight(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To extract the right side elements of y = 2x2 + 3x + 5
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][getRight]

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u getLeft
Function: Extracts the left-side elements of an equation or inequality.
Syntax: getLeft(Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To extract the left side elements of y = 2x2 + 3x + 5
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][getLeft]

u and
Function: Returns the result of the logical AND of two expressions.
Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 and Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To obtain the result of the logical AND of x2 > 1 and x < 0
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][and]

u or
Function: Returns the result of the logical OR of two expressions.
Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 or Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To obtain the result of the logical OR of x = 3 or x > 2
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][or]

u xor
Function: Returns the logical exclusive OR of two expressions.
Syntax: Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-1 xor Exp/Eq/Ineq/List-2
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To obtain the logical exclusive OR of x < 2 xor x < 3
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][xor]

u not
Function: Returns the logical NOT of an expression.
Syntax: not(Exp/Eq/Ineq/List [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “≠” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To obtain the logical NOT of x = 1
Menu Item: [Action][Equation/Inequality][not]

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Using the Assistant Submenu
The [Assistant] submenu contains two commands related to the Assistant mode.
• Note that the following commands are valid in the Assistant mode only. For more
information on the Assistant mode see “Assistant Mode and Algebra Mode” on page 2-2-8.

u arrange
Function: Collects like terms and arranges them in descending order, starting with the
term that contains the smallest coefficient.
Syntax: arrange (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To arrange 2x + 3 – 5x + 8y in the sequence of its variables
Menu Item: [Action][Assistant][arrange]

u replace
Function: Replaces the variable in an expression, equation or inequality with the value
assigned to a variable using the “store” command.
Syntax: replace (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List/Mat [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To replace s in the expression 3x + 2s, when the expression 2x + 1
is assigned to s
Menu Item: [Action][Assistant][replace]

u invert
Function: Inverts two variables in an expression.
Syntax: invert (Exp/Eq/Ineq/List [,variable-1, variable-2] [ ) ]
• Ineq (inequality) includes the “⫽” (not equal to) relational operator.
Example: To invert x and y in the expression 2x = y
Menu Item: [Action][Transformation][invert]
• x and y are inverted when variables are not specified.
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Using the Action Menu

u Clear_a_z
Function: Clears all single-character variable names (a-z and A-Z) in the current folder.

Using the Distribution and Inv. Distribution Submenus
The [Distribution] and [Inv. Distribution] submenus include functions related to each type of
statistical calculation distribution probability.

Note
The functions on the [Distribution] and [Inv. Distribution] submenus perform the same calculations
as the Distribution commands that are available in the Statistics application and the Main, eActivity,
and Program applications. For information about the numeric expressions used in calculations,
the meanings of the variables used in the syntaxes of the functions presented in this section, and
the system variables that store the values obtained as calculation results, see the “Distribution
Command List” on pages 7-11-3 to 7-11-26.
Also see the “Distribution Command List” for information about how to use Distribution commands
in the Statistics application and the required syntax when using Distribution commands within other
applications.

Specifying Arguments within the Distribution Function
You can specify either values or list data for any of the arguments within the Distribution
function. The normPDf function (page 2-8-49) syntax (normPDf(x, , )) that returns normal
probability density can be used to perform the calculations shown below. The “Number
Format” setting is “Fix 2” for all calculation results.
normPDf(1, 1, 0) = 0.24
normPDf({1, 2}, 1, 0) = {0.24, 0.05}
normPDf(1, {1, 2}, 0) = {0.24, 0.18}

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normPDf({1, 2},{1, 2}, 0) = {0.24, 0.12}
normPDf({1, 2},{1, 2},{1, 0}) = {0.40, 0.12}
The following explains how to specify list data in arguments and how calculation results are
output.
(a) Specifying list data for a single argument
• Basically, you can specify any list you like, but the each of the elements in the list must
be in accordance with the conditions required by the argument of the function being
used.
• Calculation is performed on each element within the list and results are output as
shown below.
normPDf(x, {1, 2}, )
= {, }
(b) Specifying list data for multiple arguments
• In this case, all of the lists must have the same number of elements. Otherwise an
Invalid Dimension error will occur.
• Calculation is performed on each element within the list and results are output as
shown below.
normPDf({x1, x2}, {1, 2}, )
= {, }
Assignment of List Data Calculation Results to Variables
Using the list data in the argument of the Distribution function causes calculation results to
be output as list data, which is assigned as-is to the “ans” variable.
In addition to the “ans” variable, calculations that use the Distribution function causes
calculation results also to be assigned to certain system variables. For example, the normal
probability density variable returned by normPDf is assigned to system variable prob. Only
the last element of the list data will be assigned to a system variable as a calculation result.
For information about which calculation result is assigned to which variable, see the
“Calculation Result Output” item for each command in “7-11 Distributions” (pages 7-11-3 to
7-11-25).

u normPDf
Function: Returns the normal probability density for a specified value.
Syntax: normPDf(x[,σ , μ)]
• When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used.
Example: To determine the normal probability density when x = 37.5, σ = 2, μ = 35
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][normPDf]
For more information, see “Normal Probability Density” on page 7-11-3.

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u normCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a normal distribution between a lower
bound and an upper bound.
Syntax: normCDf(lower value, upper value[,σ , μ)]
• When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used.
Example: To determine the normal probability density when lower bound value = −∞,
upper bound value = 36, σ = 2, μ = 35
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][normCDf]
For more information, see “Normal Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-4.

u invNormCDf
Function: Returns the boundary value(s) of a normal cumulative distribution probability
for specified values.
Syntax: invNormCDf([tail setting, ]area value[,σ , μ)]
• When σ and μ are skipped, σ = 1 and μ = 0 are used.
• “tail setting” displays the probability value tail specification, and Left, Right, or Center
can be specified. Enter the following values or letters to specify:
Left:

−1, “L”, or “l”

Center: 0, “C”, or “c”
Right:

1, “R”, or “r”

When input is skipped, “Left” is used.
• When one argument is omitted (resulting in three arguments), Tail=Left.
• When two arguments are omitted (resulting in two arguments), Tail=Left, μ =0.
• When three arguments are omitted (resulting in one argument), Tail=Left, σ =1, μ =0.
• When “tail setting” is Center, the lower bound value is returned.
Example: To determine the upper bound value when tail setting = Left, area value = 0.7,
σ = 2, μ = 35
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invNormCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse Normal Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-5.

u tPDf
Function: Returns the Student-t probability density for a specified value.
Syntax: tPDf(x, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the Student-t probability density when x = 2, df = 5
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][tPDf]
For more information, see “Student-t Probability Density” on page 7-11-6.

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u tCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a Student-t distribution between a lower
bound and an upper bound.
Syntax: tCDf(lower value, upper value, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the Student-t distribution probability when lower value = 1.5,
upper value = ∞, df = 18
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][tCDf]
For more information, see “Student-t Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-7.

u invTCDf
Function: Returns the lower bound value of a Student-t cumulative distribution probability
for specified values.
Syntax: invTCDf(prob, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.0754752, df = 18
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invTCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse Student-t Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-8.

u chiPDf
Function: Returns the χ2 probability density for specified values.
Syntax: chiPDf(x, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the χ2 probability density when x = 2, df = 4
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][chiPDf]
For more information, see “2 Probability Density” on page 7-11-9.

u chiCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability of a χ2 distribution between a lower bound
and an upper bound.
Syntax: chiCDf(lower value, upper value, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the χ2 probability when lower value = 2.7, upper value = ∞, df =4
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][chiCDf]
For more information, see “χ2 Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-10.

u invChiCDf
Function: Returns the lower bound value of a χ2 cumulative distribution probability for
specified values.
Syntax: invChiCDf(prob, df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.6092146, df = 4
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Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invChiCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse χ2 Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-10.

u fPDf
Function: Returns the F probability density for a specified value.
Syntax: fPDf(x, n:df, d:df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the F probability density when x = 1.5, n:df = 24, d:df = 19
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][fPDf]
For more information, see “F Probability Density” on page 7-11-11.

u fCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability of an F distribution between a lower bound
and an upper bound.
Syntax: fCDf(lower value, upper value, n:df, d:df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the F distribution probability when lower value = 1.5, upper
value = ∞, n:df = 24, d:df = 19
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][fCDf]
For more information, see “F Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-12.

u invFCDf
Function: Returns the lower bound value of an F cumulative distribution probability for
specified values.
Syntax: invFCDf(prob, n:df, d:df [ ) ]
Example: To determine the lower bound value when prob = 0.1852, n:df = 24, d:df = 19
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invFCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse F Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-13.

u binomialPDf
Function: Returns the probability in a binomial distribution that the success will occur on
a specified trial.
Syntax: binomialPDf(x, numtrial value, pos [ ) ]
Example: To determine the binomial probability when x = 5, numtrial value = 3,
pos = 0.63
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][binomialPDf]
For more information, see “Binomial Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-14.

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Using the Action Menu

u binomialCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a binomial distribution that the success
will occur between specified lower value and upper value.
Syntax: binomialCDf(lower value, upper value, numtrial value, pos [ ) ]
Example: To determine the binomial cumulative probability when lower value = 2, upper
value = 5, numtrial value = 3, pos = 0.63
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][binomialCDf]
For more information, see “Binomial Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-15.

u invBinomialCDf
Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a binomial cumulative probability
distribution for specified values.
Syntax: invBinomialCDf(prob, numtrial value, pos [ ) ]

Important!
When executing the invBinomialCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value
and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob
value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the
system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using
*prob). The invBinomialCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when
the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears
showing both values.

The calculation results of invBinomialCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when
the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation
accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed
values.
Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.609, numtrial
value = 5, pos = 0.63
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invBinomialCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse Binomial Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-16.

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Using the Action Menu

u poissonPDf
Function: Returns the probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will occur on a
specified trial.
Syntax: poissonPDf(x, ␭ [ ) ]
Example: To determine the Poisson probability when x = 10, ␭ = 6
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][poissonPDf]
For more information, see “Poisson Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-17.

u poissonCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a Poisson distribution that the success will
occur between specified lower value and upper value.
Syntax: poissonCDf(lower value, upper value, ␭ [ ) ]
Example: To determine the Poisson cumulative probability when lower value = 2, upper
value = 3, ␭ = 2.26
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][poissonCDf]
For more information, see “Poisson Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-18.

u invPoissonCDf
Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a Poisson cumulative probability
distribution for specified values.
Syntax: invPoissonCDf(prob, ␭ [ ) ]

Important!
When executing the invPoissonCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value
and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob
value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the
system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using
*prob). The invPoissonCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when
the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears
showing both values.

The calculation results of invPoissonCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when
the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation
accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed
values.
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Using the Action Menu

Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.8074, ␭ = 2.26
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invPoissonCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse Poisson Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-19.

u geoPDf
Function: Returns the probability in a geometric distribution that the success will occur on
a specified trial.
Syntax: geoPDf(x, pos [ ) ]
Example: To determine the geometric probability when x = 6, pos = 0.4
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][geoPDf]
For more information, see “Geometric Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-20.

u geoCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a geometric distribution that the success
will occur between specified lower value and upper value.
Syntax: geoCDf(lower value, upper value, pos [ ) ]
Example: To determine the geometric probability when lower value = 2, upper value = 3,
pos = 0.5
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][geoCDf]
For more information, see “Geometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-21.

u invGeoCDf
Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a geometric cumulative probability
distribution for specified values.
Syntax: invGeoCDf(prob, pos [ ) ]

Important!
When executing the invGeoCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob value
and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits (*prob
value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to the
system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result using
*prob). The invGeoCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However, when the
xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears showing
both values.

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Using the Action Menu

The calculation results of invGeoCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when the
first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation
accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed
values.
Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.875, pos = 0.5
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invGeoCDf]
For more information, see “Inverse Geometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-22.

u hypergeoPDf
Function: Returns the probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the success will
occur on a specified trial.
Syntax: hypergeoPDf(x, n, M, N [ ) ]
Example: Determine the hypergeometric probability when x = 1, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20.
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][hypergeoPDf]

For more information, see “Hypergeometric Distribution Probability” on page 7-11-23.

u hypergeoCDf
Function: Returns the cumulative probability in a hypergeometric distribution that the
success will occur between specified lower value and upper value.
Syntax: hypergeoCDf(lower value, upper value, n, M, N [ ) ]
Example: Determine the hypergeometric cumulative distribution when lower value = 0,
upper value = 1, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20.
Menu Item: [Action][Distribution][hypergeoCDf]

For more information, see “Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-24.

u invHypergeoCDf
Function: Returns the minimum number of trials of a hypergeometric cumulative
distribution for specified values.
Syntax: invHypergeoCDf(prob, n, M, N [ ) ]

Important!
When executing the invHypergeoCDf function the calculator uses the specified prob
value and the value that is one less the prob value minimum number of significant digits
(*prob value) to calculate minimum number of trials values. The results are assigned to
the system variables xInv (calculation result using prob) and *xInv (calculation result
using *prob). The invHypergeoCDf function always returns the xInv value only. However,
when the xInv and *xInv values are different, the warning message shown below appears
showing both values.

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Using the Action Menu

The calculation results of invHypergeoCDf are integers. Accuracy may be reduced when
the first argument has 10 or more digits. Note that even a slight difference in calculation
accuracy affects calculation results. If a warning message appears, check the displayed
values.
Example: To determine the minimum number of trials when prob = 0.3, n = 5, M = 10, N = 20
Menu Item: [Action][Inv. Distribution][invHypergeoCDf]

For more information, see “Inverse Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution” on page 7-11-25.

Using the Financial Submenu
The [Financial] submenu contains commands that are related to financial calculations.

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Using the Action Menu

Simple Interest
For the meaning of each argument, see “Simple Interest” (page 15-2-1).

u simpInt
Function:

Returns the interest based on simple interest calculation.

Syntax:

simpInt (n,I%,PV)

Example:

simpInt (120,5,−10000)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Simple Interest][simpInt]

u simpFV
Function:

Returns the total of principal and interest based on simple interest
calculation.

Syntax:

simpFV (n,I%,PV)

Example:

simpFV (1825,6,−300)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Simple Interest][simpFV]

Compound Interest
• P/Y and C/Y can be omitted for all compound interest calculations. When they are omitted,
calculations are performed using P/Y=1 and C/Y=1.
• If you perform a calculation that uses a compound interest function (cmpdFV, cmpdIR,
cmpdN, cmpdPmt, cmpdPV), the argument(s) you input and the calculation results will be
saved to the applicable variables (n, I%, PV, etc.). If you perform a calculation that uses
any other type of financial calculation function, the argument and calculation results are
not assigned to variables.
• For the meaning of each argument, see “Compound Interest” (page 15-3-1).

u cmpdFV
Function:

Returns the final input/output amount or total principal and interest.

Syntax:

cmpdFV (n,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

cmpdFV (4,6,−1000,0,1,1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdFV]

u cmpdIR
Function:

Returns the annual interest.

Syntax:

cmpdIR (n,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

cmpdIR (4,−1000,0,120,1,1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdIR]

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Using the Action Menu

u cmpdN
Function:

Returns the number of compound periods.

Syntax:

cmpdN (I%,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

cmpdN (6,−1000,0,120,1,1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdN]

u cmpdPmt
Function:

Returns equal input/output values (payment amounts for installment
payments, deposit amounts for savings) for a fixed period.

Syntax:

cmpdPmt (n,I%,PV,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

cmpdPmt (4,6,−1000,120,1,1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdPmt]

u cmpdPV
Function:

Returns the present value (loan amount for installment payments, principal
for savings).

Syntax:

cmpdPV (n,I%,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

cmpdPV (4,6,0,120,1,1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Compound Interest][cmpdPV]

Cash Flow (Investment Appraisal)
For the meaning of each argument, see “Cash Flow” (page 15-4-1).

u cashIRR
Function:

Returns the internal rate of return.

Syntax:

cashIRR (Cash)

Example:

list1 = {−1000,100,200,300,400,500}
cashIRR (list1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashIRR]

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Using the Action Menu

u cashNFV
Function:

Returns the net future value.

Syntax:

cashNFV (I%,Cash)

Example:

list1 = {0,100,200,300,400,500}
cashNFV (10,list1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashNFV]

u cashNPV
Function:

Returns the net present value.

Syntax:

cashNPV (I%,Cash)

Example:

list1 = {0,100,200,300,400,500}
cashNPV (10,list1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashNPV]

u cashPBP
Function:

Returns the payback period.

Syntax:

cashPBP (I%,Cash)

Example:

list1 = {−1000,100,200,300,400,500}
cashPBP (10,list1)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cash Flow][cashPBP]

Amortization
For the meaning of each argument, see “Amortization” (page 15-5-1).

u amortBal
Function:

Returns the remaining principal balance following payment PM2.

Syntax:

amortBal (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

amortBal (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortBal]

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Using the Action Menu

u amortInt
Function:

Returns the interest paid for payment PM1.

Syntax:

amortInt (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

amortInt (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortInt]

u amortPrn
Function:

Returns the principal and interest paid for payment PM1.

Syntax:

amortPrn (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

amortPrn (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortPrn]

u amortSumInt
Function:

Returns the total principal and interest paid from payment PM1 to PM2.

Syntax:

amortSumInt (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

amortSumInt (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortSumInt]

u amortSumPrn
Function:

Returns the total principal paid from payment PM1 to PM2.

Syntax:

amortSumPrn (PM1,PM2,I%,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

Example:

amortSumPrn (10,15,8.025,100000,−837.9966279,12,12)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Amortization][amortSumPrn]

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Using the Action Menu

Interest Conversion
For the meaning of each argument, see “Interest Conversion” (page 15-6-1).

u convEff
Function:

Returns the interest rate converted from the nominal interest rate to the
effective interest rate.

Syntax:

convEff (n,I%)

Example:

convEff (4,3)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Interest Conversion][convEff]

Note:

When I% is EFF, this command returns APR.

u convNom
Function:

Returns the interest rate converted from the effective interest rate to the
nominal interest rate.

Syntax:

convNom (n,I%)

Example:

convNom (6,5)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Interest Conversion][convNom]

Note:

When I% is APR, this command returns EFF.

Cost/Sell/Margin
For the meaning of each argument, see “Cost/Sell/Margin” (page 15-7-1).

u priceCost
Function:

Returns the cost based on a specified selling price and margin.

Syntax:

priceCost (Sell,Margin)

Example:

priceCost (100,60)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceCost]

u priceSell
Function:

Returns the selling price based on a specified cost and margin.

Syntax:

priceSell (Cost,Margin)

Example:

priceSell (40,60)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceSell]

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Using the Action Menu

u priceMargin
Function:

Returns the margin based on a specified cost and selling price.

Syntax:

priceMargin (Cost,Sell)

Example:

priceMargin (40,100)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Cost/Sell/Margin][priceMargin]

Day Count
For the meaning of each argument, see “Day Count” (page 15-8-1).

u dayCount
Function:

Returns the number of days from a specified d1 to specified d2.

Syntax:

dayCount (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2)

Example:

dayCount (3,21,2005,6,28,2005)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][dayCount]

Bond Calculation
For the meaning of each argument, see “Bond Calculation” (page 15-10-1).

u bondPriceDate
Function:

Returns in list form bond prices based on specified conditions.

Syntax:

bondPriceDate (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2,RDV,CPN,YLD) =
{PRC,INT,CST}

Example:

bondPriceDate (6,1,2004,12,15,2006,100,3,4)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondPriceDate]

u bondPriceTerm
Function:

Returns in list form bond prices based on specified conditions.

Syntax:

bondPriceTerm (N,RDV,CPN,YLD) = {PRC,INT,CST}

Example:

bondPriceTerm (5,100,3,4)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondPriceTerm]

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Using the Action Menu

u bondYieldDate
Function:

Returns the yield based on specified conditions.

Syntax:

bondYieldDate (MM1,DD1,YYYY1,MM2,DD2,YYYY2,RDV,CPN,PRC)

Example:

bondYieldDate (6,1,2004,12,15,2006,100,3,−97.61645734)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondYieldDate]

u bondYieldTerm
Function:

Returns the yield based on specified conditions.

Syntax:

bondYieldTerm (N,RDV,CPN,PRC)

Example:

bondYieldTerm (5,100,3,−95.54817767)

Menu Item: [Action][Financial][Bond Calculation][bondYieldTerm]

Using the Command Submenu
u Define
Function: Creates a user-defined function.
For more information, see “Define” on page 12-6-9 and “Creating a User-defined Function
Using the Define Command” on page 12-5-2.

u DispStat
Function: Displays previous statistical calculation results.
For more information, see “DispStat” on page 12-6-28 and “To explore statistical data” on
page 12-7-5.

u Clear_a_z
Function: Clears all single-character variables.
For more information, see “Clear_a_z” on page 2-8-48.

u DelVar
Function: Deletes a specified variable.
For more information, see “DelVar” on page 12-6-39.

u Clear All Variables
Function: Clear variables that contain numbers, list and matrices.

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Using the Interactive Menu

2-9 Using the Interactive Menu
The [Interactive] menu includes most of the commands that are on the [Action] menu.
Selecting a command on the [Action] menu will simply execute the command. With the
[Interactive] menu, on the other hand, selecting a command will display a dialog box
prompting input of the arguments required by the command’s syntax (when necessary).
The following are the differences between the [Interactive] menu and [Action] menu.

Interactive Menu and Action Menu
• With the [Action] menu, you select a command to input a function into the work area.
• With the [Interactive] menu, you drag the stylus across existing input in the work area and
then select a command. This encloses the highlighted expression with the command and
opens a dialog box if more arguments are needed.
• When you select an [Interactive] menu item without highlighting an expression first, a dialog
box will open prompting you for the necessary arguments.
• When a command requires multiple arguments, a dialog box appears prompting you for the
arguments with the [Interactive] menu.
• The [Interactive] menu has an “apply” command while the [Action] menu does not.
• The “DispStat”, “Clear_a_z,” and “DelVar” commands of the [Action] menu’s [Command]
submenu are not included on the [Interactive] menu.

Tip
• Operation of the following [Interactive] menu commands is identical to the same commands on
the [Action] menu.
[Transformation], [Advanced], [Calculation], [Complex], [List-Create], [List-Calculation], [MatrixCreate], [Matrix-Calculation], [Vector], [Equation/Inequality], [Assistant], Define
• For information about using these commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

Interactive Menu Example
The following example shows how to use the [Transformation]-[factor] command from both
the [Interactive] menu and the [Action] menu.
Example: To factorize the expression x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1

u To factorize from the Interactive menu
(1) In the work area, input the expression you want to factorize (x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1).
(2) Drag the stylus across the expression to select it.

(3) Tap [Interactive], [Transformation], and then [factor].
• This factorizes the selected expression.

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Using the Interactive Menu

u To factorize from the Action menu
(1) Tap [Action], [Transformation], and then [factor].
• This inputs “factor(” into the work area.

(2) Input the expression you want to factorize
(x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1).

(3) Tap w.
• This factorizes the selected expression.

• Though the above two procedures are quite different, they both produce the same result.
[Interactive] menu operations come in handy in the following cases.
• When you want to use a command on an expression you are calculating
• When you want to use a command that requires multiple arguments
When you use the [Interactive] menu to access a command that requires multiple arguments
or if you access a command without first highlighting an expression, the dialog box that
appears shows the number of arguments, the contents of each argument, and the input
sequence. This lets you perform your input without worrying about command syntax.
The following procedure shows an example of using the [Interactive] menu when three
arguments need to be specified.
Example: To obtain the definite integral of x2 + 2x, 1 s x s 2

u ClassPad Operation
(1) In the work area, input the expression ( x2 + 2x).
(2) Drag the stylus across the expression to select it.

(3) Tap [Interactive], [Calculation], and then [ ∫ ].
• This displays the ∫ dialog box.

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Using the Interactive Menu

(4) On the dialog box, tap “Definite integral” to select it.
• This displays boxes for specifying the variable
and the lower limit and the upper limit.

(5) Input the required data for each of the following three arguments.
Variable: x
Lower:
1
Upper:
2
(6) Tap [OK].
• This performs the calculation and displays the
solution.

Tip
• You can execute a command on the Interactive menu without selecting an expression in the work
area. On the dialog box that appears, enter the expression you can to perform into the
“Expression” box.

Dialog box when an expression is selected
in the work area when you tap [Interactive] [Calculation] - [∫].

Dialog box when no expression is selected.

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Using the Interactive Menu

Using the “apply” Command
The “apply” command is included on the [Interactive] menu only. You can use this command
to execute only a specific part of an expression and display its result.
Example: To calculate the result of diff(sin(x),x) × cos(x) + sin(x) × diff(cos(x),x), and then
calculate only part of the expression

Note
• This procedure assumes that your ClassPad is configured with the following mode settings:
Algebra, Complex, Radian, Descending Order.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Input the example calculation provided above and execute it.
• For details about differential calculations, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

(2) Drag the stylus across “diff(sin(x),x)” to select it.

(3) Tap [Interactive] and then [apply].
• This executes the part of the calculation you selected in step (2). The part of the
calculation that is not selected (× cos(x) + sin(x) × diff(cos(x),x)) is output to the
display as-is.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

2-10 Using the Main Application in Combination
with Other Applications
You can access the windows of other ClassPad applications from the Main application and
perform copy, paste, and other operations between them.
This section explains how to access the windows of other applications from the Main
application, and provides examples of the various operations you can perform between them.

Important!
• For details about the windows produced by each ClassPad application, see the chapter that
covers the application. All of the explanations in this section assume that you are already
familiar with the operations in the other ClassPad applications.

Opening Another Application’s Window
Use the following procedure to access the window of another application from the Main
application window.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button.
• This displays a palette of application icons.

Graph
3D Graph
Conics Graph
Geometry
Stat Editor
Financial
Numeric Solver
Verify

Graph Editor
3D Graph Editor
Conics Editor
Spreadsheet
Differential Equation Editor
Probability
Sequence Editor

(2) Tap the button that corresponds to the window you want to display.
• This causes the window that corresponds to the button you tap to appear in the lower
window.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

Closing Another Application’s Window
u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap anywhere inside of the window you would like to close.
(2) Tap the S button in the upper right corner, or tap O and then [Close].
• The Main application work area expands to fill the entire display.

Tip
• Even if you used the icon panel r icon to expand the lower window to fill the entire display,
tapping O and then [Close] closes it and returns to the work area window.
• Nothing happens if you tap O and then [Close] while the work area window is active.
• For more information about enlarging one of the windows on a dual window display to fill the
entire display (r), swapping the contents of the upper window and lower window (S),
making a window active, and other window operations, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on
page 1-5-1.

Using the Graph Window $ and 3D Graph Window %
Dragging a function from the work area to the Graph window $ graphs it in the format of
y = f(x).
Dragging a function from the work area to the 3D Graph window % graphs it in the format of
z = f(x, y).
Example: To execute the expression factor(x2 – 1) in the work area, and then graph x2 – 1

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Input “factor (x2 – 1)” into the work area, and then tap w.
(2) Tap $ to display the Graph window in the lower
window.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

(3) Drag the stylus across “x^2 – 1” in the work area to
select it.

(4) Drag the selected expression to the Graph window.
• This graphs y = x2 – 1. This graph reveals that
the x-intercepts are x = ±1.

Tip
• As can be seen in the above example, a graph can be drawn when you drop an expression in the
form of f (x) into the Graph window. In the case of the 3D Graph window, the expression must be
in the form of f (x,y).
• For more information about the Graph window, see Chapter 3. For more information about the 3D
Graph window, see Chapter 5.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

Using a Graph Editor Window (Graph & Table: !, Conics: *, 3D Graph:
@, Numeric Solver: 1)
You can copy expressions by dragging them between the work area window and the Graph
Editor, Conics Editor, 3D Graph Editor, and Numeric Solver windows.
Example: To copy an expression in the work area by dragging it to the Graph Editor window

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the work area window, tap ! to display the Graph Editor window in the lower
window.
• If you already have some functions input in the Graph & Table application, those
functions will be displayed on the Graph Editor window.
(2) In the work area, drag the stylus across the expression
you want to copy so it is selected.

(3) Drag the selected expression to the location on the Graph Editor window where you
want to copy it.
• This makes the Graph Editor window active and
copies the expression to the location where you
dropped it.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

(4) Press E to register the expression.
• The copied expression is displayed in natural format, with the check box
next to it selected.
• You could now tap $ to graph the function.

Tip
• For more information about the Graph Editor window, see Chapter 3. For more information about
the Conics Graph Editor window, see Chapter 4. For more information about the 3D Graph Editor
window, see Chapter 5. For more information about the Numeric Solver window, see Chapter 9.

Using the Stat Editor Window (
You can use the Stat Editor window to create new LIST variables and edit existing LIST
variables. You can also use the Stat Editor window to display the contents of a LIST variable
created using the work area by specifying the LIST variable’s name.

k Example List Operation
The following are the general steps for using the Stat Editor. The steps indicated in
parentheses refer to the steps under “ClassPad Operation” below.
1. Display the Stat Editor (step (1)) and input data for two LIST variables named “list1” and
“list2” (step (2)).
2. On the work area window, perform calculations that use “list1” and “list2” (steps (3) and (4)).
3. Use the work area to assign numbers to a variable and create a new LIST variable (steps (5)
and (6)).
4. Display the Stat Editor window and recall the LIST variable you created (steps (7), (8) and
(9)).

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the work area window, tap ( to display the Stat Editor window in the lower
window.
(2) Input the following list data into the lists named “list1”
and “list2”. list1 = {1, 2, 3} list2 = {4, 5, 6}

(3) Make the work area window active, and then perform
the following calculation: list1 + list2 S list3.
• You could also input “list3:=list1+list2” to produce the
same result.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

(4) Tap the Stat Editor window to make it active.
• Here you can see that list3 contains the result of
list1 + list2.

(5) Tap the work area window to make it active.
(6) Perform the operation {12, 24, 36}⇒test, which
assigns the list data {12, 24, 36} to the LIST
variable named “test”.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

(7) Tap the Stat Editor window to make it active.
(8) Scroll the screen to the right until the blank list to
the right of “list6” is visible.

(9) Tap the blank cell next to “list6”, input “test”, and then tap w.
• This displays the list data {12, 24, 36}, which is assigned to the variable named
“test”.
• At this point you can perform list editing operations
like append, delete, edit, etc.

Tip
• list1 through list6 are LIST type system variables. For more information, see “1-7 Variables and
Folders”.
• For information about inputting and editing list data using the Stat Editor, see Chapter 7.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

Using the Geometry Window 3
When there is a Geometry window on the display, you can drag values and expressions to
the Geometry window to draw the graph or figure of the value or expression. You can also
drag a figure from the Geometry window to the work area, which displays the corresponding
expression or value.

k Dragging an Expression from the Work Area to the Geometry Window
Example: To input the expressions x2/52 + y2/22 = 1 and x2 + y2 = 1 in the work area,
and then drag them to the Geometry window

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Input the two expressions into the work area.
(2) Tap 3 to display the Geometry window in the lower window.
• The Geometry window that initially appears is blank.

(3) Drag the stylus across x2/52 + y2/22 = 1
in the work area to select it.

(4) Drag the selected expression to the Geometry window.
• An ellipse appears in the Geometry window.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

(5) Drag the stylus across x2 + y2 = 1 in the work area to select it.
(6) Drag the selected expression to the Geometry window.
• A circle appears in the Geometry window.

Tip
• The following table shows the types of expressions you can drop into the Geometry window.

Dropping this into the Geometry window:
Linear equation in x and y
Equation of circle in x and y

Displays this:
An infinite line

Equation of ellipse in x and y

A circle
An ellipse

Equation of hyperbola in x and y

A hyperbola

2-dimensional vector (2 rows × 1 column format)
Equation y = f(x)

A point
A curve

2 × n matrix, n > 3

A polygon (each column
represents a vertex of the polygon)

n × 2 matrix, n > 3

An open polygon

• When the expression is not recognized, Geometry displays it as text.

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Using the Main Application in Combination with Other Applications

k Dragging a Figure from the Geometry Window to the Work Area
The following shows what happens when you drag a figure from the Geometry window to the
work area.

Displays this:
Coordinates as a vector (2 × 1 matrix)
Equation of the line
An ordered pair (head of vector
assuming the tail is at the origin)

Dropping this into the work area:
Point
Line
Vector

Corresponding equation
2 × n matrix
n × 2 matrix
Simultaneous equations for the pair
Line Pair
A point and its image under a transformation Matrix expression for the transformation

Circle, Arc, Ellipse, Function, or Curve
Polygon
Open Polygon (Created by Animation)

Point

Circle

A point and its image

Tip
• For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8.

Using the Sequence Editor Window &
Displaying the Sequence Editor window from the Main application makes it possible for you
to perform the same operations you can perform in the Sequence application. You can also
use drag and drop to copy expressions between the work area and the Sequence Editor
window.

Tip
• For information about Sequence Editor operations and other Sequence application operations,
see Chapter 6.

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Using Verify

2-11 Using Verify
Verify provides you with a powerful tool to check whether your numeric or algebraic
manipulations are correct. Verify will assist you in simplifying an expression by verifying
whether or not the expression you entered is equivalent to your original expression. If it
is, you will get a pleasant response; if not, you will need to correct your mistake before
continuing.
You can access Verify within the Main application or the eActivity application. In the Main
application, you can save Verify sessions in ClassPad memory and reopen the session for
future use.
Verify sessions can also be saved within an eActivity. For more information on saving an
eActivity, see “10-2 Creating an eActivity”.

Important!
• Most Verify operations are the same in both the Main application and the eActivity
application.

Starting Up Verify
Use the following procedure to start up Verify.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button.
(2) On the icon palette that appears, tap W.

Left-side expression
Right-side expression

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Using Verify

Verify Menus and Buttons
This section provides basic information about Verify menus, commands, and buttons.

Tip
• O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O
Menu” on page 1-5-4.

k File Menu
To do this:

Select this File
menu item:

Discard the current window contents and create a new file

New

Open an existing file

Open

Save the current window contents to a file

Save

k Edit Menu
To do this:

Select this Edit
menu item:

Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone

Undo/Redo

Cut the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard

Cut

Copy the currently selected object and place it onto the clipboard

Copy

Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen

Paste

Select the entire row where the cursor is located

Select All

Delete the entire row where the cursor is located

Delete

Clear the Verify window

Clear All

k Action Menu
For information about Action menu commands, see “2-8 Using the Action Menu”.

Important!
Some Action menu commands are not useful in Verify, but for ease of use Verify’s Action
menu is identical to the Action menus in the Main application and the eActivity application.

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Using Verify

k Verify Buttons
To do this:

Tap this Verify button:

Clear the Verify window (same as the Clear All command)

E

Open or save a file (Main application only)

R

Specify the complex number calculation range for Verify

T

Specify the real number calculation range for Verify

Y

Specify the positive real number calculation range for Verify

U

Verify the equation starting from the first line
Verify the equation starting from the current line

Using Verify
The following examples show the basic steps for using Verify.

Important!
• In Verify, you can press E or tap with the stylus to move the cursor between lines.
• A message will appear to let you know whether or not the calculation result is valid.
Example 1: To factor 50 completely

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button.
(2) On the icon palette that appears, tap W.

(3) Input 50 and tap w.

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Using Verify

(4) Following the equal sign (=), input 25 × 3 and tap w.

(5) Tap [OK] to close the error dialog that appears.
(6) Change 25 × 3 to 25 × 2 and tap w.

(7) Following the next equal sign (=), input 5 × 5 × 2 and
tap w.

Example 2: To rewrite x2 + 1 in factored form
(1) Tap the left most toolbar icon E to begin a new Verify session.
(2) Tap [OK] to clear the window.
(3) Tap the down arrow on the toolbar and select T.

(4) Input x^2 + 1 and press E.
(5) Input (x + i )(x – i ) and press E.

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Using Probability

2-12 Using Probability
You can use Probability to simulate the following.
• The die faces that will appear when a single die is thrown a specified number of times (1
Die)
• The sum of the data of dice faces that will appear when a pair of dice is shown a
specified number of times (2 Dice +)
• The product of the data of dice faces that will appear when a pair of dice is shown a
specified number of times (2 Dice `)
• When any number of balls labeled A, B, C, D, E, and F are placed into a box, data about
how many times each ball will be drawn within a specified number of draws (Container)
You can specify any integer from 1 to 20 as the number of die faces.

Probability dialog box
when 1 Die is selected

Probability dialog box
when Container is selected

You can access Probability in the Main application or the eActivity application. From either
application, you can save Probability sessions in ClassPad memory and reopen the session
for future use.
Probability sessions also can be inserted into an eActivity. For more information, see “10-2
Creating an eActivity”.

Important!
Most Probability operations are the same in both the Main application and the eActivity
application.

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Using Probability

Starting Up Probability
Use the following procedure to start up Probability.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button.
(2) On the icon palette that appears, tap P.
• This will display an initial Probability dialog box like
the one shown below. You can use this dialog box to
try the probability emulation.

(3) Tap [OK].
• This will execute the probability emulation using the
default setup (1 Die, Number of trials: 1, Number of
faces: 6 ).
Trial information
Trial result

Probability Menus and Buttons
This section provides basic information about Probability menus, commands, and buttons.

Tip
• O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O
Menu” on page 1-5-4.

k File Menu
To do this:

Select this File
menu item:

Discard the current window contents and create a new file

New

Open an existing file

Open

Save the current window contents to a file

Save

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Using Probability

k Edit Menu
Select this Edit
menu item:

To do this:

Copy the currently selected object (trial information or trial result) and
Copy
place it onto the clipboard
Display the Probability dialog box and try the probability emulation (the
trial result will be added to the end of the current file)

Add

Delete the currently selected trial data

Delete

Clear the Probability window (and display the Probability dialog box)

Clear All

k Display Menu
To do this:

Select this Display
menu item:

Show the selected result distribution table format

Distribution

Show the selected result as a list data format

Sample Data

Tip
• Under initial default settings, trial results are shown in distribution table format. Selecting
distribution table results and selecting [Sample Data] on the [Display] menu will change them to
list data format. Conversely, selecting table results and selecting [Distribution] on the [Display]
menu will change them to distribution table format.

Distribution Table Format

List Data Format

k Probability Buttons
Select this Probability
button:

To do this:
Discard the current window contents and create a new file

E

Display the Probability dialog box and try the probability emulation

P

Open an existing file

R

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Using Probability

Using Probability
The following examples show the basic steps for using Probability.
Example 1: To obtain the sum data when a two six-sided die are thrown 50 times

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the right most toolbar down arrow button.
(2) On the icon palette that appears, tap P.
• This displays the Probability dialog box.

(3) Tap the button next to “2 Dice +” to select it.
(4) Enter 50 into the “Number of trials” box.
• Leave the value in the “Number of faces”
box at it intial default value (6).

(5) Tap [OK].
• The result will appear in the Probability
window.

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2-12-5
Using Probability

Example 2: To obtain the product data when a two six-sided die are thrown 150 times
(This example assumes you are continuing from Example 1.)
(1) Tap P to display the Probability dialog box.
(2) Tap the button next to “2 Dice `” to select it.
(3) Enter 150 into the “Number of trials” box.
• Leave the value in the “Number of faces”
box at it initial default value (6).

(4) Tap [OK].
• The result will appear in the Probability window.

Example 3: After putting 10 A-balls, 2- B-balls, and 30 C-balls into a box, determine how
many times each type of ball will be drawn when there is a total of 50 draws.
Each time a ball is drawn, it should be replaced into the box before the next
draw.
(This example assumes you are continuing from Example 2.)
(1) Tap P to display the Probability dialog box.
(2) Tap the button next to “Container” to select it.

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2-12-6
Using Probability

(3) Configure the following settings on the dialog box.
• Replace: Yes (Indicates the ball is replaced before the next draw. If the ball is not
replaced, select “No”.)
• A: 10, B: 20, C: 30 (Leaver other letters set to zero.)
• Number of trials: 50

(4) Tap [OK].
• The result will appear in the Probability window.

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2-13-1
Running a Program in the Main Application

2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application
You can run a program in the Main application or the eActivity application.
Syntax: Folder name\Program name(parameter)
• You do not need to specify the folder name if the program you want to run is in the
current folder. If you leave ClassPad configured with its initial default settings, the
current folder for both the Program application and the Main application is the “main”
folder, so you normally do not need to specify a folder name.
• Unless you change it, the current folder of the eActivity application is the “eAct” folder,
so you always need to specify the folder name. If you want to run a program that is in
the “main” folder, input “main\Program name(parameter)”.

Important!
If the program command “Pause” is used in a program, it is ignored when the program is
called from Main or eActivity.
Program

Main application

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eActivity application

2-13-2
Running a Program in the Main Application

Example: To run the program named OCTA that we created and stored under “Creating 
and Saving a Program” (page 12-2-1) from the Main application, and determine
the surface area and of a regular octahedron with a side length of 20 cm

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Perform the key operation below in the Main application work area.
0EOCTA9()

(2) Tap E.

(3) Enter 20 and then tap [OK].
• This will run OCTA and display the results
in the program output window.

Program output window

(4) To close the program output window, tap anywhere inside it and then tap the S button
in upper right corner.

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Chapter

3

Using the Graph & Table
Application
The Graph & Table application allows you to input and graph
rectangular coordinate equations (or inequalities), polar coordinate
equations, and parametric expressions. After you graph an expression,
you can zoom in or out, and move a pointer along the graph, displaying
its coordinates as you go. You can also perform various graph-based
analytical operations to determine the points of intersect of two graphs,
and to determine the maximum, minimum, point of inflection, and
definite integral for a particular range of a parabola or other figure. You
can even generate number tables and summary tables for functions
that you input.
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8

Graph & Table Application Overview
Using the Graph Window
Storing Functions
Using Table & Graph
Modifying a Graph
Using the Sketch Menu
Using Trace
Analyzing a Function Used to Draw a Graph

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3-1-1
Graph & Table Application Overview

3-1 Graph & Table Application Overview
This section describes the configuration of the Graph & Table application windows and
provides basic information about its menus and commands.

Starting Up the Graph & Table Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Graph & Table application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap T.
This starts the Graph & Table application and displays the Graph Editor window and the
Graph window.

Graph & Table Application Window
When you start up the Graph & Table application, two windows appear on the display:
the Graph Editor window and the Graph window.

Graph Editor window

Line numbers

Graph window

Message box

• A Graph Editor sheet can contain up to 20 functions. You can have up to 100 functions
stored in the Graph Editor at one time. Functions stored in the Graph Editor can be graphed
on the Graph window.
• The Graph window and Table window have a message box along the bottom that can
display expressions and values, or be used for input and editing.

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Graph & Table Application Overview

You can also use a function on the Graph Editor window to generate a number table or a
summary table. Number tables and summary tables are displayed in a Table window.

Table window

Graph & Table Application Menus and Buttons
This section explains the operations you can perform using the Graph & Table application
menus and buttons.
• For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4.

k Graph Editor Window Menus and Buttons
Tap this
button:

To do this:

Or select this
menu item:

Cut the selected character string and place it onto the
clipboard

—

Edit - Cut

Copy the selected character string to the clipboard

—

Edit - Copy

Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor
position in the Graph Editor window

—

Edit - Paste

Select the entire expression you are editing

—

Edit - Select All

Clear all of the expressions from the Graph Editor window

—

Edit - Clear All

Input a rectangular coordinate type function

d

Type - y= Type

Input a polar coordinate type function

f

Type - r= Type

Input a parametric function

g

Type - ParamType

Input an X equality

h

Type - x= Type

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3-1-3
Graph & Table Application Overview

To do this:

Input a rectangular coordinate type inequality

Input an X inequality

Tap this
button:

Or select this
menu item:

j

Type - y> Type

l

Type - y< Type

'

Type - yt Type

X

Type - ys Type

k

Type - x> Type

;

Type - x< Type

Z

Type - xt Type

C

Type - xs Type

Input two functions in a list and shade between them

Type - ShadeType

Save all of the expressions on the Graph Editor window

—

GMem - Store

Recall batch saved data to the Graph Editor window

—

GMem - Recall

Display the Dynamic Graph dialog box (page 3-5-4)

—

a - Dynamic Graph

Display the Draw Shade dialog box (page 3-3-12)

—

a - Draw Shade

Use a built-in function for input

—

a - Built-In

Specify “AND Plot” as the inequality plot setting

—

a - Inequality Plot and

Specify “OR Plot” as the inequality plot setting

—

a - Inequality Plot or

Delete all of the expressions on the active sheet

—

a - Sheet Clear Sheet

Return all sheet names to their initial defaults

—

a - Sheet Default Name

Graph the selected function(s)

$

—

Generate a summary table for the selected function

4

—

Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph
window settings

6

O - View Window

Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings

8

—

Generate a table for the selected function

#

—

Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)

—

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O - Variable
Manager

3-1-4
Graph & Table Application Overview

k Graph Window Menus and Buttons
Tap this Or select this
button: menu item:

To do this:
Cut the character string selected in the message box
and place it onto the clipboard

—

Edit - Cut

Copy the character string selected in the message box
to the clipboard

—

Edit - Copy

Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor
position in the message box

—

Edit - Paste

Select all of the text in the message box

—

Edit - Select All

Clear all of the Graph window contents

—

Edit - Clear All

Enlarge the part of the screen bounded by a box

Q

Zoom - Box

Specify a zoom factor

—

Zoom - Factor

Zoom in by the zoom factor

—

Zoom - Zoom In

Zoom out by the zoom factor

—

Zoom - Zoom Out

Configure View Window y-axis parameters and redraw
the graph so it fills the graph screen along the y-axis

R

Zoom - Auto

Return a graph to its original size

—

Zoom - Original

Adjust View Window x-axis values so they are identical
to the y-axis values

—

Zoom - Square

Round coordinate values displayed using Trace
(page 3-7-1)

—

Zoom - Round

Make the value of each dot equal 1, which makes all
coordinate values integers

—

Zoom - Integer

Return View Window parameters to their settings prior
to the last zoom operation

—

Zoom - Previous

—

Zoom Quick Initialize

—

Zoom - Quick Trig

—

Zoom - Quick log(x)

—

Zoom - Quick e^x

—

Zoom - Quick x^2

—

Zoom - Quick –x^2

—

Zoom Quick Standard

Perform a quick zoom operation (page 3-2-9)

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3-1-5
Graph & Table Application Overview

Tap this Or select this
button: menu item:

To do this:
Display the coordinates at a particular point on a graph
Insert a point, graphic, or text into an existing graph
(page 3-6-1)

=

Analysis - Trace

—

Analysis - Sketch

Obtain the root (x-intercept) of a graph

Y

Analysis - G-Solve Root

Obtain the maximum value of a graph

U

Analysis - G-Solve Max

Obtain the minimum value of a graph

I

Analysis - G-Solve Min

Obtain the maximum value in the range displayed on the
Graph window

—

Analysis - G-Solve fMax

Obtain the minimum value in the range displayed on the
Graph window

—

Analysis - G-Solve fMin

Obtain the y-intercept of a graph

—

Analysis - G-Solve y-Intercept

Obtain the point of intersection for two graphs

—

Analysis - G-Solve Intersect

Obtain the y-coordinate for a given x-coordinate

—

Analysis - G-Solve y-Cal

Obtain the x-coordinate for a given y-coordinate

—

Analysis - G-Solve x-Cal

Obtain the definite integral for a particular range

—

Analysis - G-Solve ∫dx

Obtain the point of inflection

—

Analysis - G-Solve Inflection

Obtain the distance between two points

—

Analysis - G-Solve Distance

Obtain the volume of a solid of revolution

—

Analysis - G-Solve π ∫ (f (x))2 dx

Modify a graph by changing the value of a coefficient

—

Analysis - Modify

Save a graph as image data (page 3-2-10)

—

a - Store Picture

Recall the image of a graph (page 3-2-10)

—

a - Recall Picture

Display the Dynamic Graph dialog box (page 3-5-4)

—

a - Dynamic Graph

Display the Draw Shade dialog box (page 3-3-12)

—

a - Draw Shade

Use a built-in function template to input a function for
graphing
• Note that built-in functions are graphed automatically
and cannot be used for input on the Graph Editor
window.

—

a - Built-In

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3-1-6
Graph & Table Application Overview

Tap this Or select this
button: menu item:

To do this:
Specify “AND Plot” as the inequality plot setting

—

a - Inequality Plot and

Specify “OR Plot” as the inequality plot setting

—

a - Inequality Plot or

Re-draw a graph

—

a - ReDraw

Make the Graph Editor window active

!

—

Generate a number table for an existing graph

#

—

Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph
window settings

6

O - View Window

Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings

8

—

Pan the Graph window

T

—

Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)
Generate a summary table for an existing graph

—

O - Variable
Manager

4

—

k Table Window Menus and Buttons
Tap this Or select this
button: menu item:

To do this:
Cut the character string selected in the message box
and place it onto the clipboard

—

Edit - Cut

Copy the character string selected in the message box
to the clipboard

—

Edit - Copy

Paste the contents of the clipboard at the current cursor
position in the message box

—

Edit - Paste

Select all of the text in the message box

—

Edit - Select All

Clear all of the Table window contents

—

Edit - Clear All

Delete a line from a table

—

T-Fact - Delete

Insert a line into a table

—

T-Fact - Insert

Add a line after the currently selected line

—

T-Fact - Add

Draw a connect type graph using a generated table

$

Graph - G-Connect

Draw a plot type graph using a generated table

!

Graph - G-Plot

Save the contents of a table to a list

—

a - Table to List

Re-generate a table based on current table settings

—

a - ReTable

Delete the displayed table

—

a - Delete Table

Move the pointer to the location on a graph that
corresponds to the value selected in a table

—

a - Link

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3-1-7
Graph & Table Application Overview

Tap this Or select this
button: menu item:

To do this:
Make the Graph Editor window active

!

Display the View Window dialog box to configure Graph
window settings

6

Display the Table Input dialog box for configuring settings

8

Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)

—

—
O - View Window
—
O - Variable
Manager

Graph & Table Application Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the Graph & Table application shows the current angle unit
setting and [Complex Format] setting (page 1-9-5).

Angle unit

Real mode

If you see this:

It means this:

Rad

The angle unit setting is radians.

Deg

The angle unit setting is degrees.

Gra

The angle unit setting is grads.

Cplx

The Complex (complex number calculation) mode is selected.

Real

The Real (real number calculation) mode is selected.

Graph & Table Application Basic Operations
This section explains how to input a function on the Graph Editor window and then graph it
on the Graph window. These are the most basic operations you can perform with the Graph
& Table application.

k Function Storage and Graphing Example
This example shows how to input two functions on Sheet 1 of the Graph & Table application,
and then draw their graphs.

Tip
• The Graph Editor window has five sheets, named Sheet 1 through Sheet 5, for input of
expressions. For more information, see “Using Graph Editor Sheets” on page 3-3-1.

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3-1-8
Graph & Table Application Overview

Example 1: To input the function y = 3x2 on Sheet 1 and graph it

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
• This starts the Graph & Table application.
(2) In the Graph Editor window, tap the input box immediately to the right of line number
y1.
• This locates the cursor in the input box for line y1.

Cursor

(3) Input the expression.
3x{2E
• Pressing E stores the expression you input and puts a check mark into the check
box to the left of line number y1. When a line number has a check mark next to it, it
means that the expression is currently selected for graphing.

When you input an expression,
the line style that will be used for
the graph will appear here. See
page 3-3-8 for information about
configuring line settings.
Hint:
Tap the line that is circled above!

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Graph & Table Application Overview

(4) Tap $.
• This graphs the expression.

The expression is displayed in the message box while the graph is being drawn.

Tip
• The Graph window message box is for both input and output. It displays information about the
function and other information. You can also use it to edit the function, which causes the graph to
change shape. Details about the information that appears in the message box and how to use the
message box are covered on page 1-6-8.

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Graph & Table Application Overview

Example 2: To input the function r = 3sin2θ into line 2 of Sheet 1 and graph it
In Example 1, we graphed a rectangular expression in the form of y = f(x). You can also input
polar coordinate expressions, inequalities, and other types of functions for graphing as well.
In this example, we input and graph the polar coordinate expression r = 3sin2θ. Note that
the following sample procedure assumes that you have already completed the steps for
Example 1.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap anywhere inside of the Graph Editor window to make it active.
(2) Tap the down arrow next to “y =”, or on the menu tap [Type]. On the list that appears,
tap “r =”.

• This causes the line numbers next to any line on the Graph Editor window that does
not contain an expression to change from “y” to “r” (r2, r3, etc.). The line numbers of
lines that already contain expressions do not change.

(3) Tap the input box to the right of line number r2 and input the expression.
k9dTsc8)w
• Tapping w stores the expression you input and puts a check mark into the check
box to the left of line number r2. When a line number has a check mark next to it, it
means that the expression is currently selected for graphing.

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Graph & Table Application Overview

(4) Tap $.
• Since there are check marks next to both “y1” and “r2”, both expressions are
graphed.

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Using the Graph Window

3-2 Using the Graph Window
This section explains Graph window operations, including configuring display settings,
scrolling, zooming the image, and more.

Configuring View Window Parameters for the Graph Window
The View Window dialog box lets you specify the maximum and minimum values for each
axis, the space between the marks on each axis (the scale), and other graph display
parameters. Before drawing a graph, be sure to first configure View Window parameters to
ensure proper display of the graph.

u To configure View Window parameters
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6, or tap O and then [View Window].
• This displays the View Window dialog box.

(3) Tap the “2D” option button so the option is selected.
(4) Configure View Window parameters required for the type of graph you want to draw.
• Press c to move the cursor and then input an appropriate value for each parameter.

Rectangular Coordinates
Use this item:
xmin
xmax
xscale
xdot
ymin
ymax
yscale
ydot

To configure this View Window parameter:
x-axis minimum value
x-axis maximum value
x-axis marker spacing
Value of each dot on the x-axis
y-axis minimum value
y-axis maximum value
y-axis marker spacing
Value of each dot on the y-axis

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Using the Graph Window

• You can also use the rectangular coordinate View Window dialog box to select x-log
graph, y-log graph, or xy-log graph.

To select this type of graph:
x-log graph

Do this:
Select the x-log check box.
• This automatically sets “xdot” and
“xscale” to “Auto”.

y-log graph

Select the y-log check box.
• This automatically sets “ydot” and
“yscale” to “Auto”.

xy-log graph

Select the x-log check box and the
y-log check box.
This automatically sets “xdot”, “xscale”,
“ydot”, and “yscale” to “Auto”.

Polar Coordinates and Parametric Coordinates

Use this item:
t θ min
t θ max
t θ step

To configure this View Window parameter:
Minimum value of tθ
Maximum value of tθ
Step size of tθ

(5) After all the parameters are the way you want, tap [OK].

Tip
• When you tap [OK] after changing View Window dialog box settings while the Graph window is
active, the graph is redrawn automatically using the new View Window settings.
• If the Graph window is not active, tapping [OK] closes the View Window dialog box without
redrawing the graph. To redraw the graph in this case, tap $ on the Graph Editor window.

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Using the Graph Window

u View Window parameter precautions
• An error occurs if you input 0 for t step.
• An error also occurs if you input a value that is out of range for a parameter, if you input a
minus sign only, or if you perform any other illegal input.
• An error occurs if ymin is greater than or equal to the ymax. The same is also true for the
xmin and xmax. If the value you specify for t min is greater than the value you specify for
t max, the t step setting is automatically changed to a negative value.
• When the View Window setting produces an axis that does not fit on the display, the scale
of the axis is indicated on the edge of the display closest to the origin.
• Changing the xmin (ymin) or xmax (ymax) value automatically changes the xdot (ydot)
value, while changing the xdot (ydot) value automatically changes the xmax (ymax) value.

u To initialize View Window parameters
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box.
(3) Tap [Memory] and then [Initial]. This initializes View Window parameters to the values
noted below.
xmin = –7.7

xmax = 7.7

xscale = 1 xdot = 0.1

ymin = –3.8

ymax = 3.8

yscale = 1 ydot = 0.1

t min = 0

tmax = 6.28318530717 t step = 0.05235987755

u To initialize the View Window for an angle unit
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box.
(3) Tap [Memory] and then [Trigonometric]. This initializes View Window parameters in
accordance with the angle unit, as shown below.
(Setup: Radian)
xmin = –9.4247779607

xmax = 9.42477796076

xscale = 1.57079632679

xdot = 0.12239971377

ymin = –1.6

ymax = 1.6

yscale = 0.5

ydot = 0.04210526315

t min = 0

t max = 6.28318530717

t step = 0.05235987755
(Setup: Degree)
xmin = –540

xmax = 540

xscale = 90

xdot = 7.01298701298

ymin = –1.6

ymax = 1.6

yscale = 0.5

ydot = 0.04210526315

t min = 0

t max = 360 t step = 3

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Using the Graph Window

u To standardize the View Window
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box.
(3) Tap [Memory] and then [Standard]. This applies the standard View Window parameters
shown below.
xmin = –10

xmax = 10

xscale = 1

xdot = 0.12987012987

ymin = –10

ymax = 10

yscale = 1

ydot = 0.26315789473

t min = 0

t max= 6.28318530717

tstep = 0.05235987755

u To auto configure View Window parameters
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box.
(3) Tap [Memory] and then [Auto]. This causes View Window parameters to be configured
automatically in accordance with the function on the Graph Editor window.
• When multiple expressions are selected for graphing, the one with the lowest
numbered line is used for auto setting of View Window parameters.

Tip
• Initializing or standardizing View Window parameters causes polar/parametric coordinate values
t min, t max, and t step to be adjusted automatically in accordance with the currently selected
angle unit. In the Degree mode, for example, the following settings are configured:
t min = 0, t max = 360, t step = 3

k Using View Window Memory
You can store your custom View Window settings for later use.

u To save the current View Window setup
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6.
(3) On the View Window dialog box, configure the parameters you want.
(4) Tap [Memory] and then [Store]. This displays a dialog box for inputting a name for the
View Window setup.
(5) Enter the name and then tap [OK].

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Using the Graph Window

u To recall a setup from View Window memory
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap 6. This displays the View Window dialog box.
(3) Tap [Memory] and then [Recall]. This displays a list of names of the View Window
setups you have stored in memory.
(4) Select the name of the setup you want, and then tap [OK].

Tip
• Recalling a View Window setup causes the current View Window parameters to be replaced by
the parameters of the recalled setup.

Viewing Graph Window Coordinates
Tapping and holding a point on Graph window with the stylus will display the coordinates at
that location in the status bar.

Coordinate

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Using the Graph Window

Scrolling the Graph Window
After drawing a graph, you can use either of the two operations to scroll it up, down, left, or
right.
• Tap the graph controller arrows at the edges of the Graph window.
• Use the cursor key.

Graph controller arrows

Tip
• Display of the graph controller arrows is turned off under initial default settings. Use the Graph
Format dialog box to turn them on, if you want. For more information, see “Application Format
Settings” on page 1-9-4.
• You can also use the graph controller arrows and cursor key to change the configuration of a
graph. For details, see “3-5 Modifying a Graph”.

Panning the Graph Window
Placing the stylus against the Graph window and dragging causes the window to scroll
automatically in the direction you drag.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the Graph window to make it active.
(2) Tap T.
(3) Holding the stylus anywhere against the Graph window, drag it in the direction you
want.
• This causes the Graph window to scroll automatically in accordance with the
dragging.

After T is tapped

While panning

(4) When the Graph window shows the area you want, remove the stylus from the display.
• This causes the graph to be redrawn on the Graph window.

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Using the Graph Window

Zooming the Graph Window
Your ClassPad provides you with a wide selection of zoom commands that you can use to
enlarge or reduce an entire graph or a specific area of a graph.

k Zoom Commands
The Graph window’s [Zoom] menu contains the zoom commands described in the table
below.

Description

Zoom Command
Box

With “box zoom”, you draw a selection boundary around the area you
would like to enlarge. This causes the selected area to be enlarged so
it fills the entire graph display.

Factor
Zoom In
Zoom Out

“Factor zoom” lets you specify a zoom factor for enlarging or reducing
a graph.
Use the [Factor] command to configure zoom factor settings, the
[Zoom In] command to zoom in, and the [Zoom Out] command to
zoom out.

Auto
Original
Square
Round

“Auto zoom” automatically configures View Window y-axis values and
redraws the graph so it fills the Graph window along the y-axis.
Return a graph to its original View Window settings
Executing this command adjusts View Window x-axis values so that
they are identical to the y-axis values.
Round View Window settings (xmin, xmax, xdot) to an appropriate
number of decimal places and redraw the graph.

Integer

This command makes the value of each dot equal 1, which makes all
coordinate values integers.

Previous

Performing a zoom operation changes View Window parameter
values. Execute this command to return View Window parameters to
their settings prior to the last zoom operation.

Quick Initialize
Quick Trig
Quick log (x)
Quick e^x
Quick x^2
Quick –x^2
Quick Standard

These seven quick zoom commands cause the graph to be redrawn
using preset View Window parameter values (page 3-2-9).

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Using the Graph Window

u To use box zoom
Example: To use box zoom to enlarge part of the graph y = (x + 5)(x + 4)(x + 3)
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) On the Graph Editor window, input y = (x + 5)(x + 4)(x + 3).
• For details about how to input an expression, see “Function Storage and Graphing
Example” on page 3-1-7 and “3-3 Storing Functions”.
(3) Tap $ to graph the functions.
(4) Tap [Zoom] and then [Box], or tap Q.
(5) On the Graph window, drag the stylus to draw a selection boundary around the area
you want to enlarge.
(6) Remove the stylus from the display and the area within the selection boundary expands
to fill the entire Graph window.

Box Zoom Result

u To use factor zoom
Example: To enlarge the graphs of the following two expressions, by a factor of 5 in both
directions, to determine whether they come into contact with each other

y1 = (x + 4)(x + 1)(x – 3)
y2 = 3x + 22
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) On the Graph Editor window, input y1 = (x + 4)(x + 1)(x – 3) and y2 = 3x + 22.
• For details about how to input an expression, see “Function Storage and Graphing
Example” on page 3-1-7 and “3-3 Storing Functions”.
(3) Tap 6 to display the View Window, and then configure it with the following
parameters.
xmin = –8,

xmax = 8,

xscale = 1

ymin = –30, ymax = 30, yscale = 5
• See “To configure View Window parameters” on page 3-2-1.
(4) Tap $ to graph the functions.
(5) Tap [Zoom] and then [Factor].
• This displays a dialog box for configuring x- and y-axis zoom factor settings.
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Using the Graph Window

(6) Input 5 for both the xFactor and yFactor, and then tap [OK].
(7) Tap T, and then use the stylus to drag the screen image so the part you want to
zoom is in the center of the screen.
(8) Tap [Zoom] and then [Zoom In].

Factor Zoom Result

k Using Quick Zoom
The seven quick zoom commands draw a graph using preset built-in View Window
parameter values.

Command
Quick Initialize
Quick Trig
Quick log (x)
Quick e^x
Quick x^2
Quick –x^2
Quick Standard

xmin
–7.7
–12.1
(–3.85π)
–2
–2.2
–7.7
–7.7
–10

View Window Parameter Values
xmax
xscale
ymin
ymax
7.7
1
–3.8
3.8
12.1
1.570
–2.1
2.1
(3.85π)
(π/2)
13.4
2.2
7.7
7.7
10

2
1
2
2
1

–3.8
–1.4
–10
–66
–10

yscale
1

3.8
9
66
10
10

1
1
1
5
5
1

The applicable set of View Window parameter values is applied as soon as you select a
quick zoom command on the Graph window’s [Zoom] menu.

Tip
• Any View Window parameter that is not shown in the above table is unchanged when you
execute a quick zoom command.
• When the angle unit setting is degrees, Quick Trig configures the following values.

xmin = –540, xmax = 540, xscale = 90
ymin = –1.6,

ymax = 1.6,

yscale = 0.5

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Using the Graph Window

k Using Other Zoom Menu Commands
The [Auto], [Original], [Square], [Round], [Integer], and [Previous] zoom commands are
executed as soon as you tap one of them on the Graph window’s [Zoom] menu.
For information about what each command does, see “Zoom Commands” on page 3-2-7.

Tip
• For auto zoom, you can tap the R button instead of using the [Zoom] - [Auto] menu command.
• With Integer Zoom, tap T and then use the stylus to drag the screen image so the part you
want to zoom is in the center of the screen.

Other Graph Window Operations
This section explains how to save a screenshot of the Graph Window, how to redraw a
graph, how to make the Graph Editor Window the active window.

k Saving a Screenshot of a Graph
Use the following procedures to save a screenshot of a graph as image data for later recall.

u To save a screenshot of a graph
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Draw the graph you want to save.
(3) Tap a and then [Store Picture]. This displays a dialog box for inputting a name for the
screenshot.
(4) Enter the name and then tap [OK].

u To recall a screenshot of a graph
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) Tap the Graph window to make it active.
(3) Tap a and then [Recall Picture]. This displays a list of names of graph images you
have stored in memory.
(4) Select the name of the image you want, and then tap [OK].

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Using the Graph Window

k Redrawing a Graph
Use the following procedure to redraw a graph when necessary.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the Graph window to make it active.
(2) Tap a and then [ReDraw].
• While the Graph Editor window is active, you can redraw the graph by tapping $.

Important!
• Use the a - [ReDraw] command to redraw a graph that you drew by dragging an
expression from another window to the Graph window (see “2-10 Using the Main
Application in Combination with Other Applications”), or a graph you modified using some
Sketch menu (see “3-6 Using the Sketch Menu”). After deleting the redrawn graph, you
can redraw the graph of the expression selected on the Graph window by tapping [Analysis],
[Sketch], and then [Cls].

k Making the Graph Editor Window the Active Window
While the Graph window is active, you can make the Graph Editor window the active window
by tapping anywhere inside of it, by tapping !, or by tapping Oand then [Graph Editor].

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Storing Functions

3-3 Storing Functions
Use the Graph Editor window to store a Graph & Table application function. This section
covers Graph Editor operations, and explains how to store functions.

Using Graph Editor Sheets
The Graph Editor window has five tabbed sheets named Sheet 1 through Sheet 5, each of
which can contain up to 20 functions. You can have up to 100 functions stored in the Graph
Editor at one time.
You can graph up to 20 functions simultaneously, as long as all of the functions are on the
same sheet.

k Selecting a Sheet
Use the operations described below to change from one sheet to another.
Tap the tab of the sheet you
want to select. The currently
selected sheet is the “active”
sheet.

Tap here to scroll the tabs so
the ones that do not fit on the
current window come into view.

k Renaming a Sheet
Initially, the fives sheets are assigned default names from Sheet 1 through Sheet 5. You can
use these sheet names as they are, or you can perform the steps below to rename a sheet.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the tab of the sheet you want to rename so that sheet becomes active.
(2) Tap the tab of the active sheet again.
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a sheet
name.

(3) Enter up to 8 bytes for the sheet name, and then tap [OK].

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Storing Functions

k Returning Sheets to Their Default Names
The procedure below returns the sheet names to their initial default names (Sheet 1 through
Sheet 5).

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the Graph Editor window to make it active.
(2) Tap a, [Sheet], and then [Default Name].
• This returns the currently active sheet to its default name.

k Initializing a Sheet
The following procedure initializes a sheet, which clears all of its functions and renames the
sheet to its default name.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) If the sheet you want to initialize is not active, tap its tab.
(2) Tap a, [Sheet], and then [Clear Sheet].
(3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK] to initialize the sheet or
[Cancel] to cancel the operation.
• For details about editing and deleting individual functions, see “Editing Stored Functions”
on page 3-3-6.
• You can delete all expressions on all of the sheets by tapping [Edit] and then [Clear All].
For more information, see “Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions” on page 3-3-7.

Specifying the Function Type
When storing a Graph & Table application function, the first thing you need to do is specify
the function type. The following table lists all of the function types that you can select.

y=
r=
xt/yt =
x=
y>
y<
y≤
y≥
x>
x<
x≤
x≥

Rectangular coordinate expression
Polar coordinate expression
Parametric expressions
X = expression

ya

Two functions in a list with shading
between them

Inequality

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Storing Functions

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) On the Graph Editor window, tap the down arrow next to “y =”, or tap [Type].
(3) On the list that appears, tap the function type you want to select.

Storing a Function
This section presents a number of examples that illustrate how to store a Graph & Table
application function.

u To store a rectangular coordinate function (Y=)
Example: To store the rectangular coordinate function y = 2x 2 – 5 in line number y1
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [y=Type] to specify a rectangular
coordinate expression.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y1”, and then input the expression:
2x{ 2-5.
(3) Press E to store the expression.

u To store a polar coordinate equation (r=)
Example: To store the polar coordinate equation r = 5sin3  in line number r 2
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [r=Type] to specify a polar coordinate
expression.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “r 2”, and then input the expression:
k9fTsd8).
(3) Tap w to store the expression.

u To store parametric functions
Example: To store the parametric functions below in line numbers xt3/yt3
xt = 3sint
yt = 3cost
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [ParamType] to specify parametric
expressions.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “xt3”, and then input the x-expression:
k9dTst)w.
(3) Tap the box to the right of line number “yt3”, and then input the y-expression:
9dct)w.

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Storing Functions

u To store an x = equation
Example: To store x = 3y in line x4
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [x=Type] to specify an
x = equation.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “x4”, and then input the equation:
3y.
(3) Press E to store the equation.

u To store an inequality
Example: To store the inequality y > x2 – 2x – 6 in line y5
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [y>Type] to specify an inequality
expression.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y5”, and then input the expression:
x{2-2x-6.
(3) Press E to store the expression.

u To store a shade type (y a)
Example: To store f(x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = –x2 + 1, –1 < x < 1 in line y6
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Type] and then [ShadeType] to specify a shade type
expression.
(2) Tap the box to the right of line number “y6”, and then input the expression:
k9{X{c-b,-X{c+b}KUb$X$b
(3) Press E to store the expression.

Tip
• An error message appears if you enter an expression that does not fit the function type. Either
input the new function into a different line or delete the current function and then change the type
before re-inputting the function.
• You can change the equality/inequality sign of an x-type (x =, x>, x<, xt, xs) or y-type
(y =, y>, y<, yt, ys, ShadeType) expression after you input it. Simply tap the current equality/
inequality sign.

On the Type dialog box that appears, select the sign you want and then tap [OK].

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Storing Functions

Using Built-in Functions
Your ClassPad is pre-programmed with the commonly used functions listed below. You can
recall a built-in function, save it to an Graph Editor sheet, assign values to its coefficients,
and graph the results.

y = a·x + b
y = a·x^2 + b·x + c
y = a·x^3 + b·x^2 + c·x + d
y = a·sin (b·x + c) + d
y = a·cos (b·x + c) + d
y = a·tan (b·x + c) + d
y = a·log (b·x + c) + d
y = a·ln (b·x + c) + d
y = a·e^(b·x + c) + d
y = a^(b·x + c) + d
y = a /(b·x + c) + d
u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap T.
(2) On the Graph Editor window, select the sheet and the line where you want to store the
built-in function.
(3) Tap a and then [Built-In].
(4) On the menu that appears, tap the built-in function you want to select.
• This displays a dialog box for assigning values to the coefficients. The actual
coefficients that appear (a through d) depend on the built-in function you selected.
(5) Assign values to each coefficient.
(6) Tap [OK].

Saving the Message Box Expression to the Graph Editor Window
You can save the expression currently displayed in the Graph window message box to the
Graph Editor window. This capability comes in handy when you want to save an expression
that appears in the message box while you are using the sketch function (see “3-6 Using the
Sketch Menu”).

Note
• The following are the steps you should perform after an expression is stored in the
message box of the Graph window.

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Storing Functions

u To save an expression from the message box to the Graph Editor window
(1) Tap the Graph window to make it active.
(2) Perform a Trace operation (see “3-7 Using Trace”) or any other operation that causes
the message box to appear.
(3) Tap inside the message box to select the entire expression or drag the stylus across
the part of the expression you want to select.
(4) Tap G.
(5) Tap the Graph Editor window to make it active.
(6) Select the sheet and tap the line where you want to save the expression, which moves
the cursor there.
(7) Tap [Edit] and then [Paste].
(8) Press E to store the expression.

Tip
• You can also drag the expression from the message box to the Graph Editor window. In this
case, you must drop the expression into a line on the Graph Editor window that does not already
contain an expression.

Editing Stored Functions
u To edit a function
1
Example: To edit the function y = x2 – — x3 stored in line y2 of the Graph Editor to
3
2 3
2
—
y=x – 3 x
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap line y2.
1
(2) Tap the area immediately to the right of the numerator of — so the cursor is located
3
there.
(3) Press K and then 2 to edit the fraction.
(4) Press E to store the edited version of the function.

u To delete a function
(1) On the Graph Editor window, select the sheet that contains the function you want to
delete.
(2) Tap the function you want to delete so the cursor is located anywhere inside it.
(3) Tap [Edit] and then [Select All].
(4) Press K.
• This deletes the selected function.

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Storing Functions

Deleting All Graph Editor Expressions
Use the following procedure to delete all of the expressions on all Graph Editor sheets, and
initialize all of the sheet names.
(1) On the Graph Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All].
(2) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete all
expressions and initialize sheet names. To cancel the operation without deleting or
initializing anything, tap [Cancel].

Graphing a Stored Function
You can select multiple functions and graph them simultaneously, as long as all of the
functions are on the same sheet. You can turn graphing of each function on or off, and even
specify the line style to be used for each function.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the tab of the sheet that contains the functions you want to graph to make it active.
• If the functions you want to graph are on Sheet 2, for example, tap the [Sheet2] tab.
(2) Select the check boxes of all the functions you want to graph, and clear the check
boxes of all the functions you do not want to graph.
• See “Specifying the Function You Want to Graph” on page 3-3-8 for more information.
(3) You can tap the current line style given to specify another style, if you want.
• See “Specifying the Graph Line Style” on page 3-3-8 for more information.
(4) Tap $ to graph.

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Storing Functions

k Specifying the Function You Want to Graph
On the Graph Editor window, you can select one or more functions for graphing by selecting
their check boxes. The functions whose check boxes are cleared are not graphed.
• This check box is selected, so the function next to it will be
graphed when you tap $. If you do not want to graph this
function, tap the check box to clear it.
• Each time you tap a check box, it toggles between being
selected (checked) and cleared (unchecked).

Check box

k Specifying the Graph Line Style
You can specify one of the six line styles shown below for each function on the Graph Editor
window.
Normal ........................
Thick ...........................
Broken Thick ...............
Square Plot Type ........
Cross Plot Type ..........
Dot Plot Type ..............

Line style area

The currently selected line style appears in the line style area next to each function.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the line style next to the function whose line style you want to specify. This displays
the Graph Plot Type dialog box.

(2) Select the line style you want, and then tap [OK].
• A preview of the line style you select appears in the line style area next to the
function.
• To graph the function using the selected line style, tap $.

Tip
• For an inequality region, the selected line style is used as the shading pattern.
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Storing Functions

k Quick Graphing of an Expression Using Drag and Drop
You can use the following procedure to graph a single function, even when you have multiple
functions selected on the Graph Editor window.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap the tab of the sheet that contains the function you want to graph to make it active.
(2) Drag the function you want to graph to the Graph window.

Tip
• The above drag and drop procedure can be used to graph a function, regardless of whether the
function’s check box is selected or cleared.
• When you quick graph a function using drag and drop, the function is always treated as a “y=”
expression, regardless of the graph type specified for the function.
• Up to 30 of the graphs you draw in the Graph window are stored in memory as you draw them.
This includes graphs drawn from Graph Editor window functions, graphs drawn using the Sketch
functions (Tangent, Normal, Inverse), and graphs drawn using the drag and drop operation
described above. Though you can draw more than 30 graphs at one time, any graphs after the
30th are not stored in memory.
• All of the Graph window graphs that are currently stored in memory are redrawn when you scroll
the Graph window or tap the [ReDraw] command on the a menu. Since only 30 graphs are
stored in memory, anything drawn after the 30th graph is not redrawn. Keep this limitation in mind
when you draw a large number of graphs at the same time.

k Overlaying Two Inequalities in an AND Plot / OR Plot
Use the following procedure to overlay two inequalities in an AND Plot or OR Plot which are
described below.
• AND Plot
With an AND Plot, only the parts of the inequalities that overlap are shaded.
• OR Plot
With an OR Plot, the inequalities are overlaid as they are.
Example: To graph the inequalities y < x2, y < x + 1

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Store y < x2 in line y1 and y < x + 1 in line y 2.
(2) On the a menu, tap [Inequality Plot].
Select [and] or [or] on the submenu that appears.

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Storing Functions

(3) Tap $.
AND Plot

OR Plot

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3-3-11
Storing Functions

k Shading the Region Bounded by Two Expressions
You can shade the region bounded by two expressions by specifying [ShadeType] as the
function type and then inputting the expressions in the syntax shown below.
Syntax: ya {lower function f(x), upper function g(x)} | A < x < B
The value of B must be greater than A.
• A < x < B can be omitted.
• A < x < B can be replaced with x > A.
• A < x < B can be replaced with x < B.
Example: To graph f(x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = –x2 + 1, –1 < x < 1

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the Graph Editor Window, tap [Type] and then [ShadeType].
(2) Store ya{ x2–1, –x2+1} | –1
Standard
Decimal

3

It means this:
The angle unit setting is radians.
The angle unit setting is degrees.
The angle unit setting is grads.
Statistics View Window settings are configured automatically.
Statistics View Window settings need to be configured manually.
Standard mode: Displays result in exact form (fractional format).
Decimal mode: Converts result to a decimal (approximate value).

Tip
• The 1 and 3 settings can be changed by tapping the status bar.
• The 2 setting can be changed only on the [Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box
under s (see page 1-9-6).

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7-2-1
Using Stat Editor

7-2 Using Stat Editor
Lists play a very important role in ClassPad statistical calculations. This section provides an
overview of list operations and terminology. It also explains how to use the Stat Editor, a tool
for creating and maintaining lists.

Basic List Operations
This section provides the basics of list operations, including how to start up the Statistics
application, how to open a list, and how to close a list. It also tells you about list variables and
how to use them.

k What is a list?
A list is a type of data array that makes it possible to manipulate multiple data items as a
group. A list has one column and can contain up to 9,999 rows. You can display up to 99 lists
on the Stat Editor window.
List operations are performed using the Stat Editor window, which appears whenever you
start up the Statistics application.
Lists are treated as variables, and like variables, are stored in a folder in the memory and
can be manipulated using the Variable Manager. If a list is cleared from the display, it still
exists in memory as a variable and can be recalled when needed.

Note
• See “Inputting Data into a List” for information about data input (page 7-2-4).

k Using List Variables
The list name is located in the cell at the top of each list. List variable names can be used
inside of calculation formulas, just like any other variable name. The initial default Stat Editor
window shows six lists (columns), named list1 through list6.

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Using Stat Editor

k Creating a List
A list starts out with an initial default name like list1, list2, list3, etc. The Stat Editor allows you
to generate list data (list variables) quickly and easily.

Note
• The Stat Editor window has six default list variables, named “list1” through “list6”. These
lists are system variables that are defined by the system. For more information about
system variables, see “Variable Types” on page 1-7-2.
• The list name can be changed from its default name, “list1” through “list6”, to a name that
you specify.

u To create a list
(1) On the Stat Editor window, tap the list name cell at the top of the list you want to name.
This selects the list name cell.
(2) Enter up to eight bytes for the list name you want, and then press E.
• You cannot use any ClassPad reserved words as list variable names. You also
cannot specify a list name that is already used by another list.

Tip
• If you enter a list name that is already used for another list, tapping w displays the contents of
that list. The data of the existing list replaces data you have input on the Stat Editor window.
• Entering a list name without specifying a folder stores the variable name in the current folder.
To store the variable name in another folder, specify the folder name along with the list name.
To store the variable name of a list named “a” in a folder named “abc”, for example, enter the
following for the list name: abc\a. For information about creating a variable, see “Creating a New
Variable” on page 1-7-6.

k Navigating Around the Stat Editor Window
The following describes the different techniques you can use to navigate around the Stat
Editor window and select the cell you want.

u To select a cell
Use the cursor key to move the highlighting up, down, left, and right. The Stat Editor window
scrolls automatically whenever the highlighting reaches a cell at the edge of the window.
You can also select a particular cell by tapping it with the stylus.

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7-2-3
Using Stat Editor

u To jump to the first or last line of a list
(1) Select any cell in the list.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit].
(3) Select one of the following commands to perform the type of operation you want.

To do this:
Move the cursor to line 1 of the list
Move the cursor to the line following the last line that
contains data
• If your list contains 14 entries, then the cursor will move
to the 15 entry.
• If your list contains 9999 entries (the maximum allowed),
then the cursor will move to line 9999.

Select this command:
Jump to Top

Jump to Bottom

k Opening a List
Lists are saved in files under their list (variable) names. This means you can close a list and
re-open it later when you need it.
There are two different methods you can use to open a list: using the [Open List] command
and inputting the name of the list in the list name cell of a column.

u To open an existing list using the “Open List” command
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select any cell in the column where you want the list you will
open to appear.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Open List].
(3) In the “list=” box that appears, enter the variable name of the list you want to open, and
then tap w.

Tip
• If you enter a variable name that does not match the names of any of the existing lists in step (3),
a new list is created using that name.

u To open an existing list by inputting its name in the list name cell
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list name cell of the column where you want the
list you will open to appear.
(2) Enter the variable name of the list you want to open.
(3) Tap w to open the list.

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Using Stat Editor

k Closing a List
Closing a list saves it under its current list (variable) name.
There are two different methods you can use to close a list: using the [Close List] command,
and clearing the list name from its list name cell.

u To close a list using the “Close List” command
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select any cell of the list you want to close.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Close List].
• The selected list disappears from the display and is replaced by all blanks.
• At this time, the “list=” box also appears. To open another list, enter its name into the
“list=” box, and then tap w.

Tip
• This above operation clears the list from the display only. The list is still stored as a list variable in
memory, and can be opened when you need it again.

u To close a list by clearing its list name
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list name cell of the column of the list you want to
close.
(2) Tap the “list=” box at the bottom of the Stat Editor window.
(3) Press the c key so the list (variable) name is cleared.
(4) Tap w.

Inputting Data into a List
Use the procedures in this section to input data and expressions into a list.

u To input a single data item
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the cell where you want to input the data item.
• Use the cursor key to move the highlighting, or tap the cell with the stylus.

Line number where
data is being input

String input
Input data Cell where data
is being input

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7-2-5
Using Stat Editor

(2) Input the data you want.
To input a value
• Use the input keypad or soft keyboard that appears when you press k. You can
also access the soft keyboard by tapping O Menu.
To input a mathematical expression
• Use the soft keyboard that appears when you press k.
• When the “Decimal Calculation” check box is not selected (unchecked) on the Basic
Format dialog box (page 1-9-4), any mathematical expression you input is stored
as-is.
• When the “Decimal Calculation” check box is selected, the mathematical expression
is converted to a value before it is stored. Input of 1/2, for example, is converted to 0.5.
To input a string
• Enclose text in quotation marks to make it a string. To input quotation marks, press
k to display the soft keyboard, tap the 9 tab, and then tap K. For more
information about strings, see page 12-6-41.
(3) Press E to store the data in the cell.
• Selecting a cell that already contains data replaces the existing data with the new
data.

Tip
• You can also input a variable name as list data. In this case, pressing E in step (3) causes
either of the following to happen.

Inputting this type of variable:

Causes this to appear in the cell:

Defined variable

Variable contents (right aligned for value or left aligned for
expression)

Undefined variable

Variable name

• You need to assign a name to a list before you can input data. Trying to input data into an
unnamed list will cause the cursor to jump automatically to the list name cell at the top of that list.
For information on how to name lists, see “Creating a List” on page 7-2-2.
• To convert an expression in a cell to a value, select the cell and then tap 9.
• Note that statistical calculations and graphing can be performed only using a list that contains
numeric values or mathematical expressions that can be converted into numeric values. An error
occurs if you try to perform a statistical calculation or draw a graph using a list that contains a
string or a non-convertible mathematical expression.
• You cannot edit list data while the b icon is displayed in the “Cal ” line.

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7-2-6
Using Stat Editor

u To batch input a set of data
Example: To input the values 1, 2, and 3 into list1
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the “Cal” cell of the list where you want to input the
data (list1 in this example).
(2) Enter {1,2,3}.
• To input braces ({}), press k to display the soft keyboard, and then tap the 9
tab.
(3) Tap w.

Tip
• Separate values by commas. Do not input a comma following the last value.
Incorrect: {34,53,78,}
Correct: {34,53,78}

u To input calculation results into a cell
Example: To multiply the value of each cell in list1 by two and input the results in list2

(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the “Cal” cell of the list where you want to input the
calculation results (list2 in this example).
(2) In the “Cal=” box, enter the calculation formula (list1×2 in this example).
(3) Press E to perform the calculation. The values in each cell of list1 are doubled, and
the results are input into list2.

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7-2-7
Using Stat Editor

Editing List Contents
Use the procedures in this section to delete and insert elements, to clear data, and to sort
data.

u To delete a list cell
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the cell you want to delete.
(2) Tap [Edit].
(3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete], and then tap [Cell] on the submenu that
appears.
• This deletes the cell and shifts all of the cells below it upwards.

Tip
• You can also delete a cell by selecting it and then pressing the c key.
• Note that deleting a cell does not affect the cells in other lists. If the position of the cell you are
deleting or the cells underneath it are aligned with certain cells of another list, deleting the cell will
cause misalignment of the cells underneath it when they shift upwards.

u To delete all of the data in a list
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list whose data you want to delete.
(2) Tap [Edit].
(3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete]. On the submenu that appears, tap [Column].
(4) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the list data, or [Cancel]
to cancel the delete operation.
• Tapping [OK] deletes all the data from the list, and leaves the empty list in memory.

u To delete a list from memory
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list you want to delete.
(2) Tap [Edit].
(3) On the menu that appears, tap [Delete]. On the submenu that appears, tap [List
Variable].
(4) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the list, or [Cancel] to
cancel the delete operation.
• Tapping [OK] deletes the list from memory.

u To insert a cell into a list
(1) On the Stat Editor window, select the list cell where you want to insert a new cell.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Edit] and then [Insert Cell].
• This inserts a cell at the current highlighted location, shifting all the cells below it
downwards. The new cell contains the word “Undefined”.

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7-2-8
Using Stat Editor

Tip
• Note that inserting a cell does not affect the cells in other lists. If you insert a cell in a list that is
aligned with another list, the lists will become misaligned when the cells underneath are shifted
downwards.

Sorting List Data
You can use the procedures in this section to sort the data of a list in ascending or
descending order. Note that the location of the highlighting does not have any affect on
a sort operation.

u To sort a single list
(1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Sort(Ascending)] or [Sort(Descending)].
(2) In response to the “How Many Lists?” prompt that appears, select 1 and then tap [OK].
(3) In response to the “Select List Name” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button
and then select the name (variable name) of the list you want to sort.
(4) Tap [OK] to sort the data.

u To sort multiple lists on a base list
(1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Sort(Ascending)] or [Sort(Descending)].
(2) In response to the “How Many Lists?” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button
and then specify the number of lists you want to sort.
(3) Tap [OK].
(4) In response to the “Select Base List” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button
and then select the name (variable name) of the list on which you want the sort to be
based.
(5) Tap [OK].
(6) In response to the “Select Second List” prompt that appears, tap the down arrow button
and then select the name (variable name) of the second list to be sorted.
(7) Tap [OK].
(8) Repeat steps (6) and (7) as many times as necessary to specify all of the lists to be
sorted.
• Tapping [OK] after selecting the final list executes the actual sort operation.

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7-2-9
Using Stat Editor

Controlling the Number of Displayed List Columns
You can use the following procedures to control how many list columns appear on the
Statistics application window. You can select 2, 3, or 4 columns.

u To specify the number of columns for the list display
On the Stat Editor window, tap S (two columns), D (three columns) or F (four columns)
to specify the width. You will need to tap the arrow button on the right end of the toolbar to
see the icons.

Tip
• You can also specify the number of display cells using the [Cell Width Pattern] setting on the
[Special] tab of the Graph Format dialog box (page 1-9-6).
• When you have the Stat Editor window displayed along with a second window, you can make the
Stat Editor window active and then tap the r button on the icon panel to expand the Stat Editor
window to fill the entire display. For more information, see “Using a Dual Window Display” on
page 1-5-1.

Clearing All Stat Editor Data
Use the following procedure to initialize the Stat Editor and clear all currently displayed data.
Following this procedure, the Stat Editor shows six empty lists, named list1 through list6.

Warning!
• Performing the following procedure clears all the data from Stat Editor window list1 through
list6 and any additional lists currently in memory.

u To clear all stat editor data
(1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All].
(2) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to clear the all list data or [Cancel]
to cancel the clear operation.
• After you tap [OK], the Stat Editor window shows six empty lists (three lists visible on
the ClassPad display at a time), named list1 through list6.

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7-3-1
Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph

7-3 Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph
Before drawing a statistical graph, you need to first configure its “StatGraph setup” using the
[SetGraph] menu.
The StatGraph setup allows you to configure parameters to control the graph type, the lists
that contain a graph’s data, the type of plot markers to be used, and other settings. Up to
nine StatGraph setups, named StatGraph1, StatGraph2, and so on, can be stored in memory
for later recall.

Using the SetGraph Menu
Tapping [SetGraph] on the Stat Editor window menu bar displays a menu like the one shown
below.

The following describes what you can do with each of the [SetGraph] menu items. See the
following pages for details about performing each type of operation.

When you want to do this:

Do this:

Display a dialog box for specifying the graph
Tap [Setting…].
type and data list for each StatGraph setup
Select the check box next to the StatGraph
setup you want to graph. This can also be
Select a StatGraph setup for graphing
achieved by tapping [Setting...] and
scrolling through StatGraph1 through
StatGraph9.
Overlay a function graph on a statistical
graph

Select the check box next to [Graph Function].

Turn off function graph overlay
Graph the results of the last regression
calculation you performed

Clear the check box next to [Graph Function].
Select the check box next to [Previous Reg].

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7-3-2
Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph

When you want to do this:
Turn off graphing of the last regression
calculation results

Do this:
Clear the check box next to [Previous Reg].

Have Statistics View Window settings
configured automatically

Tap [Stat Window Auto] and then select
[On].

Configure Statistics View Window settings
manually

Tap [Stat Window Auto] and then select
[Off].

Configuring StatGraph Setups
Use the procedure below to display the Set StatGraphs dialog box and configure the nine
StatGraph setups.

u To display the Set StatGraphs dialog box
(1) On the Stat Editor window, tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…].
• This displays the Set StatGraphs dialog box.
Tabs

• There are tabs named 1 through 9, correspond to StatGraph1 through StatGraph9.
(2) Tap the tab for the StatGraph setup whose configuration you want to change.
(3) Configure the StatGraph setup settings you want as described below, and then tap [Set].
This will apply the settings for all nine StatGraphs.
• To exit the Set StatGraphs dialog box without changing any settings, tap [Cancel]
instead of [Set].

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7-3-3
Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph

u Draw
To do this:
Draw the graph using the StatGraph setup of the current tab
Not draw the graph using the StatGraph setup of the current tab

Select this option:
On
Off

u Type
Tap the down arrow button, and then select the graph type from the list that appears.
To draw this type of graph:
Scatter plot
xy line graph
Normal probability plot
Histogram
Med-box plot
Normal distribution curve
Broken line graph
Linear regression graph
Med-Med graph
Quadratic regression graph
Cubic regression graph
Quartic regression graph
Logarithmic regression graph
Exponential regression graph (y = a.eb.x)
Exponential regression graph (y = a.bx)
Power regression graph
Sinusoidal regression graph
Logistic regression graph

Select this option:
Scatter
xyLine
NPPlot
Histogram
MedBox
NDist
Broken
LinearR
MedMed
QuadR
CubicR
QuartR
LogR
ExpR
abExpR
PowerR
SinR
LogisticR

u XList
Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the list (list1 through list6, or a list
name you assigned) that you want to use for x-axis data.
• You need to specify only an XList in the case of single-variable statistics (page 7-4-1). The
initial default [XList] setting is “list1”.
u YList
Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the list (list1 through list6, or a list
name you assigned) that you want to use for y-axis data.
• Specify a YList in addition to an XList in the case of paired-variable statistics (page 7-5-1).
The initial default [YList] setting is “list2”.

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7-3-4
Before Trying to Draw a Statistical Graph

u Freq
Tap the down arrow button, and then select the frequency setting from the list that appears.

To do this:
Plot each data value once
Specify a list whose values indicate the frequency of each
data value

Select this option:
1
list1 — list6
(or a list name you
assigned)

• The initial default frequency setting is 1. Specifying a list that causes each data value to be
plotted five times helps to improve the appearance of scatter plots.
• A list of frequency values can contain non-zero integers and decimal values. In the case of
a MedBox, or MedMed graph, however, a frequency list can contain positive integers only.
Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical
calculations.
u Mark
Tap the down arrow button, and select the shape you want to use for the plot points of a
scatter diagram (Scatter), xy line graph (xyLine), or normal probability plot (NPPlot).

Mark Name
square
cross
ldot
dot

Mark

Tip
• The default graph setting for all nine StatGraph setups is a scatter plot (Scatter).

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7-4-1
Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data

7-4 Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data
Single-variable data is data that consists of a single value. If you are trying to obtain the
average height of the members of a single class, for example, the single variable would be
height.
Single-variable statistics include distributions and sums. You can produce any of the graphs
described below using single-variable data.
Before trying to draw any of the graphs described below, configure the graph setup using the
procedures under “Configuring StatGraph Setups” on page 7-3-2.

Normal Probability Plot (NPPlot)
The normal probability plot plots data against a theoretical normal distribution using a scatter
plot. If the scatter plot is close to a straight line, then the data is approximately normal. A
departure from the straight line indicates a departure from normality.

k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4)
• [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be plotted.
• [Mark] specifies the shape of the plot mark.

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7-4-2
Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data

Histogram Bar Graph (Histogram)
A histogram shows the frequency (frequency distribution) of each data class as a rectangular
bar. Classes are on the horizontal axis, while frequency is on the vertical axis.

k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4)
• [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed.
• [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data.

Tap [OK].

e
A dialog box like the one shown above appears before the graph is drawn.
You can use this dialog box to change the start value (HStart) and step value
(HStep) of the histogram, if you want.

The initial HStart and HStep values on the Set Interval dialog box are set in accordance
with the Stat Window Auto setting. When On is selected for Stat Window Auto, appropriate
values for the graph data are input automatically. When Off is selected, the values that were
displayed the last time the Set Interval dialog box was displayed are input automatically.

Med-Box Plot (MedBox)
This type of graph is often called a “Box and Whisker” graph. It lets you see how a large
number of data items are grouped within specific ranges.
minX

Label
minX
Q1

Meaning
minimum
First Quartile

Med

Median

Q3
maxX

Third Quartile
maximum

Q1

Med

Q3 maxX

Description
The data’s smallest value
The median between minX and Med
The median of all the data values. If you have 13 values, for
example, this is the value at position seven (six values left
and right).
The median between maxX and Med
The data’s largest value

• The lines from minX to Q1, and from Q3 to maxX are called “whiskers”.
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7-4-3
Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data

k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4)
• [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be plotted.
• [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data.
• If [Show Outliers] box is checked, “outlier” square symbols are shown instead of “whisker”
lines where a data value is relatively large or small compared to the other data values.

Figure. Do not show Outliers

Figure. Show Outliers

Tip
• When specifying a list of frequency values, make sure that the list contains positive integers only.
Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical
calculations.

Normal Distribution Curve (NDist)
The normal distribution curve is graphed using the following normal distribution function.

y=

1
2 π σn

e

–

( x–x ) 2
2σn 2

k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4)
• [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed.
• [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data.

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7-4-4
Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data

Broken Line Graph (Broken)
In the broken line graph, lines connect the pointers that fall at the center of each histogram
bar.

k Graph Parameter Settings (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4)
• [XList] specifies the list that contains the data to be graphed.
• [Freq] specifies the frequency of the data.

Tap [OK].

e
A dialog box like the one shown above appears before the graph is drawn. You
can use this dialog box to change the start value (HStart) and step value (HStep)
of the histogram, if you want.

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7-5-1
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data
With paired-variable statistical data there are two values for each data item. An example of
paired-variable statistical data would be the change in size of an iron bar as its temperature
changes. One variable would be temperature, and the other variable is the corresponding
bar size. Your ClassPad lets you produce any of the graphs described in this section using
paired-variable data.
Before trying to draw any of the graphs described below, configure the graph setup using the
procedures under “Configuring StatGraph Setups” on page 7-3-2.

Drawing a Scatter Plot and xy Line Graph
Use the procedure below to plot a scatter diagram and then connect the dots to produce an
xy line graph.
Example: Input the paired-variable data shown below. Next, plot the data on a scatter
diagram and then connect the dots to produce an xy line graph.
list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2
list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m I
(2) Input the data shown above.
(3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G.
(4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
scatter plot settings shown below, and then tap [Set].
Draw: On
Type: Scatter
XList: list1
YList: list2
(5) Tap y to plot the scatter plot.
(6) Tap the List window to make it active.
(7) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G.
(8) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
xy line graph settings shown below, and then tap [Set].
Draw: On
Type: xyLine
XList: list1
YList: list2

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7-5-2
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

(9) Tap y to draw the xy line graph.

Scatter diagram

xy line graph

Drawing a Regression Graph (Curve Fitting)
Use the procedures below to input paired-variable statistical data. Next perform regression
using the data and then graph the results. Note that you can draw a regression graph without
performing the regression calculation.
Example 1: Input the paired-variable data shown below and plot the data on a scatter
diagram. Next, perform logarithmic regression on the data to display the
regression parameters, and then draw the regression graph.
list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2
list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m I
(2) Input the data shown above.
(3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G.
(4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
settings shown below, and then tap [Set].
Draw: On
Type: Scatter
XList: list1
YList: list2
(5) Tap y to plot the scatter diagram.

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7-5-3
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

(6) Tap [Calc] [Logarithmic Reg].

(7) Tap [OK].

(8) Tap [OK] ".

Tip
• You can perform trace (page 3-7-1) on a regression graph. Trace scroll, however, is not
supported when a scatter diagram is displayed.

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7-5-4
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Example 2: Input the paired-variable data shown below (which is the same data as
Example 1), and then draw the regression graph without performing regression
calculation.
list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2
list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m I
(2) Input the data shown above.
(3) Tap [SetGraph] and then [Setting…], or tap G.
(4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
settings shown below, and then tap [Set].
Draw: On
Type: LogR
XList: list1
YList: list2
(5) Tap y to graph.

Graphing Previously Calculated Regression Results
Performing the following procedure graphs the last set of regression results you calculated.
Use this procedure when you want to perform statistical calculations without graphing first,
and then graph the results.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) [SetGraph]
(2) On the menu that appears, select the [Previous Reg] check box.
(3) Tap the Graph window or y to graph the last set of regression results you calculated.

Tip
• Calculated regression results are stored in memory whenever you perform a regression
calculation from the Stat Editor menu or from the Statistical Graph [Calc] menu.
• The [Previous Reg] check box described in step (2) above is selected automatically whenever
you perform a regression calculation from the Stat Editor menu or from the Statistical Graph [Calc]
menu.

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7-5-5
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Drawing a Linear Regression Graph
Linear regression uses the method of least squares to determine the equation that best fits
your data points, and returns values for the slope and y-intercept. The graphic representation
of this relationship is a linear regression graph.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Linear Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph] [Setting…], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: LinearR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the linear regression model formula.
y = a·x + b

a:
b:
r:
r2 :
MSe :

regression coefficient (slope)
regression constant term (y-intercept)
correlation coefficient
coefficient of determination
mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ (y – (a·x + b))
i

i

2

i=1

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7-5-6
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Drawing a Med-Med Graph
When you suspect that the data contains extreme values, you should use the Med-Med
graph (which is based on medians) in place of the linear regression graph. Med-Med graph is
similar to the linear regression graph, but it also minimizes the effects of extreme values.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [MedMed Line] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: MedMed
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the Med-Med model formula.
y = a·x + b

a : Med-Med graph slope
b : Med-Med graph y-intercept
Tip
• When specifying a list of frequency values, make sure that the list contains positive integers
only. Non-integer values (such as those with a decimal part) cause an error during statistical
calculations.

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7-5-7
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Drawing Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Regression Graphs
You can draw a quadratic, cubic, or quartic regression graph based on the plotted points.
These graphs use the method of least squares to draw a curve that passes the vicinity of
as many data points as possible. These graphs can be expressed as quadratic, cubic, and
quartic regression expressions.
The following procedure shows how to graph a quadratic regression only. Graphing the cubic
and quartic regressions are similar.

u ClassPad Operation (Quadratic Regression)
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Quadratic Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
• For cubic regression tap [Cubic Reg] and for quartic regression tap [Quartic Reg]
instead of [Quadratic Reg].
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: QuadR
• For cubic regression select [CubicR] and for quartic regression tap [QuartR] instead
of [QuadR].
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following are the model formulas for each type of regression.
Quadratic Regression
Model Formula: y = a·x2 + b·x + c

a:
b:
c:
r2 :
MSe :

quadratic regression coefficient
linear regression coefficient
regression constant term (y-intercept)
coefficient of determination
mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–3

n

Σ (y – (a·x
i

i

2

+ b·xi+ c))2

i=1

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7-5-8
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Cubic Regression
Model Formula: y = a·x3 + b·x2 + c·x + d

a:
b:
c:
d:
r2 :
MSe :

cubic regression coefficient
quadratic regression coefficient
linear regression coefficient
regression constant term (y-intercept)
coefficient of determination
mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–4

n

Σ (y – (a·x + b·x + c·x +d ))
3

i

i

2

i

i

2

i=1

Quartic Regression
Model Formula: y = a·x4 + b·x3 + c·x2 + d·x + e

a:
b:
c:
d:
e:
r2 :
MSe :

quartic regression coefficient
cubic regression coefficient
quadratic regression coefficient
linear regression coefficient
regression constant term (y-intercept)
coefficient of determination
mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–5

n

Σ (y – (a·x + b·x
i

4

i

3

i

+ c·xi2 + d·xi + e))2

i=1

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7-5-9
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Drawing a Logarithmic Regression Graph
Logarithmic regression expresses y as a logarithmic function of x. The normal logarithmic
regression formula is y = a + b · ln(x). If we say that X = ln(x), then this formula corresponds
to the linear regression formula y = a + b·X.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Logarithmic Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: LogR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the logarithmic regression model formula.

y = a + b·ln(x)
regression constant term
a:
regression coefficient
b:
correlation coefficient
r:
2
coefficient of determination
r :
MSe : mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ (y – (a + b·ln (x )))
i

i

2

i=1

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7-5-10
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

b·x

Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a·e )
Exponential regression can be used when y is proportional to the exponential function of
x. The normal exponential regression formula is y = a · eb·x. If we obtain the logarithms of
both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a) + b·x. Next, if we say that Y = ln(y) and A = In(a), the formula
corresponds to the linear regression formula Y = A + b·x.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Exponential Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
·
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: ExpR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the exponential regression model formula in this case.
y = a · eb·x

a:
b:
r:
r2 :
MSe :

regression coefficient
regression constant term
correlation coefficient
coefficient of determination
mean square error

1
• MSe =
n–2

n

Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + b·x ))
i

i

i=1

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2

7-5-11
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

x

Drawing an Exponential Regression Graph ( y = a· b )
Exponential regression can be used when y is proportional to the exponential function of
x. The normal exponential regression formula in this case is y = a·b x. If we take the natural
logarithms of both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a) + (ln(b)) · x. Next, if we say that Y = ln(y),
A = ln(a) and B = ln(b), the formula corresponds to the linear regression formula Y = A + B·x.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [abExponential Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: abExpR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the exponential regression model formula in this case.

y = a·b x
regression coefficient
a:
regression constant term
b:
correlation coefficient
r:
coefficient of determination
r2 :
MSe : mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + (ln (b)) . x ))
i

i

i=1

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2

7-5-12
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

b

Drawing a Power Regression Graph ( y = a·x )
Power regression can be used when y is proportional to the power of x. The normal power
b
regression formula is y = a · x . If we obtain the logarithms of both sides, we get ln(y) = ln(a)
+ b · ln(x). Next, if we say that X = ln(x), Y = ln(y), and A = ln(a), the formula corresponds to
the linear regression formula Y = A + b·X.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Power Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: PowerR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the power regression model formula.

y = a·xb
regression coefficient
a:
regression power
b:
correlation coefficient
r:
2
coefficient of determination
r :
MSe : mean square error

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ (ln (y ) – (ln (a) + b·ln (x )))
i

i

i=1

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2

7-5-13
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Drawing a Sinusoidal Regression Graph ( y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d)
Sinusoidal regression is best for data that repeats at a regular fixed interval over time.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Sinusoidal Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: SinR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the sinusoidal regression model formula.

y = a·sin(b·x + c) + d

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ (y – (a·sin (b·x
i

i

+ c) + d ))2

i=1

Tip
• Make sure that “Radian” is selected for the [Angle] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page
1-9-4) before drawing a sinusoidal regression graph. The graph cannot be drawn correctly when
the [Angle] setting is “Degree”.
• Certain types of data may cause calculation to take a long time. This is normal and does not
indicate malfunction.

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7-5-14
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

c
Drawing a Logistic Regression Graph ( y = 1 + a·e–b·x )
Logistic regression is best for data whose values continually increase over time, until a
saturation point is reached.

u ClassPad Operation
Start the graphing operation from the Statistics application’s Graph window or List window.
From the Graph window
Tap [Calc] [Logistic Reg] [OK] [OK] ".
From the List window
Tap [SetGraph][Setting...], or G.
On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
setting shown below, and then tap [Set].
Type: LogisticR
Tap y to draw the graph.

The following is the logistic regression model formula.

y=

c
1 + a·e–b·x

• MSe =

1
n–2

n

Σ
i=1

yi –

C
1 + a·e–b·xi

2

Tip
• Certain types of data may cause calculation to take a long time. This is normal and does not
indicate malfunction.

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7-5-15
Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data

Overlaying a Function Graph on a Statistical Graph
You can overlay an existing statistical graph with any type of function graph.
Example: Input the two sets of data shown below, and plot the data on a scatter plot. Next,
overlay the scatter plot with the graph of y = 2 · ln(x).
list1 = 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2
list2 = –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m I
(2) Input the data shown above.
(3) Tap [SetGraph][Setting...].
(4) On the Set StatGraphs dialog box that appears, configure a StatGraph setup with the
settings shown below, and then tap [Set].
Draw: On
Type: Scatter
XList: list1
YList: list2
(5) Tap y to draw the graph.
(6) Tap the List window to make it active, and then tap !.
(7) Input the following function into line y1: 2 × ln(x).
(8) Tap O and then [Close] to close the Graph Editor window.
(9) Tap [SetGraph] on the menu bar. On the menu that appears, select the [Graph
Function] check box.
(10) Tap y to draw the graph.

Tip
• After drawing a function graph, you can perform trace and other functions.

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7-6-1
Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar

7-6 Using the Statistical Graph Window Toolbar
The following describes the operations you can perform using the toolbar on the Statistical
Graph window.
To do this:
Display the Stat Editor window

Tap this button:

Display the Graph Editor window
Redraw the displayed graph
Display the View Window dialog box
Start a trace operation
Display the Set StatGraphs dialog box
Display the Main application work area window
Start a box zoom operation
Enlarge the display image (zoom in)
Reduce the display image (zoom out)
Pan the window
Toggle the [Stat Window Auto] setting between auto and manual

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(
!
"
6
=
G
~
Q
W
E
T
s

7-7-1
Performing Statistical Calculations

7-7 Performing Statistical Calculations
You can perform statistical calculations without drawing a graph by tapping [Calc] on the
menu bar and selecting [One-Variable] or [Two-Variable].

Viewing Single-variable Statistical Calculation Results
Besides using a graph, you can also use the following procedure to view the single-variable
statistics parameter values.

u To display single-variable calculation results
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [One-Variable].
(2) On the dialog box that appears, specify the [XList] name and select the [Freq] setting
(page 7-3-3, 7-3-4).
(3) Tap [OK].

• This displays the Stat Calculation dialog box with the single-variable statistical calculation
results described below. You can use the scrollbar to scroll the results.
o :

sample mean

Σx :

sum of data

Σx :
σx:

sum of squares
population standard deviation

sx :

sample standard deviation

n:
minX :

sample size
minimum

Q1 :

first quartile

Med :

median

Q3 :

third quartile

maxX :

maximum

Mode :

mode*

2

ModeN : number of data mode items
ModeF : data mode frequency
* If “Mode = ModeStat” is shown on the Stat Calculation dialog box, it means that
solutions are stored in the “ModeStat” system variable. To view the solutions, tap any list
name cell on the Stat Editor window, input “ModeStat”, and then tap w. This will display
the “ModeStat” system variable contents in the list.
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7-7-2
Performing Statistical Calculations

• You can use the [Q1, Q3 on Data] setting on the Basic Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) to
select the Q1 and Q3 calculation methods. For details, see “Calculation Methods for Q1
and Q3” below.

k Calculation Methods for Q1 and Q3
Q1 and Q3 can be calculated in accordance with the [Q1, Q3 on Data] setting on the Basic
Format dialog box (page 1-9-4) as described below.

u Unchecked: (default)
With this calculation method, processing depends on whether the number of elements n in
the population is an even number or odd number.
When the number of elements n is an even number:
Using the center point of the total population as the reference, the population elements are
divided into two groups: a lower half group and an upper half group. Q1 and Q3 then become
the values described below.
Q1 = {median of the group of
Q3 = {median of the group of

n
2

n

2
Center Point

1

2

3

items from the bottom of the population}
items from the top of the population}
Center Point

Center Point

4

6

5

7

8

4+5
= Median
2
6+7
= Q3
2

2+3
= Q1
2
When the number of elements n is an odd number:

Using the median of the total population as the reference, the population elements are
divided into two groups: a lower half group (values less than the median) and an upper half
group (values greater than the median). The median value is excluded. Q1 and Q3 then
become the values described below.
n–1
items from the bottom of the population}
Q1 = {median of the group of
2
n–1
Q3 = {median of the group of
items from the top of the population}
2
• When n = 1, Q1 = Q3 = population center point.

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7-7-3
Performing Statistical Calculations

Center Point
1

2

Center Point

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Median

2+3
= Q1
2

7+8
= Q3
2

u Checked: Q1, Q3 on Data
The Q1 and Q3 values for this calculation method are described below.
Q1 = {value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest to
1/4}
Q3 = {value of element whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4 and nearest to
3/4}
The following shows an actual example of the above.
(Number of Elements: 10)
Data Value

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency Ratio

1

1

1

1/10 = 0.1

2

1

2

2/10 = 0.2

3

2

4

4/10 = 0.4

4

3

7

7/10 = 0.7

5

1

8

8/10 = 0.8

6

1

9

9/10 = 0.9

7

1

10

10/10 = 1.0

• 3 is the value of whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 1/4 and nearest to 1/4,
so Q1 = 3.
• 5 is the value of whose cumulative frequency ratio is greater than 3/4 and nearest to 3/4,
so Q3 = 5.
Reference Point (0.25)
0.1

0.2

1

2

Reference Point (0.75)

0.4

3

3

4

4

Q1

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

4

5

6

7

Q3
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7-7-4
Performing Statistical Calculations

Viewing Paired-variable Statistical Calculation Results
Besides using a graph, you can also use the following procedure to view the paired-variable
statistics parameter values.

u To display paired-variable calculation results
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Two-Variable].
(2) On the dialog box that appears, specify the [XList] name and [YList] name, and select
the [Freq] setting (page 7-3-3, 7-3-4).
(3) Tap [OK].

• This displays the Stat Calculation dialog box with the paired-variable statistical calculation
results described below. You can use the scrollbar to scroll the results.
o:

sample mean of sample XList data

Σx :

sum of XList data

Σx2 :

sum of squares of XList data

σx :

population standard deviation of XList data

sx :

sample standard deviation of XList data

n:

sample size

p:

sample mean of sample YList data

Σy :

sum of YList data

Σy :

sum of squares of YList data

σy :

population standard deviation of YList data

sy :

sample standard deviation of YList data

Σxy :

sum of products of XList and YList data

2

minX : minimum of XList data
maxX : maximum of XList data
minY : minimum of YList data
maxY : maximum of YList data

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7-7-5
Performing Statistical Calculations

Viewing Regression Calculation Results
To view regression calculation results, tap [Calc] on the menu bar and then tap the type of
calculation results you want.

To view these calculation results:
Linear regression
Med-Med
Quadratic regression
Cubic regression
Quartic regression
Logarithmic regression
Exponential regression (y = a·eb·x)
Exponential regression (y = a·bx)
Power regression
Sinusoidal regression
Logistic regression

Tap this option:
Linear Reg
MedMed Line
Quadratic Reg
Cubic Reg
Quartic Reg
Logarithmic Reg
Exponential Reg
abExponential Reg
Power Reg
Sinusoidal Reg
Logistic Reg

• You can also use the [DispStat] option to display the last calculated statistical results. For
details about regression calculation results, see “7-5 Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical
Data”.

Residual Calculation
Residual calculation calculates the distance (residual) between the regression model and an
actual plotted point (y-coordinates) during regression calculations.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m I
(2) Input the data you want into a list.
(3) Tap [Calc] and then [Linear Reg].
(4) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Copy Residual] down arrow button, and then
select [On] or the list into which you want to copy the residual values.
• Values assigned to the “residual” system variable shows the vertical distances between
actually plotted points and the regression model.
• A positive value indicates a plot that is higher than the regression model, while a negative
value indicates a plot that is lower.
• Whenever the [Copy Residual] setting is configured as described above, the ClassPad
automatically assigns residual data to a system variable named “residual” when you
perform a regression calculation. You can use the following procedure to view the current
“residual” system variable values.

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7-7-6
Performing Statistical Calculations

u To view “residual” system variable values

(1)

(2)

(1) Tap here.
(2) Tap here, and enter “residual”.
• To input lower-case alpha characters, tap the soft keyboard’s 0 tab.
(3) Tap w.

Copying a Regression Formula to the Graph & Table Application
You can use the following procedure to copy the calculated result of a regression formula
to the Graph & Table application. There you can use Graph functions to edit and graph the
formula, and perform other operations.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the List window menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Linear Reg].
(2) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Copy Formula] down arrow button, and then
select the Graph & Table line number (y1 through y20) to which you want to copy the
formula.
(3) Tap [OK].
• This copies the calculated regression expression to the line (y1 through y20) you
selected.

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Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations

7-8 Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution
Calculations
You can use a wizard to perform test, confidence interval and distribution calculations
in the Statistics application or write a program in the Program application. In the Statistics
application, you can perform the calculations using the wizard that you launch by
tapping [Calc] on the menu bar. The following is a general overview of the steps that are
involved.

Statistics Application Calculations
1. Tap [Calc] and then tap [Test], [Interval] or [Distribution].
2. Select the calculation type and data type, then input the necessary values and conditions.
3. Execute the calculation and display its results.
4. Graph the results, if you want.
• You cannot graph interval calculations and inverse distribution calculations.
Selecting the [Help] check box of each wizard will display the
description of the commands, values and calculation results.

For more details and examples, see “7-9 Tests”, “7-10 Confidence intervals” and “7-11
Distributions”.

Program Application Calculations
1. Use statistical commands to build the necessary expressions and write them into a
program.
2. Write the “DispStat” command into the program.
• The “DispStat” is a command for displaying statistical calculation results. Statistical
calculation results cannot be displayed unless the program includes a “DispStat”
command.
3. Save the program.
4. Run the program.
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Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations

k Example 1: 1-Sample ZTest
 condition : ≠
0 : 0
:3
o : 24.5
n : 48

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m p
(2) Tap O.
(3) On the New File dialog box that appears, configure the settings as described below.
Type: Program(Normal)
Folder: Select the name of the folder where you want to save the program you are
creating.
Name: Enter a file name for the program.
Example: ztestone
(4) Tap [OK].
(5) Input commands and values for the statistical expression, and then tap w.
(6) Input the “DispStat” command, and then tap w.

(7) Tap { to save the program.
(8) Tap ).
(9) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the
name of the file you input in step (3).
(10) Tap p.

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Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations

k Example 2: Two-Way ANOVA
The values in the table below are measurement results that show how the durability of
a metal product is affected by changes in heat treatment time (A) and temperature (B).
Experiments were conducted twice under each condition.

Time A1
Time A2

Temperature B1
113, 116
133, 131

Temperature B2
139, 132
126, 122

Perform analysis of variance on the null hypotheses listed below, using a 5% level of
significance.
H0 : Change in time does not affect durability.
H0 : Change in treatment temperature does not affect durability.
H0 : Changes in time and treatment temperature do not affect durability.
Use the ClassPad Two-Way ANOVA test to test the above hypotheses. Input the following
measurement data into the indicated lists. This data is from the table above.
list1 (FactorList(A))

= {1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2}

list2 (FactorList(B))

= {1,1,2,2,1,1,2,2}

list3 (DependentList) = {113,116,139,132,133,131,126,122}

u ClassPad Operation
(1) m p
(2) Tap O.
(3) On the New File dialog box that appears, configure the settings as described below.
Type: Program(Normal)
Folder: Select the name of the folder where you want to save the program you are
creating.
Name: Enter a file name for the program.
Example: hyp
(4) Tap [OK].
(5) Input commands and values for the statistical expression, and then tap w.
(6) Input the “DispStat” command, and then tap w.

(7) Tap { to save the program.
(8) Tap ).
(9) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the
name of the file you input in step (3).

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Test, Confidence Interval, and Distribution Calculations

(10) Tap p.

The above results indicate that altering the time is not significant, altering the temperature is
significant, and interaction between time and temperature is highly significant.

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Tests

7-9 Tests
The following is a list of tests, and a description of what each one tests for.
Test Name

Z Test

Description
The Z Test provides a variety of different tests based on standard
deviation based tests. They make it possible to test whether or not
a sample accurately represents the population when the standard
deviation of a population (such as the entire population of a 
country) is known from previous tests.

1-Sample Z Test

Tests a single sample mean against the known mean of the null
hypothesis when the population standard deviation is known.
The normal distribution is used for the 1-sample Z test.

2-Sample Z Test

Tests the difference between two means when the standard
deviations of the two populations are known.
The normal distribution is used for the 2-sample Z test.

1-Prop Z Test

Tests a single sample proportion against the known proportion of
the null hypothesis.
The normal distribution is used for the 1-Prop Z test.

2-Prop Z Test

Tests the difference between two sample proportions.
The normal distribution is used for the 2-prop Z test.

t Test

Used instead of the Z Test when the population standard deviation
is unknown.

1-Sample t Test

Tests a single sample mean against the known mean of the null
hypothesis when the population standard deviation is unknown.
The t distribution is used for the 1-sample t test.

2-Sample t Test

Tests the difference between two means when the standard
deviations of the two populations are unknown.
The t distribution is used for the 2-sample t test.

Linear Regression t Test

Tests the linear relationship between the paired variables (x, y). The
method of least squares is used to determine a and b, which are the
coefficients of the regression formula y = a + bx. The p-value is the
probability of the sample regression slope (b) provided that the null
hypothesis is true, β = 0.
The t distribution is used for the linear regression t test.

χ2 Test

2-Sample F Test

Tests the independence of two categorical variables arranged in
matrix form. The χ2 test for independence compares the observed
matrix to the expected theoretical matrix.
The χ2 distribution is used for the χ2 test.
Tests the ratio between sample variances of two independent
random samples.
The F distribution is used for the 2-sample F test.

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Tests

Test Name

Description

ANOVA

Tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple
populations are equal.

One-Way ANOVA

Tests the ratio between the variation in sample means of several
populations compared to variation among the units within the
individual samples in a single factor experiment.
The F distribution is used for the one-way ANOVA test.

Two-Way ANOVA

Tests the ratio between the variation among the levels compared to
variation within the treatments in a two factor experiment.
The F distribution is used for the two-way ANOVA test.

The following pages explain how to perform various statistical calculations based on the
above principles. Further details about statistical theory and terminology can be found in any
standard statistics textbook.

Tip
• Always make sure you insert one space between a command and its parameters. In the following
examples, spaces are indicated as shown below.
Command: OneSampleZTest 
↑
Indicates a space.

Test Command List
k Z Test
1-Sample Z Test
Menu:

[Test]-[One-Sample ZTest]

Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to a population mean when population standard
deviation is known. A 1-Sample Z Test is used for normal distribution.

Z=

o—

o : sample mean
0 : assumed population mean
 : population standard deviation
n : sample size

0

n
Definition of Terms
 condition :
0 :
:
List :
Freq :
o:
n:

population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test,
“<”specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.)
assumed population mean
population standard deviation ( > 0)
data list
frequency (1 or list name)
sample mean
sample size (positive integer)

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7-9-3
Tests

Calculation Result Output
≠0:
z:
p:
o:
sx :
n:

test condition
z value
p-value
sample mean
sample standard deviation (Displayed only for list format.)
sample size

Example
Mean : 131
Sample size : 10
Population standard deviation : 19
Assumed population mean : 120
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(2) Select [One-Sample ZTest] and [Variable],
and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select the  condition [>] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

u Program, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OneSampleZTest
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
“ condition”, 0 value,  value, List, Freq (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
“ condition”, 0 value,  value, o value, n value
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
OneSampleZTest “≠”,0,1,list1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
OneSampleZTest “>”,120,19,131,10

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Tests

2-Sample Z Test
Menu:

[Test]-[Two-Sample ZTest]

Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to the population mean of two populations when
the standard deviations of the two populations are known. A 2-Sample Z Test
is used for normal distributions.

Z=

o1 — o2
2

2

2
n1 + n2
1

o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data
o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data

1 : population standard deviation of sample 1
2 : population standard deviation of sample 2
n1 : size of sample 1
n2 : size of sample 2

Definition of Terms
1 condition : population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test,
“<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is less than sample 2, “>”
specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2).
1 :
population standard deviation of sample 1 (1 > 0)
2 :
population standard deviation of sample 2 (2 > 0)
List(1) :
list where sample 1 data is located
List(2) :
list where sample 2 data is located
Freq(1) :
frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name)
Freq(2) :
frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name)
sample mean of sample 1 data
o1 :
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
n1 :
sample mean of sample 2 data
o2 :
:
size of sample 2 (positive integer)
n2
Calculation Result Output
1 ≠ 2:
z:
p:
o1:
o2:
sx1:
sx2:
n1 :
n2 :

test condition
z value
p-value
sample mean of sample 1 data
sample mean of sample 2 data
sample standard deviation of sample 1 (Displayed only for list format.)
sample standard deviation of sample 2 (Displayed only for list format.)
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

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Tests

Example
Sample A
40
23.16
65.43

Size
Standard deviation
Mean

Sample B
45
18.51
71.87

• Statistics Wizard Operation

(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(2) Select [Two-Sample ZTest] and [Variable], and
then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select the 1 condition [≠] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoSampleZTest
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
“1 condition”, 1 value, 2 value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
“1 condition”, 1 value, 2 value, o1 value, n1 value, o2 value, n2 value
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
TwoSampleZTest “≠”,1,1,list1,list2,1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
TwoSampleZTest “≠”,23.16,18.51,65.43,40,71.87,45

1-Prop Z Test
Menu:

[Test]-[One-Prop ZTest]

Description: This command tests whether successes achieve a fixed proportion.
A 1-Prop Z Test is used for normal distribution.

p0 : expected sample proportion
n : sample size

)

Z=

x
n — p0
p0 1 − p0)
n

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Tests

Definition of Terms
Prop condition : sample proportion test condition (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<”
specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.)
expected sample proportion (0 < p0 < 1)
p0 :
sample value (integer, x > 0)
x:
sample size (positive integer)
n:
Calculation Result Output
Prop≠0.5 : test condition
z:
z value
p:
p-value
estimated sample proportion
pˆ :
sample size
n:
Example
Data : 13
Sample size : 100
Expected proportion : 20%
• Statistics Wizard Operation

(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(2) Select [One-Prop ZTest] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select Prop condition [≠] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OnePropZTest 
Command Syntax
“Prop condition”, p0 value, x value, n value
Input Example:
OnePropZTest “≠”,0.2,13,100

2-Prop Z Test
Menu:

[Test]-[Two-Prop ZTest]

Description: This command compares the propor tion of successes for two populations.
A 2-Prop Z Test is used for normal distribution.
Z=

x1
n1

—

x2
n2

x1
x2
n1
n2
ˆp

p(1 — p ) 1 + 1
n1 n2

20060301

: data value of sample 1
: data value of sample 2
: size of sample 1
: size of sample 2
: estimated sample proportion

7-9-7
Tests

Definition of Terms

p1 condition : sample proportion test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<”
specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>”
specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2.)
data value (integer, x1 > 0) of sample 1
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
data value (integer, x2 > 0) of sample 2
size of sample 2 (positive integer)

x1 :
n1 :
x2 :
n2 :

Calculation Result Output

p1>p2 :
z:
p:
pˆ 1 :
pˆ 2 :
pˆ :
n1 :
n2 :

test condition

z value
p-value
estimated proportion of sample 1
estimated proportion of sample 2
estimated sample proportion
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

Example
Data1 : 220 , sample size : 400
Data2 : 184 , sample size : 400
• Statistics Wizard Operation

(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(2) Select [Two-Prop ZTest] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select p1 condition [>] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoPropZTest
Command Syntax
“p1 condition”, x1 value, n1 value, x2 value, n2 value
Input Example:
TwoPropZTest “>”,220,400,184,400

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Tests

k t Test
1-Sample t Test
Menu:

[Test]-[One-Sample TTest]

Description: Tests a hypothesis relative to a population mean when population standard
deviation is unknown. A 1-Sample t Test is used for t distribution.

t=

o—

o : sample mean

0

sx

0 : assumed population mean
sx : sample standard deviation
n : sample size

n
Definition of Terms
 condition :
0 :
List :
Freq :
o:
sx :
n:

population mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<”
specifies lower one-tail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.)
assumed population mean
data list
frequency (1 or list name)
sample mean
sample standard deviation (sx > 0)
sample size (positive integer)

Calculation Result Output
 ≠ 11.3 :
t:
p:
o:
sx :
n:

test condition
t value
p-value
sample mean
sample standard deviation
sample size

Example 1 (calculation with list)
List : { 330, 240, 260, 390, 400, 360, 200, 180, 300 }
Assumed population mean : 250
• Statistics Wizard Operation

(1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [One-Sample TTest] and [List], and then
tap [Next >>].
(4) Select the  condition [≠] and input 0 250.
(5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].

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Tests

(7) To display the graph, tap $.

Example 2 (calculation with parameter)
Standard deviation : 80.6
Mean : 295.6
Sample size : 9
Assumed population mean : 250
• Statistics Wizard Operation

(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(2) Select [One-Sample TTest] and [Variable], and
then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select the  condition [≠] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OneSampleTTest
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
“ condition”, 0 value, List, Freq (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
“ condition”, 0 value, o value, sx value, n value
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
OneSampleTTest “≠”,250,list1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
OneSampleTTest “≠”,250,295.6,80.6,9

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Tests

2-Sample t Test
Menu:

[Test]-[Two-Sample TTest]

Description: This command compares the population means of two populations when
population standard deviation is unknown. A 2-Sample t Test is used for t
distribution.

t=

o1 — o2
sx12

s

o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data
o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data

2

x2
n1 + n2

sx1 : sample standard deviation of sample 1
sx2 : sample standard deviation of sample 2
n1 : size of sample 1
n2 : size of sample 2

This formula is applicable when the population standard deviations of the two
populations are not equal. The denominator is different when the population
standard deviations are equal.
The t distribution degrees of freedom df and sp differ according to whether the
population standard deviations of the two populations are equal.
When the two population standard deviations are equal (pooled)

df = n1 + n2 – 2

sp =

(n1–1)sx12 +(n2–1)sx22
n 1 + n2 – 2

When the two population standard deviations are not equal (not pooled)

df =

C=

1
C
(1–C )2
+
n1–1 n2–1
2

sx12
n1
sx12 sx22
n1 + n2

Definition of Terms
1 condition : sample mean value test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<”
specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>”
specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than sample 2.)
List(1) :
list where sample 1 data is located
List(2) :
list where sample 2 data is located
Freq(1) :
frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name)
Freq(2) :
frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name)
Pooled :
On or Off
sample mean of sample 1 data
o1 :
sx1 :
sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0)
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
n1 :
:
sample
mean of sample 2 data
o2
sx2 :
sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0)
size of sample 2 (positive integer)
n2 :
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Tests

Calculation Result Output
1 ≠ 2 :
t:
p:
df :
o1 :
o2 :
sx1 :
sx2 :
sp :

n1 :
n2 :

test condition
t value
p-value
degrees of freedom
sample mean of sample 1 data
sample mean of sample 2 data
sample standard deviation of sample 1
sample standard deviation of sample 2
Pooled sample standard deviation (Displayed only when pooling is
turned on.)
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

Example
list1 : {−8522, 316, −9001, 6470, 8956, 4348, 8571,
2142, −7139, 9925, 1260}
list2 : {176, 5498, 4830, 9457, 6486, 9607, −8334,
−1771, 7919, −2997}
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [Two-Sample TTest] and [List], and then tap
[Next >>].
(4) Select the 1 condition [<].
(5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1],
Freq(2) [1] and Pooled [Off].
(6) Tap [Next >>].
(7) To display the graph, tap the $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoSampleTTest
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
“1 condition”, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1), Pooled condition (On
or Off)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
* “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
“1 condition”, o1 value, sx1 value, n1 value, o2 value, sx2 value, n2 value, Pooled
condition (On or Off)
* “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”.

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Tests

Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
TwoSampleTTest “<”,list1,list2,1,1,Off
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
TwoSampleTTest “≠”,107.5,0.78,10,97.5,0.65,12,Off

Linear Regression t Test
Menu:

[Test]-[Linear Reg TTest]

Description: This command treats two groups of data as paired variables (x, y). The
method of least squares is used to determine the most appropriate pair for the
a, b coefficients of the regression formula y = a + b.x. It also determines the
correlation coefficient and t value, and calculates the strength of the
relationship between x and y.
n

b=

Σ(x – o)( y – p)

i=1

n

Σ(x – o)

a = p – b.o

2

t=r

n–2
1 – r2

i=1

a : regression constant term (y-intercept)
b : regression coefficient (slope)
n : sample size (n > 3)
r : correlation coefficient
r2 : coefficient of determination
Definition of Terms
	 & ρ condition : test conditions (“≠” specifies two-tail test, “<” specifies lower onetail test, “>” specifies upper one-tail test.)
XList :
x-data list
YList :
y-data list
Freq :
frequency (1 or list name)
Calculation Result Output
	 ≠ 0 &ρ ≠ 0 :
t:
p:
df :
a:
b:
se :
r:
r2 :

test condition
t value
p-value
degrees of freedom
regression constant term (y-intercept)
regression coefficient (slope)
standard error of estimation
correlation coefficient
coefficient of determination

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Tests

Example
list1 : { 38, 56, 59, 64, 74 }
list2 : { 41, 63, 70, 72, 84 }
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [Linear Reg TTest] and then tap [Next >>].
(4) Select the 	 & ρ condition [≠].
(5) Select XList [list1], YList [list2] and Freq [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].
(7) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: LinRegTTest 
Command Syntax
“	 & ρ condition”, XList, YList, Freq (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Input Example
LinRegTTest “≠”,list1,list2,1

2
k χ Test
2
χ Test

Menu:

[Test]-[χ2 Test]

Description: This command tests hypotheses concerning the proportion of samples
included in each of a number of independent groups. The χ2 Test command is
used in the case of dichotomous variables, which are variables that have only
two possible values (such as “yes” or “no”).
Expected Frequencies

k

Σx × Σx
ij

Fij =

i=1

ij

j=1

k

ΣΣ x

ij

i=1 j=1

(xij – Fij)2
Fij
i=1 j=1
k

χ2 = ΣΣ
Definition of Terms

Observed matrix: name of matrix containing observed values (positive integers in
all cells for 2 × 2 and larger matrices; positive real numbers for
one row matrices)
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Tests

Calculation Result Output
2
2
χ : χ value
p : p-value
df : degrees of freedom

Example
a=

11 68 3
9 23 5

• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) J
(2) Input the matrix and assign it to variable a.
(3) m I
(4) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(5) Select [χ2 Test] and then tap [Next >>].
(6) Input matrix a in the Matrix dialog box.
(7) Tap [Next >>].
(8) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: ChiTest
Command Syntax
Observed matrix
Input Example:
ChiTest matrixa

Tip
• The minimum size of the matrix is 1 × 2. An error occurs if the matrix has only one row.
• The result of the expected frequency calculation is stored in the system variable named “Expected”.

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Tests

2
χ GOF Test

Menu:

[Test]-[χ2 GOF Test]

Description:

This command tests whether the frequency of sample data fits a certain
distribution. For example, it can be used to determine conformance with
normal distribution or binomial distribution.
k

χ2 = Σ
i

(Oi − Ei )2
Ei

Contrib =

(O1 − E1 )2 (O2 − E2 )2 ... (Ok − Ek )2
E1
E2
Ek
Oi : The i-th element of the observed list
Ei : The i-th element of the expected list

Definition of Terms
Observed list : name of list containing observed counts (all cells positive integers)
Expected list : name of list that is for saving expected frequency
df :
degrees of freedom
Calculation Result Output
χ :
p:
df :
Contrib :
2

χ value
p-value
degrees of freedom
name of list specifying the contribution of each observed count
2

Example
list1 = {1,2,3}, list2 = {4,5,6}, df = 1
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) J
(2) Input the list1 and list2.
(3) m I
(4) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(5) Select [χ2 GOF Test] and then tap [Next >>].
(6) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2] and input df 1.
(7) Tap [Next >>].
(8) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: ChiGOFTest
Command Syntax
Observed list, Expected list, df
Input Example:
ChiGOFTest list1, list2, 1

Tip
• The calculation results χ2, p, df, and Contrib are stored in the system variables named “χ2value”,
“prob”, “df”, and “Contrib” respectively.
20090601

7-9-16
Tests

k 2-Sample F Test
2-Sample F Test
Menu:

[Test]-[Two-Sample FTest]

Description: This command tests hypotheses concerning the ratio of the population
variance of two populations. A 2-Sample F Test uses F distribution.

F=

sx12
sx22

Definition of Terms
1 condition: population standard deviation test conditions (“≠” specifies twotail test, “<” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is smaller than
sample 2, “>” specifies one-tail test where sample 1 is greater than
sample 2.)
List(1) :
list where sample 1 data is located
List(2) :
list where sample 2 data is located
Freq(1) :
frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name)
Freq(2) :
frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name)
sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0)
sx1 :
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
n1 :
sx2 :
sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0)
size of sample 2 (positive integer)
n2 :
Calculation Result Output
 1 ≠ 2 :
F:
p:
o1 :
o2 :
sx1 :
sx2 :
n1 :
n2 :

test condition
F value
p-value
sample mean of sample 1 data (Displayed only for list format.)
sample mean of sample 2 data (Displayed only for list format.)
sample standard deviation of sample 1
sample standard deviation of sample 2
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

Example
list1 : { 7, −4, 18, 17, −3, −5, 1, 10, 11, −2, −3 }
list2 : { −1, 12, −1, −3, −3, 3, −5, 5, 2, −11, −1, −3 }
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [Two-Sample FTest] and [List], and then tap
[Next >>].
(4) Select the 1 condition [≠].
(5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1] and
Freq(2) [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].
(7) To display the graph, tap $.
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7-9-17
Tests

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoSampleFTest
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
“1 condition”, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
“1 condition”, sx1 value, n1 value, sx2 value, n2 value
Input Example
Syntax 1 (list format)
TwoSampleFTest “≠”,list1,list2,1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
TwoSampleFTest “≠”,1.94,10,2.12,15

k ANOVA
One-Way ANOVA
Menu:

[Test]-[One-Way ANOVA ]

Description: This command tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple
populations are equal. It compares the mean of one or more groups based on
one independent variable or factor.
Definition of Terms
FactorList(A): list where levels of Factor A are located
DependentList: list where sample data is located
Calculation Result Output
A df :
A MS :
A SS :
AF:
Ap:
Errdf :
ErrMS :
ErrSS :

df of Factor A
MS of Factor A
SS of Factor A
F value of Factor A
p-value of Factor A
df of error
MS of error
SS of error

df :
SS :
MS :

degrees of freedom
sum of squares
mean square

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7-9-18
Tests

Example
list1 : { 7, 4, 6, 6, 5 }
list2 : { 6, 5, 5, 8, 7 }
list3 : { 4, 7, 6, 7, 6 }
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1], [list2] and [list3] in the Stat
Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [One-Way ANOVA] and then tap [Next >>].
(4) Select Lists [list1], [list2] and [list3].
(5) Tap [Next >>].
(6) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OneWayANOVA
Command Syntax
FactorList(A), DependentList
Input Example
list1:{1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3}
list2:{7,4,6,6,5,6,5,5,8,7,4,7,6,7,6}
OneWayANOVA list1,list2

Two-Way ANOVA
Menu:

[Test]-[Two-Way ANOVA ]

Description: This command tests the hypothesis that the population means of multiple
populations are equal. It examines the effect of each variable independently as
well as their interaction with each other based on a dependent variable.
Definition of Terms
FactorList(A) : list where levels of Factor A are located
FactorList(B) : list where levels of Factor B are located
DependentList : list where sample data is located
Calculation Result Output
A df :
A MS :
A SS :
AF:
Ap:
B df :
B MS :
B SS :
BF:
Bp:

df of Factor A
MS of Factor A
SS of Factor A
F value of Factor A
p-value of Factor A
df of Factor B
MS of Factor B
SS of Factor B
F value of Factor B
p-value of Factor B
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7-9-19
Tests

AB df :
AB MS :
AB SS :
AB F :
AB p :

df of Factor A × Factor B
MS of Factor A × Factor B
SS of Factor A × Factor B
F value of Factor A × Factor B
p-value of Factor A × Factor B
Note that “AB df ”, “AB MS ”, “AB SS ”, “AB F ”, and “AB p” are not

displayed if there are no repeated data pairs.
Errdf : df of error
ErrMS : MS of error
ErrSS : SS of error

df :
SS :
MS :

degrees of freedom
sum of squares
mean square

Example
Factor A1
Factor A2

Factor B1
14.5, 11, 10.8, 14.3, 10 (list1)
21, 18.5, 15.2, 17.9, 21.6 (list3)

Factor B2
16.5, 18.4, 12.7, 14, 12.8 (list2)
43.2, 35.2, 28.7, 41.3, 47.1 (list4)

• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] through [list4] in the Stat
Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Test].
(3) Select [Two-Way ANOVA] and then tap [Next >>].
(4) Select Data Table type [2x2].
(5) Select Data Table lists [list1] through [list4].
(6) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoWayANOVA
Command Syntax
FactorList(A), FactorList(B), DependentList
Input Example
list1:{1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2}
list2:{1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2}
list3:{14.5,11,10.8,14.3,10,16.5,18.4,12.7,14,12.8, 21,18.5,15.2,17.9,21.6,43.2,
35.2,28.7,41.3,47.1}
TwoWayANOVA list1,list2,list3
20090601

7-10-1
Confidence Intervals

7-10 Confidence Intervals
A confidence interval is a range of values that has a specified probability of containing the
parameter being estimated.
A confidence interval that is too broad makes it difficult to get an idea of where the parameter
(actual value) is located. A narrow confidence interval, on the other hand, limits the
parameter range and makes it possible to obtain highly accurate results.
The commonly used confidence levels are 68%, 95% and 99%. Raising the confidence
level broadens the confidence interval. Conversely, lowering the confidence level narrows
the confidence interval, but it also creates the risk that parameters will be missed. With a
confidence interval of 95%, for example, there is a 5% probability that a parameter will not be
within the interval.
The following is a list of confidence intervals and a description of what each obtains.
Description

Confidence Interval Name

Z Confidence Interval
1-Sample Z Interval

2-Sample Z Interval
1-Prop Z Interval
2-Prop Z Interval

Calculates the confidence interval for the population mean based on
a sample mean and known population standard deviation.
Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between
population means based on the difference between sample means
when the population standard deviations are known.
Calculates the confidence interval for the population proportion
based on a single sample proportion.
Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between
population proportions based on the difference between two sample
proportions.    

t Confidence Interval
1-Sample t Interval

Calculates the confidence interval for the population mean based on
a sample mean and a sample standard deviation when the
population standard deviation is not known.

2-Sample t Interval

Calculates the confidence interval for the difference between
population means based on the difference between sample means
and sample standard deviations when the population standard
deviations are not known.

k General Confidence Interval Precautions
If you input a C-Level (confidence level) value in the range of 0 < C-Level < 1, the value you
input is used. To specify a C-Level of 95%, for example, input “0.95”.

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7-10-2
Confidence Intervals

Confidence Interval Command List
k Z Confidence Interval
1-Sample Z Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[One-Sample ZInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the population mean when
the population standard deviation is known.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.

Lower = o – Z α σ
2 n
Upper = o + Z α σ
2 n
α is the significance level, and 100 (1 – α)% is the confidence level. When the
confidence level is 95%, for example, you would input 0.95, which produces
α = 1 – 0.95 = 0.05.
Definition of Terms
C-Level :
:
List :
Freq :
o:
n:

confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
population standard deviation ( > 0)
list where sample data is located
frequency of sample (1 or list name)
sample mean
sample size (positive integer)

Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
o:
sx :
n:

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
sample mean
sample standard deviation (Displayed only for list format.)
sample size

Example 1 (calculation with list)
list1 : { 299.4, 297.7, 301, 298.9, 300.2, 297 }
Population standard deviation : 3
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(3) Select [One-Sample ZInt] and [List], and then tap
[Next >>].
(4) Input values.
(5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].
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7-10-3
Confidence Intervals

Example 2 (calculation with parameter)
Mean : 300
Sample size : 6
Population standard deviation : 3
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(2) Select [One-Sample ZInt] and [Variable], and then
tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OneSampleZInt
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
C-Level value,  value, List, Freq (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
C-Level value,  value, o value, n value
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
OneSampleZInt 0.95,3,list1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
OneSampleZInt 0.95,3,300,6

2-Sample Z Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[Two-Sample ZInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the difference between
population means when the population standard deviations of two populations
are known.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.
The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%.

Lower = (o1 – o2) – Z α
2

σ12 σ22 o1 : sample mean of sample 1 data
+
n1 n2 o2 : sample mean of sample 2 data

Upper = (o1 – o2) + Z α
2

σ1 σ
+
n1 n2
2

20090601

2
2

1 : population standard deviation of
sample 1
2 : population standard deviation of
sample 2
n1 : size of sample 1
n2 : size of sample 2

7-10-4
Confidence Intervals

Definition of Terms
C-Level :
1 :
2 :
List(1) :
List(2) :
Freq(1) :
Freq(2) :
o1 :
n1 :
o2 :
n2 :

confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
population standard deviation of sample 1 (1 > 0)
population standard deviation of sample 2 (2 > 0)
list where sample 1 data is located
list where sample 2 data is located
frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name)
frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name)
sample mean of sample 1 data
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
sample mean of sample 2 data
size of sample 2 (positive integer)

Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
o1 :
o2 :
sx1 :
sx2 :
n1 :
n2 :

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
sample mean of sample 1 data
sample mean of sample 2 data
sample standard deviation of sample 1 (Displayed only for list format.)
sample standard deviation of sample 2 (Displayed only for list format.)
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

Example
list1 : { 154, 109, 137, 115, 140 } , population
standard deviation : 15.5
list2 : { 108, 115, 126, 92, 146 } , population standard
deviation : 13.5
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(3) Select [Two-Sample ZInt] and [List], and then tap
[Next >>].
(4) Input values.
(5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1] and
Freq(2) [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoSampleZInt
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
C-Level value, 1 value, 2 value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
C-Level value, 1 value, 2 value, o1 value, n1 value, o2 value, n2 value
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7-10-5
Confidence Intervals

Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
TwoSampleZInt 0.95,15.5,13.5,list1,list2,1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
TwoSampleZInt 0.95,1,1.5,418,40,402,50

1-Prop Z Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[One-Prop ZInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval of the proportion of successes
in a population.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.
The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%.

Lower = nx – Z α
2

1 x
x
n n 1– n

x
Upper = n + Z α
2

1 x
x
n n 1– n

Definition of Terms
C-Level: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
data (0 or positive integer)
x:
sample size (positive integer)
n:
Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
ˆp :
n:

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
estimated sample proportion
sample size

Example
Data : 2048
Sample size : 4040
Significance level : 1% ( = confidence level : 99%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(2) Select [One-Prop ZInt] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

20090601

n: sample size
x: data

7-10-6
Confidence Intervals

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OnePropZInt
Command Syntax
C-Level value, x value, n value
Input Example:
OnePropZInt 0.99,2048,4040

2-Prop Z Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[Two-Prop ZInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval of the difference between the
proportions of successes of two populations.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.
The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%.

x
x
Lower = n1 – n2 – Z α
1
2
2

x1 x2
x2
x1
n1 1– n1 n2 1– n2
+
n1
n2

x
x
Upper = n1 – n2 + Z α
1
2
2

x1 x2
x2
x1
n1 1– n1 n2 1– n2
+
n1
n2

Definition of Terms
C-Level: confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
data value (integer, x1 > 0) of sample 1
x1 :
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
n1 :
data value (integer, x2 > 0) of sample 2
x2 :
size of sample 2 (positive integer)
n2 :
Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
pˆ 1 :
pˆ 2 :
n1 :
n2 :

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
estimated proportion of sample 1
estimated proportion of sample 2
size of sample 1
size of sample 2

20090601

n1, n2 : sample size
x1, x2 : data

7-10-7
Confidence Intervals

Example
Data1 : 49, sample size : 61
Data2 : 38, sample size : 62
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(2) Select [Two-Prop ZInt] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoPropZInt
Command Syntax
C-Level value, x1 value, n1 value, x2 value, n2 value
Input Example:
TwoPropZInt 0.95,49,61,38,62

k t Confidence Interval
1-Sample t Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[One-Sample TInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the population mean when
the population standard deviation is unknown.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.
The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%.

α
2

sx
n

Upper = o+tn – 1 α
2

sx
n

Lower = o– tn – 1

Definition of Terms
C-Level :
List :
Freq :
o:
sx :
n:

confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
list where sample data is located
frequency of sample (1 or list name)
sample mean
sample standard deviation (sx > 0)
sample size (positive integer)

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7-10-8
Confidence Intervals

Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
o:
sx :
n:

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
sample mean
sample standard deviation
sample size

Example
list1 : { 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 }
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(3) Select [One-Sample TInt] and then tap [Next >>].
(4) Input value.
(5) Select List [list1] and Freq [1].
(6) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: OneSampleTInt
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
C-Level value, List, Freq (or 1)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
C-Level value, o value, sx value, n value
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
OneSampleTInt 0.95,list1,1
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
OneSampleTInt 0.95,66.3,8.4,12

2-Sample t Interval
Menu:

[Interval]-[Two-Sample TInt]

Description: This command obtains the confidence interval for the difference between two
population means when the population standard deviations are unknown.
The confidence interval is obtained using the following expressions.
The confidence level is 100 (1 – α)%.

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7-10-9
Confidence Intervals

When the two population standard deviations are equal (pooled)

Lower = (o1 – o2)– tn +n
1

2 –2

Upper = (o1 – o2)+ tn +n
1

2 –2

α
2

sp2 n1 + n1
2
1

α
2

sp2 n1 + n1
2
1

When the two population standard deviations are not equal (not pooled)

α
2

sx12 sx22
n1 + n2

Upper = (o1 – o2)+ tdf α
2
1
df =
2
2
C + (1–C)
n1–1
n2–1

sx12 sx22
n1 + n2

Lower = (o1 – o2)– tdf

C=

sx12
n1
sx12
sx22
+
n2
n1

Definition of Terms
C-Level :
List(1) :
List(2) :
Freq(1) :
Freq(2) :
Pooled :
o1 :
sx1:
n1 :
o2 :
sx2 :
n2 :

confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1)
list where sample 1 data is located
list where sample 2 data is located
frequency of sample 1 (1 or list name)
frequency of sample 2 (1 or list name)
On or Off
sample mean of sample 1 data
sample standard deviation of sample 1 (sx1 > 0)
size of sample 1 (positive integer)
sample mean of sample 2 data
sample standard deviation of sample 2 (sx2 > 0)
size of sample 2 (positive integer)

Calculation Result Output
Lower :
Upper :
df :
o1 :
o2 :
sx1 :
sx2 :
sp :

n1 :
n2 :

interval lower limit (left edge)
interval upper limit (right edge)
degrees of freedom
sample mean of sample 1 data
sample mean of sample 2 data
sample standard deviation of sample 1
sample standard deviation of sample 2
pooled sample standard deviation (Displayed only when pooling is
turned on.)
size of sample 1
size of sample 2
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7-10-10
Confidence Intervals

Example
list1 : { 12.207, 16.869, 25.05, 22.429, 8.456, 10.589 }
list2 : { 11.074, 9.686, 12.064, 9.351, 8.182, 6.642 }
Significance level : 5% ( = confidence level : 95%)
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) Input the data into [list1] and [list2] in the Stat Editor.
(2) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Interval].
(3) Select [Two-Sample TInt] and then tap [Next >>].
(4) Input value.
(5) Select List(1) [list1], List(2) [list2], Freq(1) [1],
Freq(2) [1] and Pooled [Off].
(6) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TwoSampleTInt
Command Syntax
Syntax 1 (list format)
C-Level value, List(1), List(2), Freq(1) (or 1), Freq(2) (or 1), Pooled condition (On
or Off)
* “Freq” can be omitted. Doing so sets “1” for “Freq”.
* “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”.
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
C-Level value, o1 value, sx1 value, n1 value, o2 value, sx2 value, n2 value, Pooled
condition (On or Off)
* “Pooled” can be omitted. Doing so sets “Off” for “Pooled”.
Input Example:
Syntax 1 (list format)
TwoSampleTInt 0.95,list1,list2,1,1,Off
Syntax 2 (parameter format)
TwoSampleTInt 0.95,80.4,2.07,30,84.2,1.96,35,On

20101001

7-11-1
Distributions

7-11 Distributions
Though there are a number of different types of distributions, the one most commonly used is
the “Normal Distribution”, which is an essential type of distribution for statistical calculations.
Other types of distributions include the Poisson distribution and geometric distribution. The
type of distribution used depends on the type of data being handled.
The shape of a distribution makes it possible to determine trends in data somewhat. You can
specify a value and calculate the probability that any data value from the distribution is, for
example, less than the specified value. In other words, you can determine what percent from
the bottom that data value occurs within the distribution.
The following is a list of distributions and the description of what each one calculates.
Distribution Name
Normal Distribution
Normal Probability Density

Description
Calculates the normal probability density for a specified
value.

Normal Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability of a normal distribution
between a lower bound and an upper bound.

Inverse Normal Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the boundary value(s) of a normal cumulative
probability distribution for specified values.

t Distribution
Student-t Probability  
Density

Calculates the Student-t probability density for a specified
value.

Student-t Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability of a Student-t
distribution between a lower bound and an upper bound.

Inverse Student-t
Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the lower bound value of a Student-t cumulative
probability distribution for specified values.

χ2 Distribution
χ2 Probability Density

Calculates the χ2 probability density for a specified value.

χ2 Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability of a χ2 distribution
between a lower bound and an upper bound.

Inverse χ2 Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the lower bound value of a χ2 cumulative
probability distribution for specified values.

F Distribution
F Probability Density

Calculates the F probability density for a specified value.

F Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability of an F distribution
between a lower bound and an upper bound.

Inverse F Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the lower bound value of an F cumulative
probability distribution for specified values.

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20060301

7-11-2
Distributions

Description

Distribution Name
Binomial Distribution
Binomial Distribution
Probability

Calculates the probability in a binomial distribution that the
success will occur on a specified trial.

Binomial Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability in a binomial distribution
that the success will occur on or before a specified trial.

Inverse Binomial
Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the minimum number of trials of a binomial
cumulative probability distribution for specified values.

Poisson Distribution
Poisson Distribution
Probability
Poisson Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the probability in a Poisson distribution that the
success will occur on a specified trial.
Calculates the cumulative probability in a Poisson distribution
that the success will occur on or before a specified trial.

Inverse Poisson Cumulative Calculates the minimum number of trials of a Poisson
cumulative probability distribution for specified values.
Distribution
Geometric Distribution
Geometric Distribution
Probability

Calculates the probability in a geometric distribution that the
success will occur on a specified trial.

Geometric Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the cumulative probability in a geometric
distribution that the success will occur on or before a
specified trial.

Inverse Geometric
Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the minimum number of trials of a geometric
cumulative probability distribution for specified values.

Hypergeometric Distribution
Hypergeometric Distribution
Probability
Hypergeometric Cumulative
Distribution

Calculates the probability in a hypergeometric distribution that
the success will occur on a specified trial.
Calculates the cumulative probability in a hypergeometric
distribution that the success will occur on or before a
specified trial.

Inverse Hypergeometric
Cumulative Distribution

Calculates the minimum number of trials of a hypergeometric
cumulative probability distribution for specified values.

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7-11-3
Distributions

Distribution Command List
Important!
Though list data can be used within the argument of the Distribution function (page 2-8-48),
list data cannot be used in the argument of the Statistics Wizard operations described here
or in operations that use the Distribution command in the applications.
For details about using list data within the Distribution function, see “Specifying Arguments
within the Distribution Function” (page 2-8-48).

k Normal Distribution
Normal Probability Density
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Normal PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability density of normal distribution from a
specified x value. Normal probability density is used for normal distribution.
f (x) =

1 e–
2π σ

(x – μμ)2

( > 0)

2σ 2

Definition of Terms

x : data value
 : population standard deviation ( > 0)
 : population mean
Specifying  = 1 and  = 0 produces standard normal distribution.
Calculation Result Output

prob : normal probability density
Example
Data : 37.5
Population standard deviation : 2
Population mean : 35
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Normal PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

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Distributions

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: NormPD
Command Syntax

x value,  value,  value
Input Example:
NormPD 37.5,2,35

Normal Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Normal CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability of normal distribution data falling
between a and b.

dx

a : lower bound (Lower)
b : upper bound (Upper)

Definition of Terms
Lower :
Upper :
:
:

lower bound
upper bound
population standard deviation ( > 0)
population mean

Calculation Result Output

prob : normal distribution probability p
z Low : standardized lower limit z value
z Up : standardized upper limit z value
Example
Upper bound : 36 (lower bound : −∞)
Population standard deviation : 2
Population mean : 35
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Normal CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

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Distributions

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: NormCD
Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value,  value,  value
Input Example:
NormCD −∞,36,2,35

Inverse Normal Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Normal CD]

Description: This command calculates the cumulative probability in a normal distribution
based on lower and upper bounds.
This command returns the upper and lower bound of integration values that
satisfy the equations below.
Tail:Left

Tail:Right

Tail:Center

Upper bound  is
returned.

Lower bound  is
returned.

Lower bound  and upper
bound 	 are returned.
+ 	
=
2

Definition of Terms
Tail setting: probability value tail specification (L (Left), R (Right), C (Center))
Area :
probability value (0 < Area < 1)
:
population standard deviation ( > 0)
:
population mean
Calculation Result Output
inverse cumulative normal distribution
x1InvN: Upper bound when Tail:Left
Lower bound when Tail:Right or Tail:Center
x2InvN: Upper bound when Tail:Center
Example
Tail : Left
Probability : 0.7
Population standard deviation : 2
Population mean : 35
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse Normal CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Select Tail setting [Left] and input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

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Distributions

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvNormCD or InvNorm 
Command Syntax
“Tail setting”, Area value,  value,  value
Input Example:
InvNorm “L”,0.7,2,35

k t Distribution
Student- t Probability Density
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Student-T PD]

Description: This command calculates t probability density from a specified x value.
2

–

x
df + 1
1+
df
2
f (x) =
π .df
df
Γ 2
Γ

df+1
2

Definition of Terms

x : data value
df : degrees of freedom (df > 0)
Calculation Result Output

prob : Student-t probability density
Example
Data : 2
Degrees of freedom : 5
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Student-T PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

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Distributions

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TPD
Command Syntax

x value, df value
Input Example:
TPD 2,5

Student- t Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Student-T CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability of the Student-t distribution data
falling between a and b.

df + 1
2
p=
df
Γ 2 π .df
Γ

b
2

a

x
1+
df

–

df+1
2

dx

Definition of Terms
Lower : lower bound
Upper : upper bound
degrees of freedom (df > 0)
df :
Calculation Result Output

prob : Student-t distribution probability p
t Low : lower bound value you input
t Up : upper bound value you input
Example
Lower bound : 1.5 (upper bound : ∞)
Degrees of freedom : 18
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Student-T CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

20090601

a : lower bound (Lower)
b : upper bound (Upper)

7-11-8
Distributions

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: TCD
Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, df value
Input Example:
TCD 1.5,∞,18

Inverse Student-t Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse T CD]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the t cumulative distribution.
∞
This command returns the lower bound of integration value  that satisfies the
equation above.
Definition of Terms

prob : t cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1)
df : degrees of freedom (df > 0)
Calculation Result Output

xInv : inverse t cumulative distribution
Example
Probability : 0.0754752
Degrees of freedom : 18
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse T CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvTCD
Command Syntax

prob value, df value
Input Example:
InvTCD 0.0754752,18
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Distributions

k χ Distribution
2

χ2 Probability Density
Menu:

2

[Distribution]-[χ PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability density of χ distribution from a
specified x value.
2

f (x) = 1
df
Γ 2

1
2

df
2

df

–1 –

x2 e

x
2

Definition of Terms

x : data value
df : degrees of freedom (positive integer)
Calculation Result Output
2
prob : χ probability density

Example
Data : 2
Degrees of freedom : 4
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
2
(2) Select [χ PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: ChiPD
Command Syntax

x value, df value
Input Example:
ChiPD 2,4

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7-11-10
Distributions

χ2 Cumulative Distribution
[Distribution]-[χ CD ]
2

Menu:

Description: This command calculates the probability of χ distribution data falling between
a and b.
2

p= 1
df
Γ 2

1
2

df
2

b

df

–1 –

x2 e

x
2

a : lower bound (Lower)
b : upper bound (Upper)

dx

a

Definition of Terms
Lower : lower bound
Upper : upper bound
degrees of freedom (positive integer)
df :
Calculation Result Output
2
prob : χ distribution probability p
Example
Lower bound : 2.7 (upper bound : ∞)
Degrees of freedom : 4
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
2
(2) Select [χ CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: ChiCD
Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, df value
Input Example:
ChiCD 2.7,∞,4

Inverse χ Cumulative Distribution
2

Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse χ CD]
2

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the χ cumulative distribution.
∞
2

This command returns the lower bound of integration value  that satisfies the
equation above.
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7-11-11
Distributions

Definition of Terms

prob : χ cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1)
df : degrees of freedom (positive integer)
2

Calculation Result Output

xInv : inverse χ cumulative distribution
2

Example
Probability : 0.6092146
Degrees of freedom : 4
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
2
(2) Select [Inverse χ CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command:

InvChiCD

Command Syntax

prob value, df value
Input Example:
InvChiCD 0.6092146,4

k F Distribution

F Probability Density
Menu:

[Distribution]-[F PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability density of F distribution from a
specified x value.

n+d
2
f (x) =
n
d
Γ
Γ
2
2
Γ

n
d

n
2

x

n
–1
2

1+

n.x

–

n+d
2

d

Definition of Terms
data value
x:
n:df : degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer)
d:df : degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer)
Calculation Result Output
prob : F probability density
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7-11-12
Distributions

Example
Data : 1.5
Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24
Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [F PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: FPD
Command Syntax

x value, n:df value, d:df value
Input Example:
FPD 1.5,24,19

F Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[F CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability of F distribution data falling between
a and b.

n+d
2
p=
n
d
Γ
Γ
2
2
Γ

n
d

n
2

b

x
a

n
–1
2

.
1 +n x
d

–

n+d
2

dx

a : lower bound (Lower)
b : upper bound (Upper)

Definition of Terms
Lower :
Upper :
n:df :
d:df :

lower bound
upper bound
degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer)
degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer)

Calculation Result Output

prob :

F distribution probability p

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7-11-13
Distributions

Example
Lower bound : 1.5 (upper bound : ∞)
Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24
Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [F CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: FCD
Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, n:df value, d:df value
Input Example:
FCD 1.5,∞,24,19

Inverse F Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse F CD]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the F cumulative distribution.
∞
This command returns the lower bound of integration value  that satisfies the
equation above.
Definition of Terms

prob : F cumulative probability (p, 0 < p < 1)
n:df : degrees of freedom of numerator (positive integer)
d:df : degrees of freedom of denominator (positive integer)
Calculation Result Output

xInv : inverse F cumulative distribution

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7-11-14
Distributions

Example
Probability : 0.1852
Degrees of freedom of numerator : 24
Degrees of freedom of denominator : 19
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse F CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvFCD
Command Syntax

prob value, n:df value, d:df value
Input Example:
InvFCD 0.1852,24,19

k Binomial Distribution
Binomial Distribution Probability
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Binomial PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
binomial distribution will be a given x value. For example, it determines the
probability of x successes when the probability of success p-trial is performed
n times.

f (x) = nCxpx(1–p)n – x

(x = 0, 1, ·······, n)

Definition of Terms

x:

specified trial (integer from 0 to n)
Numtrial : number of trials n (integer, n > 0)
probability of success p (0 < p < 1)
pos :
Calculation Result Output

prob :

binomial probability

20090601

p : probability of success
(0 < p < 1)
n : number of trials

7-11-15
Distributions

Example
Trials : 5
Specified trial : 3
Probability of success : 0.63
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Binomial PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: BinomialPD

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax

x value, Numtrial value, pos value
Input Example:
BinomialPD 3,5,0.63

Binomial Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Binomial CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
binomial distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound
values. For example, it can be used to determine the probability a test with a
success probability of 0.5 (50%) that is performed ten times will be successful
at least three times but no more than five times.
Definition of Terms
Lower :
Upper :
Numtrial :
pos :

lower bound (Lower < Upper integer)
upper bound (Lower < Upper integer)
number of trials n (integer, n > 1)
probability of success p (0 < p < 1)

Calculation Result Output

prob :

binomial cumulative probability

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7-11-16
Distributions

Example
Trials : 5
Lower bound : 2
Upper bound : 3
Probability of success : 0.63
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Binomial CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command: BinomialCD
Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, Numtrial value, pos value
Input Example:
BinomialCD 2,3,5,0.63

Inverse Binomial Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Binomial CD]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the binomial cumulative distribution.
m

Σ

x =0

This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper
bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above.
Definition of Terms
prob :
binomial cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1)
Numtrial : number of trials n (integer, n > 0)
pos :
probability of success p (0 < p < 1)
Calculation Result Output
xInv :
*xInv :

inverse binomial cumulative distribution
recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of
rounding error.)
• To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the
result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For
example, if the probability is 0.61, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.60. The
recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one.

20090601
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7-11-17
Distributions

Example
Binomial cumulative probability : 0.61
Trials : 5
Probability of success : 0.63
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse Binomial CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvBinomialCD
Command Syntax

prob value, Numtrial value, pos value
Input Example:
InvBinomialCD 0.609,5,0.63

k Poisson Distribution
Poisson Distribution Probability
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Poisson PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
Poisson distribution will be a given x value.

e– ␭␭ x
f (x) =
x!

(x = 0, 1, 2, ···)

Definition of Terms

x:
␭:

specified trial (integer, x > 0)
mean (␭ > 0)

Calculation Result Output

prob : Poisson probability

20090601

␭: mean (␭ > 0)

7-11-18
Distributions

Example
Specified trial : 10
Mean : 6
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Poisson PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: PoissonPD

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax

x value, ␭ value
Input Example:
PoissonPD 10,6

Poisson Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Poisson CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
Poisson distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound
values.
Definition of Terms
Lower :
Upper :
␭:

lower bound (Lower < Upper integer)
upper bound (Lower < Upper integer)
mean (␭ > 0)

Calculation Result Output
Poisson cumulative probability
prob :

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7-11-19
Distributions

Example
Lower bound : 2
Upper bound : 3
Mean : 2.26
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Poisson CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: PoissonCD

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, ␭ value
Input Example:
PoissonCD 2,3,2.26

Inverse Poisson Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Poisson CD]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the Poisson cumulative distribution.
m

Σ

x =0

This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper
bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above.
Definition of Terms

prob :
␭:

Poisson cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1)
mean (␭ > 0)

Calculation Result Output

xInv :
*xInv :

inverse Poisson cumulative distribution
recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of
rounding error.)
• To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the result
using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit.
For example, if the probability is 0.99999, ClassPad would recalculate using
0.99998. The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original
one.

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7-11-20
Distributions

Example
Poisson cumulative probability : 0.8074
Mean : 2.26
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse Poisson CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvPoissonCD
Command Syntax

prob value, ␭ value
Input Example:
InvPoissonCD 0.8074,2.26

k Geometric Distribution
Geometric Distribution Probability
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Geometric PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
geometric distribution will be a given x value.

f (x) = p(1– p)x – 1

(x = 1, 2, 3, ···)

Definition of Terms

x : specified trial (positive integer)
pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1)
Calculation Result Output

prob : geometric probability

20090601

p : probability of success
(0 < p < 1)

7-11-21
Distributions

Example
Specified trial : 6
Probability of success : 0.4
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Geometric PD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: GeoPD

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax

x value, pos value
Input Example:
GeoPD 6,0.4

Geometric Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Geometric CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
geometric distribution will fall between given upper bound and lower bound
values.
Definition of Terms
Lower : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer)
Upper : upper bound (Lower < Upper integer)
pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1)
Calculation Result Output

prob : geometric cumulative probability

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7-11-22
Distributions

Example
Lower bound : 2
Upper bound : 3
Probability of success : 0.5
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Geometric CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: GeoCD 

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, pos value
Input Example:
GeoCD 2,3,0.5

Inverse Geometric Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Geo CD]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the geometric cumulative
distribution.
m

Σ

x =1

This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of m (Σ upper
bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above.
Definition of Terms

prob : geometric cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1)
pos : probability of success p (0 < p < 1)
Calculation Result Output

xInv : inverse geometric cumulative distribution
*xInv : recalculation value (Displayed only when there may be a possibility of
rounding error.)
• To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad additionally obtains the
result using the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit.
For example, if the probability is 0.875, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.874.
The recalculation result is only shown if it is different from the original one.

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7-11-23
Distributions

Example
Geometric cumulative probability : 0.875
Probability of success : 0.5
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse Geo CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvGeoCD
Command Syntax

prob value, pos value
Input Example:
InvGeoCD 0.875,0.5

k Hypergeometric Distribution
Hypergeometric Distribution Probability
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Hypergeometric PD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
hypergeometric distribution will be a given x value.

prob =

M

Cx ×N–M Cn–x
C
N n

Definition of Terms
x:
n:
M:
N:

specified trial (integer)
number of trials from population (0 < n integer)
number of successes in population (0 < M integer)
population size (n < N, M < N integer)

Calculation Result Output
prob :

hypergeometric probability

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7-11-24
Distributions

Example
Specified trial: 1
Number of trials from population: 5
Number of successes in population: 10
Population size: 20
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Hypergeometric PD] and then tap
[Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: HypergeoPD

Graphing may take a long time
when the absolute value of the
argument is large.

Command Syntax
x value, n value, M value, N value
Input Example:
HypergeoPD 1,5,10,20

Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Distribution]-[Hypergeometric CD]

Description: This command calculates the probability the random variable that follows a
hypergeometric distribution will fall between given lower bound and upper
bound values.
Upper

prob =

∑

M

i=Lower

Ci ×N–M Cn–i
C
N n

Definition of Terms
Lower : lower bound (Lower < Upper integer)
Upper : upper bound (Lower < Upper integer)
n:
number of trials from population (0 < n integer)
M:
number of successes in population (0 < M integer)
N:
population size (n < N, M < N integer)
Calculation Result Output
prob:

hypergeometric cumulative probability

Example
Lower bound: 0
Upper bound: 1
Number of trials from population: 5
Number of successes in population: 10
Population size: 20
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7-11-25
Distributions

• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Hypergeometric CD] and then tap [Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].
(5) To display the graph, tap $.

uProgram, eActivity or Main Application
Command: HypergeoCD

Graphing may take a long
time when the absolute value
of the argument is large.

Command Syntax
Lower value, Upper value, n value, M value, N value
Input Example:
HypergeoCD 0,1,5,10,20

Inverse Hypergeometric Cumulative Distribution
Menu:

[Inv. Distribution]-[Inverse Hypergeometric]

Description: This command calculates the inverse of the hypergeometric cumulative
distribution.
X

prob H

∑

M

i=0

Ci ×N–M Cn–i
C
N n

This command returns the minimum value (positive integer) of X (Σ upper
bound) that satisfies the inequality formula above.
Definition of Terms
prob :
n:
M:
N:

hypergeometric cumulative probability (0 < prob < 1)
number of trials from population (0 < n integer)
number of successes in population (0 < M integer)
population size (n < N, M < N integer)

Calculation Result Output
xInv : inverse hypergeometric cumulative distribution
*xInv : recalculation value (Displayed only when there is the possibility of
rounding error.)
• To account for possible rounding error, ClassPad also obtains the result using
the probability that is next lowest for the least significant digit. For example, if
the probability is 0.3, ClassPad would recalculate using 0.29. The recalculation
result is only shown if it is different from the original one.

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Distributions

Example
Hypergeometric cumulative probability: 0.3
Number of trials from population: 5
Number of successes in population: 10
Population size: 20
• Statistics Wizard Operation
(1) On the menu bar, tap [Calc] and then [Distribution].
(2) Select [Inverse Hypergeometric] and then tap
[Next >>].
(3) Input values.
(4) Tap [Next >>].

• Program, eActivity or Main Application
Command: InvHypergeoCD
Command Syntax
prob value, n value, M value, N value
Input Example:
InvHypergeoCD 0.3,5,10,20

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Statistical System Variables

7-12 Statistical System Variables
Performing a statistical calculation, graphing operation, or other operation causes calculation
results to be assigned to pre-arranged system variables. For more information, see the
“System Variable Table” on page α-2-1.

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Chapter

Using the Geometry
Application
The Geometry application allows you to draw and analyze geometric
figures. You can draw a triangle and specify values to change the size
of its sides so they are 3:4:5, and then check the measurement of
each of its angles. Or you can draw a circle and then draw a line that
is tangent to a particular point on the circle. The Geometry application
also includes an animation feature that lets you watch how a figure
changes in accordance with conditions you define.
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7

Geometry Application Overview
Drawing Figures
Editing Figures
Controlling Geometry Window Appearance
Working with Animations
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications
Managing Geometry Application Files

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8-1-1
Geometry Application Overview

8-1 Geometry Application Overview
The Geometry application provides you with the following capabilities.
• The [Draw] menu provides commands for drawing points, lines, polygons, regular polygons,
circles, ellipses, and other geometric figures. You can also draw functions. Once drawn, a
figure can be moved or edited as required. See “Using the Draw Menu” on page 8-2-1 for
more information about this menu.

• The [Draw] menu also includes a [Construct] submenu (page 8-2-30) and a [Special Shape]
submenu (page 8-2-27). You can use items in the [Construct] submenu to add a midpoint,
draw a perpendicular bisector from a given point, create other geometric constructions and
even test geometric theorems. The [Special Shape] submenu allows you to draw special
figures, such as parallelograms, rectangles, kites and many others.

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Geometry Application Overview

• Tapping the toolbar’s right arrow button displays a measurement box. The measurement
box displays information for the items that are selected on the window. For example, you
can view the coordinates of a point, the length and slope of a line segment, the size of an
angle, etc. You can also use the measurement box to change measurements, and to fix
measurements so they cannot be changed by other operations.

• The Animation feature makes it possible to see how a figure changes when a moving point
and its related figures are subjected to certain conditions. A point can move along a line or
curve, and can be anywhere along a line segment, the vertex of a triangle, or the center
point of a circle.

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Geometry Application Overview

Starting Up the Geometry Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Geometry application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap G.
This causes a blank Geometry application window to appear.

Use this area to draw the figures
you want.

Tip
• If you left figures on the Geometry window the last time you exited the Geometry application,
those figures will appear the next time you start it up.

Geometry Application Menus and Buttons
This section describes the configuration of the Geometry application windows and provides
basic information about its menus and commands.

Tip
• O menu items are the same for all applications. For more information, see “Using the O Menu”
on page 1-5-4.
• The View Window (O - [View Window]) and Geometry Format (O - [Geometry Format]) contain
settings that are unique to the Geometry application. For details, see “Configuring View Window
Settings” on page 8-4-1.

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Geometry Application Overview

k File Menu
To do this
Discard the current window contents and create a new file
Open an existing file
Save the current window contents to a file

Select this File menu item:
New
Open
Save

k Edit Menu
To do this:
Undo or redo the last operation
Clear all settings fixed with the measurement box
Show hidden objects
Toggle polygon shading on and off
Hide the currently selected object
Show hidden names
Hide the selected name
Make the lines of the selected figure thicker
Make the lines of the selected figure thinner
Pin an annotation position on the Geometry window
Unpin an annotation on the Geometry window

Select this Edit menu item:
Undo/Redo
Clear Constraints
Show All
Shade On/Off
Properties - Hide
Properties - Show Name
Properties - Hide Name
Properties - Thicker
Properties - Thinner
Properties - Pin
Properties - Unpin

Specify the number format for each measurement used
in the Geometry window

Properties - Number Format

Display the Animate submenu (page 8-5-1)

Animate

Cut the currently selected object and place it onto the
clipboard

Cut

Copy the currently selected object and place it onto the
clipboard

Copy

Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen
Select all objects on the screen
Delete the currently selected object
Clear the screen

Paste
Select All
Delete
Clear All

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Geometry Application Overview

k View Menu
Tap this
button:

To do this:

Or select this
View menu item:

Start a box zoom operation

G
Q

Activate the pan function for dragging the Graph
window with the stylus

T

Pan

Enlarge the display image

W
E
R
q

Zoom In

Toggle Axes

Toggle snapping to the nearest integer coordinate
point on and off

—

Integer Grid

Turn the Animation toolbar on and off

—

Animation UI

Select a segment, line, or part of a figure (page 8-3-1)

Reduce the size of the display image
Adjust the size of the display image so it fills the display
Turn display of axes and coordinate values on and off

Select
Zoom Box

Zoom Out
Zoom to Fit

k Draw Menu
To do this:
Draw a figure (page 8-2-1)

Insert a value or text connected with a displayed figure
into the display (page 8-2-18)

Select this Draw menu item:
Point
Line Segment
Infinite Line
Ray
Vector
Circle
Arc
Ellipse - Axes
Ellipse - Foci
Hyperbola
Parabola
Function - f (x)
Function - Polar
Function - Parametric
Polygon
Text
Attached Angle
Measurement
Expression

Display a submenu for drawing a figure of specially
shaped figures (page 8-2-27)

Special Shape

Display a submenu for geometric constructions
(page 8-2-30)

Construct

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Geometry Application Overview

k Toolbar Button
The operation described below is available from the toolbar only.

To do this:

Do this:

Activate Toggle Select (page 8-3-2)

Tap i and then tap a figure.

Tapping a button highlights it, indicating that the button’s function is turned on.

k About the Measurement Box
Tapping the u button to the right of the toolbar takes you to the measurement box. Tap t to
return to the normal toolbar.

Normal toolbar

Measurement box

For more information about the measurement box, see “Using the Measurement Box” on
page 8-3-6.

k About the Geometry Format Dialog Box
Settings for the Geometry application can be configured on the Geometry Format dialog
box which appears when you tap O and then [Geometry Format]. See “1-9 Configuring
Application Format Settings” for more information.

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Drawing Figures

8-2 Drawing Figures
This section explains how to use the Geometry application to draw various types of figures.
It also explains how to use the geometric construction tools to investigate theorems and
properties in Geometry.

Using the Draw Menu
The [Draw] menu makes it easy to draw a variety of different figures. Each [Draw] menu
command is also available on the toolbar.
[Draw] menu commands

These [Draw] menu commands
correspond to the toolbar shown
below.

Toolbar
Point
Infinite Line
Vector
Arc
Ellipse Foci
Parabola
Polygon

Line Segment
Ray
Circle
Ellipse Axes
Hyperbola
Function

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Drawing Figures

Tip
• Use [Edit] - [Clear All] to clear the screen after experimenting with a draw operation.

u To draw a line segment using the menu command
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Line Segment].
• This highlights the line segment button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the screen where you want the line segment to
begin, and a point will be drawn, and then tap the
point where you want it to end.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a line segment using the toolbar
(1) Tap the second down arrow on the toolbar. This opens the [Draw] menu’s icon palette.
(2) Tap the line segment button on the toolbar to highlight it.
(3) Tap the screen where you want the line segment to begin. This plots a point.
(4) Tap the beginning point again and, without lifting the stylus, drag to draw the line.
Or you could just tap the ending point.
(5) When the line segment is the way you want, remove the stylus from the screen.

u To plot a point
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Point].
• This highlights the point button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the location on the screen where you want to plot a point.
• This plots the point.

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Drawing Figures

u To add a labeled point to an existing line
You can use the following procedure to add a labeled point to an existing line, to a side of an
n-gon, to the periphery of a circle or ellipse, etc.
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Point].
• This highlights the point button on the toolbar.
(2) Drag the stylus on the screen towards the line where you want to add the labeled point.
• This selects the line, which is indicated by “k”.

(3) Drag the stylus to the location on the line where you
want to add a labeled point, and then lift the stylus from
the screen.

u To draw an infinite line
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Infinite Line].
• This highlights the infinite line button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap two points on the screen through which you want the infinite line to pass.
• You could also tap one point and then drag to the
second point.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a ray
Example: To draw a ray and then determine its y = f(x) linear equation by dropping the ray
into the Main or eActivity application window
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Ray].
• This highlights the ray button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap two points on the screen.
• You could also tap one point and then drag to the
second point.

(3) On the Icon panel, tap M to start up the Main application
(4) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list
that appears, tap 3.
• This opens the Geometry application and displays the line drawn in the step (2),
above.
(5) Use the stylus to select ray AB and drop it into the Main application window.
• This displays a linear equation as shown here.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a vector
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Vector].
• This highlights the vector button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the point where you want the vector to start, and then its end point.
• You could also tap one point, and then drag to
the vector end point.

u To draw a circle
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Circle].
• This highlights the circle button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the point where you want the center of the circle to be, and then tap a second point
anywhere on the circle’s circumference.
• You could also tap the center point, and then
drag to the second point.

u To draw an arc
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Arc].
• This highlights the arc button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the point where you want the center of the arc to be, and then tap a second point
to designate where you want the arc to start.
(3) Tap a third point, which is where you want the arc to
end.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a function
Example: To draw y(x) = x2 – 1
(1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [f(x)].
• This causes the Function dialog box and a soft keyboard to appear.
(2) Input the function.

(3) Tap [OK] to draw it.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a polar equation graph
Note
In this example the [Function Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is set to
“Radian”. See page 1-9-10 for more information.
(1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [Polar].
• This displays the Function dialog box and a soft
keyboard as shown here.

(2) Input the equation “r= ” here and then tap [OK].
• This displays a polar equation graph as shown here.

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Drawing Figures

Tip
• You can drag a polar curve from the Geometry window and drop it into a Main or eActivity
window. Or, for example, you can drag the equation r = f() from the Main or eActivity window
and drop it into the Geometry window as shown below.

u To draw a parametric equation graph
Note
In this example the [Function Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is set to
“Degree”. See page 1-9-10 for more information.
(1) Tap [Draw], [Function], and then [Parametric].
• This displays the Function dialog box and a soft
keyboard.

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Drawing Figures

(2) Input the following expressions and values:
xt = cos(t), yt = sin(t), tmin = 0, tmax = 360
(3) Tap [OK].
• This displays a parametric equation graph as shown
here.

Tip
• You can display equations such as (x(t), y(t)) on the Geometry window by dragging the graph and
dropping it into the Main or eActivity window where it will appear as a matrix.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Axes] command
Note
When you draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Axes] command, you need to specify the
following three elements: center point, Point 1 and Point 2. Point 1 defines the minor axis
(nearest point on the edge from the center point) and Point 2 defines the major axis (farthest
point on the edge from the center point).

Center Point ..... A
Point ................ B
Point ................C

When AC is shorter than AB, Point 1 becomes the major axis and Point 2 becomes the minor
axis.
(1) Tap [Draw], [Ellipse], and then [Axes].
• This highlights the ellipse axes button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the point you want to specify as the center point.
(3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 1 (minor axis).
• This causes a line to appear between the center point and Point 1.
• Instead of tapping, you could drag the stylus from the center point to Point 1, viewing
the line that is drawn as you do.
(4) Tap or drag to the point you want to specify as Point 2 (major axis).
• This causes the ellipse to appear.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw an ellipse using the [Ellipse] - [Foci] command
Note
An ellipse is the locus of points, the sum of whose distances from two fixed points (called
foci) is a constant. An ellipse drawn using the [Ellipse] - [Foci] command is drawn in
accordance with this definition. When you draw an ellipse with the [Foci] command, you need
to specify three different points: two foci (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point anywhere on the
ellipse (Point 3).

Point 1 ............. A
Point 2 ............. B
Point 3 .............C

(1) Tap [Draw], [Ellipse], and then [Foci].
• This highlights the ellipse foci button on the toolbar.
(2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify as the foci of the ellipse (Point
1 and Point 2).
• This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2.

• Instead of tapping two points as described above, you could also specify the two foci
by tapping to define Point 1 and then dragging the stylus across the screen to Point 2.

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Drawing Figures

(3)Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3.
• This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws
the ellipse.

• Instead of tapping the screen to specify Point 3, you could also drag the stylus on the
display. As soon as you tap and hold the stylus on the screen, the line connecting
Point 1 and Point 2 will bend to show the distance from the foci to the location of the
stylus, as shown below. Move the stylus to the location where you want Point 3 to be
and then remove it. This will cause the ellipse to be drawn.

Drag

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a hyperbola
Note
A hyperbola is the locus of points, the difference of whose distances from two fixed points
(called foci) is a given value. A hyperbola drawn using the [Hyperbola] command is drawn in
accordance with this definition. When you draw a hyperbola with the [Hyperbola] command,
you need to specify three different points: two foci (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point
anywhere on the hyperbola (Point 3).

Point 1 ............. A
Point 2 ............. B
Point 3 .............C

(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Hyperbola].
• This highlights the hyperbola button on the toolbar.
(2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify as the foci of the hyperbola
(Point 1 and Point 2).
• This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2.
• Instead of tapping two points as described above, you could also specify the two foci
by tapping to define Point 1 and then dragging the stylus across the screen to Point 2.

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Drawing Figures

(3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3.
• This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws
the hyperbola.

• Instead of tapping the screen to specify Point 3, you could also drag the stylus on the
display. As soon as you tap and hold the stylus on the screen, the line connecting
Point 1 and Point 2 will bend to show the distance from the foci to the location of the
stylus, as shown below. Move the stylus to the location where you want Point 3 to be
and then remove it. This will cause the hyperbola to be drawn.

Drag

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a parabola
Note
A parabola is the locus of points equidistant from a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix).
A parabola drawn using the [Parabola] command is drawn in accordance with this definition.
When you draw an parabola with the [Parabola] command, you need to specify three
different points: a line to define the directrix (Point 1 and Point 2) and one point for the focus.

Point 1 ............. A
Point 2 ............. B
Point 3 .............C

(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Parabola].
• This highlights the parabola button on the toolbar.
(2) On the screen, tap the two points that you want to specify the directrix (Point 1 and
Point 2).
• This causes a line to appear between Point 1 and Point 2.
(3) Tap the point you want to specify as Point 3.
• This specifies the point you tap as Point 3 and draws a parabola in relation to it and
the directrix.

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a polygon
(1) Tap [Draw] and then [Polygon].
• This highlights the polygon button on the toolbar.
(2) Tap the point from which you want the polygon to start.
(3) Sequentially tap each of the vertices of the polygon.
(4) Finally, tap the start point again to complete the polygon.

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Drawing Figures

Inserting Text Strings into the Screen
You can insert text strings into the screen while working on the Geometry application
window.

u To insert a text string into a screen
(1) Tap [Draw] and [Text].
• This displays the Text dialog box and a soft keyboard.
(2) Input the text you want on the dialog box.
• You can input alphanumeric characters, and you can use the 2D keyboard to input
numeric expressions (see “Using the 2D Keyboard” on page 1-6-15).

(Alphanumeric Input)

(Numeric Expression Input
Using the 2D Keyboard)

(3) Tap [OK] to insert the text into the screen.

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Drawing Figures

Drag and Drop
Text on the Geometry window can be dragged to the Main or eActivity window. You can also
drop text from these application windows into the Geometry window.

Attaching an Angle Measurement to a Figure
The measurement of
an angle formed by two
sides of a figure can be
attached to the figure as
shown here. To do so,
tap [Attached Angle] on
the [Draw] menu.

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Drawing Figures

u To attach an angle measurement to a figure
Example: To attach the measurement of angle A in the triangle ABC
(1) Draw the triangle.
(2) Tap G. Next, tap side AB and then side AC to select them.
(3) Tap [Draw] and then [Attached Angle].
• This attaches the angle measurement to the figure.

Tip
• The two sides of a figure actually forms four angles, numbered  through  in the illustration
shown here. After attaching an angle measurement using the [Attached Angle] command, you
can drag it to the position of any one of the other three angles as shown in the examples below.






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Drawing Figures

Example: To drag the angle measurement attached to interior angle A of triangle ABC to its
exterior supplementary angle

(Dragging to the supplementary
angle of the opposite angle of A)

(Dragging to the opposite angle of A)

Tip
• You can display more than one attached angle. To do this in the above example, first drag the
initial attached angle to the exterior position and then repeat steps 1 through 3 under “To attach
an angle measurement to a figure” on page 8-2-20.

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Drawing Figures

Displaying the Measurements of a Figure
You can display measurements on the Geometry application window. The measurements
change dynamically as you manipulate the figure.
A List of [Measurement] Submenu Commands on the [Draw] Menu
Names of Commands

Meanings of Each Command

Angle

Angle between two lines

Supplementary Angle

Supplementary angle of extended lines

Area

Area of selected figure

Circumference

Circumference of selected figure

Coordinates

Coordinates of selected point

Direction

Direction of line or vector

Equation

Equation of selected curve

Length

Distance between two points, or length of line

Radius

Radius of circle

Slope

Slope of line or vector

Note
There are three ways to display measurements while you work on the Geometry application
window. The following examples show you each method.
Method 1: Selecting [Measurement] from the [Draw] menu
(1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC.
(2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar.
• This displays the measurement box, which indicates

the specified angle.

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Drawing Figures

(3) Tap [Draw], [Measurement], and then [Angle].
• This shows the angle measurement on the screen.

Method 2: Selecting the value in the measurement box and dropping it directly into
the Geometry application window
(1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC.
(2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar.
• This displays the measurement box, which indicates

the specified angle.

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Drawing Figures

(3) Select (highlight) value in the measurement box and drop it into the screen below.
• This displays the specified angle measurement on the screen as shown below.

Method 3: Tapping the measurement icon button to the left of the measurement box
(1) Tap G and select elements AB and AC.
(2) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar.
• This displays the measurement box, which indicates

the specified angle.

(3) Tap the Q button on the far left of the measurement box.
• This displays the specified angle measurement on

the screen as shown here.

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Drawing Figures

Displaying the Result of a Calculation that Uses On-screen Measurement
Values
You can use the [Expression] command and the commands on the [Measurement]
submenu to perform calculations using the angle value, line length, surface area, and other
measurement values attached to a figure, and display the result on the Geometry window.

u To display the result of a calculation that uses on-screen measurement
values
Example: With line segment AB and line segment CD (point
C being on AB) drawn on the display as shown
here, calculate the sum of attached angles DCB
and ACD, and display the result on the screen.
(57.72+122.28 = 180.00)

u ClassPad Operation
Steps (1) through (5) draw the figure shown above. The procedure from step (6) performs
the calculation using the on-screen measurement values.
(1) Tap [Draw] - [Line Segment] and then draw line segment AB.
• See “To draw a line segment using the menu command” on page 8-2-2.

(2) Draw line segment CD so that point C lies on line segment AB.
(3) Tap G.
(4) Select line segment AB and line segment CD, and then tap [Draw] - [Attached Angle].
• This displays the attached angle for ACD.

(5) Tap attached angle ACD and drag it inside of angle DCB.
• This moves the attached angle to angle DCB.

(6) Select line segments AB and CD again, and then tap [Draw] - [Attached Angle].
• This displays the attached angle for ACD.

(7) Tap [Draw] - [Expression].
• This displays an “EXPR=” object.

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Drawing Figures

(8) Tap the u button to the right of the toolbar. This will display the measurement box.
• The above will also display numeric labels for each measurement currently on the

screen.

Numeric labels

(9) Now you can use the numeric labels to specify measurement values in the calculation
you input in the measurement box.
• To input a measurement value in the measurement box, input the at sign (@) followed

by the numeric label of the value. To input value [1], for example, you would input “@1”.
• Since we want to calculate the sum of angles DCB ([1]) and ACD ([2]) here, you

would input the following: @1+@2.
(10) After inputting the calculation expression, press E.
• The calculation result is displayed to the right of

“EXPR=”.

Tip
In steps (8) and (9) above, you also can input the numeric label of a displayed measurement value
into the measurement box by tapping the label. Tapping [1], for example, will input “@1” into the
measurement box.

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Drawing Figures

Using the Special Shape Submenu
The [Special Shape] submenu allows you to draw specially shaped figures automatically.
Simply select the type of figure you want from the menu, and then touch the screen with the
stylus to draw it. Or, touch the screen with your stylus and drag to create a box indicating the
size of the figure you would like to draw.
Each of the [Special Shape] submenu figures is also available on the toolbar.
[Draw] – [Special Shape]

[Special Shape] submenu

Toolbar
Isosceles Triangle
Trapezoid
Parallelogram
Rhombus
Regular n-gon

Triangle
Equilateral Triangle
Kite
Rectangle
Square

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Drawing Figures

u To draw a triangle
(1) Tap [Draw], [Special Shape], and then [Triangle].
• This highlights the triangle button on the toolbar.
(2) Perform either of the following two operations to draw the triangle.
• Tap the screen with the stylus. This automatically draws the acute triangle you
selected.
• Place the stylus on the screen and drag diagonally in any direction. This causes a
selection boundary to appear, indicating the size of the triangle that will be drawn.
The triangle is drawn when you release the stylus.

Tapping the screen with the stylus

Dragging with the stylus

u To draw a regular polygon
(1) Tap [Draw], [Special Shape], and then [Regular n-gon].
• This highlights the regular n-gon button on the toolbar, and displays the n-gon dialog
box.
(2) Enter a value indicating the number of sides of the
polygon, and then tap [OK].

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(3) Perform either of the following two operations to draw the regular polygon.
• Tap the screen with the stylus. This automatically draws the polygon you selected.
• Place the stylus on the screen and drag diagonally in any direction. This causes a
selection boundary to appear, indicating the size of the polygon that will be drawn.
The polygon is drawn when you release the stylus.

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Using the Construct Submenu
The [Construct] submenu provides you with the means to study various geometric theorems.
In addition to tools for constructing a perpendicular bisector, perpendicular line, angle
bisector, midpoint, intersection, parallel lines and a tangent to a curve, you can also translate,
rotate, reflect, dilate, or transform a figure.
Each of the [Construct] submenu figures is also available on the toolbar.
[Draw] – [Construct]

[Construct] submenu

Toolbar
Perpendicular
Intersection
Parallel
Reflection
Rotation
General Transform

Perpendicular Bisector
Midpoint
Angle Bisector
Tangent to Curve
Translation
Dilation

Tip
• The following procedures include steps that require selection of a line segment or other figures.
For details about selecting figures, see “8-3 Editing Figures”.

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u To construct a perpendicular bisector
(1) Draw a line segment.
(2) Tap G, and then select the line segment.
(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Perp. Bisector].
• This draws a perpendicular bisector through your line segment.

u To construct an angle bisector
(1) Draw two line segments so they form an angle.
(2) Tap G, and then select both line segments.
(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Angle Bisector].
• This bisects the angle.

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u To construct a midpoint
(1) Draw a line segment.
(2) Tap G, and then select the line segment.
(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Midpoint].
• This adds a midpoint to the segment.

u To construct the point of intersection of two lines
(1) Draw two lines that intersect.
(2) Tap G, and then select both lines.
(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Intersection].
• This adds the point of intersection.

(4) Try selecting the point of intersection and dragging it.

Tip
• The point(s) of intersection of two circles or of a line and a circle can be constructed in the same
manner.

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u To construct a perpendicular line that passes through a specified point on
a line
(1) Draw a line segment or an infinite line.
(2) Draw a point on the line through which you want the perpendicular line to pass.
(3) Tap G, and then select the point and the line.
(4) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Perpendicular].
• This draws a line that through the point you selected, which is perpendicular to the
line where is the point is located.
• Try selecting the point of intersection and dragging it.

u To construct a line parallel to another line through a specified point
(1) Draw a line and a point that is not on the line.
(2) Tap G, and then select the line and the point.
(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Parallel].
• The parallel line button is displayed on the toolbar, and a line passing through the
selected point is drawn parallel to the selected line.

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Drawing Figures

u To construct a tangent to a curve through a specified point
(1) Draw a curve, such as an ellipse.
(2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Tangent to Curve].
• This highlights the tangent to a curve button on the toolbar.
(3) Tap the point of tangency on the curve.
• This draws the tangent.

u To translate a line segment by inputting a vector
(1) Draw a line segment (AB), and then select it.

(2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Translation].
• This displays the Translation dialog box.
(3) Enter the vector for the translation.

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Drawing Figures

(4) Tap [OK].
• This translates line segment AB in accordance with
the vector value you input, and draws line segment
A’B’.

u To translate a line segment by selecting a vector
(1) Draw a line segment (AB), and a vector to use in the translation. Next, select the line
segment.
(2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Translation].
• This displays the Translation dialog box.
(3) Tap [Select Vector].
(4) Tap the vector on the screen.
• This translates line segment AB in accordance with the vector you selected, and
draws line segment A’B’.

u To rotate a line segment
(1) Draw a line segment, and then select it.
(2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Rotation].
• This highlights the rotate button on the toolbar.
(3) Tap the screen once to select the center of rotation.
• This displays the Rotation dialog box.
(4) Specify the angle of rotation in degrees.

(5) Tap [OK] to rotate the line segment.

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Drawing Figures

u To reflect a line segment with respect to a specified line of symmetry
(1) Draw a line segment.
(2) Draw a line to use as the line of symmetry.
(3) Tap G, and then select the line segment.
(4) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Reflection].
• This highlights the reflection button on the toolbar.
(5) Tap the line of symmetry.
• This reflects the line segment you drew in step (1) about the line of symmetry.

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Drawing Figures

u To dilate a line segment toward a specified center point
(1) Draw a line segment, and then select it.
(2) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [Dilation].
• This highlights the dilation button on the toolbar.
(3) Tap the center of dilation.
• This displays the Dilation dialog box.
(4) Specify the dilation scale factor.

(5) Tap [OK].

Transformation Using a Matrix or Vector (General Transform)
General Transform lets you input a matrix and/or vector to transform a figure. The result of
the transformation is drawn as a separate figure. For example, if you transform line segment
AB, the line segment A’B’ will be drawn.
You can perform the following types of transformations with General Transform.
• Matrix Transformation: x-axis/y-axis symmetry, rotation, enlargement, reduction, etc.
• Vector Transformation: Vertical and horizontal parallel displacement

k General Transform Example
In this example draw triangle ABC and then draw triangle A’B’C’, which is symmetrical
to ABC about the x-axis. Next, we will draw triangle A’’B’’C’’ by performing a parallel
displacement on triangle A’B’C’ of 1 unit along the x- and y-axis.

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Tip
• All of the steps in the procedure below are performed using the Geometry application only. You
can also use the Main application or eActivity application to perform matrix calculations and
obtain the same transformation. You can drag a figure from Geometry to Main, which transforms
values (matrix) and performs calculation, and drag the values (matrix) obtained as a result from
Main to Geometry to draw the transformed figure. After performing the following procedure, see
“Transform Example Using the Main Application” (page 8-2-40).

If you need to, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap q to turn on coordinate display in the Geometry window.
• You can skip this step if you want, but turning on coordinate display helps you see
how coordinates are changed by the transform operations.
(2) Draw triangle ABC, and then select its three sides.

(3) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [General Transform].
• This displays the Transform dialog box.
(4) Since we want a triangle that is symmetrical about the x-axis to the original triangle,
input [[1, 0], [0, –1]].

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Drawing Figures

(5) Tap [OK].
• This draws triangle A’B’C’, which is symmetrical to triangle ABC about the x-axis.

(6) Tap anywhere outside of the triangles to deselect the currently selected triangle. Next,
select triangle A’B’C’.
(7) Tap [Draw], [Construct], and then [General Transform].
(8) Now, to perform parallel displacement on triangle A’B’C’ by 1 unit along the x- and
y-axis, input [1, 1].

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Drawing Figures

(9) Tap [OK].
• This performs the parallel displacement and draws triangle A’’B’’C’’.

Note
• In the above example, we performed the transformation and the parallel displacement
operations separately. You could also perform both operations at the same time, if you
want. To do so, input both the matrix [[1, 0], [0, –1]] and the vector [1, 1] in step (4), and
then tap [OK]. This will produce the result shown in step (9).

k Transform Example Using the Main Application
It might be easier to understand how General Transform works if you use the Main
application (or eActivity application) in combination with the Geometry application. This
makes it possible to perform the following types of operations.
(a) In the Geometry application, you can select a point on the figure obtained using
General Transform and the corresponding point on the original figure (for example,
point A on the original figure and point A’ on the transformed figure), drag them to the
Main application, and display the transformation expression in the Main application.
(b) You can select a triangle in the Geometry application and drag it to the Main
application to convert the triangle to a matrix (2-row × 3-column matrix that shows three
vertices). Conversely, you can drag a 2-row × 3-column matrix input (or produced by a
calculation) in the Main application to the Geometry application and draw the applicable
triangle.
Here we will show actual examples of (a) and (b).

Tip
• All of the above operations can also be performed using the eActivity application instead of the
Main application.
• For information about how to access the Geometry application from the Main application
and about the different operations you can perform between them, see “2-10 Using the Main
Application in Combination with Other Applications”.

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Drawing Figures

k (a) Operation Example
The following procedure assumes that the results produced by the procedure under “General
Transform Example” on page 8-2-37 are still on the Geometry application window.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap J to start up the Main application.
(2) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list
that appears, tap 3.
• This opens the Geometry application and displays triangles ABC, A’B’C’, and A’’B’’C’’
on the Geometry window.

(3) Select points A and A’.
(4) While both points are selected, drag point A (or point A’) to the cursor position in the
Main application work area.
• This displays the expression that transformed the coordinates of point A to the
coordinates of point A’.

Observe this area of the
expression. This corresponds to
the matrix values you input when
executing General Transform.

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Drawing Figures

(5) After clearing the Main application work area, try repeating steps (3) and (4) for points A’
and A’’.
• This displays the expression that transformed the coordinates of point A’ to the
coordinates of point A’’.

Observe this area of the
expression. This corresponds to
the vector values you input when
executing General Transform.

Important!
• This operation is valid only when a point in the original figure and the corresponding point in
the transformed figure are selected in the Geometry application. Nothing is displayed when
you select points A and A’’ in the above procedure and drag them to the Main application
work area.

k (b) Operation Example
u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap J to start up the Main application.
(2) Tap the right most down arrow button on the Main application toolbar. On the button list
that appears, tap 3.
• This opens the Geometry application.
(3) On the Geometry window, tap [Edit] and then [Clear All].
• This clears the Geometry window.
(4) Draw a triangle on the Geometry window.
• After drawing a triangle, you can use the measurement box (page 8-3-6) to adjust the
coordinates of points A, B, and C. That will make the following steps easier.

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Drawing Figures

(5) Select the triangle and drag it to the cursor location in the Main application work area.
• This inputs a matrix that shows the coordinates of the triangle’s three vertices into the
work area.

(6) Here, try multiplying by the matrix [[–1, 0], [0, 1]] to transform the matrix obtained above
to a form that is symmetrical about the y-axis. Execute the calculation as shown in the
screenshot below.

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Drawing Figures

(7) Select the matrix obtained as the calculation result, and drag it to the Geometry
window.
• This draws a triangle that is symmetrical to the original triangle about the y-axis.

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Editing Figures

8-3 Editing Figures
This section provides details about moving, copying, and deleting Geometry application
figures.

Selecting and Deselecting Figures
Before you can execute certain editing commands, you must first select the figure you want
to edit. There are two figure selection modes: Select and Toggle Select, each of which is
described below.

k Using Select
Tap G on the toolbar. This causes the button to become highlighted, indicating that Select
is enabled. Select allows you to select as many figures as you would like, and then move,
copy, paste, or perform other operations on the selection as a single entity.
• To select side BC of the triangle, tap it.

• Tapping point D selects it, leaving side BC of the triangle selected, too.

• To deselect all of the figures, tap anywhere on the screen where there are no figures.

Tip
• When Select is enabled, you can drag the currently selected figures to move them around the
display. For more information, see “Moving and Copying Figures” on page 8-3-3.

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Editing Figures

k Using Toggle Select
Tap
on the toolbar. This causes the button to become highlighted, indicating that Toggle
Select is enabled. Toggle Select allows you to select and deselect figures. For example, if
you have multiple figures selected, Toggle Select will allow you to deselect a single part of
the selection. Tapping the part again will turn the selection back on.

Tip
• You cannot move figures around the window while Toggle Select is enabled. Also, the currently
selected figure does not become deselected if you tap an area of the window where there is no
figure. To move what you currently have selected, simply change to the regular Select mode.

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Editing Figures

Moving and Copying Figures
It is easy to move figures or copy and paste figures in Geometry.

u To move a figure
(1) Draw a figure.
(2) Tap G, and then select the figure.
(3) Drag the figure to move it to the location you want.
(4) Remove the stylus from the screen.

Tip
• Note that a selection boundary appears around the figure when you drag it.

u To copy a figure
(1) Draw a figure, and then select it.
(2) Tap [Edit], and then [Copy].
(3) Tap anywhere on the screen to deselect the figure.
(4) Tap [Edit], and then [Paste].
(5) Drag the pasted figure to the location you want.

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Editing Figures

Pinning an Annotation on the Geometry Window
You can pin an annotation on the Geometry window using the Pin function. By default,
annotations are ‘Unpinned’, so they pan or zoom along with the Geometry window.
Pinning an annotation fixes its position on the screen so it is always displayed in the same
location on the Geometry window.
Example: To pin text at a particular location on the Geometry window
(1) Select (highlight) the text on the Geometry window.

(2) Tap [Edit], [Properties], and then [Pin].
(3) When text is pinned, it maintains its position as shown
here even when the window is panned.

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Editing Figures

Specifying the Number Format of a Measurement
You can specify the number format for each measurement on the Geometry window.
Example: To specify zero decimal places for measurement values on the Geometry window
(1) Select (highlight) the measurement(s).

(2) Tap the [Edit], [Properties], and then [Number Format].
• This displays the Number Format dialog box as

shown here.

(3) Select the number format you want by tapping it. Since we want to specify zero decimal
places, we will select “Fix 0” here.
• For the meaning of each number format name, see “Number Format” on page 1-9-5.

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Editing Figures

(4) Tap [OK].
• This will display the measurement value(s) you

selected in the step 1 using the specified number
format.

Tip
The initial default number format setting for measurement values is “Fix 2”.

Using the Measurement Box
Tapping the u button to the right of the toolbar displays the measurement box. Tap t to
return to the normal toolbar.

Normal toolbar

Measurement box

You can use the measurement box to perform the following operations.

View the measurements of a figure
Displaying the measurement box and selecting a figure displays combinations of the following
measurements, depending on the type of object you select: coordinates, distance, slope,
direction, equation, radius, circumference, area, perimeter, angle, tangency, congruence,
incidence, or point on curve.

Specify a measurement of a figure
After you display the measurement box, you can select part of a figure and then change
numeric values for the applicable measurement. You can specify the coordinates of a point,
the length of a line segment (distance between endpoints), the angle formed by two lines,
etc.

Fix a measurement of a figure
After you display the measurement box, you can select part of a figure and then fix the
applicable measurement. You can fix the coordinates of a point, the length of a line segment,
the angle formed by two lines, etc.

Name a figure
After you display the measurement box, you can select part or all of a figure and then give it
a name or change the existing name. You can name a point, line segment, circle, attached
angle, etc.
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Editing Figures

k Viewing the Measurements of a Figure
The type of information that appears in the measurement box depends on the figure that is
currently selected on the display. If a line segment is selected, for example, the measurement
box shows the distance, slope, angle from the x-axis, and the equation for that line. You
can specify the type of information you want to view by tapping the down arrow button to the
left of the measurement box, and then tapping the appropriate icon on the icon palette that
appears.

The following table describes the information that appears when you tap each icon, and
explains when each icon is available for selection.

Icon Icon Name

This icon appears when this Tapping this icon
is selected:
displays:

Lockable

T

Coordinates A single point

t

Distance/
length

Two points on one figure or two Distance between two
different figures, or a single line points, length of a line
segment or vector
segment or a vector

Slope

Single line, line segment, or
vector

Slope of the line, line
segment or vector

Yes

Direction

Single line, line segment, or
vector

Direction angle of the
line (angle of inclination)

Yes

Equation

Any single line or line segment, Function of the figure
vector, circle, arc, ellipse or any (using rectangular
coordinates)
other figure (parabola, etc.)
drawn by a function

Y
O

Coordinates of the point

Yes
Yes

Yes

5

Equation
edit

Single parabola or any other
figure drawn by a function

Equation of the figure in
the function editing
dialog box.

No

]

Radius

Single circle or arc

Radius of circle or arc

Yes

Circumference Single circle, arc or ellipse

Length of the
circumference

Yes

Perimeter

Single polygon

Sum of the lengths of
the sides

No

Area

Any three points, a single
circle, arc, ellipse, or polygon

Area

3

E

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No

8-3-8
Editing Figures

Icon Icon Name

This icon appears when this Tapping this icon
is selected:
displays:
Two line segments

Q
t

Angle

K

Tangency

e

Congruence Two line segments

Two circles or arcs, or a line
and circle

Angle and its
supplement formed by
the line segments

Yes

Whether two items are
tangent

Yes

Whether line segments
are the same length

Yes

Incidence

Point and a line, arc, circle or
a vector

Point on
curve

Point and a function, curve, or
ellipse

F

Rotation
angle

Two points created by
[Rotation]

Angle of rotation

Two points (like Point A and
Point A’) on a figure created
by [Dilation]

Scale of dilation

2

Scale of
dilation
Text icon

An object that includes text or
an object that can be named

Editable text used to
name the selected image

6

u

Lockable

Whether a point is on
the line/curve

Yes

*1

*1

No

*1 The value in the measurement box is always locked while this tool is selected.
You can use the measurement box to determine certain measurements.
In the first example below, three points are selected on the screen and the measurement box
shows the area of the triangle formed by them.
The second example shows how to view the measurements of a line segment.

u To display the area of a triangular area
You can use the measurement box to display the area of a triangle formed by any three
points you select on the display.
Example: To use the parallelogram ABCD, in which sides AD and BC are parallel, to
determine the areas of the triangles formed by side AD and point B, and side AD
and point C
(1) Draw the parallelogram.
• If you need to, select [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example.
(2) Tap u on the toolbar to display the measurement box.

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Editing Figures

(3) Select points A, D, and B.
• This causes the area of the triangle ADB to appear
in the measurement box.

(4) Tap anywhere outside of the parallelogram to deselect the current points, and then
select points A, D, and C.
• This causes the area of the triangle ADC to appear
in the measurement box. The above procedure
shows that the areas of the two triangles are
the same.

u To view the measurements of a line segment
(1) Draw a line segment.
(2) Tap u on the toolbar to display the
measurement box.

(3) Select the line segment.
• This displays the length of the line segment.

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Editing Figures

(4) Tap the down arrow next to the measurement box to cycle through other
measurements.
• In the case of the line segment, for example, you can view its length, slope, direction,
and equation.

k Specifying a Measurement of a Figure
The following example shows how to specify an angle of a triangle.

u To specify the angle of a triangle
(1) Check to make sure the [Measure Angle] setting of the Geometry Format dialog box is
set to “Degree” (see page 1-9-10 for more information).
(2) Draw the triangle.
• If you need to, select [Edit] and then [Clear All] before beginning this example.
(3) Tap u on the toolbar to display the measurement box.
(4) Select side AB and then select side BC.
• This displays the measure of angle B in the
measurement box.

(5) Input the value you want to specify for angle B into the measurement box and press E.
• In this example, we input 90, which makes angle B
90 degrees.

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Editing Figures

k Fixing a Measurement of a Figure
By “fixing a measurement” we mean that a constraint is placed on the figure. For example, if
we fix (constrain) a point to a circle and move the circle, the point will also move.
The following example shows how to fix the size of an angle of a triangle.

u To fix the measure of an angle of a triangle
(1) Draw the triangle.
(2) Select side AB and then select side BC.
(3) Input 90 into the measurement box, and then select the check box to the right of it.
• This fixes the measure of angle B at 90 degrees.

A highlighted check box
indicates the measurement
is fixed (constrained).

k Changing a Label or Adding a Name to an Element
You can change the name of a point, or add a name to each element as explained in the
following example.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Select (highlight) a point. Tap the down arrow to the right of icon palette on
measurement box and then u.
• This displays the current name of point A in the
measurement box. The displayed name is highlighted
so it can be edited.

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Editing Figures

(2) Input a new name (“Center”) in the measurement box.

(3) Tap E or the check box to the right side of measurement box.
• This displays the changed name on the screen as
shown here.

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

8-4 Controlling Geometry Window Appearance
This section provides information about how to control the appearance of the Geometry
application window by scrolling or zooming, and by showing or hiding axes and the grid.

Configuring View Window Settings
You can use the following procedures to configure settings that control the appearance of the
Geometry application window.
Tap O, and then [View Window] to display the View Window dialog box. The View Window
dialog box allows you to configure the x-axis range of values. The ymid value is used to
center the Graph window vertically. For example, if we set ymid = 2, then the y-axis will
appear 2 units below the center of the Graph window.

Note
• The following are the allowable ranges for the indicated View Window parameters.
−1 × 106 < xmin < 1 × 106
−1 × 106 < xmax < 1 × 106
−1 × 106 < ymid < 1 × 106
xmax − xmin > 1 × 104

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

Selecting the Axis Setting
Tap q, or tap [View] and then [Toggle Axes] to cycle through the four settings shown below.

Axes off, values off

Axes on, values off

Axes on, values on

Axes on, values on and grid on

Tip
• You can also turn on the Integer Grid by tapping [View] and then [Integer Grid]. See page 8-4-3
for more information.

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

Toggling Integer Grid Display On and Off
You can toggle integer grid display on and off by tapping [View] and then [Integer Grid]. The
[Integer Grid] command on the [View] menu has a check mark next to it while integer grid
display is turned on.

Grid off

Grid on

Zooming
The Geometry application provides you with a selection of zoom commands that you can use
to enlarge or reduce an entire display image or a specific area of a figure.

Tip
• The screenshots in this section all use the “Axes on, values on” setting described under “Selecting
the Axis Setting” on page 8-4-2.

u To use Zoom Box
Example: To use zoom box to enlarge part of a circle
(1) Draw a circle.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom Box], or tap Q.
(3) Drag the stylus on the screen to draw a selection boundary around the area you want
to enlarge.

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

(4) Remove the stylus from the display and the area within the selection boundary expands
to fill the entire Graph window.

u To use Zoom In and Out
Example 1: To zoom in on a circle
(1) Draw a circle.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom In], or tap W.
• This enlarges the circle.
Example 2: To zoom out on a circle
(1) Draw a circle.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom Out] or tap E.
• This reduces the size of the circle.

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

u To use Zoom to Fit
(1) Draw the figure or figures you want.
• If what you are drawing does not fit on the display, scroll the image as you draw it.
• For information about scrolling the screen, see “Using Pan to Shift the Display Image”
on page 8-4-6.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Zoom to Fit], or tap R.
• This enlarges or reduces the figure so it fills the display.

Tip
• You can also perform the Zoom In, Zoom Out, and Zoom to Fit operations by pressing ClassPad
keys as described below.
To do this:

Press this key:

Zoom In

+

Zoom Out

-

Zoom to Fit

=

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Controlling Geometry Window Appearance

Using Pan to Shift the Display Image
Panning makes it easy to shift the display image by dragging with the stylus.

Tip
• The screenshot in this section uses the “Axes on, values on” setting described under “Selecting
the Axis Setting” on page 8-4-2.

u To use Pan
Example: To pan the image of a circle
(1) Draw a circle.
(2) Tap [View] and then [Pan], or tap T.
(3) Place the stylus on the screen and drag in the direction you want to shift the image of
the circle.

Tip
• You can also scroll the window using the cursor keys.

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8-5-1
Working with Animations

8-5 Working with Animations
An animation consists of one or more point/curve pairs, in which the curve can be a line
segment, circle, ellipse, or function. You build an animation by selecting a point/curve pair,
and then adding it to an animation.

Using Animation Commands
You can build and run an animation either by executing menu commands or by using the
animation toolbar that appears when you tap [View] and then [Animation UI].
[Edit] – [Animate]

[Animate] submenu

[View] – [Animation UI]

} Animation toolbar

Add Animation
Trace
Go (repeat)
Stop

Replace Animation
Go (once)
Go (to and fro)

Tip
• Most of the procedures in this section are performed using the [Animate] submenu.
• All of the [Animate] menu commands can be accessed from the animation toolbar, except for
[Edit] - [Animate] - [Edit Animations].
• To close the animation toolbar and return to the normal toolbar, tap the = button on the right
side of the animation toolbar, or tap [View] and then [Animation UI].

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8-5-2
Working with Animations

u To add an animation and run it
(1) Plot a point and draw an arc. Or, you could draw a circle, ellipse, line segment, or
function instead of an arc.
(2) Select the point and arc.

(3) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation].

(4) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)],
[Go (repeat)], or [Go (to and fro)].

Point A moves along arc CD.

(5) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Stop] to stop the animation.
• You can also stop the animation by tapping

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on the icon panel.

8-5-3
Working with Animations

Tip
• You can repeat the above procedure to create multiple points that move simultaneously.
Try this:
• Draw a line segment and plot another point.
• Select the line segment and the point.
• Repeat steps (3) and (4) on page 8-5-2.
Notice that both animations go at the same time!
• To start a new animation, perform the procedure under “To replace the current animation with a
new one” on page 8-5-4. Or, tap [Edit], [Animate] and then [Edit Animations]. On the dialog box
that appears tap [Remove].

u To animate a point around a circle
(1) Plot a point and draw a circle, and then select them.

(2) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation].

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8-5-4
Working with Animations

(3) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)].
• This causes the point to travel around the
circumference of the circle.

u To replace the current animation with a new one
(1) Select the point and curve for the new animation.
(2) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Replace Animation].
• This discards the currently set animation and sets up an animation for a new point
and curve set. Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)] to see your new animation.

u To trace a locus of points
Tip
• Using trace leaves a trail of points when the animation is run.

(1) Draw a line segment AB and plot point C, which is not on line segment AB.
(2) Plot point D, which should also not be on line segment AB, but should be on the same
side of the line segment as point C.
(3) Draw a line segment that connects point D with point C.
(4) Draw another line segment that connects point D with
line segment AB. This is line segment DE.

(5) Tap the right arrow button to display the measurement box.

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8-5-5
Working with Animations

(6) Select line segments AB and DE, enter 90 in the measurement box, and tap the check
box next to the measurement box.
• This fixes the angle between AB and DE at 90
degrees.

(7) Select only line segments DE and DC, and then tap the down arrow next to the
measurement box.
(8) Tap the e icon, and then select the check box to the right of the measurement box.
• This makes line segments DE and DC congruent in length.

A highlighted check box indicates the measurement
is fixed (constrained).

(9) Select point E and line segment AB.
(10) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add Animation].
(11) Tap the screen to deselect the currently selected items.
(12) Select point C.
(13) Select the check box to the right of the measurement box.
• This fixes the position of point C.
(14) Select point D.

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8-5-6
Working with Animations

(15) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Trace].
• This should cause a parabola to be traced on the display. Note that line segment AB
is the directrix and point C is the focus of the parabola.
(16) With point D still selected, tap [Edit], [Animate], and
then [Go (once)].

u To edit an animation
(1) While the animation you want to edit is on the display, tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Edit
Animations].
• This displays the animation editing window in the lower window. The upper window
contains the animation that we just completed in “To trace a locus of points”. See
page 8-5-4 for information about specifying the trace point.
(2) Edit the animation following the procedure below.
Steps
This setting specifies how many steps point E takes to
move along line segment AB. The initial default value
is 20.
Animations
• The “E” under “Animations” indicates that point E is
the point moved by the animation. When you are
building multiple animations, a list of all applicable
points appears here.
• Tapping [Remove] deletes the applicable animation.
• “t0” and “t1” specify the range of movement of point
E on line segment AB. The initial default values are
t0 = 0 and t1 = 1.
• During animation, the length of AB is considered to
be one unit. The default values specify that movement of point E is from start point A
(point where length equals 0) up to end point B (point where length equals 1).
• Changing the value of t0 to 0.5, for example, causes point E to move from the middle
of line segment AB to point B.
• Changing the value of t0 to −1, causes point E to begin at a point outside line
segment AB (in this case, at a point a distance equivalent to the length of line
segment AB) and ending with point B.
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8-5-7
Working with Animations

Traces
This item shows the specified trace point. Tapping [Remove] cancels the trace point
setting.
(3) While the lower window is active, tap O and then [Close] to close the animation
editing window.

u To view an animation table
(1) Draw a triangle and a line segment above the triangle.
(2) Tap the right arrow button to display the measurement box.
(3) Select the line segment and the vertex point closest to the line.

Measurement box

(4) Tap the down arrow next to the measurement box.
(5) Tap the 6 icon, and then select the check box to the right of the measurement box.
• This connects the segment and vertex point.

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8-5-8
Working with Animations

(6) With the line and vertex point still selected, tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Add
Animation].
(7) Now, select only one side of the triangle.
(8) Tap [Edit], [Animate], and then [Go (once)].
(9) Tap # next to the measurement box.
• While the animation is running, the lower window shows the table for the length of the
side you selected.

(10) Try selecting another side and running the animation again to view the table for that
side. Or, select another side and tap #.
(11) Select all three sides of the triangle and run the animation again.
• The table that appears in the lower window will show how the area of the triangle
changes while the animation runs.

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8-6-1
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications

8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other
Applications
You can display the Geometry application from within the eActivity or Main application.
This is a great feature that allows you to visualize the relationship between Algebra and
Geometry. You can, for example, drag a figure from the Geometry window to the eActivity
window to see its corresponding mathematical expression. This section describes how to do
this and other useful things.

Drag and Drop
When you open Geometry within another application, you can drag and drop information
between the two application windows.
Example 1: To drag a circle from the Geometry window to the eActivity window

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap A to start the eActivity
application.
(2) From the eActivity menu, tap [Insert], [Strip] and then [Geometry].
• This inserts a Geometry data strip, and displays the Geometry window in the lower
half of the screen.

Geometry data strip

Geometry window

• For details about Geometry data strips, see “Inserting an Application Data Strip” on
page 10-3-5.
(3) Draw a circle on the Geometry window.

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8-6-2
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications

(4) Select the circle and drag it to the first available line in the eActivity window.
• This inserts the equation of the circle in the eActivity window.

(5) You can now experiment with the data in the eActivity window.

Tip
• Try modifying the radius of the circle in the eActivity window. Highlight your modified equation,
then drag it into the Geometry window.

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8-6-3
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications

Example 2: To drag two sides of a triangle from the Geometry window to the Main window

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap J to start the Main application.
(2) Tap 3 to display the Geometry window in the lower half of the screen.

Geometry window

(3) Draw a triangle on the Geometry window.
(4) Select two sides of the triangle and drag them to the Main window.
• This inserts the equations of the sides in the Main window.

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8-6-4
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications

(5) Press E.
• Notice that the solution is the same as the coordinates of point A.

• To show the coordinates of A, just select
point A. Its coordinates will be displayed in
the status bar.

Tip
• Try using this drag and drop method to find the point of intersection of two lines. This is a great
way to find the solution to a system of equations.
• To view a fractional result as a decimal, tap the input row and then u.
• The information that appears when you drop a figure into another application depends on the
figure you are dragging. Many of the possible outcomes are listed in the table below.

Geometric Figure

Drag and drop into another
application transforms to:

Support for drag and drop into a
Geometry Link row* in an eActivity
yes

Line Segment

An Ordered Pair
Linear Equation

Infinite Line
Ray

Linear Equation
Linear Equation

yes
yes

An Ordered Pair (head of vector,
assuming the tail is at the origin)
Equation of a Circle

no

Equation of a Circle
Equation of an Ellipse

yes

Point

Vector
Circle
Arc
Ellipse
Function (y=f (x))
Two Lines
Polygon
Open Polygon created
by Animation
Pairs of points related
by a transformation

Equation of the Function
System of Equations
Matrix Containing each Vertex
Point
Matrix Containing each Vertex
Point
Expression Showing Point
Relationship

yes

yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no

* For details about a Geometry Link row, see “Dynamically Linked Data” on page 8-6-5 and “Inserting
a Geometry Link Row” on page 10-3-17.
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8-6-5
Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications

• When the Geometry application cannot determine what is dropped into it, the dropped data
is displayed as text.

Copy and Paste
In addition to drag and drop, you can also copy figures or columns from an animation table,
and paste them into another application.

Dynamically Linked Data
Another nice feature of the ClassPad is the ability to create a dynamic link between a
geometric figure and its equation in the eActivity window. When a geometric figure is
dynamically linked to an equation, you will notice a link symbol ( ) in front of the equation in
the eActivity window. Changing the graph in the Geometry window will automatically update
the linked data in the eActivity window. Also, changing the data in the eActivity window will
update the graph in the Geometry window. Note that this feature is available only within the
eActivity application.

Example of dynamically linked data
For information on how to create a dynamic link between a geometric figure and its equation
in the eActivity window, see “Inserting a Geometry Link Row” on page 10-3-17.

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8-7-1
Managing Geometry Application Files

8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files
This section covers file management operations such as save, open, delete, rename, move,
etc.

Tip
• You can also use the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1) to manage Geometry application files.

File Operations
u To save a file
(1) Tap [File] and then [Save].
• This displays the Files dialog box.

File name edit box

(2) Tap the name of the folder where you want to save the file so it is selected.
(3) In the file name edit box, input up to 8 bytes for the file name.
(4) Tap [Save].

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8-7-2
Managing Geometry Application Files

u To open an existing file
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Open the folder that contains the file you want to open.
(3) Tap the name of the file you want to open so it is selected, and then tap [Open].

u To search for a file
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Tap [Search].
• This displays the Search dialog box.

(3) Enter the file name you want to find and then tap [Search].
• File names that match the one you enter become highlighted on the display. Tapping
[Open] opens the highlighted file.
• To search for the next occurrence of the file name, tap [Search] again and then tap
[Next] on the Search dialog box.

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8-7-3
Managing Geometry Application Files

u To save a file under a different name
(1) Tap [File] and then [Save].
• This displays the Files dialog box.

(2) Tap the name of the folder where you want to save the file so it is selected.
(3) Input up to 8 bytes for the new name under which
you want to save the file.

(4) Tap [Save].

u To delete a file
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Select the check box next to the file you want to delete.
• You can select multiple files for deletion, if you want.
• Selecting a check box next to a folder name automatically checks the boxes for all
files inside that folder.
(3) Tap [File] and then [Delete].
(4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the file(s) or
[Cancel] to cancel.
(5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel].

Tip
• Selecting a folder in the above procedure deletes the folder and all of its contents. Note, however,
that the “main” folder cannot be deleted, even if you check it.

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8-7-4
Managing Geometry Application Files

u To rename a file
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Tap the name of the file you want to rename so it is selected.
(3) Tap [File] and then [Rename].
• This displays the Rename dialog box.
(4) Enter the new file name.
(5) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to rename the file or
[Cancel] to cancel.
(6) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel].

u To move a file to another folder
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Select the check box next to the file you want to move.
• To move multiple files, select all of their check boxes.
(3) Tap [File] and then [Move].
• This causes a dialog box for selecting the destination folder to appear.
(4) On the dialog box, tap the down arrow button and then select the destination folder
from the list that appears.
(5) Tap [OK].
(6) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel].

Folder Operations
u To create a new folder
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Tap [File] and then [Create Folder], or tap {.
• This displays the Create Folder dialog box.
(3) Enter up to 8 bytes for the folder name.
(4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to create the folder or
[Cancel] to cancel.
(5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel].

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8-7-5
Managing Geometry Application Files

u To delete a folder
Warning!
Deleting a folder also deletes all files inside of it. Please double-check to make sure you no
longer need the contents of a folder before deleting it.
(1) Tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) Select the check box next to the folder you want to delete.
• You can select multiple folders for deletion, if you want.
• Selecting a check box next to a folder name automatically selects the check boxes for
all of the files inside that folder.
(3) Tap [File] and then [Delete].
(4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the folder or
[Cancel] to cancel.
(5) To close the Files dialog box, tap [Cancel].

Tip
• You cannot delete the “main” folder.

u To rename a folder
Use the procedure under “To rename a file” on page 8-7-4 to rename a folder. Simply select
a folder instead of a file.

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Chapter

Using the Numeric
Solver Application
This chapter provides information about the functions of the
Numeric Solver application, referred to as NumSolve, and
explains how to perform Numeric Solver procedures. Numeric
Solver lets you obtain the value of any variable in an equation
without the need to transform or simplify the equation.
9-1
9-2

Numeric Solver Application Overview
Using Numeric Solver

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9

9-1-1
Numeric Solver Application Overview

9-1 Numeric Solver Application Overview
This section describes the configuration of the Numeric Solver application windows and
provides basic information about Numeric Solver menu and commands.

Starting Up the Numeric Solver Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Numeric Solver application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap N.

Numeric Solver Application Window
Starting up Numeric Solver application displays the window shown below.

Input equations here.

Variable list

Numeric Solver Menus and Buttons
This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the
Numeric Solver window.
• For information about Format related items on OMenu, see “Application Format Settings”
on page 1-9-4.

k O Menu
To do this:
Make the Num Solver window active
Make the Graph Editor window active
Make the 3D Graph Editor window active
Make the Main application active
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Select this O menu item:
NumSolve
Graph Editor
3D Graph Editor
Main

9-1-2
Numeric Solver Application Overview

k aMenu
To do this:
Clear all 1-character input variables (a through z)
Initialize the upper boundary and lower boundary
Change the convergence range

Select this a menu item:
Clear a–z
Initialize Bound
Convergence

Important!
• Performing “Clear a-z” operation clears all 1-character variables, regardless of variable data
type. Programs and functions with file names from “a” through “z” are also cleared.

k Toolbar
The toolbar provides you with easy access to the Main application, 3D Graph Editor, Graph
Editor, and, of course, Solve.

k Dragging an Expression from the Other Application to the Numeric Solver
Window
You can drag expression and equations from the Main application window or Graph Editor
window and drop them into the Numeric Solver window.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the Graph Editor window, input the equation x3 + 4·x2 + x – 2.
(2) Tap the equation to the right of “y1=”. Next, tap [Edit] and then [Select All].
(3) Drag the equation x3 + 4·x2 + x – 2 to the “Equation:” cursor position.

Numeric Solver window

Graph Editor window

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9-2-1
Using Numeric Solver

9-2 Using Numeric Solver
Numeric Solver lets you obtain the value of any variable in an equation, without the need to
transform or simplify the equation.
Example: t is the time it would take for an object thrown straight up with initial velocity v to
reach height h.
Use the formula below to calculate the initial velocity v for a height of h = 14
meters and a time of t = 2 seconds. Gravitational acceleration is g = 9.8 m/s2.
h = vt – 1/2 gt2

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap N.
• This starts up the Numeric Solver application.
(2) k 9 V
(3) Input the equation as it is written, and then tap w.
h=vt-(b/c)gt{cw
• If you do not input an equal sign (=), the ClassPad assumes that the entire expression
is on the left side of the equal sign and that the right side is zero. Inputting more than
one equal sign causes an error.
(4) On the list of expression variables that appears, enter values for the variables you
want.
bewawcwj.iw
You can also specify upper and lower limit values for the solution.
• An error occurs if there is no solution within the range of values you specify.
(5) Select the variable for which you want to solve (so the button next to the variable
becomes ).

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9-2-2
Using Numeric Solver

(6) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu.

• The [Left–Right] value shows the difference between the left side and right side
results.

Tip
• Numeric Solver solves functions by calculating approximations based on Newton’s method.
This means that solutions may include errors that are not actual solutions. The accuracy of
solutions can be determined by viewing the [Left–Right] value. The closer the [Left–Right]
value is to zero, the more accurate the results.
• If ClassPad judges that the displayed results are not converging sufficiently, it displays the
message “Did not converge. Do you wish to continue a calculation?” Tap [Yes] to continue, or
[No] to cancel the calculation.

Example: Solve the equation 86 = 56.01205897 log(61− x)
• In this example, the initial convergence value is 1E−13. This is the
default setting of the ClassPad unit.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap N.
(2) k 9
(3) Input the equation as written, then tap w.
86=56.0bc05897l6b-X)w
• The variable x is automatically selected because it is the only variable in the
equation.
(4) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu.
• This completes the procedure. If the software is unable to converge to a solution,
steps (5) through (8) apply.
(5) The error message appears.

Tap [OK].

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9-2-3
Using Numeric Solver

(6) Tap a then [Convergence].

(7) Enter 10 and then tap [OK].
(8) Tap 1, or tap [Solve] and then [Execute] on the Numeric Solver menu.

• The software is now able to converge to a solution.

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Chapter

Using the eActivity
Application
An eActivity is both a documentation tool, and a student
notebook. As a documentation tool, a teacher can create
electronic examples and practice problems with accompanying
text, mathematical expressions, 2D and 3D graphs, geometric
drawings, and tables. eActivities provide the student the means
to explore problems, document their learning and problem solving
by entering notes, and share their learning by saving their work
to a file.
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5

eActivity Application Overview
Creating an eActivity
Inserting Data into an eActivity
Working with eActivity Files
Transferring eActivity Files

eActivity Data Download Center
A variety of eActivity files are available for download at the CASIO Website.
Visit the URL below for more information.
http://edu.casio.com/products/classpad/
• After you download an eActivity file, you will need to transfer it from your
computer to your ClassPad. See the instructions provided at the CASIO
Website for more information.
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20110901

10

10-1-1
eActivity Application Overview

10-1 eActivity Application Overview
The eActivity application lets you input and edit text, mathematical expressions, and
ClassPad application data, and save your input in a file called an “eActivity”. The techniques
you will use are similar to those of a standard word processor, and they are easy to get used
to.

Starting Up the eActivity Application
Use the following procedure to start up the eActivity application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap A.
This starts the eActivity application and displays the eActivity window.

eActivity Application Window
The eActivity application can be used to create a file called an “eActivity”. A basic eActivity
can contain text along with application data, which is embedded as a row or a strip. A row
can be a “Text Row”, a “Calculation Row”, or a “Geometry Link”. A strip can be an “application
data strip” (Main, Geometry, Graph & Table, Conics, Sequence, and so on).
Creating an eActivity is as simple as typing in text and adding application data using the
toolbar.

eActivity
window

eActivity
window
Expanded
graph
window

Graph strip

Expand button

Example eActivity Windows

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10-1-2
eActivity Application Overview

eActivity Application Menus and Buttons
This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and toolbar buttons of
the eActivity application.
• For information about the O menu, see “Using the O Menu” on page 1-5-4.

k File Menu
To do this:

Select this File
menu item:

Start a new eActivity
Open an existing eActivity
Save the current eActivity to a file
Load the original file again

New
Open
Save
Reload

k Edit Menu
To do this:

Select this Edit
menu item:

Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was just undone
Cut the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard
Copy the currently selected string and place it onto the clipboard
Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen
Select all rows and strips on the display
Delete the contents of the line where the cursor is located
Clear variables that contain numbers, lists and matrices
Clear the eActivity window

Undo/Redo
Cut
Copy
Paste
Select All
Delete Line
Clear All Variables
Clear All

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10-1-3
eActivity Application Overview

k Insert Menu
Tap this
button

To do this:

—
—
—

Insert a calculation row
Insert a text row
Insert a Geometry-linked data row
Insert an application data strip

Add help text to the currently selected strip

Or select this
Insert menu item:
Calculation Row
Text Row
Geometry Link

$

Strip - Graph

!
%

Strip - Graph Editor

@
^

Strip - 3D Graph Editor

*

Strip - Conics Editor

3

Strip - Geometry

Q

Strip - Spreadsheet

y

Strip - Stat Graph

(

Strip - Stat Editor

O

Strip - DiffEqGraph

A

Strip - DiffEqGraph Editor

I

Strip - Financial

P

Strip - Probability

1

Strip - NumSolve

&

Strip - Sequence Editor

r

Strip - Picture

_

Strip - Notes

~

Strip - Main

W

Strip - Verify

—

Strip - 3D Graph

Strip - Conics Graph

Add Strip Help

k Action Menu
To do this:
Insert a command (page 2-8-1)

Do this:
Tap [Action].

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10-1-4
eActivity Application Overview

k Other Buttons
The operations described below are available from the toolbar only.
There are no corresponding menu commands for these buttons.

To do this:

Tap this button:

Open the Files dialog box (page 10-2-2)

{

Toggles a calculation result between standard (fractional result) and
decimal (approximate result)

u

Recalculate the equation just for the current line where the cursor is
currently located

D

Bold the text that is currently selected

B

Converts a text row to a calculation row

u

Converts a calculation row to a text row

<

eActivity Application Status Bar
The information that appears in the eActivity application status bar is same as the Main
application status bar information. See “Using Main Application Modes” on page 2-1-4.

eActivity Key Operations
In the eActivity application, the cursor key, K key, and E key operate differently than
they do in other modes.
Cursor Key
• The cursor key moves the cursor around the eActivity window.
• Though you can always move the cursor up and down, you may not always be able to
move it left and right. The left and right cursor key operations move the cursor left and right
in the current row, but for the most part they cannot be used to move the cursor between
rows of different types.
• Up and down cursor operations move the cursor between rows, regardless of type.
K Key
• Pressing the K key deletes the character to the left of the current cursor position.
E Key
• Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a text row inserts a carriage return and adds a
new line.
• Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a calculation row re-calculates the expression of
the current calculation row as well as all of the calculation rows below the current row.
• Pressing the E key while the cursor is in a Geometry Link row re-calculates the data in
the link and updates the corresponding graph in the Geometry window.

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10-1-5
eActivity Application Overview

Tip
When the shift operation is assigned to the ClassPad z key, you can select a range of characters
with the left and right cursor keys. Simply press the ClassPad z key and then press e or d.
Each press of the cursor key will select (highlight) the next character in the applicable direction.
Example: If the cursor is currently located between the “c” and “1” in “abc123”, press z and then
e e e will select 123.
For information about assigning key operations to the ClassPad’s hard keys, see page 16-11-1.

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10-2-1
Creating an eActivity

10-2 Creating an eActivity
This provides a general overview of eActivity operations, from starting up the eActivity
application to saving an eActivity file. It also presents precautions you need to keep in mind
when managing eActivity files.

Basic Steps for Creating an eActivity
The following are the basic steps you need to perform when creating an eActivity. Detailed
information about each step is provided in the other sections of this chapter.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then tap A to start the eActivity
application.
• This displays the eActivity window as it appeared the last time it was used.
• If you are already in the eActivity application and there is data on the display, tap [File]
and then [New]. Note that [New] clears data from the display without saving it.
(2) On the eActivity window, insert the text, expressions, application data, and other data
you want to include in the eActivity.
• There are four types of data you can insert into an eActivity: text rows, calculation
rows, Geometry Link rows, and application data strips. For details about inserting
each type of data, see “10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity”.

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Creating an eActivity

(3) After the eActivity is the way you want, tap [File] and then [Save].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
Tap here to create a
new folder.
This is a list of folders
and files. Select the
name of the folder
where you want to
save the eActivity file
by tapping it.

Enter up to 20 characters for
the eActivity file name.

(4) After selecting a folder and entering a file name, tap [Save] to save the eActivity.

Warning!
• If you do not save the eActivity you are creating before tapping m on the icon panel to
display the application menu or before tapping M to display the Main application, the
unsaved eActivity data may be deleted.

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Creating an eActivity

Managing eActivity Files
This section covers file management operations like save, open, delete, rename, move, etc.
Performing one of these operations displays a Files dialog box like the ones shown below.
The buttons that appear in the dialog box depend on the operation you performed to display
the Files dialog box.
Tap [File] and then [Save].

(Includes [Save] button.)

Tap [File] and then [Open].

(Includes [Open] button.)

Tap {.

(Includes [Save] and [Open]
buttons.)

The operations you can perform on the Files dialog box are identical to those of the
Geometry application Files dialog box, except that eActivity file names can contain up to 20
characters (bytes). For details, see “8-7 Managing Geometry Application Files”.

Important!
• eActivity files are stored in a memory area that is separate from that used for storing other
types of data (variable data, Geometry data, Presentation data, etc.) Because of this,
you cannot access eActivity files data using the Variable Manager. You have to use the
eActivity application to perform eActivity file management operations.
• ClassPad Manager has a function for locking and unlocking eActivity files. If you transfer
a locked file from ClassPad Manager to your ClassPad, you will be able to open the file on
your ClassPad but you will not be able to overwrite it with an edited version. To save edits
to a locked file, save the file under a different name.

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10-3-1
Inserting Data into an eActivity

10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity
The following describes the four types of data you can insert into an eActivity.
Text Row
A text row can be
used to insert text data
and mathematical
expression text in
natural format. You
can also bold the text
in a text row.

Application data strip
The application data strip lets
you display a window from a
ClassPad application (Main,
Graph & Table, Geometry, etc.)
and use the window to create
data, which is inserted into the
eActivity.

Calculation Row
Use the calculation row to
insert any of the calculation
operations that are available
in the Main application.

Geometry Link Row
Use this row to insert data
that is linked with a Geometry
window figure.

Inserting a Text Row
Text rows make it possible to display and edit text directly in the eActivity window. Text rows
can contain multiple lines, as well as mathematical expressions. A mathematical expression
contained in a text row is not evaluated. Pressing E, while in the Text Input mode, will
advance you to the next line without displaying results.

Tip
• You can also use the ) soft keyboard to input mathematical expressions into a text row.

u To select the input mode
(1) On the eActivity window toolbar, tap the fifth button from the left (u / <) to toggle the
input mode between Text Input and Calculation Input.

u button indicates the Text Input
mode is selected.

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10-3-2
Inserting Data into an eActivity

Tip
• The toolbar button for switching between input modes appears as u while the cursor is located
while the cursor is located in a calculation row.
in a text row, and

u To insert a Text Row
(1) Tap

to change a row to the Text Input mode.

• If the cursor is located in a line that already contains input data, place the cursor at
the end of the line, tap [Insert] and then [Text Row]. This inserts a text row on the next
line.
(2) Use the soft keyboard or keypad keys to input the text you want.
• You can use the alphabet (abc) keyboard to input alphabetic characters.
• Use the other keyboards to input mathematical expressions, commands, etc. Note
that any mathematical expressions or commands you input into a text row are treated
as text. They are not executed.
• When the text that is input into a text row is too long to fit within the width of the
screen, it will wrap automatically to the next line. However, if you are using the 2D
soft keyboard to input an expression into a text row using natural display, your input
will not wrap to the next line if it does not fit. Instead, the expression will run off the
side of the display. Arrows (] ') will appear on the display to indicate when there is
something running off the left or right side of the display.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

u To bold text
(1) Drag the stylus across the range of text you want to bold so it is selected (highlighted).
(2) Tap B.
again.

(3) To unbold text, select it and then tap

←

→

Important!
• You cannot bold numeric expressions of a natural display expression that you input with the
2D soft keyboard.

Inserting a Calculation Row
Calculation rows let you perform calculations in an eActivity. When you input a mathematical
expression, the output expression (result) appears, right justified, in the next line. An eActivity
that contains only calculation rows looks very much like the Main application window. Note
that you can edit the input expression, but not the output expression (result). You can also
copy, paste, drag and drop input and output expressions. Both the input and output rows
scroll independently in a horizontal direction.

Tip
• If the input expression of a calculation row is not a valid expression, the row will contain only the
input expression, without an output expression.

u To select the input mode
(1) On the eActivity window toolbar, tap the fifth button from the left (u / <) to toggle the
input mode between Text Input and Calculation Input.

button indicates the Calculation
Input mode is selected.
This mark is displayed at the head of the line
while the Calculation Input mode is selected.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

Tip
• The toolbar button for switching between input modes appears as u while the cursor is located
while the cursor is located in a calculation row.
in a text row, and

u To insert a Calculation Row
(1) Tap u to change a row from the Text Input mode to the Calculation Input mode.
• If the cursor is located in a line that already contains input data, place the cursor at
the end of the line, tap [Insert] and then [Calculation Row]. This inserts a calculation
row on the next line.
(2) Use the soft keyboard or keypad keys to input the mathematical expression you want.
• Mathematical expression input techniques are identical to those in the Main
application. See Chapter 2 for more information.
(3) Press E after inputting an expression to display its result.
Line 1: Expression you input
Line 2: Result

• If you want to input an expression without displaying its result, do not press E.
Instead, tap [Insert] and then [Text Row] to input a text row. Or you could change the
while the cursor is in
current row from a calculation row to a text row by tapping
the row.

Important!
• If you edit the expression in an existing calculation row and then press E, all of the
expressions following the line you edited are re-calculated and their results are refreshed.
Even mathematical expressions you originally input into the eActivity without calculating
their results are calculated, and their results appear.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

Changing “10 S b” to “20 S b” in the example below and pressing E causes all of the
expressions under “20 S b” to be re-calculated.

• Press E.

• Tap to the right of “10”.
• Press K twice, and then
input “20”.

u To run a program in the eActivity application
You can use an eActivity application calculation row to specify a program name, and execute
the program. For more information, see “2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application.”

Inserting an Application Data Strip
An application data strip can be used to embed data from other ClassPad applications into
an eActivity. An application data strip contains the elements shown below.

Title
You can enter a title,
if you want.

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Expand button
Tap here to display the application
data in the lower window.

10-3-6
Inserting Data into an eActivity

k Inserting an Application Data Strip into an eActivity
Tap the [Insert] menu or the right most toolbar down arrow button, and then select the
command or button that corresponds to the type of application data you want to insert.

To insert this type of application data:

Select this
[Insert] menu
item:

Graph & Table application Graph window data

Strip - Graph

Or tap
this
button:

$

Graph & Table application Graph Editor window data Strip - Graph Editor

!

3D Graph application 3D Graph window data

Strip - 3D Graph

%

3D Graph application 3D Graph Editor window data

Strip - 3D Graph Editor

@

Conics application Conics Graph window data

Strip - Conics Graph

^

Conics application Conics Editor window data

Strip - Conics Editor

*

Geometry application Geometry window data

Strip - Geometry

3

Spreadsheet window data

Strip - Spreadsheet

Q

Statistics application Statistical Graph window data

Strip - Stat Graph

y

Statistics application Stat Editor window data

Strip - Stat Editor

(

Differential Equation application Differential Equation
Strip - DiffEqGraph
Graph window data

O

Differential Equation application Differential Equation
Strip - DiffEqGraph Editor
Graph Editor window data

A

Financial application window data

Strip - Financial

I

Probability window*1 data

Strip - Probability

P

NumSolve application Numeric Solver window data

Strip - NumSolve

Sequence application Sequence Editor window data Strip - Sequence Editor

1
&

Picture Viewer window*2

Strip - Picture

r

Notes window*2

Strip - Notes

_

Main application work area window data

Strip - Main

~

Strip - Verify

W

1

Verify window* data

*1 The Probability window and Verify window can be used with the eActivity application
and Main application. For more information see “2-11 Using Verify” and “2-12 Using
Probability”.
*2 The Picture Viewer window and Notes window can be used with the eActivity application
only.

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10-3-7
Inserting Data into an eActivity

Example 1: To insert a Geometry data strip

u ClassPad Operation
(1) From the eActivity menu, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Geometry].
• This inserts a Geometry data strip, and displays the Geometry window in the lower
half of the screen.

Geometry data strip

Geometry window

(2) On the Geometry window, draw the figure you want.
• For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8.

(3) After you finish performing the operation you want on the Geometry window, tap S,
or tap O and then [Close] to close the Geometry window and return to the eActivity
window.

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10-3-8
Inserting Data into an eActivity

(4) Tap the title box of the Geometry data strip and enter the title you want.

• If you want to input more data into the eActivity, tap the next line or use the [Insert]
menu to select the type of strip you want to insert next.
Example 2: To insert a Graph data strip

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Graph].
• This inserts a Graph data strip, and displays the Graph window in the lower half of the
screen.

Graph data strip

Graph window

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10-3-9
Inserting Data into an eActivity

(2) On the Graph window, draw the graph you want.
• Tap the ! button to display the Graph & Table application’s Graph Editor window,
enter a function to graph, and then graph the function. For details about inputting
functions on the Graph Editor window and graphing functions, see Chapter 3.

Tap $.

Display the Graph Editor window
and input the function.

Graph the function.

(3) After you finish performing the operation you want on the Graph window, tap S, or tap
O and then [Close] to close the Graph window. You will also need to tap the Graph
Editor window, and then select O then [Close] to return to the eActivity window.
(4) Tap the title box of the Graph data strip and enter the title you want.

• If you want to input more data into the eActivity, tap the next line or use the [Insert]
menu to select the type of row or strip you want to insert next.

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10-3-10
Inserting Data into an eActivity

Example 3: To use Notes in an eActivity
Notes is a simple text editing tool for taking notes or including in-depth explanations within
an eActivity. You can use Notes to store information for later use, or as a place to jot down
ideas.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Notes].
• This inserts a Notes strip and displays the Notes window in the lower half of the
screen.

(2) Enter text you want in the Notes window.
• You can use the Edit menu and toolbar to perform following operations while the
Notes window is on the display.

To do this:

Select this Edit
menu item:

Undo the last operation or redo an operation that was
just undone

Undo/Redo

Or tap
this
button:
—

Bold a range of selected text

—

B

Unbold a range of selected text

—

M

Cut the currently selected string and place it onto the
clipboard

Cut

r

Copy the currently selected string and place it onto
the clipboard

Copy

t

Paste the current clipboard contents onto the screen

Paste

y

Select all text on the Notes window

Select All

—

Clear all text from the Notes window

Clear All

—

Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)
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—

5

10-3-11
Inserting Data into an eActivity

(3) After you finish entering text, you can close the Notes window by tapping S, or tapping
O and then [Close].

Tip
• You can use the Notes window to enter notes, homework assignments, in-depth details, etc.
• All information you enter is treated as text.
• When inputting text into a Notes window, the cursor will jump down to the beginning of the next
line when the right edge of the current line is reached.
• The Notes application is available only in eActivity.

Example 4: To use the Picture Viewer with eActivity
You can use Picture to display a bitmap image (PICT data type) in an eActivity. You can also
save displayed images with a different name.

Tip
• For details about data whose data type is PICT, see “Variable Data Types” on page 1-7-3.

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10-3-12
Inserting Data into an eActivity

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the eActivity window, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Picture].
• This will insert a Picture strip and display the Picture
window in the lower half of the display.

(2) Tap [File] - [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box. The Files dialog
box displays only data whose data type is PICT.

(3) On the Picture window, tap the name of the PICT data you want to view.

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10-3-13
Inserting Data into an eActivity

(4) Tap [Open].
• This will display the PICT data you selected in the Picture window.

A scroll bar will appear along the bottom of the
window if the PICT data does not fit.

• You can use the File menu and toolbar to perform following operations while the
Picture window is on the display.
To do this:

Select this File Or tap this
menu item:
button:

Open a bitmap (PICT data type) image

Open

–

Save an open bitmap image

Save

R

(5) After performing all the operations you want, tap the S button in upper right corner to
close the Picture window.
(6) Tap the title box of the Picture strip and enter the title
you want.

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10-3-14
Inserting Data into an eActivity

Strip Help Text
You can add help text to any strip. A strip that has help text is indicated by a button.
Tapping a button will display the help window along with the application window.

Help window

Applicaiton window

u To add help text to a strip
(1) Tap the title box of the strip to which you want to add help text.
(2) Tap [Insert] - [Add Strip Help].
• A help window appears in the upper half of the
display, while the application that was called from the
strip appears in the lower half of the display.

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10-3-15
Inserting Data into an eActivity

(3) Input the help text into the help window.

• The operations you can perform while inputting help text are the same as those you
use for eActivity notes. For more information, see “Example 3: To use Notes in an
eActivity” on page 10-3-10.
(4) After inputting all the text you want, tap the S button in upper right corner to close the
help window.
• The strip will now have a

button.

u To delete help text from a strip
(1) Tap the title box of the strip whose help text you want to delete.
(2) Tap [Insert] - [Remove Strip Help].
• This will delete the help text and cause the

button to disappear.

Moving Information Between eActivity and Applications
An eActivity is like an interactive notebook or textbook that allows you to explore the world of
mathematics right on the page. You can take almost any expression from an eActivity page
and send it to another application. You can also take information from an application and
insert it into an eActivity page.

k Cut, Copy, and Paste
You can cut, copy, or paste text or mathematical expressions between the eActivity and
any other application. You can also cut, copy, and paste text and mathematical expressions
inside an eActivity.
Depending on the application, you can cut or copy, and paste text and mathematical
expression data into an eActivity. For example, you can copy a line in the Geometry
measurement box and paste it into an eActivity as an expression.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

k Drag and Drop
You can drag and drop text or mathematical expressions between eActivity and other
applications. You can also drag and drop within an eActivity. Depending on the application,
you can drag text and mathematical expressions from an eActivity to another application
window. For example, you can drag an equation from the eActivity directly onto a graph
window.

(1) Graph strip is
expanded in the lower
window.

(2) Expression is
selected in the
eActivity.

(3) Expression has
been dragged into
the graph window.

Tip
• For details about what you can drag and drop between the eActivity window and Geometry
window, see “8-6 Using the Geometry Application with Other Applications”.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

Inserting a Geometry Link Row
A Geometry Link row dynamically links data in the Geometry window with the corresponding
data in an eActivity. You can display lines and figures drawn in Geometry as values and
mathematical expressions in a Geometry Link row.
Dragging a line or figure from the Geometry window to a Geometry Link row in an eActivity
converts the line or figure to its mathematical expression. This expression is interlinked with
its Geometry window figure, so modifying one causes a corresponding change in the other.

Example of inserting a Geometry Link row
Modifying the equation in a Geometry Link updates the figure in the Geometry window.
Conversely, changing the shape, position, or some other parameter of the figure on the
Geometry window updates the equation in the Geometry Link.

u To input a Geometry Link row
Example: To drag one side of a triangle drawn on the Geometry window and link it to an
eActivity
(1) Open the eActivity application. Next, tap [Insert], [Strip], and then [Geometry] to insert a
Geometry strip.
(2) On the Geometry window that appears in the lower half of the screen, draw a triangle.
• For details about Geometry window operations, see Chapter 8.
(3) Tap the eActivity window just below the Geometry strip.
• This makes eActivity the active window.

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Inserting Data into an eActivity

(4) Tap [Insert] and then [Geometry Link].
• This inserts a Geometry Link row in the next line.

Geometry Link row
Symbol

(5) Tap the Geometry window to make it active.
(6) Tap one side of the triangle to select it, and then drag it to the link symbol in the
eActivity window.
• This inputs the equation of the line that represents the side of the triangle into the link.
• Modifying the equation in the Geometry Link row and pressing E causes a
corresponding change in the Geometry window (lower right screenshot).
• The example below shows how the isosceles triangle ABC (CA = BC) changes when
the equation in the Geometry Link row is changed from y = 1.91x + 0.983 to y = x + 2.

• Drag the stylus across
1.91x + 0.983.

• Input x + 2.
• Press E.

Tip
• Dragging a line or figure from the Geometry window to a text row or calculation row in an eActivity
also converts the figure to its value or equation. In this case, however, data in the text row or
calculation row is not interlinked with the Geometry window figure.
• Pressing E after changing data in a Geometry Link updates the corresponding figure in the
Geometry window.
• Changing the figure in the Geometry window will cause the linked data in an eActivity to update
accordingly.

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10-4-1
Working with eActivity Files

10-4 Working with eActivity Files
You can perform basic file operations on eActivity files. You can open previously saved files,
edit an existing file, and save a file under a new name.

Opening an Existing eActivity
Perform the following steps to open an existing eActivity file.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the eActivity window, tap [File] and then [Open].
• This displays the Files dialog box.

(2) Select the name of the eActivity file you want to open by tapping it.
(3) Tap [Open].
• This opens the eActivity you selected in step (2).

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10-4-2
Working with eActivity Files

Browsing the Contents of an eActivity
• When you first open an eActivity, its data appears on
the window starting from line 1. Use the scroll bar to
scroll the window contents if necessary.
• To view the contents of an application data strip in the
eActivity, tap the expand button (which is the icon in
the data strip). For more information, see “Expanding
an Application Data Strip” below.

Expand button

Editing the Contents of an eActivity
To edit an eActivity, you can use the same procedures that you used when you created it.
For more information, see “10-3 Inserting Data into an eActivity”.

Expanding an Application Data Strip
Tapping the expand button of an application data strip expands the application data in the
lower window. The expand button of a data strip is highlighted to indicate that it is expanded
in the lower window.

Indicates Example 1 is expanded.
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Indicates Example 2 is expanded.

10-4-3
Working with eActivity Files

Modifying the Data in an Application Data Strip
Modifying application data on an application window in the lower eActivity window causes
the eActivity data to be modified as well. If you change the equation in the eActivity Graph
window, for example, the new graph will become the data of the eActivity.
This means that when you save and then reopen an eActivity file, tapping the application
data strip’s expand button again will cause the new graph to be displayed.

Saving an Edited eActivity
As with any other file, there are two ways to save an edited eActivity: resaving the original
eActivity with the newly edited eActivity, or saving the edited data under a different file name
as a new eActivity, without changing the originally opened eActivity.

u To replace the original eActivity file with the newly edited version
(1) On the eActivity window, tap [File] and then [Save].
• This displays the Files dialog box.

Current eActivity file name

(2) Tap [Save] without changing the displayed file name.
• This causes the original eActivity file to be replaced by the newly edited version.

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10-4-4
Working with eActivity Files

u To save an edited eActivity under a different name
(1) On the eActivity window, tap {, or tap [File] and then [Save].
• This displays the Files dialog box.
(2) If you want, tap the name of the folder where you want the new eActivity file to be
saved.
(3) Tap the file name input box, and input the new file name you want to use.
(4) When everything is the way you want, tap [Save].
• This saves the eActivity as a new file under the file name you specified.

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10-5-1
Transferring eActivity Files

10-5 Transferring eActivity Files
Note the following precautions when using the ClassPad’s data communication function to
transfer eActivity files with another ClassPad unit or a computer.

Transferring eActivity Files between Two ClassPad Units
k Transferring eActivity Files to Another ClassPad Unit
To transfer an eActivity file to another ClassPad unit, the receiving unit must support all of
the following types of application data strips.*
Application Data Strips
Graph, Graph Editor, 3D Graph, 3D Graph Editor, Conics Graph, Conics Editor, Geometry,
Spreadsheet, Stat Graph, Stat Editor, DiffEqGraph, DiffEqGraph Editor, Financial,
Probability, NumSolve, Sequence Editor, Picture Viewer, Notes, Main, Verify
*For details about application data strips, see “Inserting an Applicaiton Data Strip” on page
10-3-5.

Important!
• If you transfer an eActivity file to a ClassPad unit that does not support all of the application
data strips listed above, the receiving ClassPad unit will not be able to open the file.
• Do not transfer eActivity files to a ClassPad unit that does not support all of the application
data strips listed above.
• The functions of this ClassPad unit are different from the functions of a ClassPad unit
that does not support all of the application data strips listed above. Because of this their
eActivity files are incompatible with each other. Do not transfer eActivity files between two
ClassPad units that are equipped with different application data strips.

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10-5-2
Transferring eActivity Files

k Transferring eActivity Files from Another ClassPad Unit
To transfer an eActivity file from another ClassPad unit, your ClassPad unit must support all
of the application data strips that are supported by the sending unit.

Important!
• If you transfer an eActivity file from a ClassPad unit that supports application data strips
that are not supported by this ClassPad unit, your will not be able to open the file.
• Do not transfer eActivity files from another ClassPad unit if your ClassPad unit does not
support all of the application data strips of the sending unit.
• The functions of this ClassPad unit are different from the functions of a ClassPad unit that
supports application data strips not supported by this unit. Because of this their eActivity
files are incompatible with each other. Do not transfer eActivity files between two ClassPad
units that are equipped with different application data strips.

Transferring eActivity Files between a ClassPad Unit and a Computer
You can transfer eActivity files between ClassPad and a computer. For details, see
“Transferring Data between ClassPad and a Computer” (page 2-5-1) in the separate
Hardware User’s Guide.

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Chapter

Using the Presentation
Application
The Presentation application lets you capture screenshots of
other application windows. Screenshots can be used in the
classroom or for other presentations simply by connecting the
ClassPad to a CASIO Projector.
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-7

Presentation Application Overview
Building a Presentation
Managing Presentation Files
Playing a Presentation
Editing Presentation Pages
Configuring Presentation Preferences
Presentation File Transfer

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11

11-1-1
Presentation Application Overview

11-1 Presentation Application Overview
The Presentation application lets you capture screenshots produced by the ClassPad, and
arrange them into a “presentation” that you can play back. With this application you can build
and play a presentation, and edit the contents of a presentation. A presentation, for example,
can show how to obtain intermediate and final results of calculation operations.
Specifically, the Presentation application can be used as follows.
• A teacher can use Presentation to create materials that explain mathematical concepts,
and distribute them to students.
• A student can use Presentation as a tool to present reports, assignments, and projects.
• Students and teachers can use Presentation to store ClassPad screenshots for later
reference.

...

Sample Presentation

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11-1-2
Presentation Application Overview

Starting Up the Presentation Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Presentation application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap P.

Presentation Application Window
Tapping P on the application menu starts the Presentation application and displays its
initial screen.
File name

Disable button

Number of
pages

File list

File number

Soft
keyboard

Initial Screen

• Selecting [Disabled] will cause the [Screen Copy To] setting on the Presentation and
Communication dialog boxes to change automatically to [Outer Device]. For more
information, see “11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”.
• Files are numbered P1 through P20. These numbers are fixed and cannot be changed.
When creating a new presentation file, you can input the file name you want.
• The soft keyboard is automatically displayed when you open the Presentation application.

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Presentation Application Overview

Presentation Application Menus and Buttons
This section explains the operations you can perform using the menus and buttons of the
Presentation application’s initial screen.

k Initial Screen Menu Commands and Buttons
Tap this
button:

To do this:

Or select this
menu item:

Delete the presentation file whose option button is currently
selected (page 11-3-1)

–

Edit - Delete

Delete all presentation files (page 11-3-1)

–

Edit - Delete All

Enter the Editing mode and display the editing tool palette
(page 11-5-1)

0

Tools

Start auto play (page 11-4-1)

6

Play - AutoPlay

Start manual play (page 11-4-2)

7

Play - ManualPlay

Insert a white screen at the end of the selected presentation
file (page 11-2-3)

–

a - White Screen

Append PICT data to the end of the selected presentation
file (page 11-2-3)

–

a - Add

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Presentation Application Overview

Screen Capture Precautions
Note the following precautions when capturing screens for a presentation.
• The operation that is performed when you tap h depends on the current [Screen Copy
To] setting as described below.
When the [Screen Copy To] setting is this:

Tapping h does this:

Outer Device

Sends the screenshot to an external device.

P1 - P20

Adds the screenshot to the presentation file.

To change the [Screen Copy To] setting, tap O, and then [Presentation] or
[Communication]. For more information, see “Presentation Dialog Box” on page 1-9-14.
• Tapping h will capture either the full screen or half the screen, depending on how you
have Presentation preferences configured. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring
Presentation Preferences”.
• Screen capture is disabled when any of the following conditions exists.
• While a calculation, graph draw, or similar operation is in progress
• While a data communication operation is in progress
• While the stylus (or your finger or other object) is in contact with the screen
• In addition to the conditions detailed above, screen capture may be disabled by other
operations that have a higher priority than screen capture.
• The status bar is not included in screen captures when [Screen Copy To] setting is
“P1” - “P20”.

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11-2-1
Building a Presentation

11-2 Building a Presentation
Presentations are created by capturing screenshots that are produced by the applications
of the ClassPad. Before actually beginning to capture the screenshots, it is important to
carefully think about and plan the type of information you want to include in your presentation
so that your screenshots display the information that you want.
This is not to say, however, that you must create a perfect presentation the first time around.
You can always change the sequence of pages or edit a pages at any time.

u To create a new presentation
(1) On the application menu, tap P to start the Presentation application.
(2) On the file list, tap the line (P1 through P20) where you want to store the new
presentation file.
• This causes a cursor to appear on the line you tap.

(3) Enter up to eight bytes for the presentation file name, and then tap w.
• Check to make sure that the file name you just input is selected (button is on).

(4) Tap m to display the application menu, and then start the application whose screens
you want to capture.
(5) Perform the required operations in the application to display the screen you want to
capture.

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11-2-2
Building a Presentation

(6) With the screen you want to capture on the display, tap h.
• The currently displayed screen is captured as soon as you tap h. Its image is added
to the pages of the presentation file you selected in step (3).
• If the capture is successful, “

” appears in the status bar for about one second.

(7) Repeat steps (5) and (6) to capture other screens as required.
• Note that you can change to other applications as required.
(8) After capturing all of the images you want, tap m to display the application menu, and
then tap P to return to the Presentation application.

This value shows how many pages
(images) you have captured and added
to the presentation.

• Even after you return to the Presentation application, you can restart screen capture
to add more pages. To do so, simply return to step (4) of this procedure.
(9) To check the current contents of the presentation, tap 6.
• This starts auto play, which scrolls through the pages of the new presentation
automatically. For more information, see “Using Auto Play” on page 11-4-1.

Adding a Blank Page to a Presentation
Perform the procedure on page 11-2-3 when you want to add a blank page to the end of a
presentation. After adding a blank page, you can put text on it or move it to another location
inside the presentation.
You can use blank pages to indicate the end of a presentation, to separate a presentation
into sections, or to insert commentary text.

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11-2-3
Building a Presentation

u To insert a blank page into a presentation
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation
file into which you want to insert the blank page, so it is selected.

This file is selected
Button

(2) Tap a and then [White Screen].
• This inserts a blank page as the final page of the presentation file you selected in step
(1), and increases the number of pages for the presentation by one.

Tip
• For information about inserting text and moving the blank page, see “11-5 Editing Presentation
Pages”.

u To append PICT data to the end of a presentation
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation
file where you want to append the PICT data so it is selected.
(2) Tap a and then [Add].
• This displays the Select Data dialog box.

(3) On the Select Data dialog box, select the folder where the PICT data you want to insert
is stored, and specify the name of the date.
(4) Tap [OK].
• This closes the Select Data dialog box and appends the PICT data to the end of the
presentation.

Tip
• If the size of the PICT data is different from the ClassPad display size, the upper left corner of the
PICT data is aligned with the upper left corner of the ClassPad display, and any data that does
not fit is cut off.

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11-3-1
Managing Presentation Files

11-3 Managing Presentation Files
After you create a presentation file, you can rename it or delete it.

u To rename a presentation file
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the name of the file you want to
rename so it is selected.
(2) Press e.
• This causes a cursor to appear to the right of the last character of the file name.
(3) Change the file name.
• A file name can be up to eight bytes long.
(4) After the file name is the way you want, tap w.

u To delete a single presentation file
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the name of the file
you want to delete so it is selected.
(2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
(3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK].
• This deletes the file you selected in step (1).

u To delete all presentation files
(1) Display the Presentation application initial screen.
(2) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete All].
(3) In response to the confirmation message that appears, tap [OK].
• This deletes all of the presentation files.
• A presentation file is actually a user folder, so presentation files appear as folders on the
Variable Manager folder list.

Variable Manager Folder List

Presentation File List

For details about using the Variable Manager, see “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.

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11-3-2
Managing Presentation Files

Important!
• PICT format image data files (PICT data type variables) captured with the h icon are
stored in folder that is created when you create a Presentation file.
• The “Presystm” folder (whose contents you can view with the Variable Manager) contains
files for managing presentations. Normally, you should never edit or delete the “Presystm”
folder or any of its contents. If these files are damaged or deleted, they will be restored
when you run the presentation.

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11-4-1
Playing a Presentation

11-4 Playing a Presentation
This section explains the various methods you can use to play a presentation.

Using Auto Play
With auto play, the pages of the presentation are scrolled automatically at a fixed interval.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen,
tap the button next to the presentation
file you want to play, so it is selected.

Button

This file is selected

(2) Tap 6, or tap [Play] and then [AutoPlay].
• This starts auto play, which displays the
pages of the presentation in sequence.

Current page number Total number of pages

(3) When playback reaches the final page it stops, and then the Presentation application
initial screen appears.
• To stop an auto play operation part way through, tap
the c key.

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on the icon panel or press

11-4-2
Playing a Presentation

Tip
• You can configure Presentation preferences to specify the page change speed and to turn
page number display in the status bar on or off. For more information, see “11-6 Configuring
Presentation Preferences”.
• You can also configure auto play so it repeats when the final page of a presentation is reached.
For more information, see “Using Repeat Play” on page 11-4-3.

Using Manual Play
With manual play, you control when page change operations are performed during
presentation play. Manual play lets you scroll forward or back through presentation pages,
and you can display a pointer on a page.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation
file you want to play, so it is selected.
(2) Tap 7, or tap [Play] and then [ManualPlay].
• This starts manual play, which displays the first page of the presentation.

Page scroll buttons

(3) You can perform the following operations while a manual play operation is in progress.
When you want to do this:

Do this:

Advance to the next page

Tap the
page scroll button or press the c
cursor key

Return to the previous page

Tap the
page scroll button or press the f
cursor key

Display a round pointer

Hold or drag the stylus on the screen

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11-4-3
Playing a Presentation

(4) Tapping
while the final page of the presentation is displayed causes the message
“End of Files” to appear in the status bar.
while the message “End of Files” is in the status bar exits the manual
• Tapping
play operation and displays the Presentation initial screen. Tapping
while “End of
Files” is in the status bar returns you to the final page of the presentation and
continues the manual play operation.

Tip
• You can turn display of the page number in the status bar on and off. For more information, see
“11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences”.

Using Repeat Play
Repeat play causes auto play to restarts the presentation from the beginning each time the
final page of a presentation is reached.
Use the Presentation dialog box (page 11-6-1) to turn repeat play on or off.
The initial default setting is repeat play off.
The following describes how repeat play works for auto play.

k Repeat Auto Play
• When the final page of the presentation is reached, the presentation is restarted from the
first page.
• The presentation continues playing until you tap
on the icon panel or press the c
key to stop it.

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11-5-1
Editing Presentation Pages

11-5 Editing Presentation Pages
This section explains how to use the Editing mode of the Presentation application to modify
the pages of an existing presentation.

About the Editing Tool Palette
An editing tool palette appears on the display whenever you enter the Editing mode. The
following describes how to use the editing tool palette.
Tap this tool
button:

To do this:
Move the currently displayed page one page back

8

Move the currently displayed page one page forward

9

Delete the currently displayed page

e

Copy the currently displayed page

t

Paste a copied page into the location before the currently displayed page

y

Delete the lower half of the screen

-

Insert text into a page

u

Draw a straight line on a page

i

Draw an arrow on a page

o

Use the eraser

}

Save a page after editing it

{

Exit the Editing mode and return to the Presentation application initial screen

=

Entering the Editing Mode
Perform the following steps to enter the Editing mode when you want to edit the pages of an
existing presentation.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the Presentation application initial screen, tap the button next to the presentation
file you want to edit, so it is selected.
(2) Tap 0, or tap [Tools].
• This enters the Editing mode and displays the editing tool palette and page scroll
buttons. Page 1 of the presentation file you selected in step (1) appears first.

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11-5-2
Editing Presentation Pages

Editing tool palette

Page scroll buttons

(3) Use the editing tool palette buttons to edit the pages.
• For details about editing operations, see “Editing Operations” on page 11-5-3.
• You can drag the editing tool palette and page scroll buttons to any location on the display.
Simply use the stylus to drag the handle of the palette or buttons.
Handle

u To exit the Editing mode
On the editing tool palette, tap =, or tap
on the icon panel, or press c to exit
the Editing mode and return to the Presentation application initial screen.

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11-5-3
Editing Presentation Pages

Editing Operations
This section provides details about the page editing operations you can perform with the
Presentation application’s editing tool palette.

u To move a page
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to move.
(3) Tap 8 to move the currently displayed page back one page, or tap 9 to move it
forward one page.
• The illustrations below show the effect of tapping 8 or 9 while page C of a fivepage presentation file is selected.

A

B

C

D

E

A

B

8

A

C

B

A

B

D

E

C

E

E

C

9

D

E

A

B

8

C

C

D
9

D

E

A

B

D

u To delete a page
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to delete.
(3) Tap e.
(4) In response to the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the page or
[Cancel] to cancel.
• This deletes the currently displayed page and then displays the following page.
Deleting the final page of a presentation displays the page preceding the deleted
page.

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11-5-4
Editing Presentation Pages

u To copy and paste a page
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page you want to copy, and then tap t.
• This copies the currently displayed page to the clipboard.
(3) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page that you want to follow the copied page.
• The illustrations below show the effect of copying page E of a five-page presentation
file and pasting it between pages B and C.

A
A

B
B

C
E

D
C

E
D

E

(4) Tap y.
• This pastes the page at the location in front of the currently displayed page.

u To insert text into a page
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page into which you want to insert text, and
then tap u.
• This displays a text input dialog box along with a soft keyboard.
(3) Enter the text and then tap [OK].
• In this example we input the text “full-screen”.
(4) Place the stylus on the screen and hold it there.
• This causes the text you input in step (3) to appear at the location where you are
pointing with the stylus.
(5) Drag the text to the location you want, and then lift the stylus from the screen.

Inserted text

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11-5-5
Editing Presentation Pages

(6) To save the result of the text insert operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the
confirmation dialog box that appears.

u To clear the bottom half of the screen
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page whose bottom half you want to clear.
(3) Tap -.
• This clears the bottom half of the displayed page.

(4) To save the result of the operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the confirmation dialog
box that appears.

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11-5-6
Editing Presentation Pages

u To draw a straight line or an arrow on a page
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll buttons to display the page on which you want to draw a straight
line or arrow.
(3) Tap i if you want to draw a line or o if you want to draw an arrow.
(4) Tap the point where you want one end of the line segment or arrow to be, and then tap
the point where you want the other end to be.
• A line segment or arrow appears between the points you tapped.
• If you are drawing an arrow, the arrow head appears on the end you specify last.

Example of an arrow

(5) To save the result of the draw operation, tap { and then tap [OK] on the confirmation
dialog box that appears.

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11-5-7
Editing Presentation Pages

Using the Eraser
The eraser allows you to erase parts of an image, text, arrows, or lines you have added to a
page.

u To erase part of a page with the eraser
(1) Enter the Editing mode of the Presentation application (page 11-5-1).
(2) Use the page scroll arrows to display the page that contains the figures you want to
erase.
(3) Tap }.

Important!
• Whenever the } tool button is selected, dragging the stylus across the screen erases
a 3 × 3-pixel area (centered on the stylus).
(4) Drag the eraser across the screen to erase the figures you want.

(5) To save the result of the erase operation, tap {, and then tap [OK] on the
confirmation dialog box that appears.

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11-6-1
Configuring Presentation Preferences

11-6 Configuring Presentation Preferences
You can use the procedure below to configure various Presentation application preferences.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap O, and then [Presentation].
• This displays the Presentation dialog box.

(2) Use the Presentation dialog box to configure the preferences you want.
To do this:

Do this:

Send hard copy data generated by tapping Select [Outer Device].*
h to an external device
Save hard copy data internally as
Presentation data

Select “P1:**” through
“P20:**” for [Screen Copy To].

Specify the page change speed for Auto
Play

Specify a [Play Speed] value from 1
(fastest) to 10 (slowest).

Capture the upper half of the screen when
h is tapped

Select the [Half Screen Capturing] check
box.

Capture the entire screen when h
is tapped

Clear the [Half Screen Capturing] check
box.*

Turn on repeat playback of files during
Auto Play

Select the [Repeat] check box.

Turn off repeat playback of files during
Auto Play

Clear the [Repeat] check box.*

Turn on page number display during
playback and editing

Select the [Page Number] check box.*

Turn off page number display during
playback and editing

Clear the [Page Number] check box.

• Items marked with an asterisk (*) are initial defaults. The initial default [Play Speed]
setting is 4.
• Selecting [Disabled] on the Presentation application initial screen will cause the
[Screen Copy To] to change automatically to [Outer Device].
**  will show the name of the presentation file.
(3) To close the dialog box and apply its settings, tap [Set]. To close the dialog box without
button in the upper right corner of the dialog
applying its settings, tap [Cancel] or the
box. To restore all the settings on the dialog box to their initial defaults, tap [Default].
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11-6-2
Configuring Presentation Preferences

Tip
• The following examples show the area of the screen that is captured when you tap h while
the [Half Screen Capturing] check box is selected. The captured areas are indicated by the thick
boundaries in each example.

Sample Screenshot

Captured Image Data

Sample Screenshot

Captured Image Data

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11-7-1
Presentation File Transfer

11-7 Presentation File Transfer
A presentation file is actually a kind of user folder (called a “presentation folder”) that
contains the images that make up the presentation. This folder may be transferred to another
ClassPad unit or a computer in order to play the presentation.

Caution
• A presentation created with Version 3.0 of the ClassPad software cannot be played on a
ClassPad or a computer that is running an earlier version.

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Chapter

Using the Program
Application
The Program application comes in handy when you need to
perform the same calculation a number of times. You can create
programs that automate graphing and other operations.
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7

Program Application Overview
Creating a New Program
Debugging a Program
Managing Files
User-defined Functions
Program Command Reference
Including ClassPad Functions in Programs

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12

12-1-1
Program Application Overview

12-1 Program Application Overview
The Program application consists of a Program Editor for inputting and editing programs, and
a Program Loader for loading and executing existing programs.

Starting Up the Program Application
Use the following procedure to start up the Program application.

u ClassPad Operation
On the application menu, tap p.
This starts the Program application and displays the Program Loader window.

Program Loader Window
Use the Program Loader window to recall and run existing programs.

u To display the Program Loader window
On the application menu, tap p to start up the Program application. The Program Loader
window appears when you start up the Program application.

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12-1-2
Program Application Overview

k Program Loader Window Menus and Buttons
Tap this
button:

Or select this menu
item:

Display the Program Loader window

—

O - Program Loader

Display the Program Editor window

P
_

O - Program Editor

To do this:

Display the Program Output window
Display the Text File Contents window

—

Display the Main application work area window
Display the Program Editor window
Create a new file
Open an existing file
Clear the screen

~
P
O
~
—

Run a program
Display the Variable Manager (page 1-8-1)

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p
5

O - Program Output
O - Text File Contents
O - Main
Edit - Open Editor
Edit - New File
Edit - Open File
Edit - Clear All
Run - Run Program
O - Variable Manager

12-1-3
Program Application Overview

Program Editor Window
You can use the Program Editor window to input a new program or to edit an existing
program. You can also use the Program Editor window to input and edit user-defined
functions.

u To display the Program Editor window
(1) On the application menu, tap p to start up the Program application.
(2) On the window that appears, tap P, or tap O and then [Program Editor].

File name

Parameter variables
This box can be used to
specify variable names
used in user-defined
functions or programs.
For details, see
“Configuring Parameter
Variables and Inputting
Their Values” on page
12-2-7.

File type
N: Program file
T: Text file
F: User-defined
function file

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12-1-4
Program Application Overview

k Program Editor Window Menus and Buttons
The following describes the menu and button operations you can perform on the Program
Editor window.

To do this:

Tap this button:

Display the Program Loader window

)

Display the Program Editor window

—

_

Display the Program Output window

Or select this menu item:
O - Program Loader
O - Program Editor
O - Program Output

Display the Text File Contents window

—

O - Text File Contents

Display the Main application work area
window

—

O - Main

Close the currently active window

—

O - Close

O
~
{

Edit - New File

Save a file under a new name

—

Edit - Save As

Close a file

—

Edit - Close File

Convert a file to a program file

—

Edit - Mode Change - 'Normal

Convert a file to a text file

—

Edit - Mode Change - 'Text

Convert a file to an edit prohibited
program file

—

Edit - Compress

Create a new file
Open an existing file
Save a file

Edit - Open File
Edit - Save File

Put a selection onto the clipboard and
delete the original

r

Edit - Cut

Put a selection onto the clipboard without
affecting the original

t

Edit - Copy

Paste the clipboard contents

y

Edit - Paste

—

Select everything on the screen

Edit - Select All

Search for a newly specified text string

e

Edit - Search - New Search

Search again for a previously specified
text string

r

Edit - Search - Search Next

Jump to the beginning of a program

—

Edit - Search - Jump to Top

Jump to the end of a program

—

Edit - Search - Jump to Bottom

Clear the contents of the Program Editor
window
Display the Variable Manager
(page 1-8-1)

—

Edit - Clear All

5

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O - Variable Manager

12-1-5
Program Application Overview

To do this:
Input a command from the
[Ctrl] menu
• For details about each
command, see “12-6
Program Command
Reference”.

Select this submenu item:
Ctrl - :
Ctrl - ⇒
Ctrl - Jump
Ctrl - If
Ctrl - For
Ctrl - Do
Ctrl - While
Ctrl - Switch

Input a command from the
[I/O] menu
• For details about each
command, see “12-6
Program Command
Reference”.

Select this menu item:
—
—
Lbl, Goto
If, Then, ElseIf, Else, IfEnd
For, To, Step, Next
Do, LpWhile
While, WhileEnd
Switch, Case, Default,
SwitchEnd

Ctrl - Control

Skip, Return, Break, Stop,
Wait, Pause

Ctrl - Logic

=, ≠, <, >, s, t, and, or, xor,
not

Ctrl - Misc
I/O - Input

’, ”, Define
Input, InputStr, InputFunc,
GetKey, GetPen

I/O - Output

Print, Locate, Message,
PrintNatural

I/O - Display

DispText, DispFTable,
DispSmryTbl, DispSeqTbl,
DispDfrTbl, DispQutTbl,
DispDQTbl, DispFibTbl,
DispListEditor, DispStat

I/O - Draw

DrawGraph, DrawShade,
DrawFTGCon,
DrawFTGPlot,
DrawSeqCon, DrawSeqPlt,
DrawSeqEtrCon,
DrawSeqEtrPlt,
DrawConics, Draw3D,
DrawStat

I/O - Sketch

Plot, PlotChg, PlotOff,
PlotOn, plotTest, PxlChg,
PxlOff, PxlOn, pxlTest,
Distance, Line, Circle,
Horizontal, Vertical,
TangentLine, NormalLine,
Inverse, Text

I/O - Clear

Cls, ClrText, ClrGraph

I/O - Communication

OpenComPort38k,
CloseComPort38k,
Send38k, Receive38k,
SendVar38k, GetVar38k

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12-1-6
Program Application Overview

To do this:

Select this submenu item:

Select this menu item:

Input a command from the
[Misc] menu
• For details about each
command, see “12-6
Program Command
Reference”.

Misc - Statistics(1)

StatGraph, StatGraphSel,
Scatter, xyLine, NPPlot,
Histogram, MedBox,
ModBox, NDist, Broken,
LinearR, MedMed, QuadR,
CubicR, QuartR, LogR,
ExpR, abExpR, PowerR,
SinR, LogisticR

Misc - Statistics(2)

Square, Cross, Ldot, Dot,
DefaultListEditor

Misc - Graph&Table(1)

GraphType, GTSelOn,
GTSelOff, SmryTSelOn,
ViewWindow, LogP,
CallUndef, ZFactor, ZAuto,
PTCross, PTDot,
PTNormal, PTSquare,
PTBrokenThck, PTThick,
SheetActive, SheetName,
ClearSheet

Misc - Graph&Table(2)

StoGMem, StoPict,
StoVWin, RclGMem,
RclPict, RclVWin

Misc - Sequence

SeqSelOn, SeqSelOff,
SeqType

Misc - 3D Graph

SelOn3D, SheetName3D,
SheetActive3D,
ViewWindow3D,
ClearSheet3D

Misc - Variable

NewFolder, DelFolder,
LockFolder, UnlockFolder,
GetFolder, SetFolder,
MoveVar, CopyVar,
Rename, DelVar,
Clear_a_z, Lock, Unlock,
GetType, Local

Misc - String

ChrToNum, ExpToStr,
NumToChr, NumToStr,
StrJoin, StrCmp, StrInv,
StrLeft, StrLen, StrLwr,
StrMid, StrRight, StrRotate,
StrShift, StrSrc, strToExp,
StrUpr, #

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12-1-7
Program Application Overview

To do this:
Input a command from the
[Misc] menu
• For details about each
command, see “12-6
Program Command
Reference”.

Select this submenu item:
Misc - Setup(1)

Select this menu item:
On, Off, DefaultSetup,
SetStandard, SetDecimal,
SetReal, SetComplex,
SetDegree, SetGrad,
SetRadian, SetNormal,
SetFix, SetSci

Misc - Setup(2)

SetDrawCon, SetDrawPlt,
SetSimulGraph,
SetDispGCon, SetAxes,
SetBG, SetCoord, SetDeriv,
SetFunc, SetGrid,
SetLabel, SetLeadCursor,
SetTVariable, TableInput,
SetSmryTable, VWin,
SetSmryTableQD

Misc - Setup(3)

SetStatWinAuto,
SetCellWidth,
SetSequence, StepDisp,
Set∑disp, SetAxes3D, Box,
SetCoordOff3D,
SetCoordPol3D,
SetCoordRect3D,
SetLabel3D

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12-2-1
Creating a New Program

12-2 Creating a New Program
This section explains the steps you need to perform in order to create a new program.

General Programming Steps
The following are the general steps for creating and running a program.
1. Open a new file.
• Tap O, or select the [Edit] menu and then [New File].
2. Input a name and tap [OK].
3. Input the expressions and commands that make up the program.
4. Input display commands as required into the program.
If you do not include display commands in your program, calculation results will not appear
on the display.
5. Save the program.
6. Display the Program Loader window by tapping ).
7. Run the program by tapping p, or by selecting the [Run] menu and then [Run Program].

Creating and Saving a Program
Example: To create a program named “OCTA” that calculates the surface areas (cm2) and
volumes (cm3) of three regular octahedrons, the lengths of whose sides are 7, 10,
and 15 cm
The following formulas calculate the surface area S and volume V of a
regular octahedron for which the length of side A is known.
S = 2 3 A2,
A

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V=

2 3
A
3

12-2-2
Creating a New Program

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap m to display the application menu, and then p.
(2) Tap O, or tap [Edit] and then [New File].
(3) Configure the settings for the new file as described below.

• Leave the [Type] setting as “Program(Normal)”.
• Tap the [Folder] down arrow button and then select the name of the folder where you
want to save the program file.
• In the [Name] box, use the soft keyboard to input up to eight bytes for the program file
name.
(4) Tap [OK].
(5) Input the necessary expressions and commands.
• Each mathematical expression and command must
be followed either by a carriage return or colon (:).
u To input the “SetDecimal” command
On the menu bar, tap [Misc], [Setup(1)] and then
[SetDecimal].
u To input the “Input” and “Print” commands
On the menu bar, tap [I/O] and then select the command you want to input.
[I/O] [Input] [Input]
[I/O] [Output] [Print]
u To input the variable name “A”
On the soft keyboard 0 tab, tap E and then A.
u To input a carriage return
Tap w or press E.
Inputting a carriage return causes the cursor to move to the beginning of the next line.
No carriage return symbol appears on the display.
u To input values and symbols
On the soft keyboard 9 tab, tap the value or symbol you want.

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12-2-3
Creating a New Program

(6) After the program is the way you want, tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File] to
save it.
• To run this program see “Running a Program” on page 12-2-5.
• If a message appears when you try to save the program, make the necessary
corrections and try again. For details about making corrections to a program,
see “12-3 Debugging a Program”.

Tip
• The file name you input in step (3) of the above procedure is subject to the same rules as folder
names. For more information, see “Folder Name Rules” on page 1-7-5.
• Tapping [Cancel] in step (3) of the above procedure returns you to the Program Editor window.
• To input a program and save it without running it, perform the above procedure up to step (6),
and then tap [Edit] and then [Close File].
• When you close a program containing changes since you last saved the file, a dialog box appears
asking if you would like to save your changes.
• If the “WARNING! Save changes?” dialog box appears, perform one of the operations described
below.

To do this:

Tap this button:

Save and close the program

Yes

Close the program without saving

No

Return to the Program Editor window without saving the program

Cancel

Tapping [Yes] or [No] causes the message “No File” to appear on the display.
• You can use a calculation result obtained within a program in another calculation by using the S
command to assign the result to a variable. Then simply include the variable name in subsequent
calculations. Note that calculation results produced within programs are not stored in Ans
memory.

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12-2-4
Creating a New Program

k Specifying the File Type

Tapping O or tapping [Edit] and then [New File] on the Program Editor window displays the
dialog box shown above.
Tap the [Type] down arrow button and then select one of the options described below from
the list of options that appears.

To specify this type of file:
Program file
Text file
User-defined function file

Select this option:
Program(Normal)
Program(Text)
Function

Tip
• For information about text files, see “Using Text Files” below.
• For information about user-defined functions, see page 12-5-1.
• Program files can be converted to text files, and vice versa. For more information, see “12-4
Managing Files”.

k Using Text Files
• Running a text file from the Program Loader window displays the contents of the file.
• Inserting a text file name inside a program causes the contents of the text file to be
displayed when execution reaches the name.
Example:

File Name: “CAUTION”

Program that displays contents of
“CAUTION” file

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12-2-5
Creating a New Program

Running a Program
The following procedure shows how to run the sample program we input under “Creating and
Saving a Program” on page 12-2-1.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Display the Program Loader window.
• From the Program Editor window, tap ), or tap O and then [Program Loader].
• From another application, tap m and then p.
• This causes the Program Loader window to appear.
(2) Tap the [Folder] down arrow button, and then select the name of the folder you want.
(3) Tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap
the name of the file you input in step (3) of the
example on page 12-2-2.

(4) Tap p, or tap [Run] and then [Run Program] to
run the program.

(5) Input a side length of 7 and tap [OK] twice.
7 [OK] [OK]
(6) Tap the Program Loader window and repeat steps (4) and (5) for sides of length 10 and
15.
p10 [OK] [OK]
p15 [OK] [OK]

Tip
• In step (4) of the above procedure, you can specify parameters before running the program.
For more information, see “Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values” on page
12-2-7.
• You can run a program from the Main application or the eActivity application. For more
information, see “2-13 Running a Program in the Main Application.”

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12-2-6
Creating a New Program

Pausing Program Execution
You can specify where execution of a program should pause by including either a Pause
command or a Wait command inside the program.

k Using the Pause Command
A Pause command causes program execution to pause when it reaches that point. To
resume program execution, tap the
button on the right side of the status bar (which will
also cause the button to disappear).
Example

k Using the Wait Command
The syntax of the Wait command is: Wait . When program execution reaches
the Wait command, it pauses for the specified number of seconds and then resumes
automatically. If you do not specify a value for the number of seconds, execution remains
paused until you tap the screen or press a key.

Tip
• To input the Pause or Wait command, tap [Ctrl] on the menu bar, tap [Control], and then select
the command you want.

Terminating Program Execution
Pressing c while a program is running terminates the program.

Tip
• Pressing c does not terminate the program if program execution is already paused by the
Pause command (indicated by
on the status bar). In this case, tap
to resume program
execution, and then press c.

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12-2-7
Creating a New Program

Configuring Parameter Variables and Inputting Their Values
If you input the names of variables used in a program into the parameter variable box when
inputting or editing a program on the Program Editor window, you will be able to input values
for the variables on the Program Loader window when you run the program.
Example
Parameter variable box
Indicates variables named “A” and
“B” are used within the program.
When running the program, inputting
values for “A” and “B” calculates the
total of the two values.

Program Input

Parameter value input box
Inputting 1, 2 before running the program assigns
A = 1 and B = 2.

Executing the program produces the result
A + B = 1 + 2 = 3.

Program Loader window

Tip
• When running a program that includes parameter variables, be sure to correctly specify the
values of the parameters. An error will occur if the number of values you input is not consistent
with the number of parameter variables.

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12-2-8
Creating a New Program

k Local Variables
A local variable is a variable that can be created temporarily and used in a program. Use the
Local command to create a local variable.
Syntax:

Local  ( indicates a space.)

Example: Local abc
The above creates a local variable named “abc”.

Tip
• Local variables are deleted automatically after execution of a program is complete.
• Note that local variables are stored in their own special folder, so local variable names do not
affect the names of other variables in ClassPad memory. Because of this, you do not need to
worry if you assign a local variable a name that is already being used by another type of variable.
• Variables that are specified as parameter variables within a program are automatically treated
as local variables. Variables created with the Define command are also automatically treated as
local variables.

Using Subroutines
Including the name of another program file inside of a program causes execution to jump
to the specified program file. The program that execution jumps from is called the “main
program”, while the program to which execution jumps is called a “subroutine”.
When program execution returns to the main program, it resumes from the point immediately
after the command that jumped to the subroutine.

Tip
• Note that any program can be a subroutine. The thing that makes any program a subroutine is
being jumped to from another program.

Main Program
A

Subroutines
D

D()
C()

C

E

I

E()

I()

J()

Level 1

Level 2 Level 3

J

Level 4

Subroutines can be used in a variety of ways to help make calculations easier. Let’s say
you have a formula that needs to be calculated more than once in a program, or that needs
to be calculated by a number of different programs. Simply store the formula as a separate
program file (subroutine), and then you can jump to the program file that contains the formula
whenever you need it.

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12-2-9
Creating a New Program

Example 1: Jumping to a subroutine without assigning values to the subroutine’s parameter
variables
Main Program
Input A
Input B
Sub1( ) ← Jumps to subroutine program “Sub1”
Print C
Subroutine (Program Name: “Sub1”)
A+B S C
Return
Example 2: Jumping to a subroutine while assigning values to the subroutine’s parameter
variables
• In this example, the main program assigns values to parameter variable “E” in a subroutine
named “Sub1”, and to parameter variables “F” and “G” in a subroutine named “Sub2”.
Main Program
Input A
Input B
Sub1(A)
← Assigns the value of main program variable “A” to the parameter variable (E) in
subroutine “Sub1”, and then jumps to subroutine “Sub1”.

Print C
Sub2(A,B)

← Assigns the values of main program variables “A” and “B” to the parameter
variables (F and G) in subroutine “Sub2”, and then jumps to subroutine “Sub2”.

Print D
Subroutine Program 1 (Program Name “Sub1”)
E × 2 S C ← Requires input of variable name E into the parameter variable box.
Return
Subroutine Program 2 (Program Name “Sub2”)
F + G S D ← Requires input of variable names F and G into the parameter variable box.
Return

Tip
• The subroutine does not need to be located in the current folder. To specify a subroutine named
“Sub1” that is located in a folder named “f1”, for example, you would specify “f1\Sub1( )”.

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12-3-1
Debugging a Program

12-3 Debugging a Program
A programming error that causes a program to behave in a manner not intended by the writer
of the program is called a “bug”. Finding and eliminating such errors is called “debugging the
program”.
Any of the following conditions can indicate that your program has a bug and requires
debugging.
• If an error message appears when you try to save the program
• If an error message appears when you try to run the program
• When a program produces some abnormal or unexpected result

Debugging After an Error Message Appears
When an error occurs, a dialog box appears to explain the cause of the error. Carefully
read the text of the error message and then tap its [OK] button. This closes the dialog box
and positions the cursor on at the location where the error occurred. Make the necessary
corrections in accordance with the explanation provided by the error message.

Tip
• If the cause of the error cannot be specified for some reason, tapping [OK] on the error message
dialog box displays the Program Loader window, without positioning the cursor at the location of
the error.
• In the case of a program for which editing is prohibited (a program for which “EXE” is indicated
as the variable data type), tapping [OK] on the error message dialog box displays the Program
Loader window, without positioning the cursor at the location of the error.

Debugging a Program Following Unexpected Results
If execution of a program produces unexpected or abnormal results, carefully read through
the program and correct errors as required.
The following commands can come in handy when debugging a program to locate
unexpected results.

To do this:
Move the cursor to the beginning of the program
Move the cursor to the end of the program

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Execute this command:
Edit - Search - Jump to Top
Edit - Search - Jump to Bottom

12-3-2
Debugging a Program

Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One
You can use the procedure described below to recall an existing program, modify it, and then
run the result as a new program. This helps reduce key input requirements.
The following shows how to modify the “OCTA” program we created on page 12-2-1 to
handle tetrahedrons.
Example: To create a program named “TETRA” that calculates the surface areas (cm2) and
volumes (cm3) of three regular tetrahedrons, the lengths of whose sides are 7, 10,
and 15 cm
A

The following formulas calculate the surface area S and volume V of a
regular tetrahedron for which the length of one side A is known.
S = 3 A2,

V=

2 3
A
12

The following is the program required for this example.
Length of One Side A ..........Input A
Surface Area S ....................Print approx(

(3) × A^2)

Volume V ............................Print approx(

(2) ÷ 12 × A^3)

The following is the “OCTA” program (page 12-2-1).
Length of One Side A ..........Input A
Surface Area S ....................Print approx(2 ×
Volume V ............................Print approx(

(3) × A^2)

(2) ÷ 3 × A^3)

A comparison of the two programs indicates that the following modifications of the “OCTA”
program will produce a program that performs the calculations required by this example.
• Delete “2×” (underlined with a wavy line above).
• Change 3 to 12 (underlined with double lines above).

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap p.
(2) Tap ~, or tap [Edit] and then [Open File].

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12-3-3
Debugging a Program

(3) Select the program you want to open and edit, as described below.

For this setting:
Type

Do this:
Tap the down arrow button, and then select
“Program(Normal)”.

Folder

Tap the down arrow button, and then select the folder that
contains the program you want to edit.
Tap the down arrow button, and then select the name of the
program you want to open (OCTA).

Name

(4) Tap [OK].

(5) Edit expressions and commands as required.
a. Change 2 ×
b. Change

(3) × A^2 to

(2)/3 × A^3 to

(3) × A^2
(2)/12 × A^3

c. Delete Pause
u To delete data
Use the cursor key to move the cursor to the data you want to delete, and then press
K. Or, highlight the data you want to delete and press K.
u To input data
Use the cursor key or stylus to move the cursor to the location where you want to
insert data, and then use the soft keyboard or the keypad to make the changes you
want.
(6) Save the new program.
u To retain the original program and save the new program under a different
name
• Tap [Edit] and then [Save As].
• Use the soft keyboard to type the name you
want to assign to the new program into the
[Name] box.
• Tap [OK].

u To replace the original program with the new program
• Tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File].

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12-3-4
Debugging a Program

(7) After saving the program, tap ), or tap O and then [Program Loader] to display the
Program Loader window.
(8) On the dialog box that appears, tap the [Name] down arrow button, and then tap the
name of the file you input in step (6) (TETRA).
(9) Tap p, or tap [Run] and then [Run Program].
• This runs the program.
(10) Input 7 for the length of side A and tap [OK] twice.
7 [OK] [OK]
(11) Repeat steps (9) and (10) for sides of length 10 and 15.
p10 [OK] [OK]
p15 [OK] [OK]

Tip
• To edit a program and save it without running it, perform the above procedure up to step (7),
and then tap [Edit] and then [Close File]. If the “WARNING! Save changes?” dialog box appears,
perform one of the operations described below.

To do this:
Save and close the program

Tap this button:
Yes

Close the program without saving

No

Return to the Program Editor window without saving the program

Cancel

Tapping [Yes] or [No] causes the message “No File” to appear on the display.

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12-3-5
Debugging a Program

Searching for Data Inside a Program
You can search for data inside a program by specifying a keyword.
Example: To search for the letter “A” within the “OCTA” program

u ClassPad Operation
(1) From the Program Editor window, select the program you want to search (“OCTA” in
this example).
(2) Tap [Edit], [Search], and then [New Search]. Or, tap

to scroll the toolbar and tap e.

• This displays a dialog box for inputting the search keyword.
(3) Enter the data you want to find and then tap [OK].
• This causes the cursor to appear in front of the data you specified (“A” in this
example).
(4) Tap [Edit], [Search], and then [Search Next]. Or, tap

to scroll the toolbar and tap r.

• This causes the cursor to appear in front of the next instance of the data you specified
(“A” in this example).
(5) Repeat step (4) as many times as you want.

Tip
• The message “Not Found” appears if the keyword you specify does not exist in the program.
• The keyword you specify for [New Search] remains in effect until you close the Program Editor
window. Executing the [Search Next] command when there is no keyword specified by [New
Search] causes the error message “No word is specified” to appear.

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12-4-1
Managing Files

12-4 Managing Files
Renaming a File
Use the following procedure when you want to change the name of a file.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap 5 to display the Variable Manager.
• This displays a list of folders.
• You may need to tap the

icon and scroll the toolbar to see the 5 icon.

(2) Tap the name of the folder that contains the file you want to rename.
• This displays all of the files/variables in the folder.
(3) Tap the name of the file you want to rename.
(4) Tap [Edit] and then [Rename].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting a file name.
(5) Enter the new file name and then tap [OK].
(6) Tap [Close] twice to close the Variable Manager.

Tip
• See “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.

Deleting a Program
The following procedure deletes a program file name, which also deletes the program.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) Tap 5 to display the Variable Manager.
• This displays a list of folders.
(2) Tap the name of the folder that contains the file you want to delete.
• This displays all of the files/variables in the folder.
(3) Select the check box next to the file you want to delete.
• You can select one file or multiple files for deletion.
(4) Tap [Edit] and then [Delete].
(5) On the confirmation dialog box that appears, tap [OK] to delete the selected file, or
[Cancel] to cancel the operation without deleting anything.
(6) Tap [Close] twice to close the Variable Manager.

Tip
• Be sure to close a file before you try to rename or delete it. Trying to rename or delete an open
file will cause an error.
• See “1-8 Using the Variable Manager”.

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12-4-2
Managing Files

Changing the File Type
You can use the following procedures to change the file type.

u To change a program file to a text file
While a program file is open, tap [Edit], [Mode Change], and then ['Text].

u To change a text file to a program file
While a text file is open, tap [Edit], [Mode Change], and then ['Normal].

Tip
• Note that the above operations are not possible while a user-defined function is open.

u To change an editable file to an edit prohibited program file
(1) Open the program file you want to make edit prohibited.
(2) Tap [Edit] and then [Compress].
• This displays a dialog box for inputting the backup file name. The backup file is a
copy of the original (editable) file, which you can keep on hand if you have trouble
changing an edit prohibited program file back to an editable file.
(3) Enter the backup file name and then tap [OK].
• This saves two copies of the file. One is an edit prohibited program file under the name of
the original (editable) file. The other is an editable backup file, which is created under the
name you specify in step (3), above.
Original File (editable): sample
Specified File Name:
sample2
Resulting Files:
sample (non-editable)
sample2 (editable)
• An edit prohibited program file cannot be opened from the Program Editor window.
• Edit prohibited program files are displayed in the Variable Manager as “EXE” type files.
• Tapping [Cancel] instead of [OK] in step (3) quits the procedure without changing the file
type.

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12-5-1
User-defined Functions

12-5 User-defined Functions
ClassPad lets you configure calculation operations as user-defined functions, which can then
be used inside of numeric expressions just like its built-in functions. User-defined functions
can also be called up in other applications.
• The Program Editor window is used for creating user-defined functions.
• User-defined functions are stored in ClassPad memory as “Function” type variables.
Naming, storage, and folder rules are identical to those for user variables.

Creating a New User-defined Function
This procedure is identical to that for storing a program.
• Anything you enter on the Program Editor window is stored as a user variable.
Example
• Function Name: f4
• Expression:
x × (x + 1) × (x – 2)

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap p.
(2) Tap O, or tap [Edit] and then [New File].
(3) On the screen that appears, configure the settings described below.

For this setting:
Type
Folder
Name

Do this:
Tap the down arrow button and then select “Function”.
Tap the [Folder] down arrow button and then select the name of
the folder where you want to save the user-defined function.
Enter up to eight bytes for the user-defined function name.

(4) After everything is the way you want, tap [OK].
(5) Input the expression you want.

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12-5-2
User-defined Functions

• Input user-defined function arguments as parameter
variables. For more information about parameter
variables, see page “Configuring Parameter Variables
and Inputting Their Values” on page 12-2-7.

Parameter variable

(6) After the function is the way you want, tap {, or tap [Edit] and then [Save File] to save
it.

Tip
• A user-defined function can contain only a single mathematical expression.
An error “Invalid in a Function or Current Expression” occurs if a user-defined function contains
multiple expressions, or is followed by a carriage return.
• A user-defined function cannot contain any command.

k Creating a User-defined Function Using the Define Command
The procedure below describes how to create a user-defined function by executing the
Define command from the Main application.
Syntax: Define  [\ ]([[,...]])
=
• Items inside of brackets ([ ]) can be skipped.
•  indicates a space.

u ClassPad Operation
(1) On the application menu, tap J.
(2) Press k, and then tap the ( (catalog) tab.
(3) On the catalog (cat) keyboard that appears, tap the [Form] down arrow button, and
then select [Cmd].
(4) Scroll the list of commands until the Define command is visible, and then tap Define to
select it.
(5) Tap [INPUT] to input the Define command.
(6) Input the function you want to define.
Example 1: Define folder1 \ f1(x) = 2x + 1 (where folder1 is an existing folder)
Example 2: Define f2(x, y) = 2x + 3y + 1
Example 3: Define sen(x) = sin (x)
(7) Tap w to store the function.

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12-5-3
User-defined Functions

Tip
• You can include up to 99 arguments in a function.
• If you do not specify a folder, the function is stored in the current folder.
• A function defined using the Define command can contain only a single expression. You cannot
link multiple expressions or commands using colons (:) or carriage returns.

Executing a User-defined Function
The following is the syntax for executing a user-defined function.
 ([[,...]])
The following shows an example of how to perform a manual calculation in the Main
application.
Example: The following is a function created under “Creating a New User-defined Function”
on page 12-5-1.
f4 (x) = x × (x + 1) × (x – 2)

Tip
• You can use the following steps to recall user-defined functions stored in the “library” folder using
the catalog (cat) keyboard. For more information about the “library” folder, see “1-7 Variables and
Folders”.
1. Press k.
2. Tap the ( (catalog) tab.
3. On the catalog (cat) keyboard, tap the [Form] down arrow button, and then select [USER].
4. Scroll the list of functions until the function you want is visible, and then tap the function name
you want.
5. Tap [INPUT].

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12-5-4
User-defined Functions

Editing a User-defined Function
To edit an existing user-defined function, use the same procedures as those described under
“Modifying an Existing Program to Create a New One” on page 12-3-2. Editing procedures
are the same, regardless of whether you originally created the function using the Define
command or Program Editor.

Deleting a User-defined Function
To delete an existing user-defined function, use the same procedure as the one described
under “Deleting a Program” on page 12-4-1. The delete procedure is the same, regardless of
whether you originally created the function using the Define command or Program Editor.

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12-6-1
Program Command Reference

12-6 Program Command Reference
Using This Reference
The following table shows the conventions that are used in the descriptions of this section.

If you see something like this:
A boldface word, like Input

It means this:
The boldface word is a command.



This indicates a space. Always make sure you
input one space between a command and its
parameters.
Example: GetKey

{ }

You need to select one of the multiple options
enclosed inside the braces ({ }). When inputting
the command, do not include the braces.

[ ]

Anything inside brackets ([ ]) is optional. You
can input the item inside the brackets or omit
it. When inputting the command, do not
include the brackets.

…

The term to the left of ellipsis (…) can be input
more than once or repeated.

10
10 + 20
A
"AB"


This is a constant.
This is an arithmetic expression.
This is a variable.
This is a character string.
You should input what is described inside the
angle brackets (< >). When inputting the
command, do not include the angle brackets.

Tip
• In addition to program commands, this section also includes descriptions of the following
functions.
• pxlTest(
• plotTest(
• strToExp(

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Program Command Reference

Program Application Commands
k Program Notation
(Carriage Return)
Function: Performs a carriage return operation.
Description
In Program Editor, tap the w button to input a carriage return.
• The carriage return can be used in a user program. It cannot, however, be used in a
manual calculation performed in the Main application.

’ (Comment)
Function: Any text following this symbol is not executed. You can use this command to
include comment text in your program.
Description
Any line that starts with the comment symbol (’) is treated as comment text, which is skipped
during program execution.

: (Multi-statement Command)
Function: Use this command to link a series of statements into a multi-statement (on a
single line).
Description
The multi-statement command can be used in a user program. It cannot, however, be used
in a manual calculation performed in the Main application.

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Program Command Reference

k Input
GetKey
Syntax: GetKey  
Function: This command assigns the code number of the last key pressed to the specified
variable.
Description
• This command assigns the code number of the last key pressed to the specified variable.
The following shows a list of available code numbers.
Key

Key

Code

Code

0

48

(

40

1

49

)

41

2

50

,

44

3

51

z

45

4

52

x

60856

5

53

y

60857

6

54

Z

60858

7

55

{

94

8

56

E

13

9

57

f

28

.

46

c

29

e

147

d

30

+

43

e

31

-

45

k

*

60944

/

47

o

145

=

61

c

12

K (Back Space)

• 0 is assigned to the variable if no key was pressed.

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8

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Program Command Reference

GetPen
Syntax:

GetPen, 

Function: This command assigns the coordinates of the point tapped on the screen to a
specified variable.
Description
This command assigns the x-coordinate (horizontal axis) to  and the
y-coordinate (vertical axis) to . The coordinates at the point in the upper left
corner of the screen are (1, 1), and coordinate values are specified in the range of 1 to 160
for the x-coordinate and 1 to 240 for the y-coordinate.

Input
Syntax:

Input  [,""[,""]]

Function: When program execution reaches the Input command, the user is prompted for
input of a value, which is assigned to the specified variable.

Description
• If you do not specify anything for "", the prompt “?” appears by
default.
• The text specified for "" is used as the input dialog box title.
• The Input command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that contains the
text string indicated by "" and an input box. A text string enclosed within quotation
marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for "".
• Specifying a long text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is displayed in the
dialog box.
• When the dialog box appears, input a value into the input box and then tap [OK]. This
closes the dialog box, assigns the input value to the applicable variable and resumes
program execution.
• Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution.
• During execution of the Input command, program execution is paused for input of data.
While a program is paused, you can input individual mathematical expressions only. You
cannot input commands or multiple expressions joined by colons (:).

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Program Command Reference

InputFunc
Syntax:

InputFunc   ([,…])
[,""[,""]]

Function: When program execution reaches the InputFunc command, the user is prompted
to input the contents of the user-defined function.
Example: InputFunc v(v0, t), "To define function v0(m/s), t(sec)", "define function"
Description
• If you do not specify anything for "", the prompt “?” appears by
default.
• The text specified for "" is used as the input dialog box title.
• The InputFunc command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that
contains the text string indicated by "" and an input box. The dialog box that
appears is identical to the Input command dialog box. A text string enclosed within
quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for "".
• Specifying a very long display text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is
displayed in the dialog box.
• When the dialog box appears, input an expression into the input box and then tap [OK].
This closes the dialog box, assigns the input expression to the applicable variable and
resumes program execution.
• Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution.

InputStr
Syntax:

InputStr  [,""[,""]]

Function: When program execution reaches the InputStr command, the user is prompted
for input of a string, which is assigned to a variable.
Description
• The InputStr command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box that contains
the text string indicated by "" and an input box. The dialog box that appears is
identical to the Input command dialog box. A text string enclosed within quotation marks
(" ") or a variable name can be specified for "".
• Specifying a long display text string can cause part of it to be cut off when it is displayed in
the dialog box.
• When the dialog box appears, input a string into the input box and then tap [OK]. This
closes the dialog box, assigns the input string to the applicable variable and resumes
program execution.
• Tapping [Cancel] on the dialog box terminates program execution.
• The text specified for "" is used as the input dialog box title.
• If you do not specify anything for "", the prompt “?” appears by
default.

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Program Command Reference

k Output
About the Program Output window
The “Program Output window” shows text displayed by program execution. The term “Program
Output window” does not include dialog boxes displayed by Message and other commands.
• Only one Program Output window can be stored at a time. Executing the ClrText command
or using Program Loader to execute a text file clears the currently stored Program Output
window.
• The Program Output window can be displayed by tapping O and then [Program Output],
or by tapping _ on the Program Loader window. The Program Output window also
appears whenever the DispText command is executed in a program.

ClrText
Syntax:

ClrText

Function: This command clears text from the Program Output window.

DispText
Syntax:

DispText

Function:

This command displays the Program Output window.

Description: You can use this command to re-display the Program Output window following
display of the Graph window, Table window, or other window.
Example:

To re-display the Program Output window after it has been cleared by a
graphing operation or some other operation

GraphType "y="
Define y1(x) =
(x)
GTSelOn 1
ViewWindow –7.7, 7.7, 1, –3.8, 3.8, 1
0 S FStart
10 S FEnd
1 S FStep
ClrText ← Initializes the Program Output window.
Print "y1(x) =
(x)" ← Displays the graph expression on the Program Output window.
Print "Tap Continue button." ← Tells user what to do to continue program execution after reading the
message.

Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow user to read Program Output window message.
DrawGraph ← Draws the graph.
DispFTable ← Displays the table.
Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow for graph and table editing. Program Output window is not
displayed at this time.

DispText ← Re-displays the Program Output window.
Pause ← Pauses program execution to allow user to read Program Output window message.

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Program Command Reference

Locate
Syntax 1: Locate  , , 
Syntax 2: Locate  , , ""
Function: This command displays the result of the specified expression or the specified text
string at the specified coordinates on the display screen.
Description
• The coordinates of the point at the upper left corner of the effective area of the Locate
command are (1, 1), and coordinate values can be specified in the range of 1 to 290 for the
x-coordinate and 1 to 290 for the y-coordinate. Note, however, that the actual dot count of
the ClassPad screen is 160 × 240.
• An expression result is displayed as a single line.

Message
Syntax:

Message  "" [,""]

Function: This command pauses program execution and displays a dialog box containing
the text specified by "". The text is positioned flush top left. The text
specified for "" is used as the dialog box title.

Description
• Text strings enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or variable names can be specified for
"" and "".
• Tapping [OK] closes the dialog box and resumes program execution.
• Tapping [Cancel] terminates program execution.

Print
Syntax 1: Print  
Syntax 2: Print  ""
Function: This command displays the result of the specified expression or the specified text
string.
Description
An expression result is displayed as a single line. When the result is a long expression,
fraction, or string, it may not fit on the display. In such a case, use the PrintNatural
command instead.

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Program Command Reference

PrintNatural
Syntax:   PrintNatural  [,""]
Function: This command pauses program execution and displays the result of the specified
expression in natural format.

Description
• A text string enclosed within quotation marks (" ") or a variable name can be specified for
"".
• Tapping [OK] closes the dialog box and resumes program execution. Tapping [Cancel]
terminates program execution.

k Program Execution
#
Syntax:

# 

Function:

This command specifies a string variable whose string is a variable name.

Example 1: When the content of variable exp1 is π and the content of variable str1 is “exp1”,
sin(#str1) calculates sin(π).
Example 2: To cause a folder to be created during program execution:
InputStr  name, "Foldername"
NewFolder  #name

S

{
{

}
}



Syntax 1:

""



Syntax 2:

""

S 
S 

Syntax 3:  S 
Function: With this command, the content of the expression on the left is evaluated, and the
result is assigned to the item on the right.

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Program Command Reference

Break
Syntax:

Break

Function: This command terminates a loop and causes execution to advance to the next
command following the loop process.
Description
• Break terminates a loop and causes execution to advance to the next command following
the loop process.
• Break can be used inside of a For, Do, While, or Switch process.

Define
Syntax:

Define  [\ ]([[,...]]) =
• Items inside of brackets ([ ]) can be skipped.

Function: Creates a user-defined function.
Description: See page 12-5-2.

Do~LpWhile
Syntax:

Do
[] …
LpWhile  
 is a condition that evaluates to true or false.

Function: The specified statements are repeated as long as the condition is true.
Description
• The statements between Do~LpWhile are repeated as long as the condition is true. When
the condition becomes false, execution jumps to the next command after the LpWhile
command.
• Since the condition comes after LpWhile, the condition is not evaluated until the end of the
loop is reached.
• You can use a multi-statement command (:) in place of the carriage return to separate
statements.
• It is always a bad idea to use the Goto command to exit a Do~LpWhile loop. Not only is it
poor programming, it can cause problems due to improper termination of internal processes
used by the loop operation.

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Program Command Reference

For~To~(Step~)Next
Syntax:
For   S   To   [Step  ]
[] …
Next
 is the initial value,  is the end value, and  is
the step.
Function
Anything between the For command and the Next command is repeated for a count starting
with the initial value of the control variable and ending when the control variable reaches the
end value. Each pass causes the value of the control variable to be changed by the value
specified by the step value. The loop is terminated whenever the control variable value
exceeds the end value.
Description
• 1 is used for the step if a step value is not specified.
• The initial value can be less than the end value, as long as a positive value is specified for
the step. In this case, the value of the control value is increased by the step with each pass.
• The initial value can be greater than the end value, as long as a negative value is specified
for the step. In this case, the value of the control value is decreased by the step with each
pass.
• You can use a multi-statement command (:) in place of the carriage return to separate
statements.
• It is always a bad idea to use the Goto command to exit a For~Next loop. Not only is it
poor programming, it can cause problems due to improper termination of internal processes
used by the loop operation.

Goto~Lbl
Syntax:

Goto