195708

195708 195708

User Manual: 195708

Open the PDF directly: View PDF PDF.
Page Count: 36

AUGUST
1957
The
Spa(istor
- a
New
Kind
of
Semi(ondudor
.
Amplifier
Airline
Automation:
A
Maior
Step
The
Role
of
Computers
in
High
S(hool
S(ien(e
Edu(ation
Vol.6
-
No.8
2
DIGITAL
COMPUTERS
M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory
has permanent staff openings for experienced
men in this rapidly expanding field.
Assignments will require an understanding
of
the logical arrangement
of
computers, the
details
of
the equipment design, the methods
for trouble detection and diagnosis
and
the
make-up and use
of
computer programs for
equipment testing.
Please send us a resume, or telephone
collect -
VOlunteer 2-3370
Extension 7161
Dr.
H.
J.
Hagedorn
RESEARCH
AND
DEVELOPMENT
MIT
LINCOLN
LABORATORY
BOX
36,
LEXINGTON,
MASSACHUSETTS -
DIll
COMPUTERS
and
A
UTOMA
TION
for
August,
1957
The
E
di
tor's
Readers'
INDUSTRY
NEWS
NOTES
THERE
IS
a good deal of news about companies in
the
computer field,
and
several of our readers have told
us
in vigorous language
that
we
should publish
the
news.
So,
in this issue we publish
the
first instalment
of "Industry News Notes."
As
usual,
we
invite our readers to send
us
information
for publication when it
is
of general interest,
and
to
send
us
corrections, revisions, and additions.
FRONT
COVER:
SPACISTOR
THE
FRONT
COVER
picture
is
a photo of an
assembly of an experimental spa
cis
tor (see
the
story in
this issue) made
at
Raytheon Mfg. Co., photographed
together with an ordinary pin (at
the
left)
to
show the
miniature scale.
The
leads of
the
spacistor are: upper left, injector,
with
point
contact; upper right, modulator, with fused
contact; bottom, collector, a thick broad contact;
slanting crossbar at left, base with fused contact.
The
spacistor in
the
picture
is
attached to a small transistor
mount
shaped something like a boat.
A voltage, applied to
the
injector, causes electrons to
enter
the
region of high electric field (caused by voltage
applied between
the
base and
the
collector in such a
way
as
to produce a high electric field
but
virtually no
current).
The
electrons
flow
extremely rapidly to the
collector contact. This current (flow of electrons)
is
modulated by applying a signal to
the
modulator.
The
modulator draws only a negligible current,
but
causes
the current between
the
injector and collector to vary
greatly. Thus
the
spacistor
is
an amplifier.
SCIENCE
FICTION
ABOUT
COMPUTERS
WE
HAVE
just about decided not to publish any
more science fiction about computers in
the
regular
issues of Computers
and
Automation.
The
reasons are
these. First,
the
readers who do not wish to have science
fiction in
the
magazine apparently outnumber those
who like it. Second, some prospective advertisers or their
agencies appear to feel
that
they do
not
wish their
ad-
vertising to appear in a magazine which publishes
science fiction, no matter how worth while
it
may be.
Finally, and much
the
most important, more and more
nonfiction of undeniable importance to computer
people
is
pressing for publication upon
the
space avail-
able in
the
magazine.
Nevertheless, sound scientific speculation about future
possibilities of computers, expressed in
the
medium of
science fiction,
is
important and useful to many com-
COMPUTERS
and
A UTOMA
TION
for
August,
1957
Notes
and
Forum
puter people.
And
we hope
that
we may
be
able to
publish, from time to time, an extra number of Com-
puters
and
Automation devoted to good science fiction
about computers.
Please tell
us
what you think.
PREPRINTS
AND
PUBLICATION
I.
From
Eric
A.
Weiss,
Chainnan, Computer Committee, Sun Oil Co.
Philadelphia
3,
Pa.
AS
CHAIRMAN
of
the
Preprints Committee of
the
Thirteenth National Meeting of
the
Association for
Computing 1tIachinery, I have
the
duty of assembling
and distributing preprints of
the
papers
to
be presented
there (Urbana, Ill., June
11-13,
1958).
In
doing this, I
will be asked by some speakers whether or
not
a paper
which appears
as
a preprint will
be
barred on this
account from publication in your journal.
In
order to
clarify
the
matter, I should like to have a brief state-
ment of your policy in this regard.
The
following details concerning
the
preprints may
have some bearing on
the
matter:
The
preprints will not include all papers to be given,
since speakers are under no compulsion to submit their
papers for preprinting.
The
preprints will be distributed to those who
register for
the
meeting, either free or
at
a small fee.
The
preprints will be available for a limited time
after
the
meeting to anyone for a fee.
II:
From
the
Editor
THE
FACT
that
a preprint of a paper has been dis-
tributed
at
a meeting makes no difference whatever to
publication
in
our magazine.
If
the
paper
is
one suit-
able for publication in Computers
and
Automation,
we
shall be glad to consider it for publication, irrespective,
of
the
preprint.
The
existence of preprints, however,
will make it easier for
us
to seek
out
a paper
that
we
would like to publish, provided
the
author does
not
prefer to have
it
published elsewhere.
In
addition,
the
availability of
the
preprints will
be
very helpful to many
people in
the
computer field.
THE
EFFECT
OF
MISSILES
ON
COMPUTERS
A
PREDICTION
by "Business Week", based on
research done
at
the
Pentagon, anticipates
that
half of
all spending on air weapons by
1961
will be for missiles.
Missiles now account for something less than a third
[Please
turn
to
page
91
3
Basic
Source
Information
available
to
you
from
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
PEOPLE:
Who's
Who
in
the
Computer
Field,
1956-57.
Over
1200
entries
(names,
addresses,
and
other
information)
in-
cluding
4500
new
entries
since
1955.
$17.50
Mailing
plates
for
over
15,000
com-
puter
people;
includes
additions
and
corrections
since
the
Who's
Who
was
published.
We
address
your
envelopes.
$19
per
M
ORGANIZATIONS:
The
Computer
Directory
and
Buyer's
Guide,
1957
(the
June,
1957,
issue
of
Computers
and
Automation):
790
or-
ganization
listings,
1370
product
and
service
listings.
$6.00
MACHINES:
(Source
Information
in
back
issues.)
Types
of
Automatic
Computing
Ma-
chines
and
Components,
March,
1957.
$1.25
Roster
of
over
220
Automation
Com-
p~ters,
June,
1956. $4.00
Commercial
Automation
Computers,
December,
1956. $1.25
GLOSSARY OF TERMS:
Over
480
careful,
clear,
understand-
able
definitions.
4th
cumulative
edi-
tion,
as
of
October,
1956. (20
or
more
copies,
10%
discount,)
$1.00
BACK
COPIES:
(For
six
years
of
publication.)
If
available,
$1.25
each,
except
Di-
rectory
issues
June
1955, 1956, $4.00
each;
June,
1957, $6.00.
Send
prepaid
orders
or
requests
for
more
information
to:
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
81
5
Washington
Street,
Dept.
1-107
NEWTONVILLE
60,
MASS.
4
If
not
satisfactory,
returnable
in seven
days
for
full
refund.
INDEX
OF
NOTICES
Page
Advertising Index . . . . . .
..
34
Bulk Subscriptions
.......
27
Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Reader's Inquiry
Form
....
32
Special Issues . . . . . . . . . .
..
3
Who's
Who
Entry
Form
..
27
Change of Address:
If
your address
changes, please send
us
both your
new address and your old address
(as
it appears on the magazine
ad-
dress sticker), and allow three weeks
for the change to be made.
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
DATA
PROCESSING
CYBERNETICS
Volume 6
Number
8
ARTICLES
AUGUST
1957
ROBOTS
Established
September
1951
The
Spacistor-New
Kind
of
Semiconductor
Amplifier . . . . . . . . .
..
6
NEIL
D.
MACDONALD
Airline
Automation:
A
Major
Step
..........................
10
C.
E.
AMMANN
Role
of
Computers
in High School Science
Education
............
15
G.
E.
FORSYTHE,
W.
E.
FERGUSON, AND
D.
L.
TRAUTMAN
REFERENCE
INFORMATION
Who's
Who
in
the
Computer
Field,
1956-57,
Some
Statistics;
New
and
Revised Full Entries
................
20
Books
and
Other
Publications
............
"
.................
24
New
Patents
..........................................
32
The Editor's
Notes
and
Reader's
Forum
........................
3
Industry
News
Notes
......................................
26
Advertiser's
Index
........................................
34
Ed
Burnett
EDITOR
Edmund C. Berkeley
ASSISTANT
EDITORS
Neil
D.
Macdonald
CONTRIBUTING
EDITORS
F.
L.
Walker
Andrew
D.
Booth
Ned
Chapin
John
W.
Carr,
11/
Alton S.
Householder
ADVISORY
COMMITTEE
Samuel
B.
Williams
Herbert
F.
Mitchell, Jr.
Howard
T.
Engstrom
Alston S.
Householder
H.
Jefferson
Mills, Jr.
SALES
AND
SERVICE
MANAGER
Milton
L.
Kaye,
601
Madison
Ave.,
New
York
22,
N.
Y.
Plaza
5-4680
ADVERTISING
REPRESENTATIVES
New
York
22:
Milton
L.
Kaye,
601
Madison
Ave
.........
Plaza
.5-4680
San
Francisco
5:
W.
A. Babcock, 605
Market
St
.........
Yukon 2-3954
Los
Angeles
5:
Wentworth
F.
Green,
439 S.
Western
Ave
..
Dunkirk 7-8135
Elsewhere: The Publisher
COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION
is
published
monthly
by
Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.,
815
Washington
St.,
Newtonville
60,
Mass.
-Decatur
2-5453
or
2-3928.
Printed in U.S.A.
SUBSCRIPTION
RATES:
(United
States)
$5.50
for
1
year,
$10.50
for
2
years;
(Canada)
$6.00
for
1
year,
$11.50
for
2
years;
(Foreign)
$6.50
for
1
year,
$12.50
for
2
years.
ENTERED
AS
SECOND
CLASS
MATTER
at
the
Post Office
at
Hanover,
Pennsylvania.
(Postmaster:
Send
notices,
Form
3579,
to
815
Washington
Street,
Newtonville
60,
Mass.)
Copyright,
1957,
by
Berkeley
Enterprises,
Inc.
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
~~~
Importa~t
Question
No.2
~CID
~IDl~Iffillnft~
ft~®
IffillCID~ft
(c@Iffilllffi~®ft®
~@~@If@ftCIDIrY
If®l
ffi
@Irli§
wnftfu
@~~
(cIDl~ft
@
Iffillc
~
lilln~ft
m~®~@y
~nIID®
~If@ft@fty~®~1
It
is a
known
fact
that
ESC
Corporation
is
unequalled
for
the
most
complete
and
de-
finitive
laboratory
reports
submitted
with
"delay line
prototypes.
Every
ESC
lab
re-
port
includes
submitted
electrical
requirements,
photo-oscillograms(which
indicate
input
and
output
pulse
shape
and
output
rise-time),
the
test
equipment
used,
and
evalua-
tion
of
the
electrical
characteristics
of
the
prototype.
This
is
unmatched
in
the
industry.
~
1st
in
sales!
~
1st
company
devoted
exclusively
to
the
~f'
~
manufacture
of
delay
lines!
~
1st
in
research,
design
and
development
of
custom-built
delay
lines!
Exceptional
employment
opportunities
for
engineers
experienced
in
pulse
techniques.
ESC CORPORATION
~
534 BERGEN
BOULEVARD·
PALISADES
PARK·
NEW
JERSEX·
@
WESCON
SHOW
BOOTH
NO.
290~
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957 5
THE SPACISTOR-A
NEW
KIND
OF
SEMICONDUCTOR AMPLIFIER
Neil
D.
M3cdonald
New York, N.
Y.
I.
Computing A
Hundred
Times Faster?
ON July
16
in Boulder, Colorado, Dr. Herman
Statz, Dr. Robert Pucel, and Mr. Conrad Lanza
of Raytheon Manufacturing Co. gave a paper
at
the
session on semiconductors of
the
Institute of Radio
Engineers
and
the
American Institute of Electrical
Engineers.
The
paper announced a device which they
called
the
"spacistor". This name denotes a semicon-
ductor amplifying
and
switching device which makes
good use of a new effect,
the
creation of a high elec-
trical space charge in what
was
previously a transistor.
The
word "spacistor"
is
not a proprietary name
but
a
proposed scientific term.
About eight to ten laboratory models of spacistors
have been constructed,
and
they work; and
the
evidence
is
good
that
spacistors will work in many kinds of new
applications, giving new powers
t~
electronic equipment
including computers.
Although
the
existing models have been tested only
up to about
800
kilocycles, there
is
excellent evidence
that
spacistors will work
at
frequencies up to
100
to
10,000 megacycles.
The
device itself and
the
theory of
the
device together suggest
that
the
speed of pulses in
computers for calculating purposes may
be
raised from
a million pulses per second to
1000
million pulses per
second.
If
even a part of this promise
is
realized,
it
means
that
a dramatic new gain in -speed for computers
is
about to be seized.
The
spacistor
is
almost certainly a step forward in
the
art of amplifying electronic energy. It
is
expected to
combine many of the best features of
the
properties of
the transistor
and
the
vacuum tube.
It
is
as
tiny
as
a
transistor, and operates on
the
same miniature power
requirements, far less than those of vacuum tubes. It
is
predicted
that
the
spacistor will amplify
at
frequencies
up to 10,000 megacycles, considerably higher than will
transistors.
Also, spacistors can be made of materials unsuited for
transistors, and are expected to operate
at
temperatures
as
high
at
500
degrees centigrade, or more than double
the
operating temperatures of today's germanium and
silicon transistors.
The
spacistor
is
the
outcome of two years of intensive
research, and may take three to
five
years more research
and development before
it
is
commercially available.
II.
Comparison
of
the
Vacuum
Tube,
the
Transistor
and
the
Spacistor
In
a vacuum tube (see
the
diagram),
the
cathode
is
heated by a filament heater. A large number of electrons
boil off
the
negative cathode and are attracted to
the
positive plate.
The
small fluctuating signal, to
be
am-
plified,
is
applied
to
the
negative grid
as
shown. This
~6
PLATE
~
....
-+
....
.......
..
h
....
...
......
....
...
-+
...
.. ..
..
....
...........
><-·_'
.......
""'1
.-.N..
......
~I....
-+
..
~JWw
VACUUM
TUBE
causes
the
negative grid voltage to fluctuate accordingly.
The
more negative
the
grid
the
smaller
the
current
(flow of electrons) between cathode and plate.
The
more positive
the
voltage on
the
grid,
the
larger
the
current between cathode and plate.
Thus
the
grid acts
as
a valve or shutter, a very small
signal controlling a relatively large current.
The
large
output
signal (shown under plate)
is
the
amplified
counterpart of
the
small input signal. In some vacuum
tubes,
the
choice of voltages and other factors may
yield a signal gain of several thousand.
In a typical transistor of
the
type called n-p-n
grounded base (see
the
diagram), a steady negative
TRANSISTOR
voltage
is
applied in a circuit from
the
emitter to
the
base contact, and a greater steady negative voltage
is
applied in a circuit from
the
base contact to
the
col-
lector. This causes significant currents (flows of elec-
trons) from
the
emitter into
the
base region and from
the
base region into
the
collector, because of
the
close
COMPUTERS
and
A UTOMA
TION
for
August,
1957
Working on Experimental Spacistors
With
a Micromanipulator
The
machine shown here enables small objects to be moved
and handled under high magnification.
The
left hand of
the
operator
is
on
the
left handle of
the
machine,
but
the
right handle
of
the
machine
is
not
at
present being manipulated. Under
the
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
binocular microscope
the
position of
the
left whisker lead
t!J
the
spacistor (the injector)
is
being adjusted.
The
spacistor can almost
be seen under
the
binoculars, where
the
light tube can throw
light on it.
7
spatial proximity of
the
emitter
and
the
collector;
but
the
current from
the
base contact to
the
collector
is
negligible.
A small negative voltage
as
a fluctuating or switching
signal may now be applied in
the
circuit from the
emitter to
the
base contact; this signal produces a
greatly multiplied fluctuating or switching signal from
the
base contact to
the
collector. Because
the
input
current from
the
emitter into
the
base region
is
just
about
the
same
as
the
current from
the
base region into
the
collector, yet
the
resistance from
the
emitter to
the
base region
is
only a fraction of
the
resistance
(say
1/30
to 1/100) of
the
resistance from
the
base region to
the
collector, a power gain of
30
to
100
times results.
In
this
way
the
transistor amplifies.
In
a typical spacist?r (see
the
diagram), a high steady
SPACISTOR
~COLLECTOR
negative voltage
is
applied in a circuit through
the
load
from
the
base to
the
collector, in such a
way
as
to
produce a high electric field
but
almost no current.
Then
a steady negative voltage
is
applied in a circuit
from
the
injector to
the
space-charge region. This causes
electrons to enter
the
region of
the
high electric field,
and flow extremely rapidly to
the
collector. This current
(flow of electrons)
is
modulated by
the
application of a
negative voltage
as
a fluctuating or switching signal in a
circuit from
the
modulator to
the
space-charge region.
The
choice of voltages may make
the
greater current
from
the
in jector to
the
collector
3000
times
the
smaller
current from
the
modulator to
the
collector; and
the
gain factor may rise considerably. In this
way,
a
spacistor amplifies.
III.
Technical Description
The
purpose of
the
design of
the
spacistor
was
to
overcome
the
frequen~y
limitations of
the
transistor by
avoiding
the
slow diffusion of charge carriers (electrons
or "holes") through
the
base region. Carrier motion
accross
the
base region of a transistor
is
slow because
this region
is
essentially free of an electric field.
It
is
true
that
the
base region of a diffused transistor has a
built-in field,
but
its strength
is
severely limited. Very
much higher field strengths, however, are found in space-
charge regions in reverse-biased junctions; in fact,
the
strength of an electric field
is
limited only by
the
break-
down voltage of
the
semiconductor body.
The
spa
cis
tor
8
makes use of these high fields to accelerate
the
charge
carriers
so
that
their transit time
is
greatly shortened.
A typical experimental spacistor
is
shown schematical-
ly
in Fig.
1.
The
semiconductor body
is
a reverse:-biased
p-n junction with a space-charge region sc. Injector I
and
modulator M are
the
input
points; base
Band
collector C are
the
output
points.
B2
....----41111-+---
...
INPUT
l
B,
1-----411
+
B p n
LOAD
B3
1....oo.(~JV\..jrvvV\J\...o-
....
1111I1
I-+--~
OUTPUT
c
Diagram of a typical experimental spacistor and external circuits.
Definitions:
B,
base; I, injector;
M,
modulator;
C,
collector; p,
positive region; n, negative region; sc, space-charge region; B1
,2,:),
battery no. one, two, three.
Injector I
is
connected to base B through battery
B~
which biases I negatively with respect to
the
underlying
space-charge region
sc.
(Note
that
the
potential of point
I
is
still positive with respect to
point
B.) Electrons are
emitted from I
int~
sc,
and
the
emission
is
space-
charge-limited.
Modulator M
is
connected to
the
space-charge region
sc
at
a
point
between injector I
and
the
n region of
the
semiconductor body. Since M
is
biased negatively with
respect to
sc
by means of battery
B2,
holes cannot
flow
from
the
p region of
the
semiconductor body
to
sc;
therefore M draws practically
no
current. (Note
that
the
potential
at
M
is
still positive with respect to B
and I.)
Modulator M has two functions. First,
it
varies
the
emission of injector I by superimposing an a.c. voltage
on
the
d.c. bias.
The
field produced by M penetrates
throughout
the
space-charge region to its boundaries.
Second, modulator M makes
the
bias of injector I
practically independent of
the
voltage applied across
the
base B and
the
collector C
so
as
to keep
the
output
impedance desirably high -in excess of
30
megohms,
for an injected current of 0.3 milliamperes.
Transconductance
(gm)
of present experimental
spacistors
is
considerably below
that
of good vacuum
tubes but, with further development,
it
is
expected
that
comparable values will
be
attained.
A low-frequency power gain of 70 db has already been
achieved with experimental spacistors
at
low frequencies.
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
A comparable advantage over transistors
is
expected to
be
realized
at
higher frequencies
as
well.
When
the
present
input
of
30
megohms
is
improved, power gain
is
expected to become
so
great
that
it
will
be
more
appropriate to talk
about
voltage gain,
as
in
the
case of
a vacuum tube. A voltage gain of
3000
has already been
achieved.
Output
capacitance
is
exceedingly small because of
the
wide space-charge region, and values smaller
than
1
micromicrofarad appear entirely feasible. Even with
the
relatively low transconductance values obtained in
present spacistors,
it
is
expected
that
tuned amplifiers
can be built which will operate
at
frequencies corre-
sponding to approximately
the
inverse transit time
through
the
space-charge regions, i.e., frequencies in
excess of
1000
megacycles_
Input
and
output
are decoupled to a high degree
as
in a vacuum
tube
- a useful property in
the
design of
multi-stage circuitry.
Another important advantage of
the
spacistor
is
that
its operation
is
practically independent of the "lifetime"
of
the
charge-carrier.
It
should therefore
be
feasible
to
employ
not
only germanium
and
silicon
but
also other
semiconductor materials whose short "lifetime" makes
them unsuitable for transistors. Silicon carbide and other
materials with large energy gaps are promising possi-
bilities for high-temperature spacistors.
Compal1ative Chal1acteristics
of
the
V,acuum Tube, Transistor,
and
Spacistor
Vacuum
Tube
Transistor
Spacistor
Frequency
Limit High
Medium
High
(1000
Mc)
(250
Mc)
(10,000
Mc)
Heater
Power
Required
None
High
Temperature
Available
Not
Materials
Available
Theoretica
I Life Limited Unlimited
Vacuum
Envelope
Required
None
Circuit
Weight
High
low
and
Space
Strategic
Materials
Required
None
Complexity
of
Multiple-
low
High
Stage
Circuitry
Input
and
Output
High
low
Impedances
The
Editor's
Notes
and
Readers'
Forum
[Continued
from
page
31
None
Available
Unlimited
None
low
None
low
Very High
of
the
present 8 billions
spent
for planes and missiles.
Assuming no important change in
the
international
situation, the same sum will go for all air arms in
1961.
This means that:
a.
The
physical volume of units will
decrease.
b_
A freeze-out of aircraft producers
is
in prospect -
particularly
as
procurement of fighters dwindles.
c.
As
missiles increase in number, value, and com-
plexity, so does
the
need for computers
to
help design,
test, control, and record them.
It
is
probable
that
doubling
the
missile program will increase computer
procurement eightfold.
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
TO
POULTRY
FEED
Wilbur E. Clark
Hanover, Pa.
I
AM
JUST
back from a three-day poultry conference
at
Penn
State University where one day
at
lunch
I
talked with
the
executive secretary
of
a millers and
feed dealers association.
He
told
me
that
at
least two
major feed companies are now using
the
services of
these large computers in this
way:
Each day they telephone to
the
computer service
(which
is
retained on an hourly service basis)
the
closing
prices
at
Chicago on
the
various feed grains
and
ingre-
dients such
as
corn, oats, barley, soybean oil meal, etc.
The
computer has already stored
up
the
various kinds
of ingredients
that
may
be
substituted for each other,
depending on current prices, kind of feed formula being
manufactured, etc. (It's a very involved business, manu-
facturing a certain poultry feed with definite percent-
ages of protein, fat, fiber, ash, vitamins, antibiotics,
and
all
the
other additives
that
make up a modern feed
formula.)
The
data are fed into
the
computer,
and
about
10
minutes later the machine types
out
the
exact infor-
mation telling which ingredients are
the
best buys of
the
day to make a particular formula feed.
This information
was
formerly arrived
at
by a corps
of some
25
skilled office workers
an-d
nutritionists.
As
a
result of
the
change,
one
feed company estimates a
saving of over $100,000 a year and, besides, gets
the
information much faster
so
that
it
can take advantage
of a price situation before
it
changes.
VARIABLE-LENGTH
MULTIPLICATION
R.
J.
Margolin
Bendix Computer Division
Bendix Aviation Corporation
Los Angeles, Calif.
THE
BENDIX
G-15,
a serial-type drum computer,
has
v~riable-Iength
multiplication which operates along
~he
hnes suggested by Mr.
I.
J.
Good
in
the
February
Issue of Computers
and
Automation.
The
Bendix
G-15
has three double-precision (57 bits
and sign) registers which are involved in multiplication
and division.
With
the
multiplicand in
the
ID
(multipl-
Icand-Denominator) register
and
the
multiplier in
the
MQ
(Multiplier-Quotient) register
the
multiply com-
mand
is
executed.
In
the
modified two-address form of
command used in
the
G-15,
the
part
of
the
command
which controls timing contains a relative timing num-
ber (the number of word times during which multipli-
cation
is
to continue).
For
each two word times of
multiplication,
one
bit
of
the
multiplier
is
processed.
The
relative timing
number
may vary from 2 to
114,
for multipliers of 1 to
57
bits, respectively.
The
product
is
accumulated double-precision in
the
PN
(Product-
Nume-rator) register
and
may
be
taken
out
as
either
single
(28
bits and sign) or double (57 bits
and
sign)
[Please
turn
to
page
241
9
AIRLINE AUTOMATION: A MAJOR STEP
c.
E. Ammann
Director, Advanced Process Research
American Airlines
New York, N.
Y.
T
HE
airlines present an excellent example of a fast
growing industry.
As
is
often
the
case in such
industries, some parts of
the
business took great
strides while others remained practically dormant.
Im~'
provements in aircraft over
the
years reduced
the
flying
time across
the
country from a matter of days to a
matter of hours, yet only
the
simplest of tools were
available to process
the
passenger's reservation.
For example, in
1931
it took three days to
fly
from
New York to Los Angeles in
the
Fokker FlO.
In
1934,
by
a combination of the DC-2 and Curtiss Condor, it
was
possible to make this trip in
21
hours. Today, you
fly
it in eight hours.
In
another year or two, something
less
than
five
hours will
be
routine.
To
do these things better -
at
less cost -and to make
the
eventual product more attractive to
the
buyer
is
the
constant aim of every form of business enterprise. Air
transportation
is
no exception.
Our
customer,
the
passenger, must be provided with what
he
wants -when
he
wants it.
We
have to display our full product -
we
have to make it attractive -
we
have to make
the
buying
process easy.
Looking
at
our product in
1940,
we
recognized
that
although
we
had made it attractive by providing new
aircraft
and
better in-flight service, there
was
little in the
offing to improve our reservations system.
Three-Part Problem
It
was
recognized
that
the
solution to
the
reservations
problem lay in something substantially different, or at
least more advanced, than anything which had served
the
industry through its early years of growth. After
reaching this conclusion
the
next step
was
to analyze
the
situation and define
the
problem. This
was
done
and
it
was
shortly concluded
that
making a reservation in-
volved three distinct actions or parts:
First, determining
the
availability of space; second,
modifying
the
inventory,
and
third,
the
recording of a
name.
It
was
further decided
that
Availability
and
In-
ventory Control were of
the
most immediate concern.
Availability
as
we use
the
term refers
to
the
status of
space on a particular flight. It answers
the
question:
Is
there space available, or on what flights
is
space avail-
able? Since our product
is
highly perishable
and
the
number of items we sell are almost infinite in number,
availability
is
highly dependent on an accurate
and
cur-
rent inventory control system.
Our
product
is
perishable because an empty seat on
a plane
that
has departed can never
be
reclaimed.
The
items we sell are infinite in number because each
boarding
point
on a trip on
the
fifth of
the
month
bears
little relation to
that
boarding
point
on a similar trip
on
the
sixth of
the
month, and
so
on.
The
seats cannot
be
used for identical purposes or substituted for one
10
another except in rare instances. Although hardly
the
rule,
it
is
not
unusual to receive bookings for a particular
trip years in
the
future.
Upon examination we found
that
there were two
general means of presenting availability information:
1.
The
Availability Book.
2.
The
Visual Display Board.
The
Availability Book,
as
the
name implies,
is
a book
or index in which
the
status of space on each leg of each
flight on each day
is
recorded. A leg,
as
we use
the
term,
refers to
that
portion of a flight between a scheduled
take-off and
the
next scheduled landing.
One
book can
be made physically accessible to a maximum of four
agents and
it
is
still used in small offices. J\1ultiple books
for use in larger offices had been tried and found want-
ing due to errors developing through delays or negligence
in posting from book to book.
This problem outweighed
the
advantage of having
the
information close to
the
agent and easily read,
as
well
as
the
advantage of being able to quickly insert new
pages to
give
effect to a revised order of departure caused
by
a schedule change.
Display Boards Tried
Poor experience in keeping several books in agreement
led to
the
use of a blackboard or visual display board so
that many agents might look
at
the
same source of in-
formation. This method likewise had limitations in
the
number of people
it
could conveniently serve. Clear
space to seat agents with a full view of
the
board
was
limited by
the
distance between columns in most build-
ings, usually about
22
feet by
22
feet.
The
use of multiple boards to overcome this difficulty
had
the
same disadvantage
as
multiple books.
In
addi-
tion, common visible displays presented serious growth
problems.
As
demand for services increased and
it
was
necessary
for more people to provide
service
to
the
customer,
the
.
size of each character displayed on
the
board had to be
increased so everyone could see it.
As
space became hard to obtain due to demand,
people who might otherwise
go
to
the
airport
and
take
the
first flight available began to make reservations. This
increased
the
calls to Reservations and required more
people to answer
the
telephones.
This same demand caused
the
manufacturer, in this
case
the
airline, to provide more planes to handle
the
pressure, thus increasing
the
amount of information to
be displayed. Even with
both
the
Availability Book and
the Visual Board, agents in ticket offices had to call
Reservations for information. And because of
the
limited
amount
of information
that
could be displayed
and seen in a large office, even
the
reservations agent
had to call a second party for some data.
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
Located in a room adjacent
to
American Airlines new reservations quarters, largest in
the
world,
at
Manhattan's
West
Side Airlines Terminal
is
the Magnetronic Reservisor, an improved version of an earlier model introduced
to industry by American in 1952. Built
to
the
airline's speCifications by Teleregister Corp., a subsidiary of Ogden
Corp."
the
new Reservisor provides
the
same instantaneous reservations information
as
its predecessor
but
in greater
detail and faster.
The
"brain,"
consi<;ting
of
the
memor} drum under
the
clock
at
the
far
end
of
the
room and
the
racks surrounding the console
at
which
the
maintenance technician
is
seated, stores and releases information
to
the
inquiring reservations agent
at
the flick
of
a switch.
Naturally there has been a great deal of experimen-
tation with visual display boards.
There
are probably
as
many approaches
as
there are stations
that
use
the
boards.
Although slate and chalk are
the
most common ma-
terials used,
one
will see variations made of plastic,
ceramic coated steel, painted wood and
so
forth. Pre-
printed plaques using
both
colors and symbols are used
on some boards in an
attempt
to increase readability.
Many boards are made
to
raise and lower or to turn on
a central axis, all with a view toward making it easier
to
post information. .
Some attempts have been made to electrify these
boards
but
all
to
no avail because of
the
prohibitive cost.
Basic Requirements
After satisfying ourselves
that
reservations would
be
with
us
for some years in
the
future, and determining
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
the areas we would tackle first, namely Availability
and
Inventory Control, we
attempted
to outline
the
basic
requirements- of a system.
1.
We
felt
that
the
system should make our product
immediately available to
the
sales agent without
causing
undue
eyestrain or fatigue.
2.
It should enable
us
to record sales
and
cancella-
tions
as
they occur and keep an accurate running
inventory.
3.
It
should reduce our dependence on large, audi-
torium-like areas for future reservations offices,
and
by using regular communication facilities
make available to ticket offices, satellite offices or
to any point such
as
any room, all
the
informational
advantages one would have if seated in
the
reser-
vations office.
4.
The
input-output device, which we later called an
Agent Set, should retain a record of
the
last
11
operation until manually cleared or another trans-
action
was
entered.
It
should be easily operated by
right-handed or left-handed people and so simple
in operation
that
an agent could be trained in its
use in a matter of an hour or less.
5.
It
should automatically advise other stations, when
necessary, each time a given flight
is
sold out.
6.
It
should do all of
the
above economically, accur-
ately, and
be
capable of expansion.
Our
first approach naturally
was
to go
to
large
manufacturers and see whether thev had a device which
would meet our requirements, or
it"
they were interested
in
the
development of such a system. Interestingly
enough,
we
found
that
we
were in a field where little
had been done, that
is
the field of inventory control.
Any
number of organizations manufactured accounting
systems
but
there
was
a basic difference between these
systems and what we needed for inventory control.
In accounting, one person would have access to
hundreds or even thousands of accounts or records,
whereas in inventory control
the
situation
is
reversed
and ideally any or all salesmen should be able
to
get
at
the inventory for a specific item.
As
you can see, with
a perishable item like a seat on today's
five
o'clock flight
for
New York, it
is
necessary to handle the sale
as
quickly
as
possible. Conversely, upon receiving a can-
cellation it
is
necessary to return it to inventory im-
mediately so
that
it
may
be
resold.
Designed
Own
Equipment
It
soon became obvious
that
we
could
not
obtain a
piece of equipment off
the
shelf so to speak and manu-
facturers were
not
particularly interested in developing
new equipment to do
the
job.
We
did receive nuisance
quotations to develop such a system,
but
actually even
then there
was
little interest. Since
the
problem
was
not
likely to
be
solved unless we did something about it, we
decided to
attempt
the
design ourselves.
In
this case we
had
the
three advantages -knowing
the
problem,
not
knowing how it could
not
be solved, and a limited group
of
one person working on it.
We
were willing to listen
to any idea and examine its possibilities with an open
mind.
Some of our approaches were novel to
say
the
least.
One
early
attempt
was
as
much mechanical
as
electrical,
and its main purpose
was
to help visualize
the
problem.
In this solution we
~sed
vertical metal tubes to hold
marbles. Each tube representing a flight on a particular
day and each marble a seat. By means of an electric trip
at
the
bottom of each tube, marbles could be released
representing seats sold. Marbles could, be returned from
the
top to represent seats cancelled.
The
height of
In
a setting designed for comfort, speed and service, two American Airlines reservations agents
at
the
airline's
new reservations office
at
l\1anhattan's
West
Side Terminal provide
the
answers to
AA
customers. An agent's key
set, which
is
linked
to
the
Magnetronic Reservisor,
is
placed conveniently between
them
and other useful infor-
mation
is
quickly available on glass-enclosed charts
at
eye level.
12
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
marbles in
the
tube represented
the
number of seats
in inventory. Admittedly, this
was
not
the
machine
we
wanted
but
it
would work
and
it
served to give
us
a
better understanding of
the
problem.
Another idea
that
seemed
at
first to show promise
was
to use a bridge network with fixed value resistors repre-
senting each seat. You could
then
interpret
the
number
of seats by reading
the
voltage drop across
the
resistors.
This
was
all right
but
when we calculated
the
power
requirements we found
that
such system would con-
sume over
100
kilowatts. This
was
obviously
out
of line.
We
finally arrived
at
what may
be
called a cross-bar
system using relays. A matrix
was
designed which had
some similarity to the core memories of today, only in-
stead of cores
we
had jacks into which plugs were
manually inserted
~o
indicate open or closed. Across
the
top indicating each vertical column were
the
dates, and
along
the
side indicating
the
horizontal rows were the
trip legs.
Then
using
the
simplest of equipment
we
could check for continuity between vertical
and
hori-
lontal
lines which would indicate
that
a shorting plug
had been inserted meaning
that
the
flight
had
been
sold out.
A working model
was
built using parts immediately
at hand;
as
a matter of fact, much of
it
was
done in a
basement workshop. Upon completion,
the
model
was
operated before members of top management who
ap-
proved of
the
approach and set
up
a fund to further
explore
the
idea.
Our
luck seemed to change
at
this juncture.
The
Teleregister Corporation,
then
a subsidiary of
\\'
estern
Union,
was
contacted
and
after examining
the
operat-
ing model became interested
and
agreed to build a pilot
model for what
we
considered a reasonable price.
Pilot Model in 1946
This pilot model
was
installed in February,
1946,
at
Boston
and
was
used until
we
moved into our new
office last year. Although
the
equipment
was
designed
for use in
New
York, a last-minute change in plans made
it necessary to place
the
equipment in Boston. This
created a problem because
the
physical dimensions of
halls, doorways, etc., of
the
New York office were con-
sidered in fabricating equipment, and in Boston it
was
found
that
we
<;ould
not fit
the
equipment through the
stair well or in
the
elevator. It
was
necessary to obtain
a crane, remove an outside window on
the
third floor
of
the
building, and bring
the
equipment through this
opening. .
This first installation
was
designed strictly for avail-
ability.
It
had
no frills
but
was
sound from an engi-
neering
and
electrical standpoint. After
the
first year's
operation
we
evaluated results and found
that
the
station
was
carrying about
200
more passengers per day
with some
20
less people in
the
office. Unfortunately,
other changes had taken place in
the
office
at
the
same
time
and
we could
not
attribute all improvement to
the
Reservisor,
but
we
were able to prove conclusively
that
equipment of this type
was
economical and it had a
definite effect on revenue.
The
reception by
the
agents
was
just terrific,
In
a
very short time they had nicknamed
the
equipment
"Girly" because
it
told all.
COMPUTERS
and
A
UTOMA
TION
for
August,
1957
Shortly after
the
installation in
the
reservations office
we
placed remote connecting equipment in our Hotel
Statler ticket office, where its sales aspects were really
evident. .
It
(1946)
was
a war year - a time of priorities and
tight space.
\Ve
were continually accused of keeping
seats up our sleeve.
With
the
advent of
the
Reservisor,
where requests for space were made
and
answered by a
machine, this feeling completely disappeared. This, in
itself,
is
a very important contribution of machine
techniques.
With
the
availability problem well on
the
way
to
solution in Boston, our next problem
was
to handle
the
inventory. This problem
was
as
much economic
as
technical. An example of a technical approach
that
never paid off
was
an English-made system which
was
loaned to one airline in New York some years ago. This
system used rotary switches to do
the
counting. It
worked well enough
but
it
was
both
clumsy and costly.
Rotary Switch
Not
Practical
~he
ro~ry
switch, in its class,
is
basically a high speed
de,vIce
desIgn~d
for
m~ny
revolutions per second. Ap-
plIed to keepmg
the
mventory
on
a flight leg for a
month, this rotary switch would make less than one
revolution a
month
-a most uneconomic use of
the
device.
One
idea
that
was
pursued
was
to build a rotary
counter
out
of a screw and nut. A ratchet on
the
bottom
?f
the
scr~
would cause
it
to turn, thus moving
the
nut
m a vertIcal plane.
By
reading
the
height of
the
nut
electrically or manually, one could tell
the
number of
seats
on
the
plane. This approach like many others
was
\~orkab~e,
but
proved expensive from a manufacturing
viewpomt.
All of these proposals required systems
that
would
cost dollars per seat leg day, while our evaluation of the
project indicated
that
storage cost should be measured
in terms of about three cents per seat leg day.
About this time, considerable publicity
was
released
on
the
work of Dr. Howard
H.
Aiken of Harvard Uni-
versity. His progress with
the
magnetic drum
was
proving successful, and I believe
it
was
his work
as
much
as
any which spurred
the
engineers to explore
the
area
o~
a special purpose computer for
both
storing
and
countmg.
Magnetronic Reservisor Evolved
Subsequently, an unused
gri~ding
wheel
was
fitted
with a round aluminum billet and sprayed with an oxide
coating. A read/record head
was
mounted
next to this
improvised drum and connected to suitable electronic
circuitry which enabled
the
engineers to check
the
feasibility of this approach. It proved highly successful
and step by step
the
Magnetronic- Reservisor,
as
we
know
it
today, came into being.
Now, we cannot exactly compare this work with other
comput~r
",,:ork
of
t~e
time because our
intent
to apply
these pnncII?les to mventory control slightly changed
the
compleXIOn
of
the
problem.
We
required absolute
accuracy
and
22-hour-a-day operation, which
is
a tall
order even today. These requirements indicated a
slightly different design from
that
of
the
normal com-
puter.
13
For
example, although packing factors of
80
or more
to
the
inch were common
at
the
time, we packed
20
to
the
inch.
We
used dual drums -for
that
matter, dual
equipment throughout -and each transaction
was
completed in duplicate
and
compared throughout its
cycle
so
that
in the event an error
was
in
the
making
the
machine would throw
out
the
entire transaction
before
it
affected
the
inventory.
Each time a transaction
was
discarded
the
inventory
was
left in its original state and a red lamp signal sent
to
the
Agent Set originating
the
call
so
that
he might
reinstate his call.
At
the
same time, a teletype printer
printed
out
a record of
the
transaction which had been
discarded
so
that
the
maintenance group could analyze
the
situation.
The
fact
that
these and other safeguards
worked
is
evidenced by
the
99.8% up-time experienced
with
the
equipment.
One
problem
that
may be of particular interest
is
the
design of
the
Agent Set.
We
worried over this problem
for a considerable period of
time
examining every con-
ceivable approach.
Our
problem revolved about how to
put
in requests for information.
The
passenger can tell
the
sales agent where he wants to
go
and when he
wants to leave
but
he
can seldom give you
the
flight
number.
Secondly,
the
whole advantage of a reservations
system to American Airlines' lies in
the
ability
to
ac-
commodate a passenger on an earlier or later flight if
the
one of his choice
is
full. Expressed in terms of Agent
Set requirements, this means
that
the
equipment should
always offer an alternate or
at
least offer one if
the
specific . flight requested
is
not
available.
Using keys, buttons, dials and
so
forth to
put
in all
of
the
information needed
was
too time-consuming for
the
agent and tended to increase
the
physical size of
the
equipment.
We
tried mechanized versions of the desk
telephone index, drums with
the
information printed
on a removable paper roll, endless loops of
35
millimeter
film
and
slides of
the
same material which, of course,
necessitated having a projector
as
part of
the
Agent Set.
Each of these methods satisfied some problems
and
created others;
Destination Plate
Lastly, we thought of
the
Destination Plate which, in
effect,
was
an automatic encoding
and
decoding device,
eliminating
the
need for
the
agent to translate
the
passenger's request into machine or airline language.
To
reduce
the
number of destination plates needed
we
evolved .the scheme of a shutter switch which
al-
lowed
us
to view either of two lines of information on
the
plate by
the
flick of a switch.
The
system
was
finally agreed upon
and
in July,
1952,
the
first Magnetronic Reservisor went into operation in
New .York.
It
has proved to
be
an excellent, reliable
tooL Early fears of tube failure have proved unwar-
ranted."
When
we'installed
the
new, larger equipment
in
1956,
there were still many of
the
original comple-
ment
of tubes operating effectively in
the
old equipment
after more than four years of 24-hour-a-day service. I
should state here
that
two hours a 'day are given to pre-
ventive maintenance.
14
Coincident with
the
work
on
the
Reservisor we were
requested to look into
the
problem of disseminating
arnval
and
departure information. I
don't
know why
we
did
not
see
the
similarity to
the
availability problem
immediately,
but
our first approach
was
to mechanize
the
function
as
it
was
then
performed. This consisted
of remotely controlled indicators which would take
the
place of
the
blackboard or other means of presenting
the
information. A brief look
at
the
final design indi-
cated
that
it
would do
the
job,
but
at
a cost
that
we
could
not
-justify.
We
dropped
the
project temporarily,
but
kept
it
in
the
back of our minds.
One
balmy summer day it
occurred
to
us
that
we
could store
the
information in
the
Reservisor and read it from a fixed display by means
of
the
leg-indicating lights.
Today, in addition to availability and inventory con-
trol,
the
Reservisor also dispenses flight information.
One
Vast Network
American Airlines now has advanced models of
the
original Availability Reservisor located in Chicago,
Boston
and
Washington.
The
New
York counting
Reservisor handles
the
entire metropolitan area and
is
remotely connected with Buffalo. Gradually, all
the
large stations will
be
joined together into one vast net-
work.
We
will retain Availability equipment in large
cities
and
route calls from Agent Sets
to
these local
units for availability and information. Sell and cancel
calls will be routed to one or more central inventory
control units which will, in turn, update
the
local Avail-
ability units.
This seems to be
the
general pattern
that
is
shaping
up
with all
the
airlines, and
it
is
only a question of time
when
we
will interconnect our services.
As
I stated
at
the
beginning, we found three major
areas: Availability of
the
product, inventory of
the
product,
and
handling of
the
name record or
the
physical record of
the
transaction. I have outlined how
we approached and solved
the
first two. During
the
last few years
we
have been working on
the
solution of
the
latter problem,
that
is
the
handling of
the
name
record. A pilot model of
the
equipment to handle this
situation
was
developed jointly with
IBM
and
is
presently in use in Buffalo.
It
is
known
as
a Data
Organizing Translator.
It
reads
the
keypunched reservations record, decides
whether one or more messages need be sent to other
stations, if messages should
be
sent,
it
decides whether
the
stations are on American Airlines or another airline,
and, based upon this decision,
it
determines
the
Code
Directing Characters
that
should prefix each message
in order to reach its destination.
Foresees Many Uses
It
then
prepares
the
message organizing
the
text for
each addressee depending on
that
city's position in
the
itinerary. A local electric typewriter can produce a copy
of each message sent. An additional local typewriter can
produce a list of all transactions in any desired category,
such
as
sales on other airlines, sales on flights ending or
beginning in
2,
etc. A punched 5 level tape
is
produced
[Please
turn
to
page
30]
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
THE
ROLE OF 'COMPUTERS
IN
HIGH
SCHOOL SCIENCE EDUCATION
I:
THE
ASSOCIATION
FOR
COMPUTING
MACHINERY
and
HIGH
SCHOOL
SCIENCE
EDUCATION
George E. Forsythe
Numerical Analysis Research,
University of California
at
Los Angeles
(A
memorandum from
the
chairman of
the
Education Committee of
the
Association for Computing
Machinery, addressed
to
"approximately
100
persons who have expressed an interest
in
the
subject")
T
HE
Association for Computing Machinery
is
an
international society of scientists interested in
the
design, manufacture,
and
use of automatic com-
puting machinery.
The
author
is
chairman of
the
Education
Committee
of this Association.
The
purpose
of this memorandum
is
to
let
you know of my interest,
and
that
of
the
Education Committee, in
the
problems
of high school mathematics and science education.
The
opinions expressed here are those of
the
author and
not
necessarily those of
the
Association's Education
Committee. Your comments will be appreciated.
At
the
national meeting of
the
Association in
Houston, Texas, June
19-21,
1957,
the
Council of
the
Association passed
the
following resolution:
"The
Council of
the
Association for Computing Machinery
notes that bettcr education in science and mathematics in the
pnmary and secondary schools cannot be expccted without higher
salaries for teachers of science and mathematics, at least.
The
Council urges members of
the
Association, if they see fit, to work
for such higher salaries in their own communities.
The
Council
also urges members of the Association, if they see fit, to make
their time and talents available to the schools of their com-
munities for collateral educational activities."
This resolution speaks for itself.
The
phrase "collateral
.....
activities" expresses my feeling
that
people in
industry are rarely equipped to take up classroom teach-
ing,
but
that
they can make a contribution if they will
volunteer for mathematics clubs, assembly programs,
computer visits, or for any number of useful extra-
curricular activities to promote interest in careers in
science and engineering.
Several of
us
in
the
Association have had experience
in speaking
to
school groups and teachers.
We
are
aware of
the
interesting, important, and reasonably well
paid positions in science
and
engineering, and are
anxious to let high school and junior high school stu-
dents
and
their teachers know about these careers.
We
know
that
the
number of large scale digital computing
machines
is
going to
be
enormous. (Over
700
had
been
installed by December
1956,
with over
2200
on order
at
that
time.
Within
five
years, I estimate
that
around
5000
computers will
be
installed.)
Each of these machines can be expected to require
at
least
10
mathematically trained persons
at
some level
to assist in its use. This total of
50,000
jobs compares
with today's total of less
than
12,000
members in all of
our mathematical societies combined. Obviously many
more people will
be
needed.
The
basic source can only
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August, 1957
be mathematically educated high school students.
In
addition to positions dealing directly with computers,
an even larger number of related positions in engineer-
ing and business will be affected materially by contact
with
the
computing centers.
Apparently most high school students -even bright
ones -are pretty cold to careers in science. (See Ben-
jamin Fine's article, "New York Times", 9 September
1956,
section I, p.
76).
Surely part of
the
cure
is
for
enthusiastic speakers and teachers to get young students
fired up with
the
inherent fascination and just plain
FUN
of science.
Automatic computers are exceptionally well suited for
this purpose, because of their ultimate simplicity. Digital
computers can only add, subtract, multiply,
and
divide,
and
the
junior high school
student
already knows these
operations. Many of
the
further problems which arise
in practical computation can
be
understood and appre-
ciated by a bright
ninth
grader. I know of no other field
of mathematical science where a high school
stuaent
can thus come to grips with important and live problems
on the. borders of knowledge.
Of
course,
the
staffing of computer laboratories
is
only
one aspect of
the
broad national problem of science
~nd
engineering education. ,
.'
, i
Much
routine clerical work can be done by
machin~
right now, and many clerical positions will gradually
cease to exist,
as
computers take over these roles. I con-
sider this to be a Computer Revolution comparable to
the
Industrial Revolution, and therefore feel
that
ordinary school students -
and
not
just future scientists
and machine operators -must be made aware of
the
general nature of these machines.
The
success of our impact on education will mainly
depend on
the
supply of teaching materials which
we
can make available to
the
schools.
It
is
therefore very
important for qualified people to design computer kits
and
other materials suitable for classroom
and
after-
hours use. This
is
the
conclusion of Richard
W.
Mel-
ville, chairman of
the
Committee on High School
Science Education of
the
Joint
Computer
Committee,
as
expressed in his informative report in "Education
and
Computers", Part
2,
of
the
January,
1957,
issue of
Computers
and
Automation.
I believe
that
our schools cannot possibly obtain
enough good science teachers at--the prevailing salary
scales, in
the
face of
the
current competition for
scientists. However, many teachers are encouraged to
15
remain in teaching by interesting and remunerative
summer work.
Our
committee therefore hopes
to
give
publicity to such plans for sharing personnel by industry
and schools
as
have been inaugurated by
the
Hughes
Aircraft Co. (Culver City, Calif.) and Arthur
D.
Little,
Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.)
II. A
THREE-PART
APPROACH
TO
SOLVING
THE
PROBLEM
w.
Eugene Ferguson
Head, Mathematics Department
Newton High School, Newtonville, Mass.
(Read during a panel discussion on
"The
Role of Computers in High School Science Education",
at
the
meeting of
the
Association for Computing Machinery in Houston, Texas, June 20, 1957.)
T
HE
role of computers in high school science
education
is
still an unknown quantity. I hope
that
during this discussion today some of
the
most
promising ideas for
the
introduction of computer edu-
cation in
the
high school will be brought out.
As
one reads
the
"help wanted" columns today (at
least in the Boston area), he
is
struck by
the
heavy
demand for computer personnel, from
the
design engi-
neer on down to
the
programmer, coder, and computer
operator.
If
the
supply
is
to catch up with
the
demand,
I believe there must be some computer education
de-
veloped for
the
high school. I have singled
out
the
computing field,
but
I would hasten to add
that
this
is
only one small area in
the
larger field of
the
sciences.
I shall attack this problem from three angles:
First: Teacher shortage, and its relation to programs in
high school mathematics and science, and the
shortage of well-trained scientists.
Second:
The
high school curriculum in relation to needs
for scientific personnel and computer people.
Third: How industry can help in high school science
education.
It
is
probably a safe assumption
that
we
need more
and better trained scientists, engineers, and computer
personnel.
To
insure an adequate supply of scientists
the
first thing
that
must happen
is
that
the
high schools
must
be
adequately staffed with qualified people in
their mathematics and science departments. I
say
high
schools,
but
I would like to repeat
the
same statement
for junior high school mathematics and science depart-
ments, and even on down to
the
elementary schools.
The
junior and senior high school
is
where
the
initial
stages of excitement in science start, and young people
when excited need adequately trained teacbers guiding
them.
Inadequate Salaries
The
major difficulty in getting adequately qualified
and competent teaching personnel in the mathematics
and science classes today can be summed up in two
words, inadequate salaries. How can
we
hope to keep
a staff of adequately trained teachers if their salary
range
is
so
low
that
it
is
impossible for them to make
a living without having a second job after school hours?
These conditions exist today almost everywhere, even
among some of
the
recognized top public schools in the
natioh~
---;
'-I
,-
-
16
The
developments in science and mathematics today
are moving
at
such a pace
that
the
training received by
teachers a few years ago
is
woefully inadequate for
to day's modern classroom in mathematics and science.
I am head of
the
mathematics department in a large
high school; and in order for my teachers to keep pace
with modern developments, they have to go back to
school from time to time or
at
least spend their sum-
mers studying, and
not
do odd jobs to eke
out
a living.
The
grants by
the
National Science Foundation for
attending summer institutes are a great help. I also
believe industry could employ some teachers for sum-
mer jobs in their computing and science sections, and
bring them up to date with needs in mathematics and
science. I believe it
is
still true that teachers have a
tremendous influence on
the
likes and dislikes of
students for various subjects. Many potential careers in
mathematics and science are killed by inadequately
prepared, unhappy, and underpaid school teachers.
Up
until now we have been able to staff our own classrooms
with dedicated teachers who have a missionary zeal and
are willing to make the monetary sacrifice.
But
the
question asked by many teachers today
is:
"Why
should
I sacrifice money for a college education for my children
by going into
the
teaching profession?"
How would increasing salaries alleviate
the
teacher
shortage?
If
I can believe some of
the
things I hear,
there are literally thousands of people qualified
to
teach
mathematics and science who are doing fringe engi-
neering jobs, and who would love
to
be
back in
the
mathematics and science classroom, if they could only
make a living at it! (I
say
back into
the
classroom, for
many were former teachers. Many others, though, would
be teaching for
the
first time.) Teachers have been
fighting for better salaries for years. Many of
us
quit
the field for a while,
but
now we are back again battling
for education. I am chairman of
the
salary policies
committee of our Teachers Federation, and I am con-
vinced that the parents and public
in
general must come
to our rescue.
I would like to suggest
that
the Association for
Computing Machinery go on record
as
favoring sub-
stantially increased salaries for teachers and
that
each
member do something about it
in
his own school com-
munity. I believe your voices will
be
heard and heeded.
An
adequately trained and adequately paid teaching
staff can turn
out
the
potential scientists we need.
COMPUTERS
and
A
UTOMA
TION
for
August,
1957
In
1954
some of my senior girls
at
Connecticut Col-
lege for
Women
with an
AB
degree, with major in
mathematics or science, took jobs in
the
computing
field
at
about $4000 (several dollars more than I
was
making). Today, three years later, they are
at
about
$6000. I have teachers with master's degrees on my staff
making much less than $6000 after more than
12
year's
experience!
Why
should smart mathematics students
go
into teaching when such low salaries are now being
paid to teachers?
You may feel
that
I have dwelt on salaries too long,
but
what I have to
say
in a
moment
about an adequate
curriculum for the high school
goes
right back to money
to buy teachers and give them free time to think
and
devise new programs in
the
light of present day
de-
velopments. 1\1uch of this free time
is
to be found only
during
the
summer months. Teaching, well done today,
is
a full-time, year-long job.
It has been suggested by many people
that
we
raise
salaries of mathematics and science teachers above
the
regular salary schedule,
say,
$1000
or more depending
on
the
salary schedule. I have not supported
that
sort
of thing
so
far because teachers need all salaries raised.
Dr. Forsythe has pointed
out
to me
that
in order
to
keep qualified mathematics and science teachers in
the
classrooms maybe
we
must have a crash program like
this and gradually bring
the
other teachers' salaries
up
to it, since to make large jumps in all salaries would
make
the
cost prohibitive.
This argument has merit,
but
I am still worried about
teacher morale. Yet, private schools and colleges do this
sort of thing all
the
time, paying' attention to
the
law
of supply and demand and maybe this needs to
be
ex-
amined more carefully
as
a distinct possibility.
But
I
am also afraid this would be used
as
an excuse to keep
other salaries too low.
We
need well paid teachers in
all fields.
Strong Curriculmn Needed
On
to my second point of attack:
The
high school
curriculum in relation to scientific personnel and com-
puter needs.
I feel
that
a strong mathematics and science curricu-
lum in high school
is
basic to
the
training of future
scientists. I also believe
that
good high school science
courses must
be
available, too. I
don't
want to debate
which one
is
more basic,
but
please
let
me outline
the
high school mathematics curriculum
that
I believe
is
absol,utely necessary
if
we
are to meet
the
challenge of
modern society
and
the
shortage of well-trained per-
sonnel in all fields -
not
just science alone.
For
we need
social scientists
and
people in
the
humanities
that
really
know
and
appreciate mathematics and science.
As
you
might suspect, I will be outlining
the
mathematics
program
at
Newton High School. It consists of four
levels:
First level:
There
must
be
an advanced track, an ad-
vanced placement program for those students who are
the top thinkers in mathematics.
The
program
is
the
one outlined in
the
Advanced Placement Bulletin of
the
College Entrance Examination Board.
It
covers
elementary, intermediate,
and
advanced algebra, plane
and solid geometry
and
elements of analytic geometry;
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
and it
is
topped off in
the
senior year by a first year
college course in differential and integral calculus.
Teachers of
the
caliber required to teach these stu-
dents are not available in many schools today because
the
school committees and school boards will
not
pay
the
price to get them. This
is
not
necessarily
the
school
board's fault, because
the
townspeople
m~v
not
have
convinced
the
board
that
they want a first class school
system.
Second level:
There
must be a second track, a
se-
quence of four years of standard college preparatory
mathematics. It covers:
9th
grade spent
on
elementary
algebra; 10th and 11th grades spent in studying plane
and solid geometry, and intermediate algebra; in
the
12th grade or senior year, advanced algebra, trigo-
nometry, introduction to analytic geometry, and some
calculus _ of polynomials.
Third
level:
There
must be another track for slower
students of mathematics, late bloomers
so
to speak. It
covers:
9th
grade, elementary algebra; 10th grade,
geometry;
lIth
grade, intermediate algebra;
and
in
the
12th grade, review of arithmetic, algebra,
and
geometry,
and one-half year of trigonometry. This course
is
for
boys and girls going to technical institutes
and
also to
some of
the
less
demanding colleges.
Fourth level:
There
must
be
a general mathematics
sequence of three years study for those boys
and
girls
(and there are some) who find or will find
that
all of
the
above three tracks are more
than
they can handle.
To
keep a qualified staff of
16
to ] 8 people to handle
this program for a high school of 2000 students costs
money
and
is
going to cost more money.
One
needs a
master's degree in mathematics to handle
the
advanced
program
as
outlined above.
This program looks good,
but
it
still isn't good enough
for this modern day world.
At
the
invitation of Prof.
Max Beberman, project director of
the
University of
Illinois
Committee
on School Mathematics, Newton
is
entering their program of Secondary School Mathe-
matics in four classes in two of Newton's
five
junior high
schools.
The
Project Staff has completely rewritten high
school mathematics, putting in
as
much modern mathe-
matics,
as
can
be
made understandable to high school
students. Revisions of
the
text materials are constantly
going on in
the
light of experience gained in teaching
the
materials.
I think this
is
one of
the
most. promising develop-
ments in secondary school mathematics under
way
at
the
present time.
The
old traditional high school
mathematics
is
not
nearly
as
exciting
as
this new pro-
gram. Also it does
not
get to
the
so-called modern
mathematical concepts
that
are useful in
the
computing
field nearly
so
quickly. Here again we need money to
pay
the
salaries of
the
people who have obtained or
will obtain such training in modern mathematics.
Industry Assistance
Now for my third angle of attack: How can industry
help in high school science education?
We,
in
the
secondary schools, need some elementary
units on computers which
we
as
mathematics teachers
can understand
and
bring in
at
the
proper
moment
during
the
various high school mathematics courses.
17
There
are qualified.'>Icdii1pu'ter
p~rsonnel
that
could
write these units, if they would take
the
time to do it.
You people could invite a science and a mathematics
teacher in your own community to have a look
at
some
of
the
things going on in your industry and gently get
them excited about it. This
is
a delicate problem I
know,
but
it
can be done if you
don't
make
the
teacher
feel uncomfortable
and
inferior because he doesn't
know about these things. Here
is
where a summer job
with an industry would payoff.
In
Newton, our mathematics curriculum
is
pretty full,
but
school
is
out
at
2:30;
so
I am thinking seriously of
.a
seminar
at
2:45
sponsored by
the
Mathematics Club
featuring a person from
the
computing field armed with
suitable text materials mimeographed for each member
of
the
seminar, and also any hardware
that
can
be
easily
transported, and finally a tour of some computer in-
stallation. For this program to
be
successful, I will need
at
least a key math teacher who
is
willing to learn some-
thing of
the
computer field. I will expect to be in on the
show
at
first,
but
it
can't
be
a one-man show over the
years.
The
proposal
that
industry supply an engineer to take
over mathematics or science classes to alleviate the
teacher shortage problem can work very well
at
the
college level,
but
I have serious doubts about
its
feasi-
bility
at
the
high school level.
For
there
is
much more
to teaching in high school than just going in and
meeting a class.
The
administrative details would have
to double up on regular teachers' shoulders;
then
we
are in real trouble.
The
general feeling
that
I have found to this proposal
has been very negative. I still believe
the
best
way
for
industry to win
the
confidence of
the
teacher and really
help
him
is
through summer employment. Part of
the
expense could surely be written off by
the
company
as
expense attributable to public relations and community
education.
In
talking this problem over with Dr. Navez, head of
our Science Department,
he
suggested
that
we
needed
simple computer kits with complete drawings
and
in-
structions for building a simple computing machine.
Could
it
be
that
industry has discarded hardware
that
could be given to
the
high school science department,
maybe for a small
fee?
Schools have been reluctant to set aside money for
teachers to attend professional conferences.
The
problem of substitute teachers and their pay
is
also part
of
the
picture. Industry could
be
of great help here by
offering to pick up
the
tab for part of
the
expenses
and
furnishing an engineer to substitute for
the
teacher.
This has been done in several areas already.
As
an
example, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., paid
my travel expenses to this conference and
the
Newton
Public School system
is
paying
the
other expenses.
Questions
I have had my say now and would like to ask some
questions.
Will
someone please outline briefly for me
some of
the
teaching units in
the
computing field
that
they think should be taught to high school students?
By
a teaching unit I mean a body of knowledge, facts,
material, etc.,
that
is
organized in a unit for teaching
purposes. '
I have a feeling
that
we on
the
high school level have
a responsibility for
the
general education of students
about
the
computing industry. I
don't
think
-we
can
discharge this responsibility effectively unless
the
com-
puting industry supplies
us
with
the
proper materials
and teaching units for our own education
as
well
as
the
students'. I personally am mostly interested in teaching
units suitable for mathematics classes,
but
if vou have
ideas about science units, I would like to
p~ss
them
along.
Another question: During August I will
be
thinking
and trying to develop some teaching materials in mathe-
matics
that
can
be
used with large groups of
100
or
more, using a 12xl2 screen, projectors, overhead pro-
jectors, overlays, etc. Could a
unit
lasting one or more
50
minute periods be developed for general education
about computers
that
would be worth
the
time
and
effort involved?
My
friends know
me
as
an eternal optimist,
but
my
experience during
the
last two years trying to find
qualified teachers
to
teach mathematics for sub-pro-
fessional salaries has
me
deeply concerned about our
future supply of well-qualified scientists.
III:
INDUSTRY
CAN
PROVIDE
OPPORTUNITIES
FOR
TEACHERS
DeForest L.
Trautman
Communications Systems Department
Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif.
(A
summary of a talk presented
as
part of a panel discussion
on
"The
Role of Computers in High School Science
Education"
at
the
meeting of
the
Association for
Computing
Machinery, Houston, Texas, June
20,
1957.)
T
HE
topic of this panel discussion
is
indeed provo-
cative! Because of
the
newness of computer tech-
nology, we suspect a paucity of computer material
in high school science education. Yet, because of
the
dearth of time now available for fundamental science
18
education we suspect little desire to further overload
the
curriculum. From another viewpoint, however, we
recognize
the
impact of this new technology
as
a tool
in science, in business,
and
as
an important part of our
scientific culture
"to
know about." Postulating, then,
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
that
computer technology will have a role to play in
high school education, let
us
examine how it might
be
played.
To
be
of inspirational or technical help to the student,
the
teacher must himself have some appreciation
and
u~derstanding
of computers. This means
that
years after
hIs
formal college preparation for science or mathematics
teaching
the
teacher must knuckle down
to
master
the
new knowledge of computers. This
is
but
indicative of
the
practice of life-long learning
that
high school
teache~s
must engage in merely to keep abreast.
The
followmg paragraphs briefly indicate examples of indus-
try-school personnel exchanges
as
a mechanism for such
cont~mporization,
and they dwell more fully on a
speCIfic
Hughes computer seminar experience with high
school teachers.
Personnel Exchanges Between
School
and
Industry
The
number of summer jobs in industry for high
school teachers of science
and
mathematics
is
increasing
each year.
To
serve
the
needs mentioned earlier such
job~
should really
be
positions, professional
positi~ns
in
w~Ich
th~
teacher has an opportunity to participate in
~IS
techmcal field.
~ne
example of this kind of activity
IS
~he
Arthur
D.
LIttle program near Boston, which
is
akm
to
certain cooperative work-study programs for col-
lege students. Two teachers hold one job in
the
Arthur
D.
Little plant in sequence, each teaching one semester
of
the
year.
In
Los Angeles industry, chiefly aeronautical
and
elec-
tronic research and development, about
100
professional
positions in some
15
companies are available this sum-
mer for teachers to engage in their technical specialty.
At Hughes,
19
teachers, nine back for
the
second sum-
mer, will
be
assigned to professional positions in
re-
search and development. Examples of technical areas
are ferrite physics, gaseous electron tubes, digital com-
puters, analog computation, network theory. Com-
petencies embrace mathematics, physics and chemistry.
T.he teachers are paid
at
their school system rate and are
hIred
fo~
the
summer only; additionally they receive
salary pomts toward upgrading from their school system.
The
teachers, their supervisors and
both
school svstem
and Hughes
o~cia.ls
attest to
the
value of the exper'ience,
and
the
practIce
IS
spreading to other companies
and
school districts in
the
Los Angeles area.
Other
personnel exchanges include summer work in
~ndustry
for students
and
visiting lecturers from industry
m
the
school classroom. A high school
student
tea~
successfully tackled a Washington, D. C., civil defense
problem last summer
at
the
Operations Research Office
of John
H~pkins
University; and
the
project will
be
repeated
thIS
summer. Hughes has initiated a similar.
st~dent
project this summer, selecting in cooperation
WIth
several adjoining school districts a dozen outstand-
ing
s~u?ents
having
a.t
least
one
semester of high school
remammg.
One
ant!cipated outcome
is
the
catalytic
efIe~t
of
the
enthUSIasm of
the
students returning to
theIr schools and classmates in
the
fall. '
Scientists and engineers from industry have been
called on for some
time
and
in many locales to speak
to
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August, 1957
science clubs, assemblies, career days,
and
Parent
Teacher Association meetings; they have given guest
lectures on technical topics in
the
classroom. A program
having considerable educational
depth
has now been
conducted by Hughes for a calendar year.
It
consists of
an organized team of four or
five
Hughes technical per-
sonnel to give a series of contemporary lecture-demon-
strations stemming from
the
professional experiences
of
the
panel and integrated with
the
course text and
syllabus. This last year some
22
technical staff members
comprised
five
lecture teams in Phvsics I and
II
Chem-
.
,,'
Istry I and
II
and
mathematics, participating in four
high schools.
The
very favorable results justify continuation of this
program and its expansion to
other
companies
and
schools. Needless-to-say some of
the
application ma-
terial of these lecture-demonstrations can include com-
puter technology -although such
is
not
the sole prime
objective.
Experience with a
Computer
Seminar for Teachers
During summer 1956,
the
10
teachers in the Hughes
program devoted
about
20
percent of their
time
to
orientation lectures and
to
get-togethers of their own
group to relate their work experiences to their subse-
quent
teaching activities.
Near
the
close of
the
summer
it
was
decided to reassemble
the
group occasionall;
throughout
the
fall to provide follow-through into
the
classes. This follow-through took
the
form of a series
of
five
8-hour Saturdays, September to December, and was
a seminar or workshop devoted to "arithmetic com-
puters." This topic resulted from interest in an earlier
orientation talk on computers
and
from the fact
that
seven of
the
teachers were in mathematics.
Of
interest at this
point
is
the
concentration on digital
rather
than
analog computers because of
the
dearth
of
appreciation of calculus! Brief background talks
and
demonstrations were given on
the
REAC
mechanical
Differential Analyzer,
and
EASE, while
~ore
serious
attention
was
given to
IBM
computers,
the
SW
AC
computer, and a successor to
the
"Geniac" computer kit.
Considerable time
was
spent
on
coding a problem
for
the
SW
AC
and
then
on running through
the
solu-
tion so
that
the
teachers would
be
forced
to
think
hard
about
the
meaning of arithmetic operations -all in
trying to understand
what
the
machine would do.
The
modified "Geniac"
was
a plugboard with toggles and
multiple-deck, multiple-position switches (and lights)r
such
that
a number of
the
classical logic games could
be
implemented.
Of
great interest to
the
teachers
was
the
~eth~dology
for expressing symbolically
the
logic of a
SItuatIOn, such
as
the
automobile turning indicator,
the
translation of this into a diagram, and finally implemen-
tation by simple circuitry.
Assimilating this new knowledge
was
rough for
the
teachers
but
they "sweat
it
out"
and, in addition, pro-
duced an excellent manuscript for
the
benefit of
their
fellow teachers.
Under
title of
"An
Introduction
to
Arithmetic Computers", it contained
the
following
chapters,.
ampl~
illustrat.ed
by
examples:
Number
Sys-
tems, AnthmetIc OperatIons, Mechanical and Electrical
[Please
turn
to
page
331
19
WHO'S
WHO
'In the COMPUTER FIELD, 1956-57
1.
Some Statistics 2 Supplement
of
New
or Revised
Full
Entries
1.
Some Statistics About
Computer
People
W
'HAT
are computer people like
as
a group? After
publishing
"Who's
Who
in
the
Computer
Field,
1956-57"* in March.
we
became curious about
the
characteristics of computer people, and
we
decided
to make use of
the
Who's
Who
to see
if
we
could find
out
some things about them.
we
can answer such questions
as
the following
at
least:
1)
What
kinds of organizations do computer people
work in?
2)
How many are interested in one or more of con-
struction, design, and electronics?
In
the
Who's
vVho,
the
entries covered
199
pages of
about
61
entries each, or about
12,100
entries. About
4130
of these entries were full entries containing name,
title, organization, address, main interests, year of birth,
college or last school, year of entry into
the
computer
field, occupation, distinctions, publications, etc.
The
remaining entries were brief entries containing only
name and address (sometimes also organization).
3)
How many are women?
4)
How old are computer people?
Here
Are
the
Answers
The
answers to these four questions appear in
the
four tables which appear below.
It
is
interesting to
note
that
the
six
largest employ-
ment
fields for computer people (outside of manufac-
turers of computers or computer components) are:
The
U.
S.
government,
the
aviation industry, university
re-
search
and
teaching, management consultants, insur-
ance, and utilities.
We
decided
to
construct a
10
percent sample by
going through all
the
full entries, selecting every 10th
name in alphabetic order, and tabulating
that
entry.
If
such a sample fairly represents computer people,
then
Table
1:
THE
ORGANIZATIONS
WHERE
COMPUTER
PEOPLE
WORK
1.
Makers and Suppliers of Com-
puters, Data Processing Ma-
chines, and Services: 45.4%
Computer Manufacturers 14.5
Business Machine Manu-
facturers
1.0
Component Manufacturers
13.5
Computer Centers and
Ser-
vices
Management Consultants
2.
Other
Industries:
Automobile Manufacturers
Atomic Development
Aviation
Banks
Chemicals
Electrical and Electronic
Man ufacturers
Insurance
Machinery, heavy
Oil
Railroads
Utilities
Various other industries
3.
Other:
U.
S.
Military Forces
U.
S.
Government
University Research and
Teaching
Miscellaneous
Total
12.6
3.8
33.7%
1.6
1.6
6.2
0.5
1.2
8.9
3.6
1.0
1.9
1.2
3.6
2.4
20.9%
9.5
2.6
5.5
3.3
100.0%
Table 2:
INTERESTS
IN
CONSTRUC-
TION,
DESIGN,
AND/OR
ELECTRONICS
In a full \Vho's
Who
entry, provision
is
made for checking one or more of
C,
D,
and E for denoting
as
a main interest
construction, design,
and/
or electronics
respectively.
The
statistics for the sample
show:
C
D
E
C,D
C, E
D,E
C,D,E
Total C,
D,
and/or
E
Other
Total reporting
and this leads to:
Computer people interested in
construction, design,
and/or
electronics
Other
computer people
Total
2
42
33
14
I
59
41
192
2,21
413
46.5%
53.5
100.0%
This
indicates that slightly less than
half of the people in the .computer field
are interested in construction, design,
and/
or electronics.
"'Who's
Who
in
the
Computer
Field,
1956-
57,
published
March
1957,
by
Computers
and
Automation,
815
Washington
St.,
New-
tonville
60,
Mass.,
photo-offset,
212
pages,
$17.50.
Also
see
the
Who's
Who
entry
form
on
page
27.
Table
3:
WOMEN
AMONG
COMPUTER
PEOPLE
\Vomen
Men
5.3%
94.7%
100.0%
There
arc many reasons for believing
that
the proportion of women in
the
com-
puter field should grow steadily. Many
good jobs for women exist in the com-
puter field, especially in programming,
coding, mathem'atics, logic, and system
analysis.
Table 4:
THE
AGE
OF
COMPUTER
PEOPLE
Age
Group
22 and under
23
to
27
28
to
32
33
to
37
38
to
42
43
to
47
48
to
52
53
to
57
58
to
62
63
and over
Total
Percent
0.3
8.1
31.8
30.5
13.9
7.8
4.5
1.8
0.8
0.5
100.0%
!t
is
striking to note that apparently over
90
percent of computer people are under
age
48.
A little evidence of bias in the
sample shows in this table.
There
must be
more computer people age
22
and under
than 0.3%;
but
apparently they are
so
modest
that
they rarely send in full entries
for
the
Who's
vVho.
20
COMPUTERS
and
A
UTOMA
TION
for
August.
1957
2.
Supplement
No.1
of New or Revised
Full
Entries
There
are two kinds of entries for persons in
the
Who's
Who
in
the
computer field: full entries and brief
entries.
The
full entry consists of:
name/
title, organi-
zation, address/ interests (the capital letter abbrevia-
tions are
the
initial letters of
the
interests Applications,
Business, Construction, Design, Electronics, Logic,
Mathematics, Programming, Sales)/ year of birth,
col-
lege or last school (background), year of entering the
computer field, occupation/ other information, such
as
distinctions, publications, etc. / code.
In
the
code,
the
digit such
as
5 or 6 denotes
the
year '55 or '56, when
the
information in
the
entry
was
received or revised. In
cases where no information
was
given, a
"-"
denotes
omission.
The
brief entry consists of:
name/
address -
or else:
name/
organization/ address. Nearly all
the
abbreviations may be easily guessed like those in a
telephone book. For translations of some of
the
abbre-
viations, see page
14
of
the
Third
Cumulative Edition.
New, Revised Listings
Following are a number of new or revised full entries
for
the
"Who's
\Vho
in
the
Computer
Field, 1956-57",
constituting Supplement
No.1
to
the
Third
Cumulative
Edition.
A
Anderson, Paul E / Engr, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St,
Phila 7, Pa / A / '20,
West
Point, '50, engr / manual on prodn
contr & its automatn, artis on automatn / 7
Antonini, Frank P / Compr Field Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div,
2200
Wright
Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif /
ACDELMP
/ '29,
Univ of Santa Clara, '56, elecnc engr / 7
Armstrong, Lancelot
\V
/ Data Procg Expert, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St, Phila 7, Pa / A / '16, Syracuse Univ, '49,
- / 7
B
Barclay-de-Tolly, George E / Logicl Desn Engr, Gen Elec Co,
Bldg 312b Stanford Res, Menlo Park, Calif /
ELMP
/ '27,
Ohio State Univ, Univ of Toronto, '56, engr / 6
Bekey, George A / Mgr, Beckman, Berkeley Div, 2200
Wright
Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif / ALMP / '28, Univ of Calif
at
L
A,
'51, engr / four publ papers on compr aplns / 7
Beyer, Harold / Supply Specialist, U S Army Signal Supply
Agency, 225
So
18th St, Phila
3,
Pa / AP, supply mgm / '21,
CCNY,
'54, supply specialist / attended IBM 705 prgmg
course / 7
Billinghurst, Edward M / Devt Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div,
2200 \Vright Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif / AD / '22, Univ of
Calif
at
Berkeley, '56, elecncs engr / 7
Binder, Sidney / Survey Statn, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut
St, Phila 7, Pa / A / '12, CCNY, '34, statn / consltnt tab
methods / 7
Bruck, Donald B / Res Asst,
MIT,
Dynamic Analysis & Controls
Lab, Cambridge 39, Mass /
ADELMP
/ '35,
MIT,
'56,
engr / 7r .
Burgess, R E / Royal McBee Corp,
32
Green St, Newark, N J
C
Codd, Edgar F / Sr PIng Repr, IBM Corp, Res Lab, Pough-
keepsie, N Y / ABDLMP / '23, Oxford, Eng, '49, mathn / 7t
Crowley, William V / Western Regional
Sales
Mgr, Alwac Corp,
l3040 S Cerise, Hawthorne, Calif / APBS / '19, Stanford
Univ (MBA), '53, compr sales / publn, formerly in charge all
elecne data procg at Aviation Supply Office / 7
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
D
De Biase, Ramon N / Elecncs Coordinator, N Y Life Ins Co,
51
Madison Ave,
NYC
/ ABP / '28, Columbia Univ, '53, IBM
methods cordntr / mbr Natl Machine Acctnts Assoc / 7
E
Ender, Robert C / Apln Engr,
Cen
Elcc Co, Schenectady
5,
N Y / ABLMP / '28, Union ColI, Univ Maryland, '52, elec
engr / 7
England, Samuel J M / Principal Economist, Battelle Memorial
Inst, 505 King Ave, Columbus, Ohio /
DCAEMP,
philosophy
of autnm / '27, Univ of Texas, '55, engr / 7
F
Farrington, C C, Jr /
-,
Univ of Ill, Urbana,
III
/ AM /
-,
-,
-,
- / paper ACM mtg '56 / 6
Finnell, C D / Compr
Sales
Mgr, Beckman, Berkeley Div, 2200
\Vright Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif /
AS
/ '23, Colorado A & M,
'50, engr / 7
Flannell, C Fred / Dir, Scientific Compr Dept, Royal McBee
Corp, Westchester Ave, Port Chester, N Y /
AS
/ '28,
So
Illinois Univ, '52, director / 7t
Fowler, James L / Compr Field Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div,
2200
Wright
Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif-/
ADS / '29, Fresno
State ColI, Fresno, Calif, '55, engr / 7
G
Garofalos, John / Jr Prgmr, Sperry-Rand Corp,
2601
Wilshire
Blvd, L A 46, Calif /
ABS
/ '29, Univ of Penna, '55, custmr
supprt -Univac / 7t
Glaser, Ezra / Economist, Statn, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St, Phila
7,
Pa / AM / '13, Columbia Univ, '47,
ecomist, statn / Pres, Wash Stat Soc, mbr ACM,
ASA,
Inst
for Mgm Sciences, artcls mathl economics, prgmg, stat
orgnztn / 7
Gordon, Bernard M / President, Epsco, Inc, 588 Commonwealth
Ave, Boston, Mass / ADE / '27,
MIT,
'48, exec / num papers
& artls, authr series "Adapting Dig Techs for Automtc
Controls" / 7
H
Harris, Mark / Devt Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div, 2200
Wright
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif /
ADEM
/ '24, Cornell, Uniy of
Calif, '55, engr / 7
Hawes, Mrs Mary K / Prgmr, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut
St, Phila 7, Pa / AP / '10, Univ of Okla, Chattanooga, '51,
prgmr / papers, ACM, Automatic Control Mag / 7
Hershovitz, William P /
Sys
Analyst, USASSA, Stock Mgm Diy,
225 S 18th St, Phila
3,
Pa / AP, supply mgm / '25, Temple
Univ, '56, supply speclst / 7
Hussey, J L / Mgr, Comprs, 2200
Wright
AYe,
Richmond
3,
Calif / ABCDELMPS / '28, Univ of Calif
at
L A, '50, elecne
engr / 7
K
Kimber, Robert L / Elecne
Sys
Analyst, Gen Tire & Rubber Co,
1708 Englewood
Ave,
Akron 9, Ohio / AMP / '26,
-,
'56,
prgmr,
sys
analyst /
12
yrs
tablg / 7
King, Arnold J / President, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St,
Phila 7, Pa / A / '06, Iowa State ColI, Univ Wyoming,
-,
mathl stat / V Pres Amer Stat Assoc, mbr regnl advisory
bd
of Biometrics Soc, advisory comm & consumrs expendtr tabs
comm Amer Mrktg
Assoc,
authr techl artcls mathl stats / 7
Kircher, Paul / Assoc Professor, Schl of Bus, UCLA,
LA
24,
Calif / B /
-,
Univ of Mich,
-,
professor / 6
21
22
NOW!
TRANSLATE
COMPUTER
CONCEPTS
INTO
WORKING
REALITIES
IMMEDIATELY
WITH
NEW
"KIT"
OF
COMPTRON
CARDS!
Vast simplification of
computer
and
control
systems engineering,
with
substantial savings
of
development time
and
costs,
is
now possible
with
new
Comptron
Cards. Systems engineers
are
freed from electronic circuit design prob-
lems.
Eight
transistorized,
printed
circuit dig-
ital
element cards may be plugged
into
a special
mounting
chassis capable of
holding
a total
of
15
cards. Six
additional
logic cards may be
combined
with
the digital element cards to
form
logical inter-connections for any type of
computer
or
control system
an
engineer wishes
to assemble.
The
cards may be purchased sepa-
rately
or
Comptron
engineers will design com-
plete
systems to
meet
customers' needs.
Write for complete specifications.
COMPTRON
CORPORATION
Belmont
79,
Mass.
L
Liebert, George E / Supply Specialist, USASSA, Stock Mgm
Div,
225
So
18th St, Phila
3,
Pa / AP, supply mgm / '22,
Northeast High, '55,
sys
analyst / 7
Lister, Mary / Assist Prof Math, Penn State Univ, Univ Park,
Pa / ABMP / '27, Univ of London (Eng), '53, assist prof / 7
Longo, Len / Deptl Assist, No Amer Aviation, 4300 E Fifth
Ave,
Columbus, Ohio / BP / '26, Ohio State, '57, deptl assist / 7
Ludwig, Robert C / Acct Rep, Rem Rand Univac,
2601
Wilshire
Blvd, L A 54, Calif /
ABS
/ '14, Oregon State Univ, '42,
sales
rep / methods,
sys,
sales
engr / 7
M
MacLane, Alan B / Chief Field Engr, Compr Dept, Beckman,
Berkeley Div, 220 Wright
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif / CDES /
'25, Univ of Calif, '54, elec engr / 7
Marks, Eli S / Mathl Stat, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St,
Phila
7,
Pa / APM /
'11,
Columbia,
-,
statn / Phi Beta
Kappa, fellow
ASA,
artls & books in Psychology & stats / 7
Miller, David R / Mgr, Richmond Compn Ctr, Beckman,
Berkeley Div, 2200 Wright Ave, Richmond
3,
Calif / ALMP /
'26, Denver Univ, '52, mathn / 7
N
Neumiller, Joseph L / Supv, Data Procg, Folger Coffee Co,
101
Howard St, San Francisco, Calif / B / '21, Univ of Calif, '52,
supv / mgr Elecnc Bus
Sys
Conf, '56, natl dir NMAA / 7
o
O'Donnell, Mrs Jane
M-/
Psychologist, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St, PhiIa
7,
Pa / A / '15, Swarthmore ColI, Univ of
Berlin, '54, psychologist / 7
Orr, Dell J / Methods Analyst, Gen Tire & Rubber Co, 1708
Englewood
Ave,
Akron 9, Ohio / ABP / '21, Akron Univ, '56,
EDP
methods analyst / 7
p
Paxson, Beverly L / Engr, Richmond Compn Ctr, Beckman,
Berkeley Div, 2200 Wrighf
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif / AMP /
'26, Univ of Calif
at
Berkeley, '54, anal compr prgmr / 7
Pepper, James H / Devt Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div, 2200
Wright
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif / D / '22, Univ of Calif
at
Berkeley, '55, engr / 7
Phillips, Kenneth / Prgmr/ Instr, Rem Rand Corp,
315
4th
Ave,
NYC / ABPS / '31, CCNY, '55, prgmr / 7r
R
Rittler,
CAlvin
/ Prgmr, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St,
Phila
7,
Pa / AP / '27, Chas Morris Price Schl of Advertsg &
Journlsm,
-,
prgmr / 7
S
Schmidt, R C /
Sr
Devt Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div, 2200
\Vright
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif /
CD
/ '27, Whittier ColI,
'51, desn engr / 7
Schwartzbart, Milton / Data Procg
sys
analyst, Natl Analysts, Inc,
1015
Chestnut St, Phila 7, Pa / A / '15,
-,
'54,
sys
analyst / 7
Schweber, Seymour C / Mgr, Schweber Elecncs,
122
Herricks,
Mineola, L I, N Y / BES / '15, Brooklyn CoIl,
-,
exec / 7t
Single, Charles H / Chief Proj Engr, Beckman, Berkeley Div,
2200
Wright
Ave,
Richmond
3,
Calif / D / '26, Mich State
Univ, '50, engrg admin / papers
at
ACM,
AS~E,
ISA / 7
Slimak, Romuald / Chief Statn, Rem Rand Univac,
315
4th
Ave,
NYC
10
/ AMP, stats, teaching / '26, Univ of London, '54,
statn / Adj Asst Prof Math, NYU, mbr hi speed compr com
Inst Mathl Stats / 7
Small, Harold E / Engr, Philco Corp, 4700 Wissahickon Ave,
Phila 44, Pa /
DE
/ '21,
-,
'52, engr / 7
[Please
turn
to
page
301
COMPUTERS
and
AUTOMATION
for
August,
1957
ENGINEERS
DEVELOPMENTAL,
Electronic
DIGITAL
COMPUTER
DESIGN
DEVELOPMENTAL,
Mechanical
ELECTRONIC
lOGICAL
DESIGN
PROGRAMMERS
RELAY
CIRCUIT
DESIGN
TECH
N
ICAl
WRITERS
WIRE
COMMUNICATIONS,
Digital
Teleregister
has
pioneered
in
the
application
of
digital
computers
to
the
practical
commercial
field.
We
have
developed
reservation
sys-
tems
for
8
major
airlines,
3
major
railroads,
in
addi-
tion
to
digital
computer
in-
ventory
and
banking
sys-
tems.
We
do
not
have
gov-
ernment
contracts.
We
think
these
facts
plus
the
ones
listed
below
represent
a
challenge
to
qualified
engineers
who
wish
to
join
a
stable
and
growing
company,
one
whose
growth
is
based
entirely
on
commercial
demand
in
a
rapidly
expanding
field.
Call collect
or
write:
MR. PAUL
D.
CALLENDER
B.S.
and
M.S.
degree
in
Electrical
or
Mechanical
Engineering
in
addition
to
1
or
more
years'
digital
computer
experience
in
electronics,
mechanical
design
or
relay
circuit
design
is re-
quired.
Recent
graduates
will
also
be
considered.
Advancement
opportunities,
liberal
benefits
and
excellent
salaries
are
offered
. .
and
the
location
in
beautiful
Stamford
on
Long
Island
Sound
is
most
desirable,
yet
you're
only
45
minutes
from
the
heart
of
New
York
City.
THE
445
Fairfield
Avenue,
Stamford,
Connecticut.
FI
RESI
DE
8-4291
The
Ramo-Wooldridge
Corporation
CORPORATION
Digital
Computer
PROGRAMMERS
The
Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation has several opportunities
for those interested in programming the
UNIVAC
Scientific Model
1103
A,
and other electronic digital computers. A college
degree in mathematics, physics
or
engineering is required,
and several years of programming experience is desirable.
Please direct inquiries for additional information to:
Mr.
R.
Richerson
The
Ramo-Wooldridge
Corporation
5730
Arbor
Vitae
Street
Los
Angeles
45,
California
Telephone:
ORchard
2·0171
BOOKS and OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(List published in "Computers and Automation", Vol. 6,
No.8,
August, 1957)
WE publish here citations and brief reviews of books,
articles, papers, and other publications which have
a significant relation to computers, data processing, and
automation, and which have come to our attention.
We
shall be glad to report other information in future lists
if a review copy
is
sent to
us.
The
plan of each entry
is:
author or editor / title / publisher or issuer / date,
publication process, number of pages, price or its equiva-
lent / comments.
If
you write to a publisher or issuer,
we
would appreciate your mentioning Computers and
Automation. In the case of a review with a by-line,
the
opinions expressed are those of the reviewer and not
necessarily the
views
of Computers
and
Automation.
The
following
reviews
are by Ned Chapin, Menlo Park, Calif.
Rubinoff, l\tlorris, and Ralph
H.
Beterl"Input
and
Output
Equipment" pp.
115-123
in Control Engineering, Vol. 3, No.
11,
Nov. 1956/l\tlcGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Inc., 330
W.
42
St., New York 36, N. Y./1956, printed, $4.00 per year.
The
authors classify input and output equipment for automatic
computers in terms of the
use
made of the computer. Delayed-
time use, real-time use, and computer-control-and-maintenance
use
are the three computer-use situations contemplated.
In
delayed-
time
use,
equipment capable of handling alphameric symbols
is
most widely used. Two examples are punched card equipment
and line printers.
In
real-time
use,
high speed
is
necessary and communication
must be established between the thing controlled and the auto-
matic computer. Analog-to-digital converters, digital-to-analog
converters, control devices, 'and visual displays, such
as
on CRT's,
are
common.
The
input and output equipment used with auto-
matic computers in real-time
uses
broadly overlaps those used
in
delayed-ti~e
uses.
In control and maintenance by means of automatic computer,
the input and output equipment
is
subject to qualitatively and
quantitatively different requirements than in either real-time or
delayed-time
uses.
Terse, rapid, "high entropy" communication
devices are needed.
The
authors
feel
that present input and
output equipment in this area of use
lags
further behind needs
than
it
lags in the other two areas.
The
authors devote much of the article to a discussion of thc
logical dcsign of magnetic tape-handling equipment.
* * *
Berkeley, Edmund C., and Lawrence Wainwright/"Computers:
Their Operation and Applications," 366 pp./Reinhold Publish-
ing Corp., New York, N. Y./1956, printed, $8.00.
The
contents of this readable book lists rather well what the
book covers.
The
book
is
divided into seven sections whose titles
are: 1 - Machines that Handle Information; 2 - Automatic
Digital Computer Machines; 3 - Automatic Analog' Computing
Machines; 4 - Other Types of Automatic Computing Machines;
5 - Miniature Computers and Their Use
in
Training; 6 - Some
Large Scale Digital Computers; and 7 - Applications of Auto-
matic Computing Machines.
The
first two sections consisting of 74 pages are introductory
in
nature and introduce the basic vocabulary of the field. Included
in
these sections are some reprints of reference material from
"Computers and Automation."
Section three of the book
is
primarily the work of Lawrence
Wainwright. This section introduces analog computers
by
means
of mechanical analogies. This section
is
85
pages long and con-
tains a number of illustrations and diagrams.
Section four
is
very brief and consists of only eight pages
which are primarily devoted to listings of equipment, type, and
components.
24
Section
five
(40 pages in length) dealing with miniature com-
puters
is
primarily devoted to "Simon."
Section
six
on Large Scale Digital Computers discusses in some
detail the following machines: the UNIVAC I and II; IBM
701,
702, 704, 705; and ERA
1103
(UNIVAC Scientific).
On
page
216,
the author describes the speed of
UNIVAC
I in terms of
"the
average number of three-address operations." This
gives
the
impression that the UNIVAC
is
a three-address machine, which
it
is
not.
The
UNIVAC
is
a one-address machine with two
instructions per word.
To
be consistent, the author should have
quoted the speeds for the other machines in comparable terms
but
he did not.
It
is
also noteworthy that over half of the discussion of this
section
six
is
devoted to UNIVAC I and II and that the other
machines combined are relegated to less than
50
percent of
the
space.
The
discussion on each point of the other machines is
much
less
thorough and complete than in the
case
of UNIVAC
I and II.
Section seven, devoted to applications, covers
58
pages. This
section which
is
the work of both Berkeley and Wainwright dis-
r cusses briefly the following topics:
"Whose
work can automatic
computers
do?
what people may buy automatic computers?
the
attitudes of prospective buyers toward automatic computing ma-
chines; applications of automatic computing machines in business;
military applications of analog computers; applications of auto-
matic computing machines to other fields; recognizing areas for
automatic computing machine applications."
From page
305
to the end