197412 197412

User Manual: 197412

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December, 1974

scrE~e{AND' sUs.

and people

formerly Computers and Automation


Engineering Computer Programs: How They Grow
- A. Marcos and S. L. Chu

Changing Technology and
Medical Specialization

Ray M. Antley and
Mary Ann Antley

The Computer Industry
and Unionization
- A. A. I mberman

The Radiation from Computers I nto Everywhere
- Neil Macdonald

Watergate South
- Nancy A. Miller

The Assassination of the
Reverend Martin Luther
King, Jr., Conclusion
- Wayne Chastain, Jr.

.. (:-





1. Right Answers - A Short Guide to Obtaining Them
A collection of 82 principles and maxims. Example:
"The moment you have worked out an answer, start
checking it - it probably isn't right."
2. The Empty Column
A parable about a symbol for zero, and the failure
to recognize the value of a good idea.
3. The Golden Trumpets of Yap Yap
4. Strategy in Chess
5. The Barrels and the Elephant
A discussion of truth vs. believability.
6. The Argument of the Beard
The accumulation of many small differences may
make a huge difference.
7. The Elephant and the Grassy Hillside
The concepts of the ordinary everyday world vs.
the pointer readings of exact science.
8. Ground Rules for Arguments
9. False Premises, Valid Reasoning, and True Conclusions
The fallacy of asserting that the prem ises must first
be correct in order that correct conclusions be
10. The Investigation of Common Sense
11. Principles of General Science and Proverbs
8 principles and 42 proverbs.
12. Common Sense - Questions for Consideration
13. Falling 1800 Feet Down a Mountain
The story of a skimobiler who fell 1/3 of a mile
down Mt. Washington, N.H., and was rescued the
next day; and how he used his common sense and
14. The Cult of the Expert
15. Preventing Mistakes from Failure to Understand
Even though you do not understand the cause of
some trouble, you may still be able to deal with
it. The famous example of a cure for malaria.
16. The Stage of Maturity and Judgement
17. Doomsday in St. Pierre, Martinique - Common Sense
vs. Catastrophe
How 30,000 people refusing to apply their common
sense died from a volcanic eruption.
18. The History of the Doasyoulikes
19. Individuality in Human Beings
Their chemical natures are as widely varied as
their external features.
20. How to be Silly
71 recipes for being silly. Example: "Use twenty
words to say something when two will do."
21. The Three Earthworms
A parable about curiosity; and the importance of
making observations for oneself.
22. The Cochrans vs. Catastrophe
The history of Samuel Cochran, Jr., who ate some
vichyssoise soup.
23. Preventing Mistakes from Forgetting
24. What is Common Sense? An Operational Definition
A proposed definition of common sense not using
synonyms but using behavior that is observable.
25. The Subject of What is Generally True and Important Common Sense, Elementary and Advanced
26. Natural History, Patterns, and Common Sense
Some important techniques for observing.
27. Rationalizing and Common Sense
28. Opposition to New Ideas
Some of the common but foolish reasons for
opposing new ideas.
29. A Classification and Review of the Issues of Vol.
30. Index to Volume 1

31. Adding Years to your Life Through Common Sense
A person who desires to live long and stay well needs
to understand some 20 principles, including how to
test all the health advice he receives for its common
sense, and how to develop habits of health practices
which fit him.
32. The Number of Answers to a Problem
Problems may have many answers, one answer, or no
answer ... and answers that are good at one time may
be bad at another.
33. "Stupidity has a Knack of Getting Its Way"
" ... as we should see if we were not always so much
wrapped up in ourselves."
- Albert Camus
34. Time, Sense, and Wisdom - Some Notes
The supply of time, the quantity of time, the kinds of
time, and the conversion of time. . .. A great deal of
the time in a man's life is regularly, systematically, and
irretrievably wasted. This is a serious mistake.
35. Time, Sense, and Wisdom - Some Proverbs and Maxims
56 quotations and remarks by dozens of great men.
36. Wisdom - An Operational Definition
"A wise person takes things as they are and, knowing
the conditions, proceeds to deal with them in such a
manner as to achieve the desired result."
- Somerset Maugham
Q: Is the Notebook exciting?
A: Some of the issues, like "Falling 1800 Feet Down a
Mountain" and "Doomsday in St. Pierre, Martinique",
are among the most exciting true stories we know.
Q: Is the Notebook useful?
A: It ought to be useful to anybody - as useful as
common sense. There exists no textbook on common
sense; the Notebook tries to be a good beginning to
common sense, science, and wisdom.
PAST ISSUES: As a new subscriber, you do not miss past issues. Every subscriber's subscription starts at Vol. 1, no.
1, and he eventually receives all issues. The past issues
are sent to him usually four at a time, every week or
two, until he has caught up, and thus he does not miss
important and interesting issues that never go out of date.


GUARANTEE: (1) You may return (in 7 days) the first batch
of issues we send you, for FULL REFUND, if not satisfactory. (2) Thereafter, you may cancel at any time, and
you will receive a refund for the unmailed portion of
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To: Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St., Newtonville, MA 02160
) YES, I would like to try the "Notebook on Common
Sense, Elementary and Advanced". Please enter my
subscription at $12 a year, 24 issues, newsletter style,
and extras. Please send me issues 1 to 6 as FREE
PREMI UMS for subscribing.
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COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

The Notebook on
is devoted to development, exposition, and illustration of what
may be the most important of all fields of knowledge:











help you avoid pitfalls
prevent mistakes before they happen
display new paths around old obstacles
point out new solutions to old problems
stimulate your resourcefulness
increase your accomplishments
improve your capacities
help you solve problems
give you more tools to think with




Already Published

Already Published

Preventing Mistakes from:
Failure to Understand
Unforeseen Hazards
To Come

Preventing Mistakes from:
Failure to Observe
Failure to Inspect

COMPUTERS are important But the computer field is over 25 years old. Here is a new
field where you can get in on the ground floor to make
your mark.
MATHEMATICS is important But this field is more important than mathematics, because
common sense, wisdom, and general science have more
.LOGIC is important o
But this field is more important than logic, because common:
sense plus wisdom plus science in general is much broader
than logic.
WISDOM is important This field can be reasonably called "the engineering of
COMMON SENSE is important This field includes the systematic study and development of:
common sense.
SCI ENCE is important This field includes what is common to all the sciences, what:
is generally true and important in the sciences.
MISTAKES are costly and to be AVOIDED This field includes the systematic study of the prevention of :
MON EY is important The systematic prevention of mistakes in your organization
might save 10 to 20% of its expenses per year.


COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974



The Concept of:
Black Box
To Come

Teachable Moment
Operational Definition

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To: Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St., Newtonville, MA 02160
) Yes, please enter my subscription to The Notebook on Common
Sense, Elementary and Advanced at $12 a year (24 issues), plus
extras. I understand that you always begin at the beginning
and so I shall not miss any issues.


Please send me as free premiums for subscribing:

1. Right Answers - A Short Guide to Obtaining Them
2. The Empty Column
3. The Golden Trumpets of Yap Yap

( ) I enclose $

4. Strategy in Chess
5. The Barrels and the Elephant
6. The Argument of the Beard

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Vol. 23, No. 12
December, 1974
Editor and

Edmund C. Berkeley


Barbara L. Chaffee
Linda Ladd Lovett
Neil D. Macdonald

Art Editor

Grace C. Hertlein


Stewart B. Nelson


George N. Arnovick
John Bennett
Moses M. Berlin
Andrew D. Booth
John W. Carr III
Ted Schoeters
Richard E. Sprague

Thomas Land

Ed Burnett
James J. Cryan
Bernard Quint


Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St.
Newtonville, MA 02160


The Publisher
Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington St.
Newtonville, MA 02160

"Computers and
"Computers and Automation," is published
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© Copyright 1974, by Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
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and people

formerly Computers and Automation

Computers and Engineering
8 Engineering Computer Programs: How They Grow
by A. Morcos and S. L. Chu, Sargent and Lundy,
Chicago, III.
How computer programs for engineering situations
actually develop and evolve.


Computers and Medicine
15 Changing Technology and Medical Specialization
by Ray M. Antley and Mary Ann Antley,
Indianapolis, Ind.


How 25 years of applying computer systems in
medicine are leading to integrated control of the
environment for the benefit of patients.

The Computer Industry
12 The Computer Industry and Unionization
by A. A. I mberman, Imberman and DeForest, Chicago, III.
How to really listen to employee grievances while
they are still minor, and respond quickly to them, to
the advantage of nearly everybody concerned.


11 The Radiation from Computers Into Everywhere
by Neil Macdonald, Survey Editor, Computers and People
Some of the ever-widening influences of computers
upon many different areas.


7 Contact with Holders of the Certificate of Data Processing
by John K. Swearingen, Pres., I nstitute for Certification
of Computer Professionals, Chicago, III.
An effort to reach all COP holders.


7 Annual Computer Programming Contest
by Dr. Gary G. Bitter, Arizona State Univ.
For students in grades 7 to 12: the annual contest
of the Association for Educational Data Systems.



Applications of Computers


32 Computing and Data Processing Newsletter
Computer Gives New Mexico Museum Full Access to
its Mineral Collection
Computer System for a Racing Yacht that Won
Cameras and Computers Combine to Analyze
Rocket Flights


[Front Cover]
1 "Desert Rose"
A "desert rose" of crystal gypsum, at the New Mexico
Mineralogical Museum of the New Mexico Bureau of
Mines. A computer uses X-ray results to analyze each
specimen, and catalogs it. See page 32.

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

The magazine of the design, applications, and implications of
information processing systems - and the pursuit of truth in
input, output, and processing, for the benefit of people.

6 "1 Am Interested To Know What a Computer Can Do
For Me"
by Edmund C. Berkeley, Editor
What sorts of questions a computer can answer, and
how it answers them.


7 "Computer Art for the Artist" - Comment
by James C. Ver Hague, Jr., State University of New York
at Buffalo
Additional information wanted for teaching computer


7 "Can Tigger Think? Can Peder Think?" - Comment
by Bryce M. Mitchell, Universidade Federal de Sao
Carlos, Sao Carlos, Brazil


which Computers and People has published in the past will now be published
separately and more completely as a
quarterly service, regular subscription
price $33.00 per year. Until January:
10, 1975, any subscriber to Computers
and People may subscribe at half price.
Outside U.S., Canada, and Mexico,
please add $5.00 per year for additional costs.

The Profession of Information Engineer and the Pursuit of Truth
18 Watergate South



which Computers and People has published in the past will now be published
separately and more completely as a
bimonthly service, regular subscription
price $30.00 per year. Until January
10, 1975, any subscriber to Computers
and People may subscribe at half price.
Outside U.S., Canada, and Mexico,
please add $5.00 per year for additional costs.

by Nancy A. Miller, Princeton, N.J.
How a third effort was made by many Watergateconnected figures to provoke violence and riots, and
prepare the groundwork for a cancelation of the
1972 elections.
26 The Assassination of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.,
and Possible Links with the Kennedy Murders - Part 11
by Wayne Chastain, Jr., Attorney, Memphis, Tenn.
The final instalment of a report of a diligent study
into the details and circumstances of the assassination
of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4,
1968, and related events, and the considerable evidence
of a conspiracy.


Computers, Puzzles, and Games
30 Games and Puzzles for Nimble Minds - and Computers
by Neil Macdonald, Assistant Editor
GIZZMO - Some computational Jabberwocky.
MAXIMDIJ - Guessing a maxim expressed in digits.
NA YMANDIJ - A systematic pattern among randomness?
NUMBLES - Deciphering unknown digits from arithmetical relations.
SIXWORDO - Paraphrasing a passage into sentences of
not more than six words each.


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Computers and People
Berkeley Enterprises, Inc.
815 Washington Street
Newtonville, MA 02160, U.S.A.


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COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974,

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ttl Am Interested To Know
What a Computer Can Do For Me"

The man who said that to me was an old friend. He
was no mathematician, but a former dean of a dental
school; he had specialized in dental public health;
he had had an excellent education. In spite of being no mathematician he had navigated a small ship
out of sight of land; and he had computed means, standard deviations, chi-squared tests, and other statistical measures.
How could I answer this useful question?
The first step was to send him a list of many applications of computers. In 1973 we published a list
of over 2400 applications of computers. That list
contained 179 applications in medicine; here is a
small excerpt:

A computer can figure out averages, standard deviations, chi-squared tests, and other statistical
measures -- if you want to know them. You can usually buy a map for this purpose, which will be called a "computer program." A computer can even tell
you the answer (if you want to know it) to such a
question as, "What is the minimum number of cubes
whi ch when added wi 11 equal a gi ven number?" and
which cubes they are. For example, suppose the given number is 229. Then the ariswer is that the minimum number of cubes is 7; and there are exactly three
solutions, and here they are:
3 x 64 + 1 x 27 + 1 x 8 + 2 x 1
1 x 125 + 1 x 64 + 5 x 8
1 x 216 + 1 x 8 + 5 x 1

Coronary artery disease prediction
Cystic fibrosis: detection in new-born babies
Cytology diagnosis
Cytophotometric analysis
Dermatoglyphic analysis
But what is the second step? What ideas do you
give to an ordinary person (nontechnical but educated) so that he can conceive of how a computer can
be of help to him?
In the case of a motor car, there is no great
problem in "knowing what a motor car can do for me."
A car can take you somewhere where you want to go.
And you are already full of ideas of places where
you want to go.
However, for any particular trip in a motor car
you have to make a decision about where you want to
go. Also, if you do not know the way there, you have
to get hold of a map and choose the way: which roads
you will travel on, how far on each you will go, what
turnings you will take, what signs you will be guided
Much the same situation applies when you want to
find some information that has probably been published. Recently at a birthday party somebody showed me
an old book: Volume 2 of "The Life of George Washington" by Washington Irving, published in 1900. My
curiosity was stirred about George Washington. The
next day I looked up in an encyclopedia the entry
"George Washington," and sati sfied much of my curiosity. I used the standard travel-map rules applying
to reference books: begin with an encyclopedia, and
look for the topic name in alphabetical sequence.
A computer, like a motor car and a reference book,
can take you where you want to go. First you have
to want to know something, and second you have to obtain knowledge of how to figure it out.


In this case, the map, the way to produce the answers
desired, will probably require some clever programmer to spend several hours producing a sequence of
some 300 instructions in machine language that the
computer needs for a map.
The situation of computer maps is much like driving your car in a strange land where there is no
light, only thick black darkness -- and all the signs
are written in a language that you do not understand.
So before you start out driving, you have to get from
somebody a complete and accurate set of instructions;
and the instructions must include the names of the
signposts at the intersections; and when you come to
an intersection, you turn on your flashlight, read
all the signs carefully, compare them with the appropriate notes in your set of instructions, and
then try your best to choose the right turning.
Fortunately, in this dark land where computer
maps are used, whenever you travel a second time
from place A to place B, if your road map worked OK
the first time, then it will work OK over and over
again. And each later time it will work lightning
fast. So whenever you want to travel again, you
have practically no problem at all. The inefficiency of the first trip is replaced by utmost efficiency for all later trips.
But you still need a place you want to go to (a
question you want answered) and a map of how to get
there (a complete set of instructions for figuring
out the answer).

E"~d...c. .. ~
Edmund C. Berkeley

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974


• To give you, our readers, an opportunity to discuss
ideas that seem to you important.
• To express criticism or comments on what you find
published in our magazine.
• To help computer people and other people discuss
significant problems related to computers, 9ata
processing, and their applications and implications,
including information engineering, professional behavior, and the pursuit of truth in input, output,
and pro cessing.


Your participation is cordially invited.

AEDS Programming Contest
Association for Educational Data Systems
Dr. Gary G. Bitter
College of Education
Arizona State Univ.
Tempe, AZ 85281

This 12th annual contest is for students in Grades
7 through 12. Seven first prizes of $25 (in bonds)
will be awarded in the categories: business, biological science; computer science; games; humanities;
mathematics; physical science. A Grand Prize of
$100 (in bonds) will be awarded to one of the winners in the individual categories. All entries must
be received by March 1.

Like a number of people interested in computer
art, my background is primarily a technological one.
I have an M.S. in mathematics and worked for four
years in the aerospace developing computer programs
for structural analysis research. While working on
one of the plot programs, I accidentally began generating forms that suggested sculptural possibilities to me. Eventually, I became more interested
in the potentialities of computer art than in the
work I was doing and finally quit to obtain more
formal training in the field of art. I am currently a Teaching Assistant completing my final year in
the M.F.A. Program at Buffalo.
I am looking forward to receiving your detailed
course plan.

The Association, also known as AEDS, is a national
organization comprised of administrators, teachers,
systems analysts, and programmers of educational data
processing systems in vocational, public, and private schools. The contest is on the approved list
of national contests and activities of the National
Association of Secondary School Principals.

Bryce M. Mitchell
universidade Federal de Sao Carlos
Laboratorio de Idiomas
Sao Carlos 13560, Brazil

The Programming Contest winner will receive not
only a U.S. Savings Bond but also an expense-paid
trip to the 1975 AEDS Convention in Virginia Beach,
Virginia, on April 29-May 2. The winning student's
teacher also will receive an expense-paid trip to
the convention.

We would like to request permission to reprint
a section from "Computers and People," Vol. 23, No.
6, page 6. We propose to use this editorial by
Edmund C. Berkeley as a reading in a textbook for
the teaching of scientific and technical English to
speakers of other languages. We will, of course,
give full credit to the source. Thank you very
much for your consideration in this matter.


EditD.rial Note:

Permission granted.

To: The Art Editor:

James C. Ver Hague, Jr.
Department of Art
State Univ. of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14214

Your article, "Computer Art for the Artist," appearing in the August 1974 issue of "Computers and
People," was very interesting to me. The Department
of Art here is initiating a course in computer art
and graphics beginning this fall semester. As the
instructor for the course, I found your outline to
be very well-conceived and have restructured some
of the planned course material as a result. I would
very much appreciate your sending to me a more detailed course plan including your bibliography of
references and/or any additional material that you
feel might aid in getting such a course successfully
off the ground. Does there exist the possibility
of an exchange of computer programs either with you
or others that have taught a similar course?
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

John K. Swearingen, President
Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals
Box 1442
Chicago, III. 60690

The Institute of the Certification of Computer
Professionals on October 5, 1974 made its first mailing to approximately 15,000 holders of the Certificate of Data Processing (COP).
In order to contact those COP holders whose upto-date address we did not have, would you please
publish this notice, addressed to holders of the
If you did not receive our mailing of October
5, 1974, it is probably because we do not have
your correct address. We have a message of interest and importance to you. Please send us
your correct address, class year, and your Certificate Number if available.

Engineering Computer Prlograms: How They Grow
A. Marcos

S. L. Chu
Structural Analytical Division
Sargent and Lundy, Engineers
55 East Monroe St.
Chicago, IL 60603

"Although a program cannot as yet take over conceptual design, nevertheless, used as a
tool for analysis, it can study complex models swiftly, and provide reliable and quick
estimates of the merits of various engineering solutions to a problem. "

Two Basic Functions

In engineering design firms, computer programs
perform two basic functions: carrying out calculations, and presenting the results in a prescribed
format. Yet neither the programs nor the functions
they perform are static. Both change as often as
engineers change designs, methods of analysis or
even personal tastes regarding the looks of computer
This is especially true of the programs used in
the design of nuclear power plants, an area which is
a prime concern with us. In this design area, there
is a continual advance in technology. Consequently,
it naturally follows that the programs used must continually evolve to keep pace.
Numerous Computer Programs

Although a program cannot, as yet, take over the
conceptual design function, nevertheless, used as a
tool for analysis, it can study complex models swiftly, and provide reliable and quick estimates of the
merits of various engineering solutions to a given
problem. Because of this increasing importance, it
is not unusual to find numerous computer programs
being conceived daily to handle the ever-increasing
engineering problems confronting engineering design
firms. Let's follow the evolution of a typical engineering computer program.

Continuing Growth

The next step in the maturation of the newly-born
program is qualification for the problem at hand.
For this, a few examples are run and if solved satisfactorily, the program is officially issued. The
qualification process does not stop at this point
but continues indefinitely, drawing not only from
experience gained through use but also from the interaction between the writers or maintainers of the
program and its users.
The interaction between user and writer is a major factor in the program's growth. Starting with
a model for the engineering problem at hand, the
user and writer team examine it. They decide whether
the program, as written, can solve the problem. This
process of user-writer interaction can serve to qualify the program for a wider set of problems, or disqualify it for certain problems.
Continuing Qualification

The program does not stop evolving after the qualification process by the development team. A continual stream of techniques for refined or improved
analysis calls for continual reevaluation of the computer programs that use the original techniques.
This process of selective change and improvement is
reminiscent of biological evolution; growth, adjustment, atrophy, specialization and breeding are all

Birth of a Program
Biological Analogy

The conception of a new program and its subsequent
gestation generally take place in engineering research
groups; at Sargent & Lundy the analytical divisions
are assigned this task. These divisions may investigate and recommend modification of one of the existing programs or develop a new one.

For our purposes, let's consider that a new program has been initiated. After it is written and debugged, validation begins. By this process the program is insured of doing what the programmer intends
it to; or in other words, the program is checked for
internal consistency. Known simple calculations may
be used to check for uniformity; or another program
with similar capabilities but with a different approach may be used for verification.


The diagram in Figure 1 illustrates this biological analogy. Let's follow the evolution of this
particular program. Version I is the initial stage
of a frame analysis program. Version II is its first
mutation when rigid members and end releases are introduced and a new version is required. With the advent of better methodology, Version III is developed.
This negates the usefulness of Versions I and II. New
requirements imposed by the Atomic Energy Commission
produce yet another stage, Version IV. However, in
this case Version III may still be functional for
some applications and therefore is not discontinued.
In time, Version IV is expanded upon when a particular group in the company requests a version which
will output the results of the program in a format
to suit the special needs of that group; in this
case, a specialized version is written for that
group while the original Version IV is kept intact.
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

puted by this program. Just as the first ~ffiSS program was continually expanded, so too was the DYNAPIPE program. At present there are four separate

Merger with
Another Program

A dynamic analysis program created independently
from the ~ffiSS family (named DSASS) is based on the
theory that slabs and walls in nuclear plants can
be modeled by a system of slabs vibrating in their
own plane and interconnected by translational springs
representing the stiffness of the walls. Figure 3
shows a DSASS model.

Guide Tubes

Program Evolution
Figure 1

Then again another group may request that two
types of analysis be performed in one program, such
as static and dynamic analyses. To accomplish this,
it may be necessary to combine two or three programs,
forming a new program. If the company leases a bigger computer that allows for the solving of more
joints and members, an expanded version of the new
program that would take advantage of the size and
speed of the new computer is written.
Thus, the computer program can evolve into many
stages. In numerous instances issuing the first
version of a program is only 20 per cent of the total work.
An Example of Extensive Growth

A typical example of this evolutionary process in
our design group is our MASS program (~atrix Analysis Seismic Stresses). First written in 1965, it
performed dynamic analysis of rigid frames and trusses. Since that time MASS II, MASS III, MASS IV,
and MASS V have been developed to incorporate additional features. The reactor pressure vessel of a
nuclear plant can be modeled to fit into the MASS
program (Figure 2).
A program called DYNAPIPE evolved from the ongInal MASS computer program as a special version to
analyze the dynamic behavior of the piping system.
For example, when a pipe break is postulated, the
response of the pipe during the accident can be comCOMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Dynamic Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel & Internals
Figure 2

Combining the MASS IV and DSASS programs produced
DYNAS, which is used to perform seismic analysis for
coupled structures in a nuclear plant. As shown in
Figure 4, the reactor pressure vessel is modeled as
a system of discrete masses and weightless members,
with its internals connected to the surrounding
slabs and walls.
SLSAP is a modified version of SAP acquired from
a university; it is a general-purpose finite-element
program. It is used to investigate framed structures,
containment structures and sacrificial shields. When
a part of SLSAP was extracted and combined with DYNAPIPE 4, PIPSYS was born. This program was instituted
to perform static and dynamic analysis of three dimensional piping systems, compute the combined stresses, and compare them to the allowable stresses of applicable codes.
In this way has the evolution of the MASS family
occurred during the past seven years. The program



Slab - Shear Wall

Space Frame







642630 -






617 -








500 -

560 ~~~~~m~~
Elevation (Ft.)

DSASS Model-Slabs and Shear Walls of
a Turbine-Auxiliary Building
Figure 3

has been expanded many times from its original size;
yet it still possesses the capacity to grow into
other analysis areas.

Combined Building and
Reactor Pressure Vessel Dynamic Model
Figure 4

The Limitations

Although expansion is an important step in achieving a versatile computer program, there should be a
limit to the size of the program for its optimum efficiency at an engineering design office (as distinct
from a software development firm). Programs developed in a design office must remain flexible and readily modifiable. Overly large programs which involve
several writers tend to be difficult to use, difficult to maintain, difficult to modify and with outputs, difficult to interpret.

must know the approximate answer since the slide
rule does not give the decimal point. Although computers do give the decimal point, the instructor's
warning is still true, and we should often remind
ourselves of it.
Knowing the limitations of the computer program
will enhance the success of its growth.


In fact, excessively large programs can run the
risk of being discarded altogether by the user because of their immense size. We call these obese
algorithms dinosaurs. Nature, like some programmers,
may have thought the bigger, the better, when dinosaurs were produced. But when flexibility was important, dinosaurs vanished in a relatively short
Accept with Caution

More important than the limitation of computer
program size is the avoidance of blind acceptance
of the computer's output. When an instructor first
introduced the slide rule to his class he explained
that the simple piece of wood would enable them to
divide, multiply, take square roots, do just about
anything except add. But he then cautioned that they

The plates for printing TH E COM PUTE R D I RECTO RY
AND BUYERS' GUIDE, 1974, have been at the printer
and waiting to run on his presses since early September,
while the printer waits for the delivery of promised paper. As of Nov. 13 the printer was still waiting. We regret very much this delay - which is outside of our possibilities of control.
To partially compensate for this delay, any purchaser
of the 1974 directory may order a copy of the 1973 directory at half price ($9.25 instead of $18.50). Prepayment is necessary.
Edmund C. Berkeley, Editor

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974

The Radiation from Computers Into Everywhere
Neil Macdonald, Survey Editor
"Computers and People"

"Dear #067-12-3948*: You are in danger. We don't know who you are but the
government does. They've got your number and they're not the only ones. "

1. From Society of Manufacturing Engineers
20501 Ford Road
Dearborn, MI 48128

How industry is using computer-aided technology
to obtain good economic results will be emphasized
at the third Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided
Manufacturing Conference and Exposition. This is
sponsored by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers
at the Hyatt Regency O'Hare Hotel in Chicago February 10-13, 1975. Nine Conference sessions and demonstrations of computer-based equipment, systems, and
software used in industrial applications will comprise CAD/CAM III.
More than 1,000 industrialists, manufacturing executives, and engineers responsible for computerbased industrial and manufacturing operations are
expected to attend.
2. From Association for Computing Machinery
1133 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10036

The Association for Computing Machinery announces
SOFTWARE (TOMS). The first issue is scheduled for
March, 1975.
This quarterly will publish significant research
and development results in the area of fundamental
mathematical algorithms and associated software (computer programs). Papers and other items will have
natural importance and relevance to mathematical software and they will support significant areas of computer application. The content of papers in those
areas that are primarily applications will be relevant to a reasonably wide class of problems and not
just to the specific considerations that motivated
the paper. There will be increasing emphasis on
utilitarian values of programs.
3. From David L. Emerick
Association of Computer Time-Sharing Users
c/o Borg Warner Chemicals
Borg Warner Corporation
Parkersburg, WV 26101

Computer time-sharing users are being invited to
join a new non-profit professional association, The
Association of Computer Time-Sharing Users, dubbed
"ACTSU." The stated purpose of the association is
"the evaluation, comparison and improvement of the

services offered by the time-sharing industry."
The Association will seek to help time-sharing
users. Comprehensive industry surveys are planned,
to provide members with comparisons and evaluations
of the services offered by time-sharing companies.
Some of the aspects that the industry surveys will
cover include: processing costs, operating characteristics, pre-programmed packages, frequency of
down-time, quality of technical support, geographical coverage, liability under service contracts,
and quality of educational materials.
Interested persons are urged to write ACTSU, 210
Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010 or to telephone
Hillel Segal (212) 752-2000, Ext. 8379, for additional information and membership applications.
4. From Karen A. Duncan
Association for the Development of Computer-Based
Instructional Systems (ADCIS)
c/o Office of Computer Resources
College of Dental Medicine
80 Barnes St.
Charleston, SC 29401

The 1975 Winter Conference of the Association for
the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems is sponsored by this college, and will take
place here January 28-30, 1975.
Persons interested in computer-assisted instruction or computer-managed instruction are invited.
This conference provides a professional arena for
the sharing of research findings, operational notes,
theories, educational strategies and developments
regarding CAl and CMI. Commercial and noncommercial
groups are invited to discuss their release policies
and potential ways in which courseware may be shared.
5. From Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts
3 Joy St.
Boston, MA 02108

Dear u067-12-3948*:
You are in danger.
We don't know who you are, but the government does.
They've got your number and they're not the only ones.
Your bank has it, and so does your insurance company,
your credit card company, and even the Registry of
(please turn to page 29)
*This is a fictitious number.

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974


The Computer Industry and Unionization
A. A. Imberman
Imberman and De Forest
Consultants to Management
209 South LaSalle St.
Chicago, III. 60604

"The most painful way to learn about unionization is to lose
a National Labor Relations Board election. "

The Computer Field: Ripe for Unionization?

Can the computer industry grow and expand in production and sales without experiencing some problems
with labor? The rising tide of strikes (in unionized plants producing computer hardware), and of
union organizing campaigns in the non-union plants,
is some indication of what lies ahead.
The computer industry is expected to chalk up new
performance records this year, with shipments exceeding $10 billion. A 10% in~rease is forecast, in
response to strong demands both in the United States
and abroad. Industry revenues are currently growing even more rapidly than shipments. In part, this
differential reflects the relatively slow pace of
trade-ins of third generation equipment in connection with the purchase of new computers. Additionally, despite stiff borrowing costs, manufacturers
are experiencing a higher than usual percentage of
outright sales and a corresponding decline in direct
leasing. Helping to account for this shift are gains
in third-party leasing and the popularity of less expensive mini-computers.
The computer industry's success in maintaining
impressive growth largely reflects an impressive
ability to achieve continuing advances in hardware.
In particular, rapid strides in semiconductor technology have led to significant improvements in computer memory capacities and operating speeds while,
at the same time, enabling manufacturers to reduce
prices. All of these factors indicate eventual labor union activities.
212 Union Victories

In the last four years, I have analyzed 212 union
victories in representation elections in a whole variety of industries. Of the 212 companies, 9 were
in the professional, scientific and controlling instruments (manufacturing) industry. I found that
timely precautions might have prevented most of
these union victories. How the trend had gone in
the professional, scientific and controlling instruments industry might be judged from the accompanying
table. The guideline controls have had some hampering influence on union activity.
As a result of our comprehensive study, these
conclusions became evident:
1. Most elections in which wages and hours were
alleged to be the main issue (which accounted for

~. A. Imberman did his undergraduate work at
New York Univ., and his graduate work at Johns
Hopkins. He has directed the Management Seminar
at the Univ. of Chicago and Illinois Institute of
Technology for over 20 years. He has written
widely, and is an employee relations consultant
to major companies, including Dupont, Avis, McGraw Edison, Sears Roebuck, and many others.

about 60 per cent of the elections), were won by
the unions because of employee ignorance of the competitive situation of the company. Employer speeches
in the election period had no effect. They were too
2. Most complaints about working conditions (a
basic cause of nearly 30 per cent of the elections)
were well-founded and reflected real issues. Election speeches had no effect here either.
3. Most elections in which arbitrary, tyrannical
and abusive supervisors were specifically named, were
truly the result of poor supervisory methods. More
than 50 per cent of the elections involved his issue.
The most painful way to learn about unionization
is to lose a National Labor Relations Board election.
Yet even with disputes over money, almost all labor
unrest could have been quelled before unions took
control of the work force. How? By setting up a
two-way communications system, and training supervisors in modern management methods.
Failure to Listen to Employees

A typical example of this lack of two-way communications -- this failure to listen to employees -taken from 39 of these 212 election situations, is
the case history of a single department in an East
Coast plant in this industry (professional, scientific and controlling instruments -- manufacturing).
The department had developed troubles that led to
an election.
This was a basic department on which other production departments depended. Within the past year
its quality of work had deteriorated. Production
schedules seemed too often to be out of gear with
the rest of the plant. Union organization in the
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Professional, Scientific and Controlling
I nstruments (Manufacturing)


Number of NLRB
Elections Held

Number Won
By Unions

Opinion Polls

Percent Won
By Unions










National Labor Relations Board Reports.

plant had been led by employees from this basic department.



The plant manager had talked with the department
supervisor a number of times. The answer was more
or less the same: employees in the department were
quarrelling, there were bitter disputes over who was
to be favored with overtime and Saturday work, squabbles over department seniority, some hard feeling
over wage differentials, and general distrust of
management. None of this had been true before.
What was worse, there was nothing that management
could put its finger on, to correct, even after the
The Supervisor's Health
Called in to advise the company on how to deal
with the growing absenteeism and turnover in the
plant, I elicited some interesting information from
the employees in that department which went far to
explain the election result.
After a number of weeks of interviews, it seemed
to me that the trouble seemed to revolve around the
department supervisor himself. One of the troubles
mentioned by all employees in the department was the
harshness of the supervisor. He was unreasonable,
tyrannical, arbitrary, hard to get along with. Since
he had been with the company for about 15 years, and
the complaints were recent in origin, I decided to
talk with him.
Heat and Cold
It was discovered that he had arthritis, and I
recommended that the supervisor be sent to a physician. Since his department was in a colder part of
the plant, his arthritic pain was accentuated by lack
of heat. This affected his whole disposition and
actions towards his employees.
Brought to the company's attention, a new foreman was assigned to that department. The older foreman was transferred to another department where room
temperatures were much higher. Within three months,
the trouble in the basic department cleared up. The
old foreman -- in the new "hot" department -- was
like a changed man. But the company had already
lost the election.
No amount of veiled promises or threats in speeches to employees during the election period could have
any effect on this situation. Only careful listening to the employees to uncover the roots of the discontent would have had any beneficial effect.

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Hundreds of other managements try questionnaires,
polls, "employee audits," suggestion boxes, etc., in
their search for easy information about worker discontent. Yet complaints remain.
For example, of the 212 election situations investigated, some 49 were similar to the case of a
Midwest company in this industry. The company tried
an "opinion poll" questionnaire as a possible solution for its employee gripes, even installing suggestion boxes. These suggestion boxes were designed to give employees a chance to write anonymously
about pet gripes. The plan met with disappointment.
The questionnaire uncovered only general worker complaints; little of it was news to management and
none of it was of any help in finding or pinpointing
solutions. The suggestion box was crammed with silly, unconstructive criticism, sometimes quite vicious.
Lack of Explanation
The problem of still another Southwest company in
this industry comes to mind. Difficulties arose
when this plant mushroomed from a small operation
to that of a larger plant. Where the same executives
had experienced no labor unrest when the facility
was small, they had an alarming amount of it as the
plant expanded. Despite an elaborate "employee audit" and questionnaire, an election petition was
filed with the NLRB and voting was held soon afterwards. The company lost by a narrow margin. Wage
rates were the alleged reason.
Called in by the parent corporation to make a
detailed investigation, I soon uncovered the fact
that most of the difficulties stemmed from rapid
changes in production methods coupled with intolerant, abusive supervisors. These production changes of course, were necessary because of changes in
design, but nobody bothered explaining these things
to employees. They were merely switched from one
production method to another, and since they were
being paid good rates, management felt that the employees merely had to comply with orders.
Resistance, to Change
Unfortunately, most semi-skilled workers, after
learning one or two operations, become frustrated
when those operations are changed without proper
explanation of the cause and without the help of
patient, trained foremen. This frustration works
itself out in various complaints about many things,
and eventually, if enough employees in the plant
feel the same way, there is a blow-up.
After long experience, and careful evaluation of
the 49 similar instances, I concluded that paperand-pencil questionnaires and suggestion boxes for
blue collar workers cannot take the place of manto-man contact in the plant. A systematic procedure
recognized as representing top management, must be
used to listen regularly to employees, and to act
upon the gripes.
Too Simple a Prescription?
So simple and elementary is this prescription
that every reader who manages a factory will immediately snort in derision. Every employer in this
industry believes that he listens to his employees
and that his foremen are well trained.


Unfortunately, most employers, with the utmost
good will in the world, do not have the patience to
listen, or the time, or the systematic machinery.
They therefore depend upon personnel department people and more particularly, on foremen and line supervisors to listen. Very few of these people know how
to listen "with the third ear," a talent which can
be developed by training.
Moreover, very few of these management people can
be depended upon to give management a straightforward report on what employees are saying -- not that
personnel department people, foremen, line supervisors, et al. wish to deceive the front office. On
the contrary, most often they are wholeheartedly on
management's side.
But most of these people (consciously or unconsciously) report only what they LIKE to report, or
report only what THEY think is important. Often this
is not the whole story, even if employees gave them
the whole story, which they rarely do.
Listening to employees is also a way for employers to forestall union organizers who roam smaller
communities of every state, seeking plants to organize. Once organized, union officials believe, the
employees are locked into the union for years and
years. How often does a decertification election
succeed? Not too often.
Union Tactics

One common attack by union organizers is to visit
employees in their homes and promise them all sorts
of pie in the sky. The organizers don't have to
deliver anything. Under the law they can promise
anything they like. If their promises don't work
out, it's the selfish employer's fault. And the
trouble continues.
What can employers do? For this sort of common
tactic, there is only one weapon: LISTEN TO THE
EMPLOYEE and train your supervisors. There is no
other way that an employer can find out just what
is troubling his employees, or what he must do to
overcome the difficulties on which union organizers
Center of Trouble on 3rd or 4th Floor

Another example, from about 21 similar cases covered in this study, might be of interest here. It
was a California company in this industry. The hotbed of union sentiment seemed to be centered on the
third of the four floors of the plant. There seemed
no obvious reason, yet judicious and cautious interviewing of employees throughout the plant led a skilled consultant interviewer to uncover some interesting facts.
No Refrigerator

The first, second, and fourth floors had small
refrigerators in the employee's restrooms. The women brought their lunches and deposited the bags in
the refrigerators. But the women on the third floor
had no refrigerator. Theirs had broken down a year
ago, and had never been repaired. They used the
second or fourth floor refrigerators. By so doing,
their lunch bags were often pushed aside by the employees of the other floors; sometimes, if there
wasn't enough room, the third floor lunch bags were
removed from the refrigerators entirely. They had
complained to their foremen over and over, but the
foremen were too busy to raise the question with the
plant manager.

Now it is difficult to believe that anything so
trivial would heat up a group of about 80 employees,
yet such was the fact. From this small beginning,
festering for about a year, 80 employees became dissatisfied with everything -- the ventilation in the
plant, the location of the overhead lights, the
treatment they received from supervisors, wage rates,
etc. Everything the company did, was bad, bad, bad.
From this humble beginning, employee dissatisfaction
spread through the plant. Not a single foreman had
tried to deal with the situation, or reported it
higher up.
It took seven weeks of careful interviewing, careful listening, and running down of all clues, to uncover this basic trivial cause. Installation of a
$80 renovated refrigerator in the third floor restroom cleared up most of the difficulty.
Could the company have uncovered clues indicating that lack of a refrigerator to hold employee
lunch bags on the third floor was causing a severe
shift in employee sentiment? Without foremen trained to listen and report, the only other alternative
would be to talk to every employee in the plant.
Troublesome as that might have been, it doesn't compare with the subsequent trouble (and expense) of
dealing with a union.
"Trained Ear" Gets Results

It takes special training and special techniques
to invite and enjoy the confidence of employees.
(Here and there throughout the country are some
skilled consultants, who specialize in such labormanagement techniques. Usually, these men are connected with a college or university. Interested
company executives might secure a list of recommended names by writing to the University Research Center, 121 West Adams, Chicago, Illinois 60603.)
Sudden Labor Trouble

Here is another case from our study which somewhat parallels 32 others. About 300 men were involved. A 70-year-old company in this industry,
with no labor or union trouble history, suddenly
found itself facing an organization drive. The company wage scale was in line with that of the community -- yet suddenly men in the plant seemed to
be swallowing all sorts of union organizer promises
-- something they had never done before. Why the
sudden labor trouble?
In this small town, no other company had a union,
yet somehow the union seemed to have gathered strength in this plant. The company won the election by
a very slim majority, and then as a result of unfair
labor charges, another election was ordered. However, in the interim, the company had used an outside consultant who did nothing but interview and
listen to employees, and provide training for supervisors.
Hearing Loss?

The basis of his findings was the noise in one
department that caused a number of employees to
fear hearing loss. This was mainly a reaction to
the current publicity about OSHA legislation, on
which the union organizer capitalized. Those employees who complained had merely been given uncomfortable ear plugs without explanation -- a sort of
impersonal treatment which many resented. This resentment cropped up in complaints about many other
working conditions -- formerly accepted as a matter
(please turn to page 25)


COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Changing Technology and Medical Speciali,zation
Ray M. Antley, M.D.
Department of Medical Genetics
Indiana Univ. School of Medicine
Indianapolis, Ind. 46202




Mary Ann Antley, M.A.
Department of English
Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ. at Indianapolis
Indianapolis, Ind. 46202
"The process of data collecting by computers will cause interaction
between the technology and the illness which it is designed to diagnose and treat, and these changes will result in computers performing not old jobs better but completely new jobs. "


Twenty-Five Years of Computers in Medicine

Twenty-five years of computers, and computers in
medicine, bring us to the threshold of their accelerated introduction into clinical medicine. To date,
there has been an opportunistic application of computers to medicine. This unstructured approach is
about to change, however, (1) because of the technological advances which have been achieved through
computer research and are ready for utilization, and
(2) because of the developments in concepts of comprehensive health care and its delivery. People who
have had little or no care, people who have had partial care through some form of insurance, and people
who have been able to afford total care, are collectively, either through insurance, through unions, or
through government health programs, demanding comprehensive health care at moderate cost to modest cost.
The dual problems of obtaining manpower to staff such
a health service and of keeping the total cost of
that service as low as possible, lend themselves to
solutions through technology.


Evolution of Technology

The developments in technology act in concert with
the recognition of the need for expanded medical care.
They are compounded by the existing doctor shortage.
These powerful interacting forces will structure the
future application and development of automation in
medicine. These forces have thus far tended to channel technological application towards assisting the
primary physician in the delivery of health care.



Furthermore, the evolution of technology is such
that this assisting phase will be transient, for programs are already being developed which will do much
of what the physician does now. Finally, the process
of data collecting by computers will cause interactions between the technology and the substrate of illness which it is designed to diagnose and treat, an
these changes will result in computers performing no
old jobs better, but completely new jobs •


This article seeks to explore the evolution of
machines in medicine and to discuss some of the problems inherent in change. We have divided the evolution in medical technology into three phases based
upon inferences about the role of the physician in
relationship to his machines and his patients. Phase
I is called the assisting phase; Phase II, the automated phase; and Phase III, the environmental control
phase. After each phase we have attempted to indiCOMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

cate some of the consequences of the different
stages. It should be apparent that different levels of the progression are occurring simultaneously
and that there is no sharp demarkation between phases. What might not be apparent is that Phase II
should be a reality in the next decade and that
Phase III will probably be the dominant form of
medical practice within the career of present day
medical students.
Phase I - The Assisting Phase

The introduction of technology into medicine has
been at such a rate that each new machine has been
seen as an individual innovation which helps with
a particular diagnostic or treatment function. When
a new machine appears, it is tested and incorporated into the doctor's routine on the basis of its
utility and efficiency. This random incorporation
of such innovations as the electrocardiogram (ECG),
the electroencephalogram (EEG), the fiber gastroscope, the heart-lung machine and patient monitoring equipment throughout all fields of medicine has
obscured the collective impact on medical practice
of machines, i.e., the channelling of medical practice toward technological specialties. The phenomena of medical specialization has been largely attributed to an increased work load and to the information explosion. This hypothesis, however,
misses the important relationship between the development of a machine and the development of information and a specialty as a direct result of
that machine.
The Electrocardiogram and the Cardiologist

For example, the introduction of the electrocardiogram did much to strengthen the cardiologist -who was previously solely organ based. The ECG
established scientific credibility to the diagnosis
and treatment of myocardial infarction syndrome.
Second, a literature developed about the technical
aspects of the ECG machine itself, followed by a
literal explosion of information about ECG diagnosis.
Each diagnosis has usually been enhanced by reports
related to prognosis and treatment to such an extent
that it becomes a full time job keeping abreast of
the publications in this field alone.
Although more has gone into the development
of cardiology than the ECG, it is hard to conceive
of that specialty without it. From this beginning
there has been a proliferation of other innovations:

the intensive care units, specialists in intensive
care, respiration therapists, second generation machines like pace makers and cardiac monitors. As
technology provides equipment to investigate a particular organ system in depth, a new information explosion and subsequent specialty frequently develops.
Thus, the new technology's effects have been to improve medicine through specialization, to increase
its complexity, and to heighten its intellectual
stimulation related to content.
New Innovations in Machines

Relatively recent innovated machines are in the
laboratory, the nursery, the intensive care unit,
the emergency room and the operating room. They
pervade the care of the critically ill inpatient.
They structure the clinic's business procedures if
not influencing the individual doctor's practice procedures.
It is significant that, in addition to helping
the doctor do what he did before, these machines do
jobs which really cannot be equaled by the physician
alone. Increasingly, machines are molding the way
in which medicine is practiced, even to the extent
of having influence over the formulation of medical
ethics in regard to the definition of death. This
same technology, by its very existence, raises extremely perplexing questions about who will die.
Dependence of the Doctor on Machines

The introduction of technology into medicine has
several effects upon the doctor. One is that in
routine practice, the doctor has unconsciously become dependent on the laboratory, x-ray, drugs packaged by automated systems and various electronic instruments to such an extent that the practice of
medicine would be starkly different if they were
suddenly removed. By examining the prospects of
their removal, one is able to develop some feel for
the amount of evolution they have induced. Also, a
forward anticipation of comparable change in the
next ten years to what we have had in the past 25
years is helpful in grasping the magnitude and rates
of change we will experience.
Changes in Medical Practice

Thus, these machines, which have been readily acquired and used by the medical profession to help
them perform tasks and detect disease more quickly
and accurately, have subtly effected a change in the
environment of medical practice in the twentieth century.
A change in the environment is rarely only
additive or linear. You seldom, if ever,
have an old environment PLUS a new element,
such as a printing press or an ele~tric plug;
what you have is a totally new envIronment. l
From the individual family doctor of the early
1900's who treated a patient for all his illnesses,
practice has evolved in a predictable technological
form into a system in which many specialists treat
specific diseases that manifest themselves in the
same patient. This evolution from patient-centered
to disease-centered treatment has taken place gradually over the past 70 years. The rate of change
has been slow enough to allow for the training of
new physicians in the new specialties created by an
expanding medical technology. The very real changes
in the role of the physician and the system of health
delivery that have occurred have been effected with
relatively little trauma to the earlier physicians

who have been able to continue their roles as generalists in an increasingly specialized world. Medicine has adjusted to the presence of technology and
now reflects its qualities so smoothly and so completely that it requires a detached view to even recognize the great change in orientation that has occurred.
Phase II - The Automated Phase

Now, into this seemingly stabilized system of
health delivery care based on scientific, technological specialization, a different sort of machine
is being introduced. Its long term effects will result in another major change in the environment of
medical practice. These are automated machines that
are capable of replacing those functions which have
so far been performed only by the physician himself.
Because the physician has become conditioned to accepting technology in medicine, these more sophisticated instruments have been introduced without arousing questions about their long-term implications, or,
more often, without even a recognition of what these
implications are.
A computer-acquired history and a programmed physical examination are today almost existing realities. 2 ,3,4,5 Machines which will perform a physical
examination by analyzing data coming directly from
self-propelled sensing devices are projected at
this time. Once the software has been developed,
the retrieval of data from medical records, along
with results from automated clinical laboratories,
and the integration of these data for processing by
a computer will be simple procedures. The import
from the capabilities of these existing and realistically projected machines is that they are, and
will be, able to do what the physician now does.
Here again, as in 1900, the role of the physicianwill be affected and the present system of health
delivery will restructure itself around a new concept in patient care. But this change will be unlike the gradual readjustment that accrued when medicine entered the technological era. Because of the
productive capacity of our electronics industry, the
lead time between the development of an automated
process in health delivery care and the moment when
widespread change occurs will be short, that is
years, not decades. The resulting effect on the
physician will be one of frequent and significant
change in his role. Trained as a specialist in
disease detection he will be confronted with machines that are equally specialized, that can also
differentiate diseases, and that will bring to this
process a degree of efficiency and a capability for
information storage far beyond human abilities.
"Future Shock" for the Physician

Thus, as in so many other fields that have become automated, the physician will experience not
.the introduction of new techniques which can coexist with his present job, but the actual replac~­
ment of much of his present function by a machine.
The years of training in scientific disease detec- '
tion and the old methods of specialist-based health
care delivery will have been made, in large measure,
obsolete. He will, in fact, experience "future
Future shock occurs when you are confronted by
the fact that the world you were educated to
believe in doesn't exist. Your images of reality are apparitions that disappear on contact. There are several ways of responding
to such a condition, one of which is to withCOMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

draw and allow oneself to be overcome by a
sense of impotence. More commonly, one continues to act as if his apparitions were substantial, relentlessly pursuing a course of
action that he knows will fail him.l
A third reaction to being suddenly exposed to a
new environment is to rationally evaluate your situation and adjust to the demands of the new milieu.
In order to make this reorientation, the physician
will first need to recognize that there is a new
environment. Then he will need to have the flexibility necessary to adapt to the new roles which the
doctor will fulfill in a world of automated medicine.
Some of these roles will be in the new specialties,
created by the machines once more; others will be in
computer administration and programming; many more
will be connected with counseling patients and responding to their illnesses with empathy. There
are many variations within these categories. The
important thing is for the physician today to recognize the change which is going on in medicine and
automation so that he will be prepared for the new
demands which will follow.
Phase III - The Environmental Control Phase

The development of machines which are able to
replace hitherto unique diagnostic functions of the
physician is only the intermediary phase in the evolution of machines in medicine. Rapidly following
this era will come the stage in which heuristic computers interact to develop strategies for medical
care which are peculiarly suitable to the abilities
of technology rather than to human organization.
Changes in information about the illness and the
alterations in disease caused by the automation \~ill
result in changes not only in functions related to
diagnosis and treatment, but also in the goals of
medical care.


Perhaps the first goal of automated medical care
should be to treat a sick person, and this would
shift to prevention of illness, and in time this
might change to maintaining an equilibrium between
birth and death rates. These goals will undoubtedly
be altered from time to time by the needs of society.
At this point, the computer may be assigned a task
and the assigner not know how the computer arrived
at an answer, but only that it arrived at a carefully
planned answer, perhaps making calculations and trials that it would take an individual 100 or more years
to duplicate. This later phase of automation will be
characterized by two new facets as described by John
Diebold: (1) Technological advances are self-generating. "No longer must technological progress wait
on the next individual scientific discovery: technology itself is pushing research into new discoveries and new dimensions."

troduced mechanism, but under the external direction
of the machine itself. For example, in a world whose
goals are a healthy population, the emphasis of medicine in the future may well be on prevention rather
than diagnosis and treatment. With the precedent
for using machines in problem solving situations
firmly established, and with the concurrent development of machines that can devise strategy in the
pursuit of goals,6 it is predictable that these computers will be used in problem solving situations in
health delivery. We predict that their recommended
approaches to health delivery problems will influence the direction that medicine takes in the next
Thus far, the three phases of the evolution of
machines in medicine have been delineated. It may
be seen that the first phase, in which machines as~
sist the physician, is evolving into Phase II, in
which machines are designed to replace functions
which heretofore had been unique to the role of the
physician. It may also be seen that this second
phase is only intermediary in a progression that
will result in machines themselves being used to
devise new approaches to health care. Thus, technology continues to shape the direction of medical
practice through its increasing incorporation into
diagnosis and treatment. The development of new
skills by physicians in response to technical advancement will be necessary, while appropriate education in medical school should facilitate this adaptive development.
Culture Influencing the Physician

The preceding discussion has demonstrated that
the physician is influenced both subtly and overtly
by the culture in which he lives. At the present
time that culture is technological, and both the
practice of medicine and the job of the physician
are inseparably chained to that technology. Technological advances, such as the ECG, which have created new jobs and new fields of medicine are examples of this interdependency upon technology in medicine today. In like manner, it may be assumed that
new machines will continue to structure new specialties and define new jobs in the future.
Therefore, because of what has happened in the
past twenty years and is continuing, predictions
can be made about the effect of technological advances on the role of the physician in the future.
Finally, with these changes in mind it is possible
to suggest some changes in the present medical education system that will be necessary in order to
prepare physicians to practice medicine in an increasingly automated environment.
Changes in Medical Education


This process will produce whole new sets of computers which will acquire, store, and process information which only the machine through its own processes evaluated as being relevant to treatment and
health to begin wi th -- wholly a machine idea. (2)
Computers rather than being given a defined task to
perform, can be assigned a goal, the computer at this
highest point of machine intelligence will pursue a
goal with minimum instruction, devising its own strategy in pursuit of that goal. 6
Direction Determined by the Machine

In this final stage, machines will again be responsible for a changed environment in medicine, but
this time the change will occur not through the restructuring of the present system around a newly inCOMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Among the possibilities that cluster around the
role of the physician in the late twentieth century,
two large areas may be emphasized. Some doctors
will need to become advanced technologists in order
to conceive, design, operate, and understand the
new generations of machines. Secondly, with the
increased use of machines for technical functions,
many physicians will be called upon to help the patient understand the technical findings of his examination and to facilitate the constructive use of
this information in the patient's life. The genetic
counselor already serves this function today, helping
the counselee to incorporate the information that he
has acquired in the counseling session for constructive planning; while the thanoto!ogist works with
terminally ill patients as they deal with the knowledge of thei r approachi ng dea tli· I
rp case turn to page 25)

Nancy A. Miller
16 Ober Road
Princeton, NJ 08540

"In Fayetteville, Arkansas, I was working with Vietnam Veterans Against the War. One of
the veterans there, William W. Lemmer, turned out to be an FBI informer. ... We broke
his cover and exposed him. He immediately suggested he become a double agent on the FBI."


Investigations by the press, Congressional committees, and the courts have slowly revealed the
nature of "Watergate East" and "Watergate West."
The first refers to efforts to undermine Democratic
Party presidential candidates and the subsequent
cover-up; the second, Watergate West, to the violation of the rights of Dr. Lewis Fielding in an attempt to seal off leaks. The inter-relationship between Watergates East and West is rather ambiguous
without an examination of "Watergate South," which
has been almost totally overlooked. The evidence
supporting the hypothesis that there was a southern
extension is scattered through Ervin Committee testimony, press statements, affidavits and depositions
filed in several courts, and other statements by
some of those involved. Many clues or references
may still lie undetected, but a consistent picture
has emerged, from those that have been found, of an
attempt to keep Richard M. Nixon in the White House
at almost any cost.
I first stumbled into Watergate South in a most
unlikely place, Fayetteville, Arkansas. I was living there in the spring of 1972 and working with the
Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW). One of the
veterans there, William W. Lemmer, turned out to be
an FBI informer. It was through him that several of
us began to learn of what was being planned for that
presidential election year. In late May, 1972, we
broke Lemmer's cover and exposed him as an informer.
He immediately suggested that he become a double
agent, spying on the FBI. To prove the good faith
of his offer, he voluntarily agreed to be interviewed, on tape, by two other Fayetteville veterans. The
interview was conducted on June 3 and 4, two weeks
before the discovery of the Watergate break-ins. I
was present during the second day's session, when
Lemmer made his most ominous statements.
Assertions that Violence Was Planned
for the 1972 Political Conventions

Watergates East and West reveal an hysterical attempt to seal the White House off from the rest of
the country. But why the hysteria? Why the frantic
cover-up? Much of the answer lies in Watergate South.
Even the most cooperative witnesses have shied away
from this area of the total puzzle, probably because
its implications are so staggering. James W. McCord,
Jr., came close to it when he was testifying before
the Ervin Committee in May of 1973. He stated that


he believed he had acted in the nation's best interest because of plans allegedly being made by groups,
working with the Democrats, to violently disrupt the
conventions. Therefore, telephone taps of Democratic committee members were necessary to learn of
plans in time to head off the trouble makers. McCord testified to receiving "almost daily" reports
from the Internal Security Division of the Justice
Department, some of which linked the Democratic Party to VVAW. One of those reports
came concurrently with some other information
that that same group (VVAW) was planning violence at the Republican National Convention
involving danger to, threats to life of individuals. • • • The Vietnam Veterans Against
the War was one violence-oriented group that
was already saying in the spring of 1972 that
they were going to cause destruction to life
and property at the August Republican convention, using in their own words, their own bodies and weapons as the spearhead of the attack
there -- these are their exact words, and some
of them (the Gainesville 8) have since been
indicted in Tallahassee, Florida, with additional plans to damage the life and property
of the convention. l
Earlier, during the trial of the Watergate burglars in January, 1973, one of McCord's attorneys,
Gerald Alch, explained the rationale of this defense.
If one is under a reasonable apprehension -regardless of whether that apprehension is in
fact correct -- he is justified in breaking a
law to avoid the greater harm, which in this
case would be violence directed to Republican
officials, including but not limited to, the
President. 2
The first question that needs to be asked is:
did McCord have cause for a "reasonable apprehension" that violence was planned for the 1972 conventions? The answer to this question seems to be:
yes, violence was planned. The proof of this answer
is found in the tangled web of a second question:
who was planning to initiate and direct the violence?
Questionable Nature of Internal Security Division
Information Supporting Charges Against VVAW

The government alleged that VVAW members conspired
to be the instigators of the violence. The source
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

f iI'


and veracity of these allegations, however, is highly questionable. The "New York Times" spoke with a
highly placed Florida law enforcement official
who participated in the security planning and
operation for both conventions and saw the toplevel intelligence reports (who) said in an
interview last August (1972) that there was
no mention in the intelligence reports of the
plot described by the Government in its indictment (of the Gainesville 8).
After checking the intelligence reports for
the security operation again to refresh his
memory, the source repeated that the strongest
warning about any potential activities of the
V.V.A.W. was a report that it had bought "between five and one-hundred slingshots."
And a check of the secret intelligence and operation logs of the Dade County Public Safety
Department, made available to the New York
Times, also shows no signs of Federal, state
and local reports of the alleged plot. 3
At least two undercover officers with the Dade
County Public Safety Department, Gerald Rudoff and
Harrison Crenshaw, had infiltrated VVAW as informers
and had attended VVAW meetings in the Miami area
prior to the conventions. Had they heard of any
plans that could be construed as potentially disruptive, surely Rudoff and Crenshaw would have reported them. These reports should have been among
the materials available to the Florida law enforcement official if he and his co-workers were to be
able to maintain order and to protect the lives of
those present in and around the conventions. The
use of informants is based upon the need to fulfill
such responsibilities. In view of the absence of
such reports, it is reasonable to assume that there
had been no indications that VVAW, or any other
movement group, was planning to incite violence.
Facts tend to support this contention.
Convention Disruptions Started by People
Apparently Not in the Peace Movement

VVAW was the only movement organization whose
members were indicted for conspiring to violently
disrupt either convention. It was also the only
group mentioned by McCord in his testimony as being
a source of concern to security personnel at the
Aside from sporadic trashing and a disorganized
skirmish the last night of the Republican Convention,
there was no violence at either. That incident the
final night involved little more than blocking traffic, which is far from the blowing up of the Causeway to Miami Beach, of police stations, and of communications installations that the Gainesville 8
were charged with planning. Of the 1,200 demonstrators arrested that night, only a few -- some reports
say no -- VVAW members were arrested.
Several times people in Miami Beach noticed that
groups of younger demonstrators were roused to start
trashing by agitators who quickly faded from view
when the trouble started. Some of these instigators
may have been irrational hotheads from the ranks of
the movement, but not all of them were. A reporter
for the "Miami Herald"
saw two pro-Nixon youths physically disrupt a
anti-war demonstration outside convention hall. One of the young men identified
himself as Stephen McNellis, Minnesota coordi-



COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

nator for VVJP (Vietnam Veterans for a Just
Peace) . • • •
Since then, as part of the Watergate disclosures, the White House has admitted that the
pro-Nixon veterans group (VVJP) was in fact
financed with GOP campaign funds and directed
by Charles Colson. 4
No Government Case to Support Indictment
of the Gainesville 8

Sizable contingents of VVAW members were present
at both conventions, yet the expected violence did
not occur. It is conceivable, if the charges against
the Gainesville 8 were true, that VVAW abandoned its
plans for the August convention after some of its
members were indicted in July. However, the jury
found the eight defendants innocent of all charges
after hearing a month of prosecution witnesses,
only one defense witness, and after deliberating
for only four hours. Obviously, the government had
no case to support its charges, despite the fact
that VVAW was heavily infiltrated. Two FBI informers, Lemmer and Karl Becker, were present during the
meetings from which the indictment was derived. Another FBI informer, Emerson L. Poe, was working closely with the Florida VVAW coordinator, Scott Camil,
who was later indicted as one of the Gainesville 8.
Rudoff and Crenshaw were working on the local level
in Miami with Camil and Alton C. Foss, another defendant. All but Rudoff testified at the trial and
still the government had no case. The only assumption that can possibly be drawn is that there was no
conspiracy by VVAW members to initiate violence at
the conventions.
If violence was planned, but it was not planned
by the VVAW, then others must have done so. If
other movement groups had, then the indictment of
the Gainesville 8 would not have inhibited them.
They might even have assumed that they were not under heavy surveillance and, therefore, were free to
do as they wished, with a fair degree of assurance
that they would escape blame since others had already been charged with what they planned to do.
The absence of any serious outbursts is indicative
of the peaceful intentions of the demonstrators.
This fact, together with the questionable activities
of members of such groups as the pro-Nixon VVJP, support the belief that the conspirators were not among
the sincere protestors.
The Case Against the Government
The Gainesville Meeting

Adding still further credence to this possibility
are two examples of government involvement through
the FBI. First, the so called Gainesville meeting,
from which most of the indictment against the 8 was
derived, was set up by Becker. Donald C. Donner, a
veteran from Fayetteville, Arkansas, who had undertaken the responsibility of arranging for the meeting, got so far as sending out a letter asking for
suggestions on a date and place to meet before Becker took over. As Donner said:
The meeting was apparently set up by Karl
(Becker) • • • . Karl told me that he went on
with my idea, informed everybody, tried to
inform me and was unable to do so. I shouldn't
have been that hard to find • . • • He said he
went ahead with a date on the letter and there
is not a date on the letter. All in all, the
way the meeting got set up is very questionable. S

Second, Lemmer was instructed to go to the meeting
by his control, Special Agent Richard J. O'Connell,
made it known to me prior to my leaving . • •
that the Jacksonville office, Jacksonville,
Florida, office of the FBI, had requested my
presence in Gainesville and I was told that
it would be up to them to finance my trip
down there -- that if and when it came time
to move, I was to contact John Maher and pick
up money for that trip down there • • • • They
gave me $210 to make the round trip from New
York to Gainesville and back to New York. 6
Squad 19
It looks as though members of the government were
the actual conspirators and that they were attempting to set VVAW up as a scapegoat for their actions.
A September, 1971, statement by Louis Tackwood, a
former Los Angeles Police Department agent provocateur, suggests a disturbing basis for this contention. Tackwood, in a press conference, described a
plot involving a special group, Squad 19, which was
created by the Criminal Conspiracy Section of the
Los Angeles Police Department and the FBI.
This plan entailed planting a number of agent
provocateurs both inside and outside the Convention. Agents were to infiltrate the groups
planning demonstrations against the war and
poverty. At the time of the demonstrations,
the agents were to provoke street battles with
police surrounding the convention hall. Meanwhile, agents inside the convention hall were
to plant explosives timed to blow up coincidental with riots in the streets. The purpose
was to kill a number of delegates. The result
would be to create a nationwide hysteria that
would then provide President Nixon with the
popular support necessary to declare a state
of national emergency. Orders for Squad 19
came directly from the California State Department of Justice, and State Attorney General
Evelle Younger. Richard Nixon would then arrest all militants and left-wing revolutionaries and cancel the 1972 elections. He could
invoke special emergency powers leading to the
detention of political activists. 7
Agent Provocateurs Active in VVAW Planning
for the Convention Demonstrations
William Lemmer

Tackwood's charges are too serious to be accepted
without an examination of available facts. First,
he claimed that "agent provocateurs • • • were to
infiltrate the groups planning demonstrations." VVAW,
which was planning demonstrations, was infiltrated
and at least one of the infiltrators was a provocateur: Lemmer, the "star" witness in the Gainesville
8 trial. While he was stationed at Fort Benning,
Georgia, he encouraged others to telephone bomb
threats and tried to get them to blow up a water
tower. After he got out of the Army, in July, 1971,
he moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas, where he instructed a high school student in the manufacture of a
fire bomb and then accompanied the boy to the site
of the attempted fire bombing. Lemmer described the
incident to the three of us in Fayetteville.
He asked me if ether would be a better fuel
than gasoline and I told him, by all means,
ether would definitely be better than gasoline. The night that he got busted (arrested)


we went over to his house, picked up the
material, and I went out to watch. 8
Lemmer also talked a Fayetteville veteran into sending a bomb threat. And in another incident, he
helped talk demonstrators at an Air Force base in
Oklahoma into going on the base despite police and
military orders not to do so. In the last three instances people, other than Lemmer, served time.
Lemmer also tried to project a violent image of
VVAW, contradictory to the organization's history
of only staging peaceful protests. During a local
Arkansas march, Lemmer insisted, in vain, that the
VVAW members be armed and defy police orders. In
May of 1972, he stepped up his campaign. At a demonstration in Washington Lemmer tried to get fireworks and explosives to set off in trashcans, which
would sound like gun fire, in order to divert police
attention away from the main body of demonstrators
and on to VVAW. Again he was unsuccessful. About
a week later, on a trip to Florida, while easily
identifiable as a VVAW member since he was wearing
military fatigues and a VVAW button, he talked loudly in public places about bombing and killing.
Pablo Fernandez

Another agent provocateur, Pablo M. Fernandez,
while not actually infiltrating VVAW, did befriend
Camil and other Florida veterans. As an FBI and
Miami Police Department informer, Fernandez tried
to sell weapons, from guns to hand grenades and
mines, to Camil and Foss. Major Adam Klimkowski,
Commander of the Miami Police Department's Special
Investigations Section, stated:
We were hoping for the overt act necessary
to produce a charge of conspiracy . . • • We
did not want Camil to actually acquire weapons, ••• we wanted to find out what was
in the back of his mind. 9
Government witnesses have consistently contended
that Camil and Foss asked for weapons, while the
two defendants have insisted they were offered them.
Klimkowski's statement, while ambiguous, tends to
support Camil and Foss. Whatever the truth may be,
one fact is irrefutable: no member of VVAW followed
up and bought any of the weapons.
Fernandez was part of a group of agitators paid
to go to J. Edgar Hoover's funeral, May 5, 1972, to
harrass demonstrators. The group included Watergate
burglars Bernard L.' Barker, Frank Fiorini (alias
Frank A. Sturgis), Virgilio R. Gonzales, and perhaps Eugenio Rolando Martinez, under the name of
Rolando Martinez. One of the Fielding burglars,
Felipe de Diego, was also in the party as were
Reinaldo Pico, Angel Ferrer, and Humberto Lopez.
In a "Miami Herald" article, Fernandez is quoted
as saying:
I kicked a hippie. . • . I knew someone big
was protecting us because the Capitol police
did not try to arrest me. lO
Fernandez went into more detail when he discussed
this, and other activities, with another Miamian,
Angelica Rohan. She appears to be nearly the only
informant involved in convention intelligence who
was sincerely working for peaceful demonstrations,
"so the name of the Cubans would be clean and everything would be good for the Cubans."ll On May 23,
1973, Rohan gave sworn testimony to U. S. District
Judge W. O. Merhtens in which she read and interpreted her notes of what Fernandez had told her. Many

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974







of the points she mentioned are supported by other
reports of the incident.
I am going to quote whatever Pablo (Fernandez)
told me, which I took down as he was giving it
to me. I read it back to him, and when something was not clear I went back and redid it
Briefed by Mr. Bernard Barker and Mr. Martinez
at the hotel before the 2-hour break upon arrival in Washington. When we had to go to the
funeral, the instructions were that one of the
group that spoke English had to insult Mr. Daniel Ellsberg or Doctor Daniel Ellsberg. One
group would destroy Ellsberg's loud speakers
and all his equipment • • • • They were given
pictures of Mr. Ellsberg and he told them to
aim at him • • • • (Sturgis)* started insulting
Ellsberg, then Pablo, then Barker. Pico threw
a punch at a hippie and that is when everything
started. Rolando Martinez and Virgilio Gonzales had whoever appeared to be Ellsberg's
security man, held him while Pablo punched
him. (Sturgis) and Ferrer were taken by the
police, the Riot Control, to a car and then
released. Capitol police were five feet away
and were like protecting the Cubans, you know,
like "Well done," by a sergeant of the police
at the Capitol told Pablo after punching Ellsberg's security man. The police protected
Pablo and he left the site. 12


Vincent J. Hannard of Miramar, a private investigator • • • said he was offered work in
"intelligence and instigation" during the conventions at Miami Beach.
Hannard claimed he received separate calls
from Sturgis, and maybe Barker, and two others
and they asked him to help disrupt activities
of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War -- an
organization thoroughly infiltrated by police
and federal informers before and during the
According to Hannard, each call came from a
different person, and each caller tried to
persuade him that it was his patriotic duty
to help undermine the VVAW.
Hannard said he was sure it was Sturgis, because he has known him for more than 13 years
and recognized his voice.
Hannard said another caller identified himself
as Barker. However, Hannard said he never has
met Barker and could not be certain who actually called him. . • •
Hannard said he told an FBI agent, Jack Ackerly, about the calls shortly after he received
them. Ackerly said he knows Hannard, but refused to talk about conversations he may have
had with him.

Sometime after that trip, Eugenio Martinez tried
to enlist Fernandez's services to create trouble at
the Democratic convention.

According to Hannard, none of the four callers
told him what would be expected of him if he
agreed to do the proposed undercover work.
But he said each mentioned the VVAW and described the task as covert intelligence and

Watergate burglar Eugenio R. Martinez offered
(Fernandez) $700 a week to infiltrate protest
groups at last summer's Democratic convention
and embarrass George McGovern "for the Republican Party."

"It was clear from what they said that I was
supposed to incite trouble or riots from the
anti-war groups," he said. "I was told it
would be activity pertaining to the convention
and an opportunity to travel.

Pablo Manuel Fernandez, 28, a burly, heavy
equipment parts clerk who left Cuba as a teenager, said he was told by Martinez: "You get
10 people and get inside McGovern headquarters
in the hotel." ••

"And there would be great rewards when the
President was re-elected."

Barker paid all the expenses and gave $100 in cash
to each participant, according to Rohan's statement.



Fernandez said Martinez came to him with the
long-range offer in which he was told he could
make $700 a week from last June (1972) until
"after the President took office early this
year", presumably meaning the inauguration of
Nixon's second term. 13
According to Rohan, at least two other Cubans were
to head other teams, which sound very similar to the
fireteams the Gainesville 8 were accused of forming.

Hannard said he was offered $1,000 a week for
that work but that in the fourth call the offer was raised to $1,500. 14
John Kifner, for "The New York Times," filled in
some details in Hannard's story.
In a long deposition taken by the Broward
County State's Attorney's Office, a man with
Cuban and Central Intelligence Agency ties,
Vincent J. Hannard said that he had been offered $1,500 a week in a telephone call from
a man calling himself "Eduardo" -- (E. Howard)
Hunt's code name -- to infiltrate the VVAWand
cause trouble.

Others Asked to Infiltrate VVAW
Vincent Hannard

Frank Sturgis approached another Floridian with a
similar offer. Vincent J. Hannard gave sworn testimony in private and then spoke to reporters.
'* Rohan used Fiorini, but I have substituted Sturgis
since this is the name by which most people know

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

"Basically we had to expose the V.V.A.W. being pink and Communist and all this stuff,"
he said, adding that he was wanted "because
of my reputation as an instigator rather than
an investigator."
He said that he had refused because the amount
of money being offered made the job seem too
dangerous. Mr. Hannard has worked as an Informer for the C.I.A., the F.B.I. and local
police forces .15


Alfred Baldwin and John Eck

Alfred C. Baldwin, 3rd, the ex-FBI agent who monitored the illegally placed telephone taps at the
Democratic National Headquarters, was also asked to
infiltrate VVAW. A Miami gun dealer, John Eck, admitted that he too had been contacted but would not
say by whom other than by someone named in connection with the Watergate case.
Government Support of Plans to Kill
Convention Delegates

Returning to Tackwood's statement, to examine
another of his contentions, he said that "the purpose" of the riots and explosions "was to kill a
number of delegates." Fernandez claimed to be able
to get the weapons necessary to produce the explosions. Lemmer proposed a variation. In January or
February, 1972 -- just four or five months after
Tackwood's press conference and six months before
the first national political convention -- Lemmer
suggested to several VVAW members that they should
break down automatic weapons, strap them to their
bodies under their clothes, smuggle them into the
convention hall, and "rip people off" -- in other
words, kill them. Just as no one bought weapons
from Fernandez, no one accepted Lemmer's suggestion.
Lemmer, like Fernandez, confided in a woman, Barbara Stocking. On May 25 and 26, during a drive to
Florida, he told Stocking of plans that she found
so disturbing she filed an affidavit, in which she
said Lemmer
said that I should not go to the Miami conventions because, he said, all of the VVAW
leaders were going to be picked up and taken
out of circulation, and he and some other
people were going to shoot leaders of the New
Left, and start a riot, and there would be a
lot of fighting and shooting, and everyone
would be arrested. He also spoke of shooting
the "Trots" (Trotskyites) and Progressive
Labor movement people and pretending that
VVAW had done it, and this would discredit
the VVAW and split the peace movement. He
said he had a source of unlimited funds to
carry this out. 16
Stocking's statement that Lemmer told her "there
would be a lot of fighting and shooting and everyone
would be arrested," supports Tackwood's contention
that "the result would be to create a nationwide
hysteria that would then provide President Nixon
with the popular support necessary to ••• invoke
special emergency powers leading to the detention
of political activists."
Proposed Mass Kidnappings of Movement Activists
FBI Participation

There is a good bit of evidence that preparations
were being made for the "detention of political activists." When describing his activities with the
FBI, Lemmer told us a little about a plan the FBI
had to round up movement leaders.
I was told to prepare a Ii st of movement people around me, around Fayetteville, a
list of movement people who I could count on
should I have to go underground. The fact
that they said, "I have to go underground"
told me something, more than in the back of
my mind.



The resident agent here requested it?

A: Right. Well, I guess you could say requested. I was told to prepare a list. The
list of people was made up. I have discussed
with him, not the list specifically, but the
possibilities of certain developments in Miami
and across the country making it necessary for
a round-up, similar to the ones we saw of the
Japanese-Americans in World War II. He has
confirmed that possibility openly at one of
our meetings, in fact, the last of our meetings.


Did he give you any sort of a ••• probability reading on it?
A: An extremely good possibility, to the
point that we discussed alternate identification for myself so that I would have the ability to move about the country, have freedom of
movement, during any type of round-up, any
type of situation during which the movement
would have to go clearly underground. 17
There was, indeed, a list of local movement people
in the files of the Fayetteville, Arkansas, FBI office.
White House and CRP Participation

Both John W. Dean, 3rd, and Jeb Stuart Magruder,
in their testimony to the Ervin Committee, stated
that mass kidnappings of radicals had at least been
considered by them and John Mitchell as a part of
the so called Liddy plan, devised by G. Gordon Liddy.
MAGRUDER: There were projects relating to
the abduction of individuals, particularly
members of radical groups that we were concerned about on the convention at San Diego.*
Mr. Liddy had a plan where the leaders would
be abducted and detained in a place like Mexico and that they would then be returned to
this country at the end of the convention. 18
DEAN: Plans called for mugging squads, kidnapping teams, prostitutes to compromise the
opposition, and electronic surveillance. He
(Liddy) explained that the mugging squad could,
for example, rough up demonstrators that were
causing problems. The kidnapping teams could
remove demonstration leaders and take them
below the Mexican border and thereby diminish
the ability of the demonstrators to cause
trouble at the San Diego convention. 19
Lemmer told us that the detained activists would be
held in the old concentration camps, where the Japanese-Americans were held, which he claimed were
being renovated, but he told Stocking that the radicals would be taken to Mexico City.
Both Magruder and Dean referred to the kidnapping
and mugging teams only in reference to the first of
Liddy's proposals, which was rejected, leaving the
implication that they were among the more "bizarre"
elements that had to be removed before the plan
could be approved, as it was on March 30, 1972. But
Magruder, in his book "An American Life: One Man's
Road to Watergate", mentions that he told his wife
in the spring of 1972 that the government might have
to round up radicals and take them to Mexico, adding
that they might not come back. Since the first two
*At the time that the Liddy plan was under consideration, the Republican Convention was still scheduled
to be held in San Diego.
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974


versions of Liddy's plan were considered on January
27 and February 4, which are unquestionably in the
winter, Magruder's statement suggests that the idea
of the kidnappings was still under consideration, at
least, when the plan was finally approved in late

Putting a few events into chronological order
shows that such bizarre acts as kidnapping and mugging at government direction may not have been among
those aspects of the Liddy plan that were removed.
The plan was approved on March 30, 1972. Fernandez
admitted to being part of a mugging team (although
without using those exact words) at Hoover's funeral
on May 5. Lemmer's descriptions, in late May and
early June, of a kidnapping plot is almost an exact
duplicate of the one described by both Dean and Magruder a year later.
Detention of VVAW Members

Mass kidnappings did not occur, probably because
the June 17 discovery of the Watergate break-ins
forced a change in plans. More than twenty VVAW
members were detained, however, during the Democratic National Convention. In a coordinated two-day
sweep, covering at least five states, FBI agents
issued subpoenas to approximately twenty-three VVAW
members ordering them to appear before a federal
grand jury in Tallahassee the morning of July 10,
the day the Democratic Convention opened. Never before had so many people been subpoenaed by a federal
grand jury to appear on a single day. This raised
at least three questions. The first involved the
possibility that the government was deliberately
denying these people's rights to present their case
to political delegates by detaining them. The second, the probability that the government used the
grand jury to further embarrass the Democratic Party
by calling an unusual evening session from which an
indictment was issued against some of the veterans
about two hours after the Democrats approved a resolution in support of the subpoenaed VVAW people.


But the third question raises the most disturbing
suspicions. Was the government hoping to turn those
VVAW demonstrators who were in Miami Beach into an
unruly mob? These members were furious about the
subpoenas. The government may well have assumed that
the veterans were without leaders, since most of the
men responsible for VVAW's demonstrations were being
held in Tallahassee. Angry leaderless groups of
people can be roused to violence and several agitators were found in their midst. At least one,
after being evicted from the campsite by veterans
because he was causing trouble, is reported to have
returned with the police and identified himself as
an undercover agent. The veterans, however, did
manage to maintain discipline, directing their anger into explanations of the situation to the delegates.
Riots as Excuse to Cancel 1972 Elections

Finally, Tackwood stated that "a nationwide hysteria ••• would then provide President Nixon with
the popular support necessary to declare a state of
national emergency • • . and cancel the 1972 electi ons. " There is evidence that members of the government had given serious consideration to such a
cance lla ti on.
In the spring of 1970, William Howard, a Washington, D.C. reporter for the conservative
Newhouse chain, published a story about a
"contingency plan to cancel the 1972 elections," which he claimed he learned about

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974

from the wife of a Rand Corporation executive.
There was a virtual news blackout on the subj ect.
According to Howard, the President (Nixon) had
ordered the Rand Corporation think tank in
Santa Monica, California, to do a "feasibili ty
study" of the cancellati on possibi li ty in 1972,
because of Nixon's concern about possible "disruption by the left."
The "Los Angeles Free Press" picked up the
story and was told privately by persons at Rand
that it "had for once done a good and right
thing in publishing the story."20
This study may have been ordered originally as a
precaution against pOlitically oriented violence,
which did seem to be escalating in 1969 and 1970.
This would be a perfectly valid reason for doing
such a study. But it assumes sinister implications
when seen from the perspective of 1972. By this
time, incidences of violence from the left had dwindled drastically, as had talk of it within movement
groups. But while interest in violence had been
languishing, provocateurs had been proliferating.
Aside from those known to be involed with VVAW,
there was Robert Hardy, without whose help, and
the money he received from the FBI, the Camden 28
would not have destroyed draft files. There is
good reason to believe that some of the Weathermen
might not have done so much damage if FBI provocateur Larry Grantwohl had not been so insistent.
These are just two of many such cases. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that members of the
Nixon administration, and others working in concert
with them, were hoping for the disturbances that
would justify the invocation of martial law and the
cancellation of the elections as a means to circumvent the balancing controls contained in the constitution. This would give them an indefinite tenure in a position of power beyond reach of either
Congress or the courts. Thus, the existence of such
a study in a climate so infected with provocateurs
indicates that members of the government were attempting to ensure that the havoc they needed would

Watergate South appears to go far beyond what
has thus far been revealed in Watergates East and
West, into a scheme to subvert the United States'
constitutional system of government. The evidence,
while not being conclusive, is consistent. It indicates' that a plan may have been implemented in
which provocateurs would instigate riots at one or
both 1972 political conventions. Leaders of the
movement would be arrested and taken from the country. This would be done either before the conventions to prevent them from controlling their people,
so that the provocateurs could be more effective, or
in response to the instigated rioting, thus provoking still more violent reactions from those remaining. The American people, terrified by such disturbances, would then be amenable to the imposition
of martial law, and perhaps even the cancellation
of the elections. This is a disturbing hypothesis,
but events do tend to support it. Far more intensive investigations must be conducted either to
prove or to disprove this theory. The implications
of Watergate South are too serious to remain an obscure question of which only a few people are aware.


Biographical Information

Jack ACKERLY - Florida FBI agent to whom Vincent Hannard allegedly reported the offer from Frank Sturgis to infiltrate VVAW
Gerald ALCH - Attorney for James McCord during his
trial for the Watergate break-in
Alfred C. BALDWIN, 3rd - Former FBI agent who monitored taps on telephones at the DNC, asked to infiltrate VVAW
Bernard L. BARKER - Convicted member of the "plumbers"
unit who directed Cuban agitators at J. Edgar
Hoover's funeral
Karl BECKER - Charles Henry Becker, 3rd, FBI informer from New Orleans who testified against the
Gainesvi lle 8
Scott CAMIL - A Gainesville 8 defendant and formerly
Florida regional coordinator for VVAW
Charles W. COLSON - Former special counsel to then
President Richard Nixon, pleaded guilty to obstructing justice
Harrison CRENSHAW - Dade County (Florida) Public
Safety Department officer who infiltrated VVAW,
now deceased
John W. DEAN, 3rd - Former counsel to then President
Richard Nixon, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to
obstruct justice
Felipe de DIEGO - Cuban exile and member of the
"plumbers" unit who has admitted breaking into
Dr. Lewis Fielding's office
Donald C. DONNER - The VVAW member from Fayetteville,
Arkansas, who conducted the June, 1972, interview
with William Lemmer
John ECK - Miami gun dealer asked to infiltrate VVAW
"EDUARDO" - See E. Howard Hunt, Jr.
Daniel J. ELLSBERG - Former Rand Corporation employee who turned over the Pentagon Papers to "The
New York Times"
Pablo M. FERNANDEZ - Cuban exile, FBI and police informer in Miami, and paid agitator at J. Edgar
Hoover's funeral
Angel FERRER - Cuban exile and paid agitator at J.
Edgar Hoover's funeral
Lewis FIELDING - Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist
whose office was broken into by members of the
"plumbers" unit
Frank FIORINI - A soldier of fortune, convicted member of the "plumbers" unit, better known as Frank
Alton C. FOSS - A Gainesville 8 defendant and formerly Dade County coordinator for VVAW
Virgilio R. GONZALEZ - Cuban exile and convicted
member of the "plumbers" unit
Larry GRANTWOHL - An FBI informer and provocateur,
in late 1969 and early 1970, who trained and encouraged Weathermen in Ohio
Vincent J. HANNARD - Private investigator from Miramar, Florida, who was active in Cuba when Castro
took over, asked to infiltrate VVAW
Robert HARDY - An FBI informant whose admissions in
court led to the dismissal of the Camden 28 charges on grounds of entrapment
J. Edgar HOOVER - Former FBI Director who died May
2, 1972
William HOWARD - The reporter who broke the story
of the Rand Corporation study on the cancellation of the 1972 elections
E. Howard HUNT, Jr. - Former CIA agent, White House
consultant, and convicted of conspiracy, bribery,
and wiretapping, known to Cuban exiles as Eduardo
John Kifner - Reporter for "The New York Times" who
covered the Gainesville 8 case
Major Adam KLIMKOWSKI - Commander of the Special Investigations Section of the Miami Police Department
William W. LEMMER - Former FBI informer from Arkansas and principal witness against the Gainesville

G. Gordon LIDDY - Former White House aide, counsel
to CRP, convicted of bribery and wiretapping
Humberto LOPEZ - Cuban exile and paid agitator at
J. Edgar Hoover's funeral
Jeb Stuart MAGRUDER - Former White House aide, chiefof-staff for CRP, pleaded guilty to conspiring to
obstruct justice
John F. MAHER - FBI agent working out of the New
York City office
Eugenio R. MARTINEZ - Cuban exile and convicted member of the "plumbers" unit
Rolando MARTINEZ - Paid agitator at J. Edgar Hoover's
funeral who may be convicted "plumber" Eugenio R.
James W. McCORD, Jr. - Former CIA agent, security
coordinator for CRP, and convicted of burglary
and wiretapping
George McGOVERN - The 1972 Democratic presidential
Stephen McNELLIS - Minnesota coordinator of the
Vietnam Veterans for a Just Peace
W. O. WEHRTENS - U.S. District Judge in Miami
John N. MITCHELL - Former U.S. Attorney General,
director of CRP, and under indictment for conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury
Richard M. NIXON - Former President of the United
States, unindicted co-conspirator for obstruction
of justice, since pardoned
Richard J. O'CONNELL - FBI agent and William Lemmer's
resident control in Fayetteville, Arkansas
Reinaldo PICO - Cuban exile and paid agitator at
J. Edgar Hoover's funeral
Emerson L. POE - FBI informer from Florida who testified against the Gainesville 8
Angelica ROHAN - Cuban exile and police informant
in 1972 to whom Pablo Fernandez confided
Gerald RUDOFF - Dade County (Florida) Public Safety
Department officer who infiltrated VVAW
Barbara STOCKING - Former Teaching Fellow in Philosophy at Boston University to whom William Lemmer
Frank A. STURGIS - See Frank Fiorini
Louis TACKWOOD - Los Angeles agent provocateur for
ten years who broke his cover and talked in 1971
Evelle YOUNGER - California State Attorney General
allegedly directing Squad 19

1. James W. McCord, Jr., May 18 and 22, 1973, Hearings before the Select Committee on Presidential
Campaign Activities of the United States Senate,
Phase I: Watergate Investigation, Book 1, pp.
180 and 200
2. Gerald Alch, as quoted by Walter Rugaber, "The
New York Times," January 17, 1973
3. John Kifner, "The New York Times," August 9, 1973
4. Rob Elder, "Miami Herald," June 13, 1973
5. Unpublished commentary by Donald C. Donner on the
June, 1972, interview of WHliam Lemmer
6. Transcript of unpublished interview with William
Lemmer conducted June 3 and 4, 1972
7. Richard E. Sprague, "The June 1972 Raid on Democratic Party Headquarters (The Watergate Incident)
-- Part 2, "Computers and Automation," October,
1972, pp. 24-25
8. Interview with William Lemmer
9. Rob Elder, "Miami Herald," May 26, 1973
10. Rob Elder, "Miami Herald," May 23, 1973
11. Unpublished statement given by Angelica Rohan
to U.S. District Judge W.O. Mehrtens on May 23,
12. Statement of Angelica Rohan
13. Rob Elder, "Miami Herald," May 23, 1973
14. Dennis Holder, "Miami Herald," June 8, 1973
15. John Kifner, "The New York Times:' August 8, 1973
16. Unpublished affidavit submitted by Barbara Stocking on July 9, 1972
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974

17. Interview of William Lemmer
10. Jeb Stuart Magruder, June 14, 1973, Hearings before the Select Committee, Phase I, Book 2, pp.
19. John W. Dean, 3rd, June 25, 1973, Hearings before the Select Committee, Phase I, Book 3, p. 929
20. Citizens Research and Investigation Committee
and Loui s E. Tackwood, "The Glass House Tapes,"
Avon, New York, 1973, p. 171
Imberman - Continued from page 14

of course -- and was responsible for the union activity.
The consultant recommended a system of baffles
~e installed to cut the noise in the department, ahd
In the nearby area. In addition, he suggested pipedin music which (by contrast) seemed to diminish the
racket. Having music in the plant was so novel that
it went far to eliminate the basic complaint. In addition, improvements were made in the physical working condi tions that had been mentioned by many employees. The company won the second election 2-to-l.
Most often, our research indicates, worker dissatisfaction does not seek outlet along union lines.
Such dissatisfaction is simply channelled in that
direction by organizers who know how to take advantage of discontent.
Recognize Discontent

It is therefore vital for management to discover
what is breeding worker discontent. Some trivial
things such as inadequate lighting, poor circulation of heat in a department, wet or dirty floors,
leaky restrooms, or begrimed windows may be the
cause and very often is the cause -- if employers
had a good upward communications system to bring
those matters to the surface quickly. A more important matter such as heavy-handed foremen may
cause worker revolt despite the fact that they have
borne that burden for years. This latter is common
but most executives never recognize it. Or finally:
the demand for cost-of-living increases -- far exceeding guidelines -- crops up, with employees ignorant of what such cost increases might do to the
company's competitive position AND EMPLOYEE JOBS.

Understanding Employees

It takes a great deal of time, effort and skill
to listen to employees and to understand them. This
important chore is part of sophisticated foremen
training, and is not too common. In this connection, I have been through 288 NLRB elections winning 9~.4 ~er cent just by inaugurating a tw~-way
commUnICatIons system and foremen training. Most
of the losses were the result of being called in
when the fire was already up to the attic. Given
time, techniques employed by such experts can be
learned by company personnel.
Employee Goodwill

Such techniques work splendidly, not to undermine union sentiment particularly, but more importantly to win employee goodwill for management -even where unions exist. Then production and sales
may go on uninterruptedly, enabling both management
and labor to earn larger returns.
For management and labor each to earn its fair
share, it becomes important to listen with a trained
"third ear" and to train supervisors and top management how to do so -- if the number of NLRB elections
in this industry is to be reduced and not extended. 0

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Antley - Continued from page 17

We can predict the need for physicians who can dithe advancing technology of medicine, and phySICIans who can interpret the knowledge made possible
through technology to the patients. But because of
~he.rapid chan~es in medicine which are occurring,
It IS not possIble to foresee all of the specific
a7e~s that w~ll demand new skills.
A formal recognItIon of thIS state of rapid change should be acknowledged, however. It should be taken into consideration in a reorganization of medical education,
so that new physicians will be educated with the
skill to recognize and adapt to new situations.

The Super-Technologist

Indeed, perhaps the greatest significance to be
gained from predicting the role of the physician in
the near future is in the adaptation of medical education today. Obviously two different areas need
to receive serious consideration in an evolving curriculum. The first would be concerned with training
the super-technologist. The emphasis on this training should be towards proficiency in theoretical
mathematics, statistics, physics, computers and
electronics. However, the fact that it may be necessary for a man to retrain himself several times
in his career should be stressed, and adaptive skills
for this should be developed. This is not a simple
task. Its requirements infer that the trainee needs
to have the most current technical information either
~ithout having his identity strongly associated with
Its content or that he have the capacity to take a
new identity with each retraining.
The Really Effective Counselor

A second area of emphasis in medical education
should be on helping the physician to become an effective counselor. There are several approaches to
this problem. Educational programs for clinical
psychologists and psychiatrists have already developed methods of training aspirants in communicative
and facilitory skills. These techniques are available to the aspiring physician-counselor and should
be uti Ii zed.
Techniques, however. are not in themselves solutions to educating counselors. The ability to empathize with patients, to accept each one as an individual. and to respect his value system and lifestyle is not ~cquired through skill courses. It may
be developed In part through the study of sociology
and anthropology, but philosophical knowledge does
not equal compassion and sensitivity. To develop
these paramount qualities of a counselor some work
in personal growth, either in group or i~dividual
therapy is probably required. Group work described
by Cadden et a1 7 and Kubler-Ross8 with severely ill
pati~n~s.suggests effective methods for developing
Thus. technology continues to shape the direction
of medical practice through its increasing incorporation into diagnosis and treatment. The development
of new skills by physicians in response to technical
adv~nce~ent w~ 11 be necessary; while appropriate educatIon In medIcal school should facilitate this adaptive development.

1. Postman N•• Weingartner C.: Teaching as a subversive activity. Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1969
(please turn to page 34)


The Assassination of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.,
and Possible Links With the Kennedy Murders
- Part 11 (Conclusion)
Wayne Chastain, Jr.
810 Washington Ave., Apt. 408
Memphis, Tenn. 38105

Was the murder of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.,
the result of a conspiracy? Previous installments of this
series described the "eggs and sausage" man, later given the
code name of Jack Armstrong, who appeared on the scene
the day of the murder. Also appearing on the scene were
Tony'Benavides and J. Christ Bonnevecche who claimed to
have information and understanding of Dr. King's and
John F. Kennedy's assassinations. Are these two men to
be believed? Are they one and the same person - possibly
aliases for Jack Armstrong?
Is there a relationship between these assassinations? a conspiracy at work by an organization or several individuals? or
are these murders more simply vendettas? Mr. Chastain continues to seek the answer to these questions and to the murders of Dr. King and the Kennedys.

The metamorphosis of memory evolved along a tortuous route, climaxed with the transformation of a
drunken derelict into a reliable witness, and the
degredation of a reliable witness -- Mrs. Walden -into a supposed psychotic. Could the discrediting of
Mrs. Walden have been the result of her earlier statement that she had heard the shot fired from outside
the rooming house -- a statement that confirms Jones'
contention that he saw the man outside the rooming
house and in the bushes -- and that the man she saw
coming out of the bedroom was neither Ray nor the man
described by Mrs. Brewer as John Willard?
Stephens' belated recall came after a drinking
session with a British newspaper man. Ray had just
been apprehended in London. The British newspaper
man gratuitously provided Stephens with a fifth of
whisky and at least $30 in cash.

Charlie Q. Stephens

Neither Atty. Gen. Phil Canale nor his team of
prosecutors ever summoned Jones or myself to testify.
No doubt, Jones' credibility would have been attacked
by prosecutors if the defense had attempted to put
Jones on the stand. Jones has a criminal record
because of felony convictions for theft by check.
On the other hand, Canale and his prosecutors
had no qualms about constructing their entire case on
the testimony of Charlie Q. Stephens, a man with 155
arrests on his record, including an assault to murder with firearms.
Why would Stephens be deemed by the prosecution
as a more reliable witness than Jones, despite 154
more arrests than Jones?
Jones is black and Stephens is white.
As stated in Part 9, Stevens said he saw the
man who ran out of the bathroom and that he was "nigger". Stephens made this statement to this reporter,
both on the night of the slaying and the next day.
On the night of the slaying, Mrs. Brewer and Mrs.
Walden, who were both sober, told me to ignore Stephens because he was "falling down drunk" at the time
of King's slaying. A third witness, Charles McGraw,
the cab driver, would later inform me also that Stephens was intoxicated at the time.
Police and FBI agents ignored Stephens' statements for several weeks after King's death. Then,
Stephens changed his story and his credibility is
seemingly enhanced. Stephens came forth and said he
saw a white man come out of the bathroom and that Ray
was the man.

Wayne Chastain of Memphis, Tenn., is a veteran
newspaper reporter and Southern j ournali st wi th
experience on several metropoli tan dailies in
Texas, including EI Paso, Houston, Dallas and San
Antonio, as well as on the St. Louis Globe-Democrat and a Memphis daily. He had traveled with
Dr. King's entourage on and off for two years
prior to the assassination. He had spent the last
two days of King's life covering hi s speeches in
Memphi s pri or to the shooting. He was on the murder scene wi thin 10 minutes after Dr. King was
shot. He interviewed eyewitnesses for one of the
fi rst comprehensive news accounts to the nati on of
Dr. King's death. A native Texan and a graduate
of the Uni versi ty of Texas wi th a bachelor's degree in hi story and poli tical science. Mr. Chastain also spent several months in early 1964 investigating and researching the assassination of
President Kennedy, Jack Ruby's link with Lee Harvey Oswald and a group of pro-Cuban arms runners,
and other activities related to Kennedy's death.
Months before The Warren Commission's report,
which was published in the fall of 1964, Mr. Chastain -- after exhaustive interviews with hundreds
of witnesses -- had reached the conclusion that
President Kennedy's death was the result of a
plot involving paramilitary professionals financed
by a group of weal thy, right-wing Texans wi th
strong connections wi th former high officials with
the Central Intelligence Agency as well as lower
echelon CIA personnel still assigned to the bureau. The present installment is an excerpt from
a forthcoming book enti tIed: Who Really Ki lIed
Dr. King -- And the Kennedys? A Disturbing View
of Political Assassinations In America.

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

The next day, under the newspaperman's byline,
Stephens is quoted as saying he recognized Ray from
newspaper photographs as the man whom he had seen
running out of the bathroom.

den after the State Department said Stephens' statement identifying Ray as the man Stephens saw come out
of the bathroom was introduced into evidence during
the extradition hearing in London.

FBI and Police Disbelieve Stephens

Later, I learned she had been committed to the
West Tennessee Psychiatric Hospital in Bolivar, about
60 miles from Memphis, on the same day that the FBI
finally got custody of Stephens as a material witness.

FBI and Memphis police assiduously avoided Stephens -- especially after his previous drunken asserti ons that it was a "nigger" -- as early as the
morning after the slaying, after Mrs. Brewer and
Mrs. Walden had described his condition of the night
before to them.
Suddenly, Stephens' recuperative recall powers
re-awakened the interest of the FBI.
Inspector N. E. Zachary, although a fervent
believer in the lone assassin theory, never did
attach any credence to Stephens' statements -- even
after the elaborate rehabilitation of Stephens by the
Zachary accounts for the transformation of Stephens into a credible witness as a "bureacratic blunder."
An FBI agent in Washington, D.C., happened to read
the story by the British newspaper writer quoting Stephens. There was nothing in the investigative reports
coming to Washington about a witness named Stephens.
(He was deemed so lacking in credibility that the
field agents did not even mention him in their
So, the Washington agent clipped the British
article and sent an immediate bulletin to the ~lemphis
office of the FBI to pick up Stephens.
The FBI notified the police dispatcher to have
Stephens picked up. Stephens was a well-known police
character, and his early morning hang-outs were well
known to the police dispatcher, who immediately
sent a patrol car to a downtown park to have Stephens picked up. After Stephens was picked up, the
patroman called the dispatcher back and asked where
to take him. The dispatcher, knowing Zachary as the
inspector in charge of the Memphis police department
investigation of the King slaying, told the patrolman
to take Stephens to Zachary's office, temporarily
forgetting that the request came from the FBI.


The patrolman delivered Stephens to Zachary's
office. Zachary was on the phone, so the patrolman
left Stephens with another officer outside Zachary's
office. When Zachary's call was finished, the officer outside said Stephens was there.
Zachary, familiar with the statements by Mrs.
Brewer, Mrs. Walden, and others in the rooming house,
said: "What do I want with him .•. let him go."
Later in the day when the FBI called again and
asked if Stephens had been picked up, the search for
Stephens was launched again and he was located.
"lie was strictly an FBI witness ••• not ours,"
Zachary later said.
Iluring the extradition hearings, FBI agents took
Stephens into protective custody, kept him in posh
motels, and provided him with money and liquor -- and
away from the press.
Mrs. Walden Disappears

Meanwhile, Mrs. Walden mysteriously disappeared.
Tlli s reporter spent three days looking for Mrs. WalCOMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

The procedures used to commit Mrs. Walden were
not only unorthodox, but illegal, as a subsequent
hearing three years later confirmed. Staff physicians
at the institution said Mrs. Walden should never have
been committed, but with her common-law husband in
protective custody by the FBI, there were no family
members that could obtain her release or protest the
commi ttment.
In January 1969, a month before the trial of James
Earl Ray, a staff psychiatrist at the hospital recommended Mrs. Walden be immediately discharged and
noted in his record that her committment had violated
the procedures set forth in the Tennessee mental
health committment statute -- a modern law based on
model codes prescribed by both legal and medical
In his report, the psychiatrist said Mrs. Walden
had never had a psychiatric history; at the time of
her committment, she did not exhibit any symptoms of
psychosis serious enough to warrant her committment
to Western State. This institution usually becomes
the repository of mental patients who have failed to
respond to rehabilitative therapy at the Tennessee
Psychiatric Hospital in Memphis.
Someone in the City of Memphis government first
had Mrs. Walden committed in the City of Memphis
Hospital's psychiatric ward which is under the control of the Memphis police department. At that
facility, patients undergo only brief therapy, and
are either discharged or committed for short 'range
therapy -- sometimes lasting less than a week and
sometimes lasting three months -- at the Tennessee
Psychiatric Hospital three blocks away in Memphis.
Charles Murphy, a Memphis attorney who later was
retained to represent Mrs. Walden, was eventually
successful in gaining an adjudication that Mrs. Walden was illegally committed.
Murphy said when Mrs. Walden was rushed from the
rooming house to the City of Memphis Hospital's
psychiatric ward, she had been recovering from an
operation for a rare skin disease. She had been an
alcoholic and had been rehabilitated under an AA
program that met at the Tennessee Psychiatric Hospital.
"She had been sober for a month before King's
death, and she had been sober for a month afterwards, right up until the time of her committment,"
Murphy said.
The normal procedure would have been to have
turned Mrs. Walden over to a clinical psychiatrist
at the Tennessee Psychiatric Ilospital for an evaluation and for a short-range commitment at the Memphis institution before she would be sent to Western State.
"They bypassed the entire procedure," Murphy said.
"She was in the City psychiatric ward less than a
day before she was transferred to Western State, 60
miles away."


Murphy cites Mrs. Walden as the source of the
report that Stephens, her common-law husband, was
induced to change his story by the blandishments of
the British newspaper man.
"They had to get rid of me to make Charlie's story
stand up in court," Murphy quoted Mrs. Walden as saying.
Meanwhile, while Charlie Stephens was in the protective custody of the FBI, another frequent female
companion of Stephens met an unfortunate fate -one more fatal than Mrs. Walden.
Mrs. Walden Illegally Committed

"She was found beaten to death in a vacant lot,"
Murphy said.
Murphy, in a brief filed in the Circuit Court in
Hardeman County, Tenn., where Western State Hospital is located, charged that members of the Shelby
County Attorney General's office, the FBI, and the
Memphis police department illegally conspired to
commit Mrs. Walden to a psychiatric institution for
two reasons:
First, to destroy her credibility as a witness
in case she gave testimony that conflicted with
Stephens at Ray's trial; and,
Second, to get her out of Memphis and away from
newsmen who might tell her version of the events
that occurred in the ~ooming house on the night Dr.
King was slain.
Aftermath of King's Assassination

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Nobel Peace Prize
recipient, preached non-violence, but on April 4,
1968, Dr. King became a victim of the very virulence
he preached against. A sniper killed him with a
rifle as he stood on a Memphis motel balcony.
Less than two hours later, the shot had echoed
around the world. Guerilla warfare erupted in the
largest cities of the nation -- a pattern of violence unfolded in a manner not entirely unlike the
hi t and run tactics of the Viet Cong in South Vietnam.
Less than a week before, President Lyndon Johnson
had virtually abdicated by announcing he would not
run for a second elected term, and that he was going
to wind down the Vietnam War -- a sharp and surprising reversal of the escalation policies he had
forced on the nation for the past three years.
The more despairing right-wing columnists seethed.
They lamented that President Johnson -- once the
hawk's hawk -- had capitulated to the subversive
forces both domestically and abroad. The monolithic
forces of international Communism had not only penetrated the perimeter of domestic U.S. security, but
had deployed its insurgent forces in our city to
break down law and order.
Only with this background in mind, can one effectively evaluate the meaning and significance of Dr.
King's death.
Also, the perspective would not be complete unless
one recalls that Dr. King at this point of his career
had amassed a formidable coalition of blacks, Chicanos,Indians and poor whites for his Poor People's
March on Washington, D.C. It would begin in June -less than two months away. It would begin its long,
hard trek in Memphis and points in North Mississippi.


This would be during the first hot month of what
many urbanologists predicted would be another volatile and violent summer. Shock tremors were still
in the air from the summer before when racial violence rocked Newark and Patterson, N.J., and Detroit,
King's Killer a Racist

Dr. King had done more than any other man to
break down the barriers of governmentally sanctioned
segregation in the south. He had just then began to
expand his civil rights movement and mobilize the
strength of his supporters in the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference to uproot other social, economic and international injustices.
But it was his effectiveness as a civil rights
leader breaking down the segregation barriers that
made most persons -- including intellectuals on the
right and the left -- assume that a conspiracy, if
it did exist, must have been rooted in racism.
Thus, Dr. King's killer had to be a racist. l
After all, why was King in Memphis at the time he
was killed? This was the question most often asked
by those who suspected that racism alone provides
the clues to explaining King's death.
These people would argue that a two month old
sanitation strike by black workers against the City
of Memphis had released a latent racism among city
political leaders -- a racism that had been assumed
by more enlightened citizens to have been sublimated,
if not extirpated by its roots, by a prior liberal
city administration that had integrated schools,
restaurants, public parks and had prevented violence
in the tense summer of the year before.
However, those who suspect racism alone provides
an entire explanation as to why King was killed
failed to perceive the more variegated social background upon which King's assassination had impinged.
By early 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King had evolved
into something more than a black civil rights leader.
He led one of the most dynamic coalitions in the
nation -- a coalition that could bring its influence
to bear on international as well as domestic issues.
The "paranoid patriots," a term used by Rev.
James Lawson, had begun to think of King as a
"national security threat." Yet King's organization
and other protest groups had just succeeded in "turning President Johnson around on the Vietnam War".
A Grave Domestic Situation

If those who espoused the hard-line, cold war mentality could regard a civil war in an underdeveloped
Southeast Asian nation less than 20,000 miles away
as an immediate and direct threat to America's
national security, imagine how these cold warriers
would evaluate the gravity of a domestic crisis.
They would claim it was caused by the confrontation
of protest groups, which had just turned a hawkish
President around on the Vietnam War, marching to the
nation's capital and demanding reform legislation
from Congress. Assembled in the nation's capital
city, could not such a formidable group force Congress into shifting its priorities from needs of
national defense to domestic reforms?
If one put himself in the mind of one of the "pnranoid patriots", could not the Poor People's March
in June 1968 be viewed as critical as the urban con-

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

frontation in Moscow in 1917? If the domino theory
haunted these so-called paranoid patriots, think
what terror may have flashed across their minds when
they pondered the domestic effects of the Poor
People's March and their demands on the U.S. Government in the nation's capital? Could not this be
deemed a surgical thrust at the nation's jugular
As Sen. Ervin's subcommittee would reveal two
years later, the military reflected this frenetic
fear and pathological preoccupation with the threat
of domestic subversion when it launched its massive
surveillance program against the civilian population
of America.
Conducted by the Army military intelligence, the
program assigned military counter-intelligence agents
to spy on civilians, to compile exhaustive dossiers
on leading liberal leaders in Congress, prominent
judges, and active civil rights workers. The purpose
of these investigations, according to the defenders
of the system, was to produce intelligence needed
in the event that disruptive, crippling, urban guerilla warfare did break out in America.
This cold war atmosphere
characterized by the
"enemy within" syndrome - had reached its apogee in
the months shortly before King's death.

1. Huie and Frank both strongly contend that Ray
killed King because he was a racist. Relatives
and acquaintenances who knew Ray when he was growing up in East St. Louis, and Alton, Ill., said they
never heard him express any racial animosity. Dr.
McCarthy DeMere, a prominent physician who is also
a licensed attorney and professor of forensic law
and medicine, spent almost six months with Ray at the
Shelby County jail. DeMere said he never heard Ray
express any hostility toward blacks. An Establishment figure, DeMere is a reserve deputy sheriff and
a friend of the then sheriff, Bill Morris, who
asked him to leave his medical practice and take on
an assignment of protecting Ray's health on a daily
basis, up to the time of the trial. Dr. DeMere and
Sheriff Morris, unlike most members of the Memphis
establishment, have expressed on occasions doubts
that Ray acted alone in the King slaying. Also,
probably no other two men spent as much time with
Ray as DeMere and Morris.

Editorial Note: As is clear from the articles which we have
published, the "true" story of the assassination of Martin
Luther King and any conspiracy behind it, is not complete.
. So these articles should be looked on as a preliminary report.
For information in regard to the book on this subject by
Wayne Chastain, please write to him.
On page 5 of the July, August, September, October, and
November issues of Computers and People, change the
author's name "Wayne C. Chastain" to "Wayne Chastain".
In Part 8, page 27, left column, line 10 from the top,
change "definitely the man" to read "definitely not the
In Part 9, page 26, left column, line 5 from the top,
and same page, right column, line 7 from the bottom, change
"Willie O. Stephens" to "Charles O. Stephens".
In Part 10, first paragraph,. delete the final remark in

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

MACDONALD - Continued from page 11

Motor Vehicles. Take a look at your Blue Cross card
••• chances are you'll find the same number.
In the computer age, the details of your personal
life have become so accessible as to seriously threaten the entire idea of privacy. AND THERE IS NO POLITICAL FREEDOM WITHOUT PRIVACY I
Today, the "Social Security" number has been
transformed into a Universal Identifier. Linked by
computer tape from one data bank to another, it potentially allows anyone who has it to obtain information about you from anyone else who has it.
Consider just a few examples of how your life is
- The US Treasury Department now requires banks
to keep a microfilm record of every sizable
check you write. Most banks simply record all
your checks. Government agencies may then inspect these records without your knowledge or
permission. Your banking transactions are a
mirror of your entire life ••. the groups you
join, the doctors you consult, the causes you
- Private dossier companies, called credit bureaus,
maintain secret files on over 50 million Americans, containing information not only on your
finances, but personal information such as who
your friends are, what your habits are, what
your neighbors or co-workers think of you.
These credit bureaus are protected by federal
law from your efforts to see your own file or
adequately challenge its accuracy. Next time
you are mysteriously denied insurance, or credit, or a job, the chances are it's because of
what's in your file.
- In Massachusetts, whenever you receive in-patient psychiatric treatment, your name, Social
Security number, diagnosis and course of treatment are reported to the Department of Mental
Health. Among the recipients of this information are insurance companies, chiefs of police,
the Registry of Motor Vehicles, and all other
licensing authorities. The Department has plans
for extending this data bank to people getting
out-patient services as well.
WHAT CAN YOU DO? By yourself, not much. But you
can join forces with 275,000 other Americans (9,000
in Massachusetts) who are defending their rights
through membership in the American Civil Liberties
Union. Right now the ACLU and its affiliate, the
Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts are pressing
for urgently needed legislation that will help control government access to the intimate details of
your life.
Even more important, the ACLU can be counted on
to fight back whenever individual rights are threatened by abuses of government power. If these rights
are to be preserved, and government is to be the
servant rather than the master of its people, a
strong Civil Liberties presence must be maintained
from the smallest hamlet, through state government,
to Washington, D.C.
Be a part of that presence. Join the one organization whose sole purpose is to assure that our
government does not exceed its authority in the exercise of its power.


GAMES AND PUZZLES for Nimble Minds

and Computers
Neil Macdonald
Assistant Editor

It is fun to use one's mind, and it is fun to use the
artificial mind of a computer. We publish here a variety
of puzzles and problems, related in one way or another to
computer game playing and computer puzzle solving, or

In this puzzle, the problem is to paraphrase a passage (a
series of connected sentences) making every new sentence
no longer than six words, the meaning to be just the same.
According to the dictionary, to paraphrase means to restate a text or passage giving the meaning in another form;
in this case there is no requirement to change or alter any
word - only the requirement of producing sentences no
longer than six words.
This puzzle has a serious purpose. Its purpose is to test
the following argument:
1. A computer is to be programmed to understand ordinary language.
2. Suppose an agreement is made that no sentence shall
be longer than n words.
3. Then it should be much easier to program the
4. n should be chosen so that it is not very difficult for
human beings to paraphrase passages into sentences
of not more than n words.
5. A reasonable value for n is 6.
Note that it may well be that n should be 7 or 8; and if it
should stay as small as 6, then possibly the human paraphraser should have the option of defining terms about
which assertions are being made (which is a common option
in all of mathematics).


Problem: Compare the following passage a (SIXWORDO
PUZZLE 7411) and a proposed SIXWORDO solution, b.
What ideas does the paraphrase b miss? Can you improve
the paraphrase still keeping to sentences of not more than
6 words? Any comments?
a Consider the machines, equipment, and supplies - the

technology - for informing people in general about what
is going on in the world. That technology becomes more
and more expensive, more and more powerful. Along the
road of development and progress of that technology, there
is a place where all that technology has become so expensive and so powerful that it is monopolized and controlled
by the establishment. When that place is reached, it produces the predictable end of the rights of an ordinary
citizen to be informed, to know the truth, to hear conflicting sides to the news and to arguments. (Hint: One
solution contains 17 sentences.)


to the programming of a computer to understand and
use free and unconstrained natural language.
We hope these puzzles will entertain and challenge
the readers of Computers and People.

b Technology consists of machines, equipment, supplies.
Consider technology for informing people generally. The
information deals with news, happenings. The information
deals with the world. The technology becomes ever more
expensive. The technology becomes ever more powerful.
The technology steadily develops and progresses. Finally
it becomes extremely expensive. And extremely powerful.
So the establishment monopolizes it. And the establishment
controls it. Ordinary citizens are no longer informed. They
no longer hear arguments. They no longer hear conflicting
versions. They no longer know the truth. Citizens' rights
to know cease. This is a predictable end result.

In this kind of puzzle an array of random or pseudorandom digits ("produced by Nature") has been subjected to a
"definite systematic operation" (chosen by Nature") and
the problem ("which Man is 'faced with") is to figure out
what was Nature's operation.
A "definite systematic operation" meets the following
requirements: the operation must be performed on all the
digits of a definite class which can be designated; the result
displays some kind of evident, systematic, rational order and
completely removes some kind of randomness; the operation
must be expressible in not more than four English words.
(But Man can l,lse more words to express it and still win.)

6 7 8
2 4 8
5 4 9
6 7 3
9 1 3
2 9 3
3 7 9
2 9 9
2 2 6

8 1 0 1 0 0 9 0 0 4 364 6 4 2
604 604 0 8 8 6 804 886
384 0 6 9 741 444 901 5
5 270 3 2 2 7 3 6 8 8 2 267
8 7 554 7 7 347 899 8 7 6
5 5 9 1 001 454 869 2 5 7
601 154 1 8 1 6 823 2 3 9
7 3 664 259 1 000 334 8
7 6 1 4 8 854 9 5 7 7 225 5
0 495 566 1 0 8 448 794


COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974



A "numble" is an arithmetical problem in which: digits
have been replaced by capitallettersj and there are two
messages, one which can be read right away and a second
one in the digit cipher. The problem is to solve for the
digits. Each capital letter in the arithmetical problem
stands for just one digit 0 to 9. A digit may be represented by more than one letter. The second message,
which is expressed in numerical digits, is to be translated
(using the same key) into letters sO that it may be read;
but the spelling uses puns, or deliberate (but evident) misspellings, or is otherwise irregular, to discourage cryptanalytic methods of deciphering.

The problem is to grasp relations between things that ar~
not identified in the usual way - their names cannot be
looked up in the dictionary - and then solve a problem
involving them.


x H E A R T


GONDS may be roughly divided into those that are based
on ongoing ALUNS and those that are founded on some material ENGADS. There are of course other ways in which
GONDS may be classified: some are about devices to prevent bad luck; others are about devices to produce good
luck. Each class of GOND may be divided into those that
are generally believed, and those that are private and individual. The second class is more interesting and includes
GONDS that are due in general to no outside influence;
they come into the mind privately, and hold a place there
that is usually unknown to anyone else. These originate
from some experience; reasoning backwards, the individual
tries to find some ALUN or ENGAD which he thinks is
responsible for his bad luck or good luck.
What is a GOND? an ALUN?an ENGAD?




E 100 L L R S






8 <) ";]
t.> 0 > 0*
X 0 if- ·l- 008)(* , EX

-,. 0¢X



EI -I-

We invite our readers to send us solutions. Usually
the (or "a") solution is published in the next issue.



MAXIMDIJ 7411: Work is the key to rest.


NUMBLE 7411: Money steals the soul.


NAYMANDIJ 7411: Sequence column 12.

In this kind of p~zzle, a maxim (common saying, proverb, some good advice, etc.) using 14 or fewer different
letters is enciphered (using a simple substitution cipher) into the 10 decimal digits or equivalent signs for them. To
compress any extra letters into the 10 digits, the encipherer
may use puns, minor misspellings, equivalents like CSor KS
for X or 'vice versa, etc. But the spaces between words are






COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974














8 7 9
0 1 6
4 3 8
0 2 7
6 6 7
1 1 7
4 5 5
2 9 8
1 7 6
3 5 8






Our thanks to the following individuals for sending us
their .solutions to - NA YMANDIJ 749: John Waters, Atlanta, Ga. - NUMBLE 7410: Maj. G. A. Strassburger,
Ft. Meade, Md.


Computing and Data Processing Newsletter

Jack B. Pearce
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Socorro, NM 87801

"X-ray analysis enables us to identify any unknown minerals or chemical compositions in the specimen, as well as any crystalline structure," Dr.
Renault said. "It's very much like a fingerprint."

The prospector of years past learned to identify
rocks and minerals by sight as he probed for gold
and silver in the rocky deserts of the Southwest.
Today these same minerals are on display in a museum in Socorro, New Mexico - and a computer identifies each one by X-ray analysis.
In addition, the computer keeps a complete record
of each of the 9,200 sepcimens at the New Mexico
Bureau of Mines Mineralogical Museum. The collection, while emphasizing southwestern minerals, also
displays other geological and mineral specimens
from around the world.

-- Halite, crystallized on this bush from California's Salton Sea, gets a careful dusting
from Charles Grigsby, assistant curator of the
New Mexico Bureau of Mines Mineralogical Museum.
The museum was begun in the early 1900's. It was
maintained by the Institute of Mining and Technology
until 1964, when it was turned over to the Bureau of
Mines. "Much of the material had never been classified," explained Dr. Jacques Renault, a geologist
who also teaches at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. "Some of it was in cardboard
boxes and desk drawers. Several people tackled the
job, but it was an immense task.
"Finally we decided a computer could handle it
better than any team of individuals possibly could
because of the tremendous amount of statistical work
involved. So in 1969 we began working up a computer
file that recorded various information about each
Mineralogists punched computer cards that catalogued the various minerals in each item, other geological details, its donor or source, when acquired
and its location in the museum. Later they began
using the computer to analyze the mineral content of
each sample.

-- This delicate mineral specimen containing
goethite and psilomelane was found in Socorro,
N.M. It and 9,200 other samples from around
the world have been catalogued and X-ray analyzed by computer.
Every mineral diffracts X-rays in a characteristic pattern because of the atomic spacing in the
crystal. It is relatively simple to determine the
diffraction patterns for all minerals commonly
found in the Southwest and reduce these data to
mathematical tables. Then, by comparing the results
of any diffraction test with these standard tables,
experts can identify the minerals present in the
"As a result we
tips," Dr. RenaUlt
every sample of -museum, we can get

have everything at our fingersaid. "When we want a list of
for instance -- cerussite in the
it back from the computer in just

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

a few seconds. Equally important, we can find it
immediately because the printout gives each sample's
exact location."


Similar speedy computer search techniques can
turn up all minerals from any geographic area or
from anyone donor. The computer is an IBM System/360-44.


"Research is the reason for our existence," Dr.
Renault said. "The computer helps make this museum
a living research facility."
Bob Palmer
Data General Corporation
Southboro, MA 01772

In September 1974, the winner of the America Cup,
the yacht Courageous, carried a minicomputer aboard
for navigational and tactical calculations. The
computer was the heart of a special system developed and built by Dick McCurdy, a consultant to the
Courageous Syndicate. Halsey Herreshoff, navigator,
used the system during the trials this summer and
during the final four victories over the Australian
challenger, Southern Cross.
After the races, McCurdy stated:
"Overall, the computer system exceeded my expectations. In spite of the rough conditions, the computer was operational over eighty percent of the
time. It did everything we wanted it to, and more
it was a great success.
"The most important task done by the computer was
to predict the apparent wind in the next leg of the
race. This information allowed Courageous to select
the right spinnaker every single time."
The Navigator, Herreshoff, commented:
"The computer was a big help to us. It has added
a new dimension to sailing by giving us information
never before available, like the predictions of apparent wind. Especially valuable was the constant
and rapid updating of information by the computer.
For instance, when there was a wind change as we
approached the weather mark, we immediately knew
what our revised apparent wind would be on the next
leg. We were able to change our choice of spinnaker
at the last minute, which was a real advantage."


The computer supplements the expertise of the
skipper and crew by doing navigation calculations
that are needed to obtain the best speed from the
craft. There is not time available in a race to do
all of the calculations manually. Most of the
yacht's instruments are connected to the computer;
they supply signals representing apparent wind speed
and direction, boat speed, heel angle, compass
course and other variables.
At any time, the navigator can "ask" the computer
to display the true wind speed and direction, which
are updated four times a second. Because true wind
speed and direction cannot be measured directly on
a moving vessel -- they can only be calculated from
instrument readings - this is an ideal computer
task. Knowing true wind speed and direction enables
the navigator and tactician to make decisions on how
to race the course.
Among the other tasks of the computer is the calculation of a quantity called "speed made good to
windward." This indicates actual forward progress
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December. 1974

in a tacking situation. Tacking is the technique of
sailing into the wind by a back and forth course,
making some forward progress each time. The computer can calculate this forward progress from the instrument inputs. The computer can also compare
tacking patterns and help establish the most efficient system of tacking.
While these calculations may seem routine, the
computer's location certainly is not. The yacht's
cockpit is open to the sea and air, and there is no
110-volt power available. There is just enough room
for the 11 crewmen to move around. The computer
chosen was small and light and the power supply permitted an easy conversion to 36-volt dc operation.
Three automobile batteries would keep the system
running for 10 to 12 hours, and they could be recharged each night.
The computer was housed in a suitcase-sized,
weatherproof metal box that hung beneath the cockpit
sole. The computer and the box weighed less than
70 pounds. The computer was cooled by a batterypowered circulation system, and coolant was bilge
water. The computer was a NOVA 1200 computer supplied by Data General.
Communication between the navigator and the computer system was handled by a compact station mounted at the chart table next to the helm. A32-channel
scheme produced a four-digit-plus-sign display.
Manual inputs and commands were entered with a touchpad; the desired display is selected with a series
of switches. All this takes but a few seconds, and
the calculation result appears almost immediately.
Kent Roberts
New Mexico State University
Box 3548
Las Cruces, NM 88001

Rockets streaking across the skies at more than
four times the speed of sound are being studied
every second of the way by scientists at the Physical Science Laboratory, at New Mexico State Univ.
Using a computer and high-speed cameras, the scientists collect and analyze information on rockets,
missiles, and other aircraft tested at White Sands
Missile Range near here.
The computer is used in many areas where precise
measurements and calculations are necessary including: determining where to put cameras to obtain the
best filming angles; analyzing measurements from
thousands of feet of film taken during flights; and
compiling reports on flight performance.
"The computer reports enable engineers to determine if aircraft performed the way they were designed to," said Keith Hennigh, data processing
division manager of the laboratory. "If the flight
didn't conform to plans or if a malfunction occurred,
the computer analysis points out what went wrong.
Modifications and design changes are made accordingly."
Using information such as estimated speed and
intended path of the aircraft, the computer calculates ideal camera locations. As many as 20 cameras, some capable of taking 5,000 frames a second,
can be used during tests. Following the flight,
the film is processed and frames not related to
measurement data are edited out.


Film readers connected to a projector measure
the position of the aircraft on each film frame.
Reference points such as surveyed targets, poles or
stars are used to determine camera orientation and
to calibrate the camera lens. When no reference
points are in the field of view, cameras with precalibrated lenses are used.

flight parameters including position, velocity, acceleration, object attitude, roll rate, and other
requested information. An entire flight mission
can be analyzed in 24 hours using the computer.
"Before the computer system was installed, many of
our calculations would have taken weeks, " Mr.
Hennigh said.

As each frame is measured, information enters a
Serial Encoded Data Exchange (SENDEX), a device designed and developed by PSL employees to convert
measurements into computer readable form.

The laboratory employs almost 200 New Mexico
State students in its various ~rojects. Many of
them are involved in a variety of highly skilled
jobs as film readers, computer operators, programmers, and keypunch operators.

A second computer arranges film frames from each
camera in their proper sequence. It is also programmed to analyze trends in the measurement readings before it transfers the information to the
first computer.
The computer combines film measurements with information collected by electronic equipment aboard
the aircraft to provide a highly detailed analysis
of a flight.

The Physical Science Laboratory is a non-profit
organization providing support for military and
federal agencies. The two computers are an IBM
System/370, Model 135, and an IBM System 7.
Antley - Continued from page 25

2. Slack W.V., VanCura L. J.: Computer-based Patient
Interviewi ng. Post-graduate Med 43 :68-76, 115-120,
3. Grossman J. M., Barnett G. 0., McGuire M. T., et
al: Evaluation of computer-acquired patient histories. JAMA 215:1286-1291, 1971
4. Mayne J. G., Weksel W., Shol tz P. N.: Toward automating
the medi cal hi story. Mayo Cli n Proc 43: 1-25, 1968
5. Kanner I.F.: The programmed physical examination
wi th orwi thout a computer. JAMA 215:1281-1291,1971
6. Diebold J.: "Man and the Computer," Avon Books,
New York City, p. 161-2, 1969
7. Cadden J. J.,: Flach F. F., Blakelee S. and Carl ton R.:
Growth in medical students through group process.
Amer J. Psychiat 126:862-868, 1969
8. Kubler-Ross E.: "On Death and Dying," The MacMillan Company, New York City, 1969

U nsettl i ng, Disturbi ng, Critica I
Compu ters and People (formerly Computers and
Automation), establi shed 1951 and therefore the
oldest magazine in the field of computers and data
processing, believes that the profession.of information engineer includes not only competence in
handling information using computers and other
means, but also a broad responsibiiity, in a professional and engineering sense, for:
The reliability and social significance of
pertinent input data;
The social value and truth of the output
In the same way, a bridge engineer takes a professional responsibi li ty for the reliabi li ty and
significance of the data he uses, and the safety
and efficiency of the bridge he builds, for human
beings to risk their lives on.

-- Flight patterns of rockets, such as the one
being launched above, are being studied by scientists at New Mexico State University using
cameras and a computer.
The system is programmed to take into consideration any factors which may affect the flight including wind and atmospheric conditions, and enables engineers to study and analyze the flight
from the instant it begins to completion. The computer report provides information on a variety of


Accordingly, Computers and People publishes from
time to time articles and other information related
to socially useful input and output of data systems
in a broad sense. To this end we seek to publish
what is unsettling, disturbing, critical -- but
producti ve of thought and an improved and safer
"house" for all humanity, an earth in which our
children and later generations may have a future,
instead of facing extinction.
The professional information engineer needs to
relate his engineering to the most important and
most serious problems in the world today: war,
nuclear weapons, pollution, the population explosion, and many more.

COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

A fabulous gift:
18 illustrations in pen and ink


Parables of Yesterday and Today"

by Edmund C. Berkeley, Author and Anthologist
The Fox of Mt. Etna and the Grapes

Published by Quadrangle/The New York Times
Book Co., 1974, 224 pp, $6.95

Once there was a Fox who lived on the lower slopes of
Mt. Etna, the great volcano in Sicily. These slopes are extremely fertile; the grapes that grow there may well be the
most delicious in the world; and of all the farmers there,
Farmer Mario was probably the best. And this Fox longed
and longed for some of Farmer Mario's grapes. But they
grew very high on arbors, and all the arbors were inside a
vineyard with high walls, and the Fox had a problem. Of
course, the Fox of Mt Etna had utterly no use for his famous ancestor, who leaping for grapes that he could not reach,
called them sour, and went away.

Table of Contents
Part 1. The Condition of Man
Pandora and the Mysterious Box / H. A. Guerber
The Garden of Parad ise * / Hans Christian Andersen
*to which the King's son was transported by the East Wind

The Fox decided that what he needed was Engineering
Technology. So he went to a retired Engineer who lived on
the slopes of Mt. Etna, because he liked the balmy climate
and the view of the Mediterranean Sea and the excitement of
watching his instruments that measured the degree of sleeping or waking of Mt. Etna. The Fox put his problem before the Engineer.

The History of the Doasyoulikes / Charles Kingsley
The Locksmith and the Stranger / Edmund C. Berkeley (B)
The Elephant and the Donkey / James Reston
Where that Superhighway Runs, There Used to be a
Cornfield / Robert Redfield
The Fire Squirrels / B
Part 2. On Flattery and Persuasion

The Bear and the Young Calf / B
The Bear and the Young Beaver / B
The Wasps and the Honey Pot / Sir Roger l'Estrange
The Six-Day War and the Gulf of Dong / B
The Deceived Eagle / James Northcote
Missile Alarm from Grunelandt / B
The National Security of Adularia / B
Doomsday in St. Pierre, Martinique / B

The Crow and the Fox / Jean de La Fontaine
The Visitor who Got a Lot for Three Dollars /
George Ade
The Cuckoo and the Eagle / Ivan A. Kriloff
The Wind and the Sun / Aesop
The Lion in Love / Aesop
The Crow and the Mussel/Aesop, B
The Two Raccoons and the Button / B

Part 7. Problem Solving

Part 3. On Perseverance and Resourcefulness

The Wolf and the Dog of Sherwood / Aesop, B
The Three Earthworms / B
The Hippopotamus and the Bricks / B
The Cricket that Made Music / Jean de La Fontaine, B
The Fox of Mt. Etna and the Grapes / B
The Mice of Cambridge in Council/Aesop, B
Brer Badger's Old Motor Car that Wouldn't Go / B
The First Climbing of the Highest Mountain in the
World / Sir John Hunt, B
The Evening Star and the Princess / B

The Crow and the Pitcher / Aesop
Robert Bruce and the Spider / Sir Walter Scott
Hannibal Mouse and the Other End of the World / B
The Fly, the Spider, and the Hornet / B
Part 4. Behavior - Moral and Otherwise
A Small Wharf of Stones / Benjamin Franklin
The Three Bricklayers / Anonymous, B
The Good Samaritan / St. Luke
Much Obliged, Dear Lord / Fulton Oursler
The Fisherman, the Farmer, and the Peddler / B

Part 5. The Problem of Truth
On Being a Reasonable Creature / Benjamin Franklin
The Monkey and the Spectacles / Ivan A. Kriloff
The Golden Trumpets of Yap Yap / Mike Quin
The Barrels and the Pittsburgh Manufacturer / B
The Empty Column / William J. Wiswesser
The Differences in Two Strains of Corn / Edgar Anderson
The Six Blind Men of Nepal / B
The Sighting of a Whale / B
The Stars and the Young Rabbit / B
The Ocean of Truth / Sir Isaac Newton
Part 6. On Common Sense
The Lark and her Young Ones / Aesop
The Bear and the Young Dog / B
COMPUTERS and PEOPLE for December, 1974

Some Collections of Parables and Fables
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Science and the Advanced Society, by C. P. Snow, Ministry
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