120 Years Of American Education 93442

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120 Years of
American Education:
A Statistical Portrait
Editor
Thomas D. Snyder
Center for Education Statistics
U.S. Department of Education
Lamar Alexander
Secretary
Office of Educational Research and Improvement
Diane Ravitch
Assistant Secretary
National Center for Education Statistics
Emerson J. Elliott
Commissioner
National Center for Education Statistics
‘‘The purpose of the Center shall be to collect, analyze,
and disseminate statistics and other data related to edu-
cation in the United States and in other nations.’’—Sec-
tion 406(b) of the General Education Provisions Act,
as amended (20 U.S.C. 1221e–1).
January 1993
iii
Foreword
Emerson J. Elliott
Commissioner of Education Statistics
NCES statistics and reports are used for myriad
purposes. Congress, federal agencies, state and
local officials, business leaders, scholars and re-
searchers, the news media, and the general public
use our data to formulate programs, apportion re-
sources, monitor services, research issues, and in-
form and make decisions.
Since 1870, the federal government has collected
statistics on the condition and progress of American
education. In the beginning, data were collected on
very basic items, such as public elementary and sec-
ondary school enrollment, attendance, teachers and
their salaries, high school graduates, and expendi-
tures. Over the years, the level of detail has gradu-
ally increased. Today, the National Center for Edu-
cation Statistics has a staff of approximately 130 who
collect information through nearly 40 surveys and
studies and produce more than 175 publications per
year.
Statistics paint a portrait of our Nation. By looking
at changes in the data over time—like number of
schools, participation rates, completion rates, and ex-
penditures—we see how our Nation has progressed.
But the questions, too, have changed. Illiteracy, for
example, is defined differently today than it was in
earlier years. While we once looked only at whether
a person could read or write, today we are con-
cerned with how well a person can function in a
modern society. Recent additions to the long-term
data series contain more qualitative information, es-
pecially on student performance and classroom ac-
tivities.
During the period in which this report was pre-
pared, Diane Ravitch, an educational historian by
profession, was Assistant Secretary for Educational
Research and Improvement. Dr. Ravitch knows the
importance of the record that America’s education
data collections form, and it was her personal inter-
est and initiative that prompted preparation of this re-
port. Her support, both as Assistant Secretary and as
an historian of education, has been invaluable to the
production of this volume and in all other efforts of
NCES.
The Assistant Secretary’s Introduction to this vol-
ume states that an historical perspective is indispen-
sable for a full understanding of American education
and the changes it has undergone. Such a perspec-
tive will help supply that meaning, understanding,
and judgment needed to help improve education in
America.
I join her in thanking Vance Grant of OERI and
Tom Snyder of NCES for producing this work. We
will benefit from the better understanding of our past
that these education statistics bring to us.
This work supplements other major compilations of
education statistics, including the annual
Digest
and
the
Condition of Education
reports, and reaffirms the
mission of the National Center for Education Statis-
tics to provide the Nation with data on the condition
and progress of education. Our goal is to make edu-
cation data accessible, useful, and meaningful to our
many publics. I welcome comments for improve-
ments to our data collections and publications.
v
Acknowledgments
Many people have contributed in one way or an-
other to the development of
120 Years of American
Education
. Foremost among these contributors is W.
Vance Grant, who has served as an education statis-
tics expert since 1955. Thomas D. Snyder was re-
sponsible for the overall development and prepara-
tion of
120 Years of American Education,
which was
prepared under the general direction of Jeanne E.
Griffith, Associate Commissioner for Data Develop-
ment.
William Sonnenberg served as a statistical consult-
ant in all phases of
120 Years of American Education
and was responsible for chapter 2, ‘‘Elementary and
Secondary Education.’’ Irene Baden Harwarth devel-
oped a table on higher education enrollment and was
responsible for developing charts for the report.
Charlene Hoffman developed tables on degrees con-
ferred and managed the typesetting. Carol Sue
Fromboluti managed the review process of the publi-
cation. Celestine Davis provided statistical assist-
ance.
A number of people outside the Center also ex-
pended large amounts of time and effort on
120
Years of American Education.
James J. Corina and
Robert Craig of Pinkerton Computer Consultants,
Inc., provided computer support. Louise Woerner,
Barbara Robinson, Jeannette Bernardo, and Jeffrey
Sisson of HCR provided research assistance. Nancy
Floyd copyedited this book, and Margery Martin and
Wilma Greene provided editorial assistance. Annie
Lunsford designed the cover. Jerry Fairbanks and
Kim Stiles of the U.S. Government Printing Office
provided typesetting assistance.
120 Years of American Education
has received ex-
tensive reviews by individuals within and outside the
Department of Education. We wish to thank them for
their time and expert advice. In the Office of Edu-
cational Research and Improvement (OERI), Diane
Ravitch, Maris Vinovskis, Mary Frase, W. Vance
Grant, Fred Beamer, Frank Morgan, John Sietsema,
and Irene Baden Harwarth reviewed the entire manu-
script. Rosemary Clark and Dave Fleck of the Bu-
reau of the Census also reviewed the entire docu-
ment. Agency reviews were conducted by the Office
of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Af-
fairs, Office of Management and Budget, Office of
Policy and Planning, Office of Private Education, and
Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. De-
partment of Education.
OERI Deputy Assistant Secretary Francie Alexan-
der and NCES Chief of Staff Paul R. Hall provided
leadership and gave enthusiastic support to this
project.
vii
Introduction
Diane Ravitch
Assistant Secretary
As an historian of education, I have been a regular
consumer of education statistics from the U.S. De-
partment of Education. For many years, I kept the
Department’s telephone number in my address book
and computer directory. It did not take long to dis-
cover there was one person to whom I should ad-
dress all my queries: Vance Grant. In my many tele-
phone calls for information, I discovered he is the
man who knows what data and statistics have been
gathered over the years by the Department of Edu-
cation. No matter how exotic my question, Dr. Grant
could always tell me, without delay, whether the in-
formation existed; usually, he produced it himself.
When I asked a statistical question, I could often
hear the whir of an adding machine in the back-
ground, even after the advent of the electronic cal-
culator.
Imagine my surprise, therefore, to find myself in
the position of Assistant Secretary of the Office of
Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), the
very home of the National Center for Education Sta-
tistics (NCES). The latter agency is headed by Emer-
son Elliott, the first presidentially appointed Commis-
sioner of Education Statistics. And imagine my de-
light when I encountered Vance Grant, face to face,
for the first time. The voice on the telephone, always
cheerful and confident, belonged to a man employed
by the Department or Office of Education since 1955.
Vance Grant, a Senior Education Program Special-
ist, and Tom Snyder, NCES’ Chief of the Compila-
tions and Special Studies Branch in the Data Devel-
opment Division, prepared
120 Years of American
Education: A Statistical Portrait.
They did so enthu-
siastically, because—like me—they knew it was
needed. Historians of education customarily must
consult multiple, often disparate, sources to find and
collect the information in this one volume. They can
never be sure if the data they locate are consistent
and reliable. This compilation aggregates all relevant
statistics about the history of our educational system
in one convenient book. It will, I believe, become a
classic, an indispensable volume in every library and
on every education scholar’s bookshelf, one that will
be periodically updated. Vance Grant’s and Tom
Snyder’s careful preparation of this report substan-
tially enriches our knowledge of American education.
But collecting these historical data in one volume
not only benefits professional historians. As a Nation,
we need to develop an historical perspective in ana-
lyzing change. Too often, newspapers report impor-
tant political, economic, or social events without sup-
plying the necessary historical context. We are all
now accustomed to reading headlines about the lat-
est test scores. Whether up or down, they invariably
overstate the meaning of a single year’s change. And
the same short-sightedness often flaws journalistic
reports of other major educational trends.
Historical Context
One does not need to be an historian to recognize
the tremendous importance of historical context.
Each of us should be able to assess events, ideas,
and trends with reliable knowledge of what has hap-
pened in the past. If we cannot, our ability to under-
stand and make sense of events will be distorted.
This volume would become a reference for all who
wish to make informed judgments about American
education. We must struggle mightily against the
contemporary tendency towards presentism, the idea
inspired by television journalism that today’s news
has no precedent. As we struggle to preserve his-
tory, we preserve our human capacity to construct
meaning and to reach independent judgment.
In an age when we are awash with information and
instantaneous news, it is meaning, understanding,
and judgment that are in short supply. This collection
of historical statistics about American education pro-
vides its readers with the perspective they need to
understand how far we have come in our national
commitment to education and how far we must still
go in pursuit of our ideals.
I especially thank Vance Grant and Tom Snyder
for their untiring efforts in assembling this book. With-
out their dedication, and without Emerson Elliott’s
support for the importance of this work, it would
never have happened.
ix
Contents
Page
Foreword, by Emerson J. Elliott ............................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................... v
Introduction, by Diane Ravitch ................................................................................................. vii
Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years, by
W. Vance Grant. 1
Chapter 1. Education Characteristics of the Population, by Thomas D. Snyder ..................... 5
Chapter 2. Elementary and Secondary Education, by William C. Sonnenberg ...................... 25
Chapter 3. Higher Education, by Thomas D. Snyder .............................................................. 63
Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 95
Figures
1. Percent of 5- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school, by race: 1850 to 1991 ...................... 6
2. Percent of 20- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds enrolled in school, by sex:
1940 to 1991 .............................................................................................................. 7
3. Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of high school, by sex
and race: 1940 to 1991 .............................................................................................. 8
4. Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of college, by sex and
race: 1940 to 1991 ..................................................................................................... 8
5. Annual average income of high school and college graduates, 25 years old and
over, in constant 1991 dollars, by sex: 1959 to 1991 ................................................ 10
6. Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by level: 1869–70 to
1992–93 ...................................................................................................................... 26
7. Elementary and secondary enrollment as a percentage of 5- to 17-year-olds, by
level: 1869–70 to fall 1991 ......................................................................................... 27
8. Average number of days per year attended by public school students: 1869–70 to
1980–81 ...................................................................................................................... 28
9. Pupil/teacher ratio in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to fall
1990 ............................................................................................................................ 29
10. Percentage of elementary and secondary school teachers, by sex: 1869–70 to fall
1990 ............................................................................................................................ 29
11. Number of public and private high school graduates per 100 17-year-olds: 1869–70
to 1991–92 .................................................................................................................. 31
12. Sources of revenues for public elementary and secondary schools: 1889–90 to
1989–90 ...................................................................................................................... 32
13. Current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance, in constant 1989–90
dollars: 1919–20 to 1989–90 ...................................................................................... 33
x CONTENTS
14. Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex: 1869–70 to 1990–91 ................ 65
15. Percentage of students in institutions of higher education, by control, type, and
attendance status: 1931–32 to 1991–92 .................................................................... 66
16. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher
education: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ................................................................................. 67
17. Bachelor’s degrees per 1,000 23-year-olds: 1889–90 to 1989–90 ............................... 68
18. Percentage of higher education degrees conferred to females, by level: 1869–70 to
1989–90 ...................................................................................................................... 69
19. Bachelor’s degrees per 100 high school graduates 4 years earlier and master’s
degrees per 100 bachelor’s degrees 2 years earlier: 1869–70 to 1989–90 .............. 69
20. Sources of current-fund revenue for institutions of higher education: 1909–10 to
1989–90 ...................................................................................................................... 71
21. Expenditures of institutions of higher education per student in constant 1990–91
dollars: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ...................................................................................... 73
Tables
Education Characteristics of the Population
1. Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991 ......................... 11
2. School enrollment of 5- to 19-year-olds per 100 persons, by sex and race: 1850 to
1991 ............................................................................................................................ 14
3. School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991 .......... 15
4. Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April
1940 to March 1991 ................................................................................................... 18
5. Median years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by
race and sex: 1910 to 1991 ....................................................................................... 21
6. Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate, by race and
nativity: 1870 to 1979 ................................................................................................. 21
7. Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of
school completed: 1939 to 1991 ................................................................................ 22
Elementary and Secondary Education
8. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70
to 1989–90 .................................................................................................................. 34
9. Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade
level: 1869–70 to fall 1992 ......................................................................................... 36
10. Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11
to fall 1990 .................................................................................................................. 38
11. Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71
to fall 1990 .................................................................................................................. 42
12. Children served in special education programs, by type of disability: 1921–22 to
1989–90 ...................................................................................................................... 44
xiCONTENTS
13. Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for
transportation: 1929–30 to 1989–90 .......................................................................... 45
14. Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and
secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91 .................................................................. 46
15. Catholic elementary and secondary enrollment, teachers, and schools, by level:
1919–20 to 1990–91 .................................................................................................. 49
16. Public school enrollment in grades 9 to 12, by subject: 1889–90 to fall 1981 ............. 50
17. Student proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science, by age and
race/ethnicity: 1969–70 to 1989–90 ........................................................................... 51
18. Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science pro-
ficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: 1970–71 to 1989–90 ............................... 52
19. High school graduates, by sex and control of institution: 1869–70 to 1991–92 ........... 55
20. Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools:
1929–30 to 1990–91 .................................................................................................. 56
21. Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds:
1889–90 to 1989–90 .................................................................................................. 57
22. Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and
secondary schools, by purpose: 1869–70 to 1989–90 .............................................. 59
Higher Education
23. Historical summary of higher education statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ...................... 75
24. Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex, attendance status, and type
and control of institution: 1869–70 to fall 1991 .......................................................... 76
25. Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by state: 1869–70 to fall 1990 .............. 78
26. Number and professional employees of institutions of higher education: 1869–70 to
1991–92 ...................................................................................................................... 80
27. Number of permanent colleges and universities founded before 1860, by decade of
founding and by state ................................................................................................. 81
28. Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to
1989–90 ...................................................................................................................... 82
29. Bachelor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study:
1959–60 to 1989–90 .................................................................................................. 85
30. Master’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study:
1959–60 to 1989–90 .................................................................................................. 86
31. Doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study:
1959–60 to 1989–90 .................................................................................................. 87
32. First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education in dentistry,
medicine, and law, by sex: 1949–50 to 1989–90 ...................................................... 88
33. Current-fund revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds:
1889–90 to 1989–90 .................................................................................................. 89
34. Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures per student of
institutions of higher education, by function: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ........................... 90
xii CONTENTS
35. Value of property and endowment, and liabilities of institutions of higher education:
1899–1900 to 1989–90 .............................................................................................. 92
Appendix
36. Gross domestic product, state and local expenditures, personal income, disposable
personal income, and median family income: 1940 to 1991 ..................................... 93
37. Gross domestic product deflator, Consumer Price Index, education price indexes,
and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to 1992 ............................................... 94
1
1
The statistical component of the Department of Education has had
many names. A staff member who joined this office in 1955 recalls
that in the past 37 years it has been called the Research and Statis-
tical Services Branch, the Educational Statistics Branch, the Division
of Educational Statistics, the National Center for Educational Statis-
tics, the National Center for Education Statistics, the Center for Sta-
tistics, the Center for Education Statistics, and, once again, the Na-
tional Center for Education Statistics. For convenience it will be re-
ferred to in this paper as the National Center for Education Statistics
or simply National Center.
Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education:
Highlights from the Past 120 Years
W. Vance Grant
In 1867, the Congress of the United States passed
legislation providing ‘‘That there shall be established
at the City of Washington, a department of edu-
cation, for the purpose of collecting such statistics
and facts as shall show the condition and progress
of education in the several States and Territories,
and of diffusing such information respecting the orga-
nization and management of schools and school sys-
tems, and methods of teaching, as shall aid the peo-
ple of the United States in the establishment and
maintenance of efficient school systems, and other-
wise promote the cause of education throughout the
country.’’ The department was to be headed by a
Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner was
to be paid a salary of $4,000 a year, and he was au-
thorized to appoint three clerks, at annual salaries of
$2,000, $1,800, and $1,600, to help him carry out his
duties.
Two years later, the name of the new department
was changed to the Office of Education, its budget
was cut back, and the Commissioner’s support staff
was reduced from three to two clerks. The Office of
Education became one of the constituent agencies
within the Department of the Interior in 1869, and it
remained there for 70 years. During most of those
years, it was known as the Bureau of Education, but
in 1929 its name was restored to the Office of Edu-
cation. In 1939, it became part of the Federal Secu-
rity Agency, and in 1953, it was assigned to the
newly established Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare. In 1980, education was separated from
health and welfare, and a new cabinet-level Depart-
ment of Education came into existence.
Early in its history, the federal education agency
moved to fulfill its mandate to ‘‘collect’’ and ‘‘diffuse’’
statistics on education in the United States. The de-
velopment of a statistical program proved to be a for-
midable task. The country was large, its educational
system was decentralized, and the staff available to
collect statistics was almost nonexistent.
In the beginning, no effort was made to estimate
for nonresponding institutions (probably because
there were no bench marks from which to make rea-
sonable estimates). There were also some inconsist-
encies in the data obtained from the states and terri-
tories and from the various colleges and universities.
Early on, the compilers of education statistics learned
to look to the decennial censuses of population to fill
some of the gaps in the data reported to this office.
Some of the problems faced by the new agency,
along with some of the progress made in the early
years, are evident in a quotation from Commissioner
John Eaton, who wrote in the
Report of the Commis-
sioner of Education for the Year 1875:
‘‘When the
work of collecting educational statistics was begun by
the Office, it was found that there was no authentic
list of the colleges in the United States, or of acad-
emies, or normal schools, or schools of science, law,
or medicine, or of any other class of educational in-
stitutions. The lists of nearly all grades of schools are
now nearly complete. Information on all other matters
relating to educational systems was equally incom-
plete and difficult of access.’’
The statistical surveys of what is now the National
Center for Education Statistics
1
date from 1870. The
first statistics were apparently the responsibility of the
chief clerk, but in 1872, Congress authorized the
agency to hire its first statistician at a salary of
$1,800 a year. In the beginning, data were collected
on basic items, such as public elementary and sec-
ondary school enrollment, attendance, teachers and
their salaries, high school graduates, and expendi-
tures. At the higher education level, the data in the
early years included the number of colleges and uni-
versities, enrollment, faculty, and bachelor’s and
higher degrees conferred.
The level of detail obtained in the surveys of this
office gradually increased. By 1890, the data collec-
tion program had been expanded to include private
2 Highlights from the Past 120 Years
2
Earlier, surveys of enrollment in the ‘‘third week of fall term’’ had
been conducted biennially.
elementary and secondary school enrollment, teach-
ers, and graduates; enrollment by subject field in
public high schools; public school revenue receipts
by source; and income and value of physical plants
of institutions of higher education. By 1920, the sta-
tistical program included a detailed breakdown of
public school expenditures by purpose and of higher
education income by source of funds.
The statistical program of the National Center for
Education Statistics took a major step forward in
1923 when it was authorized to hire four new ‘‘Prin-
cipal Statistical Assistants.’’ A major responsibility of
these new employees was to make visits ‘‘to the
field’’ every two years. During these field visits, they
worked with the state departments of education and
with the institutions of higher education that had not
responded fully to the Center’s requests for statistical
information. The field staff brought back a great deal
of information that would not have been available
otherwise, thus enabling the Center to report national
totals that were virtually 100 percent complete.
These field visits were made biennially for many
years. The last extensive use of a field staff was
made in 1962 when representatives of the National
Center visited every state department of education in
connection with the
National Inventory of School Fa-
cilities and Personnel.
By 1930, the education data collected included the
number of public elementary and secondary schools,
the approximate number of private elementary and
secondary schools, the endowments of institutions of
higher education, and a breakdown of the expendi-
tures of colleges and universities by purpose. The
collection of education statistics was curtailed during
the early and middle 1940s, as the office assumed
various responsibilities related to the war effort.
Following the end of World War II, there was a fur-
ther expansion in the statistical information collected
by this office. College enrollment increased as many
war veterans took advantage of the G.I. Bill of Rights
to attend the Nation’s institutions of higher education.
The office responded with an annual survey of fall
enrollment in colleges and universities.
2
While there
have been some modifications in the coverage and
in the amount of detail requested over time, this sur-
vey continues in an unbroken series 47 years later.
A survey of earned degrees conferred by major
field of study was initiated in 1948, and it continues
today to provide annual data on the supply of trained
personnel coming out of colleges and universities
with bachelor’s, master’s, doctor’s, and first-profes-
sional degrees. This survey was extended to include
associate degrees and other awards below the bac-
calaureate in 1966. Data by sex have been collected
in the fall enrollment and earned degree surveys for
many years. Beginning in 1976, both surveys were
expanded to include the race/ethnicity of the students
and degree recipients. Statistics on the number of
foreign (nonresident alien) students and degree re-
cipients have also been collected periodically since
1976.
An annual survey of public school enrollment,
teachers, and schoolhousing was begun in 1954.
This survey has continued through the years, but the
amount of information collected has increased sub-
stantially over time. Today, it is our primary source
of state and national data on the enrollment, staff,
graduates, and finances of public elementary and
secondary schools.
The professional and clerical staff of the National
Center had grown gradually from 16 in 1948 to 26 in
1956. A major expansion of its staff and responsibil-
ities occurred in fiscal year 1957 when the Center
was authorized to increase its personnel to 76, in-
cluding 32 statisticians and education specialists.
The increase in staff enabled the Center to collect
more statistical information and to process it more
expeditiously. The period from the late 1950s through
the early 1960s was a productive time for the Center.
The quantity and quality of the statistical publications
coming out of the Center in those years were quite
high.
In the mid-1960s, the National Center’s education
statistics were put to a new use—that of supporting
the education proposals that were making their way
through the legislative process on Capitol Hill. It is no
exaggeration to say that the Center’s statistics
played an indispensable role in the passage of a
number of acts of Congress which provided support
to elementary, secondary, and higher education. For
those staff members of the Center who were in-
volved in preparing testimony and in supplying statis-
tical analyses to Capitol Hill for legislative purposes,
it was a very exciting time indeed.
For many years, the National Center for Education
Statistics has prepared a directory of public school
districts in the United States. Recent editions of this
directory provide the name, address, and telephone
number, as well as statistics on the number of
schools, enrollment, teachers, high school graduates,
and grade span of each public school district. In
1967, the Center assumed the responsibility for the
preparation of a directory of institutions of higher
education. Today, this publication has evolved into a
two-volume
Directory of Postsecondary Institutions:
Volume 1 provides data on 4-year and 2-year institu-
tions (primarily colleges and universities); Volume 2
contains information about institutions that offer less
than 2 years of postsecondary education (mainly vo-
cational schools).
3Highlights from the Past 120 Years
3
Early editions of the
Digest of Education Statistics
were called
Di-
gest of Educational Statistics.
4
Early editions of the
Projections of Education Statistics
were called
Projections of Educational Statistics.
Traditionally the information collected by the Na-
tional Center for Education Statistics emphasized in-
puts rather than outcomes. Recognizing the need to
provide data on the quality of education as well, the
Center in 1969 launched the National Assessment of
Educational Progress. For the past two decades, the
National Assessment surveys have measured the
achievement of a nationwide sample of students
aged 9, 13, and 17 in reading, writing, mathematics,
and science. Surveys of civics, history, and geog-
raphy achievement also have been conducted on a
periodic basis. The Center also has participated in
several international studies which provide compara-
tive data on student achievement in mathematics,
science, and reading.
The longitudinal surveys of the National Center for
Education Statistics date from 1972. In these sur-
veys, a nationwide sample of students is tracked
over a period of years. Their educational and occu-
pational experiences are recorded, and some infor-
mation is collected on their family lives and other ex-
periences and on their goals in life. The first series
began with a group of high school seniors in 1972,
and the second longitudinal series began with both
high school sophomores and seniors in 1980. A third
longitudinal study of students who were in the eighth
grade in the spring of 1988 will contribute to our
knowledge of when and why students drop out of
high school. Future longitudinal studies based on
other student levels are planned.
Among the new surveys added to the National
Center’s statistical program in recent years are the
National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, the Na-
tional Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, the Schools
and Staffing Survey, and the National Household
Education Survey. The Student Aid Study, first con-
ducted in 1986–87, provides data on the proportion
of postsecondary students who obtain financial as-
sistance, the kinds and sources of assistance they
receive, and the average amounts of aid awarded.
The National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, first
conducted in 1987–88, collected information about
the characteristics of academic departments and col-
lege faculty members. The Schools and Staffing Sur-
vey, first conducted in 1987–88, provides a wealth of
information on elementary and secondary school
teachers, including their personal characteristics,
their teaching assignments, and their attitudes toward
the teaching profession. The data on teacher turn-
over and teacher characteristics, which are derived
from this study, make possible a variety of analyses,
such as a projection of the number of teachers that
will be needed in the years ahead. The National
Household Education Survey, first conducted in
1991, is used to collect data that are difficult to ob-
tain through surveys of institutions. For example, this
system was used to collect information about the
day-care experiences and preparation of children for
elementary school.
In addition to completely new survey systems,
other existing survey systems have been expanded
during the 1980s. For example, the new Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) was
designed to include all postsecondary education pro-
viders, rather than just colleges and universities.
A review of the statistical program of the Depart-
ment of Education would not be complete without
mentioning a few of the major publications that cover
the field of education from a broad perspective. From
1870 through 1917, the statistics collected by this of-
fice appeared in the Annual Report of the Commis-
sioner of Education. These impressive volumes, pro-
duced by a small but dedicated staff, provide the
framework for much of the National Center’s statis-
tical program today.
From 1918 through 1958, the major surveys of this
office were collected and published as chapters in
the
Biennial Survey of Education in the United
States.
The
Biennial Survey
usually contained chap-
ters on state school systems, city school systems,
and institutions of higher education, and a summary
chapter covering all levels of education. From time to
time, there were additional chapters covering a vari-
ety of subjects, including offerings and enrollments in
high school subjects, statistics of public secondary
schools, special education for exceptional children,
statistics of private elementary and secondary
schools, and library statistics.
After the demise of the
Biennial Survey,
a need
was felt for a publication that would bring together in
one convenient volume a summary of the different
kinds of data being collected by the National Center.
To fulfill this objective, the first
Digest of Education
Statistics
3
was prepared and published in 1962. Thir-
ty years later, a greatly expanded
Digest
continues to
meet the needs of thousands of users of education
statistics each year by providing numerous trend ta-
bles as well as the latest survey data.
In 1964, the National Center initiated a series enti-
tled
Projections of Education Statistics.
4
This report,
which is now prepared annually, provides projections
for each of the next 10 years of many key data items
collected by the National Center, including enroll-
ment, instructional staff, high school and college
graduates, and educational finances. In recent years,
the report has been expanded to include some fore-
casts at the state level.
Responding to a congressional mandate ex-
pressed in the Education Amendments of 1974, the
National Center has prepared a report on the ‘‘condi-
4 Highlights from the Past 120 Years
tion of education’’ each year since 1975.
The Condi-
tion of Education
provides timely data on the status
and progress of education in this country. It uses an
‘‘indicators’’ approach to highlight specific issues with
relevant information. Recent editions of this report
have added a new dimension by comparing the edu-
cational attainment, achievement, and expenditures
in the United States with those in other countries.
From humble beginnings 120 years ago, the Na-
tional Center for Education Statistics has emerged as
one of the major statistical agencies of the federal
government. Today, it is headed by a Commissioner
of Education Statistics and has a staff of approxi-
mately 130 people. It issues approximately 175 publi-
cations a year. These documents include early re-
leases, bulletins, statistical reports, directories, and
handbooks of standard terminology. Electronic for-
mats, including data tapes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, and
bulletin boards, are also used to make data available
to the public.
The demand for the National Center’s products
continues to grow. The number of requests for edu-
cation statistics and related information directed to
the information office now averages close to 1,000 a
week. The requests come from a variety of sources,
including Members of Congress and congressional
committees, government agencies, state and local
school officials, institutions of higher education, orga-
nizations representing the education community, the
news media, business organizations, students, and
the general public. As the 21st century approaches,
the National Center will be looking for additional
ways to serve its wide audience of users of edu-
cation statistics.
Bibliography
Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Education,
1870 to 1917.
Bureau of Education, Washington,
D.C.: various years.
Biennial Survey of Education in the United States,
1916–18 to 1956–58.
Office of Education, Washing-
ton, D.C.: various years.
Blauch, Lloyd E.
To Promote the Cause of Edu-
cation, A Review of Historic Background of Today’s
Office of Education.
Office of Education, Washington,
D.C.: 1953.
Grant, W. Vance. Specialist in Education Statistics,
personal reminiscences.
Kappel, Joseph W. (1957) and Henry G. Badger
(1962), unpublished staff papers.
Lykes, Richard Wayne.
Higher Education and the
United States Office of Education (1867–1953).
Of-
fice of Education, Washington, D.C.: 1975.
Smith, Darrell Hevenor.
The Bureau of Education,
Its History, Activities, and Organization.
The Johns
Hopkins Press, Baltimore: 1923.
Sniegoski, Stephen J.
The Department of Edu-
cation.
Chelsea House Publishers, New York: 1988.
U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Historical Statistics of
the United States, Colonial Times to 1957.
U.S. Gov-
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.: 1960.
5
Chapter 1
Education Characteristics of the Population
‘‘. . . [I]t is believed that the most effectual means
of preventing [tyranny] would be, to illuminate, as far
as practicable, the minds of the people at large, and
more especially to give them knowledge of those
facts, which history exhibiteth, that . . . they may be
enabled to know . . .’’
Thomas Jefferson’s ‘‘Bill for
the more general diffusion of knowledge’’ (1779).
‘‘By the year 2000: . . .
Every adult American will be literate and will pos-
sess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete
in a global economy and exercise the rights and re-
sponsibilities of citizenship. . . .’’
Goal #5, The National Education Goals (1990).
We are unable to know the level of enthusiasm
that the founding fathers actually had for public edu-
cation. But it is clear that many Americans have
shared Mr. Jefferson’s vision of the need to have an
educated population in order to ‘‘exercise the rights
and responsibilities of citizenship.’’ Thus, even as
early as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the fed-
eral government set aside resources for education.
The creation of the federal Department of Education
in 1867, while not a cabinet level position, did rein-
force the importance of education.
The Act of 1867 directed the Department of Edu-
cation to collect and report the ‘‘condition and
progress of education’’ in annual reports to Con-
gress. In the first report of 1870, the Commissioner
proudly reported that nearly 7 million children were
enrolled in elementary schools and 80,000 were en-
rolled in secondary schools. Also, some 9,000 col-
lege degrees had been awarded. This contrasts with
1990, when 30 million were enrolled in public ele-
mentary schools and 11 million were enrolled in sec-
ondary schools. Over 1.5 million bachelor’s and high-
er degrees were awarded.
What path has American education taken from
such modest beginnings to such an impressive
present? These and other questions prompted the
Office of Educational Research and Improvement to
review historical data and report on historical edu-
cation statistics. This publication presents information
from the first Office of Education report for 1869–70
to current studies. It charts the development of the
U.S. education enterprise from its past to the
present, pointing toward its future.
One of the important determinants of the scope of
an education system is the size of the population
base. Changes in the birth rate and consequential
shifts in population profoundly influence society for
decades as larger or smaller groups (birth cohorts)
move through school, adulthood, work force, and fi-
nally into retirement. Larger birth cohorts can cause
pressure for building schools, hiring more teachers,
and expanding medical services; reduced cohorts
can have the opposite effect. During the historical
period covered by this publication, there have been
several of these population expansions and contrac-
tions that have impacted on public school systems.
The early years of the United States were marked
by very rapid population growth. Between 1790 and
1860, the U.S. population grew by about a third each
decade. This rate of growth is more than three times
the population growth that has occurred in the past
decade. These rises occurred despite the decline in
the birth rate during the 19th century. Increases in
immigration and in the number of women of child-
bearing age apparently compensated for the birth-
rate decline (table 1).
In the last decade of the 19th century, the popu-
lation growth rate fell to 22 percent and the drops
continued into the first two decades of the 20th cen-
tury. The 1920s marked a period of shifts in the pop-
ulation outlook. The birth rate continued to fall, drop-
ping from 118 per 1,000 women 15 to 44 years old
in 1920 to 89 in 1930. Also, the actual number of
births fell by 11 percent during the 1920s, marking a
divergence from the relative stability of the teens.
The decline in the birth rate stabilized during the
1930s, and then rose dramatically following World
War II, reaching a peak of 123 births per 1,000
women in 1957. This post-war birth rate was nearly
as high as those registered in the early teens. After
this peak of the ‘‘baby boom,’’ the birth rate resumed
its historical decline. The low points in birth rates so
far this century were in 1984 and in 1986, when
there were 65 births per 1,000 women. The United
States is now experiencing a surge in the number of
births caused by the large number of ‘‘baby
boomers’’ at child-bearing age. The 4.1 million births
6 Education Characteristics of the Population
in 1991 is nearly as high as the peak of 4.3 million
in 1957.
The number of births and the population size are
important determinants of the scope of the school
system. But the relative size of the school-age popu-
lation is also an important consideration when exam-
ining the impact of the cost of education on the adult
population. In 1870, about 35 percent of the popu-
lation was 5 to 17 years old. This proportion fell rap-
idly to 28 percent at the turn of the century, but fur-
ther changes in the beginning of the century were
very small. In the 1930s, the percentage of 5– to 17-
years-olds in the population began to decline, reach-
ing a low point of 20 percent in 1947. During the late
1960s, the proportion of 5– to 17-year-olds rose to
26 percent. However, this proportion has fallen in re-
cent years, hitting 18 percent in 1991. Thus, the pro-
portion of the population requiring elementary and
secondary school services is at or near a record low
level. Given the recent rises in births, significant de-
creases in this proportion are not anticipated for the
near future.
Enrollment Rates
The proportion of young people enrolled in school
remained relatively low in the last half of the 19th
century. Although enrollment rates fluctuated, roughly
half of all 5- to 19-year-olds were enrolled in school
(table 2). Rates for males and females were roughly
similar throughout the period, but rates for blacks
were much lower than for whites. Prior to the eman-
cipation of Southern blacks, school enrollment for
blacks largely was limited to only a small number in
Northern states. Following the Civil War, the enroll-
ment rate for blacks rose rapidly from 10 percent in
1870 to 34 percent in 1880. However, in the ensuing
20 years there was essentially no change in the en-
rollment rate for blacks and the rate for whites actu-
ally fell. The beginning of the 20th century brought
sustained increases in enrollment rates for both white
and minority children. The overall enrollment rates for
5- to 19-year-olds rose from 51 percent in 1900 to 75
percent in 1940. The difference in the white and
black enrollment rates narrowed from 23 points in
1900 to 7 points in 1940.
Enrollment rates continued to rise in the post-war
period for all race groups. By the early 1970s, enroll-
ment rates for both whites and blacks had risen to
about 90 percent, and these rates since have re-
mained relatively stable. In the most recent 1991
data, the enrollment rate for 5- to 19-year-olds was
93 percent for blacks, whites, males, and females.
Figure 1.-- Percent of 5- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school,
by race: 1850 to 1991
1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
White
Black and other races
Percent
enrolled
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
Economic Characteristics of Students,
1991
and
School Enrollment - Social and
various issues.
7Education Characteristics of the Population
Figure 2.--Percent of 20- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds
enrolled in school, by sex: 1940 to 1991
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Percent
enrolled
Males, 20 to 24
Females, 20 to 24
Males, 25 to 34
Females, 25 to 34
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and
Economic Characteristics of Students,
1991
School Enrollment - Social and
various issues.
While the enrollment rates for children of elemen-
tary school age have not shown major changes dur-
ing the past 20 years, there have been some in-
creases for younger students as well as for those
persons attending high school and college (table 3).
The enrollment rate for 7- to 13-year-olds has been
99 percent or better since the late 1940s, but the
rate for the 14- to 17-year-olds has exhibited signifi-
cant increases since that period. During the 1950s,
the enrollment rate of 14- to 17-year-olds rose from
83 percent to 90 percent. Further increases during
the 1960s and 1980s brought the enrollment rate to
a high of 96 percent by the late 1980s. The rates for
5- and 6-year-olds also rose, from 58 percent in
1950 to 95 percent in 1991. Rates for those of col-
lege-age doubled or tripled throughout the 1950 to
1991 period, with much of the increase occurring
during the 1980s. In 1950, only 30 percent of 18-
and 19-year-olds were enrolled in school, compared
to 60 percent in 1991. The rate for 20- to 24-year-
olds rose from 9 percent in 1950 to 30 percent in
1990.
Educational Attainment
The increasing rates of school attendance have
been reflected in rising proportions of adults complet-
ing high school and college. Progressively fewer
adults have limited their education to completion of
the eighth grade which was typical in the early part
of the century. In 1940, more than half of the U.S.
population had completed no more than an eighth-
grade education. Only 6 percent of males and 4 per-
cent of females had completed 4 years of college
(table 4). The median years of school attained by the
adult population, 25 years old and over, had reg-
istered only a scant rise from 8.1 to 8.6 years over
a 30-year period from 1910 to 1940 (table 5).
During the 1940s and 1950s, the more highly edu-
cated younger cohorts began to make their mark on
the average for the entire adult population. More than
half of the young adults of the 1940s and 1950s
completed high school, and the median educational
attainment of 25- to 29-year-olds rose to 12.3 years.
By 1960, 42 percent of males, 25 years old and over,
still had completed no more than the eighth grade,
but 40 percent had completed high school and 10
percent had completed 4 years of college. The cor-
responding proportion for women completing high
school was about the same, but the proportion com-
pleting college was somewhat lower (table 4).
8 Education Characteristics of the Population
Figure 3.--Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing
4 years of high school, by sex and race: 1940 to 1991
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Percent
Year
White, females
White, males
Black and other races, males
Black and other races, females
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and
the United States,
1991
Educational Attainment in
various issues.
Figure 4.--Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing
4 years of college, by sex and race: 1940 to 1991
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1991
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Percent
White, males
White, females
Black and other races, females
Black and other races, males
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and
the United States,
Educational Attainment in
various years.
9Education Characteristics of the Population
1
Includes other races.
During the 1960s, there was a rise in the edu-
cational attainment of young adults, particularly for
blacks. Between 1960 and 1970, the median years of
school completed by black males, 25 to 29 years old,
rose from 10.5 to 12.2. From the middle 1970s to
1991, the educational attainment for all young adults
remained very stable, with virtually no change among
whites, blacks, males or females. The average edu-
cational attainment for the entire population contin-
ued to rise as the more highly educated younger co-
horts replaced older Americans who had fewer edu-
cational opportunities. In 1991, about 70 percent of
black males
1
and 69 percent of black females
1
had
completed high school. This is lower than the cor-
responding figures for white males and females (80
percent). However, the differences in these percent-
ages have narrowed appreciably in recent years.
Other data corroborate the rapid increase in the edu-
cation level of the minority population. The proportion
of black males
1
with 4 or more years of college rose
from 12 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 1991, with
a similar rise for black females.
1
Illiteracy
Illiteracy statistics also give an important indication
of the education level of the adult population. Today,
illiteracy is a different issue than in earlier years. The
more recent focus on illiteracy has centered on func-
tional literacy, which addresses the issue of whether
a person’s reading and writing levels are sufficient to
function in a modern society. The earlier surveys of
illiteracy examined a very fundamental level of read-
ing and writing. (See Methodology for additional de-
tail.) The percent of illiteracy, according to earlier
measurement methods, was less than 1 percent of
persons 14 years old and over in 1979 (table 6).
Modern measurements have suggested somewhat
higher levels of functional illiteracy.
For the major part of this century, the illiteracy
rates have been relatively low, registering only about
4 percent as early as 1930. However, in the late 19th
century and early 20th century, illiteracy was very
common. In 1870, 20 percent of the entire adult pop-
ulation was illiterate, and 80 percent of the black
population was illiterate. By 1900, the situation had
improved somewhat, but still 44 percent of blacks re-
mained illiterate. The statistical data show significant
improvements for black and other races in the early
portion of the 20th century, as the former slaves who
had no educational opportunities in their youth were
replaced by younger individuals who grew up in the
post-Civil War period and often had some chance to
obtain a basic education. The gap in illiteracy be-
tween white and black adults continued to narrow
through the 20th century, and in 1979 the rates were
about the same.
Income
Education is generally considered important to indi-
viduals to help them obtain good jobs with relatively
high pay. More highly educated individuals are paid
more, on average, than less well educated persons.
The historical changes that have occurred in the rel-
ative incomes for different levels of education are
less well known.
Most of the increases in incomes for males over
the past three decades may be attributed solely to in-
flation. After adjusting for inflation, incomes for males
at all education levels rose rapidly during the 1950s
and 1960s (table 7). Incomes for males with lower
levels of education maintained pace with those with
higher levels of education. Between 1961 and 1971,
the incomes for males who had only 1 to 3 years of
high school rose by 14 percent after adjustment for
inflation, while incomes for those who completed high
school rose by 16 percent. For males who had 4
years of college, the increase was only 8 percent.
After peaking in the early 1970s, incomes for
males of all education levels suffered during the rest
of the decade, especially during 1974 and 1975. Be-
tween 1971 and 1981, incomes for males who had
not finished high school fell by 24 percent, while in-
comes for those who had completed high school fell
by 16 percent. Incomes for males who had com-
pleted 4 years of college fell by 20 percent during the
same period.
The 1980s showed some recovery in income for
more educated groups; however, those with lower
levels of education continued to suffer. For males
with 1 to 3 years of high school, the average income
fell by 13 percent between 1981 and 1991, after ad-
justment for inflation. The incomes for those who had
completed only high school fell by 6 percent. In con-
trast, the average income for males with 4 years of
college rose by 11 percent and the income of those
with 5 or more years of college rose by 20 percent.
Thus, in the 1980s there was a widening of the in-
come gap between those with less education com-
pared to those with more education. From an histori-
cal perspective over these three decades of
changes, the income gap between males with 4
years of college and those with 4 years of high
school has widened only slightly.
10 Education Characteristics of the Population
2
For example, see
Youth Indicators, 1991.
The 1989 income for
male full-time year-round workers, 15 to 24 years of age was 13
percent higher than for females. Additional material appears in
Di-
gest of Education Statistics, 1992
and U.S. Department of Com-
merce, Bureau of the Census,
Money Income of Households, Fami-
lies and Persons in the United States.
1959 1969 1979 1989 1991
$60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
Income
Year
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and
Money Income of Families and Persons in the United States;
Figure 5.--Annual average income of high school and college
graduates, 25 years old and over, in constant 1991 dollars,
by sex: 1959 to 1991
Males, 4 years of college
Male high school graduates
Females, 4 years of college
Female high school graduates
Historical
Current Population Reports, unpublished data.
The patterns in salary increases for females have
been somewhat similar to those for males. However,
the incomes for females continued to rise during the
1970s. For example, between 1971 and 1981, the
average income for females with a high school di-
ploma rose by 19 percent compared to the 16 per-
cent decline for males. The incomes for women with
4 or more years of college increased by 6 percent
during the period. During the 1980s, the growth in in-
comes for females continued to outpace those for
males. The incomes for women with less than 4
years of high school increased by 17 percent and the
incomes for women completing 4 years of high
school rose by 27 percent. Incomes for women with
4 years of college rose by 45 percent.
Despite very large increases for females, salaries
for males continue to be significantly higher than
those for females with equivalent levels of education.
For example, the salary for males with 4 years of col-
lege is 86 percent higher than that for women with
equivalent education, and the salary for males with 4
years of high school is nearly double that of women
with a similar level of education. More detailed statis-
tics for specific age groups, and controlled for full-
time year-round workers, generally show smaller in-
come gaps, but substantial differences remain.
2
The historical data show large increases in enroll-
ment ratios and rates over the past 140 years, with
some significant rises even in more recent years.
The higher levels of education attained by young
adults in the most recent decades suggest that the
overall education level of the population will continue
to rise slowly into at least the early 21st century.
11Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991
[Population and births in thousands]
Year
Population, by age Population, by race
1
Live
births Birth
rate
2
Total Under
55 to 13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
29 30 to 34 35 to
39 40 to
49 50 to
59 60 and
over Total White Black Other
races
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819
1790 ..................................... 3,929 ————— —————3,929 3,172 757———
1800 ..................................... 5,308 ————— —————5,308 4,306 1,002
3
278.0
1810 ..................................... 7,240 ————— —————7,240 5,862 1,378
3
274.0
1820 ..................................... 9,638 ————— —————9,638 7,867 1,772
3
260.0
1830 ..................................... 12,866 ————— —————12,866 10,537 2,329
3
240.0
1840 ..................................... 17,069 ————— —————17,069 14,196 2,874
3
222.0
1850
4
................................... 23,192 3,498
5
6,132
6
2,530 (
7
)
8
4,277 (
9
)
10
2,826 (
11
) 1,847 1,110 959 23,192 19,553 3,639
3
194.0
1860
4
................................... 31,443 4,842
5
7,892
6
3,361 (
7
)
8
5,726 (
9
)
10
4,021 (
11
) 2,614 1,586 1,348 31,443 26,923 4,442 79
3
184.0
1870
4
................................... 38,558 5,515
5
9,601
6
4,041 (
7
) 3,748 3,075 2,563 2,315 3,519 2,245 1,933 38,558 33,589 4,880 89
3
167.0
1880 ..................................... 50,156 6,915
5
12,195
6
5,011 (
7
) 5,088 4,081 3,369 3,000 4,558 3,111 2,828 50,156 43,403 6,581 172
3
155.0
1890
12
................................. 62,622 7,635
5
14,608
6
6,558 (
7
) 6,197 5,228 4,579 3,866 5,917 3,999 3,875 62,622 54,984 7,470 168
3
137.0
1900 ..................................... 76,094 9,181 15,402 6,132 3,000 7,383 6,572 5,589 4,996 7,752 5,186 4,901 75,995 66,809 8,834 351
3
130.0
1901 ..................................... 77,584 9,336 15,572 6,228 3,056 7,544 6,729 5,713 5,126 7,939 5,324 5,017 —————
1902 ..................................... 79,163 9,502 15,750 6,333 3,119 7,713 6,890 5,847 5,261 8,138 5,472 5,138 —————
1903 ..................................... 80,632 9,645 15,893 6,433 3,180 7,876 7,048 5,971 5,394 8,324 5,610 5,258 —————
1904 ..................................... 82,166 9,791 16,044 6,539 3,245 8,047 7,210 6,105 5,530 8,518 5,757 5,380 —————
1905 ..................................... 83,822 9,944 16,210 6,654 3,313 8,237 7,382 6,249 5,677 8,724 5,914 5,518 —————
1906 ..................................... 85,450 10,092 16,365 6,769 3,383 8,414 7,553 6,399 5,823 8,925 6,069 5,658 —————
1907 ..................................... 87,008 10,220 16,513 6,878 3,448 8,584 7,715 6,542 5,967 9,124 6,224 5,793 —————
1908 ..................................... 88,710 10,364 16,687 6,999 3,516 8,764 7,888 6,697 6,121 9,343 6,388 5,943 —————
1909 ..................................... 90,490 10,509 16,888 7,123 3,587 8,943 8,063 6,860 6,281 9,571 6,564 6,101 — 2,718 126.8
1910 ..................................... 92,407 10,671 17,138 7,252 3,655 9,117 8,243 7,031 6,453 9,822 6,751 6,274 91,972 81,732 9,828 413 2,777 126.8
1911 ..................................... 93,863 10,796 17,379 7,319 3,679 9,192 8,371 7,159 6,598 10,038 6,904 6,428 — 2,809 126.3
1912 ..................................... 95,335 10,915 17,645 7,388 3,698 9,249 8,491 7,281 6,742 10,272 7,063 6,591 — 2,840 125.8
1913 ..................................... 97,225 11,082 18,016 7,477 3,727 9,333 8,634 7,436 6,920 10,555 7,262 6,783 — 2,869 124.7
1914 ..................................... 99,111 11,244 18,397 7,563 3,748 9,404 8,779 7,591 7,097 10,851 7,452 6,985 — 2,966 126.6
1915 ..................................... 100,546 11,347 18,717 7,619 3,752 9,416 8,873 7,707 7,241 11,098 7,615 7,161 — 2,965 125.0
1916 ..................................... 101,961 11,442 19,043 7,665 3,749 9,423 8,959 7,817 7,383 11,355 7,784 7,341 — 2,964 123.4
1917 ..................................... 103,268 11,527 19,380 7,715 3,740 9,370 8,997 7,916 7,526 11,609 7,957 7,531 — 2,944 121.0
1918 ..................................... 103,208 11,606 19,716 7,794 3,651 8,642 8,573 7,872 7,648 11,859 8,123 7,724 — 2,948 119.8
1919 ..................................... 104,514 11,536 19,834 7,737 3,672 9,071 8,918 7,994 7,715 11,997 8,208 7,832 — 2,740 111.2
1920 ..................................... 106,461 11,631 20,122 7,869 3,749 9,239 9,321 8,095 7,843 12,232 8,408 7,952 105,711 94,821 10,463 427 2,950 117.9
1921 ..................................... 108,538 11,879 20,426 8,079 3,827 9,323 9,505 8,242 7,942 12,492 8,662 8,161 — 3,055 119.8
1922 ..................................... 110,049 12,031 20,656 8,260 3,901 9,373 9,502 8,422 7,914 12,738 8,927 8,325 — 2,882 111.2
1923 ..................................... 111,947 12,119 20,913 8,454 3,996 9,524 9,458 8,773 7,929 13,078 9,172 8,531 — 2,910 110.5
1924 ..................................... 114,109 12,269 21,136 8,669 4,116 9,751 9,415 9,142 7,992 13,456 9,388 8,775 — 2,979 110.9
1925 ..................................... 115,829 12,316 21,364 8,825 4,209 9,907 9,350 9,370 8,076 13,804 9,579 9,029 — 2,909 106.6
1926 ..................................... 117,397 12,189 21,633 8,956 4,290 10,064 9,387 9,480 8,195 14,118 9,793 9,292 — 2,839 102.6
1927 ..................................... 119,035 12,111 21,853 9,093 4,378 10,258 9,473 9,475 8,424 14,397 9,997 9,576 — 2,802 99.8
1928 ..................................... 120,509 11,978 21,995 9,213 4,451 10,472 9,584 9,369 8,732 14,643 10,195 9,877 — 2,674 93.8
12 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991—Continued
[Population and births in thousands]
Year
Population, by age Population, by race
1
Live
births Birth
rate
2
Total Under
55 to 13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
29 30 to 34 35 to
39 40 to
49 50 to
59 60 and
over Total White Black Other
races
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819
1929 ..................................... 121,767 11,734 22,131 9,283 4,513 10,694 9,729 9,212 9,032 14,865 10,410 10,164 — 2,582 89.3
1930 ..................................... 123,077 11,372 22,266 9,370 4,567 10,915 9,894 9,145 9,218 15,128 10,718 10,484 122,775 110,287 11,891 597 2,618 89.2
1931 ..................................... 124,040 11,179 22,263 9,389 4,592 11,003 10,051 9,191 9,170 15,402 11,006 10,793 2,506 84.6
1932 ..................................... 124,840 10,903 22,238 9,404 4,611 11,077 10,195 9,289 9,069 15,689 11,267 11,099 2,440 81.7
1933 ..................................... 125,579 10,612 22,129 9,445 4,625 11,152 10,326 9,424 8,974 15,969 11,504 11,418 2,307 76.3
1934 ..................................... 126,374 10,331 21,964 9,526 4,637 11,238 10,448 9,574 8,941 16,228 11,729 11,759 2,396 78.5
1935 ..................................... 127,250 10,170 21,730 9,652 4,643 11,317 10,558 9,717 8,973 16,437 11,941 12,112 2,377 77.2
1936 ..................................... 128,053 10,044 21,434 9,784 4,659 11,375 10,660 9,845 9,051 16,596 12,148 12,459 2,355 75.8
1937 ..................................... 128,825 10,009 21,082 9,858 4,701 11,411 10,768 9,955 9,164 16,714 12,366 12,797 2,413 77.1
1938 ..................................... 129,825 10,176 20,668 9,908 4,772 11,453 10,892 10,061 9,306 16,828 12,622 13,140 2,496 79.1
1939 ..................................... 130,880 10,418 20,253 9,898 4,850 11,519 11,013 10,163 9,446 16,944 12,903 13,472 2,466 77.6
1940 ..................................... 132,122 10,580 19,942 9,846 4,916 11,689 11,157 10,290 9,597 17,097 13,182 13,826 131,669 118,215 12,866 589 2,559 79.9
1941 ..................................... 133,412 10,851 19,697 9,753 4,909 11,810 11,280 10,413 9,741 17,326 13,425 14,207 2,703 83.4
1942 ..................................... 134,865 11,300 19,460 9,618 4,883 11,953 11,374 10,536 9,869 17,562 13,668 14,642 2,989 91.5
1943 ..................................... 136,755 12,020 19,378 9,477 4,850 12,065 11,511 10,684 10,012 17,806 13,902 15,050 3,104 94.3
1944 ..................................... 138,398 12,525 19,302 9,361 4,846 12,061 11,670 10,838 10,157 18,049 14,134 15,455 2,939 88.8
1945 ..................................... 139,924 12,979 19,378 9,133 4,754 12,036 11,796 10,938 10,312 18,282 14,376 15,940 2,858 85.9
1946 ..................................... 141,392 13,246 19,664 8,915 4,645 12,003 11,893 11,060 10,459 18,509 14,600 16,398 3,411 101.9
1947 ..................................... 144,122 14,405 20,094 8,868 4,604 11,812 12,038 11,193 10,657 18,714 14,846 16,891 3,817 113.3
1948 ..................................... 146,634 14,919 20,949 8,705 4,510 11,795 12,156 11,336 10,873 18,920 15,089 17,382 3,637 107.3
1949 ..................................... 149,199 15,609 21,631 8,592 4,420 11,700 12,254 11,475 11,099 19,141 15,361 17,917 3,649 107.1
1950 ..................................... 151,689 16,328 22,266 8,445 4,392 11,614 12,314 11,614 11,301 19,385 15,597 18,435 150,697 134,942 15,042 713 3,632 106.2
1951 ..................................... 154,283 17,248 22,786 8,521 4,247 11,462 12,284 11,788 11,397 19,773 15,806 18,975 3,823 111.5
1952 ..................................... 156,947 17,211 24,279 8,723 4,154 11,266 12,184 12,006 11,434 20,173 15,993 19,522 3,913 113.9
1953 ..................................... 159,559 17,528 25,452 8,864 4,216 11,005 12,023 12,212 11,456 20,566 16,183 20,057 3,965 115.2
1954 ..................................... 162,388 17,941 26,645 8,993 4,315 10,762 11,870 12,368 11,524 20,944 16,396 20,627 4,078 118.1
1955 ..................................... 165,276 18,448 27,716 9,221 4,333 10,633 11,728 12,434 11,648 21,281 16,629 21,202 4,104 118.5
1956 ..................................... 168,225 18,869 28,776 9,526 4,430 10,558 11,603 12,427 11,829 21,582 16,886 21,739 4,218 121.2
1957 ..................................... 171,278 19,362 29,539 10,148 4,564 10,554 11,434 12,344 12,056 21,838 17,155 22,287 4,308 122.9
1958 ..................................... 174,154 19,745 30,559 10,606 4,597 10,698 11,209 12,205 12,274 22,055 17,430 22,775 4,255 120.2
1959 ..................................... 177,080 20,031 31,683 10,951 4,695 10,921 11,001 12,064 12,433 22,273 17,737 23,291 4,245 118.8
1960 ..................................... 179,979 20,341 32,965 11,211 4,886 10,868 10,823 11,905 12,481 22,539 18,130 23,828 179,979 159,381 18,960 1,638 4,258 118.0
1961 ..................................... 182,992 20,522 33,217 12,046 5,411 11,222 10,756 11,738 12,481 22,792 18,518 24,290 182,992 161,891 19,385 1,716 4,268 117.1
1962 ..................................... 185,771 20,469 33,897 12,751 5,617 11,653 10,740 11,547 12,413 23,053 18,915 24,717 185,771 164,185 19,792 1,795 4,167 112.0
1963 ..................................... 188,483 20,342 34,578 13,492 5,461 12,397 10,848 11,348 12,294 23,322 19,295 25,108 188,483 166,413 20,194 1,876 4,098 108.3
1964 ..................................... 191,141 20,165 35,244 14,265 5,429 12,941 11,051 11,144 12,133 23,562 19,648 25,560 191,141 168,577 20,610 1,954 4,027 104.7
1965 ..................................... 193,526 19,824 35,754 14,145 6,450 13,404 11,226 11,040 11,952 23,751 19,957 26,023 193,526 170,499 20,999 2,028 3,760 96.3
1966 ..................................... 195,576 19,208 36,283 14,398 7,183 13,615 11,521 10,962 11,763 23,909 20,226 26,510 195,576 172,111 21,346 2,119 3,606 90.8
1967 ..................................... 197,457 18,563 36,629 14,729 6,928 14,566 11,943 10,953 11,569 24,061 20,458 27,058 197,457 173,562 21,671 2,224 3,521 87.2
1968 ..................................... 199,399 17,913 36,804 15,170 6,988 15,054 12,624 11,076 11,356 24,144 20,667 27,602 199,399 175,096 21,983 2,318 3,502 85.2
13Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991—Continued
[Population and births in thousands]
Year
Population, by age Population, by race
1
Live
births Birth
rate
2
Total Under
55 to 13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
29 30 to 34 35 to
39 40 to
49 50 to
59 60 and
over Total White Black Other
races
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819
1969 ..................................... 201,385 17,376 36,836 15,550 7,119 15,767 13,119 11,287 11,155 24,141 20,888 28,147 201,385 176,641 22,301 2,443 3,600 86.1
1970 ..................................... 203,984 17,166 36,672 15,921 7,410 16,579 13,604 11,505 11,079 24,099 21,167 28,783 203,984 178,703 22,687 2,593 3,731 87.9
1971 ..................................... 206,827 17,244 36,236 16,326 7,644 17,703 13,927 11,842 11,052 23,957 21,461 29,433 206,827 180,938 23,143 2,746 3,556 81.6
1972 ..................................... 209,284 17,101 35,679 16,637 7,854 17,865 15,142 12,321 11,105 23,700 21,803 30,077 209,284 182,799 23,572 2,913 3,258 73.1
1973 ..................................... 211,357 16,851 35,046 16,864 8,044 18,273 15,694 13,094 11,222 23,472 22,074 30,724 211,357 184,316 23,954 3,088 3,137 68.8
1974 ..................................... 213,342 16,487 34,465 17,033 8,196 18,758 16,428 13,644 11,400 23,197 22,344 31,388 213,342 185,745 24,326 3,271 3,160 67.8
1975 ..................................... 215,465 16,121 33,919 17,125 8,418 19,317 17,183 14,131 11,585 22,953 22,617 32,095 215,465 187,216 24,696 3,553 3,144 66.0
1976 ..................................... 217,563 15,617 33,516 17,117 8,604 19,794 18,177 14,428 11,883 22,793 22,853 32,780 217,563 188,693 25,079 3,791 3,168 65.0
1977 ..................................... 219,760 15,564 32,855 17,042 8,613 20,311 18,180 15,661 12,310 22,685 23,059 33,480 219,760 190,271 25,472 4,017 3,327 66.8
1978 ..................................... 222,095 15,735 32,094 16,944 8,617 20,748 18,585 16,218 13,052 22,673 23,239 34,189 222,095 191,960 25,886 4,249 3,333 65.5
1979 ..................................... 224,567 16,063 31,431 16,610 8,698 21,096 19,077 16,961 13,592 22,734 23,306 35,000 224,567 193,736 26,310 4,521 3,494 67.2
1980 ..................................... 227,255 16,458 31,095 16,140 8,713 21,380 19,697 17,754 14,080 22,774 23,314 35,849 227,255 195,208 26,784 5,263 3,612 68.4
1981 ..................................... 229,637 16,931 30,754 15,598 8,553 21,614 20,200 18,786 14,381 23,011 23,195 36,611 229,637 196,774 27,207 5,656 3,629 67.4
1982 ..................................... 231,996 17,298 30,614 15,041 8,425 21,587 20,753 18,808 15,599 23,478 22,965 37,429 231,996 198,321 27,636 6,039 3,681 67.3
1983 ..................................... 234,284 17,651 30,410 14,720 8,204 21,489 21,202 19,211 16,165 24,361 22,741 38,131 234,284 199,849 28,056 6,379 3,639 65.8
1984 ..................................... 236,477 17,830 30,238 14,704 7,818 21,328 21,535 19,696 16,932 25,077 22,476 38,843 236,477 201,290 28,457 6,730 3,669 65.4
1985 ..................................... 238,736 18,004 30,110 14,865 7,500 21,000 21,758 20,269 17,708 25,701 22,286 39,535 238,736 202,769 28,870 7,097 3,761 66.2
1986 ..................................... 241,107 18,154 30,351 14,797 7,322 20,411 22,005 20,773 18,722 26,274 22,162 40,136 241,107 204,326 29,303 7,478 3,757 65.4
1987 ..................................... 243,419 18,276 30,824 14,467 7,315 19,791 21,979 21,333 18,737 27,919 22,051 40,727 243,419 205,827 29,748 7,845 3,809 65.7
1988 ..................................... 245,807 18,456 31,406 13,982 7,480 19,184 21,877 21,798 19,140 29,150 22,033 41,301 245,807 207,377 30,202 8,228 3,910 67.3
1989 ..................................... 248,239 18,752 31,834 13,496 7,644 18,702 21,699 22,135 19,621 30,403 22,101 41,851 248,239 208,961 30,660 8,618 4,021 68.8
1990 ..................................... 249,415 18,874 32,000 13,312 7,697 19,131 21,229 21,907 19,976 31,608 21,840 41,842 4,179
1991 ..................................... 252,177 19,222 32,500 13,423 7,191 19,194 20,718 22,159 20,518 32,848 22,068 42,336 4,111
1
Data for 1790 through 1950 are from the decennial Census. These figures differ from the age data tabulated from
1900 to 1950 because of data calculation and timing differences.
2
Number of live births per 1,000 women, 15 to 44 years old.
3
Data are for white women only.
4
Total includes persons not identified by age.
5
Data for persons 5 to 14 years old.
6
Data for persons 15 to 19 years old.
7
Data included column in 5.
8
Includes persons 25 to 29 years old.
9
Data included in column 7.
10
Includes persons 35 to 39 years old.
11
Data included in column 9.
12
Excludes population (325,464) in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Population data for 1790 through 1959 include U.S. population overseas; data for later years are for U.S.
resident population only. Population data for 1790 through 1890 are from decennial censuses. Age data for later years
are estimates of population for July 1, but race data are from decennial censuses through 1950. Population data for
1990 and 1991 are consistent with the 1990 Census, as enumerated. Data for early years are for continental popu-
lation. Excludes Indians living in Indian Territory or reservations until 1890. Beginning in 1960, data include Alaska
and Hawaii. Beginning in 1959, birth data include Alaska. Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25,
United
States Population Estimates,
various years, and unpublished data;
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial
Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics,
Monthly Vital
Statistics Report
, various years. (This table was prepared October 1992.)
14 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 2.—School enrollment of 5– to 19–year-olds per 100 persons, by sex and race: 1850 to 1991
Year
Both sexes Male Female
Total White Black and
other races
1
Total White Black and
other races
1
Total White Black and
other races
1
1 2345678910
1850 .......................... 47.2 56.2 1.8 49.6 59.0 2.0 44.8 53.3 1.8
1860 .......................... 50.6 59.6 1.9 52.6 62.0 1.9 48.5 57.2 1.8
1870 .......................... 48.4 54.4 9.9 49.8 56.0 9.6 46.9 52.7 10.0
1880 .......................... 57.8 62.0 33.8 59.2 63.5 34.1 56.5 60.5 33.5
1890 .......................... 54.3 57.9 32.9 54.7 58.5 31.8 53.8 57.2 33.9
1900
2
........................ 50.5 53.6 31.1 50.1 53.4 29.4 50.9 53.9 32.8
1910
2
........................ 59.2 61.3 44.8 59.1 61.4 43.1 59.4 61.3 46.6
1920
2
........................ 64.3 65.7 53.5 64.1 65.6 52.5 64.5 65.8 54.5
1930
2,3
...................... 69.9 71.2 60.3 70.2 71.4 59.7 69.7 70.9 60.8
1940 .......................... 74.8 75.6 68.4 74.9 75.9 67.5 74.7 75.4 69.2
1950 .......................... 78.7 79.3 74.8 79.1 79.7 74.7 78.4 78.9 74.9
1954 .......................... 86.2 87.0 80.8 87.5 88.4 80.9 84.8 85.4 80.7
1955 .......................... 86.5 87.0 82.9 88.4 88.9 84.6 84.5 85.0 81.2
1956 .......................... 87.2 87.8 83.6 88.6 89.4 83.6 85.8 86.1 83.5
1957 .......................... 87.8 88.2 85.3 89.4 90.0 85.6 86.2 86.4 85.0
1958 .......................... 88.4 88.9 85.1 90.1 90.5 87.2 86.7 87.2 82.9
1959 .......................... 88.5 88.8 85.9 89.7 90.2 86.8 87.1 87.5 85.0
1960
4
........................ 88.6 89.0 86.1 90.0 90.6 86.6 87.1 87.3 85.7
1961 .......................... 88.5 88.9 86.3 90.2 90.5 87.7 86.9 87.2 84.9
1962 .......................... 89.1 89.6 86.3 90.8 91.3 87.6 87.4 87.8 85.0
1963 .......................... 89.6 89.8 88.0 91.1 91.5 88.7 88.0 88.1 87.3
1964 .......................... 89.6 89.8 88.4 91.1 91.4 89.2 88.1 88.2 87.6
1965 .......................... 89.6 89.8 88.5 91.0 91.2 89.8 88.3 88.5 87.2
1966 .......................... 89.7 89.9 88.5 91.2 91.5 89.9 88.2 88.4 87.2
1967 .......................... 90.5 90.8 88.6 91.9 92.2 89.8 89.0 89.3 87.4
1968 .......................... 90.8 91.0 89.4 92.2 92.5 90.5 89.3 89.5 88.4
1969 .......................... 90.9 91.1 89.5 92.1 92.5 90.0 89.5 89.7 88.9
1970 .......................... 90.6 90.8 89.4 91.6 91.9 89.6 89.6 89.7 89.1
1971 .......................... 90.9 90.9 90.8 91.9 92.0 91.3 89.9 89.8 90.3
1972 .......................... 90.0 90.0 90.1 91.0 91.0 90.9 89.0 89.0 89.3
1973 .......................... 89.3 89.4 88.9 90.3 90.4 90.1 88.2 88.3 87.7
1974 .......................... 89.4 89.2 90.1 90.1 89.9 90.9 88.6 88.5 89.3
1975 .......................... 89.9 89.8 90.4 90.7 90.6 91.1 89.1 89.0 89.6
1976 .......................... 89.6 89.4 90.8 90.4 90.1 91.9 88.9 88.7 89.6
1977 .......................... 89.6 89.3 91.1 90.3 89.9 91.9 89.0 88.8 90.2
1978 .......................... 89.2 89.0 90.6 89.8 89.5 91.6 88.6 88.4 89.7
1979 .......................... 89.0 88.8 90.2 89.7 89.4 91.5 88.3 88.1 88.8
1980 .......................... 89.1 88.9 90.4 89.5 89.3 90.4 88.8 88.4 90.4
1981 .......................... 89.6 89.4 90.5 90.0 89.8 91.4 89.2 89.1 89.7
1982 .......................... 89.6 89.5 90.0 90.0 89.9 90.6 89.1 89.1 89.4
1983 .......................... 90.3 90.3 90.3 90.4 90.3 90.8 90.2 90.2 89.8
1984 .......................... 90.3 90.3 90.2 90.7 90.6 90.9 89.9 90.0 89.5
1985 .......................... 91.0 91.1 90.7 91.2 91.2 91.4 90.7 90.9 89.9
1986 .......................... 91.4 91.3 91.6 92.0 91.8 92.6 90.8 90.8 90.7
1987 .......................... 91.7 91.5 92.3 92.4 92.2 93.2 90.9 90.8 91.4
1988 .......................... 91.8 91.7 92.2 92.1 91.6 94.5 91.5 91.4 91.9
1989 .......................... 91.8 91.7 92.1 92.1 92.1 92.2 91.5 91.3 92.0
1990 .......................... 92.6 92.5 92.8 92.9 92.6 93.8 92.2 92.3 91.8
1991 .......................... 93.1 93.1 93.2 93.4 93.1 94.2 92.8 93.0 92.2
1
For 1971 to 1990, black and other races is calculated by subtracting whites from
total.
2
Enrollment rates are for 5– to 20–year-olds.
3
Revised to include Mexicans as white persons.
4
Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NOTE.—Data for 1850 through 1950 are based on April 1 counts. Data for 1954 to
1991 are based on October counts.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics
of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
and Current Population Reports, Series
P-20,
School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics of Students,
various
years. (This table was prepared September 1992.)
15Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991
Year
Males and females, by age Males, by age Females, by age
Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122
Enrollment, in thousands
1940
2
......... 26,759 1,805 15,035 7,709 1,449 761 13,615 901 7,607 3,870 770 467 13,145 904 7,428 3,840 680 294
1945 ........... 25,515 2,833 14,747 6,956 668 311 12,660 1,423 7,456 3,475 192 114 12,855 1,410 7,291 3,481 476 197
1946 ........... 26,924 3,030 14,966 6,900 884 1,144 — 13,941 1,514 7,585 3,435 469 938 — 12,983 1,516 7,381 3,465 415 206
1947 ........... 27,746 3,069 15,302 6,737 1,007 1,183 448 14,635 1,549 7,781 3,364 587 947 407 13,111 1,520 7,521 3,373 420 236 41
1948 ........... 28,390 3,237 15,688 6,824 1,134 1,103 405 14,991 1,628 7,990 3,436 682 898 358 13,399 1,608 7,698 3,388 452 206 48
1949 ........... 29,283 3,487 16,374 6,778 1,028 1,041 576 15,489 1,807 8,330 3,447 593 827 487 13,794 1,679 8,045 3,331 435 215 89
1950 ........... 30,073 3,304 17,222 6,988 1,199 1,001
3
360 15,736 1,649 8,773 3,568 680 733
3
333 14,337 1,655 8,449 3,420 519 268
3
27
1951 ........... 30,466 3,196 17,946 7,216 974 846
3
288 15,774 1,648 9,148 3,614 534 602
3
228 14,692 1,548 8,798 3,602 440 244
3
60
1952 ........... 31,980 3,732 18,414 7,440 1,062 904 428 16,644 1,912 9,382 3,758 612 630 350 15,336 1,820 9,032 3,682 450 274 78
1953 ........... 32,796 4,038 18,525 7,538 1,180 981 534 16,974 2,035 9,405 3,844 642 636 414 15,822 2,003 9,120 3,695 538 346 120
1954 ........... 36,083 5,443 19,952 7,784 1,268 999 635 18,759 2,746 10,138 4,002 730 677 465 17,324 2,697 9,813 3,782 538 322 171
1955 ........... 37,426 5,520 21,028 7,970 1,232 1,010 667 19,573 2,821 10,725 4,096 752 686 494 17,853 2,700 10,304 3,873 480 324 173
1956 ........... 39,353 5,597 21,946 8,413 1,407 1,192 798 20,522 2,839 11,179 4,275 809 830 620 18,801 2,758 10,767 4,138 598 362 178
1957 ........... 41,166 5,829 22,705 9,067 1,409 1,336 820 21,509 2,963 11,584 4,646 780 897 639 19,657 2,866 11,121 4,421 629 439 181
1958 ........... 42,900 6,101 23,623 9,446 1,564 1,307 858 22,497 3,123 12,059 4,854 898 915 648 20,404 2,978 11,564 4,591 667 393 211
1959 ........... 44,370 6,222 24,626 9,839 1,601 1,283 799 23,192 3,158 12,556 5,041 918 892 627 21,178 3,064 12,070 4,798 683 391 172
1960 ........... 46,259 6,438 25,621 10,240 1,817 1,350 792 24,234 3,292 13,074 5,247 1,063 936 621 22,025 3,146 12,547 4,993 754 414 171
1961 ........... 47,708 6,638 25,801 11,163 1,952 1,468 686 24,944 3,402 13,167 5,705 1,170 989 511 22,764 3,236 12,634 5,458 782 479 175
1962 ........... 48,704 6,651 25,634 11,740 2,144 1,725 810 25,452 3,399 13,003 6,032 1,212 1,177 629 23,252 3,252 12,631 5,708 932 548 181
1963 ........... 50,356 6,768 26,203 12,517 2,061 2,014 793 26,243 3,440 13,280 6,402 1,180 1,365 576 24,113 3,328 12,923 6,115 881 649 217
1964 ........... 51,660 6,842 26,725 13,014 2,196 2,048 835 26,851 3,478 13,548 6,658 1,238 1,332 597 24,809 3,364 13,177 6,356 958 716 238
1965 ........... 53,769 6,995 27,450 13,033 2,930 2,360 1,001 28,059 3,555 13,932 6,613 1,689 1,559 711 25,710 3,440 13,518 6,420 1,241 801 290
1966 ........... 55,070 7,156 27,895 13,293 3,176 2,547 1,003 28,733 3,619 14,139 6,770 1,841 1,667 697 26,337 3,537 13,756 6,523 1,335 880 306
1967 ........... 56,511 7,352 28,286 13,638 3,026 3,002 1,207 29,368 3,719 14,342 6,975 1,637 1,862 832 27,144 3,632 13,944 6,662 1,390 1,139 375
1968 ........... 57,564 7,241 28,620 14,118 3,317 2,988 1,280 30,051 3,683 14,513 7,199 1,892 1,867 897 27,513 3,558 14,106 6,919 1,425 1,121 383
1969 ........... 58,718 7,155 28,844 14,452 3,351 3,380 1,536 30,583 3,623 14,620 7,374 1,886 2,070 1,011 28,135 3,532 14,223 7,078 1,465 1,310 526
1970 ........... 58,896 7,000 28,943 14,796 3,322 3,359 1,477 30,642 3,545 14,688 7,531 1,821 2,062 996 28,254 3,455 14,255 7,265 1,501 1,297 480
1971 ........... 59,630 6,818 28,823 15,144 3,557 3,606 1,682 31,114 3,450 14,633 7,720 1,939 2,217 1,155 28,515 3,368 14,190 7,424 1,617 1,389 527
1972 ........... 58,486 6,340 27,907 15,267 3,458 3,692 1,822 30,505 3,220 14,195 7,795 1,857 2,243 1,195 27,980 3,120 13,712 7,471 1,601 1,449 627
1973 ........... 57,703 6,228 27,289 15,354 3,284 3,659 1,889 30,012 3,162 13,884 7,845 1,783 2,118 1,220 27,689 3,066 13,405 7,509 1,500 1,540 669
1974 ........... 58,252 6,421 26,833 15,529 3,375 3,816 2,278 30,178 3,280 13,650 7,906 1,731 2,202 1,409 28,075 3,140 13,183 7,624 1,644 1,615 869
1975 ........... 58,867 6,590 26,104 15,698 3,765 4,121 2,589 30,502 3,346 13,267 8,042 1,940 2,334 1,573 28,365 3,244 12,837 7,657 1,825 1,786 1,016
1976 ........... 58,533 6,701 25,455 15,649 3,768 4,379 2,581 30,209 3,422 12,951 8,014 1,907 2,358 1,557 28,323 3,279 12,503 7,634 1,861 2,021 1,025
1977 ........... 58,078 6,433 25,052 15,529 3,762 4,390 2,912 29,831 3,246 12,751 7,934 1,919 2,401 1,580 28,246 3,187 12,301 7,594 1,844 1,988 1,332
1978 ........... 56,544 5,997 24,597 15,356 3,700 4,245 2,649 29,002 3,054 12,514 7,814 1,902 2,290 1,428 27,544 2,944 12,083 7,542 1,798 1,955 1,222
1979 ........... 55,717 5,846 24,145 14,970 3,693 4,290 2,773 28,459 3,003 12,285 7,680 1,874 2,229 1,388 27,258 2,843 11,860 7,290 1,819 2,061 1,385
1980 ........... 55,068 5,853 23,751 14,411 3,788 4,446 2,819 27,952 2,971 12,110 7,321 1,879 2,299 1,372 27,115 2,882 11,641 7,089 1,910 2,147 1,446
1981 ........... 56,057 5,955 24,025 14,373 3,976 4,700 3,028 28,577 3,051 12,253 7,309 2,018 2,467 1,479 27,482 2,904 11,771 7,065 1,958 2,234 1,550
1982 ........... 55,483 6,070 23,654 13,928 3,837 4,897 3,097 28,255 3,093 12,075 7,108 1,937 2,534 1,508 27,227 2,977 11,579 6,820 1,899 2,363 1,589
1983 ........... 55,120 6,214 23,278 13,791 3,938 4,720 3,179 28,230 3,166 11,887 7,021 1,956 2,582 1,618 26,891 3,048 11,391 6,770 1,983 2,138 1,561
1984 ........... 54,704 6,332 22,854 13,793 3,724 4,886 3,115 28,013 3,220 11,665 7,018 1,924 2,651 1,535 26,690 3,112 11,190 6,774 1,800 2,235 1,579
16 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991—Continued
Year
Males and females, by age Males, by age Females, by age
Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122
1985 ........... 55,214 6,697 22,849 14,016 3,716 4,776 3,160 28,087 3,422 11,666 7,186 1,852 2,467 1,494 27,125 3,274 11,182 6,830 1,864 2,309 1,666
1986 ........... 55,340 6,917 22,987 13,868 3,872 4,584 3,112 28,262 3,544 11,768 7,095 1,998 2,305 1,552 27,079 3,373 11,221 6,772 1,874 2,279 1,560
1987 ........... 55,943 6,956 23,521 13,532 3,982 4,792 3,160 28,547 3,580 12,057 6,928 2,047 2,469 1,466 27,396 3,376 11,463 6,603 1,936 2,324 1,694
1988 ........... 56,049 7,044 24,044 13,042 4,059 4,816 3,044 28,483 3,573 12,329 6,679 2,032 2,448 1,422 27,565 3,471 11,714 6,363 2,028 2,367 1,622
1989 ........... 56,338 6,990 24,431 12,747 4,125 4,837 3,208 28,539 3,551 12,509 6,583 2,061 2,339 1,496 27,798 3,439 11,922 6,164 2,063 2,498 1,712
1990 ........... 57,297 7,207 25,016 12,653 4,044 5,083 3,294 29,077 3,705 12,832 6,491 2,038 2,552 1,459 28,222 3,502 12,184 6,163 2,006 2,532 1,835
1991 ........... 58,208 7,178 25,445 12,789 3,969 5,406 3,422 29,612 3,655 13,033 6,584 1,976 2,710 1,653 28,596 3,522 12,412 6,205 1,993 2,695 1,769
Percent of population enrolled
1940
2
......... 57.7 43.0 95.0 79.3 28.9 6.6 58.6 42.3 94.8 78.9 30.8 8.2 56.9 43.7 95.2 79.7 26.9 5.0
1945 ........... 64.0 60.4 98.1 78.4 20.7 3.9 72.7 59.6 97.7 78.0 21.6 5.6 57.3 61.3 98.4 78.7 20.3 3.3
1946 ........... 61.1 62.0 98.3 79.6 22.5 10.1 64.9 60.8 98.0 79.2 29.0 17.7 57.5 63.3 98.5 80.1 18.0 3.4
1947 ........... 41.1 58.0 98.5 79.3 24.3 10.2 2.0 44.3 57.4 98.6 78.9 31.4 17.0 3.8 38.0 58.7 98.5 79.8 18.5 3.9 0.3
1948 ........... 41.5 56.0 98.1 81.8 26.9 9.7 1.8 44.8 55.1 98.3 81.9 34.3 16.5 3.3 38.4 56.8 98.0 81.7 20.3 3.4 0.4
1949 ........... 42.4 59.3 98.6 81.6 25.3 9.2 2.5 45.8 60.2 98.5 82.5 31.6 15.4 4.5 39.2 58.4 98.7 80.7 19.9 3.7 0.7
1950 ........... 51.6 58.2 98.7 83.4 29.7 9.2
3
3.0 54.8 56.8 98.7 84.4 35.7 14.3
3
5.9 48.4 59.5 98.7 82.3 24.3 4.6
3
0.4
1951 ........... 52.8 54.5 99.1 85.2 26.2 8.6
3
2.5 56.8 55.1 99.1 85.2 32.4 14.3
3
4.2 49.1 54.0 99.1 85.2 21.3 4.3
3
1.0
1952 ........... 45.4 54.7 98.8 85.2 28.8 9.7 1.8 49.4 54.8 98.7 85.4 37.2 16.9 3.2 41.9 54.6 98.9 85.0 22.1 4.9 0.6
1953 ........... 46.4 55.7 99.4 85.9 31.2 11.1 2.3 50.2 55.0 99.2 86.8 37.7 18.5 3.7 43.0 56.6 99.6 85.0 25.9 6.4 0.9
1954 ........... 50.0 77.3 99.4 87.1 32.4 11.2 2.7 54.0 76.3 99.2 88.7 40.6 19.1 4.2 46.3 78.3 99.6 85.4 25.4 6.0 1.4
1955 ........... 50.8 78.1 99.2 86.9 31.5 11.1 2.9 54.9 78.1 99.2 88.6 42.5 18.1 4.5 47.0 78.1 99.1 85.2 22.5 6.1 1.4
1956 ........... 52.3 77.6 99.3 88.2 35.4 12.8 3.5 56.3 77.1 99.1 89.1 45.1 20.6 5.7 48.7 78.2 99.4 87.3 27.4 6.8 1.5
1957 ........... 53.6 78.6 99.5 89.5 34.9 14.0 3.6 57.5 78.3 99.5 91.1 43.3 21.3 5.9 50.0 79.0 99.5 87.8 28.1 8.2 1.5
1958 ........... 54.8 80.4 99.5 89.2 37.6 13.4 3.8 58.7 80.6 99.5 90.7 47.5 21.0 6.0 51.0 80.2 99.4 87.6 29.4 7.3 1.8
1959 ........... 55.5 80.0 99.4 90.2 36.8 12.7 3.8 59.1 79.5 99.3 91.4 45.6 19.6 5.9 52.0 80.5 99.6 89.0 29.2 7.1 1.5
1960 ........... 56.4 80.7 99.5 90.3 38.4 13.1 3.6 60.0 80.8 99.5 91.3 47.8 19.9 5.9 52.8 80.6 99.6 89.2 30.0 7.4 1.7
1961 ........... 56.8 81.7 99.3 91.4 38.0 13.7 3.2 60.4 82.0 99.3 92.2 48.6 20.2 4.9 53.4 81.4 99.3 90.5 28.6 8.3 1.5
1962 ........... 57.8 82.2 99.3 92.0 41.8 15.6 3.8 61.7 82.6 99.2 93.7 51.2 23.4 6.2 54.0 81.7 99.4 90.3 33.7 9.1 1.6
1963 ........... 58.5 82.7 99.3 92.9 40.9 17.3 3.7 62.3 82.7 99.1 94.2 51.0 25.6 5.7 54.9 82.6 99.6 91.6 32.3 10.3 1.9
1964 ........... 58.7 83.3 99.0 93.1 41.6 16.8 3.9 62.3 83.4 98.8 94.4 50.9 23.8 5.9 55.3 83.2 99.2 91.8 33.7 10.9 2.1
1965 ........... 59.7 84.4 99.4 93.2 46.3 19.0 4.7 63.5 84.4 99.3 93.6 55.6 27.6 7.0 56.0 84.4 99.4 92.8 37.7 11.8 2.6
1966 ........... 60.0 85.1 99.3 93.7 47.2 19.9 4.6 64.1 84.5 99.2 94.4 57.8 29.2 6.8 56.1 85.7 99.5 92.9 37.7 12.4 2.7
1967 ........... 60.2 87.4 99.3 93.7 47.6 22.0 5.4 64.1 86.6 99.1 94.7 56.3 30.6 7.8 56.5 88.2 99.4 92.6 40.3 15.1 3.2
1968 ........... 60.1 87.6 99.1 94.2 50.4 21.4 5.5 64.3 87.3 98.9 95.0 60.4 30.5 8.1 56.1 88.0 99.3 93.4 41.3 14.3 3.2
1969 ........... 60.1 88.4 99.1 94.0 50.2 23.0 6.4 64.1 87.7 98.9 95.0 59.4 32.0 8.9 56.3 89.1 99.5 93.1 41.8 16.0 4.2
1970 ........... 59.0 89.5 99.2 94.1 47.7 21.5 6.0 62.6 88.9 99.0 94.8 54.4 29.3 8.4 55.5 90.2 99.4 93.4 41.6 15.2 3.8
1971 ........... 58.6 91.6 99.1 94.5 49.2 21.9 6.6 62.1 90.9 98.9 95.3 55.4 29.2 9.4 55.2 92.3 99.4 93.7 43.4 15.7 4.0
1972 ........... 56.9 91.9 99.2 93.3 46.3 21.6 6.8 60.1 91.7 99.1 94.0 51.2 27.8 9.2 53.8 92.2 99.3 92.6 41.8 16.0 4.5
1973 ........... 55.4 92.5 99.2 92.9 42.9 20.8 6.7 58.3 92.2 99.2 93.7 47.9 25.2 9.0 52.6 92.9 99.3 92.1 38.2 16.7 4.6
1974 ........... 55.3 94.2 99.3 92.9 43.1 21.4 7.8 57.9 94.4 99.2 93.3 45.8 25.8 10.0 52.7 93.9 99.5 92.5 40.7 17.3 5.8
17Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991—Continued
Year
Males and females, by age Males, by age Females, by age
Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34 Total, 5
to 34
1
5 and
67 to
13 14 to
17 18 and
19 20 to
24 25 to
34
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122
1975 ........... 55.1 94.7 99.3 93.6 46.9 22.4 8.5 57.7 94.4 99.0 94.6 49.9 26.4 10.7 52.6 95.1 99.6 92.6 44.2 18.7 6.5
1976 ........... 54.3 95.6 99.2 93.7 46.2 23.3 8.2 56.6 95.6 99.0 94.6 48.2 26.0 10.2 52.1 95.5 99.3 92.8 44.4 20.8 6.3
1977 ........... 53.6 95.8 99.4 93.6 46.2 22.9 9.0 55.6 94.7 99.3 94.3 48.4 25.9 10.0 51.7 96.9 99.5 93.0 44.0 20.0 8.0
1978 ........... 52.2 95.3 99.1 93.7 45.4 21.8 8.0 54.0 95.1 99.0 93.9 47.8 24.3 8.8 50.4 95.5 99.3 93.5 43.0 19.4 7.1
1979 ........... 51.2 95.8 99.2 93.6 45.0 21.7 8.1 52.8 96.3 99.0 94.5 46.6 23.3 8.3 49.7 95.2 99.4 92.6 43.4 20.2 7.8
1980 ........... 50.4 95.7 99.3 93.4 46.4 22.3 7.9 51.6 95.0 99.2 93.7 47.1 23.8 7.9 49.2 96.4 99.3 93.1 45.8 20.8 7.9
1981 ........... 49.7 94.0 99.2 94.1 49.0 22.5 8.0 51.0 94.2 99.1 94.3 50.5 24.4 8.0 48.4 93.8 99.4 93.9 47.5 20.8 8.0
1982 ........... 49.3 95.0 99.0 94.4 47.8 23.5 8.0 50.5 94.7 99.1 94.9 48.9 25.0 8.0 48.1 95.3 99.3 94.0 46.8 22.1 8.0
1983 ........... 49.0 95.5 99.2 95.0 50.4 22.7 8.1 50.4 95.1 99.1 95.1 50.5 25.5 8.4 47.6 95.8 99.3 94.9 50.3 20.1 7.8
1984 ........... 48.6 94.5 99.2 94.7 50.1 23.7 7.7 50.0 94.0 99.1 94.7 52.4 26.3 7.8 47.3 95.1 99.4 94.7 47.9 21.2 7.7
1985 ........... 48.9 96.1 99.2 94.9 51.6 24.0 7.7 50.1 95.3 99.2 95.4 52.2 25.6 7.5 47.8 97.0 99.3 94.5 51.0 22.5 8.0
1986 ........... 48.8 95.3 99.2 94.9 54.6 23.6 7.4 50.0 96.0 99.1 94.9 57.1 24.5 7.5 47.6 94.6 94.5 90.6 53.5 24.2 7.6
1987 ........... 49.3 95.2 99.5 95.0 55.6 25.5 7.5 50.5 95.7 99.7 95.3 57.9 27.2 7.0 48.1 94.6 99.4 94.5 53.4 24.0 7.9
1988 ........... 49.3 96.0 99.7 95.1 55.6 26.1 7.1 50.4 95.9 99.7 95.4 56.2 27.6 6.8 48.3 96.0 99.7 94.8 55.2 24.7 7.5
1989 ........... 49.7 95.2 99.3 95.7 56.0 27.0 7.5 50.4 95.1 99.2 96.1 56.6 26.9 7.1 48.9 95.2 99.4 95.3 55.4 27.1 7.9
1990 ........... 50.6 96.5 99.6 95.8 57.2 28.6 7.7 51.4 96.5 99.6 95.9 58.2 29.6 6.9 49.8 96.4 99.7 95.7 56.3 27.7 8.5
1991 ........... 51.4 95.4 99.6 96.0 59.6 30.2 8.1 52.3 95.0 99.8 96.4 59.8 31.0 7.9 50.5 95.8 99.5 95.6 59.4 29.4 8.3
1
Data for 1940 through 1946 are for ages 5–24. Data for 1950 and 1951 are for ages 5–29.
2
As of April 1.
3
25 to 29 years old.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Unless otherwise noted, data are for October.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial
Times to 1970;
and Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics
of Students,
various years. (This table was prepared September 1992.)
18 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991
Year
1
and race
Percent of male population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
males
Percent of female population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
females
Elementary school High school College Elementary school High school College
0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more 0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17
Total
1940
2,3
........................... 15.1 19.0 28.8 14.5 12.2 4.9 5.5 8.6 12.4 18.0 27.5 15.9 16.4 6.1 3.8 8.7
1950
2,3
........................... 12.2 16.9 21.4 16.9 18.2 7.0 7.3 9.0 10.0 15.8 20.3 17.9 23.2 7.7 5.2 9.6
1960
3
............................. 9.4 14.6 17.8 18.7 21.2 8.6 9.7 10.3 7.4 13.1 17.3 19.7 27.8 9.0 5.8 10.7
1962 ................................ 8.7 12.2 16.7 17.4 24.7 8.9 11.4 11.1 6.9 11.2 16.5 17.9 31.6 9.3 6.7 11.6
1964 ................................ 8.1 11.4 16.1 17.4 26.3 9.0 11.7 11.5 6.3 10.8 15.6 18.5 33.4 8.8 6.8 11.8
1966 ................................ 7.3 10.7 15.6 17.4 27.7 8.8 12.5 11.8 5.7 10.2 14.6 18.8 34.4 9.0 7.4 12.0
1967 ................................ 6.8 10.5 15.1 17.0 28.2 9.6 12.8 12.0 5.4 9.8 14.5 18.5 34.8 9.4 7.6 12.0
1968 ................................ 6.5 10.3 14.3 16.9 28.9 9.8 13.3 12.1 5.3 9.4 13.9 18.1 35.7 9.5 8.0 12.1
1969 ................................ 6.1 9.9 14.0 16.4 29.7 10.3 13.5 12.1 5.1 9.0 13.5 17.9 36.9 9.4 8.2 12.1
1970 ................................ 5.9 9.5 13.6 16.1 30.1 10.8 14.1 12.2 4.7 8.7 13.1 17.9 37.5 9.7 8.2 12.1
1971 ................................ 5.6 8.9 13.4 15.8 30.6 11.1 14.6 12.2 4.5 8.5 12.7 17.7 37.8 10.3 8.5 12.2
1972 ................................ 5.0 8.6 12.1 16.1 31.4 11.4 15.4 12.3 4.2 8.1 11.8 17.8 38.7 10.5 9.0 12.2
1973 ................................ 4.9 8.2 11.5 15.3 32.1 12.0 16.0 12.3 4.2 7.7 11.3 17.2 39.2 10.8 9.6 12.2
1974 ................................ 4.9 7.7 11.1 14.7 32.3 12.5 16.9 12.4 4.1 7.4 10.7 16.9 39.4 11.4 10.1 12.3
1975 ................................ 4.7 7.5 10.2 14.5 32.3 13.2 17.6 12.4 3.8 7.2 10.4 16.6 39.7 11.7 10.6 12.3
1976 ................................ 4.2 7.4 9.5 14.2 32.3 13.8 18.6 12.5 3.5 6.8 9.8 16.3 39.9 12.4 11.3 12.3
1977 ................................ 4.0 7.0 9.4 14.0 32.1 14.2 19.2 12.5 3.5 6.8 9.2 16.2 39.6 12.7 12.0 12.4
1978 ................................ 3.9 6.9 9.0 13.5 32.1 14.9 19.7 12.5 3.4 6.5 9.1 15.9 39.6 13.4 12.2 12.4
1979 ................................ 3.7 6.3 8.6 12.9 32.6 15.4 20.4 12.6 3.2 6.1 8.6 15.0 40.2 14.0 12.9 12.4
1980 ................................ 3.6 6.0 8.1 13.1 32.7 15.6 20.9 12.6 3.2 6.0 8.2 14.5 40.4 14.2 13.6 12.4
1981 ................................ 3.4 5.8 7.5 12.9 33.6 15.6 21.1 12.6 3.1 5.8 7.8 14.1 41.1 14.6 13.4 12.5
1982 ................................ 3.3 5.6 6.9 12.5 34.1 15.7 21.9 12.6 2.8 5.5 7.3 14.0 41.4 14.9 14.0 12.5
1983 ................................ 3.2 5.2 6.7 12.1 33.9 15.9 23.0 12.7 2.8 5.3 7.0 13.4 41.1 15.4 15.1 12.5
1984 ................................ 2.9 5.1 6.5 11.8 34.6 16.1 22.9 12.7 2.6 4.9 6.6 12.9 41.8 15.6 15.7 12.6
1985 ................................ 2.9 5.0 6.3 11.5 34.8 16.5 23.1 12.7 2.5 4.5 6.5 12.9 41.3 16.2 16.0 12.6
1986 ................................ 2.8 4.7 6.0 11.3 34.9 17.1 23.2 12.7 2.5 4.6 6.0 12.5 41.6 16.7 16.1 12.6
1987 ................................ 2.5 4.6 5.7 11.2 35.4 17.1 23.6 12.7 2.4 4.4 5.8 12.1 41.6 17.1 16.5 12.6
1988 ................................ 2.6 4.5 5.0 11.5 35.7 16.8 24.0 12.7 2.3 4.2 5.5 12.0 41.8 17.2 17.0 12.6
1989 ................................ 2.7 4.3 4.8 11.0 35.4 17.4 24.5 12.8 2.4 4.0 5.2 11.9 41.3 17.2 18.1 12.6
1990 ................................ 2.7 4.2 4.6 10.7 35.5 17.8 24.4 12.8 2.2 3.9 4.9 11.5 41.0 18.0 18.4 12.7
1991 ................................ 2.7 3.9 4.5 10.4 36.0 18.2 24.3 12.8 2.1 3.7 4.4 11.4 41.0 18.6 18.8 12.7
White
1940
2,3
........................... 12.0 18.1 30.5 15.1 13.0 5.3 5.9 8.7 9.8 16.7 29.0 16.5 17.5 6.5 4.0 8.8
1950
2,3
........................... 9.8 15.9 22.4 17.4 19.3 7.4 7.9 9.3 8.1 14.4 21.1 18.2 24.6 8.1 5.4 10.0
1960
3
............................. 7.4 13.7 18.4 18.9 22.2 9.1 10.3 10.6 6.0 11.9 17.8 19.6 29.2 9.5 6.0 11.0
1962 ................................ 6.9 11.4 17.0 17.3 25.8 9.4 12.2 11.6 5.6 10.3 16.8 17.4 33.1 9.9 7.0 12.0
1964 ................................ 6.5 10.5 16.5 17.1 27.6 9.4 12.3 11.9 5.2 9.7 15.9 18.1 34.8 9.2 7.1 12.0
1965 ................................ 6.1 10.3 16.4 17.0 28.2 9.3 12.7 12.0 4.9 9.3 15.4 18.2 35.6 9.3 7.3 12.1
1966 ................................ 5.7 10.1 15.8 17.1 28.8 9.2 13.3 12.0 4.7 9.1 14.9 18.2 35.9 9.4 7.7 12.1
1967 ................................ 5.3 9.7 15.4 16.8 29.1 10.0 13.7 12.1 4.4 8.8 14.9 18.0 36.2 9.7 7.9 12.1
1968 ................................ 4.9 9.5 14.7 16.6 29.9 10.3 14.1 12.1 4.3 8.5 14.1 17.7 37.2 9.9 8.2 12.1
1969 ................................ 4.8 9.1 14.3 16.1 30.6 10.8 14.3 12.2 4.2 8.1 13.7 17.3 38.5 9.8 8.4 12.2
1970 ................................ 4.5 8.8 13.9 15.6 30.9 11.3 15.0 12.2 3.9 7.8 13.4 17.3 39.0 10.1 8.6 12.2
19Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991—Continued
Year
1
and race
Percent of male population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
males
Percent of female population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
females
Elementary school High school College Elementary school High school College
0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more 0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17
1971 ................................ 4.4 8.1 13.7 15.3 31.3 11.6 15.5 12.3 3.8 7.5 12.9 17.0 39.2 10.7 8.9 12.2
1972 ................................ 3.9 7.8 12.4 15.6 32.2 12.0 16.2 12.3 3.4 7.1 12.0 17.0 40.2 10.9 9.4 12.3
1973 ................................ 3.9 7.5 11.7 14.8 32.8 12.5 16.8 12.4 3.4 6.9 11.5 16.5 40.7 11.1 9.9 12.3
1974 ................................ 3.7 7.0 11.3 14.3 33.0 12.9 17.7 12.4 3.3 6.6 11.0 16.1 40.8 11.7 10.6 12.3
1975 ................................ 3.6 6.8 10.5 14.0 33.1 13.6 18.4 12.5 3.0 6.4 10.6 15.9 41.1 12.1 11.0 12.3
1976 ................................ 3.2 6.6 9.7 13.8 32.9 14.2 19.6 12.5 2.9 6.2 9.8 15.6 41.2 12.8 11.6 12.4
1977 ................................ 3.1 6.3 9.6 13.5 32.7 14.6 20.2 12.5 2.8 6.1 9.3 15.3 40.9 13.2 12.4 12.4
1978 ................................ 2.9 6.2 9.2 13.0 32.7 15.2 20.7 12.6 2.8 5.9 9.2 15.0 40.9 13.7 12.6 12.4
1979 ................................ 2.8 5.7 8.7 12.4 33.1 15.8 21.4 12.6 2.6 5.5 8.6 14.1 41.6 14.3 13.3 12.5
1980 ................................ 2.7 5.5 8.3 12.5 33.1 15.8 22.1 12.6 2.5 5.3 8.4 13.7 41.6 14.5 14.0 12.5
1981 ................................ 2.7 5.3 7.7 12.3 34.1 15.7 22.2 12.6 2.5 5.0 8.1 13.3 42.4 14.9 13.8 12.5
1982 ................................ 2.6 5.1 7.1 11.9 34.5 15.8 23.0 12.7 2.3 4.9 7.4 13.1 42.7 15.2 14.4 12.5
1983 ................................ 2.6 4.8 6.8 11.5 34.3 16.1 24.0 12.7 2.3 4.8 7.1 12.7 42.2 15.7 15.4 12.6
1984 ................................ 2.3 4.7 6.6 11.1 35.1 16.3 23.9 12.7 2.1 4.4 6.6 12.2 42.8 15.8 16.0 12.6
1985 ................................ 2.3 4.6 6.3 10.8 35.3 16.7 24.0 12.7 2.1 4.1 6.6 12.1 42.4 16.4 16.3 12.6
1986 ................................ 2.4 4.2 6.1 10.8 35.2 17.3 24.0 12.8 2.1 4.2 6.1 11.8 42.5 16.9 16.4 12.6
1987 ................................ 2.1 4.2 5.8 10.6 35.6 17.2 24.5 12.8 2.0 4.0 6.0 11.4 42.6 17.3 16.9 12.6
1988 ................................ 2.1 4.1 5.1 10.9 35.9 16.9 25.0 12.8 1.9 3.8 5.4 11.2 42.8 17.6 17.3 12.6
1989 ................................ 2.2 3.9 4.8 10.4 35.7 17.6 25.4 12.8 1.8 3.5 5.2 11.2 42.3 17.4 18.5 12.7
1990 ................................ 2.2 3.9 4.7 10.1 35.7 18.0 25.3 12.8 1.8 3.5 5.0 10.8 41.9 18.1 19.0 12.7
1991 ................................ 2.2 3.6 4.5 9.9 36.1 18.4 25.4 12.8 1.8 3.3 4.5 10.5 41.8 18.8 19.3 12.7
Black and other races
1940
2,3
........................... 46.2 28.1 11.4 7.4 3.8 1.7 1.4 5.4 37.5 31.8 12.4 9.9 5.1 2.1 1.2 6.1
1950
2,3
........................... 36.9 27.1 11.3 12.1 7.5 2.9 2.1 6.4 28.6 29.3 12.5 14.8 9.2 3.2 2.4 7.2
1960
3
............................. 27.7 23.0 12.3 17.0 12.1 4.4 3.5 7.9 19.7 23.7 13.3 20.2 15.2 4.4 3.6 8.5
1962 ................................ 26.1 19.3 13.2 18.2 14.5 4.8 4.0 8.3 18.5 19.3 13.9 22.1 18.2 4.0 4.0 8.9
1964 ................................ 22.2 19.7 12.2 20.1 15.3 4.9 5.6 8.7 15.4 20.7 12.9 22.0 20.2 4.9 3.7 9.1
1966 ................................ 22.5 16.6 13.1 20.1 17.4 5.3 5.0 8.8 14.0 19.4 11.5 24.0 21.2 5.4 4.4 9.6
1967 ................................ 21.2 18.2 12.0 18.9 19.3 5.2 5.2 8.9 14.1 18.5 11.7 22.7 22.3 6.1 4.8 9.8
1968 ................................ 20.4 17.3 10.6 20.2 20.3 5.6 5.7 9.2 14.6 17.5 12.6 22.0 22.5 5.3 5.3 9.7
1969 ................................ 17.5 17.5 10.8 19.8 21.8 6.0 6.7 9.7 13.3 17.4 11.8 23.0 23.5 5.6 5.5 10.0
1970 ................................ 17.9 15.3 10.9 20.6 22.4 6.2 6.8 9.9 11.9 16.7 11.3 23.5 24.6 6.4 5.6 10.3
1971 ................................ 16.3 16.3 10.3 20.2 23.8 6.3 6.8 10.2 10.7 16.7 10.8 24.1 25.9 6.3 5.5 10.4
1972 ................................ 15.3 15.9 9.4 20.6 24.3 6.5 8.0 10.3 10.8 15.9 9.5 24.4 26.5 6.9 6.0 10.6
1973 ................................ 13.8 14.3 9.7 20.0 25.3 7.9 9.0 10.7 10.5 14.0 9.3 23.4 27.4 8.2 7.3 11.0
1974 ................................ 14.6 14.0 8.8 18.2 25.9 9.1 9.4 11.0 10.1 13.8 8.2 23.8 28.7 8.7 6.8 11.1
1975 ................................ 14.1 13.4 7.4 18.6 25.5 10.2 10.7 11.3 9.7 13.1 8.6 22.2 29.3 9.0 8.0 11.5
1976 ................................ 13.1 13.8 8.1 17.6 27.1 9.9 10.3 11.5 8.7 11.9 9.6 21.7 30.0 9.1 9.0 11.7
1977 ................................ 11.4 13.0 7.9 18.4 27.2 11.5 10.5 11.9 8.2 12.4 8.7 22.8 29.6 9.3 9.0 11.7
1978 ................................ 11.3 12.4 7.1 17.7 27.7 12.7 11.0 12.1 8.2 11.0 8.4 22.5 29.8 10.9 9.2 12.0
1979 ................................ 11.0 11.7 7.1 17.1 28.8 12.4 12.0 12.1 7.8 10.2 8.3 21.7 30.4 11.9 9.7 12.1
1980 ................................ 10.3 9.7 6.8 17.9 29.3 14.1 11.9 12.2 7.6 11.0 6.9 20.4 31.6 12.1 10.4 12.1
20 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991—Continued
Year
1
and race
Percent of male population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
males
Percent of female population completing — Median
school
years
com-
pleted,
females
Elementary school High school College Elementary school High school College
0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more 0–4
years 5–7
years 8 years 1–3
years 4 years 1–3
years 4 years
or more
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17
1981 ................................ 8.9 9.5 6.4 18.0 30.0 14.4 12.8 12.2 7.4 11.0 6.1 20.2 31.9 12.7 10.8 12.2
1982 ................................ 8.5 9.3 5.9 16.6 31.0 15.0 13.7 12.3 6.4 9.9 6.8 19.9 32.5 12.9 11.3 12.2
1983 ................................ 7.9 8.6 5.9 16.8 30.9 14.3 15.6 12.4 6.1 8.8 6.5 18.5 34.1 13.2 12.8 12.3
1984 ................................ 7.8 8.1 6.0 16.8 31.2 14.2 15.6 12.4 5.8 8.1 6.4 17.4 35.0 13.9 13.4 12.4
1985 ................................ 6.9 8.0 5.7 16.3 30.9 15.1 17.0 12.4 5.3 7.6 6.0 17.8 34.6 14.5 14.2 12.4
1986 ................................ 6.0 8.1 5.1 15.2 33.1 15.6 16.9 12.5 5.1 7.3 5.7 16.7 35.7 15.6 13.8 12.4
1987 ................................ 5.5 7.6 4.7 14.9 33.8 16.2 17.2 12.5 4.8 7.0 5.2 16.8 35.9 16.0 14.4 12.5
1988 ................................ 5.6 7.4 4.3 15.1 34.0 16.0 17.7 12.5 4.8 6.7 5.6 17.0 35.8 15.1 15.1 12.4
1989 ................................ 5.8 6.7 5.0 14.9 33.5 16.0 18.3 12.5 5.4 6.8 4.6 16.3 35.3 15.9 15.7 12.5
1990 ................................ 5.9 6.2 4.0 14.8 34.1 16.7 18.3 12.6 5.0 6.3 4.3 16.0 35.9 17.4 15.1 12.5
1991 ................................ 6.0 5.6 4.0 14.3 35.7 16.6 17.8 12.6 4.1 6.4 3.7 16.7 35.9 17.4 15.8 12.5
1
Unless otherwise indicated, surveys were conducted in March of the years shown.
2
Excludes population for whom school years were not reported.
3
As of April.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial
Times to 1970;
and Current Population Reports, Series P-20,
Educational Attainment in the United States,
various
years. (This table was prepared October 1992.)
21Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 5.—Median years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race
and sex: 1910 to 1991
Year
Age 25 and over 25 to 29 years old
Total Male Female Total Male Female
White Black
1
White Black
1
White Black
1
White Black
1
1 234567891011
1910
2
........................ 8.1 —————————
1920
2
........................ 8.2 —————————
1930
2
........................ 8.4 —————————
1940 .......................... 8.6 8.7 5.4 8.8 6.1 10.3 10.5 6.5 10.9 7.5
1950 .......................... 9.3 9.3 6.4 10.0 7.2 12.1 12.4 7.4 12.2 8.9
1960
3
........................ 10.5 10.6 7.9 11.0 8.5 12.3 12.4 10.5 12.3 11.1
1969 .......................... 12.1 12.2 9.4 12.2 9.9 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.5 12.1
1970 .......................... 12.2 12.2 9.6 12.2 10.2 12.6 12.7 12.1 12.5 12.2
1971 .......................... 12.2 12.3 9.9 12.2 10.3 12.6 12.8 12.1 12.6 12.3
1972 .......................... 12.2 12.3 10.1 12.3 10.5 12.7 12.8 12.3 12.6 12.4
1973 .......................... 12.3 12.4 10.3 12.3 10.8 12.7 12.8 12.3 12.6 12.4
1974 .......................... 12.3 12.4 10.5 12.3 10.9 12.8 12.9 12.5 12.7 12.4
1975 .......................... 12.4 12.5 10.7 12.3 11.1 12.8 13.0 12.5 12.7 12.5
1976 .......................... 12.4 12.5 10.8 12.4 11.4 12.9 13.2 12.5 12.8 12.5
1977 .......................... 12.4 12.5 11.3 12.4 11.4 12.9 13.2 12.6 12.8 12.5
1978 .......................... 12.4 12.6 11.7 12.4 11.7 12.9 13.3 12.7 12.8 12.6
1979 .......................... 12.5 12.6 11.9 12.5 11.9 12.9 13.2 12.6 12.9 12.6
1980 .......................... 12.5 12.6 12.0 12.5 12.0 12.9 13.0 12.6 12.8 12.6
1981 .......................... 12.5 12.6 12.1 12.5 12.1 12.8 12.9 12.6 12.8 12.6
1982 .......................... 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.5 12.1 12.8 12.9 12.7 12.8 12.7
1983 .......................... 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.6 12.2 12.9 12.9 12.6 12.8 12.6
1984 .......................... 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.6 12.3 12.8 12.9 12.6 12.9 12.7
1985 .......................... 12.6 12.7 12.3 12.6 12.3 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1986 .......................... 12.6 12.8 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1987 .......................... 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1988 .......................... 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.6
1989 .......................... 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.7 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1990 .......................... 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.7 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1991 .......................... 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.7 12.5 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7
1
Data for years 1940 through 1960 include persons of ‘‘other’’ races.
2
Estimates based on retrojection, by the Bureau of the Census, of 1940 census data
on education by age.
3
Denotes first year in which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Data for 1940, 1950, and 1960 are for April 1. Data for later years are as
of March.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics
of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
Current Population Series, P-20,
Edu-
cational Attainment of the United States Population,
various years; and ‘‘Education of the
American Population,’’ by John K. Folger and Charles B. Nam. (This table was prepared
February 1998.)
Table 6.—Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate,
1
by race and nativity:
1870 to 1979
Year Total White Black and other
Total Native Foreign born
1 23456
1870 .............................. 20.0 11.5 — — 79.9
1880 .............................. 17.0 9.4 8.7 12.0 70.0
1890 .............................. 13.3 7.7 6.2 13.1 56.8
1900 .............................. 10.7 6.2 4.6 12.9 44.5
1910 .............................. 7.7 5.0 3.0 12.7 30.5
1920 .............................. 6.0 4.0 2.0 13.1 23.0
1930 .............................. 4.3 3.0 1.6 10.8 16.4
1940 .............................. 2.9 2.0 1.1 9.0 11.5
1947 .............................. 2.7 1.8 11.0
1950 .............................. 3.2 ————
1952 .............................. 2.5 1.8 10.2
1959 .............................. 2.2 1.6 7.5
1969 .............................. 1.0 0.7
2
3.6
1979 .............................. 0.6 0.4
2
1.6
1
Persons are counted as illiterate if they cannot read or write in any language.
2
Based on black population only.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics
of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
and Current Population Reports, Series
P-23,
Ancestry and Language in the United States: November 1979.
(This table was pre-
pared September 1992.)
22 Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 7.—Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of school
completed: 1939 to 1991
Year
Males
Elementary school High school College
Less than 8
years 8 years 1 to 3 years 4 years 1 to 3 years 4 or more years 4 years only 5 or more years
1 23456789
Current dollars
1939 ...................................... — — $1,379 $1,661 $1,931 $2,607 — —
1946 ...................................... $1,738 $2,327 2,449 2,939 3,654 4,527
1949 ...................................... 2,062 2,829 3,226 3,784 4,423 6,179
1956 ...................................... 2,574 3,631 4,367 5,183 5,997 7,877
1958 ...................................... 2,530 3,677 4,452 5,257 6,272 8,643 $7,565 $9,178
1961 ...................................... 2,998 4,206 5,161 5,946 7,348 9,817 9,342 9,987
1963 ...................................... 3,078 4,410 5,348 6,557 7,633 9,811 9,392 10,353
1964 ...................................... 3,298 4,520 5,653 6,738 7,907 10,284 9,757 11,004
1966 ...................................... 3,520 4,867 6,294 7,494 8,783 11,739 11,135 12,563
1967 ...................................... 3,540 5,002 6,258 7,515 8,713 11,753 11,022 12,639
1968 ...................................... 4,135 5,689 6,454 7,688 8,890 11,851 11,086 12,794
1969 ...................................... 4,679 6,170 7,063 8,313 9,553 12,644 12,111 13,274
1970 ...................................... 4,948 6,674 7,575 8,998 10,554 14,018 13,434 14,727
1971 ...................................... 5,175 6,901 7,941 9,321 10,942 14,563 13,634 15,687
1972 ...................................... 5,436 7,088 8,273 9,741 11,205 15,017 14,192 15,983
1973 ...................................... 6,101 7,729 8,755 10,591 11,934 15,993 15,189 16,966
1974 ...................................... 6,422 8,559 9,526 11,408 12,640 16,769 15,859 17,817
1975 ...................................... 6,581 8,604 10,019 11,983 13,317 16,996 16,194 17,912
1976 ...................................... 6,673 8,957 9,920 12,559 14,104 18,750 17,599 20,141
1977 ...................................... 7,306 9,679 10,690 13,334 14,674 20,114 18,857 21,553
1978 ...................................... 7,841 10,131 11,400 14,312 15,728 21,464 20,056 23,103
1979 ...................................... 8,347 10,991 12,361 15,440 16,781 22,922 21,669 24,343
1980 ...................................... 8,757 12,050 12,956 16,657 18,232 24,417 22,949 26,065
1981 ...................................... 9,263 12,350 13,578 17,496 19,362 25,816 24,545 27,313
1982 ...................................... 10,151 13,214 14,362 18,468 20,889 28,896 26,612 31,434
1983 ...................................... 9,593 13,124 14,131 18,750 21,212 30,489 28,058 33,240
1984 ...................................... 9,944 13,451 14,529 19,289 22,219 31,969 29,530 34,731
1985 ...................................... 10,832 14,049 15,479 20,763 23,334 34,992 32,266 38,211
1986 ...................................... 10,401 14,193 15,722 21,265 25,046 36,883 33,793 40,732
1987 ...................................... 11,078 14,756 16,606 21,848 26,197 38,627 35,454 42,414
1988 ...................................... 12,184 14,787 17,350 22,747 27,383 39,241 35,800 43,487
1989 ...................................... 12,063 16,017 17,191 23,855 28,050 41,484 37,648 46,189
1990 ...................................... 12,446 15,754 17,331 24,940 29,792 44,257 40,384 49,085
1991 ...................................... 12,582 15,525 17,702 24,737 30,650 44,485 40,750 49,259
Constant 1991 dollars
1939 ...................................... — $13,512 $16,275 $18,921 $25,545
1946 ...................................... $12,139 $16,253 17,105 20,528 25,522 31,619
1949 ...................................... 11,800 16,189 18,461 21,655 25,311 35,360
1956 ...................................... 12,889 18,182 21,867 25,953 30,029 39,443
1958 ...................................... 11,923 17,329 20,981 24,775 29,559 40,733 $35,652 $43,254
1961 ...................................... 13,656 19,159 23,509 27,085 33,471 44,718 42,555 45,493
1963 ...................................... 13,700 19,629 23,804 29,185 33,974 43,669 41,804 46,081
1964 ...................................... 14,490 19,859 24,837 29,604 34,740 45,183 42,868 48,347
1966 ...................................... 14,797 20,459 26,458 31,503 36,921 49,347 46,808 52,811
1967 ...................................... 14,436 20,397 25,519 30,645 35,530 47,927 44,946 51,540
1968 ...................................... 16,184 22,266 25,260 30,089 34,794 46,382 43,388 50,073
1969 ...................................... 17,365 22,898 26,212 30,851 35,453 46,924 44,946 49,262
1970 ...................................... 17,369 23,428 26,591 31,586 37,048 49,208 47,157 51,696
1971 ...................................... 17,403 23,208 26,705 31,346 36,798 48,975 45,851 52,755
1972 ...................................... 17,713 23,095 26,957 31,740 36,510 48,931 46,243 52,079
1973 ...................................... 18,715 23,709 26,857 32,489 36,608 49,060 46,593 52,044
1974 ...................................... 17,742 23,646 26,317 31,517 34,920 46,327 43,813 49,223
1975 ...................................... 16,660 21,782 25,364 30,336 33,713 43,027 40,997 45,346
1976 ...................................... 15,973 21,440 23,745 30,062 33,760 44,881 42,126 48,211
1977 ...................................... 16,420 21,754 24,026 29,968 32,980 45,207 42,382 48,441
1978 ...................................... 16,380 21,163 23,814 29,897 32,855 44,837 41,896 48,261
1979 ...................................... 15,659 20,619 23,190 28,966 31,482 43,002 40,652 45,668
1980 ...................................... 14,475 19,918 21,415 27,533 30,136 40,359 37,933 43,083
1981 ...................................... 13,879 18,505 20,345 26,215 29,011 38,681 36,777 40,924
1982 ...................................... 14,327 18,650 20,271 26,066 29,483 40,784 37,560 44,366
1983 ...................................... 13,118 17,947 19,324 25,640 29,007 41,693 38,368 45,455
1984 ...................................... 13,035 17,633 19,046 25,285 29,126 41,907 38,710 45,528
1985 ...................................... 13,711 17,783 19,593 26,282 29,536 44,293 40,842 48,367
1986 ...................................... 12,925 17,638 19,538 26,426 31,125 45,835 41,995 50,618
1987 ...................................... 13,282 17,692 19,910 26,195 31,409 46,312 42,507 50,852
1988 ...................................... 14,028 17,024 19,975 26,189 31,526 45,179 41,217 50,067
1989 ...................................... 13,250 17,593 18,882 26,202 30,810 45,565 41,352 50,733
1990 ...................................... 12,970 16,417 18,060 25,990 31,046 46,119 42,083 51,151
1991 ...................................... 12,582 15,525 17,702 24,737 30,650 44,485 40,750 49,259
23Education Characteristics of the Population
Table 7.—Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of school
completed: 1939 to 1991—Continued
Year
Females
Elementary school High school College
Less than 8
years 8 years 1 to 3 years 4 years 1 to 3 years 4 or more years 4 years only 5 or more years
1 1011121314151617
Current dollars
1939 ...................................... ————————
1946 ...................................... ————————
1949 ...................................... ————————
1956 ...................................... ————————
1958 ...................................... ————————
1961 ...................................... ————————
1963 ...................................... ————————
1964 ...................................... ————————
1966 ...................................... ————————
1967 ...................................... ————————
1968 ...................................... $1,039 $1,323 $1,550 $1,879 $2,297 $3,862 $3,210 $5,667
1969 ...................................... 1,205 1,515 1,701 2,099 2,468 4,063 3,266 5,977
1970 ...................................... 1,274 1,621 1,825 2,280 2,753 4,610 3,824 6,479
1971 ...................................... 1,406 1,731 1,905 2,452 3,006 5,056 4,241 6,900
1972 ...................................... 1,458 1,766 2,075 2,577 3,087 5,310 4,450 7,250
1973 ...................................... 1,559 1,916 2,219 2,819 3,285 5,502 4,587 7,544
1974 ...................................... 1,792 2,058 2,395 3,026 3,761 5,807 4,909 7,682
1975 ...................................... 1,999 2,315 2,709 3,314 4,133 6,313 5,371 8,175
1976 ...................................... 2,054 2,456 2,835 3,611 4,548 7,213 6,086 9,381
1977 ...................................... 2,225 2,725 3,057 4,044 4,858 7,616 6,449 9,894
1978 ...................................... 2,448 3,082 3,330 4,455 5,514 8,114 6,834 10,412
1979 ...................................... 2,840 3,250 3,718 5,063 6,181 9,007 7,601 11,389
1980 ...................................... 2,926 3,639 4,228 5,844 7,325 10,305 8,848 12,798
1981 ...................................... 3,314 4,025 4,562 6,535 8,389 11,500 10,066 14,013
1982 ...................................... 3,650 4,554 4,848 7,119 9,055 12,673 10,912 15,543
1983 ...................................... 3,610 4,662 5,090 7,682 9,707 14,113 12,243 17,061
1984 ...................................... 3,876 4,991 5,400 8,122 10,440 15,372 13,237 18,813
1985 ...................................... 4,278 5,408 5,991 8,788 11,394 16,743 14,517 20,366
1986 ...................................... 4,230 5,314 6,129 9,333 12,212 17,979 15,739 21,721
1987 ...................................... 4,526 5,268 6,380 9,751 12,746 19,365 17,197 22,939
1988 ...................................... 4,685 5,727 6,749 10,419 14,021 20,375 17,982 24,237
1989 ...................................... 5,026 5,577 6,952 11,114 15,159 21,827 19,570 25,462
1990 ...................................... 5,224 6,201 7,575 11,791 15,681 23,478 20,837 27,843
1991 ...................................... 5,583 6,298 7,987 12,429 16,310 24,684 21,859 29,466
Constant 1991 dollars
1939 ...................................... ————————
1946 ...................................... ————————
1949 ...................................... ————————
1956 ...................................... ————————
1958 ...................................... ————————
1961 ...................................... ————————
1963 ...................................... ————————
1964 ...................................... ————————
1966 ...................................... ————————
1967 ...................................... ————————
1968 ...................................... $4,066 $5,178 $6,066 $7,354 $8,990 $15,115 $12,563 $22,179
1969 ...................................... 4,472 5,622 6,313 7,790 9,159 15,078 12,121 22,182
1970 ...................................... 4,472 5,690 6,406 8,004 9,664 16,183 13,423 22,743
1971 ...................................... 4,728 5,821 6,406 8,246 10,109 17,003 14,262 23,204
1972 ...................................... 4,751 5,754 6,761 8,397 10,059 17,302 14,500 23,623
1973 ...................................... 4,782 5,877 6,807 8,647 10,077 16,878 14,071 23,142
1974 ...................................... 4,951 5,686 6,617 8,360 10,390 16,043 13,562 21,223
1975 ...................................... 5,061 5,861 6,858 8,390 10,463 15,982 13,597 20,696
1976 ...................................... 4,917 5,879 6,786 8,644 10,886 17,266 14,568 22,455
1977 ...................................... 5,001 6,125 6,871 9,089 10,918 17,117 14,494 22,237
1978 ...................................... 5,114 6,438 6,956 9,306 11,519 16,950 14,276 21,750
1979 ...................................... 5,328 6,097 6,975 9,498 11,596 16,897 14,260 21,366
1980 ...................................... 4,836 6,015 6,989 9,660 12,108 17,033 14,625 21,154
1981 ...................................... 4,966 6,031 6,835 9,792 12,570 17,231 15,082 20,996
1982 ...................................... 5,152 6,428 6,842 10,048 12,780 17,887 15,401 21,937
1983 ...................................... 4,937 6,375 6,960 10,505 13,274 19,299 16,742 23,330
1984 ...................................... 5,081 6,543 7,079 10,647 13,686 20,151 17,352 24,662
1985 ...................................... 5,415 6,845 7,583 11,124 14,423 21,193 18,376 25,779
1986 ...................................... 5,257 6,604 7,617 11,598 15,176 22,343 19,559 26,993
1987 ...................................... 5,426 6,316 7,649 11,691 15,282 23,218 20,618 27,503
1988 ...................................... 5,394 6,594 7,770 11,996 16,143 23,458 20,703 27,904
1989 ...................................... 5,520 6,126 7,636 12,207 16,650 23,974 21,495 27,967
1990 ...................................... 5,444 6,462 7,894 12,287 16,341 24,466 21,714 29,015
1991 ...................................... 5,583 6,298 7,987 12,429 16,310 24,684 21,859 29,466
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics
of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
Current Population Reports,
Money Income
of Families and Persons in the United States,
and unpublished data. (This table was pre-
pared September 1992.)
25
Chapter 2
Elementary and Secondary Education
William C. Sonnenberg
Several cities in the colonies, particularly in Massa-
chusetts, set up a variety of elementary schools.
These efforts were often modest, taught by house-
wives, clergy, or missionaries in their spare time, with
sparse resources. Boston, and several other large
cities, did provide some structure and some re-
sources for their schools. But no colony centralized
control of education. As towns prospered, the need
for public education standards became a concern of
colonial governments. Thus, in 1642, the General
Court of Massachusetts enacted into law a con-
demnation of parents and masters who did not take
steps to guarantee that their children could ‘‘read &
understand the principles of religion & the capitall
lawes of this country.’’ It is important to note that the
responsibility for providing education was placed on
parents rather than borne by the government.
Perhaps in response to a lack of direction in the
above legislation, albeit a clear expression of con-
cern, Massachusetts enacted provisions in 1647 for
the creation of grammar schools in any town which
attained a population level of 100 families or house-
holds. The stated aim of these schools was to ‘‘in-
struct youth so farr as they shall be fited for y univer-
sity Harvard.’’ These Massachusetts laws served as
models for other colonies.
Boston also took the lead in establishing the first
public secondary school, Latin Grammar School, in
1635. This institution focused primarily on college
preparatory studies, such as mathematics and an-
cient languages. In subsequent years, the concept
spread throughout the Massachusetts colony, espe-
cially with the acts of the legislature in 1647.
The Northwest Ordinances of 1787 represent a
significant federal step in providing education. This
legislation authorized grants of land for the establish-
ment of educational institutions. The Continental
Congress stated, ‘‘Religion, morality and knowledge
being necessary to good government and the happi-
ness of mankind, schools and the means of edu-
cation shall forever be encouraged.’’
Other governmental efforts also followed independ-
ence, as many local legislatures moved to establish
the concept of a uniform public system of elementary
education. This was necessary to guarantee such es-
sentials as a common language and technical and
agricultural training. In 1805, New York City adopted
a concept known as monitorial schools which were
designed to provide mass education to large num-
bers of children. However, success was limited when
teachers had to try to teach hundreds of children at
once using better students as helpers. But the stage
was set for what has been termed the ‘‘educational
awakening,’’ a movement strongly influenced by Hor-
ace Mann. As Secretary of the State Board of Edu-
cation of Massachusetts, he presided over the enact-
ment of the first compulsory elementary school at-
tendance law in 1852. Although significant progress
was made in providing formal education to residents
in some states, such as Massachusetts, there were
wide variations in the availability of education serv-
ices.
From colonial times, America has recognized the
value, both individually and collectively, of a basic
education. By the time of the first national surveys of
education statistics in 1869–70, millions of young
people were enrolled in public elementary schools.
Statistical Trends
Enrollment
The most fundamental measure of the scope of an
education system is a measure of enrollment. Over
the period covered in this report, total enrollment in
U.S. public elementary and secondary schools rose
from 7.6 million in 1870–71 to 41.2 million in 1990–
91. This increase may be attributed to growth in the
population, as well as to increases in the proportion
of young people attending school. Detailed informa-
tion on the increases in the enrollment rates can be
found in chapter 1. The pattern of the rise in public
school enrollment has not been consistent. Enroll-
ment increases have occurred at different rates, and
there have been two periods of enrollment declines:
the first, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1940s; and
the second, from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s
(table 9).
Public school enrollment expanded rapidly during
the late 19th century, with a particularly large in-
crease of 44 percent during the 1870s. The in-
creases of the 1870s and 1880s were fueled by in-
creases in the school-age population and increases
26 Elementary and Secondary Education
in the enrollment ratios. Some of the apparent in-
crease, particularly during the 1870s, may be due to
improvements in the relatively primitive data collec-
tion systems. Enrollment growth continued in the
1890s and the early 20th century, primarily driven by
population increases. Between 1889–90 and 1909–
10, the ratio of enrollment to the number of 5- to 17-
year-olds rose only slightly, from 77 percent to 81
percent. Enrollment growth accelerated again be-
tween 1909–10 and 1919–20, especially at the sec-
ondary level. Between 1909–10 and 1919–20, the
ratio of high school enrollment to the 14- to 17-year-
old population rose from 14 percent to 31 percent.
The enrollment ratio for the younger 5- to 13-year-old
children was over 100 percent, indicating both the
high enrollment rate for the age group and the num-
ber of older students attending below ninth grade.
Enrollment growth continued during the 1920s aided
by further increases in the high school enrollment ra-
tios. During the mid 1930s, changes in enrollment ra-
tios moderated and enrollments began to decline as
the number of 5- to 13-year-olds declined. Between
1933–34 and 1944–45, public school enrollment fell
by 12 percent.
After World War II, public school enrollment began
increasing again. The 1950s were a period of dy-
namic growth, with public school enrollment jumping
by 44 percent. The enrollment increase was driven
by the entry of the ‘‘baby boomers’’ into elementary
schools, as well as by the increase in the high school
enrollment ratio of 14- to 17-year-olds. During the
rush to accommodate the growing numbers of stu-
dents during this period, school buildings were con-
structed in expanding suburban areas, and teacher
demand rose dramatically. Enrollment increases con-
tinued through the 1960s and until 1971. Since 1971,
enrollment ratios have been relatively stable, show-
ing an increase only at the elementary level in the
1980s. The enrollment declines after 1971 were due
to a decline in births following the end of the ‘‘baby
boom.’’ Between 1971 and 1984, public school en-
rollment declined by 15 percent. The increase in en-
rollment from 1985 to 1992 has been driven by in-
creases in population and, to a smaller extent, by
rises in the enrollment rate of prekindergarten and
kindergarten pupils.
Figure 6.--Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools,
by level: 1869-70 to 1992-93
Year ending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
50
40
30
20
10
0
Millions
Total
Elementary
Secondary
1993
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Digest of Education Statistics,
various issues. and
27Elementary and Secondary Education
Figure 7.--Elementary and secondary enrollment as a percentage of
5- to 17-year-olds, by level: 1869-70 to fall 1991
Year ending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1992
Elementary enrollment/5- to 13-year-olds
Secondary enrollment/
Percent
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Elementary and secondary
5- to 17-year-olds
enrollment/
14- to 17-year olds
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Digest of Education Statistics,
various issues. and
School Attendance
Enrollment figures show the progress made in en-
couraging students to participate at the secondary
education level, but they do not fully illustrate the
progress that has been made in the amount of edu-
cation provided to students. The average number of
days that students attended school increased sub-
stantially during the late 19th century and early 20th
century (table 14).
In 1869–70, the school year was only about 132
days long compared to about 180 today. Not only
was the year much shorter, but the attendance rate
of 59 percent was much lower than the 90 percent
figure calculated for 1979–80. The net result of these
factors is that students in 1869–70 attended school
for an average of only 78 days compared to 161
days in 1979–80. In the early years, students were
likely to take time off to help with harvests or other
farm work. Also, the less advanced state of medicine
and hygiene left students more susceptible to long-
term illnesses that prevented school attendance. The
length of the school year and the average number of
days attended rose slowly during the late 19th cen-
tury, but rapid increases did not occur until the
1920s. Between 1919–20 and 1929–30, the average
number of days attended rose from 121 to 143. Dur-
ing the 1930s, the average number of days attended
increased to 152, and the school year lengthened to
175 days, almost as long as today. Since then the
changes have been relatively small. The increase in
the number of school days for the average student
during the early 20th century meant that a more ex-
tensive instructional program could be provided.
28 Elementary and Secondary Education
Figure 8.--Average number of days per year attended
by public school students: 1869-70 to 1980-81
Year ending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1981
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Number of
days per
year
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Digest of Education Statistics,
various issues. and
Pupil/Teacher Ratios
As might be expected, the increases in enrollment
were mirrored by rises in the number of teachers em-
ployed in public school systems. During the late 19th
and early 20th centuries, the number of teachers
rose at almost exactly the same rate as enrollment
(table 14). A steady pupil/teacher ratio of about 34 to
37 resulted. During the mid 1920s, a long-term pat-
tern developed of a slowly falling pupil/teacher ratio.
This slow movement picked up in the 1960s, when
the pupil/teacher ratio fell from 27 to 23. During the
1970s, the number of teachers remained relatively
steady during the enrollment decline, causing the
pupil/teacher ratio to drop to 18 in 1984-85. By 1990,
2.4 million Americans, an all-time high, were elemen-
tary-secondary teachers (nearly one percent of the
population). More complex and diverse school offer-
ings, including special education and enrichment pro-
grams, required increasing numbers of specialized
teachers.
Over the past 120 years, there have been several
shifts in the proportion of female teachers. During the
late 19th and early 20th centuries, the proportion of
female teachers increased steadily, from 57 percent
in 1879–80 to 86 percent in 1919–20. This shift in
the composition of the teacher force was brought
about by the extensive hiring of women teachers to
provide instruction for the rising enrollment and the
22 percent decline in the number of male teachers.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the proportion of fe-
male teachers dipped to a slightly lower level, before
returning to the 85 percent level during World War II,
when many young men left their positions to enter
the military. After the war, the proportion of female
teachers began falling, as the number of male teach-
ers increased more rapidly than the number of fe-
male teachers. In 1959–60, about 71 percent of the
teachers were women. After dipping to a slightly
lower proportion during the late 1960s and 1970s,
the proportion of women returned to the 1959–60
level during the late 1980s (table 14).
29Elementary and Secondary Education
Figure 9.--Pupil/teacher ratio in public elementary and secondary
schools: 1869-70 to fall 1990
Year ending
Pupil/teacher
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
ratio
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Statistics,
1991
Historical
and U.S. Department
Digest of Education
various issues.
Figure 10.--Percentage of elementary and secondary school teachers,
by sex: 1869-70 to fall 1990
Year ending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Percent
1991
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Digest of Education Statistics,
various issues. and
30 Elementary and Secondary Education
Student Assessment
The overall trends in science, mathematics, and
reading suggest few changes in levels of educational
achievement across the two decades covered by the
National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP). Although students appear to be mastering
the lower-level skills and virtually all students appear
to have grasped mathematics, science, and reading
fundamentals, few demonstrate competency with
more sophisticated materials and tasks.
In 1990, science achievement was no better at
ages 9 and 13 and somewhat worse at age 17 than
in 1969–70 (table 17). At all three ages, across the
20-year span, performance declined significantly in
the 1970s, but improved significantly during the
1980s. At ages 9 and 13, these recent gains re-
turned performance to levels observed two decades
earlier. However, at age 17, average proficiency in
1990 remained significantly below that in 1969. In
addition, science proficiency did not improve during
the 1980s for the lower-performing 25 percent of the
17-year-olds.
Average mathematics proficiency improved be-
tween 1973 and 1990 at ages 9 and 13. For 17-year-
olds, statistically significant declines in performance
between 1973 and 1982 were followed by recovery
during the 1980s to the original level of performance.
At all three ages, students’ average proficiency was
significantly higher in 1990 than in 1978.
The reading achievement of 9- and 13-year-olds in
1990 was unchanged from 1971, but 17-year-olds
were reading better. However, the pattern at age 9
is the reverse of that found for science and for math-
ematics at age 17. Significant improvement during
the 1970s has been all but eradicated by commensu-
rate declines during the 1980s. Little change oc-
curred for 13-year-olds. Seventeen-year-olds showed
relatively steady progress across the assessments.
The call for improved education and equal oppor-
tunity for all students is at the heart of many edu-
cation reform recommendations. Across the NAEP
assessments, both black and Hispanic students
have, on average, demonstrated significantly lower
proficiency than white students.
The 1990 results show that white students consist-
ently had higher average achievement than their
black and Hispanic counterparts at all three ages in
all three curriculum areas. The trends, however, do
indicate a lessening of the achievement gap. For ex-
ample, between 1969–70 and 1990, science pro-
ficiency has remained stable for white 9- and 13-
year-olds but decreased at age 17. In contrast, black
and Hispanic students showed gains at ages 9 and
13, and these students maintained their initial levels
of achievement at age 17.
In mathematics, the only significant progress by
white students since 1973 was at age 9. In compari-
son, black students showed significant improvements
at all three ages, as did Hispanic students at ages
9 and 13. The reading results show a similar pattern.
Although the proficiency of white 17-year-olds has
improved significantly since 1971, 9- and 13-year-
olds were reading at about the same level in 1990
as nearly two decades ago. Black students, however,
demonstrated significantly higher proficiency in 1990
at all three ages. Hispanic students also showed
gains at age 17, yet their reading performance did
not change significantly at the younger ages.
High School Graduates
The large enrollment in high schools is one of the
many success stories of American education during
the 20th century. Not surprisingly, the high enroll-
ment ratios have resulted in the growth in the num-
ber of high school graduates. An indicator of high
school graduation success can be measured by com-
paring the number of high school graduates to the
17-year-old population. This measurement does not
account for students receiving their diplomas through
GED programs, night schools, or other special pro-
grams; however, this ratio does allow rough historical
comparisons to be made over the past 120 years.
In 1869–70, there were only about two persons re-
ceiving high school diplomas per 100 17-year-olds
(table 19). While this ratio increased to 9 per 100
during the ensuing 40 years, high school graduation
remained an atypical occurrence, at least in most
areas of the country. It should be noted that gradua-
tion ratios for females have consistently been higher
than those for males. In 1909–10, about 60 percent
of the graduates were women. During the 1910s, the
1920s, and the 1930s, the graduation ratios in-
creased rapidly. In 1939–40, the ratio rose above 50
percent for the first time. In that year, about 53 per-
cent of the graduates were females. During World
War II, the graduation ratio dipped as some young
men left school to join the armed forces.
Immediately after the war, the graduation ratio re-
sumed its upward trend, reaching 70 percent in
1959–60. A peak ratio of 77 percent was attained at
the end of the 1960s. After falling to around 71 per-
cent in 1979–80, the ratio has returned to about the
same level as the late 1960s. More students now ob-
tain diplomas through non-traditional programs than
in the earlier years. If these graduates were included,
the total graduation ratio for young adults might now
be higher than ever.
31Elementary and Secondary Education
Figure 11.--Number of public and private high school graduates
per 100 17-year-olds: 1869-70 to 1991-92
Year ending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Graduates
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Series P-25; and U.S. Department of Education,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
National Center for Education Statistics,
various issues.
per 100
1992
17-year-olds
and
Digest of Education
Statistics,
Public Elementary and Secondary School
Revenues
Today, public schools derive most of their funds
from state and local governments. Smaller amounts
of federal funds are directed to specific programs,
such as those for disabled or educationally disadvan-
taged children. Prior to the Great Depression of the
1930s, most of the funding came from local (county
and city) sources. From 1889–90 until the mid 1930s,
local governments provided over three-quarters of fi-
nancial support for elementary and secondary edu-
cation. In 1935–36, local governments provided 70
percent of the revenues for public schools and 29
percent came from state governments (table 21). The
federal government provided less than 1 percent.
During the post-war period, the proportions from
state and federal governments began to rise, while
the local proportion declined. By the early 1970s, the
federal government proportion had risen to 9 percent,
and it remained around this level until the early
1980s. The state proportion continued to rise in the
1970s and, in 1978–79, exceeded the local propor-
tion for the first time. During the 1980s, the propor-
tion from the federal government declined, while the
proportion from state governments continued to in-
crease, reaching a high of 50 percent in 1986–87.
During the late 1980s, the local proportion began
growing again, while the state proportions dipped
slightly.
32 Elementary and Secondary Education
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Figure 12.--Sources of revenues for public elementary and
secondary schools: 1889-90 to 1989-90
Percent
State
Local
Federal
Year ending
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education;
and Secondary Education;
and Common Core of Data survey.
Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Statistics of State School
Public Elementary and Secondary School
Expenditures
Current expenditures are those costs associated
with providing educational services to children (e.g.,
instruction, transportation, and administration). Two
of the most important factors that affect school costs
are the relative number and pay of teachers. If there
is a drop in the pupil/teacher ratio, school expendi-
tures per student will rise if other factors are held
constant. Consistent price indexes to adjust older
historical education finance data are not available.
However, an examination of the 1869–70 to 1909–10
data indicates an increase in per student funding.
The total expenditure (including current expenditures,
plus capital outlay and interest on school debt) per
student rose from $16 to $33 during the 40-year pe-
riod (table 22). This increase in spending would not
indicate a real increase if even very modest levels of
inflation occurred during the 40 years. Also, the sta-
ble pupil/teacher ratio during this period suggests
that little additional resources on a per student basis
were devoted to education.
In 1919–20, current expenditure per student in av-
erage daily attendance stood at about $53, or about
$355 after adjusting to 1989–90 dollars. The expend-
iture per student jumped 81 percent in the 1920s,
after adjusting for inflation. The real value of teacher
salaries rose by 82 percent during this economic
boom period, while pupil/teacher ratios changed little
(table 14). During the Depression of the 1930s, ex-
penditures per student continued to increase, reg-
istering a rise of 24 percent by the end of the dec-
ade.
33Elementary and Secondary Education
Figure 13.--Current expenditure per pupil in average daily
Year ending
1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
$6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
attendance, in constant 1989-90 dollars: 1919-20 to 1989-90
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970;
Digest of Education Statistics,
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Expenditure
per pupil
and
various years.
Large rises in current expenditure per pupil have
occurred in every decade since World War II, even
after adjusting for inflation. The 45 percent boost in
the 1950s and the 69 percent jump in the 1960s are
particularly impressive considering the rapidly rising
enrollment that occurred during these decades. Dur-
ing the 1970s and 1980s, the rate of increase in ex-
penditures per student slowed to a more moderate
rate of 35 percent and 33 percent, respectively. The
steady increase in expenditure per pupil has been in-
terrupted only twice during the past 70 years, during
the periods 1931–32 to 1933–34 and 1978–79 to
1980–81. In each case, the Nation was experiencing
economic difficulties. In 1989–90, the current ex-
penditure per student in the public schools was near-
ly $5,000.
These historical elementary and secondary edu-
cation statistics depict a great achievement during
the first half of the 20th century in the development
of high schools. Enrollment in high school, once lim-
ited to the elite, is now an opportunity that is shared
by nearly all America’s young people. A higher pro-
portion of students are graduating than ever, and
education funding and teacher salaries are at historic
highs.
34 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 8.—Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90
Item 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 1979–80 1988–89 1989–90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 13 14 15
Population, pupils, and instructional staff
Total population,
1
in thousands .................................... 38,558 50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,767 130,880 149,199 177,080 201,385 224,567 245,807 248,239
Population aged 5–17 years,
1
in thousands ................. 11,683 15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 42,634 52,386 48,041 45,388 45,330
Percent of total population 5–17 .................................... 30.3 30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.1 26.0 21.4 18.5 18.3
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary
schools, in thousands
2
..............................................
3
7,562 9,868 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,111 36,087 45,550 41,651 40,189 40,543
Kindergarten and grades 1–8, in thousands
2
........
3
7,481 9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,832 19,387 27,602 32,513 28,034 28,499 29,152
Grades 9–12 and postgraduate, in thousands
2
.....
3
80 110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485 13,037 13,616 11,690 11,390
Enrollment as a percent of total population ................... 17.8 19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.4 22.6 18.5 16.3 16.3
Enrollment as a percent of 5– to 17–year-olds ............. 57.0 65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 84.6 87.0 86.7 88.5 89.4
Percent of total enrollment in high schools (grades 9–
12 and postgraduate) .................................................. 1.2 1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5 28.6 32.7 29.1 28.1
High school graduates, in thousands ............................ 22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627 2,589 2,748 2,459 2,320
Average daily attendance, in thousands ....................... 4,077 6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477 41,934 38,289 37,268 37,779
Total number of days attended by pupils enrolled, in
millions ......................................................................... 539 801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782 7,501
4
6,835 — —
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily ..................... 59.3 62.3 64.1 68.6 72.0 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0 90.4
4
90.1 — —
Average length of school term, in days ......................... 132.2 130.3 134.7 144.3 156.8 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0 178.9
4
178.5 — —
Average number of days attended per pupil ................. 78.4 81.1 86.3 99.0 112.9 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2 161.7
4
160.8 — —
Total instructional staff, in thousands ............................ 700 892 912 962 1,464 2,253 2,441
Supervisors, in thousands .......................................... 77591432
4
35 — —
Principals, in thousands ............................................. 14 31 32 39 64 91 106
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervisory in-
structional staff,
5
in thousands ................................ 201 287 364 423 523 680 854 875 914 1,387 2,131 2,300 2,447 2,528
Men, in thousands ................................................ 78 123 126 127 110 96 142 195 195
4
402
4
691
4
782 — —
Women, in thousands .......................................... 123 164 238 296 413 584 712 681 719
4
985
4
1,440
4
1,518 — —
Percent men ......................................................... 38.7 42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3
4
29.0
4
32.4
4
34.0 — —
Amounts in millions of current dollars
Finance
Total revenue receipts ................................................... $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747 $40,267 $96,881 $192,016 $207,584
Federal government ................................................... 2 7 40 156 652 3,220 9,504 11,902 12,751
State governments ..................................................... 160 354 684 2,166 5,768 16,063 45,349 91,769 98,060
Local sources, including intermediate ........................ 808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327 20,985 42,029 88,345 96,774
Percent of revenue receipts from
Federal government ................................................... 0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4 8.0 9.8 6.2 6.1
State governments ..................................................... 16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1 39.9 46.8 47.8 47.2
Local sources, including intermediate ........................ 83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5 52.1 43.4 46.0 46.6
Total expenditures for public schools ............................ $63 $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613 $40,683 $95,962 $192,977 $211,731
Current expenditures
6
................................................ — —
7
114
7
180
7
356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687
8
12,329
8
34,218
8
86,984
8
173,099
8
187,384
Capital outlay
9
........................................................... 26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662 4,659 6,506 14,101 17,685
Interest on school debt ............................................... 18 93 131 101 490 1,171 1,874 3,213 3,693
Other expenditures
10
................................................. — — — — — 3 10 13 36 133 636
11
598
11
2,564
11
2,969
Percent of total expenditures devoted to
Current expenditures
6
................................................ — —
7
81.3
7
83.5
7
83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3
9
79.0
9
84.1
9
90.6
9
89.7
9
88.5
Capital outlay
8
........................................................... — 18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0 11.5 6.8 7.3 8.4
Interest on school debt ............................................... 1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1 2.9 2.0 1.7 1.7
Other expenditures
10
................................................. — 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.6
11
0.6
11
1.3
11
1.4
35Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 8.—Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued
Item 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 1979–80 1988–89 1989–90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 13 14 15
Amounts
Annual salary of instructional staff
12
.............................. $189 $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $5,174 $8,840
13
$16,715
13
$30,969
13
$32,723
Personal income per member of labor force
1
............... — — — — — — 1,634 1,356 3,400 5,413 8,750 19,087 33,036 34,886
Total school expenditures per capita of total population 1.59 1.56 2.23 2.83 4.71 9.91 19.03 17.91 39 88 202 427 785 853
National income
1
per capita .......................................... 667 587 1,520 2,272 3,829 9,117 16,284 17,099
Current expenditure
14
per pupil in A.D.A.
15
................. — —
7
13.99
7
16.67
7
27.85 53.32 86.70 88.09 209 375 816 2,272 4,645 4,960
Total expenditure
16
per pupil in A.D.A. ......................... 15.55 12.71 17.23 20.21 33.23 64.16 108.49 105.74 259 472 955 2,491 5,109 5,526
National income per pupil in A.D.A. .............................. 3,845 3,502 10,312 12,547 18,656 53,470 107,400 112,358
Current expenditure per day
17
per pupil in A.D.A. .......
7
0.10
7
0.12
7
0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11 4.56 12.73
Total expenditure per day per pupil in A.D.A. ............... 0.12 0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65 5.34 13.95
Amounts in constant 1989–90 dollars
Annual salary of instructional staff
12
............................. — — — — — $5,803 $10,534 $13,093 $16,138 $22,359 $29,714
13
$27,339
13
$32,447
13
$32,723
Personal income per member of labor force
1
............... — — — — — — 12,121 12,320 18,229 23,392 29,412 31,218 34,612 34,886
Total school expenditures per capita of total population 66 141 163 210 381 679 699 823 853
National income
1
per capita .......................................... 4,948 5,333 8,149 9,818 12,871 14,911 17,061 17,099
Current expenditure
14
per pupil in A.D.A.
15
................. — — — — — 355 643 800 1,120 1,621 2,743 3,716 4,866 4,960
Total expenditure
16
per pupil in A.D.A. ......................... 427 805 961 1,388 2,040 3,210 4,074 5,353 5,526
National income per pupil in A.D.A. .............................. 28,522 31,819 55,287 54,220 62,709 87,454 112,525 112,358
Current expenditure per day
17
per pupil in A.D.A. ....... 2.20 3.71 4.54 6.27 9.12 15.33 20.82
Total expenditure per day per pupil in A.D.A. ............... 2.67 4.67 5.45 7.83 11.45 17.95 22.82
1
Data on population and labor force are from the Bureau of the Census, and data on personal income and national
income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are
based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909–10 to 1959–60, population data are total population,
including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population, excluding armed forces
overseas.
2
Data for 1869–70 through 1959–60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.
3
Data for 1870–71.
4
Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5
Prior to 1919–20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6
Prior to 1919–20, includes expenditures for interest.
7
Includes interest on school debt.
8
Because of the modification of the scope of ‘‘current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools,’’ data
for 1959–60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
9
Beginning in 1969–70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
10
Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959–60, also includes commu-
nity services, formerly classified with ‘‘current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools.’’
11
Excludes community colleges and adult education.
12
Average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff.
13
Estimated by the National Education Association.
14
Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
15
‘‘A.D.A.’’ means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
16
The expenditure figure used here is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and
interest on school debt.
17
Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
—Data not collected.
NOTE.—Kindergarten enrollment includes a relatively small number of nursery school pupils. Because of rounding,
details may not add to totals. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959–
60, data include Alaska and Hawaii.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Statistics of State School Systems;
Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and
Secondary Education, FY 1980;
Common Core of Data survey; Council of Economic Advisers,
Economic Indicators;
and National Education Association,
Estimates of School Statistics
(copyright by the National Education Association.)
(This table was prepared October 1992.)
36 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 9.—Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade level:
1869–70 to fall 1992
[Enrollment in thousands]
Year
All schools Public schools Private schools
1
All public and private schools
Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12 Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12 Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12
Ratio of
kinder-
garten to
grade 12
enrollment
to 5– to
17-year-
olds
Ratio of
kinder-
garten to
grade 8
enrollment
to 5– to
13-year-
olds
Ratio of
grades 9
to 12 en-
rollment to
14– to 17-
year-olds
1 2345678910111213
1869–70 .....................———6,872 —————
2
57.0 — —
1870–71 .....................———7,562 7,481 80 ——————
1871–72 .....................———7,815 ————————
1872–73 .....................———8,004 ————————
1873–74 .....................———8,444 ————————
1874–75 .....................———8,786 ————————
1875–76 .....................———8,869 ————————
1876–77 .....................———8,965 ————————
1877–78 .....................———9,439 ————————
1878–79 .....................———9,504 ————————
1879–80 .....................———9,868 9,757 110 — — —
2
65.5 — —
1880–81 .....................———10,001 ————————
1881–82 .....................———10,212 ————————
1882–83 .....................———10,652 ————————
1883–84 .....................———10,982 ————————
1884–85 .....................———11,398 ————————
1885–86 .....................———11,664 ————————
1886–87 .....................———11,885 ————————
1887–88 .....................———12,183 ————————
1888–89 ..................... 13,661 — — 12,392 — — 1,269 —————
1889–90 ..................... 14,334 14,036 298 12,723 12,520 203 1,611 1,516 95 77.3
1890–91 ..................... 14,541 14,231 310 13,050 12,839 212 1,491 1,392 98
1891–92 ..................... 14,556 14,215 340 13,256 13,016 240 1,300 1,199 101
1892–93 ..................... 14,826 14,470 356 13,483 13,229 254 1,343 1,240 102
1893–94 ..................... 15,314 14,906 408 13,995 13,706 289 1,319 1,200 119
1894–95 ..................... 15,455 14,987 468 14,244 13,894 350 1,211 1,093 118
1895–96 ..................... 15,834 15,347 487 14,499 14,118 380 1,335 1,228 107
1896–97 ..................... 16,140 15,623 517 14,823 14,414 409 1,317 1,209 108
1897–98 ..................... 16,459 15,904 555 15,104 14,654 450 1,355 1,250 105
1898–99 ..................... 16,474 15,894 580 15,176 14,700 476 1,298 1,194 104
1899–1900 ................. 16,855 16,225 630 15,503 14,984 519 1,352 1,241 111 78.1
1900–01 ..................... 17,072 16,422 650 15,703 15,161 542 1,370 1,262 108 79.3 106.6 10.6
1901–02 ..................... 17,126 16,471 655 15,917 15,367 551 1,209 1,104 105 78.6 105.8 10.5
1902–03 ..................... 17,205 16,511 694 16,009 15,417 592 1,196 1,094 102 77.9 104.8 11.0
1903–04 ..................... 17,560 16,821 739 16,256 15,620 636 1,304 1,201 103 78.7 105.8 11.5
1904–05 ..................... 17,806 17,019 787 16,468 15,789 680 1,338 1,231 107 78.8 106.1 12.0
1905–06 ..................... 18,056 17,231 824 16,642 15,919 723 1,414 1,312 102 79.0 106.3 12.4
1906–07 ..................... 18,292 17,444 848 16,891 16,140 751 1,402 1,305 97 79.1 106.6 12.5
1907–08 ..................... 18,537 17,675 862 17,062 16,292 770 1,475 1,383 92 79.2 107.0 12.5
1908–09 ..................... 18,917 17,982 935 17,506 16,665 841 1,411 1,317 94 79.9 107.8 13.4
1909–10 ..................... 19,372 18,340 1,032 17,814 16,899 915 1,558 1,441 117 80.7 108.6 14.5
1910–11 ..................... 19,636 18,349 1,288 18,035 16,878 1,157 1,601 1,471 131 80.5 107.1 17.8
1911–12 ..................... 19,830 18,488 1,342 18,183 16,982 1,201 1,647 1,506 141 80.3 106.4 18.3
1912–13 ..................... 20,348 18,866 1,482 18,609 17,276 1,333 1,739 1,591 148 81.3 106.9 20.1
1913–14 ..................... 20,935 19,348 1,587 19,154 17,722 1,432 1,781 1,626 155 82.1 107.4 21.2
1914–15 ..................... 21,474 19,758 1,717 19,704 18,143 1,562 1,770 1,615 155 82.7 107.4 22.7
1915–16 ..................... 22,172 20,306 1,866 20,352 18,641 1,711 1,820 1,665 155 84.2 108.5 24.5
1916–17
3
.................. 22,344 20,392 1,952 20,603 18,808 1,795 1,741 1,584 157 83.7 107.1 25.5
1917–18 ..................... 22,516 20,423 2,093 20,854 18,920 1,934 1,662 1,504 159 83.1 105.4 27.1
1918–19
3
.................. 22,897 20,643 2,253 21,216 19,149 2,067 1,681 1,495 186 83.2 104.7 28.9
1919–20 ..................... 23,278 20,863 2,414 21,578 19,378 2,200 1,699 1,486 214 84.4 105.2 31.2
1920–21
3
.................. 24,049 21,292 2,757 22,409 19,872 2,537 1,640 1,420 220 85.9 105.8 35.0
1921–22 ..................... 24,820 21,721 3,099 23,239 20,366 2,873 1,581 1,355 226 87.1 106.3 38.4
1922–23
3
.................. 25,418 22,047 3,371 23,764 20,633 3,131 1,654 1,414 240 87.9 106.7 40.8
1923–24 ..................... 26,016 22,372 3,644 24,289 20,899 3,390 1,727 1,473 254 88.6 107.0 43.1
1924–25
3
.................. 26,733 22,807 3,926 24,650 20,999 3,651 2,083 1,808 275 89.7 107.9 45.3
1925–26 ..................... 27,180 23,127 4,053 24,741 20,984 3,757 2,439 2,143 296 90.0 108.3 45.9
1926–27
3
.................. 27,495 23,342 4,153 24,961 21,126 3,834 2,535 2,216 318 89.9 107.9 46.4
1927–28 ..................... 27,810 23,558 4,252 25,180 21,268 3,911 2,631 2,289 341 89.9 107.8 46.8
1928–29
3
.................. 28,070 23,573 4,497 25,429 21,274 4,155 2,641 2,300 341 89.9 107.2 48.8
1929–30 ..................... 28,329 23,588 4,741 25,678 21,279 4,399 2,651 2,310 341 90.2 106.6 51.1
1930–31
3
.................. 28,695 23,553 5,142 25,977 21,207 4,770 2,719 2,346 372 90.7 105.8 54.9
1931–32 ..................... 29,061 23,518 5,543 26,275 21,135 5,140 2,786 2,383 403 91.8 105.6 59.0
1932–33
3
.................. 29,112 23,326 5,786 26,355 20,950 5,405 2,757 2,375 382 92.0 104.9 61.5
1933–34 ..................... 29,163 23,133 6,029 26,434 20,765 5,669 2,729 2,368 360 92.4 104.5 63.8
1934–35
3
.................. 29,084 22,889 6,196 26,401 20,579 5,822 2,684 2,310 374 92.4 104.2 65.0
1935–36 ..................... 29,006 22,644 6,362 26,367 20,393 5,975 2,639 2,251 387 92.4 104.2 65.9
1936–37
3
.................. 28,834 22,316 6,518 26,171 20,070 6,101 2,663 2,246 417 92.4 104.1 66.6
1937–38 ..................... 28,663 21,989 6,674 25,975 19,748 6,227 2,687 2,241 447 92.6 104.3 67.7
1938–39
3
.................. 28,354 21,487 6,866 25,704 19,290 6,414 2,649 2,197 452 92.7 104.0 69.3
37Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 9.—Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade level:
1869–70 to fall 1992—Continued
[Enrollment in thousands]
Year
All schools Public schools Private schools
1
All public and private schools
Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12 Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12 Total Kinder-
garten to
grade 8
Grades 9
to 12
Ratio of
kinder-
garten to
grade 12
enrollment
to 5– to
17-year-
olds
Ratio of
kinder-
garten to
grade 8
enrollment
to 5– to
13-year-
olds
Ratio of
grades 9
to 12 en-
rollment to
14– to 17-
year-olds
1 2345678910111213
1939–40 ..................... 28,045 20,985 7,059 25,434 18,832 6,601 2,611 2,153 458 93.0 103.6 71.3
1940–41
3
.................. 27,910 20,726 7,184 25,296 18,582 6,714 2,614 2,143 470 93.7 103.9 73.0
1941–42 ..................... 27,179 20,308 6,871 24,562 18,175 6,388 2,617 2,133 483 92.3 103.1 70.5
1942–43
3
.................. 26,709 20,135 6,574 24,155 18,033 6,122 2,554 2,102 452 91.9 103.5 68.4
1943–44 ..................... 25,758 19,783 5,974 23,267 17,713 5,554 2,491 2,070 421 89.3 102.1 63.0
1944–45
3
.................. 25,884 19,830 6,053 23,226 17,666 5,560 2,658 2,165 493 90.3 102.7 64.7
1945–46 ..................... 26,124 19,937 6,187 23,300 17,678 5,622 2,825 2,259 565 91.6 102.9 67.7
1946–47
3
.................. 26,598 20,177 6,421 23,659 17,821 5,838 2,939 2,355 584 93.1 102.6 72.0
1947–48 ..................... 26,998 20,743 6,256 23,945 18,291 5,653 3,054 2,451 602 93.2 103.2 70.5
1948–49
3
.................. 27,694 21,398 6,296 24,477 18,818 5,658 3,217 2,580 637 93.4 102.1 72.3
1949–50 ..................... 28,492 22,095 6,397 25,111 19,387 5,725 3,380 2,708 672 94.3 102.1 74.5
1950–51
3
.................. 29,301 22,831 6,470 25,706 19,900 5,806 3,595 2,931 664 95.4 102.5 76.6
1951–52 ..................... 30,372 23,834 6,538 26,563 20,681 5,882 3,809 3,154 656 97.0 104.6 76.7
1952–53
3
.................. 31,581 24,997 6,584 27,507 21,625 5,882 4,074 3,373 702 95.7 103.0 75.5
1953–54 ..................... 33,175 26,138 7,038 28,836 22,546 6,290 4,339 3,592 747 96.7 102.7 79.4
1954–55
3
.................. 34,569 27,210 7,359 30,045 23,471 6,574 4,524 3,739 785 97.0 102.1 81.8
1955–56 ..................... 35,872 28,177 7,696 31,163 24,290 6,873 4,709 3,886 823 97.1 101.7 83.5
1956–57 ..................... 37,303 29,107 8,195 32,334 25,016 7,318 4,968 4,092 877 97.4 101.2 86.0
1957–58 ..................... 38,756 29,966 8,790 33,529 25,669 7,860 5,227 4,297 931 97.7 101.4 86.6
1958–59 ..................... 40,290 31,040 9,250 34,839 26,581 8,258 5,451 4,459 993 97.9 101.6 87.2
1959–60 ..................... 41,762 32,242 9,520 36,087 27,602 8,485 5,675 4,640 1,035 98.0 101.8 86.9
1960–61 ..................... 43,070 33,191 9,879 37,260 28,439 8,821 5,810 4,752 1,058 97.5 100.4 89.0
1961–62 ..................... 44,146 33,451 10,694 38,253 28,686 9,566 5,893 4,765 1,128 97.5 100.7 88.8
1962–63 ..................... 45,798 34,224 11,574 39,746 29,374 10,372 6,052 4,850 1,202 98.2 101.0 90.8
1963–64 ..................... 47,199 34,825 12,375 41,025 29,915 11,110 6,174 4,910 1,265 98.2 100.7 91.7
1964–65 ..................... 48,580 35,652 12,928 42,280 30,652 11,628 6,300 5,000 1,300 98.1 101.2 90.6
Fall 1965 .................... 48,368 35,366 13,002 42,068 30,466 11,602 6,300 4,900 1,400 96.9 98.9 91.9
Fall 1966 .................... 49,242 35,962 13,280 43,042 31,162 11,880 6,200 4,800 1,400 97.2 99.1 92.2
Fall 1967 .................... 49,890 36,243 13,647 43,890 31,643 12,247 6,000 4,600 1,400 97.1 98.9 92.7
Fall 1968 .................... 50,703 36,581 14,123 44,903 32,181 12,723 5,800 4,400 1,400 97.6 99.4 93.1
Fall 1969 .................... 51,050 36,713 14,337 45,550 32,513 13,037 5,500 4,200 1,300 97.5 99.7 92.2
Fall 1970 .................... 51,257 36,610 14,647 45,894 32,558 13,336 5,363 4,052 1,311 97.5 99.8 92.0
Fall 1971 .................... 51,271 36,218 15,053 46,071 32,318 13,753 5,200 3,900 1,300 97.5 100.0 92.2
Fall 1972 .................... 50,726 35,579 15,148 45,726 31,879 13,848 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.0 99.7 91.0
Fall 1973 .................... 50,445 35,101 15,344 45,445 31,401 14,044 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.2 100.2 91.0
Fall 1974 .................... 50,073 34,671 15,403 45,073 30,971 14,103 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.2 100.6 90.4
Fall 1975 .................... 49,819 34,215 15,604 44,819 30,515 14,304 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.6 100.9 91.1
Fall 1976 .................... 49,478 33,822 15,656 44,311 29,997 14,314 5,167 3,825 1,342 97.7 100.9 91.5
Fall 1977 .................... 48,717 33,172 15,546 43,577 29,375 14,203 5,140 3,797 1,343 97.6 101.0 91.2
Fall 1978 .................... 47,637 32,195 15,441 42,551 28,463 14,088 5,086 3,732 1,353 97.1 100.3 91.1
Fall 1979 .................... 46,651 31,734 14,916 41,651 28,034 13,616 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.1 101.0 89.8
Fall 1980 .................... 46,208 31,639 14,570 40,877 27,647 13,231 5,331 3,992 1,339 97.8 101.7 90.3
Fall 1981 .................... 45,544 31,380 14,164 40,044 27,280 12,764 5,500 4,100 1,400 98.3 102.0 90.8
Fall 1982 .................... 45,166 31,361 13,805 39,566 27,161 12,405 5,600 4,200 1,400 98.9 102.4 91.8
Fall 1983 .................... 44,967 31,296 13,671 39,252 26,981 12,271 5,715 4,315 1,400 99.6 102.9 92.9
Fall 1984 .................... 44,908 31,205 13,704 39,208 26,905 12,304 5,700 4,300 1,400 99.9 103.2 93.2
Fall 1985 .................... 44,979 31,229 13,750 39,422 27,034 12,388 5,557 4,195 1,362 100.0 103.7 92.5
Fall 1986 .................... 45,205 31,536 13,669 39,753 27,420 12,333 5,452 4,116 1,336 100.1 103.9 92.4
Fall 1987 .................... 45,486 32,162 13,324 40,007 27,930 12,077 5,479 4,232 1,247 100.4 104.3 92.1
Fall 1988 .................... 45,430 32,535 12,896 40,189 28,499 11,690 5,241 4,036 1,206 100.1 103.6 92.2
Fall 1989 .................... 45,898 33,314 12,583 40,543 29,152 11,390 5,355 4,162 1,193 101.3 104.6 93.2
Fall 1990 .................... 46,450 33,978 12,472 41,224 29,888 11,336 5,226 4,090 1,136 102.5 106.2 93.7
Fall 1991
3
................. 47,032 34,447 12,585 41,839 30,378 11,461 5,193 4,069 1,124 102.4 106.0 93.8
Fall 1992
3
................. 47,601 34,855 12,746 42,250 30,663 11,587 5,351 4,192 1,159
1
For 1958–59 and 1960–61 through 1963–64, numbers were estimated using linear
interpolation. Data for most years are at least partially estimated.
2
Data are for public elementary and secondary schools only.
3
Estimated.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Prior to 1965, enrollment data include students who enrolled at any time dur-
ing the school year. Enrollment ratios based on cumulative enrollment figures tend to
be approximately 1 to 2 percentage points higher than counts based on fall enrollment.
In later years, data for grades kindergarten through 8 include a relatively small number
of prekindergarten students. Data for grades 9 to 12 contain a small number of post-
graduate students. Population data for 1870 through 1961 include U.S. population over-
seas; data for later years are for U.S. resident population only. Population data for 1870
to 1890 are from the decennial census. Data for later years are based on counts of pop-
ulation for July 1 preceding the school year. Because of rounding, details may not add
to totals.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
An-
nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the Unit-
ed States; Statistics of State School Systems; Digest of Education Statistics;
and U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-
20, and unpublished data. (This table was prepared September 1992.)
38 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade:
1910–11 to fall 1990
Year Total
Kindergarten through grade 8
Total Kinder-
garten
1
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
1 2345678910
1910–11 .......... 18,035,118 16,878,123 326,883 3,889,542 2,449,584 2,300,622 2,201,315 1,870,290 1,522,714
1911–12 .......... 18,182,937 16,982,139 348,303 3,875,684 2,445,174 2,295,469 2,212,300 1,879,624 1,546,947
1912–13 .......... 18,609,040 17,275,684 369,723 3,922,183 2,468,270 2,316,117 2,248,493 1,910,374 1,589,160
1913–14 .......... 19,153,786 17,721,691 391,143 3,986,026 2,495,599 2,374,285 2,287,632 1,975,683 1,663,733
1914–15 .......... 19,704,209 18,142,653 409,083 4,043,254 2,535,900 2,411,766 2,340,831 2,021,627 1,720,156
1915–16 .......... 20,351,687 18,640,815 434,022 4,114,735 2,585,365 2,476,124 2,403,297 2,075,574 1,784,266
1916–17
3
........ 20,602,602 18,807,710 433,700 4,224,907 2,600,418 2,503,813 2,425,708 2,104,986 1,814,236
1917–18 .......... 20,853,516 18,919,695 433,377 4,323,170 2,607,727 2,524,215 2,440,871 2,128,086 1,838,770
1918–19
3
........ 21,215,916 19,148,811 457,322 4,321,996 2,622,775 2,510,915 2,498,633 2,140,588 1,864,631
1919–20 .......... 21,578,316 19,377,927 481,266 4,320,823 2,637,822 2,497,615 2,556,395 2,153,091 1,890,492
1920–21
3
........ 22,408,773 19,872,124 505,252 4,248,745 2,743,417 2,606,922 2,558,036 2,221,331 1,974,256
1921–22 .......... 23,239,227 20,366,218 529,235 4,176,567 2,849,013 2,716,229 2,559,677 2,289,571 2,058,019
1922–23
3
........ 23,764,017 20,632,624 569,447 4,180,450 2,831,210 2,755,947 2,634,084 2,365,065 2,089,418
1923–24 .......... 24,288,808 20,898,930 609,659 4,184,232 2,813,409 2,795,665 2,708,491 2,440,558 2,120,817
1924–25
3
........ 24,650,291 20,999,078 599,684 4,048,598 2,799,520 2,730,383 2,696,479 2,514,493 2,186,346
1925–26 .......... 24,741,468 20,984,002 673,231 3,976,750 2,819,896 2,729,252 2,662,205 2,473,053 2,234,246
1926–27
3
........ 24,960,582 21,126,210 684,360 4,073,894 2,818,218 2,695,615 2,647,339 2,454,260 2,238,844
1927–28 .......... 25,179,696 21,268,417 695,490 4,171,037 2,816,540 2,661,977 2,632,474 2,435,466 2,243,443
1928–29
3
........ 25,428,856 21,273,505 709,467 4,160,978 2,809,727 2,697,108 2,615,851 2,408,979 2,249,846
1929–30 .......... 25,678,015 21,278,593 723,443 4,150,919 2,802,914 2,732,239 2,599,229 2,382,491 2,256,249
1930–31
3
........ 25,976,728 21,207,007 712,423 4,040,558 2,789,646 2,697,881 2,594,164 2,422,527 2,267,081
1931–32 .......... 26,275,441 21,135,420 701,403 3,930,196 2,776,378 2,663,524 2,589,098 2,462,563 2,277,913
1932–33
3
........ 26,354,817 20,950,229 649,001 3,826,112 2,704,053 2,637,885 2,581,054 2,448,002 2,282,982
1933–34 .......... 26,434,193 20,765,037 601,775 3,716,852 2,631,728 2,612,246 2,573,010 2,433,441 2,288,051
1934–35
3
........ 26,400,646 20,578,799 604,264 3,623,589 2,594,659 2,568,491 2,535,875 2,433,216 2,303,760
1935–36 .......... 26,367,098 20,392,561 606,753 3,530,325 2,557,589 2,524,736 2,498,741 2,432,991 2,319,470
1936–37
3
........ 26,171,103 20,070,368 606,893 3,423,735 2,522,070 2,484,558 2,450,679 2,387,710 2,286,096
1937–38 .......... 25,975,108 19,748,174 607,034 3,317,144 2,486,550 2,444,381 2,402,617 2,342,428 2,252,722
1938–39
3
........ 25,704,325 19,290,136 600,841 3,167,803 2,409,813 2,387,970 2,362,242 2,295,060 2,214,428
1939–40 .......... 25,433,542 18,832,098 594,647 3,018,463 2,333,076 2,331,559 2,321,867 2,247,692 2,176,133
1940–41
3
........ 25,296,138 18,582,225 613,213 2,991,738 2,285,614 2,263,315 2,270,749 2,211,285 2,155,538
1941–42 .......... 24,562,473 18,174,668 625,783 2,930,762 2,215,100 2,175,245 2,196,732 2,166,018 2,124,494
1942–43
3
........ 24,155,146 18,033,080 664,915 2,919,242 2,228,945 2,179,843 2,148,889 2,101,723 2,071,396
1943–44 .......... 23,266,616 17,713,096 697,468 2,878,843 2,220,739 2,162,878 2,079,788 2,016,635 1,997,806
1944–45
3
........ 23,225,784 17,665,594 733,974 2,881,849 2,265,796 2,173,078 2,083,552 2,007,988 1,950,624
1945–46 .......... 23,299,941 17,677,744 772,957 2,894,588 2,318,502 2,190,617 2,094,352 2,006,120 1,910,028
1946–47
3
........ 23,659,158 17,821,481 872,835 2,896,451 2,319,772 2,204,573 2,119,377 2,012,212 1,907,319
1947–48 .......... 23,944,532 18,291,227 988,680 2,951,300 2,363,477 2,258,858 2,183,171 2,055,115 1,939,500
1948–49
3
........ 24,476,658 18,818,254 1,016,186 3,067,375 2,502,828 2,314,645 2,220,554 2,088,826 1,994,735
1949–50 .......... 25,111,427 19,386,806 1,034,203 3,170,343 2,644,707 2,395,904 2,254,028 2,150,678 2,055,741
1950–51
3
........ 25,706,000 19,900,000 941,138 3,052,806 2,739,176 2,600,440 2,357,752 2,211,306 2,117,360
1951–52 .......... 26,562,664 20,680,867 1,272,127 2,957,485 2,670,162 2,717,947 2,559,115 2,320,132 2,165,741
1952–53
3
........ 27,506,630 21,624,682 1,399,064 3,357,598 2,638,816 2,633,457 2,684,145 2,520,163 2,275,680
1953–54 .......... 28,836,052 22,545,807 1,474,007 3,666,466 2,940,285 2,569,243 2,565,345 2,606,983 2,449,174
1954–55
3
........ 30,045,000 23,471,000 1,415,000 3,518,000 3,391,000 2,896,000 2,535,000 2,523,000 2,584,000
39Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade:
1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued
Year
Kindergarten through grade 8 Grades 9 through 12 and postgraduate
Grade 7 Grade 8 Elementary
unclassi-
fied
2
Total Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Post-
graduate
Secondary
unclassi-
fied
2
1 11121314151617181920
1910–11 .......... 1,257,894 1,059,279 1,156,995 495,194 308,918 208,259 144,624
1911–12 .......... 1,280,805 1,097,833 1,200,798 500,733 325,416 218,545 156,104
1912–13 .......... 1,318,665 1,132,699 1,333,356 546,676 358,673 248,004 180,003
1913–14 .......... 1,369,113 1,178,477 1,432,095 584,295 383,801 266,370 197,629
1914–15 .......... 1,418,686 1,241,350 1,561,556 638,677 416,935 287,326 218,618
1915–16 .......... 1,474,750 1,292,682 1,710,872 692,903 460,225 316,511 241,233
1916–17
3
........ 1,481,027 1,218,915 1,794,892 743,064 476,406 324,163 251,259
1917–18 .......... 1,482,675 1,140,804 1,933,821 816,396 506,974 341,534 268,917
1918–19
3
........ 1,537,385 1,194,566 2,067,105 866,519 541,462 368,888 290,236
1919–20 .......... 1,592,095 1,248,328 2,200,389 916,642 575,950 396,242 311,555
1920–21
3
........ 1,668,158 1,346,007 — 2,536,649 1,065,177 678,752 455,842 336,878
1921–22 .......... 1,744,222 1,443,685 — 2,873,009 1,213,713 781,553 515,542 362,201
1922–23
3
........ 1,795,314 1,411,689 — 3,131,393 1,271,062 850,766 583,386 426,179
1923–24 .......... 1,846,407 1,379,692 — 3,389,878 1,328,412 919,979 651,329 490,158
1924–25
3
........ 1,930,732 1,492,843 — 3,651,213 1,424,304 970,415 715,978 540,516
1925–26 .......... 1,927,265 1,488,104 — 3,757,466 1,425,204 1,004,503 736,254 591,505
1926–27
3
........ 1,974,451 1,539,229 — 3,834,372 1,450,564 1,025,030 751,980 606,798
1927–28 .......... 2,021,636 1,590,354 — 3,911,279 1,475,924 1,045,558 767,706 622,091
1928–29
3
........ 2,025,686 1,595,863 — 4,155,351 1,551,374 1,118,871 823,616 661,490
1929–30 .......... 2,029,736 1,601,373 — 4,399,422 1,626,823 1,192,185 879,525 700,889
1930–31
3
........ 2,041,280 1,641,447 — 4,769,721 1,702,216 1,289,758 973,140 786,337 18,270
1931–32 .......... 2,052,825 1,681,520 — 5,140,021 1,777,608 1,387,331 1,066,755 871,786 36,541
1932–33
3
........ 2,119,972 1,701,168 — 5,404,588 1,816,317 1,463,793 1,137,967 938,580 47,931
1933–34 .......... 2,187,119 1,720,815 — 5,669,156 1,855,026 1,540,254 1,209,180 1,005,375 59,321
1934–35
3
........ 2,184,553 1,730,392 — 5,821,847 1,912,549 1,580,058 1,229,295 1,034,922 65,023
1935–36 .......... 2,181,987 1,739,969 — 5,974,537 1,970,072 1,619,862 1,249,409 1,064,469 70,725
1936–37
3
........ 2,177,580 1,731,047 — 6,100,735 1,974,726 1,644,571 1,314,404 1,107,487 59,547
1937–38 .......... 2,173,173 1,722,125 — 6,226,934 1,979,379 1,669,281 1,379,398 1,150,506 48,370
1938–39
3
........ 2,140,420 1,711,559 — 6,414,189 1,995,360 1,718,297 1,432,500 1,216,121 51,911
1939–40 .......... 2,107,667 1,700,994 — 6,601,444 2,011,341 1,767,312 1,485,603 1,281,735 55,453
1940–41
3
........ 2,049,791 1,690,982 — 6,713,913 2,034,316 1,792,615 1,517,344 1,322,641 46,997
1941–42 .......... 2,060,752 1,679,782 — 6,387,805 1,927,040 1,705,746 1,450,788 1,273,141 31,090
1942–43
3
........ 2,022,880 1,695,247 — 6,122,066 1,897,750 1,653,586 1,374,470 1,170,319 25,941
1943–44 .......... 1,964,997 1,693,942 — 5,553,520 1,774,593 1,519,638 1,230,168 1,009,611 19,510
1944–45
3
........ 1,897,743 1,670,990 — 5,560,190 1,742,873 1,529,857 1,236,883 1,015,959 34,618
1945–46 .......... 1,836,897 1,653,683 — 5,622,197 1,728,499 1,555,302 1,255,907 1,032,420 50,069
1946–47
3
........ 1,850,394 1,638,548 — 5,837,677 1,761,020 1,583,245 1,308,592 1,119,968 64,852
1947–48 .......... 1,897,740 1,653,386 — 5,653,305 1,672,920 1,502,743 1,271,645 1,130,805 75,192
1948–49
3
........ 1,919,462 1,693,643 — 5,658,404 1,708,838 1,499,477 1,267,483 1,126,022 56,584
1949–50 .......... 1,947,227 1,733,975 — 5,724,621 1,760,740 1,513,086 1,275,295 1,133,673 41,827
1950–51
3
........ 1,995,238 1,884,784 — 5,806,000 1,780,738 1,547,895 1,313,207 1,127,527 36,633
1951–52 .......... 2,082,533 1,935,625 — 5,881,797 1,819,732 1,582,142 1,337,930 1,110,638 31,355
1952–53
3
........ 2,143,106 1,972,653 — 5,881,948 1,861,411 1,579,177 1,306,615 1,107,884 26,861
1953–54 .......... 2,242,116 2,032,188 — 6,290,245 1,944,357 1,716,758 1,411,722 1,190,138 27,270
1954–55
3
........ 2,432,000 2,177,000 — 6,574,000 2,028,000 1,765,000 1,520,000 1,246,000 15,000
40 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade:
1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued
Year Total
Kindergarten through grade 8
Total Kinder-
garten
1
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
1 2345678910
1955–56 .......... 31,162,843 24,290,257 1,564,396 3,494,997 3,242,407 3,290,740 2,847,741 2,481,210 2,470,310
1956–57 .......... 32,334,333 25,015,873 1,675,373 3,491,387 3,240,771 3,183,406 3,237,852 2,808,290 2,442,701
1957–58 .......... 33,528,591 25,668,820 1,771,753 3,586,683 3,213,900 3,175,704 3,127,702 3,180,952 2,758,859
1958–59 .......... 34,838,641 26,580,774 1,834,014 3,678,772 3,345,722 3,179,087 3,141,825 3,099,426 3,135,641
1959–60 .......... 36,086,771 27,601,902 1,922,712 3,732,924 3,436,173 3,302,366 3,146,168 3,117,885 3,069,692
1960–61
3
........ 37,260,000 28,439,000 2,000,000 3,822,000 3,502,000 3,405,000 3,278,000 3,131,000 3,095,000
1961–62 .......... 38,252,673 28,686,420 2,064,852 3,857,075 3,567,852 3,428,206 3,342,980 3,218,277 3,064,577
1962–63
3
........ 39,746,000 29,374,000 2,162,000 3,928,000 3,630,000 3,518,000 3,391,000 3,332,000 3,190,000
1963–64
3
........ 41,025,000 29,915,000 2,177,000 4,023,000 3,705,000 3,560,000 3,467,000 3,366,000 3,299,000
1964–65
3
........ 42,280,000 30,652,000 2,250,000 4,014,000 3,800,000 3,662,000 3,523,000 3,465,000 3,362,000
Fall 1965 ......... 42,068,117 30,465,838 2,259,978 3,914,890 3,644,283 3,595,485 3,475,718 3,376,965 3,311,608
Fall 1966 ......... 43,042,127 31,162,189 2,370,462 3,954,328 3,696,457 3,615,340 3,580,280 3,462,525 3,369,162
Fall 1967 ......... 43,889,800 31,643,017 2,420,163 3,979,641 3,722,925 3,658,900 3,579,595 3,562,040 3,449,982
Fall 1968 ......... 44,903,166 32,180,510 2,510,856 3,926,204 3,758,260 3,692,353 3,628,751 3,572,609 3,555,465
Fall 1969 ......... 45,550,284 32,513,403 2,544,675 3,868,874 3,715,875 3,720,273 3,660,367 3,621,198 3,568,291
Fall 1970 ......... 45,893,960 32,558,308 2,563,579 3,816,598 3,654,267 3,662,935 3,675,187 3,635,354 3,597,730
Fall 1971 ......... 46,071,327 32,318,229 2,483,175 3,569,907 3,586,811 3,611,940 3,623,135 3,662,163 3,622,049
Fall 1972 ......... 45,726,408 31,878,600 2,503,475 3,351,551 3,381,182 3,532,508 3,553,633 3,596,637 3,638,617
Fall 1973 ......... 45,444,787 31,400,809 2,654,770 3,239,246 3,191,806 3,335,705 3,505,015 3,538,470 3,592,162
Fall 1974 ......... 45,073,441 30,970,723 2,800,625 3,198,255 3,106,126 3,169,434 3,344,721 3,510,207 3,558,679
Fall 1975 ......... 44,819,327 30,515,131 2,971,538 3,238,299 3,027,189 3,038,127 3,112,233 3,281,102 3,476,322
Fall 1976 ......... 44,310,966 29,996,835 2,918,189 3,332,225 3,086,214 2,986,432 3,024,788 3,116,272 3,298,200
Fall 1977 ......... 43,577,373 29,374,503 2,741,820 3,294,755 3,199,609 3,059,474 2,979,007 3,018,803 3,111,480
Fall 1978 ......... 42,550,893 28,463,348 2,652,467 3,062,180 3,148,000 3,158,000 3,046,000 2,980,000 3,036,000
Fall 1979 ......... 41,650,712 28,034,345 2,674,708 2,936,788 2,908,724 3,119,639 3,147,912 3,054,764 2,999,408
Fall 1980 ......... 40,877,481 27,646,536 2,689,243 2,894,473 2,799,593 2,893,007 3,107,126 3,129,864 3,037,601
Fall 1981 ......... 40,044,093 27,280,220 2,687,151 2,950,609 2,782,406 2,806,394 2,917,954 3,126,877 3,180,311
Fall 1982 ......... 39,565,610 27,160,518 2,845,402 2,937,054 2,790,497 2,763,006 2,797,859 2,911,721 3,141,580
Fall 1983 ......... 39,252,308 26,980,962 2,858,783 3,079,916 2,781,355 2,772,025 2,758,011 2,797,905 2,928,288
Fall 1984 ......... 39,208,252 26,904,517 3,009,630 3,112,800 2,904,385 2,764,966 2,771,972 2,760,549 2,830,629
Fall 1985 ......... 39,421,961 27,034,244 3,192,406 3,238,855 2,940,995 2,894,524 2,771,015 2,776,402 2,788,817
Fall 1986 ......... 39,753,172 27,420,063 3,309,782 3,357,949 3,054,039 2,933,018 2,895,932 2,774,856 2,805,770
Fall 1987 ......... 40,007,022 27,930,296 3,387,202 3,407,072 3,172,777 3,046,374 2,937,636 2,900,558 2,811,047
Fall 1988 ......... 40,188,690 28,499,136 3,433,124 3,460,049 3,223,428 3,167,036 3,050,506 2,945,065 2,936,696
Fall 1989 ......... 40,542,707 29,152,224 3,486,358 3,484,789 3,289,081 3,234,961 3,182,098 3,066,633 2,987,333
Fall 1990 ......... 41,223,804 29,887,650 3,611,561 3,499,091 3,328,109 3,298,633 3,249,437 3,197,495 3,111,713
41Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade:
1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued
Year
Kindergarten through grade 8 Grades 9 through 12 and postgraduate
Grade 7 Grade 8 Elementary
unclassi-
fied
2
Total Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Post-
graduate
Secondary
unclassi-
fied
2
1 11121314151617181920
1955–56 .......... 2,541,719 2,356,737 — 6,872,586 2,142,573 1,848,570 1,542,646 1,325,726 13,071
1956–57 .......... 2,475,610 2,460,483 — 7,318,460 2,367,969 1,973,829 1,614,593 1,349,315 12,754
1957–58 .......... 2,457,872 2,395,395 — 7,859,771 2,479,588 2,193,739 1,736,180 1,431,302 18,962
1958–59 .......... 2,785,211 2,381,076 — 8,257,867 2,412,495 2,317,913 1,954,578 1,537,872 35,009
1959–60 .......... 3,172,798 2,701,184 — 8,484,869 2,412,413 2,258,010 2,063,322 1,747,311 3,813
1960–61
3
........ 3,123,000 3,083,000 — 8,821,000 2,750,000 2,252,000 1,997,000 1,820,000 2,000
1961–62 .......... 3,121,946 3,020,655 — 9,566,253 3,155,544 2,594,694 2,017,988 1,790,759 7,268
1962–63
3
........ 3,140,000 3,083,000 10,372,000 3,172,000 2,981,000 2,348,000 1,866,000 5,000
1963–64
3
........ 3,241,000 3,077,000 11,110,000 3,190,000 3,006,000 2,747,000 2,160,000 6,000
1964–65
3
........ 3,363,000 3,212,000 11,628,000 3,198,000 3,085,000 2,778,000 2,560,000 7,000
Fall 1965 ......... 3,296,830 3,185,613 404,468 11,602,279 3,215,090 2,993,191 2,740,889 2,477,142 6,563 169,404
Fall 1966 ......... 3,408,884 3,271,929 432,822 11,879,938 3,318,359 3,110,920 2,755,522 2,507,943 8,117 179,077
Fall 1967 ......... 3,454,124 3,356,821 458,826 12,246,783 3,395,030 3,221,364 2,879,107 2,525,408 16,266 209,608
Fall 1968 ......... 3,552,276 3,423,191 560,545 12,722,656 3,508,374 3,310,258 2,986,249 2,650,172 16,701 250,902
Fall 1969 ......... 3,666,623 3,519,625 627,602 13,036,881 3,567,783 3,404,835 3,047,342 2,731,777 20,680 264,464
Fall 1970 ......... 3,661,771 3,601,368 689,519 13,335,652 3,653,691 3,458,001 3,127,721 2,775,013 28,002 293,224
Fall 1971 ......... 3,710,030 3,635,020 813,999 13,753,098 3,781,001 3,571,024 3,200,171 2,863,832 9,037 328,033
Fall 1972 ......... 3,713,030 3,648,987 958,980 13,847,808 3,779,014 3,648,083 3,248,310 2,873,311 9,527 289,563
Fall 1973 ......... 3,741,103 3,675,682 926,850 14,043,978 3,800,743 3,650,445 3,323,148 2,917,920 3,695 348,027
Fall 1974 ......... 3,711,508 3,708,183 862,985 14,102,718 3,832,324 3,675,111 3,302,021 2,954,753 12,524 325,985
Fall 1975 ......... 3,618,952 3,635,697 1,115,672 14,304,196 3,878,760 3,723,241 3,353,888 2,986,296 22,598 339,413
Fall 1976 ......... 3,572,142 3,578,411 1,083,962 14,314,131 3,825,463 3,738,005 3,372,577 3,015,123 23,222 339,741
Fall 1977 ......... 3,384,593 3,533,583 1,051,379 14,202,870 3,779,103 3,686,352 3,387,650 3,026,115 12,732 310,918
Fall 1978 ......... 3,228,000 3,355,000 797,701 14,087,545 3,726,000 3,610,217 3,312,222 3,023,181 415,925
Fall 1979 ......... 3,127,695 3,170,749 893,958 13,616,367 3,526,450 3,531,995 3,240,825 2,968,747 348,350
Fall 1980 ......... 3,085,185 3,086,215 924,229 13,230,945 3,376,921 3,367,839 3,194,840 2,925,093 366,252
Fall 1981 ......... 3,182,613 3,058,995 586,910 12,763,873 3,286,288 3,217,564 3,038,979 2,907,276 313,766
Fall 1982 ......... 3,287,557 3,123,326 562,516 12,405,092 3,248,270 3,137,434 2,916,632 2,787,292 315,464
Fall 1983 ......... 3,247,425 3,222,136 535,118 12,271,346 3,330,074 3,102,912 2,860,892 2,678,093 299,375
Fall 1984 ......... 3,035,837 3,186,075 527,674 12,303,735 3,440,090 3,145,206 2,819,417 2,599,348 299,674
Fall 1985 ......... 2,938,307 2,981,883 511,040 12,387,717 3,438,951 3,230,130 2,866,025 2,549,614 302,997
Fall 1986 ......... 2,899,352 2,869,754 519,611 12,333,109 3,256,407 3,214,941 2,953,561 2,600,516 307,684
Fall 1987 ......... 2,910,432 2,838,513 518,685 12,076,726 3,143,179 3,020,018 2,935,626 2,680,825 297,078
Fall 1988 ......... 2,905,036 2,853,007 525,189 11,689,554 3,106,280 2,894,602 2,748,750 2,649,674 290,248
Fall 1989 ......... 3,027,491 2,853,464 540,016 11,390,483 3,141,456 2,867,522 2,629,483 2,473,278 278,744
Fall 1990 ......... 3,067,077 2,980,984 543,550 11,336,154 3,169,211 2,896,670 2,612,157 2,380,470 277,646
1
In later years, data contain a relatively small number of prekindergarten students.
2
Prior to fall 1965, enrollment in ungraded and special classes was prorated among
the regular grades.
3
Estimated.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Prior to 1965 enrollment data include students who enrolled at any time dur-
ing the school year.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
An-
nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the Unit-
ed States; Statistics of State School Systems; and Digest of Education Statistics.
(This
table was prepared February 1998.)
42 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 11.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to fall 1990
State
Students enrolled at any time during the school year Fall enrollment
Estimated
1870–71 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969 1979 1989 1990
1 23456789101112131415
United States
1
................................................ 7,561,582 9,867,505 12,722,581 15,503,110 17,813,852 21,578,316 25,678,015 25,433,542 25,111,427 36,086,771 45,550,284 41,650,712 40,542,707 41,223,804
Alabama .................................................................. 141,312 179,400 301,615 376,423 424,611 569,940 622,988 686,767 680,066 787,269 826,237 754,181 723,743 721,806
Alaska
1
.................................................................... —————3,360 3,436 6,312 13,910 44,450 76,828 88,573 109,280 113,874
Arizona .................................................................... 4,212 7,989 16,504 31,312 76,505 103,806 110,205 139,244 302,672 418,069 509,252 607,615 639,853
Arkansas ................................................................. 69,927 81,972 223,071 314,662 395,978 483,172 456,185 465,339 407,084 424,206 460,115 453,125 434,960 436,286
California ................................................................. 91,332 158,765 221,756 269,736 368,391 696,238 1,068,683 1,189,106 1,757,424
2
3,199,455 4,597,700 4,119,511 4,771,978 4,950,474
Colorado .................................................................. 4,357 22,119 65,490 117,555 168,798 220,232 240,482 221,409 229,196 393,690 538,175 550,527 562,755 574,213
Connecticut ............................................................. 113,588 119,694 126,505 155,228 190,353 261,463 319,453 281,032 273,015 476,828 646,393 566,634 461,560 469,123
Delaware ................................................................. 20,058 27,823 31,434 36,895 35,950 38,483 42,360 44,046 46,055
3
80,874 130,471 104,035 97,808 99,658
District of Columbia ................................................. 15,157 26,439 36,906 46,519 55,774 65,298 80,965 96,170 96,323 122,486 149,054 106,156 81,301 80,694
Florida ..................................................................... 14,000 39,315 92,472 108,874 148,089 225,160 346,434 369,214 449,836 993,496 1,408,095 1,508,337 1,789,925 1,861,592
Georgia .................................................................... 49,578 236,533 381,297 482,673 555,794 690,918 713,290 737,979 718,037 949,099 1,112,416 1,078,462 1,126,535 1,151,687
Hawaii
1
.................................................................... —————41,350 71,657 91,821 89,820
2
139,429 178,448 168,660 169,493 171,708
Idaho ....................................................................... 906 5,834 14,311 36,669 76,168 115,192 120,947 120,987 122,259 162,839 179,873 202,758 214,932 220,840
Illinois ...................................................................... 672,787 704,041 778,319 958,911 1,002,687 1,127,560 1,395,907 1,248,827 1,153,683 1,787,869 2,324,516 2,043,239 1,797,355 1,821,407
Indiana ..................................................................... 450,057 511,283 512,955 564,807 531,459 566,288 667,379 671,364 689,808 989,259 1,223,747 1,083,826 954,165 954,581
Iowa ......................................................................... 341,938 426,057 493,267 566,223 510,661 514,521 554,655 503,481 477,720 598,103 660,389 548,317 478,486 483,652
Kansas .................................................................... 89,777 231,434 399,322 389,582 398,746 406,880 431,166 376,349 347,626 478,630 518,867 422,924 430,864 437,034
Kentucky .................................................................. 178,457
4
276,000 399,660 500,294 494,863 535,332 588,354 604,064 562,883 631,412 703,720 677,123 630,688 636,401
Louisiana ................................................................. 57,639 77,642 120,253 196,169 263,617 354,079 434,557 473,020 483,363 693,202 853,766 800,435 783,025 784,757
Maine ....................................................................... 152,600 149,827 139,676 130,918 144,278 137,681 154,455 163,640 158,247 195,325 240,169 227,823 213,775 215,149
Maryland .................................................................. 115,683 162,431 184,251 222,373 238,393 241,618 277,459 287,225 335,018 596,375 891,981 777,725 698,806 715,176
Massachusetts ........................................................ 273,661 306,777 371,492 474,891 535,869 623,586 759,492 700,305 632,285
2
860,667 1,147,561 1,035,724 825,588 834,314
Michigan .................................................................. 292,466 362,556 427,032 504,985 541,501 691,674 970,582 970,188 1,069,435
2
1,625,247 2,138,979 1,860,498 1,576,785 1,581,925
Minnesota ................................................................ 113,983 180,248 280,960 399,207 440,083 503,597 551,741 512,224 481,612 681,938 913,915 778,056 739,553 756,374
Mississippi ............................................................... 117,000 236,654 334,158 386,507 469,137
4
412,670 595,449 594,799 527,440 566,421 575,284 482,039 502,020 502,417
Missouri ................................................................... 330,070 482,986 620,314 719,817 707,031 672,483 656,073 700,640 644,457 820,724 1,077,288 872,933 807,934 812,234
Montana .................................................................. 1,657 4,270 16,980 39,430 66,141 126,576 120,337 107,302 105,917 144,998 174,784 158,208 151,265 152,974
Nebraska ................................................................. 23,265 92,549 240,300 288,227
4
281,375 311,821 325,216 276,188 227,879 282,721 330,990 287,288 270,920 274,081
Nevada .................................................................... 3,106 9,045 7,387 6,676
4
10,200 14,114 18,041 20,746 25,144 66,415 123,663 147,734 186,834 201,316
New Hampshire ....................................................... 71,957 64,341 59,813 65,688 63,972 64,205 74,240 75,697 71,733 105,827 152,188 170,546 171,696 172,785
New Jersey ............................................................. 169,430 204,961 234,072 322,575 429,797 594,780 792,012 716,527 674,915 1,051,079 1,454,378 1,287,809 1,076,005 1,089,646
New Mexico ............................................................. 1,320 4,755 18,215 36,735 56,304 81,399 102,084 132,589 148,978 231,004 276,286 275,572 296,057 301,881
New York ................................................................. 1,028,110 1,031,593 1,042,160 1,209,574 1,422,969 1,719,841 2,141,479 2,227,870 1,998,129 2,828,853 3,442,809 2,969,216 2,565,841 2,598,337
North Carolina ......................................................... 115,000 252,612 322,533 400,452 520,404 691,249 866,939 886,484 884,733 1,105,412 1,185,592 1,150,053 1,080,744 1,086,871
North Dakota ........................................................... 1,660 13,718 35,543 77,686 139,802 168,283 169,277 140,126 114,661 136,766 147,782 117,688 117,816 117,825
Ohio ......................................................................... 719,372 729,499 797,439 829,160 838,080 1,020,663 1,277,636 1,213,978 1,202,967 1,905,995 2,423,831 2,025,256 1,764,410 1,771,516
Oklahoma ................................................................ 99,602 422,399 589,282 682,650 611,818 441,263 533,928 612,374 583,458 578,580 579,087
Oregon .................................................................... 21,000 37,533 63,254 89,405 118,412 151,028 202,595 188,876 255,032 388,772 478,923 467,128 472,394 484,652
Pennsylvania ........................................................... 834,614 937,310 1,020,522 1,151,880 1,282,965 1,610,459 1,937,433 1,851,780 1,550,286 1,927,832 2,346,002 1,968,801 1,655,279 1,667,834
Rhode Island ........................................................... 34,000 40,604 52,774 67,231 80,061 93,501 118,704 114,161 96,305 133,317 180,285 154,699 135,729 138,813
South Carolina ........................................................ 66,056 134,072 201,260 281,891 340,415 478,045 469,370 481,750 494,185 610,099 648,182 624,795 616,177 622,112
South Dakota .......................................................... (
5
)(
5
) 78,043 98,822 126,253 146,955 165,624 136,447 117,675 153,596 166,693 133,840 127,329 129,164
Tennessee ............................................................... 140,000 300,217 447,950 485,354 521,753 619,852 627,747 648,131 659,785 810,300 891,414 866,117 819,660 824,595
Texas ....................................................................... 63,504
4
220,000 466,872 659,598 821,631 1,035,648 1,308,028 1,328,822 1,354,167 2,068,158 2,754,600 2,872,719 3,328,514 3,382,887
Utah ......................................................................... 16,992 24,326 37,279 73,042 91,611 117,406 138,046 136,519 153,648 235,934 302,394 333,049 438,554 447,891
43Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 11.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to fall 1990—Continued
State
Students enrolled at any time during the school year Fall enrollment
Estimated
1870–71 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969 1979 1989 1990
1 23456789101112131415
Vermont ................................................................... 65,384 75,328 65,608 65,964 66,615 61,785 65,976 64,911 61,143
2
72,822 99,957 98,338 94,779 95,762
Virginia .................................................................... 131,088 220,736 342,269 370,595 402,109 505,190 562,956 568,131 597,867 841,574 1,076,749 1,031,403 985,346 998,601
Washington ............................................................. 5,000 14,780 55,964 115,104 215,688 291,053 344,731 331,409 400,867
2
609,035 820,482 764,879 810,232 839,709
West Virginia ........................................................... 76,999 142,850 193,064 232,343 276,458 346,256 395,505 452,821 438,498 460,429 401,366 387,966 327,540 322,389
Wisconsin ................................................................ 265,285 299,457 351,723 445,142 464,311 465,243 564,022 535,880 493,949
2
698,509 980,064 857,855 782,905 797,621
Wyoming ................................................................. 450 2,907 7,052 14,512 24,584 43,112 54,505 56,199 59,585 81,431 86,440 95,422 97,172 98,226
1
National totals include data for Alaska and Hawaii beginning in 1959–60.
2
Includes only students enrolled on a specific date.
3
Includes an estimate for kindergarten.
4
Estimated.
5
Included in North Dakota.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Annual Report of the Commis-
sioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Statistics of State School Systems; Statistics
of Public Elementary and Secondary Day Schools; Digest of Education Statistics;
and
Historical Trends: State Edu-
cation Facts, 1969 to 1989.
(This table was prepared September 1992.)
44 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 12.—Children served in special education programs, by type of disability: 1921–22 to 1989–90
[In thousands]
Year Total
Percent
of
public
school
enroll-
ment
Learning
disabled Speech
impaired Mentally
retarded
Seriously
emotion-
ally
disturbed
Hard-
of-
hear-
ing and
deaf
Ortho-
pedically
handi-
capped
Other
health
impaired
Visually
handi-
capped
Multi-
handi-
capped
Deaf-
blind
Pre-
school
handi-
capped
Other
handi-
capped
1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415
1921–22 23 4 — — — — — —
1926–27 52 4 4 — — — —
1929–30 — — — — 10
1
32 ——————
1931–32 161 0.6 23 75 14 4
1
40 — 5————
1935–36 294 1.1 117 100 13 9
1
48 — 7————
1939–40 310 1.2 126 98 10 13
1
53 — 9————
1947–48 356 1.5 182 87 15 14
1
50 — 8————
1952–53 475 1.7 307 114 16
1
29 — 9————
1957–58 838 2.5 490 223 29 20
1
52 — 12 — 12
1962–63 1,469 3.7 802 432 80 46
1
65 22 — — 22
1965–66 1,794 4.3 990 540 88 51
1
69 23 — — 33
1969–70 2,677 5.9 1,237 830 113 78
1
269 24 — — 126
1976–77 3,692 8.3 796 1,302 959 283 87 87 141 38 (
2
)—
1977–78 3,751 8.6 964 1,223 933 288 85 87 135 35 (
2
)—
1978–79 3,889 9.1 1,130 1,214 901 300 85 70 105 32 50 2 (
2
)—
1979–80 4,005 9.6 1,276 1,186 869 329 80 66 106 31 60 2 (
2
)—
1980–81 4,142 10.1 1,462 1,168 829 346 79 58 98 31 68 3 (
2
)—
1981–82 4,198 10.5 1,622 1,135 786 339 75 58 79 29 71 2 (
2
)—
1982–83 4,255 10.8 1,741 1,131 757 352 73 57 50 28 63 2 (
2
)—
1983–84 4,298 10.9 1,806 1,128 727 361 72 56 53 29 65 2 (
2
)—
1984–85 4,315 11.0 1,832 1,126 694 372 69 56 68 28 69 2 (
2
)—
1985–86 4,317 11.0 1,862 1,125 660 375 66 57 57 27 86 2 (
2
)—
1986–87 4,374 11.0 1,914 1,136 643 383 65 57 52 26 97 2 (
2
)—
1987–88 4,447 11.1 1,928 953 582 373 56 47 45 22 77 1 363
1988–89 4,544 11.3 1,987 967 564 376 56 47 43 23 85 2 394
1989–90 4,641 11.4 2,050 973 548 381 57 48 52 22 86 2 422
1
Includes special health problems.
2
Prior to 1987–88, these students were included in the counts by handicapping condi-
tion. Beginning in 1987–88, states are no longer required to report preschool handi-
capped students (0 to 5 years) by handicapping condition.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Data for years 1957–58 to 1969–70 are as of February. Data for other years
are for the school year. Data for 1976–77 and later years are for children participating
in federal programs. Increases since 1987–88 are due in part to new legislation enacted
fall 1986, which mandates public school special education services for all handicapped
children ages 3 through 5.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Bi-
ennial Survey of Education in the United States; Digest of Education Statistics;
Office
of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services,
Annual Report to Congress on the Im-
plementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act;
and unpublished tabulations.
(This table was prepared September 1992.)
45Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 13.—Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for transportation:
1929–30 to 1989–90
School year Average daily
attendance, all
students
Pupils transported at public expense Expenditures for transportation
(in current dollars) Expenditures for transportation
(in constant 1989–90 dollars)
Number Percent of total Total
1
(In thousands) Average per
pupil transported Total
1
(In thousands) Average per
pupil transported
1 2345678
1929–30 ................... 21,265,000 1,902,826 8.9 $54,823 $29 $406,681 $214
1931–32 ................... 22,245,000 2,419,173 10.9 58,078 24 511,511 211
1933–34 ................... 22,458,000 2,794,724 12.4 53,908 19 516,913 185
1935–36 ................... 22,299,000 3,250,658 14.6 62,653 19 578,909 178
1937–38 ................... 22,298,000 3,769,242 16.9 75,637 20 670,437 178
1939–40 ................... 22,042,000 4,144,161 18.8 83,283 20 756,698 183
1941–42 ................... 21,031,000 4,503,081 21.4 92,922 21 756,720 168
1943–44 ................... 19,603,000 4,512,412 23.0 107,754 24 785,197 174
1945–46 ................... 19,849,000 5,056,966 25.5 129,756 26 903,178 179
1947–48 ................... 20,910,000 5,854,041 28.0 176,265 30 960,569 164
1949–50 ................... 22,284,000 6,947,384 31.2 214,504 31 1,150,050 166
1951–52 ................... 23,257,000 7,697,130 33.1 268,827 35 1,298,722 169
1953–54 ................... 25,643,871 8,411,719 32.8 307,437 37 1,451,614 173
1955–56 ................... 27,740,149 9,695,819 35.0 353,972 37 1,671,897 172
1957–58 ................... 29,722,275 10,861,689 36.5 416,491 38 1,851,808 170
1959–60 ................... 32,477,440 12,225,142 37.6 486,338 40 2,101,650 172
1961–62 ................... 34,682,340 13,222,667 38.1 576,361 44 2,434,741 184
1963–64 ................... 37,405,058 14,475,778 38.7 673,845 47 2,774,187 192
1965–66 ................... 39,154,497 15,536,567 39.7 787,358 51 3,133,220 202
1967–68 ................... 40,827,965 17,130,873 42.0 981,006 57 3,662,763 214
1969–70 ................... 41,934,376 18,198,577 43.4 1,218,557 67 4,095,997 225
1971–72 ................... 42,254,272 19,474,355 46.1 1,507,830 77 4,652,654 239
1973–74 ................... 41,438,054 21,347,039 51.5 1,858,141 87 5,060,321 237
1975–76 ................... 41,269,720 21,772,483 52.8 2,377,313 109 5,443,026 250
1977–78 ................... 40,079,590
2
21,800,000 54.4 2,731,041 125 5,536,601 254
1979–80 ................... 38,288,911 21,713,515 56.7 3,833,145 177 6,269,416 289
1980–81 ................... 37,703,744
2
22,272,000 59.1
2
4,408,000 198
2
6,461,000 290
1981–82 ................... 37,094,652
2
22,246,000 60.0
2
4,793,000 215
2
6,467,000 291
1982–83 ................... 36,635,868
2
22,199,000 60.6
2
5,000,000 225
2
6,468,000 291
1983–84 ................... 36,362,978
2
22,031,000 60.6
2
5,284,000 240
2
6,592,000 299
1984–85 ................... 36,404,261
2
22,320,000 61.3
2
5,722,000 256
2
6,869,000 308
1985–86 ................... 36,523,103
2
22,041,000 60.3
2
6,123,000 278
2
7,145,000 324
1986–87 ................... 36,863,867
2
22,397,000 60.8
2
6,551,000 292
2
7,478,000 334
1987–88 ................... 37,050,707
2
22,158,000 59.8
2
6,888,000 311
2
7,550,000 341
1988–89 ................... 37,268,072
2
22,635,000 60.7
2
7,550,000 334
2
7,910,000 349
1989–90 ................... 37,778,512
2
22,459,000 59.4
2
8,304,000 370
2
8,304,000 370
1
Excludes capital outlay for years through 1979–80. Beginning in 1980–81, total trans-
portation figures include capital outlay.
2
Estimate based on data appearing in January issues of
School Bus Fleet.
NOTE.—Constant dollars are adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index
computed on a school year basis. Some data have been revised from previously pub-
lished figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Sta-
tistics of State School Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and
Secondary Education,
and unpublished data; and Bobbit Publishing Co.,
School Bus
Fleet,
January issues. (This table was prepared October 1992.)
46 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91
School year
School attendance Instructional staff
Average daily
attendance, in
thousands
Average
length of
school
term
(days)
Average
number of
days
attended
per pupil
enrolled
Total, in
thousands
Principals,
in
thousands
Other
supervisory
staff, in
thousands
Classroom teachers, in thousands
1
Average annual salary
of instructional staff
2
Average
annual salary of teach-
ers
3
Total Male Female Pupil-
teacher
ratio
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
1 2 3456 7 89101112131415
1869–70 ............ 4,077 132.2 78.4 — — 201 78 123 34.3 $189 — — —
1870–71 ............ 4,545 132.1 79.4 — — 220 90 130 34.4 — —
1871–72 ............ 4,659 133.4 79.5 — — 230 95 135 34.0 — —
1872–73 ............ 4,745 129.1 76.5 — — 238 98 140 33.6 — —
1873–74 ............ 5,051 128.8 77.0 — — 248 103 145 34.0 — —
1874–75 ............ 5,248 134.4 77.9 — — 258 109 149 34.1 — —
1875–76 ............ 5,291 133.1 79.4 — — 260 110 150 34.1 — —
1876–77 ............ 5,427 132.1 80.0 — — 267 114 153 33.6 — —
1877–78 ............ 5,783 132.0 80.9 — — 277 119 158 34.1 — —
1878–79 ............ 5,876 130.2 80.5 — — 280 121 159 33.9 — —
1879–80 ............ 6,144 130.3 81.1 — — 287 123 164 34.4 195 — — —
1880–81 ............ 6,146 130.0 80.0 — — 294 123 171 34.0 — —
1881–82 ............ 6,331 131.2 81.3 — — 299 119 180 34.2 — —
1882–83 ............ 6,652 129.8 81.1 — — 304 116 188 35.0 — —
1883–84 ............ 7,056 129.1 82.9 — — 314 119 195 35.0 — —
1884–85 ............ 7,298 130.7 83.6 — — 326 122 204 35.0 224 — — —
1885–86 ............ 7,526 130.4 84.1 — — 331 124 208 35.2 — —
1886–87 ............ 7,682 131.3 84.9 — — 339 127 212 35.1 — —
1887–88 ............ 7,907 132.3 85.9 — — 347 126 221 35.1 — —
1888–89 ............ 8,006 133.7 86.4 — — 357 124 232 34.7 — —
1889–90 ............ 8,154 134.7 86.3 — — 364 126 238 35.0 252 — — —
1890–91 ............ 8,329 135.7 86.6 — — 368 123 245 35.5 — —
1891–92 ............ 8,561 136.9 88.4 — — 374 122 253 35.4 — —
1892–93 ............ 8,856 136.3 89.6 — — 383 122 261 35.2 — —
1893–94 ............ 9,188 139.5 91.6 — — 389 125 264 36.0 — —
1894–95 ............ 9,549 139.5 93.5 — — 398 130 268 35.8 286 — — —
1895–96 ............ 9,781 140.5 94.8 — — 400 130 270 36.2 — —
1896–97 ............ 10,053 142.0 96.3 — — 405 131 274 36.6 — —
1897–98 ............ 10,356 143.0 98.0 — — 411 132 279 36.7 — —
1898–99 ............ 10,389 143.0 97.9 — — 414 131 283 36.7 — —
1899–1900 ........ 10,633 144.3 99.0 — — 423 127 296 36.6 325 — — —
1900–01 ............ 10,716 143.7 98.0 — — 432 126 306 36.3 — —
1901–02 ............ 11,064 144.7 100.6 — — 442 121 321 36.0 — —
1903–03 ............ 11,055 147.2 101.7 — — 449 117 332 35.7 — —
1903–04 ............ 11,318 146.7 102.1 — — 455 114 341 35.7 — —
1904–05 ............ 11,482 150.9 105.2 — — 460 111 350 35.8 386 — — —
1905–06 ............ 11,712 150.6 106.0 — — 466 109 357 35.7 — —
1906–07 ............ 11,926 151.8 107.3 — — 481 104 377 35.1 — —
1907–08 ............ 12,154 154.1 109.8 — — 495 104 391 34.5 — —
1908–09 ............ 12,685 155.3 112.6 — — 506 108 398 34.6 — —
1909–10 ............ 12,827 157.5 113.0 — — 523 110 413 34.0 485 — — —
47Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91—Continued
School year
School attendance Instructional staff
Average daily
attendance, in
thousands
Average
length of
school
term
(days)
Average
number of
days
attended
per pupil
enrolled
Total, in
thousands
Principals,
in
thousands
Other
supervisory
staff, in
thousands
Classroom teachers, in thousands
1
Average annual salary
of instructional staff
2
Average
annual salary of teach-
ers
3
Total Male Female Pupil-
teacher
ratio
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
1 2 3456 7 89101112131415
1910–11 ............ 12,872 156.8 111.8 — — 534 110 423 33.8 466 — — —
1911–12 ............ 13,302 158.8 115.6 — — 547 115 433 33.2 492 — — —
1912–13 ............ 13,614 158.1 115.6 — — 565 113 452 32.9 512 — — —
1913–14 ............ 14,216 158.7 117.8 — — 580 115 465 33.0 525 — — —
1914–15 ............ 14,986 159.4 121.2 — — 604 118 486 32.6 543 — — —
1915–16 ............ 15,359 160.3 120.9 — — 622 123 499 32.7 563 — — —
1917–18 ............ 15,549 160.7 119.8 — — 651 105 546 32.0 635 — — —
1919–20 ............ 16,150 161.9 121.2 700 13.6 6.6 680 96 584 31.8 871 $6,120
1921–22 ............ 18,432 164.0 130.6 756 18.6 14.1 723 118 605 32.1 1,166 9,109
1923–24 ............ 19,132 168.3 132.5 787 17.9 7.9 761 129 633 31.9 1,227 9,572
1925–26 ............ 19,856 169.3 135.9 850 26.9 8.4 778 131 647 31.8 1,277 9,603
1927–28 ............ 20,608 171.5 140.4 868 28.8 7.7 832 138 694 30.3 1,364 10,605
1929–30 ............ 21,265 172.7 143.0 892 30.9 6.9 854 142 712 30.1 1,420 11,110
1931–32 ............ 22,245 171.2 144.9 901 23.9 5.7 872 154 718 30.1 1,417 13,162
1933–34 ............ 22,458 171.6 145.8 880 28.1 5.0 847 162 685 31.2 1,227 12,409
1935–36 ............ 22,299 173.0 146.3 906 29.6 5.8 871 179 692 30.3 1,283 12,503
1937–38 ............ 22,298 173.9 149.3 919 36.4 5.0 877 185 692 29.6 1,374 12,845
1939–40 ............ 22,042 175.0 151.7 912 31.5 4.8 875 195 681 29.1 1,441 13,809
1941–42 ............ 21,031 174.7 149.6 898 33.1 6.1 859 183 676 28.6 1,507 12,943
1943–44 ............ 19,603 175.5 147.9 865 31.6 5.5 828 127 701 28.1 1,728 13,280
1945–46 ............ 19,849 176.8 150.6 867 29.4 6.8 831 138 693 28.0 1,995 14,646
1947–48 ............ 20,910 177.6 155.1 907 37.1 9.2 861 162 699 27.8 2,639 15,168
1949–50 ............ 22,284 177.9 157.9 962 39.3 9.2 914 195 719 27.5 3,010 17,020
1951–52 ............ 23,257 178.2 156.0 1,012 39.7 9.8 963 235 728 27.6 3,450 17,578
1953–54 ............ 25,644 178.6 158.9 1,098 45.7 10.3 1,032 254 779 27.9 3,825 19,048
1955–56 ............ 27,740 178.0 158.5 1,213 51.0 13.3 1,149 299 850 27.1 4,156 20,703 $4,000 $19,926
1957–58 ............ 29,722 177.6 157.4 1,333 59.0 14.0 1,238 332 906 27.1 4,702 22,049 4,520 21,196
1959–60
4
.......... 32,477 178.0 160.2 1,464 63.6 13.8 1,355 393 962 26.6 5,174 23,581 4,995 22,765
1961–62 ............ 34,682 179.1 162.3 1,588 67.2 16.2 1,458 451 1,053 26.2 5,700 25,395 5,515 24,571
1963–64 ............ 37,405 179.0 163.2 1,717 72.6 18.7 1,568 488 1,080 26.2 6,240 27,094 5,995 26,030
1965–66 ............ 39,154 178.9 163.5 1,885 77.3 21.6 1,711 544 1,167 24.6 6,935 29,106 6,485 27,217
1967–68 ............ 40,828 178.8 163.2 2,071 85.5 29.0 1,864 584 1,280 23.5 7,885 31,050 7,423 29,230
1969–70 ............ 41,934 178.9 161.7 2,253 90.6 31.5 2,023 690 1,333 22.5 8,840 31,339 8,626 30,580
1970–71 ............ 42,428 ———— —2,059
5
676
5
1,383 22.3 9,698 32,693 9,268 31,243
1971–72 ............ 42,254 179.3 161.7 2,322 2,070
5
688
5
1,382 22.3 10,213 33,237 9,705 31,584
1972–73 ............ 42,179 ———— —2,106
5
703
5
1,403 21.7 10,634 33,267 10,174 31,827
1973–74 ............ 41,438 178.7 159.5 2,338 100.0 38.0 2,136
5
715
5
1,421 21.3 11,254 32,324 10,770 30,934
1974–75 ............ 41,524 ———— —2,165
5
727
5
1,438 20.8 12,167 31,460 11,641 30,100
48 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91—Continued
School year
School attendance Instructional staff
Average daily
attendance, in
thousands
Average
length of
school
term
(days)
Average
number of
days
attended
per pupil
enrolled
Total, in
thousands
Principals,
in
thousands
Other
supervisory
staff, in
thousands
Classroom teachers, in thousands
1
Average annual salary
of instructional staff
2
Average
annual salary of teach-
ers
3
Total Male Female Pupil-
teacher
ratio
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
In current
dollars
In constant
1990–91
dollars
1 2 3456 7 89101112131415
1975–76 ............ 41,270 178.3 161.1 2,337 104.0 35.0 2,198
5
742
5
1,456 20.4 13,124 31,691 12,600 30,426
1976–77 ............ 40,832 ———— —2,189
5
734
5
1,455 20.2 13,840 31,579 13,354 30,470
1977–78 ............ 40,079 ———— —2,209
5
742
5
1,467 19.7 14,698 31,426 14,198 30,357
1978–79 ............ 39,075 — 2,297 — 2,207
5
735
5
1,472 19.3 15,764 30,819 15,032 29,387
1979–80 ............ 38,289 178.5 160.8 2,441 106.0 35.0 2,185
5
743
5
1,442 19.1
5
16,715 28,833 15,970 27,548
1980–81 ............ 37,704 178.2 160.7 2,452 107.0 20.6 2,184
5
708
5
1,476 18.7 18,404 28,451 17,644 27,277
1981–82 ............ 37,095 ———— —2,118
5
679
5
1,439 18.9 20,327 28,926 19,274 27,427
1982–83 ............ 36,636 ———— —2,133
5
679
5
1,454 18.6 21,641 29,527 20,695 28,236
1983–84 ............ 36,363 ———— —2,139
5
679
5
1,460 18.4 23,005 30,268 21,935 28,860
1984–85 ............ 36,404 2,692 124.5 2,168
5
679
5
1,489 18.1 24,666 31,231 23,600 29,881
1985–86 ............ 36,523 2,757 129.3 2,206
5
669
5
1,537 17.9 26,362 32,443 25,199 31,011
1986–87 ............ 36,864 2,823 131.6 2,244
5
674
5
1,570 17.7 27,706 33,356 26,569 31,987
1987–88 ............ 37,051 2,860 125.9 2,279
5
665
5
1,614 17.6 29,233 33,794 28,034 32,408
1988–89 ............ 37,268 2,931 126.6 2,323
5
659
5
1,664 17.3 30,899 34,143 29,568 32,673
1989–90 ............ 37,779 2,986 125.6 2,357
5
658
5
1,699 17.2 32,685 34,472 31,350 33,064
1990–91 ............ — 3,051 127.0 — 2,397
5
669
5
1,728 17.2 34,385 34,385 32,977 32,977
1
For select years prior to 1951–52, includes a small number of librarians and other non-supervisory instructional staff.
2
Prior to 1919–20, computed for teaching positions only; beginning 1919–20, also includes supervisors and prin-
cipals. Data for 1980–81 and subsequent years are estimates from the National Education Association.
3
Data for 1970–71 and subsequent years are estimated by the National Education Association.
4
Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
5
Estimated.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial
Times to 1970;
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Annual Report of the Commis-
sioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, Digest of Education Statistics,
and unpublished
data: National Education Association,
Estimates of School Statistics.
(This table was prepared September 1992.)
49Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 15.—Catholic elementary and secondary enrollment, teachers, and schools, by level:
1919–20 to 1990–91
School year Number of schools Enrollment Instructional staff
1
Student-
instructional
staff ratioTotal Elementary Secondary Total Elementary Secondary Total Elementary Secondary
1 234567891011
1919–20 ........ 8,103 6,551 1,552 1,925,521 1,795,673 129,848 49,516 41,592 7,924 38.9
1929–30 ........ 10,046 7,923 2,123 2,464,467 2,222,598 241,869 72,552 58,245 14,307 34.0
1935–36 ........ 9,875 7,929 1,946 2,388,000 2,103,000 285,000 76,000 59,000 17,000 31.4
1939–40 ........ 10,049 7,944 2,105 2,396,305 2,035,182 361,123 81,057 60,081 20,976 29.6
1946–47 ........ — — 2,111 — — 467,000 — — 27,000
1947–48 ........ 10,435 8,285 2,150 2,788,000 2,305,000 483,000 89,000 62,000 27,000 31.3
1949–50 ........ 10,778 8,589 2,189 3,066,387 2,560,815 505,572 94,295 66,525 27,770 32.5
1951–52 ........ 11,060 8,880 2,180 3,391,000 2,842,000 549,000 101,000 72,000 29,000 33.6
1953–54 ........ 11,575 9,279 2,296 3,859,000 3,235,000 624,000 109,000 77,000 32,000 35.4
1955–56 ........ 11,926 9,615 2,311 4,276,000 3,571,000 705,000 120,000 85,000 35,000 35.6
1960–61 ........ 12,893 10,501 2,392 5,253,791 4,373,422 880,369 151,902 108,169 43,733 34.6
1961–62 ........ 13,007 10,631 2,376 5,383,000 4,445,000 938,000 158,000 111,000 47,000 34.1
1962–63 ........ 13,178 10,676 2,502 5,494,000 4,485,000 1,009,000 159,000 112,000 47,000 34.6
1963–64 ........ 13,205 10,775 2,430 5,590,000 4,546,000 1,044,000 166,000 115,000 51,000 33.7
1964–65 ........ 13,249 10,832 2,417 5,601,000 4,534,000 1,067,000 171,000 118,000 53,000 32.8
1965–66 ........ 13,292 10,879 2,413 5,574,000 4,492,000 1,082,000 177,000 120,000 57,000 31.5
1966–67 ........ 13,232 10,769 2,463 5,485,000 4,375,000 1,110,000 176,000 120,000 56,000 31.2
1967–68 ........ 12,627 10,350 2,277 5,199,000 4,106,000 1,093,000 179,000 124,000 55,000 29.0
1968–69 ........ 12,305 10,113 2,192 4,941,000 3,860,000 1,081,000 183,000 126,000 57,000 27.0
1969–70 ........ 11,771 9,695 2,076 4,658,098 3,607,168 1,050,930
2
195,400
2
133,200
2
62,200 23.8
1970–71 ........ 11,350 9,370 1,980 4,363,566 3,355,478 1,008,088 166,208 112,750 53,458 26.3
1971–72 ........ 10,841 8,982 1,859 4,034,785 3,075,785 959,000 159,083 106,686 52,397 25.4
1972–73 ........ 10,504 8,761 1,743 3,790,000 2,871,000 919,000 155,964 105,384 50,580 24.3
1973–74 ........ 10,297 8,569 1,728 3,621,000 2,714,000 907,000 153,883 102,785 51,098 23.5
1974–75 ........ 10,127 8,437 1,690 3,504,000 2,602,000 902,000 150,179 100,011 50,168 23.3
1975–76 ........ 9,993 8,340 1,653 3,415,000 2,525,000 890,000 149,276 99,319 49,957 22.9
1976–77 ........ 9,904 8,281 1,623 3,365,000 2,483,000 882,000 150,610 100,016 50,594 22.3
1977–78 ........ 9,797 8,204 1,593 3,289,000 2,421,000 868,000 150,648 99,739 50,909 21.8
1978–79 ........ 9,723 8,159 1,564 3,218,000 2,365,000 853,000 147,948 98,539 49,409 21.8
1979–80 ........ 9,640 8,100 1,540 3,139,000 2,293,000 846,000 147,294 97,724 49,570 21.3
1980–81 ........ 9,559 8,043 1,516 3,106,000 2,269,000 837,000 145,777 96,739 49,038 21.3
1981–82 ........ 9,494 7,996 1,498 3,094,000 2,266,000 828,000 146,172 96,847 49,325 21.2
1982–83 ........ 9,432 7,950 1,482 3,026,000 2,225,000 801,000 146,460 97,337 49,123 20.7
1983–84 ........ 9,380 7,917 1,463 2,969,000 2,179,000 790,000 146,913 98,591 48,322 20.2
1984–85 ........ 9,325 7,876 1,449 2,903,000 2,119,000 784,000 149,888 99,820 50,068 19.4
1985–86 ........ 9,220 7,790 1,430 2,821,000 2,061,000 760,000 146,594 96,741 49,853 19.2
1986–87 ........ 9,102 7,693 1,409 2,726,000 1,998,000 728,000 141,930 93,554 48,376 19.2
1987–88 ........ 8,992 7,601 1,391 2,623,000 1,942,000 681,000 139,887 93,199 46,688 18.8
1988–89 ........ 8,867 7,505 1,362 2,551,000 1,912,000 639,000 137,700 93,154 44,546 18.5
1989–90 ........ 8,719 7,395 1,324 2,499,000 1,894,000 606,000 136,900 94,197 42,703 18.3
1990–91 ........ 8,587 7,291 1,296 2,475,439 1,883,906 591,533 131,198 91,039 40,159 18.9
1
Beginning in 1970–71, includes full-time teaching staff only.
2
Includes estimates for the nonreporting schools.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Data reported by the National Catholic Educational Association and data re-
ported by the National Center for Education Statistics are not directly comparable be-
cause survey procedures and definitions differ.
SOURCE: National Catholic Educational Association,
A Statistical Report on Catholic
Elementary and Secondary Schools for the Years 1967–68 to 1969–70,
as compiled
from the
Official Catholic Directory; United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary
Schools, 1989 and 1990-91;
and Franklin Press,
Catholic Schools in America
and
United
States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1989–90 and 1990–91.
(This table
was prepared September 1992.)
50 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 16.—Public school enrollment in grades 9 to 12, by subject: 1889–90 to fall 1981
Subject 1889–90 1899–
1900 1909–10 1914–15 1921–22 1927–28 1933–34 1948–49 1954–55 1958–59 1960–61 1962–63 1964–65 Fall 1972 Fall 1981
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516
Total, in thousands ........ 203 519 915 1,562 2,873 3,911 5,669 5,658 6,574 8,258 8,821 10,372 11,628 13,848 12,764
Percentage of students taking specific subject
General science ................. ————18.3 17.5 17.8 20.8 — 19.6 22.2 17.6 18.7 11.3 23.0
Biology ................................ 1.1 6.9 8.8 13.6 14.6 18.4 20.0 20.8 21.7 24.0 23.2 19.6 23.2
Chemistry ........................... 10.1 7.7 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.1 7.6 7.6 7.5 8.1 9.1 8.3 9.3 8.7 9.8
Physics ............................... 22.8 19.0 14.6 14.2 8.9 6.8 6.3 5.4 4.7 4.7 4.9 3.8 4.5 2.9 1.0
Physiology .......................... 27.4 15.3 9.5 5.1 2.7 1.8 1.0 — 0.8 — 0.9 1.2
Earth science ..................... 29.8 21.0 15.3 4.5 2.8 1.7 0.4 0.9 3.6 0.2
Algebra ............................... 45.4 56.3 56.9 48.8 40.2 35.2 30.4 26.8 25.3 29.9 28.6 30.4 28.5 19.7 29.5
General mathematics ......... ————12.4 7.9 7.4 13.1 12.3 12.7 17.4 11.7 15.4 13.8 21.7
Geometry ............................ 21.3 27.4 30.9 26.5 22.7 19.8 17.1 12.8 12.5 13.4 13.8 14.7 13.9 11.6 11.4
Trignometry ........................ 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 2.0 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.0 2.0 6.2 3.5
Spanish .............................. — 0.7 2.7 11.3 9.4 6.2 8.2 — 9.8 14.5 12.3 12.3
French ................................ 5.8 7.8 9.9 8.8 15.5 14.0 10.9 4.7 8.0 — 12.4 7.6 6.6
German .............................. 10.5 14.3 23.7 24.4 0.6 1.8 2.4 0.8 1.7 2.7 3.1 2.1
English ................................ — 38.5 57.1 58.4 76.7 93.1 90.5 92.9 — 94.6 — 89.8 86.5
Latin .................................... 34.7 50.6 49.0 37.3 27.5 22.0 16.0 7.8 7.8 1.5 1.1
U.S. and English history
1
.... 27.3 38.2 55.0 50.5 18.2 18.8 17.8 22.8 — 24.3 — 32.3 32.5
Civics and government ........ 21.7 15.6 15.7 19.3 20.0 16.4 8.0 9.5 15.2 19.7
Industrial subjects .............. 11.2 13.7 13.5 21.0 26.6 28.0 3.7 4.6
Bookkeeping ....................... — — — 3.4 12.6 10.7 9.9 8.7 — — 7.7 — — 5.8 3.2
Typewriting ......................... ————13.1 15.2 16.7 22.5 — 23.1 — 20.3 21.0
Shorthand ........................... ————8.98.79.07.8——6.7——4.63.1
Home economics ............... 3.8 12.9 14.3 16.5 16.7 24.2 23.1 20.4 23.9
Agriculture .......................... — 4.7 7.2 5.1 3.7 3.6 6.7 — 6.2 — 2.7 3.3
Physical education ............. ————5.715.0 50.7 69.4 — 73.7 — 57.0 59.0
Music .................................. — 31.5 25.3 26.0 25.5 30.1 — 28.0 — 25.1 21.6
Art ....................................... — 22.9 14.7 11.7 8.7 9.0 — 19.3 — 17.9 24.2
1
For 1914–15 and earlier years, includes ancient, medieval, and modern history.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Biennial Survey of Education in
the United States; A Trend Study of High School Offerings and Enrollments: 1972–73 and 1981–82;
and
Digest of
Education Statistics.
(This table was prepared October 1992.)
51Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 17.—Student proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science, by age and race/ethnicity: 1969–70 to 1989–90
Year and
race/ethnicity
Reading Writing Mathematics Science
9-year-olds 13-year-olds 17-year-olds Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 11 9-year-olds 13-year-olds 17-year-olds 9-year-olds 13-year-olds 17-year-olds
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213
Total
1969–70 .................. —————————225255305
1970–71 .................. 208 255 285—————————
1972–73 .................. ——————219266304220250296
1974–75 .................. 210 256 286—————————
1976–77 .................. —————————220247290
1977–78 .................. ——————219264300———
1979–80 .................. 215 259 286—————————
1981–82 .................. ——————219269299221250283
1983–84 .................. 211 257 289 179 206 212——————
1985–86 .................. ——————222269302224251289
1987–88 .................. 212 258 290 186 203 214——————
1989–90 .................. 209 257 290 183 198 212 230 270 305 229 255 290
White
1969–70
1
................ —————————236263312
1970–71
1
................ 214 261 291—————————
1972–73 .................. ——————225274310231259304
1974–75 .................. 217 262 293—————————
1976–77 .................. —————————230256298
1977–78 .................. ——————224272306———
1979–80 .................. 221 264 293—————————
1981–82 .................. ——————224274304229257293
1983–84 .................. 218 263 295 186 210 218——————
1985–86 .................. ——————227274308232259298
1987–88 .................. 218 261 295 193 207 219——————
1989–90 .................. 217 262 297 191 202 217 235 276 310 238 264 301
Black
1969–70 .................. —————————179215258
1970–71 .................. 170 222 239—————————
1972–73 .................. ——————190228270177205250
1974–75 .................. 181 226 241—————————
1976–77 .................. —————————175208240
1977–78 .................. ——————192230268———
1979–80 .................. 189 233 243—————————
1981–82 .................. ——————195240272187217235
1983–84 .................. 186 236 264 154 190 195——————
1985–86 .................. ——————202249279196222253
1987–88 .................. 189 243 274 154 190 200——————
1989–90 .................. 182 242 267 155 182 194 208 249 289 196 226 253
Hispanic
1972–73 .................. ——————202239277———
1974–75 .................. 183 233 252—————————
1976–77 .................. —————————192213262
1977–78 .................. ——————203238276———
1979–80 .................. 190 237 261—————————
1981–82 .................. ——————204252277189226249
1983–84 .................. 187 240 268 163 191 188——————
1985–86 .................. ——————205254283199226259
1987–88 .................. 194 240 271 169 188 199——————
1989–90 .................. 189 238 275 168 189 198 214 255 284 206 232 262
1
Includes persons of Hispanic origin.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Edu-
cational Progress,
Trends in Academic Progress,
November 1991. (This table was prepared December 1992.)
52 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity:
1970–71 to 1989–90
Age, year
and
race/ethnicity
Reading Mathematics Science
Level
150
1
Level
200
2
Level
250
3
Level
300
4
Level
350
5
Level
150
6
Level
200
7
Level
250
8
Level
300
9
Level
350
10
Level
150
11
Level
200
12
Level
250
13
Level
300
14
Level
350
15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516
9-year-olds
16
Total
1970–71 ........................ 90.6 58.7 15.6 0.9 0.0 ——————————
1974–75 ....................... 93.1 62.1 14.6 0.6 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————93.5 68.0 25.7 3.2 0.1
1977–78 ........................ —————96.7 70.4 19.6 0.8 0.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 94.6 67.7 17.7 0.6 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————97.1 71.4 18.8 0.6 0.0 95.2 70.7 24.3 2.3 0.0
1983–84 ....................... 92.3 61.5 17.2 1.0 0.0 ——————————
1985–86 ....................... —————97.9 74.1 20.7 0.6 0.0 96.2 72.0 27.5 3.0 0.1
1987–88 ........................ 92.7 62.6 17.5 1.4 0.0 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 90.1 58.9 18.4 1.7 0.0 99.1 81.5 27.7 1.2 0.0 97.0 76.4 31.1 3.1 0.1
White
1970–71
17
..................... 94.0 65.0 18.0 1.1 0.0 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 96.0 69.0 17.4 0.7 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————97.7 76.8 30.8 3.9 0.1
1977–78 ........................ —————98.3 76.3 22.9 0.9 0.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 97.1 74.2 21.0 0.8 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————98.5 76.8 21.8 0.6 0.0 98.3 78.4 29.4 2.9 0.1
1983–84 ........................ 95.4 68.6 20.9 1.2 0.0 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————98.8 79.6 24.6 0.8 0.0 98.2 78.9 32.7 3.8 0.1
1987–88 ........................ 95.1 68.4 20.3 1.6 0.0 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 93.5 66.0 22.6 2.2 0.0 99.6 86.9 32.7 1.5 0.0 99.2 84.4 37.5 3.9 0.1
Black
1970–71 ....................... 69.7 22.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 80.7 31.6 2.0 0.0 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————72.4 27.2 3.5 0.2 0.0
1977–78 ........................ —————88.4 42.0 4.1 0.0 0.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 84.9 41.3 4.1 0.0 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ........................ —————90.2 46.1 4.4 0.0 0.0 82.1 38.9 3.9 0.1 0.0
1983–84 ........................ 81.3 36.6 4.5 0.1 0.0 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————93.9 53.4 5.6 0.1 0.0 88.6 46.2 8.3 0.3 0.0
1987–88 ........................ 83.2 39.4 5.6 0.2 0.0 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 76.9 33.9 5.2 0.3 0.0 96.9 60.0 9.4 0.1 0.0 88.0 46.4 8.5 0.1 0.0
Hispanic
1974–75 ....................... 80.8 34.6 2.6 0.0 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————84.6 42.0 8.8 0.3 0.0
1977–78 ........................ —————93.0 54.2 9.2 0.2 0.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 84.5 41.6 5.0 0.0 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ........................ —————94.3 55.7 7.8 0.0 0.0 85.1 40.2 4.2 0.0 0.0
1983–84 ........................ 82.0 39.6 4.3 0.1 0.0 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————96.4 57.6 7.3 0.1 0.0 89.6 50.1 10.7 0.2 0.0
1987–88 ........................ 85.6 45.9 8.6 0.4 0.0 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 83.7 40.9 5.8 0.2 0.0 98.0 68.4 11.3 0.2 0.0 93.6 56.3 11.6 0.4 0.0
13-year-olds
16
Total
1970–71 ....................... 99.8 93.0 57.8 9.8 0.1 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 99.7 93.2 58.6 10.2 0.2 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————98.5 86.0 48.8 11.1 0.7
1977–78 ........................ —————99.8 94.6 64.9 18.0 1.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.9 94.8 60.7 11.3 0.2 ——————————
53Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity:
1970–71 to 1989–90—Continued
Age, year
and
race/ethnicity
Reading Mathematics Science
Level
150
1
Level
200
2
Level
250
3
Level
300
4
Level
350
5
Level
150
6
Level
200
7
Level
250
8
Level
300
9
Level
350
10
Level
150
11
Level
200
12
Level
250
13
Level
300
14
Level
350
15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516
1981–82 ........................ —————100.0 97.7 71.4 17.4 0.5 99.5 89.8 50.9 9.6 0.4
1983–84 ........................ 99.8 93.9 59.0 11.0 0.3 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 98.6 73.3 15.8 0.4 99.7 91.6 52.5 9.1 0.2
1987–88 ........................ 99.9 94.9 58.7 10.9 0.2 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.8 93.8 58.7 11.0 0.4 100.0 98.5 74.7 17.3 0.4 99.7 92.3 56.5 11.2 0.4
White
1970–71
17
.................... 99.9 96.2 64.2 11.3 0.2 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 99.9 96.4 65.5 12.1 0.3 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————99.6 92.2 56.5 13.4 0.8
1977–78 ........................ —————100.0 97.6 72.9 21.4 1.2 —————
1979–80 ........................ 100.0 97.1 67.8 13.6 0.3 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————100.0 99.1 78.3 20.5 0.6 99.9 94.4 58.3 11.5 0.4
1983–84 ........................ 99.9 96.2 65.3 13.1 0.4 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 99.3 78.9 18.6 0.4 99.9 96.1 61.0 11.3 0.3
1987–88 ........................ 99.9 96.0 63.7 12.4 0.3 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.9 96.0 64.8 13.3 0.5 100.0 99.4 82.0 21.0 0.4 100.0 96.9 66.5 14.2 0.5
Black
1970–71 ....................... 98.6 74.2 21.1 0.8 0.0 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 98.4 76.9 24.8 1.5 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————93.1 57.3 14.9 1.2 0.0
1977–78 ........................ —————98.6 79.7 28.7 2.3 0.0 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.3 84.1 30.1 1.8 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————99.8 90.2 37.9 2.9 0.0 97.5 68.6 17.1 0.8 0.0
1983–84 ........................ 99.4 85.5 34.6 2.8 0.0 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 95.4 49.0 4.0 0.1 99.0 73.6 19.6 1.1 0.0
1987–88 ........................ 99.8 91.3 40.2 4.6 0.1 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.4 87.7 41.7 4.6 0.1 100.0 95.4 48.7 3.9 0.1 98.8 77.6 24.3 1.5 0.1
Hispanic
1974–75 ....................... 99.6 81.3 32.0 2.2 0.0 ——————————
1976–77 ....................... ——————————94.3 62.2 18.1 1.8 0.0
1977–78 ........................ —————99.6 86.4 36.0 4.0 0.1 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.7 86.8 35.4 2.3 0.0 ——————————
1981–82 ........................ —————99.9 95.9 52.2 6.3 0.0 98.0 75.5 24.1 2.4 0.0
1983–84 ....................... 99.5 86.7 39.0 4.1 0.1 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 96.9 56.0 5.5 0.2 99.0 76.7 24.9 1.5 0.0
1987–88 ........................ 99.2 87.4 38.0 4.4 0.0 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.1 85.8 37.2 3.9 0.1 99.9 96.8 56.7 6.4 0.1 98.9 80.2 30.0 3.3 0.1
17-year-olds
16
Total
1970–71 ....................... 99.6 96.0 78.6 39.0 6.8 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 99.7 96.4 80.1 38.7 6.2 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————99.8 97.1 81.6 41.7 8.5
1977–78 ........................ —————100.0 99.8 92.0 51.5 7.3 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.9 97.2 80.7 37.8 5.3 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————100.0 99.9 93.0 48.5 5.5 99.7 95.7 76.6 37.3 7.1
1983–84 ........................ 100.0 98.3 83.1 40.3 5.7 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 99.9 95.6 51.7 6.5 99.9 97.1 80.7 41.3 7.9
1987–88 ........................ 100.0 98.9 85.7 40.9 4.6 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.9 98.1 84.1 41.4 7.0 100.0 100.0 96.0 56.1 7.2 99.9 96.7 81.2 43.3 9.2
White
1970–71
17
.................... 99.9 97.9 83.7 43.2 7.7 ——————————
1974–75 ....................... 99.9 98.6 86.2 43.9 7.2 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————100.0 99.2 88.2 47.5 10.0
1977–78 ........................ —————100.0 100.0 95.6 57.6 8.5 —————
54 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity:
1970–71 to 1989–90—Continued
Age, year
and
race/ethnicity
Reading Mathematics Science
Level
150
1
Level
200
2
Level
250
3
Level
300
4
Level
350
5
Level
150
6
Level
200
7
Level
250
8
Level
300
9
Level
350
10
Level
150
11
Level
200
12
Level
250
13
Level
300
14
Level
350
15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516
1979–80 ........................ 100.0 99.1 86.9 43.3 6.2 ——————————
1981–82 ....................... —————100.0 100.0 96.2 54.7 6.4 100.0 98.6 84.9 43.9 8.6
1983–84 ........................ 100.0 99.0 88.0 46.3 6.9 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 100.0 98.0 59.1 7.9 100.0 98.8 87.8 48.7 9.6
1987–88 ........................ 100.0 99.3 88.7 45.4 5.5 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 100.0 98.8 88.3 47.5 8.7 100.0 100.0 97.6 63.2 8.3 100.0 99.0 89.6 51.2 11.4
Black
1970–71 ....................... 97.6 81.9 40.1 7.7 0.4 ——————————
1974–75 ........................ 97.7 82.0 43.0 8.1 0.4 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————98.5 83.6 40.5 7.7 0.4
1977–78 ........................ —————100.0 98.8 70.7 16.8 0.5 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.0 85.6 44.0 7.1 0.2 ——————————
1981–82 ........................ —————100.0 99.7 76.4 17.1 0.5 97.9 79.7 35.0 6.5 0.2
1983–84 ........................ 99.9 95.9 65.7 16.2 0.9 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 100.0 85.6 20.8 0.2 99.7 90.9 52.2 12.5 0.9
1987–88 ........................ 100.0 98.0 75.8 24.9 1.4 ——————————
1989–90 ........................ 99.6 95.7 69.1 19.7 1.5 100.0 99.9 92.4 32.8 2.0 99.4 88.3 51.4 15.7 1.5
Hispanic
1974–75 ....................... 99.3 88.7 52.9 12.6 1.2 ——————————
1976–77 ........................ ——————————99.7 93.1 61.5 18.5 1.8
1977–78 ........................ —————100.0 99.3 78.3 23.4 1.4 —————
1979–80 ........................ 99.8 93.3 62.2 16.5 1.3 ——————————
1981–82 ........................ —————100.0 99.8 81.4 21.6 0.7 98.9 86.9 48.0 11.1 1.4
1983–84 ........................ 99.8 95.6 68.3 21.2 2.0 ——————————
1985–86 ........................ —————100.0 99.4 89.3 26.5 1.1 99.8 93.3 60.0 14.8 1.1
1987–88 ........................ 99.9 96.3 71.5 23.3 1.3 ——————————
1989–90 ....................... 99.7 95.9 75.2 27.1 2.4 100.0 99.6 85.8 30.1 1.9 99.6 91.9 59.9 21.1 2.1
1
Able to follow brief written directions and select phrases to describe pictures.
2
Able to understand combined ideas and make references based on short uncomplicated passages about specific
or sequentially related information.
3
Able to search for specific information, interrelate ideas, and make generalizations about literature, science, and
social studies materials.
4
Able to find, understand, summarize, and explain relatively complicated literary and informational material.
5
Able to understand the links between ideas even when those links are not explicitly stated and to make appropriate
generalizations even when the text lacks clear introductions or explanations.
6
Able to perform elementary addition and subtraction.
7
Able to perform simple additive reasoning and problem solving.
8
Able to perform simple multiplicative reasoning and 2–step problem solving.
9
Able to perform reasoning and problem solving involving fractions, decimals, percents, elementary geometry, and
simple algebra.
10
Able to perform reasoning and problem solving involving geometry, algebra, and beginning statistics and prob-
ability.
11
Exhibit knowledge of some general scientific facts of the type that could be learned from everyday experiences.
12
Developing some understanding of simple scientific principles, particularly in the life sciences.
13
Able to interpret data from simple tables and make inferences about the outcomes of experimental procedures.
Exhibit knowledge and understanding of the life sciences, and also demonstrate some knowledge of basic information
from the physical sciences.
14
Able to evaluate the appropriateness of the design of an experiment and have the skill to apply scientific knowl-
edge in interpreting information from text and graphs. Exhibit a growing understanding of principles from the physical
sciences.
15
Able to infer relationships and draw conclusions using detailed scientific knowledge from the physical sciences,
particularly chemistry. Able to apply basic principles of genetics and interpret the societal implications of research in
this field.
16
All participants of this age were in school.
17
Includes persons of Hispanic origin.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Edu-
cational Progress,
Trends in Academic Progress,
November 1991. (This table was prepared December 1992.)
55Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 19.—High school graduates, by sex and control of institution: 1869–70 to 1991–92
[Numbers in thousands]
School year Population 17
years old
1
High school graduates Graduates per
100
17-year-oldsTotal Sex Control
Male Female Public
2
Private
3
1 2345678
1869–70 ........................................ 815 16 7 9 2.0
1879–80 ........................................ 946 24 11 13 2.5
1889–90 ........................................ 1,259 44 19 25 22 22 3.5
1899–1900 .................................... 1,489 95 38 57 62 33 6.4
1909–10 ........................................ 1,786 156 64 93 111 45 8.8
1919–20 ........................................ 1,855 311 124 188 231 80 16.8
1929–30 ........................................ 2,296 667 300 367 592 75 29.0
1930–31 ........................................ 2,327 747 337 409 — — 32.1
1931–32 ........................................ 2,330 827 375 452 — — 35.5
1932–33 ........................................ 2,335 871 403 468 — — 37.3
1933–34 ........................................ 2,334 915 432 483 — — 39.2
1934–35 ........................................ 2,348 965 459 506 — — 41.1
1935–36 ........................................ 2,377 1,015 486 530 — — 42.7
1936–37 ........................................ 2,416 1,068 505 563 — — 44.2
1937–38 ........................................ 2,456 1,120 524 596 — — 45.6
1939–40 ........................................ 2,403 1,221 579 643 1,143 78 50.8
1941–42 ........................................ 2,421 1,242 577 666 — — 51.3
1943–44 ........................................ 2,386 1,019 424 595 — — 42.7
1945–46 ........................................ 2,278 1,080 467 613 — — 47.4
1947–48 ........................................ 2,261 1,190 563 627 1,073 117 52.6
1949–50 ........................................ 2,034 1,200 571 629 1,063 136 59.0
1951–52 ........................................ 2,086 1,197 569 627 1,056 141 57.4
1953–54 ........................................ 2,135 1,276 613 664 1,129 147 59.8
1955–56 ........................................ 2,242 1,415 680 735 1,252 163 63.1
1956–57 ........................................ 2,272 1,434 690 744 1,270 164 63.1
1957–58 ........................................ 2,325 1,506 725 781 1,332 174 64.8
1958–59 ........................................ 2,458 1,627 784 843 1,435 192 66.2
1959–60 ........................................ 2,672 1,858 895 963 1,627 231 69.5
1960–61 ........................................ 2,892 1,964 955 1,009 1,725 239 67.9
1961–62 ........................................ 2,768 1,918 938 980 1,678 240 69.3
1962–63 ........................................ 2,740 1,943 956 987 1,710 233 70.9
1963–64 ........................................ 2,978 2,283 1,120 1,163 2,008 275 76.7
1964–65 ........................................ 2,684 2,658 1,311 1,347 2,360 298 72.1
1965–66 ........................................ 3,489 2,665 1,323 1,342 2,367 298 76.4
1966–67 ........................................ 3,500 2,672 1,328 1,344 2,374 298 76.3
1967–68 ........................................ 3,532 2,695 1,338 1,357 2,395 300 76.3
1968–69 ........................................ 3,659 2,822 1,399 1,423 2,522 300 77.1
1969–70 ........................................ 3,757 2,889 1,430 1,459 2,589 300 76.9
1970–71 ........................................ 3,872 2,937 1,454 1,483 2,637 300 75.9
1971–72 ........................................ 3,973 3,001 1,487 1,514 2,699 302 75.5
1972–73 ........................................ 4,049 3,036 1,500 1,536 2,730 306 75.0
1973–74 ........................................ 4,132 3,073 1,512 1,561 2,763 310 74.4
1974–75 ........................................ 4,256 3,133 1,542 1,591 2,823 310 73.6
1975–76 ........................................ 4,272 3,148 1,552 1,596 2,837 311 73.7
1976–77 ........................................ 4,272 3,155 1,548 1,607 2,840 315 73.9
1977–78 ........................................ 4,286 3,127 1,531 1,596 2,825 302 73.0
1978–79 ........................................ 4,327 3,117 1,523 1,594 2,817 300 72.0
1979–80 ........................................ 4,262 3,043 1,491 1,552 2,748 295 71.4
1980–81 ........................................ 4,207 3,020 1,483 1,537 2,725 295 71.8
1981–82 ........................................ 4,121 2,995 1,471 1,524 2,705 290 72.7
1982–83 ........................................ 3,939 2,888 1,437 1,451 2,598 290 73.3
1983–84 ........................................ 3,753 2,767
4
1,313
4
1,454 2,495 272 73.7
1984–85 ........................................ 3,658 2,677
4
1,291
4
1,386 2,414 263 73.2
1985–86 ........................................ 3,621 2,643
4
1,263
4
1,380 2,383 260 73.0
1986–87 ........................................ 3,697 2,694
4
1,301
4
1,393 2,429 265 72.9
1987–88 ........................................ 3,781 2,773
4
1,384
4
1,389 2,500 273 73.4
1988–89 ........................................ 3,761 2,727
4
1,343
4
1,384 2,459 268 72.5
1989–90 ........................................ 3,485 2,587
4
1,285
4
1,302 2,320 268 74.2
1990–91
5
...................................... 3,325 2,511
4
1,257
4
1,254 2,263 247 75.5
1991–92
5
...................................... 3,286 2,485 — 2,251 234 75.6
1
Population as of July 1, derived from
Current Population Reports,
Series P-25. Ad-
justed to reflect October 17–year-old population.
2
Data for 1929–30 and preceding years are from
Statistics of Public High Schools
and
exclude graduates of high schools which failed to report to the Office of Education.
3
For most years, private school data have been estimated based on periodic private
school surveys. For years through 1957–58, private includes data for subcollegiate de-
partments of institutions of higher education and residential schools for exceptional chil-
dren.
4
Estimates based on data published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
5
Public high school graduates based on state estimates.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics
of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Reports,
Series P-25:
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Digest of Edu-
cation Statistics,
various years. (This table was prepared September 1992.)
56 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 20.—Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools:
1929–30 to 1990–91
School year Public
school
districts
1
Public schools
2
Private schools
2,3
Total, all
schools
4
Total,
regular
schools
5
Elementary schools Secondary
schools Total
4
Elementary Secondary
Total One-teacher
1 2345678910
1929–30 .......................... — 238,306 149,282 23,930 9,275 3,258
1937–38 .......................... 119,001 — 221,660 121,178 25,467 9,992 3,327
1939–40 .......................... 117,108 — — — 113,600 — — 11,306 3,568
1945–46 .......................... 101,382 160,227 86,563 24,314 9,863 3,294
1947–48 .......................... 94,926 — — 146,760 75,096 25,484 — 10,071 3,292
1949–50 .......................... 83,718 — — 128,225 59,652 24,542 — 10,375 3,331
1951–52 .......................... 71,094 — — 123,763 50,742 23,746 — 10,666 3,322
1953–54 .......................... 63,057 — — 110,875 42,865 25,637 — 11,739 3,913
1955–56 .......................... 54,859 — — 104,427 34,964 26,046 — 12,372 3,887
1957–58 .......................... 47,594 — 95,446 25,341 25,507 — 13,065 3,994
1959–60 .......................... 40,520 — 91,853 20,213 25,784 — 13,574 4,061
1961–62 .......................... 35,676 — 81,910 13,333 25,350 — 14,762 4,129
1963–64 .......................... 31,705 — — 77,584 9,895 26,431 — — 4,451
1965–66 .......................... 26,983 73,216 6,491 26,597 17,849 15,340 4,606
1967–68 .......................... 22,010 — 94,197 70,879 4,146 27,011 — — —
1970–71 .......................... 17,995 89,372 65,800 1,815 25,352 14,372 3,770
1973–74 .......................... 16,730 — 88,655 65,070 1,365 25,906 — — —
1975–76 .......................... 16,376 88,597 87,034 63,242 1,166 25,330 — — —
1976–77 .......................... 16,271 86,501 62,644 1,111 25,378 19,910 16,385 5,904
1978–79 .......................... 16,014 84,816 61,982 1,056 24,504 19,489 16,097 5,766
1980–81 .......................... 15,912 85,982 83,688 61,069 921 24,362 20,764 16,792 5,678
1982–83 .......................... 15,824 84,740 82,039 59,656 798 23,988 — — —
1983–84 .......................... 15,747 84,178 81,418 59,082 838 23,947
6
27,694
6
20,872
6
7,862
1984–85 .......................... 84,007 81,147 58,827 825 23,916 — — —
1985–86 .......................... ——————
6
25,616
6
20,252
6
7,387
1986–87 ..........................
7
15,713 83,455 82,190 60,784 763 23,389
1987–88 ..........................
7
15,577 83,248 82,248 61,490 729 22,937
6
26,807
6
22,959
6
8,418
1988–89 ..........................
7
15,376 83,165 82,081 61,531 583 22,785
1989–90 ..........................
7
15,367 83,425 82,396 62,037 630 22,639
1990–91 ..........................
7
15,358 84,538 81,746 61,340 617 22,731
1
Includes operating and nonoperating districts.
2
Schools with both elementary and secondary programs are included under elemen-
tary schools and also under secondary schools.
3
Data for most years are partly estimated.
4
Includes regular schools and special schools not classified by grade span.
5
Includes elementary, secondary, and combined elementary/secondary schools.
6
These data are from sample surveys and should not be compared directly with the
data for earlier years.
7
Because of expanded survey coverage, data are not directly comparable with figures
for earlier years.
—Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
Sta-
tistics of State School Systems; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School
Systems; Statistics of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools; Private Schools in
American Education;
and Common Core of Data surveys. (This table was prepared April
1992.)
57Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 21.—Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds:
1889–90 to 1989–90
School year
In thousands Percentage distribution
Total Federal State
1
Local (including
intermediate)
2
Total Federal State
1
Local (including
intermediate)
2
123456789
1889–90
3
....... $143,195 — $26,345 $97,222 100.0 — 21.3 78.7
1890–91
3
....... 147,915 27,632 100,359 100.0 21.6 78.4
1891–92
3
....... 157,175 29,908 105,630 100.0 22.1 77.9
1892–93
3
....... 165,023 33,695 108,425 100.0 23.7 76.3
1893–94
3
....... 170,404 32,750 112,785 100.0 22.5 77.5
1894–95
3
....... 176,565 34,638 118,915 100.0 22.6 77.4
1895–96
3
....... 182,480 35,032 124,880 100.0 21.9 78.1
1896–97
3
....... 191,959 33,942 130,318 100.0 20.7 79.3
1897–98
3
....... 199,833 35,122 135,516 100.0 20.6 79.4
1898–99
3
....... 203,337 35,341 144,898 100.0 19.6 80.4
1899–1900
3
... 219,766 37,887 149,487 100.0 20.2 79.8
1900–01
3
....... 235,339 36,281 163,897 100.0 18.1 81.9
1901–02
3
....... 245,498 39,216 173,151 100.0 18.5 81.5
1902–03
3
....... 251,637 40,456 173,731 100.0 18.9 81.1
1903–04
3
....... 279,134 42,553 193,216 100.0 18.0 82.0
1904–05
3
....... 301,819 44,349 210,168 100.0 17.4 82.6
1905–06
3
....... 322,106 47,943 223,491 100.0 17.7 82.3
1906–07
3
....... 355,016 44,706 231,738 100.0 16.2 83.8
1907–08
3
....... 381,920 58,097 259,341 100.0 18.3 81.7
1908–09
3
....... 403,647 63,547 288,643 100.0 18.0 82.0
1909–10
3
....... 433,064 64,605 312,222 100.0 17.1 82.9
1910–11
3
....... 451,151 69,071 333,832 100.0 17.1 82.9
1911–12
3
....... 469,111 75,814 346,898 100.0 17.9 82.1
1912–13
3
....... 507,227 78,376 375,582 100.0 17.3 82.7
1913–14
3
....... 561,743 87,895 425,457 100.0 17.1 82.9
1914–15
3
....... 589,652 91,104 456,956 100.0 16.6 83.4
1915–16
3
....... 633,901 95,278 488,120 100.0 16.3 83.7
1917–18 ......... 736,876 $1,669 122,256 612,951 100.0 0.2 16.6 83.2
1919–20 ......... 970,121 2,475 160,085 807,561 100.0 0.3 16.5 83.2
1921–22
3
....... 1,444,242 2,891 230,517 1,184,530 100.0 0.2 16.3 83.5
1923–24
3
....... 1,618,438 3,986 261,997 1,290,239 100.0 0.3 16.8 82.9
1925–26 ......... 1,830,017 5,552 284,569 1,539,896 100.0 0.3 15.6 84.1
1927–28 ......... 2,025,750 6,174 333,279 1,686,297 100.0 0.3 16.5 83.2
1929–30 ......... 2,088,557 7,334 353,670 1,727,553 100.0 0.4 16.9 82.7
1931–32 ......... 2,068,029 8,262 410,550 1,649,218 100.0 0.4 19.9 79.7
1933–34 ......... 1,810,652 21,548 423,178 1,365,926 100.0 1.2 23.4 75.4
1935–36 .........
4
1,971,402
4
9,850 578,369 1,383,184 100.0 0.5 29.3 70.2
1937–38 ......... 2,222,885 26,535 655,996 1,540,353 100.0 1.2 29.5 69.3
1939–40 ......... 2,260,527 39,810 684,354 1,536,363 100.0 1.8 30.3 68.0
1941–42 ......... 2,416,580 34,305 759,993 1,622,281 100.0 1.4 31.4 67.1
1943–44 ......... 2,604,322 35,886 859,183 1,709,253 100.0 1.4 33.0 65.6
1945–46 ......... 3,059,845 41,378 1,062,057 1,956,409 100.0 1.4 34.7 63.9
1947–48 ......... 4,311,534 120,270 1,676,362 2,514,902 100.0 2.8 38.9 58.3
1949–50 ......... 5,437,044 155,848 2,165,689 3,115,507 100.0 2.9 39.8 57.3
1951–52 ......... 6,423,816 227,711 2,478,596 3,717,507 100.0 3.5 38.6 57.9
1953–54 ......... 7,866,852 355,237 2,944,103 4,567,512 100.0 4.5 37.4 58.1
1955–56 ......... 9,686,677 441,442 3,828,886 5,416,350 100.0 4.6 39.5 55.9
1957–58 ......... 12,181,513 486,484 4,800,368 6,894,661 100.0 4.0 39.4 56.6
1959–60 ......... 14,746,618 651,639 5,768,047 8,326,932 100.0 4.4 39.1 56.5
1961–62 ......... 17,527,707 760,975 6,789,190 9,977,542 100.0 4.3 38.7 56.9
1963–64 ......... 20,544,182 896,956 8,078,014 11,569,213 100.0 4.4 39.3 56.3
1965–66 ......... 25,356,858 1,996,954 9,920,219 13,439,686 100.0 7.9 39.1 53.0
1967–68 ......... 31,903,064 2,806,469 12,275,536 16,821,063 100.0 8.8 38.5 52.7
1969–70 ......... 40,266,923 3,219,557 16,062,776 20,984,589 100.0 8.0 39.9 52.1
58 Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 21.—Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds:
1889–90 to 1989–90—Continued
School year
In thousands Percentage distribution
Total Federal State
1
Local (including
intermediate)
2
Total Federal State
1
Local (including
intermediate)
2
123456789
1970–71 ......... 44,511,292 3,753,461 17,409,086 23,348,745 100.0 8.4 39.1 52.5
1971–72 ......... 50,003,645 4,467,969 19,133,256 26,402,420 100.0 8.9 38.3 52.8
1972–73 ......... 52,117,930 4,525,000 20,843,520 26,749,412 100.0 8.7 40.0 51.3
1973–74 ......... 58,230,892 4,930,351 24,113,409 29,187,132 100.0 8.5 41.4 50.1
1974–75 ......... 64,445,239 5,811,595 27,211,116 31,422,528 100.0 9.0 42.2 48.8
1975–76 ......... 71,206,073 6,318,345 31,776,101 33,111,627 100.0 8.9 44.6 46.5
1976–77 ......... 75,322,532 6,629,498 32,688,903 36,004,134 100.0 8.8 43.4 47.8
1977–78 ......... 81,443,160 7,694,194 35,013,266 38,735,700 100.0 9.4 43.0 47.6
1978–79 ......... 87,994,143 8,600,116 40,132,136 39,261,891 100.0 9.8 45.6 44.6
1979–80 ......... 96,881,165 9,503,537 45,348,814 42,028,813 100.0 9.8 46.8 43.4
1980–81 ......... 105,949,087 9,768,262 50,182,659 45,998,166 100.0 9.2 47.4 43.4
1981–82 ......... 110,191,257 8,186,466 52,436,435 49,568,356 100.0 7.4 47.6 45.0
1982–83 ......... 117,497,502 8,339,990 56,282,157 52,875,354 100.0 7.1 47.9 45.0
1983–84 ......... 126,055,419 8,576,547 60,232,981 57,245,892 100.0 6.8 47.8 45.4
1984–85 ......... 137,294,678 9,105,569 67,168,684 61,020,425 100.0 6.6 48.9 44.4
1985–86 ......... 149,127,779 9,975,622 73,619,575 65,532,582 100.0 6.7 49.4 43.9
1986–87 ......... 158,523,693 10,146,013 78,830,437 69,547,243 100.0 6.4 49.7 43.9
1987–88
2
....... 169,561,974 10,716,687 84,004,415 74,840,873 100.0 6.3 49.5 44.1
1988–89 ......... 192,016,374 11,902,001 91,768,911 88,345,462 100.0 6.2 47.8 46.0
1989–90 ......... 207,583,910 12,750,530 98,059,659 96,773,720 100.0 6.1 47.2 46.6
1
Prior to 1917–18, excludes receipts other than state taxes and appropriations.
2
Includes a relatively small amount from nongovernmental sources (gifts and tuition
and transportation fees from patrons). These sources accounted for 0.4 percent of total
revenues in 1967–68. Prior to 1917–18, excludes receipts from sources other than local
taxes and appropriations.
3
Total includes receipts not distributed by source. Percents based on funds reported
by source.
4
Excludes federal funds other than aid for vocational education.
—Data not available.
NOTE.—Beginning in 1980–81, revenues for state education agencies are excluded.
Data for 1988–89 reflect new survey collection procedures and may not be entirely com-
parable to figures for earlier years. Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
An-
nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1890 to 1917; Biennial Survey of Edu-
cation in the United States, 1916–18 to 1956–58; Statistics of State School Systems,
1959–60 to 1969–70; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary
Education;
and Common Core of Data survey. (This table was prepared September
1992.)
59Elementary and Secondary Education
Table 22.—Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools, by purpose:
1869–70 to 1989–90
School year
Total
expendi-
tures, in
millions
Current expenditures, day schools (in millions)
Capital
outlay,
4
in
millions
Interest
on school
debt, in
millions
Other ex-
pendi-
tures,
5
in
millions
Expenditures in current dollars Expenditures in constant 1989–90 dollars
Total
1
Adminis-
tration Instruc-
tion
2
Plant
oper-
ation
and
mainte-
nance
Other
3
Total Current,
per pupil
in aver-
age
daily
attend-
ance
Total Current
per pupil
in aver-
age
daily
attend-
ance
Per
capita
Per
pupil
enrolled
Per
pupil in
average
daily
attend-
ance
Per
capita
Per
pupil
enrolled
Per
pupil in
average
daily
attend-
ance
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415161718
1869–70 .............. $63 — — $38 — — — $2 $9 $16—————
1870–71 .............. 69 — — 43 — — — — — 9 15 —————
1871–72 .............. 74 — — 46 — — — — — 9 16 —————
1872–73 .............. 76 — — 48 — — — — — 10 16 —————
1873–74 .............. 80 — — 51 — — — — — 9 16 —————
1874–75 .............. 84 — — 55 — — — — — 10 16 —————
1875–76 .............. 83 — — 55 — — — — — 9 16 —————
1876–77 .............. 79 — — 55 — — — — — 9 15 —————
1877–78 .............. 79 — — 56 — — — — — 8 14 —————
1878–79 .............. 76 — — 55 — — — — — 8 13 —————
1879–80 .............. 78 — — 56 — — — 2 8 13 —————
1880–81 .............. 84 — — 58 — — — — — 8 14 —————
1881–82 .............. 89 — — 61 — — — — — 9 14 —————
1882–83 .............. 97 — — 65 — — — — — 9 15 —————
1883–84 .............. 103 — — 68 — — — — — 9 15 —————
1884–85 .............. 110 — — 73 — — — — — 10 15 —————
1885–86 .............. 113 — — 76 — — — — — 10 15 —————
1886–87 .............. 116 — — 79 — — — — — 10 15 —————
1887–88 .............. 124 — — 83 — — — — — 10 16 —————
1888–89 .............. 133 $109 — 88 $22 $23 — 11 17 $14————
1889–90 .............. 141 114 — 92 22 26 2 11 17 14 ————
1890–91 .............. 147 121 — 96 25 26 — 11 18 15 ————
1891–92 .............. 156 126 100 26 29 — 12 18 15 ————
1892–93 .............. 164 134 105 29 30 — 12 19 15 ————
1893–94 .............. 173 142 109 33 30 — 12 19 16 ————
1894–95 .............. 176 146 114 33 29 — 12 18 15 ————
1895–96 .............. 183 151 117